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Sample records for act-r cognitive architecture

  1. Modelling Dynamic Decision Making with the ACT-R Cognitive Architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peebles, David; Banks, Adrian

    2010-12-01

    This paper describes a model of dynamic decision making in the Dynamic Stocks and Flows (DSF) task, developed using the ACT-R cognitive architecture. This task is a simple simulation of a water tank in which the water level must be kept constant whilst the inflow and outflow changes at varying rates. The basic functions of the model are based around three steps. Firstly, the model predicts the water level in the next cycle by adding the current water level to the predicted net inflow of water. Secondly, based on this projection, the net outflow of the water is adjusted to bring the water level back to the target. Thirdly, the predicted net inflow of water is adjusted to improve its accuracy in the future. If the prediction has overestimated net inflow then it is reduced, if it has underestimated net inflow it is increased. The model was entered into a model comparison competition—the Dynamic Stocks and Flows Challenge—to model human performance on four conditions of the DSF task and then subject the model to testing on five unseen transfer conditions. The model reproduced the main features of the development data reasonably well but did not reproduce human performance well under the transfer conditions. This suggests that the principles underlying human performance across the different conditions differ considerably despite their apparent similarity. Further lessons for the future development of our model and model comparison challenges are considered.

  2. Connecting a cognitive architecture to robotic perception

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurup, Unmesh; Lebiere, Christian; Stentz, Anthony; Hebert, Martial

    2012-06-01

    We present an integrated architecture in which perception and cognition interact and provide information to each other leading to improved performance in real-world situations. Our system integrates the Felzenswalb et. al. object-detection algorithm with the ACT-R cognitive architecture. The targeted task is to predict and classify pedestrian behavior in a checkpoint scenario, most specifically to discriminate between normal versus checkpoint-avoiding behavior. The Felzenswalb algorithm is a learning-based algorithm for detecting and localizing objects in images. ACT-R is a cognitive architecture that has been successfully used to model human cognition with a high degree of fidelity on tasks ranging from basic decision-making to the control of complex systems such as driving or air traffic control. The Felzenswalb algorithm detects pedestrians in the image and provides ACT-R a set of features based primarily on their locations. ACT-R uses its pattern-matching capabilities, specifically its partial-matching and blending mechanisms, to track objects across multiple images and classify their behavior based on the sequence of observed features. ACT-R also provides feedback to the Felzenswalb algorithm in the form of expected object locations that allow the algorithm to eliminate false-positives and improve its overall performance. This capability is an instance of the benefits pursued in developing a richer interaction between bottom-up perceptual processes and top-down goal-directed cognition. We trained the system on individual behaviors (only one person in the scene) and evaluated its performance across single and multiple behavior sets.

  3. Human Symbol Manipulation within an Integrated Cognitive Architecture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, John R.

    2005-01-01

    This article describes the Adaptive Control of Thought-Rational (ACT-R) cognitive architecture (Anderson et al., 2004; Anderson & Lebiere, 1998) and its detailed application to the learning of algebraic symbol manipulation. The theory is applied to modeling the data from a study by Qin, Anderson, Silk, Stenger, & Carter (2004) in which children…

  4. Cognitive Architectures for Multimedia Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, Stephen K.

    2006-01-01

    This article provides a tutorial overview of cognitive architectures that can form a theoretical foundation for designing multimedia instruction. Cognitive architectures include a description of memory stores, memory codes, and cognitive operations. Architectures that are relevant to multimedia learning include Paivio's dual coding theory,…

  5. Using cognitive architectures to study issues in team cognition in a complex task environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smart, Paul R.; Sycara, Katia; Tang, Yuqing

    2014-05-01

    Cognitive social simulation is a computer simulation technique that aims to improve our understanding of the dynamics of socially-situated and socially-distributed cognition. This makes cognitive social simulation techniques particularly appealing as a means to undertake experiments into team cognition. The current paper reports on the results of an ongoing effort to develop a cognitive social simulation capability that can be used to undertake studies into team cognition using the ACT-R cognitive architecture. This capability is intended to support simulation experiments using a team-based problem solving task, which has been used to explore the effect of different organizational environments on collective problem solving performance. The functionality of the ACT-R-based cognitive social simulation capability is presented and a number of areas of future development work are outlined. The paper also describes the motivation for adopting cognitive architectures in the context of social simulation experiments and presents a number of research areas where cognitive social simulation may be useful in developing a better understanding of the dynamics of team cognition. These include the use of cognitive social simulation to study the role of cognitive processes in determining aspects of communicative behavior, as well as the impact of communicative behavior on the shaping of task-relevant cognitive processes (e.g., the social shaping of individual and collective memory as a result of communicative exchanges). We suggest that the ability to perform cognitive social simulation experiments in these areas will help to elucidate some of the complex interactions that exist between cognitive, social, technological and informational factors in the context of team-based problem-solving activities.

  6. Using a cognitive architecture to examine what develops.

    PubMed

    Jones, G; Ritter, F E; Wood, D J

    2000-03-01

    Different theories of development propose alternative mechanisms by which development occurs. Cognitive architectures can be used to examine the influence of each proposed mechanism of development while keeping all other mechanisms constant. An ACT-R computational model that matched adult behavior in solving a 21-block pyramid puzzle was created. The model was modified in three ways that corresponded to mechanisms of development proposed by developmental theories. The results showed that all the modifications (two of capacity and one of strategy choice) could approximate the behavior of 7-year-old children on the task. The strategy-choice modification provided the closest match on the two central measures of task behavior (time taken per layer, r = .99, and construction attempts per layer, r = .73). Modifying cognitive architectures is a fruitful way to compare and test potential developmental mechanisms, and can therefore help in specifying "what develops." PMID:11273427

  7. Cognitive Architecture of Common and Scientific Concepts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarábek, Paul

    2010-07-01

    The cognitive architecture of concept is a specific structure consisting of the concept core, concept periphery, the semantic frame as the meaning and the sense of the concept, and the relations among all components of this structure. The model of the cognitive architecture of scientific and common concepts is a conceptual meta-model built upon Vygotsky's concept theory, Fillmore's semantic frame, semantic triangle, on widespread ideas of the structuring of conceptual systems, and the Hestenes' Modeling Theory. The method of semantic mapping of concepts flowing from the model is designed.

  8. Cognitive Architectures and Autonomy: A Comparative Review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thórisson, Kristinn; Helgasson, Helgi

    2012-05-01

    One of the original goals of artificial intelligence (AI) research was to create machines with very general cognitive capabilities and a relatively high level of autonomy. It has taken the field longer than many had expected to achieve even a fraction of this goal; the community has focused on building specific, targeted cognitive processes in isolation, and as of yet no system exists that integrates a broad range of capabilities or presents a general solution to autonomous acquisition of a large set of skills. Among the reasons for this are the highly limited machine learning and adaptation techniques available, and the inherent complexity of integrating numerous cognitive and learning capabilities in a coherent architecture. In this paper we review selected systems and architectures built expressly to address integrated skills. We highlight principles and features of these systems that seem promising for creating generally intelligent systems with some level of autonomy, and discuss them in the context of the development of future cognitive architectures. Autonomy is a key property for any system to be considered generally intelligent, in our view; we use this concept as an organizing principle for comparing the reviewed systems. Features that remain largely unaddressed in present research, but seem nevertheless necessary for such efforts to succeed, are also discussed.

  9. Cognitive architectures and autonomy: Commentary and Response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2012-11-01

    Editors: Włodzisław Duch / Ah-Hwee Tan / Stan Franklin Autonomy for AGI Cristiano Castelfranchi 31 Are Disembodied Agents Really Autonomous? Antonio Chella 33 The Perception-…-Action Cycle Cognitive Architecture and Autonomy: the View from the Brain Vassilis Cutsuridis 36 Autonomy Requires Creativity and Meta-Learning Włodzisław Duch 39 Meta Learning, Change of Internal Workings, and LIDA Ryan McCall / Stan Franklin 42 An Appeal for Declaring Research Goals Brandon Rohrer 45 The Development of Cognition as the Basis for Autonomy Frank van der Velde 47 Autonomy and Intelligence Pei Wang 49 Autonomy, Isolation, and Collective Intelligence Nikolaos Mavridis 51 Response to Comments Kristinn R. Thórisson / Helgi Páll Helgasson 56

  10. Cognitive Styles in Admission Procedures for Assessing Candidates of Architecture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casakin, Hernan; Gigi, Ariela

    2016-01-01

    Cognitive style has a strong predictive power in academic and professional success. This study investigated the cognitive profile of candidates studying architecture. Specifically, it explored the relation between visual and verbal cognitive styles, and the performance of candidates in admission procedures. The cognitive styles of candidates who…

  11. Applying Mathematical Optimization Methods to an ACT-R Instance-Based Learning Model

    PubMed Central

    Said, Nadia; Engelhart, Michael; Kirches, Christian; Körkel, Stefan; Holt, Daniel V.

    2016-01-01

    Computational models of cognition provide an interface to connect advanced mathematical tools and methods to empirically supported theories of behavior in psychology, cognitive science, and neuroscience. In this article, we consider a computational model of instance-based learning, implemented in the ACT-R cognitive architecture. We propose an approach for obtaining mathematical reformulations of such cognitive models that improve their computational tractability. For the well-established Sugar Factory dynamic decision making task, we conduct a simulation study to analyze central model parameters. We show how mathematical optimization techniques can be applied to efficiently identify optimal parameter values with respect to different optimization goals. Beyond these methodological contributions, our analysis reveals the sensitivity of this particular task with respect to initial settings and yields new insights into how average human performance deviates from potential optimal performance. We conclude by discussing possible extensions of our approach as well as future steps towards applying more powerful derivative-based optimization methods. PMID:27387139

  12. The subjective meaning of cognitive architecture: a Marrian analysis

    PubMed Central

    Varma, Sashank

    2014-01-01

    Marr famously decomposed cognitive theories into three levels. Newell, Pylyshyn, and Anderson offered parallel decompositions of cognitive architectures, which are psychologically plausible computational formalisms for expressing computational models of cognition. These analyses focused on the objective meaning of each level – how it supports computational models that correspond to cognitive phenomena. This paper develops a complementary analysis of the subjective meaning of each level – how it helps cognitive scientists understand cognition. It then argues against calls to eliminatively reduce higher levels to lower levels, for example, in the name of parsimony. Finally, it argues that the failure to attend to the multiple meanings and levels of cognitive architecture contributes to the current, disunified state of theoretical cognitive science. PMID:24904459

  13. Cognitive Mapping Architectures and Hypermedia Disorientation: An Empirical Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beasley, Robert E.; Waugh, Michael L.

    1995-01-01

    Assesses hypermedia design issues and examines how learners access information in a hierarchically organized hypermedia environment. Evaluates three browsing methods: "hotwords" and two distinctively different cognitive mapping architectures. Results suggest that the inclusion of a properly constructed cognitive map can diminish feelings of…

  14. Modeling surgical skill learning with cognitive simulation.

    PubMed

    Park, Shi-Hyun; Suh, Irene H; Chien, Jung-hung; Paik, Jaehyon; Ritter, Frank E; Oleynikov, Dmitry; Siu, Ka-Chun

    2011-01-01

    We used a cognitive architecture (ACT-R) to explore the procedural learning of surgical tasks and then to understand the process of perceptual motor learning and skill decay in surgical skill performance. The ACT-R cognitive model simulates declarative memory processes during motor learning. In this ongoing study, four surgical tasks (bimanual carrying, peg transfer, needle passing, and suture tying) were performed using the da Vinci© surgical system. Preliminary results revealed that an ACT-R model produced similar learning effects. Cognitive simulation can be used to demonstrate and optimize the perceptual motor learning and skill decay in surgical skill training. PMID:21335834

  15. High Dynamic Range Cognitive Radio Front Ends: Architecture to Evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashok, Arun; Subbiah, Iyappan; Varga, Gabor; Schrey, Moritz; Heinen, Stefan

    2016-07-01

    Advent of TV white space digitization has released frequencies from 470 MHz to 790 MHz to be utilized opportunistically. The secondary user can utilize these so called TV spaces in the absence of primary users. The most important challenge for this coexistence is mutual interference. While the strong TV stations can completely saturate the receiver of the cognitive radio (CR), the cognitive radio spurious tones can disturb other primary users and white space devices. The aim of this paper is to address the challenges for enabling cognitive radio applications in WLAN and LTE. In this process, architectural considerations for the design of cognitive radio front ends are discussed. With high-IF converters, faster and flexible implementation of CR enabled WLAN and LTE are shown. The effectiveness of the architecture is shown by evaluating the CR front ends for compliance of standards namely 802.11b/g (WLAN) and 3GPP TS 36.101 (LTE).

  16. Visualization of decision processes using a cognitive architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Livingston, Mark A.; Murugesan, Arthi; Brock, Derek; Frost, Wende K.; Perzanowski, Dennis

    2013-01-01

    Cognitive architectures are computational theories of reasoning the human mind engages in as it processes facts and experiences. A cognitive architecture uses declarative and procedural knowledge to represent mental constructs that are involved in decision making. Employing a model of behavioral and perceptual constraints derived from a set of one or more scenarios, the architecture reasons about the most likely consequence(s) of a sequence of events. Reasoning of any complexity and depth involving computational processes, however, is often opaque and challenging to comprehend. Arguably, for decision makers who may need to evaluate or question the results of autonomous reasoning, it would be useful to be able to inspect the steps involved in an interactive, graphical format. When a chain of evidence and constraint-based decision points can be visualized, it becomes easier to explore both how and why a scenario of interest will likely unfold in a particular way. In initial work on a scheme for visualizing cognitively-based decision processes, we focus on generating graphical representations of models run in the Polyscheme cognitive architecture. Our visualization algorithm operates on a modified version of Polyscheme's output, which is accomplished by augmenting models with a simple set of tags. We provide example visualizations and discuss properties of our technique that pose challenges for our representation goals. We conclude with a summary of feedback solicited from domain experts and practitioners in the field of cognitive modeling.

  17. The Cognitive Architecture of Spatial Navigation: Hippocampal and Striatal Contributions.

    PubMed

    Chersi, Fabian; Burgess, Neil

    2015-10-01

    Spatial navigation can serve as a model system in cognitive neuroscience, in which specific neural representations, learning rules, and control strategies can be inferred from the vast experimental literature that exists across many species, including humans. Here, we review this literature, focusing on the contributions of hippocampal and striatal systems, and attempt to outline a minimal cognitive architecture that is consistent with the experimental literature and that synthesizes previous related computational modeling. The resulting architecture includes striatal reinforcement learning based on egocentric representations of sensory states and actions, incidental Hebbian association of sensory information with allocentric state representations in the hippocampus, and arbitration of the outputs of both systems based on confidence/uncertainty in medial prefrontal cortex. We discuss the relationship between this architecture and learning in model-free and model-based systems, episodic memory, imagery, and planning, including some open questions and directions for further experiments. PMID:26447573

  18. Dynamic neural fields as a step toward cognitive neuromorphic architectures.

    PubMed

    Sandamirskaya, Yulia

    2013-01-01

    Dynamic Field Theory (DFT) is an established framework for modeling embodied cognition. In DFT, elementary cognitive functions such as memory formation, formation of grounded representations, attentional processes, decision making, adaptation, and learning emerge from neuronal dynamics. The basic computational element of this framework is a Dynamic Neural Field (DNF). Under constraints on the time-scale of the dynamics, the DNF is computationally equivalent to a soft winner-take-all (WTA) network, which is considered one of the basic computational units in neuronal processing. Recently, it has been shown how a WTA network may be implemented in neuromorphic hardware, such as analog Very Large Scale Integration (VLSI) device. This paper leverages the relationship between DFT and soft WTA networks to systematically revise and integrate established DFT mechanisms that have previously been spread among different architectures. In addition, I also identify some novel computational and architectural mechanisms of DFT which may be implemented in neuromorphic VLSI devices using WTA networks as an intermediate computational layer. These specific mechanisms include the stabilization of working memory, the coupling of sensory systems to motor dynamics, intentionality, and autonomous learning. I further demonstrate how all these elements may be integrated into a unified architecture to generate behavior and autonomous learning. PMID:24478620

  19. Dynamic neural fields as a step toward cognitive neuromorphic architectures

    PubMed Central

    Sandamirskaya, Yulia

    2014-01-01

    Dynamic Field Theory (DFT) is an established framework for modeling embodied cognition. In DFT, elementary cognitive functions such as memory formation, formation of grounded representations, attentional processes, decision making, adaptation, and learning emerge from neuronal dynamics. The basic computational element of this framework is a Dynamic Neural Field (DNF). Under constraints on the time-scale of the dynamics, the DNF is computationally equivalent to a soft winner-take-all (WTA) network, which is considered one of the basic computational units in neuronal processing. Recently, it has been shown how a WTA network may be implemented in neuromorphic hardware, such as analog Very Large Scale Integration (VLSI) device. This paper leverages the relationship between DFT and soft WTA networks to systematically revise and integrate established DFT mechanisms that have previously been spread among different architectures. In addition, I also identify some novel computational and architectural mechanisms of DFT which may be implemented in neuromorphic VLSI devices using WTA networks as an intermediate computational layer. These specific mechanisms include the stabilization of working memory, the coupling of sensory systems to motor dynamics, intentionality, and autonomous learning. I further demonstrate how all these elements may be integrated into a unified architecture to generate behavior and autonomous learning. PMID:24478620

  20. Using a cognitive architecture for general purpose service robot control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puigbo, Jordi-Ysard; Pumarola, Albert; Angulo, Cecilio; Tellez, Ricardo

    2015-04-01

    A humanoid service robot equipped with a set of simple action skills including navigating, grasping, recognising objects or people, among others, is considered in this paper. By using those skills the robot should complete a voice command expressed in natural language encoding a complex task (defined as the concatenation of a number of those basic skills). As a main feature, no traditional planner has been used to decide skills to be activated, as well as in which sequence. Instead, the SOAR cognitive architecture acts as the reasoner by selecting which action the robot should complete, addressing it towards the goal. Our proposal allows to include new goals for the robot just by adding new skills (without the need to encode new plans). The proposed architecture has been tested on a human-sized humanoid robot, REEM, acting as a general purpose service robot.

  1. The role of falsification in the development of cognitive architectures: insights from a lakatosian analysis.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Richard P

    2007-05-01

    It has been suggested that the enterprise of developing mechanistic theories of the human cognitive architecture is flawed because the theories produced are not directly falsifiable. Newell attempted to sidestep this criticism by arguing for a Lakatosian model of scientific progress in which cognitive architectures should be understood as theories that develop over time. However, Newell's own candidate cognitive architecture adhered only loosely to Lakatosian principles. This paper reconsiders the role of falsification and the potential utility of Lakatosian principles in the development of cognitive architectures. It is argued that a lack of direct falsifiability need not undermine the scientific development of a cognitive architecture if broadly Lakatosian principles are adopted. Moreover, it is demonstrated that the Lakatosian concepts of positive and negative heuristics for theory development and of general heuristic power offer methods for guiding the development of an architecture and for evaluating the contribution and potential of an architecture's research program. PMID:21635306

  2. Architecture of cognitive flexibility revealed by lesion mapping

    PubMed Central

    Barbey, Aron K.; Colom, Roberto; Grafman, Jordan

    2013-01-01

    Neuroscience has made remarkable progress in understanding the architecture of human intelligence, identifying a distributed network of brain structures that support goal-directed, intelligent behavior. However, the neural foundations of cognitive flexibility and adaptive aspects of intellectual function remain to be well characterized. Here, we report a human lesion study (n = 149) that investigates the neural bases of key competencies of cognitive flexibility (i.e., mental flexibility and the fluent generation of new ideas) and systematically examine their contributions to a broad spectrum of cognitive and social processes, including psychometric intelligence (Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale), emotional intelligence (Mayer, Salovey, Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test), and personality (Neuroticism–Extraversion–Openness Personality Inventory). Latent variable modeling was applied to obtain error-free indices of each factor, followed by voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping to elucidate their neural substrates. Regression analyses revealed that latent scores for psychometric intelligence reliably predict latent scores for cognitive flexibility (adjusted R2 = 0.94). Lesion mapping results further indicated that these convergent processes depend on a shared network of frontal, temporal, and parietal regions, including white matter association tracts, which bind these areas into an integrated system. A targeted analysis of the unique variance explained by cognitive flexibility further revealed selective damage within the right superior temporal gyrus, a region known to support insight and the recognition of novel semantic relations. The observed findings motivate an integrative framework for understanding the neural foundations of adaptive behavior, suggesting that core elements of cognitive flexibility emerge from a distributed network of brain regions that support specific competencies for human intelligence. PMID:23721727

  3. Architecture of cognitive flexibility revealed by lesion mapping.

    PubMed

    Barbey, Aron K; Colom, Roberto; Grafman, Jordan

    2013-11-15

    Neuroscience has made remarkable progress in understanding the architecture of human intelligence, identifying a distributed network of brain structures that support goal-directed, intelligent behavior. However, the neural foundations of cognitive flexibility and adaptive aspects of intellectual function remain to be well characterized. Here, we report a human lesion study (n=149) that investigates the neural bases of key competencies of cognitive flexibility (i.e., mental flexibility and the fluent generation of new ideas) and systematically examine their contributions to a broad spectrum of cognitive and social processes, including psychometric intelligence (Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale), emotional intelligence (Mayer, Salovey, Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test), and personality (Neuroticism-Extraversion-Openness Personality Inventory). Latent variable modeling was applied to obtain error-free indices of each factor, followed by voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping to elucidate their neural substrates. Regression analyses revealed that latent scores for psychometric intelligence reliably predict latent scores for cognitive flexibility (adjusted R(2)=0.94). Lesion mapping results further indicated that these convergent processes depend on a shared network of frontal, temporal, and parietal regions, including white matter association tracts, which bind these areas into an integrated system. A targeted analysis of the unique variance explained by cognitive flexibility further revealed selective damage within the right superior temporal gyrus, a region known to support insight and the recognition of novel semantic relations. The observed findings motivate an integrative framework for understanding the neural foundations of adaptive behavior, suggesting that core elements of cognitive flexibility emerge from a distributed network of brain regions that support specific competencies for human intelligence. PMID:23721727

  4. Neural network architecture for cognitive navigation in dynamic environments.

    PubMed

    Villacorta-Atienza, José Antonio; Makarov, Valeri A

    2013-12-01

    Navigation in time-evolving environments with moving targets and obstacles requires cognitive abilities widely demonstrated by even simplest animals. However, it is a long-standing challenging problem for artificial agents. Cognitive autonomous robots coping with this problem must solve two essential tasks: 1) understand the environment in terms of what may happen and how I can deal with this and 2) learn successful experiences for their further use in an automatic subconscious way. The recently introduced concept of compact internal representation (CIR) provides the ground for both the tasks. CIR is a specific cognitive map that compacts time-evolving situations into static structures containing information necessary for navigation. It belongs to the class of global approaches, i.e., it finds trajectories to a target when they exist but also detects situations when no solution can be found. Here we extend the concept of situations with mobile targets. Then using CIR as a core, we propose a closed-loop neural network architecture consisting of conscious and subconscious pathways for efficient decision-making. The conscious pathway provides solutions to novel situations if the default subconscious pathway fails to guide the agent to a target. Employing experiments with roving robots and numerical simulations, we show that the proposed architecture provides the robot with cognitive abilities and enables reliable and flexible navigation in realistic time-evolving environments. We prove that the subconscious pathway is robust against uncertainty in the sensory information. Thus if a novel situation is similar but not identical to the previous experience (because of, e.g., noisy perception) then the subconscious pathway is able to provide an effective solution. PMID:24805224

  5. Architecture of the cerebral cortical association connectome underlying cognition

    PubMed Central

    Bota, Mihail; Sporns, Olaf; Swanson, Larry W.

    2015-01-01

    Cognition presumably emerges from neural activity in the network of association connections between cortical regions that is modulated by inputs from sensory and state systems and directs voluntary behavior by outputs to the motor system. To reveal global architectural features of the cortical association connectome, network analysis was performed on >16,000 reports of histologically defined axonal connections between cortical regions in rat. The network analysis reveals an organization into four asymmetrically interconnected modules involving the entire cortex in a topographic and topologic core–shell arrangement. There is also a topographically continuous U-shaped band of cortical areas that are highly connected with each other as well as with the rest of the cortex extending through all four modules, with the temporal pole of this band (entorhinal area) having the most cortical association connections of all. These results provide a starting point for compiling a mammalian nervous system connectome that could ultimately reveal novel correlations between genome-wide association studies and connectome-wide association studies, leading to new insights into the cellular architecture supporting cognition. PMID:25848037

  6. Cognitive architectures, rationality, and next-generation AI: a prolegomenon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bello, Paul; Bringsjord, Selmer; Yang, Yingrui

    2004-08-01

    Computational models that give us insight into the behavior of individuals and the organizations to which they belong will be invaluable assets in our nation's war against terrorists, and state sponsorship of terror organizations. Reasoning and decision-making are essential ingredients in the formula for human cognition, yet the two have almost exclusively been studied in isolation from one another. While we have witnessed the emergence of strong traditions in both symbolic logic, and decision theory, we have yet to describe an acceptable interface between the two. Mathematical formulations of decision-making and reasoning have been developed extensively, but both fields make assumptions concerning human rationality that are untenable at best. True to this tradition, artificial intelligence has developed architectures for intelligent agents under these same assumptions. While these digital models of "cognition" tend to perform superbly, given their tremendous capacity for calculation, it is hardly reasonable to develop simulacra of human performance using these techniques. We will discuss some the challenges associated with the problem of developing integrated cognitive systems for use in modelling, simulation, and analysis, along with some ideas for the future.

  7. The Role of Falsification in the Development of Cognitive Architectures: Insights from a Lakatosian Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Richard P.

    2007-01-01

    It has been suggested that the enterprise of developing mechanistic theories of the human cognitive architecture is flawed because the theories produced are not directly falsifiable. Newell attempted to sidestep this criticism by arguing for a Lakatosian model of scientific progress in which cognitive architectures should be understood as theories…

  8. A multimodal parallel architecture: A cognitive framework for multimodal interactions.

    PubMed

    Cohn, Neil

    2016-01-01

    Human communication is naturally multimodal, and substantial focus has examined the semantic correspondences in speech-gesture and text-image relationships. However, visual narratives, like those in comics, provide an interesting challenge to multimodal communication because the words and/or images can guide the overall meaning, and both modalities can appear in complicated "grammatical" sequences: sentences use a syntactic structure and sequential images use a narrative structure. These dual structures create complexity beyond those typically addressed by theories of multimodality where only a single form uses combinatorial structure, and also poses challenges for models of the linguistic system that focus on single modalities. This paper outlines a broad theoretical framework for multimodal interactions by expanding on Jackendoff's (2002) parallel architecture for language. Multimodal interactions are characterized in terms of their component cognitive structures: whether a particular modality (verbal, bodily, visual) is present, whether it uses a grammatical structure (syntax, narrative), and whether it "dominates" the semantics of the overall expression. Altogether, this approach integrates multimodal interactions into an existing framework of language and cognition, and characterizes interactions between varying complexity in the verbal, bodily, and graphic domains. The resulting theoretical model presents an expanded consideration of the boundaries of the "linguistic" system and its involvement in multimodal interactions, with a framework that can benefit research on corpus analyses, experimentation, and the educational benefits of multimodality. PMID:26491835

  9. Analogy, Cognitive Architecture and Universal Construction: A Tale of Two Systematicities

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, Steven

    2014-01-01

    Cognitive science recognizes two kinds of systematicity: (1) as the property where certain cognitive capacities imply certain other related cognitive capacities (Fodor and Pylyshyn); and (2) as the principle that analogical mappings based on collections of connected relations are preferred over relations in isolation (Gentner). Whether these kinds of systematicity are two aspects of a deeper property of cognition is hitherto unknown. Here, it is shown that both derive from the formal, category-theoretic notion of universal construction. In conceptual/psychological terms, a universal construction is a form of optimization of cognitive resources: optimizing the re-utilization of common component processes for common task components. Systematic cognitive capacity and the capacity for analogy are hallmarks of human cognition, which suggests that universal constructions (in the category-theoretic sense) are a crucial component of human cognitive architecture. PMID:24586555

  10. Reverse engineering for biologically inspired cognitive architectures: a critical analysis.

    PubMed

    Schierwagen, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    Research initiatives on both sides of the Atlantic try to utilize the operational principles of organisms and brains to develop biologically inspired, artificial cognitive systems. This paper describes the standard way bio-inspiration is gained, i.e. decompositional analysis or reverse engineering. The indisputable complexity of brain and mind raise the issue of whether they can be understood by applying the standard method. Using Robert Rosen's modeling relation, the scientific analysis method itself is made a subject of discussion. It is concluded that the fundamental assumption of cognitive science, i.e. complex cognitive systems are decomposable, must be abandoned. Implications for investigations of organisms and behavior as well as for engineering artificial cognitive systems are discussed. PMID:21744214

  11. Learning to Achieve Perfect Timesharing: Architectural Implications of Hazeltine, Teague, and Ivry (2002)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, John R.; Taatgen, Niels A.; Byrne, Michael D.

    2005-01-01

    E. Hazeltine, D. Teague, and R. B. Ivry have presented data that have been interpreted as evidence against a central bottleneck. This article describes simulations of their Experiments 1 and 4 in the ACT-R cognitive architecture, which does possess a central bottleneck in production execution. The simulation model is capable of accounting for the…

  12. The Action Execution Process Implemented in Different Cognitive Architectures: A Review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Daqi; Franklin, Stan

    2014-12-01

    An agent achieves its goals by interacting with its environment, cyclically choosing and executing suitable actions. An action execution process is a reasonable and critical part of an entire cognitive architecture, because the process of generating executable motor commands is not only driven by low-level environmental information, but is also initiated and affected by the agent's high-level mental processes. This review focuses on cognitive models of action, or more specifically, of the action execution process, as implemented in a set of popular cognitive architectures. We examine the representations and procedures inside the action execution process, as well as the cooperation between action execution and other high-level cognitive modules. We finally conclude with some general observations regarding the nature of action execution.

  13. The Cognitive Architecture for Chaining of Two Mental Operations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sackur, Jerome; Dehaene, Stanislas

    2009-01-01

    A simple view, which dates back to Turing, proposes that complex cognitive operations are composed of serially arranged elementary operations, each passing intermediate results to the next. However, whether and how such serial processing is achieved with a brain composed of massively parallel processors, remains an open question. Here, we study…

  14. The Intranet as a Cognitive Architecture for Training and Education: Basic Assumptions and Development Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seffah, Ahmed; Bouchard, Robert Maurice

    This paper makes basic assumptions regarding the development of an intranet architecture that will actively promote the cognitive apprenticeship of a new community of learners. The authors consider the intranet as a dynamic and virtual environment in which individuals may communicate, share resources, and reciprocally generate and organize…

  15. Real-Time Cognitive Computing Architecture for Data Fusion in a Dynamic Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duong, Tuan A.; Duong, Vu A.

    2012-01-01

    A novel cognitive computing architecture is conceptualized for processing multiple channels of multi-modal sensory data streams simultaneously, and fusing the information in real time to generate intelligent reaction sequences. This unique architecture is capable of assimilating parallel data streams that could be analog, digital, synchronous/asynchronous, and could be programmed to act as a knowledge synthesizer and/or an "intelligent perception" processor. In this architecture, the bio-inspired models of visual pathway and olfactory receptor processing are combined as processing components, to achieve the composite function of "searching for a source of food while avoiding the predator." The architecture is particularly suited for scene analysis from visual data and odorant.

  16. A cognitive robotic system based on the Soar cognitive architecture for mobile robot navigation, search, and mapping missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanford, Scott D.

    Most unmanned vehicles used for civilian and military applications are remotely operated or are designed for specific applications. As these vehicles are used to perform more difficult missions or a larger number of missions in remote environments, there will be a great need for these vehicles to behave intelligently and autonomously. Cognitive architectures, computer programs that define mechanisms that are important for modeling and generating domain-independent intelligent behavior, have the potential for generating intelligent and autonomous behavior in unmanned vehicles. The research described in this presentation explored the use of the Soar cognitive architecture for cognitive robotics. The Cognitive Robotic System (CRS) has been developed to integrate software systems for motor control and sensor processing with Soar for unmanned vehicle control. The CRS has been tested using two mobile robot missions: outdoor navigation and search in an indoor environment. The use of the CRS for the outdoor navigation mission demonstrated that a Soar agent could autonomously navigate to a specified location while avoiding obstacles, including cul-de-sacs, with only a minimal amount of knowledge about the environment. While most systems use information from maps or long-range perceptual capabilities to avoid cul-de-sacs, a Soar agent in the CRS was able to recognize when a simple approach to avoiding obstacles was unsuccessful and switch to a different strategy for avoiding complex obstacles. During the indoor search mission, the CRS autonomously and intelligently searches a building for an object of interest and common intersection types. While searching the building, the Soar agent builds a topological map of the environment using information about the intersections the CRS detects. The agent uses this topological model (along with Soar's reasoning, planning, and learning mechanisms) to make intelligent decisions about how to effectively search the building. Once the

  17. Embodied spatial cognition.

    PubMed

    Trafton, J Gregory; Harrison, Anthony M

    2011-10-01

    We present a spatial system called Specialized Egocentrically Coordinated Spaces embedded in an embodied cognitive architecture (ACT-R Embodied). We show how the spatial system works by modeling two different developmental findings: gaze-following and Level 1 perspective taking. The gaze-following model is based on an experiment by Corkum and Moore (1998), whereas the Level 1 visual perspective-taking model is based on an experiment by Moll and Tomasello (2006). The models run on an embodied robotic system. PMID:25164505

  18. Systematicity and a Categorical Theory of Cognitive Architecture: Universal Construction in Context.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Steven; Wilson, William H

    2016-01-01

    Why does the capacity to think certain thoughts imply the capacity to think certain other, structurally related, thoughts? Despite decades of intensive debate, cognitive scientists have yet to reach a consensus on an explanation for this property of cognitive architecture-the basic processes and modes of composition that together afford cognitive capacity-called systematicity. Systematicity is generally considered to involve a capacity to represent/process common structural relations among the equivalently cognizable entities. However, the predominant theoretical approaches to the systematicity problem, i.e., classical (symbolic) and connectionist (subsymbolic), require arbitrary (ad hoc) assumptions to derive systematicity. That is, their core principles and assumptions do not provide the necessary and sufficient conditions from which systematicity follows, as required of a causal theory. Hence, these approaches fail to fully explain why systematicity is a (near) universal property of human cognition, albeit in restricted contexts. We review an alternative, category theory approach to the systematicity problem. As a mathematical theory of structure, category theory provides necessary and sufficient conditions for systematicity in the form of universal construction: each systematically related cognitive capacity is composed of a common component and a unique component. Moreover, every universal construction can be viewed as the optimal construction in the given context (category). From this view, universal constructions are derived from learning, as an optimization. The ultimate challenge, then, is to explain the determination of context. If context is a category, then a natural extension toward addressing this question is higher-order category theory, where categories themselves are the objects of construction. PMID:27524975

  19. The genetic architecture of pediatric cognitive abilities in the Philadelphia Neurodevelopmental Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Elise B.; Kirby, Andrew; Ruparel, Kosha; Yang, Jian; McGrath, Lauren; Anttila, Verneri; Neale, Benjamin M.; Merikangas, Kathleen; Lehner, Thomas; Sleiman, Patrick M.A.; Daly, Mark J.; Gur, Ruben; Gur, Raquel; Hakonarson, Hakon

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this analysis was to examine the genetic architecture of diverse cognitive abilities in children and adolescents, including the magnitude of common genetic effects and patterns of shared and unique genetic influences. Subjects included 3,689 members of the Philadelphia Neurodevelopmental Cohort, a general population sample of ages 8-21 years who completed an extensive battery of cognitive tests. We used genome-wide complex trait analysis (GCTA) to estimate the SNP-based heritability of each domain, as well as the genetic correlation between all domains that showed significant genetic influence. Several of the individual domains suggested strong influence of common genetic variants (e.g. reading ability, h2g=0.43, p=4e-06; emotion identification, h2g=0.36, p=1e-05; verbal memory, h2g=0.24, p=0.005). The genetic correlations highlighted trait domains that are candidates for joint interrogation in future genetic studies (e.g. language reasoning and spatial reasoning, r(g)=0.72, p=0.007). These results can be used to structure future genetic and neuropsychiatric investigations of diverse cognitive abilities. PMID:25023143

  20. The genetic architecture of pediatric cognitive abilities in the Philadelphia Neurodevelopmental Cohort.

    PubMed

    Robinson, E B; Kirby, A; Ruparel, K; Yang, J; McGrath, L; Anttila, V; Neale, B M; Merikangas, K; Lehner, T; Sleiman, P M A; Daly, M J; Gur, R; Gur, R; Hakonarson, H

    2015-04-01

    The objective of this analysis was to examine the genetic architecture of diverse cognitive abilities in children and adolescents, including the magnitude of common genetic effects and patterns of shared and unique genetic influences. Subjects included 3689 members of the Philadelphia Neurodevelopmental Cohort, a general population sample comprising those aged 8-21 years who completed an extensive battery of cognitive tests. We used genome-wide complex trait analysis to estimate the SNP-based heritability of each domain, as well as the genetic correlation between all domains that showed significant genetic influence. Several of the individual domains suggested strong influence of common genetic variants (for example, reading ability, h(2)g=0.43, P=4e-06; emotion identification, h(2)g=0.36, P=1e-05; verbal memory, h(2)g=0.24, P=0.005). The genetic correlations highlighted trait domains that are candidates for joint interrogation in future genetic studies (for example, language reasoning and spatial reasoning, r(g)=0.72, P=0.007). These results can be used to structure future genetic and neuropsychiatric investigations of diverse cognitive abilities. PMID:25023143

  1. Cognitively inspired reinforcement learning architecture and its application to giant-swing motion control.

    PubMed

    Uragami, Daisuke; Takahashi, Tatsuji; Matsuo, Yoshiki

    2014-02-01

    Many algorithms and methods in artificial intelligence or machine learning were inspired by human cognition. As a mechanism to handle the exploration-exploitation dilemma in reinforcement learning, the loosely symmetric (LS) value function that models causal intuition of humans was proposed (Shinohara et al., 2007). While LS shows the highest correlation with causal induction by humans, it has been reported that it effectively works in multi-armed bandit problems that form the simplest class of tasks representing the dilemma. However, the scope of application of LS was limited to the reinforcement learning problems that have K actions with only one state (K-armed bandit problems). This study proposes LS-Q learning architecture that can deal with general reinforcement learning tasks with multiple states and delayed reward. We tested the learning performance of the new architecture in giant-swing robot motion learning, where uncertainty and unknown-ness of the environment is huge. In the test, the help of ready-made internal models or functional approximation of the state space were not given. The simulations showed that while the ordinary Q-learning agent does not reach giant-swing motion because of stagnant loops (local optima with low rewards), LS-Q escapes such loops and acquires giant-swing. It is confirmed that the smaller number of states is, in other words, the more coarse-grained the division of states and the more incomplete the state observation is, the better LS-Q performs in comparison with Q-learning. We also showed that the high performance of LS-Q depends comparatively little on parameter tuning and learning time. This suggests that the proposed method inspired by human cognition works adaptively in real environments. PMID:24296286

  2. A Programmer-Interpreter Neural Network Architecture for Prefrontal Cognitive Control.

    PubMed

    Donnarumma, Francesco; Prevete, Roberto; Chersi, Fabian; Pezzulo, Giovanni

    2015-09-01

    There is wide consensus that the prefrontal cortex (PFC) is able to exert cognitive control on behavior by biasing processing toward task-relevant information and by modulating response selection. This idea is typically framed in terms of top-down influences within a cortical control hierarchy, where prefrontal-basal ganglia loops gate multiple input-output channels, which in turn can activate or sequence motor primitives expressed in (pre-)motor cortices. Here we advance a new hypothesis, based on the notion of programmability and an interpreter-programmer computational scheme, on how the PFC can flexibly bias the selection of sensorimotor patterns depending on internal goal and task contexts. In this approach, multiple elementary behaviors representing motor primitives are expressed by a single multi-purpose neural network, which is seen as a reusable area of "recycled" neurons (interpreter). The PFC thus acts as a "programmer" that, without modifying the network connectivity, feeds the interpreter networks with specific input parameters encoding the programs (corresponding to network structures) to be interpreted by the (pre-)motor areas. Our architecture is validated in a standard test for executive function: the 1-2-AX task. Our results show that this computational framework provides a robust, scalable and flexible scheme that can be iterated at different hierarchical layers, supporting the realization of multiple goals. We discuss the plausibility of the "programmer-interpreter" scheme to explain the functioning of prefrontal-(pre)motor cortical hierarchies. PMID:25986752

  3. An architecture and model for cognitive engineering simulation analysis - Application to advanced aviation automation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Corker, Kevin M.; Smith, Barry R.

    1993-01-01

    The process of designing crew stations for large-scale, complex automated systems is made difficult because of the flexibility of roles that the crew can assume, and by the rapid rate at which system designs become fixed. Modern cockpit automation frequently involves multiple layers of control and display technology in which human operators must exercise equipment in augmented, supervisory, and fully automated control modes. In this context, we maintain that effective human-centered design is dependent on adequate models of human/system performance in which representations of the equipment, the human operator(s), and the mission tasks are available to designers for manipulation and modification. The joint Army-NASA Aircrew/Aircraft Integration (A3I) Program, with its attendant Man-machine Integration Design and Analysis System (MIDAS), was initiated to meet this challenge. MIDAS provides designers with a test bed for analyzing human-system integration in an environment in which both cognitive human function and 'intelligent' machine function are described in similar terms. This distributed object-oriented simulation system, its architecture and assumptions, and our experiences from its application in advanced aviation crew stations are described.

  4. Cognitive Modeling of Individual Variation in Reference Production and Comprehension

    PubMed Central

    Hendriks, Petra

    2016-01-01

    A challenge for most theoretical and computational accounts of linguistic reference is the observation that language users vary considerably in their referential choices. Part of the variation observed among and within language users and across tasks may be explained from variation in the cognitive resources available to speakers and listeners. This paper presents a computational model of reference production and comprehension developed within the cognitive architecture ACT-R. Through simulations with this ACT-R model, it is investigated how cognitive constraints interact with linguistic constraints and features of the linguistic discourse in speakers’ production and listeners’ comprehension of referring expressions in specific tasks, and how this interaction may give rise to variation in referential choice. The ACT-R model of reference explains and predicts variation among language users in their referential choices as a result of individual and task-related differences in processing speed and working memory capacity. Because of limitations in their cognitive capacities, speakers sometimes underspecify or overspecify their referring expressions, and listeners sometimes choose incorrect referents or are overly liberal in their interpretation of referring expressions. PMID:27092101

  5. A Cognitive Neural Architecture Able to Learn and Communicate through Natural Language

    PubMed Central

    Golosio, Bruno; Cangelosi, Angelo; Gamotina, Olesya; Masala, Giovanni Luca

    2015-01-01

    Communicative interactions involve a kind of procedural knowledge that is used by the human brain for processing verbal and nonverbal inputs and for language production. Although considerable work has been done on modeling human language abilities, it has been difficult to bring them together to a comprehensive tabula rasa system compatible with current knowledge of how verbal information is processed in the brain. This work presents a cognitive system, entirely based on a large-scale neural architecture, which was developed to shed light on the procedural knowledge involved in language elaboration. The main component of this system is the central executive, which is a supervising system that coordinates the other components of the working memory. In our model, the central executive is a neural network that takes as input the neural activation states of the short-term memory and yields as output mental actions, which control the flow of information among the working memory components through neural gating mechanisms. The proposed system is capable of learning to communicate through natural language starting from tabula rasa, without any a priori knowledge of the structure of phrases, meaning of words, role of the different classes of words, only by interacting with a human through a text-based interface, using an open-ended incremental learning process. It is able to learn nouns, verbs, adjectives, pronouns and other word classes, and to use them in expressive language. The model was validated on a corpus of 1587 input sentences, based on literature on early language assessment, at the level of about 4-years old child, and produced 521 output sentences, expressing a broad range of language processing functionalities. PMID:26560154

  6. Effects of Spatial Experiences & Cognitive Styles in the Solution Process of Space-Based Design Problems in the First Year of Architectural Design Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erkan Yazici, Yasemin

    2013-01-01

    There are many factors that influence designers in the architectural design process. Cognitive style, which varies according to the cognitive structure of persons, and spatial experience, which is created with spatial data acquired during life are two of these factors. Designers usually refer to their spatial experiences in order to find solutions…

  7. A Review of Production System Models of Cognition and Example Demonstration

    SciTech Connect

    BRANNON, NATHAN G.

    2002-12-01

    There have been significant efforts to develop cognitively plausible software architectures of human information processing in the last three decades. This report summarizes several architectures that continue to be developed. The specific type of cognitive models developed are known as production system architectures, which refers to the characterization of knowledge in terms of procedural (''how-to'' knowledge) condition-action relationships consisting of declarative (''what'' or factual) knowledge. To illustrate the ability for these models to instantiate human cognitive performance, a simulation using ACT-R (Adaptive Control of Thought - Rational) was implemented for a supervisory control task. Correlations between simulated and human learning of the task were measured and yielded correlations as high as 0.93.

  8. Cognitive Impairment after Chemotherapy Related to Atypical Network Architecture for Executive Control

    PubMed Central

    Piccirillo, Jay F.; Hardin, Frances Mei; Nicklaus, Joyce; Kallogjeri, Dorina; Wilson, Michael; Ma, Cynthia X.; Coalson, Rebecca S.; Shimony, Joshua; Schlaggar, Bradley L.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives A common complaint of cancer patients is the experience of cognitive difficulty during and after chemotherapy. We hypothesized that cognitive impairment may result from dysfunction in large-scale brain networks, particularly those involved in attentional control. Methods Using a case-control design, this study includes women with a history of invasive ductal or lobular, triple-negative breast cancer who completed standard adjuvant chemotherapy within two years of study entry. Women who reported cognitive impairment by the Global Rating of Cognition question were considered to be cases (n= 15). Women who reported no cognitive impairment were considered to be controls (n= 13). All enrolled participants were eligible for MRI investigation and underwent resting state-functional connectivity MRI. Results Women who self-reported cognitive impairment were found to have disrupted resting-state functional connectivity, as measured by MRI, when compared to women who did not self-report cognitive impairment. These findings suggest that some women may be more sensitive to the standard treatments for breast cancer and that this increased sensitivity may result in functional connectivity alterations in the brain networks supporting attention and executive function. Conclusions Neuroimaging analyses confirmed self-reported cognitive deficits in women with breast cancer treated with chemotherapy. PMID:25678046

  9. Differences in Concept Mapping, Hypertext Architecture, and the Analyst-Intuition Dimension of Cognitive Style

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graff, Martin

    2005-01-01

    There is now evidence to suggest that the degree to which hypertext or web-based instructional systems facilitate recall of information appears to be contingent on an individual's cognitive or information processing style. Concept maps also reflect the way in which individuals process information and therefore it is possible that cognitive style…

  10. Cognitive Architectures and Language Acquisition: A Case Study in Pronoun Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Rij, Jacolien; van Rij, Hedderik; Hendriks, Petra

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we discuss a computational cognitive model of children's poor performance on pronoun interpretation (the so-called Delay of Principle B Effect, or DPBE). This cognitive model is based on a theoretical account that attributes the DPBE to children's inability as hearers to also take into account the speaker's perspective. The cognitive…

  11. Combined Cognitive-Psychological-Physical Intervention Induces Reorganization of Intrinsic Functional Brain Architecture in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Zhiwei; Zhu, Xinyi; Yin, Shufei; Wang, Baoxi; Niu, Yanan; Huang, Xin; Li, Rui; Li, Juan

    2015-01-01

    Mounting evidence suggests that enriched mental, physical, and socially stimulating activities are beneficial for counteracting age-related decreases in brain function and cognition in older adults. Here, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to demonstrate the functional plasticity of brain activity in response to a combined cognitive-psychological-physical intervention and investigated the contribution of the intervention-related brain changes to individual performance in healthy older adults. The intervention was composed of a 6-week program of combined activities including cognitive training, Tai Chi exercise, and group counseling. The results showed improved cognitive performance and reorganized regional homogeneity of spontaneous fluctuations in the blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) signals in the superior and middle temporal gyri, and the posterior lobe of the cerebellum, in the participants who attended the intervention. Intriguingly, the intervention-induced changes in the coherence of local spontaneous activity correlated with the improvements in individual cognitive performance. Taken together with our previous findings of enhanced resting-state functional connectivity between the medial prefrontal cortex and medial temporal lobe regions following a combined intervention program in older adults, we conclude that the functional plasticity of the aging brain is a rather complex process, and an effective cognitive-psychological-physical intervention is helpful for maintaining a healthy brain and comprehensive cognition during old age. PMID:25810927

  12. Does the Cognitive Architecture of Simplex and Multiplex ASD Families Differ?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oerlemans, Anoek M.; Hartman, Catharina A.; Franke, Barbara; Buitelaar, Jan K.; Rommelse, Nanda N. J.

    2016-01-01

    Children with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and their unaffected siblings from 54 simplex (SPX, one individual in the family affected) and 59 multiplex (MPX, two or more individuals affected) families, and 124 controls were assessed on intelligence, social cognition and executive functions. SPX and MPX ASD probands displayed similar cognitive…

  13. Systematicity and a Categorical Theory of Cognitive Architecture: Universal Construction in Context

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, Steven; Wilson, William H.

