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Sample records for acta crystallogr sect

  1. [A study on the Menghe medical sect].

    PubMed

    Scheid, Volker; Miao, Wei-Qun

    2004-04-01

    From the late Ming to modern age, famous physicians in Menghe came forth in large numbers, contributing to the formation of the Menghe scholarly sect with the four families of the Fei, Ma, Chao, and Ding as its representatives, featuring erudite academic knowledge, rich clinical experiences with distinguished contributions to the development of TCM. The materials presented in this article include investigation from over 100 kinds of genealogies, works of the Menghe sect collected from over 100 works written by the Menghe physicians, local chronicles, family tree collected in all major libraries in China and those in Europe, the US, Hong Kong and Taiwan, as well as through interviews with over 200 persons, including descendants of the Menghe sect, physicians related to the sect. Like a shinning star, the Menghe sect illuminated the medical province during the late Qing dynasty and early republican periods and even today as well. PMID:15555233

  2. Cortinarius sect. Armillati in northern Europe.

    PubMed

    Niskanen, Tuula; Kytövuori, Ilkka; Liimatainen, Kare

    2011-01-01

    Cortinarius sect. Armillati (subgenus Telamonia) was studied extensively based on morphology and molecular data. A total of about 1000 specimens, mostly from Fennoscandia, were revised. The nomenclature of the species was confirmed by sequencing the type material. Phylogenetic relationships were inferred by analyses of ITS, and the results were compared with the morphological and ecological data. Based on macro- and micromorphological characters, as well as molecular data, section Armillati contains only the medium to large species with slightly hygrophanous pileus and ± reddish or in some species yellowish brown to rose brown universal veils. The other red-brown-veiled species, previously included in Armillati, seem to belong to at least seven different sections or clades: sect. Anthracini, sect. Boulderenses, sect. Brunneotincti p.p., sect. Cinnabarini, sect. Fulvescentes, /Fuscoperonatus, and /Praestigiosus. Our study recognized six Armillati species from northern Europe: C. armillatus, C. luteo-ornatus, C. paragaudis, and three species described as new, C. pinigaudis, C. roseoarmillatus, and C. suboenochelis. The former three also occur in North America. Two additional species, C. subarmillatus (Japan) and C. quercoarmillatus (Costa Rica), are known outside the area. Based on the phylogenetic analysis, the species associated with deciduous trees, C. armillatus, C. quercoarmillatus, and C. roseoarmillatus, all with dextrinoid, thick-walled spores, formed a separate group from the mainly conifer-associated species, C. luteo-ornatus, C. paragaudis, C. pinigaudis and C. suboenochelis, all with fairly thin to moderately thick-walled, indextrinoid to moderately dextrinoid spores. Descriptions of the northern European species are provided, the distribution is mapped and their taxonomy, ecology, distribution, and relationships are discussed. A total of 64 new sequences of 12 species are reported including 17 sequences from type material. Our study also suggests that

  3. Acta Astronautica: 60 years of excellence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chern, Rock Jeng-Shing; Chang, Eva Yi-Wei

    2014-12-01

    The Acta Astronautica is 60 years old [1]. Ever since its first publication in 1955 with the title Astronautica Acta (from 1955 to 1973), 2014 is the 60th year of Acta Astronautica (from 1955 to present). Fig. 1 is a poster to manifest the remarkable milestone during the 65th IAC held in Toronto, Canada on 29 September to 3 October 2014. Under the auspices of the IAA's Publications and Communication Committee, and the seamless cooperation and strong support of IAA, Editor-in-Chief, Co-Editors, Managing Editor, authors, reviewers, readers, publisher and all IAA Academicians, its impact factor and ranking have significant improvements recently. Fig. 2 shows the increase in impact factor from 2008 to 2013. The ranking is 7 out of the 63+ journals in the category of Aerospace Engineering.

  4. 76 FR 10634 - In the Matter of the Designation of Sect of Revolutionaries also known as SE also known as Sekhta...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-25

    ... known as Rebel Sect also known as Armed Struggle for Revolutionary Independence Sect of Revolutionaries... Revolutionary Independence Sect of Revolutionaries, committed, or poses a significant risk of committing,...

  5. Intracellular Induction of Listeria monocytogenes actA Expression

    PubMed Central

    Shetron-Rama, Lynne M.; Marquis, Hélène; Bouwer, H. G. Archie; Freitag, Nancy E.

    2002-01-01

    Following entry into the host cytosol, the bacterial pathogen Listeria monocytogenes dramatically increases the expression of several key virulence factors. The expression of actA, whose protein product is required for L. monocytogenes actin-based intracellular motility, is increased by more than 200-fold in cytosolic bacteria in comparison to broth-grown cultures. Two distinct promoter elements have been reported to regulate actA expression. One promoter is located immediately upstream of actA coding sequences, while the second promoter is contributed by the upstream mpl gene via the generation of an mpl-actA-plcB transcript. A series of L. monocytogenes mutants were constructed to define the contributions of individual promoter elements to actA expression. The intracellular induction of actA expression was found to be dependent upon the actA proximal promoter; the mpl promoter appeared to contribute to the extracellular induction of actA but did not affect intracellular levels of expression. The actA promoter is dependent upon a regulatory factor known as PrfA for transcriptional activation; however, no increase in actA expression was detected following the introduction of a high-affinity PrfA binding site within the actA promoter. The presence of a mutationally activated form of PrfA, known as PrfA*, increased overall actA expression in broth-grown cultures of both wild-type and actA promoter mutant strains, but the levels of induction observed were still approximately 50-fold lower than those observed for intracellularly grown L. monocytogenes. Collectively, these results indicate that the dramatic induction of actA expression that occurs in the host cell cytosol is mediated through a single promoter element. Furthermore, intracellular induction of actA appears to require additional steps or factors beyond those necessary for the activation and binding of PrfA to the actA promoter. PMID:11854187

  6. Entering the 60th year of Acta Astronautica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Yi-Wei; Chern, Jeng-Shing; Marec, Jean-Pierre

    2014-04-01

    The Acta Astronautica Journal was firstly published in 1955 as the official Journal of the International Astronautical Federation (IAF) with the title Astronautica Acta. It is entering its 60th year in 2014. In 1962, the Astronautica Acta became the official Journal of the International Academy of Astronautics (IAA) established in 1960. A total of 18 volumes had been published from 1955 to 1973 under the leadership of three Editor-in-Chiefs: F. Hecht, Theodore von Karman, and Martin Summerfield. In 1974, A.K. Oppenheim became the new Editor-in-Chief and several evolved changes were performed including change of the title to Acta Astronautica (for grammatical correctness), cover page change, and format change. From 1974 to 2010, another three Editor-in-Chiefs led the journal with 67 volumes published. They were A.K. Oppenheim, Jean-Pierre Marec, and Rupert Gerzer. The current Editor-in-Chief Jeng-Shing Chern (Rock) took over the job from 2011. Total pages and articles published in 2012 are 3586 and 356, respectively. Currently, the Acta Astronautica Editorial Board consists of one Editor-in-Chief, 15 Co-Editors, one Managing Editor and one Honorary Editor-in-Chief (Jean-Pierre Marec). After 59 years, the Acta Astronautica has become a well-known journal worldwide. Its current rank and impact factor are 7/63 and 0.701, respectively. This paper presents some of the details as well as new strategies and steps. In particular, supports from the IAA Academicians are mandatory and most welcome.

  7. Elsevier/Spectrochimica Acta Atomic Spectroscopy Award 2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Omenetto, Nicolo'; de Loos, Greet

    2016-03-01

    This is to announce the 2014 Elsevier/Spectrochimica Acta Award, the annual award honoring the most significant article(s) published in a volume. Elsevier makes this award on behalf of Spectrochimica Acta, Part B, to encourage the publication of top articles in this journal. All papers published during one year are considered for this award and the Editorial Advisory Board and the Guest Editor(s) of the special issue(s) are responsible for the selection. The award consists of a monetary prize of 1000 together with a presentation certificate.

  8. Elsevier/Spectrochimica Acta Atomic Spectroscopy Award 2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Omenetto, Nicolo'; de Loos, Greet

    2015-01-01

    This is to announce the 2013 Elsevier/Spectrochimica Acta Award, the annual award honoring the most significant article(s) published in a volume. Elsevier makes this award on behalf of Spectrochimica Acta, Part B, to encourage the publication of top articles in this journal. All papers published during one year are considered for this award and the Editorial Advisory Board and the Guest Editor(s) of the special issue(s) are responsible for the selection. The award consists of a monetary prize of 1000 together with a presentation certificate.

  9. Taxonomy and phylogeny in Lepiota sect. Stenosporae from China.

    PubMed

    Liang, Jun F

    2016-01-01

    Lepiota sect. Stenosporae (J.E. Lange) Kühner contains species with spurred or truncate basidiospores and pileus covering composed of adnate, ascending or erect long and slender elements. Seven species from southwestern, northeastern and southern China in this section have been identified, described and illustrated. Lepiota mandarina and L. subcastanea are described as new. Lepiota mandarina is characterized by densely orange red to brownish red squamules on pileus and stipe, subtriangular basidiospores with truncate bottom, narrowly clavate cheilocystidia and pileus covering a trichodermial palisade. Lepiota subcastanea has a pileus with yellow-brown to dark brown squamules, non-dextrinoid subtriangular basidiospores with a distinct sac-like spur, narrowly clavate or narrowly utriform cheilocystidia, and pileus covering a trichodermial palisade with short clavate elements. It is hypothesized that this section evolved from sect. Ovisporae subsect. Helveolinae. It also is speculated that subtriangular and spurred basidiospores have evolved from ellipsoidal basidiospores and that a trichodermial pileus covering composing long, erect elements and basal short, clavate elements might have evolved from a cutis or a trichoderm lacking such an under layer of short elements. PMID:26490699

  10. Citation Analysis of "Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta," 1951-1960.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lifshin, Arthur

    1993-01-01

    A citation analysis of the first 10 years of "Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta" from 1951 to 1960 is described. A shift from German to English language citations and the emerging importance of the journal in the field, which is undergoing a change resulting from technological innovation, are shown. Tables and graphs are included. (EAM)

  11. Localization of the ActA polypeptide of Listeria monocytogenes in infected tissue culture cell lines: ActA is not associated with actin "comets".

    PubMed Central

    Niebuhr, K; Chakraborty, T; Rohde, M; Gazlig, T; Jansen, B; Köllner, P; Wehland, J

    1993-01-01

    The ActA protein of the gram-positive pathogen Listeria monocytogenes is a 90-kDa polypeptide required for interaction of the bacteria with components of the host cell microfilament system to generate intra- and intercellular movement. To study the localization, distribution, and expression of the ActA polypeptide in L. monocytogenes grown either in broth culture or in infected tissue culture cells, we first isolated ActA by monoclonal antibody-based immunoaffinity chromatography. Polyclonal rabbit antisera raised against purified ActA revealed that ActA was associated with the cell wall and exposed on the surface of the bacteria, readily accessible to ActA antibodies. In contrast, a C-terminally truncated ActA1 polypeptide expressed by the isogenic actA1 mutant was detected only in the supernatant fluids. Immunofluorescence microscopy and electron microscopic studies using immunogold labeling showed that ActA was present on the surface of the bacteria infecting PtK2 and J774 cells at all stages of the infection cycle and was not found to be associated with the actin "tail" of individual bacteria. For the isogenic actA1 mutant strain, which grew as microcolonies within infected cells, only diffuse staining of the secreted ActA1 polypeptide in the host cytoplasm was observed. The ActA polypeptide therefore appears to be required in the initiation of actin accumulation by the bacterium and is apparently not directly involved in the generation of the actin tail. Analysis of strains of several L. monocytogenes serotypes indicated microheterogeneity in the molecular weights of the ActA polypeptides of individual strains and led to the detection of a serotype 3a strain that does not produce ActA. Images PMID:8514381

  12. Aortic Disease Presentation and Outcome Associated with ACTA2 mutations

    PubMed Central

    Regalado, Ellen S.; Guo, Dongchuan; Prakash, Siddharth; Bensend, Tracy A.; Flynn, Kelly; Estrera, Anthony; Safi, Hazim; Liang, David; Hyland, James; Child, Anne; Arno, Gavin; Boileau, Catherine; Jondeau, Guillaume; Braverman, Alan; Moran, Rocio; Morisaki, Takayuki; Morisaki, Hiroko; Consortium, Montalcino Aortic; Pyeritz, Reed; Coselli, Joseph; LeMaire, Scott; Milewicz, Dianna M.

