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Sample records for act-r cognitive architecture

  1. Developing a Complete and Effective ACT-R Architecture

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-01-01

    relationship of mutual codependency between components of two separate systems to a more synthetic combination of the two systems. Below we consider the...that the current pattern matching in the ACT-R system was not powerful enough to enable processing the abstract relationships in instruction and...representations and ACT-R chunk similarities. The input-output relationships between the two systems are reversed however, and it is not clear what can be

  2. Connecting a cognitive architecture to robotic perception

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurup, Unmesh; Lebiere, Christian; Stentz, Anthony; Hebert, Martial

    2012-06-01

    We present an integrated architecture in which perception and cognition interact and provide information to each other leading to improved performance in real-world situations. Our system integrates the Felzenswalb et. al. object-detection algorithm with the ACT-R cognitive architecture. The targeted task is to predict and classify pedestrian behavior in a checkpoint scenario, most specifically to discriminate between normal versus checkpoint-avoiding behavior. The Felzenswalb algorithm is a learning-based algorithm for detecting and localizing objects in images. ACT-R is a cognitive architecture that has been successfully used to model human cognition with a high degree of fidelity on tasks ranging from basic decision-making to the control of complex systems such as driving or air traffic control. The Felzenswalb algorithm detects pedestrians in the image and provides ACT-R a set of features based primarily on their locations. ACT-R uses its pattern-matching capabilities, specifically its partial-matching and blending mechanisms, to track objects across multiple images and classify their behavior based on the sequence of observed features. ACT-R also provides feedback to the Felzenswalb algorithm in the form of expected object locations that allow the algorithm to eliminate false-positives and improve its overall performance. This capability is an instance of the benefits pursued in developing a richer interaction between bottom-up perceptual processes and top-down goal-directed cognition. We trained the system on individual behaviors (only one person in the scene) and evaluated its performance across single and multiple behavior sets.

  3. Human Symbol Manipulation within an Integrated Cognitive Architecture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, John R.

    2005-01-01

    This article describes the Adaptive Control of Thought-Rational (ACT-R) cognitive architecture (Anderson et al., 2004; Anderson & Lebiere, 1998) and its detailed application to the learning of algebraic symbol manipulation. The theory is applied to modeling the data from a study by Qin, Anderson, Silk, Stenger, & Carter (2004) in which children…

  4. Cognitive Architectures for Multimedia Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, Stephen K.

    2006-01-01

    This article provides a tutorial overview of cognitive architectures that can form a theoretical foundation for designing multimedia instruction. Cognitive architectures include a description of memory stores, memory codes, and cognitive operations. Architectures that are relevant to multimedia learning include Paivio's dual coding theory,…

  5. Using cognitive architectures to study issues in team cognition in a complex task environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smart, Paul R.; Sycara, Katia; Tang, Yuqing

    2014-05-01

    Cognitive social simulation is a computer simulation technique that aims to improve our understanding of the dynamics of socially-situated and socially-distributed cognition. This makes cognitive social simulation techniques particularly appealing as a means to undertake experiments into team cognition. The current paper reports on the results of an ongoing effort to develop a cognitive social simulation capability that can be used to undertake studies into team cognition using the ACT-R cognitive architecture. This capability is intended to support simulation experiments using a team-based problem solving task, which has been used to explore the effect of different organizational environments on collective problem solving performance. The functionality of the ACT-R-based cognitive social simulation capability is presented and a number of areas of future development work are outlined. The paper also describes the motivation for adopting cognitive architectures in the context of social simulation experiments and presents a number of research areas where cognitive social simulation may be useful in developing a better understanding of the dynamics of team cognition. These include the use of cognitive social simulation to study the role of cognitive processes in determining aspects of communicative behavior, as well as the impact of communicative behavior on the shaping of task-relevant cognitive processes (e.g., the social shaping of individual and collective memory as a result of communicative exchanges). We suggest that the ability to perform cognitive social simulation experiments in these areas will help to elucidate some of the complex interactions that exist between cognitive, social, technological and informational factors in the context of team-based problem-solving activities.

  6. ACT-R/E: An Embodied Cognitive Architecture for Human-Robot Interaction

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-01-01

    some limited computer vision to detect objects in its environment (Trafton, Schultz, Perzanowski, et al., 2006). The robot was also able to accept...or allow model ToM in terms of Markov random fields (Butterfield, Jenkins, Sobel , & Schwertfeger, 2009). These approaches, however, all place...that people use (Trafton, Schultz, Cassimatis, et al., 2006). With knowl- edge of how people might perform in different situations, the robot can use

  7. Net-centric ACT-R-Based Cognitive Architecture with DEVS Unified Process

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-04-01

    effort has been spent in analyzing various forms of requirement specifications, viz, state-based, Natural Language based, UML-based, Rule- based, BPMN ...requirement specifications in one of the chosen formats such as BPMN , DoDAF, Natural Language Processing (NLP) based, UML- based, DSL or simply

  8. Symbolic Architectures for Cognition

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-01-01

    on the communitie- in which the are raised and reside (von Cranach, Foppa , Lepinie,. and Ploog 1070). Fhe addtiLunal capabilities tor low-level...Learning. Los Altos. CA: Morgan Kaufm X_ VanLehn. K., ed. 1989 Architectures for Inteligence. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum. von Cranach. M., Foppa , K

  9. Towards a Cognitively Realistic Computational Model of Team Problem Solving Using ACT-R Agents and the ELICIT Experimentation Framework

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-06-01

    concurrent activities (such as cell phone usage) [26] and sleep deprivation on driver performance [27]. These features (widespread use, predictive and...Moore, D. D. Salvucci, and K. A. Gluck, “ Sleep loss and driver performance : Quantitative predictions with zero free parameters,” Cognitive Systems...structures on collective problem solving performance . The results of the cognitive modeling effort are presented and future work to extend both the

  10. ACT-R Electronic Bookshelf: An Adaptive System To Support Learning ACT-R on the Web.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brusilovsky, Peter; Anderson, John

    This paper describes the electronic ACT-R Bookshelf, a system which supports learning ACT-R, a well-known theory in the field of cognitive psychology, over the World Wide Web. ACT-R Bookshelf is a collection of electronic books on various aspects of ACT-R. The primary role of ACT-R Bookshelf is to serve as a 24-hour information resource for…

  11. Cognitive Architecture of Common and Scientific Concepts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarábek, Paul

    2010-07-01

    The cognitive architecture of concept is a specific structure consisting of the concept core, concept periphery, the semantic frame as the meaning and the sense of the concept, and the relations among all components of this structure. The model of the cognitive architecture of scientific and common concepts is a conceptual meta-model built upon Vygotsky's concept theory, Fillmore's semantic frame, semantic triangle, on widespread ideas of the structuring of conceptual systems, and the Hestenes' Modeling Theory. The method of semantic mapping of concepts flowing from the model is designed.

  12. Extending the Soar Cognitive Architecture

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-07-01

    2004; Hasselmo & Eichenbaum , 2005; O’Reilly & Rudy, 2000), or on spatial and sequence learning, which may be animal analogues of human episodic...Niedenthal, Barsalou, Winkielman, Krauth-Gruber, & Ric (2005), Martin (2001), Pulvermüller (1999), Thompson-Schill (2003), Smith and Gasser (2005...represent the specific intended cognitive action of retrieval [for precedents in the literature for such controlled retrieval see O’Reilly, Eichenbaum

  13. Cognitive Architectures and Autonomy: A Comparative Review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thórisson, Kristinn; Helgasson, Helgi

    2012-05-01

    One of the original goals of artificial intelligence (AI) research was to create machines with very general cognitive capabilities and a relatively high level of autonomy. It has taken the field longer than many had expected to achieve even a fraction of this goal; the community has focused on building specific, targeted cognitive processes in isolation, and as of yet no system exists that integrates a broad range of capabilities or presents a general solution to autonomous acquisition of a large set of skills. Among the reasons for this are the highly limited machine learning and adaptation techniques available, and the inherent complexity of integrating numerous cognitive and learning capabilities in a coherent architecture. In this paper we review selected systems and architectures built expressly to address integrated skills. We highlight principles and features of these systems that seem promising for creating generally intelligent systems with some level of autonomy, and discuss them in the context of the development of future cognitive architectures. Autonomy is a key property for any system to be considered generally intelligent, in our view; we use this concept as an organizing principle for comparing the reviewed systems. Features that remain largely unaddressed in present research, but seem nevertheless necessary for such efforts to succeed, are also discussed.

  14. A Cognitive Architecture for Human Performance Process Model Research

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-11-01

    Architecture for Human Performance Process Model C - F33615-91 -D-0009 Research PE - 62205F PR- 1710 6. AUTHOR(S) TA - 00 Michael J. Young WU - 60 7...OF PAGES cognitive architectures human performance process models 4 1 cognitive psychology Implementation architectures 16. PRICE CODE computational...1 Human Performance Process Models ............................................................ 2

  15. COREBA (cognition-oriented emergent behavior architecture)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwak, S. David

    2000-06-01

    Currently, many behavior implementation technologies are available for modeling human behaviors in Department of Defense (DOD) computerized systems. However, it is commonly known that any single currently adopted behavior implementation technology is not so capable of fully representing complex and dynamic human decision-making and cognition behaviors. The author views that the current situation can be greatly improved if multiple technologies are integrated within a well designed overarching architecture that amplifies the merits of each of the participating technologies while suppressing the limitations that are inherent with each of the technologies. COREBA uses an overarching behavior integration architecture that makes the multiple implementation technologies cooperate in a homogeneous environment while collectively transcending the limitations associated with the individual implementation technologies. Specifically, COREBA synergistically integrates Artificial Intelligence and Complex Adaptive System under Rational Behavior Model multi-level multi- paradigm behavior architecture. This paper will describe applicability of COREBA in DOD domain, behavioral capabilities and characteristics of COREBA and how the COREBA architectural integrates various behavior implementation technologies.

  16. Cognitive architectures and autonomy: Commentary and Response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2012-11-01

    Editors: Włodzisław Duch / Ah-Hwee Tan / Stan Franklin Autonomy for AGI Cristiano Castelfranchi 31 Are Disembodied Agents Really Autonomous? Antonio Chella 33 The Perception-…-Action Cycle Cognitive Architecture and Autonomy: the View from the Brain Vassilis Cutsuridis 36 Autonomy Requires Creativity and Meta-Learning Włodzisław Duch 39 Meta Learning, Change of Internal Workings, and LIDA Ryan McCall / Stan Franklin 42 An Appeal for Declaring Research Goals Brandon Rohrer 45 The Development of Cognition as the Basis for Autonomy Frank van der Velde 47 Autonomy and Intelligence Pei Wang 49 Autonomy, Isolation, and Collective Intelligence Nikolaos Mavridis 51 Response to Comments Kristinn R. Thórisson / Helgi Páll Helgasson 56

  17. Cognitive Styles in Admission Procedures for Assessing Candidates of Architecture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casakin, Hernan; Gigi, Ariela

    2016-01-01

    Cognitive style has a strong predictive power in academic and professional success. This study investigated the cognitive profile of candidates studying architecture. Specifically, it explored the relation between visual and verbal cognitive styles, and the performance of candidates in admission procedures. The cognitive styles of candidates who…

  18. The subjective meaning of cognitive architecture: a Marrian analysis

    PubMed Central

    Varma, Sashank

    2014-01-01

    Marr famously decomposed cognitive theories into three levels. Newell, Pylyshyn, and Anderson offered parallel decompositions of cognitive architectures, which are psychologically plausible computational formalisms for expressing computational models of cognition. These analyses focused on the objective meaning of each level – how it supports computational models that correspond to cognitive phenomena. This paper develops a complementary analysis of the subjective meaning of each level – how it helps cognitive scientists understand cognition. It then argues against calls to eliminatively reduce higher levels to lower levels, for example, in the name of parsimony. Finally, it argues that the failure to attend to the multiple meanings and levels of cognitive architecture contributes to the current, disunified state of theoretical cognitive science. PMID:24904459

  19. Simulating visual qualia in the CERA-CRANIUM cognitive architecture.

    PubMed

    Arrabales, Raúl; Ledezma, Agapito; Sanchis, Araceli

    2011-01-01

    The concept of qualia poses a central problem in the framework of consciousness studies. Despite it being a controversial issue even in the study of human consciousness, we argue that qualia can be complementarily studied using artificial cognitive architectures. In this work we address the problem of defining qualia in the domain of artificial systems, providing a model of "artificial qualia". Furthermore, we partially apply the proposed model to the generation of visual qualia using the cognitive architecture CERA-CRANIUM, which is modeled after the global workspace theory of consciousness. It is our aim to define, characterize and identify artificial qualia as direct products of a simulated conscious perception process. Simple forms of the apparent motion effect are used as the basis for a preliminary experimental setting focused on the simulation and analysis of synthetic visual experience. In contrast with the study of biological brains, the inspection of the dynamics and transient inner states of the artificial cognitive architecture can be performed effectively, thus enabling the detailed analysis of covert and overt percepts generated by the system when it is confronted with specific visual stimuli. The observed states in the artificial cognitive architecture during the simulation of apparent motion effects are used to discuss the existence of possible analogous mechanisms in human cognition processes.

  20. Beyond single-level accounts: the role of cognitive architectures in cognitive scientific explanation.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Richard P; Peebles, David

    2015-04-01

    We consider approaches to explanation within the cognitive sciences that begin with Marr's computational level (e.g., purely Bayesian accounts of cognitive phenomena) or Marr's implementational level (e.g., reductionist accounts of cognitive phenomena based only on neural-level evidence) and argue that each is subject to fundamental limitations which impair their ability to provide adequate explanations of cognitive phenomena. For this reason, it is argued, explanation cannot proceed at either level without tight coupling to the algorithmic and representation level. Even at this level, however, we argue that additional constraints relating to the decomposition of the cognitive system into a set of interacting subfunctions (i.e., a cognitive architecture) are required. Integrated cognitive architectures that permit abstract specification of the functions of components and that make contact with the neural level provide a powerful bridge for linking the algorithmic and representational level to both the computational level and the implementational level.

  1. The Cognitive Architecture of Spatial Navigation: Hippocampal and Striatal Contributions.

    PubMed

    Chersi, Fabian; Burgess, Neil

    2015-10-07

    Spatial navigation can serve as a model system in cognitive neuroscience, in which specific neural representations, learning rules, and control strategies can be inferred from the vast experimental literature that exists across many species, including humans. Here, we review this literature, focusing on the contributions of hippocampal and striatal systems, and attempt to outline a minimal cognitive architecture that is consistent with the experimental literature and that synthesizes previous related computational modeling. The resulting architecture includes striatal reinforcement learning based on egocentric representations of sensory states and actions, incidental Hebbian association of sensory information with allocentric state representations in the hippocampus, and arbitration of the outputs of both systems based on confidence/uncertainty in medial prefrontal cortex. We discuss the relationship between this architecture and learning in model-free and model-based systems, episodic memory, imagery, and planning, including some open questions and directions for further experiments.

  2. An Integrated Self-Aware Cognitive Architecture

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-03-01

    cognitive dimensions: valence ( good - bad ), arousal (calming - exciting) and dominance (free - constrained). The reward and punishment system (R&P) is...component is: increase, well, rise, support, accept, clear, improve, right, continue, direct, good , make, respect, honor, happy, secure, order...one “deadly” shot and is presumably a good shooter. Guns are non-transferable. At the beginning all guns must be pointed up. The fight starts after a

  3. Integrated Cognitive-neuroscience Architectures for Understanding Sensemaking (ICArUS): Phase 1 Challenge Problem Walkthrough

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-11-01

    Integrated Cognitive- neuroscience Architectures for Understanding Sensemaking (ICArUS): Phase 1 Challenge Problem Walkthrough Kevin Burns...4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Integrated Cognitive- neuroscience Architectures for Understanding Sensemaking (ICArUS): Phase 1 Challenge Problem Walkthrough...Integrated Cognitive- neuroscience Architectures for Understanding Sensemaking (ICArUS) Phase 1 challenge problem. The pages include screen shots

  4. Integrated Cognitive-neuroscience Architectures for Understanding Sensemaking (ICArUS): Transition to the Intelligence Community

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-12-01

    Integrated Cognitive- neuroscience Architectures for Understanding Sensemaking (ICArUS): Transition to the Intelligence Community Kevin...Integrated Cognitive- neuroscience Architectures for Understanding Sensemaking (ICArUS): A Computational Basis for ICArUS: Transition to the...Research Projects Activity) program ICArUS (Integrated Cognitive- neuroscience Architectures for Understanding Sensemaking) developed and tested brain

  5. Architecture for Cognitive Networking within NASAs Future Space Communications Infrastructure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, Gilbert J., III; Eddy, Wesley M.; Johnson, Sandra K.; Barnes, James; Brooks, David

    2016-01-01

    Future space mission concepts and designs pose many networking challenges for command, telemetry, and science data applications with diverse end-to-end data delivery needs. For future end-to-end architecture designs, a key challenge is meeting expected application quality of service requirements for multiple simultaneous mission data flows with options to use diverse onboard local data buses, commercial ground networks, and multiple satellite relay constellations in LEO, MEO, GEO, or even deep space relay links. Effectively utilizing a complex network topology requires orchestration and direction that spans the many discrete, individually addressable computer systems, which cause them to act in concert to achieve the overall network goals. The system must be intelligent enough to not only function under nominal conditions, but also adapt to unexpected situations, and reorganize or adapt to perform roles not originally intended for the system or explicitly programmed. This paper describes architecture features of cognitive networking within the future NASA space communications infrastructure, and interacting with the legacy systems and infrastructure in the meantime. The paper begins by discussing the need for increased automation, including inter-system collaboration. This discussion motivates the features of an architecture including cognitive networking for future missions and relays, interoperating with both existing endpoint-based networking models and emerging information-centric models. From this basis, we discuss progress on a proof-of-concept implementation of this architecture as a cognitive networking on-orbit application on the SCaN Testbed attached to the International Space Station.

  6. Dynamic neural fields as a step toward cognitive neuromorphic architectures

    PubMed Central

    Sandamirskaya, Yulia

    2014-01-01

    Dynamic Field Theory (DFT) is an established framework for modeling embodied cognition. In DFT, elementary cognitive functions such as memory formation, formation of grounded representations, attentional processes, decision making, adaptation, and learning emerge from neuronal dynamics. The basic computational element of this framework is a Dynamic Neural Field (DNF). Under constraints on the time-scale of the dynamics, the DNF is computationally equivalent to a soft winner-take-all (WTA) network, which is considered one of the basic computational units in neuronal processing. Recently, it has been shown how a WTA network may be implemented in neuromorphic hardware, such as analog Very Large Scale Integration (VLSI) device. This paper leverages the relationship between DFT and soft WTA networks to systematically revise and integrate established DFT mechanisms that have previously been spread among different architectures. In addition, I also identify some novel computational and architectural mechanisms of DFT which may be implemented in neuromorphic VLSI devices using WTA networks as an intermediate computational layer. These specific mechanisms include the stabilization of working memory, the coupling of sensory systems to motor dynamics, intentionality, and autonomous learning. I further demonstrate how all these elements may be integrated into a unified architecture to generate behavior and autonomous learning. PMID:24478620

  7. Using a cognitive architecture for general purpose service robot control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puigbo, Jordi-Ysard; Pumarola, Albert; Angulo, Cecilio; Tellez, Ricardo

    2015-04-01

    A humanoid service robot equipped with a set of simple action skills including navigating, grasping, recognising objects or people, among others, is considered in this paper. By using those skills the robot should complete a voice command expressed in natural language encoding a complex task (defined as the concatenation of a number of those basic skills). As a main feature, no traditional planner has been used to decide skills to be activated, as well as in which sequence. Instead, the SOAR cognitive architecture acts as the reasoner by selecting which action the robot should complete, addressing it towards the goal. Our proposal allows to include new goals for the robot just by adding new skills (without the need to encode new plans). The proposed architecture has been tested on a human-sized humanoid robot, REEM, acting as a general purpose service robot.

  8. Neural network architecture for cognitive navigation in dynamic environments.

    PubMed

    Villacorta-Atienza, José Antonio; Makarov, Valeri A

    2013-12-01

    Navigation in time-evolving environments with moving targets and obstacles requires cognitive abilities widely demonstrated by even simplest animals. However, it is a long-standing challenging problem for artificial agents. Cognitive autonomous robots coping with this problem must solve two essential tasks: 1) understand the environment in terms of what may happen and how I can deal with this and 2) learn successful experiences for their further use in an automatic subconscious way. The recently introduced concept of compact internal representation (CIR) provides the ground for both the tasks. CIR is a specific cognitive map that compacts time-evolving situations into static structures containing information necessary for navigation. It belongs to the class of global approaches, i.e., it finds trajectories to a target when they exist but also detects situations when no solution can be found. Here we extend the concept of situations with mobile targets. Then using CIR as a core, we propose a closed-loop neural network architecture consisting of conscious and subconscious pathways for efficient decision-making. The conscious pathway provides solutions to novel situations if the default subconscious pathway fails to guide the agent to a target. Employing experiments with roving robots and numerical simulations, we show that the proposed architecture provides the robot with cognitive abilities and enables reliable and flexible navigation in realistic time-evolving environments. We prove that the subconscious pathway is robust against uncertainty in the sensory information. Thus if a novel situation is similar but not identical to the previous experience (because of, e.g., noisy perception) then the subconscious pathway is able to provide an effective solution.

  9. Architecture of cognitive flexibility revealed by lesion mapping.

    PubMed

    Barbey, Aron K; Colom, Roberto; Grafman, Jordan

    2013-11-15

    Neuroscience has made remarkable progress in understanding the architecture of human intelligence, identifying a distributed network of brain structures that support goal-directed, intelligent behavior. However, the neural foundations of cognitive flexibility and adaptive aspects of intellectual function remain to be well characterized. Here, we report a human lesion study (n=149) that investigates the neural bases of key competencies of cognitive flexibility (i.e., mental flexibility and the fluent generation of new ideas) and systematically examine their contributions to a broad spectrum of cognitive and social processes, including psychometric intelligence (Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale), emotional intelligence (Mayer, Salovey, Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test), and personality (Neuroticism-Extraversion-Openness Personality Inventory). Latent variable modeling was applied to obtain error-free indices of each factor, followed by voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping to elucidate their neural substrates. Regression analyses revealed that latent scores for psychometric intelligence reliably predict latent scores for cognitive flexibility (adjusted R(2)=0.94). Lesion mapping results further indicated that these convergent processes depend on a shared network of frontal, temporal, and parietal regions, including white matter association tracts, which bind these areas into an integrated system. A targeted analysis of the unique variance explained by cognitive flexibility further revealed selective damage within the right superior temporal gyrus, a region known to support insight and the recognition of novel semantic relations. The observed findings motivate an integrative framework for understanding the neural foundations of adaptive behavior, suggesting that core elements of cognitive flexibility emerge from a distributed network of brain regions that support specific competencies for human intelligence.

  10. Modeling cognitive and emotional processes: a novel neural network architecture.

    PubMed

    Khashman, Adnan

    2010-12-01

    In our continuous attempts to model natural intelligence and emotions in machine learning, many research works emerge with different methods that are often driven by engineering concerns and have the common goal of modeling human perception in machines. This paper aims to go further in that direction by investigating the integration of emotion at the structural level of cognitive systems using the novel emotional DuoNeural Network (DuoNN). This network has hidden layer DuoNeurons, where each has two embedded neurons: a dorsal neuron and a ventral neuron for cognitive and emotional data processing, respectively. When input visual stimuli are presented to the DuoNN, the dorsal cognitive neurons process local features while the ventral emotional neurons process the entire pattern. We present the computational model and the learning algorithm of the DuoNN, the input information-cognitive and emotional-parallel streaming method, and a comparison between the DuoNN and a recently developed emotional neural network. Experimental results show that the DuoNN architecture, configuration, and the additional emotional information processing, yield higher recognition rates and faster learning and decision making.

  11. Integrated Cognitive-neuroscience Architectures for Understanding Sensemaking (ICArUS): Phase 2 Challenge Problem Design and Test Specification

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-11-01

    Integrated Cognitive- neuroscience Architectures for Understanding Sensemaking (ICArUS): Phase 2 Challenge Problem Design and Test...SUBTITLE Integrated Cognitive- neuroscience Architectures for Understanding Sensemaking (ICArUS): A Computational Basis for ICArUS: Phase 2 Challenge...IARPA program ICArUS (Integrated Cognitive- neuroscience Architectures for Understanding Sensemaking) requires a research problem that poses cognitive

  12. The Role of Falsification in the Development of Cognitive Architectures: Insights from a Lakatosian Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Richard P.

    2007-01-01

    It has been suggested that the enterprise of developing mechanistic theories of the human cognitive architecture is flawed because the theories produced are not directly falsifiable. Newell attempted to sidestep this criticism by arguing for a Lakatosian model of scientific progress in which cognitive architectures should be understood as theories…

  13. Embodied spatial cognition.

    PubMed

    Trafton, J Gregory; Harrison, Anthony M

    2011-10-01

    We present a spatial system called Specialized Egocentrically Coordinated Spaces embedded in an embodied cognitive architecture (ACT-R Embodied). We show how the spatial system works by modeling two different developmental findings: gaze-following and Level 1 perspective taking. The gaze-following model is based on an experiment by Corkum and Moore (1998), whereas the Level 1 visual perspective-taking model is based on an experiment by Moll and Tomasello (2006). The models run on an embodied robotic system.

  14. Cognitive Architecture with Evolutionary Dynamics Solves Insight Problem

    PubMed Central

    Fedor, Anna; Zachar, István; Szilágyi, András; Öllinger, Michael; de Vladar, Harold P.; Szathmáry, Eörs

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we show that a neurally implemented a cognitive architecture with evolutionary dynamics can solve the four-tree problem. Our model, called Darwinian Neurodynamics, assumes that the unconscious mechanism of problem solving during insight tasks is a Darwinian process. It is based on the evolution of patterns that represent candidate solutions to a problem, and are stored and reproduced by a population of attractor networks. In our first experiment, we used human data as a benchmark and showed that the model behaves comparably to humans: it shows an improvement in performance if it is pretrained and primed appropriately, just like human participants in Kershaw et al. (2013)'s experiment. In the second experiment, we further investigated the effects of pretraining and priming in a two-by-two design and found a beginner's luck type of effect: solution rate was highest in the condition that was primed, but not pretrained with patterns relevant for the task. In the third experiment, we showed that deficits in computational capacity and learning abilities decreased the performance of the model, as expected. We conclude that Darwinian Neurodynamics is a promising model of human problem solving that deserves further investigation.

  15. Cognitive Architecture with Evolutionary Dynamics Solves Insight Problem.

    PubMed

    Fedor, Anna; Zachar, István; Szilágyi, András; Öllinger, Michael; de Vladar, Harold P; Szathmáry, Eörs

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we show that a neurally implemented a cognitive architecture with evolutionary dynamics can solve the four-tree problem. Our model, called Darwinian Neurodynamics, assumes that the unconscious mechanism of problem solving during insight tasks is a Darwinian process. It is based on the evolution of patterns that represent candidate solutions to a problem, and are stored and reproduced by a population of attractor networks. In our first experiment, we used human data as a benchmark and showed that the model behaves comparably to humans: it shows an improvement in performance if it is pretrained and primed appropriately, just like human participants in Kershaw et al. (2013)'s experiment. In the second experiment, we further investigated the effects of pretraining and priming in a two-by-two design and found a beginner's luck type of effect: solution rate was highest in the condition that was primed, but not pretrained with patterns relevant for the task. In the third experiment, we showed that deficits in computational capacity and learning abilities decreased the performance of the model, as expected. We conclude that Darwinian Neurodynamics is a promising model of human problem solving that deserves further investigation.

  16. The Sigma Cognitive Architecture and System: Towards Functionally Elegant Grand Unification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenbloom, Paul S.; Demski, Abram; Ustun, Volkan

    2016-12-01

    Sigma (Σ) is a cognitive architecture and system whose development is driven by a combination of four desiderata: grand unification, generic cognition, functional elegance, and sufficient efficiency. Work towards these desiderata is guided by the graphical architecture hypothesis, that key to progress on them is combining what has been learned from over three decades' worth of separate work on cognitive architectures and graphical models. In this article, these four desiderata are motivated and explained, and then combined with the graphical architecture hypothesis to yield a rationale for the development of Sigma. The current state of the cognitive architecture is then introduced in detail, along with the graphical architecture that sits below it and implements it. Progress in extending Sigma beyond these architectures and towards a full cognitive system is then detailed in terms of both a systematic set of higher level cognitive idioms that have been developed and several virtual humans that are built from combinations of these idioms. Sigma as a whole is then analyzed in terms of how well the progress to date satisfies the desiderata. This article thus provides the first full motivation, presentation and analysis of Sigma, along with a diversity of more specific results that have been generated during its development.

  17. Using a Cognitive Architecture to Solve Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (SLAM) Problems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-05-01

    Transactions on Robotics and Automation April 2001, 17 (2). 6. Newell, A. Soar: A Cognitive Architecture in Perspective, Kluwer Academic. Harvard...Choset, H.; Nagatani, K. Topological Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (SLAM): Toward Exact Localization without Explicit Localization. IEEE

  18. Processes models, environmental analyses, and cognitive architectures: quo vadis quantum probability theory?

    PubMed

    Marewski, Julian N; Hoffrage, Ulrich

    2013-06-01

    A lot of research in cognition and decision making suffers from a lack of formalism. The quantum probability program could help to improve this situation, but we wonder whether it would provide even more added value if its presumed focus on outcome models were complemented by process models that are, ideally, informed by ecological analyses and integrated into cognitive architectures.

  19. Analogy, cognitive architecture and universal construction: a tale of two systematicities.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Steven

    2014-01-01

    Cognitive science recognizes two kinds of systematicity: (1) as the property where certain cognitive capacities imply certain other related cognitive capacities (Fodor and Pylyshyn); and (2) as the principle that analogical mappings based on collections of connected relations are preferred over relations in isolation (Gentner). Whether these kinds of systematicity are two aspects of a deeper property of cognition is hitherto unknown. Here, it is shown that both derive from the formal, category-theoretic notion of universal construction. In conceptual/psychological terms, a universal construction is a form of optimization of cognitive resources: optimizing the re-utilization of common component processes for common task components. Systematic cognitive capacity and the capacity for analogy are hallmarks of human cognition, which suggests that universal constructions (in the category-theoretic sense) are a crucial component of human cognitive architecture.

  20. Developing Dynamic Field Theory Architectures for Embodied Cognitive Systems with cedar

    PubMed Central

    Lomp, Oliver; Richter, Mathis; Zibner, Stephan K. U.; Schöner, Gregor

    2016-01-01

    Embodied artificial cognitive systems, such as autonomous robots or intelligent observers, connect cognitive processes to sensory and effector systems in real time. Prime candidates for such embodied intelligence are neurally inspired architectures. While components such as forward neural networks are well established, designing pervasively autonomous neural architectures remains a challenge. This includes the problem of tuning the parameters of such architectures so that they deliver specified functionality under variable environmental conditions and retain these functions as the architectures are expanded. The scaling and autonomy problems are solved, in part, by dynamic field theory (DFT), a theoretical framework for the neural grounding of sensorimotor and cognitive processes. In this paper, we address how to efficiently build DFT architectures that control embodied agents and how to tune their parameters so that the desired cognitive functions emerge while such agents are situated in real environments. In DFT architectures, dynamic neural fields or nodes are assigned dynamic regimes, that is, attractor states and their instabilities, from which cognitive function emerges. Tuning thus amounts to determining values of the dynamic parameters for which the components of a DFT architecture are in the specified dynamic regime under the appropriate environmental conditions. The process of tuning is facilitated by the software framework cedar, which provides a graphical interface to build and execute DFT architectures. It enables to change dynamic parameters online and visualize the activation states of any component while the agent is receiving sensory inputs in real time. Using a simple example, we take the reader through the workflow of conceiving of DFT architectures, implementing them on embodied agents, tuning their parameters, and assessing performance while the system is coupled to real sensory inputs. PMID:27853431

  1. Developing Dynamic Field Theory Architectures for Embodied Cognitive Systems with cedar.

    PubMed

    Lomp, Oliver; Richter, Mathis; Zibner, Stephan K U; Schöner, Gregor

    2016-01-01

    Embodied artificial cognitive systems, such as autonomous robots or intelligent observers, connect cognitive processes to sensory and effector systems in real time. Prime candidates for such embodied intelligence are neurally inspired architectures. While components such as forward neural networks are well established, designing pervasively autonomous neural architectures remains a challenge. This includes the problem of tuning the parameters of such architectures so that they deliver specified functionality under variable environmental conditions and retain these functions as the architectures are expanded. The scaling and autonomy problems are solved, in part, by dynamic field theory (DFT), a theoretical framework for the neural grounding of sensorimotor and cognitive processes. In this paper, we address how to efficiently build DFT architectures that control embodied agents and how to tune their parameters so that the desired cognitive functions emerge while such agents are situated in real environments. In DFT architectures, dynamic neural fields or nodes are assigned dynamic regimes, that is, attractor states and their instabilities, from which cognitive function emerges. Tuning thus amounts to determining values of the dynamic parameters for which the components of a DFT architecture are in the specified dynamic regime under the appropriate environmental conditions. The process of tuning is facilitated by the software framework cedar, which provides a graphical interface to build and execute DFT architectures. It enables to change dynamic parameters online and visualize the activation states of any component while the agent is receiving sensory inputs in real time. Using a simple example, we take the reader through the workflow of conceiving of DFT architectures, implementing them on embodied agents, tuning their parameters, and assessing performance while the system is coupled to real sensory inputs.

  2. Learning to Achieve Perfect Timesharing: Architectural Implications of Hazeltine, Teague, and Ivry (2002)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, John R.; Taatgen, Niels A.; Byrne, Michael D.

    2005-01-01

    E. Hazeltine, D. Teague, and R. B. Ivry have presented data that have been interpreted as evidence against a central bottleneck. This article describes simulations of their Experiments 1 and 4 in the ACT-R cognitive architecture, which does possess a central bottleneck in production execution. The simulation model is capable of accounting for the…

  3. Reverse engineering for biologically inspired cognitive architectures: a critical analysis.

    PubMed

    Schierwagen, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    Research initiatives on both sides of the Atlantic try to utilize the operational principles of organisms and brains to develop biologically inspired, artificial cognitive systems. This paper describes the standard way bio-inspiration is gained, i.e. decompositional analysis or reverse engineering. The indisputable complexity of brain and mind raise the issue of whether they can be understood by applying the standard method. Using Robert Rosen's modeling relation, the scientific analysis method itself is made a subject of discussion. It is concluded that the fundamental assumption of cognitive science, i.e. complex cognitive systems are decomposable, must be abandoned. Implications for investigations of organisms and behavior as well as for engineering artificial cognitive systems are discussed.

  4. Beyond functional architecture in cognitive neuropsychology: a reply to Coltheart (2010).

    PubMed

    Plaut, David C; Patterson, Karalyn

    2010-01-01

    We (Patterson & Plaut, 2009) argued that cognitive neuropsychology has had a limited impact on cognitive science due to a nearly exclusive reliance on (a) single-case studies, (b) dissociations in cognitive performance, and (c) shallow, box-and-arrow theorizing, and we advocated adopting a case-series methodology, considering associations as well as dissociations, and employing explicit computational modeling in studying "how the brain does its cognitive business." In reply, Coltheart (2010) claims that our concern is misplaced because cognitive neuropsychology is concerned only with studying the mind, in terms of its "functional architecture," without regard to how this is implemented in the brain. In this response, we do not dispute his characterization of cognitive neuropsychology as it has typically been practiced over the last 40 years, but we suggest that our understanding of brain structure and function has advanced to the point where studying the mind without regard to the brain is unwise and perpetuates the field's isolation.

  5. The Cognitive Architecture for Chaining of Two Mental Operations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sackur, Jerome; Dehaene, Stanislas

    2009-01-01

    A simple view, which dates back to Turing, proposes that complex cognitive operations are composed of serially arranged elementary operations, each passing intermediate results to the next. However, whether and how such serial processing is achieved with a brain composed of massively parallel processors, remains an open question. Here, we study…

  6. The Intranet as a Cognitive Architecture for Training and Education: Basic Assumptions and Development Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seffah, Ahmed; Bouchard, Robert Maurice

    This paper makes basic assumptions regarding the development of an intranet architecture that will actively promote the cognitive apprenticeship of a new community of learners. The authors consider the intranet as a dynamic and virtual environment in which individuals may communicate, share resources, and reciprocally generate and organize…

  7. Real-Time Cognitive Computing Architecture for Data Fusion in a Dynamic Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duong, Tuan A.; Duong, Vu A.

    2012-01-01

    A novel cognitive computing architecture is conceptualized for processing multiple channels of multi-modal sensory data streams simultaneously, and fusing the information in real time to generate intelligent reaction sequences. This unique architecture is capable of assimilating parallel data streams that could be analog, digital, synchronous/asynchronous, and could be programmed to act as a knowledge synthesizer and/or an "intelligent perception" processor. In this architecture, the bio-inspired models of visual pathway and olfactory receptor processing are combined as processing components, to achieve the composite function of "searching for a source of food while avoiding the predator." The architecture is particularly suited for scene analysis from visual data and odorant.

  8. Integrated Cognitive-neuroscience Architectures for Understanding Sensemaking (ICArUS): A Computational Basis for ICArUS Challenge Problem Design

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-11-01

    Integrated Cognitive- neuroscience Architectures for Understanding Sensemaking (ICArUS): A Computational Basis for ICArUS Challenge...4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Integrated Cognitive- neuroscience Architectures for Understanding Sensemaking (ICArUS): A Computational Basis for ICArUS...Advanced Research Projects Activity) program ICArUS (Integrated Cognitive- neuroscience Architectures for Understanding Sensemaking) requires

  9. Cognitive architectures and language acquisition: a case study in pronoun comprehension.

    PubMed

    VAN Rij, Jacolien; VAN Rijn, Hedderik; Hendriks, Petra

    2010-06-01

    In this paper we discuss a computational cognitive model of children's poor performance on pronoun interpretation (the so-called Delay of Principle B Effect, or DPBE). This cognitive model is based on a theoretical account that attributes the DPBE to children's inability as hearers to also take into account the speaker's perspective. The cognitive model predicts that child hearers are unable to do so because their speed of linguistic processing is too limited to perform this second step in interpretation. We tested this hypothesis empirically in a psycholinguistic study, in which we slowed down the speech rate to give children more time for interpretation, and in a computational simulation study. The results of the two studies confirm the predictions of our model. Moreover, these studies show that embedding a theory of linguistic competence in a cognitive architecture allows for the generation of detailed and testable predictions with respect to linguistic performance.

  10. The Cognitive Architecture of Anxiety-Like Behavioral Inhibition

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The combination of reward and potential threat is termed approach/avoidance conflict and elicits specific behaviors, including passive avoidance and behavioral inhibition (BI). Anxiety-relieving drugs reduce these behaviors, and a rich psychological literature has addressed how personality traits dominated by BI predispose for anxiety disorders. Yet, a formal understanding of the cognitive inference and planning processes underlying anxiety-like BI is lacking. Here, we present and empirically test such formalization in the terminology of reinforcement learning. We capitalize on a human computer game in which participants collect sequentially appearing monetary tokens while under threat of virtual “predation.” First, we demonstrate that humans modulate BI according to experienced consequences. This suggests an instrumental implementation of BI generation rather than a Pavlovian mechanism that is agnostic about action outcomes. Second, an internal model that would make BI adaptive is expressed in an independent task that involves no threat. The existence of such internal model is a necessary condition to conclude that BI is under model-based control. These findings relate a plethora of human and nonhuman observations on BI to reinforcement learning theory, and crucially constrain the quest for its neural implementation. PMID:27797550

  11. The cognitive architecture of anxiety-like behavioral inhibition.

    PubMed

    Bach, Dominik R

    2017-01-01

    The combination of reward and potential threat is termed approach/avoidance conflict and elicits specific behaviors, including passive avoidance and behavioral inhibition (BI). Anxiety-relieving drugs reduce these behaviors, and a rich psychological literature has addressed how personality traits dominated by BI predispose for anxiety disorders. Yet, a formal understanding of the cognitive inference and planning processes underlying anxiety-like BI is lacking. Here, we present and empirically test such formalization in the terminology of reinforcement learning. We capitalize on a human computer game in which participants collect sequentially appearing monetary tokens while under threat of virtual "predation." First, we demonstrate that humans modulate BI according to experienced consequences. This suggests an instrumental implementation of BI generation rather than a Pavlovian mechanism that is agnostic about action outcomes. Second, an internal model that would make BI adaptive is expressed in an independent task that involves no threat. The existence of such internal model is a necessary condition to conclude that BI is under model-based control. These findings relate a plethora of human and nonhuman observations on BI to reinforcement learning theory, and crucially constrain the quest for its neural implementation. (PsycINFO Database Record

  12. Cross-cultural regularities in the cognitive architecture of pride.

    PubMed

    Sznycer, Daniel; Al-Shawaf, Laith; Bereby-Meyer, Yoella; Curry, Oliver Scott; De Smet, Delphine; Ermer, Elsa; Kim, Sangin; Kim, Sunhwa; Li, Norman P; Lopez Seal, Maria Florencia; McClung, Jennifer; O, Jiaqing; Ohtsubo, Yohsuke; Quillien, Tadeg; Schaub, Max; Sell, Aaron; van Leeuwen, Florian; Cosmides, Leda; Tooby, John

    2017-02-21

    Pride occurs in every known culture, appears early in development, is reliably triggered by achievements and formidability, and causes a characteristic display that is recognized everywhere. Here, we evaluate the theory that pride evolved to guide decisions relevant to pursuing actions that enhance valuation and respect for a person in the minds of others. By hypothesis, pride is a neurocomputational program tailored by selection to orchestrate cognition and behavior in the service of: (i) motivating the cost-effective pursuit of courses of action that would increase others' valuations and respect of the individual, (ii) motivating the advertisement of acts or characteristics whose recognition by others would lead them to enhance their evaluations of the individual, and (iii) mobilizing the individual to take advantage of the resulting enhanced social landscape. To modulate how much to invest in actions that might lead to enhanced evaluations by others, the pride system must forecast the magnitude of the evaluations the action would evoke in the audience and calibrate its activation proportionally. We tested this prediction in 16 countries across 4 continents (n = 2,085), for 25 acts and traits. As predicted, the pride intensity for a given act or trait closely tracks the valuations of audiences, local (mean r = +0.82) and foreign (mean r = +0.75). This relationship is specific to pride and does not generalize to other positive emotions that coactivate with pride but lack its audience-recalibrating function.

  13. Genetic architecture of age-related cognitive decline in African Americans

    PubMed Central

    Raj, Towfique; Chibnik, Lori B.; McCabe, Cristin; Wong, Andus; Replogle, Joseph M.; Yu, Lei; Gao, Sujuan; Unverzagt, Frederick W.; Stranger, Barbara; Murrell, Jill; Barnes, Lisa; Hendrie, Hugh C.; Foroud, Tatiana; Krichevsky, Anna; Bennett, David A.; Hall, Kathleen S.; Evans, Denis A.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To identify genetic risk factors associated with susceptibility to age-related cognitive decline in African Americans (AAs). Methods: We performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) and an admixture-mapping scan in 3,964 older AAs from 5 longitudinal cohorts; for each participant, we calculated a slope of an individual's global cognitive change from neuropsychological evaluations. We also performed a pathway-based analysis of the age-related cognitive decline GWAS. Results: We found no evidence to support the existence of a genomic region which has a strongly different contribution to age-related cognitive decline in African and European genomes. Known Alzheimer disease (AD) susceptibility variants in the ABCA7 and MS4A loci do influence this trait in AAs. Of interest, our pathway-based analyses returned statistically significant results highlighting a shared risk from lipid/metabolism and protein tyrosine signaling pathways between cognitive decline and AD, but the role of inflammatory pathways is polarized, being limited to AD susceptibility. Conclusions: The genetic architecture of aging-related cognitive in AA individuals is largely similar to that of individuals of European descent. In both populations, we note a surprising lack of enrichment for immune pathways in the genetic risk for cognitive decline, despite strong enrichment of these pathways among genetic risk factors for AD. PMID:28078323

  14. Integrated Cognitive-neuroscience Architectures for Understanding Sensemaking (ICArUS): Phase 2 Challenge Problem Walkthrough

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-11-01

    Integrated Cognitive- neuroscience Architectures for Understanding Sensemaking (ICArUS): Phase 2 Challenge Problem Walkthrough Kevin Burns...IARPA-BAA-10-04, via contract 2009- 0917826-016, and is subject to the Rights in Data-General Clause 52.227-14, Alt. IV (DEC 2007). Any views and...governmental purposes notwithstanding any copyright annotation therein. © 2014 The MITRE Corporation. All rights reserved. Approved for Public

  15. A cognitive robotic system based on the Soar cognitive architecture for mobile robot navigation, search, and mapping missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanford, Scott D.

    Most unmanned vehicles used for civilian and military applications are remotely operated or are designed for specific applications. As these vehicles are used to perform more difficult missions or a larger number of missions in remote environments, there will be a great need for these vehicles to behave intelligently and autonomously. Cognitive architectures, computer programs that define mechanisms that are important for modeling and generating domain-independent intelligent behavior, have the potential for generating intelligent and autonomous behavior in unmanned vehicles. The research described in this presentation explored the use of the Soar cognitive architecture for cognitive robotics. The Cognitive Robotic System (CRS) has been developed to integrate software systems for motor control and sensor processing with Soar for unmanned vehicle control. The CRS has been tested using two mobile robot missions: outdoor navigation and search in an indoor environment. The use of the CRS for the outdoor navigation mission demonstrated that a Soar agent could autonomously navigate to a specified location while avoiding obstacles, including cul-de-sacs, with only a minimal amount of knowledge about the environment. While most systems use information from maps or long-range perceptual capabilities to avoid cul-de-sacs, a Soar agent in the CRS was able to recognize when a simple approach to avoiding obstacles was unsuccessful and switch to a different strategy for avoiding complex obstacles. During the indoor search mission, the CRS autonomously and intelligently searches a building for an object of interest and common intersection types. While searching the building, the Soar agent builds a topological map of the environment using information about the intersections the CRS detects. The agent uses this topological model (along with Soar's reasoning, planning, and learning mechanisms) to make intelligent decisions about how to effectively search the building. Once the

  16. A cognitive architecture account of the visual local advantage phenomenon in autism spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    van der Helm, Peter A

    2016-09-01

    Ideally, a cognitive architecture is a neurally plausible model that unifies mental representations and cognitive processes. Here, I apply such a model to re-evaluate the local advantage phenomenon in autism spectrum disorders (ASD), that is, the better than typical performance on visual tasks in which local stimulus features are to be discerned. The model takes (a) perceptual organization as a predominantly stimulus-driven process yielding hierarchical stimulus organizations, and (b) attention as predominantly scrutinizing the hierarchical structure of established percepts in a task-driven top-down fashion. This accounts for a dominance of wholes over parts and implies that perceived global structures mask incompatible local features. The model also substantiates that impairments in neuronal synchronization - as found in ASD - reduce the emergence of global structures and, thereby, their masking effect on incompatible features. I argue that this explains the local advantage phenomenon and I discuss implications and suggestions for future research.

  17. Cross-format physical similarity effects and their implications for the numerical cognition architecture.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Dale J; Warren, Erin; Blanc-Goldhammer, Daryn

    2013-06-01

    The sound |faɪv| is visually depicted as a written number word "five" and as an Arabic digit "5." Here, we present four experiments--two quantity same/different experiments and two magnitude comparison experiments--that assess whether auditory number words (|faɪv|), written number words ("five"), and Arabic digits ("5") directly activate one another and/or their associated quantity. The quantity same/different experiments reveal that the auditory number words, written number words, and Arabic digits directly activate one another without activating their associated quantity. That is, there are cross-format physical similarity effects but no numerical distance effects. The cross-format magnitude comparison experiments reveal significant effects of both physical similarity and numerical distance. We discuss these results in relation to the architecture of numerical cognition.