    2016-01-01

    Why does the capacity to think certain thoughts imply the capacity to think certain other, structurally related, thoughts? Despite decades of intensive debate, cognitive scientists have yet to reach a consensus on an explanation for this property of cognitive architecture—the basic processes and modes of composition that together afford cognitive capacity—called systematicity. Systematicity is generally considered to involve a capacity to represent/process common structural relations among the equivalently cognizable entities. However, the predominant theoretical approaches to the systematicity problem, i.e., classical (symbolic) and connectionist (subsymbolic), require arbitrary (ad hoc) assumptions to derive systematicity. That is, their core principles and assumptions do not provide the necessary and sufficient conditions from which systematicity follows, as required of a causal theory. Hence, these approaches fail to fully explain why systematicity is a (near) universal property of human cognition, albeit in restricted contexts. We review an alternative, category theory approach to the systematicity problem. As a mathematical theory of structure, category theory provides necessary and sufficient conditions for systematicity in the form of universal construction: each systematically related cognitive capacity is composed of a common component and a unique component. Moreover, every universal construction can be viewed as the optimal construction in the given context (category). From this view, universal constructions are derived from learning, as an optimization. The ultimate challenge, then, is to explain the determination of context. If context is a category, then a natural extension toward addressing this question is higher-order category theory, where categories themselves are the objects of construction. PMID:27524975

  14. Nuclear organization and 3D chromatin architecture in cognition and neuropsychiatric disorders.

    PubMed

    Medrano-Fernández, Alejandro; Barco, Angel

    2016-01-01

    The current view of neuroplasticity depicts the changes in the strength and number of synaptic connections as the main physical substrate for behavioral adaptation to new experiences in a changing environment. Although transcriptional regulation is known to play a role in these synaptic changes, the specific contribution of activity-induced changes to both the structure of the nucleus and the organization of the genome remains insufficiently characterized. Increasing evidence indicates that plasticity-related genes may work in coordination and share architectural and transcriptional machinery within discrete genomic foci. Here we review the molecular and cellular mechanisms through which neuronal nuclei structurally adapt to stimuli and discuss how the perturbation of these mechanisms can trigger behavioral malfunction. PMID:27595843

  15. Automatic analysis of slips of the tongue: Insights into the cognitive architecture of speech production.

    PubMed

    Goldrick, Matthew; Keshet, Joseph; Gustafson, Erin; Heller, Jordana; Needle, Jeremy

    2016-04-01

    Traces of the cognitive mechanisms underlying speaking can be found within subtle variations in how we pronounce sounds. While speech errors have traditionally been seen as categorical substitutions of one sound for another, acoustic/articulatory analyses show they partially reflect the intended sound. When "pig" is mispronounced as "big," the resulting /b/ sound differs from correct productions of "big," moving towards intended "pig"-revealing the role of graded sound representations in speech production. Investigating the origins of such phenomena requires detailed estimation of speech sound distributions; this has been hampered by reliance on subjective, labor-intensive manual annotation. Computational methods can address these issues by providing for objective, automatic measurements. We develop a novel high-precision computational approach, based on a set of machine learning algorithms, for measurement of elicited speech. The algorithms are trained on existing manually labeled data to detect and locate linguistically relevant acoustic properties with high accuracy. Our approach is robust, is designed to handle mis-productions, and overall matches the performance of expert coders. It allows us to analyze a very large dataset of speech errors (containing far more errors than the total in the existing literature), illuminating properties of speech sound distributions previously impossible to reliably observe. We argue that this provides novel evidence that two sources both contribute to deviations in speech errors: planning processes specifying the targets of articulation and articulatory processes specifying the motor movements that execute this plan. These findings illustrate how a much richer picture of speech provides an opportunity to gain novel insights into language processing. PMID:26779665

  16. The Architecture and Dynamics of Developing Mind: Experiential Structuralism as a Frame for Unifying Cognitive Developmental Theories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demetriou, Andreas; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Presents a theory of cognitive development that postulates a general cognitive processing system, a hypercognitive system governing self-regulation, and specialized structural systems responsible for processing different reality domains. Suggests five principles that serve as organizational pivots of developing cognition. Reports the results of…

  17. Using an Analogical Thinking Model as an Instructional Tool to Improve Student Cognitive Ability in Architecture Design Learning Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Yun-Wu; Weng, Kuo-Hua

    2013-01-01

    Lack of creativity is a problem often plaguing students from design-related departments. Therefore, this study is intended to incorporate analogical thinking in the education of architecture design to enhance students' learning and their future career performance. First, this study explores the three aspects of architecture design curricula,…

  18. Parameters, Predictions, and Evidence in Computational Modeling: A Statistical View Informed by ACT-R

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weaver, Rhiannon

    2008-01-01

    Model validation in computational cognitive psychology often relies on methods drawn from the testing of theories in experimental physics. However, applications of these methods to computational models in typical cognitive experiments can hide multiple, plausible sources of variation arising from human participants and from stochastic cognitive…

  19. Aberrant intra- and inter-network connectivity architectures in Alzheimer’s disease and mild cognitive impairment

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Pan; Zhou, Bo; Yao, Hongxiang; Zhan, Yafeng; Zhang, Zengqiang; Cui, Yue; Xu, Kaibin; Ma, Jianhua; Wang, Luning; An, Ningyu; Zhang, Xi; Liu, Yong; Jiang, Tianzi

    2015-01-01

    Alzheimer’s disease (AD) patients and those with high-risk mild cognitive impairment are increasingly considered to have dysfunction syndromes. Large-scale network studies based on neuroimaging techniques may provide additional insight into AD pathophysiology. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the impaired network functional connectivity with the disease progression. For this purpose, we explored altered functional connectivities based on previously well-defined brain areas that comprise the five key functional systems [the default mode network (DMN), dorsal attention network (DAN), control network (CON), salience network (SAL), sensorimotor network (SMN)] in 35 with AD and 27 with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) subjects, compared with 27 normal cognitive subjects. Based on three levels of analysis, we found that intra- and inter-network connectivity were impaired in AD. Importantly, the interaction between the sensorimotor and attention functions was first attacked at the MCI stage and then extended to the key functional systems in the AD individuals. Lower cognitive ability (lower MMSE scores) was significantly associated with greater reductions in intra- and inter-network connectivity across all patient groups. These profiles indicate that aberrant intra- and inter-network dysfunctions might be potential biomarkers or predictors of AD progression and provide new insight into AD pathophysiology. PMID:26439278

  20. Prenatal exposure to a novel antipsychotic quetiapine: impact on neuro-architecture, apoptotic neurodegeneration in fetal hippocampus and cognitive impairment in young rats.

    PubMed

    Singh, K P; Tripathi, Nidhi

    2015-05-01

    Reports on prenatal exposure to some of the first generation antipsychotic drugs like, haloperidol, their effects on fetal neurotoxicity and functional impairments in the offspring, are well documented. But studies on in utero exposure to second generation antipsychotics, especially quetiapine, and its effects on fetal neurotoxicity, apoptotic neurodegeneration, postnatal developmental delay and neurobehavioral consequences are lacking. Therefore, the present study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of prenatal administration to equivalent therapeutic doses of quetiapine on neuro-architectural abnormalities, neurohistopathological changes, apoptotic neurodegeneration in fetal hippocampus, and postnatal development and growth as well as its long-lasting imprint on cognitive impairment in young-adult offspring. Pregnant Wistar rats (n=24) were exposed to selected doses (55 mg, 80 mg and 100mg/kg) of quetiapine, equivalent to human therapeutic doses, from gestation day 6 to 21 orally with control subjects. Half of the pregnant subjects of each group were sacrificed at gestation day 21 for histopathological, confocal and electron microscopic studies and rest of the dams were allowed to deliver naturally. Their pups were reared postnatally up to 10 weeks of age for neurobehavioral observations. In quetiapine treated groups, there was significant alterations in total and differential thickness of three typical layers of hippocampus associated with neuronal cells deficit and enhanced apoptotic neurodegeneration in the CA1 area of fetal hippocampus. Prenatally drug treated rat offspring displayed post-natal developmental delay till postnatal day 70, and these young-adult rats displayed cognitive impairment in Morris water maze and passive avoidance regimes as long-lasting impact of the drug. Therefore, quetiapine should be used with cautions considering its developmental neurotoxicological and neurobehavioral potential in animal model, rat. PMID:25720310

  1. Novel Architecture for supporting medical decision making of different data types based on Fuzzy Cognitive Map Framework.

    PubMed

    Papageorgiou, Elpiniki; Stylios, Chrysostomos; Groumpos, Peter

    2007-01-01

    Medical problems involve different types of variables and data, which have to be processed, analyzed and synthesized in order to reach a decision and/or conclude to a diagnosis. Usually, information and data set are both symbolic and numeric but most of the well-known data analysis methods deal with only one kind of data. Even when fuzzy approaches are considered, which are not depended on the scales of variables, usually only numeric data is considered. The medical decision support methods usually are accessed in only one type of available data. Thus, sophisticated methods have been proposed such as integrated hybrid learning approaches to process symbolic and numeric data for the decision support tasks. Fuzzy Cognitive Maps (FCM) is an efficient modelling method, which is based on human knowledge and experience and it can handle with uncertainty and it is constructed by extracted knowledge in the form of fuzzy rules. The FCM model can be enhanced if a fuzzy rule base (IF-THEN rules) is available. This rule base could be derived by a number of machine learning and knowledge extraction methods. Here it is introduced a hybrid attempt to handle situations with different types of available medical and/or clinical data and with difficulty to handle them for decision support tasks using soft computing techniques. PMID:18002176

  2. Crystal Structure of the Streptomyces coelicolor TetR-Like Protein ActR Alone and in Complex with Actinorhodin or the Actinorhodin Biosynthetic Precursor (S)-DNPA

    SciTech Connect

    Willems,A.; Tahlan, K.; Taguchi, T.; Zhang, K.; Lee, Z.; Ichinose, K.; Junop, M.; Nodwell, J.

    2008-01-01

    Actinorhodin, an antibiotic produced by Streptomyces coelicolor, is exported from the cell by the ActA efflux pump. actA is divergently transcribed from actR, which encodes a TetR-like transcriptional repressor. We showed previously that ActR represses transcription by binding to an operator from the actA/actR intergenic region. Importantly, actinorhodin itself or various actinorhodin biosynthetic intermediates can cause ActR to dissociate from its operator, leading to derepression. This suggests that ActR may mediate timely self-resistance to an endogenously produced antibiotic by responding to one of its biosynthetic precursors. Here, we report the structural basis for this precursor-mediated derepression with crystal structures of homodimeric ActR by itself and in complex with either actinorhodin or the actinorhodin biosynthetic intermediate (S)-DNPA [4-dihydro-9-hydroxy-1-methyl-10-oxo-3-H-naphtho-[2, 3-c]-pyran-3-(S)-acetic acid]. The ligand-binding tunnel in each ActR monomer has a striking hydrophilic/hydrophobic/hydrophilic arrangement of surface residues that accommodate either one hexacyclic actinorhodin molecule or two back-to-back tricyclic (S)-DNPA molecules. Moreover, our work also reveals the strongest structural evidence to date that TetR-mediated antibiotic resistance may have been acquired from an antibiotic-producer organism.

  3. Agent Architectures for Compliance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burgemeestre, Brigitte; Hulstijn, Joris; Tan, Yao-Hua

    A Normative Multi-Agent System consists of autonomous agents who must comply with social norms. Different kinds of norms make different assumptions about the cognitive architecture of the agents. For example, a principle-based norm assumes that agents can reflect upon the consequences of their actions; a rule-based formulation only assumes that agents can avoid violations. In this paper we present several cognitive agent architectures for self-monitoring and compliance. We show how different assumptions about the cognitive architecture lead to different information needs when assessing compliance. The approach is validated with a case study of horizontal monitoring, an approach to corporate tax auditing recently introduced by the Dutch Customs and Tax Authority.

  4. Simulating motivated cognition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gevarter, William B.

    1991-01-01

    A research effort to develop a sophisticated computer model of human behavior is described. A computer framework of motivated cognition was developed. Motivated cognition focuses on the motivations or affects that provide the context and drive in human cognition and decision making. A conceptual architecture of the human decision-making approach from the perspective of information processing in the human brain is developed in diagrammatic form. A preliminary version of such a diagram is presented. This architecture is then used as a vehicle for successfully constructing a computer program simulation Dweck and Leggett's findings that relate how an individual's implicit theories orient them toward particular goals, with resultant cognitions, affects, and behavior.

  5. Cognitive Computing for Security.

    SciTech Connect

    Debenedictis, Erik; Rothganger, Fredrick; Aimone, James Bradley; Marinella, Matthew; Evans, Brian Robert; Warrender, Christina E.; Mickel, Patrick

    2015-12-01

    Final report for Cognitive Computing for Security LDRD 165613. It reports on the development of hybrid of general purpose/ne uromorphic computer architecture, with an emphasis on potential implementation with memristors.

  6. Harmony in Linguistic Cognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smolensky, Paul

    2006-01-01

    In this article, I survey the integrated connectionist/symbolic (ICS) cognitive architecture in which higher cognition must be formally characterized on two levels of description. At the microlevel, parallel distributed processing (PDP) characterizes mental processing; this PDP system has special organization in virtue of which it can be…

  7. Cognitive Sensor Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henderson, Thomas C.

    Our overall goal is to develop a cognitive architecture which will allow autonomous and robust operation of sensor-actuator networks. To achieve this, the perception, concept formation, action cycle will be informed by domain theories of signal analysis, physical phenomena, and behavior. Example scenarios include cognitive vehicles and buildings in which the system understands itself and the activities in and around it by means of distributed video and other sensors. This includes discovery of the cognitive system's own sensing and actuation capabilities.

  8. Visual cognition

    PubMed Central

    Cavanagh, Patrick

    2011-01-01

    Visual cognition, high-level vision, mid-level vision and top-down processing all refer to decision-based scene analyses that combine prior knowledge with retinal input to generate representations. The label “visual cognition” is little used at present, but research and experiments on mid- and high-level, inference-based vision have flourished, becoming in the 21st century a significant, if often understated part, of current vision research. How does visual cognition work? What are its moving parts? This paper reviews the origins and architecture of visual cognition and briefly describes some work in the areas of routines, attention, surfaces, objects, and events (motion, causality, and agency). Most vision scientists avoid being too explicit when presenting concepts about visual cognition, having learned that explicit models invite easy criticism. What we see in the literature is ample evidence for visual cognition, but few or only cautious attempts to detail how it might work. This is the great unfinished business of vision research: at some point we will be done with characterizing how the visual system measures the world and we will have to return to the question of how vision constructs models of objects, surfaces, scenes, and events. PMID:21329719

  9. Architecture & Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erickson, Mary; Delahunt, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Most art teachers would agree that architecture is an important form of visual art, but they do not always include it in their curriculums. In this article, the authors share core ideas from "Architecture and Environment," a teaching resource that they developed out of a long-term interest in teaching architecture and their fascination with the…

  10. Project Integration Architecture: Application Architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, William Henry

    2005-01-01

    The Project Integration Architecture (PIA) implements a flexible, object-oriented, wrapping architecture which encapsulates all of the information associated with engineering applications. The architecture allows the progress of a project to be tracked and documented in its entirety. Additionally, by bringing all of the information sources and sinks of a project into a single architectural space, the ability to transport information between those applications is enabled.

  11. On the Cognition in Cognitive Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bickhard, Mark H.

    1999-01-01

    States that Demetriou and Raftopoulos's theory of cognitive developmental change based on the nature of representation is flawed. Argues against theme of representation as encoding as well as an alternative model of representation as interactivism. Concludes that other issues such as architectural support, variation and selective retention,…

  12. Green Architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Seung-Ho

    Today, the environment has become a main subject in lots of science disciplines and the industrial development due to the global warming. This paper presents the analysis of the tendency of Green Architecture in France on the threes axes: Regulations and Approach for the Sustainable Architecture (Certificate and Standard), Renewable Materials (Green Materials) and Strategies (Equipments) of Sustainable Technology. The definition of 'Green Architecture' will be cited in the introduction and the question of the interdisciplinary for the technological development in 'Green Architecture' will be raised up in the conclusion.

  13. Modularity and mental architecture.

    PubMed

    Robbins, Philip

    2013-11-01

    Debates about the modularity of cognitive architecture have been ongoing for at least the past three decades, since the publication of Fodor's landmark book The Modularity of Mind. According to Fodor, modularity is essentially tied to informational encapsulation, and as such is only found in the relatively low-level cognitive systems responsible for perception and language. According to Fodor's critics in the evolutionary psychology camp, modularity simply reflects the fine-grained functional specialization dictated by natural selection, and it characterizes virtually all aspects of cognitive architecture, including high-level systems for judgment, decision making, and reasoning. Though both of these perspectives on modularity have garnered support, the current state of evidence and argument suggests that a broader skepticism about modularity may be warranted. WIREs Cogn Sci 2013, 4:641-649. doi: 10.1002/wcs.1255 CONFLICT OF INTEREST: The author has declared no conflicts of interest for this article. For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. PMID:26304269

  14. Integrated simulations of human cognition and behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cassimatis, Nicholas L.

    2005-05-01

    Cognitive architectures are promising tools for creating simulations of human behavior because they were designed to model the cognitive processes that choose that behavior. However, the fact that multiple factors - e.g. physical, social, moral, political, economic - influence the actions of human beings is an obstacle to using these architectures because the various mechanisms the mind uses to consider each factor are currently best modeled using many different computational methods and no single architecture can easily implement them all. This paper presents a cognitive architecture for integrating models based on many different computational methods. It is intended to enable more realistic models and simulations of human behavior.

  15. Project Integration Architecture: Architectural Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, William Henry

    2001-01-01

    The Project Integration Architecture (PIA) implements a flexible, object-oriented, wrapping architecture which encapsulates all of the information associated with engineering applications. The architecture allows the progress of a project to be tracked and documented in its entirety. By being a single, self-revealing architecture, the ability to develop single tools, for example a single graphical user interface, to span all applications is enabled. Additionally, by bringing all of the information sources and sinks of a project into a single architectural space, the ability to transport information between those applications becomes possible, Object-encapsulation further allows information to become in a sense self-aware, knowing things such as its own dimensionality and providing functionality appropriate to its kind.

  16. Cognitive Load Theory and the Use of Educational Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sweller, John

    2008-01-01

    Human cognitive architecture is a constant in a continually advancing educational technology environment. That architecture should be central in determining which technologies should be adopted and how they should be used. In this article, cognitive load theory is used to indicate aspects of human cognition relevant to instructional design, with…

  17. RACE/A: An Architectural Account of the Interactions between Learning, Task Control, and Retrieval Dynamics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Maanen, Leendert; van Rijn, Hedderik; Taatgen, Niels

    2012-01-01

    This article discusses how sequential sampling models can be integrated in a cognitive architecture. The new theory Retrieval by Accumulating Evidence in an Architecture (RACE/A) combines the level of detail typically provided by sequential sampling models with the level of task complexity typically provided by cognitive architectures. We will use…

  18. PICNIC Architecture.

    PubMed

    Saranummi, Niilo

    2005-01-01

    The PICNIC architecture aims at supporting inter-enterprise integration and the facilitation of collaboration between healthcare organisations. The concept of a Regional Health Economy (RHE) is introduced to illustrate the varying nature of inter-enterprise collaboration between healthcare organisations collaborating in providing health services to citizens and patients in a regional setting. The PICNIC architecture comprises a number of PICNIC IT Services, the interfaces between them and presents a way to assemble these into a functioning Regional Health Care Network meeting the needs and concerns of its stakeholders. The PICNIC architecture is presented through a number of views relevant to different stakeholder groups. The stakeholders of the first view are national and regional health authorities and policy makers. The view describes how the architecture enables the implementation of national and regional health policies, strategies and organisational structures. The stakeholders of the second view, the service viewpoint, are the care providers, health professionals, patients and citizens. The view describes how the architecture supports and enables regional care delivery and process management including continuity of care (shared care) and citizen-centred health services. The stakeholders of the third view, the engineering view, are those that design, build and implement the RHCN. The view comprises four sub views: software engineering, IT services engineering, security and data. The proposed architecture is founded into the main stream of how distributed computing environments are evolving. The architecture is realised using the web services approach. A number of well established technology platforms and generic standards exist that can be used to implement the software components. The software components that are specified in PICNIC are implemented in Open Source. PMID:16160218

  19. Cognition without Cortex.

    PubMed

    Güntürkün, Onur; Bugnyar, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    Assumptions on the neural basis of cognition usually focus on cortical mechanisms. Birds have no cortex, but recent studies in parrots and corvids show that their cognitive skills are on par with primates. These cognitive findings are accompanied by neurobiological discoveries that reveal avian and mammalian forebrains are homologous, and show similarities in connectivity and function down to the cellular level. But because birds have a large pallium, but no cortex, a specific cortical architecture cannot be a requirement for advanced cognitive skills. During the long parallel evolution of mammals and birds, several neural mechanisms for cognition and complex behaviors may have converged despite an overall forebrain organization that is otherwise vastly different. PMID:26944218

  20. IAIMS Architecture

    PubMed Central

    Hripcsak, George

    1997-01-01

    Abstract An information system architecture defines the components of a system and the interfaces among the components. A good architecture is essential for creating an Integrated Advanced Information Management System (IAIMS) that works as an integrated whole yet is flexible enough to accommodate many users and roles, multiple applications, changing vendors, evolving user needs, and advancing technology. Modularity and layering promote flexibility by reducing the complexity of a system and by restricting the ways in which components may interact. Enterprise-wide mediation promotes integration by providing message routing, support for standards, dictionary-based code translation, a centralized conceptual data schema, business rule implementation, and consistent access to databases. Several IAIMS sites have adopted a client-server architecture, and some have adopted a three-tiered approach, separating user interface functions, application logic, and repositories. PMID:9067884

  1. IAIMS architecture.

    PubMed

    Hripcsak, G

    1997-01-01

    An information system architecture defines the components of a system and the interfaces among the components. A good architecture is essential for creating an Integrated Advanced Information Management System (IAIMS) that works as an integrated whole yet is flexible enough to accommodate many users and roles, multiple applications, changing vendors, evolving user needs, and advancing technology. Modularity and layering promote flexibility by reducing the complexity of a system and by restricting the ways in which components may interact. Enterprise-wide mediation promotes integration by providing message routing, support for standards, dictionary-based code translation, a centralized conceptual data schema, business rule implementation, and consistent access to databases. Several IAIMS sites have adopted a client-server architecture, and some have adopted a three-tiered approach, separating user interface functions, application logic, and repositories. PMID:9067884

  2. Architectural Illusion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doornek, Richard R.

    1990-01-01

    Presents a lesson plan developed around the work of architectural muralist Richard Haas. Discusses the significance of mural painting and gives key concepts for the lesson. Lists class activities for the elementary and secondary grades. Provides a photograph of the Haas mural on the Fountainbleau Hilton Hotel, 1986. (GG)

  3. Architectural Treasures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pietropola, Anne

    1998-01-01

    Presents an art lesson for eighth-grade students in which they created their own architectural structures. Stresses a strong discipline-based introduction using slide shows of famous buildings, large metropolitan cities, and 35,00 years of homes. Reports the lesson spanned two weeks. Includes a diagram, directions, and specifies materials. (CMK)

  4. Architectural Drafting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Ronald; Yancey, Bruce

    Designed to be used as a supplement to a two-book course in basic drafting, these instructional materials consisting of 14 units cover the process of drawing all working drawings necessary for residential buildings. The following topics are covered in the individual units: introduction to architectural drafting, lettering and tools, site…

  5. Architectural Tops

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahoney, Ellen

    2010-01-01

    The development of the skyscraper is an American story that combines architectural history, economic power, and technological achievement. Each city in the United States can be identified by the profile of its buildings. The design of the tops of skyscrapers was the inspiration for the students in the author's high-school ceramic class to develop…

  6. Space Telecommunications Radio System STRS Cognitive Radio

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Briones, Janette C.; Handler, Louis M.

    2013-01-01

    Radios today are evolving from awareness toward cognition. A software defined radio (SDR) provides the most capability for integrating autonomic decision making ability and allows the incremental evolution toward a cognitive radio. This cognitive radio technology will impact NASA space communications in areas such as spectrum utilization, interoperability, network operations, and radio resource management over a wide range of operating conditions. NASAs cognitive radio will build upon the infrastructure being developed by Space Telecommunication Radio System (STRS) SDR technology. This paper explores the feasibility of inserting cognitive capabilities in the NASA STRS architecture and the interfaces between the cognitive engine and the STRS radio. The STRS architecture defines methods that can inform the cognitive engine about the radio environment so that the cognitive engine can learn autonomously from experience, and take appropriate actions to adapt the radio operating characteristics and optimize performance.

  7. Spacecraft architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zefeld, V. V.

    1986-01-01

    Three requirements for a spacecraft interior are considered. Adequate motor activity in the anatomical-physiological sense results from attention to the anthropometric characteristics of humans. Analysis of work requirements is a prerequisite for the planning of adequate performance space. The requirements for cognitive activity are also elucidated. The importance of a well-designed interior during a long space flight is discussed.

  8. Activity in the fronto-parietal network indicates numerical inductive reasoning beyond calculation: An fMRI study combined with a cognitive model.

    PubMed

    Liang, Peipeng; Jia, Xiuqin; Taatgen, Niels A; Borst, Jelmer P; Li, Kuncheng

    2016-01-01

    Numerical inductive reasoning refers to the process of identifying and extrapolating the rule involved in numeric materials. It is associated with calculation, and shares the common activation of the fronto-parietal regions with calculation, which suggests that numerical inductive reasoning may correspond to a general calculation process. However, compared with calculation, rule identification is critical and unique to reasoning. Previous studies have established the central role of the fronto-parietal network for relational integration during rule identification in numerical inductive reasoning. The current question of interest is whether numerical inductive reasoning exclusively corresponds to calculation or operates beyond calculation, and whether it is possible to distinguish between them based on the activity pattern in the fronto-parietal network. To directly address this issue, three types of problems were created: numerical inductive reasoning, calculation, and perceptual judgment. Our results showed that the fronto-parietal network was more active in numerical inductive reasoning which requires more exchanges between intermediate representations and long-term declarative knowledge during rule identification. These results survived even after controlling for the covariates of response time and error rate. A computational cognitive model was developed using the cognitive architecture ACT-R to account for the behavioral results and brain activity in the fronto-parietal network. PMID:27193284

  9. Activity in the fronto-parietal network indicates numerical inductive reasoning beyond calculation: An fMRI study combined with a cognitive model

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Peipeng; Jia, Xiuqin; Taatgen, Niels A.; Borst, Jelmer P.; Li, Kuncheng

    2016-01-01

    Numerical inductive reasoning refers to the process of identifying and extrapolating the rule involved in numeric materials. It is associated with calculation, and shares the common activation of the fronto-parietal regions with calculation, which suggests that numerical inductive reasoning may correspond to a general calculation process. However, compared with calculation, rule identification is critical and unique to reasoning. Previous studies have established the central role of the fronto-parietal network for relational integration during rule identification in numerical inductive reasoning. The current question of interest is whether numerical inductive reasoning exclusively corresponds to calculation or operates beyond calculation, and whether it is possible to distinguish between them based on the activity pattern in the fronto-parietal network. To directly address this issue, three types of problems were created: numerical inductive reasoning, calculation, and perceptual judgment. Our results showed that the fronto-parietal network was more active in numerical inductive reasoning which requires more exchanges between intermediate representations and long-term declarative knowledge during rule identification. These results survived even after controlling for the covariates of response time and error rate. A computational cognitive model was developed using the cognitive architecture ACT-R to account for the behavioral results and brain activity in the fronto-parietal network. PMID:27193284

  10. Cognitive Architecture and Descent with Modification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marcus, Gary F.

    2006-01-01

    Against a background of recent progress in developmental neuroscience, some of which has been taken as challenging to the modularity hypothesis of Fodor (1983), this article contrasts two competing conceptions of modularity: sui generis modularity, according to which modules are treated as independent neurocognitive entities that owe nothing to…

  11. Predicting Long-Term College Success through Degree Completion Using ACT[R] Composite Score, ACT Benchmarks, and High School Grade Point Average. ACT Research Report Series, 2012 (5)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Radunzel, Justine; Noble, Julie

    2012-01-01

    This study compared the effectiveness of ACT[R] Composite score and high school grade point average (HSGPA) for predicting long-term college success. Outcomes included annual progress towards a degree (based on cumulative credit-bearing hours earned), degree completion, and cumulative grade point average (GPA) at 150% of normal time to degree…

  12. Lab architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crease, Robert P.

    2008-04-01

    There are few more dramatic illustrations of the vicissitudes of laboratory architecturethan the contrast between Building 20 at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) and its replacement, the Ray and Maria Stata Center. Building 20 was built hurriedly in 1943 as temporary housing for MIT's famous Rad Lab, the site of wartime radar research, and it remained a productive laboratory space for over half a century. A decade ago it was demolished to make way for the Stata Center, an architecturally striking building designed by Frank Gehry to house MIT's computer science and artificial intelligence labs (above). But in 2004 - just two years after the Stata Center officially opened - the building was criticized for being unsuitable for research and became the subject of still ongoing lawsuits alleging design and construction failures.

  13. Cognitive Load Theory: Implications of Cognitive Load Theory on the Design of Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirschner, Paul A.

    2002-01-01

    Introduces six articles on the instructional implications of cognitive load theory (CLT). CLT is based on a cognitive architecture that consists of a limited working memory, with partly independent processing units for visual and audio information, which interacts with an unlimited long-term memory. (SLD)

  14. Advanced control architecture for autonomous vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maurer, Markus; Dickmanns, Ernst D.

    1997-06-01

    An advanced control architecture for autonomous vehicles is presented. The hierarchical architecture consists of four levels: a vehicle level, a control level, a rule-based level and a knowledge-based level. A special focus is on forms of internal representation, which have to be chosen adequately for each level. The control scheme is applied to VaMP, a Mercedes passenger car which autonomously performs missions on German freeways. VaMP perceives the environment with its sense of vision and conventional sensors. It controls its actuators for locomotion and attention focusing. Modules for perception, cognition and action are discussed.

  15. Cognitive distance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shu, Hong; Edwards, Geoffrey; Qi, Cuihong

    2001-09-01

    In geographic space, it is well known that spatial behaviors of humans are directly driven by their spatial cognition, rather than by the physical or geometrical reality. The cognitive distance in spatial cognition is fundamental in intelligent pattern recognition. More precisely, the cognitive distance can be used to measure the similarities (or relevance) of cognized geographic objects. In the past work, the physical or Euclidean distances are used very often. In practice, many inconsistencies are found between the cognitive distance and the physical distance. Usually the physical distance is overestimated or underestimated in the process of human spatial behaviors and pattern recognition. These inconsistencies are termed distance distortions. The aim of this paper is to illustrate the conceptions of cognitive distance and distance distortion. And if the cognitive distance is argued to be two-dimensional, it exists in heterogeneous space and the property of quasi-metric is shown. If the cognitive distance is multi-dimensional, it exists in homogeneous space and the property of metric is shown. We argue that distance distortions arise from the transformation of homogeneous to heterogeneous space and from the transformation of the two-dimensional cognitive distance to the multi-dimensional cognitive distance. In some sense, the physical distance is an instance of cognitive distance.

  16. Associative learning and animal cognition

    PubMed Central

    Dickinson, Anthony

    2012-01-01

    Associative learning plays a variety of roles in the study of animal cognition from a core theoretical component to a null hypothesis against which the contribution of cognitive processes is assessed. Two developments in contemporary associative learning have enhanced its relevance to animal cognition. The first concerns the role of associatively activated representations, whereas the second is the development of hybrid theories in which learning is determined by prediction errors, both directly and indirectly through associability processes. However, it remains unclear whether these developments allow associative theory to capture the psychological rationality of cognition. I argue that embodying associative processes within specific processing architectures provides mechanisms that can mediate psychological rationality and illustrate such embodiment by discussing the relationship between practical reasoning and the associative-cybernetic model of goal-directed action. PMID:22927572

  17. Post and Lintel Architecture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daniel, Robert A.

    1973-01-01

    Author finds that children understand architectural concepts more readily when he refers to familiar non-architectural examples of them such as goal posts, chairs, tables, and playground equipment. (GB)

  18. New computer architectures

    SciTech Connect

    Tiberghien, J.

    1984-01-01

    This book presents papers on supercomputers. Topics considered include decentralized computer architecture, new programming languages, data flow computers, reduction computers, parallel prefix calculations, structural and behavioral descriptions of digital systems, instruction sets, software generation, personal computing, and computer architecture education.

  19. High performance parallel architectures

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, R.E. )

    1989-09-01

    In this paper the author describes current high performance parallel computer architectures. A taxonomy is presented to show computer architecture from the user programmer's point-of-view. The effects of the taxonomy upon the programming model are described. Some current architectures are described with respect to the taxonomy. Finally, some predictions about future systems are presented. 5 refs., 1 fig.

  20. UMTS network architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katoen, J. P.; Saiedi, A.; Baccaro, I.

    1994-05-01

    This paper proposes a Functional Architecture and a corresponding Network Architecture for the Universal Mobile Telecommunication System (UMTS). Procedures like call handling, location management, and handover are considered. The architecture covers the domestic, business, and public environments. Integration with existing and forthcoming networks for fixed communications is anticipated and the Intelligent Network (IN) philosophy is applied.

  1. Visual cognition

    SciTech Connect

    Pinker, S.

    1985-01-01

    This book consists of essays covering issues in visual cognition presenting experimental techniques from cognitive psychology, methods of modeling cognitive processes on computers from artificial intelligence, and methods of studying brain organization from neuropsychology. Topics considered include: parts of recognition; visual routines; upward direction; mental rotation, and discrimination of left and right turns in maps; individual differences in mental imagery, computational analysis and the neurological basis of mental imagery: componental analysis.

  2. Integrating deliberative planning in a robot architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elsaesser, Chris; Slack, Marc G.

    1994-01-01

    The role of planning and reactive control in an architecture for autonomous agents is discussed. The postulated architecture seperates the general robot intelligence problem into three interacting pieces: (1) robot reactive skills, i.e., grasping, object tracking, etc.; (2) a sequencing capability to differentially ativate the reactive skills; and (3) a delibrative planning capability to reason in depth about goals, preconditions, resources, and timing constraints. Within the sequencing module, caching techniques are used for handling routine activities. The planning system then builds on these cached solutions to routine tasks to build larger grain sized primitives. This eliminates large numbers of essentially linear planning problems. The architecture will be used in the future to incorporate in robots cognitive capabilites normally associated with intelligent behavior.

  3. Model-Drive Architecture for Agent-Based Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gradanin, Denis; Singh, H. Lally; Bohner, Shawn A.; Hinchey, Michael G.

    2004-01-01

    The Model Driven Architecture (MDA) approach uses a platform-independent model to define system functionality, or requirements, using some specification language. The requirements are then translated to a platform-specific model for implementation. An agent architecture based on the human cognitive model of planning, the Cognitive Agent Architecture (Cougaar) is selected for the implementation platform. The resulting Cougaar MDA prescribes certain kinds of models to be used, how those models may be prepared and the relationships of the different kinds of models. Using the existing Cougaar architecture, the level of application composition is elevated from individual components to domain level model specifications in order to generate software artifacts. The software artifacts generation is based on a metamodel. Each component maps to a UML structured component which is then converted into multiple artifacts: Cougaar/Java code, documentation, and test cases.

  4. Envisioning Cognitive Robots for Future Space Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huntsberger, Terry; Stoica, Adrian

    2010-01-01

    Cognitive robots in the context of space exploration are envisioned with advanced capabilities of model building, continuous planning/re-planning, self-diagnosis, as well as the ability to exhibit a level of 'understanding' of new situations. An overview of some JPL components (e.g. CASPER, CAMPOUT) and a description of the architecture CARACaS (Control Architecture for Robotic Agent Command and Sensing) that combines these in the context of a cognitive robotic system operating in a various scenarios are presented. Finally, two examples of typical scenarios of a multi-robot construction mission and a human-robot mission, involving direct collaboration with humans is given.

  5. Synthetic cognitive development - Where intelligence comes from

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weinbaum (Weaver), D.; Veitas, V.

    2016-06-01

    The human cognitive system is a remarkable exemplar of a general intelligent system whose competence is not confined to a specific problem domain. Evidently, general cognitive competences are a product of a prolonged and complex process of cognitive development. Therefore, the process of cognitive development is a primary key to understanding the emergence of intelligent behavior. This paper develops the theoretical foundations for a model that generalizes the process of cognitive development. The model aims to provide a realistic scheme for the synthesis of scalable cognitive systems with an open-ended range of capabilities. Major concepts and theories of human cognitive development are introduced and briefly explored, focusing on the enactive approach to cognition and the concept of sense-making. The initial scheme of human cognitive development is then generalized by introducing the philosophy of individuation and the abstract mechanism of transduction. The theory of individuation provides the ground for the necessary paradigmatic shift from cognitive systems as given products to cognitive development as a formative process of self-organization. Next, the conceptual model is specified as a scalable scheme of networks of agents. The mechanisms of individuation are formulated in context-independent information theoretical terms. Finally, the paper discusses two concrete aspects of the generative model - mechanisms of transduction and value modulating systems. These are topics of further research towards an implementable architecture.

  6. An Evolutionary Upgrade of Cognitive Load Theory: Using the Human Motor System and Collaboration to Support the Learning of Complex Cognitive Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paas, Fred; Sweller, John

    2012-01-01

    Cognitive load theory is intended to provide instructional strategies derived from experimental, cognitive load effects. Each effect is based on our knowledge of human cognitive architecture, primarily the limited capacity and duration of a human working memory. These limitations are ameliorated by changes in long-term memory associated with…

  7. Cognitive Performance and Cognitive Style.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Journal of Behavioral Development, 1985

    1985-01-01

    Investigates (1) the relationships between cognitive performance and cognitive styles and predictive possibilities and (2) performance differences by sex, school, grade, and income in 92 Indian adolescents. Assessment measures included Liquid Conservation, Islands, Goat-Lion, Hanoi-Tower, Rabbits (Piagetian); Block Design (WISC-R); Paper Cutting…

  8. Toward cognitive robotics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laird, John E.

    2009-05-01

    Our long-term goal is to develop autonomous robotic systems that have the cognitive abilities of humans, including communication, coordination, adapting to novel situations, and learning through experience. Our approach rests on the recent integration of the Soar cognitive architecture with both virtual and physical robotic systems. Soar has been used to develop a wide variety of knowledge-rich agents for complex virtual environments, including distributed training environments and interactive computer games. For development and testing in robotic virtual environments, Soar interfaces to a variety of robotic simulators and a simple mobile robot. We have recently made significant extensions to Soar that add new memories and new non-symbolic reasoning to Soar's original symbolic processing, which should significantly improve Soar abilities for control of robots. These extensions include episodic memory, semantic memory, reinforcement learning, and mental imagery. Episodic memory and semantic memory support the learning and recalling of prior events and situations as well as facts about the world. Reinforcement learning provides the ability of the system to tune its procedural knowledge - knowledge about how to do things. Mental imagery supports the use of diagrammatic and visual representations that are critical to support spatial reasoning. We speculate on the future of unmanned systems and the need for cognitive robotics to support dynamic instruction and taskability.

  9. Harmony in linguistic cognition.

    PubMed

    Smolensky, Paul

    2006-09-10

    In this article, I survey the integrated connectionist/symbolic (ICS) cognitive architecture in which higher cognition must be formally characterized on two levels of description. At the microlevel, parallel distributed processing (PDP) characterizes mental processing; this PDP system has special organization in virtue of which it can be characterized at the macrolevel as a kind of symbolic computational system. The symbolic system inherits certain properties from its PDP substrate; the symbolic functions computed constitute optimization of a well-formedness measure called Harmony. The most important outgrowth of the ICS research program is optimality theory (Prince & Smolensky, 1993/2004), an optimization-based grammatical theory that provides a formal theory of cross-linguistic typology. Linguistically, Harmony maximization corresponds to minimization of markedness or structural ill-formedness. Cognitive explanation in ICS requires the collaboration of symbolic and connectionist principles. ICS is developed in detail in Smolensky and Legendre (2006a); this article is a précis of and guide to those volumes. PMID:21702837

  10. Cyberspace Classification and Cognition: Information and Communications Cyberspaces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kellerman, Aharon

    2007-01-01

    The notions cognitive space and cognitive/mental maps were proposed in the late 1940s, and have been extensively studied since the 1970s within behavioral geography, as well as within tangent disciplines, notably environmental psychology and architecture. Viewing these notions from the perspective of the 2000s, one can state that the hidden…

  11. Grid Architecture 2

    SciTech Connect

    Taft, Jeffrey D.

    2016-01-01

    The report describes work done on Grid Architecture under the auspices of the Department of Electricity Office of Electricity Delivery and Reliability in 2015. As described in the first Grid Architecture report, the primary purpose of this work is to provide stakeholder insight about grid issues so as to enable superior decision making on their part. Doing this requires the creation of various work products, including oft-times complex diagrams, analyses, and explanations. This report provides architectural insights into several important grid topics and also describes work done to advance the science of Grid Architecture as well.

  12. Social cognition.

    PubMed

    Patin, Alexandra; Hurlemann, René

    2015-01-01

    Social cognition is a major problem underlying deficiencies in interpersonal relationships in several psychiatric populations. And yet there is currently no gold standard for pharmacological treatment of psychiatric illness that directly targets these social cognitive areas. This chapter serves to illustrate some of the most innovative attempts at pharmacological modulation of social cognition in psychiatric illnesses including schizophrenia, borderline personality disorder, autism spectrum disorders, antisocial personality disorder and psychopathy, social anxiety disorder, and posttraumatic stress disorder. Pharmacological modulation includes studies administering oxytocin, ecstasy (MDMA), modafinil, methylphenidate, and D-cycloserine. Furthermore, some background on social cognition research in healthy individuals, which could be helpful in developing future treatments, is provided as well as the potential for each drug as a long-term treatment option. PMID:25977087

  13. Spatial cognition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaiser, Mary Kister; Remington, Roger

    1988-01-01

    Spatial cognition is the ability to reason about geometric relationships in the real (or a metaphorical) world based on one or more internal representations of those relationships. The study of spatial cognition is concerned with the representation of spatial knowledge, and our ability to manipulate these representations to solve spatial problems. Spatial cognition is utilized most critically when direct perceptual cues are absent or impoverished. Examples are provided of how human spatial cognitive abilities impact on three areas of space station operator performance: orientation, path planning, and data base management. A videotape provides demonstrations of relevant phenomena (e.g., the importance of orientation for recognition of complex, configural forms). The presentation is represented by abstract and overhead visuals only.

  14. Cognitive modeling to predict video interpretability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, Darrell L.; Bakir, Tariq

    2011-06-01

    Processing framework for cognitive modeling to predict video interpretability is discussed. Architecture consists of spatiotemporal video preprocessing, metric computation, metric normalization, pooling of like metric groups with masking adjustments, multinomial logistic pooling of Minkowski pooled groups of similar quality metrics, and estimation of confidence interval of final result.

  15. The Technology of Architecture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reese, Susan

    2006-01-01

    This article discusses how career and technical education is helping students draw up plans for success in architectural technology. According to the College of DuPage (COD) in Glen Ellyn, Illinois, one of the two-year schools offering training in architectural technology, graduates have a number of opportunities available to them. They may work…

  16. Workflow automation architecture standard

    SciTech Connect

    Moshofsky, R.P.; Rohen, W.T.

    1994-11-14

    This document presents an architectural standard for application of workflow automation technology. The standard includes a functional architecture, process for developing an automated workflow system for a work group, functional and collateral specifications for workflow automation, and results of a proof of concept prototype.

  17. Robotic Intelligence Kernel: Architecture

    2009-09-16

    The INL Robotic Intelligence Kernel Architecture (RIK-A) is a multi-level architecture that supports a dynamic autonomy structure. The RIK-A is used to coalesce hardware for sensing and action as well as software components for perception, communication, behavior and world modeling into a framework that can be used to create behaviors for humans to interact with the robot.

  18. Clinical document architecture.

    PubMed

    Heitmann, Kai

    2003-01-01

    The Clinical Document Architecture (CDA), a standard developed by the Health Level Seven organisation (HL7), is an ANSI approved document architecture for exchange of clinical information using XML. A CDA document is comprised of a header with associated vocabularies and a body containing the structural clinical information. PMID:15061557

  19. Generic POCC architectures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    This document describes a generic POCC (Payload Operations Control Center) architecture based upon current POCC software practice, and several refinements to the architecture based upon object-oriented design principles and expected developments in teleoperations. The current-technology generic architecture is an abstraction based upon close analysis of the ERBS, COBE, and GRO POCC's. A series of three refinements is presented: these may be viewed as an approach to a phased transition to the recommended architecture. The third refinement constitutes the recommended architecture, which, together with associated rationales, will form the basis of the rapid synthesis environment to be developed in the remainder of this task. The document is organized into two parts. The first part describes the current generic architecture using several graphical as well as tabular representations or 'views.' The second part presents an analysis of the generic architecture in terms of object-oriented principles. On the basis of this discussion, refinements to the generic architecture are presented, again using a combination of graphical and tabular representations.

  20. Emerging supercomputer architectures

    SciTech Connect

    Messina, P.C.

    1987-01-01

    This paper will examine the current and near future trends for commercially available high-performance computers with architectures that differ from the mainstream ''supercomputer'' systems in use for the last few years. These emerging supercomputer architectures are just beginning to have an impact on the field of high performance computing. 7 refs., 1 tab.

  1. Architectural Physics: Lighting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hopkinson, R. G.

    The author coordinates the many diverse branches of knowledge which have dealt with the field of lighting--physiology, psychology, engineering, physics, and architectural design. Part I, "The Elements of Architectural Physics", discusses the physiological aspects of lighting, visual performance, lighting design, calculations and measurements of…

  2. FTS2000 network architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klenart, John

    1991-01-01

    The network architecture of FTS2000 is graphically depicted. A map of network A topology is provided, with interservice nodes. Next, the four basic element of the architecture is laid out. Then, the FTS2000 time line is reproduced. A list of equipment supporting FTS2000 dedicated transmissions is given. Finally, access alternatives are shown.

  3. Software Architecture Evolution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnes, Jeffrey M.

    2013-01-01

    Many software systems eventually undergo changes to their basic architectural structure. Such changes may be prompted by new feature requests, new quality attribute requirements, changing technology, or other reasons. Whatever the causes, architecture evolution is commonplace in real-world software projects. Today's software architects, however,…

  4. Cognitive Load Theory and the Role of Learner Experience: An Abbreviated Review for Educational Practitioners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Artino, Anthony R., Jr.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to provide educational practitioners with a brief overview of cognitive load theory (CLT) and its major implications for learning. To achieve this objective, the article includes a short description of human cognitive architecture as conceived by cognitive load theorists. Following this overview, the article provides…

  5. Rational Adaptation under Task and Processing Constraints: Implications for Testing Theories of Cognition and Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howes, Andrew; Lewis, Richard L.; Vera, Alonso

    2009-01-01

    The authors assume that individuals adapt rationally to a utility function given constraints imposed by their cognitive architecture and the local task environment. This assumption underlies a new approach to modeling and understanding cognition--cognitively bounded rational analysis--that sharpens the predictive acuity of general, integrated…

  6. Writing as a Tool in Teaching Sketching: Implications for Architectural Design Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soygenis, Sema; Soygenis, Murat; Erktin, Emine

    2010-01-01

    This article discusses the process of a study designed to develop university students' sketching skills in schools of architecture. Acknowledging the relationship between cognition and writing, it aims to investigate the role of writing in learning sketching among architecture students and to examine how students regulate their thoughts by writing…

  7. Architectural design for resilience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Dong; Deters, Ralph; Zhang, W. J.

    2010-05-01

    Resilience has become a new nonfunctional requirement for information systems. Many design decisions have to be made at the architectural level in order to deliver an information system with the resilience property. This paper discusses the relationships between resilience and other architectural properties such as scalability, reliability, and consistency. A corollary is derived from the CAP theorem, and states that it is impossible for a system to have all three properties of consistency, resilience and partition-tolerance. We present seven architectural constraints for resilience. The constraints are elicited from good architectural practices for developing reliable and fault-tolerant systems and the state-of-the-art technologies in distributed computing. These constraints provide a comprehensive reference for architectural design towards resilience.

  8. The Simulation Intranet Architecture

    SciTech Connect

    Holmes, V.P.; Linebarger, J.M.; Miller, D.J.; Vandewart, R.L.

    1998-12-02

    The Simdarion Infranet (S1) is a term which is being used to dcscribc one element of a multidisciplinary distributed and distance computing initiative known as DisCom2 at Sandia National Laboratory (http ct al. 1998). The Simulation Intranet is an architecture for satisfying Sandia's long term goal of providing an end- to-end set of scrviccs for high fidelity full physics simu- lations in a high performance, distributed, and distance computing environment. The Intranet Architecture group was formed to apply current distributed object technologies to this problcm. For the hardware architec- tures and software models involved with the current simulation process, a CORBA-based architecture is best suited to meet Sandia's needs. This paper presents the initial desi-a and implementation of this Intranct based on a three-tier Network Computing Architecture(NCA). The major parts of the architecture include: the Web Cli- ent, the Business Objects, and Data Persistence.