    2015-01-01

    Background ACTA2 mutations are the major cause of familial thoracic aortic aneurysms and dissections. We sought to characterize these aortic diseases in a large case series of individuals with ACTA2 mutations. Methods and Results Aortic disease, management, and outcome associated with the first aortic event (aortic dissection or aneurysm repair) were abstracted from the medical records of 277 individuals with 41 various ACTA2 mutations. Aortic events occurred in 48% of these individuals, with the vast majority presenting with thoracic aortic dissections (88%) associated with 25% mortality. Type A dissections were more common than type B dissections (54% versus 21%), but the median age of onset of type B dissections was significantly younger than type A dissections (27 years, IQR 18–41 versus 36 years, IQR 26–45). Only 12% of aortic events were repair of ascending aortic aneurysms, which variably involved the aortic root, ascending aorta and aortic arch. Overall cumulative risk of an aortic event at age 85 years was 0.76 (95% CI 0.64, 0.86). After adjustment for intra-familial correlation, gender and race, mutations disrupting p.R179 and p.R258 were associated with significantly increased risk for aortic events, whereas p.R185Q and p.R118Q mutations showed significantly lower risk of aortic events compared to other mutations. Conclusions ACTA2 mutations are associated with high risk of presentation with an acute aortic dissection. The lifetime risk for an aortic event is only 76%, suggesting that additional environmental or genetic factors play a role in expression of aortic disease in individuals with ACTA2 mutations. PMID:25759435

  13. Cerebral arteriopathy associated with Arg179His ACTA2 mutation

    PubMed Central

    Amans, Matthew R; Stout, Charles; Fox, Christine; Narvid, Jared; Hetts, Steven W; Cooke, Daniel L; Higashida, Randall T; Dowd, Christopher F; McSwain, Hugh; Halbach, Van V

    2013-01-01

    ACTA2 mutations have recently been shown to cause a multisystem smooth muscle dysfunction syndrome that may result in pediatric stroke. We report a case of ACTA2 mutation in a 3-year-old girl presenting with acute ischemic stroke and provide high resolution imaging of the cerebral arteries demonstrating novel findings of multiple tiny aneurysms (particularly in the posterior circulation), as well as the more characteristic imaging phenotype of straightened and narrowed proximal intracranial vessels, dilated cervical vessels and occlusion of the M1 MCA segment without lenticulostriate collateral formation. This newly identified disease should be added to the differential diagnosis of pediatric stroke and cerebral vasculopathy. Neuroradiologists, interventionalists, surgeons and neurologists should become familiar with this rare disease and its clinical sequelae. PMID:24293535

  14. Cerebral arteriopathy associated with Arg179His ACTA2 mutation.

    PubMed

    Amans, Matthew R; Stout, Charles; Fox, Christine; Narvid, Jared; Hetts, Steven W; Cooke, Daniel L; Higashida, Randall T; Dowd, Christopher F; McSwain, Hugh; Halbach, Van V

    2013-01-01

    ACTA2 mutations have recently been shown to cause a multisystem smooth muscle dysfunction syndrome that may result in pediatric stroke. We report a case of ACTA2 mutation in a 3-year-old girl presenting with acute ischemic stroke and provide high resolution imaging of the cerebral arteries demonstrating novel findings of multiple tiny aneurysms (particularly in the posterior circulation), as well as the more characteristic imaging phenotype of straightened and narrowed proximal intracranial vessels, dilated cervical vessels and occlusion of the M1 MCA segment without lenticulostriate collateral formation. This newly identified disease should be added to the differential diagnosis of pediatric stroke and cerebral vasculopathy. Neuroradiologists, interventionalists, surgeons and neurologists should become familiar with this rare disease and its clinical sequelae. PMID:24293535

  15. Cerebral arteriopathy associated with Arg179His ACTA2 mutation.

    PubMed

    Amans, Matthew R; Stout, Charles; Fox, Christine; Narvid, Jared; Hetts, Steven W; Cooke, Daniel L; Higashida, Randall T; Dowd, Christopher F; McSwain, Hugh; Halbach, Van V

    2014-11-01

    ACTA2 mutations have recently been shown to cause a multisystem smooth muscle dysfunction syndrome that may result in pediatric stroke. We report a case of ACTA2 mutation in a 3-year-old girl presenting with acute ischemic stroke and provide high resolution imaging of the cerebral arteries demonstrating novel findings of multiple tiny aneurysms (particularly in the posterior circulation), as well as the more characteristic imaging phenotype of straightened and narrowed proximal intracranial vessels, dilated cervical vessels and occlusion of the M1 MCA segment without lenticulostriate collateral formation. This newly identified disease should be added to the differential diagnosis of pediatric stroke and cerebral vasculopathy. Neuroradiologists, interventionalists, surgeons and neurologists should become familiar with this rare disease and its clinical sequelae. PMID:24353327

  16. An overview of the Small Engine Component Technology (SECT) studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vanco, M. R.; Wintucky, W. T.; Niedzwiecki, R. W.

    1986-01-01

    The objectives of the joint NASA/Army SECT Studies were to identify high payoff technologies for year 2000 small gas turbine engine applications and to provide a technology plan for guiding future research and technology efforts applicable to rotorcraft, commuter and general aviation aircraft and cruise missiles. Competitive contracts were awarded to Allison, AVCO Lycoming, Garrett, Teledyne CAE and Williams International. This paper presents an overview of the contractors' study efforts for the commuter, rotorcraft, cruise missile, and auxiliary power (APU) applications with engines in the 250 to 1,000 horsepower size range. Reference aircraft, missions and engines were selected. Advanced engine configurations and cycles with projected year 2000 component technologies were evaluated and compared with a reference engine selected by the contractor. For typical commuter and rotorcraft applications, fuel savings of 22 percent to 42 percent can be attained. For $1/gallon and $2/gallon fuel, reductions in direct operating cost range from 6 percent to 16 percent and from 11 percent to 17 percent respectively. For subsonic strategic cruise missile applications, fuel savings of 38 percent to 54 percent can be achieved which allows 35 percent to 60 percent increase in mission range and life cycle cost reductions of 40 percent to 56 percent. High payoff technologies have been identified for all applications.

  17. Langkocyclines: novel angucycline antibiotics from Streptomyces sp. Acta 3034(*).

    PubMed

    Kalyon, Bahar; Tan, Geok-Yuan A; Pinto, John M; Foo, Cheau-Yee; Wiese, Jutta; Imhoff, Johannes F; Süssmuth, Roderich D; Sabaratnam, Vikineswary; Fiedler, Hans-Peter

    2013-10-01

    Langkocyclines A1-A3 and B1 and B2, five new angucycline antibiotics produced by Streptomyces sp. Acta 3034, were detected in the course of our HPLC-diode array screening. The producing strain was isolated from the rhizospheric soil of a Clitorea sp. collected from Burau Bay, Langkawi, Malaysia, and was characterized by morphological, physiological and chemotaxonomic features in addition to 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequence information. Strain Acta 3034 is closely related to Streptomyces psammoticus NBRC 13971(T) and Streptomyces lanatus NBRC 12787(T). Langkocyclines consist of an angular tetracyclic benz[a]anthracene skeleton and hydrolyzable O-glycosidic sugar moieties. The yellow-colored A-type langkocyclines differ in their aglycon from the blue-lilac-colored B-type langkocyclines. The A-type langkocycline aglycon is identical to that of aquayamycin and urdamycin A. The chemical structures of the langkocyclines were elucidated by HR-MS, 1D and 2D NMR experiments. They are biologically active against Gram-positive bacteria and exhibit a moderate antiproliferative activity against various human tumor cell lines. PMID:23820614

  18. Religious affiliation and psychiatric diagnosis: the influence of Christian sect membership on diagnosis distribution.

    PubMed

    Dalgalarrondo, P; Lotz, M

    1993-01-01

    Minority religions, sects and cults are an increasingly common socio-cultural phenomenon, of which the effects concerning mental health and illness are still poorly understood. In the present study, we compared socio-demographical and clinical characteristics between members of Christian sects and the remaining general inpatient population admitted to a psychiatric clinic in Germany between 1978 and 1991. In comparison to the general patient population, Christian sect patients presented significantly more frequently with a diagnosis of functional psychoses (P < 0.02) and less frequently with diagnoses of neuroses (P < 0.10). Dissimilarities among sub-cultural groups in help-seeking behavior are suggested to explain the heterogeneous diagnoses distribution found in the study. PMID:8399410

  19. Smooth Muscle α Actin (Acta2) and Myofibroblast Function during Hepatic Wound Healing

    PubMed Central

    Rockey, Don C.; Weymouth, Nate; Shi, Zengdun

    2013-01-01

    Smooth muscle α actin (Acta2) expression is largely restricted to smooth muscle cells, pericytes and specialized fibroblasts, known as myofibroblasts. Liver injury, associated with cirrhosis, induces transformation of resident hepatic stellate cells into liver specific myofibroblasts, also known as activated cells. Here, we have used in vitro and in vivo wound healing models to explore the functional role of Acta2 in this transformation. Acta2 was abundant in activated cells isolated from injured livers but was undetectable in quiescent cells isolated from normal livers. Both cellular motility and contraction were dramatically increased in injured liver cells, paralleled by an increase in Acta2 expression, when compared with quiescent cells. Inhibition of Acta2 using several different techniques had no effect on cytoplasmic actin isoform expression, but led to reduced cellular motility and contraction. Additionally, Acta2 knockdown was associated with a significant reduction in Erk1/2 phosphorylation compared to control cells. The data indicate that Acta2 is important specifically in myofibroblast cell motility and contraction and raise the possibility that the Acta2 cytoskeleton, beyond its structural importance in the cell, could be important in regulating signaling processes during wound healing in vivo. PMID:24204762

  20. Aspherical-atom modeling of coordination compounds by single-crystal X-ray diffraction allows the correct metal atom to be identified.

    PubMed

    Dittrich, Birger; Wandtke, Claudia M; Meents, Alke; Pröpper, Kevin; Mondal, Kartik Chandra; Samuel, Prinson P; Amin Sk, Nurul; Singh, Amit Pratap; Roesky, Herbert W; Sidhu, Navdeep

    2015-02-01

    Single-crystal X-ray diffraction (XRD) is often considered the gold standard in analytical chemistry, as it allows element identification as well as determination of atom connectivity and the solid-state structure of completely unknown samples. Element assignment is based on the number of electrons of an atom, so that a distinction of neighboring heavier elements in the periodic table by XRD is often difficult. A computationally efficient procedure for aspherical-atom least-squares refinement of conventional diffraction data of organometallic compounds is proposed. The iterative procedure is conceptually similar to Hirshfeld-atom refinement (Acta Crystallogr. Sect. A- 2008, 64, 383-393; IUCrJ. 2014, 1,61-79), but it relies on tabulated invariom scattering factors (Acta Crystallogr. Sect. B- 2013, 69, 91-104) and the Hansen/Coppens multipole model; disordered structures can be handled as well. Five linear-coordinate 3d metal complexes, for which the wrong element is found if standard independent-atom model scattering factors are relied upon, are studied, and it is shown that only aspherical-atom scattering factors allow a reliable assignment. The influence of anomalous dispersion in identifying the correct element is investigated and discussed. PMID:25393218

  1. Acta Informatica Medica Is Indexed In Pubmed And Archived In Pubmed Central

    PubMed Central

    Masic, Izet

    2013-01-01

    Acta Informatica Medica journal has been accepted for archiving in PubMed Central from 2011 onward. The journal started in 1993 as the official journal of the Society for Medical Informatics of Bosnia and Herzegovina. During the last 3 years, Acta Informatica Medica has een included in almost all prestigious online databases, including PubMed, Scopus and EMBASE. The 20th volume of the journal is fully international, with papers from 18 countries. PMID:23572852

  2. [A couple in the sect: between freedom of membership and risks of abuse].

    PubMed

    Grattagliano, I; Tangari, D

    2015-01-01

    Psychological cults are of particular interest to criminologists due to their complex and multi-faceted structures. They may come in the form of organizations, movements, and training centers that make promises to their victims of developing or strengthening their psycho-relational capacities, thus resulting in improvements in their social, professional, and personal lives. Starting from the complex and delicate story of a professional couple who join a cult, the authors describe one case of a organization that are referred to as "psycho-sects", and with a significant number of followers. These cases came to our attention through judicial authorities, and they offer us an opportunity to look at two aspects associated with psycho-sects: The need of individuals to belong to such groups; and the risk of abuse and violence that they face. PMID:26550820

  3. Aspergillus sect. Aeni sect. nov., a new section of the genus for A.karnatakaensis sp. nov. and some allied fungi.

    PubMed

    Varga, János; Frisvad, Jens C; Samson, Robert A

    2010-12-01

    The new species Aspergilluskarnatakaensis sp. nov. is described and illustrated. All three isolates of this species were isolated from Indian soil; two from soil under a coconut palm in a coffee plantation in Karnataka, and one from soil in the Machrar river bed in Bansa district. This species is closely related to, but clearly distinct, from A. aeneus based on β-tubulin or calmodulin sequence data. Sequences of the ITS region of these two species are identical. Aspergillus karnatakaensis produced terrein, gregatins, asteltoxin, karnatakafurans A and B and the unknown metabolite, provisionally named NIDU. Aspergillus karnatakaensis belongs to a well-defined clade within Aspergillus subgenus Nidulantes together with eight other species including A. aeneus, A. crustosus, A. eburneocremeus, A. heyangensis, and the teleomorph producing-species Emericella bicolor, E. discophora, E. spectabilis, and E. foeniculicola. This clade is placed in a new section, Aspergillus sect. Aenei sect. nov. All teleomorph species assigned to this section are able to produce sterigmatocystin. PMID:22679580

  4. Molecular phylogenetics and evolutionary history of sect. Quinquefoliae (Pinus): implications for Northern Hemisphere biogeography.

    PubMed

    Hao, Zhen-Zhen; Liu, Yan-Yan; Nazaire, Mare; Wei, Xiao-Xin; Wang, Xiao-Quan

    2015-06-01

    Climatic changes and tectonic events in the Cenozoic have greatly influenced the evolution and geographic distribution of the temperate flora. Such consequences should be most evident in plant groups that are ancient, widespread, and diverse. As one of the most widespread genera of trees, Pinus provides a good model for investigating the history of species diversification and biogeographic disjunction in the Northern Hemisphere. In this study, we reconstructed the phylogeny and investigated the evolutionary and biogeographic history of sect. Quinquefoliae (Pinus), a species-rich lineage disjunctly distributed in Asia, Europe and North America, based on complete taxon sampling and by using nine DNA fragments from chloroplast (cp), mitochondrial (mt) and nuclear genomes. The monophyly of the three subsections, Krempfianae, Gerardianae, and Strobus, is well-supported by cpDNA and nuclear gene phylogenies. However, neither subsect. Gerardianae nor subsect. Strobus forms a monophyletic group in the mtDNA phylogeny, in which sect. Quinquefoliae was divided into two major clades, one consisting of the North American and northeastern Asian species as well as the European P. peuce of subsect. Strobus, and the other comprising the remaining Eurasian species belonging to three subsections. The significant topological incongruence among the gene trees, in conjunction with divergence time estimation and ancestral area reconstruction, indicates that both ancient and relatively recent introgressive hybridization events occurred in the evolution of sect. Quinquefoliae, particularly in northeastern Asia and northwestern North America. In addition, the phylogenetic analysis suggests that the species of subsect. Strobus from subtropical eastern Asia and neighboring areas may have a single origin, although species non-monophyly is very widespread in the nuclear gene trees. Moreover, our study seems to support a Tethyan origin of sect. Quinquefoliae given the distributions and

  5. Beitraege zur Astronomiegeschichte, Band 5 (Acta Historica Astronomiae Vol. 18)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duerbeck, H. W.; Dick, W. R.; Hamel, J.