  18. Combining cognitive engineering and information fusion architectures to build effective joint systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sliva, Amy L.; Gorman, Joe; Voshell, Martin; Tittle, James; Bowman, Christopher

    2016-05-01

    The Dual Node Decision Wheels (DNDW) architecture concept was previously described as a novel approach toward integrating analytic and decision-making processes in joint human/automation systems in highly complex sociotechnical settings. In this paper, we extend the DNDW construct with a description of components in this framework, combining structures of the Dual Node Network (DNN) for Information Fusion and Resource Management with extensions on Rasmussen's Decision Ladder (DL) to provide guidance on constructing information systems that better serve decision-making support requirements. The DNN takes a component-centered approach to system design, decomposing each asset in terms of data inputs and outputs according to their roles and interactions in a fusion network. However, to ensure relevancy to and organizational fitment within command and control (C2) processes, principles from cognitive systems engineering emphasize that system design must take a human-centered systems view, integrating information needs and decision making requirements to drive the architecture design and capabilities of network assets. In the current work, we present an approach for structuring and assessing DNDW systems that uses a unique hybrid DNN top-down system design with a human-centered process design, combining DNN node decomposition with artifacts from cognitive analysis (i.e., system abstraction decomposition models, decision ladders) to provide work domain and task-level insights at different levels in an example intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance (ISR) system setting. This DNDW structure will ensure not only that the information fusion technologies and processes are structured effectively, but that the resulting information products will align with the requirements of human decision makers and be adaptable to different work settings .

  19. Cognitively inspired reinforcement learning architecture and its application to giant-swing motion control.

    PubMed

    Uragami, Daisuke; Takahashi, Tatsuji; Matsuo, Yoshiki

    2014-02-01

    Many algorithms and methods in artificial intelligence or machine learning were inspired by human cognition. As a mechanism to handle the exploration-exploitation dilemma in reinforcement learning, the loosely symmetric (LS) value function that models causal intuition of humans was proposed (Shinohara et al., 2007). While LS shows the highest correlation with causal induction by humans, it has been reported that it effectively works in multi-armed bandit problems that form the simplest class of tasks representing the dilemma. However, the scope of application of LS was limited to the reinforcement learning problems that have K actions with only one state (K-armed bandit problems). This study proposes LS-Q learning architecture that can deal with general reinforcement learning tasks with multiple states and delayed reward. We tested the learning performance of the new architecture in giant-swing robot motion learning, where uncertainty and unknown-ness of the environment is huge. In the test, the help of ready-made internal models or functional approximation of the state space were not given. The simulations showed that while the ordinary Q-learning agent does not reach giant-swing motion because of stagnant loops (local optima with low rewards), LS-Q escapes such loops and acquires giant-swing. It is confirmed that the smaller number of states is, in other words, the more coarse-grained the division of states and the more incomplete the state observation is, the better LS-Q performs in comparison with Q-learning. We also showed that the high performance of LS-Q depends comparatively little on parameter tuning and learning time. This suggests that the proposed method inspired by human cognition works adaptively in real environments.

  20. Cognitive Modeling of Individual Variation in Reference Production and Comprehension

    PubMed Central

    Hendriks, Petra

    2016-01-01

    A challenge for most theoretical and computational accounts of linguistic reference is the observation that language users vary considerably in their referential choices. Part of the variation observed among and within language users and across tasks may be explained from variation in the cognitive resources available to speakers and listeners. This paper presents a computational model of reference production and comprehension developed within the cognitive architecture ACT-R. Through simulations with this ACT-R model, it is investigated how cognitive constraints interact with linguistic constraints and features of the linguistic discourse in speakers’ production and listeners’ comprehension of referring expressions in specific tasks, and how this interaction may give rise to variation in referential choice. The ACT-R model of reference explains and predicts variation among language users in their referential choices as a result of individual and task-related differences in processing speed and working memory capacity. Because of limitations in their cognitive capacities, speakers sometimes underspecify or overspecify their referring expressions, and listeners sometimes choose incorrect referents or are overly liberal in their interpretation of referring expressions. PMID:27092101

  1. An architecture and model for cognitive engineering simulation analysis - Application to advanced aviation automation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Corker, Kevin M.; Smith, Barry R.

    1993-01-01

    The process of designing crew stations for large-scale, complex automated systems is made difficult because of the flexibility of roles that the crew can assume, and by the rapid rate at which system designs become fixed. Modern cockpit automation frequently involves multiple layers of control and display technology in which human operators must exercise equipment in augmented, supervisory, and fully automated control modes. In this context, we maintain that effective human-centered design is dependent on adequate models of human/system performance in which representations of the equipment, the human operator(s), and the mission tasks are available to designers for manipulation and modification. The joint Army-NASA Aircrew/Aircraft Integration (A3I) Program, with its attendant Man-machine Integration Design and Analysis System (MIDAS), was initiated to meet this challenge. MIDAS provides designers with a test bed for analyzing human-system integration in an environment in which both cognitive human function and 'intelligent' machine function are described in similar terms. This distributed object-oriented simulation system, its architecture and assumptions, and our experiences from its application in advanced aviation crew stations are described.

  2. A Programmer-Interpreter Neural Network Architecture for Prefrontal Cognitive Control.

    PubMed

    Donnarumma, Francesco; Prevete, Roberto; Chersi, Fabian; Pezzulo, Giovanni

    2015-09-01

    There is wide consensus that the prefrontal cortex (PFC) is able to exert cognitive control on behavior by biasing processing toward task-relevant information and by modulating response selection. This idea is typically framed in terms of top-down influences within a cortical control hierarchy, where prefrontal-basal ganglia loops gate multiple input-output channels, which in turn can activate or sequence motor primitives expressed in (pre-)motor cortices. Here we advance a new hypothesis, based on the notion of programmability and an interpreter-programmer computational scheme, on how the PFC can flexibly bias the selection of sensorimotor patterns depending on internal goal and task contexts. In this approach, multiple elementary behaviors representing motor primitives are expressed by a single multi-purpose neural network, which is seen as a reusable area of "recycled" neurons (interpreter). The PFC thus acts as a "programmer" that, without modifying the network connectivity, feeds the interpreter networks with specific input parameters encoding the programs (corresponding to network structures) to be interpreted by the (pre-)motor areas. Our architecture is validated in a standard test for executive function: the 1-2-AX task. Our results show that this computational framework provides a robust, scalable and flexible scheme that can be iterated at different hierarchical layers, supporting the realization of multiple goals. We discuss the plausibility of the "programmer-interpreter" scheme to explain the functioning of prefrontal-(pre)motor cortical hierarchies.

  3. A Cognitive Neural Architecture Able to Learn and Communicate through Natural Language.

    PubMed

    Golosio, Bruno; Cangelosi, Angelo; Gamotina, Olesya; Masala, Giovanni Luca

    2015-01-01

    Communicative interactions involve a kind of procedural knowledge that is used by the human brain for processing verbal and nonverbal inputs and for language production. Although considerable work has been done on modeling human language abilities, it has been difficult to bring them together to a comprehensive tabula rasa system compatible with current knowledge of how verbal information is processed in the brain. This work presents a cognitive system, entirely based on a large-scale neural architecture, which was developed to shed light on the procedural knowledge involved in language elaboration. The main component of this system is the central executive, which is a supervising system that coordinates the other components of the working memory. In our model, the central executive is a neural network that takes as input the neural activation states of the short-term memory and yields as output mental actions, which control the flow of information among the working memory components through neural gating mechanisms. The proposed system is capable of learning to communicate through natural language starting from tabula rasa, without any a priori knowledge of the structure of phrases, meaning of words, role of the different classes of words, only by interacting with a human through a text-based interface, using an open-ended incremental learning process. It is able to learn nouns, verbs, adjectives, pronouns and other word classes, and to use them in expressive language. The model was validated on a corpus of 1587 input sentences, based on literature on early language assessment, at the level of about 4-years old child, and produced 521 output sentences, expressing a broad range of language processing functionalities.

  4. A Cognitive Neural Architecture Able to Learn and Communicate through Natural Language

    PubMed Central

    Golosio, Bruno; Cangelosi, Angelo; Gamotina, Olesya; Masala, Giovanni Luca

    2015-01-01

    Communicative interactions involve a kind of procedural knowledge that is used by the human brain for processing verbal and nonverbal inputs and for language production. Although considerable work has been done on modeling human language abilities, it has been difficult to bring them together to a comprehensive tabula rasa system compatible with current knowledge of how verbal information is processed in the brain. This work presents a cognitive system, entirely based on a large-scale neural architecture, which was developed to shed light on the procedural knowledge involved in language elaboration. The main component of this system is the central executive, which is a supervising system that coordinates the other components of the working memory. In our model, the central executive is a neural network that takes as input the neural activation states of the short-term memory and yields as output mental actions, which control the flow of information among the working memory components through neural gating mechanisms. The proposed system is capable of learning to communicate through natural language starting from tabula rasa, without any a priori knowledge of the structure of phrases, meaning of words, role of the different classes of words, only by interacting with a human through a text-based interface, using an open-ended incremental learning process. It is able to learn nouns, verbs, adjectives, pronouns and other word classes, and to use them in expressive language. The model was validated on a corpus of 1587 input sentences, based on literature on early language assessment, at the level of about 4-years old child, and produced 521 output sentences, expressing a broad range of language processing functionalities. PMID:26560154

  5. Effects of Spatial Experiences & Cognitive Styles in the Solution Process of Space-Based Design Problems in the First Year of Architectural Design Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erkan Yazici, Yasemin

    2013-01-01

    There are many factors that influence designers in the architectural design process. Cognitive style, which varies according to the cognitive structure of persons, and spatial experience, which is created with spatial data acquired during life are two of these factors. Designers usually refer to their spatial experiences in order to find solutions…

  6. Cognitive Impairment after Chemotherapy Related to Atypical Network Architecture for Executive Control

    PubMed Central

    Piccirillo, Jay F.; Hardin, Frances Mei; Nicklaus, Joyce; Kallogjeri, Dorina; Wilson, Michael; Ma, Cynthia X.; Coalson, Rebecca S.; Shimony, Joshua; Schlaggar, Bradley L.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives A common complaint of cancer patients is the experience of cognitive difficulty during and after chemotherapy. We hypothesized that cognitive impairment may result from dysfunction in large-scale brain networks, particularly those involved in attentional control. Methods Using a case-control design, this study includes women with a history of invasive ductal or lobular, triple-negative breast cancer who completed standard adjuvant chemotherapy within two years of study entry. Women who reported cognitive impairment by the Global Rating of Cognition question were considered to be cases (n= 15). Women who reported no cognitive impairment were considered to be controls (n= 13). All enrolled participants were eligible for MRI investigation and underwent resting state-functional connectivity MRI. Results Women who self-reported cognitive impairment were found to have disrupted resting-state functional connectivity, as measured by MRI, when compared to women who did not self-report cognitive impairment. These findings suggest that some women may be more sensitive to the standard treatments for breast cancer and that this increased sensitivity may result in functional connectivity alterations in the brain networks supporting attention and executive function. Conclusions Neuroimaging analyses confirmed self-reported cognitive deficits in women with breast cancer treated with chemotherapy. PMID:25678046

  7. Differences in Concept Mapping, Hypertext Architecture, and the Analyst-Intuition Dimension of Cognitive Style

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graff, Martin

    2005-01-01

    There is now evidence to suggest that the degree to which hypertext or web-based instructional systems facilitate recall of information appears to be contingent on an individual's cognitive or information processing style. Concept maps also reflect the way in which individuals process information and therefore it is possible that cognitive style…

  8. Cognitive Architectures and Language Acquisition: A Case Study in Pronoun Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Rij, Jacolien; van Rij, Hedderik; Hendriks, Petra

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we discuss a computational cognitive model of children's poor performance on pronoun interpretation (the so-called Delay of Principle B Effect, or DPBE). This cognitive model is based on a theoretical account that attributes the DPBE to children's inability as hearers to also take into account the speaker's perspective. The cognitive…

  9. Combined Cognitive-Psychological-Physical Intervention Induces Reorganization of Intrinsic Functional Brain Architecture in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Zhiwei; Zhu, Xinyi; Yin, Shufei; Wang, Baoxi; Niu, Yanan; Huang, Xin; Li, Rui; Li, Juan

    2015-01-01

    Mounting evidence suggests that enriched mental, physical, and socially stimulating activities are beneficial for counteracting age-related decreases in brain function and cognition in older adults. Here, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to demonstrate the functional plasticity of brain activity in response to a combined cognitive-psychological-physical intervention and investigated the contribution of the intervention-related brain changes to individual performance in healthy older adults. The intervention was composed of a 6-week program of combined activities including cognitive training, Tai Chi exercise, and group counseling. The results showed improved cognitive performance and reorganized regional homogeneity of spontaneous fluctuations in the blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) signals in the superior and middle temporal gyri, and the posterior lobe of the cerebellum, in the participants who attended the intervention. Intriguingly, the intervention-induced changes in the coherence of local spontaneous activity correlated with the improvements in individual cognitive performance. Taken together with our previous findings of enhanced resting-state functional connectivity between the medial prefrontal cortex and medial temporal lobe regions following a combined intervention program in older adults, we conclude that the functional plasticity of the aging brain is a rather complex process, and an effective cognitive-psychological-physical intervention is helpful for maintaining a healthy brain and comprehensive cognition during old age. PMID:25810927

  10. Cognitive niches: an ecological model of strategy selection.

    PubMed

    Marewski, Julian N; Schooler, Lael J

    2011-07-01

    How do people select among different strategies to accomplish a given task? Across disciplines, the strategy selection problem represents a major challenge. We propose a quantitative model that predicts how selection emerges through the interplay among strategies, cognitive capacities, and the environment. This interplay carves out for each strategy a cognitive niche, that is, a limited number of situations in which the strategy can be applied, simplifying strategy selection. To illustrate our proposal, we consider selection in the context of 2 theories: the simple heuristics framework and the ACT-R (adaptive control of thought-rational) architecture of cognition. From the heuristics framework, we adopt the thesis that people make decisions by selecting from a repertoire of simple decision strategies that exploit regularities in the environment and draw on cognitive capacities, such as memory and time perception. ACT-R provides a quantitative theory of how these capacities adapt to the environment. In 14 simulations and 10 experiments, we consider the choice between strategies that operate on the accessibility of memories and those that depend on elaborate knowledge about the world. Based on Internet statistics, our model quantitatively predicts people's familiarity with and knowledge of real-world objects, the distributional characteristics of the associated speed of memory retrieval, and the cognitive niches of classic decision strategies, including those of the fluency, recognition, integration, lexicographic, and sequential-sampling heuristics. In doing so, the model specifies when people will be able to apply different strategies and how accurate, fast, and effortless people's decisions will be.

  11. Sleep architecture and cognitive changes in olanzapine-treated patients with depression: A double blind randomized placebo controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Disturbance in sleep quality is a symptom of Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) and Bipolar Disorder (BD) and thus improving quality of sleep is an important aspect of successful treatment. Here, a prospective, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study examined the effect of olanzapine (an atypical antipsychotic) augmentation therapy on sleep architecture, specifically slow wave sleep (SWS), in the treatment of depression. The effect of olanzapine augmentation therapy on other features of sleep (e.g., sleep continuity) and depression (e.g., illness severity and cognitive function) were also determined. Methods Patients currently experiencing a major depressive episode and who were on a stable medication were included. Sleep architecture was measured by overnight ambulatory polysomnography. Illness severity was determined using the Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS). Cognitive function was examined using Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB): Spatial Working Memory (SWM), Spatial Span (SSP), and Reaction Time (RTI) tasks. Polysomnographs, clinical measures and cognitive tests were administered at baseline, after 2–4 days of treatment and after 28–31 days of treatment. Twenty-five patients participated in the study (N = 10, N = 15 for placebo and olanzapine treated groups respectively). Results The primary objective of the study was to assess the objective (polysomnographic) changes in sleep quality, defined as changes in SWS, following olanzapine treatment for depression. Latency to but not duration of SWS was found to significantly differ between olanzapine- and placebo-treated participants (Hedge’s g: 0.97, 0.13 respectively). A significant improvement in olanzapine-treated participants over placebo-treated participants was observed in secondary outcome measures, including sleep efficiency, total sleep time, and sleep latency. Secondary objectives assessed the subjective changes in sleep quality

  12. Does the Cognitive Architecture of Simplex and Multiplex ASD Families Differ?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oerlemans, Anoek M.; Hartman, Catharina A.; Franke, Barbara; Buitelaar, Jan K.; Rommelse, Nanda N. J.

    2016-01-01

    Children with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and their unaffected siblings from 54 simplex (SPX, one individual in the family affected) and 59 multiplex (MPX, two or more individuals affected) families, and 124 controls were assessed on intelligence, social cognition and executive functions. SPX and MPX ASD probands displayed similar cognitive…

  13. Extending and Applying the EPIC Architecture for Human Cognition and Performance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-01

    objects and movements, such as typical radar workstation tasks, are incorrectly represented in the architecture. These considerations led to a...Validation. EPIC vs GLEAN models for the AAW task Major progress was made in modeling the MMWS AAW task in EPIC, and using the model to begin...the MMWS task started with the acuity functions developed in the modeling of the Marshall-St. John visual search task (see Kieras & Marshall, 2006) as

  14. Systematicity and a Categorical Theory of Cognitive Architecture: Universal Construction in Context

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, Steven; Wilson, William H.

    2016-01-01

    Why does the capacity to think certain thoughts imply the capacity to think certain other, structurally related, thoughts? Despite decades of intensive debate, cognitive scientists have yet to reach a consensus on an explanation for this property of cognitive architecture—the basic processes and modes of composition that together afford cognitive capacity—called systematicity. Systematicity is generally considered to involve a capacity to represent/process common structural relations among the equivalently cognizable entities. However, the predominant theoretical approaches to the systematicity problem, i.e., classical (symbolic) and connectionist (subsymbolic), require arbitrary (ad hoc) assumptions to derive systematicity. That is, their core principles and assumptions do not provide the necessary and sufficient conditions from which systematicity follows, as required of a causal theory. Hence, these approaches fail to fully explain why systematicity is a (near) universal property of human cognition, albeit in restricted contexts. We review an alternative, category theory approach to the systematicity problem. As a mathematical theory of structure, category theory provides necessary and sufficient conditions for systematicity in the form of universal construction: each systematically related cognitive capacity is composed of a common component and a unique component. Moreover, every universal construction can be viewed as the optimal construction in the given context (category). From this view, universal constructions are derived from learning, as an optimization. The ultimate challenge, then, is to explain the determination of context. If context is a category, then a natural extension toward addressing this question is higher-order category theory, where categories themselves are the objects of construction. PMID:27524975

  15. Simplifying the interaction between cognitive models and task environments with the JSON Network Interface.

    PubMed

    Hope, Ryan M; Schoelles, Michael J; Gray, Wayne D

    2014-12-01

    Process models of cognition, written in architectures such as ACT-R and EPIC, should be able to interact with the same software with which human subjects interact. By eliminating the need to simulate the experiment, this approach would simplify the modeler's effort, while ensuring that all steps required of the human are also required by the model. In practice, the difficulties of allowing one software system to interact with another present a significant barrier to any modeler who is not also skilled at this type of programming. The barrier increases if the programming language used by the modeling software differs from that used by the experimental software. The JSON Network Interface simplifies this problem for ACT-R modelers, and potentially, modelers using other systems.

  16. Automatic analysis of slips of the tongue: Insights into the cognitive architecture of speech production.

    PubMed

    Goldrick, Matthew; Keshet, Joseph; Gustafson, Erin; Heller, Jordana; Needle, Jeremy

    2016-04-01

    Traces of the cognitive mechanisms underlying speaking can be found within subtle variations in how we pronounce sounds. While speech errors have traditionally been seen as categorical substitutions of one sound for another, acoustic/articulatory analyses show they partially reflect the intended sound. When "pig" is mispronounced as "big," the resulting /b/ sound differs from correct productions of "big," moving towards intended "pig"-revealing the role of graded sound representations in speech production. Investigating the origins of such phenomena requires detailed estimation of speech sound distributions; this has been hampered by reliance on subjective, labor-intensive manual annotation. Computational methods can address these issues by providing for objective, automatic measurements. We develop a novel high-precision computational approach, based on a set of machine learning algorithms, for measurement of elicited speech. The algorithms are trained on existing manually labeled data to detect and locate linguistically relevant acoustic properties with high accuracy. Our approach is robust, is designed to handle mis-productions, and overall matches the performance of expert coders. It allows us to analyze a very large dataset of speech errors (containing far more errors than the total in the existing literature), illuminating properties of speech sound distributions previously impossible to reliably observe. We argue that this provides novel evidence that two sources both contribute to deviations in speech errors: planning processes specifying the targets of articulation and articulatory processes specifying the motor movements that execute this plan. These findings illustrate how a much richer picture of speech provides an opportunity to gain novel insights into language processing.

  17. Parameters, Predictions, and Evidence in Computational Modeling: A Statistical View Informed by ACT-R

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weaver, Rhiannon

    2008-01-01

    Model validation in computational cognitive psychology often relies on methods drawn from the testing of theories in experimental physics. However, applications of these methods to computational models in typical cognitive experiments can hide multiple, plausible sources of variation arising from human participants and from stochastic cognitive…

  18. Using an Analogical Thinking Model as an Instructional Tool to Improve Student Cognitive Ability in Architecture Design Learning Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Yun-Wu; Weng, Kuo-Hua

    2013-01-01

    Lack of creativity is a problem often plaguing students from design-related departments. Therefore, this study is intended to incorporate analogical thinking in the education of architecture design to enhance students' learning and their future career performance. First, this study explores the three aspects of architecture design curricula,…

  19. 26 CFR 31.6302-2 - Federal Tax Deposit Rules for amounts withheld under the Railroad Retirement Tax Act (R.R.T.A...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... under the Railroad Retirement Tax Act (R.R.T.A.) attributable to payments made after December 31, 1992... withheld under the Railroad Retirement Tax Act (R.R.T.A.) attributable to payments made after December 31... allowed to use the Monthly rule of § 31.6302-1(c)(1) for an entire calendar year unless the amount of...

  20. Crystal Structure of the Streptomyces coelicolor TetR-Like Protein ActR Alone and in Complex with Actinorhodin or the Actinorhodin Biosynthetic Precursor (S)-DNPA

    SciTech Connect

    Willems,A.; Tahlan, K.; Taguchi, T.; Zhang, K.; Lee, Z.; Ichinose, K.; Junop, M.; Nodwell, J.

    2008-01-01

    Actinorhodin, an antibiotic produced by Streptomyces coelicolor, is exported from the cell by the ActA efflux pump. actA is divergently transcribed from actR, which encodes a TetR-like transcriptional repressor. We showed previously that ActR represses transcription by binding to an operator from the actA/actR intergenic region. Importantly, actinorhodin itself or various actinorhodin biosynthetic intermediates can cause ActR to dissociate from its operator, leading to derepression. This suggests that ActR may mediate timely self-resistance to an endogenously produced antibiotic by responding to one of its biosynthetic precursors. Here, we report the structural basis for this precursor-mediated derepression with crystal structures of homodimeric ActR by itself and in complex with either actinorhodin or the actinorhodin biosynthetic intermediate (S)-DNPA [4-dihydro-9-hydroxy-1-methyl-10-oxo-3-H-naphtho-[2, 3-c]-pyran-3-(S)-acetic acid]. The ligand-binding tunnel in each ActR monomer has a striking hydrophilic/hydrophobic/hydrophilic arrangement of surface residues that accommodate either one hexacyclic actinorhodin molecule or two back-to-back tricyclic (S)-DNPA molecules. Moreover, our work also reveals the strongest structural evidence to date that TetR-mediated antibiotic resistance may have been acquired from an antibiotic-producer organism.

  1. The architecture and dynamics of developing mind: experiential structuralism as a frame for unifying cognitive developmental theories.

    PubMed

    Demetriou, A; Efklides, A; Platsidou, M

    1993-01-01

    This Monograph presents a theory of cognitive development. The theory argues that the mind develops across three fronts. The first refers to a general processing system that defines the general potentials of mind to develop cognitive strategies and skills. The second refers to a hypercognitive system that governs self-understanding and self-regulation. The third involves a set of specialized structural systems (SSSs) that are responsible for the representation and processing of different reality domains. There are specific forces that are responsible for this organization of mind. These are expressed in the Monograph in terms of a set of five organizational principles. The developmental course of the major systems is outlined. Developmental change is ascribed by the theory to the interaction between the various systems. Different types of development require different change mechanisms. Five studies are presented that provide empirical support for these postulates. Study 1 demonstrated the organizational power of principles and SSSs. Study 2 showed that the SSSs constrain the effect of learning. Study 3 established that the hypercognitive system does function as the interface between tasks and SSS-specific processes or between SSSs and general cognitive functions such as attention and memory. Study 4 investigated the relations between one of the components of the processing system, storage, and two different SSSs expressed via two different symbolic systems, namely, the numeric and the imaginal. Finally, Study 5 examined the interaction between the components of the processing system and the relations between each of these components and one SSS, namely, the quantitative-relational SSS. The theoretical implications of these studies with regard to general issues, such as the nature of representation, the causation of cognitive change, and individual differences in cognitive development, are discussed in the concluding chapter.

  2. Aberrant Functional Connectivity Architecture in Alzheimer's Disease and Mild Cognitive Impairment: A Whole-Brain, Data-Driven Analysis.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Bo; Yao, Hongxiang; Wang, Pan; Zhang, Zengqiang; Zhan, Yafeng; Ma, Jianhua; Xu, Kaibin; Wang, Luning; An, Ningyu; Liu, Yong; Zhang, Xi

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of our study was to investigate whether the whole-brain functional connectivity pattern exhibits disease severity-related alterations in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging data were acquired in 27 MCI subjects, 35 AD patients, and 27 age- and gender-matched subjects with normal cognition (NC). Interregional functional connectivity was assessed based on a predefined template which parcellated the brain into 90 regions. Altered whole-brain functional connectivity patterns were identified via connectivity comparisons between the AD and NC subjects. Finally, the relationship between functional connectivity strength and cognitive ability according to the mini-mental state examination (MMSE) was evaluated in the MCI and AD groups. Compared with the NC group, the AD group exhibited decreased functional connectivities throughout the brain. The most significantly affected regions included several important nodes of the default mode network and the temporal lobe. Moreover, changes in functional connectivity strength exhibited significant associations with disease severity-related alterations in the AD and MCI groups. The present study provides novel evidence and will facilitate meta-analysis of whole-brain analyses in AD and MCI, which will be critical to better understand the neural basis of AD.

  3. Cognitive and metacognitive activity in mathematical problem solving: prefrontal and parietal patterns.

    PubMed

    Anderson, John R; Betts, Shawn; Ferris, Jennifer L; Fincham, Jon M

    2011-03-01

    Students were taught an algorithm for solving a new class of mathematical problems. Occasionally in the sequence of problems, they encountered exception problems that required that they extend the algorithm. Regular and exception problems were associated with different patterns of brain activation. Some regions showed a Cognitive pattern of being active only until the problem was solved and no difference between regular or exception problems. Other regions showed a Metacognitive pattern of greater activity for exception problems and activity that extended into the post-solution period, particularly when an error was made. The Cognitive regions included some of parietal and prefrontal regions associated with the triple-code theory of (Dehaene, S., Piazza, M., Pinel, P., & Cohen, L. (2003). Three parietal circuits for number processing. Cognitive Neuropsychology, 20, 487-506) and associated with algebra equation solving in the ACT-R theory (Anderson, J. R. (2005). Human symbol manipulation within an 911 integrated cognitive architecture. Cognitive science, 29, 313-342. Metacognitive regions included the superior prefrontal gyrus, the angular gyrus of the triple-code theory, and frontopolar regions.

  4. Novel Architecture for supporting medical decision making of different data types based on Fuzzy Cognitive Map Framework.

    PubMed

    Papageorgiou, Elpiniki; Stylios, Chrysostomos; Groumpos, Peter

    2007-01-01

    Medical problems involve different types of variables and data, which have to be processed, analyzed and synthesized in order to reach a decision and/or conclude to a diagnosis. Usually, information and data set are both symbolic and numeric but most of the well-known data analysis methods deal with only one kind of data. Even when fuzzy approaches are considered, which are not depended on the scales of variables, usually only numeric data is considered. The medical decision support methods usually are accessed in only one type of available data. Thus, sophisticated methods have been proposed such as integrated hybrid learning approaches to process symbolic and numeric data for the decision support tasks. Fuzzy Cognitive Maps (FCM) is an efficient modelling method, which is based on human knowledge and experience and it can handle with uncertainty and it is constructed by extracted knowledge in the form of fuzzy rules. The FCM model can be enhanced if a fuzzy rule base (IF-THEN rules) is available. This rule base could be derived by a number of machine learning and knowledge extraction methods. Here it is introduced a hybrid attempt to handle situations with different types of available medical and/or clinical data and with difficulty to handle them for decision support tasks using soft computing techniques.

  5. Agent Architectures for Compliance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burgemeestre, Brigitte; Hulstijn, Joris; Tan, Yao-Hua

    A Normative Multi-Agent System consists of autonomous agents who must comply with social norms. Different kinds of norms make different assumptions about the cognitive architecture of the agents. For example, a principle-based norm assumes that agents can reflect upon the consequences of their actions; a rule-based formulation only assumes that agents can avoid violations. In this paper we present several cognitive agent architectures for self-monitoring and compliance. We show how different assumptions about the cognitive architecture lead to different information needs when assessing compliance. The approach is validated with a case study of horizontal monitoring, an approach to corporate tax auditing recently introduced by the Dutch Customs and Tax Authority.

  6. Tracking 2003 ACT[R]-Tested High School Graduates: College Readiness, Enrollment, and Long-Term Success. ACT Research Report Series, 2012 (2)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Radunzel, Justine; Noble, Julie

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the relationships between multiple measures of college readiness and success in college. Outcomes included enrollment in college immediately after high school, retention in college, and degree completion. College readiness indicators at time of high school graduation included ACT[R] scores and Benchmark attainment, high school…

  7. Computational perspectives on cognitive development.

    PubMed

    Mareschal, Denis

    2010-09-01

    This article reviews the efforts to develop process models of infants' and children's cognition. Computational process models provide a tool for elucidating the causal mechanisms involved in learning and development. The history of computational modeling in developmental psychology broadly follows the same trends that have run throughout cognitive science-including rule-based models, neural network (connectionist) models, ACT-R models, ART models, decision tree models, reinforcement learning models, and hybrid models among others. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website.

  8. Simulating motivated cognition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gevarter, William B.

    1991-01-01

    A research effort to develop a sophisticated computer model of human behavior is described. A computer framework of motivated cognition was developed. Motivated cognition focuses on the motivations or affects that provide the context and drive in human cognition and decision making. A conceptual architecture of the human decision-making approach from the perspective of information processing in the human brain is developed in diagrammatic form. A preliminary version of such a diagram is presented. This architecture is then used as a vehicle for successfully constructing a computer program simulation Dweck and Leggett's findings that relate how an individual's implicit theories orient them toward particular goals, with resultant cognitions, affects, and behavior.

  9. Comparing Adaptive Control of Thought-Rational (ACT-R) Baseline Activation Terms for Implementation in the Symbolic and Subsymbolic Robotic Intelligence Control System (SS-RICS)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-04-01

    Comparing Adaptive Control of Thought–Rational (ACT-R) Baseline Activation Terms for Implementation in the Symbolic and Subsymbolic Robotic ...Baseline Activation Terms for Implementation in the Symbolic and Subsymbolic Robotic Intelligence Control System (SS-RICS) Craig T. Lennon...Implementation in the Symbolic and Subsymbolic Robotic Intelligence Control System (SS-RICS) 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c

  10. Cognitive Computing for Security.

    SciTech Connect

    Debenedictis, Erik; Rothganger, Fredrick; Aimone, James Bradley; Marinella, Matthew; Evans, Brian Robert; Warrender, Christina E.; Mickel, Patrick

    2015-12-01

    Final report for Cognitive Computing for Security LDRD 165613. It reports on the development of hybrid of general purpose/ne uromorphic computer architecture, with an emphasis on potential implementation with memristors.

  11. Computational cognitive modeling of the temporal dynamics of fatigue from sleep loss.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Matthew M; Gunzelmann, Glenn; Van Dongen, Hans P A

    2017-02-16

    Computational models have become common tools in psychology. They provide quantitative instantiations of theories that seek to explain the functioning of the human mind. In this paper, we focus on identifying deep theoretical similarities between two very different models. Both models are concerned with how fatigue from sleep loss impacts cognitive processing. The first is based on the diffusion model and posits that fatigue decreases the drift rate of the diffusion process. The second is based on the Adaptive Control of Thought - Rational (ACT-R) cognitive architecture and posits that fatigue decreases the utility of candidate actions leading to microlapses in cognitive processing. A biomathematical model of fatigue is used to control drift rate in the first account and utility in the second. We investigated the predicted response time distributions of these two integrated computational cognitive models for performance on a psychomotor vigilance test under conditions of total sleep deprivation, simulated shift work, and sustained sleep restriction. The models generated equivalent predictions of response time distributions with excellent goodness-of-fit to the human data. More importantly, although the accounts involve different modeling approaches and levels of abstraction, they represent the effects of fatigue in a functionally equivalent way: in both, fatigue decreases the signal-to-noise ratio in decision processes and decreases response inhibition. This convergence suggests that sleep loss impairs psychomotor vigilance performance through degradation of the quality of cognitive processing, which provides a foundation for systematic investigation of the effects of sleep loss on other aspects of cognition. Our findings illustrate the value of treating different modeling formalisms as vehicles for discovery.

  12. Architecture & Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erickson, Mary; Delahunt, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Most art teachers would agree that architecture is an important form of visual art, but they do not always include it in their curriculums. In this article, the authors share core ideas from "Architecture and Environment," a teaching resource that they developed out of a long-term interest in teaching architecture and their fascination with the…

  13. Project Integration Architecture: Application Architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, William Henry

    2005-01-01

    The Project Integration Architecture (PIA) implements a flexible, object-oriented, wrapping architecture which encapsulates all of the information associated with engineering applications. The architecture allows the progress of a project to be tracked and documented in its entirety. Additionally, by bringing all of the information sources and sinks of a project into a single architectural space, the ability to transport information between those applications is enabled.

  14. Grounded cognition: past, present, and future.

    PubMed

    Barsalou, Lawrence W

    2010-10-01

    Thirty years ago, grounded cognition had roots in philosophy, perception, cognitive linguistics, psycholinguistics, cognitive psychology, and cognitive neuropsychology. During the next 20 years, grounded cognition continued developing in these areas, and it also took new forms in robotics, cognitive ecology, cognitive neuroscience, and developmental psychology. In the past 10 years, research on grounded cognition has grown rapidly, especially in cognitive neuroscience, social neuroscience, cognitive psychology, social psychology, and developmental psychology. Currently, grounded cognition appears to be achieving increased acceptance throughout cognitive science, shifting from relatively minor status to increasing importance. Nevertheless, researchers wonder whether grounded mechanisms lie at the heart of the cognitive system or are peripheral to classic symbolic mechanisms. Although grounded cognition is currently dominated by demonstration experiments in the absence of well-developed theories, the area is likely to become increasingly theory driven over the next 30 years. Another likely development is the increased incorporation of grounding mechanisms into cognitive architectures and into accounts of classic cognitive phenomena. As this incorporation occurs, much functionality of these architectures and phenomena is likely to remain, along with many original mechanisms. Future theories of grounded cognition are likely to be heavily influenced by both cognitive neuroscience and social neuroscience, and also by developmental science and robotics. Aspects from the three major perspectives in cognitive science-classic symbolic architectures, statistical/dynamical systems, and grounded cognition-will probably be integrated increasingly in future theories, each capturing indispensable aspects of intelligence.

  15. Visual cognition

    PubMed Central

    Cavanagh, Patrick

    2011-01-01

    Visual cognition, high-level vision, mid-level vision and top-down processing all refer to decision-based scene analyses that combine prior knowledge with retinal input to generate representations. The label “visual cognition” is little used at present, but research and experiments on mid- and high-level, inference-based vision have flourished, becoming in the 21st century a significant, if often understated part, of current vision research. How does visual cognition work? What are its moving parts? This paper reviews the origins and architecture of visual cognition and briefly describes some work in the areas of routines, attention, surfaces, objects, and events (motion, causality, and agency). Most vision scientists avoid being too explicit when presenting concepts about visual cognition, having learned that explicit models invite easy criticism. What we see in the literature is ample evidence for visual cognition, but few or only cautious attempts to detail how it might work. This is the great unfinished business of vision research: at some point we will be done with characterizing how the visual system measures the world and we will have to return to the question of how vision constructs models of objects, surfaces, scenes, and events. PMID:21329719

  16. Mario Becomes Cognitive.

    PubMed

    Schrodt, Fabian; Kneissler, Jan; Ehrenfeld, Stephan; Butz, Martin V

    2017-02-07

    In line with Allen Newell's challenge to develop complete cognitive architectures, and motivated by a recent proposal for a unifying subsymbolic computational theory of cognition, we introduce the cognitive control architecture SEMLINCS. SEMLINCS models the development of an embodied cognitive agent that learns discrete production rule-like structures from its own, autonomously gathered, continuous sensorimotor experiences. Moreover, the agent uses the developing knowledge to plan and control environmental interactions in a versatile, goal-directed, and self-motivated manner. Thus, in contrast to several well-known symbolic cognitive architectures, SEMLINCS is not provided with production rules and the involved symbols, but it learns them. In this paper, the actual implementation of SEMLINCS causes learning and self-motivated, autonomous behavioral control of the game figure Mario in a clone of the computer game Super Mario Bros. Our evaluations highlight the successful development of behavioral versatility as well as the learning of suitable production rules and the involved symbols from sensorimotor experiences. Moreover, knowledge- and motivation-dependent individualizations of the agents' behavioral tendencies are shown. Finally, interaction sequences can be planned on the sensorimotor-grounded production rule level. Current limitations directly point toward the need for several further enhancements, which may be integrated into SEMLINCS in the near future. Overall, SEMLINCS may be viewed as an architecture that allows the functional and computational modeling of embodied cognitive development, whereby the current main focus lies on the development of production rules from sensorimotor experiences.

  17. Modularity and mental architecture.

    PubMed

    Robbins, Philip

    2013-11-01

    Debates about the modularity of cognitive architecture have been ongoing for at least the past three decades, since the publication of Fodor's landmark book The Modularity of Mind. According to Fodor, modularity is essentially tied to informational encapsulation, and as such is only found in the relatively low-level cognitive systems responsible for perception and language. According to Fodor's critics in the evolutionary psychology camp, modularity simply reflects the fine-grained functional specialization dictated by natural selection, and it characterizes virtually all aspects of cognitive architecture, including high-level systems for judgment, decision making, and reasoning. Though both of these perspectives on modularity have garnered support, the current state of evidence and argument suggests that a broader skepticism about modularity may be warranted. WIREs Cogn Sci 2013, 4:641-649. doi: 10.1002/wcs.1255 CONFLICT OF INTEREST: The author has declared no conflicts of interest for this article. For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website.

  18. Project Integration Architecture: Architectural Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, William Henry

    2001-01-01

    The Project Integration Architecture (PIA) implements a flexible, object-oriented, wrapping architecture which encapsulates all of the information associated with engineering applications. The architecture allows the progress of a project to be tracked and documented in its entirety. By being a single, self-revealing architecture, the ability to develop single tools, for example a single graphical user interface, to span all applications is enabled. Additionally, by bringing all of the information sources and sinks of a project into a single architectural space, the ability to transport information between those applications becomes possible, Object-encapsulation further allows information to become in a sense self-aware, knowing things such as its own dimensionality and providing functionality appropriate to its kind.

  19. Disruption of ArhGAP15 results in hyperactive Rac1, affects the architecture and function of hippocampal inhibitory neurons and causes cognitive deficits

    PubMed Central

    Zamboni, Valentina; Armentano, Maria; Sarò, Gabriella; Ciraolo, Elisa; Ghigo, Alessandra; Germena, Giulia; Umbach, Alessandro; Valnegri, Pamela; Passafaro, Maria; Carabelli, Valentina; Gavello, Daniela; Bianchi, Veronica; D’Adamo, Patrizia; de Curtis, Ivan; El-Assawi, Nadia; Mauro, Alessandro; Priano, Lorenzo; Ferri, Nicola; Hirsch, Emilio; Merlo, Giorgio R.

    2016-01-01

    During brain development, the small GTPases Rac1/Rac3 play key roles in neuronal migration, neuritogenesis, synaptic formation and plasticity, via control of actin cytoskeleton dynamic. Their activity is positively and negatively regulated by GEFs and GAPs molecules, respectively. However their in vivo roles are poorly known. The ArhGAP15 gene, coding for a Rac-specific GAP protein, is expressed in both excitatory and inhibitory neurons of the adult hippocampus, and its loss results in the hyperactivation of Rac1/Rac3. In the CA3 and dentate gyrus (DG) regions of the ArhGAP15 mutant hippocampus the CR+, PV+ and SST+ inhibitory neurons are reduced in number, due to reduced efficiency and directionality of their migration, while pyramidal neurons are unaffected. Loss of ArhGAP15 alters neuritogenesis and the balance between excitatory and inhibitory synapses, with a net functional result consisting in increased spike frequency and bursts, accompanied by poor synchronization. Thus, the loss of ArhGAP15 mainly impacts on interneuron-dependent inhibition. Adult ArhGAP15−/− mice showed defective hippocampus-dependent functions such as working and associative memories. These findings indicate that a normal architecture and function of hippocampal inhibitory neurons is essential for higher hippocampal functions, and is exquisitely sensitive to ArhGAP15-dependent modulation of Rac1/Rac3. PMID:27713499

  20. Disruption of ArhGAP15 results in hyperactive Rac1, affects the architecture and function of hippocampal inhibitory neurons and causes cognitive deficits.

    PubMed

    Zamboni, Valentina; Armentano, Maria; Sarò, Gabriella; Ciraolo, Elisa; Ghigo, Alessandra; Germena, Giulia; Umbach, Alessandro; Valnegri, Pamela; Passafaro, Maria; Carabelli, Valentina; Gavello, Daniela; Bianchi, Veronica; D'Adamo, Patrizia; de Curtis, Ivan; El-Assawi, Nadia; Mauro, Alessandro; Priano, Lorenzo; Ferri, Nicola; Hirsch, Emilio; Merlo, Giorgio R

    2016-10-07

    During brain development, the small GTPases Rac1/Rac3 play key roles in neuronal migration, neuritogenesis, synaptic formation and plasticity, via control of actin cytoskeleton dynamic. Their activity is positively and negatively regulated by GEFs and GAPs molecules, respectively. However their in vivo roles are poorly known. The ArhGAP15 gene, coding for a Rac-specific GAP protein, is expressed in both excitatory and inhibitory neurons of the adult hippocampus, and its loss results in the hyperactivation of Rac1/Rac3. In the CA3 and dentate gyrus (DG) regions of the ArhGAP15 mutant hippocampus the CR+, PV+ and SST+ inhibitory neurons are reduced in number, due to reduced efficiency and directionality of their migration, while pyramidal neurons are unaffected. Loss of ArhGAP15 alters neuritogenesis and the balance between excitatory and inhibitory synapses, with a net functional result consisting in increased spike frequency and bursts, accompanied by poor synchronization. Thus, the loss of ArhGAP15 mainly impacts on interneuron-dependent inhibition. Adult ArhGAP15(-/-) mice showed defective hippocampus-dependent functions such as working and associative memories. These findings indicate that a normal architecture and function of hippocampal inhibitory neurons is essential for higher hippocampal functions, and is exquisitely sensitive to ArhGAP15-dependent modulation of Rac1/Rac3.

  1. Experimental Architecture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alter, Kevin

    2003-01-01

    Describes the design of the Centre for Architectural Structures and Technology at the University of Manitoba, including the educational context and design goals. Includes building plans and photographs. (EV)

  2. Cognitive Processing Hardware Elements

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-01-31

    approach . It is too early now to decide on final cognitive memory architecture. We must have a great deal more experi- ence with applications and know of...system is contemplated, a memory system that may also serve as a model for many aspects of human memory. The cognitive memory design would be able to store...correlates with or relates to the present real-time sensory inputs. The search would be done by a retrieval system that makes use of autoassociative

  3. Cognitive Load Theory and the Use of Educational Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sweller, John

    2008-01-01

    Human cognitive architecture is a constant in a continually advancing educational technology environment. That architecture should be central in determining which technologies should be adopted and how they should be used. In this article, cognitive load theory is used to indicate aspects of human cognition relevant to instructional design, with…

  4. RACE/A: An Architectural Account of the Interactions between Learning, Task Control, and Retrieval Dynamics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Maanen, Leendert; van Rijn, Hedderik; Taatgen, Niels

    2012-01-01

    This article discusses how sequential sampling models can be integrated in a cognitive architecture. The new theory Retrieval by Accumulating Evidence in an Architecture (RACE/A) combines the level of detail typically provided by sequential sampling models with the level of task complexity typically provided by cognitive architectures. We will use…

  5. Cognitive Modeling and Robust Decision Making

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-03-05

    Uncertainty • Causal Reasoning and Bayesian /Machine Learning Algorithms • Neural Basis of Cognition and Decision • Computational Cognitive...EECS) The Scientific Challenge: The Holy Grail of Neuroscience - What is the neural code ? - Can we “reconstruct” cognition from neural spiking...statistical inference, etc. Neuroscience: implementing the solution by the neural architecture (including hardware and currency). Behavior

  6. Predicting Long-Term College Success through Degree Completion Using ACT[R] Composite Score, ACT Benchmarks, and High School Grade Point Average. ACT Research Report Series, 2012 (5)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Radunzel, Justine; Noble, Julie

    2012-01-01

    This study compared the effectiveness of ACT[R] Composite score and high school grade point average (HSGPA) for predicting long-term college success. Outcomes included annual progress towards a degree (based on cumulative credit-bearing hours earned), degree completion, and cumulative grade point average (GPA) at 150% of normal time to degree…

  7. Architectural Tops

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahoney, Ellen

    2010-01-01

    The development of the skyscraper is an American story that combines architectural history, economic power, and technological achievement. Each city in the United States can be identified by the profile of its buildings. The design of the tops of skyscrapers was the inspiration for the students in the author's high-school ceramic class to develop…

  8. Architectural Drafting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Ronald; Yancey, Bruce

    Designed to be used as a supplement to a two-book course in basic drafting, these instructional materials consisting of 14 units cover the process of drawing all working drawings necessary for residential buildings. The following topics are covered in the individual units: introduction to architectural drafting, lettering and tools, site…

  9. Box Architecture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ham, Jan

    1998-01-01

    Project offers grades 3-8 students hands-on design practice creating built environments to solve a society-based architectural problem. Students plan buildings, draw floor plans, and make scale models of the structures that are then used in related interdisciplinary activities. (Author)

  10. Architectural Illusion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doornek, Richard R.

    1990-01-01

    Presents a lesson plan developed around the work of architectural muralist Richard Haas. Discusses the significance of mural painting and gives key concepts for the lesson. Lists class activities for the elementary and secondary grades. Provides a photograph of the Haas mural on the Fountainbleau Hilton Hotel, 1986. (GG)

  11. Architecture? Absolutely!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Progressive Architecture, 1973

    1973-01-01

    By designing processes to translate social needs into physical terms, the Urban Center at the University of Louisville is turning out its own unique brand of architecture -- one that produces no buildings but that has a real effect on the future of the physical environment. (Author)

  12. Activity in the fronto-parietal network indicates numerical inductive reasoning beyond calculation: An fMRI study combined with a cognitive model.

    PubMed

    Liang, Peipeng; Jia, Xiuqin; Taatgen, Niels A; Borst, Jelmer P; Li, Kuncheng

    2016-05-19

    Numerical inductive reasoning refers to the process of identifying and extrapolating the rule involved in numeric materials. It is associated with calculation, and shares the common activation of the fronto-parietal regions with calculation, which suggests that numerical inductive reasoning may correspond to a general calculation process. However, compared with calculation, rule identification is critical and unique to reasoning. Previous studies have established the central role of the fronto-parietal network for relational integration during rule identification in numerical inductive reasoning. The current question of interest is whether numerical inductive reasoning exclusively corresponds to calculation or operates beyond calculation, and whether it is possible to distinguish between them based on the activity pattern in the fronto-parietal network. To directly address this issue, three types of problems were created: numerical inductive reasoning, calculation, and perceptual judgment. Our results showed that the fronto-parietal network was more active in numerical inductive reasoning which requires more exchanges between intermediate representations and long-term declarative knowledge during rule identification. These results survived even after controlling for the covariates of response time and error rate. A computational cognitive model was developed using the cognitive architecture ACT-R to account for the behavioral results and brain activity in the fronto-parietal network.