  9. Predictors of Future Performance in Architectural Design Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, A. S.

    2007-01-01

    The link between academic performance in secondary education and the subsequent performance of students studying architecture at university level is commonly questioned by educators and admissions tutors. This paper investigates the potential for using measures of cognitive style and spatial ability as predictors of future potential in…

  10. A Core Knowledge Architecture of Visual Working Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, Justin N.

    2011-01-01

    Visual working memory (VWM) is widely thought to contain specialized buffers for retaining spatial and object information: a "spatial-object architecture." However, studies of adults, infants, and nonhuman animals show that visual cognition builds on core knowledge systems that retain more specialized representations: (1) spatiotemporal…

  11. Modularity, comparative cognition and human uniqueness.

    PubMed

    Shettleworth, Sara J

    2012-10-01

    Darwin's claim 'that the difference in mind between man and the higher animals … is certainly one of degree and not of kind' is at the core of the comparative study of cognition. Recent research provides unprecedented support for Darwin's claim as well as new reasons to question it, stimulating new theories of human cognitive uniqueness. This article compares and evaluates approaches to such theories. Some prominent theories propose sweeping domain-general characterizations of the difference in cognitive capabilities and/or mechanisms between adult humans and other animals. Dual-process theories for some cognitive domains propose that adult human cognition shares simple basic processes with that of other animals while additionally including slower-developing and more explicit uniquely human processes. These theories are consistent with a modular account of cognition and the 'core knowledge' account of children's cognitive development. A complementary proposal is that human infants have unique social and/or cognitive adaptations for uniquely human learning. A view of human cognitive architecture as a mosaic of unique and species-general modular and domain-general processes together with a focus on uniquely human developmental mechanisms is consistent with modern evolutionary-developmental biology and suggests new questions for comparative research. PMID:22927578

  12. Modularity, comparative cognition and human uniqueness

    PubMed Central

    Shettleworth, Sara J.

    2012-01-01

    Darwin's claim ‘that the difference in mind between man and the higher animals … is certainly one of degree and not of kind’ is at the core of the comparative study of cognition. Recent research provides unprecedented support for Darwin's claim as well as new reasons to question it, stimulating new theories of human cognitive uniqueness. This article compares and evaluates approaches to such theories. Some prominent theories propose sweeping domain-general characterizations of the difference in cognitive capabilities and/or mechanisms between adult humans and other animals. Dual-process theories for some cognitive domains propose that adult human cognition shares simple basic processes with that of other animals while additionally including slower-developing and more explicit uniquely human processes. These theories are consistent with a modular account of cognition and the ‘core knowledge’ account of children's cognitive development. A complementary proposal is that human infants have unique social and/or cognitive adaptations for uniquely human learning. A view of human cognitive architecture as a mosaic of unique and species-general modular and domain-general processes together with a focus on uniquely human developmental mechanisms is consistent with modern evolutionary-developmental biology and suggests new questions for comparative research. PMID:22927578

  13. Cognitive and artificial representations in handwriting recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lenaghan, Andrew P.; Malyan, Ron

    1996-03-01

    Both cognitive processes and artificial recognition systems may be characterized by the forms of representation they build and manipulate. This paper looks at how handwriting is represented in current recognition systems and the psychological evidence for its representation in the cognitive processes responsible for reading. Empirical psychological work on feature extraction in early visual processing is surveyed to show that a sound psychological basis for feature extraction exists and to describe the features this approach leads to. The first stage of the development of an architecture for a handwriting recognition system which has been strongly influenced by the psychological evidence for the cognitive processes and representations used in early visual processing, is reported. This architecture builds a number of parallel low level feature maps from raw data. These feature maps are thresholded and a region labeling algorithm is used to generate sets of features. Fuzzy logic is used to quantify the uncertainty in the presence of individual features.

  14. Embodied cognition.

    PubMed

    Foglia, Lucia; Wilson, Robert A

    2013-05-01

    Traditional views in philosophy of mind and cognitive science depict the mind as an information processor, one whose connections with the body and the world are of little theoretical importance. On the contrary, mounting empirical evidence shows that bodily states and modality-specific systems for perception and action underlie information processing, and that embodiment contributes to various aspects and effects of mental phenomena. This article will briefly review and discuss some of this evidence and what it implies. By challenging mainstream accounts of mind and cognition, embodiment views offer new ways of conceptualizing knowledge and suggest novel perspectives on cognitive variation and mind-body reductionism. WIREs Cogn Sci 2013, 4:319-325. doi: 10.1002/wcs.1226 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. PMID:26304209

  15. Fractal Geometry of Architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorenz, Wolfgang E.

    In Fractals smaller parts and the whole are linked together. Fractals are self-similar, as those parts are, at least approximately, scaled-down copies of the rough whole. In architecture, such a concept has also been known for a long time. Not only architects of the twentieth century called for an overall idea that is mirrored in every single detail, but also Gothic cathedrals and Indian temples offer self-similarity. This study mainly focuses upon the question whether this concept of self-similarity makes architecture with fractal properties more diverse and interesting than Euclidean Modern architecture. The first part gives an introduction and explains Fractal properties in various natural and architectural objects, presenting the underlying structure by computer programmed renderings. In this connection, differences between the fractal, architectural concept and true, mathematical Fractals are worked out to become aware of limits. This is the basis for dealing with the problem whether fractal-like architecture, particularly facades, can be measured so that different designs can be compared with each other under the aspect of fractal properties. Finally the usability of the Box-Counting Method, an easy-to-use measurement method of Fractal Dimension is analyzed with regard to architecture.

  16. Cognitive fitness.

    PubMed

    Gilkey, Roderick; Kilts, Clint

    2007-11-01

    Recent neuroscientific research shows that the health of your brain isn't, as experts once thought, just the product of childhood experiences and genetics; it reflects your adult choices and experiences as well. Professors Gilkey and Kilts of Emory University's medical and business schools explain how you can strengthen your brain's anatomy, neural networks, and cognitive abilities, and prevent functions such as memory from deteriorating as you age. The brain's alertness is the result of what the authors call cognitive fitness -a state of optimized ability to reason, remember, learn, plan, and adapt. Certain attitudes, lifestyle choices, and exercises enhance cognitive fitness. Mental workouts are the key. Brain-imaging studies indicate that acquiring expertise in areas as diverse as playing a cello, juggling, speaking a foreign language, and driving a taxicab expands your neural systems and makes them more communicative. In other words, you can alter the physical makeup of your brain by learning new skills. The more cognitively fit you are, the better equipped you are to make decisions, solve problems, and deal with stress and change. Cognitive fitness will help you be more open to new ideas and alternative perspectives. It will give you the capacity to change your behavior and realize your goals. You can delay senescence for years and even enjoy a second career. Drawing from the rapidly expanding body of neuroscience research as well as from well-established research in psychology and other mental health fields, the authors have identified four steps you can take to become cognitively fit: understand how experience makes the brain grow, work hard at play, search for patterns, and seek novelty and innovation. Together these steps capture some of the key opportunities for maintaining an engaged, creative brain. PMID:18159786

  17. Cognitive epidemiology

    PubMed Central

    Deary, Ian J; Batty, G David

    2007-01-01

    This glossary provides a guide to some concepts, findings and issues of discussion in the new field of research in which intelligence test scores are associated with mortality and morbidity. Intelligence tests are devised and studied by differential psychologists. Some of the major concepts in differential psychology are explained, especially those regarding cognitive ability testing. Some aspects of IQ (intelligence) tests are described and some of the major tests are outlined. A short guide is given to the main statistical techniques used by differential psychologists in the study of human mental abilities. There is a discussion of common epidemiological concepts in the context of cognitive epidemiology. PMID:17435201

  18. Architecture for Verifiable Software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reinholtz, William; Dvorak, Daniel

    2005-01-01

    Verifiable MDS Architecture (VMA) is a software architecture that facilitates the construction of highly verifiable flight software for NASA s Mission Data System (MDS), especially for smaller missions subject to cost constraints. More specifically, the purpose served by VMA is to facilitate aggressive verification and validation of flight software while imposing a minimum of constraints on overall functionality. VMA exploits the state-based architecture of the MDS and partitions verification issues into elements susceptible to independent verification and validation, in such a manner that scaling issues are minimized, so that relatively large software systems can be aggressively verified in a cost-effective manner.

  19. Tagged token dataflow architecture

    SciTech Connect

    Arvind; Culler, D.E.

    1983-10-01

    The demand for large-scale multiprocessor systems has been substantial for many years. The technology for fabrication of such systems is available, but attempts to extend traditional architectures to this context have met with only mild success. The authors hold that fundamental aspects of the Von Neumann architecture prohibit its extension to multiprocessor systems; they pose dataflow architectures as an alternative. These two approaches are contrasted on issues of synchronization, memory latency, and the ability to share data without constraining parallelism. 12 references.

  20. Microcomponent sheet architecture

    DOEpatents

    Wegeng, R.S.; Drost, M.K..; McDonald, C.E.

    1997-03-18

    The invention is a microcomponent sheet architecture wherein macroscale unit processes are performed by microscale components. The sheet architecture may be a single laminate with a plurality of separate microcomponent sections or the sheet architecture may be a plurality of laminates with one or more microcomponent sections on each laminate. Each microcomponent or plurality of like microcomponents perform at least one unit operation. A first laminate having a plurality of like first microcomponents is combined with at least a second laminate having a plurality of like second microcomponents thereby combining at least two unit operations to achieve a system operation. 14 figs.

  1. Microcomponent sheet architecture

    DOEpatents

    Wegeng, Robert S.; Drost, M. Kevin; McDonald, Carolyn E.

    1997-01-01

    The invention is a microcomponent sheet architecture wherein macroscale unit processes are performed by microscale components. The sheet architecture may be a single laminate with a plurality of separate microcomponent sections or the sheet architecture may be a plurality of laminates with one or more microcomponent sections on each laminate. Each microcomponent or plurality of like microcomponents perform at least one unit operation. A first laminate having a plurality of like first microcomponents is combined with at least a second laminate having a plurality of like second microcomponents thereby combining at least two unit operations to achieve a system operation.

  2. Testbed System of Inter-Radio System Switching for Cognitive Radio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanaoka, Seishi; Yano, Masashi; Hirata, Tetsuhiko

    The cognitive radio system consists of multiple wireless access systems that cover overlapping areas and cognitive terminals that use one or more of the wireless accesses simultaneously. In this paper, we describe the architecture of the cognitive radio system and the inter-system handover protocols. In the architecture, each cognitive terminal, which can access multiple radio systems, operates with a single local IP address. The control sequence and packet format are designed to achieve fast handover among the radio systems. Based on the architecture, we have developed a testbed system. On this system, we demonstrate that data can be delivered continuously and radio systems can be switched correctly without any packet loss. In addition, we present the result of the evaluation of the end-to-end latency on the testbed system. These testbed results demonstrate the system architecture described in the paper can achieve a cognitive radio system.

  3. Cognitive Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soni, P. Sarita, Ed.; Carmichael, Ann G., Ed.

    1993-01-01

    This theme issue features five articles profiling Indiana University faculty whose work on various campuses continues to broaden and advance knowledge about cognitive science. The articles in the journal are: "A Matter of Time" (Karen Grooms) which discusses the work of Robert F. Port; "Perceiving as a Complex System" (Tom Tierney) which profiles…

  4. Cognitive Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cocking, Rodney R.; Mestre, Jose P.

    The focus of this paper is on cognitive science as a model for understanding the application of human skills toward effective problem-solving. Sections include: (1) "Introduction" (discussing information processing framework, expert-novice distinctions, schema theory, and learning process); (2) "Application: The Expert-Novice Paradigm as a Means…

  5. Flexible weapons architecture design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pyant, William C., III

    Present day air-delivered weapons are of a closed architecture, with little to no ability to tailor the weapon for the individual engagement. The closed architectures require weaponeers to make the target fit the weapon instead of fitting the individual weapons to a target. The concept of a flexible weapons aims to modularize weapons design using an open architecture shell into which different modules are inserted to achieve the desired target fractional damage while reducing cost and civilian casualties. This thesis shows that the architecture design factors of damage mechanism, fusing, weapons weight, guidance, and propulsion are significant in enhancing weapon performance objectives, and would benefit from modularization. Additionally, this thesis constructs an algorithm that can be used to design a weapon set for a particular target class based on these modular components.

  6. Modular avionic architectures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trujillo, Edward

    The author presents an analysis revealing some of the salient features of modular avionics. A decomposition of the modular avionics concept is performed, highlighting some of the key features of such architectures. Several layers of architecture can be found in such concepts, including those relating to software structure, communication, and supportability. Particular emphasis is placed on the layer relating to partitioning, which gives rise to those features of integration, modularity, and commonality. Where integration is the sharing of common tasks or items to gain efficiency and flexibility, modularity is the partitioning of a system into reconfigurable and maintainable items, and commonality is partitioning to maximize the use of identical items across the range of applications. Two architectures, MASA (Modular Avionics System Architecture) and Pave Pillar, are considered in particular.

  7. Robot Electronics Architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garrett, Michael; Magnone, Lee; Aghazarian, Hrand; Baumgartner, Eric; Kennedy, Brett

    2008-01-01

    An electronics architecture has been developed to enable the rapid construction and testing of prototypes of robotic systems. This architecture is designed to be a research vehicle of great stability, reliability, and versatility. A system according to this architecture can easily be reconfigured (including expanded or contracted) to satisfy a variety of needs with respect to input, output, processing of data, sensing, actuation, and power. The architecture affords a variety of expandable input/output options that enable ready integration of instruments, actuators, sensors, and other devices as independent modular units. The separation of different electrical functions onto independent circuit boards facilitates the development of corresponding simple and modular software interfaces. As a result, both hardware and software can be made to expand or contract in modular fashion while expending a minimum of time and effort.

  8. When Neuroscience 'Touches' Architecture: From Hapticity to a Supramodal Functioning of the Human Brain.

    PubMed

    Papale, Paolo; Chiesi, Leonardo; Rampinini, Alessandra C; Pietrini, Pietro; Ricciardi, Emiliano

    2016-01-01

    In the last decades, the rapid growth of functional brain imaging methodologies allowed cognitive neuroscience to address open questions in philosophy and social sciences. At the same time, novel insights from cognitive neuroscience research have begun to influence various disciplines, leading to a turn to cognition and emotion in the fields of planning and architectural design. Since 2003, the Academy of Neuroscience for Architecture has been supporting 'neuro-architecture' as a way to connect neuroscience and the study of behavioral responses to the built environment. Among the many topics related to multisensory perceptual integration and embodiment, the concept of hapticity was recently introduced, suggesting a pivotal role of tactile perception and haptic imagery in architectural appraisal. Arguments have thus risen in favor of the existence of shared cognitive foundations between hapticity and the supramodal functional architecture of the human brain. Precisely, supramodality refers to the functional feature of defined brain regions to process and represent specific information content in a more abstract way, independently of the sensory modality conveying such information to the brain. Here, we highlight some commonalities and differences between the concepts of hapticity and supramodality according to the distinctive perspectives of architecture and cognitive neuroscience. This comparison and connection between these two different approaches may lead to novel observations in regard to people-environment relationships, and even provide empirical foundations for a renewed evidence-based design theory. PMID:27375542

  9. CORDIC processor architectures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boehme, Johann F.; Timmermann, D.; Hahn, H.; Hosticka, Bedrich J.

    1991-12-01

    As CORDIC algorithms receive more and more attention in elementary function evaluation and signal processing applications, the problem of their VLSI realization has attracted considerable interest. In this work we review the CORDIC fundamentals covering algorithm, architecture, and implementation issues. Various aspects of the CORDIC algorithm are investigated such as efficient scale factor compensation, redundant and non-redundant addition schemes, and convergence domain. Several CORDIC processor architectures and implementation examples are discussed.

  10. Generic Distributed Simulation Architecture

    SciTech Connect

    Booker, C.P.

    1999-05-14

    A Generic Distributed Simulation Architecture is described that allows a simulation to be automatically distributed over a heterogeneous network of computers and executed with very little human direction. A prototype Framework is presented that implements the elements of the Architecture and demonstrates the feasibility of the concepts. It provides a basis for a future, improved Framework that will support legacy models. Because the Framework is implemented in Java, it may be installed on almost any modern computer system.

  11. Physical Models of Cognition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zak, Michail

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents and discusses physical models for simulating some aspects of neural intelligence, and, in particular, the process of cognition. The main departure from the classical approach here is in utilization of a terminal version of classical dynamics introduced by the author earlier. Based upon violations of the Lipschitz condition at equilibrium points, terminal dynamics attains two new fundamental properties: it is spontaneous and nondeterministic. Special attention is focused on terminal neurodynamics as a particular architecture of terminal dynamics which is suitable for modeling of information flows. Terminal neurodynamics possesses a well-organized probabilistic structure which can be analytically predicted, prescribed, and controlled, and therefore which presents a powerful tool for modeling real-life uncertainties. Two basic phenomena associated with random behavior of neurodynamic solutions are exploited. The first one is a stochastic attractor ; a stable stationary stochastic process to which random solutions of a closed system converge. As a model of the cognition process, a stochastic attractor can be viewed as a universal tool for generalization and formation of classes of patterns. The concept of stochastic attractor is applied to model a collective brain paradigm explaining coordination between simple units of intelligence which perform a collective task without direct exchange of information. The second fundamental phenomenon discussed is terminal chaos which occurs in open systems. Applications of terminal chaos to information fusion as well as to explanation and modeling of coordination among neurons in biological systems are discussed. It should be emphasized that all the models of terminal neurodynamics are implementable in analog devices, which means that all the cognition processes discussed in the paper are reducible to the laws of Newtonian mechanics.

  12. Physical models of cognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zak, Michail

    1994-05-01

    This paper presents and discusses physical models for simulating some aspects of neural intelligence, and, in particular, the process of cognition. The main departure from the classical approach here is in utilization of a terminal version of classical dynamics introduced by the author earlier. Based upon violations of the Lipschitz condition at equilibrium points, terminal dynamics attains two new fundamental properties: it is spontaneous and nondeterministic. Special attention is focused on terminal neurodynamics as a particular architecture of terminal dynamics which is suitable for modeling of information flows. Terminal neurodynamics possesses a well-organized probabilistic structure which can be analytically predicted, prescribed, and controlled, and therefore which presents a powerful tool for modeling real-life uncertainties. Two basic phenomena associated with random behavior of neurodynamic solutions are exploited. The first one is a stochastic attractor—a stable stationary stochastic process to which random solutions of a closed system converge. As a model of the cognition process, a stochastic attractor can be viewed as a universal tool for generalization and formation of classes of patterns. The concept of stochastic attractor is applied to model a collective brain paradigm explaining coordination between simple units of intelligence which perform a collective task without direct exchange of information. The second fundamental phenomenon discussed is terminal chaos which occurs in open systems. Applications of terminal chaos to information fusion as well as to explanation and modeling of coordination among neurons in biological systems are discussed. It should be emphasized that all the models of terminal neurodynamics are implementable in analog devices, which means that all the cognition processes discussed in the paper are reducible to the laws of Newtonian mechanics.

  13. Spacecraft Architecture and environmental pshychology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ören, Ayşe

    2016-07-01

    As we embark on a journey for new homes in the new worlds to lay solid foundations, we should consider not only the survival of frontiers but also well-being of those to live in zero gravity. As a versatile science, architecture encompasses abstract human needs as well. On our new different direction in the course of the Homo sapiens evolution, we can do this with designs addressing both our needs and senses. Well-being of humans can be achieved by creating environments supporting the cognitive and social stages in the evolution process. Space stations are going through their own evolution process. Any step taken can serve as a reference for further attempts. When studying the history of architecture, window designing is discussed in a later phase, which is the case for building a spaceship as well. We lean on the places we live both physically and metaphorically. The feeling of belonging is essential here, entailing trans-humanism, which is significant since the environment therein is like a dress comfortable enough to fit in, meeting needs without any burden. Utilizing the advent of technology, we can create moods and atmospheres to regulate night and day cycles, thus we can turn claustrophobic places into cozy or dream-like places. Senses provoke a psychological sensation going beyond cultural codes as they are rooted within consciousness, which allows designers to create a mood within a space that tells a story and evokes an emotional impact. Color, amount of light, sound and odor are not superficial. As much as intangible, they are real and powerful tools with a physical presence. Tapping into induction, we can solve a whole system based on a part thereof. Therefore, fractal designs may not yield good results unless used correctly in terms of design although they are functional, which makes geometric arrangement critical.

  14. Spacecraft Architecture and well being

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ören, Ayşe

    2016-07-01

    As we embark on a journey for new homes in the new worlds to lay solid foundations, we should consider not only the survival of frontiers but also well-being of those to live in zero gravity. As a versatile science, architecture encompasses abstract human needs as well. On our new different direction in the course of the Homo sapiens evolution, we can do this with designs addressing both our needs and senses. Well-being of humans can be achieved by creating environments supporting the cognitive and social stages in the evolution process. Space stations are going through their own evolution process. Any step taken can serve as a reference for further attempts. When studying the history of architecture, window designing is discussed in a later phase, which is the case for building a spaceship as well. We lean on the places we live both physically and metaphorically. The feeling of belonging is essential here, entailing trans-humanism, which is significant since the environment therein is like a dress comfortable enough to fit in, meeting needs without any burden. Utilizing the advent of technology, we can create moods and atmospheres to regulate night and day cycles, thus we can turn claustrophobic places into cozy or dream-like places. Senses provoke a psychological sensation going beyond cultural codes as they are rooted within consciousness, which allows designers to create a mood within a space that tells a story and evokes an emotional impact. Color, amount of light, sound and odor are not superficial. As much as intangible, they are real and powerful tools with a physical presence. Tapping into induction, we can solve a whole system based on a part thereof. Therefore, fractal designs may not yield good results unless used correctly in terms of design although they are functional, which makes geometric arrangement critical.

  15. Architecture Adaptive Computing Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dorband, John E.

    2006-01-01

    Architecture Adaptive Computing Environment (aCe) is a software system that includes a language, compiler, and run-time library for parallel computing. aCe was developed to enable programmers to write programs, more easily than was previously possible, for a variety of parallel computing architectures. Heretofore, it has been perceived to be difficult to write parallel programs for parallel computers and more difficult to port the programs to different parallel computing architectures. In contrast, aCe is supportable on all high-performance computing architectures. Currently, it is supported on LINUX clusters. aCe uses parallel programming constructs that facilitate writing of parallel programs. Such constructs were used in single-instruction/multiple-data (SIMD) programming languages of the 1980s, including Parallel Pascal, Parallel Forth, C*, *LISP, and MasPar MPL. In aCe, these constructs are extended and implemented for both SIMD and multiple- instruction/multiple-data (MIMD) architectures. Two new constructs incorporated in aCe are those of (1) scalar and virtual variables and (2) pre-computed paths. The scalar-and-virtual-variables construct increases flexibility in optimizing memory utilization in various architectures. The pre-computed-paths construct enables the compiler to pre-compute part of a communication operation once, rather than computing it every time the communication operation is performed.

  16. Formalism Challenges of the Cougaar Model Driven Architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bohner, Shawn A.; George, Boby; Gracanin, Denis; Hinchey, Michael G.

    2004-01-01

    The Cognitive Agent Architecture (Cougaar) is one of the most sophisticated distributed agent architectures developed today. As part of its research and evolution, Cougaar is being studied for application to large, logistics-based applications for the Department of Defense (DoD). Anticipiting future complex applications of Cougaar, we are investigating the Model Driven Architecture (MDA) approach to understand how effective it would be for increasing productivity in Cougar-based development efforts. Recognizing the sophistication of the Cougaar development environment and the limitations of transformation technologies for agents, we have systematically developed an approach that combines component assembly in the large and transformation in the small. This paper describes some of the key elements that went into the Cougaar Model Driven Architecture approach and the characteristics that drove the approach.

  17. A Cognitive Computational Model Inspired by the Immune System Response

    PubMed Central

    Abdo Abd Al-Hady, Mohamed; Badr, Amr Ahmed; Mostafa, Mostafa Abd Al-Azim

    2014-01-01

    The immune system has a cognitive ability to differentiate between healthy and unhealthy cells. The immune system response (ISR) is stimulated by a disorder in the temporary fuzzy state that is oscillating between the healthy and unhealthy states. However, modeling the immune system is an enormous challenge; the paper introduces an extensive summary of how the immune system response functions, as an overview of a complex topic, to present the immune system as a cognitive intelligent agent. The homogeneity and perfection of the natural immune system have been always standing out as the sought-after model we attempted to imitate while building our proposed model of cognitive architecture. The paper divides the ISR into four logical phases: setting a computational architectural diagram for each phase, proceeding from functional perspectives (input, process, and output), and their consequences. The proposed architecture components are defined by matching biological operations with computational functions and hence with the framework of the paper. On the other hand, the architecture focuses on the interoperability of main theoretical immunological perspectives (classic, cognitive, and danger theory), as related to computer science terminologies. The paper presents a descriptive model of immune system, to figure out the nature of response, deemed to be intrinsic for building a hybrid computational model based on a cognitive intelligent agent perspective and inspired by the natural biology. To that end, this paper highlights the ISR phases as applied to a case study on hepatitis C virus, meanwhile illustrating our proposed architecture perspective. PMID:25003131

  18. Potential of Cognitive Computing and Cognitive Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noor, Ahmed K.

    2014-11-01

    Cognitive computing and cognitive technologies are game changers for future engineering systems, as well as for engineering practice and training. They are major drivers for knowledge automation work, and the creation of cognitive products with higher levels of intelligence than current smart products. This paper gives a brief review of cognitive computing and some of the cognitive engineering systems activities. The potential of cognitive technologies is outlined, along with a brief description of future cognitive environments, incorporating cognitive assistants - specialized proactive intelligent software agents designed to follow and interact with humans and other cognitive assistants across the environments. The cognitive assistants engage, individually or collectively, with humans through a combination of adaptive multimodal interfaces, and advanced visualization and navigation techniques. The realization of future cognitive environments requires the development of a cognitive innovation ecosystem for the engineering workforce. The continuously expanding major components of the ecosystem include integrated knowledge discovery and exploitation facilities (incorporating predictive and prescriptive big data analytics); novel cognitive modeling and visual simulation facilities; cognitive multimodal interfaces; and cognitive mobile and wearable devices. The ecosystem will provide timely, engaging, personalized / collaborative, learning and effective decision making. It will stimulate creativity and innovation, and prepare the participants to work in future cognitive enterprises and develop new cognitive products of increasing complexity. http://www.aee.odu.edu/cognitivecomp

  19. Creative Practices Embodied, Embedded, and Enacted in Architectural Settings: Toward an Ecological Model of Creativity

    PubMed Central

    Malinin, Laura H.

    2016-01-01

    Memoires by eminently creative people often describe architectural spaces and qualities they believe instrumental for their creativity. However, places designed to encourage creativity have had mixed results, with some found to decrease creative productivity for users. This may be due, in part, to lack of suitable empirical theory or model to guide design strategies. Relationships between creative cognition and features of the physical environment remain largely uninvestigated in the scientific literature, despite general agreement among researchers that human cognition is physically and socially situated. This paper investigates what role architectural settings may play in creative processes by examining documented first person and biographical accounts of creativity with respect to three central theories of situated cognition. First, the embodied thesis argues that cognition encompasses both the mind and the body. Second, the embedded thesis maintains that people exploit features of the physical and social environment to increase their cognitive capabilities. Third, the enaction thesis describes cognition as dependent upon a person’s interactions with the world. Common themes inform three propositions, illustrated in a new theoretical framework describing relationships between people and their architectural settings with respect to different cognitive processes of creativity. The framework is intended as a starting point toward an ecological model of creativity, which may be used to guide future creative process research and architectural design strategies to support user creative productivity. PMID:26779087

  20. Creative Practices Embodied, Embedded, and Enacted in Architectural Settings: Toward an Ecological Model of Creativity.

    PubMed

    Malinin, Laura H

    2015-01-01

    Memoires by eminently creative people often describe architectural spaces and qualities they believe instrumental for their creativity. However, places designed to encourage creativity have had mixed results, with some found to decrease creative productivity for users. This may be due, in part, to lack of suitable empirical theory or model to guide design strategies. Relationships between creative cognition and features of the physical environment remain largely uninvestigated in the scientific literature, despite general agreement among researchers that human cognition is physically and socially situated. This paper investigates what role architectural settings may play in creative processes by examining documented first person and biographical accounts of creativity with respect to three central theories of situated cognition. First, the embodied thesis argues that cognition encompasses both the mind and the body. Second, the embedded thesis maintains that people exploit features of the physical and social environment to increase their cognitive capabilities. Third, the enaction thesis describes cognition as dependent upon a person's interactions with the world. Common themes inform three propositions, illustrated in a new theoretical framework describing relationships between people and their architectural settings with respect to different cognitive processes of creativity. The framework is intended as a starting point toward an ecological model of creativity, which may be used to guide future creative process research and architectural design strategies to support user creative productivity. PMID:26779087

  1. Cognitive consilience: primate non-primary neuroanatomical circuits underlying cognition.

    PubMed

    Solari, Soren Van Hout; Stoner, Rich

    2011-01-01

    Interactions between the cerebral cortex, thalamus, and basal ganglia form the basis of cognitive information processing in the mammalian brain. Understanding the principles of neuroanatomical organization in these structures is critical to understanding the functions they perform and ultimately how the human brain works. We have manually distilled and synthesized hundreds of primate neuroanatomy facts into a single interactive visualization. The resulting picture represents the fundamental neuroanatomical blueprint upon which cognitive functions must be implemented. Within this framework we hypothesize and detail 7 functional circuits corresponding to psychological perspectives on the brain: consolidated long-term declarative memory, short-term declarative memory, working memory/information processing, behavioral memory selection, behavioral memory output, cognitive control, and cortical information flow regulation. Each circuit is described in terms of distinguishable neuronal groups including the cerebral isocortex (9 pyramidal neuronal groups), parahippocampal gyrus and hippocampus, thalamus (4 neuronal groups), basal ganglia (7 neuronal groups), metencephalon, basal forebrain, and other subcortical nuclei. We focus on neuroanatomy related to primate non-primary cortical systems to elucidate the basis underlying the distinct homotypical cognitive architecture. To display the breadth of this review, we introduce a novel method of integrating and presenting data in multiple independent visualizations: an interactive website (http://www.frontiersin.org/files/cognitiveconsilience/index.html) and standalone iPhone and iPad applications. With these tools we present a unique, annotated view of neuroanatomical consilience (integration of knowledge). PMID:22194717

  2. Cognitive Consilience: Primate Non-Primary Neuroanatomical Circuits Underlying Cognition

    PubMed Central

    Solari, Soren Van Hout; Stoner, Rich

    2011-01-01

    Interactions between the cerebral cortex, thalamus, and basal ganglia form the basis of cognitive information processing in the mammalian brain. Understanding the principles of neuroanatomical organization in these structures is critical to understanding the functions they perform and ultimately how the human brain works. We have manually distilled and synthesized hundreds of primate neuroanatomy facts into a single interactive visualization. The resulting picture represents the fundamental neuroanatomical blueprint upon which cognitive functions must be implemented. Within this framework we hypothesize and detail 7 functional circuits corresponding to psychological perspectives on the brain: consolidated long-term declarative memory, short-term declarative memory, working memory/information processing, behavioral memory selection, behavioral memory output, cognitive control, and cortical information flow regulation. Each circuit is described in terms of distinguishable neuronal groups including the cerebral isocortex (9 pyramidal neuronal groups), parahippocampal gyrus and hippocampus, thalamus (4 neuronal groups), basal ganglia (7 neuronal groups), metencephalon, basal forebrain, and other subcortical nuclei. We focus on neuroanatomy related to primate non-primary cortical systems to elucidate the basis underlying the distinct homotypical cognitive architecture. To display the breadth of this review, we introduce a novel method of integrating and presenting data in multiple independent visualizations: an interactive website (http://www.frontiersin.org/files/cognitiveconsilience/index.html) and standalone iPhone and iPad applications. With these tools we present a unique, annotated view of neuroanatomical consilience (integration of knowledge). PMID:22194717

  3. The modular and integrative functional architecture of the human brain

    PubMed Central

    Bertolero, Maxwell A.; Yeo, B. T. Thomas; D’Esposito, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Network-based analyses of brain imaging data consistently reveal distinct modules and connector nodes with diverse global connectivity across the modules. How discrete the functions of modules are, how dependent the computational load of each module is to the other modules’ processing, and what the precise role of connector nodes is for between-module communication remains underspecified. Here, we use a network model of the brain derived from resting-state functional MRI (rs-fMRI) data and investigate the modular functional architecture of the human brain by analyzing activity at different types of nodes in the network across 9,208 experiments of 77 cognitive tasks in the BrainMap database. Using an author–topic model of cognitive functions, we find a strong spatial correspondence between the cognitive functions and the network’s modules, suggesting that each module performs a discrete cognitive function. Crucially, activity at local nodes within the modules does not increase in tasks that require more cognitive functions, demonstrating the autonomy of modules’ functions. However, connector nodes do exhibit increased activity when more cognitive functions are engaged in a task. Moreover, connector nodes are located where brain activity is associated with many different cognitive functions. Connector nodes potentially play a role in between-module communication that maintains the modular function of the brain. Together, these findings provide a network account of the brain’s modular yet integrated implementation of cognitive functions. PMID:26598686

  4. The modular and integrative functional architecture of the human brain.

    PubMed

    Bertolero, Maxwell A; Yeo, B T Thomas; D'Esposito, Mark

    2015-12-01

    Network-based analyses of brain imaging data consistently reveal distinct modules and connector nodes with diverse global connectivity across the modules. How discrete the functions of modules are, how dependent the computational load of each module is to the other modules' processing, and what the precise role of connector nodes is for between-module communication remains underspecified. Here, we use a network model of the brain derived from resting-state functional MRI (rs-fMRI) data and investigate the modular functional architecture of the human brain by analyzing activity at different types of nodes in the network across 9,208 experiments of 77 cognitive tasks in the BrainMap database. Using an author-topic model of cognitive functions, we find a strong spatial correspondence between the cognitive functions and the network's modules, suggesting that each module performs a discrete cognitive function. Crucially, activity at local nodes within the modules does not increase in tasks that require more cognitive functions, demonstrating the autonomy of modules' functions. However, connector nodes do exhibit increased activity when more cognitive functions are engaged in a task. Moreover, connector nodes are located where brain activity is associated with many different cognitive functions. Connector nodes potentially play a role in between-module communication that maintains the modular function of the brain. Together, these findings provide a network account of the brain's modular yet integrated implementation of cognitive functions. PMID:26598686

  5. Neural Architectures for Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peterson, James K.

    1991-01-01

    The cerebellar model articulated controller (CMAC) neural architectures are shown to be viable for the purposes of real-time learning and control. Software tools for the exploration of CMAC performance are developed for three hardware platforms, the MacIntosh, the IBM PC, and the SUN workstation. All algorithm development was done using the C programming language. These software tools were then used to implement an adaptive critic neuro-control design that learns in real-time how to back up a trailer truck. The truck backer-upper experiment is a standard performance measure in the neural network literature, but previously the training of the controllers was done off-line. With the CMAC neural architectures, it was possible to train the neuro-controllers on-line in real-time on a MS-DOS PC 386. CMAC neural architectures are also used in conjunction with a hierarchical planning approach to find collision-free paths over 2-D analog valued obstacle fields. The method constructs a coarse resolution version of the original problem and then finds the corresponding coarse optimal path using multipass dynamic programming. CMAC artificial neural architectures are used to estimate the analog transition costs that dynamic programming requires. The CMAC architectures are trained in real-time for each obstacle field presented. The coarse optimal path is then used as a baseline for the construction of a fine scale optimal path through the original obstacle array. These results are a very good indication of the potential power of the neural architectures in control design. In order to reach as wide an audience as possible, we have run a seminar on neuro-control that has met once per week since 20 May 1991. This seminar has thoroughly discussed the CMAC architecture, relevant portions of classical control, back propagation through time, and adaptive critic designs.

  6. The timing of the cognitive cycle.

    PubMed

    Madl, Tamas; Baars, Bernard J; Franklin, Stan

    2011-01-01

    results fall naturally out of a biologically and computationally plausible cognitive architecture. PMID:21541015

  7. Analyzing and Visualizing Whole Program Architectures

    SciTech Connect

    Panas, T; Quinlan, D; Vuduc, R

    2007-05-10

    This paper describes our work to develop new tool support for analyzing and visualizing the architecture of complete large-scale (millions or more lines of code) programs. Our approach consists of (i) creating a compact, accurate representation of a whole C or C++ program, (ii) analyzing the program in this representation, and (iii) visualizing the analysis results with respect to the program's architecture. We have implemented our approach by extending and combining a compiler infrastructure and a program visualization tool, and we believe our work will be of broad interest to those engaged in a variety of program understanding and transformation tasks. We have added new whole-program analysis support to ROSE [15, 14], a source-to-source C/C++ compiler infrastructure for creating customized analysis and transformation tools. Our whole-program work does not rely on procedure summaries; rather, we preserve all of the information present in the source while keeping our representation compact. In our representation, a million-line application fits in well less than 1 GB of memory. Because whole-program analyses can generate large amounts of data, we believe that abstracting and visualizing analysis results at the architecture level is critical to reducing the cognitive burden on the consumer of the analysis results. Therefore, we have extended Vizz3D [19], an interactive program visualization tool, with an appropriate metaphor and layout algorithm for representing a program's architecture. Our implementation provides developers with an intuitive, interactive way to view analysis results, such as those produced by ROSE, in the context of the program's architecture. The remainder of this paper summarizes our approach to whole-program analysis (Section 2) and provides an example of how we visualize the analysis results (Section 3).

  8. Is cognition enough to explain cognitive development?

    PubMed

    Smith, Linda B; Sheya, Adam

    2010-10-01

    Traditional views separate cognitive processes from sensory-motor processes, seeing cognition as amodal, propositional, and compositional, and thus fundamentally different from the processes that underlie perceiving and acting. These were the ideas on which cognitive science was founded 30 years ago. However, advancing discoveries in neuroscience, cognitive neuroscience, and psychology suggests that cognition may be inseparable from processes of perceiving and acting. From this perspective, this study considers the future of cognitive science with respect to the study of cognitive development. PMID:25164053

  9. Cognitive memory.

    PubMed

    Widrow, Bernard; Aragon, Juan Carlos

    2013-05-01

    Regarding the workings of the human mind, memory and pattern recognition seem to be intertwined. You generally do not have one without the other. Taking inspiration from life experience, a new form of computer memory has been devised. Certain conjectures about human memory are keys to the central idea. The design of a practical and useful "cognitive" memory system is contemplated, a memory system that may also serve as a model for many aspects of human memory. The new memory does not function like a computer memory where specific data is stored in specific numbered registers and retrieval is done by reading the contents of the specified memory register, or done by matching key words as with a document search. Incoming sensory data would be stored at the next available empty memory location, and indeed could be stored redundantly at several empty locations. The stored sensory data would neither have key words nor would it be located in known or specified memory locations. Sensory inputs concerning a single object or subject are stored together as patterns in a single "file folder" or "memory folder". When the contents of the folder are retrieved, sights, sounds, tactile feel, smell, etc., are obtained all at the same time. Retrieval would be initiated by a query or a prompt signal from a current set of sensory inputs or patterns. A search through the memory would be made to locate stored data that correlates with or relates to the prompt input. The search would be done by a retrieval system whose first stage makes use of autoassociative artificial neural networks and whose second stage relies on exhaustive search. Applications of cognitive memory systems have been made to visual aircraft identification, aircraft navigation, and human facial recognition. Concerning human memory, reasons are given why it is unlikely that long-term memory is stored in the synapses of the brain's neural networks. Reasons are given suggesting that long-term memory is stored in DNA or RNA

  10. Avionics System Architecture Tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chau, Savio; Hall, Ronald; Traylor, marcus; Whitfield, Adrian

    2005-01-01

    Avionics System Architecture Tool (ASAT) is a computer program intended for use during the avionics-system-architecture- design phase of the process of designing a spacecraft for a specific mission. ASAT enables simulation of the dynamics of the command-and-data-handling functions of the spacecraft avionics in the scenarios in which the spacecraft is expected to operate. ASAT is built upon I-Logix Statemate MAGNUM, providing a complement of dynamic system modeling tools, including a graphical user interface (GUI), modeling checking capabilities, and a simulation engine. ASAT augments this with a library of predefined avionics components and additional software to support building and analyzing avionics hardware architectures using these components.

  11. Software Architecture Design Reasoning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Antony; van Vliet, Hans

    Despite recent advancements in software architecture knowledge management and design rationale modeling, industrial practice is behind in adopting these methods. The lack of empirical proofs and the lack of a practical process that can be easily incorporated by practitioners are some of the hindrance for adoptions. In particular, the process to support systematic design reasoning is not available. To rectify this issue, we propose a design reasoning process to help architects cope with an architectural design environment where design concerns are cross-cutting and diversified.We use an industrial case study to validate that the design reasoning process can help improve the quality of software architecture design. The results have indicated that associating design concerns and identifying design options are important steps in design reasoning.

  12. Advanced ground station architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zillig, David; Benjamin, Ted

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes a new station architecture for NASA's Ground Network (GN). The architecture makes efficient use of emerging technologies to provide dramatic reductions in size, operational complexity, and operational and maintenance costs. The architecture, which is based on recent receiver work sponsored by the Office of Space Communications Advanced Systems Program, allows integration of both GN and Space Network (SN) modes of operation in the same electronics system. It is highly configurable through software and the use of charged coupled device (CCD) technology to provide a wide range of operating modes. Moreover, it affords modularity of features which are optional depending on the application. The resulting system incorporates advanced RF, digital, and remote control technology capable of introducing significant operational, performance, and cost benefits to a variety of NASA communications and tracking applications.

  13. Lunar architecture and urbanism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sherwood, Brent

    1992-01-01

    Human civilization and architecture have defined each other for over 5000 years on Earth. Even in the novel environment of space, persistent issues of human urbanism will eclipse, within a historically short time, the technical challenges of space settlement that dominate our current view. By adding modern topics in space engineering, planetology, life support, human factors, material invention, and conservation to their already renaissance array of expertise, urban designers can responsibly apply ancient, proven standards to the exciting new opportunities afforded by space. Inescapable facts about the Moon set real boundaries within which tenable lunar urbanism and its component architecture must eventually develop.

  14. Synergetics and architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maslov, V. P.; Maslova, T. V.

    2008-03-01

    A series of phenomena pertaining to economics, quantum physics, language, literary criticism, and especially architecture is studied from the standpoint of synergetics (the study of self-organizing complex systems). It turns out that a whole series of concrete formulas describing these phenomena is identical in these different situations. This is the case of formulas relating to the Bose-Einstein distribution of particles and the distribution of words from a frequency dictionary. This also allows to apply a "quantized" from of the Zipf law to the problem of the authorship of Quiet Flows the Don and to the "blending in" of new architectural structures in an existing environment.

  15. Information architecture. Volume 3: Guidance

    SciTech Connect

    1997-04-01

    The purpose of this document, as presented in Volume 1, The Foundations, is to assist the Department of Energy (DOE) in developing and promulgating information architecture guidance. This guidance is aimed at increasing the development of information architecture as a Departmentwide management best practice. This document describes departmental information architecture principles and minimum design characteristics for systems and infrastructures within the DOE Information Architecture Conceptual Model, and establishes a Departmentwide standards-based architecture program. The publication of this document fulfills the commitment to address guiding principles, promote standard architectural practices, and provide technical guidance. This document guides the transition from the baseline or defacto Departmental architecture through approved information management program plans and budgets to the future vision architecture. This document also represents another major step toward establishing a well-organized, logical foundation for the DOE information architecture.

  16. Alternative Architectures for Distributed Work in the National Airspace System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Philip J.; Billings, Charles E.; Chapman, Roger; Obradovich, Heintz; McCoy, C. Elaine; Orasanu, Judith

    2000-01-01

    The architecture for the National Airspace System (NAS) in the United States has evolved over time to rely heavily on the distribution of tasks and control authority in order to keep cognitive complexity manageable for any one individual. This paper characterizes a number of different subsystems that have been recently incorporated in the NAS. The goal of this discussion is to begin to identify the critical parameters defining the differences among alternative architectures in terms of the locus of control and in terms of access to relevant data and knowledge. At an abstract level, this analysis can be described as an effort to describe alternative "rules of the game" for the NAS.

  17. When Neuroscience ‘Touches’ Architecture: From Hapticity to a Supramodal Functioning of the Human Brain

    PubMed Central

    Papale, Paolo; Chiesi, Leonardo; Rampinini, Alessandra C.; Pietrini, Pietro; Ricciardi, Emiliano

    2016-01-01

    In the last decades, the rapid growth of functional brain imaging methodologies allowed cognitive neuroscience to address open questions in philosophy and social sciences. At the same time, novel insights from cognitive neuroscience research have begun to influence various disciplines, leading to a turn to cognition and emotion in the fields of planning and architectural design. Since 2003, the Academy of Neuroscience for Architecture has been supporting ‘neuro-architecture’ as a way to connect neuroscience and the study of behavioral responses to the built environment. Among the many topics related to multisensory perceptual integration and embodiment, the concept of hapticity was recently introduced, suggesting a pivotal role of tactile perception and haptic imagery in architectural appraisal. Arguments have thus risen in favor of the existence of shared cognitive foundations between hapticity and the supramodal functional architecture of the human brain. Precisely, supramodality refers to the functional feature of defined brain regions to process and represent specific information content in a more abstract way, independently of the sensory modality conveying such information to the brain. Here, we highlight some commonalities and differences between the concepts of hapticity and supramodality according to the distinctive perspectives of architecture and cognitive neuroscience. This comparison and connection between these two different approaches may lead to novel observations in regard to people–environment relationships, and even provide empirical foundations for a renewed evidence-based design theory. PMID:27375542

  18. A Functional Model of Sensemaking in a Neurocognitive Architecture

    PubMed Central

    Lebiere, Christian; Paik, Jaehyon; Rutledge-Taylor, Matthew; Staszewski, James; Anderson, John R.

    2013-01-01

    Sensemaking is the active process of constructing a meaningful representation (i.e., making sense) of some complex aspect of the world. In relation to intelligence analysis, sensemaking is the act of finding and interpreting relevant facts amongst the sea of incoming reports, images, and intelligence. We present a cognitive model of core information-foraging and hypothesis-updating sensemaking processes applied to complex spatial probability estimation and decision-making tasks. While the model was developed in a hybrid symbolic-statistical cognitive architecture, its correspondence to neural frameworks in terms of both structure and mechanisms provided a direct bridge between rational and neural levels of description. Compared against data from two participant groups, the model correctly predicted both the presence and degree of four biases: confirmation, anchoring and adjustment, representativeness, and probability matching. It also favorably predicted human performance in generating probability distributions across categories, assigning resources based on these distributions, and selecting relevant features given a prior probability distribution. This model provides a constrained theoretical framework describing cognitive biases as arising from three interacting factors: the structure of the task environment, the mechanisms and limitations of the cognitive architecture, and the use of strategies to adapt to the dual constraints of cognition and the environment. PMID:24302930

  19. Getting symbols out of a neural architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hummel, John E.

    2011-06-01

    Traditional connectionist networks are sharply limited as general accounts of human perception and cognition because they are unable to represent relational ideas such as loves (John, Mary) or bigger-than (Volkswagen, breadbox) in a way that allows them to be manipulated as explicitly relational structures. This paper reviews and critiques the four major responses to this problem in the modelling community: (1) reject connectionism (in any form) in favour of traditional symbolic approaches to modelling the mind; (2) reject the idea that mental representations are symbolic (i.e. reject the idea that we can represent relations); and (3) attempt to represent symbolic structures in a connectionist/neural architecture by finding a way to represent role-filler bindings. Approach (3) is further subdivided into (3a) approaches based on varieties of conjunctive coding and (3b) approaches based on dynamic role-filler binding. I will argue that (3b) is necessary to get symbolic processing out of a neural computing architecture. Specifically, I will argue that vector addition is both the best way to accomplish dynamic binding and an essential part of the proper treatment of symbols in a neural architecture.

  20. Hadl: HUMS Architectural Description Language

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mukkamala, R.; Adavi, V.; Agarwal, N.; Gullapalli, S.; Kumar, P.; Sundaram, P.

    2004-01-01

    Specification of architectures is an important prerequisite for evaluation of architectures. With the increase m the growth of health usage and monitoring systems (HUMS) in commercial and military domains, the need far the design and evaluation of HUMS architectures has also been on the increase. In this paper, we describe HADL, HUMS Architectural Description Language, that we have designed for this purpose. In particular, we describe the features of the language, illustrate them with examples, and show how we use it in designing domain-specific HUMS architectures. A companion paper contains details on our design methodology of HUMS architectures.

  1. Cognitive Enhancement and Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buchanan, Allen

    2011-01-01

    Cognitive enhancement--augmenting normal cognitive capacities--is not new. Literacy, numeracy, computers, and the practices of science are all cognitive enhancements. Science is now making new cognitive enhancements possible. Biomedical cognitive enhancements (BCEs) include the administration of drugs, implants of genetically engineered or…

  2. American School & University Architectural Portfolio 2000 Awards: Landscape Architecture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American School & University, 2000

    2000-01-01

    Presents photographs and basic information on architectural design, costs, square footage, and principle designers of the award winning school landscaping projects that competed in the American School & University Architectural Portfolio 2000. (GR)

  3. Modeling the situation awareness by the analysis of cognitive process.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shuang; Wanyan, Xiaoru; Zhuang, Damin

    2014-01-01

    To predict changes of situation awareness (SA) for pilot operating with different display interfaces and tasks, a qualitative analysis and quantitative calculation joint SA model was proposed. Based on the situational awareness model according to the attention allocation built previously, the pilot cognitive process for the situation elements was analyzed according to the ACT-R (Adaptive Control of Thought, Rational) theory, which explained how the SA was produced. To verify the validity of this model, 28 subjects performed an instrument supervision task under different experiment conditions. Situation Awareness Global Assessment Technique (SAGAT), 10-dimensional Situational Awareness Rating Technique (10-D SART), performance measure and eye movement measure were adopted for evaluating SAs under different conditions. Statistical analysis demonstrated that the changing trend of SA calculated by this model was highly correlated with the experimental results. Therefore the situational awareness model can provide a reference for designing new cockpit display interfaces and help reducing human errors. PMID:25226931

  4. Tutorial on architectural acoustics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaw, Neil; Talaske, Rick; Bistafa, Sylvio

    2002-11-01

    This tutorial is intended to provide an overview of current knowledge and practice in architectural acoustics. Topics covered will include basic concepts and history, acoustics of small rooms (small rooms for speech such as classrooms and meeting rooms, music studios, small critical listening spaces such as home theatres) and the acoustics of large rooms (larger assembly halls, auditoria, and performance halls).