    2003-01-01

    The 18th volume of the Acta Historica Astronomiae is at the same time the sixth collection of essays on the history of astronomy ("Beitræge zur Astronomiegeschichte, Band 6"), edited by the historians of astronomy W.R. Dick (Potsdam) and J. Hamel (Berlin). Besides a few short notices and book reviews, the book contains eight major articles, which deal with astronomical topics covering the time from the 16th to the 19th centuries. The first article by Michael Weichenhan (Berlin) deals with "the invention of the disk-shaped earth: a chapter of Copernican apologetics". The author shows that the concept of a "disc-shaped Earth" was by no means widespread in the middle ages, but restricted to the father of the church Lactantius and some adherents. Nevertheless, it was used by adherents of Copernicus to show the absurd consequences of a strictly literal biblical interpretation -- here concerning the Earth's shape, disc versus sphere, there the geocentric versus the heliocentric system. This thorough philosophical study is followed by two very short articles. "The measuring accuracy of Tycho's large sextant" by Johann Wünsch investigates O-C values of planet-star distances, as based on Tycho's observations as published in the Historia Coelestis (a compilation, which is also based on Tycho's manuscripts, and published in Regensburg in 1672). The result is that standard deviations are 80 arcseconds for Saturn and 89 arcseconds for Jupiter and Mars, an unexpectedly poor result in view of the general opinion that Tycho was famous for his precision work. "The astronomer Christoph Grienberger and the Galilei trial" by Franz Daxecker deals with a Jesuit astronomer who was both the disciple and successor of the mathematician-astronomer Christopher Clavius at the Collegium Romanum. While he was inclined to Galilei early on, he was forced to propagate Aristotelian doctrine. The brief article is very concise, but extremely tiresome to read (3 pages of pure text are embellished by

  6. De Novo ACTA2 Mutation Causes a Novel Syndrome of Multisystemic Smooth Muscle Dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Milewicz, Dianna M.; Østergaard, John R.; Ala-Kokko, Leena M.; Khan, Nadia; Grange, Dorothy K.; Mendoza-Londono, Roberto; Bradley, Timothy J.; Olney, Ann Haskins; Adès, Lesley; Maher, Joseph F.; Guo, Dongchuan; Buja, L. Maximilian; Kim, Dong; Hyland, James C.; Regalado, Ellen S.

    2011-01-01

    Smooth muscle cells (SMCs) contract to perform many physiological functions, including regulation of blood flow and pressure in arteries, contraction of the pupils, peristalsis of the gut and voiding of the bladder. SMC lineage in these organs is characterized by cellular expression of the SMC isoform of α-actin, encoded by the ACTA2 gene. We report here on a unique and de novo mutation in ACTA2, R179H, that causes a syndrome characterized by dysfunction of SMCs throughout the body, leading to aortic and cerebrovascular disease, fixed dilated pupils, hypotonic bladder, malrotation and hypoperistalsis of the gut and pulmonary hypertension. PMID:20734336

  7. On the Evolutionary and Biogeographic History of Saxifraga sect. Trachyphyllum (Gaud.) Koch (Saxifragaceae Juss.)

    PubMed Central

    DeChaine, Eric G.; Anderson, Stacy A.; McNew, Jennifer M.; Wendling, Barry M.

    2013-01-01

    Arctic-alpine plants in the genus Saxifraga L. (Saxifragaceae Juss.) provide an excellent system for investigating the process of diversification in northern regions. Yet, sect. Trachyphyllum (Gaud.) Koch, which is comprised of about 8 to 26 species, has still not been explored by molecular systematists even though taxonomists concur that the section needs to be thoroughly re-examined. Our goals were to use chloroplast trnL-F and nuclear ITS DNA sequence data to circumscribe the section phylogenetically, test models of geographically-based population divergence, and assess the utility of morphological characters in estimating evolutionary relationships. To do so, we sequenced both genetic markers for 19 taxa within the section. The phylogenetic inferences of sect. Trachyphyllum using maximum likelihood and Bayesian analyses showed that the section is polyphyletic, with S. aspera L. and S bryoides L. falling outside the main clade. In addition, the analyses supported several taxonomic re-classifications to prior names. We used two approaches to test biogeographic hypotheses: i) a coalescent approach in Mesquite to test the fit of our reconstructed gene trees to geographically-based models of population divergence and ii) a maximum likelihood inference in Lagrange. These tests uncovered strong support for an origin of the clade in the Southern Rocky Mountains of North America followed by dispersal and divergence episodes across refugia. Finally we adopted a stochastic character mapping approach in SIMMAP to investigate the utility of morphological characters in estimating evolutionary relationships among taxa. We found that few morphological characters were phylogenetically informative and many were misleading. Our molecular analyses provide a foundation for the diversity and evolutionary relationships within sect. Trachyphyllum and hypotheses for better understanding the patterns and processes of divergence in this section, other saxifrages, and plants inhabiting

  8. Corolla morphology influences diversification rates in bifid toadflaxes (Linaria sect. Versicolores)

    PubMed Central

    Fernández-Mazuecos, Mario; Blanco-Pastor, José Luis; Gómez, José M.; Vargas, Pablo

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims The role of flower specialization in plant speciation and evolution remains controversial. In this study the evolution of flower traits restricting access to pollinators was analysed in the bifid toadflaxes (Linaria sect. Versicolores), a monophyletic group of ∼30 species and subspecies with highly specialized corollas. Methods A time-calibrated phylogeny based on both nuclear and plastid DNA sequences was obtained using a coalescent-based method, and flower morphology was characterized by means of morphometric analyses. Directional trends in flower shape evolution and trait-dependent diversification rates were jointly analysed using recently developed methods, and morphological shifts were reconstructed along the phylogeny. Pollinator surveys were conducted for a representative sample of species. Key Results A restrictive character state (narrow corolla tube) was reconstructed in the most recent common ancestor of Linaria sect. Versicolores. After its early loss in the most species-rich clade, this character state has been convergently reacquired in multiple lineages of this clade in recent times, yet it seems to have exerted a negative influence on diversification rates. Comparative analyses and pollinator surveys suggest that the narrow- and broad-tubed flowers are evolutionary optima representing divergent strategies of pollen placement on nectar-feeding insects. Conclusions The results confirm that different forms of floral specialization can lead to dissimilar evolutionary success in terms of diversification. It is additionally suggested that opposing individual-level and species-level selection pressures may have driven the evolution of pollinator-restrictive traits in bifid toadflaxes. PMID:24142920

  9. Are white evangelical Protestants lower class? A partial test of church-sect theory.

    PubMed

    Schwadel, Philip

    2014-07-01

    Testing hypotheses derived from church-sect theory and contemporary research about changes in evangelical Protestants' social status, I use repeated cross-sectional survey data spanning almost four decades to examine changes in the social-class hierarchy of American religious traditions. While there is little change in the social-class position of white evangelical Protestants from the early 1970s to 2010, there is considerable change across birth cohorts. Results from hierarchical age-period-cohort models show: (1) robust, across-cohort declines in social-class differences between white evangelical Protestants and liberal Protestants, affiliates of "other" religions, and the unaffiliated, (2) stability in social-class differences between white evangelical Protestants and moderate, Pentecostal, and nondenominational Protestants, (3) moderate across-cohort growth in social-class differences between white evangelical Protestants and Catholics, and (4) these patterns vary across indicators of social class. The findings in this article provide partial support for church-sect theory as well as other theories of social change that emphasize the pivotal role of generations. PMID:24767593

  10. Long-distance dispersal and speciation of Australasian and American species of Cortinarius sect. Cortinarius.

    PubMed

    Harrower, Emma; Bougher, Neale L; Henkel, Terry W; Horak, Egon; Matheny, P Brandon

    2015-01-01

    We present a multigene phylogeny (partial nuc rDNA and RPB2) of Cortinarius sect. Cortinarius (i.e. the C. violaceus group), which reveals eight species distributed in Europe, Australasia, South America, Central America and North America. Relaxed molecular clock analyses suggested that diversification began during the Miocene, thus rejecting more ancient Gondwanan origin scenarios among the taxa currently occurring in the northern and southern hemispheres. There was strong support for an Australasian origin of the C. violaceus group with initial dispersal to the Neotropics, followed by migration into North America and Europe. A dispersal-extinction cladogenesis model that includes a parameter for founder effects was the most highly supported biogeographic model in the program BioGeoBEARS. A maximum likelihood analysis showed the most recent common ancestor of sect. Cortinarius was an angiosperm ectomycorrhizal associate. Ancestral associations at the plant family level, however, were ambiguous. Of eight recovered species-level lineages, C. violaceus is the only one that associates with Pinaceae and the only species to associate with both Pinaceae and angiosperms. This analysis showed that long-distance dispersal and founder event speciation have been important factors during evolution of the C. violaceus group. PMID:25911703

  11. SU-E-J-136: Investigation Into Robustness of Stopping Power Calculated by DECT and SECT for Proton Therapy Treatment Planning

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu, J; Penfold, S

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To investigate the robustness of dual energy CT (DECT) and single energy CT (SECT) proton stopping power calibration techniques and quantify the associated errors when imaging a phantom differing in chemical composition to that used during stopping power calibration. Methods: The CIRS tissue substitute phantom was scanned in a CT-simulator at 90kV and 140kV. This image set was used to generate a DECT proton SPR calibration based on a relationship between effective atomic number and mean excitation energy. A SECT proton SPR calibration based only on Hounsfield units (HUs) was also generated. DECT and SECT scans of a second phantom of known density and chemical composition were performed. The SPR of the second phantom was calculated with the DECT approach (SPR-DECT),the SECT approach (SPR-SECT) and finally the known density and chemical composition of the phantom (SPR-ref). The DECT and SECT image sets were imported into the Pinnacle{sup 3} research release of proton therapy treatment planning. The difference in dose when exposed to a common pencil beam distribution was investigated. Results: SPR-DECT was found to be in better agreement with SPR-ref than SPR- SECT. The mean difference in SPR for all materials was 0.51% for DECT and 6.89% for SECT. With the exception of Teflon, SPR-DECT was found to agree with SPR-ref to within 1%. Significant differences in calculated dose were found when using the DECT image set or the SECT image set. Conclusion: The DECT calibration technique was found to be more robust to situations in which the physical properties of the test materials differed from the materials used during SPR calibration. Furthermore, it was demonstrated that the DECT and SECT SPR calibration techniques can Result in significantly different calculated dose distributions.

  12. Review of the Journal Acta Informatica Medica During Eight Year Period: 2008-2015

    PubMed Central

    Masic, Izet; Begic, Edin; Zunic, Lejla

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Acta Informatica Medica is official journal of the Academy for Medical Sciences of Bosnia and Herzegovina (from 2014 Acta Inform Med is published bimonthly). Aim: To evaluate journal “Acta Informatica Medica” in 2015 and compare findings to previous years. Material and methods: The study has retrospective and descriptive character, and included the period 2008-2015 (included 36 issues of journal). Results: A total of 83 (average 13,8 articles per journal) articles were published in Acta Informatica Medica during 2015. Analyzing the type of articles, original articles are present in majority during 2015 (68,6%) (by analyzing last eight years, 310 (67,3%) were original). During 2015, 27,7% of articles were related to the applied of Health informatics in field of clinical medicine, 63,8% preclinical medicine and 8,5% to public health. Collaboration rate in 2015 was 0,84. Most often the time required for decision on acceptance of article in 2015 is between 50 and 60 days. Articles came from 16 countries. According to scimagojr.com for 2014, Acta Informatica Medica has SCImago Journal Rank 0,166, while Cites / Doc. (2 years) parameter (widely used as impact index) is 0,70. According to GoogleScholar, h5 index is 11 and h5 median is 19. We analyzed the Acta Informatica Medica by “Publish or Perish” software - H index was 14, g index was 19 and e-index was 10.39. Conclusion: Year after year the highest number of original articles are published. Although the period of revision of articles is acceptable, the period up to two months is certainly not long, the goal is to reduce this period. Although the magazine in mentioned field found its place, although it is indexed in numerous bases, including: PubMed, PubMed Central, SCOPUS, EMBASE, EBSCO, etc. The main goal for next year is that the magazine becomes part of the Web of Science. Imperative is further internationalization of the magazine. PMID:27147796

  13. Species limits of Solanum berthaultii Hawkes and S. tarijense the implications for species boundaries in Solanum sect. Petota

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Solanum berthaultii and S. tarijense are two wild potato (sect. Petota) species distributed in Bolivia to northern Argentina. All authors have accepted them as good species since their publication in 1944, but they have been hypothesized to hybridize extensively with each other and with other specie...

  14. Citation analysis of Acta Dermatovenerologica Alpina, Pannonica et Adriatica: 1992-2011.

    PubMed

    Ostrbenk, Anja; Skamperle, Mateja; Poljak, Mario

    2012-09-01

    Acta Dermatovenerologica Alpina, Pannonica et Adriatica is small regional professional journal that started publishing in 1992. Despite the journal's relatively narrow readership, it has significantly improved its quality and global profile during the last 20 years, as shown in this citation analysis update. Since 1992, 654 bibliographical items have been published. Among these, 545 (83.4%) were considered WoS citable items and 109 (16.6%) WoS noncitable items. Since 2008, 90% of all published items have been considered WoS citable items and received an average of 1.9 citations per item. The predicted Acta Dermatovenerol APA impact factor calculated using data from a Cited Reference search of Thomson Scientific's Web of Science has shown steep and continuous increase since 2006, when the journal acquired full indexing status in Index Medicus/Medline, and has been above 0.5 since 2008. PMID:23267871

  15. A nonsense mutation in the LDL receptor gene leads to familial hypercholesterolemia in the Druze sect

    SciTech Connect

    Landsberger, D.; Meiner, V.; Reshef, A.; Leitersdorf, E. ); Levy, Yishai ); Westhytzen, D.R. van der; Coetzee, G.A. )

    1992-02-01

    Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) is an autosomal dominant disease caused by mutations in the LDL receptor gene. Here the authors characterize and LDL receptor mutation that is associated with a distinct haplotype and causes FH in the Druze, a small Middle Eastern Islamic sect with a high degree of inbreeding. The mutation was found in FH families from two distinct Druze villages from the Golan Heights (northern Israel). It was not found either in another Druze FH family residing in a different geographical area nor in eight Arab and four Jewish FH heterozygote index cases whose hypercholesterolemia cosegregates with an identical LDL receptor gene haplotype. The mutation, a single-base substitution, results in a termination codon in exon 4 of the LDL receptor gene that encodes for the fourth repeat of the binding domain of the mature receptor. It can be diagnosed by allele-specific oligonucleotide hybridization of PCR-amplified DNA from FH patients.