  13. Spacecraft architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zefeld, V. V.

    1986-01-01

    Three requirements for a spacecraft interior are considered. Adequate motor activity in the anatomical-physiological sense results from attention to the anthropometric characteristics of humans. Analysis of work requirements is a prerequisite for the planning of adequate performance space. The requirements for cognitive activity are also elucidated. The importance of a well-designed interior during a long space flight is discussed.

  14. Space Telecommunications Radio System STRS Cognitive Radio

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Briones, Janette C.; Handler, Louis M.

    2013-01-01

    Radios today are evolving from awareness toward cognition. A software defined radio (SDR) provides the most capability for integrating autonomic decision making ability and allows the incremental evolution toward a cognitive radio. This cognitive radio technology will impact NASA space communications in areas such as spectrum utilization, interoperability, network operations, and radio resource management over a wide range of operating conditions. NASAs cognitive radio will build upon the infrastructure being developed by Space Telecommunication Radio System (STRS) SDR technology. This paper explores the feasibility of inserting cognitive capabilities in the NASA STRS architecture and the interfaces between the cognitive engine and the STRS radio. The STRS architecture defines methods that can inform the cognitive engine about the radio environment so that the cognitive engine can learn autonomously from experience, and take appropriate actions to adapt the radio operating characteristics and optimize performance.

  15. CARA: Cognitive Architecture for Reasoning About Adversaries

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-01-20

    behavioral and social sciences—fields such as political science, psychology, journalism, anthropology , and sociology—with technological fields such as... social science theories ranging across psychology, anthropology , sociology, political science, and economics. These are organized into a library of...Intl. Conf. on the Web and Social Media , pages 203—206, Boulder, CO, March 2007. 40. R. Carr, E. Raboin, A. Parker, and D. Nau. Balancing

  16. Advanced Computing Architectures for Cognitive Processing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-07-01

    AND IS APPROVED FOR PUBLICATION IN ACCORDANCE WITH ASSIGNED DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT. FOR THE DIRECTOR: / s ... s / LOK YAN EDWARD J. JONES, Deputy Chief Work Unit Manager Advanced Computing Division...ELEMENT NUMBER 62702F 6. AUTHOR( S ) Gregory D. Peterson 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 459T 5e. TASK NUMBER AC 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER CP 7. PERFORMING

  17. Integrated Cognitive Architectures For Robust Decision Making

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-09-20

    Thalamic Nucleus (STN). The wiring among these nuclei is usually described in the following terms ( Albin , Young, and Penney 1989). The striatum is the...interpretation, dating back to Albin , Young, and Penney (1989), is that the two pathways simply oppose each other. In particular, the direct pathway conveys...bindings while interpreting instructions. References Albin , R. L., Young, A. B., & Penney, J. B. (1989). The functional anatomy of basal ganglia

  18. Flexible Execution of Cognitive Procedures.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-06-30

    mechanism. Machine Learning, 1(1), 11-46. Newell. A. (1973). Production systems : Models of control structures. In W. C. Chase (Ed.), Visual Information ...architecture that underlies human problem solving and skill acquisition. (See Newell, Laird and Rosenbloom (in press) for a review ) Many models for the...cognitive architecture have been developed, including GPS (Ernst & Newell, 1969), production systems (Newell & Simon, 1972: Newell, 1978; Newell, 1973), ACT

  19. Evaluation of school architecture postoccupancy.

    PubMed

    Jacobsen, Thomas; Miesler, Linda; Riesel, Anja; Schönheit, Anika

    2008-06-01

    A questionnaire for the postoccupancy evaluation of school architecture was developed. It contains distinct modules covering different parts of a school building. A module of the questionnaire comprises a semantic differential section and items covering six content domains which were selected based on a literature review, namely, aesthetics, equipment, room climate, spatial cognition, privacy and publicity, and personalization of and identification with space. The questionnaire is available in the German language and can be used with students age 10 years or older and teachers.

  20. Architecture as Design Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kauppinen, Heta

    1989-01-01

    Explores the use of analogies in architectural design, the importance of Gestalt theory and aesthetic cannons in understanding and being sensitive to architecture. Emphasizes the variation between public and professional appreciation of architecture. Notes that an understanding of architectural process enables students to improve the aesthetic…

  1. Architecture and Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Anne; Campbell, Leslie

    1988-01-01

    Describes "Architecture and Children," a traveling exhibition which visually involves children in architectural principles and historic styles. States that it teaches children about architecture, and through architecture it instills the basis for aesthetic judgment. Argues that "children learn best by concrete examples of ideas, not…

  2. Understanding the Technology Enhanced Learning Environments from a Cognitive Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kok, Ayse

    2009-01-01

    This conceptual paper discusses some principles for powerful learning environments based on a cognitive perspective. Throughout the paper, it is argued that the accommodation of different individual cognitive preferences is crucial for its alignment with the human cognitive architecture. The paper concludes that in order to be aligned with the…

  3. An architectural model of conscious and unconscious brain functions: Global Workspace Theory and IDA.

    PubMed

    Baars, Bernard J; Franklin, Stan

    2007-11-01

    While neural net models have been developed to a high degree of sophistication, they have some drawbacks at a more integrative, "architectural" level of analysis. We describe a "hybrid" cognitive architecture that is implementable in neuronal nets, and which has uniform brainlike features, including activation-passing and highly distributed "codelets," implementable as small-scale neural nets. Empirically, this cognitive architecture accounts qualitatively for the data described by Baars' Global Workspace Theory (GWT), and Franklin's LIDA architecture, including state-of-the-art models of conscious contents in action-planning, Baddeley-style Working Memory, and working models of episodic and semantic longterm memory. These terms are defined both conceptually and empirically for the current theoretical domain. The resulting architecture meets four desirable goals for a unified theory of cognition: practical workability, autonomous agency, a plausible role for conscious cognition, and translatability into plausible neural terms. It also generates testable predictions, both empirical and computational.

  4. Cognitive ecology.

    PubMed

    Hutchins, Edwin

    2010-10-01

    Cognitive ecology is the study of cognitive phenomena in context. In particular, it points to the web of mutual dependence among the elements of a cognitive ecosystem. At least three fields were taking a deeply ecological approach to cognition 30 years ago: Gibson's ecological psychology, Bateson's ecology of mind, and Soviet cultural-historical activity theory. The ideas developed in those projects have now found a place in modern views of embodied, situated, distributed cognition. As cognitive theory continues to shift from units of analysis defined by inherent properties of the elements to units defined in terms of dynamic patterns of correlation across elements, the study of cognitive ecosystems will become an increasingly important part of cognitive science.

  5. High performance parallel architectures

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, R.E. )

    1989-09-01

    In this paper the author describes current high performance parallel computer architectures. A taxonomy is presented to show computer architecture from the user programmer's point-of-view. The effects of the taxonomy upon the programming model are described. Some current architectures are described with respect to the taxonomy. Finally, some predictions about future systems are presented. 5 refs., 1 fig.

  6. Associative learning and animal cognition.

    PubMed

    Dickinson, Anthony

    2012-10-05

    Associative learning plays a variety of roles in the study of animal cognition from a core theoretical component to a null hypothesis against which the contribution of cognitive processes is assessed. Two developments in contemporary associative learning have enhanced its relevance to animal cognition. The first concerns the role of associatively activated representations, whereas the second is the development of hybrid theories in which learning is determined by prediction errors, both directly and indirectly through associability processes. However, it remains unclear whether these developments allow associative theory to capture the psychological rationality of cognition. I argue that embodying associative processes within specific processing architectures provides mechanisms that can mediate psychological rationality and illustrate such embodiment by discussing the relationship between practical reasoning and the associative-cybernetic model of goal-directed action.

  7. Associative learning and animal cognition

    PubMed Central

    Dickinson, Anthony

    2012-01-01

    Associative learning plays a variety of roles in the study of animal cognition from a core theoretical component to a null hypothesis against which the contribution of cognitive processes is assessed. Two developments in contemporary associative learning have enhanced its relevance to animal cognition. The first concerns the role of associatively activated representations, whereas the second is the development of hybrid theories in which learning is determined by prediction errors, both directly and indirectly through associability processes. However, it remains unclear whether these developments allow associative theory to capture the psychological rationality of cognition. I argue that embodying associative processes within specific processing architectures provides mechanisms that can mediate psychological rationality and illustrate such embodiment by discussing the relationship between practical reasoning and the associative-cybernetic model of goal-directed action. PMID:22927572

  8. Integrating deliberative planning in a robot architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elsaesser, Chris; Slack, Marc G.

    1994-01-01

    The role of planning and reactive control in an architecture for autonomous agents is discussed. The postulated architecture seperates the general robot intelligence problem into three interacting pieces: (1) robot reactive skills, i.e., grasping, object tracking, etc.; (2) a sequencing capability to differentially ativate the reactive skills; and (3) a delibrative planning capability to reason in depth about goals, preconditions, resources, and timing constraints. Within the sequencing module, caching techniques are used for handling routine activities. The planning system then builds on these cached solutions to routine tasks to build larger grain sized primitives. This eliminates large numbers of essentially linear planning problems. The architecture will be used in the future to incorporate in robots cognitive capabilites normally associated with intelligent behavior.

  9. Model-Drive Architecture for Agent-Based Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gradanin, Denis; Singh, H. Lally; Bohner, Shawn A.; Hinchey, Michael G.

    2004-01-01

    The Model Driven Architecture (MDA) approach uses a platform-independent model to define system functionality, or requirements, using some specification language. The requirements are then translated to a platform-specific model for implementation. An agent architecture based on the human cognitive model of planning, the Cognitive Agent Architecture (Cougaar) is selected for the implementation platform. The resulting Cougaar MDA prescribes certain kinds of models to be used, how those models may be prepared and the relationships of the different kinds of models. Using the existing Cougaar architecture, the level of application composition is elevated from individual components to domain level model specifications in order to generate software artifacts. The software artifacts generation is based on a metamodel. Each component maps to a UML structured component which is then converted into multiple artifacts: Cougaar/Java code, documentation, and test cases.

  10. Envisioning Cognitive Robots for Future Space Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huntsberger, Terry; Stoica, Adrian

    2010-01-01

    Cognitive robots in the context of space exploration are envisioned with advanced capabilities of model building, continuous planning/re-planning, self-diagnosis, as well as the ability to exhibit a level of 'understanding' of new situations. An overview of some JPL components (e.g. CASPER, CAMPOUT) and a description of the architecture CARACaS (Control Architecture for Robotic Agent Command and Sensing) that combines these in the context of a cognitive robotic system operating in a various scenarios are presented. Finally, two examples of typical scenarios of a multi-robot construction mission and a human-robot mission, involving direct collaboration with humans is given.

  11. Visual cognition

    SciTech Connect

    Pinker, S.

    1985-01-01

    This book consists of essays covering issues in visual cognition presenting experimental techniques from cognitive psychology, methods of modeling cognitive processes on computers from artificial intelligence, and methods of studying brain organization from neuropsychology. Topics considered include: parts of recognition; visual routines; upward direction; mental rotation, and discrimination of left and right turns in maps; individual differences in mental imagery, computational analysis and the neurological basis of mental imagery: componental analysis.

  12. Lessons from cognitive neuropsychology for cognitive science: a reply to Patterson and Plaut (2009).

    PubMed

    Coltheart, Max

    2010-01-01

    A recent article in this journal (Patterson & Plaut, 2009) argued that cognitive neuropsychology has told us very little over the past 30 or 40 years about "how the brain accomplishes its cognitive business." This may well be true, but it is not important, because the principal aim of cognitive neuropsychology is not to learn about the brain. Its principal aim is instead to learn about the mind, that is, to elucidate the functional architecture of cognition. I show that this is so (a) via extensive quotations from leading figures in this field and (b) by analysis of the subject matter of articles in the leading journal in the field, Cognitive Neuropsychology. Recent reviews of the past 25 years of work in this field (Coltheart & Caramazza, 2006) have concluded that cognitive neuropsychology has told us much about the functional architecture of cognition in a variety of cognitive domains. Patterson and Plaut (2009) did not consider this aim of cognitive neuropsychology. Therefore, their conclusions that cognitive neuropsychology has not been successful, and that this is because the particular methods it uses are flawed, are not justified.

  13. COGNITIVE ECONOMICS.

    PubMed

    Kimball, Miles

    2015-06-01

    Cognitive economics is the economics of what is in people's minds. It is a vibrant area of research (much of it within behavioural economics, labour economics and the economics of education) that brings into play novel types of data, especially novel types of survey data. Such data highlight the importance of heterogeneity across individuals and highlight thorny issues for welfare economics. A key theme of cognitive economics is finite cognition (often misleadingly called "bounded rationality"), which poses theoretical challenges that call for versatile approaches. Cognitive economics brings a rich toolbox to the task of understanding a complex world.

  14. COGNITIVE ECONOMICS

    PubMed Central

    KIMBALL, MILES

    2017-01-01

    Cognitive economics is the economics of what is in people’s minds. It is a vibrant area of research (much of it within behavioural economics, labour economics and the economics of education) that brings into play novel types of data, especially novel types of survey data. Such data highlight the importance of heterogeneity across individuals and highlight thorny issues for welfare economics. A key theme of cognitive economics is finite cognition (often misleadingly called “bounded rationality”), which poses theoretical challenges that call for versatile approaches. Cognitive economics brings a rich toolbox to the task of understanding a complex world. PMID:28149186

  15. Grid Architecture 2

    SciTech Connect

    Taft, Jeffrey D.

    2016-01-01

    The report describes work done on Grid Architecture under the auspices of the Department of Electricity Office of Electricity Delivery and Reliability in 2015. As described in the first Grid Architecture report, the primary purpose of this work is to provide stakeholder insight about grid issues so as to enable superior decision making on their part. Doing this requires the creation of various work products, including oft-times complex diagrams, analyses, and explanations. This report provides architectural insights into several important grid topics and also describes work done to advance the science of Grid Architecture as well.

  16. Software architecture design domain

    SciTech Connect

    White, S.A.

    1996-12-31

    Software architectures can provide a basis for the capture and subsequent reuse of design knowledge. The goal of software architecture is to allow the design of a system to take place at a higher level of abstraction; a level concerned with components, connections, constraints, rationale. This architectural view of software adds a new layer of abstraction to the traditional design phase of software development. It has resulted in a flurry of activity towards techniques, tools, and architectural design languages developed specifically to assist with this activity. An analysis of architectural descriptions, even though they differ in notation, shows a common set of key constructs that are present across widely varying domains. These common aspects form a core set of constructs that should belong to any ADL in order to for the language to offer the ability to specify software systems at the architectural level. This analysis also revealed a second set of constructs which served to expand the first set thereby improving the syntax and semantics. These constructs are classified according to whether they provide representation and analysis support for architectures belonging to many varying application domains (domain-independent construct class) or to a particular application domain (domain-dependent constructs). This paper presents the constructs of these two classes, their placement in the architecture design domain and shows how they may be used to classify, select, and analyze proclaimed architectural design languages (ADLs).

  17. Synthetic cognitive development. Where intelligence comes from

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weinbaum (Weaver), D.; Veitas, V.

    2017-01-01

    The human cognitive system is a remarkable exemplar of a general intelligent system whose competence is not confined to a specific problem domain. Evidently, general cognitive competences are a product of a prolonged and complex process of cognitive development. Therefore, the process of cognitive development is a primary key to understanding the emergence of intelligent behavior. This paper develops the theoretical foundations for a model that generalizes the process of cognitive development. The model aims to provide a realistic scheme for the synthesis of scalable cognitive systems with an open-ended range of capabilities. Major concepts and theories of human cognitive development are introduced and briefly explored, focusing on the enactive approach to cognition and the concept of sense-making. The initial scheme of human cognitive development is then generalized by introducing the philosophy of individuation and the abstract mechanism of transduction. The theory of individuation provides the ground for the necessary paradigmatic shift from cognitive systems as given products to cognitive development as a formative process of self-organization. Next, the conceptual model is specified as a scalable scheme of networks of agents. The mechanisms of individuation are formulated in context-independent information theoretical terms. Finally, the paper discusses two concrete aspects of the generative model - mechanisms of transduction and value modulating systems. These are topics of further research towards an implementable architecture.

  18. An Evolutionary Upgrade of Cognitive Load Theory: Using the Human Motor System and Collaboration to Support the Learning of Complex Cognitive Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paas, Fred; Sweller, John

    2012-01-01

    Cognitive load theory is intended to provide instructional strategies derived from experimental, cognitive load effects. Each effect is based on our knowledge of human cognitive architecture, primarily the limited capacity and duration of a human working memory. These limitations are ameliorated by changes in long-term memory associated with…

  19. Cognitive Readiness

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-10-01

    II-4 C. Metacognition ...which requires cognitive mediation. • Metacognition . Metacognition refers to the executive functions of thought, particularly those pertaining to...knowledge and regulation of one’s cognitive processes and progress toward accepted goals. Metacognitive skills can be enhanced by exercises designed to

  20. Visual cognition

    SciTech Connect

    Pinker, S.

    1985-01-01

    This collection of research papers on visual cognition first appeared as a special issue of Cognition: International Journal of Cognitive Science. The study of visual cognition has seen enormous progress in the past decade, bringing important advances in our understanding of shape perception, visual imagery, and mental maps. Many of these discoveries are the result of converging investigations in different areas, such as cognitive and perceptual psychology, artificial intelligence, and neuropsychology. This volume is intended to highlight a sample of work at the cutting edge of this research area for the benefit of students and researchers in a variety of disciplines. The tutorial introduction that begins the volume is designed to help the nonspecialist reader bridge the gap between the contemporary research reported here and earlier textbook introductions or literature reviews.

  1. Primate cognition.

    PubMed

    Seed, Amanda; Tomasello, Michael

    2010-07-01

    As the cognitive revolution was slow to come to the study of animal behavior, the vast majority of what we know about primate cognition has been discovered in the last 30 years. Building on the recognition that the physical and social worlds of humans and their living primate relatives pose many of the same evolutionary challenges, programs of research have established that the most basic cognitive skills and mental representations that humans use to navigate those worlds are already possessed by other primates. There may be differences between humans and other primates, however, in more complex cognitive skills, such as reasoning about relations, causality, time, and other minds. Of special importance, the human primate seems to possess a species-unique set of adaptations for "cultural intelligence," which are broad reaching in their effects on human cognition.

  2. De-Architecturization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wines, James

    1975-01-01

    De-architecturization is art about architecture, a catalyst suggesting that public art does not have to respond to formalist doctrine; but rather, may evolve from the informational reservoirs of the city environment, where phenomenology and structure become the fabric of its existence. (Author/RK)

  3. Robotic Intelligence Kernel: Architecture

    SciTech Connect

    2009-09-16

    The INL Robotic Intelligence Kernel Architecture (RIK-A) is a multi-level architecture that supports a dynamic autonomy structure. The RIK-A is used to coalesce hardware for sensing and action as well as software components for perception, communication, behavior and world modeling into a framework that can be used to create behaviors for humans to interact with the robot.

  4. The Technology of Architecture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reese, Susan

    2006-01-01

    This article discusses how career and technical education is helping students draw up plans for success in architectural technology. According to the College of DuPage (COD) in Glen Ellyn, Illinois, one of the two-year schools offering training in architectural technology, graduates have a number of opportunities available to them. They may work…

  5. Architectural Physics: Lighting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hopkinson, R. G.

    The author coordinates the many diverse branches of knowledge which have dealt with the field of lighting--physiology, psychology, engineering, physics, and architectural design. Part I, "The Elements of Architectural Physics", discusses the physiological aspects of lighting, visual performance, lighting design, calculations and measurements of…

  6. Teaching American Indian Architecture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winchell, Dick

    1991-01-01

    Reviews "Native American Architecture," by Nabokov and Easton, an encyclopedic work that examines technology, climate, social structure, economics, religion, and history in relation to house design and the "meaning" of space among tribes of nine regions. Describes this book's use in a college course on Native American architecture. (SV)

  7. Emerging supercomputer architectures

    SciTech Connect

    Messina, P.C.

    1987-01-01

    This paper will examine the current and near future trends for commercially available high-performance computers with architectures that differ from the mainstream ''supercomputer'' systems in use for the last few years. These emerging supercomputer architectures are just beginning to have an impact on the field of high performance computing. 7 refs., 1 tab.

  8. ESPC Common Model Architecture

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-30

    support for the Intel MIC architecture, the Apple Clang/LLVM C++ compiler is supported on both Linux and Darwin , and ESMF’s dependency on the NetCDF C...compiler on both Linux and Darwin systems. • Support was added to compile the ESMF library for the Intel MIC architecture under Linux. This allows

  9. Applying neuroscience to architecture.

    PubMed

    Eberhard, John P

    2009-06-25

    Architectural practice and neuroscience research use our brains and minds in much the same way. However, the link between neuroscience knowledge and architectural design--with rare exceptions--has yet to be made. The concept of linking these two fields is a challenge worth considering.

  10. Workflow automation architecture standard

    SciTech Connect

    Moshofsky, R.P.; Rohen, W.T.

    1994-11-14

    This document presents an architectural standard for application of workflow automation technology. The standard includes a functional architecture, process for developing an automated workflow system for a work group, functional and collateral specifications for workflow automation, and results of a proof of concept prototype.

  11. Software Architecture Evolution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnes, Jeffrey M.

    2013-01-01

    Many software systems eventually undergo changes to their basic architectural structure. Such changes may be prompted by new feature requests, new quality attribute requirements, changing technology, or other reasons. Whatever the causes, architecture evolution is commonplace in real-world software projects. Today's software architects, however,…

  12. Toward cognitive robotics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laird, John E.

    2009-05-01

    Our long-term goal is to develop autonomous robotic systems that have the cognitive abilities of humans, including communication, coordination, adapting to novel situations, and learning through experience. Our approach rests on the recent integration of the Soar cognitive architecture with both virtual and physical robotic systems. Soar has been used to develop a wide variety of knowledge-rich agents for complex virtual environments, including distributed training environments and interactive computer games. For development and testing in robotic virtual environments, Soar interfaces to a variety of robotic simulators and a simple mobile robot. We have recently made significant extensions to Soar that add new memories and new non-symbolic reasoning to Soar's original symbolic processing, which should significantly improve Soar abilities for control of robots. These extensions include episodic memory, semantic memory, reinforcement learning, and mental imagery. Episodic memory and semantic memory support the learning and recalling of prior events and situations as well as facts about the world. Reinforcement learning provides the ability of the system to tune its procedural knowledge - knowledge about how to do things. Mental imagery supports the use of diagrammatic and visual representations that are critical to support spatial reasoning. We speculate on the future of unmanned systems and the need for cognitive robotics to support dynamic instruction and taskability.

  13. The Simulation Intranet Architecture

    SciTech Connect

    Holmes, V.P.; Linebarger, J.M.; Miller, D.J.; Vandewart, R.L.

    1998-12-02

    The Simdarion Infranet (S1) is a term which is being used to dcscribc one element of a multidisciplinary distributed and distance computing initiative known as DisCom2 at Sandia National Laboratory (http ct al. 1998). The Simulation Intranet is an architecture for satisfying Sandia's long term goal of providing an end- to-end set of scrviccs for high fidelity full physics simu- lations in a high performance, distributed, and distance computing environment. The Intranet Architecture group was formed to apply current distributed object technologies to this problcm. For the hardware architec- tures and software models involved with the current simulation process, a CORBA-based architecture is best suited to meet Sandia's needs. This paper presents the initial desi-a and implementation of this Intranct based on a three-tier Network Computing Architecture(NCA). The major parts of the architecture include: the Web Cli- ent, the Business Objects, and Data Persistence.

  14. Can architecture be barbaric?

    PubMed

    Hürol, Yonca

    2009-06-01

    The title of this article is adapted from Theodor W. Adorno's famous dictum: 'To write poetry after Auschwitz is barbaric.' After the catastrophic earthquake in Kocaeli, Turkey on the 17th of August 1999, in which more than 40,000 people died or were lost, Necdet Teymur, who was then the dean of the Faculty of Architecture of the Middle East Technical University, referred to Adorno in one of his 'earthquake poems' and asked: 'Is architecture possible after 17th of August?' The main objective of this article is to interpret Teymur's question in respect of its connection to Adorno's philosophy with a view to make a contribution to the politics and ethics of architecture in Turkey. Teymur's question helps in providing a new interpretation of a critical approach to architecture and architectural technology through Adorno's philosophy. The paper also presents a discussion of Adorno's dictum, which serves for a better understanding of its universality/particularity.

  15. Cyberspace Classification and Cognition: Information and Communications Cyberspaces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kellerman, Aharon

    2007-01-01

    The notions cognitive space and cognitive/mental maps were proposed in the late 1940s, and have been extensively studied since the 1970s within behavioral geography, as well as within tangent disciplines, notably environmental psychology and architecture. Viewing these notions from the perspective of the 2000s, one can state that the hidden…

  16. Writing as a Tool in Teaching Sketching: Implications for Architectural Design Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soygenis, Sema; Soygenis, Murat; Erktin, Emine

    2010-01-01

    This article discusses the process of a study designed to develop university students' sketching skills in schools of architecture. Acknowledging the relationship between cognition and writing, it aims to investigate the role of writing in learning sketching among architecture students and to examine how students regulate their thoughts by writing…

  17. Cognitive Performance and Cognitive Style.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Journal of Behavioral Development, 1985

    1985-01-01

    Investigates (1) the relationships between cognitive performance and cognitive styles and predictive possibilities and (2) performance differences by sex, school, grade, and income in 92 Indian adolescents. Assessment measures included Liquid Conservation, Islands, Goat-Lion, Hanoi-Tower, Rabbits (Piagetian); Block Design (WISC-R); Paper Cutting…

  18. Cognitive anthropology is a cognitive science.

    PubMed

    Boster, James S

    2012-07-01

    Cognitive anthropology contributes to cognitive science as a complement to cognitive psychology. The chief threat to its survival has not been rejection by other cognitive scientists but by other cultural anthropologists. It will remain a part of cognitive science as long as cognitive anthropologists research, teach, and publish.

  19. A Core Knowledge Architecture of Visual Working Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, Justin N.

    2011-01-01

    Visual working memory (VWM) is widely thought to contain specialized buffers for retaining spatial and object information: a "spatial-object architecture." However, studies of adults, infants, and nonhuman animals show that visual cognition builds on core knowledge systems that retain more specialized representations: (1) spatiotemporal…

  20. Success in Architecture: Handedness and/or Visual Thinking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, John M.; Lansky, Leonard M.

    1980-01-01

    Some data on sex and handedness in relation to academic predictors and success in architectural education were reexamined. The new variable was the notion of visual thinking, measured by the manner, "visually" or "cognitively," of executing a simple line drawing. As expected, significant differences appeared between persons using these modes.…

  1. Fractal Geometry of Architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorenz, Wolfgang E.

    In Fractals smaller parts and the whole are linked together. Fractals are self-similar, as those parts are, at least approximately, scaled-down copies of the rough whole. In architecture, such a concept has also been known for a long time. Not only architects of the twentieth century called for an overall idea that is mirrored in every single detail, but also Gothic cathedrals and Indian temples offer self-similarity. This study mainly focuses upon the question whether this concept of self-similarity makes architecture with fractal properties more diverse and interesting than Euclidean Modern architecture. The first part gives an introduction and explains Fractal properties in various natural and architectural objects, presenting the underlying structure by computer programmed renderings. In this connection, differences between the fractal, architectural concept and true, mathematical Fractals are worked out to become aware of limits. This is the basis for dealing with the problem whether fractal-like architecture, particularly facades, can be measured so that different designs can be compared with each other under the aspect of fractal properties. Finally the usability of the Box-Counting Method, an easy-to-use measurement method of Fractal Dimension is analyzed with regard to architecture.

  2. Cognitive Function

    EPA Science Inventory

    Because chemicals can adversely affect cognitive function in humans, considerable effort has been made to characterize their effects using animal models. Information from such models will be necessary to: evaluate whether chemicals identified as potentially neurotoxic by screenin...

  3. Cognitive Changes

    MedlinePlus

    ... Are the Alternative Treatments for Cognitive Problems? Anxiety Hallucinations/Delusions Speech and Swallowing Problems Vision Changes You ... and the Hope for a Better Drug for Hallucinations and Psychosis in Parkinson’s Disease What's Hot in ...

  4. Spatial cognition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaiser, Mary Kister; Remington, Roger

    1988-01-01

    Spatial cognition is the ability to reason about geometric relationships in the real (or a metaphorical) world based on one or more internal representations of those relationships. The study of spatial cognition is concerned with the representation of spatial knowledge, and our ability to manipulate these representations to solve spatial problems. Spatial cognition is utilized most critically when direct perceptual cues are absent or impoverished. Examples are provided of how human spatial cognitive abilities impact on three areas of space station operator performance: orientation, path planning, and data base management. A videotape provides demonstrations of relevant phenomena (e.g., the importance of orientation for recognition of complex, configural forms). The presentation is represented by abstract and overhead visuals only.

  5. Microcomponent sheet architecture

    DOEpatents

    Wegeng, Robert S.; Drost, M. Kevin; McDonald, Carolyn E.

    1997-01-01

    The invention is a microcomponent sheet architecture wherein macroscale unit processes are performed by microscale components. The sheet architecture may be a single laminate with a plurality of separate microcomponent sections or the sheet architecture may be a plurality of laminates with one or more microcomponent sections on each laminate. Each microcomponent or plurality of like microcomponents perform at least one unit operation. A first laminate having a plurality of like first microcomponents is combined with at least a second laminate having a plurality of like second microcomponents thereby combining at least two unit operations to achieve a system operation.

  6. Microcomponent sheet architecture

    DOEpatents

    Wegeng, R.S.; Drost, M.K..; McDonald, C.E.

    1997-03-18

    The invention is a microcomponent sheet architecture wherein macroscale unit processes are performed by microscale components. The sheet architecture may be a single laminate with a plurality of separate microcomponent sections or the sheet architecture may be a plurality of laminates with one or more microcomponent sections on each laminate. Each microcomponent or plurality of like microcomponents perform at least one unit operation. A first laminate having a plurality of like first microcomponents is combined with at least a second laminate having a plurality of like second microcomponents thereby combining at least two unit operations to achieve a system operation. 14 figs.

  7. Architecture for Verifiable Software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reinholtz, William; Dvorak, Daniel

    2005-01-01

    Verifiable MDS Architecture (VMA) is a software architecture that facilitates the construction of highly verifiable flight software for NASA s Mission Data System (MDS), especially for smaller missions subject to cost constraints. More specifically, the purpose served by VMA is to facilitate aggressive verification and validation of flight software while imposing a minimum of constraints on overall functionality. VMA exploits the state-based architecture of the MDS and partitions verification issues into elements susceptible to independent verification and validation, in such a manner that scaling issues are minimized, so that relatively large software systems can be aggressively verified in a cost-effective manner.

  8. Disembodying cognition

    PubMed Central

    Chatterjee, Anjan

    2010-01-01

    The idea that concepts are embodied by our motor and sensory systems is popular in current theorizing about cognition. Embodied cognition accounts come in different versions and are often contrasted with a purely symbolic amodal view of cognition. Simulation, or the hypothesis that concepts simulate the sensory and motor experience of real world encounters with instances of those concepts, has been prominent in psychology and cognitive neuroscience. Here, with a focus on spatial thought and language, I review some of the evidence cited in support of simulation versions of embodied cognition accounts. While these data are extremely interesting and many of the experiments are elegant, knowing how to best interpret the results is often far from clear. I point out that a quick acceptance of embodied accounts runs the danger of ignoring alternate hypotheses and not scrutinizing neuroscience data critically. I also review recent work from my lab that raises questions about the nature of sensory motor grounding in spatial thought and language. In my view, the question of whether or not cognition is grounded is more fruitfully replaced by questions about gradations in this grounding. A focus on disembodying cognition, or on graded grounding, opens the way to think about how humans abstract. Within neuroscience, I propose that three functional anatomic axes help frame questions about the graded nature of grounded cognition. First, are questions of laterality differences. Do association cortices in both hemispheres instantiate the same kind of sensory or motor information? Second, are questions about ventral dorsal axes. Do neuronal ensembles along this axis shift from conceptual representations of objects to the relationships between objects? Third, are questions about gradients centripetally from sensory and motor cortices towards and within perisylvian cortices. How does sensory and perceptual information become more language-like and then get transformed into language

  9. Rational Adaptation under Task and Processing Constraints: Implications for Testing Theories of Cognition and Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howes, Andrew; Lewis, Richard L.; Vera, Alonso

    2009-01-01

    The authors assume that individuals adapt rationally to a utility function given constraints imposed by their cognitive architecture and the local task environment. This assumption underlies a new approach to modeling and understanding cognition--cognitively bounded rational analysis--that sharpens the predictive acuity of general, integrated…

  10. Communicative competence and the architecture of the mind/brain.

    PubMed

    Tirassa, M

    1999-07-01

    Cognitive pragmatics is concerned with the mental processes involved in intentional communication. I discuss a few issues that may help clarify the relationship between this area and the broader cognitive science and the contribution that they give, or might give, to each other. Rather than dwelling on the many technicalities of the various theories of communication that have been advanced, I focus on the different conceptions of the nature and the architecture of the mind/brain that underlie them. My aims are, first, to introduce and defend mentalist views of communication in general; second, to defend one such view, namely that communication is a cognitive competence, that is, a faculty, and the underlying idea that the architecture of the mind/brain is domain-specific; and, third, to review the (scarce) neuropsychological evidence that bears on these issues.

  11. Images of desire: cognitive models of craving.

    PubMed

    May, Jon; Andrade, Jackie; Panabokke, Nathalie; Kavanagh, David

    2004-07-01

    Cognitive modelling of phenomena in clinical practice allows the operationalization of otherwise diffuse descriptive terms such as craving or flashbacks. This supports the empirical investigation of the clinical phenomena and the development of targeted treatment interventions. This paper focuses on the cognitive processes underpinning craving, which is recognised as a motivating experience in substance dependence. We use a high-level cognitive architecture, Interacting Cognitive Subsystems (ICS), to compare two theories of craving: Tiffany's theory, centred on the control of automated action schemata, and our own Elaborated Intrusion theory of craving. Data from a questionnaire study of the subjective aspects of everyday desires experienced by a large non-clinical population are presented. Both the data and the high-level modelling support the central claim of the Elaborated Intrusion theory that imagery is a key element of craving, providing the subjective experience and mediating much of the associated disruption of concurrent cognition.

  12. Avian Models for Human Cognitive Neuroscience: A Proposal.

    PubMed

    Clayton, Nicola S; Emery, Nathan J

    2015-06-17

    Research on avian cognitive neuroscience over the past two decades has revealed the avian brain to be a better model for understanding human cognition than previously thought, despite differences in the neuroarchitecture of avian and mammalian brains. The brain, behavior, and cognition of songbirds have provided an excellent model of human cognition in one domain, namely learning human language and the production of speech. There are other important behavioral candidates of avian cognition, however, notably the capacity of corvids to remember the past and plan for the future, as well as their ability to think about another's perspective, and physical reasoning. We review this work and assess the evidence that the corvid brain can support such a cognitive architecture. We propose potential applications of these behavioral paradigms for cognitive neuroscience, including recent work on single-cell recordings and neuroimaging in corvids. Finally, we discuss their impact on understanding human developmental cognition.

  13. Construct a Management Architecture

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-10-23

    Task: Consider management architecture options that better align functional and budget responsibility consistent with comprehensive strategic ... planning . Scope the leadership hierarchy to the appropriate management responsibilities, reduce layers of management and move decision making closer to issue identification.

  14. Robot Electronics Architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garrett, Michael; Magnone, Lee; Aghazarian, Hrand; Baumgartner, Eric; Kennedy, Brett

    2008-01-01

    An electronics architecture has been developed to enable the rapid construction and testing of prototypes of robotic systems. This architecture is designed to be a research vehicle of great stability, reliability, and versatility. A system according to this architecture can easily be reconfigured (including expanded or contracted) to satisfy a variety of needs with respect to input, output, processing of data, sensing, actuation, and power. The architecture affords a variety of expandable input/output options that enable ready integration of instruments, actuators, sensors, and other devices as independent modular units. The separation of different electrical functions onto independent circuit boards facilitates the development of corresponding simple and modular software interfaces. As a result, both hardware and software can be made to expand or contract in modular fashion while expending a minimum of time and effort.

  15. Global Efficiency of Structural Networks Mediates Cognitive Control in Mild Cognitive Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Berlot, Rok; Metzler-Baddeley, Claudia; Ikram, M. Arfan; Jones, Derek K.; O’Sullivan, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Cognitive control has been linked to both the microstructure of individual tracts and the structure of whole-brain networks, but their relative contributions in health and disease remain unclear. Objective: To determine the contribution of both localized white matter tract damage and disruption of global network architecture to cognitive control, in older age and Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI). Materials and Methods: Twenty-five patients with MCI and 20 age, sex, and intelligence-matched healthy volunteers were investigated with 3 Tesla structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Cognitive control and episodic memory were evaluated with established tests. Structural network graphs were constructed from diffusion MRI-based whole-brain tractography. Their global measures were calculated using graph theory. Regression models utilized both global network metrics and microstructure of specific connections, known to be critical for each domain, to predict cognitive scores. Results: Global efficiency and the mean clustering coefficient of networks were reduced in MCI. Cognitive control was associated with global network topology. Episodic memory, in contrast, correlated with individual temporal tracts only. Relationships between cognitive control and network topology were attenuated by addition of single tract measures to regression models, consistent with a partial mediation effect. The mediation effect was stronger in MCI than healthy volunteers, explaining 23-36% of the effect of cingulum microstructure on cognitive control performance. Network clustering was a significant mediator in the relationship between tract microstructure and cognitive control in both groups. Conclusion: The status of critical connections and large-scale network topology are both important for maintenance of cognitive control in MCI. Mediation via large-scale networks is more important in patients with MCI than healthy volunteers. This effect is domain-specific, and true for

  16. Architectural Knowledge in an SOA Infrastructure Reference Architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zimmermann, Olaf; Kopp, Petra; Pappe, Stefan

    In this chapter, we present an industrial case study for the creation and usage of architectural knowledge. We first introduce the business domain, service portfolio, and knowledge management approach of the company involved in the case. Next, we introduce a Service-Oriented Architecture (SOA) infrastructure reference architecture as a primary carrier of architectural knowledge in this company. Moreover, we present how we harvested architectural knowledge from industry projects to create this reference architecture. We also present feedback from early reference architecture users. Finally, we conclude and give an outlook to future work.

  17. Software Architecture Evolution

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-12-01

    viii Contents 1 Introduction 1 1.1 Problem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 1.2 Motivating example...211 xii 1 Introduction Architectural change is commonplace in real-world software systems. However, today’s software architects have few tools to help...the target architecture (the intended design to which the system must evolve) 1 1 Introduction are known. In fact, of course, this is often not the case

  18. A Modular Robotic Architecture

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-11-01

    DATES COVERED AD-A232 007 Januar 1991 professional paper5 FUNOING NUMBERS A MODULAR ROBOTIC ARCHITECTURE PR: ZE92 WU: DN300029 PE: 0602936N - S. AUTHOR...mobile robots will help alleviate these problems, and, if made widely available, will promote standardization and compatibility among systems throughout...the industry. The Modular Robotic Architecture (MRA) is a generic control system that meets the above needs by providing developers with a standard set

  19. Embedded Instrumentation Systems Architecture

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-03-01

    and continuous test and evaluation. The architecture can also be useful in monitoring, diagnostics, and health management, as well as protection in...section describes the demonstration platform used in the effort to validate the first reference instantiation of the architecture. It included...advantage of the IEEE 1451 family of standards for smart sensors and transducers (Lee and Song 2003; Song and Lee 2006). The EI Node uses the IEEE 1451.X

  20. Cognitive and artificial representations in handwriting recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lenaghan, Andrew P.; Malyan, Ron

    1996-03-01

    Both cognitive processes and artificial recognition systems may be characterized by the forms of representation they build and manipulate. This paper looks at how handwriting is represented in current recognition systems and the psychological evidence for its representation in the cognitive processes responsible for reading. Empirical psychological work on feature extraction in early visual processing is surveyed to show that a sound psychological basis for feature extraction exists and to describe the features this approach leads to. The first stage of the development of an architecture for a handwriting recognition system which has been strongly influenced by the psychological evidence for the cognitive processes and representations used in early visual processing, is reported. This architecture builds a number of parallel low level feature maps from raw data. These feature maps are thresholded and a region labeling algorithm is used to generate sets of features. Fuzzy logic is used to quantify the uncertainty in the presence of individual features.

  1. Architecture Adaptive Computing Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dorband, John E.

    2006-01-01

    Architecture Adaptive Computing Environment (aCe) is a software system that includes a language, compiler, and run-time library for parallel computing. aCe was developed to enable programmers to write programs, more easily than was previously possible, for a variety of parallel computing architectures. Heretofore, it has been perceived to be difficult to write parallel programs for parallel computers and more difficult to port the programs to different parallel computing architectures. In contrast, aCe is supportable on all high-performance computing architectures. Currently, it is supported on LINUX clusters. aCe uses parallel programming constructs that facilitate writing of parallel programs. Such constructs were used in single-instruction/multiple-data (SIMD) programming languages of the 1980s, including Parallel Pascal, Parallel Forth, C*, *LISP, and MasPar MPL. In aCe, these constructs are extended and implemented for both SIMD and multiple- instruction/multiple-data (MIMD) architectures. Two new constructs incorporated in aCe are those of (1) scalar and virtual variables and (2) pre-computed paths. The scalar-and-virtual-variables construct increases flexibility in optimizing memory utilization in various architectures. The pre-computed-paths construct enables the compiler to pre-compute part of a communication operation once, rather than computing it every time the communication operation is performed.

  2. When Neuroscience 'Touches' Architecture: From Hapticity to a Supramodal Functioning of the Human Brain.

    PubMed

    Papale, Paolo; Chiesi, Leonardo; Rampinini, Alessandra C; Pietrini, Pietro; Ricciardi, Emiliano

    2016-01-01

    In the last decades, the rapid growth of functional brain imaging methodologies allowed cognitive neuroscience to address open questions in philosophy and social sciences. At the same time, novel insights from cognitive neuroscience research have begun to influence various disciplines, leading to a turn to cognition and emotion in the fields of planning and architectural design. Since 2003, the Academy of Neuroscience for Architecture has been supporting 'neuro-architecture' as a way to connect neuroscience and the study of behavioral responses to the built environment. Among the many topics related to multisensory perceptual integration and embodiment, the concept of hapticity was recently introduced, suggesting a pivotal role of tactile perception and haptic imagery in architectural appraisal. Arguments have thus risen in favor of the existence of shared cognitive foundations between hapticity and the supramodal functional architecture of the human brain. Precisely, supramodality refers to the functional feature of defined brain regions to process and represent specific information content in a more abstract way, independently of the sensory modality conveying such information to the brain. Here, we highlight some commonalities and differences between the concepts of hapticity and supramodality according to the distinctive perspectives of architecture and cognitive neuroscience. This comparison and connection between these two different approaches may lead to novel observations in regard to people-environment relationships, and even provide empirical foundations for a renewed evidence-based design theory.

  3. Spacecraft Architecture and environmental pshychology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ören, Ayşe

    2016-07-01

    As we embark on a journey for new homes in the new worlds to lay solid foundations, we should consider not only the survival of frontiers but also well-being of those to live in zero gravity. As a versatile science, architecture encompasses abstract human needs as well. On our new different direction in the course of the Homo sapiens evolution, we can do this with designs addressing both our needs and senses. Well-being of humans can be achieved by creating environments supporting the cognitive and social stages in the evolution process. Space stations are going through their own evolution process. Any step taken can serve as a reference for further attempts. When studying the history of architecture, window designing is discussed in a later phase, which is the case for building a spaceship as well. We lean on the places we live both physically and metaphorically. The feeling of belonging is essential here, entailing trans-humanism, which is significant since the environment therein is like a dress comfortable enough to fit in, meeting needs without any burden. Utilizing the advent of technology, we can create moods and atmospheres to regulate night and day cycles, thus we can turn claustrophobic places into cozy or dream-like places. Senses provoke a psychological sensation going beyond cultural codes as they are rooted within consciousness, which allows designers to create a mood within a space that tells a story and evokes an emotional impact. Color, amount of light, sound and odor are not superficial. As much as intangible, they are real and powerful tools with a physical presence. Tapping into induction, we can solve a whole system based on a part thereof. Therefore, fractal designs may not yield good results unless used correctly in terms of design although they are functional, which makes geometric arrangement critical.

  4. Spacecraft Architecture and well being

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ören, Ayşe

    2016-07-01

    As we embark on a journey for new homes in the new worlds to lay solid foundations, we should consider not only the survival of frontiers but also well-being of those to live in zero gravity. As a versatile science, architecture encompasses abstract human needs as well. On our new different direction in the course of the Homo sapiens evolution, we can do this with designs addressing both our needs and senses. Well-being of humans can be achieved by creating environments supporting the cognitive and social stages in the evolution process. Space stations are going through their own evolution process. Any step taken can serve as a reference for further attempts. When studying the history of architecture, window designing is discussed in a later phase, which is the case for building a spaceship as well. We lean on the places we live both physically and metaphorically. The feeling of belonging is essential here, entailing trans-humanism, which is significant since the environment therein is like a dress comfortable enough to fit in, meeting needs without any burden. Utilizing the advent of technology, we can create moods and atmospheres to regulate night and day cycles, thus we can turn claustrophobic places into cozy or dream-like places. Senses provoke a psychological sensation going beyond cultural codes as they are rooted within consciousness, which allows designers to create a mood within a space that tells a story and evokes an emotional impact. Color, amount of light, sound and odor are not superficial. As much as intangible, they are real and powerful tools with a physical presence. Tapping into induction, we can solve a whole system based on a part thereof. Therefore, fractal designs may not yield good results unless used correctly in terms of design although they are functional, which makes geometric arrangement critical.

  5. Formalism Challenges of the Cougaar Model Driven Architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bohner, Shawn A.; George, Boby; Gracanin, Denis; Hinchey, Michael G.

    2004-01-01

    The Cognitive Agent Architecture (Cougaar) is one of the most sophisticated distributed agent architectures developed today. As part of its research and evolution, Cougaar is being studied for application to large, logistics-based applications for the Department of Defense (DoD). Anticipiting future complex applications of Cougaar, we are investigating the Model Driven Architecture (MDA) approach to understand how effective it would be for increasing productivity in Cougar-based development efforts. Recognizing the sophistication of the Cougaar development environment and the limitations of transformation technologies for agents, we have systematically developed an approach that combines component assembly in the large and transformation in the small. This paper describes some of the key elements that went into the Cougaar Model Driven Architecture approach and the characteristics that drove the approach.

  6. Neural Architectures for Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peterson, James K.

    1991-01-01

    The cerebellar model articulated controller (CMAC) neural architectures are shown to be viable for the purposes of real-time learning and control. Software tools for the exploration of CMAC performance are developed for three hardware platforms, the MacIntosh, the IBM PC, and the SUN workstation. All algorithm development was done using the C programming language. These software tools were then used to implement an adaptive critic neuro-control design that learns in real-time how to back up a trailer truck. The truck backer-upper experiment is a standard performance measure in the neural network literature, but previously the training of the controllers was done off-line. With the CMAC neural architectures, it was possible to train the neuro-controllers on-line in real-time on a MS-DOS PC 386. CMAC neural architectures are also used in conjunction with a hierarchical planning approach to find collision-free paths over 2-D analog valued obstacle fields. The method constructs a coarse resolution version of the original problem and then finds the corresponding coarse optimal path using multipass dynamic programming. CMAC artificial neural architectures are used to estimate the analog transition costs that dynamic programming requires. The CMAC architectures are trained in real-time for each obstacle field presented. The coarse optimal path is then used as a baseline for the construction of a fine scale optimal path through the original obstacle array. These results are a very good indication of the potential power of the neural architectures in control design. In order to reach as wide an audience as possible, we have run a seminar on neuro-control that has met once per week since 20 May 1991. This seminar has thoroughly discussed the CMAC architecture, relevant portions of classical control, back propagation through time, and adaptive critic designs.