  5. 1989 Architectural Exhibition Winners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Business Affairs, 1990

    1990-01-01

    Winners of the 1989 Architectural Exhibition sponsored annually by the ASBO International's School Facilities Research Committee include the Brevard Performing Arts Center (Melbourne, Florida), the Capital High School (Santa Fe, New Mexico), Gage Elementary School (Rochester, Minnesota), the Lakewood (Ohio) High School Natatorium, and three other…

  6. Emulating an MIMD architecture

    SciTech Connect

    Su Bogong; Grishman, R.

    1982-01-01

    As part of a research effort in parallel processor architecture and programming, the ultracomputer group at New York University has performed extensive simulation of parallel programs. To speed up these simulations, a parallel processor emulator, using the microprogrammable Puma computer system previously designed and built at NYU, has been developed. 8 references.

  7. Embedded instrumentation systems architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Visnevski, Nikita A.

    2007-04-01

    This paper describes the operational concept of the Embedded Instrumentation Systems Architecture (EISA) that is being developed for Test and Evaluation (T&E) applications. The architecture addresses such future T&E requirements as interoperability, flexibility, and non-intrusiveness. These are the ultimate requirements that support continuous T&E objectives. In this paper, we demonstrate that these objectives can be met by decoupling the Embedded Instrumentation (EI) system into an on-board and an off-board component. An on-board component is responsible for sampling, pre-processing, buffering, and transmitting data to the off-board component. The latter is responsible for aggregating, post-processing, and storing test data as well as providing access to the data via a clearly defined interface including such aspects as security, user authentication and access control. The power of the EISA architecture approach is in its inherent ability to support virtual instrumentation as well as enabling interoperability with such important T&E systems as Integrated Network-Enhanced Telemetry (iNET), Test and Training Enabling Architecture (TENA) and other relevant Department of Defense initiatives.

  8. System Building and Architecture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robbie, Roderick G.

    The technical director of the Metropolitan Toronto School Boards Study of Educational Facilities (SEF) presents a description of the general theory and execution of the first SEF building system, and his views on the general principles of system building as they might affect architecture and the economy. (TC)

  9. Making Connections through Architecture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hollingsworth, Patricia

    1993-01-01

    The Center for Arts and Sciences (Oklahoma) developed an interdisciplinary curriculum for disadvantaged gifted children on styles of architecture, called "Discovering Patterns in the Built Environment." This article describes the content and processes used in the curriculum, as well as other programs of the center, such as teacher workshops,…

  10. GNU debugger internal architecture

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, P.; Nessett, D.; Pizzi, R.

    1993-12-16

    This document describes the internal and architecture and implementation of the GNU debugger, gdb. Topics include inferior process management, command execution, symbol table management and remote debugging. Call graphs for specific functions are supplied. This document is not a complete description but offers a developer an overview which is the place to start before modification.

  11. Test Architecture, Test Retrofit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fulcher, Glenn; Davidson, Fred

    2009-01-01

    Just like buildings, tests are designed and built for specific purposes, people, and uses. However, both buildings and tests grow and change over time as the needs of their users change. Sometimes, they are also both used for purposes other than those intended in the original designs. This paper explores architecture as a metaphor for language…

  12. INL Generic Robot Architecture

    2005-03-30

    The INL Generic Robot Architecture is a generic, extensible software framework that can be applied across a variety of different robot geometries, sensor suites and low-level proprietary control application programming interfaces (e.g. mobility, aria, aware, player, etc.).

  13. Simple Substrates for Complex Cognition

    PubMed Central

    Dayan, Peter

    2008-01-01

    Complex cognitive tasks present a range of computational and algorithmic challenges for neural accounts of both learning and inference. In particular, it is extremely hard to solve them using the sort of simple policies that have been extensively studied as solutions to elementary Markov decision problems. There has thus been recent interest in architectures for the instantiation and even learning of policies that are formally more complicated than these, involving operations such as gated working memory. However, the focus of these ideas and methods has largely been on what might best be considered as automatized, routine or, in the sense of animal conditioning, habitual, performance. Thus, they have yet to provide a route towards understanding the workings of rule-based control, which is critical for cognitively sophisticated competence. Here, we review a recent suggestion for a uniform architecture for habitual and rule-based execution, discuss some of the habitual mechanisms that underpin the use of rules, and consider a statistical relationship between rules and habits. PMID:19225599

  14. The cognitive and neural architecture of sequence representation.

    PubMed

    Keele, Steven W; Ivry, Richard; Mayr, Ulrich; Hazeltine, Eliot; Heuer, Herbert

    2003-04-01

    The authors theorize that 2 neurocognitive sequence-learning systems can be distinguished in serial reaction time experiments, one dorsal (parietal and supplementary motor cortex) and the other ventral (temporal and lateral prefrontal cortex). Dorsal system learning is implicit and associates noncategorized stimuli within dimensional modules. Ventral system learning can be implicit or explicit It also allows associating events across dimensions and therefore is the basis of cross-task integration or interference, depending on degree of cross-task correlation of signals. Accordingly, lack of correlation rather than limited capacity is responsible for dual-task effects on learning. The theory is relevant to issues of attentional effects on learning; the representational basis of complex, sequential skills; hippocampal-versus basal ganglia-based learning; procedural versus declarative memory; and implicit versus explicit memory. PMID:12747526

  15. Commanding Constellations (Pipeline Architecture)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ray, Tim; Condron, Jeff

    2003-01-01

    Providing ground command software for constellations of spacecraft is a challenging problem. Reliable command delivery requires a feedback loop; for a constellation there will likely be an independent feedback loop for each constellation member. Each command must be sent via the proper Ground Station, which may change from one contact to the next (and may be different for different members). Dynamic configuration of the ground command software is usually required (e.g. directives to configure each member's feedback loop and assign the appropriate Ground Station). For testing purposes, there must be a way to insert command data at any level in the protocol stack. The Pipeline architecture described in this paper can support all these capabilities with a sequence of software modules (the pipeline), and a single self-identifying message format (for all types of command data and configuration directives). The Pipeline architecture is quite simple, yet it can solve some complex problems. The resulting solutions are conceptually simple, and therefore, reliable. They are also modular, and therefore, easy to distribute and extend. We first used the Pipeline architecture to design a CCSDS (Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems) Ground Telecommand system (to command one spacecraft at a time with a fixed Ground Station interface). This pipeline was later extended to include gateways to any of several Ground Stations. The resulting pipeline was then extended to handle a small constellation of spacecraft. The use of the Pipeline architecture allowed us to easily handle the increasing complexity. This paper will describe the Pipeline architecture, show how it was used to solve each of the above commanding situations, and how it can easily be extended to handle larger constellations.

  16. Shaping plant architecture.

    PubMed

    Teichmann, Thomas; Muhr, Merlin

    2015-01-01

    Plants exhibit phenotypical plasticity. Their general body plan is genetically determined, but plant architecture and branching patterns are variable and can be adjusted to the prevailing environmental conditions. The modular design of the plant facilitates such morphological adaptations. The prerequisite for the formation of a branch is the initiation of an axillary meristem. Here, we review the current knowledge about this process. After its establishment, the meristem can develop into a bud which can either become dormant or grow out and form a branch. Many endogenous factors, such as photoassimilate availability, and exogenous factors like nutrient availability or shading, have to be integrated in the decision whether a branch is formed. The underlying regulatory network is complex and involves phytohormones and transcription factors. The hormone auxin is derived from the shoot apex and inhibits bud outgrowth indirectly in a process termed apical dominance. Strigolactones appear to modulate apical dominance by modification of auxin fluxes. Furthermore, the transcription factor BRANCHED1 plays a central role. The exact interplay of all these factors still remains obscure and there are alternative models. We discuss recent findings in the field along with the major models. Plant architecture is economically significant because it affects important traits of crop and ornamental plants, as well as trees cultivated in forestry or on short rotation coppices. As a consequence, plant architecture has been modified during plant domestication. Research revealed that only few key genes have been the target of selection during plant domestication and in breeding programs. Here, we discuss such findings on the basis of various examples. Architectural ideotypes that provide advantages for crop plant management and yield are described. We also outline the potential of breeding and biotechnological approaches to further modify and improve plant architecture for economic needs

  17. Shaping plant architecture

    PubMed Central

    Teichmann, Thomas; Muhr, Merlin

    2015-01-01

    Plants exhibit phenotypical plasticity. Their general body plan is genetically determined, but plant architecture and branching patterns are variable and can be adjusted to the prevailing environmental conditions. The modular design of the plant facilitates such morphological adaptations. The prerequisite for the formation of a branch is the initiation of an axillary meristem. Here, we review the current knowledge about this process. After its establishment, the meristem can develop into a bud which can either become dormant or grow out and form a branch. Many endogenous factors, such as photoassimilate availability, and exogenous factors like nutrient availability or shading, have to be integrated in the decision whether a branch is formed. The underlying regulatory network is complex and involves phytohormones and transcription factors. The hormone auxin is derived from the shoot apex and inhibits bud outgrowth indirectly in a process termed apical dominance. Strigolactones appear to modulate apical dominance by modification of auxin fluxes. Furthermore, the transcription factor BRANCHED1 plays a central role. The exact interplay of all these factors still remains obscure and there are alternative models. We discuss recent findings in the field along with the major models. Plant architecture is economically significant because it affects important traits of crop and ornamental plants, as well as trees cultivated in forestry or on short rotation coppices. As a consequence, plant architecture has been modified during plant domestication. Research revealed that only few key genes have been the target of selection during plant domestication and in breeding programs. Here, we discuss such findings on the basis of various examples. Architectural ideotypes that provide advantages for crop plant management and yield are described. We also outline the potential of breeding and biotechnological approaches to further modify and improve plant architecture for economic needs

  18. ACOUSTICS IN ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN, AN ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY ON ARCHITECTURAL ACOUSTICS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DOELLE, LESLIE L.

    THE PURPOSE OF THIS ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY ON ARCHITECTURAL ACOUSTICS WAS--(1) TO COMPILE A CLASSIFIED BIBLIOGRAPHY, INCLUDING MOST OF THOSE PUBLICATIONS ON ARCHITECTURAL ACOUSTICS, PUBLISHED IN ENGLISH, FRENCH, AND GERMAN WHICH CAN SUPPLY A USEFUL AND UP-TO-DATE SOURCE OF INFORMATION FOR THOSE ENCOUNTERING ANY ARCHITECTURAL-ACOUSTIC DESIGN…

  19. 11. Photocopy of architectural drawing (from National Archives Architectural and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. Photocopy of architectural drawing (from National Archives Architectural and Cartographic Branch Alexandria, Va.) 'Non-Com-Officers Qrs.' Quartermaster General's Office Standard Plan 82, sheet 1. Lithograph on linen architectural drawing. April 1893 3 ELEVATIONS, 3 PLANS AND A PARTIAL SECTION - Fort Myer, Non-Commissioned Officers Quarters, Washington Avenue between Johnson Lane & Custer Road, Arlington, Arlington County, VA

  20. 12. Photocopy of architectural drawing (from National Archives Architectural and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. Photocopy of architectural drawing (from National Archives Architectural and Cartographic Branch, Alexandria, Va.) 'Non-Com-Officers Qrs.' Quartermaster Generals Office Standard Plan 82, sheet 2, April 1893. Lithograph on linen architectural drawing. DETAILS - Fort Myer, Non-Commissioned Officers Quarters, Washington Avenue between Johnson Lane & Custer Road, Arlington, Arlington County, VA

  1. Embodying a cognitive model in a mobile robot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benjamin, D. Paul; Lyons, Damian; Lonsdale, Deryle

    2006-10-01

    The ADAPT project is a collaboration of researchers in robotics, linguistics and artificial intelligence at three universities to create a cognitive architecture specifically designed to be embodied in a mobile robot. There are major respects in which existing cognitive architectures are inadequate for robot cognition. In particular, they lack support for true concurrency and for active perception. ADAPT addresses these deficiencies by modeling the world as a network of concurrent schemas, and modeling perception as problem solving. Schemas are represented using the RS (Robot Schemas) language, and are activated by spreading activation. RS provides a powerful language for distributed control of concurrent processes. Also, The formal semantics of RS provides the basis for the semantics of ADAPT's use of natural language. We have implemented the RS language in Soar, a mature cognitive architecture originally developed at CMU and used at a number of universities and companies. Soar's subgoaling and learning capabilities enable ADAPT to manage the complexity of its environment and to learn new schemas from experience. We describe the issues faced in developing an embodied cognitive architecture, and our implementation choices.

  2. An Experiment in Architectural Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dvorak, Robert W.

    1978-01-01

    Discusses the application of the PLATO IV computer-based educational system to a one-semester basic drawing course for freshman architecture, landscape architecture, and interior design students and relates student reactions to the experience. (RAO)

  3. Compositional Specification of Software Architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Penix, John; Lau, Sonie (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    This paper describes our experience using parameterized algebraic specifications to model properties of software architectures. The goal is to model the decomposition of requirements independent of the style used to implement the architecture. We begin by providing an overview of the role of architecture specification in software development. We then describe how architecture specifications are build up from component and connector specifications and give an overview of insights gained from a case study used to validate the method.

  4. Controlling Material Reactivity Using Architecture.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, Kyle T; Zhu, Cheng; Duoss, Eric B; Gash, Alexander E; Kolesky, David B; Kuntz, Joshua D; Lewis, Jennifer A; Spadaccini, Christopher M

    2016-03-01

    3D-printing methods are used to generate reactive material architectures. Several geometric parameters are observed to influence the resultant flame propagation velocity, indicating that the architecture can be utilized to control reactivity. Two different architectures, channels and hurdles, are generated, and thin films of thermite are deposited onto the surface. The architecture offers an additional route to control, at will, the energy release rate in reactive composite materials. PMID:26669517

  5. Architecture for autonomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Broten, Gregory S.; Monckton, Simon P.; Collier, Jack; Giesbrecht, Jared

    2006-05-01

    In 2002 Defence R&D Canada changed research direction from pure tele-operated land vehicles to general autonomy for land, air, and sea craft. The unique constraints of the military environment coupled with the complexity of autonomous systems drove DRDC to carefully plan a research and development infrastructure that would provide state of the art tools without restricting research scope. DRDC's long term objectives for its autonomy program address disparate unmanned ground vehicle (UGV), unattended ground sensor (UGS), air (UAV), and subsea and surface (UUV and USV) vehicles operating together with minimal human oversight. Individually, these systems will range in complexity from simple reconnaissance mini-UAVs streaming video to sophisticated autonomous combat UGVs exploiting embedded and remote sensing. Together, these systems can provide low risk, long endurance, battlefield services assuming they can communicate and cooperate with manned and unmanned systems. A key enabling technology for this new research is a software architecture capable of meeting both DRDC's current and future requirements. DRDC built upon recent advances in the computing science field while developing its software architecture know as the Architecture for Autonomy (AFA). Although a well established practice in computing science, frameworks have only recently entered common use by unmanned vehicles. For industry and government, the complexity, cost, and time to re-implement stable systems often exceeds the perceived benefits of adopting a modern software infrastructure. Thus, most persevere with legacy software, adapting and modifying software when and wherever possible or necessary -- adopting strategic software frameworks only when no justifiable legacy exists. Conversely, academic programs with short one or two year projects frequently exploit strategic software frameworks but with little enduring impact. The open-source movement radically changes this picture. Academic frameworks

  6. The Architecture of the IIT-MRH Stroke Consultant

    PubMed Central

    Hill, Howard; Curt, Carol L.; Kozar, Barbara K.; Hier, Daniel B.; Evens, Martha W.

    1985-01-01

    There are three major issues discussed in this paper. First, we discuss a high speed blackboard-like architecture for an expert system that makes no restrictions on the nature or number of components in the system. We also discuss how the principles of cognitive psychology could be used as a basis for user interface design. Since most expert systems, circa 1985, are large programs, we also discuss some of the software engineering issues used to build the stroke consultant.

  7. Mental models for cognitive control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schilling, Malte; Cruse, Holk; Schmitz, Josef

    2007-05-01

    Even so called "simple" organisms as insects are able to fastly adapt to changing conditions of their environment. Their behaviour is affected by many external influences and only its variability and adaptivity permits their survival. An intensively studied example concerns hexapod walking. 1,2 Complex walking behaviours in stick insects have been analysed and the results were used to construct a reactive model that controls walking in a robot. This model is now extended by higher levels of control: as a bottom-up approach the low-level reactive behaviours are modulated and activated through a medium level. In addition, the system grows up to an upper level for cognitive control of the robot: Cognition - as the ability to plan ahead - and cognitive skills involve internal representations of the subject itself and its environment. These representations are used for mental simulations: In difficult situations, for which neither motor primitives, nor whole sequences of these exist, available behaviours are varied and applied in the internal model while the body itself is decoupled from the controlling modules. The result of the internal simulation is evaluated. Successful actions are learned and applied to the robot. This constitutes a level for planning. Its elements (movements, behaviours) are embodied in the lower levels, whereby their meaning arises directly from these levels. The motor primitives are situation models represented as neural networks. The focus of this work concerns the general architecture of the framework as well as the reactive basic layer of the bottom-up architecture and its connection to higher level functions and its application on an internal model.

  8. Parallel Subconvolution Filtering Architectures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gray, Andrew A.

    2003-01-01

    These architectures are based on methods of vector processing and the discrete-Fourier-transform/inverse-discrete- Fourier-transform (DFT-IDFT) overlap-and-save method, combined with time-block separation of digital filters into frequency-domain subfilters implemented by use of sub-convolutions. The parallel-processing method implemented in these architectures enables the use of relatively small DFT-IDFT pairs, while filter tap lengths are theoretically unlimited. The size of a DFT-IDFT pair is determined by the desired reduction in processing rate, rather than on the order of the filter that one seeks to implement. The emphasis in this report is on those aspects of the underlying theory and design rules that promote computational efficiency, parallel processing at reduced data rates, and simplification of the designs of very-large-scale integrated (VLSI) circuits needed to implement high-order filters and correlators.

  9. Open architecture CNC system

    SciTech Connect

    Tal, J.; Lopez, A.; Edwards, J.M.

    1995-04-01

    In this paper, an alternative solution to the traditional CNC machine tool controller has been introduced. Software and hardware modules have been described and their incorporation in a CNC control system has been outlined. This type of CNC machine tool controller demonstrates that technology is accessible and can be readily implemented into an open architecture machine tool controller. Benefit to the user is greater controller flexibility, while being economically achievable. PC based, motion as well as non-motion features will provide flexibility through a Windows environment. Up-grading this type of controller system through software revisions will keep the machine tool in a competitive state with minimal effort. Software and hardware modules are mass produced permitting competitive procurement and incorporation. Open architecture CNC systems provide diagnostics thus enhancing maintainability, and machine tool up-time. A major concern of traditional CNC systems has been operator training time. Training time can be greatly minimized by making use of Windows environment features.

  10. Consistent model driven architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niepostyn, Stanisław J.

    2015-09-01

    The goal of the MDA is to produce software systems from abstract models in a way where human interaction is restricted to a minimum. These abstract models are based on the UML language. However, the semantics of UML models is defined in a natural language. Subsequently the verification of consistency of these diagrams is needed in order to identify errors in requirements at the early stage of the development process. The verification of consistency is difficult due to a semi-formal nature of UML diagrams. We propose automatic verification of consistency of the series of UML diagrams originating from abstract models implemented with our consistency rules. This Consistent Model Driven Architecture approach enables us to generate automatically complete workflow applications from consistent and complete models developed from abstract models (e.g. Business Context Diagram). Therefore, our method can be used to check practicability (feasibility) of software architecture models.

  11. Instrumented Architectural Simulation System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delagi, B. A.; Saraiya, N.; Nishimura, S.; Byrd, G.

    1987-01-01

    Simulation of systems at an architectural level can offer an effective way to study critical design choices if (1) the performance of the simulator is adequate to examine designs executing significant code bodies, not just toy problems or small application fragements, (2) the details of the simulation include the critical details of the design, (3) the view of the design presented by the simulator instrumentation leads to useful insights on the problems with the design, and (4) there is enough flexibility in the simulation system so that the asking of unplanned questions is not suppressed by the weight of the mechanics involved in making changes either in the design or its measurement. A simulation system with these goals is described together with the approach to its implementation. Its application to the study of a particular class of multiprocessor hardware system architectures is illustrated.

  12. Generic robot architecture

    SciTech Connect

    Bruemmer, David J; Few, Douglas A

    2010-09-21

    The present invention provides methods, computer readable media, and apparatuses for a generic robot architecture providing a framework that is easily portable to a variety of robot platforms and is configured to provide hardware abstractions, abstractions for generic robot attributes, environment abstractions, and robot behaviors. The generic robot architecture includes a hardware abstraction level and a robot abstraction level. The hardware abstraction level is configured for developing hardware abstractions that define, monitor, and control hardware modules available on a robot platform. The robot abstraction level is configured for defining robot attributes and provides a software framework for building robot behaviors from the robot attributes. Each of the robot attributes includes hardware information from at least one hardware abstraction. In addition, each robot attribute is configured to substantially isolate the robot behaviors from the at least one hardware abstraction.

  13. Aerobot Autonomy Architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elfes, Alberto; Hall, Jeffery L.; Kulczycki, Eric A.; Cameron, Jonathan M.; Morfopoulos, Arin C.; Clouse, Daniel S.; Montgomery, James F.; Ansar, Adnan I.; Machuzak, Richard J.

    2009-01-01

    An architecture for autonomous operation of an aerobot (i.e., a robotic blimp) to be used in scientific exploration of planets and moons in the Solar system with an atmosphere (such as Titan and Venus) is undergoing development. This architecture is also applicable to autonomous airships that could be flown in the terrestrial atmosphere for scientific exploration, military reconnaissance and surveillance, and as radio-communication relay stations in disaster areas. The architecture was conceived to satisfy requirements to perform the following functions: a) Vehicle safing, that is, ensuring the integrity of the aerobot during its entire mission, including during extended communication blackouts. b) Accurate and robust autonomous flight control during operation in diverse modes, including launch, deployment of scientific instruments, long traverses, hovering or station-keeping, and maneuvers for touch-and-go surface sampling. c) Mapping and self-localization in the absence of a global positioning system. d) Advanced recognition of hazards and targets in conjunction with tracking of, and visual servoing toward, targets, all to enable the aerobot to detect and avoid atmospheric and topographic hazards and to identify, home in on, and hover over predefined terrain features or other targets of scientific interest. The architecture is an integrated combination of systems for accurate and robust vehicle and flight trajectory control; estimation of the state of the aerobot; perception-based detection and avoidance of hazards; monitoring of the integrity and functionality ("health") of the aerobot; reflexive safing actions; multi-modal localization and mapping; autonomous planning and execution of scientific observations; and long-range planning and monitoring of the mission of the aerobot. The prototype JPL aerobot (see figure) has been tested extensively in various areas in the California Mojave desert.

  14. Architectural Methodology Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dhas, Chris

    2000-01-01

    The establishment of conventions between two communicating entities in the end systems is essential for communications. Examples of the kind of decisions that need to be made in establishing a protocol convention include the nature of the data representation, the for-mat and the speed of the date representation over the communications path, and the sequence of control messages (if any) which are sent. One of the main functions of a protocol is to establish a standard path between the communicating entities. This is necessary to create a virtual communications medium with certain desirable characteristics. In essence, it is the function of the protocol to transform the characteristics of the physical communications environment into a more useful virtual communications model. The final function of a protocol is to establish standard data elements for communications over the path; that is, the protocol serves to create a virtual data element for exchange. Other systems may be constructed in which the transferred element is a program or a job. Finally, there are special purpose applications in which the element to be transferred may be a complex structure such as all or part of a graphic display. NASA's Glenn Research Center (GRC) defines and develops advanced technology for high priority national needs in communications technologies for application to aeronautics and space. GRC tasked Computer Networks and Software Inc. (CNS) to describe the methodologies used in developing a protocol architecture for an in-space Internet node. The node would support NASA:s four mission areas: Earth Science; Space Science; Human Exploration and Development of Space (HEDS); Aerospace Technology. This report presents the methodology for developing the protocol architecture. The methodology addresses the architecture for a computer communications environment. It does not address an analog voice architecture.

  15. Staged Event Architecture

    2005-05-30

    Sea is a framework for a Staged Event Architecture, designed around non-blocking asynchronous communication facilities that are decoupled from the threading model chosen by any given application, Components for P networking and in-memory communication are provided. The Sea Java library encapsulates these concepts. Sea is used to easily build efficient and flexible low-level network clients and servers, and in particular as a basic communication substrate for Peer-to-Peer applications.

  16. Information systems definition architecture

    SciTech Connect

    Calapristi, A.J.

    1996-06-20

    The Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Information Systems Definition architecture evaluated information Management (IM) processes in several key organizations. The intent of the study is to identify improvements in TWRS IM processes that will enable better support to the TWRS mission, and accommodate changes in TWRS business environment. The ultimate goals of the study are to reduce IM costs, Manage the configuration of TWRS IM elements, and improve IM-related process performance.

  17. Avionics Architecture Modelling Language

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alana, Elena; Naranjo, Hector; Valencia, Raul; Medina, Alberto; Honvault, Christophe; Rugina, Ana; Panunzia, Marco; Dellandrea, Brice; Garcia, Gerald

    2014-08-01

    This paper presents the ESA AAML (Avionics Architecture Modelling Language) study, which aimed at advancing the avionics engineering practices towards a model-based approach by (i) identifying and prioritising the avionics-relevant analyses, (ii) specifying the modelling language features necessary to support the identified analyses, and (iii) recommending/prototyping software tooling to demonstrate the automation of the selected analyses based on a modelling language and compliant with the defined specification.

  18. Modular robotic architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smurlo, Richard P.; Laird, Robin T.

    1991-03-01

    The development of control architectures for mobile systems is typically a task undertaken with each new application. These architectures address different operational needs and tend to be difficult to adapt to more than the problem at hand. The development of a flexible and extendible control system with evolutionary growth potential for use on mobile robots will help alleviate these problems and if made widely available will promote standardization and cornpatibility among systems throughout the industry. The Modular Robotic Architecture (MRA) is a generic control systern that meets the above needs by providing developers with a standard set of software hardware tools that can be used to design modular robots (MODBOTs) with nearly unlimited growth potential. The MODBOT itself is a generic creature that must be customized by the developer for a particular application. The MRA facilitates customization of the MODBOT by providing sensor actuator and processing modules that can be configured in almost any manner as demanded by the application. The Mobile Security Robot (MOSER) is an instance of a MODBOT that is being developed using the MRA. Navigational Sonar Module RF Link Control Station Module hR Link Detection Module Near hR Proximi Sensor Module Fluxgate Compass and Rate Gyro Collision Avoidance Sonar Module Figure 1. Remote platform module configuration of the Mobile Security Robot (MOSER). Acoustical Detection Array Stereoscopic Pan and Tilt Module High Level Processing Module Mobile Base 566

  19. Complex Event Recognition Architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fitzgerald, William A.; Firby, R. James

    2009-01-01

    Complex Event Recognition Architecture (CERA) is the name of a computational architecture, and software that implements the architecture, for recognizing complex event patterns that may be spread across multiple streams of input data. One of the main components of CERA is an intuitive event pattern language that simplifies what would otherwise be the complex, difficult tasks of creating logical descriptions of combinations of temporal events and defining rules for combining information from different sources over time. In this language, recognition patterns are defined in simple, declarative statements that combine point events from given input streams with those from other streams, using conjunction, disjunction, and negation. Patterns can be built on one another recursively to describe very rich, temporally extended combinations of events. Thereafter, a run-time matching algorithm in CERA efficiently matches these patterns against input data and signals when patterns are recognized. CERA can be used to monitor complex systems and to signal operators or initiate corrective actions when anomalous conditions are recognized. CERA can be run as a stand-alone monitoring system, or it can be integrated into a larger system to automatically trigger responses to changing environments or problematic situations.

  20. Quantifying Loopy Network Architectures

    PubMed Central

    Katifori, Eleni; Magnasco, Marcelo O.

    2012-01-01

    Biology presents many examples of planar distribution and structural networks having dense sets of closed loops. An archetype of this form of network organization is the vasculature of dicotyledonous leaves, which showcases a hierarchically-nested architecture containing closed loops at many different levels. Although a number of approaches have been proposed to measure aspects of the structure of such networks, a robust metric to quantify their hierarchical organization is still lacking. We present an algorithmic framework, the hierarchical loop decomposition, that allows mapping loopy networks to binary trees, preserving in the connectivity of the trees the architecture of the original graph. We apply this framework to investigate computer generated graphs, such as artificial models and optimal distribution networks, as well as natural graphs extracted from digitized images of dicotyledonous leaves and vasculature of rat cerebral neocortex. We calculate various metrics based on the asymmetry, the cumulative size distribution and the Strahler bifurcation ratios of the corresponding trees and discuss the relationship of these quantities to the architectural organization of the original graphs. This algorithmic framework decouples the geometric information (exact location of edges and nodes) from the metric topology (connectivity and edge weight) and it ultimately allows us to perform a quantitative statistical comparison between predictions of theoretical models and naturally occurring loopy graphs. PMID:22701593

  1. Robust Software Architecture for Robots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aghazanian, Hrand; Baumgartner, Eric; Garrett, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Robust Real-Time Reconfigurable Robotics Software Architecture (R4SA) is the name of both a software architecture and software that embodies the architecture. The architecture was conceived in the spirit of current practice in designing modular, hard, realtime aerospace systems. The architecture facilitates the integration of new sensory, motor, and control software modules into the software of a given robotic system. R4SA was developed for initial application aboard exploratory mobile robots on Mars, but is adaptable to terrestrial robotic systems, real-time embedded computing systems in general, and robotic toys.

  2. Architecture of Chinese Virtual Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Chen-Zhou; Zhao, Yong-Heng

    2004-06-01

    Virtual Observatory (VO) is brought forward under the background of progresses of astronomical technologies and information technologies. VO architecture design embodies the combination of above two technologies. As an introduction of VO, principle and workflow of Virtual Observatory are given firstly. Then the latest progress on VO architecture is introduced. Based on the Grid technology, layered architecture model and service-oriented architecture model are given for Chinese Virtual Observatory. In the last part of the paper, some problems on architecture design are discussed in detail.

  3. Concepts and Categories: A Cognitive Neuropsychological Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Mahon, Bradford Z.; Caramazza, Alfonso

    2010-01-01

    One of the most provocative and exciting issues in cognitive science is how neural specificity for semantic categories of common objects arises in the functional architecture of the brain. More than two decades of research on the neuropsychological phenomenon of category-specific semantic deficits has generated detailed claims about the organization and representation of conceptual knowledge. More recently, researchers have sought to test hypotheses developed on the basis of neuropsychological evidence with functional imaging. From those two fields, the empirical generalization emerges that object domain and sensory modality jointly constrain the organization of knowledge in the brain. At the same time, research within the embodied cognition framework has highlighted the need to articulate how information is communicated between the sensory and motor systems, and processes that represent and generalize abstract information. Those developments point toward a new approach for understanding category specificity in terms of the coordinated influences of diverse regions and cognitive systems. PMID:18767921

  4. Using a human cognition model in the creation of collaborative knowledge visualizations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Green, Tera Marie; Ribarsky, William

    2008-04-01

    This paper explores the basis and usefulness of a predictive model for the architecture of data and knowledge visualizations based on human higher-cognition, including human tendencies in reasoning heuristics and cognitive biases. The strengths and weakness of would-be human and computer collaborators are explored, and a model framework is outlined and discussed.

  5. Capital Architecture: Situating symbolism parallel to architectural methods and technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daoud, Bassam

    Capital Architecture is a symbol of a nation's global presence and the cultural and social focal point of its inhabitants. Since the advent of High-Modernism in Western cities, and subsequently decolonised capitals, civic architecture no longer seems to be strictly grounded in the philosophy that national buildings shape the legacy of government and the way a nation is regarded through its built environment. Amidst an exceedingly globalized architectural practice and with the growing concern of key heritage foundations over the shortcomings of international modernism in representing its immediate socio-cultural context, the contextualization of public architecture within its sociological, cultural and economic framework in capital cities became the key denominator of this thesis. Civic architecture in capital cities is essential to confront the challenges of symbolizing a nation and demonstrating the legitimacy of the government'. In today's dominantly secular Western societies, governmental architecture, especially where the seat of political power lies, is the ultimate form of architectural expression in conveying a sense of identity and underlining a nation's status. Departing with these convictions, this thesis investigates the embodied symbolic power, the representative capacity, and the inherent permanence in contemporary architecture, and in its modes of production. Through a vast study on Modern architectural ideals and heritage -- in parallel to methodologies -- the thesis stimulates the future of large scale governmental building practices and aims to identify and index the key constituents that may respond to the lack representation in civic architecture in capital cities.

  6. Describing Cognitive Structure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Richard T.

    This paper discusses questions pertinent to a definition of cognitive structure as the knowledge one possesses and the manner in which it is arranged, and considers how to select or devise methods of describing cognitive structure. The main purpose in describing cognitive structure is to see whether differences in memory (or cognitive structure)…

  7. An Evolutionarily Adaptive Neural Architecture for Social Reasoning

    PubMed Central

    Barbey, Aron K.; Krueger, Frank; Grafman, Jordan

    2009-01-01

    Recent progress in cognitive neuroscience highlights the involvement of the prefrontal cortex (PFC) in social cognition. Accumulating evidence demonstrates that representations within the lateral PFC enable people to coordinate their thoughts and actions with their intentions to support goal-directed social behavior. Despite the importance of this region in guiding social interactions, remarkably little is known about the functional organization and forms of social inference processed by the lateral PFC. Here we introduce a cognitive neuroscience framework for understanding the inferential architecture of the lateral PFC, drawing upon recent theoretical developments in evolutionary psychology and emerging neuroscience evidence about how this region may orchestrate behavior on the basis of evolutionarily adaptive social norms for obligatory, prohibited, and permissible courses of action. PMID:19782410

  8. Information Processing in Cognition Process and New Artificial Intelligent Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Nanning; Xue, Jianru

    In this chapter, we discuss, in depth, visual information processing and a new artificial intelligent (AI) system that is based upon cognitive mechanisms. The relationship between a general model of intelligent systems and cognitive mechanisms is described, and in particular we explore visual information processing with selective attention. We also discuss a methodology for studying the new AI system and propose some important basic research issues that have emerged in the intersecting fields of cognitive science and information science. To this end, a new scheme for associative memory and a new architecture for an AI system with attractors of chaos are addressed.

  9. Using Computational Cognitive Modeling to Diagnose Possible Sources of Aviation Error

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Byrne, M. D.; Kirlik, Alex

    2003-01-01

    We present a computational model of a closed-loop, pilot-aircraft-visual scene-taxiway system created to shed light on possible sources of taxi error. Creating the cognitive aspects of the model using ACT-R required us to conduct studies with subject matter experts to identify experiential adaptations pilots bring to taxiing. Five decision strategies were found, ranging from cognitively-intensive but precise, to fast, frugal but robust. We provide evidence for the model by comparing its behavior to a NASA Ames Research Center simulation of Chicago O'Hare surface operations. Decision horizons were highly variable; the model selected the most accurate strategy given time available. We found a signature in the simulation data of the use of globally robust heuristics to cope with short decision horizons as revealed by errors occurring most frequently at atypical taxiway geometries or clearance routes. These data provided empirical support for the model.

  10. The flight telerobotic servicer: From functional architecture to computer architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lumia, Ronald; Fiala, John

    1989-01-01

    After a brief tutorial on the NASA/National Bureau of Standards Standard Reference Model for Telerobot Control System Architecture (NASREM) functional architecture, the approach to its implementation is shown. First, interfaces must be defined which are capable of supporting the known algorithms. This is illustrated by considering the interfaces required for the SERVO level of the NASREM functional architecture. After interface definition, the specific computer architecture for the implementation must be determined. This choice is obviously technology dependent. An example illustrating one possible mapping of the NASREM functional architecture to a particular set of computers which implements it is shown. The result of choosing the NASREM functional architecture is that it provides a technology independent paradigm which can be mapped into a technology dependent implementation capable of evolving with technology in the laboratory and in space.

  11. The EPOS ICT Architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeffery, Keith; Harrison, Matt; Bailo, Daniele

    2016-04-01

    The EPOS-PP Project 2010-2014 proposed an architecture and demonstrated feasibility with a prototype. Requirements based on use cases were collected and an inventory of assets (e.g. datasets, software, users, computing resources, equipment/detectors, laboratory services) (RIDE) was developed. The architecture evolved through three stages of refinement with much consultation both with the EPOS community representing EPOS users and participants in geoscience and with the overall ICT community especially those working on research such as the RDA (Research Data Alliance) community. The architecture consists of a central ICS (Integrated Core Services) consisting of a portal and catalog, the latter providing to end-users a 'map' of all EPOS resources (datasets, software, users, computing, equipment/detectors etc.). ICS is extended to ICS-d (distributed ICS) for certain services (such as visualisation software services or Cloud computing resources) and CES (Computational Earth Science) for specific simulation or analytical processing. ICS also communicates with TCS (Thematic Core Services) which represent European-wide portals to national and local assets, resources and services in the various specific domains (e.g. seismology, volcanology, geodesy) of EPOS. The EPOS-IP project 2015-2019 started October 2015. Two work-packages cover the ICT aspects; WP6 involves interaction with the TCS while WP7 concentrates on ICS including interoperation with ICS-d and CES offerings: in short the ICT architecture. Based on the experience and results of EPOS-PP the ICT team held a pre-meeting in July 2015 and set out a project plan. The first major activity involved requirements (re-)collection with use cases and also updating the inventory of assets held by the various TCS in EPOS. The RIDE database of assets is currently being converted to CERIF (Common European Research Information Format - an EU Recommendation to Member States) to provide the basis for the EPOS-IP ICS Catalog. In

  12. Mind and Language Architecture

    PubMed Central

    Logan, Robert K

    2010-01-01

    A distinction is made between the brain and the mind. The architecture of the mind and language is then described within a neo-dualistic framework. A model for the origin of language based on emergence theory is presented. The complexity of hominid existence due to tool making, the control of fire and the social cooperation that fire required gave rise to a new level of order in mental activity and triggered the simultaneous emergence of language and conceptual thought. The mind is shown to have emerged as a bifurcation of the brain with the emergence of language. The role of language in the evolution of human culture is also described. PMID:20922045

  13. Architecture, constraints, and behavior

    PubMed Central

    Doyle, John C.; Csete, Marie

    2011-01-01

    This paper aims to bridge progress in neuroscience involving sophisticated quantitative analysis of behavior, including the use of robust control, with other relevant conceptual and theoretical frameworks from systems engineering, systems biology, and mathematics. Familiar and accessible case studies are used to illustrate concepts of robustness, organization, and architecture (modularity and protocols) that are central to understanding complex networks. These essential organizational features are hidden during normal function of a system but are fundamental for understanding the nature, design, and function of complex biologic and technologic systems. PMID:21788505

  14. Evolution of genome architecture.

    PubMed

    Koonin, Eugene V

    2009-02-01

    Charles Darwin believed that all traits of organisms have been honed to near perfection by natural selection. The empirical basis underlying Darwin's conclusions consisted of numerous observations made by him and other naturalists on the exquisite adaptations of animals and plants to their natural habitats and on the impressive results of artificial selection. Darwin fully appreciated the importance of heredity but was unaware of the nature and, in fact, the very existence of genomes. A century and a half after the publication of the "Origin", we have the opportunity to draw conclusions from the comparisons of hundreds of genome sequences from all walks of life. These comparisons suggest that the dominant mode of genome evolution is quite different from that of the phenotypic evolution. The genomes of vertebrates, those purported paragons of biological perfection, turned out to be veritable junkyards of selfish genetic elements where only a small fraction of the genetic material is dedicated to encoding biologically relevant information. In sharp contrast, genomes of microbes and viruses are incomparably more compact, with most of the genetic material assigned to distinct biological functions. However, even in these genomes, the specific genome organization (gene order) is poorly conserved. The results of comparative genomics lead to the conclusion that the genome architecture is not a straightforward result of continuous adaptation but rather is determined by the balance between the selection pressure, that is itself dependent on the effective population size and mutation rate, the level of recombination, and the activity of selfish elements. Although genes and, in many cases, multigene regions of genomes possess elaborate architectures that ensure regulation of expression, these arrangements are evolutionarily volatile and typically change substantially even on short evolutionary scales when gene sequences diverge minimally. Thus, the observed genome

  15. Architecture for Teraflop Visualization

    SciTech Connect

    Breckenridge, A.R.; Haynes, R.A.

    1999-04-09

    Sandia Laboratories' computational scientists are addressing a very important question: How do we get insight from the human combined with the computer-generated information? The answer inevitably leads to using scientific visualization. Going one technology leap further is teraflop visualization, where the computing model and interactive graphics are an integral whole to provide computing for insight. In order to implement our teraflop visualization architecture, all hardware installed or software coded will be based on open modules and dynamic extensibility principles. We will illustrate these concepts with examples in our three main research areas: (1) authoring content (the computer), (2) enhancing precision and resolution (the human), and (3) adding behaviors (the physics).

  16. Parallel algorithms and architectures

    SciTech Connect

    Albrecht, A.; Jung, H.; Mehlhorn, K.

    1987-01-01

    Contents of this book are the following: Preparata: Deterministic simulation of idealized parallel computers on more realistic ones; Convex hull of randomly chosen points from a polytope; Dataflow computing; Parallel in sequence; Towards the architecture of an elementary cortical processor; Parallel algorithms and static analysis of parallel programs; Parallel processing of combinatorial search; Communications; An O(nlogn) cost parallel algorithms for the single function coarsest partition problem; Systolic algorithms for computing the visibility polygon and triangulation of a polygonal region; and RELACS - A recursive layout computing system. Parallel linear conflict-free subtree access.

  17. Etruscan Divination and Architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magli, Giulio

    The Etruscan religion was characterized by divination methods, aimed at interpreting the will of the gods. These methods were revealed by the gods themselves and written in the books of the Etrusca Disciplina. The books are lost, but parts of them are preserved in the accounts of later Latin sources. According to such traditions divination was tightly connected with the Etruscan cosmovision of a Pantheon distributed in equally spaced, specific sectors of the celestial realm. We explore here the possible reflections of such issues in the Etruscan architectural remains.

  18. TROPIX Power System Architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manner, David B.; Hickman, J. Mark

    1995-01-01

    This document contains results obtained in the process of performing a power system definition study of the TROPIX power management and distribution system (PMAD). Requirements derived from the PMADs interaction with other spacecraft systems are discussed first. Since the design is dependent on the performance of the photovoltaics, there is a comprehensive discussion of the appropriate models for cells and arrays. A trade study of the array operating voltage and its effect on array bus mass is also presented. A system architecture is developed which makes use of a combination of high efficiency switching power convertors and analog regulators. Mass and volume estimates are presented for all subsystems.

  19. Architecture for robot intelligence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peters, II, Richard Alan (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    An architecture for robot intelligence enables a robot to learn new behaviors and create new behavior sequences autonomously and interact with a dynamically changing environment. Sensory information is mapped onto a Sensory Ego-Sphere (SES) that rapidly identifies important changes in the environment and functions much like short term memory. Behaviors are stored in a DBAM that creates an active map from the robot's current state to a goal state and functions much like long term memory. A dream state converts recent activities stored in the SES and creates or modifies behaviors in the DBAM.

  20. Cognitive Representation of Human Action: Theory, Applications, and Perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Seegelke, Christian; Schack, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    In this perspective article, we propose a cognitive architecture model of human action that stresses the importance of cognitive representations stored in long-term memory as reference structures underlying and guiding voluntary motor performance. We introduce an experimental approach to ascertain cognitive representation structures and provide evidence from a variety of different studies, ranging from basic research in manual action to application-oriented research, such as athlete performance and rehabilitation. As results from these studies strongly support the presence of functional links between cognitive and motor processes, we regard this approach as a suitable and valuable tool for a variety of different disciplines related to cognition and movement. We conclude this article by highlighting current advances in ongoing research projects aimed at improving interaction capabilities in technical systems, particularly for rehabilitation and everyday support of the elderly, and outline future research directions. PMID:26925398

  1. A symbolic/subsymbolic interface protocol for cognitive modeling

    PubMed Central

    Simen, Patrick; Polk, Thad

    2009-01-01

    Researchers studying complex cognition have grown increasingly interested in mapping symbolic cognitive architectures onto subsymbolic brain models. Such a mapping seems essential for understanding cognition under all but the most extreme viewpoints (namely, that cognition consists exclusively of digitally implemented rules; or instead, involves no rules whatsoever). Making this mapping reduces to specifying an interface between symbolic and subsymbolic descriptions of brain activity. To that end, we propose parameterization techniques for building cognitive models as programmable, structured, recurrent neural networks. Feedback strength in these models determines whether their components implement classically subsymbolic neural network functions (e.g., pattern recognition), or instead, logical rules and digital memory. These techniques support the implementation of limited production systems. Though inherently sequential and symbolic, these neural production systems can exploit principles of parallel, analog processing from decision-making models in psychology and neuroscience to explain the effects of brain damage on problem solving behavior. PMID:20711520

  2. An agent architecture with on-line learning of both procedural and declarative knowledge

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, R.; Peterson, T.; Merrill, E.

    1996-12-31

    In order to develop versatile cognitive agents that learn in situated contexts and generalize resulting knowledge to different environments, we explore the possibility of learning both declarative and procedural knowledge in a hybrid connectionist architecture. The architecture is based on the two-level idea proposed earlier by the author. Declarative knowledge is represented symbolically, while procedural knowledge is represented subsymbolically. The architecture integrates reactive procedures, rules, learning, and decision-making in a unified framework, and structures different learning components (including Q-learning and rule induction) in a synergistic way to perform on-line and integrated learning.

  3. Complex processes from dynamical architectures with time-scale hierarchy.

    PubMed

    Perdikis, Dionysios; Huys, Raoul; Jirsa, Viktor

    2011-01-01

    The idea that complex motor, perceptual, and cognitive behaviors are composed of smaller units, which are somehow brought into a meaningful relation, permeates the biological and life sciences. However, no principled framework defining the constituent elementary processes has been developed to this date. Consequently, functional configurations (or architectures) relating elementary processes and external influences are mostly piecemeal formulations suitable to particular instances only. Here, we develop a general dynamical framework for distinct functional architectures characterized by the time-scale separation of their constituents and evaluate their efficiency. Thereto, we build on the (phase) flow of a system, which prescribes the temporal evolution of its state variables. The phase flow topology allows for the unambiguous classification of qualitatively distinct processes, which we consider to represent the functional units or modes within the dynamical architecture. Using the example of a composite movement we illustrate how different architectures can be characterized by their degree of time scale separation between the internal elements of the architecture (i.e. the functional modes) and external interventions. We reveal a tradeoff of the interactions between internal and external influences, which offers a theoretical justification for the efficient composition of complex processes out of non-trivial elementary processes or functional modes. PMID:21347363

  4. Architectures for intelligent machines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saridis, George N.

    1991-01-01

    The theory of intelligent machines has been recently reformulated to incorporate new architectures that are using neural and Petri nets. The analytic functions of an intelligent machine are implemented by intelligent controls, using entropy as a measure. The resulting hierarchical control structure is based on the principle of increasing precision with decreasing intelligence. Each of the three levels of the intelligent control is using different architectures, in order to satisfy the requirements of the principle: the organization level is moduled after a Boltzmann machine for abstract reasoning, task planning and decision making; the coordination level is composed of a number of Petri net transducers supervised, for command exchange, by a dispatcher, which also serves as an interface to the organization level; the execution level, include the sensory, planning for navigation and control hardware which interacts one-to-one with the appropriate coordinators, while a VME bus provides a channel for database exchange among the several devices. This system is currently implemented on a robotic transporter, designed for space construction at the CIRSSE laboratories at the Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute. The progress of its development is reported.

  5. Autonomous droplet architectures.

    PubMed

    Jones, Gareth; King, Philip H; Morgan, Hywel; de Planque, Maurits R R; Zauner, Klaus-Peter

    2015-01-01

    The quintessential living element of all organisms is the cell-a fluid-filled compartment enclosed, but not isolated, by a layer of amphiphilic molecules that self-assemble at its boundary. Cells of different composition can aggregate and communicate through the exchange of molecules across their boundaries. The astounding success of this architecture is readily apparent throughout the biological world. Inspired by the versatility of nature's architecture, we investigate aggregates of membrane-enclosed droplets as a design concept for robotics. This will require droplets capable of sensing, information processing, and actuation. It will also require the integration of functionally specialized droplets into an interconnected functional unit. Based on results from the literature and from our own laboratory, we argue the viability of this approach. Sensing and information processing in droplets have been the subject of several recent studies, on which we draw. Integrating droplets into coherently acting units and the aspect of controlled actuation for locomotion have received less attention. This article describes experiments that address both of these challenges. Using lipid-coated droplets of Belousov-Zhabotinsky reaction medium in oil, we show here that such droplets can be integrated and that chemically driven mechanical motion can be achieved. PMID:25622015

  6. Protocol Architecture Model Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dhas, Chris

    2000-01-01

    NASA's Glenn Research Center (GRC) defines and develops advanced technology for high priority national needs in communications technologies for application to aeronautics and space. GRC tasked Computer Networks and Software Inc. (CNS) to examine protocols and architectures for an In-Space Internet Node. CNS has developed a methodology for network reference models to support NASA's four mission areas: Earth Science, Space Science, Human Exploration and Development of Space (REDS), Aerospace Technology. This report applies the methodology to three space Internet-based communications scenarios for future missions. CNS has conceptualized, designed, and developed space Internet-based communications protocols and architectures for each of the independent scenarios. The scenarios are: Scenario 1: Unicast communications between a Low-Earth-Orbit (LEO) spacecraft inspace Internet node and a ground terminal Internet node via a Tracking and Data Rela Satellite (TDRS) transfer; Scenario 2: Unicast communications between a Low-Earth-Orbit (LEO) International Space Station and a ground terminal Internet node via a TDRS transfer; Scenario 3: Multicast Communications (or "Multicasting"), 1 Spacecraft to N Ground Receivers, N Ground Transmitters to 1 Ground Receiver via a Spacecraft.