  16. Electrophoretic enzyme analysis of North American and eastern Asian populations of Agastache sect. Agastache (Labiatae)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vogelmann, James E.; Gastony, Gerald J.

    1987-01-01

    Genetic relationships among the seven species of Agastache sect. Agastache common in North America and the one found in eastern Asia were assessed using starch-gel electrophoresis of twelve enzymatic proteins. Nei's (1976) genetic distance and identity values, calculated among the 32 populations used in this study, partitioned the Agastache section into four discrete groups: (1) A. nepetoides (eastern North America), (2) A. scrophulariifolia and A. foeniculum (eastern and central North America), (3) the four species of the western U.S. (A. urticifolia, A. occidentalis, A. parvifolia, and A. cusickii), and (4) A. rugosa (eastern Asia). The Asian Agastache, separated from its American congeners for over 12 million years, differed from American populations at only two (the IDH-1 and LAP-1 alleles) of the fifteen loci surveyed; these alleles were not found in any of the North American plants. Nei's genetic distances between the Asian and North American populations ranged from 0.2877 to 0.6734.

  17. Microsatellite markers for hoop-petticoat daffodils (Narcissus sect. Bulbocodii; Amaryllidaceae)1

    PubMed Central

    Könyves, Kálmán; David, John C.; Culham, Alastair

    2016-01-01

    Premise of the study: Microsatellite markers were developed using hoop-petticoat daffodils (Narcissus sect. Bulbocodii; Amaryllidaceae) to aid in the taxonomic revision of the section, and to further evaluate their broad applicability for daffodil cultivar identification. Methods and Results: Three hundred fifty-one primer pairs were developed using a commercial service. Nineteen polymorphic and repeatable markers were developed by screening 67 of these primer pairs. Of these, 11 chosen markers were used to screen 317 samples; the number of alleles per locus ranged from four to 21, and the observed heterozygosity ranged from 0.101 to 0.297. There were null genotypes in some samples for six of the markers. All the microsatellites were transferable to other Narcissus sections. Conclusions: The results indicate that these new markers have sufficient potential variation to be used for taxonomic revision of the genus and to distinguish many commercial daffodil cultivars. PMID:27144108

  18. Novel MYH11 and ACTA2 mutations reveal a role for enhanced TGFβ signaling in FTAAD

    PubMed Central

    Renard, Marjolijn; Callewaert, Bert; Baetens, Machteld; Campens, Laurence; MacDermot, Kay; Fryns, Jean-Pierre; Bonduelle, Maryse; Dietz, Hal; Gaspar, Isabel Mendes; Cavaco, Diogo; Stattin, Eva-Lena; Schrander-Stumpel, Constance; Coucke, Paul; Loeys, Bart; De Paepe, Anne; De Backer, Julie

    2011-01-01

    Background Thoracic aortic aneurysm / dissection (TAAD) is a common phenotype that may occur as an isolated manifestation or within the constellation of a defined syndrome. In contrast to syndromic TAAD, the elucidation of the genetic basis of isolated TAAD has only recently started. To date, defects have been found in genes encoding extracellular matrix proteins (fibrillin-1, FBN1; collagen type III alpha 1, COL3A1), proteins involved in transforming growth factor beta (TGFβ) signaling (TGFβ receptor 1 and 2, TGFBR1/2; and SMAD3) or proteins that build up the contractile apparatus of aortic smooth muscle cells (myosin heavy chain 11, MYH11; smooth muscle actin alpha 2, ACTA2; and MYLK). Methods and results In 110 non-syndromic TAAD patients that previously tested negative for FBN1 or TGFBR1/2 mutations, we identified 7 ACTA2 mutations in a cohort of 43 familial TAAD patients, including 2 premature truncating mutations. Sequencing of MYH11 revealed an in frame splice-site alteration in one out of two probands with TAA(D) associated with PDA but none in the series of 22 probands from the cohort of 110 patients with non-syndromic TAAD. Interestingly, immunohistochemical staining of aortic biopsies of a patient and a family member with MYH11 and patients with ACTA2 missense mutations showed upregulation of the TGFβ signaling pathway. Conclusions MYH11 mutations are rare and typically identified in patients with TAAD associated with PDA. ACTA2 mutations were identified in 16% of a cohort presenting familial TAAD. Different molecular defects in TAAD may account for a different pathogenic mechanism of enhanced TGFβ signaling. PMID:21937134

  19. [Polymorphism of KPI-A genes from plants of the subgenus Potatoe (sect. Petota, Estolonifera and Lycopersicum) and subgenus Solanum].

    PubMed

    Krinitsyna, A A; Mel'nikova, N V; Belenikin, M S; Poltronieri, P; Santino, A; Kudriavtseva, A V; Savilova, A M; Speranskaia, A S

    2013-01-01

    Kunitz-type proteinase inhibitor proteins of group A (KPI-A) are involved in the protection of potato plants from pathogens and pests. Although sequences of large number of the KPI-A genes from different species of cultivated potato (Solanum tuberosum subsp. tuberosum) and a few genes from tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) are known to date, information about the allelic diversity of these genes in other species of the genus Solanum is lacking. In our work, the consensus sequences of the KPI-A genes were established in two species of subgenus Potatoe sect. Petota (Solanum tuberosum subsp. andigenum--5 genes and Solanum stoloniferum--2 genes) and in the subgenus Solanum (Solanum nigrum--5 genes) by amplification, cloning, sequencing and subsequent analysis. The determined sequences of KPI-A genes were 97-100% identical to known sequences of the cultivated potato of sect. Petota (cultivated potato Solanum tuberosum subsp. tuberosum) and sect. Etuberosum (S. palustre). The interspecific variability of these genes did not exceed the intraspecific variability for all studied species except Solanum lycopersicum. The distribution of highly variable and conserved sequences in the mature protein-encoding regions was uniform for all investigated KPI-A genes. However, our attempts to amplify the homologous genes using the same primers and the genomes of Solanum dulcamarum, Solanum lycopersicum and Mandragora officinarum resulted in no product formation. Phylogenetic analysis of KPI-A diversity showed that the sequences of the S. lycopersicum form independent cluster, whereas KPI-A of S. nigrum and species of sect. Etuberosum and sect. Petota are closely related and do not form species-specific subclasters. Although Solanum nigrum is resistant to all known races of economically one of the most important diseases of solanaceous plants oomycete Phytophthora infestans aminoacid sequences encoding by KPI-A genes from its genome have nearly or absolutely no differences to the same from

  20. Volatile compounds in Thymus sect. Teucrioides (Lamiaceae): intraspecific and interspecific diversity, chemotaxonomic significance and exploitation potential.

    PubMed

    Pitarokili, Danae; Constantinidis, Theophanis; Saitanis, Costas; Tzakou, Olga

    2014-04-01

    Thymus sect. Teucrioides comprises three species, namely, T. hartvigii, T. leucospermus, and T. teucrioides, distributed in Greece and Albania. The volatile constituents of all species of the section were obtained by hydrodistillation and investigated by GC-FID and GC/MS analyses. Twenty populations were sampled and a total of 103 compounds were identified, representing 98.0-99.9% of the oil compositions. The oils were mainly characterized by high contents of monoterpene hydrocarbons (42.7-92.4%), with the exception of three oils for which oxygenated monoterpenes were the dominating constituents, viz., that of T. hartvigii ssp. macrocalyx, with linalool as main compound (89.2±0.5%), and those of T. hartvigii ssp. hartvigii and of one population of T. teucrioides ssp. candilicus, containing thymol as major component (46.4±3.1 and 38.2±3.9%, resp.). The most common compound in the oils of the 20 populations of the section was p-cymene. Considerable variation was detected within and among populations, and seven chemotypes were distinguished, i.e., p-cymene, linalool, p-cymene/thymol, p-cymene/γ-terpinene, p-cymene/borneol, p-cymene/γ-terpinene/borneol, and p-cymene/linalool chemotypes. Different chemotypes may exist in the same population. Multivariate statistical analyses enabled the segregation of the oils within Thymus sect. Teucrioides into two groups, one consisting of the three subspecies of T. teucrioides and the second comprising the species T. hartvigii and T. leucospermus. A linalool-rich chemotype, unique within the section, distinguished the oil of T. hartvigii ssp. macrocalyx from all other oils. The high oil content of p-cymene and the preference for serpentine substrates render T. teucrioides species promising for future exploitation. PMID:24706629

  1. Blue pigment in Hypocrea caerulescens sp. nov. and two additional new species in sect. Trichoderma

    PubMed Central

    Jaklitsch, Walter M.; Stadler, Marc; Voglmayr, Hermann

    2012-01-01

    Three new species of Hypocrea/Trichoderma sect. Trichoderma (Hypocreaceae, Hypocreales, Ascomycota, Fungi) are described from recent collections in southern Europe and the Canary Islands. They have been characterized by morphological and molecular methods, including microscopic examination of the teleomorph in thin sections, the anamorph, growth rate experiments and phylogenetic analyses based on a part of the translation elongation factor 1-alpha encoding gene (tef1) containing the two last introns and a part of the rpb2 gene, encoding the second largest RNA polymerase subunit. Analyses involving tef1 did not unequivocally resolve the sister clade relationship of Hypocrea caerulescens relative to the Koningii and Viride clades, while analyses based on rpb2 clearly suggest a close relationship with the former, although the phenotype of H. caerulescens is similar to H. viridescens, particularly by its warted conidia and a coconut-like odor in CMD culture. Hypocrea hispanica and T. samuelsii however are clearly related to the Viride clade by both phylogenetic markers, despite their morphological similarity to H. koningii and its relatives. An apparently specific blue pigment is formed in CMD cultures by Hypocrea caerulescens but could not be obtained by extraction with organic solvents. PMID:22453122

  2. A phylogenetic revision of Penicillium sect. Exilicaulis, including nine new species from fynbos in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Visagie, Cobus M; Seifert, Keith A; Houbraken, Jos; Samson, Robert A; Jacobs, Karin

    2016-06-01

    A survey of the fynbos biome in South Africa resulted in the isolation of 61 Penicillium species from Protea repens infructescences, air, and soil samples. Fourteen of these belong to Penicillium sect. Exilicaulis and therefore we considered it an opportunity to re-evaluate the taxonomy of the section. Phylogenetic comparisons of the ITS, β-tubulin, calmodulin and RPB2 gene regions of the 76 section Exilicaulis species, revealed 52 distinct species, including nine new species from fynbos. Morphological comparisons confirmed the novelty for most of these, however, new species closely related to P. rubefaciens did not show significant or consistent morphological differences and we thus placed a bias on phylogenetic data applying the Genealogical Concordance Phylogenetic Species Recognition (GCPSR) concept. In this paper we describe the nine new species and update the accepted species list and resolve synonyms in the section. Importantly, we reveal that P. citreosulfuratum is the correct name for the clade previously considered to represent P. toxicarium fide Serra et al. (2008). The nine new species are: Penicillium atrolazulinum, P. consobrinum, P. cravenianum, P. hemitrachum, P. pagulum, P. repensicola, P. momoii, P. subturcoseum, and P. xanthomelinii spp. nov. PMID:27433442

  3. Marginal Likelihood Estimate Comparisons to Obtain Optimal Species Delimitations in Silene sect. Cryptoneurae (Caryophyllaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Aydin, Zeynep; Marcussen, Thomas; Ertekin, Alaattin Selcuk; Oxelman, Bengt

    2014-01-01

    Coalescent-based inference of phylogenetic relationships among species takes into account gene tree incongruence due to incomplete lineage sorting, but for such methods to make sense species have to be correctly delimited. Because alternative assignments of individuals to species result in different parametric models, model selection methods can be applied to optimise model of species classification. In a Bayesian framework, Bayes factors (BF), based on marginal likelihood estimates, can be used to test a range of possible classifications for the group under study. Here, we explore BF and the Akaike Information Criterion (AIC) to discriminate between different species classifications in the flowering plant lineage Silene sect. Cryptoneurae (Caryophyllaceae). We estimated marginal likelihoods for different species classification models via the Path Sampling (PS), Stepping Stone sampling (SS), and Harmonic Mean Estimator (HME) methods implemented in BEAST. To select among alternative species classification models a posterior simulation-based analog of the AIC through Markov chain Monte Carlo analysis (AICM) was also performed. The results are compared to outcomes from the software BP&P. Our results agree with another recent study that marginal likelihood estimates from PS and SS methods are useful for comparing different species classifications, and strongly support the recognition of the newly described species S. ertekinii. PMID:25216034

  4. Blue pigment in Hypocrea caerulescens sp. nov. and two additional new species in sect. Trichoderma.

    PubMed

    Jaklitsch, Walter M; Stadler, Marc; Voglmayr, Hermann

    2012-01-01

    Three new species of Hypocrea/Trichoderma sect. Trichoderma (Hypocreaceae, Hypocreales, Ascomycota, Fungi) are described from recent collections in southern Europe and the Canary Islands. They have been characterized by morphological and molecular methods, including microscopic examination of the teleomorph in thin sections, the anamorph, growth rate experiments and phylogenetic analyses based on a part of the translation elongation factor 1-alpha encoding gene (tef1) containing the two last introns and a part of the rpb2 gene, encoding the second largest RNA polymerase subunit. Analyses involving tef1 did not unequivocally resolve the sister clade relationship of Hypocrea caerulescens relative to the Koningii and Viride clades, while analyses based on rpb2 clearly suggest a close relationship with the former, although the phenotype of H. caerulescens is similar to H. viridescens, particularly by its warted conidia and a coconut-like odor in CMD culture. Hypocrea hispanica and T. samuelsii however are clearly related to the Viride clade by both phylogenetic markers, despite their morphological similarity to H. koningii and its relatives. An apparently specific blue pigment is formed in CMD cultures by Hypocrea caerulescens but could not be obtained by extraction with organic solvents. PMID:22453122