  7. Cognitive linguistics.

    PubMed

    Evans, Vyvyan

    2012-03-01

    Cognitive linguistics is one of the fastest growing and influential perspectives on the nature of language, the mind, and their relationship with sociophysical (embodied) experience. It is a broad theoretical and methodological enterprise, rather than a single, closely articulated theory. Its primary commitments are outlined. These are the Cognitive Commitment-a commitment to providing a characterization of language that accords with what is known about the mind and brain from other disciplines-and the Generalization Commitment-which represents a dedication to characterizing general principles that apply to all aspects of human language. The article also outlines the assumptions and worldview which arises from these commitments, as represented in the work of leading cognitive linguists. WIREs Cogn Sci 2012, 3:129-141. doi: 10.1002/wcs.1163 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website.

  8. The architectural relevance of cybernetics

    SciTech Connect

    Frazer, J.H.

    1993-12-31

    This title is taken from an article by Gordon Pask in Architectural Design September 1969. It raises a number of questions which this article attempts to answer. How did Gordon come to be writing for an architectural publication? What was his contribution to architecture? How does he now come to be on the faculty of a school of architecture? And what indeed is the architectural relevance of cybernetics? 12 refs.

  9. Cognitive fitness.

    PubMed

    Gilkey, Roderick; Kilts, Clint

    2007-11-01

    Recent neuroscientific research shows that the health of your brain isn't, as experts once thought, just the product of childhood experiences and genetics; it reflects your adult choices and experiences as well. Professors Gilkey and Kilts of Emory University's medical and business schools explain how you can strengthen your brain's anatomy, neural networks, and cognitive abilities, and prevent functions such as memory from deteriorating as you age. The brain's alertness is the result of what the authors call cognitive fitness -a state of optimized ability to reason, remember, learn, plan, and adapt. Certain attitudes, lifestyle choices, and exercises enhance cognitive fitness. Mental workouts are the key. Brain-imaging studies indicate that acquiring expertise in areas as diverse as playing a cello, juggling, speaking a foreign language, and driving a taxicab expands your neural systems and makes them more communicative. In other words, you can alter the physical makeup of your brain by learning new skills. The more cognitively fit you are, the better equipped you are to make decisions, solve problems, and deal with stress and change. Cognitive fitness will help you be more open to new ideas and alternative perspectives. It will give you the capacity to change your behavior and realize your goals. You can delay senescence for years and even enjoy a second career. Drawing from the rapidly expanding body of neuroscience research as well as from well-established research in psychology and other mental health fields, the authors have identified four steps you can take to become cognitively fit: understand how experience makes the brain grow, work hard at play, search for patterns, and seek novelty and innovation. Together these steps capture some of the key opportunities for maintaining an engaged, creative brain.

  10. Creative Practices Embodied, Embedded, and Enacted in Architectural Settings: Toward an Ecological Model of Creativity.

    PubMed

    Malinin, Laura H

    2015-01-01

    Memoires by eminently creative people often describe architectural spaces and qualities they believe instrumental for their creativity. However, places designed to encourage creativity have had mixed results, with some found to decrease creative productivity for users. This may be due, in part, to lack of suitable empirical theory or model to guide design strategies. Relationships between creative cognition and features of the physical environment remain largely uninvestigated in the scientific literature, despite general agreement among researchers that human cognition is physically and socially situated. This paper investigates what role architectural settings may play in creative processes by examining documented first person and biographical accounts of creativity with respect to three central theories of situated cognition. First, the embodied thesis argues that cognition encompasses both the mind and the body. Second, the embedded thesis maintains that people exploit features of the physical and social environment to increase their cognitive capabilities. Third, the enaction thesis describes cognition as dependent upon a person's interactions with the world. Common themes inform three propositions, illustrated in a new theoretical framework describing relationships between people and their architectural settings with respect to different cognitive processes of creativity. The framework is intended as a starting point toward an ecological model of creativity, which may be used to guide future creative process research and architectural design strategies to support user creative productivity.

  11. Creative Practices Embodied, Embedded, and Enacted in Architectural Settings: Toward an Ecological Model of Creativity

    PubMed Central

    Malinin, Laura H.

    2016-01-01

    Memoires by eminently creative people often describe architectural spaces and qualities they believe instrumental for their creativity. However, places designed to encourage creativity have had mixed results, with some found to decrease creative productivity for users. This may be due, in part, to lack of suitable empirical theory or model to guide design strategies. Relationships between creative cognition and features of the physical environment remain largely uninvestigated in the scientific literature, despite general agreement among researchers that human cognition is physically and socially situated. This paper investigates what role architectural settings may play in creative processes by examining documented first person and biographical accounts of creativity with respect to three central theories of situated cognition. First, the embodied thesis argues that cognition encompasses both the mind and the body. Second, the embedded thesis maintains that people exploit features of the physical and social environment to increase their cognitive capabilities. Third, the enaction thesis describes cognition as dependent upon a person’s interactions with the world. Common themes inform three propositions, illustrated in a new theoretical framework describing relationships between people and their architectural settings with respect to different cognitive processes of creativity. The framework is intended as a starting point toward an ecological model of creativity, which may be used to guide future creative process research and architectural design strategies to support user creative productivity. PMID:26779087

  12. Analyzing and Visualizing Whole Program Architectures

    SciTech Connect

    Panas, T; Quinlan, D; Vuduc, R

    2007-05-10

    This paper describes our work to develop new tool support for analyzing and visualizing the architecture of complete large-scale (millions or more lines of code) programs. Our approach consists of (i) creating a compact, accurate representation of a whole C or C++ program, (ii) analyzing the program in this representation, and (iii) visualizing the analysis results with respect to the program's architecture. We have implemented our approach by extending and combining a compiler infrastructure and a program visualization tool, and we believe our work will be of broad interest to those engaged in a variety of program understanding and transformation tasks. We have added new whole-program analysis support to ROSE [15, 14], a source-to-source C/C++ compiler infrastructure for creating customized analysis and transformation tools. Our whole-program work does not rely on procedure summaries; rather, we preserve all of the information present in the source while keeping our representation compact. In our representation, a million-line application fits in well less than 1 GB of memory. Because whole-program analyses can generate large amounts of data, we believe that abstracting and visualizing analysis results at the architecture level is critical to reducing the cognitive burden on the consumer of the analysis results. Therefore, we have extended Vizz3D [19], an interactive program visualization tool, with an appropriate metaphor and layout algorithm for representing a program's architecture. Our implementation provides developers with an intuitive, interactive way to view analysis results, such as those produced by ROSE, in the context of the program's architecture. The remainder of this paper summarizes our approach to whole-program analysis (Section 2) and provides an example of how we visualize the analysis results (Section 3).

  13. A cognitive computational model inspired by the immune system response.

    PubMed

    Abdo Abd Al-Hady, Mohamed; Badr, Amr Ahmed; Mostafa, Mostafa Abd Al-Azim

    2014-01-01

    The immune system has a cognitive ability to differentiate between healthy and unhealthy cells. The immune system response (ISR) is stimulated by a disorder in the temporary fuzzy state that is oscillating between the healthy and unhealthy states. However, modeling the immune system is an enormous challenge; the paper introduces an extensive summary of how the immune system response functions, as an overview of a complex topic, to present the immune system as a cognitive intelligent agent. The homogeneity and perfection of the natural immune system have been always standing out as the sought-after model we attempted to imitate while building our proposed model of cognitive architecture. The paper divides the ISR into four logical phases: setting a computational architectural diagram for each phase, proceeding from functional perspectives (input, process, and output), and their consequences. The proposed architecture components are defined by matching biological operations with computational functions and hence with the framework of the paper. On the other hand, the architecture focuses on the interoperability of main theoretical immunological perspectives (classic, cognitive, and danger theory), as related to computer science terminologies. The paper presents a descriptive model of immune system, to figure out the nature of response, deemed to be intrinsic for building a hybrid computational model based on a cognitive intelligent agent perspective and inspired by the natural biology. To that end, this paper highlights the ISR phases as applied to a case study on hepatitis C virus, meanwhile illustrating our proposed architecture perspective.

  14. The modular and integrative functional architecture of the human brain

    PubMed Central

    Bertolero, Maxwell A.; Yeo, B. T. Thomas; D’Esposito, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Network-based analyses of brain imaging data consistently reveal distinct modules and connector nodes with diverse global connectivity across the modules. How discrete the functions of modules are, how dependent the computational load of each module is to the other modules’ processing, and what the precise role of connector nodes is for between-module communication remains underspecified. Here, we use a network model of the brain derived from resting-state functional MRI (rs-fMRI) data and investigate the modular functional architecture of the human brain by analyzing activity at different types of nodes in the network across 9,208 experiments of 77 cognitive tasks in the BrainMap database. Using an author–topic model of cognitive functions, we find a strong spatial correspondence between the cognitive functions and the network’s modules, suggesting that each module performs a discrete cognitive function. Crucially, activity at local nodes within the modules does not increase in tasks that require more cognitive functions, demonstrating the autonomy of modules’ functions. However, connector nodes do exhibit increased activity when more cognitive functions are engaged in a task. Moreover, connector nodes are located where brain activity is associated with many different cognitive functions. Connector nodes potentially play a role in between-module communication that maintains the modular function of the brain. Together, these findings provide a network account of the brain’s modular yet integrated implementation of cognitive functions. PMID:26598686

  15. Physical models of cognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zak, Michail

    1994-05-01

    This paper presents and discusses physical models for simulating some aspects of neural intelligence, and, in particular, the process of cognition. The main departure from the classical approach here is in utilization of a terminal version of classical dynamics introduced by the author earlier. Based upon violations of the Lipschitz condition at equilibrium points, terminal dynamics attains two new fundamental properties: it is spontaneous and nondeterministic. Special attention is focused on terminal neurodynamics as a particular architecture of terminal dynamics which is suitable for modeling of information flows. Terminal neurodynamics possesses a well-organized probabilistic structure which can be analytically predicted, prescribed, and controlled, and therefore which presents a powerful tool for modeling real-life uncertainties. Two basic phenomena associated with random behavior of neurodynamic solutions are exploited. The first one is a stochastic attractor—a stable stationary stochastic process to which random solutions of a closed system converge. As a model of the cognition process, a stochastic attractor can be viewed as a universal tool for generalization and formation of classes of patterns. The concept of stochastic attractor is applied to model a collective brain paradigm explaining coordination between simple units of intelligence which perform a collective task without direct exchange of information. The second fundamental phenomenon discussed is terminal chaos which occurs in open systems. Applications of terminal chaos to information fusion as well as to explanation and modeling of coordination among neurons in biological systems are discussed. It should be emphasized that all the models of terminal neurodynamics are implementable in analog devices, which means that all the cognition processes discussed in the paper are reducible to the laws of Newtonian mechanics.

  16. Physical Models of Cognition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zak, Michail

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents and discusses physical models for simulating some aspects of neural intelligence, and, in particular, the process of cognition. The main departure from the classical approach here is in utilization of a terminal version of classical dynamics introduced by the author earlier. Based upon violations of the Lipschitz condition at equilibrium points, terminal dynamics attains two new fundamental properties: it is spontaneous and nondeterministic. Special attention is focused on terminal neurodynamics as a particular architecture of terminal dynamics which is suitable for modeling of information flows. Terminal neurodynamics possesses a well-organized probabilistic structure which can be analytically predicted, prescribed, and controlled, and therefore which presents a powerful tool for modeling real-life uncertainties. Two basic phenomena associated with random behavior of neurodynamic solutions are exploited. The first one is a stochastic attractor ; a stable stationary stochastic process to which random solutions of a closed system converge. As a model of the cognition process, a stochastic attractor can be viewed as a universal tool for generalization and formation of classes of patterns. The concept of stochastic attractor is applied to model a collective brain paradigm explaining coordination between simple units of intelligence which perform a collective task without direct exchange of information. The second fundamental phenomenon discussed is terminal chaos which occurs in open systems. Applications of terminal chaos to information fusion as well as to explanation and modeling of coordination among neurons in biological systems are discussed. It should be emphasized that all the models of terminal neurodynamics are implementable in analog devices, which means that all the cognition processes discussed in the paper are reducible to the laws of Newtonian mechanics.

  17. Cognitive Robotics, Embodied Cognition and Human-Robot Interaction

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-11-03

    architecture is a specification of the structure of the brain at a level of abstraction that explains how it achieves the function of the mind (Anderson...predictions about brain regions (fMRI) Wednesday, November 3, 2010 Embodied Cognitive Modeling • We use an MDS robot (Trafton et al., 2010...passed memory and/or reality control questions (e.g., “Where did Maxi put the chocolate ?” or “Where is the chocolate now?”). Our reasoning was that age

  18. Avionics System Architecture Tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chau, Savio; Hall, Ronald; Traylor, marcus; Whitfield, Adrian

    2005-01-01

    Avionics System Architecture Tool (ASAT) is a computer program intended for use during the avionics-system-architecture- design phase of the process of designing a spacecraft for a specific mission. ASAT enables simulation of the dynamics of the command-and-data-handling functions of the spacecraft avionics in the scenarios in which the spacecraft is expected to operate. ASAT is built upon I-Logix Statemate MAGNUM, providing a complement of dynamic system modeling tools, including a graphical user interface (GUI), modeling checking capabilities, and a simulation engine. ASAT augments this with a library of predefined avionics components and additional software to support building and analyzing avionics hardware architectures using these components.

  19. Advanced ground station architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zillig, David; Benjamin, Ted

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes a new station architecture for NASA's Ground Network (GN). The architecture makes efficient use of emerging technologies to provide dramatic reductions in size, operational complexity, and operational and maintenance costs. The architecture, which is based on recent receiver work sponsored by the Office of Space Communications Advanced Systems Program, allows integration of both GN and Space Network (SN) modes of operation in the same electronics system. It is highly configurable through software and the use of charged coupled device (CCD) technology to provide a wide range of operating modes. Moreover, it affords modularity of features which are optional depending on the application. The resulting system incorporates advanced RF, digital, and remote control technology capable of introducing significant operational, performance, and cost benefits to a variety of NASA communications and tracking applications.

  20. Color education in architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Unver, Rengin

    2002-06-01

    Architecture is an interdisciplinary profession that combines and uses the elements of various major fields such as humanities, social and physical sciences, technology and creative arts. The main aim of architectural education is to enable students acquire the skills to create designs sufficient both aesthetically and technically. The goals of the under graduate program can be summarized as; the information transfer on subjects and problems related to the application of the profession, the acquisition of relevant skills, and information on specialist subjects. Color is one of the most important design parameters every architect has to use. Architect candidates should be equipped in the field of color just as they are in other relevant subjects. This paper deals with the significance, goals, methods and the place of color education in the undergraduate program of architectural education.

  1. Cognitive Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soni, P. Sarita, Ed.; Carmichael, Ann G., Ed.

    1993-01-01

    This theme issue features five articles profiling Indiana University faculty whose work on various campuses continues to broaden and advance knowledge about cognitive science. The articles in the journal are: "A Matter of Time" (Karen Grooms) which discusses the work of Robert F. Port; "Perceiving as a Complex System" (Tom…

  2. Cognitive Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cocking, Rodney R.; Mestre, Jose P.

    The focus of this paper is on cognitive science as a model for understanding the application of human skills toward effective problem-solving. Sections include: (1) "Introduction" (discussing information processing framework, expert-novice distinctions, schema theory, and learning process); (2) "Application: The Expert-Novice…

  3. Cognitive Challenges

    MedlinePlus

    ... Custom Post Type Home En Español International Request Information DONATE About TSC New treatments today. A cure tomorrow. What is TSC? How is ... questions on intellectual disability. Disabled World — Cognitive disability: information on intellectual disabilities. Healthy ... Also in this Section What is TSC? How ...

  4. Processor architecture and data buffering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mulder, Hans; Flynn, Michael J.

    1992-01-01

    A set of architectures from three major architecture families: stack, register, and memory-to-memory is discussed. It is shown that scalable architectures are not applicable for low-density technologies because they require at least 32 words of local memory. Software support is shown to be capable of bridging the performance gap between scalable and nonscalable architectures. A register architecture with 32 words of local memory allocated interprocedurally outperforms scalable architectures with equal sizes local memories and even some with larger size local memories. The performance advantage of unscalable architectures becomes significant when in addition to quality compile-time support, a small cache is added to an unscalable architecture. A 32-register architecture with 512 byte cache executes 20 percent less cycles when compared with an 8-set multiple overlapping set organization.

  5. Information architecture. Volume 3: Guidance

    SciTech Connect

    1997-04-01

    The purpose of this document, as presented in Volume 1, The Foundations, is to assist the Department of Energy (DOE) in developing and promulgating information architecture guidance. This guidance is aimed at increasing the development of information architecture as a Departmentwide management best practice. This document describes departmental information architecture principles and minimum design characteristics for systems and infrastructures within the DOE Information Architecture Conceptual Model, and establishes a Departmentwide standards-based architecture program. The publication of this document fulfills the commitment to address guiding principles, promote standard architectural practices, and provide technical guidance. This document guides the transition from the baseline or defacto Departmental architecture through approved information management program plans and budgets to the future vision architecture. This document also represents another major step toward establishing a well-organized, logical foundation for the DOE information architecture.

  6. Lunar architecture and urbanism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sherwood, Brent

    1992-01-01

    Human civilization and architecture have defined each other for over 5000 years on Earth. Even in the novel environment of space, persistent issues of human urbanism will eclipse, within a historically short time, the technical challenges of space settlement that dominate our current view. By adding modern topics in space engineering, planetology, life support, human factors, material invention, and conservation to their already renaissance array of expertise, urban designers can responsibly apply ancient, proven standards to the exciting new opportunities afforded by space. Inescapable facts about the Moon set real boundaries within which tenable lunar urbanism and its component architecture must eventually develop.

  7. Hadl: HUMS Architectural Description Language

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mukkamala, R.; Adavi, V.; Agarwal, N.; Gullapalli, S.; Kumar, P.; Sundaram, P.

    2004-01-01

    Specification of architectures is an important prerequisite for evaluation of architectures. With the increase m the growth of health usage and monitoring systems (HUMS) in commercial and military domains, the need far the design and evaluation of HUMS architectures has also been on the increase. In this paper, we describe HADL, HUMS Architectural Description Language, that we have designed for this purpose. In particular, we describe the features of the language, illustrate them with examples, and show how we use it in designing domain-specific HUMS architectures. A companion paper contains details on our design methodology of HUMS architectures.

  8. Cognitive Consilience: Primate Non-Primary Neuroanatomical Circuits Underlying Cognition

    PubMed Central

    Solari, Soren Van Hout; Stoner, Rich

    2011-01-01

    Interactions between the cerebral cortex, thalamus, and basal ganglia form the basis of cognitive information processing in the mammalian brain. Understanding the principles of neuroanatomical organization in these structures is critical to understanding the functions they perform and ultimately how the human brain works. We have manually distilled and synthesized hundreds of primate neuroanatomy facts into a single interactive visualization. The resulting picture represents the fundamental neuroanatomical blueprint upon which cognitive functions must be implemented. Within this framework we hypothesize and detail 7 functional circuits corresponding to psychological perspectives on the brain: consolidated long-term declarative memory, short-term declarative memory, working memory/information processing, behavioral memory selection, behavioral memory output, cognitive control, and cortical information flow regulation. Each circuit is described in terms of distinguishable neuronal groups including the cerebral isocortex (9 pyramidal neuronal groups), parahippocampal gyrus and hippocampus, thalamus (4 neuronal groups), basal ganglia (7 neuronal groups), metencephalon, basal forebrain, and other subcortical nuclei. We focus on neuroanatomy related to primate non-primary cortical systems to elucidate the basis underlying the distinct homotypical cognitive architecture. To display the breadth of this review, we introduce a novel method of integrating and presenting data in multiple independent visualizations: an interactive website (http://www.frontiersin.org/files/cognitiveconsilience/index.html) and standalone iPhone and iPad applications. With these tools we present a unique, annotated view of neuroanatomical consilience (integration of knowledge). PMID:22194717

  9. Potential of Cognitive Computing and Cognitive Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noor, Ahmed K.

    2014-11-01

    Cognitive computing and cognitive technologies are game changers for future engineering systems, as well as for engineering practice and training. They are major drivers for knowledge automation work, and the creation of cognitive products with higher levels of intelligence than current smart products. This paper gives a brief review of cognitive computing and some of the cognitive engineering systems activities. The potential of cognitive technologies is outlined, along with a brief description of future cognitive environments, incorporating cognitive assistants - specialized proactive intelligent software agents designed to follow and interact with humans and other cognitive assistants across the environments. The cognitive assistants engage, individually or collectively, with humans through a combination of adaptive multimodal interfaces, and advanced visualization and navigation techniques. The realization of future cognitive environments requires the development of a cognitive innovation ecosystem for the engineering workforce. The continuously expanding major components of the ecosystem include integrated knowledge discovery and exploitation facilities (incorporating predictive and prescriptive big data analytics); novel cognitive modeling and visual simulation facilities; cognitive multimodal interfaces; and cognitive mobile and wearable devices. The ecosystem will provide timely, engaging, personalized / collaborative, learning and effective decision making. It will stimulate creativity and innovation, and prepare the participants to work in future cognitive enterprises and develop new cognitive products of increasing complexity. http://www.aee.odu.edu/cognitivecomp

  10. When Neuroscience ‘Touches’ Architecture: From Hapticity to a Supramodal Functioning of the Human Brain

    PubMed Central

    Papale, Paolo; Chiesi, Leonardo; Rampinini, Alessandra C.; Pietrini, Pietro; Ricciardi, Emiliano

    2016-01-01

    In the last decades, the rapid growth of functional brain imaging methodologies allowed cognitive neuroscience to address open questions in philosophy and social sciences. At the same time, novel insights from cognitive neuroscience research have begun to influence various disciplines, leading to a turn to cognition and emotion in the fields of planning and architectural design. Since 2003, the Academy of Neuroscience for Architecture has been supporting ‘neuro-architecture’ as a way to connect neuroscience and the study of behavioral responses to the built environment. Among the many topics related to multisensory perceptual integration and embodiment, the concept of hapticity was recently introduced, suggesting a pivotal role of tactile perception and haptic imagery in architectural appraisal. Arguments have thus risen in favor of the existence of shared cognitive foundations between hapticity and the supramodal functional architecture of the human brain. Precisely, supramodality refers to the functional feature of defined brain regions to process and represent specific information content in a more abstract way, independently of the sensory modality conveying such information to the brain. Here, we highlight some commonalities and differences between the concepts of hapticity and supramodality according to the distinctive perspectives of architecture and cognitive neuroscience. This comparison and connection between these two different approaches may lead to novel observations in regard to people–environment relationships, and even provide empirical foundations for a renewed evidence-based design theory. PMID:27375542

  11. Test Architecture, Test Retrofit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fulcher, Glenn; Davidson, Fred

    2009-01-01

    Just like buildings, tests are designed and built for specific purposes, people, and uses. However, both buildings and tests grow and change over time as the needs of their users change. Sometimes, they are also both used for purposes other than those intended in the original designs. This paper explores architecture as a metaphor for language…

  12. Emulating an MIMD architecture

    SciTech Connect

    Su Bogong; Grishman, R.

    1982-01-01

    As part of a research effort in parallel processor architecture and programming, the ultracomputer group at New York University has performed extensive simulation of parallel programs. To speed up these simulations, a parallel processor emulator, using the microprogrammable Puma computer system previously designed and built at NYU, has been developed. 8 references.

  13. Can Architecture Be Taught?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kroll, Lucien; Mikellides, Byron

    1981-01-01

    The academic world is seen as remote from day-to-day reality. A practicing architect's experiences teaching architecture students at the Saint-Luc School in Brussels are described, in which role playing was used to bring reality to the classroom. (MLW)

  14. Digital transversal filter architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenberger, A. J.

    1985-01-01

    A fast and efficient architecture is described for the realization of a pipelined, fully parallel digital transversal filter in VLSI. The order of summation is changed such that no explicit multiplication is seen, gated accumulators are used, and the coefficients are circulated. Estimates for the number of transistors needed for a CMOS implementation are given.

  15. Information network architectures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murray, N. D.

    1985-01-01

    Graphs, charts, diagrams and outlines of information relative to information network architectures for advanced aerospace missions, such as the Space Station, are presented. Local area information networks are considered a likely technology solution. The principle needs for the network are listed.

  16. 1989 Architectural Exhibition Winners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Business Affairs, 1990

    1990-01-01

    Winners of the 1989 Architectural Exhibition sponsored annually by the ASBO International's School Facilities Research Committee include the Brevard Performing Arts Center (Melbourne, Florida), the Capital High School (Santa Fe, New Mexico), Gage Elementary School (Rochester, Minnesota), the Lakewood (Ohio) High School Natatorium, and three other…

  17. GNU debugger internal architecture

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, P.; Nessett, D.; Pizzi, R.

    1993-12-16

    This document describes the internal and architecture and implementation of the GNU debugger, gdb. Topics include inferior process management, command execution, symbol table management and remote debugging. Call graphs for specific functions are supplied. This document is not a complete description but offers a developer an overview which is the place to start before modification.

  18. Tutorial on architectural acoustics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaw, Neil; Talaske, Rick; Bistafa, Sylvio

    2002-11-01

    This tutorial is intended to provide an overview of current knowledge and practice in architectural acoustics. Topics covered will include basic concepts and history, acoustics of small rooms (small rooms for speech such as classrooms and meeting rooms, music studios, small critical listening spaces such as home theatres) and the acoustics of large rooms (larger assembly halls, auditoria, and performance halls).

  19. [Architecture, budget and dignity].

    PubMed

    Morel, Etienne

    2012-01-01

    Drawing on its dynamic strengths, a psychiatric unit develops various projects and care techniques. In this framework, the institute director must make a number of choices with regard to architecture. Why renovate the psychiatry building? What financial investments are required? What criteria should be followed? What if the major argument was based on the respect of the patient's dignity?

  20. [Architecture and movement].

    PubMed

    Rivallan, Armel

    2012-01-01

    Leading an architectural project means accompanying the movement which it induces within the teams. Between questioning, uncertainty and fear, the organisational changes inherent to the new facility must be subject to constructive and ongoing exchanges. Ethics, safety and training are revised and the unit projects are sometimes modified.

  1. INL Generic Robot Architecture

    SciTech Connect

    2005-03-30

    The INL Generic Robot Architecture is a generic, extensible software framework that can be applied across a variety of different robot geometries, sensor suites and low-level proprietary control application programming interfaces (e.g. mobility, aria, aware, player, etc.).

  2. Modeling the situation awareness by the analysis of cognitive process.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shuang; Wanyan, Xiaoru; Zhuang, Damin

    2014-01-01

    To predict changes of situation awareness (SA) for pilot operating with different display interfaces and tasks, a qualitative analysis and quantitative calculation joint SA model was proposed. Based on the situational awareness model according to the attention allocation built previously, the pilot cognitive process for the situation elements was analyzed according to the ACT-R (Adaptive Control of Thought, Rational) theory, which explained how the SA was produced. To verify the validity of this model, 28 subjects performed an instrument supervision task under different experiment conditions. Situation Awareness Global Assessment Technique (SAGAT), 10-dimensional Situational Awareness Rating Technique (10-D SART), performance measure and eye movement measure were adopted for evaluating SAs under different conditions. Statistical analysis demonstrated that the changing trend of SA calculated by this model was highly correlated with the experimental results. Therefore the situational awareness model can provide a reference for designing new cockpit display interfaces and help reducing human errors.

  3. 11. Photocopy of architectural drawing (from National Archives Architectural and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. Photocopy of architectural drawing (from National Archives Architectural and Cartographic Branch Alexandria, Va.) 'Non-Com-Officers Qrs.' Quartermaster General's Office Standard Plan 82, sheet 1. Lithograph on linen architectural drawing. April 1893 3 ELEVATIONS, 3 PLANS AND A PARTIAL SECTION - Fort Myer, Non-Commissioned Officers Quarters, Washington Avenue between Johnson Lane & Custer Road, Arlington, Arlington County, VA

  4. 12. Photocopy of architectural drawing (from National Archives Architectural and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. Photocopy of architectural drawing (from National Archives Architectural and Cartographic Branch, Alexandria, Va.) 'Non-Com-Officers Qrs.' Quartermaster Generals Office Standard Plan 82, sheet 2, April 1893. Lithograph on linen architectural drawing. DETAILS - Fort Myer, Non-Commissioned Officers Quarters, Washington Avenue between Johnson Lane & Custer Road, Arlington, Arlington County, VA

  5. ACOUSTICS IN ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN, AN ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY ON ARCHITECTURAL ACOUSTICS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DOELLE, LESLIE L.

    THE PURPOSE OF THIS ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY ON ARCHITECTURAL ACOUSTICS WAS--(1) TO COMPILE A CLASSIFIED BIBLIOGRAPHY, INCLUDING MOST OF THOSE PUBLICATIONS ON ARCHITECTURAL ACOUSTICS, PUBLISHED IN ENGLISH, FRENCH, AND GERMAN WHICH CAN SUPPLY A USEFUL AND UP-TO-DATE SOURCE OF INFORMATION FOR THOSE ENCOUNTERING ANY ARCHITECTURAL-ACOUSTIC DESIGN…

  6. A Functional Model of Sensemaking in a Neurocognitive Architecture

    PubMed Central

    Lebiere, Christian; Paik, Jaehyon; Rutledge-Taylor, Matthew; Staszewski, James; Anderson, John R.

    2013-01-01

    Sensemaking is the active process of constructing a meaningful representation (i.e., making sense) of some complex aspect of the world. In relation to intelligence analysis, sensemaking is the act of finding and interpreting relevant facts amongst the sea of incoming reports, images, and intelligence. We present a cognitive model of core information-foraging and hypothesis-updating sensemaking processes applied to complex spatial probability estimation and decision-making tasks. While the model was developed in a hybrid symbolic-statistical cognitive architecture, its correspondence to neural frameworks in terms of both structure and mechanisms provided a direct bridge between rational and neural levels of description. Compared against data from two participant groups, the model correctly predicted both the presence and degree of four biases: confirmation, anchoring and adjustment, representativeness, and probability matching. It also favorably predicted human performance in generating probability distributions across categories, assigning resources based on these distributions, and selecting relevant features given a prior probability distribution. This model provides a constrained theoretical framework describing cognitive biases as arising from three interacting factors: the structure of the task environment, the mechanisms and limitations of the cognitive architecture, and the use of strategies to adapt to the dual constraints of cognition and the environment. PMID:24302930

  7. Cognitive Astrophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madore, Barry F.

    2012-09-01

    Cognitive Astrophysics works at the cusp between Cognitive Science and Astrophysics, drawing upon lessons learned in the Philosophy of Science, Linguistics and Artificial Intelligence. We will introduce and illustrate the concept of ``Downward Causation,'' common in philosophical discussions, but either unknown to or disdained by most physicists. A clear example operating on cosmological scales involving the origin of large-scale structure will be given. We will also make the case that on scales exceeding most laboratory experiments, self-gravitating matter can be considered to be in a ``fifth state'', characterized primarily by its negative specific heat, as first recognized by Lynden-Bell and Lynden-Bell (1977, MNRAS, 181, 405). Such systems increase their temperature as they lose energy. Numerous examples will be given and discussed.

  8. Shaping plant architecture

    PubMed Central

    Teichmann, Thomas; Muhr, Merlin

    2015-01-01

    Plants exhibit phenotypical plasticity. Their general body plan is genetically determined, but plant architecture and branching patterns are variable and can be adjusted to the prevailing environmental conditions. The modular design of the plant facilitates such morphological adaptations. The prerequisite for the formation of a branch is the initiation of an axillary meristem. Here, we review the current knowledge about this process. After its establishment, the meristem can develop into a bud which can either become dormant or grow out and form a branch. Many endogenous factors, such as photoassimilate availability, and exogenous factors like nutrient availability or shading, have to be integrated in the decision whether a branch is formed. The underlying regulatory network is complex and involves phytohormones and transcription factors. The hormone auxin is derived from the shoot apex and inhibits bud outgrowth indirectly in a process termed apical dominance. Strigolactones appear to modulate apical dominance by modification of auxin fluxes. Furthermore, the transcription factor BRANCHED1 plays a central role. The exact interplay of all these factors still remains obscure and there are alternative models. We discuss recent findings in the field along with the major models. Plant architecture is economically significant because it affects important traits of crop and ornamental plants, as well as trees cultivated in forestry or on short rotation coppices. As a consequence, plant architecture has been modified during plant domestication. Research revealed that only few key genes have been the target of selection during plant domestication and in breeding programs. Here, we discuss such findings on the basis of various examples. Architectural ideotypes that provide advantages for crop plant management and yield are described. We also outline the potential of breeding and biotechnological approaches to further modify and improve plant architecture for economic needs

  9. An untapped resource: treatment as a tool for revealing the nature of cognitive processes.

    PubMed

    Nickels, Lyndsey; Kohnen, Saskia; Biedermann, Britta

    2011-10-01

    This paper focuses on the role of treatment in cognitive neuropsychological research, arguing that treatment for cognitive impairments should be viewed as a powerful methodology for developing, evaluating, and extending cognitive theories. We suggest that the key aim of cognitive neuropsychology should be characterized as the use of data from the investigation and treatment of individuals with cognitive disorders to develop, evaluate, and extend theories of normal cognition. To support this assertion, this paper discusses examples of how treatment studies have informed theory. The major methodological tool is generalization logic, both generalization across items and generalization across tasks. However, an alternative is to use case series methodology to test predicted correlations between particular cognitive skills and response to treatment. These methods enable explicit testing of a theory or discrimination between theories, focusing on the nature of cognitive representations, the architecture of the cognitive system, and the acquisition of cognitive skills.

  10. Can cognitive science create a cognitive economics?

    PubMed

    Chater, Nick

    2015-02-01

    Cognitive science can intersect with economics in at least three productive ways: by providing richer models of individual behaviour for use in economic analysis; by drawing from economic theory in order to model distributed cognition; and jointly to create more powerful 'rational' models of cognitive processes and social interaction. There is the prospect of moving from behavioural economics to a genuinely cognitive economics.

  11. The MDS autonomous control architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gat, E.

    2000-01-01

    We describe the autonomous control architecture for the JPL Mission Data System (MDS). MDS is a comprehensive new software infrastructure for supporting unmanned space exploration. The autonomous control architecture is one component of MDS designed to enable autonomous operations.

  12. Cyberpsychology: a human-interaction perspective based on cognitive modeling.

    PubMed

    Emond, Bruno; West, Robert L

    2003-10-01

    This paper argues for the relevance of cognitive modeling and cognitive architectures to cyberpsychology. From a human-computer interaction point of view, cognitive modeling can have benefits both for theory and model building, and for the design and evaluation of sociotechnical systems usability. Cognitive modeling research applied to human-computer interaction has two complimentary objectives: (1) to develop theories and computational models of human interactive behavior with information and collaborative technologies, and (2) to use the computational models as building blocks for the design, implementation, and evaluation of interactive technologies. From the perspective of building theories and models, cognitive modeling offers the possibility to anchor cyberpsychology theories and models into cognitive architectures. From the perspective of the design and evaluation of socio-technical systems, cognitive models can provide the basis for simulated users, which can play an important role in usability testing. As an example of application of cognitive modeling to technology design, the paper presents a simulation of interactive behavior with five different adaptive menu algorithms: random, fixed, stacked, frequency based, and activation based. Results of the simulation indicate that fixed menu positions seem to offer the best support for classification like tasks such as filing e-mails. This research is part of the Human-Computer Interaction, and the Broadband Visual Communication research programs at the National Research Council of Canada, in collaboration with the Carleton Cognitive Modeling Lab at Carleton University.

  13. Memory performance of Prolog architectures

    SciTech Connect

    Tick, E.

    1988-01-01

    Memory Performance of Prolog Architectures addresses these problems and reports dynamic data and instruction referencing characteristics of both sequential and parallel prolog architectures and corresponding uni-processor and multi-processor memory-hierarchy performance tradeoffs. Computer designers and logic programmers will find this work to be a valuable reference with many practical applications. Memory Performance of Prolog Architectures will also serve as an important textbook for graduate level courses in computer architecture and/or performance analysis.

  14. Architectural Adventures in Your Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henn, Cynthia A.

    2007-01-01

    Due to architecture's complexity, it can be challenging to develop lessons for the students, and consequently, the teaching of architecture is frequently overlooked. Every community has an architectural history. For example, the community in which the author's students live has a variety of historic houses from when the community originated (the…

  15. Architecture for autonomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Broten, Gregory S.; Monckton, Simon P.; Collier, Jack; Giesbrecht, Jared

    2006-05-01

    In 2002 Defence R&D Canada changed research direction from pure tele-operated land vehicles to general autonomy for land, air, and sea craft. The unique constraints of the military environment coupled with the complexity of autonomous systems drove DRDC to carefully plan a research and development infrastructure that would provide state of the art tools without restricting research scope. DRDC's long term objectives for its autonomy program address disparate unmanned ground vehicle (UGV), unattended ground sensor (UGS), air (UAV), and subsea and surface (UUV and USV) vehicles operating together with minimal human oversight. Individually, these systems will range in complexity from simple reconnaissance mini-UAVs streaming video to sophisticated autonomous combat UGVs exploiting embedded and remote sensing. Together, these systems can provide low risk, long endurance, battlefield services assuming they can communicate and cooperate with manned and unmanned systems. A key enabling technology for this new research is a software architecture capable of meeting both DRDC's current and future requirements. DRDC built upon recent advances in the computing science field while developing its software architecture know as the Architecture for Autonomy (AFA). Although a well established practice in computing science, frameworks have only recently entered common use by unmanned vehicles. For industry and government, the complexity, cost, and time to re-implement stable systems often exceeds the perceived benefits of adopting a modern software infrastructure. Thus, most persevere with legacy software, adapting and modifying software when and wherever possible or necessary -- adopting strategic software frameworks only when no justifiable legacy exists. Conversely, academic programs with short one or two year projects frequently exploit strategic software frameworks but with little enduring impact. The open-source movement radically changes this picture. Academic frameworks

  16. Architecture and Monumental (Study About form in Architecture)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pane, I. F.; Suwantoro, H.; Zahrah, W.; Sianipar, R. A.

    2017-03-01

    The architecture develops along with the development of human history. So architecture is the field of study related to human physically and non-physically. The development of architecture is a long process within the culture the architecture develops. Physically, architecture has different shape from every historical phase. The different shape has different historical background. The important building on one period is always impressed. This impression still remains until now, in this postmodern era. From the phenomena appear in architecture so this study focused on the monumental buildings by analyzing the form of the building in this era. The objects of the study are the buildings in Medan which represent the monumental impression (Maimun Palace). The qualitative approach is applied to give more knowledge in history, theory, and criticsm of architecture. The results of this study described that the monumental impression of the object of study and forms of building support that impression.

  17. A Specification of the Soar Cognitive Architecture in Z

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-08-31

    Aeronautical Systems Division (AFSC), U.S. Air Force, Wright- Patterson AFB, Ohio 45433-6543 under Contract F33615-90-C-]465. ARPA Order No. 7597. The views...the specification of non-deterministic operations. The speci- ficati’n takes good advantage of this: for example. decide non-deterministically...b : Binding; nc : ran Negative Condition; WM : P WME. MatchesCondition WM1 )answM ( b. nc, - ( Bnb : Binding nb ConsistertExtension b nb Covers

  18. Impact of Cognitive Architectures on Human-Computer Interaction

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-01

    sciences of linear programming, engineering , and parsing have relegated the soft sciences into the background. I have seen this in software... engineering , where the hard functional requirements push the soft nonfunctional requirements into the background. Our terminology, functional versus...human-computer interaction (HCI), it must harden. Their vision is for psychology to provide engineering style theory that influences the design of

  19. The Place of Cognitive Architectures in a Rational Analysis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-07-14

    Computer Sciences Division, Office of Naval Research and DARPA under Contract Number N00014-86-K-0678. Reproduction in whole or in part is permitted...and the sharks ) as a prototype of the experiments in the literature. To develop a rational analysis of categorization behavior the first thing we need...c it merges all 20 into one category. breaks the 20 into two sets of the 10 mammals and 10 birds, further subdivides whales . humans, and seals as a

  20. The Design of a Polymorphous Cognitive Agent Architecture (PCAA)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-05-01

    applications require ongoing processing of a massive stream of data . This class of application imposes several requirements that classical clustering ...computing load across multiple processors. [Olson95] summarizes a wide range of distributed algorithms for hierarchical clustering . These algorithms...2005), ACM Press, pp. 36-47. [Dean04] Dean, J. and S. Ghemawat. MapReduce : Simplified Data Processing on Large Clusters . In 6th Symposium on

  1. Analysis of Cognitive Architecture in the Cultural Geography Model

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-09-01

    Wiedemann , 2010). 24 In the test scenario, two identical infrastructure nodes were sited within the area of operation, and constantly provide a...Watkins, C. J. C. H. (1989). Learning from delayed rewards (Doctoral dissertation). Retrieved from http://www.cs.rhul.ac.uk/~chrisw/ Wiedemann , M

  2. A Cognitive Architecture for Solving Ill-Structured Problems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-08-01

    and the " lightbulb problem" requires using a laser to fuse a filament in a lightbulb without breaking the surrounding bulb. Each proposition consists...Calculus Representations of Radiation and Lightbulb Problems RADIATION PROBLEM (target) Start: (ray-source (obj.ray) ri) (tissue (obj.tissue) r2) (tumor...tumor) r2i) (not-destroyed (obj.tissue) r22) LIGHTBULB PROBLEM (source) Start: (laser (obj-laser) bl) (bulb (obj-bulb) b2) (filament (obj-filament) b3

  3. Visualization of Decision Processes Using a Cognitive Architecture

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-02-01

    for illustration of matches; this view is not shown to users. outlaw Behaviors ( lavender ). Figure 2 is only for exposition of the algorithm. It shows...considered facts), Tactics nodes are medium green, and outlaw Behavior nodes are dark lavender . This image also illustrates the “tool-tips” that a user

  4. Visualization of Decision Processes Using a Cognitive Architecture

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-02-01

    Tactics (green), and outlaw Behaviors ( lavender ). Figure 2 also shows all the consequents and antecedents for each node. These labels are for exposition of...Intelligence nodes are blue, Tactics nodes are green, and outlaw Behavior nodes are lavender . Figure 4. A simple interactive exploration of the graph...constraint nodes (three green for Tactics, one lavender for Behaviors) are introduced to the world computed after the user changes a decision that was

  5. The Architecture of the IIT-MRH Stroke Consultant

    PubMed Central

    Hill, Howard; Curt, Carol L.; Kozar, Barbara K.; Hier, Daniel B.; Evens, Martha W.

    1985-01-01

    There are three major issues discussed in this paper. First, we discuss a high speed blackboard-like architecture for an expert system that makes no restrictions on the nature or number of components in the system. We also discuss how the principles of cognitive psychology could be used as a basis for user interface design. Since most expert systems, circa 1985, are large programs, we also discuss some of the software engineering issues used to build the stroke consultant.

  6. Instrumented Architectural Simulation System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delagi, B. A.; Saraiya, N.; Nishimura, S.; Byrd, G.

    1987-01-01

    Simulation of systems at an architectural level can offer an effective way to study critical design choices if (1) the performance of the simulator is adequate to examine designs executing significant code bodies, not just toy problems or small application fragements, (2) the details of the simulation include the critical details of the design, (3) the view of the design presented by the simulator instrumentation leads to useful insights on the problems with the design, and (4) there is enough flexibility in the simulation system so that the asking of unplanned questions is not suppressed by the weight of the mechanics involved in making changes either in the design or its measurement. A simulation system with these goals is described together with the approach to its implementation. Its application to the study of a particular class of multiprocessor hardware system architectures is illustrated.

  7. Generic robot architecture

    DOEpatents

    Bruemmer, David J [Idaho Falls, ID; Few, Douglas A [Idaho Falls, ID

    2010-09-21

    The present invention provides methods, computer readable media, and apparatuses for a generic robot architecture providing a framework that is easily portable to a variety of robot platforms and is configured to provide hardware abstractions, abstractions for generic robot attributes, environment abstractions, and robot behaviors. The generic robot architecture includes a hardware abstraction level and a robot abstraction level. The hardware abstraction level is configured for developing hardware abstractions that define, monitor, and control hardware modules available on a robot platform. The robot abstraction level is configured for defining robot attributes and provides a software framework for building robot behaviors from the robot attributes. Each of the robot attributes includes hardware information from at least one hardware abstraction. In addition, each robot attribute is configured to substantially isolate the robot behaviors from the at least one hardware abstraction.

  8. Parallel Subconvolution Filtering Architectures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gray, Andrew A.

    2003-01-01

    These architectures are based on methods of vector processing and the discrete-Fourier-transform/inverse-discrete- Fourier-transform (DFT-IDFT) overlap-and-save method, combined with time-block separation of digital filters into frequency-domain subfilters implemented by use of sub-convolutions. The parallel-processing method implemented in these architectures enables the use of relatively small DFT-IDFT pairs, while filter tap lengths are theoretically unlimited. The size of a DFT-IDFT pair is determined by the desired reduction in processing rate, rather than on the order of the filter that one seeks to implement. The emphasis in this report is on those aspects of the underlying theory and design rules that promote computational efficiency, parallel processing at reduced data rates, and simplification of the designs of very-large-scale integrated (VLSI) circuits needed to implement high-order filters and correlators.

  9. Architectural-acoustics consulting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoover, Anthony K.

    2004-05-01

    Consulting involves both the science of acoustics and the art of communication, requiring an array of inherent and created skills. Perhaps because consulting on architectural acoustics is a relatively new field, there is a remarkable variety of career paths, all influenced by education, interest, and experience. Many consultants juggle dozens of chargeable projects at a time, not to mention proposals, seminars, teaching, articles, business concerns, and professional-society activities. This paper will discuss various aspects of career paths, projects, and clients as they relate to architectural-acoustics consulting. The intended emphasis will be considerations for those who may be interested in such a career, noting that consultants generally seem to thrive on the numerous challenges.

  10. Consistent model driven architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niepostyn, Stanisław J.

    2015-09-01

    The goal of the MDA is to produce software systems from abstract models in a way where human interaction is restricted to a minimum. These abstract models are based on the UML language. However, the semantics of UML models is defined in a natural language. Subsequently the verification of consistency of these diagrams is needed in order to identify errors in requirements at the early stage of the development process. The verification of consistency is difficult due to a semi-formal nature of UML diagrams. We propose automatic verification of consistency of the series of UML diagrams originating from abstract models implemented with our consistency rules. This Consistent Model Driven Architecture approach enables us to generate automatically complete workflow applications from consistent and complete models developed from abstract models (e.g. Business Context Diagram). Therefore, our method can be used to check practicability (feasibility) of software architecture models.

  11. Aerobot Autonomy Architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elfes, Alberto; Hall, Jeffery L.; Kulczycki, Eric A.; Cameron, Jonathan M.; Morfopoulos, Arin C.; Clouse, Daniel S.; Montgomery, James F.; Ansar, Adnan I.; Machuzak, Richard J.

    2009-01-01

    An architecture for autonomous operation of an aerobot (i.e., a robotic blimp) to be used in scientific exploration of planets and moons in the Solar system with an atmosphere (such as Titan and Venus) is undergoing development. This architecture is also applicable to autonomous airships that could be flown in the terrestrial atmosphere for scientific exploration, military reconnaissance and surveillance, and as radio-communication relay stations in disaster areas. The architecture was conceived to satisfy requirements to perform the following functions: a) Vehicle safing, that is, ensuring the integrity of the aerobot during its entire mission, including during extended communication blackouts. b) Accurate and robust autonomous flight control during operation in diverse modes, including launch, deployment of scientific instruments, long traverses, hovering or station-keeping, and maneuvers for touch-and-go surface sampling. c) Mapping and self-localization in the absence of a global positioning system. d) Advanced recognition of hazards and targets in conjunction with tracking of, and visual servoing toward, targets, all to enable the aerobot to detect and avoid atmospheric and topographic hazards and to identify, home in on, and hover over predefined terrain features or other targets of scientific interest. The architecture is an integrated combination of systems for accurate and robust vehicle and flight trajectory control; estimation of the state of the aerobot; perception-based detection and avoidance of hazards; monitoring of the integrity and functionality ("health") of the aerobot; reflexive safing actions; multi-modal localization and mapping; autonomous planning and execution of scientific observations; and long-range planning and monitoring of the mission of the aerobot. The prototype JPL aerobot (see figure) has been tested extensively in various areas in the California Mojave desert.