  7. Music cognition and the cognitive sciences.

    PubMed

    Pearce, Marcus; Rohrmeier, Martin

    2012-10-01

    Why should music be of interest to cognitive scientists, and what role does it play in human cognition? We review three factors that make music an important topic for cognitive scientific research. First, music is a universal human trait fulfilling crucial roles in everyday life. Second, music has an important part to play in ontogenetic development and human evolution. Third, appreciating and producing music simultaneously engage many complex perceptual, cognitive, and emotional processes, rendering music an ideal object for studying the mind. We propose an integrated status for music cognition in the Cognitive Sciences and conclude by reviewing challenges and big questions in the field and the way in which these reflect recent developments. PMID:23060125

  8. Rutger's CAM2000 chip architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Donald E.; Hall, J. Storrs; Miyake, Keith

    1993-01-01

    This report describes the architecture and instruction set of the Rutgers CAM2000 memory chip. The CAM2000 combines features of Associative Processing (AP), Content Addressable Memory (CAM), and Dynamic Random Access Memory (DRAM) in a single chip package that is not only DRAM compatible but capable of applying simple massively parallel operations to memory. This document reflects the current status of the CAM2000 architecture and is continually updated to reflect the current state of the architecture and instruction set.

  9. Demand Activated Manufacturing Architecture

    SciTech Connect

    Bender, T.R.; Zimmerman, J.J.

    2001-02-07

    Honeywell Federal Manufacturing & Technologies (FM&T) engineers John Zimmerman and Tom Bender directed separate projects within this CRADA. This Project Accomplishments Summary contains their reports independently. Zimmerman: In 1998 Honeywell FM&T partnered with the Demand Activated Manufacturing Architecture (DAMA) Cooperative Business Management Program to pilot the Supply Chain Integration Planning Prototype (SCIP). At the time, FM&T was developing an enterprise-wide supply chain management prototype called the Integrated Programmatic Scheduling System (IPSS) to improve the DOE's Nuclear Weapons Complex (NWC) supply chain. In the CRADA partnership, FM&T provided the IPSS technical and business infrastructure as a test bed for SCIP technology, and this would provide FM&T the opportunity to evaluate SCIP as the central schedule engine and decision support tool for IPSS. FM&T agreed to do the bulk of the work for piloting SCIP. In support of that aim, DAMA needed specific DOE Defense Programs opportunities to prove the value of its supply chain architecture and tools. In this partnership, FM&T teamed with Sandia National Labs (SNL), Division 6534, the other DAMA partner and developer of SCIP. FM&T tested SCIP in 1998 and 1999. Testing ended in 1999 when DAMA CRADA funding for FM&T ceased. Before entering the partnership, FM&T discovered that the DAMA SCIP technology had an array of applications in strategic, tactical, and operational planning and scheduling. At the time, FM&T planned to improve its supply chain performance by modernizing the NWC-wide planning and scheduling business processes and tools. The modernization took the form of a distributed client-server planning and scheduling system (IPSS) for planners and schedulers to use throughout the NWC on desktops through an off-the-shelf WEB browser. The planning and scheduling process within the NWC then, and today, is a labor-intensive paper-based method that plans and schedules more than 8,000 shipped parts

  10. Exploring Cognitive Diversity: Anthropological Perspectives on Cognition.

    PubMed

    Beller, Sieghard; Bender, Andrea

    2015-10-01

    Anthropology and the other cognitive sciences currently maintain a troubled relationship (Beller, Bender, & Medin, ). What could rapprochement look like, and how could it be achieved? The seven main articles of this topic present anthropological or anthropologically inspired cross-cultural research on a diverse set of cognitive domains. They serve as an existence proof that not only do synergies abound across anthropology and the other cognitive sciences, but that they are worth achieving. PMID:26344239

  11. Cognitive remediation in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Medalia, Alice; Choi, Jimmy

    2009-09-01

    Cognitive deficits are routinely evident in schizophrenia, and are of sufficient magnitude to influence functional outcomes in work, social functioning and illness management. Cognitive remediation is an evidenced-based non-pharmacological treatment for the neurocognitive deficits seen in schizophrenia. Narrowly defined, cognitive remediation is a set of cognitive drills or compensatory interventions designed to enhance cognitive functioning, but from the vantage of the psychiatric rehabilitation field, cognitive remediation is a therapy which engages the patient in learning activities that enhance the neurocognitive skills relevant to their chosen recovery goals. Cognitive remediation programs vary in the extent to which they reflect these narrow or broader perspectives but six meta-analytic studies report moderate range effect sizes on cognitive test performance, and daily functioning. Reciprocal interactions between baseline ability level, the type of instructional techniques used, and motivation provide some explanatory power for the heterogeneity in patient response to cognitive remediation. PMID:19444614

  12. Software synthesis using generic architectures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhansali, Sanjay

    1993-01-01

    A framework for synthesizing software systems based on abstracting software system designs and the design process is described. The result of such an abstraction process is a generic architecture and the process knowledge for customizing the architecture. The customization process knowledge is used to assist a designer in customizing the architecture as opposed to completely automating the design of systems. Our approach using an implemented example of a generic tracking architecture which was customized in two different domains is illustrated. How the designs produced using KASE compare to the original designs of the two systems, and current work and plans for extending KASE to other application areas are described.

  13. Cognitive neuroscience of human memory.

    PubMed

    Gabrieli, J D

    1998-01-01

    Current knowledge is summarized about long-term memory systems of the human brain, with memory systems defined as specific neural networks that support specific mnemonic processes. The summary integrates convergent evidence from neuropsychological studies of patients with brain lesions and from functional neuroimaging studies using positron emission tomography (PET) or functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Evidence is reviewed about the specific roles of hippocampal and parahippocampal regions, the amygdala, the basal ganglia, and various neocortical areas in declarative memory. Evidence is also reviewed about which brain regions mediate specific kinds of procedural memory, including sensorimotor, perceptual, and cognitive skill learning; perceptual and conceptual repetition priming; and several forms of conditioning. Findings are discussed in terms of the functional neural architecture of normal memory, age-related changes in memory performance, and neurological conditions that affect memory such as amnesia. Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and Huntington's disease. PMID:9496622

  14. 9. Photocopy of architectural drawing (from National Archives Architectural and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. Photocopy of architectural drawing (from National Archives Architectural and Cartographic Branch, Alexandria, Va.) Annotated lithograph on paper. Standard plan used for construction of Commissary Sergeants Quarters, 1876. PLAN, FRONT AND SIDE ELEVATIONS, SECTION - Fort Myer, Commissary Sergeant's Quarters, Washington Avenue between Johnson Lane & Custer Road, Arlington, Arlington County, VA

  15. The Architecture of Exoplanets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hatzes, Artie P.

    2016-05-01

    Prior to the discovery of exoplanets our expectations of their architecture were largely driven by the properties of our solar system. We expected giant planets to lie in the outer regions and rocky planets in the inner regions. Planets should probably only occupy orbital distances 0.3-30 AU from the star. Planetary orbits should be circular, prograde and in the same plane. The reality of exoplanets have shattered these expectations. Jupiter-mass, Neptune-mass, Superearths, and even Earth-mass planets can orbit within 0.05 AU of the stars, sometimes with orbital periods of less than one day. Exoplanetary orbits can be eccentric, misaligned, and even in retrograde orbits. Radial velocity surveys gave the first hints that the occurrence rate increases with decreasing mass. This was put on a firm statistical basis with the Kepler mission that clearly demonstrated that there were more Neptune- and Superearth-sized planets than Jupiter-sized planets. These are often in multiple, densely packed systems where the planets all orbit within 0.3 AU of the star, a result also suggested by radial velocity surveys. Exoplanets also exhibit diversity along the main sequence. Massive stars tend to have a higher frequency of planets ( ≈ 20-25 %) that tend to be more massive ( M≈ 5-10 M_{Jup}). Giant planets around low mass stars are rare, but these stars show an abundance of small (Neptune and Superearth) planets in multiple systems. Planet formation is also not restricted to single stars as the Kepler mission has discovered several circumbinary planets. Although we have learned much about the architecture of planets over the past 20 years, we know little about the census of small planets at relatively large ( a>1 AU) orbital distances. We have yet to find a planetary system that is analogous to our own solar system. The question of how unique are the properties of our own solar system remains unanswered. Advancements in the detection methods of small planets over a wide range

  16. [Cognition, social cognition and functioning in schizophrenia].

    PubMed

    Vaz-Serra, Adriano; Palha, António; Figueira, Maria Luísa; Bessa-Peixoto, Alberto; Brissos, Sofia; Casquinha, Paula; Damas-Reis, Filipe; Ferreira, Luís; Gago, Joaquim; Jara, José; Relvas, João; Marques-Teixeira, João

    2010-01-01

    The major reviews of the literature support the idea that a significant proportion of patients with schizophrenia present cognitive deficits in several domains, more marked in the domains of verbal memory, vigilance and attention, memory, intellectual quotient, language and executive functioning. Such deficits appear to be one of the main determinants of these patients' functional outcome. More recently, social cognition deficits have been described. Social cognition may be understood as a separate and independent dimension of neurocognition or non-social cognition and may constitute a mediator between the neurocognition and functioning. However, there has been controversy concerning the real meaning of deficits observed due to the diversity of analysis methodologies employed and the fact that the available neuropsychological tests and batteries have not been specifically designed to evaluate cognitive deficits in patients with schizophrenia. In this paper, the Working Group on Schizophrenia (GTE) describes and highlights the existing clinical and scientific evidence, performs a critical review of cognitive functioning, social cognition and its impact on functional outcome, in patients with schizophrenia. The authors review definitions of (neuro)cognition, social cognition and functioning, analyze the existing methods for its assessment, describe the treatments available in this context and summarize the evidence of dysfunctions in these three concepts, taking into account their interconnection. Overall, the GTE considered the need for a standardized battery of tests to measure neurocognition, social cognition and functioning, consensually accepting the use of MATRICS as the standard tool for assessing neurocognition in schizophrenia. It was also recognized that verbal memory and vigilance deficits may be the best predictors of functional outcome in schizophrenia. In addition, the GTE has established social cognition as a priority area in the study of schizophrenia

  17. Multiprocessor architectural study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kosmala, A. L.; Stanten, S. F.; Vandever, W. H.

    1972-01-01

    An architectural design study was made of a multiprocessor computing system intended to meet functional and performance specifications appropriate to a manned space station application. Intermetrics, previous experience, and accumulated knowledge of the multiprocessor field is used to generate a baseline philosophy for the design of a future SUMC* multiprocessor. Interrupts are defined and the crucial questions of interrupt structure, such as processor selection and response time, are discussed. Memory hierarchy and performance is discussed extensively with particular attention to the design approach which utilizes a cache memory associated with each processor. The ability of an individual processor to approach its theoretical maximum performance is then analyzed in terms of a hit ratio. Memory management is envisioned as a virtual memory system implemented either through segmentation or paging. Addressing is discussed in terms of various register design adopted by current computers and those of advanced design.

  18. Functional Biomimetic Architectures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levine, Paul M.

    N-substituted glycine oligomers, or 'peptoids,' are a class of sequence--specific foldamers composed of tertiary amide linkages, engendering proteolytic stability and enhanced cellular permeability. Peptoids are notable for their facile synthesis, sequence diversity, and ability to fold into distinct secondary structures. In an effort to establish new functional peptoid architectures, we utilize the copper-catalyzed azide-alkyne [3+2] cycloaddition (CuAAC) reaction to generate peptidomimetic assemblies bearing bioactive ligands that specifically target and modulate Androgen Receptor (AR) activity, a major therapeutic target for prostate cancer. Additionally, we explore chemical ligation protocols to generate semi-synthetic hybrid biomacromolecules capable of exhibiting novel structures and functions not accessible to fully biosynthesized proteins.

  19. CONRAD Software Architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guzman, J. C.; Bennett, T.

    2008-08-01

    The Convergent Radio Astronomy Demonstrator (CONRAD) is a collaboration between the computing teams of two SKA pathfinder instruments, MeerKAT (South Africa) and ASKAP (Australia). Our goal is to produce the required common software to operate, process and store the data from the two instruments. Both instruments are synthesis arrays composed of a large number of antennas (40 - 100) operating at centimeter wavelengths with wide-field capabilities. Key challenges are the processing of high volume of data in real-time as well as the remote mode of operations. Here we present the software architecture for CONRAD. Our design approach is to maximize the use of open solutions and third-party software widely deployed in commercial applications, such as SNMP and LDAP, and to utilize modern web-based technologies for the user interfaces, such as AJAX.

  20. Naval open systems architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guertin, Nick; Womble, Brian; Haskell, Virginia

    2013-05-01

    For the past 8 years, the Navy has been working on transforming the acquisition practices of the Navy and Marine Corps toward Open Systems Architectures to open up our business, gain competitive advantage, improve warfighter performance, speed innovation to the fleet and deliver superior capability to the warfighter within a shrinking budget1. Why should Industry care? They should care because we in Government want the best Industry has to offer. Industry is in the business of pushing technology to greater and greater capabilities through innovation. Examples of innovations are on full display at this conference, such as exploring the impact of difficult environmental conditions on technical performance. Industry is creating the tools which will continue to give the Navy and Marine Corps important tactical advantages over our adversaries.

  1. Planning in subsumption architectures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chalfant, Eugene C.

    1994-01-01

    A subsumption planner using a parallel distributed computational paradigm based on the subsumption architecture for control of real-world capable robots is described. Virtual sensor state space is used as a planning tool to visualize the robot's anticipated effect on its environment. Decision sequences are generated based on the environmental situation expected at the time the robot must commit to a decision. Between decision points, the robot performs in a preprogrammed manner. A rudimentary, domain-specific partial world model contains enough information to extrapolate the end results of the rote behavior between decision points. A collective network of predictors operates in parallel with the reactive network forming a recurrrent network which generates plans as a hierarchy. Details of a plan segment are generated only when its execution is imminent. The use of the subsumption planner is demonstrated by a simple maze navigation problem.

  2. Power Systems Control Architecture

    SciTech Connect

    James Davidson

    2005-01-01

    A diagram provided in the report depicts the complexity of the power systems control architecture used by the national power structure. It shows the structural hierarchy and the relationship of the each system to those other systems interconnected to it. Each of these levels provides a different focus for vulnerability testing and has its own weaknesses. In evaluating each level, of prime concern is what vulnerabilities exist that provide a path into the system, either to cause the system to malfunction or to take control of a field device. An additional vulnerability to consider is can the system be compromised in such a manner that the attacker can obtain critical information about the system and the portion of the national power structure that it controls.

  3. MSAT network architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davies, N. G.; Skerry, B.

    1990-01-01

    The Mobile Satellite (MSAT) communications system will support mobile voice and data services using circuit switched and packet switched facilities with interconnection to the public switched telephone network and private networks. Control of the satellite network will reside in a Network Control System (NCS) which is being designed to be extremely flexible to provide for the operation of the system initially with one multi-beam satellite, but with capability to add additional satellites which may have other beam configurations. The architecture of the NCS is described. The signalling system must be capable of supporting the protocols for the assignment of circuits for mobile public telephone and private network calls as well as identifying packet data networks. The structure of a straw-man signalling system is discussed.

  4. Secure Storage Architectures

    SciTech Connect

    Aderholdt, Ferrol; Caldwell, Blake A; Hicks, Susan Elaine; Koch, Scott M; Naughton, III, Thomas J; Pogge, James R; Scott, Stephen L; Shipman, Galen M; Sorrillo, Lawrence

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to clarify the challenges associated with storage for secure enclaves. The major focus areas for the report are: - review of relevant parallel filesystem technologies to identify assets and gaps; - review of filesystem isolation/protection mechanisms, to include native filesystem capabilities and auxiliary/layered techniques; - definition of storage architectures that can be used for customizable compute enclaves (i.e., clarification of use-cases that must be supported for shared storage scenarios); - investigate vendor products related to secure storage. This study provides technical details on the storage and filesystem used for HPC with particular attention on elements that contribute to creating secure storage. We outline the pieces for a a shared storage architecture that balances protection and performance by leveraging the isolation capabilities available in filesystems and virtualization technologies to maintain the integrity of the data. Key Points: There are a few existing and in-progress protection features in Lustre related to secure storage, which are discussed in (Chapter 3.1). These include authentication capabilities like GSSAPI/Kerberos and the in-progress work for GSSAPI/Host-keys. The GPFS filesystem provides native support for encryption, which is not directly available in Lustre. Additionally, GPFS includes authentication/authorization mechanisms for inter-cluster sharing of filesystems (Chapter 3.2). The limitations of key importance for secure storage/filesystems are: (i) restricting sub-tree mounts for parallel filesystem (which is not directly supported in Lustre or GPFS), and (ii) segregation of hosts on the storage network and practical complications with dynamic additions to the storage network, e.g., LNET. A challenge for VM based use cases will be to provide efficient IO forwarding of the parallel filessytem from the host to the guest (VM). There are promising options like para-virtualized filesystems to

  5. A Tool for Managing Software Architecture Knowledge

    SciTech Connect

    Babar, Muhammad A.; Gorton, Ian

    2007-08-01

    This paper describes a tool for managing architectural knowledge and rationale. The tool has been developed to support a framework for capturing and using architectural knowledge to improve the architecture process. This paper describes the main architectural components and features of the tool. The paper also provides examples of using the tool for supporting wellknown architecture design and analysis methods.

  6. SpaceWire Architectures: Present and Future

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rakow, Glen Parker

    2006-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation on current and future spacewire architectures is shown. The topics include: 1) Current Spacewire Architectures: Swift Data Flow; 2) Current SpaceWire Architectures : LRO Data Flow; 3) Current Spacewire Architectures: JWST Data Flow; 4) Current SpaceWire Architectures; 5) Traditional Systems; 6) Future Systems; 7) Advantages; and 8) System Engineer Toolkit.

  7. Space Telecommunications Radio Architecture (STRS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reinhart, Richard C.

    2006-01-01

    A software defined radio (SDR) architecture used in space-based platforms proposes to standardize certain aspects of radio development such as interface definitions, functional control and execution, and application software and firmware development. NASA has charted a team to develop an open software defined radio hardware and software architecture to support NASA missions and determine the viability of an Agency-wide Standard. A draft concept of the proposed standard has been released and discussed among organizations in the SDR community. Appropriate leveraging of the JTRS SCA, OMG's SWRadio Architecture and other aspects are considered. A standard radio architecture offers potential value by employing common waveform software instantiation, operation, testing and software maintenance. While software defined radios offer greater flexibility, they also poses challenges to the radio development for the space environment in terms of size, mass and power consumption and available technology. An SDR architecture for space must recognize and address the constraints of space flight hardware, and systems along with flight heritage and culture. NASA is actively participating in the development of technology and standards related to software defined radios. As NASA considers a standard radio architecture for space communications, input and coordination from government agencies, the industry, academia, and standards bodies is key to a successful architecture. The unique aspects of space require thorough investigation of relevant terrestrial technologies properly adapted to space. The talk will describe NASA s current effort to investigate SDR applications to space missions and a brief overview of a candidate architecture under consideration for space based platforms.

  8. Software Architecture for Autonomous Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shih, Jimmy S.

    1997-01-01

    The thesis objective is to design an autonomous spacecraft architecture to perform both deliberative and reactive behaviors. The Autonomous Small Planet In-Situ Reaction to Events (ASPIRE) project uses the architecture to integrate several autonomous technologies for a comet orbiter mission.

  9. Dynamic Weather Routes Architecture Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eslami, Hassan; Eshow, Michelle

    2014-01-01

    Dynamic Weather Routes Architecture Overview, presents the high level software architecture of DWR, based on the CTAS software framework and the Direct-To automation tool. The document also covers external and internal data flows, required dataset, changes to the Direct-To software for DWR, collection of software statistics, and the code structure.

  10. Perspectives on Architecture and Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Anne

    1989-01-01

    Describes a new system for teaching architectural education known as Architectural Design Education. States that this system, developed by Anne Taylor and George Vlastos, introduces students to the problem solving process, integrates creative activities with traditional disciplines, and enhances students' and teachers' ability to relate to their…

  11. Dataflow architecture for machine control

    SciTech Connect

    Lent, B.

    1989-01-01

    The author describes how to implement the latest control strategies using state-of-the-art control technology and computing principles. Provides all the basic definitions, taxonomy, and analysis of currently used architectures, including microprocessor communication schemes. This book describes in detail the analysis and implementation of the selected OR dataflow driven architecture in a grinding machine control system.

  12. Interior Design in Architectural Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gurel, Meltem O.; Potthoff, Joy K.

    2006-01-01

    The domain of interiors constitutes a point of tension between practicing architects and interior designers. Design of interior spaces is a significant part of architectural profession. Yet, to what extent does architectural education keep pace with changing demands in rendering topics that are identified as pertinent to the design of interiors?…

  13. Oxytocin, testosterone, and human social cognition.

    PubMed

    Crespi, Bernard J

    2016-05-01

    effects partially mediate risks and phenotypes of autism and psychotic-affective conditions. These considerations have direct implications for the development of therapies for alleviating disorders of social cognition, and for understanding how such disorders are associated with the evolution of human cognitive-affective architecture. PMID:25631363

  14. Cognitions about Cognitions: The Theory of Metacognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    PP, Noushad

    2008-01-01

    This paper proposes a theoretical review of the term "metacognition". It was introduced by John Flavell in the early 1970s based on the term "metamemory" previously conceived by the same scholar (Flavell 1971). Flavell (1979) viewed metacognition as learners' knowledge of their own cognition, defining it as "knowledge and cognition about cognitive…

  15. Mild Cognitive Impairment

    MedlinePlus

    ... Research Portfolio (IADRP) AMP-AD Detecting Cognitive Impairment Database ... Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is a condition in which people have more memory or other thinking problems than normal for their ...

  16. Motivation for Creativity in Architectural Design and Engineering Design Students: Implications for Design Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casakin, Hernan; Kreitler, Shulamith

    2010-01-01

    The investigation reported here dealt with the study of motivation for creativity. The goals were to assess motivation for creativity in architectural design and engineering design students based on the Cognitive Orientation theory which defines motivation as a function of a set of belief types, themes, and groupings identified as relevant for the…

  17. Phases of learning: How skill acquisition impacts cognitive processing.

    PubMed

    Tenison, Caitlin; Fincham, Jon M; Anderson, John R

    2016-06-01

    This fMRI study examines the changes in participants' information processing as they repeatedly solve the same mathematical problem. We show that the majority of practice-related speedup is produced by discrete changes in cognitive processing. Because the points at which these changes take place vary from problem to problem, and the underlying information processing steps vary in duration, the existence of such discrete changes can be hard to detect. Using two converging approaches, we establish the existence of three learning phases. When solving a problem in one of these learning phases, participants can go through three cognitive stages: Encoding, Solving, and Responding. Each cognitive stage is associated with a unique brain signature. Using a bottom-up approach combining multi-voxel pattern analysis and hidden semi-Markov modeling, we identify the duration of that stage on any particular trial from participants brain activation patterns. For our top-down approach we developed an ACT-R model of these cognitive stages and simulated how they change over the course of learning. The Solving stage of the first learning phase is long and involves a sequence of arithmetic computations. Participants transition to the second learning phase when they can retrieve the answer, thereby drastically reducing the duration of the Solving stage. With continued practice, participants then transition to the third learning phase when they recognize the problem as a single unit and produce the answer as an automatic response. The duration of this third learning phase is dominated by the Responding stage. PMID:27018936

  18. Architecture Governance: The Importance of Architecture Governance for Achieving Operationally Responsive Ground Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kolar, Mike; Estefan, Jeff; Giovannoni, Brian; Barkley, Erik

    2011-01-01

    Topics covered (1) Why Governance and Why Now? (2) Characteristics of Architecture Governance (3) Strategic Elements (3a) Architectural Principles (3b) Architecture Board (3c) Architecture Compliance (4) Architecture Governance Infusion Process. Governance is concerned with decision making (i.e., setting directions, establishing standards and principles, and prioritizing investments). Architecture governance is the practice and orientation by which enterprise architectures and other architectures are managed and controlled at an enterprise-wide level

  19. Précis on The Cognitive-Emotional Brain.

    PubMed

    Pessoa, Luiz

    2015-01-01

    In The Cognitive-Emotional Brain (Pessoa 2013), I describe the many ways that emotion and cognition interact and are integrated in the brain. The book summarizes five areas of research that support this integrative view and makes four arguments to organize each area. (1) Based on rodent and human data, I propose that the amygdala's functions go beyond emotion as traditionally conceived. Furthermore, the processing of emotion-laden information is capacity limited, thus not independent of attention and awareness. (2) Cognitive-emotional interactions in the human prefrontal cortex (PFC) assume diverse forms and are not limited to mutual suppression. Particularly, the lateral PFC is a focal point for cognitive-emotional interactions. (3) Interactions between motivation and cognition can be seen across a range of perceptual and cognitive tasks. Motivation shapes behavior in specific ways--for example, by reducing response conflict or via selective effects on working memory. Traditional accounts, by contrast, typically describe motivation as a global activation independent of particular control demands. (4) Perception and cognition are directly influenced by information with affective or motivational content in powerful ways. A dual competition model outlines a framework for such interactions at the perceptual and executive levels. A specific neural architecture is proposed that embeds emotional and motivational signals into perception and cognition through multiple channels. (5) A network perspective should supplant the strategy of understanding the brain in terms of individual regions. More broadly, in a network view of brain architecture, "emotion" and "cognition" may be used as labels of certain behaviors, but will not map cleanly into compartmentalized pieces of the brain. PMID:24914882

  20. The Cognitive Doppler.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kozoil, Micah E.

    1989-01-01

    Discusses the learning needs of students in the concrete operational stage in mathematics. Identifies the phenomenon of reduced cognitive performance in an out-of-class environment as the "Cognitive Doppler." Suggests methods of reducing the pronounced effects of the Cognitive Doppler by capitalizing on the students' ability to memorize effective…

  1. Handbook of Spatial Cognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waller, David, Ed.; Nadel, Lynn, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    Spatial cognition is a branch of cognitive psychology that studies how people acquire and use knowledge about their environment to determine where they are, how to obtain resources, and how to find their way home. Researchers from a wide range of disciplines, including neuroscience, cognition, and sociology, have discovered a great deal about how…

  2. Interactive Team Cognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooke, Nancy J.; Gorman, Jamie C.; Myers, Christopher W.; Duran, Jasmine L.

    2013-01-01

    Cognition in work teams has been predominantly understood and explained in terms of shared cognition with a focus on the similarity of static knowledge structures across individual team members. Inspired by the current zeitgeist in cognitive science, as well as by empirical data and pragmatic concerns, we offer an alternative theory of team…

  3. The Tractable Cognition Thesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Rooij, Iris

    2008-01-01

    The recognition that human minds/brains are finite systems with limited resources for computation has led some researchers to advance the "Tractable Cognition thesis": Human cognitive capacities are constrained by computational tractability. This thesis, if true, serves cognitive psychology by constraining the space of computational-level theories…

  4. The re-tooled mind: how culture re-engineers cognition.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Margaret

    2010-06-01

    One of the main goals of cognitive science is to discover the underlying principles that characterize human cognition, but this enterprise is complicated by culturally-driven variability. While much fruitful work has focused on how culture influences the contents of cognition, here I argue that culture can in addition exercise a profound effect on the how of cognition-the mechanisms by which cognitive tasks get done. I argue that much of the fundamental processes of daily cognitive activity involve the operation of cognitive tools that are not genetically determined but instead are invented and culturally transmitted. Further, these cognitive inventions become 'firmware', consituting a re-engineering of the individual's cognitive architecture. That is, ontogenetic experience from one's cultural context serves to re-tool the developing mind into a variety of disparate cognitive phenotypes. Drawing on several mutually isolated literatures, I advance four claims to the effect that cognitive tools (i) are ubitquitous in everyday cognition, (ii) result in reorganization of the neural system, (iii) are founded in embodied representations and (iv) were made possible by the evolution of an unprecedented degree of voluntary control over the body. I conclude by discussing the implications for the agenda of cognitive science. PMID:20068033

  5. 29 CFR 32.28 - Architectural standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... accessibility prescribed by the General Services Administration under the Architectural Barriers Act at 41 CFR... FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Accessibility § 32.28 Architectural standards. (a) Design and construction... usable by qualified handicapped individuals. (c) Standards for architectural accessibility....

  6. 29 CFR 32.28 - Architectural standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... accessibility prescribed by the General Services Administration under the Architectural Barriers Act at 41 CFR... RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Accessibility § 32.28 Architectural standards. (a) Design and... usable by qualified handicapped individuals. (c) Standards for architectural accessibility....

  7. 29 CFR 32.28 - Architectural standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... accessibility prescribed by the General Services Administration under the Architectural Barriers Act at 41 CFR... RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Accessibility § 32.28 Architectural standards. (a) Design and... usable by qualified handicapped individuals. (c) Standards for architectural accessibility....

  8. Distributed visualization framework architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishchenko, Oleg; Raman, Sundaresan; Crawfis, Roger

    2010-01-01

    An architecture for distributed and collaborative visualization is presented. The design goals of the system are to create a lightweight, easy to use and extensible framework for reasearch in scientific visualization. The system provides both single user and collaborative distributed environment. System architecture employs a client-server model. Visualization projects can be synchronously accessed and modified from different client machines. We present a set of visualization use cases that illustrate the flexibility of our system. The framework provides a rich set of reusable components for creating new applications. These components make heavy use of leading design patterns. All components are based on the functionality of a small set of interfaces. This allows new components to be integrated seamlessly with little to no effort. All user input and higher-level control functionality interface with proxy objects supporting a concrete implementation of these interfaces. These light-weight objects can be easily streamed across the web and even integrated with smart clients running on a user's cell phone. The back-end is supported by concrete implementations wherever needed (for instance for rendering). A middle-tier manages any communication and synchronization with the proxy objects. In addition to the data components, we have developed several first-class GUI components for visualization. These include a layer compositor editor, a programmable shader editor, a material editor and various drawable editors. These GUI components interact strictly with the interfaces. Access to the various entities in the system is provided by an AssetManager. The asset manager keeps track of all of the registered proxies and responds to queries on the overall system. This allows all user components to be populated automatically. Hence if a new component is added that supports the IMaterial interface, any instances of this can be used in the various GUI components that work with this

  9. Chromosome Architecture and Genome Organization

    PubMed Central

    Bernardi, Giorgio

    2015-01-01

    How the same DNA sequences can function in the three-dimensional architecture of interphase nucleus, fold in the very compact structure of metaphase chromosomes and go precisely back to the original interphase architecture in the following cell cycle remains an unresolved question to this day. The strategy used to address this issue was to analyze the correlations between chromosome architecture and the compositional patterns of DNA sequences spanning a size range from a few hundreds to a few thousands Kilobases. This is a critical range that encompasses isochores, interphase chromatin domains and boundaries, and chromosomal bands. The solution rests on the following key points: 1) the transition from the looped domains and sub-domains of interphase chromatin to the 30-nm fiber loops of early prophase chromosomes goes through the unfolding into an extended chromatin structure (probably a 10-nm “beads-on-a-string” structure); 2) the architectural proteins of interphase chromatin, such as CTCF and cohesin sub-units, are retained in mitosis and are part of the discontinuous protein scaffold of mitotic chromosomes; 3) the conservation of the link between architectural proteins and their binding sites on DNA through the cell cycle explains the “mitotic memory” of interphase architecture and the reversibility of the interphase to mitosis process. The results presented here also lead to a general conclusion which concerns the existence of correlations between the isochore organization of the genome and the architecture of chromosomes from interphase to metaphase. PMID:26619076

  10. The cognitive neuroscience of prehension: recent developments

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Prehension, the capacity to reach and grasp, is the key behavior that allows humans to change their environment. It continues to serve as a remarkable experimental test case for probing the cognitive architecture of goal-oriented action. This review focuses on recent experimental evidence that enhances or modifies how we might conceptualize the neural substrates of prehension. Emphasis is placed on studies that consider how precision grasps are selected and transformed into motor commands. Then, the mechanisms that extract action relevant information from vision and touch are considered. These include consideration of how parallel perceptual networks within parietal cortex, along with the ventral stream, are connected and share information to achieve common motor goals. On-line control of grasping action is discussed within a state estimation framework. The review ends with a consideration about how prehension fits within larger action repertoires that solve more complex goals and the possible cortical architectures needed to organize these actions. PMID:20532487

  11. Social cognition in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Green, Michael F; Horan, William P; Lee, Junghee

    2015-10-01

    Individuals with schizophrenia exhibit impaired social cognition, which manifests as difficulties in identifying emotions, feeing connected to others, inferring people's thoughts and reacting emotionally to others. These social cognitive impairments interfere with social connections and are strong determinants of the degree of impaired daily functioning in such individuals. Here, we review recent findings from the fields of social cognition and social neuroscience and identify the social processes that are impaired in schizophrenia. We also consider empathy as an example of a complex social cognitive function that integrates several social processes and is impaired in schizophrenia. This information may guide interventions to improve social cognition in patients with this disorder. PMID:26373471

  12. Gaia Data Processing Architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Mullane, W.; Lammers, U.; Bailer-Jones, C.; Bastian, U.; Brown, A. G. A.; Drimmel, R.; Eyer, L.; Huc, C.; Katz, D.; Lindegren, L.; Pourbaix, D.; Luri, X.; Torra, J.; Mignard, F.; van Leeuwen, F.

    2007-10-01

    Gaia is the European Space Agency's (ESA's) ambitious space astrometry mission with a main objective to map astrometrically and spectro-photometrically not less than 1000 million celestial objects in our galaxy with unprecedented accuracy. The announcement of opportunity (AO) for the data processing will be issued by ESA late in 2006. The Gaia Data Processing and Analysis Consortium (DPAC) has been formed recently and is preparing an answer to this AO. The satellite will downlink around 100 TB of raw telemetry data over a mission duration of 5--6 years. To achieve its required astrometric accuracy of a few tens of microarcseconds, a highly involved processing of this data is required. In addition to the main astrometric instrument Gaia will host a radial-velocity spectrometer and two low-resolution dispersers for multi-color photometry. All instrument modules share a common focal plane consisting of a CCD mosaic about 1 m^2 in size and featuring close to 10^9 pixels. Each of the various instruments requires relatively complex processing while at the same time being interdependent. We describe the composition and structure of the DPAC and the envisaged overall architecture of the system. We shall delve further into the core processing---one of the nine so-called coordination units comprising the Gaia processing system.

  13. Superconducting Bolometer Array Architectures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benford, Dominic; Chervenak, Jay; Irwin, Kent; Moseley, S. Harvey; Shafer, Rick; Staguhn, Johannes; Wollack, Ed; Oegerle, William (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The next generation of far-infrared and submillimeter instruments require large arrays of detectors containing thousands of elements. These arrays will necessarily be multiplexed, and superconducting bolometer arrays are the most promising present prospect for these detectors. We discuss our current research into superconducting bolometer array technologies, which has recently resulted in the first multiplexed detections of submillimeter light and the first multiplexed astronomical observations. Prototype arrays containing 512 pixels are in production using the Pop-Up Detector (PUD) architecture, which can be extended easily to 1000 pixel arrays. Planar arrays of close-packed bolometers are being developed for the GBT (Green Bank Telescope) and for future space missions. For certain applications, such as a slewed far-infrared sky survey, feedhorncoupling of a large sparsely-filled array of bolometers is desirable, and is being developed using photolithographic feedhorn arrays. Individual detectors have achieved a Noise Equivalent Power (NEP) of -10(exp 17) W/square root of Hz at 300mK, but several orders of magnitude improvement are required and can be reached with existing technology. The testing of such ultralow-background detectors will prove difficult, as this requires optical loading of below IfW. Antenna-coupled bolometer designs have advantages for large format array designs at low powers due to their mode selectivity.

  14. Lunar Exploration Architectures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perino, Maria Antonietta

    The international space exploration plans foresee in the next decades multiple robotic and human missions to Moon and robotic missions to Mars, Phobos and other destinations. Notably the US has since the announcement of the US space exploration vision by President G. W. Bush in 2004 made significant progress in the further definition of its exploration programme focusing in the next decades in particular on human missions to Moon. Given the highly demanding nature of these missions, different initiatives have been recently taken at international level to discuss how the lunar exploration missions currently planned at national level could fit in a coordinate roadmap and contribute to lunar exploration. Thales Alenia Space - Italia is leading 3 studies for the European Space Agency focus on the analysis of the transportation, in-space and surface architectures required to meet ESA provided stakeholders exploration objectives and requirements. Main result of this activity is the identification of European near-term priorities for exploration missions and European long-term priorities for capability and technology developments related to planetary exploration missions. This paper will present the main studies' results drawing a European roadmap for exploration missions and capability and technology developments related to lunar exploration infrastructure development, taking into account the strategic and programmatic indications for exploration coming from ESA as well as the international exploration context.

  15. Architectures for Nanostructured Batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rubloff, Gary

    2013-03-01

    Heterogeneous nanostructures offer profound opportunities for advancement in electrochemical energy storage, particularly with regard to power. However, their design and integration must balance ion transport, electron transport, and stability under charge/discharge cycling, involving fundamental physical, chemical and electrochemical mechanisms at nano length scales and across disparate time scales. In our group and in our DOE Energy Frontier Research Center (www.efrc.umd.edu) we have investigated single nanostructures and regular nanostructure arrays as batteries, electrochemical capacitors, and electrostatic capacitors to understand limiting mechanisms, using a variety of synthesis and characterization strategies. Primary lithiation pathways in heterogeneous nanostructures have been observed to include surface, interface, and both isotropic and anisotropic diffusion, depending on materials. Integrating current collection layers at the nano scale with active ion storage layers enhances power and can improve stability during cycling. For densely packed nanostructures as required for storage applications, we investigate both ``regular'' and ``random'' architectures consistent with transport requirements for spatial connectivity. Such configurations raise further important questions at the meso scale, such as dynamic ion and electron transport in narrow and tortuous channels, and the role of defect structures and their evolution during charge cycling. Supported as part of the Nanostructures for Electrical Energy Storage, an Energy Frontier Research Center funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences under Award Number DESC0001160

  16. Ajax Architecture Implementation Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hussaini, Syed Asadullah; Tabassum, S. Nasira; Baig, Tabassum, M. Khader

    2012-03-01

    Today's rich Web applications use a mix of Java Script and asynchronous communication with the application server. This mechanism is also known as Ajax: Asynchronous JavaScript and XML. The intent of Ajax is to exchange small pieces of data between the browser and the application server, and in doing so, use partial page refresh instead of reloading the entire Web page. AJAX (Asynchronous JavaScript and XML) is a powerful Web development model for browser-based Web applications. Technologies that form the AJAX model, such as XML, JavaScript, HTTP, and XHTML, are individually widely used and well known. However, AJAX combines these technologies to let Web pages retrieve small amounts of data from the server without having to reload the entire page. This capability makes Web pages more interactive and lets them behave like local applications. Web 2.0 enabled by the Ajax architecture has given rise to a new level of user interactivity through web browsers. Many new and extremely popular Web applications have been introduced such as Google Maps, Google Docs, Flickr, and so on. Ajax Toolkits such as Dojo allow web developers to build Web 2.0 applications quickly and with little effort.

  17. Array processor architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnes, George H. (Inventor); Lundstrom, Stephen F. (Inventor); Shafer, Philip E. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    A high speed parallel array data processing architecture fashioned under a computational envelope approach includes a data base memory for secondary storage of programs and data, and a plurality of memory modules interconnected to a plurality of processing modules by a connection network of the Omega gender. Programs and data are fed from the data base memory to the plurality of memory modules and from hence the programs are fed through the connection network to the array of processors (one copy of each program for each processor). Execution of the programs occur with the processors operating normally quite independently of each other in a multiprocessing fashion. For data dependent operations and other suitable operations, all processors are instructed to finish one given task or program branch before all are instructed to proceed in parallel processing fashion on the next instruction. Even when functioning in the parallel processing mode however, the processors are not locked-step but execute their own copy of the program individually unless or until another overall processor array synchronization instruction is issued.

  18. Planetary cubesats - mission architectures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bousquet, Pierre W.; Ulamec, Stephan; Jaumann, Ralf; Vane, Gregg; Baker, John; Clark, Pamela; Komarek, Tomas; Lebreton, Jean-Pierre; Yano, Hajime

    2016-07-01

    Miniaturisation of technologies over the last decade has made cubesats a valid solution for deep space missions. For example, a spectacular set 13 cubesats will be delivered in 2018 to a high lunar orbit within the frame of SLS' first flight, referred to as Exploration Mission-1 (EM-1). Each of them will perform autonomously valuable scientific or technological investigations. Other situations are encountered, such as the auxiliary landers / rovers and autonomous camera that will be carried in 2018 to asteroid 1993 JU3 by JAXA's Hayabusas 2 probe, and will provide complementary scientific return to their mothership. In this case, cubesats depend on a larger spacecraft for deployment and other resources, such as telecommunication relay or propulsion. For both situations, we will describe in this paper how cubesats can be used as remote observatories (such as NEO detection missions), as technology demonstrators, and how they can perform or contribute to all steps in the Deep Space exploration sequence: Measurements during Deep Space cruise, Body Fly-bies, Body Orbiters, Atmospheric probes (Jupiter probe, Venus atmospheric probes, ..), Static Landers, Mobile landers (such as balloons, wheeled rovers, small body rovers, drones, penetrators, floating devices, …), Sample Return. We will elaborate on mission architectures for the most promising concepts where cubesat size devices offer an advantage in terms of affordability, feasibility, and increase of scientific return.

  19. The tractable cognition thesis.

    PubMed

    Van Rooij, Iris

    2008-09-01

    The recognition that human minds/brains are finite systems with limited resources for computation has led some researchers to advance the Tractable Cognition thesis: Human cognitive capacities are constrained by computational tractability. This thesis, if true, serves cognitive psychology by constraining the space of computational-level theories of cognition. To utilize this constraint, a precise and workable definition of "computational tractability" is needed. Following computer science tradition, many cognitive scientists and psychologists define computational tractability as polynomial-time computability, leading to the P-Cognition thesis. This article explains how and why the P-Cognition thesis may be overly restrictive, risking the exclusion of veridical computational-level theories from scientific investigation. An argument is made to replace the P-Cognition thesis by the FPT-Cognition thesis as an alternative formalization of the Tractable Cognition thesis (here, FPT stands for fixed-parameter tractable). Possible objections to the Tractable Cognition thesis, and its proposed formalization, are discussed, and existing misconceptions are clarified. PMID:21585437

  20. [Normal aging and cognition].

    PubMed

    Ska, Bernadette; Joanette, Yves

    2006-03-01

    It is now well documented that normal aging modifies the cognitive functioning and most observations suggest that cognition evolves in the direction of deterioration. The more frequently impaired functions are memory, attention and visual-spatial abilities. On the other hand, some abilities seem to increase, such as vocabulary. Considering the aging effect on cognition, questions remain regarding directionality, universality and reversibility. A great variability in aged related impacts is observed among subjects and among cognitive domains. Some individuals evolved more rapidly than others. Some cognitive functions are more affected by aging than others. General and specific factors are hypothesized to explain the aged related cognitive decline. Among them, educational level, health, cognitive style, life style, personality, are likely to modulate the aged related cognitive evolution by influencing attentional resources and cerebral plasticity. Cognitive resources are essential to develop adaptative strategies. During the life span, resources are activated and increased by learning and training. Considering the role of cognitive resources, successful aging is dependent on several conditions : absence of disease leading to a loss of autonomy, maintenance of cognitive and physical activities, and active and social engaged lifestyle. PMID:16527210

  1. Comparative cognition for conservationists

    PubMed Central

    Greggor, Alison L.; Clayton, Nicola S.; Phalan, Ben; Thornton, Alex

    2014-01-01

    Every animal occupies a unique cognitive world based on its sensory capacities, and attentional and learning biases. Behaviour results from the interaction of this cognitive world with the environment. As humans alter environments, cognitive processes ranging from perceptual processes to learned behaviour govern animals’ reactions. By harnessing animals’ perceptual biases and applying insights from cognitive theory, we can purposefully alter cues to reduce maladaptive responses and shape behaviour. Despite the fundamental connection between cognition and behaviour, the breadth of cognitive theory is underutilised in conservation practice. Bridging these disciplines could augment existing conservation efforts targeting animal behaviour. We outline relevant principles of perception and learning, and develop a step-by-step process for applying aspects of cognition towards specific conservation issues. PMID:25043737

  2. Systolic architecture for heirarchical clustering

    SciTech Connect

    Ku, L.C.

    1984-01-01

    Several hierarchical clustering methods (including single-linkage complete-linkage, centroid, and absolute overlap methods) are reviewed. The absolute overlap clustering method is selected for the design of systolic architecture mainly due to its simplicity. Two versions of systolic architectures for the absolute overlap hierarchical clustering algorithm are proposed: one-dimensional version that leads to the development of a two dimensional version which fully takes advantage of the underlying data structure of the problems. The two dimensional systolic architecture can achieve a time complexity of O(m + n) in comparison with the conventional computer implementation of a time complexity of O(m/sup 2*/n).

  3. System architectures for telerobotic research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harrison, F. Wallace

    1989-01-01

    Several activities are performed related to the definition and creation of telerobotic systems. The effort and investment required to create architectures for these complex systems can be enormous; however, the magnitude of process can be reduced if structured design techniques are applied. A number of informal methodologies supporting certain aspects of the design process are available. More recently, prototypes of integrated tools supporting all phases of system design from requirements analysis to code generation and hardware layout have begun to appear. Activities related to system architecture of telerobots are described, including current activities which are designed to provide a methodology for the comparison and quantitative analysis of alternative system architectures.

  4. Microcomponent chemical process sheet architecture

    DOEpatents

    Wegeng, R.S.; Drost, M.K.; Call, C.J.; Birmingham, J.G.; McDonald, C.E.; Kurath, D.E.; Friedrich, M.

    1998-09-22

    The invention is a microcomponent sheet architecture wherein macroscale unit processes are performed by microscale components. The sheet architecture may be a single laminate with a plurality of separate microcomponent sections or the sheet architecture may be a plurality of laminates with one or more microcomponent sections on each laminate. Each microcomponent or plurality of like microcomponents perform at least one chemical process unit operation. A first laminate having a plurality of like first microcomponents is combined with at least a second laminate having a plurality of like second microcomponents thereby combining at least two unit operations to achieve a system operation. 26 figs.

  5. Microcomponent chemical process sheet architecture

    DOEpatents

    Wegeng, Robert S.; Drost, M. Kevin; Call, Charles J.; Birmingham, Joseph G.; McDonald, Carolyn Evans; Kurath, Dean E.; Friedrich, Michele

    1998-01-01

    The invention is a microcomponent sheet architecture wherein macroscale unit processes are performed by microscale components. The sheet architecture may be a single laminate with a plurality of separate microcomponent sections or the sheet architecture may be a plurality of laminates with one or more microcomponent sections on each laminate. Each microcomponent or plurality of like microcomponents perform at least one chemical process unit operation. A first laminate having a plurality of like first microcomponents is combined with at least a second laminate having a plurality of like second microcomponents thereby combining at least two unit operations to achieve a system operation.

  6. Cognitive bizarreness in the dream and waking mentation of nonpsychotic patients with Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    D'Agostino, Armando; De Gaspari, Danilo; Antonini, Angelo; Kantzas, Ilde; Limosani, Ivan; Manzone, Maria Laura; Schiavella, Mauro; Paganini, Laura; Siri, Chiara; Rizzi, Pietro; Scarone, Silvio

    2010-01-01

    Cognitive bizarreness is a shared feature of the dream and waking mentation of acutely psychotic patients. The authors investigated this measure of the structural architecture of thought in the dream and waking mentation of 20 nonpsychotic patients with Parkinson's disease after treatment with prodopaminergic drugs. Statistically overlapping levels of cognitive bizarreness were found in the waking fantasy and dream reports of the Parkinson's disease population, whereas almost no bizarreness was found in the waking cognition of the comparison group, suggesting it may be an inherent quality of cognition in Parkinson's disease patients, possibly related to the cholinergic/dopaminergic imbalance underlying this complex disorder. PMID:21037124

  7. Early-Life Stress Is Associated with Impairment in Cognitive Control in Adolescence: An fMRI Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mueller, Sven C.; Maheu, Francoise S.; Dozier, Mary; Peloso, Elizabeth; Mandell, Darcy; Leibenluft, Ellen; Pine, Daniel S.; Ernst, Monique

    2010-01-01

    Early-life stress (ES) has been associated with diverse forms of psychopathology. Some investigators suggest that these associations reflect the effects of stress on the neural circuits that support cognitive control. However, very few prior studies have examined the associations between ES, cognitive control, and underlying neural architecture.…

  8. Telemedicine system interoperability architecture: concept description and architecture overview.

    SciTech Connect

    Craft, Richard Layne, II

    2004-05-01

    In order for telemedicine to realize the vision of anywhere, anytime access to care, it must address the question of how to create a fully interoperable infrastructure. This paper describes the reasons for pursuing interoperability, outlines operational requirements that any interoperability approach needs to consider, proposes an abstract architecture for meeting these needs, identifies candidate technologies that might be used for rendering this architecture, and suggests a path forward that the telemedicine community might follow.