  5. Myopathy-inducing mutation H40Y in ACTA1 hampers actin filament structure and function.

    PubMed

    Chan, Chun; Fan, Jun; Messer, Andrew E; Marston, Steve B; Iwamoto, Hiroyuki; Ochala, Julien

    2016-08-01

    In humans, more than 200 missense mutations have been identified in the ACTA1 gene. The exact molecular mechanisms by which, these particular mutations become toxic and lead to muscle weakness and myopathies remain obscure. To address this, here, we performed a molecular dynamics simulation, and we used a broad range of biophysical assays to determine how the lethal and myopathy-related H40Y amino acid substitution in actin affects the structure, stability, and function of this protein. Interestingly, our results showed that H40Y severely disrupts the DNase I-binding-loop structure and actin filaments. In addition, we observed that normal and mutant actin monomers are likely to form distinctive homopolymers, with mutant filaments being very stiff, and not supporting proper myosin binding. These phenomena underlie the toxicity of H40Y and may be considered as important triggering factors for the contractile dysfunction, muscle weakness and disease phenotype seen in patients. PMID:27112274

  6. Langkolide, a 32-membered macrolactone antibiotic produced by Streptomyces sp. Acta 3062.

    PubMed

    Helaly, Soleiman E; Kulik, Andreas; Zinecker, Heidi; Ramachandaran, Kamalanathan; Tan, Geok Yuan Annie; Imhoff, Johannes F; Süssmuth, Roderich D; Fiedler, Hans-Peter; Sabaratnam, Vikineswary

    2012-06-22

    A new 32-membered macrolactone antibiotic, named langkolide, was isolated from the mycelium of Streptomyces sp. Acta 3062. The langkolide structure was determined by HR-MS and 1D and 2D NMR as a 32-membered macrolactone connected from an overhanging polyketide tail to a naphthoquinone unit mediated by two carbohydrate moieties. The producing strain was isolated from a rhizosphere soil of Clitorea sp. collected at Burau Bay, Langkawi, Malaysia, and was characterized by its morphological and chemotaxonomic features in addition to its 16S rRNA gene sequence. It was identified as a member of the Streptomyces galbus clade. Langkolide exhibited various bioactivities including antimicrobial and antiproliferative activities. Furthermore, langkolide inhibited human recombinant phosphodiesterase 4 with an IC(50) value of 0.48 μM. PMID:22642587

  7. Crystallization reports are the backbone of Acta Cryst. F, but do they have any spine?

    PubMed Central

    Newman, Janet; Burton, Denis R.; Caria, Sofia; Desbois, Sebastien; Gee, Christine L.; Fazio, Vincent J.; Kvansakul, Marc; Marshall, Bevan; Mills, Grant; Richter, Viviane; Seabrook, Shane A.; Wu, Mingbo; Peat, Thomas S.

    2013-01-01

    Crystallization of macromolecules is famously difficult. By knowing what has worked for others, researchers can ease the process, both in the case where the protein has already been crystallized and in the situation where more general guidelines are needed. The 264 crystallization communications published in Acta Crystallographica Section F in 2012 have been reviewed, and from this analysis some information about trends in crystallization has been gleaned. More importantly, it was found that there are several ways in which the utility of these communications could be increased: to make each individual paper a more complete crystallization record; and to provide a means for taking a snapshot of what the current ‘best practices’ are in the field. PMID:23832194

  8. Crystallization reports are the backbone of Acta Cryst. F, but do they have any spine?

    PubMed

    Newman, Janet; Burton, Denis R; Caria, Sofia; Desbois, Sebastien; Gee, Christine L; Fazio, Vincent J; Kvansakul, Marc; Marshall, Bevan; Mills, Grant; Richter, Viviane; Seabrook, Shane A; Wu, Mingbo; Peat, Thomas S

    2013-07-01

    Crystallization of macromolecules is famously difficult. By knowing what has worked for others, researchers can ease the process, both in the case where the protein has already been crystallized and in the situation where more general guidelines are needed. The 264 crystallization communications published in Acta Crystallographica Section F in 2012 have been reviewed, and from this analysis some information about trends in crystallization has been gleaned. More importantly, it was found that there are several ways in which the utility of these communications could be increased: to make each individual paper a more complete crystallization record; and to provide a means for taking a snapshot of what the current `best practices' are in the field. PMID:23832194

  9. Publications on Albert Einstein, cosmology and theory of relativity in Acta Historica Astronomiae. An annotated bibliography. (German Title: Publikationen zu Albert Einstein, Kosmologie und Relativitätstheorie in Acta Historica Astronomiae. Eine annotierte Bibliographie)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dick, Wolfgang R.

    This bibliography lists 15 publications which appeared in volumes 1 to 26 (1998 to 2005) in the series ``Acta Historica Astronomiae''. They concern life and work of Albert Einstein as well as the history of and modern developments in the theory of relativity and relativistic cosmology.

  10. New taxa, new records and redefined concepts in the Elaphoglossum sect. Elaphoglossum subsec. Pachyglossa (Lomariopsidaceae) from Mexico and Central America.

    PubMed

    Rojas-Alvarado, Alexander Francisco

    2003-03-01

    Twelve new species are described in the taxonomically difficult Elaphoglossum (sect. Elaphoglossum): Elaphoglossum angustifrons A. Rojas, E. delgadilloanum A. Rojas, E. ellipticifolium A. Rojas, E. incognitum A. Rojas, E. mesoamericanum A. Rojas, E. nicaraguese A. Rojas, E. polypodium A. Rojas, E. tejeroanum A. Rojas, E. reptans A. Rojas, E. terrestre A. Rojas, E. variabile A. Rojas and E. zavale A. Rojas. Also, E. latifolium (Sw.) J. Sm., E. sartorii (Liebm.) Mickel and E. viride (E. Fourn.) C. Chr. are amended, E. andicola (Fée) T. Moore and E. sporadolepis (Kunze ex Kuhn) T. Moore are reported. PMID:15162678

  11. Labellar anatomy and secretion in Bulbophyllum Thouars (Orchidaceae: Bulbophyllinae) sect. Racemosae Benth. & Hook. f.

    PubMed Central

    Davies, Kevin L.; Stpiczyńska, Malgorzata

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aims Floral secretions are common in Bulbophyllum Thouars, and the labella of a number of Asian species are said to produce secretions rich in lipids that act as food rewards for insect pollinators. Although some of these reports are based on simple histochemical tests, a much greater number are anecdotal and, hitherto, neither the ultrastructure of the labellum nor the secretory process has been investigated in detail. Furthermore, sophisticated histochemical approaches have generally not been applied. Here, both the labellar structure and the secretory process are investigated for four species of Asian Bulbophyllum sect. Racemosae Benth. & Hook. f., namely Bulbophyllum careyanum (Hook.) Spreng., B. morphologorum Kraenzl., B. orientale Seidenf. and B. wangkaense Seidenf., and compared with those of unequivocal lipid-secreting orchids. Methods Labellar, secretory tissue was investigated using light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and histochemistry. Key Results The adaxial median longitudinal groove of the labellum contained secretory tissue comprising palisade-like epidermal cells, similar to those of certain lipid-secreting Oncidiinae Benth. However, these cells and their secretions gave positive results mainly for protein and mucilage, and their organelle complement was consistent with that of cells involved in protein and mucilage synthesis. Sub-cuticular accumulation of secretion resulted in cuticular distension and blistering. The sub-epidermal layer of isodiametric parenchyma contained starch and, like the epidermal cells, ultrastructure consistent with mucilage synthesis. Lipids were mainly confined to the cuticle, and hardly any intracellular lipid droplets were observed. Conclusions It is proposed that mucilage is produced by dictyosomes present in the palisade-like epidermal cells. Mucilage precursors may also be produced by these same organelles in sub-epidermal cells and are thought to pass

  12. Geographical isolation caused the diversification of the Mediterranean thorny cushion-like Astragalus L. sect. Tragacantha DC. (Fabaceae).

    PubMed

    Hardion, Laurent; Dumas, Pierre-Jean; Abdel-Samad, Farah; Kharrat, Magda Bou Dagher; Surina, Bostjan; Affre, Laurence; Médail, Frédéric; Bacchetta, Gianluigi; Baumel, Alex

    2016-04-01

    Understanding the origin and evolution of Mediterranean vascular flora within the long-term context of climate change requires a continuous study of historical biogeography supported by molecular phylogenetic approaches. Here we provide new insights into the fascinating but often overlooked diversification of Mediterranean xerophytic plants. Growing in some of the most stressing Mediterranean environments, i.e. coastal and mountainous opened habitats, the circum-Mediterranean Astragalus L. sect. Tragacantha DC. (Fabaceae) gathers several thorny cushion-like taxa. These have been the subjects of recent taxonomical studies, but they have not yet been investigated within a comprehensive molecular framework. Bayesian phylogenetics applied to rDNA ITS sequences reveal that the diversification of A. sect. Tragacantha has roots dating back to the Pliocene, and the same data also indicate an eastern-western split giving rise to the five main lineages that exist today. In addition, AFLP fingerprinting supports an old east-west pattern of vicariance that completely rules out the possibility of a recent eastern origin for western taxa. The observed network of genetic relationships implies that contrary to what is widely claimed in the taxonomic literature, it is range fragmentation, as opposed to a coastal-to-mountain ecological shift, that is likely the main driver of diversification. PMID:26804816

  13. DESCRIPTION OF TWO NEW MONOECIOUS SPECIES OF VOLVOX SECT. VOLVOX (VOLVOCACEAE, CHLOROPHYCEAE), BASED ON COMPARATIVE MORPHOLOGY AND MOLECULAR PHYLOGENY OF CULTURED MATERIAL(1).

    PubMed

    Isaka, Nanako; Kawai-Toyooka, Hiroko; Matsuzaki, Ryo; Nakada, Takashi; Nozaki, Hisayoshi

    2012-06-01

    Species of Volvox sect. Volvox (Volvocaceae, Chlorophyceae) are unique because they have thick cytoplasmic bridges between somatic cells and spiny-walled zygotes. This section is taxonomically important because the genus Volvox is polyphyletic. However, taxonomic studies of species in Volvox sect. Volvox have not been carried out on cultured material. Here, we performed a taxonomic study of monoecious species of Volvox sect. Volvox based on the comparative morphology and molecular phylogeny of chloroplast genes and the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions of nuclear rDNA using various strains originating from Japan and two preserved strains from the USA. The strains were clearly divided into four species, V. globator L., V. barberi W. Shaw, V. kirkiorum sp. nov., and V. ferrisii sp. nov., on the basis of differences in numbers of zygotes (eggs) in the sexual spheroids, form of zygote wall, and somatic cell shape. Sequences for ITS of nuclear rDNA resolved that the two new species have phylogenetic positions separated from V. globator, V. barberi, V. capensis F. Rich et Pocock, and V. rousseletii G. S. West UTEX 1862 within Volvox sect. Volvox. PMID:27011093

  14. Avoidance of Autophagy Mediated by PlcA or ActA Is Required for Listeria monocytogenes Growth in Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, Gabriel; Ge, Liang; Huang, Qiongying; Chen, Chen; Kianian, Sara; Roberts, Mary F.; Schekman, Randy

    2015-01-01

    Listeria monocytogenes is a facultative intracellular pathogen that escapes from phagosomes and grows in the cytosol of infected host cells. Most of the determinants that govern its intracellular life cycle are controlled by the transcription factor PrfA, including the pore-forming cytolysin listeriolysin O (LLO), two phospholipases C (PlcA and PlcB), and ActA. We constructed a strain that lacked PrfA but expressed LLO from a PrfA-independent promoter, thereby allowing the bacteria to gain access to the host cytosol. This strain did not grow efficiently in wild-type macrophages but grew normally in macrophages that lacked ATG5, a component of the autophagy LC3 conjugation system. This strain colocalized more with the autophagy marker LC3 (42% ± 7%) at 2 h postinfection, which constituted a 5-fold increase over the colocalization exhibited by the wild-type strain (8% ± 6%). While mutants lacking the PrfA-dependent virulence factor PlcA, PlcB, or ActA grew normally, a double mutant lacking both PlcA and ActA failed to grow in wild-type macrophages and colocalized more with LC3 (38% ± 5%). Coexpression of LLO and PlcA in a PrfA-negative strain was sufficient to restore intracellular growth and decrease the colocalization of the bacteria with LC3. In a cell-free assay, purified PlcA protein blocked LC3 lipidation, a key step in early autophagosome biogenesis, presumably by preventing the formation of phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate (PI3P). The results of this study showed that avoidance of autophagy by L. monocytogenes primarily involves PlcA and ActA and that either one of these factors must be present for L. monocytogenes growth in macrophages. PMID:25776746

  15. Book Review: Beitraege zur Astronomiegeschichte, Band 5 (Acta Historica Astronomiae Vol. 15)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duerbeck, H. W.; Dick, W. R.; Hamel, J.