  12. En-Gauging Architectures

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-10-01

    publication. APPROVED: /s/ RAYMOND A. LIUZZI Project Engineer FOR THE DIRECTOR: /s/ JAMES A. COLLINS...raise an implementation-level “port access failed exception” in the latter case. Notice that nothing about the architecture itself changed during...Crane et al] Crane, S., Dulay, N., Fossa, H., Kramer, J., Magee, J., Sloman , M., and Twidle, K.: “Configuration Management for Distributed Systems

  13. Irregular Applications: Architectures & Algorithms

    SciTech Connect

    Feo, John T.; Villa, Oreste; Tumeo, Antonino; Secchi, Simone

    2012-02-06

    Irregular applications are characterized by irregular data structures, control and communication patterns. Novel irregular high performance applications which deal with large data sets and require have recently appeared. Unfortunately, current high performance systems and software infrastructures executes irregular algorithms poorly. Only coordinated efforts by end user, area specialists and computer scientists that consider both the architecture and the software stack may be able to provide solutions to the challenges of modern irregular applications.

  14. Survivable Loosely Coupled Architectures

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-03-01

    Verlag Lecture Notes in Computer Science, pages 291–303, Pune, India, September 2000. [6] Saddek Bensalem, Marius Bozga, Jean - Claude Fernandez, Lucian...IEEE Computer Society. [5] John Rushby. An overview of formal verification for the time-triggered architecture. In Werner Damm and Ernst-Rüdiger...Agathe Merceron. Parametric verification of a group membership algo- rithm. In Werner Damm and Ernst-Rüdiger Olderog, editors, Formal Techniques in Real

  15. Vetronics Reference Architecture

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Model 4 Captures system intelligence such that computational processes can be allocated to system processing components (e.g. human, robotic, man in the...loop) • Systems Architecture (Cross product of RA, TA, and Intelligent Domain Model ) 4 Defines interconnected systems components organized to...iterate iterate Requirements System Intelligent Domain Model Use Cases Need to focus on refining RA, TA, and Intelligent Domain Model to derive a

  16. Architectural Methodology Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dhas, Chris

    2000-01-01

    The establishment of conventions between two communicating entities in the end systems is essential for communications. Examples of the kind of decisions that need to be made in establishing a protocol convention include the nature of the data representation, the for-mat and the speed of the date representation over the communications path, and the sequence of control messages (if any) which are sent. One of the main functions of a protocol is to establish a standard path between the communicating entities. This is necessary to create a virtual communications medium with certain desirable characteristics. In essence, it is the function of the protocol to transform the characteristics of the physical communications environment into a more useful virtual communications model. The final function of a protocol is to establish standard data elements for communications over the path; that is, the protocol serves to create a virtual data element for exchange. Other systems may be constructed in which the transferred element is a program or a job. Finally, there are special purpose applications in which the element to be transferred may be a complex structure such as all or part of a graphic display. NASA's Glenn Research Center (GRC) defines and develops advanced technology for high priority national needs in communications technologies for application to aeronautics and space. GRC tasked Computer Networks and Software Inc. (CNS) to describe the methodologies used in developing a protocol architecture for an in-space Internet node. The node would support NASA:s four mission areas: Earth Science; Space Science; Human Exploration and Development of Space (HEDS); Aerospace Technology. This report presents the methodology for developing the protocol architecture. The methodology addresses the architecture for a computer communications environment. It does not address an analog voice architecture.

  17. Robust Software Architecture for Robots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aghazanian, Hrand; Baumgartner, Eric; Garrett, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Robust Real-Time Reconfigurable Robotics Software Architecture (R4SA) is the name of both a software architecture and software that embodies the architecture. The architecture was conceived in the spirit of current practice in designing modular, hard, realtime aerospace systems. The architecture facilitates the integration of new sensory, motor, and control software modules into the software of a given robotic system. R4SA was developed for initial application aboard exploratory mobile robots on Mars, but is adaptable to terrestrial robotic systems, real-time embedded computing systems in general, and robotic toys.

  18. The effect of visual representation style in problem-solving: a perspective from cognitive processes.

    PubMed

    Nyamsuren, Enkhbold; Taatgen, Niels A

    2013-01-01

    Using results from a controlled experiment and simulations based on cognitive models, we show that visual presentation style can have a significant impact on performance in a complex problem-solving task. We compared subject performances in two isomorphic, but visually different, tasks based on a card game of SET. Although subjects used the same strategy in both tasks, the difference in presentation style resulted in radically different reaction times and significant deviations in scanpath patterns in the two tasks. Results from our study indicate that low-level subconscious visual processes, such as differential acuity in peripheral vision and low-level iconic memory, can have indirect, but significant effects on decision making during a problem-solving task. We have developed two ACT-R models that employ the same basic strategy but deal with different presentations styles. Our ACT-R models confirm that changes in low-level visual processes triggered by changes in presentation style can propagate to higher-level cognitive processes. Such a domino effect can significantly affect reaction times and eye movements, without affecting the overall strategy of problem solving.

  19. Complex Event Recognition Architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fitzgerald, William A.; Firby, R. James

    2009-01-01

    Complex Event Recognition Architecture (CERA) is the name of a computational architecture, and software that implements the architecture, for recognizing complex event patterns that may be spread across multiple streams of input data. One of the main components of CERA is an intuitive event pattern language that simplifies what would otherwise be the complex, difficult tasks of creating logical descriptions of combinations of temporal events and defining rules for combining information from different sources over time. In this language, recognition patterns are defined in simple, declarative statements that combine point events from given input streams with those from other streams, using conjunction, disjunction, and negation. Patterns can be built on one another recursively to describe very rich, temporally extended combinations of events. Thereafter, a run-time matching algorithm in CERA efficiently matches these patterns against input data and signals when patterns are recognized. CERA can be used to monitor complex systems and to signal operators or initiate corrective actions when anomalous conditions are recognized. CERA can be run as a stand-alone monitoring system, or it can be integrated into a larger system to automatically trigger responses to changing environments or problematic situations.

  20. Embodying a cognitive model in a mobile robot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benjamin, D. Paul; Lyons, Damian; Lonsdale, Deryle

    2006-10-01

    The ADAPT project is a collaboration of researchers in robotics, linguistics and artificial intelligence at three universities to create a cognitive architecture specifically designed to be embodied in a mobile robot. There are major respects in which existing cognitive architectures are inadequate for robot cognition. In particular, they lack support for true concurrency and for active perception. ADAPT addresses these deficiencies by modeling the world as a network of concurrent schemas, and modeling perception as problem solving. Schemas are represented using the RS (Robot Schemas) language, and are activated by spreading activation. RS provides a powerful language for distributed control of concurrent processes. Also, The formal semantics of RS provides the basis for the semantics of ADAPT's use of natural language. We have implemented the RS language in Soar, a mature cognitive architecture originally developed at CMU and used at a number of universities and companies. Soar's subgoaling and learning capabilities enable ADAPT to manage the complexity of its environment and to learn new schemas from experience. We describe the issues faced in developing an embodied cognitive architecture, and our implementation choices.

  1. Cognitive Enhancement and Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buchanan, Allen

    2011-01-01

    Cognitive enhancement--augmenting normal cognitive capacities--is not new. Literacy, numeracy, computers, and the practices of science are all cognitive enhancements. Science is now making new cognitive enhancements possible. Biomedical cognitive enhancements (BCEs) include the administration of drugs, implants of genetically engineered or…

  2. Cognitive aspects of chaos in random networks.

    PubMed

    Aiello, Gaetano L

    2012-01-01

    A special case of deterministic chaos that is independent of the architecture of the connections has been observed in a computer model of a purely excitatory neuronal network. Chaos onsets when the level of connectivity is critically low. The results indicate a typical period-doubling route to chaos as the connectivity decreases. A cognitive interpretation of such type of chaos, based on information theory and phase-transitions, is proposed.

  3. Neural mechanisms of the cognitive model of depression.

    PubMed

    Disner, Seth G; Beevers, Christopher G; Haigh, Emily A P; Beck, Aaron T

    2011-07-06

    In the 40 years since Aaron Beck first proposed his cognitive model of depression, the elements of this model--biased attention, biased processing, biased thoughts and rumination, biased memory, and dysfunctional attitudes and schemas--have been consistently linked with the onset and maintenance of depression. Although numerous studies have examined the neural mechanisms that underlie the cognitive aspects of depression, their findings have not been integrated with Beck's cognitive model. In this Review, we identify the functional and structural neurobiological architecture of Beck's cognitive model of depression. Although the mechanisms underlying each element of the model differ, in general the negative cognitive biases in depression are facilitated by increased influence from subcortical emotion processing regions combined with attenuated top-down cognitive control.

  4. MIDCA: A Metacognitive, Integrated Dual-Cycle Architecture for Self-Regulated Autonomy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-01

    ONR Award #N000141210172 -- Period of Performance: 1 June 2012 through 31 May 2013 MIDCA: A Metacognitive , Integrated Dual-Cycle Architecture... metacognition in cognitive architectures and to demonstrate the underlying theory through implemented computational models. During the last year, the...REPORT DATE SEP 2013 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 01-06-2012 to 31-05-2013 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE MIDCA: A Metacognitive , Integrated Dual

  5. Using Computational Cognitive Modeling to Diagnose Possible Sources of Aviation Error

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Byrne, M. D.; Kirlik, Alex

    2003-01-01

    We present a computational model of a closed-loop, pilot-aircraft-visual scene-taxiway system created to shed light on possible sources of taxi error. Creating the cognitive aspects of the model using ACT-R required us to conduct studies with subject matter experts to identify experiential adaptations pilots bring to taxiing. Five decision strategies were found, ranging from cognitively-intensive but precise, to fast, frugal but robust. We provide evidence for the model by comparing its behavior to a NASA Ames Research Center simulation of Chicago O'Hare surface operations. Decision horizons were highly variable; the model selected the most accurate strategy given time available. We found a signature in the simulation data of the use of globally robust heuristics to cope with short decision horizons as revealed by errors occurring most frequently at atypical taxiway geometries or clearance routes. These data provided empirical support for the model.

  6. Cognitive and Metacognitive Activity in Mathematical Problem Solving: Prefrontal and Parietal Patterns

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, John R.; Betts, Shawn; Ferris, Jennifer L.; Fincham, Jon M.

    2010-01-01

    Students were taught an algorithm for solving a new class of mathematical problems. Occasionally in the sequence of problems they encountered exception problems that required that they extend the algorithm. Regular and exception problems were associated with different patterns of brain activation produced. Some regions showed a Cognitive pattern of being active only until the problem was solved and no difference between regular or exception problems. Other regions showed a Metacognitive pattern of greater activity for exception problems and activity that extended into the post-solution period, particularly when an error was made. The Cognitive regions included some of parietal and prefrontal regions associated with the triple-code theory of Dehaene et al (2003) and associated with algebra equation solving in the ACT-R theory (Anderson, 2005). Metacognitive regions included the superior prefrontal gyrus, the angular gyrus of the triple-code theory, and frontopolar regions. PMID:21264650

  7. Principles, processes, and puzzles of social cognition: an introduction for the special issue on social cognitive neuroscience.

    PubMed

    Lieberman, Matthew D

    2005-12-01

    This article introduces the special issue of NeuroImage focused on social cognitive neuroscience. Social psychology has a rich history of making sense of the often paradoxical aspects of social cognition and the social world. This article reviews the principles, processes, and puzzles of social cognition and behavior that have been examined by social psychologists for decades. Five principles of social cognition and behavior are reviewed including: (1) the power of the situation over behavior, (2) blindness for situational influences, (3) social perception and self-perception are constructive processes, (4) blindness for the constructed nature of social and self-perception, and (5) self-processes are social. Four processes of social cognition are reviewed including: (1) cognitive architecture; (2) automaticity and control; (3) motivated reasoning; and (4) accessibility, frames, and expectations. Finally, five areas of social cognition that contain enduring puzzles are described including (1) the self, (2) attitudes, (3) reflective social cognition, (4) automatic social cognition, and (5) social motives. In several of the areas of study reviewed, cognitive neuroscience is well positioned to make important contributions to these research traditions either by allowing for new tests of hypotheses or by allowing for unobtrusive measurement of social cognitive processes.

  8. An Architectural Overlay: Modifying an Architecture to Help Cognitive Models Understand and Explain Themselves

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-02-24

    the metacognitive facilities Herbal can include in a model to create an intelligent opponent in dTank. dTank works, but it needs to be made even easier...the portfolio of mitigation projects that provides the overall greatest net benefit given resource constraints. Such planning is rarely performed in a

  9. Personality-Enabled Architecture for Cognition (PAC): Architecture and Initial Implementation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-03-01

    anxiety disorders . (pp. 681-706). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum. 35. Watson, D., & Clark, L. A. (1993). Behavioral disinhibition versus constraint: A...two overarching motivational systems, there is evidence for a third brain system, the Disinhibition /Constraint system (DCS) that provides for an even...resulting in enacting more goal- directed behavior) versus highly reactive to changing environments (resulting in an individual appearing more prone to

  10. The EPOS ICT Architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeffery, Keith; Harrison, Matt; Bailo, Daniele

    2016-04-01

    The EPOS-PP Project 2010-2014 proposed an architecture and demonstrated feasibility with a prototype. Requirements based on use cases were collected and an inventory of assets (e.g. datasets, software, users, computing resources, equipment/detectors, laboratory services) (RIDE) was developed. The architecture evolved through three stages of refinement with much consultation both with the EPOS community representing EPOS users and participants in geoscience and with the overall ICT community especially those working on research such as the RDA (Research Data Alliance) community. The architecture consists of a central ICS (Integrated Core Services) consisting of a portal and catalog, the latter providing to end-users a 'map' of all EPOS resources (datasets, software, users, computing, equipment/detectors etc.). ICS is extended to ICS-d (distributed ICS) for certain services (such as visualisation software services or Cloud computing resources) and CES (Computational Earth Science) for specific simulation or analytical processing. ICS also communicates with TCS (Thematic Core Services) which represent European-wide portals to national and local assets, resources and services in the various specific domains (e.g. seismology, volcanology, geodesy) of EPOS. The EPOS-IP project 2015-2019 started October 2015. Two work-packages cover the ICT aspects; WP6 involves interaction with the TCS while WP7 concentrates on ICS including interoperation with ICS-d and CES offerings: in short the ICT architecture. Based on the experience and results of EPOS-PP the ICT team held a pre-meeting in July 2015 and set out a project plan. The first major activity involved requirements (re-)collection with use cases and also updating the inventory of assets held by the various TCS in EPOS. The RIDE database of assets is currently being converted to CERIF (Common European Research Information Format - an EU Recommendation to Member States) to provide the basis for the EPOS-IP ICS Catalog. In

  11. Mind and language architecture.

    PubMed

    Logan, Robert K

    2010-07-08

    A distinction is made between the brain and the mind. The architecture of the mind and language is then described within a neo-dualistic framework. A model for the origin of language based on emergence theory is presented. The complexity of hominid existence due to tool making, the control of fire and the social cooperation that fire required gave rise to a new level of order in mental activity and triggered the simultaneous emergence of language and conceptual thought. The mind is shown to have emerged as a bifurcation of the brain with the emergence of language. The role of language in the evolution of human culture is also described.

  12. TROPIX power system architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manner, David B.; Hickman, J. Mark

    1995-09-01

    This document contains results obtained in the process of performing a power system definition study of the TROPIX power management and distribution system (PMAD). Requirements derived from the PMADs interaction with other spacecraft systems are discussed first. Since the design is dependent on the performance of the photovoltaics, there is a comprehensive discussion of the appropriate models for cells and arrays. A trade study of the array operating voltage and its effect on array bus mass is also presented. A system architecture is developed which makes use of a combination of high efficiency switching power convertors and analog regulators. Mass and volume estimates are presented for all subsystems.

  13. Etruscan Divination and Architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magli, Giulio

    The Etruscan religion was characterized by divination methods, aimed at interpreting the will of the gods. These methods were revealed by the gods themselves and written in the books of the Etrusca Disciplina. The books are lost, but parts of them are preserved in the accounts of later Latin sources. According to such traditions divination was tightly connected with the Etruscan cosmovision of a Pantheon distributed in equally spaced, specific sectors of the celestial realm. We explore here the possible reflections of such issues in the Etruscan architectural remains.

  14. Mind and Language Architecture

    PubMed Central

    Logan, Robert K

    2010-01-01

    A distinction is made between the brain and the mind. The architecture of the mind and language is then described within a neo-dualistic framework. A model for the origin of language based on emergence theory is presented. The complexity of hominid existence due to tool making, the control of fire and the social cooperation that fire required gave rise to a new level of order in mental activity and triggered the simultaneous emergence of language and conceptual thought. The mind is shown to have emerged as a bifurcation of the brain with the emergence of language. The role of language in the evolution of human culture is also described. PMID:20922045

  15. 1993 architectural design awards.

    PubMed

    1993-06-01

    The 10th annual architectural design awards sponsored by Contemporary Long Term Care salute nursing homes and retirement communities that combine a flair for innovative living environments with a sensitivity to the needs of aging residents. These facilities represent the very best in elderly housing that prolongs independence while enhancing efficient operation. The 1993 winners are: King Health Center, U.S. Soldiers' and Airmen's Home, Washington, DC; The Terrace of Los Gatos, Los Gatos, CA; Walker Elder Suites, Edina, MN; The Jefferson, Ballston, VA; The Forum at Rancho San Antonio, Cupertino, CA.

  16. Architecture for Teraflop Visualization

    SciTech Connect

    Breckenridge, A.R.; Haynes, R.A.

    1999-04-09

    Sandia Laboratories' computational scientists are addressing a very important question: How do we get insight from the human combined with the computer-generated information? The answer inevitably leads to using scientific visualization. Going one technology leap further is teraflop visualization, where the computing model and interactive graphics are an integral whole to provide computing for insight. In order to implement our teraflop visualization architecture, all hardware installed or software coded will be based on open modules and dynamic extensibility principles. We will illustrate these concepts with examples in our three main research areas: (1) authoring content (the computer), (2) enhancing precision and resolution (the human), and (3) adding behaviors (the physics).

  17. Architecture, Design, Implementatio

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-05-01

    of data on its inputs and produces streams of data on its outputs.” Dean and Cordy [6] present a visual formalism defined as a context- free...cles represent tasks, arrows represent streams. The plus sign is the BNF symbol for “one or more.” 4 1 . . . . . . . . . . . .4 2 4 341 3 15 1 3...guages of Program Design. Reading, MA: Addison- Wesley. [6] T. R. Dean, J. R. Cordy . "A Syntactic Theory of Software Architecture." IEEE Trans. on

  18. Architecture, constraints, and behavior

    PubMed Central

    Doyle, John C.; Csete, Marie

    2011-01-01

    This paper aims to bridge progress in neuroscience involving sophisticated quantitative analysis of behavior, including the use of robust control, with other relevant conceptual and theoretical frameworks from systems engineering, systems biology, and mathematics. Familiar and accessible case studies are used to illustrate concepts of robustness, organization, and architecture (modularity and protocols) that are central to understanding complex networks. These essential organizational features are hidden during normal function of a system but are fundamental for understanding the nature, design, and function of complex biologic and technologic systems. PMID:21788505

  19. Architecture for robot intelligence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peters, II, Richard Alan (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    An architecture for robot intelligence enables a robot to learn new behaviors and create new behavior sequences autonomously and interact with a dynamically changing environment. Sensory information is mapped onto a Sensory Ego-Sphere (SES) that rapidly identifies important changes in the environment and functions much like short term memory. Behaviors are stored in a DBAM that creates an active map from the robot's current state to a goal state and functions much like long term memory. A dream state converts recent activities stored in the SES and creates or modifies behaviors in the DBAM.

  20. Complex Processes from Dynamical Architectures with Time-Scale Hierarchy

    PubMed Central

    Perdikis, Dionysios; Huys, Raoul; Jirsa, Viktor

    2011-01-01

    The idea that complex motor, perceptual, and cognitive behaviors are composed of smaller units, which are somehow brought into a meaningful relation, permeates the biological and life sciences. However, no principled framework defining the constituent elementary processes has been developed to this date. Consequently, functional configurations (or architectures) relating elementary processes and external influences are mostly piecemeal formulations suitable to particular instances only. Here, we develop a general dynamical framework for distinct functional architectures characterized by the time-scale separation of their constituents and evaluate their efficiency. Thereto, we build on the (phase) flow of a system, which prescribes the temporal evolution of its state variables. The phase flow topology allows for the unambiguous classification of qualitatively distinct processes, which we consider to represent the functional units or modes within the dynamical architecture. Using the example of a composite movement we illustrate how different architectures can be characterized by their degree of time scale separation between the internal elements of the architecture (i.e. the functional modes) and external interventions. We reveal a tradeoff of the interactions between internal and external influences, which offers a theoretical justification for the efficient composition of complex processes out of non-trivial elementary processes or functional modes. PMID:21347363

  1. Complex processes from dynamical architectures with time-scale hierarchy.

    PubMed

    Perdikis, Dionysios; Huys, Raoul; Jirsa, Viktor

    2011-02-10

    The idea that complex motor, perceptual, and cognitive behaviors are composed of smaller units, which are somehow brought into a meaningful relation, permeates the biological and life sciences. However, no principled framework defining the constituent elementary processes has been developed to this date. Consequently, functional configurations (or architectures) relating elementary processes and external influences are mostly piecemeal formulations suitable to particular instances only. Here, we develop a general dynamical framework for distinct functional architectures characterized by the time-scale separation of their constituents and evaluate their efficiency. Thereto, we build on the (phase) flow of a system, which prescribes the temporal evolution of its state variables. The phase flow topology allows for the unambiguous classification of qualitatively distinct processes, which we consider to represent the functional units or modes within the dynamical architecture. Using the example of a composite movement we illustrate how different architectures can be characterized by their degree of time scale separation between the internal elements of the architecture (i.e. the functional modes) and external interventions. We reveal a tradeoff of the interactions between internal and external influences, which offers a theoretical justification for the efficient composition of complex processes out of non-trivial elementary processes or functional modes.

  2. The ALMA software architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwarz, Joseph; Farris, Allen; Sommer, Heiko

    2004-09-01

    The software for the Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA) is being developed by many institutes on two continents. The software itself will function in a distributed environment, from the 0.5-14 kmbaselines that separate antennas to the larger distances that separate the array site at the Llano de Chajnantor in Chile from the operations and user support facilities in Chile, North America and Europe. Distributed development demands 1) interfaces that allow separated groups to work with minimal dependence on their counterparts at other locations; and 2) a common architecture to minimize duplication and ensure that developers can always perform similar tasks in a similar way. The Container/Component model provides a blueprint for the separation of functional from technical concerns: application developers concentrate on implementing functionality in Components, which depend on Containers to provide them with services such as access to remote resources, transparent serialization of entity objects to XML, logging, error handling and security. Early system integrations have verified that this architecture is sound and that developers can successfully exploit its features. The Containers and their services are provided by a system-orienteddevelopment team as part of the ALMA Common Software (ACS), middleware that is based on CORBA.

  3. Parallel architectures for vision

    SciTech Connect

    Maresca, M. ); Lavin, M.A. ); Li, H. )

    1988-08-01

    Vision computing involves the execution of a large number of operations on large sets of structured data. Sequential computers cannot achieve the speed required by most of the current applications and therefore parallel architectural solutions have to be explored. In this paper the authors examine the options that drive the design of a vision oriented computer, starting with the analysis of the basic vision computation and communication requirements. They briefly review the classical taxonomy for parallel computers, based on the multiplicity of the instruction and data stream, and apply a recently proposed criterion, the degree of autonomy of each processor, to further classify fine-grain SIMD massively parallel computers. They identify three types of processor autonomy, namely operation autonomy, addressing autonomy, and connection autonomy. For each type they give the basic definitions and show some examples. They focus on the concept of connection autonomy, which they believe is a key point in the development of massively parallel architectures for vision. They show two examples of parallel computers featuring different types of connection autonomy - the Connection Machine and the Polymorphic-Torus - and compare their cost and benefit.

  4. Architectures for intelligent machines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saridis, George N.

    1991-01-01

    The theory of intelligent machines has been recently reformulated to incorporate new architectures that are using neural and Petri nets. The analytic functions of an intelligent machine are implemented by intelligent controls, using entropy as a measure. The resulting hierarchical control structure is based on the principle of increasing precision with decreasing intelligence. Each of the three levels of the intelligent control is using different architectures, in order to satisfy the requirements of the principle: the organization level is moduled after a Boltzmann machine for abstract reasoning, task planning and decision making; the coordination level is composed of a number of Petri net transducers supervised, for command exchange, by a dispatcher, which also serves as an interface to the organization level; the execution level, include the sensory, planning for navigation and control hardware which interacts one-to-one with the appropriate coordinators, while a VME bus provides a channel for database exchange among the several devices. This system is currently implemented on a robotic transporter, designed for space construction at the CIRSSE laboratories at the Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute. The progress of its development is reported.

  5. Protocol Architecture Model Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dhas, Chris

    2000-01-01

    NASA's Glenn Research Center (GRC) defines and develops advanced technology for high priority national needs in communications technologies for application to aeronautics and space. GRC tasked Computer Networks and Software Inc. (CNS) to examine protocols and architectures for an In-Space Internet Node. CNS has developed a methodology for network reference models to support NASA's four mission areas: Earth Science, Space Science, Human Exploration and Development of Space (REDS), Aerospace Technology. This report applies the methodology to three space Internet-based communications scenarios for future missions. CNS has conceptualized, designed, and developed space Internet-based communications protocols and architectures for each of the independent scenarios. The scenarios are: Scenario 1: Unicast communications between a Low-Earth-Orbit (LEO) spacecraft inspace Internet node and a ground terminal Internet node via a Tracking and Data Rela Satellite (TDRS) transfer; Scenario 2: Unicast communications between a Low-Earth-Orbit (LEO) International Space Station and a ground terminal Internet node via a TDRS transfer; Scenario 3: Multicast Communications (or "Multicasting"), 1 Spacecraft to N Ground Receivers, N Ground Transmitters to 1 Ground Receiver via a Spacecraft.

  6. Demand Activated Manufacturing Architecture

    SciTech Connect

    Bender, T.R.; Zimmerman, J.J.

    2001-02-07

    Honeywell Federal Manufacturing & Technologies (FM&T) engineers John Zimmerman and Tom Bender directed separate projects within this CRADA. This Project Accomplishments Summary contains their reports independently. Zimmerman: In 1998 Honeywell FM&T partnered with the Demand Activated Manufacturing Architecture (DAMA) Cooperative Business Management Program to pilot the Supply Chain Integration Planning Prototype (SCIP). At the time, FM&T was developing an enterprise-wide supply chain management prototype called the Integrated Programmatic Scheduling System (IPSS) to improve the DOE's Nuclear Weapons Complex (NWC) supply chain. In the CRADA partnership, FM&T provided the IPSS technical and business infrastructure as a test bed for SCIP technology, and this would provide FM&T the opportunity to evaluate SCIP as the central schedule engine and decision support tool for IPSS. FM&T agreed to do the bulk of the work for piloting SCIP. In support of that aim, DAMA needed specific DOE Defense Programs opportunities to prove the value of its supply chain architecture and tools. In this partnership, FM&T teamed with Sandia National Labs (SNL), Division 6534, the other DAMA partner and developer of SCIP. FM&T tested SCIP in 1998 and 1999. Testing ended in 1999 when DAMA CRADA funding for FM&T ceased. Before entering the partnership, FM&T discovered that the DAMA SCIP technology had an array of applications in strategic, tactical, and operational planning and scheduling. At the time, FM&T planned to improve its supply chain performance by modernizing the NWC-wide planning and scheduling business processes and tools. The modernization took the form of a distributed client-server planning and scheduling system (IPSS) for planners and schedulers to use throughout the NWC on desktops through an off-the-shelf WEB browser. The planning and scheduling process within the NWC then, and today, is a labor-intensive paper-based method that plans and schedules more than 8,000 shipped parts

  7. Software synthesis using generic architectures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhansali, Sanjay

    1993-01-01

    A framework for synthesizing software systems based on abstracting software system designs and the design process is described. The result of such an abstraction process is a generic architecture and the process knowledge for customizing the architecture. The customization process knowledge is used to assist a designer in customizing the architecture as opposed to completely automating the design of systems. Our approach using an implemented example of a generic tracking architecture which was customized in two different domains is illustrated. How the designs produced using KASE compare to the original designs of the two systems, and current work and plans for extending KASE to other application areas are described.

  8. Deconstructing and reconstructing cognitive performance in sleep deprivation.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Melinda L; Gunzelmann, Glenn; Whitney, Paul; Hinson, John M; Belenky, Gregory; Rabat, Arnaud; Van Dongen, Hans P A

    2013-06-01

    Mitigation of cognitive impairment due to sleep deprivation in operational settings is critical for safety and productivity. Achievements in this area are hampered by limited knowledge about the effects of sleep loss on actual job tasks. Sleep deprivation has different effects on different cognitive performance tasks, but the mechanisms behind this task-specificity are poorly understood. In this context it is important to recognize that cognitive performance is not a unitary process, but involves a number of component processes. There is emerging evidence that these component processes are differentially affected by sleep loss. Experiments have been conducted to decompose sleep-deprived performance into underlying cognitive processes using cognitive-behavioral, neuroimaging and cognitive modeling techniques. Furthermore, computational modeling in cognitive architectures has been employed to simulate sleep-deprived cognitive performance on the basis of the constituent cognitive processes. These efforts are beginning to enable quantitative prediction of the effects of sleep deprivation across different task contexts. This paper reviews a rapidly evolving area of research, and outlines a theoretical framework in which the effects of sleep loss on cognition may be understood from the deficits in the underlying neurobiology to the applied consequences in real-world job tasks.

  9. 9. Photocopy of architectural drawing (from National Archives Architectural and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. Photocopy of architectural drawing (from National Archives Architectural and Cartographic Branch, Alexandria, Va.) Annotated lithograph on paper. Standard plan used for construction of Commissary Sergeants Quarters, 1876. PLAN, FRONT AND SIDE ELEVATIONS, SECTION - Fort Myer, Commissary Sergeant's Quarters, Washington Avenue between Johnson Lane & Custer Road, Arlington, Arlington County, VA

  10. The Architecture of Exoplanets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hatzes, Artie P.

    2016-12-01

    Prior to the discovery of exoplanets our expectations of their architecture were largely driven by the properties of our solar system. We expected giant planets to lie in the outer regions and rocky planets in the inner regions. Planets should probably only occupy orbital distances 0.3-30 AU from the star. Planetary orbits should be circular, prograde and in the same plane. The reality of exoplanets have shattered these expectations. Jupiter-mass, Neptune-mass, Superearths, and even Earth-mass planets can orbit within 0.05 AU of the stars, sometimes with orbital periods of less than one day. Exoplanetary orbits can be eccentric, misaligned, and even in retrograde orbits. Radial velocity surveys gave the first hints that the occurrence rate increases with decreasing mass. This was put on a firm statistical basis with the Kepler mission that clearly demonstrated that there were more Neptune- and Superearth-sized planets than Jupiter-sized planets. These are often in multiple, densely packed systems where the planets all orbit within 0.3 AU of the star, a result also suggested by radial velocity surveys. Exoplanets also exhibit diversity along the main sequence. Massive stars tend to have a higher frequency of planets (≈ 20-25 %) that tend to be more massive (M≈ 5-10 M_{Jup}). Giant planets around low mass stars are rare, but these stars show an abundance of small (Neptune and Superearth) planets in multiple systems. Planet formation is also not restricted to single stars as the Kepler mission has discovered several circumbinary planets. Although we have learned much about the architecture of planets over the past 20 years, we know little about the census of small planets at relatively large (a>1 AU) orbital distances. We have yet to find a planetary system that is analogous to our own solar system. The question of how unique are the properties of our own solar system remains unanswered. Advancements in the detection methods of small planets over a wide range of

  11. A Tool for Managing Software Architecture Knowledge

    SciTech Connect

    Babar, Muhammad A.; Gorton, Ian

    2007-08-01

    This paper describes a tool for managing architectural knowledge and rationale. The tool has been developed to support a framework for capturing and using architectural knowledge to improve the architecture process. This paper describes the main architectural components and features of the tool. The paper also provides examples of using the tool for supporting wellknown architecture design and analysis methods.

  12. Multiprocessor architectural study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kosmala, A. L.; Stanten, S. F.; Vandever, W. H.

    1972-01-01

    An architectural design study was made of a multiprocessor computing system intended to meet functional and performance specifications appropriate to a manned space station application. Intermetrics, previous experience, and accumulated knowledge of the multiprocessor field is used to generate a baseline philosophy for the design of a future SUMC* multiprocessor. Interrupts are defined and the crucial questions of interrupt structure, such as processor selection and response time, are discussed. Memory hierarchy and performance is discussed extensively with particular attention to the design approach which utilizes a cache memory associated with each processor. The ability of an individual processor to approach its theoretical maximum performance is then analyzed in terms of a hit ratio. Memory management is envisioned as a virtual memory system implemented either through segmentation or paging. Addressing is discussed in terms of various register design adopted by current computers and those of advanced design.

  13. Planning in subsumption architectures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chalfant, Eugene C.

    1994-01-01

    A subsumption planner using a parallel distributed computational paradigm based on the subsumption architecture for control of real-world capable robots is described. Virtual sensor state space is used as a planning tool to visualize the robot's anticipated effect on its environment. Decision sequences are generated based on the environmental situation expected at the time the robot must commit to a decision. Between decision points, the robot performs in a preprogrammed manner. A rudimentary, domain-specific partial world model contains enough information to extrapolate the end results of the rote behavior between decision points. A collective network of predictors operates in parallel with the reactive network forming a recurrrent network which generates plans as a hierarchy. Details of a plan segment are generated only when its execution is imminent. The use of the subsumption planner is demonstrated by a simple maze navigation problem.

  14. Evaluating architectural design review.

    PubMed

    Stamps, A E

    2000-02-01

    Architectural design review is a method of environmental management which is widely used by governmental agencies in both the United States and in Great Britain. Because design review is a governmental function, there is a major need to assess how well it works. Research covering over 29,000 respondents and 5,600 environmental scenes suggests that scientific protocols can be adapted to provide an accurate and efficient design review protocol. The protocol uses preference experiments to find the standardized mean difference [formula: see text] between a proposed project and a random sample of existing projects. Values of d will indicate whether the project will increase, maintain, or diminish the aesthetic merit of the sampled area. The protocol is illustrated by applying it to the case of design review for a single residence. Implications for further implementations are discussed.

  15. Naval open systems architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guertin, Nick; Womble, Brian; Haskell, Virginia

    2013-05-01

    For the past 8 years, the Navy has been working on transforming the acquisition practices of the Navy and Marine Corps toward Open Systems Architectures to open up our business, gain competitive advantage, improve warfighter performance, speed innovation to the fleet and deliver superior capability to the warfighter within a shrinking budget1. Why should Industry care? They should care because we in Government want the best Industry has to offer. Industry is in the business of pushing technology to greater and greater capabilities through innovation. Examples of innovations are on full display at this conference, such as exploring the impact of difficult environmental conditions on technical performance. Industry is creating the tools which will continue to give the Navy and Marine Corps important tactical advantages over our adversaries.

  16. Power Systems Control Architecture

    SciTech Connect

    James Davidson

    2005-01-01

    A diagram provided in the report depicts the complexity of the power systems control architecture used by the national power structure. It shows the structural hierarchy and the relationship of the each system to those other systems interconnected to it. Each of these levels provides a different focus for vulnerability testing and has its own weaknesses. In evaluating each level, of prime concern is what vulnerabilities exist that provide a path into the system, either to cause the system to malfunction or to take control of a field device. An additional vulnerability to consider is can the system be compromised in such a manner that the attacker can obtain critical information about the system and the portion of the national power structure that it controls.

  17. The Neurodynamics of Cognition: A Tutorial on Computational Cognitive Neuroscience.

    PubMed

    Ashby, F Gregory; Helie, Sebastien

    2011-08-01

    Computational Cognitive Neuroscience (CCN) is a new field that lies at the intersection of computational neuroscience, machine learning, and neural network theory (i.e., connectionism). The ideal CCN model should not make any assumptions that are known to contradict the current neuroscience literature and at the same time provide good accounts of behavior and at least some neuroscience data (e.g., single-neuron activity, fMRI data). Furthermore, once set, the architecture of the CCN network and the models of each individual unit should remain fixed throughout all applications. Because of the greater weight they place on biological accuracy, CCN models differ substantially from traditional neural network models in how each individual unit is modeled, how learning is modeled, and how behavior is generated from the network. A variety of CCN solutions to these three problems are described. A real example of this approach is described, and some advantages and limitations of the CCN approach are discussed.

  18. The Neurodynamics of Cognition: A Tutorial on Computational Cognitive Neuroscience

    PubMed Central

    Ashby, F. Gregory; Helie, Sebastien

    2011-01-01

    Computational Cognitive Neuroscience (CCN) is a new field that lies at the intersection of computational neuroscience, machine learning, and neural network theory (i.e., connectionism). The ideal CCN model should not make any assumptions that are known to contradict the current neuroscience literature and at the same time provide good accounts of behavior and at least some neuroscience data (e.g., single-neuron activity, fMRI data). Furthermore, once set, the architecture of the CCN network and the models of each individual unit should remain fixed throughout all applications. Because of the greater weight they place on biological accuracy, CCN models differ substantially from traditional neural network models in how each individual unit is modeled, how learning is modeled, and how behavior is generated from the network. A variety of CCN solutions to these three problems are described. A real example of this approach is described, and some advantages and limitations of the CCN approach are discussed. PMID:21841845

  19. Secure Storage Architectures

    SciTech Connect

    Aderholdt, Ferrol; Caldwell, Blake A; Hicks, Susan Elaine; Koch, Scott M; Naughton, III, Thomas J; Pogge, James R; Scott, Stephen L; Shipman, Galen M; Sorrillo, Lawrence

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to clarify the challenges associated with storage for secure enclaves. The major focus areas for the report are: - review of relevant parallel filesystem technologies to identify assets and gaps; - review of filesystem isolation/protection mechanisms, to include native filesystem capabilities and auxiliary/layered techniques; - definition of storage architectures that can be used for customizable compute enclaves (i.e., clarification of use-cases that must be supported for shared storage scenarios); - investigate vendor products related to secure storage. This study provides technical details on the storage and filesystem used for HPC with particular attention on elements that contribute to creating secure storage. We outline the pieces for a a shared storage architecture that balances protection and performance by leveraging the isolation capabilities available in filesystems and virtualization technologies to maintain the integrity of the data. Key Points: There are a few existing and in-progress protection features in Lustre related to secure storage, which are discussed in (Chapter 3.1). These include authentication capabilities like GSSAPI/Kerberos and the in-progress work for GSSAPI/Host-keys. The GPFS filesystem provides native support for encryption, which is not directly available in Lustre. Additionally, GPFS includes authentication/authorization mechanisms for inter-cluster sharing of filesystems (Chapter 3.2). The limitations of key importance for secure storage/filesystems are: (i) restricting sub-tree mounts for parallel filesystem (which is not directly supported in Lustre or GPFS), and (ii) segregation of hosts on the storage network and practical complications with dynamic additions to the storage network, e.g., LNET. A challenge for VM based use cases will be to provide efficient IO forwarding of the parallel filessytem from the host to the guest (VM). There are promising options like para-virtualized filesystems to

  20. Space Telecommunications Radio Architecture (STRS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reinhart, Richard C.

    2006-01-01

    A software defined radio (SDR) architecture used in space-based platforms proposes to standardize certain aspects of radio development such as interface definitions, functional control and execution, and application software and firmware development. NASA has charted a team to develop an open software defined radio hardware and software architecture to support NASA missions and determine the viability of an Agency-wide Standard. A draft concept of the proposed standard has been released and discussed among organizations in the SDR community. Appropriate leveraging of the JTRS SCA, OMG's SWRadio Architecture and other aspects are considered. A standard radio architecture offers potential value by employing common waveform software instantiation, operation, testing and software maintenance. While software defined radios offer greater flexibility, they also poses challenges to the radio development for the space environment in terms of size, mass and power consumption and available technology. An SDR architecture for space must recognize and address the constraints of space flight hardware, and systems along with flight heritage and culture. NASA is actively participating in the development of technology and standards related to software defined radios. As NASA considers a standard radio architecture for space communications, input and coordination from government agencies, the industry, academia, and standards bodies is key to a successful architecture. The unique aspects of space require thorough investigation of relevant terrestrial technologies properly adapted to space. The talk will describe NASA s current effort to investigate SDR applications to space missions and a brief overview of a candidate architecture under consideration for space based platforms.

  1. Dynamic Weather Routes Architecture Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eslami, Hassan; Eshow, Michelle

    2014-01-01

    Dynamic Weather Routes Architecture Overview, presents the high level software architecture of DWR, based on the CTAS software framework and the Direct-To automation tool. The document also covers external and internal data flows, required dataset, changes to the Direct-To software for DWR, collection of software statistics, and the code structure.

  2. An Architectural Strategy for Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holt, Raymond M., Ed.

    This volume presents the proceedings of the preconference institute of the Architecture for Public Libraries Committee of Library Administration Division's Building and Equipment section. The keynote address raises questions about architecture in a strategy for change. The remaining 14 articles and presentations are divided into five sections:…

  3. Interior Design in Architectural Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gurel, Meltem O.; Potthoff, Joy K.

    2006-01-01

    The domain of interiors constitutes a point of tension between practicing architects and interior designers. Design of interior spaces is a significant part of architectural profession. Yet, to what extent does architectural education keep pace with changing demands in rendering topics that are identified as pertinent to the design of interiors?…

  4. Cognitive Representation of Human Action: Theory, Applications, and Perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Seegelke, Christian; Schack, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    In this perspective article, we propose a cognitive architecture model of human action that stresses the importance of cognitive representations stored in long-term memory as reference structures underlying and guiding voluntary motor performance. We introduce an experimental approach to ascertain cognitive representation structures and provide evidence from a variety of different studies, ranging from basic research in manual action to application-oriented research, such as athlete performance and rehabilitation. As results from these studies strongly support the presence of functional links between cognitive and motor processes, we regard this approach as a suitable and valuable tool for a variety of different disciplines related to cognition and movement. We conclude this article by highlighting current advances in ongoing research projects aimed at improving interaction capabilities in technical systems, particularly for rehabilitation and everyday support of the elderly, and outline future research directions. PMID:26925398

  5. A symbolic/subsymbolic interface protocol for cognitive modeling

    PubMed Central

    Simen, Patrick; Polk, Thad

    2009-01-01

    Researchers studying complex cognition have grown increasingly interested in mapping symbolic cognitive architectures onto subsymbolic brain models. Such a mapping seems essential for understanding cognition under all but the most extreme viewpoints (namely, that cognition consists exclusively of digitally implemented rules; or instead, involves no rules whatsoever). Making this mapping reduces to specifying an interface between symbolic and subsymbolic descriptions of brain activity. To that end, we propose parameterization techniques for building cognitive models as programmable, structured, recurrent neural networks. Feedback strength in these models determines whether their components implement classically subsymbolic neural network functions (e.g., pattern recognition), or instead, logical rules and digital memory. These techniques support the implementation of limited production systems. Though inherently sequential and symbolic, these neural production systems can exploit principles of parallel, analog processing from decision-making models in psychology and neuroscience to explain the effects of brain damage on problem solving behavior. PMID:20711520

  6. Cognitive Representation of Human Action: Theory, Applications, and Perspectives.

    PubMed

    Seegelke, Christian; Schack, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    In this perspective article, we propose a cognitive architecture model of human action that stresses the importance of cognitive representations stored in long-term memory as reference structures underlying and guiding voluntary motor performance. We introduce an experimental approach to ascertain cognitive representation structures and provide evidence from a variety of different studies, ranging from basic research in manual action to application-oriented research, such as athlete performance and rehabilitation. As results from these studies strongly support the presence of functional links between cognitive and motor processes, we regard this approach as a suitable and valuable tool for a variety of different disciplines related to cognition and movement. We conclude this article by highlighting current advances in ongoing research projects aimed at improving interaction capabilities in technical systems, particularly for rehabilitation and everyday support of the elderly, and outline future research directions.

  7. Architecture Governance: The Importance of Architecture Governance for Achieving Operationally Responsive Ground Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kolar, Mike; Estefan, Jeff; Giovannoni, Brian; Barkley, Erik

    2011-01-01

    Topics covered (1) Why Governance and Why Now? (2) Characteristics of Architecture Governance (3) Strategic Elements (3a) Architectural Principles (3b) Architecture Board (3c) Architecture Compliance (4) Architecture Governance Infusion Process. Governance is concerned with decision making (i.e., setting directions, establishing standards and principles, and prioritizing investments). Architecture governance is the practice and orientation by which enterprise architectures and other architectures are managed and controlled at an enterprise-wide level

  8. Sustainability, Smart Growth, and Landscape Architecture

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Sustainability, Smart Growth, and Landscape Architecture is an overview course for landscape architecture students interested in sustainability in landscape architecture and how it might apply to smart growth principles in urban, suburban, and rural areas

  9. Motivation for Creativity in Architectural Design and Engineering Design Students: Implications for Design Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casakin, Hernan; Kreitler, Shulamith

    2010-01-01

    The investigation reported here dealt with the study of motivation for creativity. The goals were to assess motivation for creativity in architectural design and engineering design students based on the Cognitive Orientation theory which defines motivation as a function of a set of belief types, themes, and groupings identified as relevant for the…

  10. Consequential Creativity: Student Competency and Lateral Thinking Incorporation in Architectural Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamza, Tamer S.; Hassan, Doaa K.

    2016-01-01

    Creativity is an original cognitive ability and problem solving process which enables individuals to use their intelligence in a way that is unique and directed toward coming up with a product. Architectural education is one of the fields in which human creativity has been exhibited; because, it can be defined as a design study that correlates…

  11. Music cognition and the cognitive sciences.

    PubMed

    Pearce, Marcus; Rohrmeier, Martin

    2012-10-01

    Why should music be of interest to cognitive scientists, and what role does it play in human cognition? We review three factors that make music an important topic for cognitive scientific research. First, music is a universal human trait fulfilling crucial roles in everyday life. Second, music has an important part to play in ontogenetic development and human evolution. Third, appreciating and producing music simultaneously engage many complex perceptual, cognitive, and emotional processes, rendering music an ideal object for studying the mind. We propose an integrated status for music cognition in the Cognitive Sciences and conclude by reviewing challenges and big questions in the field and the way in which these reflect recent developments.

  12. Holography as a regenerator of architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urh, Bruno

    1994-10-01

    Nonconventional optical imaging elements as holograms, caused some crucial changes in architectural theory and practice. Architecture using holograms on the facade skin can be divided into parallel and interconnective architecture. Using H.O.E.s and C.G.H.s in a special way, we can talk about third architecture which is not (necessary) bounded to any of known architectural and aesthetical standards, an 'enfant perdu' which penetrates in the very systems of architecture.

  13. Exploring Cognitive Diversity: Anthropological Perspectives on Cognition.

    PubMed

    Beller, Sieghard; Bender, Andrea

    2015-10-01

    Anthropology and the other cognitive sciences currently maintain a troubled relationship (Beller, Bender, & Medin, ). What could rapprochement look like, and how could it be achieved? The seven main articles of this topic present anthropological or anthropologically inspired cross-cultural research on a diverse set of cognitive domains. They serve as an existence proof that not only do synergies abound across anthropology and the other cognitive sciences, but that they are worth achieving.