  9. Dual-processing accounts of reasoning, judgment, and social cognition.

    PubMed

    Evans, Jonathan St B T

    2008-01-01

    This article reviews a diverse set of proposals for dual processing in higher cognition within largely disconnected literatures in cognitive and social psychology. All these theories have in common the distinction between cognitive processes that are fast, automatic, and unconscious and those that are slow, deliberative, and conscious. A number of authors have recently suggested that there may be two architecturally (and evolutionarily) distinct cognitive systems underlying these dual-process accounts. However, it emerges that (a) there are multiple kinds of implicit processes described by different theorists and (b) not all of the proposed attributes of the two kinds of processing can be sensibly mapped on to two systems as currently conceived. It is suggested that while some dual-process theories are concerned with parallel competing processes involving explicit and implicit knowledge systems, others are concerned with the influence of preconscious processes that contextualize and shape deliberative reasoning and decision-making. PMID:18154502

  10. The IVOA Architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arviset, C.; Gaudet, S.; IVOA Technical Coordination Group

    2012-09-01

    Astronomy produces large amounts of data of many kinds, coming from various sources: science space missions, ground based telescopes, theoretical models, compilation of results, etc. These data and associated processing services are made available via the Internet by "providers", usually large data centres or smaller teams (see Figure 1). The "consumers", be they individual researchers, research teams or computer systems, access these services to do their science. However, inter-connection amongst all these services and between providers and consumers is usually not trivial. The Virtual Observatory (VO) is the necessary "middle layer" framework enabling interoperability between all these providers and consumers in a seamless and transparent manner. Like the web which enables end users and machines to access transparently documents and services wherever and however they are stored, the VO enables the astronomy community to access data and service resources wherever and however they are provided. Over the last decade, the International Virtual Observatory Alliance (IVOA) has been defining various standards to build the VO technical framework for the providers to share their data and services ("Sharing"), and to allow users to find ("Finding") these resources, to get them ("Getting") and to use them ("Using"). To enable these functionalities, the definition of some core astronomically-oriented standards ("VO Core") has also been necessary. This paper will present the official and current IVOA Architecture[1], describing the various building blocks of the VO framework (see Figure 2) and their relation to all existing and in-progress IVOA standards. Additionally, it will show examples of these standards in action, connecting VO "consumers" to VO "providers".

  11. Project Integration Architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, William Henry

    2008-01-01

    The Project Integration Architecture (PIA) is a distributed, object-oriented, conceptual, software framework for the generation, organization, publication, integration, and consumption of all information involved in any complex technological process in a manner that is intelligible to both computers and humans. In the development of PIA, it was recognized that in order to provide a single computational environment in which all information associated with any given complex technological process could be viewed, reviewed, manipulated, and shared, it is necessary to formulate all the elements of such a process on the most fundamental level. In this formulation, any such element is regarded as being composed of any or all of three parts: input information, some transformation of that input information, and some useful output information. Another fundamental principle of PIA is the assumption that no consumer of information, whether human or computer, can be assumed to have any useful foreknowledge of an element presented to it. Consequently, a PIA-compliant computing system is required to be ready to respond to any questions, posed by the consumer, concerning the nature of the proffered element. In colloquial terms, a PIA-compliant system must be prepared to provide all the information needed to place the element in context. To satisfy this requirement, PIA extends the previously established object-oriented- programming concept of self-revelation and applies it on a grand scale. To enable pervasive use of self-revelation, PIA exploits another previously established object-oriented-programming concept - that of semantic infusion through class derivation. By means of self-revelation and semantic infusion through class derivation, a consumer of information can inquire about the contents of all information entities (e.g., databases and software) and can interact appropriately with those entities. Other key features of PIA are listed.

  12. RASSP signal processing architectures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shirley, Fred; Bassett, Bob; Letellier, J. P.

    1995-06-01

    display. This paper discusses the impact of simulation on choosing signal processing algorithms and architectures, drawing from the experiences of the Demonstration and Benchmark inter-company teams at Lockhhed Sanders, Motorola, Hughes, and ISX.

  13. Dynamic Information Architecture System

    SciTech Connect

    Christiansen, John

    1997-02-12

    The Dynamic Information System (DIAS) is a flexible object-based software framework for concurrent, multidiscplinary modeling of arbitrary (but related) processes. These processes are modeled as interrelated actions caused by and affecting the collection of diverse real-world objects represented in a simulation. The DIAS architecture allows independent process models to work together harmoniously in the same frame of reference and provides a wide range of data ingestion and output capabilities, including Geographic Information System (GIS) type map-based displays and photorealistic visualization of simulations in progress. In the DIAS implementation of the object-based approach, software objects carry within them not only the data which describe their static characteristics, but also the methods, or functions, which describe their dynamic behaviors. There are two categories of objects: (1) Entity objects which have real-world counterparts and are the actors in a simulation, and (2) Software infrastructure objects which make it possible to carry out the simulations. The Entity objects contain lists of Aspect objects, each of which addresses a single aspect of the Entity''s behavior. For example, a DIAS Stream Entity representing a section of a river can have many aspects correspondimg to its behavior in terms of hydrology (as a drainage system component), navigation (as a link in a waterborne transportation system), meteorology (in terms of moisture, heat, and momentum exchange with the atmospheric boundary layer), and visualization (for photorealistic visualization or map type displays), etc. This makes it possible for each real-world object to exhibit any or all of its unique behaviors within the context of a single simulation.

  14. Dynamic Information Architecture System

    1997-02-12

    The Dynamic Information System (DIAS) is a flexible object-based software framework for concurrent, multidiscplinary modeling of arbitrary (but related) processes. These processes are modeled as interrelated actions caused by and affecting the collection of diverse real-world objects represented in a simulation. The DIAS architecture allows independent process models to work together harmoniously in the same frame of reference and provides a wide range of data ingestion and output capabilities, including Geographic Information System (GIS) typemore » map-based displays and photorealistic visualization of simulations in progress. In the DIAS implementation of the object-based approach, software objects carry within them not only the data which describe their static characteristics, but also the methods, or functions, which describe their dynamic behaviors. There are two categories of objects: (1) Entity objects which have real-world counterparts and are the actors in a simulation, and (2) Software infrastructure objects which make it possible to carry out the simulations. The Entity objects contain lists of Aspect objects, each of which addresses a single aspect of the Entity''s behavior. For example, a DIAS Stream Entity representing a section of a river can have many aspects correspondimg to its behavior in terms of hydrology (as a drainage system component), navigation (as a link in a waterborne transportation system), meteorology (in terms of moisture, heat, and momentum exchange with the atmospheric boundary layer), and visualization (for photorealistic visualization or map type displays), etc. This makes it possible for each real-world object to exhibit any or all of its unique behaviors within the context of a single simulation.« less

  15. The Mothership Mission Architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ernst, S. M.; DiCorcia, J. D.; Bonin, G.; Gump, D.; Lewis, J. S.; Foulds, C.; Faber, D.

    2015-12-01

    The Mothership is considered to be a dedicated deep space carrier spacecraft. It is currently being developed by Deep Space Industries (DSI) as a mission concept that enables a broad participation in the scientific exploration of small bodies - the Mothership mission architecture. A Mothership shall deliver third-party nano-sats, experiments and instruments to Near Earth Asteroids (NEOs), comets or moons. The Mothership service includes delivery of nano-sats, communication to Earth and visuals of the asteroid surface and surrounding area. The Mothership is designed to carry about 10 nano-sats, based upon a variation of the Cubesat standard, with some flexibility on the specific geometry. The Deep Space Nano-Sat reference design is a 14.5 cm cube, which accommodates the same volume as a traditional 3U CubeSat. To reduce cost, Mothership is designed as a secondary payload aboard launches to GTO. DSI is offering slots for nano-sats to individual customers. This enables organizations with relatively low operating budgets to closely examine an asteroid with highly specialized sensors of their own choosing and carry out experiments in the proximity of or on the surface of an asteroid, while the nano-sats can be built or commissioned by a variety of smaller institutions, companies, or agencies. While the overall Mothership mission will have a financial volume somewhere between a European Space Agencies' (ESA) S- and M-class mission for instance, it can be funded through a number of small and individual funding sources and programs, hence avoiding the processes associated with traditional space exploration missions. DSI has been able to identify a significant interest in the planetary science and nano-satellite communities.

  16. Architecture and the Information Revolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Driscoll, Porter; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Traces how technological changes affect the architecture of the workplace. Traces these effects from the industrial revolution up through the computer revolution. Offers suggested designs for the computerized office of today and tomorrow. (JM)

  17. Simulator for heterogeneous dataflow architectures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malekpour, Mahyar R.

    1993-01-01

    A new simulator is developed to simulate the execution of an algorithm graph in accordance with the Algorithm to Architecture Mapping Model (ATAMM) rules. ATAMM is a Petri Net model which describes the periodic execution of large-grained, data-independent dataflow graphs and which provides predictable steady state time-optimized performance. This simulator extends the ATAMM simulation capability from a heterogenous set of resources, or functional units, to a more general heterogenous architecture. Simulation test cases show that the simulator accurately executes the ATAMM rules for both a heterogenous architecture and a homogenous architecture, which is the special case for only one processor type. The simulator forms one tool in an ATAMM Integrated Environment which contains other tools for graph entry, graph modification for performance optimization, and playback of simulations for analysis.

  18. Transverse pumped laser amplifier architecture

    DOEpatents

    Bayramian, Andrew James; Manes, Kenneth R.; Deri, Robert; Erlandson, Alvin; Caird, John; Spaeth, Mary L.

    2015-05-19

    An optical gain architecture includes a pump source and a pump aperture. The architecture also includes a gain region including a gain element operable to amplify light at a laser wavelength. The gain region is characterized by a first side intersecting an optical path, a second side opposing the first side, a third side adjacent the first and second sides, and a fourth side opposing the third side. The architecture further includes a dichroic section disposed between the pump aperture and the first side of the gain region. The dichroic section is characterized by low reflectance at a pump wavelength and high reflectance at the laser wavelength. The architecture additionally includes a first cladding section proximate to the third side of the gain region and a second cladding section proximate to the fourth side of the gain region.

  19. Transverse pumped laser amplifier architecture

    DOEpatents

    Bayramian, Andrew James; Manes, Kenneth; Deri, Robert; Erlandson, Al; Caird, John; Spaeth, Mary

    2013-07-09

    An optical gain architecture includes a pump source and a pump aperture. The architecture also includes a gain region including a gain element operable to amplify light at a laser wavelength. The gain region is characterized by a first side intersecting an optical path, a second side opposing the first side, a third side adjacent the first and second sides, and a fourth side opposing the third side. The architecture further includes a dichroic section disposed between the pump aperture and the first side of the gain region. The dichroic section is characterized by low reflectance at a pump wavelength and high reflectance at the laser wavelength. The architecture additionally includes a first cladding section proximate to the third side of the gain region and a second cladding section proximate to the fourth side of the gain region.

  20. Parallel temporal dynamics in hierarchical cognitive control.

    PubMed

    Ranti, Carolyn; Chatham, Christopher H; Badre, David

    2015-09-01

    Cognitive control allows us to follow abstract rules in order to choose appropriate responses given our desired outcomes. Cognitive control is often conceptualized as a hierarchical decision process, wherein decisions made at higher, more abstract levels of control asymmetrically influence lower-level decisions. These influences could evolve sequentially across multiple levels of a hierarchical decision, consistent with much prior evidence for central bottlenecks and seriality in decision-making processes. However, here, we show that multiple levels of hierarchical cognitive control are processed primarily in parallel. Human participants selected responses to stimuli using a complex, multiply contingent (third order) rule structure. A response deadline procedure allowed assessment of the accuracy and timing of decisions made at each level of the hierarchy. In contrast to a serial decision process, error rates across levels of the decision mostly declined simultaneously and at identical rates, with only a slight tendency to complete the highest level decision first. Simulations with a biologically plausible neural network model demonstrate how such parallel processing could emerge from a previously developed hierarchically nested frontostriatal architecture. Our results support a parallel processing model of cognitive control, in which uncertainty on multiple levels of a decision is reduced simultaneously. PMID:26051820

  1. Genetic Basis of a Cognitive Complexity Metric

    PubMed Central

    Hansell, Narelle K.; Halford, Graeme S.; Andrews, Glenda; Shum, David H. K.; Harris, Sarah E.; Davies, Gail; Franic, Sanja; Christoforou, Andrea; Zietsch, Brendan; Painter, Jodie; Medland, Sarah E.; Ehli, Erik A.; Davies, Gareth E.; Steen, Vidar M.; Lundervold, Astri J.; Reinvang, Ivar; Montgomery, Grant W.; Espeseth, Thomas; Hulshoff Pol, Hilleke E.; Starr, John M.; Martin, Nicholas G.; Le Hellard, Stephanie; Boomsma, Dorret I.; Deary, Ian J.; Wright, Margaret J.

    2015-01-01

    Relational complexity (RC) is a metric reflecting capacity limitation in relational processing. It plays a crucial role in higher cognitive processes and is an endophenotype for several disorders. However, the genetic underpinnings of complex relational processing have not been investigated. Using the classical twin model, we estimated the heritability of RC and genetic overlap with intelligence (IQ), reasoning, and working memory in a twin and sibling sample aged 15-29 years (N = 787). Further, in an exploratory search for genetic loci contributing to RC, we examined associated genetic markers and genes in our Discovery sample and selected loci for replication in four independent samples (ALSPAC, LBC1936, NTR, NCNG), followed by meta-analysis (N>6500) at the single marker level. Twin modelling showed RC is highly heritable (67%), has considerable genetic overlap with IQ (59%), and is a major component of genetic covariation between reasoning and working memory (72%). At the molecular level, we found preliminary support for four single-marker loci (one in the gene DGKB), and at a gene-based level for the NPS gene, having influence on cognition. These results indicate that genetic sources influencing relational processing are a key component of the genetic architecture of broader cognitive abilities. Further, they suggest a genetic cascade, whereby genetic factors influencing capacity limitation in relational processing have a flow-on effect to more complex cognitive traits, including reasoning and working memory, and ultimately, IQ. PMID:25860228

  2. Genetic basis of a cognitive complexity metric.

    PubMed

    Hansell, Narelle K; Halford, Graeme S; Andrews, Glenda; Shum, David H K; Harris, Sarah E; Davies, Gail; Franic, Sanja; Christoforou, Andrea; Zietsch, Brendan; Painter, Jodie; Medland, Sarah E; Ehli, Erik A; Davies, Gareth E; Steen, Vidar M; Lundervold, Astri J; Reinvang, Ivar; Montgomery, Grant W; Espeseth, Thomas; Hulshoff Pol, Hilleke E; Starr, John M; Martin, Nicholas G; Le Hellard, Stephanie; Boomsma, Dorret I; Deary, Ian J; Wright, Margaret J

    2015-01-01

    Relational complexity (RC) is a metric reflecting capacity limitation in relational processing. It plays a crucial role in higher cognitive processes and is an endophenotype for several disorders. However, the genetic underpinnings of complex relational processing have not been investigated. Using the classical twin model, we estimated the heritability of RC and genetic overlap with intelligence (IQ), reasoning, and working memory in a twin and sibling sample aged 15-29 years (N = 787). Further, in an exploratory search for genetic loci contributing to RC, we examined associated genetic markers and genes in our Discovery sample and selected loci for replication in four independent samples (ALSPAC, LBC1936, NTR, NCNG), followed by meta-analysis (N>6500) at the single marker level. Twin modelling showed RC is highly heritable (67%), has considerable genetic overlap with IQ (59%), and is a major component of genetic covariation between reasoning and working memory (72%). At the molecular level, we found preliminary support for four single-marker loci (one in the gene DGKB), and at a gene-based level for the NPS gene, having influence on cognition. These results indicate that genetic sources influencing relational processing are a key component of the genetic architecture of broader cognitive abilities. Further, they suggest a genetic cascade, whereby genetic factors influencing capacity limitation in relational processing have a flow-on effect to more complex cognitive traits, including reasoning and working memory, and ultimately, IQ. PMID:25860228

  3. Brain enhancement through cognitive training: a new insight from brain connectome.

    PubMed

    Taya, Fumihiko; Sun, Yu; Babiloni, Fabio; Thakor, Nitish; Bezerianos, Anastasios

    2015-01-01

    Owing to the recent advances in neurotechnology and the progress in understanding of brain cognitive functions, improvements of cognitive performance or acceleration of learning process with brain enhancement systems is not out of our reach anymore, on the contrary, it is a tangible target of contemporary research. Although a variety of approaches have been proposed, we will mainly focus on cognitive training interventions, in which learners repeatedly perform cognitive tasks to improve their cognitive abilities. In this review article, we propose that the learning process during the cognitive training can be facilitated by an assistive system monitoring cognitive workloads using electroencephalography (EEG) biomarkers, and the brain connectome approach can provide additional valuable biomarkers for facilitating leaners' learning processes. For the purpose, we will introduce studies on the cognitive training interventions, EEG biomarkers for cognitive workload, and human brain connectome. As cognitive overload and mental fatigue would reduce or even eliminate gains of cognitive training interventions, a real-time monitoring of cognitive workload can facilitate the learning process by flexibly adjusting difficulty levels of the training task. Moreover, cognitive training interventions should have effects on brain sub-networks, not on a single brain region, and graph theoretical network metrics quantifying topological architecture of the brain network can differentiate with respect to individual cognitive states as well as to different individuals' cognitive abilities, suggesting that the connectome is a valuable approach for tracking the learning progress. Although only a few studies have exploited the connectome approach for studying alterations of the brain network induced by cognitive training interventions so far, we believe that it would be a useful technique for capturing improvements of cognitive functions. PMID:25883555

  4. Brain enhancement through cognitive training: a new insight from brain connectome

    PubMed Central

    Taya, Fumihiko; Sun, Yu; Babiloni, Fabio; Thakor, Nitish; Bezerianos, Anastasios

    2015-01-01

    Owing to the recent advances in neurotechnology and the progress in understanding of brain cognitive functions, improvements of cognitive performance or acceleration of learning process with brain enhancement systems is not out of our reach anymore, on the contrary, it is a tangible target of contemporary research. Although a variety of approaches have been proposed, we will mainly focus on cognitive training interventions, in which learners repeatedly perform cognitive tasks to improve their cognitive abilities. In this review article, we propose that the learning process during the cognitive training can be facilitated by an assistive system monitoring cognitive workloads using electroencephalography (EEG) biomarkers, and the brain connectome approach can provide additional valuable biomarkers for facilitating leaners’ learning processes. For the purpose, we will introduce studies on the cognitive training interventions, EEG biomarkers for cognitive workload, and human brain connectome. As cognitive overload and mental fatigue would reduce or even eliminate gains of cognitive training interventions, a real-time monitoring of cognitive workload can facilitate the learning process by flexibly adjusting difficulty levels of the training task. Moreover, cognitive training interventions should have effects on brain sub-networks, not on a single brain region, and graph theoretical network metrics quantifying topological architecture of the brain network can differentiate with respect to individual cognitive states as well as to different individuals’ cognitive abilities, suggesting that the connectome is a valuable approach for tracking the learning progress. Although only a few studies have exploited the connectome approach for studying alterations of the brain network induced by cognitive training interventions so far, we believe that it would be a useful technique for capturing improvements of cognitive functions. PMID:25883555

  5. Spacecraft Architecture in long Duration Space Travels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ören, Ayşe

    2016-07-01

    As we embark on a journey for new homes in the new worlds to lay solid foundations, we should consider not only the survival of frontiers but also well-being of those to live in zero gravity. As a versatile science, architecture encompasses abstract human needs as well. On our new different direction in the course of the Homo sapiens evolution, we can do this with designs addressing both our needs and senses. Well-being of humans can be achieved by creating environments supporting the cognitive and social stages in the evolution process. Space stations are going through their own evolution process. Any step taken can serve as a reference for further attempts. When studying the history of architecture, window designing is discussed in a later phase, which is the case for building a spaceship as well. We lean on the places we live both physically and metaphorically. The feeling of belonging is essential here, entailing trans-humanism, which is significant since the environment therein is like a dress comfortable enough to fit in, meeting needs without any burden. Utilizing the advent of technology, we can create moods and atmospheres to regulate night and day cycles, thus we can turn claustrophobic places into cozy or dream-like places. Senses provoke a psychological sensation going beyond cultural codes as they are rooted within consciousness, which allows designers to create a mood within a space that tells a story and evokes an emotional impact. Color, amount of light, sound and odor are not superficial. As much as intangible, they are real and powerful tools with a physical presence. Tapping into induction, we can solve a whole system based on a part thereof. Therefore, fractal designs may not yield good results unless used correctly in terms of design although they are functional, which makes geometric arrangement critical.

  6. How architecture wins technology wars.

    PubMed

    Morris, C R; Ferguson, C H

    1993-01-01

    Signs of revolutionary transformation in the global computer industry are everywhere. A roll call of the major industry players reads like a waiting list in the emergency room. The usual explanations for the industry's turmoil are at best inadequate. Scale, friendly government policies, manufacturing capabilities, a strong position in desktop markets, excellent software, top design skills--none of these is sufficient, either by itself or in combination, to ensure competitive success in information technology. A new paradigm is required to explain patterns of success and failure. Simply stated, success flows to the company that manages to establish proprietary architectural control over a broad, fast-moving, competitive space. Architectural strategies have become crucial to information technology because of the astonishing rate of improvement in microprocessors and other semiconductor components. Since no single vendor can keep pace with the outpouring of cheap, powerful, mass-produced components, customers insist on stitching together their own local systems solutions. Architectures impose order on the system and make the interconnections possible. The architectural controller is the company that controls the standard by which the entire information package is assembled. Microsoft's Windows is an excellent example of this. Because of the popularity of Windows, companies like Lotus must conform their software to its parameters in order to compete for market share. In the 1990s, proprietary architectural control is not only possible but indispensable to competitive success. What's more, it has broader implications for organizational structure: architectural competition is giving rise to a new form of business organization. PMID:10124636

  7. Open-Minded Cognition.

    PubMed

    Price, Erika; Ottati, Victor; Wilson, Chase; Kim, Soyeon

    2015-11-01

    The present research conceptualizes open-minded cognition as a cognitive style that influences how individuals select and process information. An open-minded cognitive style is marked by willingness to consider a variety of intellectual perspectives, values, opinions, or beliefs-even those that contradict the individual's opinion. An individual's level of cognitive openness is expected to vary across domains (such as politics and religion). Four studies develop and validate a novel measure of open-minded cognition, as well as two domain-specific measures of religious and political open-minded cognition. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis (controlling for acquiescence bias) are used to develop the scales in Studies 1 to 3. Study 4 demonstrates that these scales possess convergent and discriminant validity. Study 5 demonstrates the scale's unique predictive validity using the outcome of Empathic Concern (Davis, 1980). Study 6 demonstrates the scale's unique predictive validity using the outcomes of warmth toward racial, religious, and sexual minorities. PMID:26315581

  8. Selected reprints on dataflow and reduction architectures

    SciTech Connect

    Thakkar, S.S.

    1987-01-01

    This reprint collection looks at alternatives to von Neumann architecture: dataflow and reduction architectures and is organized into eight chapters that cover: different dataflow systems; dataflow solution to multiprocessing; dataflow languages and dataflow graphs; functional programming languages and their implementation; uniprocessor architectures that provide support for reduction; parallel graph reduction machines, and hybrid multiprocessor architectures.

  9. Glutamate Networks Implicate Cognitive Impairments in Schizophrenia: Genome-Wide Association Studies of 52 Cognitive Phenotypes

    PubMed Central

    Ohi, Kazutaka; Hashimoto, Ryota; Ikeda, Masashi; Yamamori, Hidenaga; Yasuda, Yuka; Fujimoto, Michiko; Umeda-Yano, Satomi; Fukunaga, Masaki; Fujino, Haruo; Watanabe, Yoshiyuki; Iwase, Masao; Kazui, Hiroaki; Iwata, Nakao; Weinberger, Daniel R.; Takeda, Masatoshi

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive impairments are a core feature in patients with schizophrenia. These deficits could serve as effective tools for understanding the genetic architecture of schizophrenia. This study investigated whether genetic variants associated with cognitive impairments aggregate in functional gene networks related to the pathogenesis of schizophrenia. Here, genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of a range of cognitive phenotypes relevant to schizophrenia were performed in 411 healthy subjects. We attempted to replicate the GWAS data using 257 patients with schizophrenia and performed a meta-analysis of the GWAS findings and the replicated results. Because gene networks, rather than a single gene or genetic variant, may be strongly associated with the susceptibility to schizophrenia and cognitive impairments, gene-network analysis for genes in close proximity to the replicated variants was performed. We observed nominal associations between 3054 variants and cognitive phenotypes at a threshold of P < 1.0 × 10− 4. Of the 3054 variants, the associations of 191 variants were replicated in the replication samples (P < .05). However, no variants achieved genome-wide significance in a meta-analysis (P > 5.0 × 10− 8). Additionally, 115 of 191 replicated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have genes located within 10 kb of the SNPs (60.2%). These variants were moderately associated with cognitive phenotypes that ranged from P = 2.50 × 10− 5 to P = 9.40 × 10− 8. The genes located within 10 kb from the replicated SNPs were significantly grouped in terms of glutamate receptor activity (false discovery rate (FDR) q = 4.49 × 10− 17) and the immune system related to major histocompatibility complex class I (FDR q = 8.76 × 10− 11) networks. Our findings demonstrate that genetic variants related to cognitive trait impairment in schizophrenia are involved in the N-methyl-d-aspartate glutamate network. PMID:25537281

  10. Architectural Analysis of Dynamically Reconfigurable Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindvall, Mikael; Godfrey, Sally; Ackermann, Chris; Ray, Arnab; Yonkwa, Lyly

    2010-01-01

    oTpics include: the problem (increased flexibility of architectural styles decrease analyzability, behavior emerges and varies depending on the configuration, does the resulting system run according to the intended design, and architectural decisions can impede or facilitate testing); top down approach to architecture analysis, detection of defects and deviations, and architecture and its testability; currently targeted projects GMSEC and CFS; analyzing software architectures; analyzing runtime events; actual architecture recognition; GMPUB in Dynamic SAVE; sample output from new approach; taking message timing delays into account; CFS examples of architecture and testability; some recommendations for improved testablity; and CFS examples of abstract interfaces and testability; CFS example of opening some internal details.

  11. Bipartite memory network architectures for parallel processing

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, W.; Kale, L.V. . Dept. of Computer Science)

    1990-01-01

    Parallel architectures are boradly classified as either shared memory or distributed memory architectures. In this paper, the authors propose a third family of architectures, called bipartite memory network architectures. In this architecture, processors and memory modules constitute a bipartite graph, where each processor is allowed to access a small subset of the memory modules, and each memory module allows access from a small set of processors. The architecture is particularly suitable for computations requiring dynamic load balancing. The authors explore the properties of this architecture by examining the Perfect Difference set based topology for the graph. Extensions of this topology are also suggested.

  12. Embodied cognition of aging

    PubMed Central

    Vallet, Guillaume T.

    2015-01-01

    Embodiment is revolutionizing the way we consider cognition by incorporating the influence of our body and of the current context within cognitive processing. A growing number of studies which support this view of cognition in young adults stands in stark contrast with the lack of evidence in favor of this view in the field of normal aging and neurocognitive disorders. Nonetheless, the validation of embodiment assumptions on the whole spectrum of cognition is a mandatory step in order for embodied cognition theories to become theories of human cognition. More pragmatically, aging populations represent a perfect target to test embodied cognition theories due to concomitant changes in sensory, motor and cognitive functioning that occur in aging, since these theories predict direct interactions between them. Finally, the new perspectives on cognition provided by these theories might also open new research avenues and new clinical applications in the field of aging. The present article aims at showing the value and interest to explore embodiment in normal and abnormal aging as well as introducing some potential theoretical and clinical applications. PMID:25932019

  13. A surety engineering framework to reduce cognitive systems risks.

    SciTech Connect

    Caudell, Thomas P.; Peercy, David Eugene; Caldera, Eva O.; Shaneyfelt, Wendy L.

    2008-12-01

    Cognitive science research investigates the advancement of human cognition and neuroscience capabilities. Addressing risks associated with these advancements can counter potential program failures, legal and ethical issues, constraints to scientific research, and product vulnerabilities. Survey results, focus group discussions, cognitive science experts, and surety researchers concur technical risks exist that could impact cognitive science research in areas such as medicine, privacy, human enhancement, law and policy, military applications, and national security (SAND2006-6895). This SAND report documents a surety engineering framework and a process for identifying cognitive system technical, ethical, legal and societal risks and applying appropriate surety methods to reduce such risks. The framework consists of several models: Specification, Design, Evaluation, Risk, and Maturity. Two detailed case studies are included to illustrate the use of the process and framework. Several Appendices provide detailed information on existing cognitive system architectures; ethical, legal, and societal risk research; surety methods and technologies; and educing information research with a case study vignette. The process and framework provide a model for how cognitive systems research and full-scale product development can apply surety engineering to reduce perceived and actual risks.

  14. Developing Cognitive Skills Through Art.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silver, Rawley A.

    The recognition that children's cognitive skills are evident in visual as well as verbal conventions has led to the construction of the Silver Test of Cognitive and Creative Skills (STCCS) for the assessment and development of children's cognitive abilities. Research on cognition, the role of language in cognition, and left and right brain…

  15. Stress and Cognition: A Cognitive Psychological Perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bourne, Lyle E., Jr.; Yaroush, Rita A.

    2003-01-01

    Research in cognitive psychology has made a significant contribution to our understanding of how acute and chronic stress affect performance. It has done so by identifying some of the factors that contribute to operator error and by suggesting how operators might be trained to respond more effectively in a variety of circumstances. The major purpose of this paper was to review the literature of cognitive psychology as it relates to these questions and issues. Based on the existence of earlier reviews (e.g., Hamilton, & Warburton, 1979; Hockey, 1983) the following investigation was limited to the last 15 years (1988-2002) and restricted to a review of the primary peer-reviewed literature. The results of this examination revealed that while cognitive psychology has contributed in a substantive way to our understanding of stress impact on various cognitive processes, it has also left many questions unanswered. Concerns about how we define and use the term stress and the gaps that remain in our knowledge about the specific effects of stressors on cognitive processes are discussed in the text.

  16. Architectures for statically scheduled dataflow

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, E.A.; Bier, J.C. )

    1990-12-01

    When dataflow program graphs can be statically scheduled, little run-time overhead (software or hardware) is necessary. This paper describes a class of parallel architectures consisting of von Neumann processors and one or more shared memories, where the order of shared- memory access is determined at compile time and enforced at run time. The architecture is extremely lean in hardware, yet for a set of important applications it can perform as well as any shared-memory architecture. Dataflow graphs can be mapped onto it statically. Furthermore, it supports shared data structures without the run-time overhead of I-structures. A software environment has been constructed that automatically maps signal processing applications onto a simulation of such an architecture, where the architecture is implemented using Motorola DSP96002 microcomputers. Static (compile-time) scheduling is possible for a subclass of dataflow program graphs where the firing pattern of actors is data independent. This model is suitable for digital signal processing and some other scientific computation. It supports recurrences, manifest iteration, and conditional assignment. However, it does not support true recursion, data-dependent iteration, or conditional evaluation. An effort is under way to weaken the constraints of the model to determine the implications for hardware design.

  17. Lunar Navigation Architecture Design Considerations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    D'Souza, Christopher; Getchius, Joel; Holt, Greg; Moreau, Michael

    2009-01-01

    The NASA Constellation Program is aiming to establish a long-term presence on the lunar surface. The Constellation elements (Orion, Altair, Earth Departure Stage, and Ares launch vehicles) will require a lunar navigation architecture for navigation state updates during lunar-class missions. Orion in particular has baselined earth-based ground direct tracking as the primary source for much of its absolute navigation needs. However, due to the uncertainty in the lunar navigation architecture, the Orion program has had to make certain assumptions on the capabilities of such architectures in order to adequately scale the vehicle design trade space. The following paper outlines lunar navigation requirements, the Orion program assumptions, and the impacts of these assumptions to the lunar navigation architecture design. The selection of potential sites was based upon geometric baselines, logistical feasibility, redundancy, and abort support capability. Simulated navigation covariances mapped to entry interface flightpath- angle uncertainties were used to evaluate knowledge errors. A minimum ground station architecture was identified consisting of Goldstone, Madrid, Canberra, Santiago, Hartebeeshoek, Dongora, Hawaii, Guam, and Ascension Island (or the geometric equivalent).

  18. Space and Architecture's Current Line of Research? A Lunar Architecture Workshop With An Architectural Agenda.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solomon, D.; van Dijk, A.

    The "2002 ESA Lunar Architecture Workshop" (June 3-16) ESTEC, Noordwijk, NL and V2_Lab, Rotterdam, NL) is the first-of-its-kind workshop for exploring the design of extra-terrestrial (infra) structures for human exploration of the Moon and Earth-like planets introducing 'architecture's current line of research', and adopting an architec- tural criteria. The workshop intends to inspire, engage and challenge 30-40 European masters students from the fields of aerospace engineering, civil engineering, archi- tecture, and art to design, validate and build models of (infra) structures for Lunar exploration. The workshop also aims to open up new physical and conceptual terrain for an architectural agenda within the field of space exploration. A sound introduc- tion to the issues, conditions, resources, technologies, and architectural strategies will initiate the workshop participants into the context of lunar architecture scenarios. In my paper and presentation about the development of the ideology behind this work- shop, I will comment on the following questions: * Can the contemporary architectural agenda offer solutions that affect the scope of space exploration? It certainly has had an impression on urbanization and colonization of previously sparsely populated parts of Earth. * Does the current line of research in architecture offer any useful strategies for com- bining scientific interests, commercial opportunity, and public space? What can be learned from 'state of the art' architecture that blends commercial and public pro- grammes within one location? * Should commercial 'colonisation' projects in space be required to provide public space in a location where all humans present are likely to be there in a commercial context? Is the wave in Koolhaas' new Prada flagship store just a gesture to public space, or does this new concept in architecture and shopping evolve the public space? * What can we learn about designing (infra-) structures on the Moon or any other

  19. The Challenges of Scientific Literacy: From the viewpoint of second-generation cognitive science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klein, Perry D.

    2006-02-01

    Recent trends in cognitive science have not made scientific literacy easier to attain, but they have made the practices through which educators meet its challenges more interpretable. Traditionally, cognitive scientists viewed knowledge as a set of propositions comprised of classical concepts, thought as logical inference and language as a literal representation of the world. They attributed the same denotative characteristics to cognition as to science text. In contrast, many contemporary cognitive scientists view knowledge as comprised of fuzzy and contextual concepts, thought as perceptually rather than formally grounded, and language as largely metaphorical and narrative. In this view the expressive characteristics of cognitive representations differ from the relatively denotative characteristics of science texts. Science literacy education bridges this difference through practices that help students: build classical concepts on a fuzzy cognitive architecture, achieve formally valid reasoning using perceptually driven operations, and construct written explanations and arguments using speech-like and narrative language.

  20. Association between Cognitive Activity and Cognitive Function in Older Hispanics

    PubMed Central

    Marquine, María J.; Segawa, Eisuke; Wilson, Robert S.; Bennett, David A.; Barnes, Lisa L.

    2012-01-01

    There is limited research on the association between participation in cognitively stimulating activity and cognitive function in older Hispanics. The main purpose of the present study was to explore whether frequency of cognitive activity and its association with cognitive function in Hispanics is comparable to that of non-Hispanics. In a multiethnic cohort of 1571 non-demented older adults, we assessed past and current cognitive activity, availability of cognitive resources in the home in childhood and middle age, and five domains of cognitive function. The measures of cognitive activity and cognitive resources had adequate reliability and validity in our subset of Hispanic participants (n = 81). Hispanics reported lower levels of education, lower frequency of cognitive activity and less cognitive resources than non-Hispanic White (n = 1102) and non-Hispanic Black (n = 388) participants. Despite these differences the strength of the association between cognitive activity and cognitive function was comparable across ethnic groups. Because Hispanics have lower frequency of cognitive activity, the benefit of cognitive activity to late life cognitive function may be potentially larger in this segment of the population. Thus, interventions aimed at increasing frequency of participation in cognitively stimulating activity may offer a potential target to reduce cognitive impairment in Hispanics. PMID:22676914

  1. Cognitive tempo and cognitive level relationships among mentally retarded children.

    PubMed

    Sternberg, L; Waldron, P; Miller, T L

    1982-10-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to ascertain predictive relationships between and within cognitive tempo and cognitive level characteristics of 33 moderately retarded junior high school children. The Matching Familiar Figures Test was used to establish cognitive tempo characteristics and the Essential Math and Language Skills Inventory was used to determine cognitive level characteristics. A multiple regression analysis indicated no significant predictive relationship from elements of cognitive tempo to elements of cognitive level. Elements of cognitive level, however, could predict elements of cognitive tempo. Implications for future research were discussed. Cross-validation on a larger sample is required. PMID:7155745

  2. Sex and Cognition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kimura, Doreen

    This book describes the major differences between men and women in cognitive or problem-solving abilities and discusses the possible biological contributions to such differences. The book argues that sex differences in cognitive patterns and in motor skills arose out of complementary evolutionary histories of men and women and that evidence for…

  3. Bilingualism and Cognitive Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caraballo, Jose N.

    Research on the effects of bilingualism on cognitive development is reviewed, and two complementary models of bilingualism are developed to account for research results. It is suggested that research since 1960 shows a positive relationship between bilingualism and cognitive development, at least for some types of bilingualism. The advantage or…

  4. Cognition-Enhancing Drugs

    PubMed Central

    Mehlman, Maxwell J

    2004-01-01

    New drugs that enhance cognition in cognitively healthy individuals present difficult public policy challenges. While their use is not inherently unethical, steps must be taken to ensure that they are safe, that they are widely available to promote equality of opportunity, and that individuals are free to decide whether or not to use them. PMID:15330974

  5. Cognitive Education Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulcahy, Robert; And Others

    The Cognitive Education Project centered at the University of Alberta undertook a 3-year longitudinal evaluation of two cognitive education programs aimed at teaching thinking skills. The critical difference between the two experimental programs was that one, Feuerstein's Instrumental Enrichment (IE) method was taught out of curricular content,…

  6. Learning and Cognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gr ver Aukrust, Vibeke, Ed.

    2011-01-01

    This collection of 58 articles from the recently-published third edition of the International Encyclopedia of Education focuses on learning, memory, attention, problem solving, concept formation, and language. Learning and cognition is the foundation of cognitive psychology and encompasses many topics including attention, memory, categorization,…

  7. Comparative Cognitive Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matsuzawa, Tetsuro

    2007-01-01

    This paper aims to compare cognitive development in humans and chimpanzees to illuminate the evolutionary origins of human cognition. Comparison of morphological data and life history strongly highlights the common features of all primate species, including humans. The human mother-infant relationship is characterized by the physical separation of…

  8. Transcending Cognitive Individualism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zerubavel, Eviatar; Smith, Eliot R.

    2010-01-01

    Advancing knowledge in many areas of psychology and neuroscience, underlined by dazzling images of brain scans, appear to many professionals and to the public to show that people are on the way to explaining cognition purely in terms of processes within the individual's head. Yet while such cognitive individualism still dominates the popular…

  9. Cognitive Network Neuroscience

    PubMed Central

    Medaglia, John D.; Lynall, Mary-Ellen; Bassett, Danielle S.

    2016-01-01

    Network science provides theoretical, computational, and empirical tools that can be used to understand the structure and function of the human brain in novel ways using simple concepts and mathematical representations. Network neuroscience is a rapidly growing field that is providing considerable insight into human structural connectivity, functional connectivity while at rest, changes in functional networks over time (dynamics), and how these properties differ in clinical populations. In addition, a number of studies have begun to quantify network characteristics in a variety of cognitive processes and provide a context for understanding cognition from a network perspective. In this review, we outline the contributions of network science to cognitive neuroscience. We describe the methodology of network science as applied to the particular case of neuroimaging data and review its uses in investigating a range of cognitive functions including sensory processing, language, emotion, attention, cognitive control, learning, and memory. In conclusion, we discuss current frontiers and the specific challenges that must be overcome to integrate these complementary disciplines of network science and cognitive neuroscience. Increased communication between cognitive neuroscientists and network scientists could lead to significant discoveries under an emerging scientific intersection known as cognitive network neuroscience. PMID:25803596

  10. Airport Surface Network Architecture Definition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, Thanh C.; Eddy, Wesley M.; Bretmersky, Steven C.; Lawas-Grodek, Fran; Ellis, Brenda L.

    2006-01-01

    Currently, airport surface communications are fragmented across multiple types of systems. These communication systems for airport operations at most airports today are based dedicated and separate architectures that cannot support system-wide interoperability and information sharing. The requirements placed upon the Communications, Navigation, and Surveillance (CNS) systems in airports are rapidly growing and integration is urgently needed if the future vision of the National Airspace System (NAS) and the Next Generation Air Transportation System (NGATS) 2025 concept are to be realized. To address this and other problems such as airport surface congestion, the Space Based Technologies Project s Surface ICNS Network Architecture team at NASA Glenn Research Center has assessed airport surface communications requirements, analyzed existing and future surface applications, and defined a set of architecture functions that will help design a scalable, reliable and flexible surface network architecture to meet the current and future needs of airport operations. This paper describes the systems approach or methodology to networking that was employed to assess airport surface communications requirements, analyze applications, and to define the surface network architecture functions as the building blocks or components of the network. The systems approach used for defining these functions is relatively new to networking. It is viewing the surface network, along with its environment (everything that the surface network interacts with or impacts), as a system. Associated with this system are sets of services that are offered by the network to the rest of the system. Therefore, the surface network is considered as part of the larger system (such as the NAS), with interactions and dependencies between the surface network and its users, applications, and devices. The surface network architecture includes components such as addressing/routing, network management, network

  11. Uncertainty and Cognitive Control

    PubMed Central

    Mushtaq, Faisal; Bland, Amy R.; Schaefer, Alexandre

    2011-01-01

    A growing trend of neuroimaging, behavioral, and computational research has investigated the topic of outcome uncertainty in decision-making. Although evidence to date indicates that humans are very effective in learning to adapt to uncertain situations, the nature of the specific cognitive processes involved in the adaptation to uncertainty are still a matter of debate. In this article, we reviewed evidence suggesting that cognitive control processes are at the heart of uncertainty in decision-making contexts. Available evidence suggests that: (1) There is a strong conceptual overlap between the constructs of uncertainty and cognitive control; (2) There is a remarkable overlap between the neural networks associated with uncertainty and the brain networks subserving cognitive control; (3) The perception and estimation of uncertainty might play a key role in monitoring processes and the evaluation of the “need for control”; (4) Potential interactions between uncertainty and cognitive control might play a significant role in several affective disorders. PMID:22007181

  12. Estrogens, inflammation and cognition.

    PubMed

    Au, April; Feher, Anita; McPhee, Lucy; Jessa, Ailya; Oh, Soojin; Einstein, Gillian

    2016-01-01

    The effects of estrogens are pleiotropic, affecting multiple bodily systems. Changes from the body's natural fluctuating levels of estrogens, through surgical removal of the ovaries, natural menopause, or the administration of exogenous estrogens to menopausal women have been independently linked to an altered immune profile, and changes to cognitive processes. Here, we propose that inflammation may mediate the relationship between low levels of estrogens and cognitive decline. In order to determine what is known about this connection, we review the literature on the cognitive effects of decreased estrogens due to oophorectomy or natural menopause, decreased estrogens' role on inflammation - both peripherally and in the brain - and the relationship between inflammation and cognition. While this review demonstrates that much is unknown about the intersection between estrogens, cognition, inflammation, we propose that there is an important interaction between these literatures. PMID:26774208

  13. Mechanisms for Robust Cognition.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Matthew M; Gluck, Kevin A

    2015-08-01

    To function well in an unpredictable environment using unreliable components, a system must have a high degree of robustness. Robustness is fundamental to biological systems and is an objective in the design of engineered systems such as airplane engines and buildings. Cognitive systems, like biological and engineered systems, exist within variable environments. This raises the question, how do cognitive systems achieve similarly high degrees of robustness? The aim of this study was to identify a set of mechanisms that enhance robustness in cognitive systems. We identify three mechanisms that enhance robustness in biological and engineered systems: system control, redundancy, and adaptability. After surveying the psychological literature for evidence of these mechanisms, we provide simulations illustrating how each contributes to robust cognition in a different psychological domain: psychomotor vigilance, semantic memory, and strategy selection. These simulations highlight features of a mathematical approach for quantifying robustness, and they provide concrete examples of mechanisms for robust cognition. PMID:25352094

  14. Hydration and cognitive performance.

    PubMed

    Sécher, M; Ritz, P

    2012-04-01

    A clinical link exists between severe dehydration and cognitive performance. Using rapid and severe water loss induced either by intense exercise and/or heat stress, initial studies suggested there were alterations in short-term memory and cognitive function related to vision, but more recent studies have not all confirmed these data. Some studies argue that water loss is not responsible for the observations made, and studies compensating water losses have failed to prevent the symptoms. Studies in children have suggested that drinking extra water helps cognitive performance, but these data rely on a small number of children. In older adults (mean age around 60) the data are not strong enough to support a relationship between mild dehydration and cognitive function. Data on frail elderly and demented people are lacking. Methodological heterogeneity in these studies are such that the relationship between mild dehydration and cognitive performance cannot be supported. PMID:22499450

  15. Bit-serial neuroprocessor architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tawel, Raoul (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    A neuroprocessor architecture employs a combination of bit-serial and serial-parallel techniques for implementing the neurons of the neuroprocessor. The neuroprocessor architecture includes a neural module containing a pool of neurons, a global controller, a sigmoid activation ROM look-up-table, a plurality of neuron state registers, and a synaptic weight RAM. The neuroprocessor reduces the number of neurons required to perform the task by time multiplexing groups of neurons from a fixed pool of neurons to achieve the successive hidden layers of a recurrent network topology.

  16. Software design by reusing architectures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhansali, Sanjay; Nii, H. Penny

    1992-01-01

    Abstraction fosters reuse by providing a class of artifacts that can be instantiated or customized to produce a set of artifacts meeting different specific requirements. It is proposed that significant leverage can be obtained by abstracting software system designs and the design process. The result of such an abstraction is a generic architecture and a set of knowledge-based, customization tools that can be used to instantiate the generic architecture. An approach for designing software systems based on the above idea are described. The approach is illustrated through an implemented example, and the advantages and limitations of the approach are discussed.

  17. Frame architecture for video servers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venkatramani, Chitra; Kienzle, Martin G.

    1999-11-01

    Video is inherently frame-oriented and most applications such as commercial video processing require to manipulate video in terms of frames. However, typical video servers treat videos as byte streams and perform random access based on approximate byte offsets to be supplied by the client. They do not provide frame or timecode oriented API which is essential for many applications. This paper describes a frame-oriented architecture for video servers. It also describes the implementation in the context of IBM's VideoCharger server. The later part of the paper describes an application that uses the frame architecture and provides fast and slow-motion scanning capabilities to the server.

  18. Parallel Architecture For Robotics Computation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fijany, Amir; Bejczy, Antal K.

    1990-01-01

    Universal Real-Time Robotic Controller and Simulator (URRCS) is highly parallel computing architecture for control and simulation of robot motion. Result of extensive algorithmic study of different kinematic and dynamic computational problems arising in control and simulation of robot motion. Study led to development of class of efficient parallel algorithms for these problems. Represents algorithmically specialized architecture, in sense capable of exploiting common properties of this class of parallel algorithms. System with both MIMD and SIMD capabilities. Regarded as processor attached to bus of external host processor, as part of bus memory.

  19. A reconfigurable multicarrier demodulator architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kwatra, S. C.; Jamali, M. M.

    1991-01-01

    An architecture based on parallel and pipline design approaches has been developed for the Frequency Division Multiple Access/Time Domain Multiplexed (FDMA/TDM) conversion system. The architecture has two main modules namely the transmultiplexer and the demodulator. The transmultiplexer has two pipelined modules. These are the shared multiplexed polyphase filter and the Fast Fourier Transform (FFT). The demodulator consists of carrier, clock, and data recovery modules which are interactive. Progress on the design of the MultiCarrier Demodulator (MCD) using commercially available chips and Application Specific Integrated Circuits (ASIC) and simulation studies using Viewlogic software will be presented at the conference.

  20. Recursive computer architecture for VLSI

    SciTech Connect

    Treleaven, P.C.; Hopkins, R.P.

    1982-01-01

    A general-purpose computer architecture based on the concept of recursion and suitable for VLSI computer systems built from replicated (lego-like) computing elements is presented. The recursive computer architecture is defined by presenting a program organisation, a machine organisation and an experimental machine implementation oriented to VLSI. The experimental implementation is being restricted to simple, identical microcomputers each containing a memory, a processor and a communications capability. This future generation of lego-like computer systems are termed fifth generation computers by the Japanese. 30 references.