    2002-12-01

    The 15th volume of the Acta Historica Astronomiae is at the same time the fifth collection of essays on the history of astronomy (Beitraege zur Astronomiegeschichte, Band 5), edited by the historians of astronomy W.R. Dick (Potsdam) and J. Hamel (Berlin). Besides a few short notices and book reviews, the book contains 11 major articles, which deal with astronomical topics covering the time from the 16th to the 20th centuries. The first article, on the analysis and interpretation of historical horoscopes as a source of the history of science, is based on the inaugural lecture of its author, Guenther Oestmann. After a general introduction, which deals with the principles of horoscope making, the author discusses the horoscope of Count Heinrich Ranzau (1526-1598), the Danish governor of Schleswig-Holstein, who was a friend of Tycho Brahe. Oestmann shows that the astronomical-mathematical basis of such a horoscope can be reconstructed and interpreted. However, it is hardly possible to gain an insight in the process how the interpretation of a horoscope was done in detail. The second and third articles, by Franz Daxecker, deal with Athanasius Kircher and Christoph Scheiner, two catholic astronomers of the 17th century. Kircher's Organum Mathematicum is a calculating device that can be used in the fields of arithmetic, geometry, chronology, astronomy, astrology and others. The author provides extracts of the description of the Organum taken from a book by Caspar Schott, which deal with chronology and astronomy. A photograph of the Organum indicates that this tool consists of a set of tables glued on wooden or cardboard, but details of its contents and applications remain pretty obscure for the reader - a few elaborated examples would have been helpful. The second paper deals with the life of Christoph Scheiner SJ, the co-discoverer of sunspots (next to Galileo), after leaving Rome in 1633 - the year of the Galileo trial. Scheiner spent his later years in the Austrian and

  16. Historical Isolation versus Recent Long-Distance Connections between Europe and Africa in Bifid Toadflaxes (Linaria sect. Versicolores)

    PubMed Central

    Fernández-Mazuecos, Mario; Vargas, Pablo

    2011-01-01

    Background Due to its complex, dynamic and well-known paleogeography, the Mediterranean region provides an ideal framework to study the colonization history of plant lineages. The genus Linaria has its diversity centre in the Mediterranean region, both in Europe and Africa. The last land connection between both continental plates occurred during the Messinian Salinity Crisis, in the late Miocene (5.96 to 5.33 Ma). Methodology/Principal Findings We analyzed the colonization history of Linaria sect. Versicolores (bifid toadflaxes), which includes c. 22 species distributed across the Mediterranean, including Europe and Africa. Two cpDNA regions (rpl32-trnLUAG and trnK-matK) were sequenced from 66 samples of Linaria. We conducted phylogenetic, dating, biogeographic and phylogeographic analyses to reconstruct colonization patterns in space and time. Four major clades were found: two of them exclusively contain Iberian samples, while the other two include northern African samples together with some European samples. The bifid toadflaxes have been split in African and European clades since the late Miocene, and most lineage and speciation differentiation occurred during the Pliocene and Quaternary. We have strongly inferred four events of post-Messinian colonization following long-distance dispersal from northern Africa to the Iberian Peninsula, Sicily and Greece. Conclusions/Significance The current distribution of Linaria sect. Versicolores lineages is explained by both ancient isolation between African and European populations and recent events of long-distance dispersal over sea barriers. This result provides new evidence for the biogeographic complexity of the Mediterranean region. PMID:21779399

  17. Association of a Novel ACTA1 Mutation With a Dominant Progressive Scapuloperoneal Myopathy in an Extended Family

    PubMed Central

    Zukosky, Kristen; Meilleur, Katherine; Traynor, Bryan J.; Dastgir, Jahannaz; Medne, Livija; Devoto, Marcella; Collins, James; Rooney, Jachinta; Zou, Yaqun; Yang, Michele L.; Gibbs, J. Raphael; Meier, Markus; Stetefeld, Joerg; Finkel, Richard S.; Schessl, Joachim; Elman, Lauren; Felice, Kevin; Ferguson, Toby A.; Ceyhan-Birsoy, Ozge; Beggs, Alan H.; Tennekoon, Gihan; Johnson, Janel O.; Bönnemann, Carsten G.

    2015-01-01

    IMPORTANCE New genomic strategies can now be applied to identify a diagnosis in patients and families with previously undiagnosed rare genetic conditions. The large family evaluated in the present study was described in 1966 and now expands the phenotype of a known neuromuscular gene. OBJECTIVE To determine the genetic cause of a slowly progressive, autosomal dominant, scapuloperoneal neuromuscular disorder by using linkage and exome sequencing. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS Fourteen affected individuals in a 6-generation family with a progressive scapuloperoneal disorder were evaluated. Participants were examined at pediatric, neuromuscular, and research clinics from March 1, 2005, to May 31, 2014. Exome and linkage were performed in genetics laboratories of research institutions. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Examination and evaluation by magnetic resonance imaging, ultrasonography, electrodiagnostic studies, and muscle biopsies (n = 3). Genetic analysis included linkage analysis (n = 17) with exome sequencing (n = 7). RESULTS Clinical findings included progressive muscle weakness in an initially scapuloperoneal and distal distribution, including wrist extensor weakness, finger and foot drop, scapular winging, mild facial weakness, Achilles tendon contractures, and diminished or absent deep tendon reflexes. Both age at onset and progression of the disease showed clinical variability within the family. Muscle biopsy specimens demonstrated type I fiber atrophy and trabeculated fibers without nemaline rods. Analysis of exome sequences within the linkage region (4.8 megabases) revealed missense mutation c.591C>A p.Glu197Asp in a highly conserved residue in exon 4 of ACTA1. The mutation cosegregated with disease in all tested individuals and was not present in unaffected individuals. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE This family defines a new scapuloperoneal phenotype associated with an ACTA1 mutation. A highly conserved protein, ACTA1 is implicated in multiple muscle

  18. Book Review: Beitraege zur Astronomiegeschichte, Band 5 (Acta Historica Astronomiae Vol. 15)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duerbeck, H. W.; Dick, W. R.; Hamel, J.

    2002-12-01

    The 15th volume of the Acta Historica Astronomiae is at the same time the fifth collection of essays on the history of astronomy (Beitraege zur Astronomiegeschichte, Band 5), edited by the historians of astronomy W.R. Dick (Potsdam) and J. Hamel (Berlin). Besides a few short notices and book reviews, the book contains 11 major articles, which deal with astronomical topics covering the time from the 16th to the 20th centuries. The first article, on the analysis and interpretation of historical horoscopes as a source of the history of science, is based on the inaugural lecture of its author, Guenther Oestmann. After a general introduction, which deals with the principles of horoscope making, the author discusses the horoscope of Count Heinrich Ranzau (1526-1598), the Danish governor of Schleswig-Holstein, who was a friend of Tycho Brahe. Oestmann shows that the astronomical-mathematical basis of such a horoscope can be reconstructed and interpreted. However, it is hardly possible to gain an insight in the process how the interpretation of a horoscope was done in detail. The second and third articles, by Franz Daxecker, deal with Athanasius Kircher and Christoph Scheiner, two catholic astronomers of the 17th century. Kircher's Organum Mathematicum is a calculating device that can be used in the fields of arithmetic, geometry, chronology, astronomy, astrology and others. The author provides extracts of the description of the Organum taken from a book by Caspar Schott, which deal with chronology and astronomy. A photograph of the Organum indicates that this tool consists of a set of tables glued on wooden or cardboard, but details of its contents and applications remain pretty obscure for the reader - a few elaborated examples would have been helpful. The second paper deals with the life of Christoph Scheiner SJ, the co-discoverer of sunspots (next to Galileo), after leaving Rome in 1633 - the year of the Galileo trial. Scheiner spent his later years in the Austrian and

  19. Asymmetric Introgression in the Horticultural Living Fossil Cycas Sect. Asiorientales Using a Genome-Wide Scanning Approach

    PubMed Central

    Chiang, Yu-Chung; Huang, Bing-Hong; Chang, Chun-Wen; Wan, Yu-Ting; Lai, Shih-Jie; Huang, Shong; Liao, Pei-Chun

    2013-01-01

    The Asian cycads are mostly allopatric, distributed in small population sizes. Hybridization between allopatric species provides clues in determining the mechanism of species divergence. Horticultural introduction provides the chance of interspecific gene flow between allopatric species. Two allopatrically eastern Asian Cycas sect. Asiorientales species, C. revoluta and C. taitungensis, which are widely distributed in Ryukyus and Fujian Province and endemic to Taiwan, respectively, were planted in eastern Taiwan for horticultural reason. Higher degrees of genetic admixture in cultivated samples than wild populations in both cycad species were detected based on multilocus scans by neutral AFLP markers. Furthermore, bidirectional but asymmetric introgression by horticultural introduction of C. revoluta is evidenced by the reanalyses of species associated loci, which are assumed to be diverged after species divergence. Partial loci introgressed from native cycad to the invaders were also detected at the loci of strong species association. Consistent results tested by all neutral loci, and the species-associated loci, specify the recent introgression from the paradox of sharing of ancestral polymorphisms. Phenomenon of introgression of cultivated cycads implies niche conservation among two geographic-isolated cycads, even though the habitats of the extant wild populations of two species are distinct. PMID:23591840

  20. Taxonomy of Atlantic Central African orchids 5. A new species of Angraecum sect. Conchoglossum (Orchidaceae, Angraecinae) from Gabon and Cameroon

    PubMed Central

    Ječmenica, Vladimir; Droissart, Vincent; Noret, Nausicaa; Stévart, Tariq

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Recent field inventories and taxonomic research in Central Africa have resulted in the discovery of many new orchid species. Five specimens of an apparently new Angraecum species were collected in Gabon and Cameroon. They stand out for their hanging habit and short zig-zag stem. Morphology of leaves and habit is somewhat comparable to Angraecum cultriforme and Angraecum stolzii, two species from East Africa. Flowers of the novelty share the general morphology of Angraecum pyriforme from which the new species is distinguished by being smaller and with a different lip-spur ratio. Here we show that these five specimens represent a new species, described here as Angraecum lanceolatum. The distinguishing traits include thin lanceolate leaves, convolute distally, with a rhombic lip shape. Dichotomous key to four Central African species of sect. Conchoglossum and a table of the diagnostic characters of the seven related Continental African Angraecum taxa are included here. A preliminary assessment of the conservation status of Angraecum lanceolatum is provided, using the IUCN Red List Categories and Criteria. PMID:27081350

  1. Taxonomy of Atlantic Central African orchids 5. A new species of Angraecum sect. Conchoglossum (Orchidaceae, Angraecinae) from Gabon and Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Ječmenica, Vladimir; Droissart, Vincent; Noret, Nausicaa; Stévart, Tariq

    2016-01-01

    Recent field inventories and taxonomic research in Central Africa have resulted in the discovery of many new orchid species. Five specimens of an apparently new Angraecum species were collected in Gabon and Cameroon. They stand out for their hanging habit and short zig-zag stem. Morphology of leaves and habit is somewhat comparable to Angraecum cultriforme and Angraecum stolzii, two species from East Africa. Flowers of the novelty share the general morphology of Angraecum pyriforme from which the new species is distinguished by being smaller and with a different lip-spur ratio. Here we show that these five specimens represent a new species, described here as Angraecum lanceolatum. The distinguishing traits include thin lanceolate leaves, convolute distally, with a rhombic lip shape. Dichotomous key to four Central African species of sect. Conchoglossum and a table of the diagnostic characters of the seven related Continental African Angraecum taxa are included here. A preliminary assessment of the conservation status of Angraecum lanceolatum is provided, using the IUCN Red List Categories and Criteria. PMID:27081350

  2. Quantitative genetic analysis indicates natural selection on leaf phenotypes across wild tomato species (Solanum sect. Lycopersicon; Solanaceae).

    PubMed

    Muir, Christopher D; Pease, James B; Moyle, Leonie C

    2014-12-01

    Adaptive evolution requires both raw genetic material and an accessible path of high fitness from one fitness peak to another. In this study, we used an introgression line (IL) population to map quantitative trait loci (QTL) for leaf traits thought to be associated with adaptation to precipitation in wild tomatoes (Solanum sect. Lycopersicon; Solanaceae). A QTL sign test showed that several traits likely evolved under directional natural selection. Leaf traits correlated across species do not share a common genetic basis, consistent with a scenario in which selection maintains trait covariation unconstrained by pleiotropy or linkage disequilibrium. Two large effect QTL for stomatal distribution colocalized with key genes in the stomatal development pathway, suggesting promising candidates for the molecular bases of adaptation in these species. Furthermore, macroevolutionary transitions between vastly different stomatal distributions may not be constrained when such large-effect mutations are available. Finally, genetic correlations between stomatal traits measured in this study and data on carbon isotope discrimination from the same ILs support a functional hypothesis that the distribution of stomata affects the resistance to CO2 diffusion inside the leaf, a trait implicated in climatic adaptation in wild tomatoes. Along with evidence from previous comparative and experimental studies, this analysis indicates that leaf traits are an important component of climatic niche adaptation in wild tomatoes and demonstrates that some trait transitions between species could have involved few, large-effect genetic changes, allowing rapid responses to new environmental conditions. PMID:25298519

  3. Systematic mutational analysis of the amino-terminal domain of the Listeria monocytogenes ActA protein reveals novel functions in actin-based motility.

    PubMed

    Lauer, P; Theriot, J A; Skoble, J; Welch, M D; Portnoy, D A

    2001-12-01

    The Listeria monocytogenes ActA protein acts as a scaffold to assemble and activate host cell actin cytoskeletal factors at the bacterial surface, resulting in directional actin polymerization and propulsion of the bacterium through the cytoplasm. We have constructed 20 clustered charged-to-alanine mutations in the NH2-terminal domain of ActA and replaced the endogenous actA gene with these molecular variants. These 20 clones were evaluated in several biological assays for phenotypes associated with particular amino acid changes. Additionally, each protein variant was purified and tested for stimulation of the Arp2/3 complex, and a subset was tested for actin monomer binding. These specific mutations refined the two regions involved in Arp2/3 activation and suggest that the actin-binding sequence of ActA spans 40 amino acids. We also identified a 'motility rate and cloud-to-tail transition' region in which nine contiguous mutations spanning amino acids 165-260 caused motility rate defects and changed the ratio of intracellular bacteria associated with actin clouds and comet tails without affecting Arp2/3 activation. Several unusual motility phenotypes were associated with amino acid changes in this region, including altered paths through the cytoplasm, discontinuous actin tails in host cells and the tendency to 'skid' or dramatically change direction while moving. These unusual phenotypes illustrate the complexity of ActA functions that control the actin-based motility of L. monocytogenes. PMID:11886549

  4. Electrostatic and Hydrophobic Interactions Mediate Single-Stranded DNA Recognition and Acta2 Repression by Purine-Rich Element-Binding Protein B.