  14. Digital Architecture Planning Model

    SciTech Connect

    Oxstrand, Johanna Helene; Al Rashdan, Ahmad Yahya Mohammad; Bly, Aaron Douglas; Rice, Brandon Charles; Fitzgerald, Kirk; Wilson, Keith Leon

    2016-03-01

    As part of the U.S. Department of Energy’s Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program, the Digital Architecture (DA) Project focuses on providing a model that nuclear utilities can refer to when planning deployment of advanced technologies. The digital architecture planning model (DAPM) is the methodology for mapping power plant operational and support activities into a DA that unifies all data sources needed by the utilities to operate their plants. The DA is defined as a collection of information technology capabilities needed to support and integrate a wide spectrum of real-time digital capabilities for performance improvements of nuclear power plants. DA can be thought of as integration of the separate instrumentation and control and information systems already in place in nuclear power plants, which are brought together for the purpose of creating new levels of automation in plant work activities. A major objective in DAPM development was to survey all key areas that needed to be reviewed in order for a utility to make knowledgeable decisions regarding needs and plans to implement a DA at the plant. The development was done in two steps. First, researchers surveyed the nuclear industry in order to learn their near-term plans for adopting new advanced capabilities and implementing a network (i.e., wireless and wire) infrastructure throughout the plant, including the power block. Secondly, a literature review covering regulatory documents, industry standards, and technical research reports and articles was conducted. The objective of the review was to identify key areas to be covered by the DAPM, which included the following: 1. The need for a DA and its benefits to the plant 2. Resources required to implement the DA 3. Challenges that need to be addressed and resolved to implement the DA 4. Roles and responsibilities of the DA implementation plan. The DAPM was developed based on results from the survey and the literature review. Model development, including

  15. Multiprocessor architecture: Synthesis and evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Standley, Hilda M.

    1990-01-01

    Multiprocessor computed architecture evaluation for structural computations is the focus of the research effort described. Results obtained are expected to lead to more efficient use of existing architectures and to suggest designs for new, application specific, architectures. The brief descriptions given outline a number of related efforts directed toward this purpose. The difficulty is analyzing an existing architecture or in designing a new computer architecture lies in the fact that the performance of a particular architecture, within the context of a given application, is determined by a number of factors. These include, but are not limited to, the efficiency of the computation algorithm, the programming language and support environment, the quality of the program written in the programming language, the multiplicity of the processing elements, the characteristics of the individual processing elements, the interconnection network connecting processors and non-local memories, and the shared memory organization covering the spectrum from no shared memory (all local memory) to one global access memory. These performance determiners may be loosely classified as being software or hardware related. This distinction is not clear or even appropriate in many cases. The effect of the choice of algorithm is ignored by assuming that the algorithm is specified as given. Effort directed toward the removal of the effect of the programming language and program resulted in the design of a high-level parallel programming language. Two characteristics of the fundamental structure of the architecture (memory organization and interconnection network) are examined.

  16. Cognitive behavioral therapy for back pain

    MedlinePlus

    ... back pain - cognitive behavioral; Backache - chronic - cognitive behavioral; Lumbar pain - chronic - cognitive behavioral; Pain - back - chronic - cognitive behavioral; Chronic back pain - low - cognitive behavioral

  17. Hijazi Architectural Object Library (haol)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baik, A.; Boehm, J.

    2017-02-01

    As with many historical buildings around the world, building façades are of special interest; moreover, the details of such windows, stonework, and ornaments give each historic building its individual character. Each object of these buildings must be classified in an architectural object library. Recently, a number of researches have been focusing on this topic in Europe and Canada. From this standpoint, the Hijazi Architectural Objects Library (HAOL) has reproduced Hijazi elements as 3D computer models, which are modelled using a Revit Family (RFA). The HAOL will be dependent on the image survey and point cloud data. The Hijazi Object such as Roshan and Mashrabiyah, become as vocabulary of many Islamic cities in the Hijazi region such as Jeddah in Saudi Arabia, and even for a number of Islamic historic cities such as Istanbul and Cairo. These architectural vocabularies are the main cause of the beauty of these heritage. However, there is a big gap in both the Islamic architectural library and the Hijazi architectural library to provide these unique elements. Besides, both Islamic and Hijazi architecture contains a huge amount of information which has not yet been digitally classified according to period and styles. Due to this issue, this paper will be focusing on developing of Heritage BIM (HBIM) standards and the HAOL library to reduce the cost and the delivering time for heritage and new projects that involve in Hijazi architectural styles. Through this paper, the fundamentals of Hijazi architecture informatics will be provided via developing framework for HBIM models and standards. This framework will provide schema and critical information, for example, classifying the different shapes, models, and forms of structure, construction, and ornamentation of Hijazi architecture in order to digitalize parametric building identity.

  18. Distributed multiport memory architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kohl, W. H. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    A multiport memory architecture is diclosed for each of a plurality of task centers connected to a command and data bus. Each task center, includes a memory and a plurality of devices which request direct memory access as needed. The memory includes an internal data bus and an internal address bus to which the devices are connected, and direct timing and control logic comprised of a 10-state ring counter for allocating memory devices by enabling AND gates connected to the request signal lines of the devices. The outputs of AND gates connected to the same device are combined by OR gates to form an acknowledgement signal that enables the devices to address the memory during the next clock period. The length of the ring counter may be effectively lengthened to any multiple of ten to allow for more direct memory access intervals in one repetitive sequence. One device is a network bus adapter which serially shifts onto the command and data bus, a data word (8 bits plus control and parity bits) during the next ten direct memory access intervals after it has been granted access. The NBA is therefore allocated only one access in every ten intervals, which is a predetermined interval for all centers. The ring counters of all centers are periodically synchronized by DMA SYNC signal to assure that all NBAs be able to function in synchronism for data transfer from one center to another.

  19. Ajax Architecture Implementation Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hussaini, Syed Asadullah; Tabassum, S. Nasira; Baig, Tabassum, M. Khader

    2012-03-01

    Today's rich Web applications use a mix of Java Script and asynchronous communication with the application server. This mechanism is also known as Ajax: Asynchronous JavaScript and XML. The intent of Ajax is to exchange small pieces of data between the browser and the application server, and in doing so, use partial page refresh instead of reloading the entire Web page. AJAX (Asynchronous JavaScript and XML) is a powerful Web development model for browser-based Web applications. Technologies that form the AJAX model, such as XML, JavaScript, HTTP, and XHTML, are individually widely used and well known. However, AJAX combines these technologies to let Web pages retrieve small amounts of data from the server without having to reload the entire page. This capability makes Web pages more interactive and lets them behave like local applications. Web 2.0 enabled by the Ajax architecture has given rise to a new level of user interactivity through web browsers. Many new and extremely popular Web applications have been introduced such as Google Maps, Google Docs, Flickr, and so on. Ajax Toolkits such as Dojo allow web developers to build Web 2.0 applications quickly and with little effort.

  20. Superconducting Bolometer Array Architectures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benford, Dominic; Chervenak, Jay; Irwin, Kent; Moseley, S. Harvey; Shafer, Rick; Staguhn, Johannes; Wollack, Ed; Oegerle, William (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The next generation of far-infrared and submillimeter instruments require large arrays of detectors containing thousands of elements. These arrays will necessarily be multiplexed, and superconducting bolometer arrays are the most promising present prospect for these detectors. We discuss our current research into superconducting bolometer array technologies, which has recently resulted in the first multiplexed detections of submillimeter light and the first multiplexed astronomical observations. Prototype arrays containing 512 pixels are in production using the Pop-Up Detector (PUD) architecture, which can be extended easily to 1000 pixel arrays. Planar arrays of close-packed bolometers are being developed for the GBT (Green Bank Telescope) and for future space missions. For certain applications, such as a slewed far-infrared sky survey, feedhorncoupling of a large sparsely-filled array of bolometers is desirable, and is being developed using photolithographic feedhorn arrays. Individual detectors have achieved a Noise Equivalent Power (NEP) of -10(exp 17) W/square root of Hz at 300mK, but several orders of magnitude improvement are required and can be reached with existing technology. The testing of such ultralow-background detectors will prove difficult, as this requires optical loading of below IfW. Antenna-coupled bolometer designs have advantages for large format array designs at low powers due to their mode selectivity.

  1. Planetary cubesats - mission architectures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bousquet, Pierre W.; Ulamec, Stephan; Jaumann, Ralf; Vane, Gregg; Baker, John; Clark, Pamela; Komarek, Tomas; Lebreton, Jean-Pierre; Yano, Hajime

    2016-07-01

    Miniaturisation of technologies over the last decade has made cubesats a valid solution for deep space missions. For example, a spectacular set 13 cubesats will be delivered in 2018 to a high lunar orbit within the frame of SLS' first flight, referred to as Exploration Mission-1 (EM-1). Each of them will perform autonomously valuable scientific or technological investigations. Other situations are encountered, such as the auxiliary landers / rovers and autonomous camera that will be carried in 2018 to asteroid 1993 JU3 by JAXA's Hayabusas 2 probe, and will provide complementary scientific return to their mothership. In this case, cubesats depend on a larger spacecraft for deployment and other resources, such as telecommunication relay or propulsion. For both situations, we will describe in this paper how cubesats can be used as remote observatories (such as NEO detection missions), as technology demonstrators, and how they can perform or contribute to all steps in the Deep Space exploration sequence: Measurements during Deep Space cruise, Body Fly-bies, Body Orbiters, Atmospheric probes (Jupiter probe, Venus atmospheric probes, ..), Static Landers, Mobile landers (such as balloons, wheeled rovers, small body rovers, drones, penetrators, floating devices, …), Sample Return. We will elaborate on mission architectures for the most promising concepts where cubesat size devices offer an advantage in terms of affordability, feasibility, and increase of scientific return.

  2. ALMA software architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwarz, Joseph; Raffi, Gianni

    2002-12-01

    The Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA) is a joint project involving astronomical organizations in Europe and North America. ALMA will consist of at least 64 12-meter antennas operating in the millimeter and sub-millimeter range. It will be located at an altitude of about 5000m in the Chilean Atacama desert. The primary challenge to the development of the software architecture is the fact that both its development and runtime environments will be distributed. Groups at different institutes will develop the key elements such as Proposal Preparation tools, Instrument operation, On-line calibration and reduction, and Archiving. The Proposal Preparation software will be used primarily at scientists' home institutions (or on their laptops), while Instrument Operations will execute on a set of networked computers at the ALMA Operations Support Facility. The ALMA Science Archive, itself to be replicated at several sites, will serve astronomers worldwide. Building upon the existing ALMA Common Software (ACS), the system architects will prepare a robust framework that will use XML-encoded entity objects to provide an effective solution to the persistence needs of this system, while remaining largely independent of any underlying DBMS technology. Independence of distributed subsystems will be facilitated by an XML- and CORBA-based pass-by-value mechanism for exchange of objects. Proof of concept (as well as a guide to subsystem developers) will come from a prototype whose details will be presented.

  3. Architectures for Nanostructured Batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rubloff, Gary

    2013-03-01

    Heterogeneous nanostructures offer profound opportunities for advancement in electrochemical energy storage, particularly with regard to power. However, their design and integration must balance ion transport, electron transport, and stability under charge/discharge cycling, involving fundamental physical, chemical and electrochemical mechanisms at nano length scales and across disparate time scales. In our group and in our DOE Energy Frontier Research Center (www.efrc.umd.edu) we have investigated single nanostructures and regular nanostructure arrays as batteries, electrochemical capacitors, and electrostatic capacitors to understand limiting mechanisms, using a variety of synthesis and characterization strategies. Primary lithiation pathways in heterogeneous nanostructures have been observed to include surface, interface, and both isotropic and anisotropic diffusion, depending on materials. Integrating current collection layers at the nano scale with active ion storage layers enhances power and can improve stability during cycling. For densely packed nanostructures as required for storage applications, we investigate both ``regular'' and ``random'' architectures consistent with transport requirements for spatial connectivity. Such configurations raise further important questions at the meso scale, such as dynamic ion and electron transport in narrow and tortuous channels, and the role of defect structures and their evolution during charge cycling. Supported as part of the Nanostructures for Electrical Energy Storage, an Energy Frontier Research Center funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences under Award Number DESC0001160

  4. Microcomponent chemical process sheet architecture

    DOEpatents

    Wegeng, R.S.; Drost, M.K.; Call, C.J.; Birmingham, J.G.; McDonald, C.E.; Kurath, D.E.; Friedrich, M.

    1998-09-22

    The invention is a microcomponent sheet architecture wherein macroscale unit processes are performed by microscale components. The sheet architecture may be a single laminate with a plurality of separate microcomponent sections or the sheet architecture may be a plurality of laminates with one or more microcomponent sections on each laminate. Each microcomponent or plurality of like microcomponents perform at least one chemical process unit operation. A first laminate having a plurality of like first microcomponents is combined with at least a second laminate having a plurality of like second microcomponents thereby combining at least two unit operations to achieve a system operation. 26 figs.

  5. Microcomponent chemical process sheet architecture

    DOEpatents

    Wegeng, Robert S.; Drost, M. Kevin; Call, Charles J.; Birmingham, Joseph G.; McDonald, Carolyn Evans; Kurath, Dean E.; Friedrich, Michele

    1998-01-01

    The invention is a microcomponent sheet architecture wherein macroscale unit processes are performed by microscale components. The sheet architecture may be a single laminate with a plurality of separate microcomponent sections or the sheet architecture may be a plurality of laminates with one or more microcomponent sections on each laminate. Each microcomponent or plurality of like microcomponents perform at least one chemical process unit operation. A first laminate having a plurality of like first microcomponents is combined with at least a second laminate having a plurality of like second microcomponents thereby combining at least two unit operations to achieve a system operation.

  6. Telemedicine system interoperability architecture: concept description and architecture overview.

    SciTech Connect

    Craft, Richard Layne, II

    2004-05-01

    In order for telemedicine to realize the vision of anywhere, anytime access to care, it must address the question of how to create a fully interoperable infrastructure. This paper describes the reasons for pursuing interoperability, outlines operational requirements that any interoperability approach needs to consider, proposes an abstract architecture for meeting these needs, identifies candidate technologies that might be used for rendering this architecture, and suggests a path forward that the telemedicine community might follow.

  7. "Shallow draughts intoxicate the brain": lessons from cognitive science for cognitive neuropsychology.

    PubMed

    Patterson, Karalyn; Plaut, David C

    2009-01-01

    This article presents a sobering view of the discipline of cognitive neuropsychology as practiced over the last three or four decades. Our judgment is that, although the study of abnormal cognition resulting from brain injury or disease in previously normal adults has produced a catalogue of fascinating and highly selective deficits, it has yielded relatively little advance in understanding how the brain accomplishes its cognitive business. We question the wisdom of the following three "choices" in mainstream cognitive neuropsychology: (a) single-case methodology, (b) dissociation between functions as the most important source of evidence, and (c) a central goal of diagramming the functional architecture of cognition rather than specifying how its components work. These choices may all stem from an excessive commitment to strict and fine-grained modularity. Although different brain regions are undoubtedly specialized for different functions, we argue that parallel and interactive processing is a better assumption about cognitive processing. The essential goal of specifying representations and processes can, we claim, be significantly assisted by computational modeling which, by its very nature, requires such specification.

  8. Neurally and Mathematically Motivated Architecture for Language and Thought

    PubMed Central

    Perlovsky, L.I; Ilin, R

    2010-01-01

    Neural structures of interaction between thinking and language are unknown. This paper suggests a possible architecture motivated by neural and mathematical considerations. A mathematical requirement of computability imposes significant constraints on possible architectures consistent with brain neural structure and with a wealth of psychological knowledge. How language interacts with cognition. Do we think with words, or is thinking independent from language with words being just labels for decisions? Why is language learned by the age of 5 or 7, but acquisition of knowledge represented by learning to use this language knowledge takes a lifetime? This paper discusses hierarchical aspects of language and thought and argues that high level abstract thinking is impossible without language. We discuss a mathematical technique that can model the joint language-thought architecture, while overcoming previously encountered difficulties of computability. This architecture explains a contradiction between human ability for rational thoughtful decisions and irrationality of human thinking revealed by Tversky and Kahneman; a crucial role in this contradiction might be played by language. The proposed model resolves long-standing issues: how the brain learns correct words-object associations; why animals do not talk and think like people. We propose the role played by language emotionality in its interaction with thought. We relate the mathematical model to Humboldt’s “firmness” of languages; and discuss possible influence of language grammar on its emotionality. Psychological and brain imaging experiments related to the proposed model are discussed. Future theoretical and experimental research is outlined. PMID:21673788

  9. Neurally and mathematically motivated architecture for language and thought.

    PubMed

    Perlovsky, L I; Ilin, R

    2010-01-01

    Neural structures of interaction between thinking and language are unknown. This paper suggests a possible architecture motivated by neural and mathematical considerations. A mathematical requirement of computability imposes significant constraints on possible architectures consistent with brain neural structure and with a wealth of psychological knowledge. How language interacts with cognition. Do we think with words, or is thinking independent from language with words being just labels for decisions? Why is language learned by the age of 5 or 7, but acquisition of knowledge represented by learning to use this language knowledge takes a lifetime? This paper discusses hierarchical aspects of language and thought and argues that high level abstract thinking is impossible without language. We discuss a mathematical technique that can model the joint language-thought architecture, while overcoming previously encountered difficulties of computability. This architecture explains a contradiction between human ability for rational thoughtful decisions and irrationality of human thinking revealed by Tversky and Kahneman; a crucial role in this contradiction might be played by language. The proposed model resolves long-standing issues: how the brain learns correct words-object associations; why animals do not talk and think like people. We propose the role played by language emotionality in its interaction with thought. We relate the mathematical model to Humboldt's "firmness" of languages; and discuss possible influence of language grammar on its emotionality. Psychological and brain imaging experiments related to the proposed model are discussed. Future theoretical and experimental research is outlined.

  10. Oxytocin, testosterone, and human social cognition.

    PubMed

    Crespi, Bernard J

    2016-05-01

    effects partially mediate risks and phenotypes of autism and psychotic-affective conditions. These considerations have direct implications for the development of therapies for alleviating disorders of social cognition, and for understanding how such disorders are associated with the evolution of human cognitive-affective architecture.

  11. Précis on The Cognitive-Emotional Brain.

    PubMed

    Pessoa, Luiz

    2015-01-01

    In The Cognitive-Emotional Brain (Pessoa 2013), I describe the many ways that emotion and cognition interact and are integrated in the brain. The book summarizes five areas of research that support this integrative view and makes four arguments to organize each area. (1) Based on rodent and human data, I propose that the amygdala's functions go beyond emotion as traditionally conceived. Furthermore, the processing of emotion-laden information is capacity limited, thus not independent of attention and awareness. (2) Cognitive-emotional interactions in the human prefrontal cortex (PFC) assume diverse forms and are not limited to mutual suppression. Particularly, the lateral PFC is a focal point for cognitive-emotional interactions. (3) Interactions between motivation and cognition can be seen across a range of perceptual and cognitive tasks. Motivation shapes behavior in specific ways--for example, by reducing response conflict or via selective effects on working memory. Traditional accounts, by contrast, typically describe motivation as a global activation independent of particular control demands. (4) Perception and cognition are directly influenced by information with affective or motivational content in powerful ways. A dual competition model outlines a framework for such interactions at the perceptual and executive levels. A specific neural architecture is proposed that embeds emotional and motivational signals into perception and cognition through multiple channels. (5) A network perspective should supplant the strategy of understanding the brain in terms of individual regions. More broadly, in a network view of brain architecture, "emotion" and "cognition" may be used as labels of certain behaviors, but will not map cleanly into compartmentalized pieces of the brain.

  12. Simulator for heterogeneous dataflow architectures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malekpour, Mahyar R.

    1993-01-01

    A new simulator is developed to simulate the execution of an algorithm graph in accordance with the Algorithm to Architecture Mapping Model (ATAMM) rules. ATAMM is a Petri Net model which describes the periodic execution of large-grained, data-independent dataflow graphs and which provides predictable steady state time-optimized performance. This simulator extends the ATAMM simulation capability from a heterogenous set of resources, or functional units, to a more general heterogenous architecture. Simulation test cases show that the simulator accurately executes the ATAMM rules for both a heterogenous architecture and a homogenous architecture, which is the special case for only one processor type. The simulator forms one tool in an ATAMM Integrated Environment which contains other tools for graph entry, graph modification for performance optimization, and playback of simulations for analysis.

  13. Transverse pumped laser amplifier architecture

    DOEpatents

    Bayramian, Andrew James; Manes, Kenneth R.; Deri, Robert; Erlandson, Alvin; Caird, John; Spaeth, Mary L.

    2015-05-19

    An optical gain architecture includes a pump source and a pump aperture. The architecture also includes a gain region including a gain element operable to amplify light at a laser wavelength. The gain region is characterized by a first side intersecting an optical path, a second side opposing the first side, a third side adjacent the first and second sides, and a fourth side opposing the third side. The architecture further includes a dichroic section disposed between the pump aperture and the first side of the gain region. The dichroic section is characterized by low reflectance at a pump wavelength and high reflectance at the laser wavelength. The architecture additionally includes a first cladding section proximate to the third side of the gain region and a second cladding section proximate to the fourth side of the gain region.

  14. Transverse pumped laser amplifier architecture

    DOEpatents

    Bayramian, Andrew James; Manes, Kenneth; Deri, Robert; Erlandson, Al; Caird, John; Spaeth, Mary

    2013-07-09

    An optical gain architecture includes a pump source and a pump aperture. The architecture also includes a gain region including a gain element operable to amplify light at a laser wavelength. The gain region is characterized by a first side intersecting an optical path, a second side opposing the first side, a third side adjacent the first and second sides, and a fourth side opposing the third side. The architecture further includes a dichroic section disposed between the pump aperture and the first side of the gain region. The dichroic section is characterized by low reflectance at a pump wavelength and high reflectance at the laser wavelength. The architecture additionally includes a first cladding section proximate to the third side of the gain region and a second cladding section proximate to the fourth side of the gain region.

  15. Architecture and the Information Revolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Driscoll, Porter; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Traces how technological changes affect the architecture of the workplace. Traces these effects from the industrial revolution up through the computer revolution. Offers suggested designs for the computerized office of today and tomorrow. (JM)

  16. Simulator for heterogeneous dataflow architectures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malekpour, Mahyar R.

    1993-09-01

    A new simulator is developed to simulate the execution of an algorithm graph in accordance with the Algorithm to Architecture Mapping Model (ATAMM) rules. ATAMM is a Petri Net model which describes the periodic execution of large-grained, data-independent dataflow graphs and which provides predictable steady state time-optimized performance. This simulator extends the ATAMM simulation capability from a heterogenous set of resources, or functional units, to a more general heterogenous architecture. Simulation test cases show that the simulator accurately executes the ATAMM rules for both a heterogenous architecture and a homogenous architecture, which is the special case for only one processor type. The simulator forms one tool in an ATAMM Integrated Environment which contains other tools for graph entry, graph modification for performance optimization, and playback of simulations for analysis.

  17. Layered Architecture for Quantum Computing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, N. Cody; Van Meter, Rodney; Fowler, Austin G.; McMahon, Peter L.; Kim, Jungsang; Ladd, Thaddeus D.; Yamamoto, Yoshihisa

    2012-07-01

    We develop a layered quantum-computer architecture, which is a systematic framework for tackling the individual challenges of developing a quantum computer while constructing a cohesive device design. We discuss many of the prominent techniques for implementing circuit-model quantum computing and introduce several new methods, with an emphasis on employing surface-code quantum error correction. In doing so, we propose a new quantum-computer architecture based on optical control of quantum dots. The time scales of physical-hardware operations and logical, error-corrected quantum gates differ by several orders of magnitude. By dividing functionality into layers, we can design and analyze subsystems independently, demonstrating the value of our layered architectural approach. Using this concrete hardware platform, we provide resource analysis for executing fault-tolerant quantum algorithms for integer factoring and quantum simulation, finding that the quantum-dot architecture we study could solve such problems on the time scale of days.

  18. The IVOA Architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arviset, C.; Gaudet, S.; IVOA Technical Coordination Group

    2012-09-01

    Astronomy produces large amounts of data of many kinds, coming from various sources: science space missions, ground based telescopes, theoretical models, compilation of results, etc. These data and associated processing services are made available via the Internet by "providers", usually large data centres or smaller teams (see Figure 1). The "consumers", be they individual researchers, research teams or computer systems, access these services to do their science. However, inter-connection amongst all these services and between providers and consumers is usually not trivial. The Virtual Observatory (VO) is the necessary "middle layer" framework enabling interoperability between all these providers and consumers in a seamless and transparent manner. Like the web which enables end users and machines to access transparently documents and services wherever and however they are stored, the VO enables the astronomy community to access data and service resources wherever and however they are provided. Over the last decade, the International Virtual Observatory Alliance (IVOA) has been defining various standards to build the VO technical framework for the providers to share their data and services ("Sharing"), and to allow users to find ("Finding") these resources, to get them ("Getting") and to use them ("Using"). To enable these functionalities, the definition of some core astronomically-oriented standards ("VO Core") has also been necessary. This paper will present the official and current IVOA Architecture[1], describing the various building blocks of the VO framework (see Figure 2) and their relation to all existing and in-progress IVOA standards. Additionally, it will show examples of these standards in action, connecting VO "consumers" to VO "providers".

  19. NPOESS System Architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hinnant, F.

    2009-12-01

    The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Department of Defense (DoD), and National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) are jointly acquiring the next-generation weather and environmental satellite system; the National Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite System (NPOESS). NPOESS replaces the current Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellites (POES) managed by NOAA and the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) managed by the DoD and will provide continuity for the NASA Earth Observation System with the launch of the NPOESS Preparatory Project. This poster will provide a top level status update of the program, as well as an overview of the NPOESS system architecture, which includes four segments. The space segment includes satellites in two orbits that carry a suite of sensors that collect meteorological, oceanographic, climatological, and solar-geophysical observations of the earth, atmosphere, and space. The NPOESS system design allows centralized mission management and delivers high quality environmental products to military, civil and scientific users through a Command, Control, and Communication Segment (C3S). The data processing for NPOESS is accomplished through an Interface Data Processing Segment (IDPS)/Field Terminal Segment (FTS) that processes NPOESS satellite data to provide environmental data products to NOAA and DoD processing centers operated by the United States government as well as remote terminal users. The Launch Support Segment completes the four segments that make up the NPOESS system that will enhance the connectivity between research and operations and provide critical operational and scientific environmental measurements to military, civil, and scientific users until 2026.

  20. The Mothership Mission Architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ernst, S. M.; DiCorcia, J. D.; Bonin, G.; Gump, D.; Lewis, J. S.; Foulds, C.; Faber, D.

    2015-12-01

    The Mothership is considered to be a dedicated deep space carrier spacecraft. It is currently being developed by Deep Space Industries (DSI) as a mission concept that enables a broad participation in the scientific exploration of small bodies - the Mothership mission architecture. A Mothership shall deliver third-party nano-sats, experiments and instruments to Near Earth Asteroids (NEOs), comets or moons. The Mothership service includes delivery of nano-sats, communication to Earth and visuals of the asteroid surface and surrounding area. The Mothership is designed to carry about 10 nano-sats, based upon a variation of the Cubesat standard, with some flexibility on the specific geometry. The Deep Space Nano-Sat reference design is a 14.5 cm cube, which accommodates the same volume as a traditional 3U CubeSat. To reduce cost, Mothership is designed as a secondary payload aboard launches to GTO. DSI is offering slots for nano-sats to individual customers. This enables organizations with relatively low operating budgets to closely examine an asteroid with highly specialized sensors of their own choosing and carry out experiments in the proximity of or on the surface of an asteroid, while the nano-sats can be built or commissioned by a variety of smaller institutions, companies, or agencies. While the overall Mothership mission will have a financial volume somewhere between a European Space Agencies' (ESA) S- and M-class mission for instance, it can be funded through a number of small and individual funding sources and programs, hence avoiding the processes associated with traditional space exploration missions. DSI has been able to identify a significant interest in the planetary science and nano-satellite communities.

  1. Project Integration Architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, William Henry

    2008-01-01

    The Project Integration Architecture (PIA) is a distributed, object-oriented, conceptual, software framework for the generation, organization, publication, integration, and consumption of all information involved in any complex technological process in a manner that is intelligible to both computers and humans. In the development of PIA, it was recognized that in order to provide a single computational environment in which all information associated with any given complex technological process could be viewed, reviewed, manipulated, and shared, it is necessary to formulate all the elements of such a process on the most fundamental level. In this formulation, any such element is regarded as being composed of any or all of three parts: input information, some transformation of that input information, and some useful output information. Another fundamental principle of PIA is the assumption that no consumer of information, whether human or computer, can be assumed to have any useful foreknowledge of an element presented to it. Consequently, a PIA-compliant computing system is required to be ready to respond to any questions, posed by the consumer, concerning the nature of the proffered element. In colloquial terms, a PIA-compliant system must be prepared to provide all the information needed to place the element in context. To satisfy this requirement, PIA extends the previously established object-oriented- programming concept of self-revelation and applies it on a grand scale. To enable pervasive use of self-revelation, PIA exploits another previously established object-oriented-programming concept - that of semantic infusion through class derivation. By means of self-revelation and semantic infusion through class derivation, a consumer of information can inquire about the contents of all information entities (e.g., databases and software) and can interact appropriately with those entities. Other key features of PIA are listed.

  2. Cognitive Levels Matching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, Martin; And Others

    1983-01-01

    The Cognitive Levels Matching Project trains teachers to guide students' skill acquisition and problem-solving processes by assessing students' cognitive levels and adapting their teaching materials accordingly. (MLF)

  3. Frequency Diverse Array Receiver Architectures

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-06-29

    fielded systems. The FDA architecture intrinsically covers multiple diversity domains therefore, naturally lends it self to a multi-mission, multi-mode...dependent characteristics of the FDA and the periodic nature of the beam paterns. 7 Chapter 3 Linear Array Receiver Architectures We aim to design, clarify...flexibility in steering the beam. 3.1.1 FDA Time Dependency Spatial Pattern Due to the time dependency and periodic nature of the FDA spatial patterns a

  4. STI Architectural Framework Working Group

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaye, Karen

    1994-01-01

    A general overview of the architecture developed for the NASA scientific and technical information (STI) modernization plan is presented. The value of standardization as a technique to reduce life cycle costs, to facilitate interoperability and scalability and to simplify the management process is explained. Definitions for both de facto and de jure standards follow with emphasis on government and industrial standards. The methodology applied in developing the STI architecture is described.

  5. Cognitive psychiatry in India

    PubMed Central

    Dalal, P. K.; Sivakumar, T.

    2010-01-01

    Cognitive deficits have been shown to exist in various psychiatric disorders. Though most Indian studies pertaining to cognition have been replication studies, well designed original studies have also been conducted. This article traces the evolution of cognitive psychiatry in India. Cognitive research has huge potential in India and can help us unravel mysteries of the human mind, identify etiopathogenesis and facilitate treatment of psychiatric disorders. PMID:21836668

  6. The re-tooled mind: how culture re-engineers cognition.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Margaret

    2010-06-01

    One of the main goals of cognitive science is to discover the underlying principles that characterize human cognition, but this enterprise is complicated by culturally-driven variability. While much fruitful work has focused on how culture influences the contents of cognition, here I argue that culture can in addition exercise a profound effect on the how of cognition-the mechanisms by which cognitive tasks get done. I argue that much of the fundamental processes of daily cognitive activity involve the operation of cognitive tools that are not genetically determined but instead are invented and culturally transmitted. Further, these cognitive inventions become 'firmware', consituting a re-engineering of the individual's cognitive architecture. That is, ontogenetic experience from one's cultural context serves to re-tool the developing mind into a variety of disparate cognitive phenotypes. Drawing on several mutually isolated literatures, I advance four claims to the effect that cognitive tools (i) are ubitquitous in everyday cognition, (ii) result in reorganization of the neural system, (iii) are founded in embodied representations and (iv) were made possible by the evolution of an unprecedented degree of voluntary control over the body. I conclude by discussing the implications for the agenda of cognitive science.

  7. Mapping Cognitive Function

    PubMed Central

    Stufflebeam, Steven M.; Rosen, Bruce

    2009-01-01

    Synopsis Cognitive functions are fundamental to being human. Although tremendous progress has been made in the science of cognition using neuroimaging, the clinical applications of neuroimaging are just beginning to be realized. A unifying theme of this chapter is the concept that a more complete understanding of cognition only comes through integration of multimodal structural and functional imaging technologies. PMID:17983964

  8. The Cognitive Doppler.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kozoil, Micah E.

    1989-01-01

    Discusses the learning needs of students in the concrete operational stage in mathematics. Identifies the phenomenon of reduced cognitive performance in an out-of-class environment as the "Cognitive Doppler." Suggests methods of reducing the pronounced effects of the Cognitive Doppler by capitalizing on the students' ability to memorize…

  9. Interactive Team Cognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooke, Nancy J.; Gorman, Jamie C.; Myers, Christopher W.; Duran, Jasmine L.

    2013-01-01

    Cognition in work teams has been predominantly understood and explained in terms of shared cognition with a focus on the similarity of static knowledge structures across individual team members. Inspired by the current zeitgeist in cognitive science, as well as by empirical data and pragmatic concerns, we offer an alternative theory of team…

  10. The Tractable Cognition Thesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Rooij, Iris

    2008-01-01

    The recognition that human minds/brains are finite systems with limited resources for computation has led some researchers to advance the "Tractable Cognition thesis": Human cognitive capacities are constrained by computational tractability. This thesis, if true, serves cognitive psychology by constraining the space of computational-level theories…

  11. Handbook of Spatial Cognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waller, David, Ed.; Nadel, Lynn, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    Spatial cognition is a branch of cognitive psychology that studies how people acquire and use knowledge about their environment to determine where they are, how to obtain resources, and how to find their way home. Researchers from a wide range of disciplines, including neuroscience, cognition, and sociology, have discovered a great deal about how…

  12. Spacecraft Architecture in long Duration Space Travels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ören, Ayşe

    2016-07-01

    As we embark on a journey for new homes in the new worlds to lay solid foundations, we should consider not only the survival of frontiers but also well-being of those to live in zero gravity. As a versatile science, architecture encompasses abstract human needs as well. On our new different direction in the course of the Homo sapiens evolution, we can do this with designs addressing both our needs and senses. Well-being of humans can be achieved by creating environments supporting the cognitive and social stages in the evolution process. Space stations are going through their own evolution process. Any step taken can serve as a reference for further attempts. When studying the history of architecture, window designing is discussed in a later phase, which is the case for building a spaceship as well. We lean on the places we live both physically and metaphorically. The feeling of belonging is essential here, entailing trans-humanism, which is significant since the environment therein is like a dress comfortable enough to fit in, meeting needs without any burden. Utilizing the advent of technology, we can create moods and atmospheres to regulate night and day cycles, thus we can turn claustrophobic places into cozy or dream-like places. Senses provoke a psychological sensation going beyond cultural codes as they are rooted within consciousness, which allows designers to create a mood within a space that tells a story and evokes an emotional impact. Color, amount of light, sound and odor are not superficial. As much as intangible, they are real and powerful tools with a physical presence. Tapping into induction, we can solve a whole system based on a part thereof. Therefore, fractal designs may not yield good results unless used correctly in terms of design although they are functional, which makes geometric arrangement critical.

  13. Early-Life Stress Is Associated with Impairment in Cognitive Control in Adolescence: An fMRI Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mueller, Sven C.; Maheu, Francoise S.; Dozier, Mary; Peloso, Elizabeth; Mandell, Darcy; Leibenluft, Ellen; Pine, Daniel S.; Ernst, Monique

    2010-01-01

    Early-life stress (ES) has been associated with diverse forms of psychopathology. Some investigators suggest that these associations reflect the effects of stress on the neural circuits that support cognitive control. However, very few prior studies have examined the associations between ES, cognitive control, and underlying neural architecture.…

  14. Bipartite memory network architectures for parallel processing

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, W.; Kale, L.V. . Dept. of Computer Science)

    1990-01-01

    Parallel architectures are boradly classified as either shared memory or distributed memory architectures. In this paper, the authors propose a third family of architectures, called bipartite memory network architectures. In this architecture, processors and memory modules constitute a bipartite graph, where each processor is allowed to access a small subset of the memory modules, and each memory module allows access from a small set of processors. The architecture is particularly suitable for computations requiring dynamic load balancing. The authors explore the properties of this architecture by examining the Perfect Difference set based topology for the graph. Extensions of this topology are also suggested.

  15. Architectural Analysis of Dynamically Reconfigurable Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindvall, Mikael; Godfrey, Sally; Ackermann, Chris; Ray, Arnab; Yonkwa, Lyly

    2010-01-01

    oTpics include: the problem (increased flexibility of architectural styles decrease analyzability, behavior emerges and varies depending on the configuration, does the resulting system run according to the intended design, and architectural decisions can impede or facilitate testing); top down approach to architecture analysis, detection of defects and deviations, and architecture and its testability; currently targeted projects GMSEC and CFS; analyzing software architectures; analyzing runtime events; actual architecture recognition; GMPUB in Dynamic SAVE; sample output from new approach; taking message timing delays into account; CFS examples of architecture and testability; some recommendations for improved testablity; and CFS examples of abstract interfaces and testability; CFS example of opening some internal details.

  16. Extended spider cognition.

    PubMed

    Japyassú, Hilton F; Laland, Kevin N

    2017-02-07

    There is a tension between the conception of cognition as a central nervous system (CNS) process and a view of cognition as extending towards the body or the contiguous environment. The centralised conception requires large or complex nervous systems to cope with complex environments. Conversely, the extended conception involves the outsourcing of information processing to the body or environment, thus making fewer demands on the processing power of the CNS. The evolution of extended cognition should be particularly favoured among small, generalist predators such as spiders, and here, we review the literature to evaluate the fit of empirical data with these contrasting models of cognition. Spiders do not seem to be cognitively limited, displaying a large diversity of learning processes, from habituation to contextual learning, including a sense of numerosity. To tease apart the central from the extended cognition, we apply the mutual manipulability criterion, testing the existence of reciprocal causal links between the putative elements of the system. We conclude that the web threads and configurations are integral parts of the cognitive systems. The extension of cognition to the web helps to explain some puzzling features of spider behaviour and seems to promote evolvability within the group, enhancing innovation through cognitive connectivity to variable habitat features. Graded changes in relative brain size could also be explained by outsourcing information processing to environmental features. More generally, niche-constructed structures emerge as prime candidates for extending animal cognition, generating the selective pressures that help to shape the evolving cognitive system.

  17. The tractable cognition thesis.

    PubMed

    Van Rooij, Iris

    2008-09-01

    The recognition that human minds/brains are finite systems with limited resources for computation has led some researchers to advance the Tractable Cognition thesis: Human cognitive capacities are constrained by computational tractability. This thesis, if true, serves cognitive psychology by constraining the space of computational-level theories of cognition. To utilize this constraint, a precise and workable definition of "computational tractability" is needed. Following computer science tradition, many cognitive scientists and psychologists define computational tractability as polynomial-time computability, leading to the P-Cognition thesis. This article explains how and why the P-Cognition thesis may be overly restrictive, risking the exclusion of veridical computational-level theories from scientific investigation. An argument is made to replace the P-Cognition thesis by the FPT-Cognition thesis as an alternative formalization of the Tractable Cognition thesis (here, FPT stands for fixed-parameter tractable). Possible objections to the Tractable Cognition thesis, and its proposed formalization, are discussed, and existing misconceptions are clarified.

  18. [Normal aging and cognition].

    PubMed

    Ska, Bernadette; Joanette, Yves

    2006-03-01

    It is now well documented that normal aging modifies the cognitive functioning and most observations suggest that cognition evolves in the direction of deterioration. The more frequently impaired functions are memory, attention and visual-spatial abilities. On the other hand, some abilities seem to increase, such as vocabulary. Considering the aging effect on cognition, questions remain regarding directionality, universality and reversibility. A great variability in aged related impacts is observed among subjects and among cognitive domains. Some individuals evolved more rapidly than others. Some cognitive functions are more affected by aging than others. General and specific factors are hypothesized to explain the aged related cognitive decline. Among them, educational level, health, cognitive style, life style, personality, are likely to modulate the aged related cognitive evolution by influencing attentional resources and cerebral plasticity. Cognitive resources are essential to develop adaptative strategies. During the life span, resources are activated and increased by learning and training. Considering the role of cognitive resources, successful aging is dependent on several conditions : absence of disease leading to a loss of autonomy, maintenance of cognitive and physical activities, and active and social engaged lifestyle.

  19. Comparative cognition for conservationists

    PubMed Central

    Greggor, Alison L.; Clayton, Nicola S.; Phalan, Ben; Thornton, Alex

    2014-01-01

    Every animal occupies a unique cognitive world based on its sensory capacities, and attentional and learning biases. Behaviour results from the interaction of this cognitive world with the environment. As humans alter environments, cognitive processes ranging from perceptual processes to learned behaviour govern animals’ reactions. By harnessing animals’ perceptual biases and applying insights from cognitive theory, we can purposefully alter cues to reduce maladaptive responses and shape behaviour. Despite the fundamental connection between cognition and behaviour, the breadth of cognitive theory is underutilised in conservation practice. Bridging these disciplines could augment existing conservation efforts targeting animal behaviour. We outline relevant principles of perception and learning, and develop a step-by-step process for applying aspects of cognition towards specific conservation issues. PMID:25043737

  20. Parallel Temporal Dynamics in Hierarchical Cognitive Control

    PubMed Central

    Ranti, Carolyn; Chatham, Christopher H.; Badre, David

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive control allows us to follow abstract rules in order to choose appropriate responses given our desired outcomes. Cognitive control is often conceptualized as a hierarchical decision process, wherein decisions made at higher, more abstract levels of control asymmetrically influence lower-level decisions. These influences could evolve sequentially across multiple levels of a hierarchical decision, consistent with much prior evidence for central bottlenecks and seriality in decision-making processes. However, here, we show that multiple levels of hierarchical cognitive control are processed primarily in parallel. Human participants selected responses to stimuli using a complex, multiply contingent (third order) rule structure. A response deadline procedure allowed assessment of the accuracy and timing of decisions made at each level of the hierarchy. In contrast to a serial decision process, error rates across levels of the decision mostly declined simultaneously and at identical rates, with only a slight tendency to complete the highest level decision first. Simulations with a biologically plausible neural network model demonstrate how such parallel processing could emerge from a previously developed hierarchically nested frontostriatal architecture. Our results support a parallel processing model of cognitive control, in which uncertainty on multiple levels of a decision is reduced simultaneously. PMID:26051820

  1. Cognitive nonlinear radar test-bed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hedden, Abigail S.; Wikner, David A.; Martone, Anthony; McNamara, David

    2013-05-01

    Providing situational awareness to the warfighter requires radar, communications, and other electronic systems that operate in increasingly cluttered and dynamic electromagnetic environments. There is a growing need for cognitive RF systems that are capable of monitoring, adapting to, and learning from their environments in order to maintain their effectiveness and functionality. Additionally, radar systems are needed that are capable of adapting to an increased number of targets of interest. Cognitive nonlinear radar may offer critical solutions to these growing problems. This work focuses on ongoing efforts at the U.S. Army Research Laboratory (ARL) to develop a cognitive nonlinear radar test-bed. ARL is working toward developing a test-bed that uses spectrum sensing to monitor the RF environment and dynamically change the transmit waveforms to achieve detection of nonlinear targets with high confidence. This work presents the architecture of the test-bed system along with a discussion of its current capabilities and limitations. A brief outlook is presented for the project along with a discussion of a future cognitive nonlinear radar test-bed.

  2. Lunar Navigation Architecture Design Considerations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    D'Souza, Christopher; Getchius, Joel; Holt, Greg; Moreau, Michael

    2009-01-01

    The NASA Constellation Program is aiming to establish a long-term presence on the lunar surface. The Constellation elements (Orion, Altair, Earth Departure Stage, and Ares launch vehicles) will require a lunar navigation architecture for navigation state updates during lunar-class missions. Orion in particular has baselined earth-based ground direct tracking as the primary source for much of its absolute navigation needs. However, due to the uncertainty in the lunar navigation architecture, the Orion program has had to make certain assumptions on the capabilities of such architectures in order to adequately scale the vehicle design trade space. The following paper outlines lunar navigation requirements, the Orion program assumptions, and the impacts of these assumptions to the lunar navigation architecture design. The selection of potential sites was based upon geometric baselines, logistical feasibility, redundancy, and abort support capability. Simulated navigation covariances mapped to entry interface flightpath- angle uncertainties were used to evaluate knowledge errors. A minimum ground station architecture was identified consisting of Goldstone, Madrid, Canberra, Santiago, Hartebeeshoek, Dongora, Hawaii, Guam, and Ascension Island (or the geometric equivalent).

  3. Space and Architecture's Current Line of Research? A Lunar Architecture Workshop With An Architectural Agenda.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solomon, D.; van Dijk, A.

    The "2002 ESA Lunar Architecture Workshop" (June 3-16) ESTEC, Noordwijk, NL and V2_Lab, Rotterdam, NL) is the first-of-its-kind workshop for exploring the design of extra-terrestrial (infra) structures for human exploration of the Moon and Earth-like planets introducing 'architecture's current line of research', and adopting an architec- tural criteria. The workshop intends to inspire, engage and challenge 30-40 European masters students from the fields of aerospace engineering, civil engineering, archi- tecture, and art to design, validate and build models of (infra) structures for Lunar exploration. The workshop also aims to open up new physical and conceptual terrain for an architectural agenda within the field of space exploration. A sound introduc- tion to the issues, conditions, resources, technologies, and architectural strategies will initiate the workshop participants into the context of lunar architecture scenarios. In my paper and presentation about the development of the ideology behind this work- shop, I will comment on the following questions: * Can the contemporary architectural agenda offer solutions that affect the scope of space exploration? It certainly has had an impression on urbanization and colonization of previously sparsely populated parts of Earth. * Does the current line of research in architecture offer any useful strategies for com- bining scientific interests, commercial opportunity, and public space? What can be learned from 'state of the art' architecture that blends commercial and public pro- grammes within one location? * Should commercial 'colonisation' projects in space be required to provide public space in a location where all humans present are likely to be there in a commercial context? Is the wave in Koolhaas' new Prada flagship store just a gesture to public space, or does this new concept in architecture and shopping evolve the public space? * What can we learn about designing (infra-) structures on the Moon or any other

  4. Brain enhancement through cognitive training: a new insight from brain connectome

    PubMed Central

    Taya, Fumihiko; Sun, Yu; Babiloni, Fabio; Thakor, Nitish; Bezerianos, Anastasios

    2015-01-01

    Owing to the recent advances in neurotechnology and the progress in understanding of brain cognitive functions, improvements of cognitive performance or acceleration of learning process with brain enhancement systems is not out of our reach anymore, on the contrary, it is a tangible target of contemporary research. Although a variety of approaches have been proposed, we will mainly focus on cognitive training interventions, in which learners repeatedly perform cognitive tasks to improve their cognitive abilities. In this review article, we propose that the learning process during the cognitive training can be facilitated by an assistive system monitoring cognitive workloads using electroencephalography (EEG) biomarkers, and the brain connectome approach can provide additional valuable biomarkers for facilitating leaners’ learning processes. For the purpose, we will introduce studies on the cognitive training interventions, EEG biomarkers for cognitive workload, and human brain connectome. As cognitive overload and mental fatigue would reduce or even eliminate gains of cognitive training interventions, a real-time monitoring of cognitive workload can facilitate the learning process by flexibly adjusting difficulty levels of the training task. Moreover, cognitive training interventions should have effects on brain sub-networks, not on a single brain region, and graph theoretical network metrics quantifying topological architecture of the brain network can differentiate with respect to individual cognitive states as well as to different individuals’ cognitive abilities, suggesting that the connectome is a valuable approach for tracking the learning progress. Although only a few studies have exploited the connectome approach for studying alterations of the brain network induced by cognitive training interventions so far, we believe that it would be a useful technique for capturing improvements of cognitive functions. PMID:25883555

  5. Brain enhancement through cognitive training: a new insight from brain connectome.

    PubMed

    Taya, Fumihiko; Sun, Yu; Babiloni, Fabio; Thakor, Nitish; Bezerianos, Anastasios

    2015-01-01

    Owing to the recent advances in neurotechnology and the progress in understanding of brain cognitive functions, improvements of cognitive performance or acceleration of learning process with brain enhancement systems is not out of our reach anymore, on the contrary, it is a tangible target of contemporary research. Although a variety of approaches have been proposed, we will mainly focus on cognitive training interventions, in which learners repeatedly perform cognitive tasks to improve their cognitive abilities. In this review article, we propose that the learning process during the cognitive training can be facilitated by an assistive system monitoring cognitive workloads using electroencephalography (EEG) biomarkers, and the brain connectome approach can provide additional valuable biomarkers for facilitating leaners' learning processes. For the purpose, we will introduce studies on the cognitive training interventions, EEG biomarkers for cognitive workload, and human brain connectome. As cognitive overload and mental fatigue would reduce or even eliminate gains of cognitive training interventions, a real-time monitoring of cognitive workload can facilitate the learning process by flexibly adjusting difficulty levels of the training task. Moreover, cognitive training interventions should have effects on brain sub-networks, not on a single brain region, and graph theoretical network metrics quantifying topological architecture of the brain network can differentiate with respect to individual cognitive states as well as to different individuals' cognitive abilities, suggesting that the connectome is a valuable approach for tracking the learning progress. Although only a few studies have exploited the connectome approach for studying alterations of the brain network induced by cognitive training interventions so far, we believe that it would be a useful technique for capturing improvements of cognitive functions.