  1. Best of College Architecture: AS&U's Architectural Competition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American School and University, 1981

    1981-01-01

    A restoration/addition that preserves traditional New England architecture, a sleek vocational-technical college on the prairie, and two energy efficient masonry buildings were selected as winners in the 1981 American School & University Design Awards competition. (Author/MLF)

  2. Archibabel: Tracing the Writing Architecture Project in Architectural Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lappin, Sarah A.; Erk, Gül Kaçmaz; Martire, Agustina

    2015-01-01

    Though much recent scholarship has investigated the potential of writing in creative practice (including visual arts, drama, even choreography), there are few models in the literature which discuss writing in the context of architectural education. This article aims to address this dearth of pedagogical research, analysing the cross-disciplinary…

  3. Impact of Enterprise Architecture on Architecture Agility and Coherence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abaas, Kanari

    2009-01-01

    IT has permeated to the very roots of organizations and has an ever increasingly important role in the achievement of overall corporate objectives and business strategies. This paper presents an approach for evaluating the impact of existing Enterprise Architecture (EA) implementations. The papers answers questions such as: What are the challenges…

  4. Flexible cognitive resources: competitive content maps for attention and memory.

    PubMed

    Franconeri, Steven L; Alvarez, George A; Cavanagh, Patrick

    2013-03-01

    The brain has finite processing resources so that, as tasks become harder, performance degrades. Where do the limits on these resources come from? We focus on a variety of capacity-limited buffers related to attention, recognition, and memory that we claim have a two-dimensional 'map' architecture, where individual items compete for cortical real estate. This competitive format leads to capacity limits that are flexible, set by the nature of the content and their locations within an anatomically delimited space. We contrast this format with the standard 'slot' architecture and its fixed capacity. Using visual spatial attention and visual short-term memory as case studies, we suggest that competitive maps are a concrete and plausible architecture that limits cognitive capacity across many domains. PMID:23428935

  5. Architectural Historical Heritage: a Tridimensional Multilayers Cataloguing Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calisi, D.; Tommasetti, A.; Topputo, R.

    2011-09-01

    In the Future the digital filing system will be the method for storing and cataloguing heritages, private assets and arts collections. Today this elaborate process is confined only to the library, painting or parietal heritage. What is missing is a digitalized acquisition of the architectural heritage, which is described at multiple levels of representation. Taking a critical look at the urban setting until you reach the single buildings in their complexity, there is a clear need to establish an open and up-to-date system in order to communicate the different degrees of interaction with the architectural elements that must be preserved and accessed to like a work of art. The breakdown and cataloguing at tridimensional levels affects the different scales of the representation of the city at the stage of stimulating and interactive fruition for those users interested in historical and cognitive research and at the stage of active and project implementation well. The hierarchy of layers of data storage city based should be lived and experienced on a superficial stage as a simple user of the knowledge offered by the digital language of animation and interactivity. It may be the case of a tourist or a citizen who is eager to deepen his awareness of a building, a neighbourhood together with its layering of history and architectural value. This article proposes the development of a database that will be used and extended from time to time with new information related to surveys, projects and restorations of the existing.

  6. Tools for describing the reference architecture for space data systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shames, Peter; Yamada, Takahiro

    2004-01-01

    This paper has briefly presented the Reference Architecture for Space Data Systems (RASDS) that is being developed by the CCSDS Systems Architecture Working Group (SAWG). The SAWG generated some sample architectures (spacecraft onboard architectures, space link architectures, cross-support architectures) using this RASDS approach, and RASDS was proven to be a powerful tool for describing and relating different space data system architectures.

  7. Cognitive anthropologists: who needs them?

    PubMed

    Rothe, Annelie

    2012-07-01

    During the last decades, the cognitive sciences and cognitive anthropology have increasingly veered away from each other. Cognitive anthropologists have become so rare within the cognitive sciences that Beller, Bender, and Medin (this issue) even propose a division of the cognitive sciences and cognitive anthropology. However, such a divorce might be premature. This commentary tries to illustrate the benefits that cognitive anthropologists have to offer, not despite, but because of their combination of humanistic and scientific elements. It argues that the cognitive sciences (among others) profit from these benefits, as culture will become crucial for cognitive research. At the same time, problems within cognitive anthropology are discussed, including, for example, the responsibility of cognitive anthropologists to promote young academics. Finally, ideas are presented that might support future interdisciplinary collaboration. PMID:22685097

  8. Energy Conservation through Architectural Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomson, Robert C., Jr.

    1977-01-01

    Describes a teaching unit designed to create in students an awareness of and an appreciation for the possibilities for energy conservation as they relate to architecture. It is noted that the unit can be adapted for use in many industrial programs and with different teaching methods due to the variety of activities that can be used. (Editor/TA)

  9. Information architecture. Volume 4: Vision

    SciTech Connect

    1998-03-01

    The Vision document marks the transition from definition to implementation of the Department of Energy (DOE) Information Architecture Program. A description of the possibilities for the future, supported by actual experience with a process model and tool set, points toward implementation options. The directions for future information technology investments are discussed. Practical examples of how technology answers the business and information needs of the organization through coordinated and meshed data, applications, and technology architectures are related. This document is the fourth and final volume in the planned series for defining and exhibiting the DOE information architecture. The targeted scope of this document includes DOE Program Offices, field sites, contractor-operated facilities, and laboratories. This document paints a picture of how, over the next 7 years, technology may be implemented, dramatically improving the ways business is conducted at DOE. While technology is mentioned throughout this document, the vision is not about technology. The vision concerns the transition afforded by technology and the process steps to be completed to ensure alignment with business needs. This goal can be met if those directing the changing business and mission-support processes understand the capabilities afforded by architectural processes.

  10. Architectural Barriers Removal: Resource Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Human Development (DHEW), Washington, DC. Office for Handicapped Individuals.

    The guide presents information on resources for eliminating architectural barriers for handicapped persons. Entries are grouped according to information resources, funding sources, and publications available from the federal government. Seven organizations are described in terms of agency goals, publications, and materials. Federal programs…

  11. Putting Architecture in Its Place.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, Esther da Costa

    1995-01-01

    Examines Vincent Scully's work as teacher, writer, and critic. This reminisce by a former student also lauds Scully's role as mentor to several generations of art historians. Briefly covers his work on behalf of historic preservation and discusses two seminal works, "American Architecture and Urbanism" and "The Earth, the Temple, and the Gods."…

  12. Policy Schmolicy: It's the Architecture!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reilly, Rob

    1999-01-01

    Examines how educational technology's architecture preempts policy decisions, discussing filtering, copyright, and password protection. Outlines four aspects of technology that must be understood before crafting policy: (1) identify critical issues; (2) anticipate vicarious results; (3) explore the range of policies; (4) consider stakeholders'…

  13. Multiplier Architecture for Coding Circuits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, C. C.; Truong, T. K.; Shao, H. M.; Deutsch, L. J.

    1986-01-01

    Multipliers based on new algorithm for Galois-field (GF) arithmetic regular and expandable. Pipeline structures used for computing both multiplications and inverses. Designs suitable for implementation in very-large-scale integrated (VLSI) circuits. This general type of inverter and multiplier architecture especially useful in performing finite-field arithmetic of Reed-Solomon error-correcting codes and of some cryptographic algorithms.

  14. Integrating Technology with Architectural Needs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elmasry, Sarah

    2009-01-01

    Researchers at the Center of High Performance Learning Technologies (CHPLE), Virginia Tech, conducted a study investigating issues related to integration of learning technologies with architectural systems in contemporary learning environments. The study is qualitative in nature, and focuses on integration patterns of learning technologies with…

  15. The Rhetoric of Campus Architecture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Cynthia Duquette

    2016-01-01

    The group activity described in this article was originally designed for an upper-division undergraduate course on Rhetoric and Architecture, but would also be well suited for courses in Persuasion, Rhetorical Criticism, or Visual Rhetoric. Any undergraduate course related to communication and design (including Advertising) could make excellent…

  16. Freeform reflectors for architectural lighting.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Ruidong; Hong, Qi; Zhang, Hongxia; Wu, Shin-Tson

    2015-12-14

    We propose an improved method to design freeform reflectors for architectural lighting: one for accent lighting and another for large area wall washing. The designed freeform reflectors effectively distribute light fluxes over the target surfaces, and generate appropriate illumination patterns for comfortable visual environments, which provides greater flexibility for lighting designs, allows many challenging designs, and improves energy-efficiency simultaneously. PMID:26698974

  17. Cohesin in determining chromosome architecture

    SciTech Connect

    Haering, Christian H.; Jessberger, Rolf

    2012-07-15

    Cells use ring-like structured protein complexes for various tasks in DNA dynamics. The tripartite cohesin ring is particularly suited to determine chromosome architecture, for it is large and dynamic, may acquire different forms, and is involved in several distinct nuclear processes. This review focuses on cohesin's role in structuring chromosomes during mitotic and meiotic cell divisions and during interphase.

  18. Computing architecture for autonomous microgrids

    SciTech Connect

    Goldsmith, Steven Y.

    2015-09-29

    A computing architecture that facilitates autonomously controlling operations of a microgrid is described herein. A microgrid network includes numerous computing devices that execute intelligent agents, each of which is assigned to a particular entity (load, source, storage device, or switch) in the microgrid. The intelligent agents can execute in accordance with predefined protocols to collectively perform computations that facilitate uninterrupted control of the .

  19. An open architecture motion controller

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rossol, Lothar

    1994-01-01

    Nomad, an open architecture motion controller, is described. It is formed by a combination of TMOS, C-WORKS, and other utilities. Nomad software runs in a UNIX environment and provides for sensor-controlled robotic motions, with user replaceable kinematics. It can also be tailored for highly specialized applications. Open controllers such as Nomad should have a major impact on the robotics industry.

  20. Carnegie Mellon University Space Architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kennedy, Kriss J.

    2016-01-01

    A traditional architecture studio focusing on a "post-pioneering" settlement (a first step research station with an emphasis on material, resources, closed-loop systems, as well as programmatic network and spatial considerations) for the surface of Mars or for Earth-Mars transit.

  1. Space-Time and Architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Field, F.; Goodbun, J.; Watson, V.

    Architects have a role to play in interplanetary space that has barely yet been explored. The architectural community is largely unaware of this new territory, for which there is still no agreed method of practice. There is moreover a general confusion, in scientific and related fields, over what architects might actually do there today. Current extra-planetary designs generally fail to explore the dynamic and relational nature of space-time, and often reduce human habitation to a purely functional problem. This is compounded by a crisis over the representation (drawing) of space-time. The present work returns to first principles of architecture in order to realign them with current socio-economic and technological trends surrounding the space industry. What emerges is simultaneously the basis for an ecological space architecture, and the representational strategies necessary to draw it. We explore this approach through a work of design-based research that describes the construction of Ocean; a huge body of water formed by the collision of two asteroids at the Translunar Lagrange Point (L2), that would serve as a site for colonisation, and as a resource to fuel future missions. Ocean is an experimental model for extra-planetary space design and its representation, within the autonomous discipline of architecture.

  2. Reconfigurable cognitive transceiver for opportunistic networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maso, Marco; Baştuğ, Ejder; Cardoso, Leonardo S.; Debbah, Mérouane; Özdemir, Özgür

    2014-12-01

    In this work, we provide the implementation and analysis of a cognitive transceiver for opportunistic networks. We focus on a previously introduced dynamic spectrum access (DSA) - cognitive radio (CR) solution for primary-secondary coexistence in opportunistic orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) networks, called cognitive interference alignment (CIA). The implementation is based on software-defined radio (SDR) and uses GNU Radio and the universal software radio peripheral (USRP) as the implementation toolkit. The proposed flexible transceiver architecture allows efficient on-the-fly reconfigurations of the physical layer into OFDM, CIA or a combination of both. Remarkably, its responsiveness is such that the uplink and downlink channel reciprocity from the medium perspective, inherent to time division duplex (TDD) communications, can be effectively verified and exploited. We show that CIA provides approximately 10 dB of interference isolation towards the OFDM receiver with respect to a fully random precoder. This result is obtained under suboptimal conditions, which indicates that further gains are possible with a better optimization of the system. Our findings point towards the usefulness of a practical CIA implementation, as it yields a non-negligible performance for the secondary system, while providing interference shielding to the primary receiver.

  3. Metareasoning and Social Evaluations in Cognitive Agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinyol, Isaac; Sabater-Mir, Jordi

    Reputation mechanisms have been recognized one of the key technologies when designing multi-agent systems. They are specially relevant in complex open environments, becoming a non-centralized mechanism to control interactions among agents. Cognitive agents tackling such complex societies must use reputation information not only for selecting partners to interact with, but also in metareasoning processes to change reasoning rules. This is the focus of this paper. We argue about the necessity to allow, as a cognitive systems designers, certain degree of freedom in the reasoning rules of the agents. We also describes cognitive approaches of agency that support this idea. Furthermore, taking as a base the computational reputation model Repage, and its integration in a BDI architecture, we use the previous ideas to specify metarules and processes to modify at run-time the reasoning paths of the agent. In concrete we propose a metarule to update the link between Repage and the belief base, and a metarule and a process to update an axiom incorporated in the belief logic of the agent. Regarding this last issue we also provide empirical results that show the evolution of agents that use it.

  4. Autopoiesis and cognition.

    PubMed

    Bourgine, Paul; Stewart, John

    2004-01-01

    This article revisits the concept of autopoiesis and examines its relation to cognition and life. We present a mathematical model of a 3D tesselation automaton, considered as a minimal example of autopoiesis. This leads us to a thesis T1: "An autopoietic system can be described as a random dynamical system, which is defined only within its organized autopoietic domain." We propose a modified definition of autopoiesis: "An autopoietic system is a network of processes that produces the components that reproduce the network, and that also regulates the boundary conditions necessary for its ongoing existence as a network." We also propose a definition of cognition: "A system is cognitive if and only if sensory inputs serve to trigger actions in a specific way, so as to satisfy a viability constraint." It follows from these definitions that the concepts of autopoiesis and cognition, although deeply related in their connection with the regulation of the boundary conditions of the system, are not immediately identical: a system can be autopoietic without being cognitive, and cognitive without being autopoietic. Finally, we propose a thesis T2: "A system that is both autopoietic and cognitive is a living system." PMID:15245631

  5. Cognitive Impairment After Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Gauba, Charu; Chaudhari, Dinesh

    2015-01-01

    Background: Vascular dementia is extremely common and contributes to stroke-associated morbidity and mortality. The study of vascular dementia may help to plan preventive interventions. Aims: To study the frequency of cognitive impairment after stroke in a series of consecutive patients with acute stroke, along with factors which influence it. Methods: Fifty adults with acute infarct or hemorrhage (as seen on computed tomography of the brain) were included in the study. The National Institute of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) and Barthel’s Index scores were done. Cognitive testing was done by PGI Battery of Brain Dysfunction (PGI-BBD) and Short Form of the Informant Questionnaire on Cognitive Decline in the Elderly (SIQCODE). Statistical analysis was by Student’s t-test, Chi-square test, Fisher’s exact test, and Mann-Whitney U test. Results: Mean age of patients was 61.82 years; males and ischemic strokes predominated. Dementia was seen in 30%, cognitive impairment no dementia (CIND) in 42%, and normal cognition in 28% patients. Factors associated with vascular cognitive impairment included old age, male sex, low education, hemorrhages, recurrent or severe stroke, silent infarcts, severe cortical atrophy, and left hemispheric or subcortical involvement. Conclusions: Up to 72% of patients have some form of cognitive impairment after a stroke. Secondary stroke prevention could reduce the incidence of vascular dementia. PMID:26543693

  6. Cognitive and Academic Gains as a Result of Cognitive Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luckey, Alicia J.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test Feuersetein's Structural Cognitive Modifiability model by evaluating changes in cognitive skills and reading scores after participation in one of two cognitive skills training programs. The Woodcock Johnson Tests of Cognitive Abilities and Tests of Achievement, 3 rd editions were used as evaluation tools.…

  7. All-digital radar architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molchanov, Pavlo A.

    2014-10-01

    All digital radar architecture requires exclude mechanical scan system. The phase antenna array is necessarily large because the array elements must be co-located with very precise dimensions and will need high accuracy phase processing system for aggregate and distribute T/R modules data to/from antenna elements. Even phase array cannot provide wide field of view. New nature inspired all digital radar architecture proposed. The fly's eye consists of multiple angularly spaced sensors giving the fly simultaneously thee wide-area visual coverage it needs to detect and avoid the threats around him. Fly eye radar antenna array consist multiple directional antennas loose distributed along perimeter of ground vehicle or aircraft and coupled with receiving/transmitting front end modules connected by digital interface to central processor. Non-steering antenna array allows creating all-digital radar with extreme flexible architecture. Fly eye radar architecture provides wide possibility of digital modulation and different waveform generation. Simultaneous correlation and integration of thousands signals per second from each point of surveillance area allows not only detecting of low level signals ((low profile targets), but help to recognize and classify signals (targets) by using diversity signals, polarization modulation and intelligent processing. Proposed all digital radar architecture with distributed directional antenna array can provide a 3D space vector to the jammer by verification direction of arrival for signals sources and as result jam/spoof protection not only for radar systems, but for communication systems and any navigation constellation system, for both encrypted or unencrypted signals, for not limited number or close positioned jammers.

  8. Social cognition in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Green, Michael F; Leitman, David I

    2008-07-01

    Social cognition in schizophrenia is a rapidly emerging area of study. Because the number and diversity of studies in this area have increased, efforts have been made to better define terms and provide organizing frameworks. A key challenge confronting the study of social cognition in schizophrenia is building bridges between clinical scientists and social neuroscientists. The articles in this theme summarize data-based studies that have attempted to build or strengthen such bridges to better understand the neural bases of social cognitive impairment in schizophrenia. PMID:18495642

  9. Therapeutics for cognitive aging

    PubMed Central

    Shineman, Diana W.; Salthouse, Timothy A.; Launer, Lenore J.; Hof, Patrick R.; Bartzokis, George; Kleiman, Robin; Luine, Victoria; Buccafusco, Jerry J.; Small, Gary W.; Aisen, Paul S.; Lowe, David A.; Fillit, Howard M.

    2011-01-01

    This review summarizes the scientific talks presented at the conference “Therapeutics for Cognitive Aging,” hosted by the New York Academy of Sciences and the Alzheimer’s Drug Discovery Foundation on May 15, 2009. Attended by scientists from industry and academia, as well as by a number of lay people—approximately 200 in all—the conference specifically tackled the many aspects of developing therapeutic interventions for cognitive impairment. Discussion also focused on how to define cognitive aging and whether it should be considered a treatable, tractable disease. PMID:20392284

  10. Mutually Augmented Cognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friesdorf, Florian; Pangercic, Dejan; Bubb, Heiner; Beetz, Michael

    In mac, an ergonomic dialog-system and algorithms will be developed that enable human experts and companions to be integrated into knowledge gathering and decision making processes of highly complex cognitive systems (e.g. Assistive Household as manifested further in the paper). In this event we propose to join algorithms and methodologies coming from Ergonomics and Artificial Intelligence that: a) make cognitive systems more congenial for non-expert humans, b) facilitate their comprehension by utilizing a high-level expandable control code for human experts and c) augment representation of such cognitive system into “deep representation” obtained through an interaction with human companions.

  11. Cognitive approaches to emotions.

    PubMed

    Oatley, Keith; Johnson-Laird, P N

    2014-03-01

    Cognitive approaches offer clear links between how emotions are thought about in everyday life and how they are investigated psychologically. Cognitive researchers have focused on how emotions are caused when events or other people affect concerns and on how emotions influence processes such as reasoning, memory, and attention. Three representative cognitive theories of emotion continue to develop productively: the action-readiness theory, the core-affect theory, and the communicative theory. Some principles are common to them and divergences can be resolved by future research. Recent explanations have included how emotions structure social relationships, how they function in psychological illnesses, and how they are central to music and fiction. PMID:24389368

  12. Security management based on trust determination in cognitive radio networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jianwu; Feng, Zebing; Wei, Zhiqing; Feng, Zhiyong; Zhang, Ping

    2014-12-01

    Security has played a major role in cognitive radio networks. Numerous researches have mainly focused on attacking detection based on source localization and detection probability. However, few of them took the penalty of attackers into consideration and neglected how to implement effective punitive measures against attackers. To address this issue, this article proposes a novel penalty mechanism based on cognitive trust value. The main feature of this mechanism has been realized by six functions: authentication, interactive, configuration, trust value collection, storage and update, and punishment. Data fusion center (FC) and cluster heads (CHs) have been put forward as a hierarchical architecture to manage trust value of cognitive users. Misbehaving users would be punished by FC by declining their trust value; thus, guaranteeing network security via distinguishing attack users is of great necessity. Simulation results verify the rationality and effectiveness of our proposed mechanism.

  13. Software Architecture for Planetary and Lunar Robotics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Utz, Hans; Fong, Teny; Nesnas, Iasa A. D.

    2006-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation on the role that software architecture plays in space and lunar robotics is shown. The topics include: 1) The Intelligent Robotics Group; 2) The Lunar Mission; 3) Lunar Robotics; and 4) Software Architecture for Space Robotics.

  14. The NASA Space Communications Data Networking Architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Israel, David J.; Hooke, Adrian J.; Freeman, Kenneth; Rush, John J.

    2006-01-01

    The NASA Space Communications Architecture Working Group (SCAWG) has recently been developing an integrated agency-wide space communications architecture in order to provide the necessary communication and navigation capabilities to support NASA's new Exploration and Science Programs. A critical element of the space communications architecture is the end-to-end Data Networking Architecture, which must provide a wide range of services required for missions ranging from planetary rovers to human spaceflight, and from sub-orbital space to deep space. Requirements for a higher degree of user autonomy and interoperability between a variety of elements must be accommodated within an architecture that necessarily features minimum operational complexity. The architecture must also be scalable and evolvable to meet mission needs for the next 25 years. This paper will describe the recommended NASA Data Networking Architecture, present some of the rationale for the recommendations, and will illustrate an application of the architecture to example NASA missions.

  15. Enterprise Information Architecture for Mission Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dutra, Jayne

    2007-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the concept of an information architecture to assist in mission development. The integrate information architecture will create a unified view of the information using metadata and the values (i.e., taxonomy).

  16. A Systems Engineering Approach to Architecture Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Di Pietro, David A.

    2015-01-01

    Architecture development is often conducted prior to system concept design when there is a need to determine the best-value mix of systems that works collectively in specific scenarios and time frames to accomplish a set of mission area objectives. While multiple architecture frameworks exist, they often require use of unique taxonomies and data structures. In contrast, this paper characterizes architecture development using terminology widely understood within the systems engineering community. Using a notional civil space architecture example, it employs a multi-tier framework to describe the enterprise level architecture and illustrates how results of lower tier, mission area architectures integrate into the enterprise architecture. It also presents practices for conducting effective mission area architecture studies, including establishing the trade space, developing functions and metrics, evaluating the ability of potential design solutions to meet the required functions, and expediting study execution through the use of iterative design cycles.

  17. A Systems Engineering Approach to Architecture Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Di Pietro, David A.

    2015-01-01

    Architecture development is often conducted prior to system concept design when there is a need to determine the best-value mix of systems that works collectively in specific scenarios and time frames to accomplish a set of mission area objectives. While multiple architecture frameworks exist, they often require use of unique taxonomies and data structures. In contrast, this paper characterizes architecture development using terminology widely understood within the systems engineering community. Using a notional civil space architecture example, it employs a multi-tier framework to describe the enterprise level architecture and illustrates how results of lower tier, mission area architectures integrate into the enterprise architecture. It also presents practices for conducting effective mission area architecture studies, including establishing the trade space, developing functions and metrics, evaluating the ability of potential design solutions to meet the required functions, and expediting study execution through the use of iterative design cycles

  18. A Systems Engineering Approach to Architecture Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Di Pietro, David A.

    2014-01-01

    Architecture development is conducted prior to system concept design when there is a need to determine the best-value mix of systems that works collectively in specific scenarios and time frames to accomplish a set of mission area objectives. While multiple architecture frameworks exist, they often require use of unique taxonomies and data structures. In contrast, this presentation characterizes architecture development using terminology widely understood within the systems engineering community. Using a notional civil space architecture example, it employs a multi-tier framework to describe the enterprise level architecture and illustrates how results of lower tier, mission area architectures integrate into the enterprise architecture. It also presents practices for conducting effective mission area architecture studies, including establishing the trade space, developing functions and metrics, evaluating the ability of potential design solutions to meet the required functions, and expediting study execution through the use of iterative design cycles.

  19. Guiding Architects in Selecting Architectural Evolution Alternatives

    SciTech Connect

    Ciraci, Selim; Sozer, Hasan; Aksit, Mehmet

    2011-09-09

    Although there exist methods and tools to support architecture evolution, the derivation and evaluation of alternative evolution paths are realized manually. In this paper, we introduce an approach, where architecture specification is converted to a graph representation. Based on this representation, we automatically generate possible evolution paths, evalute quality attributes for different architecture configurations, and optimize the selection of a particular path accordingly. We illustrate our approach by modeling the software architecture evolution of a crisis management system.

  20. The neuroscience of motivated cognition.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Brent L; Zaki, Jamil

    2015-02-01

    Goals and needs shape individuals' thinking, a phenomenon known as motivated cognition. We highlight research from social psychology and cognitive neuroscience that provides insight into the structure of motivated cognition. In addition to demonstrating its ubiquity, we suggest that motivated cognition is often effortless and pervades information processing. PMID:25640642

  1. [Cognitive remediation and nursing care].

    PubMed

    Schenin-King, Palmyre; Thomas, Fanny; Braha-Zeitoun, Sonia; Bouaziz, Noomane; Januel, Dominique

    2016-01-01

    Therapies based on cognitive remediation integrate psychiatric care. Cognitive remediation helps to ease cognitive disorders and enable patients to improve their day-to-day lives. It is essential to complete nurses' training in this field. This article presents the example of a patient with schizophrenia who followed the Cognitive Remediation Therapy programme, enabling him to access mainstream employment. PMID:27615702

  2. Curriculum and Cognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenstein, Joseph

    1971-01-01

    Paper presented at the Summer Meeting of the Alexander Graham Bell Association for the Deaf held in Philadelphia, June 24-27, 1970. Discussed are concepts of curriculum development, cognitive development, and educational methods with implications for the handicapped. (CB)

  3. Cognitive Neural Prosthetics

    PubMed Central

    Andersen, Richard A.; Hwang, Eun Jung; Mulliken, Grant H.

    2010-01-01

    The cognitive neural prosthetic (CNP) is a very versatile method for assisting paralyzed patients and patients with amputations. The CNP records the cognitive state of the subject, rather than signals strictly related to motor execution or sensation. We review a number of high-level cortical signals and their application for CNPs, including intention, motor imagery, decision making, forward estimation, executive function, attention, learning, and multi-effector movement planning. CNPs are defined by the cognitive function they extract, not the cortical region from which the signals are recorded. However, some cortical areas may be better than others for particular applications. Signals can also be extracted in parallel from multiple cortical areas using multiple implants, which in many circumstances can increase the range of applications of CNPs. The CNP approach relies on scientific understanding of the neural processes involved in cognition, and many of the decoding algorithms it uses also have parallels to underlying neural circuit functions. PMID:19575625

  4. Cognition and Learning Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, Linda

    1984-01-01

    The cognitive approach to education is briefly summarized, and its implications for learning disabilities considered. The approach, which includes the genetic epistemology espoused by J. Piaget and information processing theory, proposes the importance of active involvement and control processes. (CL)

  5. Computers and Cognitive Styles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chadwick, Sandra S.; Watson, J. Allen

    1986-01-01

    The computer's role in matching instructional content and method to the learning disabled student's individual cognitive style is examined for the four phases of instructional delivery: assessment, prescription, evaluation, and instruction. (DB)

  6. Cognitive aspects of color

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Derefeldt, Gunilla A. M.; Menu, Jean-Pierre; Swartling, Tiina

    1995-04-01

    This report surveys cognitive aspects of color in terms of behavioral, neuropsychological, and neurophysiological data. Color is usually defined as psychophysical color or as perceived color. Behavioral data on categorical color perception, absolute judgement of colors, color coding, visual search, and visual awareness refer to the more cognitive aspects of color. These are of major importance in visual synthesis and spatial organization, as already shown by the Gestalt psychologists. Neuropsychological and neurophysiological findings provide evidence for an interrelation between cognitive color and spatial organization. Color also enhances planning strategies, as has been shown by studies on color and eye movements. Memory colors and the color- language connections in the brain also belong among the cognitive aspects of color.

  7. Hyperacute cognitive stroke syndromes.

    PubMed

    Ferro, J M

    2001-10-01

    Cognitive syndromes are common clinical manifestations of hyperacute stroke and may be the single or dominant presenting features. They are related to acute dysfunction of complex integrated distributed functional networks serving different cognitive domains. The most common cortical syndromes include nonfluent or fluent aphasia, neglect, collor agnosia, pure alexia and Balint's syndrome. Disturbances of declarative memory are common following posterior cerebral artery and thalamic strokes. Abulia can follow thalamic, caudate and capsular lesions. Intraventricular and subarachnoid haemorrhages can cause preeminent neuropsychological changes. Disorientation is present in about 40% of acute stroke patients and delirium complicates the course of 25% of acute strokes. Some hyperacute cognitive stroke syndromes are useful indicators of later disability. Cognitive syndromes may pose special difficulties to neurology residents, unless formal teaching in neuropsychology and psychiatry is included in their training programs. PMID:11697519

  8. Mild Cognitive Impairment

    MedlinePlus

    ... other people their age. This condition is called mild cognitive impairment, or MCI. People with MCI can take care of themselves and do their normal activities. MCI memory problems may include Losing things often Forgetting ...

  9. Resting state networks' corticotopy: the dual intertwined rings architecture.

    PubMed

    Mesmoudi, Salma; Perlbarg, Vincent; Rudrauf, David; Messe, Arnaud; Pinsard, Basile; Hasboun, Dominique; Cioli, Claudia; Marrelec, Guillaume; Toro, Roberto; Benali, Habib; Burnod, Yves

    2013-01-01

    How does the brain integrate multiple sources of information to support normal sensorimotor and cognitive functions? To investigate this question we present an overall brain architecture (called "the dual intertwined rings architecture") that relates the functional specialization of cortical networks to their spatial distribution over the cerebral cortex (or "corticotopy"). Recent results suggest that the resting state networks (RSNs) are organized into two large families: 1) a sensorimotor family that includes visual, somatic, and auditory areas and 2) a large association family that comprises parietal, temporal, and frontal regions and also includes the default mode network. We used two large databases of resting state fMRI data, from which we extracted 32 robust RSNs. We estimated: (1) the RSN functional roles by using a projection of the results on task based networks (TBNs) as referenced in large databases of fMRI activation studies; and (2) relationship of the RSNs with the Brodmann Areas. In both classifications, the 32 RSNs are organized into a remarkable architecture of two intertwined rings per hemisphere and so four rings linked by homotopic connections. The first ring forms a continuous ensemble and includes visual, somatic, and auditory cortices, with interspersed bimodal cortices (auditory-visual, visual-somatic and auditory-somatic, abbreviated as VSA ring). The second ring integrates distant parietal, temporal and frontal regions (PTF ring) through a network of association fiber tracts which closes the ring anatomically and ensures a functional continuity within the ring. The PTF ring relates association cortices specialized in attention, language and working memory, to the networks involved in motivation and biological regulation and rhythms. This "dual intertwined architecture" suggests a dual integrative process: the VSA ring performs fast real-time multimodal integration of sensorimotor information whereas the PTF ring performs multi

  10. 29 CFR 32.28 - Architectural standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... accessibility prescribed by the General Services Administration under the Architectural Barriers Act at 41 CFR... 29 Labor 1 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Architectural standards. 32.28 Section 32.28 Labor Office of... FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Accessibility § 32.28 Architectural standards. (a) Design and...

  11. 37 CFR 202.11 - Architectural works.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Architectural works. 202.11... AND PROCEDURES PREREGISTRATION AND REGISTRATION OF CLAIMS TO COPYRIGHT § 202.11 Architectural works. (a) General. This section prescribes rules pertaining to the registration of architectural works,...

  12. 37 CFR 202.11 - Architectural works.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Architectural works. 202.11... AND PROCEDURES PREREGISTRATION AND REGISTRATION OF CLAIMS TO COPYRIGHT § 202.11 Architectural works. (a) General. This section prescribes rules pertaining to the registration of architectural works,...

  13. 37 CFR 202.11 - Architectural works.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Architectural works. 202.11... AND PROCEDURES PREREGISTRATION AND REGISTRATION OF CLAIMS TO COPYRIGHT § 202.11 Architectural works. (a) General. This section prescribes rules pertaining to the registration of architectural works,...

  14. 37 CFR 202.11 - Architectural works.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Architectural works. 202.11... AND PROCEDURES PREREGISTRATION AND REGISTRATION OF CLAIMS TO COPYRIGHT § 202.11 Architectural works. (a) General. This section prescribes rules pertaining to the registration of architectural works,...

  15. 37 CFR 202.11 - Architectural works.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Architectural works. 202.11... works. (a) General. This section prescribes rules pertaining to the registration of architectural works, as provided for in the amendment of title 17 of the United States Code by the Architectural...

  16. Teaching Case: Enterprise Architecture Specification Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steenkamp, Annette Lerine; Alawdah, Amal; Almasri, Osama; Gai, Keke; Khattab, Nidal; Swaby, Carval; Abaas, Ramy

    2013-01-01

    A graduate course in enterprise architecture had a team project component in which a real-world business case, provided by an industry sponsor, formed the basis of the project charter and the architecture statement of work. The paper aims to share the team project experience on developing the architecture specifications based on the business case…

  17. Thomas Jefferson and Architecture. Lesson Plan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gabriel, Robin H.

    1994-01-01

    Discusses the importance of architecture in Thomas Jefferson's life. Presents a lesson plan based on Jefferson's Monticello and designed to encourage students to identify and understand elements of classical architecture in their local area. Includes a photograph of Monticello and six architectural illustrations. (CFR)

  18. Emotion, Cognition, and Behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dolan, R. J.

    2002-11-01

    Emotion is central to the quality and range of everyday human experience. The neurobiological substrates of human emotion are now attracting increasing interest within the neurosciences motivated, to a considerable extent, by advances in functional neuroimaging techniques. An emerging theme is the question of how emotion interacts with and influences other domains of cognition, in particular attention, memory, and reasoning. The psychological consequences and mechanisms underlying the emotional modulation of cognition provide the focus of this article.

  19. Cognitive aspects of performance.

    PubMed Central

    Kane, J. E.

    1978-01-01

    The study of cognitive structures and processes in the control of skilled performance is considered and reviewed with special reference to a proposed hierarchical system incorporating levels of motor integration. Cognitive styles and dispositions of general behaviour are suggested as factors which may determine performance levels. The relative importance of these personal factors and stronger personality traits in accounting for variance in performance is considered in the light of a critique of the current interactional controversy. PMID:444808

  20. Cognitive aspects of performance.

    PubMed

    Kane, J E

    1978-12-01

    The study of cognitive structures and processes in the control of skilled performance is considered and reviewed with special reference to a proposed hierarchical system incorporating levels of motor integration. Cognitive styles and dispositions of general behaviour are suggested as factors which may determine performance levels. The relative importance of these personal factors and stronger personality traits in accounting for variance in performance is considered in the light of a critique of the current interactional controversy. PMID:444808

  1. Cognitive framing in action.

    PubMed

    Huhn, John M; Potts, Cory Adam; Rosenbaum, David A

    2016-06-01

    Cognitive framing effects have been widely reported in higher-level decision-making and have been ascribed to rules of thumb for quick thinking. No such demonstrations have been reported for physical action, as far as we know, but they would be expected if cognition for physical action is fundamentally similar to cognition for higher-level decision-making. To test for such effects, we asked participants to reach for a horizontally-oriented pipe to move it from one height to another while turning the pipe 180° to bring one end (the "business end") to a target on the left or right. From a physical perspective, participants could have always rotated the pipe in the same angular direction no matter which end was the business end; a given participant could have always turned the pipe clockwise or counter-clockwise. Instead, our participants turned the business end counter-clockwise for left targets and clockwise for right targets. Thus, the way the identical physical task was framed altered the way it was performed. This finding is consistent with the hypothesis that cognition for physical action is fundamentally similar to cognition for higher-level decision-making. A tantalizing possibility is that higher-level decision heuristics have roots in the control of physical action, a hypothesis that accords with embodied views of cognition. PMID:26970853

  2. [Schizophrenia, cognition and neuroimaging].

    PubMed

    Kaladjian, A; Fakra, E; Adida, M; Belzeaux, R; Cermolacce, M; Azorin, J-M

    2011-12-01

    Schizophrenia is a complex illness whose mechanisms are still largely unknown. Functional brain imaging, by making the link between psyche and brain, has recently become an indispensable tool to study in vivo the neural bases underlying cognitive dysfunction in this disease. But despite the proliferation of data coming from this approach, the exact impact of functional imaging on our understanding of the disease remains blurry. In general, studies of the brain functioning of patients with schizophrenia found activation abnormalities which vary in nature and localization depending of the cognitive paradigm used. However, it appears that neurofunctional abnormalities observed in patients cannot be reduced to a simple well-localized deficit. It would be rather an alteration of the dynamics of the interactions between different brain regions that underlie the cognitive disturbances encountered in the disease. Functional brain imaging now offers new perspectives to clarify the dynamics of the brain networks, and particularly those involved in high-level cognitive functions, such as cognitive control or social cognition which seem to play a crucial role in the disease. The characterization of these features is an important issue not only to develop new hypotheses on the pathophysiology of the disorder, but also more pragmatically to identify potential therapeutic targets. PMID:22212841

  3. Cognition, emotion, and attention.

    PubMed

    Müller-Oehring, Eva M; Schulte, Tilman

    2014-01-01

    Deficits of attention, emotion, and cognition occur in individuals with alcohol abuse and addiction. This review elucidates the concepts of attention, emotion, and cognition and references research on the underlying neural networks and their compromise in alcohol use disorder. Neuroimaging research on adolescents with family history of alcoholism contributes to the understanding of pre-existing brain structural conditions and characterization of cognition and attention processes in high-risk individuals. Attention and cognition interact with other brain functions, including perceptual selection, salience, emotion, reward, and memory, through interconnected neural networks. Recent research reports compromised microstructural and functional network connectivity in alcoholism, which can have an effect on the dynamic tuning between brain systems, e.g., the frontally based executive control system, the limbic emotion system, and the midbrain-striatal reward system, thereby impeding cognitive flexibility and behavioral adaptation to changing environments. Finally, we introduce concepts of functional compensation, the capacity to generate attentional resources for performance enhancement, and brain structure recovery with abstinence. An understanding of the neural mechanisms of attention, emotion, and cognition will likely provide the basis for better treatment strategies for developing skills that enhance alcoholism therapy adherence and quality of life, and reduce the propensity for relapse. PMID:25307584

  4. Language and cognition.

    PubMed

    Perlovsky, Leonid

    2009-04-01

    What is the role of language in cognition? Do we think with words, or do we use words to communicate made-up decisions? The paper briefly reviews ideas in this area since 1950s. Then we discuss mechanisms of cognition, recent neuroscience experiments, and corresponding mathematical models. These models are interpreted in terms of a biological drive for cognition. Based on the Grossberg-Levine theory of drives and emotions, we identify specific emotions associated with the need for cognition. We demonstrate an engineering application of the developed technique, which significantly improves detection of patterns in noise over the previous state-of-the-art. The developed mathematical models are extended toward language. Then we consider possible brain-mind mechanisms of interaction between language and cognition. A mathematical analysis imposes restrictions on possible mechanisms. The proposed model resolves some long-standing language-cognition issues: how the mind learns correct associations between words and objects among an astronomical number of possible associations; why kids can talk about almost everything, but cannot act like adults, what exactly are the brain-mind differences; why animals do not talk and think like people. Recent brain imaging experiments indicate support for the proposed model. We discuss future theoretical and experimental research. PMID:19419838

  5. Epilepsy, cognition and behavior.

    PubMed

    Gulati, Sheffali; Yoganathan, Sangeetha; Chakrabarty, Biswaroop

    2014-10-01

    Epilepsy is defined as two or more unprovoked seizures. Epileptic patients have intellectual disability and behavioral co-morbidities to the tune of up to 25 and 75% respectively. Various factors like underlying etiology, socioeconomic environment at home, age at onset, seizure semiology, seizure descriptors like duration, severity and frequency, therapy related adverse effects secondary to antiepileptic drugs and epilepsy surgery have been implicated for the causation of cognitive and behavioral impairment in epilepsy. Cognitive epilepsy has emerged as a specific entity. This may manifest as a transient behavioral or cognitive change, insidous onset subacute to chronic encephalopathy or more catastrophic in the form of nonconvulsive status epilepticus. Cognitive impairment seen in epileptic children include difficulties in learning, memory, problem solving as well as concept formation. Anxiety, depression and attention deficit hyperkinetic disorders are the most common psychiatric co-morbidities seen. Investigating a child with epilepsy for cognitive and behavioral impairment is difficult as these tests would require cooperation from the patient's side to a significant extent. A rational approach towards treatment would be judicious selection of antiepileptic drugs, treatment of underlying cause, appropriate management of behavioral co-morbidities including psychopharmacotherapy and a trial of immunotherapy (particularly in cognitive epilepsies), wherever appropriate. PMID:25073691

  6. Architecture for Adaptive Intelligent Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hayes-Roth, Barbara

    1993-01-01

    We identify a class of niches to be occupied by 'adaptive intelligent systems (AISs)'. In contrast with niches occupied by typical AI agents, AIS niches present situations that vary dynamically along several key dimensions: different combinations of required tasks, different configurations of available resources, contextual conditions ranging from benign to stressful, and different performance criteria. We present a small class hierarchy of AIS niches that exhibit these dimensions of variability and describe a particular AIS niche, ICU (intensive care unit) patient monitoring, which we use for illustration throughout the paper. We have designed and implemented an agent architecture that supports all of different kinds of adaptation by exploiting a single underlying theoretical concept: An agent dynamically constructs explicit control plans to guide its choices among situation-triggered behaviors. We illustrate the architecture and its support for adaptation with examples from Guardian, an experimental agent for ICU monitoring.

  7. Template matching on parallel architectures

    SciTech Connect

    Sher

    1985-07-01

    Many important problems in computer vision can be characterized as template-matching problems on edge images. Some examples are circle detection and line detection. Two techniques for template matching are the Hough transform and correlation. There are two algorithms for correlation: a shift-and-add-based technique and a Fourier-transform-based technique. The most efficient algorithm of these three varies depending on the size of the template and the structure of the image. On different parallel architectures, the choice of algorithms for a specific problem is different. This paper describes two parallel architectures: the WARP and the Butterfly and describes why and how the criterion for making the choice of algorithms differs between the two machines.

  8. Distributed phased array architecture study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bourgeois, Brian

    1987-01-01

    Variations in amplifiers and phase shifters can cause degraded antenna performance, depending also on the environmental conditions and antenna array architecture. The implementation of distributed phased array hardware was studied with the aid of the DISTAR computer program as a simulation tool. This simulation provides guidance in hardware simulation. Both hard and soft failures of the amplifiers in the T/R modules are modeled. Hard failures are catastrophic: no power is transmitted to the antenna elements. Noncatastrophic or soft failures are modeled as a modified Gaussian distribution. The resulting amplitude characteristics then determine the array excitation coefficients. The phase characteristics take on a uniform distribution. Pattern characteristics such as antenna gain, half power beamwidth, mainbeam phase errors, sidelobe levels, and beam pointing errors were studied as functions of amplifier and phase shifter variations. General specifications for amplifier and phase shifter tolerances in various architecture configurations for C band and S band were determined.

  9. HRST architecture modeling and assessments

    SciTech Connect

    Comstock, D.A.

    1997-01-01

    This paper presents work supporting the assessment of advanced concept options for the Highly Reusable Space Transportation (HRST) study. It describes the development of computer models as the basis for creating an integrated capability to evaluate the economic feasibility and sustainability of a variety of system architectures. It summarizes modeling capabilities for use on the HRST study to perform sensitivity analysis of alternative architectures (consisting of different combinations of highly reusable vehicles, launch assist systems, and alternative operations and support concepts) in terms of cost, schedule, performance, and demand. In addition, the identification and preliminary assessment of alternative market segments for HRST applications, such as space manufacturing, space tourism, etc., is described. Finally, the development of an initial prototype model that can begin to be used for modeling alternative HRST concepts at the system level is presented. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  10. Space transportation architecture: Reliability sensitivities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, A. M.

    1992-01-01

    A sensitivity analysis is given of the benefits and drawbacks associated with a proposed Earth to orbit vehicle architecture. The architecture represents a fleet of six vehicles (two existing, four proposed) that would be responsible for performing various missions as mandated by NASA and the U.S. Air Force. Each vehicle has a prescribed flight rate per year for a period of 31 years. By exposing this fleet of vehicles to a probabilistic environment where the fleet experiences failures, downtimes, setbacks, etc., the analysis involves determining the resiliency and costs associated with the fleet of specific vehicle/subsystem reliabilities. The resources required were actual observed data on the failures and downtimes associated with existing vehicles, data based on engineering judgement for proposed vehicles, and the development of a sensitivity analysis program.

  11. HRST architecture modeling and assessments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Comstock, Douglas A.

    1997-01-01

    This paper presents work supporting the assessment of advanced concept options for the Highly Reusable Space Transportation (HRST) study. It describes the development of computer models as the basis for creating an integrated capability to evaluate the economic feasibility and sustainability of a variety of system architectures. It summarizes modeling capabilities for use on the HRST study to perform sensitivity analysis of alternative architectures (consisting of different combinations of highly reusable vehicles, launch assist systems, and alternative operations and support concepts) in terms of cost, schedule, performance, and demand. In addition, the identification and preliminary assessment of alternative market segments for HRST applications, such as space manufacturing, space tourism, etc., is described. Finally, the development of an initial prototype model that can begin to be used for modeling alternative HRST concepts at the system level is presented.

  12. Advanced Architectures for Astrophysical Supercomputing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barsdell, B. R.; Barnes, D. G.; Fluke, C. J.

    2010-12-01

    Astronomers have come to rely on the increasing performance of computers to reduce, analyze, simulate and visualize their data. In this environment, faster computation can mean more science outcomes or the opening up of new parameter spaces for investigation. If we are to avoid major issues when implementing codes on advanced architectures, it is important that we have a solid understanding of our algorithms. A recent addition to the high-performance computing scene that highlights this point is the graphics processing unit (GPU). The hardware originally designed for speeding-up graphics rendering in video games is now achieving speed-ups of O(100×) in general-purpose computation - performance that cannot be ignored. We are using a generalized approach, based on the analysis of astronomy algorithms, to identify the optimal problem-types and techniques for taking advantage of both current GPU hardware and future developments in computing architectures.

  13. Space Situational Awareness Architecture Vision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richmond, D.

    2013-09-01

    Vast amounts of Space Situational data are collected each day. Net-Centric approaches are being developed to expose this data. The need to shift from our closed legacy systems to an open scalable architecture has begun through the JMS efforts. Cloud computing/Big Data concepts are also desired to store and process this data. Architecture insights will be provided to highlight how these apparently competing concepts can work together to provide a robust system of systems. Key items that will be covered include: 1) An overview of the "As-Is" system of JMS and Web Services 2) Definition of "Cloud Computing" and "Big Data" 3) Vision of To-Be SSA system of systems 4) Benefits of future approach 5) Path forward Governance and Oversight

  14. Genetic Architecture of Reciprocal CNVs

    PubMed Central

    Golzio, Christelle; Katsanis, Nicholas

    2013-01-01

    Copy number variants (CNVs) represent a frequent type of lesion in human genetic disorders that typically affects numerous genes simultaneously. This has raised the challenge of understanding which genes within a CNV drive clinical phenotypes. Although CNVs can arise by multiple mechanisms, a subset is driven by local genomic architecture permissive to recombination events that can lead to both deletions and duplications. Phenotypic analyses of patients with such reciprocal CNVs have revealed instances in which the phenotype is either identical or mirrored; strikingly, molecular studies have revealed that such phenotypes are often driven by reciprocal dosage defects of the same transcript. Here we explore how these observations can help the dissection of CNVs and inform the genetic architecture of CNV-induced disorders. PMID:23747035

  15. Launch Vehicle Control Center Architectures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watson, Michael D.; Epps, Amy; Woodruff, Van; Vachon, Michael Jacob; Monreal, Julio; Williams, Randall; McLaughlin, Tom

    2014-01-01

    This analysis is a survey of control center architectures of the NASA Space Launch System (SLS), United Launch Alliance (ULA) Atlas V and Delta IV, and the European Space Agency (ESA) Ariane 5. Each of these control center architectures have similarities in basic structure, and differences in functional distribution of responsibilities for the phases of operations: (a) Launch vehicles in the international community vary greatly in configuration and process; (b) Each launch site has a unique processing flow based on the specific configurations; (c) Launch and flight operations are managed through a set of control centers associated with each launch site, however the flight operations may be a different control center than the launch center; and (d) The engineering support centers are primarily located at the design center with a small engineering support team at the launch site.

  16. Open Architecture SDR for Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Carl; Long, Chris; Liebetreu, John; Reinhart, Richard C.

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes an open-architecture SDR (software defined radio) infrastructure that is suitable for space-based operations (Space-SDR). SDR technologies will endow space and planetary exploration systems with dramatically increased capability, reduced power consumption, and significantly less mass than conventional systems, at costs reduced by vigorous competition, hardware commonality, dense integration, reduced obsolescence, interoperability, and software re-use. Significant progress has been recorded on developments like the Joint Tactical Radio System (JSTRS) Software Communication Architecture (SCA), which is oriented toward reconfigurable radios for defense forces operating in multiple theaters of engagement. The JTRS-SCA presents a consistent software interface for waveform development, and facilitates interoperability, waveform portability, software re-use, and technology evolution.