    PubMed

    Rumora, Amy E; Ferris, Lauren A; Wheeler, Tamar R; Kelm, Robert J

    2016-05-17

    Myofibroblast differentiation is characterized by an increased level of expression of cytoskeletal smooth muscle α-actin. In human and murine fibroblasts, the gene encoding smooth muscle α-actin (Acta2) is tightly regulated by a network of transcription factors that either activate or repress the 5' promoter-enhancer in response to environmental cues signaling tissue repair and remodeling. Purine-rich element-binding protein B (Purβ) suppresses the expression of Acta2 by cooperatively interacting with the sense strand of a 5' polypurine sequence containing an inverted MCAT cis element required for gene activation. In this study, we evaluated the chemical basis of nucleoprotein complex formation between the Purβ repressor and the purine-rich strand of the MCAT element in the mouse Acta2 promoter. Quantitative single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) binding assays conducted in the presence of increasing concentrations of monovalent salt or anionic detergent suggested that the assembly of a high-affinity nucleoprotein complex is driven by a combination of electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions. Consistent with the results of pH titration analysis, site-directed mutagenesis revealed several basic amino acid residues in the intermolecular (R267) and intramolecular (K82 and R159) subdomains that are essential for Purβ transcriptional repressor function in Acta2 promoter-reporter assays. In keeping with their diminished Acta2 repressor activity in fibroblasts, purified Purβ variants containing an R267A mutation exhibited reduced binding affinity for purine-rich ssDNA. Moreover, certain double and triple-point mutants were also defective in binding to the Acta2 corepressor protein, Y-box-binding protein 1. Collectively, these findings establish the repertoire of noncovalent interactions that account for the unique structural and functional properties of Purβ. PMID:27064749

  5. Twenty Years of Society of Medical Informatics of B&H and the Journal Acta Informatica Medica

    PubMed Central

    Masic, Izet

    2012-01-01

    In 2012, Health/Medical informatics profession celebrates five jubilees in Bosnia and Herzegovina: a) Thirty five years from the introduction of the first automatic manipulation of data; b) Twenty five years from establishing Society for Medical Informatics BiH; c) Twenty years from establishing scientific and professional journal of the Society for Medical Informatics of Bosnia and Herzegovina „Acta Informatica Medica“; d) Twenty years from establishing first Cathdra for Medical Informatics on biomedical faculties in Bosnia and Herzegovina and e) Ten years from the introduction of “Distance learning” in medical curriculum. All of the five mentioned activities in the area of Medical informatics had special importance and gave appropriate contribution in the development of Health/Medical informatics in Bosnia And Herzegovina. PMID:23322947

  6. Streptomyces rochei ACTA1551, an Indigenous Greek Isolate Studied as a Potential Biocontrol Agent against Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici

    PubMed Central

    Kanini, Grammatiki S.; Katsifas, Efstathios A.; Savvides, Alexandros L.; Karagouni, Amalia D.

    2013-01-01

    Many studies have shown that several Greek ecosystems inhabit very interesting bacteria with biotechnological properties. Therefore Streptomyces isolates from diverse Greek habitats were selected for their antifungal activity against the common phytopathogenic fungus Fusarium oxysporum. The isolate encoded ACTA1551, member of Streptomyces genus, could strongly suppress the fungal growth when examined in antagonistic bioassays in vitro. The isolate was found phylogenetically relative to Streptomyces rochei after analyzing its 16S rDNA sequence. The influence of different environmental conditions, such as medium composition, temperature, and pH on the expression of the antifungal activity was thoroughly examined. Streptomyces rochei ACTA1551 was able to protect tomato seeds from F. oxysporum infection in vivo while it was shown to promote the growth of tomato plants when the pathogen was absent. In an initial effort towards the elucidation of the biochemical and physiological nature of ACTA1551 antifungal activity, extracts from solid streptomycete cultures under antagonistic or/and not antagonistic conditions were concentrated and fractionated. The metabolites involved in the antagonistic action of the isolate showed to be more than one and produced independently of the presence of the pathogen. The above observations could support the application of Streptomyces rochei ACTA1551 as biocontrol agent against F. oxysporum. PMID:23762841

  7. The beginnings of Acta Neurochirurgica and the work of Fritz Loew, chief editor from 1958 - 1997. An historical vignette.

    PubMed

    Reulen, Hans-Jürgen; Collmann, Hartmut

    2012-07-01

    Acta Neurochirurgica was founded in 1950, in the difficult time after World War II, by Mario Milletti (Bologna) and Wolfram Sorgo (Innsbruck), and published by Springer press, Vienna. From the beginning the new journal was conceived as an international journal with an impressive list of outstanding neurosurgeons in the editorial board. Only a few years later the issues appeared at irregular intervals due to individual problems of both editors. Wilhelm Tönnis took the initiative to keep the journal alive, when he asked-in consent with Springer press-his staff member Fritz Loew to continue the editorial work and to assemble a new prestigious editorial board. Loew succeeded with both tasks and remained editor-in-chief for nearly 38 years. Initially, all papers were published in the native languages of the authors: English, French, German, Italian and Spanish. With ongoing time the journal accepted manuscripts in English only. The slow progress of this process exemplifies the slow integration of the European countries. In 1971, at the founding meeting of the European Association of Neurosurgical Societies (EANS) in Prague, Acta Neurochirurgica became the official organ of the EANS. Right from the beginning of Acta Neurochirurgica, Supplement volumes were added. Also, the book series Advances and Technical Standards in Neurosurgery is an offspring of Acta Neurochirurgica. Acta Neurochirurgica has become one of the most important neurosurgical journals worldwide. This historical sketch is based on an interview with Fritz Loew, now 91 years old, to which data from the available literature and the Archives of German Neurosurgery, as well as personal information by several colleagues were added. PMID:22581432

  8. Treatment with ActRIIB-mFc Produces Myofiber Growth and Improves Lifespan in the Acta1 H40Y Murine Model of Nemaline Myopathy.

    PubMed

    Tinklenberg, Jennifer; Meng, Hui; Yang, Lin; Liu, Fujun; Hoffmann, Raymond G; Dasgupta, Mahua; Allen, Kenneth P; Beggs, Alan H; Hardeman, Edna C; Pearsall, R Scott; Fitts, Robert H; Lawlor, Michael W

    2016-06-01

    Nemaline myopathies (NMs) are a group of congenital muscle diseases caused by mutations in at least 10 genes and associated with a range of clinical symptoms. NM is defined on muscle biopsy by the presence of cytoplasmic rod-like structures (nemaline rods) composed of cytoskeletal material. Myofiber smallness is also found in many cases of NM and may represent a cause of weakness that can be counteracted by treatment. We have used i.p. injection of activin type IIB receptor (ActRIIB)-mFc (an inhibitor of myostatin signaling) to promote hypertrophy and increase strength in our prior murine work; we therefore tested whether ActRIIB-mFc could improve weakness in NM mice through myofiber hypertrophy. We report a study of ActRIIB-mFc treatment in the Acta1 H40Y mouse model of NM. Treatment of Acta1 H40Y mice produced significant increases in body mass, muscle mass, quadriceps myofiber size, and survival, but other measurements of strength (forelimb grip strength, ex vivo measurements of contractile function) did not improve. Our studies also identified that the complications of urethral obstruction are associated with mortality in male hemizygote Acta1 H40Y mice. The incidence of urethral obstruction and histologic evidence of chronic obstruction (inflammation) were significantly lower in Acta1 H40Y mice that had been treated with ActRIIB-mFc. ActRIIB-mFc treatment produces a mild benefit to the disease phenotype in Acta1 H40Y mice. PMID:27102768

  9. Phylogenetic relationships of the silver saxifrages (Saxifraga, sect. Ligulatae haworth): implications for the evolution of substrate specificity, life histories, and biogeography.

    PubMed

    Conti, E; Soltis, D E; Hardig, T M; Schneider, J

    1999-12-01

    The silver saxifrages (Saxifraga sect. Ligulatae Haworth; Saxifragaceae) exhibit remarkable variation of substrate specialization, with strictly calcicole to calcifuge species, as well as life histories which range from semelparity to iteroparity. They occur almost exclusively in the European mountain ranges and display high levels of endemism. Sequences from chloroplast and nuclear ribosomal DNA were obtained to resolve phylogenetic relationships among the silver saxifrages and related taxa and to gain insight into the evolution of substrate specificity, life history, and biogeography. The resulting phylogenies suggested that (1) Saxifraga sect. Ligulatae, as traditionally defined, does not constitute a monophyletic group; (2) lime-secreting hydathodes in calcifuge species apparently represent a secondary nonaptation; (3) semelparity evolved independently two or three times in the silver saxifrages and allied sections, possibly in response to climatic changes that occured during the Pleistocene; and (4) narrow endemics, for example S. cochlearis, likely evolved from the fragmentation of the widespread S. paniculata into refugial populations that became isolated during the glacial maxima of the Pleistocene. PMID:10620412

  10. Ir-Spectroscopy of Glycine and its Complexes with Water in Helium Nanodroplets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Letzner, M.; Grün, S. A.; Schwaab, G.; Havenith, M.

    2011-06-01

    Glycine is the smallest amino acid, and therefore it is of special interest as a model and starting point for theoretical and experimental studies. Whereas the crystalline form of glycine consists of zwitterions NH_3+-CH_2-COO-, gas phase glycine is known to exist in the nonionized form NH_2-CH_2-COOH. The interaction between glycine and water has been widely studied using a large variety of theoretical methods. Depending on the theoretical level used, a stabilisation of the zwitterionic form is predicted for complexes containing from 2 to 7 water molecules. In low-temperature Ar matrices a set of characteristic IR absorption bands for the zwitterionic form has been observed. The higher stoichiometry complexes (glycine)\\cdots(H_2O)_n with n larger than 3 are demonstrated to be zwitterionic H-bonded complexes. The multitude of conformations expected for these glycine-water complexes makes a combination of low temperature and high resolution spectroscopy essential. We want to use the advantages of our experiment to investigate glycine and its complexes with water in helium-nanodroplets at ultracold temperatures in the range from 3000-3800 Cm-1. Our measurements were carried out using a high power IR-OPO (cw: 2.7 W) as radiation source and a helium nanodroplet spectrometer. Helium-nanodroplets are formed by expansion of helium at 55 bar through a 5 μm nozzle which is kept at a temperature of 16 K. The status of the project is presented. P.-G. Jönsson et al., Acta Crystallogr., Sect. B: Struct. Crystallogr. Cryst. Chem. 28, 1827 (1972) G. Junk et al., J. Am. Chem. Soc. 85, 839 (1963) R. Ramaekers et al., J. Chem. Phys., 120 (2004)

  11. Vascular disease-causing mutation R258C in ACTA2 disrupts actin dynamics and interaction with myosin

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Hailong; Fagnant, Patricia M.; Bookwalter, Carol S.; Joel, Peteranne; Trybus, Kathleen M.

    2015-01-01

    Point mutations in vascular smooth muscle α-actin (SM α-actin), encoded by the gene ACTA2, are the most prevalent cause of familial thoracic aortic aneurysms and dissections (TAAD). Here, we provide the first molecular characterization, to our knowledge, of the effect of the R258C mutation in SM α-actin, expressed with the baculovirus system. Smooth muscles are unique in that force generation requires both interaction of stable actin filaments with myosin and polymerization of actin in the subcortical region. Both aspects of R258C function therefore need investigation. Total internal reflection fluorescence (TIRF) microscopy was used to quantify the growth of single actin filaments as a function of time. R258C filaments are less stable than WT and more susceptible to severing by cofilin. Smooth muscle tropomyosin offers little protection from cofilin cleavage, unlike its effect on WT actin. Unexpectedly, profilin binds tighter to the R258C monomer, which will increase the pool of globular actin (G-actin). In an in vitro motility assay, smooth muscle myosin moves R258C filaments more slowly than WT, and the slowing is exacerbated by smooth muscle tropomyosin. Under loaded conditions, small ensembles of myosin are unable to produce force on R258C actin-tropomyosin filaments, suggesting that tropomyosin occupies an inhibitory position on actin. Many of the observed defects cannot be explained by a direct interaction with the mutated residue, and thus the mutation allosterically affects multiple regions of the monomer. Our results align with the hypothesis that defective contractile function contributes to the pathogenesis of TAAD. PMID:26153420

  12. Vascular disease-causing mutation R258C in ACTA2 disrupts actin dynamics and interaction with myosin.

    PubMed

    Lu, Hailong; Fagnant, Patricia M; Bookwalter, Carol S; Joel, Peteranne; Trybus, Kathleen M

    2015-08-01

    Point mutations in vascular smooth muscle α-actin (SM α-actin), encoded by the gene ACTA2, are the most prevalent cause of familial thoracic aortic aneurysms and dissections (TAAD). Here, we provide the first molecular characterization, to our knowledge, of the effect of the R258C mutation in SM α-actin, expressed with the baculovirus system. Smooth muscles are unique in that force generation requires both interaction of stable actin filaments with myosin and polymerization of actin in the subcortical region. Both aspects of R258C function therefore need investigation. Total internal reflection fluorescence (TIRF) microscopy was used to quantify the growth of single actin filaments as a function of time. R258C filaments are less stable than WT and more susceptible to severing by cofilin. Smooth muscle tropomyosin offers little protection from cofilin cleavage, unlike its effect on WT actin. Unexpectedly, profilin binds tighter to the R258C monomer, which will increase the pool of globular actin (G-actin). In an in vitro motility assay, smooth muscle myosin moves R258C filaments more slowly than WT, and the slowing is exacerbated by smooth muscle tropomyosin. Under loaded conditions, small ensembles of myosin are unable to produce force on R258C actin-tropomyosin filaments, suggesting that tropomyosin occupies an inhibitory position on actin. Many of the observed defects cannot be explained by a direct interaction with the mutated residue, and thus the mutation allosterically affects multiple regions of the monomer. Our results align with the hypothesis that defective contractile function contributes to the pathogenesis of TAAD. PMID:26153420

  13. Clarifying the butter Boletes: a new genus, Butyriboletus, is established to accommodate Boletus sect. Appendiculati, and six new species are described.

    PubMed

    Arora, David; Frank, Jonathan L

    2014-01-01

    The butter boletes (Boletus s.l. sect. Appendiculati) are an economically important group of ectomycorrhizal fungi whose basidiocarps have a yellow tube layer that often bruises blue, yellow reticulate stipe, mild flavor and firm yellow-tinged flesh that may or may not turn blue when exposed. Morphological characters and molecular data (ITS and LSU) place this group in a separate phylogenetic clade from Boletus sensu stricto. Here we establish a new genus, Butyriboletus, to accommodate 14 species of butter boletes that range from Asia to Europe, north Africa and North America. We recombine eight previously described butter bolete species and we describe six new species: four from western USA (Bu. persolidus, Bu. primiregius, Bu. autumnigius, Bu. querciregius) and two from Yunnan, China (Bu. yicibus, Bu. sanicibus). PMID:24871600

  14. Host cell heparan sulfate proteoglycans mediate attachment and entry of Listeria monocytogenes, and the listerial surface protein ActA is involved in heparan sulfate receptor recognition.