  6. Architecture assessment of HLLV candidates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, Walter E.

    1992-01-01

    Results of an architecture study of four Heavy Lift Launch Vehicles (HLLV) families are summarized, with attention given to civil, commercial, military and Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) applications. The Mars Exploration architecture is used as the SEI model baseline, and the architecture of each vehicle family is analyzed with respect to ground processing, launch operations, on-orbit operations, mission performance, and cost. For lunar missions, a 70-t earth-to-orbit (ETO) vehicle is shown to have definite cost advantages, with only small operational disadvantages, if the lunar program is small or medium in size. For Mars, a comparison of 150-t and 250-t ETO vehicles shows that little operational advantage is gained by going to the 250-t size.

  7. Conceptual architectural/acoustical design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marshall, A. Harold

    2004-05-01

    The thinking which characterizes acoustics as a branch of physics and engineering has difficulty with the architectural design process-the process that generates a room concept in the imagination and experience of the architect. The architect has learned to ``sense'' the visual properties of a room as the design develops in the interaction between mind and media. Phrases such as ``wanting to be'' express the architectural intention but too often such intentions are dismissed as arbitrary; acoustics may then be about fixing the design with acoustical add-ons. Occasionally there is a true meeting of minds-a creative and receptive architect and an acoustician able to communicate at the level of the architectural intention. There is evidently an auditory dimension of wanting to be which is one with the visual. This paper explores the idea in several examples and concludes with suggestions for the training of acousticians.

  8. Vascular Cognitive Impairment.

    PubMed

    Dichgans, Martin; Leys, Didier

    2017-02-03

    Cerebrovascular disease typically manifests with stroke, cognitive impairment, or both. Vascular cognitive impairment refers to all forms of cognitive disorder associated with cerebrovascular disease, regardless of the specific mechanisms involved. It encompasses the full range of cognitive deficits from mild cognitive impairment to dementia. In principle, any of the multiple causes of clinical stroke can cause vascular cognitive impairment. Recent work further highlights a role of microinfarcts, microhemorrhages, strategic white matter tracts, loss of microstructural tissue integrity, and secondary neurodegeneration. Vascular brain injury results in loss of structural and functional connectivity and, hence, compromise of functional networks within the brain. Vascular cognitive impairment is common both after stroke and in stroke-free individuals presenting to dementia clinics, and vascular pathology frequently coexists with neurodegenerative pathology, resulting in mixed forms of mild cognitive impairment or dementia. Vascular dementia is now recognized as the second most common form of dementia after Alzheimer's disease, and there is increasing awareness that targeting vascular risk may help to prevent dementia, even of the Alzheimer type. Recent advances in neuroimaging, neuropathology, epidemiology, and genetics have led to a deeper understanding of how vascular disease affects cognition. These new findings provide an opportunity for the present reappraisal of vascular cognitive impairment. We further briefly address current therapeutic concepts.

  9. Explaining embodied cognition results.

    PubMed

    Lakoff, George

    2012-10-01

    From the late 1950s until 1975, cognition was understood mainly as disembodied symbol manipulation in cognitive psychology, linguistics, artificial intelligence, and the nascent field of Cognitive Science. The idea of embodied cognition entered the field of Cognitive Linguistics at its beginning in 1975. Since then, cognitive linguists, working with neuroscientists, computer scientists, and experimental psychologists, have been developing a neural theory of thought and language (NTTL). Central to NTTL are the following ideas: (a) we think with our brains, that is, thought is physical and is carried out by functional neural circuitry; (b) what makes thought meaningful are the ways those neural circuits are connected to the body and characterize embodied experience; (c) so-called abstract ideas are embodied in this way as well, as is language. Experimental results in embodied cognition are seen not only as confirming NTTL but also explained via NTTL, mostly via the neural theory of conceptual metaphor. Left behind more than three decades ago is the old idea that cognition uses the abstract manipulation of disembodied symbols that are meaningless in themselves but that somehow constitute internal "representations of external reality" without serious mediation by the body and brain. This article uniquely explains the connections between embodied cognition results since that time and results from cognitive linguistics, experimental psychology, computational modeling, and neuroscience.

  10. Improving clinical cognitive testing

    PubMed Central

    Gale, Seth A.; Barrett, A.M.; Boeve, Bradley F.; Chatterjee, Anjan; Coslett, H. Branch; D'Esposito, Mark; Finney, Glen R.; Gitelman, Darren R.; Hart, John J.; Lerner, Alan J.; Meador, Kimford J.; Pietras, Alison C.; Voeller, Kytja S.; Kaufer, Daniel I.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the evidence basis of single-domain cognitive tests frequently used by behavioral neurologists in an effort to improve the quality of clinical cognitive assessment. Methods: Behavioral Neurology Section members of the American Academy of Neurology were surveyed about how they conduct clinical cognitive testing, with a particular focus on the Neurobehavioral Status Exam (NBSE). In contrast to general screening cognitive tests, an NBSE consists of tests of individual cognitive domains (e.g., memory or language) that provide a more comprehensive diagnostic assessment. Workgroups for each of 5 cognitive domains (attention, executive function, memory, language, and spatial cognition) conducted evidence-based reviews of frequently used tests. Reviews focused on suitability for office-based clinical practice, including test administration time, accessibility of normative data, disease populations studied, and availability in the public domain. Results: Demographic and clinical practice data were obtained from 200 respondents who reported using a wide range of cognitive tests. Based on survey data and ancillary information, between 5 and 15 tests in each cognitive domain were reviewed. Within each domain, several tests are highlighted as being well-suited for an NBSE. Conclusions: We identified frequently used single-domain cognitive tests that are suitable for an NBSE to help make informed choices about clinical cognitive assessment. Some frequently used tests have limited normative data or have not been well-studied in common neurologic disorders. Utilizing standardized cognitive tests, particularly those with normative data based on the individual's age and educational level, can enhance the rigor and utility of clinical cognitive assessment. PMID:26163433

  11. Airport Surface Network Architecture Definition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, Thanh C.; Eddy, Wesley M.; Bretmersky, Steven C.; Lawas-Grodek, Fran; Ellis, Brenda L.

    2006-01-01

    Currently, airport surface communications are fragmented across multiple types of systems. These communication systems for airport operations at most airports today are based dedicated and separate architectures that cannot support system-wide interoperability and information sharing. The requirements placed upon the Communications, Navigation, and Surveillance (CNS) systems in airports are rapidly growing and integration is urgently needed if the future vision of the National Airspace System (NAS) and the Next Generation Air Transportation System (NGATS) 2025 concept are to be realized. To address this and other problems such as airport surface congestion, the Space Based Technologies Project s Surface ICNS Network Architecture team at NASA Glenn Research Center has assessed airport surface communications requirements, analyzed existing and future surface applications, and defined a set of architecture functions that will help design a scalable, reliable and flexible surface network architecture to meet the current and future needs of airport operations. This paper describes the systems approach or methodology to networking that was employed to assess airport surface communications requirements, analyze applications, and to define the surface network architecture functions as the building blocks or components of the network. The systems approach used for defining these functions is relatively new to networking. It is viewing the surface network, along with its environment (everything that the surface network interacts with or impacts), as a system. Associated with this system are sets of services that are offered by the network to the rest of the system. Therefore, the surface network is considered as part of the larger system (such as the NAS), with interactions and dependencies between the surface network and its users, applications, and devices. The surface network architecture includes components such as addressing/routing, network management, network

  12. Adaptive reconfigurable distributed sensor architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akey, Mark L.

    1997-07-01

    The infancy of unattended ground based sensors is quickly coming to an end with the arrival of on-board GPS, networking, and multiple sensing capabilities. Unfortunately, their use is only first-order at best: GPS assists with sensor report registration; networks push sensor reports back to the warfighter and forwards control information to the sensors; multispectral sensing is a preset, pre-deployment consideration; and the scalability of large sensor networks is questionable. Current architectures provide little synergy among or within the sensors either before or after deployment, and do not map well to the tactical user's organizational structures and constraints. A new distributed sensor architecture is defined which moves well beyond single sensor, single task architectures. Advantages include: (1) automatic mapping of tactical direction to multiple sensors' tasks; (2) decentralized, distributed management of sensor resources and tasks; (3) software reconfiguration of deployed sensors; (4) network scalability and flexibility to meet the constraints of tactical deployments, and traditional combat organizations and hierarchies; and (5) adaptability to new battlefield communication paradigms such as BADD (Battlefield Analysis and Data Dissemination). The architecture is supported in two areas: a recursive, structural definition of resource configuration and management via loose associations; and a hybridization of intelligent software agents with tele- programming capabilities. The distributed sensor architecture is examined within the context of air-deployed ground sensors with acoustic, communication direction finding, and infra-red capabilities. Advantages and disadvantages of the architecture are examined. Consideration is given to extended sensor life (up to 6 months), post-deployment sensor reconfiguration, limited on- board sensor resources (processor and memory), and bandwidth. It is shown that technical tasking of the sensor suite can be automatically

  13. Parallel Architecture For Robotics Computation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fijany, Amir; Bejczy, Antal K.

    1990-01-01

    Universal Real-Time Robotic Controller and Simulator (URRCS) is highly parallel computing architecture for control and simulation of robot motion. Result of extensive algorithmic study of different kinematic and dynamic computational problems arising in control and simulation of robot motion. Study led to development of class of efficient parallel algorithms for these problems. Represents algorithmically specialized architecture, in sense capable of exploiting common properties of this class of parallel algorithms. System with both MIMD and SIMD capabilities. Regarded as processor attached to bus of external host processor, as part of bus memory.

  14. Bit-serial neuroprocessor architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tawel, Raoul (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    A neuroprocessor architecture employs a combination of bit-serial and serial-parallel techniques for implementing the neurons of the neuroprocessor. The neuroprocessor architecture includes a neural module containing a pool of neurons, a global controller, a sigmoid activation ROM look-up-table, a plurality of neuron state registers, and a synaptic weight RAM. The neuroprocessor reduces the number of neurons required to perform the task by time multiplexing groups of neurons from a fixed pool of neurons to achieve the successive hidden layers of a recurrent network topology.

  15. A reconfigurable multicarrier demodulator architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kwatra, S. C.; Jamali, M. M.

    1991-01-01

    An architecture based on parallel and pipline design approaches has been developed for the Frequency Division Multiple Access/Time Domain Multiplexed (FDMA/TDM) conversion system. The architecture has two main modules namely the transmultiplexer and the demodulator. The transmultiplexer has two pipelined modules. These are the shared multiplexed polyphase filter and the Fast Fourier Transform (FFT). The demodulator consists of carrier, clock, and data recovery modules which are interactive. Progress on the design of the MultiCarrier Demodulator (MCD) using commercially available chips and Application Specific Integrated Circuits (ASIC) and simulation studies using Viewlogic software will be presented at the conference.

  16. Impact of Enterprise Architecture on Architecture Agility and Coherence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abaas, Kanari

    2009-01-01

    IT has permeated to the very roots of organizations and has an ever increasingly important role in the achievement of overall corporate objectives and business strategies. This paper presents an approach for evaluating the impact of existing Enterprise Architecture (EA) implementations. The papers answers questions such as: What are the challenges…

  17. Best of College Architecture: AS&U's Architectural Competition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American School and University, 1981

    1981-01-01

    A restoration/addition that preserves traditional New England architecture, a sleek vocational-technical college on the prairie, and two energy efficient masonry buildings were selected as winners in the 1981 American School & University Design Awards competition. (Author/MLF)

  18. Archibabel: Tracing the Writing Architecture Project in Architectural Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lappin, Sarah A.; Erk, Gül Kaçmaz; Martire, Agustina

    2015-01-01

    Though much recent scholarship has investigated the potential of writing in creative practice (including visual arts, drama, even choreography), there are few models in the literature which discuss writing in the context of architectural education. This article aims to address this dearth of pedagogical research, analysing the cross-disciplinary…

  19. Architecture is Elementary: Visual Thinking through Architectural Concepts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winters, Nathan B.

    This book presents very basic but important concepts about architecture and outlines some of the most important concepts used by great architects. These concepts are taught at levels of perceptual maturity applicable to adults and children alike and progress from levels one through seven as the concepts become progressively intertwined. The…

  20. Glutamate Networks Implicate Cognitive Impairments in Schizophrenia: Genome-Wide Association Studies of 52 Cognitive Phenotypes

    PubMed Central

    Ohi, Kazutaka; Hashimoto, Ryota; Ikeda, Masashi; Yamamori, Hidenaga; Yasuda, Yuka; Fujimoto, Michiko; Umeda-Yano, Satomi; Fukunaga, Masaki; Fujino, Haruo; Watanabe, Yoshiyuki; Iwase, Masao; Kazui, Hiroaki; Iwata, Nakao; Weinberger, Daniel R.; Takeda, Masatoshi

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive impairments are a core feature in patients with schizophrenia. These deficits could serve as effective tools for understanding the genetic architecture of schizophrenia. This study investigated whether genetic variants associated with cognitive impairments aggregate in functional gene networks related to the pathogenesis of schizophrenia. Here, genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of a range of cognitive phenotypes relevant to schizophrenia were performed in 411 healthy subjects. We attempted to replicate the GWAS data using 257 patients with schizophrenia and performed a meta-analysis of the GWAS findings and the replicated results. Because gene networks, rather than a single gene or genetic variant, may be strongly associated with the susceptibility to schizophrenia and cognitive impairments, gene-network analysis for genes in close proximity to the replicated variants was performed. We observed nominal associations between 3054 variants and cognitive phenotypes at a threshold of P < 1.0 × 10− 4. Of the 3054 variants, the associations of 191 variants were replicated in the replication samples (P < .05). However, no variants achieved genome-wide significance in a meta-analysis (P > 5.0 × 10− 8). Additionally, 115 of 191 replicated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have genes located within 10 kb of the SNPs (60.2%). These variants were moderately associated with cognitive phenotypes that ranged from P = 2.50 × 10− 5 to P = 9.40 × 10− 8. The genes located within 10 kb from the replicated SNPs were significantly grouped in terms of glutamate receptor activity (false discovery rate (FDR) q = 4.49 × 10− 17) and the immune system related to major histocompatibility complex class I (FDR q = 8.76 × 10− 11) networks. Our findings demonstrate that genetic variants related to cognitive trait impairment in schizophrenia are involved in the N-methyl-d-aspartate glutamate network. PMID:25537281

  1. Space Generic Open Avionics Architecture (SGOAA): Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wray, Richard B.; Stovall, John R.

    1992-01-01

    A space generic open avionics architecture created for NASA is described. It will serve as the basis for entities in spacecraft core avionics, capable of being tailored by NASA for future space program avionics ranging from small vehicles such as Moon ascent/descent vehicles to large ones such as Mars transfer vehicles or orbiting stations. The standard consists of: (1) a system architecture; (2) a generic processing hardware architecture; (3) a six class architecture interface model; (4) a system services functional subsystem architectural model; and (5) an operations control functional subsystem architectural model.

  2. A surety engineering framework to reduce cognitive systems risks.

    SciTech Connect

    Caudell, Thomas P.; Peercy, David Eugene; Caldera, Eva O.; Shaneyfelt, Wendy L.

    2008-12-01

    Cognitive science research investigates the advancement of human cognition and neuroscience capabilities. Addressing risks associated with these advancements can counter potential program failures, legal and ethical issues, constraints to scientific research, and product vulnerabilities. Survey results, focus group discussions, cognitive science experts, and surety researchers concur technical risks exist that could impact cognitive science research in areas such as medicine, privacy, human enhancement, law and policy, military applications, and national security (SAND2006-6895). This SAND report documents a surety engineering framework and a process for identifying cognitive system technical, ethical, legal and societal risks and applying appropriate surety methods to reduce such risks. The framework consists of several models: Specification, Design, Evaluation, Risk, and Maturity. Two detailed case studies are included to illustrate the use of the process and framework. Several Appendices provide detailed information on existing cognitive system architectures; ethical, legal, and societal risk research; surety methods and technologies; and educing information research with a case study vignette. The process and framework provide a model for how cognitive systems research and full-scale product development can apply surety engineering to reduce perceived and actual risks.

  3. Architectural Historical Heritage: a Tridimensional Multilayers Cataloguing Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calisi, D.; Tommasetti, A.; Topputo, R.

    2011-09-01

    In the Future the digital filing system will be the method for storing and cataloguing heritages, private assets and arts collections. Today this elaborate process is confined only to the library, painting or parietal heritage. What is missing is a digitalized acquisition of the architectural heritage, which is described at multiple levels of representation. Taking a critical look at the urban setting until you reach the single buildings in their complexity, there is a clear need to establish an open and up-to-date system in order to communicate the different degrees of interaction with the architectural elements that must be preserved and accessed to like a work of art. The breakdown and cataloguing at tridimensional levels affects the different scales of the representation of the city at the stage of stimulating and interactive fruition for those users interested in historical and cognitive research and at the stage of active and project implementation well. The hierarchy of layers of data storage city based should be lived and experienced on a superficial stage as a simple user of the knowledge offered by the digital language of animation and interactivity. It may be the case of a tourist or a citizen who is eager to deepen his awareness of a building, a neighbourhood together with its layering of history and architectural value. This article proposes the development of a database that will be used and extended from time to time with new information related to surveys, projects and restorations of the existing.

  4. Modular analytics management architecture for interoperability and decision support

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marotta, Stephen; Metzger, Max; Gorman, Joe; Sliva, Amy

    2016-05-01

    The Dual Node Decision Wheels (DNDW) architecture is a new approach to information fusion and decision support systems. By combining cognitive systems engineering organizational analysis tools, such as decision trees, with the Dual Node Network (DNN) technical architecture for information fusion, the DNDW can align relevant data and information products with an organization's decision-making processes. In this paper, we present the Compositional Inference and Machine Learning Environment (CIMLE), a prototype framework based on the principles of the DNDW architecture. CIMLE provides a flexible environment so heterogeneous data sources, messaging frameworks, and analytic processes can interoperate to provide the specific information required for situation understanding and decision making. It was designed to support the creation of modular, distributed solutions over large monolithic systems. With CIMLE, users can repurpose individual analytics to address evolving decision-making requirements or to adapt to new mission contexts; CIMLE's modular design simplifies integration with new host operating environments. CIMLE's configurable system design enables model developers to build analytical systems that closely align with organizational structures and processes and support the organization's information needs.

  5. Mapping cognitive function.

    PubMed

    Stufflebeam, Steven M; Rosen, Bruce R

    2007-11-01

    Cognitive functions are fundamental to being human. Although tremendous progress has been made in the science of cognition using neuroimaging, the clinical applications of neuroimaging are just beginning to be realized. This article focuses on selected technologies, analysis techniques, and applications that have, or will soon have, direct clinical impact. The authors discuss how cognition can be imaged using MR imaging, functional MR imaging, positron emission tomography, magnetoencephalography and electroencephalography, and MR imaging diffusion tensor imaging. A unifying theme of this article is the concept that a more complete understanding of cognition only comes through integration of multimodal structural and functional imaging technologies.

  6. Smoking and Cognition.

    PubMed

    Campos, Marcela Waisman; Serebrisky, Debora; Castaldelli-Maia, João Mauricio

    2016-08-03

    Given the large availability of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) throughout the brain, and the wide range of neurotransmitter systems affected (norepinephrine, serotonin and dopamine), nicotine influences a wide variety of cognitive domains such as sensorial, motor, attentional, executive function, learning and memory. This article reviews current state of the art research on the effects of nicotine upon cognition. There are different neurobiological mechanisms involved in acute/chronic smoking and nicotine abstinence. Smoking reinforcement could be due to the initial cognitive improvement, that is, individuals can learn that smoking temporarily increases cognitive functioning (improving some components of attention and memory). These acute nicotine effects improve (i) cognitive performance above smokers' normal levels, and (ii) cognitive disruption resulting from nicotine abstinence. Both neurobiological effects act as reinforcers to nicotine use, greatly contributing to the development of nicotine dependence. However, heavy smoking is associated with cognitive impairment and cognitive decline in middle age. Future clinical research should investigate the role of positive and negative cognitive effects of nicotine in smoking cessation treatment. This is clearly an important scientific issue, with insufficient current data from which to draw definitive conclusions.

  7. Embodied cognition of aging

    PubMed Central

    Vallet, Guillaume T.

    2015-01-01

    Embodiment is revolutionizing the way we consider cognition by incorporating the influence of our body and of the current context within cognitive processing. A growing number of studies which support this view of cognition in young adults stands in stark contrast with the lack of evidence in favor of this view in the field of normal aging and neurocognitive disorders. Nonetheless, the validation of embodiment assumptions on the whole spectrum of cognition is a mandatory step in order for embodied cognition theories to become theories of human cognition. More pragmatically, aging populations represent a perfect target to test embodied cognition theories due to concomitant changes in sensory, motor and cognitive functioning that occur in aging, since these theories predict direct interactions between them. Finally, the new perspectives on cognition provided by these theories might also open new research avenues and new clinical applications in the field of aging. The present article aims at showing the value and interest to explore embodiment in normal and abnormal aging as well as introducing some potential theoretical and clinical applications. PMID:25932019

  8. Is social cognition embodied?

    PubMed

    Goldman, Alvin; de Vignemont, Frederique

    2009-04-01

    Theories of embodied cognition abound in the literature, but it is often unclear how to understand them. We offer several interpretations of embodiment, the most interesting being the thesis that mental representations in bodily formats (B-formats) have an important role in cognition. Potential B-formats include motoric, somatosensory, affective and interoceptive formats. The literature on mirroring and related phenomena provides support for a limited-scope version of embodied social cognition under the B-format interpretation. It is questionable, however, whether such a thesis can be extended. We show the limits of embodiment in social cognition.

  9. Architectural Environment: A Resource Kit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    J.B. Speed Art Museum, Louisville, KY.

    There are many ways to approach the investigation of architecture. One can look at structural form, climate and topography, the aesthetics of style and decoration, building function, historical factors, cultural meanings, or technology and techniques associated with construction. This resource kit touches upon a few of these approaches, ranging…

  10. Student Assessment in Architecture Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dinham, Sarah M.

    Definitions, issues, and concerns in efforts to document the quality and outcomes of undergraduate education are reviewed, and the University of Arizona assessment model is summarized to illustrate a comprehensive assessment plan suitable for a research university. The Arizona model is adapted to architectural education, and the special…

  11. Policy Schmolicy: It's the Architecture!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reilly, Rob

    1999-01-01

    Examines how educational technology's architecture preempts policy decisions, discussing filtering, copyright, and password protection. Outlines four aspects of technology that must be understood before crafting policy: (1) identify critical issues; (2) anticipate vicarious results; (3) explore the range of policies; (4) consider stakeholders'…

  12. Energy Conservation through Architectural Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomson, Robert C., Jr.

    1977-01-01

    Describes a teaching unit designed to create in students an awareness of and an appreciation for the possibilities for energy conservation as they relate to architecture. It is noted that the unit can be adapted for use in many industrial programs and with different teaching methods due to the variety of activities that can be used. (Editor/TA)

  13. Open architecture CMM motion controller

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, David; Spence, Allan D.; Bigg, Steve; Heslip, Joe; Peterson, John

    2001-12-01

    Although initially the only Coordinate Measuring Machine (CMM) sensor available was a touch trigger probe, technological advances in sensors and computing have greatly increased the variety of available inspection sensors. Non-contact laser digitizers and analog scanning touch probes require very well tuned CMM motion control, as well as an extensible, open architecture interface. This paper describes the implementation of a retrofit CMM motion controller designed for open architecture interface to a variety of sensors. The controller is based on an Intel Pentium microcomputer and a Servo To Go motion interface electronics card. Motor amplifiers, safety, and additional interface electronics are housed in a separate enclosure. Host Signal Processing (HSP) is used for the motion control algorithm. Compared to the usual host plus DSP architecture, single CPU HSP simplifies integration with the various sensors, and implementation of software geometric error compensation. Motion control tuning is accomplished using a remote computer via 100BaseTX Ethernet. A Graphical User Interface (GUI) is used to enter geometric error compensation data, and to optimize the motion control tuning parameters. It is shown that this architecture achieves the required real time motion control response, yet is much easier to extend to additional sensors.

  14. Enhancements to PVM's BEOLIN architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Springer, Paul L.

    2005-01-01

    .4.3 of PVM had previously been enhanced by the addition of a new architecture, BEOLIN, which allowed a PVM user to abstract a Beowulf class computer with a private network to appear as a single system, visible to the outside world, which could spawn tasks on different internal nodes.

  15. Resources for Topics in Architecture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Noate, Judith, Comp.

    This guide for conducting library research on topics in architecture or on the work of a particular architect presents suggestions for utilizing four categories of resources: books, dictionaries and encyclopedias, indexes, and a periodicals and series list (PASL). Two topics are researched as examples: the contemporary architect Richard Meier, and…

  16. Cohesin in determining chromosome architecture

    SciTech Connect

    Haering, Christian H.; Jessberger, Rolf

    2012-07-15

    Cells use ring-like structured protein complexes for various tasks in DNA dynamics. The tripartite cohesin ring is particularly suited to determine chromosome architecture, for it is large and dynamic, may acquire different forms, and is involved in several distinct nuclear processes. This review focuses on cohesin's role in structuring chromosomes during mitotic and meiotic cell divisions and during interphase.

  17. Changing School Architecture in Zurich

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ziegler, Mark; Kurz, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    Changes in the way education is delivered has contributed to the evolution of school architecture in Zurich, Switzerland. The City of Zurich has revised its guidelines for designing school buildings, both new and old. Adapting older buildings to today's needs presents a particular challenge. The authors explain what makes up a good school building…

  18. The Rhetoric of Campus Architecture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Cynthia Duquette

    2016-01-01

    The group activity described in this article was originally designed for an upper-division undergraduate course on Rhetoric and Architecture, but would also be well suited for courses in Persuasion, Rhetorical Criticism, or Visual Rhetoric. Any undergraduate course related to communication and design (including Advertising) could make excellent…

  19. The Image Understanding Architecture Project

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-04-01

    Advanced (If applicable) Research Projects Agency DACA76-86-C-0015 8c. ADDRESS (City, State, and ZIP Code) 10. SOURCE OF FUNDING NUMBERS PROGRAM PROJECT...ivitv Pallern .......... ......................... ... 134 )isplav of Sobel Program .......... .......................... ... 135 Mnemory Organization...the first year of this program we have focused on developing a complete hardware specification for the architecture, fabrication of the necessary custom

  20. Information architecture. Volume 4: Vision

    SciTech Connect

    1998-03-01

    The Vision document marks the transition from definition to implementation of the Department of Energy (DOE) Information Architecture Program. A description of the possibilities for the future, supported by actual experience with a process model and tool set, points toward implementation options. The directions for future information technology investments are discussed. Practical examples of how technology answers the business and information needs of the organization through coordinated and meshed data, applications, and technology architectures are related. This document is the fourth and final volume in the planned series for defining and exhibiting the DOE information architecture. The targeted scope of this document includes DOE Program Offices, field sites, contractor-operated facilities, and laboratories. This document paints a picture of how, over the next 7 years, technology may be implemented, dramatically improving the ways business is conducted at DOE. While technology is mentioned throughout this document, the vision is not about technology. The vision concerns the transition afforded by technology and the process steps to be completed to ensure alignment with business needs. This goal can be met if those directing the changing business and mission-support processes understand the capabilities afforded by architectural processes.

  1. An open architecture motion controller

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rossol, Lothar

    1994-01-01

    Nomad, an open architecture motion controller, is described. It is formed by a combination of TMOS, C-WORKS, and other utilities. Nomad software runs in a UNIX environment and provides for sensor-controlled robotic motions, with user replaceable kinematics. It can also be tailored for highly specialized applications. Open controllers such as Nomad should have a major impact on the robotics industry.

  2. Putting Architecture in Its Place.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, Esther da Costa

    1995-01-01

    Examines Vincent Scully's work as teacher, writer, and critic. This reminisce by a former student also lauds Scully's role as mentor to several generations of art historians. Briefly covers his work on behalf of historic preservation and discusses two seminal works, "American Architecture and Urbanism" and "The Earth, the Temple,…

  3. Space-Time and Architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Field, F.; Goodbun, J.; Watson, V.

    Architects have a role to play in interplanetary space that has barely yet been explored. The architectural community is largely unaware of this new territory, for which there is still no agreed method of practice. There is moreover a general confusion, in scientific and related fields, over what architects might actually do there today. Current extra-planetary designs generally fail to explore the dynamic and relational nature of space-time, and often reduce human habitation to a purely functional problem. This is compounded by a crisis over the representation (drawing) of space-time. The present work returns to first principles of architecture in order to realign them with current socio-economic and technological trends surrounding the space industry. What emerges is simultaneously the basis for an ecological space architecture, and the representational strategies necessary to draw it. We explore this approach through a work of design-based research that describes the construction of Ocean; a huge body of water formed by the collision of two asteroids at the Translunar Lagrange Point (L2), that would serve as a site for colonisation, and as a resource to fuel future missions. Ocean is an experimental model for extra-planetary space design and its representation, within the autonomous discipline of architecture.

  4. Carnegie Mellon University Space Architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kennedy, Kriss J.

    2016-01-01

    A traditional architecture studio focusing on a "post-pioneering" settlement (a first step research station with an emphasis on material, resources, closed-loop systems, as well as programmatic network and spatial considerations) for the surface of Mars or for Earth-Mars transit.

  5. Computing architecture for autonomous microgrids

    DOEpatents

    Goldsmith, Steven Y.

    2015-09-29

    A computing architecture that facilitates autonomously controlling operations of a microgrid is described herein. A microgrid network includes numerous computing devices that execute intelligent agents, each of which is assigned to a particular entity (load, source, storage device, or switch) in the microgrid. The intelligent agents can execute in accordance with predefined protocols to collectively perform computations that facilitate uninterrupted control of the .

  6. 36 CFR 910.31 - High architectural quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... architectural quality. Development must maintain a uniformly high standard of architecture, representative of... architectural treatment of new buildings, particularly in terms of massing, facade design (including...

  7. 36 CFR 910.31 - High architectural quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... architectural quality. Development must maintain a uniformly high standard of architecture, representative of... architectural treatment of new buildings, particularly in terms of massing, facade design (including...

  8. Stress and Cognition: A Cognitive Psychological Perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bourne, Lyle E., Jr.; Yaroush, Rita A.

    2003-01-01

    Research in cognitive psychology has made a significant contribution to our understanding of how acute and chronic stress affect performance. It has done so by identifying some of the factors that contribute to operator error and by suggesting how operators might be trained to respond more effectively in a variety of circumstances. The major purpose of this paper was to review the literature of cognitive psychology as it relates to these questions and issues. Based on the existence of earlier reviews (e.g., Hamilton, & Warburton, 1979; Hockey, 1983) the following investigation was limited to the last 15 years (1988-2002) and restricted to a review of the primary peer-reviewed literature. The results of this examination revealed that while cognitive psychology has contributed in a substantive way to our understanding of stress impact on various cognitive processes, it has also left many questions unanswered. Concerns about how we define and use the term stress and the gaps that remain in our knowledge about the specific effects of stressors on cognitive processes are discussed in the text.

  9. All-digital radar architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molchanov, Pavlo A.

    2014-10-01

    All digital radar architecture requires exclude mechanical scan system. The phase antenna array is necessarily large because the array elements must be co-located with very precise dimensions and will need high accuracy phase processing system for aggregate and distribute T/R modules data to/from antenna elements. Even phase array cannot provide wide field of view. New nature inspired all digital radar architecture proposed. The fly's eye consists of multiple angularly spaced sensors giving the fly simultaneously thee wide-area visual coverage it needs to detect and avoid the threats around him. Fly eye radar antenna array consist multiple directional antennas loose distributed along perimeter of ground vehicle or aircraft and coupled with receiving/transmitting front end modules connected by digital interface to central processor. Non-steering antenna array allows creating all-digital radar with extreme flexible architecture. Fly eye radar architecture provides wide possibility of digital modulation and different waveform generation. Simultaneous correlation and integration of thousands signals per second from each point of surveillance area allows not only detecting of low level signals ((low profile targets), but help to recognize and classify signals (targets) by using diversity signals, polarization modulation and intelligent processing. Proposed all digital radar architecture with distributed directional antenna array can provide a 3D space vector to the jammer by verification direction of arrival for signals sources and as result jam/spoof protection not only for radar systems, but for communication systems and any navigation constellation system, for both encrypted or unencrypted signals, for not limited number or close positioned jammers.

  10. The NASA Space Communications Data Networking Architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Israel, David J.; Hooke, Adrian J.; Freeman, Kenneth; Rush, John J.

    2006-01-01

    The NASA Space Communications Architecture Working Group (SCAWG) has recently been developing an integrated agency-wide space communications architecture in order to provide the necessary communication and navigation capabilities to support NASA's new Exploration and Science Programs. A critical element of the space communications architecture is the end-to-end Data Networking Architecture, which must provide a wide range of services required for missions ranging from planetary rovers to human spaceflight, and from sub-orbital space to deep space. Requirements for a higher degree of user autonomy and interoperability between a variety of elements must be accommodated within an architecture that necessarily features minimum operational complexity. The architecture must also be scalable and evolvable to meet mission needs for the next 25 years. This paper will describe the recommended NASA Data Networking Architecture, present some of the rationale for the recommendations, and will illustrate an application of the architecture to example NASA missions.

  11. Sensing and Measurement Architecture for Grid Modernization

    SciTech Connect

    Taft, Jeffrey D.; De Martini, Paul

    2016-02-01

    This paper addresses architecture for grid sensor networks, with primary emphasis on distribution grids. It describes a forward-looking view of sensor network architecture for advanced distribution grids, and discusses key regulatory, financial, and planning issues.

  12. Software Architecture for Planetary and Lunar Robotics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Utz, Hans; Fong, Teny; Nesnas, Iasa A. D.

    2006-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation on the role that software architecture plays in space and lunar robotics is shown. The topics include: 1) The Intelligent Robotics Group; 2) The Lunar Mission; 3) Lunar Robotics; and 4) Software Architecture for Space Robotics.

  13. A Systems Engineering Approach to Architecture Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Di Pietro, David A.

    2015-01-01

    Architecture development is often conducted prior to system concept design when there is a need to determine the best-value mix of systems that works collectively in specific scenarios and time frames to accomplish a set of mission area objectives. While multiple architecture frameworks exist, they often require use of unique taxonomies and data structures. In contrast, this paper characterizes architecture development using terminology widely understood within the systems engineering community. Using a notional civil space architecture example, it employs a multi-tier framework to describe the enterprise level architecture and illustrates how results of lower tier, mission area architectures integrate into the enterprise architecture. It also presents practices for conducting effective mission area architecture studies, including establishing the trade space, developing functions and metrics, evaluating the ability of potential design solutions to meet the required functions, and expediting study execution through the use of iterative design cycles.

  14. A Systems Engineering Approach to Architecture Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Di Pietro, David A.

    2015-01-01

    Architecture development is often conducted prior to system concept design when there is a need to determine the best-value mix of systems that works collectively in specific scenarios and time frames to accomplish a set of mission area objectives. While multiple architecture frameworks exist, they often require use of unique taxonomies and data structures. In contrast, this paper characterizes architecture development using terminology widely understood within the systems engineering community. Using a notional civil space architecture example, it employs a multi-tier framework to describe the enterprise level architecture and illustrates how results of lower tier, mission area architectures integrate into the enterprise architecture. It also presents practices for conducting effective mission area architecture studies, including establishing the trade space, developing functions and metrics, evaluating the ability of potential design solutions to meet the required functions, and expediting study execution through the use of iterative design cycles

  15. A Systems Engineering Approach to Architecture Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Di Pietro, David A.

    2014-01-01

    Architecture development is conducted prior to system concept design when there is a need to determine the best-value mix of systems that works collectively in specific scenarios and time frames to accomplish a set of mission area objectives. While multiple architecture frameworks exist, they often require use of unique taxonomies and data structures. In contrast, this presentation characterizes architecture development using terminology widely understood within the systems engineering community. Using a notional civil space architecture example, it employs a multi-tier framework to describe the enterprise level architecture and illustrates how results of lower tier, mission area architectures integrate into the enterprise architecture. It also presents practices for conducting effective mission area architecture studies, including establishing the trade space, developing functions and metrics, evaluating the ability of potential design solutions to meet the required functions, and expediting study execution through the use of iterative design cycles.

  16. Guiding Architects in Selecting Architectural Evolution Alternatives

    SciTech Connect

    Ciraci, Selim; Sozer, Hasan; Aksit, Mehmet

    2011-09-09

    Although there exist methods and tools to support architecture evolution, the derivation and evaluation of alternative evolution paths are realized manually. In this paper, we introduce an approach, where architecture specification is converted to a graph representation. Based on this representation, we automatically generate possible evolution paths, evalute quality attributes for different architecture configurations, and optimize the selection of a particular path accordingly. We illustrate our approach by modeling the software architecture evolution of a crisis management system.

  17. ArchE - An Architecture Design Assistant

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-06-30

    X, Module X 3 Author / Presenter, Date if Needed What is ArchE? ArchE is a software architecture design assistant, which: • Takes quality and...functional requirements as input • Elicits key quality attribute information to refine quality requirements • Elicits key architectural information...Derives candidate architectures • Evaluates whether quality requirements are satisfied • Identifies tradeoffs • Suggests alternative architectures ArchE is

  18. Comprehensive Planning for Passive Solar Architectural Retrofit

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-05-01

    IBID. p.2 3. IBID. p.56-60 (See Appendix B) 4. Victor Olgyay, Design with Climate- Bioclimatic Approach to Architectural Regionalism, Princeton...4. Ibid. p. 51 5. Victor 0lgyay. Design with Climate- Bioclimatic Approach to Architectural ~x~i Re ionaiism. Princeton University Press 1962. pp 110...COMPREHENSIVE PLANNING FOR PASSIVE SOLAIA ARCHITECTURAL RETROFIT DTICSELE-CT Ef B SMAST’ER ipf ARCHITECTURE THESIS MIAMI UNIVERSITY e OXFOROsOH 0

  19. Mapping Signal Processing Kernels to Tiled Architectures

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    attractive alternatives to monolithic computer architecture designs because they allow a larger design to be built from smaller modules and limit the...Computer Architectures. ACM Transactions on Computer Systems, 2(4):289–308, November 1984. [12] Steven Swanson, Ken Michelson , Andrew Schwerin, and...Program MIT Lincoln LaboratoryHPEC 2004-3 JML 28 Sep 2004 Tiled Architectures • Monolithic single-chip architectures are becoming rare in the industry

  20. New Views on Cognitive Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kagan, Jerome

    1976-01-01

    Reviews recent empirical findings toward three cognitive developmental perspectives: the fears of infancy, the discontinuous quality of stages in cognitive functioning, and the capacity for resilience in cognitive development. (DEP)

  1. The social life of cognition.

    PubMed

    Korman, Joanna; Voiklis, John; Malle, Bertram F

    2015-02-01

    We begin by illustrating that long before the cognitive revolution, social psychology focused on topics pertaining to what is now known as social cognition: people's subjective interpretations of social situations and the concepts and cognitive processes underlying these interpretations. We then examine two questions: whether social cognition entails characteristic concepts and cognitive processes, and how social processes might themselves shape and constrain cognition. We suggest that social cognition relies heavily on generic cognition but also on unique concepts (e.g., agent, intentionality) and unique processes (e.g., projection, imitation, joint attention). We further suggest that social processes play a prominent role in the development and unfolding of several generic cognitive processes, including learning, attention, and memory. Finally, we comment on the prospects of a recently developing approach to the study of social cognition (social neuroscience) and two potential future directions (computational social cognition and social-cognitive robotics).

  2. Thomas Jefferson and Architecture. Lesson Plan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gabriel, Robin H.

    1994-01-01

    Discusses the importance of architecture in Thomas Jefferson's life. Presents a lesson plan based on Jefferson's Monticello and designed to encourage students to identify and understand elements of classical architecture in their local area. Includes a photograph of Monticello and six architectural illustrations. (CFR)

  3. Teaching Case: Enterprise Architecture Specification Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steenkamp, Annette Lerine; Alawdah, Amal; Almasri, Osama; Gai, Keke; Khattab, Nidal; Swaby, Carval; Abaas, Ramy

    2013-01-01

    A graduate course in enterprise architecture had a team project component in which a real-world business case, provided by an industry sponsor, formed the basis of the project charter and the architecture statement of work. The paper aims to share the team project experience on developing the architecture specifications based on the business case…

  4. 29 CFR 32.28 - Architectural standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Architectural standards. 32.28 Section 32.28 Labor Office of... FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Accessibility § 32.28 Architectural standards. (a) Design and construction... usable by qualified handicapped individuals. (c) Standards for architectural accessibility....

  5. 37 CFR 202.11 - Architectural works.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... building embodied in any tangible medium of expression, including a building, architectural plans, or... plans. Where dual copyright claims exist in technical drawings and the architectural work depicted in... registered separately. (5) Publication. Publication of an architectural work occurs when underlying plans...

  6. 7 CFR 3565.256 - Architectural services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Architectural services. 3565.256 Section 3565.256... AGRICULTURE GUARANTEED RURAL RENTAL HOUSING PROGRAM Property Requirements § 3565.256 Architectural services. Architectural services must be provided for the project in accordance with 7 CFR part 1924, subpart A...

  7. Comparative Naval Architecture Analysis of Diesel Submarines

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-06-01

    mission, cost, or other factors affect the architecture? This study examines and compares the naval architecture of selected diesel submarines from...79 A ppendix E : Subm arine Shape Factors ................................................................................... 90 5 List of...country. Do factors such as mission, cost, or tradition 10 affect submarine naval architecture? An in depth comparison is performed of six diesel

  8. Cognitive Network Neuroscience

    PubMed Central

    Medaglia, John D.; Lynall, Mary-Ellen; Bassett, Danielle S.

    2016-01-01

    Network science provides theoretical, computational, and empirical tools that can be used to understand the structure and function of the human brain in novel ways using simple concepts and mathematical representations. Network neuroscience is a rapidly growing field that is providing considerable insight into human structural connectivity, functional connectivity while at rest, changes in functional networks over time (dynamics), and how these properties differ in clinical populations. In addition, a number of studies have begun to quantify network characteristics in a variety of cognitive processes and provide a context for understanding cognition from a network perspective. In this review, we outline the contributions of network science to cognitive neuroscience. We describe the methodology of network science as applied to the particular case of neuroimaging data and review its uses in investigating a range of cognitive functions including sensory processing, language, emotion, attention, cognitive control, learning, and memory. In conclusion, we discuss current frontiers and the specific challenges that must be overcome to integrate these complementary disciplines of network science and cognitive neuroscience. Increased communication between cognitive neuroscientists and network scientists could lead to significant discoveries under an emerging scientific intersection known as cognitive network neuroscience. PMID:25803596

  9. Cognition-Enhancing Drugs

    PubMed Central

    Mehlman, Maxwell J

    2004-01-01

    New drugs that enhance cognition in cognitively healthy individuals present difficult public policy challenges. While their use is not inherently unethical, steps must be taken to ensure that they are safe, that they are widely available to promote equality of opportunity, and that individuals are free to decide whether or not to use them. PMID:15330974

  10. Is Cognitive Style Bipolar?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schroeder, David H.

    This study assessed the bipolarity of cognitive style for 970 clients of the Johnson O'Connor Research Foundation, a vocational guidance service. The 462 male and 508 female examinees were aged 14 to 65 years, with a median age of 24 years. Three cognitive style tests were investigated: (1) the Kagan Matching Familiar Figures Test (KMFFT); (2) the…

  11. Cognitive Education Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulcahy, Robert; And Others

    The Cognitive Education Project centered at the University of Alberta undertook a 3-year longitudinal evaluation of two cognitive education programs aimed at teaching thinking skills. The critical difference between the two experimental programs was that one, Feuerstein's Instrumental Enrichment (IE) method was taught out of curricular content,…

  12. Learning and Cognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gr ver Aukrust, Vibeke, Ed.

    2011-01-01

    This collection of 58 articles from the recently-published third edition of the International Encyclopedia of Education focuses on learning, memory, attention, problem solving, concept formation, and language. Learning and cognition is the foundation of cognitive psychology and encompasses many topics including attention, memory, categorization,…

  13. Transcending Cognitive Individualism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zerubavel, Eviatar; Smith, Eliot R.

    2010-01-01

    Advancing knowledge in many areas of psychology and neuroscience, underlined by dazzling images of brain scans, appear to many professionals and to the public to show that people are on the way to explaining cognition purely in terms of processes within the individual's head. Yet while such cognitive individualism still dominates the popular…

  14. Sex and Cognition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kimura, Doreen

    This book describes the major differences between men and women in cognitive or problem-solving abilities and discusses the possible biological contributions to such differences. The book argues that sex differences in cognitive patterns and in motor skills arose out of complementary evolutionary histories of men and women and that evidence for…

  15. Cognitive and Social Values.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Machamer, Peter; Douglas, Heather

    1999-01-01

    Criticizes Hugh Lacey's separation of cognitive values and social values in discussions of the nature of science. Claims that attempting to distinguish between cognitive and social ignores crucial complexities in the development and use of knowledge. Proposes that the proper distinction be between legitimate and illegitimate reasons in science as…

  16. Comparative Cognitive Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matsuzawa, Tetsuro

    2007-01-01

    This paper aims to compare cognitive development in humans and chimpanzees to illuminate the evolutionary origins of human cognition. Comparison of morphological data and life history strongly highlights the common features of all primate species, including humans. The human mother-infant relationship is characterized by the physical separation of…

  17. Cognitive network neuroscience.

    PubMed

    Medaglia, John D; Lynall, Mary-Ellen; Bassett, Danielle S

    2015-08-01

    Network science provides theoretical, computational, and empirical tools that can be used to understand the structure and function of the human brain in novel ways using simple concepts and mathematical representations. Network neuroscience is a rapidly growing field that is providing considerable insight into human structural connectivity, functional connectivity while at rest, changes in functional networks over time (dynamics), and how these properties differ in clinical populations. In addition, a number of studies have begun to quantify network characteristics in a variety of cognitive processes and provide a context for understanding cognition from a network perspective. In this review, we outline the contributions of network science to cognitive neuroscience. We describe the methodology of network science as applied to the particular case of neuroimaging data and review its uses in investigating a range of cognitive functions including sensory processing, language, emotion, attention, cognitive control, learning, and memory. In conclusion, we discuss current frontiers and the specific challenges that must be overcome to integrate these complementary disciplines of network science and cognitive neuroscience. Increased communication between cognitive neuroscientists and network scientists could lead to significant discoveries under an emerging scientific intersection known as cognitive network neuroscience.

  18. A hierarchical artificial retina architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parker, Alice C.; Azar, Adi N.