  17. Collaborative Virtual Environments as Means to Increase the Level of Intersubjectivity in a Distributed Cognition System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ligorio, M. Beatrice; Cesareni, Donatella; Schwartz, Neil

    2008-01-01

    Virtual environments are able to extend the space of interaction beyond the classroom. In order to analyze how distributed cognition functions in such an extended space, we suggest focusing on the architecture of intersubjectivity. The Euroland project--a virtual land created and populated by seven classrooms supported by a team of…

  18. Interaction between Task Oriented and Affective Information Processing in Cognitive Robotics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haazebroek, Pascal; van Dantzig, Saskia; Hommel, Bernhard

    There is an increasing interest in endowing robots with emotions. Robot control however is still often very task oriented. We present a cognitive architecture that allows the combination of and interaction between task representations and affective information processing. Our model is validated by comparing simulation results with empirical data from experimental psychology.

  19. City of Physics--Analogies to Increase Cognitive Coherence in Physics Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tabor-Morris, A. E.; Froriep, K. A.; Briles, T. M.; McGuire, C. M.

    2009-01-01

    Physics educators and researchers can be concerned with how students attain cognitive coherence: specifically, how students understand and intra-connect the whole of their knowledge of the "field of physics". Starting instead with the metaphor "city of physics", the implication of applying architectural concepts for the human acquisition of mental…

  20. Applying Cognitive Theory to Chemistry Instruction: The Case for Worked Examples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crippen, Kent J.; Brooks, David W.

    2009-01-01

    The case for chemistry instruction based on worked examples is presented, using a contemporary model of human learning. We begin by detailing human cognitive architecture and outlining the Interactive Compensatory Model of Learning (ICML). Through the ICML, the role of motivation, deliberate practice and feedback are detailed as key variables in…

  1. Spatial Cognition Support for Exploring the Design Mechanics of Building Structures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rudy, Margit; Hauck, Richard

    2008-01-01

    A web-based tool for visualizing the simulated structural behavior of building models was developed to support the teaching of structural design to architecture and engineering students by activating their spatial cognition capabilities. The main didactic issues involved establishing a consistent and complete three-dimensional vocabulary (3D)…

  2. Development of the Adolescent Brain: Implications for Executive Function and Social Cognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blakemore, Sarah-Jayne; Choudhury, Suparna

    2006-01-01

    Adolescence is a time of considerable development at the level of behaviour, cognition and the brain. This article reviews histological and brain imaging studies that have demonstrated specific changes in neural architecture during puberty and adolescence, outlining trajectories of grey and white matter development. The implications of brain…

  3. VLSI Architectures for Computing DFT's

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Truong, T. K.; Chang, J. J.; Hsu, I. S.; Reed, I. S.; Pei, D. Y.

    1986-01-01

    Simplifications result from use of residue Fermat number systems. System of finite arithmetic over residue Fermat number systems enables calculation of discrete Fourier transform (DFT) of series of complex numbers with reduced number of multiplications. Computer architectures based on approach suitable for design of very-large-scale integrated (VLSI) circuits for computing DFT's. General approach not limited to DFT's; Applicable to decoding of error-correcting codes and other transform calculations. System readily implemented in VLSI.

  4. Planetary Science Virtual Observatory architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erard, S.; Cecconi, B.; Le Sidaner, P.; Berthier, J.; Henry, F.; Chauvin, C.; André, N.; Génot, V.; Jacquey, C.; Gangloff, M.; Bourrel, N.; Schmitt, B.; Capria, M. T.; Chanteur, G.

    2014-11-01

    In the framework of the Europlanet-RI program, a prototype of Virtual Observatory dedicated to Planetary Science was defined. Most of the activity was dedicated to the elaboration of standards to retrieve and visualize data in this field, and to provide light procedures to teams who wish to contribute with on-line data services. The architecture of this VO system and selected solutions are presented here, together with existing demonstrators.

  5. World Ships - Architectures & Feasibility Revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hein, A. M.; Pak, M.; Putz, D.; Buhler, C.; Reiss, P.

    A world ship is a concept for manned interstellar flight. It is a huge, self-contained and self-sustained interstellar vehicle. It travels at a fraction of a per cent of the speed of light and needs several centuries to reach its target star system. The well- known world ship concept by Alan Bond and Anthony Martin was intended to show its principal feasibility. However, several important issues haven't been addressed so far: the relationship between crew size and robustness of knowledge transfer, reliability, and alternative mission architectures. This paper addresses these gaps. Furthermore, it gives an update on target star system choice, and develops possible mission architectures. The derived conclusions are: a large population size leads to robust knowledge transfer and cultural adaptation. These processes can be improved by new technologies. World ship reliability depends on the availability of an automatic repair system, as in the case of the Daedalus probe. Star systems with habitable planets are probably farther away than systems with enough resources to construct space colonies. Therefore, missions to habitable planets have longer trip times and have a higher risk of mission failure. On the other hand, the risk of constructing colonies is higher than to establish an initial settlement on a habitable planet. Mission architectures with precursor probes have the potential to significantly reduce trip and colonization risk without being significantly more costly than architectures without. In summary world ships remain an interesting concept, although they require a space colony-based civilization within our own solar system before becoming feasible.

  6. Systolic architectures for vector quantization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davidson, Grant A.; Cappello, Peter R.; Gersho, Allen

    1988-01-01

    A family of architectural techniques are proposed which offer efficient computation of weighted Euclidean distance measures for nearest-neighbor codebook searching. The general approach uses a single metric comparator chip in conjunction with a linear array of inner product processor chips. Very high vector-quantization (VQ) throughput can be achieved for many speech and image-processing applications. Several alternative configurations allow reasonable tradeoffs between speed and VLSI chip area required.

  7. Predicting and Modeling RNA Architecture

    PubMed Central

    Westhof, Eric; Masquida, Benoît; Jossinet, Fabrice

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY A general approach for modeling the architecture of large and structured RNA molecules is described. The method exploits the modularity and the hierarchical folding of RNA architecture that is viewed as the assembly of preformed double-stranded helices defined by Watson-Crick base pairs and RNA modules maintained by non-Watson-Crick base pairs. Despite the extensive molecular neutrality observed in RNA structures, specificity in RNA folding is achieved through global constraints like lengths of helices, coaxiality of helical stacks, and structures adopted at the junctions of helices. The Assemble integrated suite of computer tools allows for sequence and structure analysis as well as interactive modeling by homology or ab initio assembly with possibilities for fitting within electronic density maps. The local key role of non-Watson-Crick pairs guides RNA architecture formation and offers metrics for assessing the accuracy of three-dimensional models in a more useful way than usual root mean square deviation (RMSD) values. PMID:20504963

  8. Sensor Open System Architecture (SOSA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collier, Charles P.; Lipkin, Ilya; Davidson, Steven A.; Dirner, Jason

    2016-05-01

    The Sensor Open System Architecture (SOSA) is a C4ISR-focused technical and economic collaborative effort between the Air Force, Navy, Army, the Department of Defense (DoD), Industry, and other Governmental agencies to develop (and incorporate) technical Open Systems Architecture standards in order to maximize C4ISR sub-system, system, and platform affordability, re-configurability, overall performance, and hardware/software/firmware re-use. The SOSA effort will effectively create an operational and technical framework for the integration of disparate payloads into C4ISR systems; with a focus on the development of a functional decomposition for common multi-purpose backbone architecture for radar, EO/IR, SIGINT, EW, and communications modalities. SOSA addresses hardware, software, and mechanical/electrical interfaces. The functional decomposition will produce a set of re-useable components, interfaces, and sub-systems that engender re-usable capabilities. This, in effect, creates a realistic and affordable ecosystem enabling mission effectiveness through systematic re-use of all available re-composed hardware, software, and electrical/mechanical base components and interfaces.

  9. Numerical Propulsion System Simulation Architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Naiman, Cynthia G.

    2004-01-01

    The Numerical Propulsion System Simulation (NPSS) is a framework for performing analysis of complex systems. Because the NPSS was developed using the object-oriented paradigm, the resulting architecture is an extensible and flexible framework that is currently being used by a diverse set of participants in government, academia, and the aerospace industry. NPSS is being used by over 15 different institutions to support rockets, hypersonics, power and propulsion, fuel cells, ground based power, and aerospace. Full system-level simulations as well as subsystems may be modeled using NPSS. The NPSS architecture enables the coupling of analyses at various levels of detail, which is called numerical zooming. The middleware used to enable zooming and distributed simulations is the Common Object Request Broker Architecture (CORBA). The NPSS Developer's Kit offers tools for the developer to generate CORBA-based components and wrap codes. The Developer's Kit enables distributed multi-fidelity and multi-discipline simulations, preserves proprietary and legacy codes, and facilitates addition of customized codes. The platforms supported are PC, Linux, HP, Sun, and SGI.

  10. Architecture for hospital information integration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chimiak, William J.; Janariz, Daniel L.; Martinez, Ralph

    1999-07-01

    The ongoing integration of hospital information systems (HIS) continues. Data storage systems, data networks and computers improve, data bases grow and health-care applications increase. Some computer operating systems continue to evolve and some fade. Health care delivery now depends on this computer-assisted environment. The result is the critical harmonization of the various hospital information systems becomes increasingly difficult. The purpose of this paper is to present an architecture for HIS integration that is computer-language-neutral and computer- hardware-neutral for the informatics applications. The proposed architecture builds upon the work done at the University of Arizona on middleware, the work of the National Electrical Manufacturers Association, and the American College of Radiology. It is a fresh approach to allowing applications engineers to access medical data easily and thus concentrates on the application techniques in which they are expert without struggling with medical information syntaxes. The HIS can be modeled using a hierarchy of information sub-systems thus facilitating its understanding. The architecture includes the resulting information model along with a strict but intuitive application programming interface, managed by CORBA. The CORBA requirement facilitates interoperability. It should also reduce software and hardware development times.

  11. Microgrid cyber security reference architecture.

    SciTech Connect

    Veitch, Cynthia K.; Henry, Jordan M.; Richardson, Bryan T.; Hart, Derek H.

    2013-07-01

    This document describes a microgrid cyber security reference architecture. First, we present a high-level concept of operations for a microgrid, including operational modes, necessary power actors, and the communication protocols typically employed. We then describe our motivation for designing a secure microgrid; in particular, we provide general network and industrial control system (ICS)-speci c vulnerabilities, a threat model, information assurance compliance concerns, and design criteria for a microgrid control system network. Our design approach addresses these concerns by segmenting the microgrid control system network into enclaves, grouping enclaves into functional domains, and describing actor communication using data exchange attributes. We describe cyber actors that can help mitigate potential vulnerabilities, in addition to performance bene ts and vulnerability mitigation that may be realized using this reference architecture. To illustrate our design approach, we present a notional a microgrid control system network implementation, including types of communica- tion occurring on that network, example data exchange attributes for actors in the network, an example of how the network can be segmented to create enclaves and functional domains, and how cyber actors can be used to enforce network segmentation and provide the neces- sary level of security. Finally, we describe areas of focus for the further development of the reference architecture.

  12. The Planning Execution Monitoring Architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Lui; Ly, Bebe; Crocker, Alan; Schreckenghost, Debra; Mueller, Stephen; Phillips, Robert; Wadsworth, David; Sorensen, Charles

    2011-01-01

    The Planning Execution Monitoring (PEM) architecture is a design concept for developing autonomous cockpit command and control software. The PEM architecture is designed to reduce the operations costs in the space transportation system through the use of automation while improving safety and operability of the system. Specifically, the PEM autonomous framework enables automatic performance of many vehicle operations that would typically be performed by a human. Also, this framework supports varying levels of autonomous control, ranging from fully automatic to fully manual control. The PEM autonomous framework interfaces with the core flight software to perform flight procedures. It can either assist human operators in performing procedures or autonomously execute routine cockpit procedures based on the operational context. Most importantly, the PEM autonomous framework promotes and simplifies the capture, verification, and validation of the flight operations knowledge. Through a hierarchical decomposition of the domain knowledge, the vehicle command and control capabilities are divided into manageable functional "chunks" that can be captured and verified separately. These functional units, each of which has the responsibility to manage part of the vehicle command and control, are modular, re-usable, and extensible. Also, the functional units are self-contained and have the ability to plan and execute the necessary steps for accomplishing a task based upon the current mission state and available resources. The PEM architecture has potential for application outside the realm of spaceflight, including management of complex industrial processes, nuclear control, and control of complex vehicles such as submarines or unmanned air vehicles.

  13. Savannah River Site computing architecture

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-03-29

    A computing architecture is a framework for making decisions about the implementation of computer technology and the supporting infrastructure. Because of the size, diversity, and amount of resources dedicated to computing at the Savannah River Site (SRS), there must be an overall strategic plan that can be followed by the thousands of site personnel who make decisions daily that directly affect the SRS computing environment and impact the site`s production and business systems. This plan must address the following requirements: There must be SRS-wide standards for procurement or development of computing systems (hardware and software). The site computing organizations must develop systems that end users find easy to use. Systems must be put in place to support the primary function of site information workers. The developers of computer systems must be given tools that automate and speed up the development of information systems and applications based on computer technology. This document describes a proposal for a site-wide computing architecture that addresses the above requirements. In summary, this architecture is standards-based data-driven, and workstation-oriented with larger systems being utilized for the delivery of needed information to users in a client-server relationship.

  14. Savannah River Site computing architecture

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-03-29

    A computing architecture is a framework for making decisions about the implementation of computer technology and the supporting infrastructure. Because of the size, diversity, and amount of resources dedicated to computing at the Savannah River Site (SRS), there must be an overall strategic plan that can be followed by the thousands of site personnel who make decisions daily that directly affect the SRS computing environment and impact the site's production and business systems. This plan must address the following requirements: There must be SRS-wide standards for procurement or development of computing systems (hardware and software). The site computing organizations must develop systems that end users find easy to use. Systems must be put in place to support the primary function of site information workers. The developers of computer systems must be given tools that automate and speed up the development of information systems and applications based on computer technology. This document describes a proposal for a site-wide computing architecture that addresses the above requirements. In summary, this architecture is standards-based data-driven, and workstation-oriented with larger systems being utilized for the delivery of needed information to users in a client-server relationship.

  15. Launch Vehicle Control Center Architectures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watson, Michael D.; Epps, Amy; Woodruff, Van; Vachon, Michael Jacob; Monreal, Julio; Levesque, Marl; Williams, Randall; Mclaughlin, Tom

    2014-01-01

    Launch vehicles within the international community vary greatly in their configuration and processing. Each launch site has a unique processing flow based on the specific launch vehicle configuration. Launch and flight operations are managed through a set of control centers associated with each launch site. Each launch site has a control center for launch operations; however flight operations support varies from being co-located with the launch site to being shared with the space vehicle control center. There is also a nuance of some having an engineering support center which may be co-located with either the launch or flight control center, or in a separate geographical location altogether. A survey of control center architectures is presented for various launch vehicles including the NASA Space Launch System (SLS), United Launch Alliance (ULA) Atlas V and Delta IV, and the European Space Agency (ESA) Ariane 5. Each of these control center architectures shares some similarities in basic structure while differences in functional distribution also exist. The driving functions which lead to these factors are considered and a model of control center architectures is proposed which supports these commonalities and variations.

  16. ASAC Executive Assistant Architecture Description Summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, Eileen; Villani, James A.

    1997-01-01

    In this technical document, we describe the system architecture developed for the Aviation System Analysis Capability (ASAC) Executive Assistant (EA). We describe the genesis and role of the ASAC system, discuss the objectives of the ASAC system and provide an overview of components and models within the ASAC system, discuss our choice for an architecture methodology, the Domain Specific Software Architecture (DSSA), and the DSSA approach to developing a system architecture, and describe the development process and the results of the ASAC EA system architecture. The document has six appendices.

  17. The importance of architectures for interoperability.

    PubMed

    Blobel, Bernd; Oemig, Frank

    2015-01-01

    The paradigm changes health systems are faced with result in highly complex and distributed systems requiring flexibility, autonomy, but first of all advanced interoperability. In that context, understanding the architecture of the system to be supported as well as the process to meet the intended business objectives is crucial. Unfortunately, there is a lot of confusion around the term architecture, which doesn't facilitate the integration of systems. Using a reference architecture model and framework, relevant existing architectural approaches are analyzed, compared and critically discussed, but also harmonized using a reference architectural model and framework. PMID:25980847

  18. Jupiter Europa Orbiter Architecture Definition Process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rasmussen, Robert; Shishko, Robert

    2011-01-01

    The proposed Jupiter Europa Orbiter mission, planned for launch in 2020, is using a new architectural process and framework tool to drive its model-based systems engineering effort. The process focuses on getting the architecture right before writing requirements and developing a point design. A new architecture framework tool provides for the structured entry and retrieval of architecture artifacts based on an emerging architecture meta-model. This paper describes the relationships among these artifacts and how they are used in the systems engineering effort. Some early lessons learned are discussed.

  19. QUEST2: Sysdtem architecture deliverable set

    SciTech Connect

    Braaten, F.D.

    1995-02-27

    This document contains the system architecture and related documents which were developed during the Preliminary Analysis/System Architecture phase of the Quality, Environmental, Safety T-racking System redesign (QUEST2) project. Each discreet document in this deliverable set applies to a analytic effort supporting the architectural model of QUEST2. The P+ methodology cites a list of P+ documents normally included in a ``typical`` system architecture. Some of these were deferred to the release development phase of the project. The documents included in this deliverable set represent the system architecture itself. Related to that architecture are some decision support documents which provided needed information for management reviews that occurred during April. Consequently, the deliverables in this set were logically grouped and provided to support customer requirements. The remaining System Architecture Phase deliverables will be provided as a ``Supporting Documents`` deliverable set for the first release.

  20. Executable Architecture Research at Old Dominion University

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tolk, Andreas; Shuman, Edwin A.; Garcia, Johnny J.

    2011-01-01

    Executable Architectures allow the evaluation of system architectures not only regarding their static, but also their dynamic behavior. However, the systems engineering community do not agree on a common formal specification of executable architectures. To close this gap and identify necessary elements of an executable architecture, a modeling language, and a modeling formalism is topic of ongoing PhD research. In addition, systems are generally defined and applied in an operational context to provide capabilities and enable missions. To maximize the benefits of executable architectures, a second PhD effort introduces the idea of creating an executable context in addition to the executable architecture. The results move the validation of architectures from the current information domain into the knowledge domain and improve the reliability of such validation efforts. The paper presents research and results of both doctoral research efforts and puts them into a common context of state-of-the-art of systems engineering methods supporting more agility.

  1. Software Architecture Review: The State of Practice

    SciTech Connect

    Babar, Muhammad A.; Gorton, Ian

    2009-07-01

    This paper presents the results of a survey we carried out to investigate the state of practice of software architecture reviews. Of the survey results we describe, two are particularly significant for the software architecture research community. First, the survey respondents evaluate architectures mostly using informal, experience-based approaches. Second, the survey respondents rarely adopt the techniques that are highly recommended in architecture review research, such as the use of project-independent reviewers. We conclude that the software engineering practitioner community has yet to become fully aware of the methods and techniques available to support disciplined architecture review processes and their potential benefits. The architecture review research community needs to concentrate on helping practitioners by providing guidelines for justifying and institutionalizing the architecture review processes, and associated tools support.

  2. Relationships among gender, cognitive style, academic major, and performance on the Piaget water-level task.

    PubMed

    Hammer, R E; Hoffer, N; King, W L

    1995-06-01

    Many researchers have found that more college-age adults than would be expected fail Piaget's water-level task, with women failing more frequently than men. It has been hypothesized that differences in cognitive style may account for performance differences on the water-level task. In the present study, 27 male and 27 female architectural students and 27 male and 27 female liberal-arts students were assessed for their performance on both Piaget's Water-level Task and Witkin's Group Embedded Figures Test. No difference was found in performance of male and female architectural students on either task, but male liberal-arts students scored significantly higher than female liberal-arts students on both measures. A disembedding cognitive style predicted success on the water-level task for the architectural students but not for the liberal arts students. PMID:7567394

  3. Archaeology and cognitive evolution.

    PubMed

    Wynn, Thomas

    2002-06-01

    Archaeology can provide two bodies of information relevant to the understanding of the evolution of human cognition--the timing of developments, and the evolutionary context of these developments. The challenge is methodological. Archaeology must document attributes that have direct implications for underlying cognitive mechanisms. One example of such a cognitive archaeology is found in spatial cognition. The archaeological record documents an evolutionary sequence that begins with ape-equivalent spatial abilities 2.5 million years ago and ends with the appearance of modern abilities in the still remote past of 400,000 years ago. The timing of these developments reveals two major episodes in the evolution in spatial ability, one, 1.5 million years ago and the other, one million years later. The two episodes of development in spatial cognition had very different evolutionary contexts. The first was associated with the shift to an open country adaptive niche that occurred early in the time range of Homo erectus. The second was associated with no clear adaptive shift, though it does appear to have coincided with the invasion of more hostile environments and the appearance of systematic hunting of large mammals. Neither, however, occurred in a context of modern hunting and gathering. PMID:12879699

  4. Sociolinguistic variables and cognition.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Erik R

    2011-11-01

    Sociolinguistics has examined mental organization of language only sporadically. Meanwhile, areas of linguistics that deal with cognitive organization seldom delve deeply into language variation. Variation is essential for understanding how language is structured cognitively, however. Three kinds of evidence are discussed to illustrate this point. First, style shifting demonstrates that language users develop detailed associations of when to produce specific linguistic forms, depending on the pragmatic context. Second, variation in fine-grained phonetic cues shows that cognitive organization applies to linguistic forms not otherwise known to be under speakers' control. Finally, experiments on dialect comprehension and identification demonstrate that listeners have detailed cognitive associations of language variants with groups of people, whether or not they can produce the same variants themselves. A model is presented for how sociolinguistic knowledge can be viewed in relation to other parts of language with regard to cognitive and neural representations. WIREs Cogni Sci 2011 2 701-716 DOI: 10.1002/wcs.152 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. PMID:26302416

  5. Diabetes and Cognitive Impairment.

    PubMed

    Zilliox, Lindsay A; Chadrasekaran, Krish; Kwan, Justin Y; Russell, James W

    2016-09-01

    Both type 1 (T1DM) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) have been associated with reduced performance on multiple domains of cognitive function and with evidence of abnormal structural and functional brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Cognitive deficits may occur at the very earliest stages of diabetes and are further exacerbated by the metabolic syndrome. The duration of diabetes and glycemic control may have an impact on the type and severity of cognitive impairment, but as yet we cannot predict who is at greatest risk of developing cognitive impairment. The pathophysiology of cognitive impairment is multifactorial, although dysfunction in each interconnecting pathway ultimately leads to discordance in metabolic signaling. The pathophysiology includes defects in insulin signaling, autonomic function, neuroinflammatory pathways, mitochondrial (Mt) metabolism, the sirtuin-peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma co-activator 1α (SIRT-PGC-1α) axis, and Tau signaling. Several promising therapies have been identified in pre-clinical studies, but remain to be validated in clinical trials. PMID:27491830

  6. Autopoiesis + extended cognition + nature = can buildings think?

    PubMed Central

    Dollens, Dennis

    2015-01-01

    To incorporate metabolic, bioremedial functions into the performance of buildings and to balance generative architecture's dominant focus on computational programming and digital fabrication, this text first discusses hybridizing Maturana and Varela's biological theory of autopoiesis with Andy Clark's hypothesis of extended cognition. Doing so establishes a procedural protocol to research biological domains from which design could source data/insight from biosemiotics, sensory plants, and biocomputation. I trace computation and botanic simulations back to Alan Turing's little-known 1950s Morphogenetic drawings, reaction-diffusion algorithms, and pioneering artificial intelligence (AI) in order to establish bioarchitecture's generative point of origin. I ask provocatively, Can buildings think? as a question echoing Turing's own, "Can machines think?" PMID:26478784

  7. Reconfigurable, Cognitive Software-Defined Radio

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhat, Arvind

    2015-01-01

    Software-defined radio (SDR) technology allows radios to be reconfigured to perform different communication functions without using multiple radios to accomplish each task. Intelligent Automation, Inc., has developed SDR platforms that switch adaptively between different operation modes. The innovation works by modifying both transmit waveforms and receiver signal processing tasks. In Phase I of the project, the company developed SDR cognitive capabilities, including adaptive modulation and coding (AMC), automatic modulation recognition (AMR), and spectrum sensing. In Phase II, these capabilities were integrated into SDR platforms. The reconfigurable transceiver design employs high-speed field-programmable gate arrays, enabling multimode operation and scalable architecture. Designs are based on commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) components and are modular in nature, making it easier to upgrade individual components rather than redesigning the entire SDR platform as technology advances.

  8. Current Perspectives on Cognitive Diversity

    PubMed Central

    Bender, Andrea; Beller, Sieghard

    2016-01-01

    To what extent is cognition influenced by a person’s cultural background? This question has remained controversial in large fields of the cognitive sciences, including cognitive psychology, and is also underexplored in anthropology. In this perspective article, findings from a recent wave of cross-cultural studies will be outlined with respect to three aspects of cognition: perception and categorization, number representation and counting, and explanatory frameworks and beliefs. Identifying similarities and differences between these domains allows for general conclusions regarding cognitive diversity and helps to highlight the importance of culturally shaped content for a comprehensive understanding of cognition. PMID:27148118

  9. Cognition and the menopause transition.

    PubMed

    Maki, Pauline M; Henderson, Victor W

    2016-07-01

    Complaints about forgetfulness, "brain fog," and difficulty concentrating are common in women transitioning through menopause. Women with these cognitive complaints often express concern about whether these problems are normal, related to menopause, or represent a symptom of Alzheimer disease or another serious cognitive disorder. In this Practice Pearl, we provide a brief summary of the scientific literature on the frequency of cognitive complaints in midlife women, the validity of complaints in relation to performance on standardized cognitive tests, and the influence of menopause on cognitive performance. We then offer recommendations for healthcare providers and women to address cognitive concerns. PMID:27272226

  10. Current Perspectives on Cognitive Diversity.

    PubMed

    Bender, Andrea; Beller, Sieghard

    2016-01-01

    To what extent is cognition influenced by a person's cultural background? This question has remained controversial in large fields of the cognitive sciences, including cognitive psychology, and is also underexplored in anthropology. In this perspective article, findings from a recent wave of cross-cultural studies will be outlined with respect to three aspects of cognition: perception and categorization, number representation and counting, and explanatory frameworks and beliefs. Identifying similarities and differences between these domains allows for general conclusions regarding cognitive diversity and helps to highlight the importance of culturally shaped content for a comprehensive understanding of cognition. PMID:27148118

  11. Cognitively automated assembly processes: a simulation based evaluation of performance.

    PubMed

    Mayer, Marcel Ph; Odenthal, Barbara; Faber, Marco; Schlick, Christopher M

    2012-01-01

    The numerical control of an experimental assembly cell with two robots--termed a cognitive control unit (CCU)--is able to simulate human information processing at a rule-based level of cognitive control. To enable the CCU to work on a large range of assembly tasks expected of a human operator, the cognitive architecture SOAR is used. The CCU can plan assembly processes autonomously and react to ad-hoc changes in assembly sequences effectively. Extensive simulation studies have shown that cognitive automation based on SOAR is especially suitable for random parts supply, which reduces planning effort in logistics. Conversely, a disproportional increase in processing time was observed for deterministic parts supply, especially for assemblies containing large numbers of identical parts. In this contribution, the effect of phase-shifts in deterministic part supply is investigated for assemblies containing maximal different parts. It can be shown that the concept of cognitive automation is as well suitable for these planning problems. PMID:22317246

  12. Consciousness and cognitive control

    PubMed Central

    Kunde, Wilfried; Reuss, Heiko; Kiesel, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    The implementation or change of information processing routines, known as cognitive control, is traditionally believed to be closely linked to consciousness. It seems that we exert control over our behavior if we know the reasons for, and consequences of, doing so. Recent research suggests, however, that several behavioral phenomena that have been construed as instances of cognitive control can be prompted by events of which actors are not aware. Here we give a brief review of this research, discuss possible reasons for inconsistencies in the empirical evidence, and suggest some lines of future research. Specifically, we suggest to differentiate cognitive control evoked either because of explicit or because of implicit control cues. While the former type of control seems to work outside of awareness, the latter type of control seems to be restricted to consciously registered events that call for control. PMID:22419962

  13. Summary: Cognition in 2014

    PubMed Central

    Sejnowski, Terrence J.

    2016-01-01

    The goal of the 79th Cold Spring Harbor Symposia on Quantitative Biology on Cognition held on May 28–June 2, 2014 was to survey recent advances in cognitive neuroscience and assess future prospects. The symposium succeeded beyond the dreams of the organizers and the participants were treated to an extraordinarily rich feast of 58 long talks, six short talks, and 137 posters. Equally important to the success of the symposium was the perfect setting for informal scientific exchange between 260 participants generously provided by the Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory. The sense that emerged from the symposium was that a threshold had been crossed and a new era in the study of cognition was underway. My attempt here will be to capture that sense of awakening, to trace the strands that gave rise to it, and to access its implications for future discoveries. PMID:25948639

  14. Summary: Cognition in 2014.

    PubMed

    Sejnowski, Terrence J

    2014-01-01

    The goal of the 79th Cold Spring Harbor Symposia on Quantitative Biology on Cognition held on May 28-June 2, 2014 was to survey recent advances in cognitive neuroscience and assess future prospects. The symposium succeeded beyond the dreams of the organizers and the participants were treated to an extraordinarily rich feast of 58 long talks, six short talks, and 137 posters. Equally important to the success of the symposium was the perfect setting for informal scientific exchange between 260 participants generously provided by the Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory. The sense that emerged from the symposium was that a threshold had been crossed and a new era in the study of cognition was underway. My attempt here will be to capture that sense of awakening, to trace the strands that gave rise to it, and to access its implications for future discoveries. PMID:25948639

  15. Rehabilitation of Poststroke Cognition

    PubMed Central

    Shigaki, Cheryl L.; Frey, Scott H.; Barrett, A.M.

    2015-01-01

    Given the increasing rates of stroke and our aging population, it is critical that we continue to foster innovation in stroke rehabilitation. Although there is evidence supporting cognitive rehabilitation in stroke, the set of cognitive domains effectively addressed to date represents only a small subset of the problems experienced by stroke survivors. Further, a gap remains between investigational treatments and our evolving theories of brain function. These limitations present opportunities for improving the functional impact of stroke rehabilitation. The authors use a case example to encourage the reader to consider the evidence base for cognitive rehabilitation in stroke, focusing on four domains critical to daily life function: (1) speech and language, (2) functional memory, (3) executive function and skilled learned purposive movements, and (4) spatial-motor systems. Ultimately, they attempt to draw neuroscience and practice closer together by using translational reasoning to suggest possible new avenues for treating these disorders. PMID:25520021

  16. Coping with Misinformation: Corrections, Backfire Effects, and Choice Architectures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewandowsky, S.; Cook, J.; Ecker, U. K.

    2012-12-01

    The widespread prevalence and persistence of misinformation about many important scientific issues, from climate change to vaccinations or the link between HIV and AIDS, must give rise to concern. We first review the mechanisms by which such misinformation is disseminated in society, both inadvertently and purposely. We then survey and explain the cognitive factors that often render misinformation resistant to correction. We answer the question why retractions of misinformation can be so ineffective and why they can even backfire and ironically increase misbelief. We discuss the overriding role of ideology and personal worldviews in the resistance of misinformation to correction and show how their role can be attenuated. We discuss the risks associated with repeating misinformation while seeking to correct it and we point to the design of "choice architectures" as an alternative to the attempt to retract misinformation.

  17. Towards Early Warning Systems - Challenges, Technologies and Architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Apel, Martin; Biskup, Joachim; Flegel, Ulrich; Meier, Michael

    We present the architecture of an automatic early warning system (EWS) that aims at providing predictions and advice regarding security threats in information and communication technology without incorporation of cognitive abilities of humans and forms the basis for drawing a situation picture. Our EWS particularly targets the growing malware threat and shall achieve the required capabilities by combining malware collectors, malware analysis systems, malware behavior clustering, signature generation and distribution and malware/misuse detection system into an integrated process chain. The quality and timeliness of the results delivered by the EWS are influenced by the number and location of participating partners that share information on security incidents. In order to enable such a cooperation and an effective deployment of the EWS, interests and confidentiality requirements of the parties involved need to be carefully examined. We discuss technical details of the EWS components, evaluate alternatives and examine the interests of all parties involved in the anticipated deployment scenario.

  18. Automated Synthesis of Architecture of Avionic Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chau, Savio; Xu, Joseph; Dang, Van; Lu, James F.

    2006-01-01

    The Architecture Synthesis Tool (AST) is software that automatically synthesizes software and hardware architectures of avionic systems. The AST is expected to be most helpful during initial formulation of an avionic-system design, when system requirements change frequently and manual modification of architecture is time-consuming and susceptible to error. The AST comprises two parts: (1) an architecture generator, which utilizes a genetic algorithm to create a multitude of architectures; and (2) a functionality evaluator, which analyzes the architectures for viability, rejecting most of the non-viable ones. The functionality evaluator generates and uses a viability tree a hierarchy representing functions and components that perform the functions such that the system as a whole performs system-level functions representing the requirements for the system as specified by a user. Architectures that survive the functionality evaluator are further evaluated by the selection process of the genetic algorithm. Architectures found to be most promising to satisfy the user s requirements and to perform optimally are selected as parents to the next generation of architectures. The foregoing process is iterated as many times as the user desires. The final output is one or a few viable architectures that satisfy the user s requirements.

  19. Computational models of music perception and cognition I: The perceptual and cognitive processing chain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Purwins, Hendrik; Herrera, Perfecto; Grachten, Maarten; Hazan, Amaury; Marxer, Ricard; Serra, Xavier

    2008-09-01

    We present a review on perception and cognition models designed for or applicable to music. An emphasis is put on computational implementations. We include findings from different disciplines: neuroscience, psychology, cognitive science, artificial intelligence, and musicology. The article summarizes the methodology that these disciplines use to approach the phenomena of music understanding, the localization of musical processes in the brain, and the flow of cognitive operations involved in turning physical signals into musical symbols, going from the transducers to the memory systems of the brain. We discuss formal models developed to emulate, explain and predict phenomena involved in early auditory processing, pitch processing, grouping, source separation, and music structure computation. We cover generic computational architectures of attention, memory, and expectation that can be instantiated and tuned to deal with specific musical phenomena. Criteria for the evaluation of such models are presented and discussed. Thereby, we lay out the general framework that provides the basis for the discussion of domain-specific music models in Part II.

  20. Motoric cognitive risk syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Annweiler, Cedric; Ayers, Emmeline; Barzilai, Nir; Beauchet, Olivier; Bennett, David A.; Bridenbaugh, Stephanie A.; Buchman, Aron S.; Callisaya, Michele L.; Camicioli, Richard; Capistrant, Benjamin; Chatterji, Somnath; De Cock, Anne-Marie; Ferrucci, Luigi; Giladi, Nir; Guralnik, Jack M.; Hausdorff, Jeffrey M.; Holtzer, Roee; Kim, Ki Woong; Kowal, Paul; Kressig, Reto W.; Lim, Jae-Young; Lord, Susan; Meguro, Kenichi; Montero-Odasso, Manuel; Muir-Hunter, Susan W.; Noone, Mohan L.; Rochester, Lynn; Srikanth, Velandai; Wang, Cuiling

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Our objective is to report prevalence of motoric cognitive risk syndrome (MCR), a newly described predementia syndrome characterized by slow gait and cognitive complaints, in multiple countries, and its association with dementia risk. Methods: Pooled MCR prevalence analysis of individual data from 26,802 adults without dementia and disability aged 60 years and older from 22 cohorts from 17 countries. We also examined risk of incident cognitive impairment (Mini-Mental State Examination decline ≥4 points) and dementia associated with MCR in 4,812 individuals without dementia with baseline Mini-Mental State Examination scores ≥25 from 4 prospective cohort studies using Cox models adjusted for potential confounders. Results: At baseline, 2,808 of the 26,802 participants met MCR criteria. Pooled MCR prevalence was 9.7% (95% confidence interval [CI] 8.2%–11.2%). MCR prevalence was higher with older age but there were no sex differences. MCR predicted risk of developing incident cognitive impairment in the pooled sample (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR] 2.0, 95% CI 1.7–2.4); aHRs were 1.5 to 2.7 in the individual cohorts. MCR also predicted dementia in the pooled sample (aHR 1.9, 95% CI 1.5–2.3). The results persisted even after excluding participants with possible cognitive impairment, accounting for early dementia, and diagnostic overlap with other predementia syndromes. Conclusion: MCR is common in older adults, and is a strong and early risk factor for cognitive decline. This clinical approach can be easily applied to identify high-risk seniors in a wide variety of settings. PMID:25031288

  1. The poverty of embodied cognition.

    PubMed

    Goldinger, Stephen D; Papesh, Megan H; Barnhart, Anthony S; Hansen, Whitney A; Hout, Michael C

    2016-08-01

    In recent years, there has been rapidly growing interest in embodied cognition, a multifaceted theoretical proposition that (1) cognitive processes are influenced by the body, (2) cognition exists in the service of action, (3) cognition is situated in the environment, and (4) cognition may occur without internal representations. Many proponents view embodied cognition as the next great paradigm shift for cognitive science. In this article, we critically examine the core ideas from embodied cognition, taking a "thought exercise" approach. We first note that the basic principles from embodiment theory are either unacceptably vague (e.g., the premise that perception is influenced by the body) or they offer nothing new (e.g., cognition evolved to optimize survival, emotions affect cognition, perception-action couplings are important). We next suggest that, for the vast majority of classic findings in cognitive science, embodied cognition offers no scientifically valuable insight. In most cases, the theory has no logical connections to the phenomena, other than some trivially true ideas. Beyond classic laboratory findings, embodiment theory is also unable to adequately address the basic experiences of cognitive life. PMID:27282990

  2. Evolution of plant genome architecture.

    PubMed

    Wendel, Jonathan F; Jackson, Scott A; Meyers, Blake C; Wing, Rod A

    2016-01-01

    We have witnessed an explosion in our understanding of the evolution and structure of plant genomes in recent years. Here, we highlight three important emergent realizations: (1) that the evolutionary history of all plant genomes contains multiple, cyclical episodes of whole-genome doubling that were followed by myriad fractionation processes; (2) that the vast majority of the variation in genome size reflects the dynamics of proliferation and loss of lineage-specific transposable elements; and (3) that various classes of small RNAs help shape genomic architecture and function. We illustrate ways in which understanding these organism-level and molecular genetic processes can be used for crop plant improvement. PMID:26926526

  3. Architecture for spacecraft operations planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, William S.

    1991-01-01

    A system which generates plans for the dynamic environment of space operations is discussed. This system synthesizes plans by combining known operations under a set of physical, functional, and temperal constraints from various plan entities, which are modeled independently but combine in a flexible manner to suit dynamic planning needs. This independence allows the generation of a single plan source which can be compiled and applied to a variety of agents. The architecture blends elements of temperal logic, nonlinear planning, and object oriented constraint modeling to achieve its flexibility. This system was applied to the domain of the Intravehicular Activity (IVA) maintenance and repair aboard Space Station Freedom testbed.

  4. Models of novel battery architectures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haney, Paul; Ruzmetov, Dmitry; Talin, Alec

    2013-03-01

    We use a 1-dimensional model of electronic and ionic transport, coupled with experimental data, to extract the interfacial electrochemical parameters for LiCoO2-LIPON-Si thin film batteries. TEM imaging of batteries has shown that charge/discharge cycles can lead to breakdown of the interfaces, which reduces the effective area through which further Li ion transfer can occur. This is modeled phenomenologically by changing the effective cross sectional area, in order to correlate this structural change with the change in charge/discharge I-V curves. Finally, by adopting the model to radial coordinates, the geometrical effect of nanowire architectures for batteries is investigated.

  5. MBASIC batch processor architectural overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reynolds, S. M.

    1978-01-01

    The MBASIC (TM) batch processor, a language translator designed to operate in the MBASIC (TM) environment is described. Features include: (1) a CONVERT TO BATCH command, usable from the ready mode; and (2) translation of the users program in stages through several levels of intermediate language and optimization. The processor is to be designed and implemented in both machine-independent and machine-dependent sections. The architecture is planned so that optimization processes are transparent to the rest of the system and need not be included in the first design implementation cycle.

  6. Learning, epigenetics, and computation: An extension on Fitch's proposal. Comment on “Toward a computational framework for cognitive biology: Unifying approaches from cognitive neuroscience and comparative cognition” by W. Tecumseh Fitch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okanoya, Kazuo

    2014-09-01

    The comparative computational approach of Fitch [1] attempts to renew the classical David Marr paradigm of computation, algorithm, and implementation, by introducing evolutionary view of the relationship between neural architecture and cognition. This comparative evolutionary view provides constraints useful in narrowing down the problem space for both cognition and neural mechanisms. I will provide two examples from our own studies that reinforce and extend Fitch's proposal.

  7. Genes, Brain, and Cognition: A Roadmap for the Cognitive Scientist

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramus, Franck

    2006-01-01

    This paper reviews current progress in genetics in relation to the understanding of human cognition. It is argued that genetics occupies a prominent place in the future of cognitive science, and that cognitive scientists should play an active role in the process. Recent research in genetics and developmental neuroscience is reviewed and argued to…

  8. The Cognitive Spiral: Creative Thinking and Cognitive Processing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ebert, Edward S., II

    1994-01-01

    The lack of a common understanding of the construct of creative thinking is noted, and the cognitive spiral model is presented, which conceptualizes creative thinking as an integral component of all cognitive processing. This article details the synthesis of a definition and the structure of a model of cognitive processing. (Author/DB)

  9. Cognitive Perspectives on SLA: The Associative-Cognitive CREED

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Nick C.

    2006-01-01

    This paper outlines current cognitive perspectives on second language acquisition (SLA). The Associative-Cognitive CREED holds that SLA is governed by the same principles of associative and cognitive learning that underpin the rest of human knowledge. The major principles of the framework are that SLA is Construction-based, Rational,…

  10. Cognitive Neuroimaging: Cognitive Science out of the Armchair

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Zubicaray, Greig I.

    2006-01-01

    Cognitive scientists were not quick to embrace the functional neuroimaging technologies that emerged during the late 20th century. In this new century, cognitive scientists continue to question, not unreasonably, the relevance of functional neuroimaging investigations that fail to address questions of interest to cognitive science. However, some…

  11. Lateral specialization in unilateral spatial neglect: a cognitive robotics model.

    PubMed

    Conti, Daniela; Di Nuovo, Santo; Cangelosi, Angelo; Di Nuovo, Alessandro

    2016-08-01

    In this paper, we present the experimental results of an embodied cognitive robotic approach for modelling the human cognitive deficit known as unilateral spatial neglect (USN). To this end, we introduce an artificial neural network architecture designed and trained to control the spatial attentional focus of the iCub robotic platform. Like the human brain, the architecture is divided into two hemispheres and it incorporates bio-inspired plasticity mechanisms, which allow the development of the phenomenon of the specialization of the right hemisphere for spatial attention. In this study, we validate the model by replicating a previous experiment with human patients affected by the USN and numerical results show that the robot mimics the behaviours previously exhibited by humans. We also simulated recovery after the damage to compare the performance of each of the two hemispheres as additional validation of the model. Finally, we highlight some possible advantages of modelling cognitive dysfunctions of the human brain by means of robotic platforms, which can supplement traditional approaches for studying spatial impairments in humans. PMID:27018020

  12. How cognitive theory guides neuroscience

    PubMed Central

    Frank, Michael J.; Badre, David

    2015-01-01

    The field of cognitive science studies latent, unobservable cognitive processes that generate observable behaviors. Similarly, cognitive neuroscience attempts to link latent cognitive processes with the neural mechanisms that generate them. Although neural processes are partially observable (with imaging and electrophysiology), it would be a mistake to ‘skip’ the cognitive level and pursue a purely neuroscientific enterprise to studying behavior. In fact, virtually all of the major advances in understanding the neural basis of behavior over the last century have relied fundamentally on principles of cognition for guiding the appropriate measurements, manipulations, tasks, and interpretations. We provide several examples from the domains of episodic memory, working memory and cognitive control, and decision making in which cognitive theorizing and prior experimentation has been essential in guiding neuroscientific investigations and discoveries. PMID:25496988

  13. Plant Based Extracts and Cognition

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-07-28

    Change in Cognitive Function and Fatigue During Extended Performance of the Cognitive Demand Battery (CDB) at 1, 3 and 6 Hours Post Consumption; Change in Long Term Declarative Memory at 1, 3 and 6 Hours Post-intervention.

  14. Cognitive Development and Science Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kolodiy, George Oleh

    1977-01-01

    Compares the cognitive levels of groups of high school biology students, freshman physics students, and senior science students by testing them with two Piagetian tasks. Examines correlations between cognitive levels and other measures such as SAT scores. (MLH)

  15. Cognitive dysfunction in multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Guimarães, Joana; Sá, Maria José

    2012-01-01

    In Multiple Sclerosis (MS) prevalence studies of community and clinical samples, indicate that 45-60% of patients are cognitively impaired. These cognitive dysfunctions have been traditionally described as heterogeneous, but more recent studies suggest that there is a specific pattern of MS-related cognitive dysfunctions. With the advent of disease-modifying medications for MS and emphasis on early intervention and treatment, detection of cognitive impairment at its earliest stage becomes particularly important. In this review the authors address: the cognitive domains most commonly impaired in MS (memory, attention, executive functions, speed of information processing, and visual-spatial abilities); the pathophysiological mechanism implied in MS cognitive dysfunction and correlated brain MRI features; the importance of neuropsychological assessment of MS patients in different stages of the disease and the influence of its course on cognitive performance; the most used tests and batteries for neuropsychological assessment; therapeutic strategies to improve cognitive abilities. PMID:22654782

  16. Will architecture win the technology wars?

    PubMed

    Alberthal, L; Manzi, J; Curtis, G; Davidow, W H; Timko, J W; Nadler, D; Davis, L L

    1993-01-01

    Success today flows to the company that establishes proprietary architectural control over a broad, fast-moving, competitive space, Charles R. Morris and Charles H. Ferguson claim in "How Architecture Wins Technology Wars" (March-April 1993). No single vendor can keep pace with the outpouring of cheap, powerful, mass-produced components, so customers have been stitching together their own local systems solutions. Architectures impose order on the system and make interconnections possible. An architectural controller has power over the standard by which the entire information package is assembled. Because of the popularity of Microsoft's Windows, for example, companies like Lotus must conform their software to its parameters to be able to compete for market share. Proprietary architectural control has broader implications for organizational structure too: architectural competition is giving rise to a new form of business organization. PMID:10126152

  17. A reference architecture for the component factory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Basili, Victor R.; Caldiera, Gianluigi; Cantone, Giovanni

    1992-01-01

    Software reuse can be achieved through an organization that focuses on utilization of life cycle products from previous developments. The component factory is both an example of the more general concepts of experience and domain factory and an organizational unit worth being considered independently. The critical features of such an organization are flexibility and continuous improvement. In order to achieve these features we can represent the architecture of the factory at different levels of abstraction and define a reference architecture from which specific architectures can be derived by instantiation. A reference architecture is an implementation and organization independent representation of the component factory and its environment. The paper outlines this reference architecture, discusses the instantiation process, and presents some examples of specific architectures by comparing them in the framework of the reference model.

  18. Spacelab output processing system architectural study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    Two different system architectures are presented. The two architectures are derived from two different data flows within the Spacelab Output Processing System. The major differences between these system architectures are in the position of the decommutation function (the first architecture performs decommutation in the latter half of the system and the second architecture performs that function in the front end of the system). In order to be examined, the system was divided into five stand-alone subsystems; Work Assembler, Mass Storage System, Output Processor, Peripheral Pool, and Resource Monitor. The work load of each subsystem was estimated independent of the specific devices to be used. The candidate devices were surveyed from a wide sampling of off-the-shelf devices. Analytical expressions were developed to quantify the projected workload in conjunction with typical devices which would adequately handle the subsystem tasks. All of the study efforts were then directed toward preparing performance and cost curves for each architecture subsystem.

  19. Electrical Grounding Architecture for Unmanned Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    This handbook is approved for use by NASA Headquarters and all NASA Centers and is intended to provide a common framework for consistent practices across NASA programs. This handbook was developed to describe electrical grounding design architecture options for unmanned spacecraft. This handbook is written for spacecraft system engineers, power engineers, and electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) engineers. Spacecraft grounding architecture is a system-level decision which must be established at the earliest point in spacecraft design. All other grounding design must be coordinated with and be consistent with the system-level architecture. This handbook assumes that there is no one single 'correct' design for spacecraft grounding architecture. There have been many successful satellite and spacecraft programs from NASA, using a variety of grounding architectures with different levels of complexity. However, some design principles learned over the years apply to all types of spacecraft development. This handbook summarizes those principles to help guide spacecraft grounding architecture design for NASA and others.

  20. Healthy Architecture! Can environments evoke emotional responses?

    PubMed Central

    Roessler, Kirsten Kaya

    2012-01-01

    We find environmental psychology at the intersection between architecture and psychology. This article discusses the ways in which individuals are affected by architecture, departing from an early source on the psychology of architecture and taking three architectural examples as illustrations: a public place in Berlin, a health environment in Sweden, and a fitness centre in Denmark. Each of these architectural examples creates what might be called its own psychological emotions, and these are analysed and discussed using a psychodynamic and existential attempt to understand the interrelationship between individuals and spatial reality. A health oriented existential approach is used as a methodological basis to conceptualise the psychological effects of various forms of architecture. PMID:22980345