    2009-05-01

    Connectivity in the human retina is complex. Over one hundred million photoreceptors transduce light into electrical signals. These electrical signals are sent to the ganglion cells through amacrine and bipolar cells. Lateral connections involving horizontal and amacrine cells span throughout the outer plexiform layer and inner plexiform layer respectively. Horizontal cells are important for photoreceptor regulation by depolarizing them after an illumination occurs. Horizontal cells themselves form an electrical network that communicates by gap junctions, and these cells exhibit plasticity (change in behavior and structure) with respect to glycine receptors. The bipolar and amacrine cells transfer electrical signals from photoreceptors to the ganglion cells. Furthermore, amacrine cells are responsible for further processing the retinal image. Finally, the ganglion cells receive electrical signals from the bipolar and amacrine cells and will spike at a faster rate if there is a change in the overall intensity for a group of photoreceptors, sending a signal to the brain. Dramatic progress is being made with respect to retinal prostheses, raising hope for an entire synthetic retina in the future. We propose a bio-inspired 3D hierarchical pyramidal architecture for a synthetic retina that mimics the overall structure of the human retina. We chose to use a 3D architecture to facilitate connectivity among retinal cells, maintaining a hierarchical structure similar to that of the biological retina. The first layer of the architecture contains electronic circuits that model photoreceptors and horizontal cells. The second layer contains amacrine and bipolar electronic cells, and the third layer contains ganglion cells. Layer I has the highest number of cells, and layer III has the lowest number of cells, resulting in a pyramidal architecture. In our proposed architecture we intend to use photodetectors to transduce light into electrical signals. We propose to employ

  19. Uncertainty and Cognitive Control

    PubMed Central

    Mushtaq, Faisal; Bland, Amy R.; Schaefer, Alexandre

    2011-01-01

    A growing trend of neuroimaging, behavioral, and computational research has investigated the topic of outcome uncertainty in decision-making. Although evidence to date indicates that humans are very effective in learning to adapt to uncertain situations, the nature of the specific cognitive processes involved in the adaptation to uncertainty are still a matter of debate. In this article, we reviewed evidence suggesting that cognitive control processes are at the heart of uncertainty in decision-making contexts. Available evidence suggests that: (1) There is a strong conceptual overlap between the constructs of uncertainty and cognitive control; (2) There is a remarkable overlap between the neural networks associated with uncertainty and the brain networks subserving cognitive control; (3) The perception and estimation of uncertainty might play a key role in monitoring processes and the evaluation of the “need for control”; (4) Potential interactions between uncertainty and cognitive control might play a significant role in several affective disorders. PMID:22007181

  20. Cognitive and somatic anxiety.

    PubMed

    Steptoe, A; Kearsley, N

    1990-01-01

    Three hundred and forty adults (including sports players, recreational exercisers, mediators and sedentary controls) completed three inventories purporting to measure cognitive and somatic aspects of anxiety. These were the Cognitive-Somatic Anxiety Questionnaire (CSAQ) devised by Schwartz, Davidson & Goleman (Psychosomatic Medicine, 40, 321-328, 1978), the Worry-Emotionality Scale (WES, Morris, Davis & Hutchens, Journal of Educational Psychology, 73, 541-555, 1981) and the Lehrer-Woolfolk (1982) Anxiety Symptom Questionnaire (LWASQ). Factor analysis of the CSAQ and WES identified distinct cognitive and somatic anxiety factors in both inventories. Higher somatic than cognitive ratings were recorded on the CSAQ and WES, while the pattern was reversed on the LWASQ. The CSAQ can tentatively be recommended as a useful measure of these two anxiety components. We were unable to confirm an observation made previously in the literature that practice of meditation is associated with reduced cognitive anxiety, or that exercise is linked with lower somatic anxiety.

  1. Chimpanzee Cognitive Control

    PubMed Central

    Beran, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive control processes are a feature of human cognition. Recent comparative tests have shown that some nonhuman animals also might share aspects of cognitive control with humans. Two of the executive processes that constitute cognitive control are metacognition and self-control, and recent experiments with chimpanzees are described that demonstrate metacognitive monitoring and control when these animals engage in an information-seeking task. Chimpanzees also show strategic responding in a self-control task by exhibiting self-distraction as an aid to delay of gratification. These demonstrations indicate continuity with similar human cognitive capacities, and the performances of chimpanzees in these kinds of tests have implications for considering the nature of the intelligence of these animals. PMID:26478660

  2. Cognitive regulatory control therapies.

    PubMed

    Bowins, Brad

    2013-01-01

    Cognitive regulatory control processes play an essential but typically unappreciated role in maintaining mental health. The purpose of the current paper is to identify this role and demonstrate how cognitive-behavioral and related techniques can compensate for impairments. Impaired cognitive regulation contributes to the overly intense emotional states present in anxiety disorders, depression, and personality disorders; progression of adaptive hypomania to mania; expression of psychosis in the conscious and awake state; dominance of immature defense mechanisms in borderline and other personality disorders. A wide variety of standard (monitoring, reappraisal, response inhibition, relaxation training) and more novel (suppression therapy, willful detachment, cost-benefit analysis, normalization, mature defense mechanism training) cognitive-behavioral and related techniques can be applied to compensate for cognitive regulatory control impairments, and their success probably aligns with this capacity.

  3. Realistic neurons can compute the operations needed by quantum probability theory and other vector symbolic architectures.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Terrence C; Eliasmith, Chris

    2013-06-01

    Quantum probability (QP) theory can be seen as a type of vector symbolic architecture (VSA): mental states are vectors storing structured information and manipulated using algebraic operations. Furthermore, the operations needed by QP match those in other VSAs. This allows existing biologically realistic neural models to be adapted to provide a mechanistic explanation of the cognitive phenomena described in the target article by Pothos & Busemeyer (P&B).

  4. Reconfigurable cognitive transceiver for opportunistic networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maso, Marco; Baştuğ, Ejder; Cardoso, Leonardo S.; Debbah, Mérouane; Özdemir, Özgür

    2014-12-01

    In this work, we provide the implementation and analysis of a cognitive transceiver for opportunistic networks. We focus on a previously introduced dynamic spectrum access (DSA) - cognitive radio (CR) solution for primary-secondary coexistence in opportunistic orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) networks, called cognitive interference alignment (CIA). The implementation is based on software-defined radio (SDR) and uses GNU Radio and the universal software radio peripheral (USRP) as the implementation toolkit. The proposed flexible transceiver architecture allows efficient on-the-fly reconfigurations of the physical layer into OFDM, CIA or a combination of both. Remarkably, its responsiveness is such that the uplink and downlink channel reciprocity from the medium perspective, inherent to time division duplex (TDD) communications, can be effectively verified and exploited. We show that CIA provides approximately 10 dB of interference isolation towards the OFDM receiver with respect to a fully random precoder. This result is obtained under suboptimal conditions, which indicates that further gains are possible with a better optimization of the system. Our findings point towards the usefulness of a practical CIA implementation, as it yields a non-negligible performance for the secondary system, while providing interference shielding to the primary receiver.

  5. Metareasoning and Social Evaluations in Cognitive Agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinyol, Isaac; Sabater-Mir, Jordi

    Reputation mechanisms have been recognized one of the key technologies when designing multi-agent systems. They are specially relevant in complex open environments, becoming a non-centralized mechanism to control interactions among agents. Cognitive agents tackling such complex societies must use reputation information not only for selecting partners to interact with, but also in metareasoning processes to change reasoning rules. This is the focus of this paper. We argue about the necessity to allow, as a cognitive systems designers, certain degree of freedom in the reasoning rules of the agents. We also describes cognitive approaches of agency that support this idea. Furthermore, taking as a base the computational reputation model Repage, and its integration in a BDI architecture, we use the previous ideas to specify metarules and processes to modify at run-time the reasoning paths of the agent. In concrete we propose a metarule to update the link between Repage and the belief base, and a metarule and a process to update an axiom incorporated in the belief logic of the agent. Regarding this last issue we also provide empirical results that show the evolution of agents that use it.

  6. Distributed phased array architecture study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bourgeois, Brian

    1987-01-01

    Variations in amplifiers and phase shifters can cause degraded antenna performance, depending also on the environmental conditions and antenna array architecture. The implementation of distributed phased array hardware was studied with the aid of the DISTAR computer program as a simulation tool. This simulation provides guidance in hardware simulation. Both hard and soft failures of the amplifiers in the T/R modules are modeled. Hard failures are catastrophic: no power is transmitted to the antenna elements. Noncatastrophic or soft failures are modeled as a modified Gaussian distribution. The resulting amplitude characteristics then determine the array excitation coefficients. The phase characteristics take on a uniform distribution. Pattern characteristics such as antenna gain, half power beamwidth, mainbeam phase errors, sidelobe levels, and beam pointing errors were studied as functions of amplifier and phase shifter variations. General specifications for amplifier and phase shifter tolerances in various architecture configurations for C band and S band were determined.

  7. Advanced Architectures for Astrophysical Supercomputing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barsdell, B. R.; Barnes, D. G.; Fluke, C. J.

    2010-12-01

    Astronomers have come to rely on the increasing performance of computers to reduce, analyze, simulate and visualize their data. In this environment, faster computation can mean more science outcomes or the opening up of new parameter spaces for investigation. If we are to avoid major issues when implementing codes on advanced architectures, it is important that we have a solid understanding of our algorithms. A recent addition to the high-performance computing scene that highlights this point is the graphics processing unit (GPU). The hardware originally designed for speeding-up graphics rendering in video games is now achieving speed-ups of O(100×) in general-purpose computation - performance that cannot be ignored. We are using a generalized approach, based on the analysis of astronomy algorithms, to identify the optimal problem-types and techniques for taking advantage of both current GPU hardware and future developments in computing architectures.

  8. HRST architecture modeling and assessments

    SciTech Connect

    Comstock, D.A.

    1997-01-01

    This paper presents work supporting the assessment of advanced concept options for the Highly Reusable Space Transportation (HRST) study. It describes the development of computer models as the basis for creating an integrated capability to evaluate the economic feasibility and sustainability of a variety of system architectures. It summarizes modeling capabilities for use on the HRST study to perform sensitivity analysis of alternative architectures (consisting of different combinations of highly reusable vehicles, launch assist systems, and alternative operations and support concepts) in terms of cost, schedule, performance, and demand. In addition, the identification and preliminary assessment of alternative market segments for HRST applications, such as space manufacturing, space tourism, etc., is described. Finally, the development of an initial prototype model that can begin to be used for modeling alternative HRST concepts at the system level is presented. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  9. HRST architecture modeling and assessments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Comstock, Douglas A.

    1997-01-01

    This paper presents work supporting the assessment of advanced concept options for the Highly Reusable Space Transportation (HRST) study. It describes the development of computer models as the basis for creating an integrated capability to evaluate the economic feasibility and sustainability of a variety of system architectures. It summarizes modeling capabilities for use on the HRST study to perform sensitivity analysis of alternative architectures (consisting of different combinations of highly reusable vehicles, launch assist systems, and alternative operations and support concepts) in terms of cost, schedule, performance, and demand. In addition, the identification and preliminary assessment of alternative market segments for HRST applications, such as space manufacturing, space tourism, etc., is described. Finally, the development of an initial prototype model that can begin to be used for modeling alternative HRST concepts at the system level is presented.

  10. Chip architecture - A revolution brewing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guterl, F.

    1983-07-01

    Techniques being explored by microchip designers and manufacturers to both speed up memory access and instruction execution while protecting memory are discussed. Attention is given to hardwiring control logic, pipelining for parallel processing, devising orthogonal instruction sets for interchangeable instruction fields, and the development of hardware for implementation of virtual memory and multiuser systems to provide memory management and protection. The inclusion of microcode in mainframes eliminated logic circuits that control timing and gating of the CPU. However, improvements in memory architecture have reduced access time to below that needed for instruction execution. Hardwiring the functions as a virtual memory enhances memory protection. Parallelism involves a redundant architecture, which allows identical operations to be performed simultaneously, and can be directed with microcode to avoid abortion of intermediate instructions once on set of instructions has been completed.

  11. Architecture for Adaptive Intelligent Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hayes-Roth, Barbara

    1993-01-01

    We identify a class of niches to be occupied by 'adaptive intelligent systems (AISs)'. In contrast with niches occupied by typical AI agents, AIS niches present situations that vary dynamically along several key dimensions: different combinations of required tasks, different configurations of available resources, contextual conditions ranging from benign to stressful, and different performance criteria. We present a small class hierarchy of AIS niches that exhibit these dimensions of variability and describe a particular AIS niche, ICU (intensive care unit) patient monitoring, which we use for illustration throughout the paper. We have designed and implemented an agent architecture that supports all of different kinds of adaptation by exploiting a single underlying theoretical concept: An agent dynamically constructs explicit control plans to guide its choices among situation-triggered behaviors. We illustrate the architecture and its support for adaptation with examples from Guardian, an experimental agent for ICU monitoring.

  12. Open Architecture SDR for Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Carl; Long, Chris; Liebetreu, John; Reinhart, Richard C.

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes an open-architecture SDR (software defined radio) infrastructure that is suitable for space-based operations (Space-SDR). SDR technologies will endow space and planetary exploration systems with dramatically increased capability, reduced power consumption, and significantly less mass than conventional systems, at costs reduced by vigorous competition, hardware commonality, dense integration, reduced obsolescence, interoperability, and software re-use. Significant progress has been recorded on developments like the Joint Tactical Radio System (JSTRS) Software Communication Architecture (SCA), which is oriented toward reconfigurable radios for defense forces operating in multiple theaters of engagement. The JTRS-SCA presents a consistent software interface for waveform development, and facilitates interoperability, waveform portability, software re-use, and technology evolution.

  13. Launch Vehicle Control Center Architectures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watson, Michael D.; Epps, Amy; Woodruff, Van; Vachon, Michael Jacob; Monreal, Julio; Williams, Randall; McLaughlin, Tom

    2014-01-01

    This analysis is a survey of control center architectures of the NASA Space Launch System (SLS), United Launch Alliance (ULA) Atlas V and Delta IV, and the European Space Agency (ESA) Ariane 5. Each of these control center architectures have similarities in basic structure, and differences in functional distribution of responsibilities for the phases of operations: (a) Launch vehicles in the international community vary greatly in configuration and process; (b) Each launch site has a unique processing flow based on the specific configurations; (c) Launch and flight operations are managed through a set of control centers associated with each launch site, however the flight operations may be a different control center than the launch center; and (d) The engineering support centers are primarily located at the design center with a small engineering support team at the launch site.

  14. Space Situational Awareness Architecture Vision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richmond, D.

    2013-09-01

    Vast amounts of Space Situational data are collected each day. Net-Centric approaches are being developed to expose this data. The need to shift from our closed legacy systems to an open scalable architecture has begun through the JMS efforts. Cloud computing/Big Data concepts are also desired to store and process this data. Architecture insights will be provided to highlight how these apparently competing concepts can work together to provide a robust system of systems. Key items that will be covered include: 1) An overview of the "As-Is" system of JMS and Web Services 2) Definition of "Cloud Computing" and "Big Data" 3) Vision of To-Be SSA system of systems 4) Benefits of future approach 5) Path forward Governance and Oversight

  15. Optical Neural Network Classifier Architectures

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-04-01

    We present an adaptive opto-electronic neural network hardware architecture capable of exploiting parallel optics to realize real-time processing and...function neural network based on a previously demonstrated binary-input version. The greyscale-input capability broadens the range of applications for...a reduced feature set of multiwavelet images to improve training times and discrimination capability of the neural network . The design uses a joint

  16. VLSI Architectures for Computing DFT's

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Truong, T. K.; Chang, J. J.; Hsu, I. S.; Reed, I. S.; Pei, D. Y.

    1986-01-01

    Simplifications result from use of residue Fermat number systems. System of finite arithmetic over residue Fermat number systems enables calculation of discrete Fourier transform (DFT) of series of complex numbers with reduced number of multiplications. Computer architectures based on approach suitable for design of very-large-scale integrated (VLSI) circuits for computing DFT's. General approach not limited to DFT's; Applicable to decoding of error-correcting codes and other transform calculations. System readily implemented in VLSI.

  17. Multi-rate demodulator architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sherry, Michael A.; Caso, Gregory S.

    1991-01-01

    A unique digital multi-rate demodulator (MRD) architecture is presented for onboard satellite communications processing. The multi-rate feature enables the same demodulator hardware to process either one wideband channel (WBC), or process up to thirty-two independent narrowband channels (NBC) that are time division multiplexed (TDM). The MRD can process many quadrature modulation format such as offset quadrature phase shift keying (OQPSK). Possible applications include voice and data transmission for commercial or military users.

  18. Multi-rate demodulator architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sherry, Michael A.; Caso, Gregory S.

    1991-11-01

    A unique digital multi-rate demodulator (MRD) architecture is presented for onboard satellite communications processing. The multi-rate feature enables the same demodulator hardware to process either one wideband channel (WBC), or process up to thirty-two independent narrowband channels (NBC) that are time division multiplexed (TDM). The MRD can process many quadrature modulation format such as offset quadrature phase shift keying (OQPSK). Possible applications include voice and data transmission for commercial or military users.

  19. Template Matching on Parallel Architectures,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-07-01

    memory. The processors run asynchronously. Thus according to Hynn’s categories the Butterfl . is a MIMD machine. The processors of the Butterfly are...Generalized Butterfly Architecture This section describes timings for pattern matching on the generalized Butterfl .. Ihe implementations on the Butterfly...these algorithms. Thus the best implementation of the techniques on the generalized Butterfl % are the same as the implementation on the real Butterfly

  20. Jupiter Europa Orbiter Architecture Definition Process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rasmussen, Robert; Shishko, Robert

    2011-01-01

    The proposed Jupiter Europa Orbiter mission, planned for launch in 2020, is using a new architectural process and framework tool to drive its model-based systems engineering effort. The process focuses on getting the architecture right before writing requirements and developing a point design. A new architecture framework tool provides for the structured entry and retrieval of architecture artifacts based on an emerging architecture meta-model. This paper describes the relationships among these artifacts and how they are used in the systems engineering effort. Some early lessons learned are discussed.

  1. Architecture for portable direct liquid fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qian, Weimin; Wilkinson, David P.; Shen, Jun; Wang, Haijiang; Zhang, Jiujun

    Direct fuel cells (DFCs) are receiving increased interest for portable power applications. Cell and stack architecture is a vital technical issue for portable DFCs. The architecture of a DFC not only has to meet particular application requirements such as a compact size and easy handling, but also has to ensure desired performance, reliability and fabrication costs. In this paper, the most recent advances related to portable DFCs and their architecture are reviewed. The current status of system architecture, stack/unit cell architecture, flow-field designs and MEA morphology strategies along with analysis are surveyed. In addition, promising methods of passive fuel delivery are also presented.

  2. ASAC Executive Assistant Architecture Description Summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, Eileen; Villani, James A.

    1997-01-01

    In this technical document, we describe the system architecture developed for the Aviation System Analysis Capability (ASAC) Executive Assistant (EA). We describe the genesis and role of the ASAC system, discuss the objectives of the ASAC system and provide an overview of components and models within the ASAC system, discuss our choice for an architecture methodology, the Domain Specific Software Architecture (DSSA), and the DSSA approach to developing a system architecture, and describe the development process and the results of the ASAC EA system architecture. The document has six appendices.

  3. Numerical Propulsion System Simulation Architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Naiman, Cynthia G.

    2004-01-01

    The Numerical Propulsion System Simulation (NPSS) is a framework for performing analysis of complex systems. Because the NPSS was developed using the object-oriented paradigm, the resulting architecture is an extensible and flexible framework that is currently being used by a diverse set of participants in government, academia, and the aerospace industry. NPSS is being used by over 15 different institutions to support rockets, hypersonics, power and propulsion, fuel cells, ground based power, and aerospace. Full system-level simulations as well as subsystems may be modeled using NPSS. The NPSS architecture enables the coupling of analyses at various levels of detail, which is called numerical zooming. The middleware used to enable zooming and distributed simulations is the Common Object Request Broker Architecture (CORBA). The NPSS Developer's Kit offers tools for the developer to generate CORBA-based components and wrap codes. The Developer's Kit enables distributed multi-fidelity and multi-discipline simulations, preserves proprietary and legacy codes, and facilitates addition of customized codes. The platforms supported are PC, Linux, HP, Sun, and SGI.

  4. The Planning Execution Monitoring Architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Lui; Ly, Bebe; Crocker, Alan; Schreckenghost, Debra; Mueller, Stephen; Phillips, Robert; Wadsworth, David; Sorensen, Charles

    2011-01-01

    The Planning Execution Monitoring (PEM) architecture is a design concept for developing autonomous cockpit command and control software. The PEM architecture is designed to reduce the operations costs in the space transportation system through the use of automation while improving safety and operability of the system. Specifically, the PEM autonomous framework enables automatic performance of many vehicle operations that would typically be performed by a human. Also, this framework supports varying levels of autonomous control, ranging from fully automatic to fully manual control. The PEM autonomous framework interfaces with the core flight software to perform flight procedures. It can either assist human operators in performing procedures or autonomously execute routine cockpit procedures based on the operational context. Most importantly, the PEM autonomous framework promotes and simplifies the capture, verification, and validation of the flight operations knowledge. Through a hierarchical decomposition of the domain knowledge, the vehicle command and control capabilities are divided into manageable functional "chunks" that can be captured and verified separately. These functional units, each of which has the responsibility to manage part of the vehicle command and control, are modular, re-usable, and extensible. Also, the functional units are self-contained and have the ability to plan and execute the necessary steps for accomplishing a task based upon the current mission state and available resources. The PEM architecture has potential for application outside the realm of spaceflight, including management of complex industrial processes, nuclear control, and control of complex vehicles such as submarines or unmanned air vehicles.

  5. A reference architecture for telemonitoring.

    PubMed

    Clarke, Malcolm

    2004-01-01

    The Telecare Interactive Continuous Monitoring System exploits GPRS to provide an ambulatory device that monitors selected vital signs on a continuous basis. Alarms are sent when parameters fall outside preset limits, and accompanying physiological data may also be transmitted. The always-connected property of GPRS allows continuous interactive control of the device and its sensors, permitting changes to monitoring parameters or even enabling continuous monitoring of a sensor in emergency. A new personal area network (PAN) has been developed to support short-range wireless connection to sensors worn on the body including ECG and finger worn SpO2. Most notable is use of ultra low radio frequency to reduce power to minimum. The system has been designed to use a hierarchical architecture for sensors and "derived" signals, such as HR from ECG, so that each can be independently controlled and managed. Sensors are treated as objects, and functions are defined to control aspects of behaviour. These are refined in order to define a generic set of abstract functions to handle the majority of functions, leaving a minimum of sensor specific commands. The intention is to define a reference architecture in order to research the functionality and system architecture of a telemonitoring system. The Telecare project is funded through a grant from the European Commission (IST programme).

  6. Sensor Open System Architecture (SOSA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collier, Charles P.; Lipkin, Ilya; Davidson, Steven A.; Dirner, Jason

    2016-05-01

    The Sensor Open System Architecture (SOSA) is a C4ISR-focused technical and economic collaborative effort between the Air Force, Navy, Army, the Department of Defense (DoD), Industry, and other Governmental agencies to develop (and incorporate) technical Open Systems Architecture standards in order to maximize C4ISR sub-system, system, and platform affordability, re-configurability, overall performance, and hardware/software/firmware re-use. The SOSA effort will effectively create an operational and technical framework for the integration of disparate payloads into C4ISR systems; with a focus on the development of a functional decomposition for common multi-purpose backbone architecture for radar, EO/IR, SIGINT, EW, and communications modalities. SOSA addresses hardware, software, and mechanical/electrical interfaces. The functional decomposition will produce a set of re-useable components, interfaces, and sub-systems that engender re-usable capabilities. This, in effect, creates a realistic and affordable ecosystem enabling mission effectiveness through systematic re-use of all available re-composed hardware, software, and electrical/mechanical base components and interfaces.

  7. Microgrid cyber security reference architecture.

    SciTech Connect

    Veitch, Cynthia K.; Henry, Jordan M.; Richardson, Bryan T.; Hart, Derek H.

    2013-07-01

    This document describes a microgrid cyber security reference architecture. First, we present a high-level concept of operations for a microgrid, including operational modes, necessary power actors, and the communication protocols typically employed. We then describe our motivation for designing a secure microgrid; in particular, we provide general network and industrial control system (ICS)-speci c vulnerabilities, a threat model, information assurance compliance concerns, and design criteria for a microgrid control system network. Our design approach addresses these concerns by segmenting the microgrid control system network into enclaves, grouping enclaves into functional domains, and describing actor communication using data exchange attributes. We describe cyber actors that can help mitigate potential vulnerabilities, in addition to performance bene ts and vulnerability mitigation that may be realized using this reference architecture. To illustrate our design approach, we present a notional a microgrid control system network implementation, including types of communica- tion occurring on that network, example data exchange attributes for actors in the network, an example of how the network can be segmented to create enclaves and functional domains, and how cyber actors can be used to enforce network segmentation and provide the neces- sary level of security. Finally, we describe areas of focus for the further development of the reference architecture.

  8. Launch Vehicle Control Center Architectures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watson, Michael D.; Epps, Amy; Woodruff, Van; Vachon, Michael Jacob; Monreal, Julio; Levesque, Marl; Williams, Randall; Mclaughlin, Tom

    2014-01-01

    Launch vehicles within the international community vary greatly in their configuration and processing. Each launch site has a unique processing flow based on the specific launch vehicle configuration. Launch and flight operations are managed through a set of control centers associated with each launch site. Each launch site has a control center for launch operations; however flight operations support varies from being co-located with the launch site to being shared with the space vehicle control center. There is also a nuance of some having an engineering support center which may be co-located with either the launch or flight control center, or in a separate geographical location altogether. A survey of control center architectures is presented for various launch vehicles including the NASA Space Launch System (SLS), United Launch Alliance (ULA) Atlas V and Delta IV, and the European Space Agency (ESA) Ariane 5. Each of these control center architectures shares some similarities in basic structure while differences in functional distribution also exist. The driving functions which lead to these factors are considered and a model of control center architectures is proposed which supports these commonalities and variations.

  9. Savannah River Site computing architecture

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-03-29

    A computing architecture is a framework for making decisions about the implementation of computer technology and the supporting infrastructure. Because of the size, diversity, and amount of resources dedicated to computing at the Savannah River Site (SRS), there must be an overall strategic plan that can be followed by the thousands of site personnel who make decisions daily that directly affect the SRS computing environment and impact the site's production and business systems. This plan must address the following requirements: There must be SRS-wide standards for procurement or development of computing systems (hardware and software). The site computing organizations must develop systems that end users find easy to use. Systems must be put in place to support the primary function of site information workers. The developers of computer systems must be given tools that automate and speed up the development of information systems and applications based on computer technology. This document describes a proposal for a site-wide computing architecture that addresses the above requirements. In summary, this architecture is standards-based data-driven, and workstation-oriented with larger systems being utilized for the delivery of needed information to users in a client-server relationship.

  10. Savannah River Site computing architecture

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-03-29

    A computing architecture is a framework for making decisions about the implementation of computer technology and the supporting infrastructure. Because of the size, diversity, and amount of resources dedicated to computing at the Savannah River Site (SRS), there must be an overall strategic plan that can be followed by the thousands of site personnel who make decisions daily that directly affect the SRS computing environment and impact the site`s production and business systems. This plan must address the following requirements: There must be SRS-wide standards for procurement or development of computing systems (hardware and software). The site computing organizations must develop systems that end users find easy to use. Systems must be put in place to support the primary function of site information workers. The developers of computer systems must be given tools that automate and speed up the development of information systems and applications based on computer technology. This document describes a proposal for a site-wide computing architecture that addresses the above requirements. In summary, this architecture is standards-based data-driven, and workstation-oriented with larger systems being utilized for the delivery of needed information to users in a client-server relationship.

  11. Epigenetic determinants of space radiation-induced cognitive dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Acharya, Munjal M.; Baddour, Al Anoud D.; Kawashita, Takumi; Allen, Barrett D.; Syage, Amber R.; Nguyen, Thuan H.; Yoon, Nicole; Giedzinski, Erich; Yu, Liping; Parihar, Vipan K.; Baulch, Janet E.

    2017-01-01

    Among the dangers to astronauts engaging in deep space missions such as a Mars expedition is exposure to radiations that put them at risk for severe cognitive dysfunction. These radiation-induced cognitive impairments are accompanied by functional and structural changes including oxidative stress, neuroinflammation, and degradation of neuronal architecture. The molecular mechanisms that dictate CNS function are multifaceted and it is unclear how irradiation induces persistent alterations in the brain. Among those determinants of cognitive function are neuroepigenetic mechanisms that translate radiation responses into altered gene expression and cellular phenotype. In this study, we have demonstrated a correlation between epigenetic aberrations and adverse effects of space relevant irradiation on cognition. In cognitively impaired irradiated mice we observed increased 5-methylcytosine and 5-hydroxymethylcytosine levels in the hippocampus that coincided with increased levels of the DNA methylating enzymes DNMT3a, TET1 and TET3. By inhibiting methylation using 5-iodotubercidin, we demonstrated amelioration of the epigenetic effects of irradiation. In addition to protecting against those molecular effects of irradiation, 5-iodotubercidin restored behavioral performance to that of unirradiated animals. The findings of this study establish the possibility that neuroepigenetic mechanisms significantly contribute to the functional and structural changes that affect the irradiated brain and cognition. PMID:28220892

  12. Security management based on trust determination in cognitive radio networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jianwu; Feng, Zebing; Wei, Zhiqing; Feng, Zhiyong; Zhang, Ping

    2014-12-01

    Security has played a major role in cognitive radio networks. Numerous researches have mainly focused on attacking detection based on source localization and detection probability. However, few of them took the penalty of attackers into consideration and neglected how to implement effective punitive measures against attackers. To address this issue, this article proposes a novel penalty mechanism based on cognitive trust value. The main feature of this mechanism has been realized by six functions: authentication, interactive, configuration, trust value collection, storage and update, and punishment. Data fusion center (FC) and cluster heads (CHs) have been put forward as a hierarchical architecture to manage trust value of cognitive users. Misbehaving users would be punished by FC by declining their trust value; thus, guaranteeing network security via distinguishing attack users is of great necessity. Simulation results verify the rationality and effectiveness of our proposed mechanism.

  13. Executable Architecture Research at Old Dominion University

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tolk, Andreas; Shuman, Edwin A.; Garcia, Johnny J.

    2011-01-01

    Executable Architectures allow the evaluation of system architectures not only regarding their static, but also their dynamic behavior. However, the systems engineering community do not agree on a common formal specification of executable architectures. To close this gap and identify necessary elements of an executable architecture, a modeling language, and a modeling formalism is topic of ongoing PhD research. In addition, systems are generally defined and applied in an operational context to provide capabilities and enable missions. To maximize the benefits of executable architectures, a second PhD effort introduces the idea of creating an executable context in addition to the executable architecture. The results move the validation of architectures from the current information domain into the knowledge domain and improve the reliability of such validation efforts. The paper presents research and results of both doctoral research efforts and puts them into a common context of state-of-the-art of systems engineering methods supporting more agility.

  14. A high performance architecture for prolog

    SciTech Connect

    Dobry, T.

    1987-01-01

    Artificial Intelligence is entering the mainstream of computer applications and as techniques are developed and integrated into a wide variety of areas they are beginning to tax the processing power of conventional architecture. To meet this demand, specialized architectures providing support for the unique features of symbolic processing languages are emerging. The goal of the research presented here is to show that an architecture specialized for Prolog can achieve a ten-fold improvement in performance over conventional general-purpose architecture, and presents such an architecture for high performance execution of Prolog programs. The architecture is based on the abstract machine description known as the Warren Abstract Machine (WAM). The execution model of the WAM is described and extended to provide a complete Instruction Set Architecture (ISA) for Prolog known as the PLM. The ISA is then realized in a microarchitecture and finally in a hardware design.

  15. High-performance architecture for Prolog

    SciTech Connect

    Dobry, T.P.

    1987-01-01

    Artificial intelligence is entering the mainstream of computer applications and, as techniques are developed and integrated into a wide variety of areas, they are beginning to tax the processing power of conventional architectures. To meet this demand, specialized architectures providing support for the unique features of symbolic processing languages are emerging. The goal of the research presented here is to show that an architecture specialized for Prolog can achieve a tenfold improvement in performance over conventional, general-purpose architectures. This dissertation presents such an architecture for high performance execution of Prolog programs. The architecture is based on the abstract machine description introduced by David H.D. Warren known as the Warren Abstract Machine (WAM). The execution model of the WAM is described and extended to provide a complete Instruction Set Architecture (ISA) for Prolog known as the PLM. This ISA is then realized in a microarchitecture and finally in a hardware design.

  16. QUEST2: Sysdtem architecture deliverable set

    SciTech Connect

    Braaten, F.D.

    1995-02-27

    This document contains the system architecture and related documents which were developed during the Preliminary Analysis/System Architecture phase of the Quality, Environmental, Safety T-racking System redesign (QUEST2) project. Each discreet document in this deliverable set applies to a analytic effort supporting the architectural model of QUEST2. The P+ methodology cites a list of P+ documents normally included in a ``typical`` system architecture. Some of these were deferred to the release development phase of the project. The documents included in this deliverable set represent the system architecture itself. Related to that architecture are some decision support documents which provided needed information for management reviews that occurred during April. Consequently, the deliverables in this set were logically grouped and provided to support customer requirements. The remaining System Architecture Phase deliverables will be provided as a ``Supporting Documents`` deliverable set for the first release.

  17. The signs of life in architecture.

    PubMed

    Gruber, Petra

    2008-06-01

    Engineers, designers and architects often look to nature for inspiration. The research on 'natural constructions' is aiming at innovation and the improvement of architectural quality. The introduction of life sciences terminology in the context of architecture delivers new perspectives towards innovation in architecture and design. The investigation is focused on the analogies between nature and architecture. Apart from other principles that are found in living nature, an interpretation of the so-called 'signs of life', which characterize living systems, in architecture is presented. Selected architectural projects that have applied specific characteristics of life, whether on purpose or not, will show the state of development in this field and open up future challenges. The survey will include famous built architecture as well as students' design programs, which were carried out under supervision of the author at the Department of Design and Building Construction at the Vienna University of Technology.

  18. Where Is Cognition? Emotion and Cognition in Second Language Acquisition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schumann, John H.

    1994-01-01

    Argues that the brain is the seat of cognition, that cognitive processes are neutral processes, and that, in the brain, affect and cognition are distinguishable but inseparable. This perspective allows a reconceptualization of the affective filter in terms of the brain's stimulus appraisal system, which interacts with cognition to promote or…

  19. Cognitive and Academic Gains as a Result of Cognitive Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luckey, Alicia J.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test Feuersetein's Structural Cognitive Modifiability model by evaluating changes in cognitive skills and reading scores after participation in one of two cognitive skills training programs. The Woodcock Johnson Tests of Cognitive Abilities and Tests of Achievement, 3 rd editions were used as evaluation tools.…

  20. Graph theory and cognition: A complementary avenue for examining neuropsychological status in epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Ramos, Camille; Lin, Jack J; Kellermann, Tanja S; Bonilha, Leonardo; Prabhakaran, Vivek; Hermann, Bruce P

    2016-11-01

    The recent revision of the classification of the epilepsies released by the ILAE Commission on Classification and Terminology (2005-2009) has been a major development in the field. Papers in this section of the special issue explore the relevance of other techniques to examine, categorize, and classify cognitive and behavioral comorbidities in epilepsy. In this review, we investigate the applicability of graph theory to understand the impact of epilepsy on cognition compared with controls and, then, the patterns of cognitive development in normally developing children which would set the stage for prospective comparisons of children with epilepsy and controls. The overall goal is to examine the potential utility of this analytic tool and approach to conceptualize the cognitive comorbidities in epilepsy. Given that the major cognitive domains representing cognitive function are interdependent, the associations between neuropsychological abilities underlying these domains can be referred to as a cognitive network. Therefore, the architecture of this cognitive network can be quantified and assessed using graph theory methods, rendering a novel approach to the characterization of cognitive status. We first provide fundamental information about graph theory procedures, followed by application of these techniques to cross-sectional analysis of neuropsychological data in children with epilepsy compared with that of controls, concluding with prospective analysis of neuropsychological development in younger and older healthy controls. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled "The new approach to classification: Rethinking cognition and behavior in epilepsy".

  1. Therapeutics for cognitive aging.

    PubMed

    Shineman, Diana W; Salthouse, Timothy A; Launer, Lenore J; Hof, Patrick R; Bartzokis, George; Kleiman, Robin; Luine, Victoria; Buccafusco, Jerry J; Small, Gary W; Aisen, Paul S; Lowe, David A; Fillit, Howard M

    2010-04-01

    This review summarizes the scientific talks presented at the conference "Therapeutics for Cognitive Aging," hosted by the New York Academy of Sciences and the Alzheimer's Drug Discovery Foundation on May 15, 2009. Attended by scientists from industry and academia, as well as by a number of lay people-approximately 200 in all-the conference specifically tackled the many aspects of developing therapeutic interventions for cognitive impairment. Discussion also focused on how to define cognitive aging and whether it should be considered a treatable, tractable disease.

  2. Mutually Augmented Cognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friesdorf, Florian; Pangercic, Dejan; Bubb, Heiner; Beetz, Michael

    In mac, an ergonomic dialog-system and algorithms will be developed that enable human experts and companions to be integrated into knowledge gathering and decision making processes of highly complex cognitive systems (e.g. Assistive Household as manifested further in the paper). In this event we propose to join algorithms and methodologies coming from Ergonomics and Artificial Intelligence that: a) make cognitive systems more congenial for non-expert humans, b) facilitate their comprehension by utilizing a high-level expandable control code for human experts and c) augment representation of such cognitive system into “deep representation” obtained through an interaction with human companions.

  3. E-Learning Today: A Review of Research on Hypertext Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinesley, Gail A.

    2007-01-01

    Use of hypertext is pervasive in education today--it is used for all online course delivery as well as many stand-alone delivery methods such as educational computer software and compact discs (CDs). This article will review Kintsch's Construction-Integration and Anderson's Adaptive Control of Thought-Rational (ACT-R) cognitive architectures and…

  4. Spatial Cognition Support for Exploring the Design Mechanics of Building Structures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rudy, Margit; Hauck, Richard

    2008-01-01

    A web-based tool for visualizing the simulated structural behavior of building models was developed to support the teaching of structural design to architecture and engineering students by activating their spatial cognition capabilities. The main didactic issues involved establishing a consistent and complete three-dimensional vocabulary (3D)…

  5. Interaction between Task Oriented and Affective Information Processing in Cognitive Robotics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haazebroek, Pascal; van Dantzig, Saskia; Hommel, Bernhard

    There is an increasing interest in endowing robots with emotions. Robot control however is still often very task oriented. We present a cognitive architecture that allows the combination of and interaction between task representations and affective information processing. Our model is validated by comparing simulation results with empirical data from experimental psychology.

  6. Collaborative Virtual Environments as Means to Increase the Level of Intersubjectivity in a Distributed Cognition System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ligorio, M. Beatrice; Cesareni, Donatella; Schwartz, Neil

    2008-01-01

    Virtual environments are able to extend the space of interaction beyond the classroom. In order to analyze how distributed cognition functions in such an extended space, we suggest focusing on the architecture of intersubjectivity. The Euroland project--a virtual land created and populated by seven classrooms supported by a team of…

  7. City of Physics--Analogies to Increase Cognitive Coherence in Physics Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tabor-Morris, A. E.; Froriep, K. A.; Briles, T. M.; McGuire, C. M.

    2009-01-01

    Physics educators and researchers can be concerned with how students attain cognitive coherence: specifically, how students understand and intra-connect the whole of their knowledge of the "field of physics". Starting instead with the metaphor "city of physics", the implication of applying architectural concepts for the human acquisition of mental…

  8. Development of the Adolescent Brain: Implications for Executive Function and Social Cognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blakemore, Sarah-Jayne; Choudhury, Suparna

    2006-01-01

    Adolescence is a time of considerable development at the level of behaviour, cognition and the brain. This article reviews histological and brain imaging studies that have demonstrated specific changes in neural architecture during puberty and adolescence, outlining trajectories of grey and white matter development. The implications of brain…

  9. Mild Cognitive Impairment

    MedlinePlus

    ... noticeable and measurable decline in cognitive abilities, including memory and thinking skills. A person with MCI is ... independent function. People with MCI, especially MCI involving memory problems, are more likely to develop Alzheimer’s disease ...

  10. Curriculum and Cognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenstein, Joseph

    1971-01-01

    Paper presented at the Summer Meeting of the Alexander Graham Bell Association for the Deaf held in Philadelphia, June 24-27, 1970. Discussed are concepts of curriculum development, cognitive development, and educational methods with implications for the handicapped. (CB)

  11. Creativity and Cognition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaughnessy, Michael F.

    1980-01-01

    The article focuses on research on improving creativity, including early efforts to enhance, operationalize, and define creativity. Studies dealing with behavioral management of creativity are discussed, as are those concerning the effects of self-statements and cognition. (CL)

  12. Advances in Animal Cognition.

    PubMed

    Vonk, Jennifer

    2016-11-30

    This editorial endorses a diverse approach to the study of animal cognition and emphasizes the theoretical and applied gains that can be made by embracing this approach. This diversity emerges from cross-talk among scientists trained in a variety of backgrounds and theoretical approaches, who study a variety of topics with a range of species. By shifting from an anthropocentric focus on humans and our closest living relatives, and the historic reliance on the lab rat or pigeon, modern students of animal cognition have uncovered many fascinating facets of cognition in species ranging from insects to carnivores. Diversity in both topic and species of study will allow researchers to better understand the complex evolutionary forces giving rise to widely shared and unique cognitive processes. Furthermore, this increased understanding will translate into more effective strategies for managing wild and captive populations of nonhuman species.

  13. Advances in Animal Cognition

    PubMed Central

    Vonk, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    This editorial endorses a diverse approach to the study of animal cognition and emphasizes the theoretical and applied gains that can be made by embracing this approach. This diversity emerges from cross-talk among scientists trained in a variety of backgrounds and theoretical approaches, who study a variety of topics with a range of species. By shifting from an anthropocentric focus on humans and our closest living relatives, and the historic reliance on the lab rat or pigeon, modern students of animal cognition have uncovered many fascinating facets of cognition in species ranging from insects to carnivores. Diversity in both topic and species of study will allow researchers to better understand the complex evolutionary forces giving rise to widely shared and unique cognitive processes. Furthermore, this increased understanding will translate into more effective strategies for managing wild and captive populations of nonhuman species. PMID:27916874

  14. Entropy-based consistent model driven architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niepostyn, Stanisław Jerzy

    2016-09-01

    A description of software architecture is a plan of the IT system construction, therefore any architecture gaps affect the overall success of an entire project. The definitions mostly describe software architecture as a set of views which are mutually unrelated, hence potentially inconsistent. Software architecture completeness is also often described in an ambiguous way. As a result most methods of IT systems building comprise many gaps and ambiguities, thus presenting obstacles for software building automation. In this article the consistency and completeness of software architecture are mathematically defined based on calculation of entropy of the architecture description. Following this approach, in this paper we also propose our method of automatic verification of consistency and completeness of the software architecture development method presented in our previous article as Consistent Model Driven Architecture (CMDA). The proposed FBS (Functionality-Behaviour-Structure) entropy-based metric applied in our CMDA approach enables IT architects to decide whether the modelling process is complete and consistent. With this metric, software architects could assess the readiness of undergoing modelling work for the start of IT system building. It even allows them to assess objectively whether the designed software architecture of the IT system could be implemented at all. The overall benefit of such an approach is that it facilitates the preparation of complete and consistent software architecture more effectively as well as it enables assessing and monitoring of the ongoing modelling development status. We demonstrate this with a few industry examples of IT system designs.

  15. Cognitive aspects of performance.

    PubMed Central

    Kane, J. E.

    1978-01-01

    The study of cognitive structures and processes in the control of skilled performance is considered and reviewed with special reference to a proposed hierarchical system incorporating levels of motor integration. Cognitive styles and dispositions of general behaviour are suggested as factors which may determine performance levels. The relative importance of these personal factors and stronger personality traits in accounting for variance in performance is considered in the light of a critique of the current interactional controversy. PMID:444808

  16. Emotion, Cognition, and Behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dolan, R. J.

    2002-11-01

    Emotion is central to the quality and range of everyday human experience. The neurobiological substrates of human emotion are now attracting increasing interest within the neurosciences motivated, to a considerable extent, by advances in functional neuroimaging techniques. An emerging theme is the question of how emotion interacts with and influences other domains of cognition, in particular attention, memory, and reasoning. The psychological consequences and mechanisms underlying the emotional modulation of cognition provide the focus of this article.

  17. Cognitive framing in action.

    PubMed

    Huhn, John M; Potts, Cory Adam; Rosenbaum, David A

    2016-06-01

    Cognitive framing effects have been widely reported in higher-level decision-making and have been ascribed to rules of thumb for quick thinking. No such demonstrations have been reported for physical action, as far as we know, but they would be expected if cognition for physical action is fundamentally similar to cognition for higher-level decision-making. To test for such effects, we asked participants to reach for a horizontally-oriented pipe to move it from one height to another while turning the pipe 180° to bring one end (the "business end") to a target on the left or right. From a physical perspective, participants could have always rotated the pipe in the same angular direction no matter which end was the business end; a given participant could have always turned the pipe clockwise or counter-clockwise. Instead, our participants turned the business end counter-clockwise for left targets and clockwise for right targets. Thus, the way the identical physical task was framed altered the way it was performed. This finding is consistent with the hypothesis that cognition for physical action is fundamentally similar to cognition for higher-level decision-making. A tantalizing possibility is that higher-level decision heuristics have roots in the control of physical action, a hypothesis that accords with embodied views of cognition.

  18. Language and cognition.

    PubMed

    Perlovsky, Leonid

    2009-04-01

    What is the role of language in cognition? Do we think with words, or do we use words to communicate made-up decisions? The paper briefly reviews ideas in this area since 1950s. Then we discuss mechanisms of cognition, recent neuroscience experiments, and corresponding mathematical models. These models are interpreted in terms of a biological drive for cognition. Based on the Grossberg-Levine theory of drives and emotions, we identify specific emotions associated with the need for cognition. We demonstrate an engineering application of the developed technique, which significantly improves detection of patterns in noise over the previous state-of-the-art. The developed mathematical models are extended toward language. Then we consider possible brain-mind mechanisms of interaction between language and cognition. A mathematical analysis imposes restrictions on possible mechanisms. The proposed model resolves some long-standing language-cognition issues: how the mind learns correct associations between words and objects among an astronomical number of possible associations; why kids can talk about almost everything, but cannot act like adults, what exactly are the brain-mind differences; why animals do not talk and think like people. Recent brain imaging experiments indicate support for the proposed model. We discuss future theoretical and experimental research.

  19. Relationships among gender, cognitive style, academic major, and performance on the Piaget water-level task.

    PubMed

    Hammer, R E; Hoffer, N; King, W L

    1995-06-01

    Many researchers have found that more college-age adults than would be expected fail Piaget's water-level task, with women failing more frequently than men. It has been hypothesized that differences in cognitive style may account for performance differences on the water-level task. In the present study, 27 male and 27 female architectural students and 27 male and 27 female liberal-arts students were assessed for their performance on both Piaget's Water-level Task and Witkin's Group Embedded Figures Test. No difference was found in performance of male and female architectural students on either task, but male liberal-arts students scored significantly higher than female liberal-arts students on both measures. A disembedding cognitive style predicted success on the water-level task for the architectural students but not for the liberal arts students.

  20. Architectures and Technologies for the Future Mobile Internet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raychaudhuri, Dipankar

    This position paper outlines the author's view on architectural directions and key technology enablers for the future mobile Internet. It is pointed out that mobile and wireless services will dominate Internet usage in the near future, and it is therefore important to design next-generation network protocols with features suitable for efficiently serving emerging wireless scenarios and applications. Several key requirements for mobile/wireless scenarios are identified - these include new capabilities such as dynamic spectrum coordination, cross-layer support, disconnection tolerant routing, content addressing, and location awareness. Specific examples of enabling technologies which address some of these requirements are given from ongoing research projects at WINLAB. Topics covered briefly include wireless network virtualization, the cache-and-forward (CNF) protocol, geographic (GEO) protocol stack, cognitive radio protocols, and open networking testbeds.