    PubMed

    Alvarez-Domínguez, C; Vázquez-Boland, J A; Carrasco-Marín, E; López-Mato, P; Leyva-Cobián, F

    1997-01-01

    The mechanisms by which the intracellular pathogen Listeria monocytogenes interacts with the host cell surface remain largely unknown. In this study, we investigated the role of heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPG) in listerial infection. Pretreatment of bacteria with heparin or heparan sulfate (HS), but not with other glycosaminoglycans, inhibited attachment and subsequent uptake by IC-21 murine macrophages and CHO epithelial-like cells. Specific removal of HS from target cells with heparinase III significantly impaired listerial adhesion and invasion. Mutant CHO cells deficient in HS synthesis bound and internalized significantly fewer bacteria than wild-type cells did. Pretreatment of target cells with the HS-binding proteins fibronectin and platelet factor 4, or with heparinase III, impaired listerial infectivity only in those cells expressing HS. Moreover, a synthetic peptide corresponding to the HS-binding ligand in Plasmodium falciparum circumsporozoite protein (pepPf1) inhibited listerial attachment to IC-21 and CHO cells. A motif very similar to the HS-binding site of pepPf1 was found in the N-terminal region of ActA, the L. monocytogenes surface protein responsible for actin-based bacterial motility and cell-to-cell spread. In the same region of ActA, several clusters of positively charged amino acids which could function as HS-binding domains were identified. An ActA-deficient mutant was significantly impaired in attachment and entry due to altered HS recognition functions. This work shows that specific interaction with an HSPG receptor present on the surface of both professional and nonprofessional phagocytes is involved in L. monocytogenes cytoadhesion and invasion and strongly suggests that the bacterial surface protein ActA may be a ligand mediating HSPG receptor recognition. PMID:8975895

  15. Combined MRI and 31P-MRS Investigations of the ACTA1(H40Y) Mouse Model of Nemaline Myopathy Show Impaired Muscle Function and Altered Energy Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Gineste, Charlotte; Le Fur, Yann; Vilmen, Christophe; Le Troter, Arnaud; Pecchi, Emilie; Cozzone, Patrick J.; Hardeman, Edna C.; Bendahan, David; Gondin, Julien

    2013-01-01

    Nemaline myopathy (NM) is the most common disease entity among non-dystrophic skeletal muscle congenital diseases. Mutations in the skeletal muscle α-actin gene (ACTA1) account for ∼25% of all NM cases and are the most frequent cause of severe forms of NM. So far, the mechanisms underlying muscle weakness in NM patients remain unclear. Additionally, recent Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) studies reported a progressive fatty infiltration of skeletal muscle with a specific muscle involvement in patients with ACTA1 mutations. We investigated strictly noninvasively the gastrocnemius muscle function of a mouse model carrying a mutation in the ACTA1 gene (H40Y). Skeletal muscle anatomy (hindlimb muscles and fat volumes) and energy metabolism were studied using MRI and 31Phosphorus magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Skeletal muscle contractile performance was investigated while applying a force-frequency protocol (from 1–150 Hz) and a fatigue protocol (80 stimuli at 40 Hz). H40Y mice showed a reduction of both absolute (−40%) and specific (−25%) maximal force production as compared to controls. Interestingly, muscle weakness was associated with an improved resistance to fatigue (+40%) and an increased energy cost. On the contrary, the force frequency relationship was not modified in H40Y mice and the extent of fatty infiltration was minor and not different from the WT group. We concluded that the H40Y mouse model does not reproduce human MRI findings but shows a severe muscle weakness which might be related to an alteration of intrinsic muscular properties. The increased energy cost in H40Y mice might be related to either an impaired mitochondrial function or an alteration at the cross-bridges level. Overall, we provided a unique set of anatomic, metabolic and functional biomarkers that might be relevant for monitoring the progression of NM disease but also for assessing the efficacy of potential therapeutic interventions at a preclinical level. PMID:23613869

  16. Durandal: fast exact clustering of protein decoys.

    PubMed

    Berenger, Francois; Shrestha, Rojan; Zhou, Yong; Simoncini, David; Zhang, Kam Y J

    2012-02-01

    In protein folding, clustering is commonly used as one way to identify the best decoy produced. Initializing the pairwise distance matrix for a large decoy set is computationally expensive. We have proposed a fast method that works even on large decoy sets. This method is implemented in a software called Durandal. Durandal has been shown to be consistently faster than other software performing fast exact clustering. In some cases, Durandal can even outperform the speed of an approximate method. Durandal uses the triangular inequality to accelerate exact clustering, without compromising the distance function. Recently, we have further enhanced the performance of Durandal by incorporating a Quaternion-based characteristic polynomial method that has increased the speed of Durandal between 13% and 27% compared with the previous version. Durandal source code is available under the GNU General Public License at http://www.riken.jp/zhangiru/software/durandal_released_qcp.tgz. Alternatively, a compiled version of Durandal is also distributed with the nightly builds of the Phenix (http://www.phenix-online.org/) crystallographic software suite (Adams et al., Acta Crystallogr Sect D 2010, 66, 213). PMID:22120171

  17. On the anisotropy of van der Waals atomic radii of O, S, Se, F, Cl, Br, and I.

    PubMed

    Eramian, Hamed; Tian, Yong-Hui; Fox, Zach; Beneberu, Habtamu Z; Kertesz, Miklos

    2013-12-27

    The Cambridge Structural Database (CSD) was used to obtain flattening factors to describe the overall anisotropy of nonbonding van der Waals (vdW) contacts between several main group elements. The method for obtaining the flattening factors is based on a novel minimization process. Results show that the vdW contact distances are significantly dependent on the environment and the orientations of the surrounding covalently bonded atoms: head-on vdW contacts are generally shorter than sideways contacts in overall agreement with earlier results by Nyburg and Faerman (Acta Crystallogr., Sect. B: Struct. Sci. 1985, 41, 274-279). With the exception of Se, we find flattening factors that are somewhat smaller than those found earlier. High-level ab initio quantum chemical calculations using Ar and Ne as a probe also confirm the flattening effect and its dependency on the environment. A dozen popular long-range corrected and dispersion supplemented density functionals are compared with the CCSD(T) data. While several of them perform quite poorly, four DFT-D methods, especially B3LYP-GD3BJ, provided vdW flattening similar to those found by the CCSD(T) theory and experiment. PMID:24283380

  18. BOOK REVIEW: Astronomie von Olbers bis Schwarzschild. Nationale Entwicklungen und internationale Beziehungen im 19. Jahrhundert (Acta Historica Astronomiae Vol. 16)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sterken, C.; Dick, W. R.; Hamel, J.

    2002-12-01

    The 14th volume of the Acta Historica Astronomiae is the Proceedings of a Colloquium International Relationships in Astronomy (in German) organised by the History of Astronomy Section of the Astronomische Gesellschaft held on September 18 in Lilienthal, Germany. The book contains 13 articles on astronomical topics covering the 19th and 20th centuries. The first paper is by Guenther Oestmann and deals with contemporary assessments of Johann Hieronymus Schroeter's (1745-1816) astronomical works and with later judgements of the scientific importance and significance of his observations as seen by astronomers and historians. This report is complemented by a second article on Schroeter's 25-ft reflector in Lilienthal near Bremen. To this end, author Felix Luehning has constructed a scale model of the telescope, and shows how the building of a model brings a deeper understanding of function and handling of this instrument. This brings us to a third paper on telescope building in Lilienthal: Hans-Joachim Leue describes the cooperation of Johann Hieronymus Schroeter and Johann Gottlieb Schrader in developing a white reflecting metal alloy for use as telescope mirror. The fourth article, by Klaus Schillinger, describes on the basis of archival documents the aquisition history of the Herschel telescopes, including telescope quality check, repair and building. Memorial sites referring to Wilhelm Olbers, Johann Hieronymus Schroeter, Friedrich Wilhelm Bessel and Carl Friedrich Gauss are described by Arno Langkavel in two walks outlined in the very last paper of this book. Peter Brosche, in the fifth paper, discusses the rediscovery of Ceres in December1801, a discovery that was the result of the combined efforts of a theoretician (Gauss) and an observer (Zach). Juergen Hamel's paper is based on previously unused archival sources and discusses the outstanding role played by H. C. Schumacher (1780-1850, editor of the Astronomische Nachrichten) in the communication between

  19. Multimodal MRI and 31P-MRS Investigations of the ACTA1(Asp286Gly) Mouse Model of Nemaline Myopathy Provide Evidence of Impaired In Vivo Muscle Function, Altered Muscle Structure and Disturbed Energy Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Gineste, Charlotte; Duhamel, Guillaume; Le Fur, Yann; Vilmen, Christophe; Cozzone, Patrick J.; Nowak, Kristen J.; Bendahan, David; Gondin, Julien

    2013-01-01

    Nemaline myopathy (NM), the most common non-dystrophic congenital disease of skeletal muscle, can be caused by mutations in the skeletal muscle α-actin gene (ACTA1) (~25% of all NM cases and up to 50% of severe forms of NM). Muscle function of the recently generated transgenic mouse model carrying the human Asp286Gly mutation in the ACTA1 gene (Tg(ACTA1)Asp286Gly) has been mainly investigated in vitro. Therefore, we aimed at providing a comprehensive picture of the in vivo hindlimb muscle function of Tg(ACTA1)Asp286Gly mice by combining strictly noninvasive investigations. Skeletal muscle anatomy (hindlimb muscles, intramuscular fat volumes) and microstructure were studied using multimodal magnetic resonance imaging (Dixon, T2, Diffusion Tensor Imaging [DTI]). Energy metabolism was studied using 31-phosphorus Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (31P-MRS). Skeletal muscle contractile performance was investigated while applying a force-frequency protocol (1–150 Hz) and a fatigue protocol (6 min–1.7 Hz). Tg(ACTA1)Asp286Gly mice showed a mild muscle weakness as illustrated by the reduction of both absolute (30%) and specific (15%) maximal force production. Dixon MRI did not show discernable fatty infiltration in Tg(ACTA1)Asp286Gly mice indicating that this mouse model does not reproduce human MRI findings. Increased T2 values were observed in Tg(ACTA1)Asp286Gly mice and might reflect the occurrence of muscle degeneration/regeneration process. Interestingly, T2 values were linearly related to muscle weakness. DTI experiments indicated lower λ2 and λ3 values in Tg(ACTA1)Asp286Gly mice, which might be associated to muscle atrophy and/or the presence of histological anomalies. Finally 31P-MRS investigations illustrated an increased anaerobic energy cost of contraction in Tg(ACTA1)Asp286Gly mice, which might be ascribed to contractile and non-contractile processes. Overall, we provide a unique set of information about the anatomic, metabolic and functional consequences

  20. An overview of the small engine component technology (SECT) studies. [commuter, rotorcraft, cruise missile and auxiliary power applications in year 2000

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vanco, M. R.; Wintucky, W. T.; Niedwiecki, R. W.

    1986-01-01

    The objectives of the joint NASA/Army SECT studies were to identify high payoff technologies for year 2000 small gas turbine engine applications and to provide a technology plan for guiding future research and technology efforts applicable to rotorcraft, commuter and general aviation aircraft and cruise missiles. Competitive contracts were awarded to Allison, AVCO Lycoming, Garrett, Teledyne CAE and Williams International. This paper presents an overview of the contractors' study efforts for the commuter, rotorcraft, cruise missile, and auxiliary power (APU) applications with engines in the 250 to 1,000 horsepower size range. Reference aircraft, missions and engines were selected. Advanced engine configurations and cycles with projected year 2000 component technologies were evaluated and compared with a reference engine selected by the contractor. For typical commuter and rotorcraft applications, fuel savings of 22 percent to 42 percent can be attained. For $1/gallon and $2/gallon fuel, reductions in direct operating cost range from 6 percent to 16 percent and from 11 percent to 17 percent respectively. For subsonic strategic cruise missile applications, fuel savings of 38 percent to 54 percent can be achieved which allows 35 percent to 60 percent increase in mission range and life cycle cost reductions of 40 percent to 56 percent. High payoff technologies have been identified for all applications.

  1. InternationaL cross-sectIonAl and longItudinal assessment on aSthma cONtrol in European adult patients - the LIAISON study protocol

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background According to international guidelines, the goal of asthma management is to achieve and maintain control of the disease, which can be assessed using composite measures. Prospective studies are required to determine how these measures are associated with asthma outcomes and/or future risk. The ‘InternationaL cross-sectIonAl and longItudinal assessment on aSthma cONtrol (LIAISON)’ observational study has been designed to evaluate asthma control and its determinants, including components of asthma management. Methods/design The LIAISON study will be conducted in 12 European countries and comprises a cross-sectional phase and a 12-month prospective phase. Both phases will aim at assessing asthma control (six-item Asthma Control Questionnaire, ACQ), asthma-related quality of life (Mini Asthma Quality of Life Questionnaire, Mini-AQLQ), risk of non-adherence to treatment (four-item Morisky Medication Adherence Scale, MMAS-4), potential reasons for poor control, treatment strategies and associated healthcare costs. The cross-sectional phase will recruit > 8,000 adult patients diagnosed with asthma for at least 6 months and receiving the same asthma treatment in the 4 weeks before enrolment. The prospective phase will include all patients with uncontrolled/poorly controlled asthma at the initial visit to assess the proportion reaching control during follow-up and to examine predictors of future risk. Visits will take place after 3, 6 and 12 months. Discussion The LIAISON study will provide important information on the prevalence of asthma control and on the quality of life in a broad spectrum of real-life patient populations from different European countries and will also contribute to evaluate differences in management strategies and their impact on healthcare costs over 12 months of observation. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov identifier, NCT01567280. PMID:23530817

  2. The First High-Density Genetic Map Construction in Tree Peony (Paeonia Sect. Moutan) using Genotyping by Specific-Locus Amplified Fragment Sequencing.

    PubMed

    Cai, Changfu; Cheng, Fang-Yun; Wu, Jing; Zhong, Yuan; Liu, Gaixiu

    2015-01-01

    Genetic linkage maps, permitting the elucidation of genome structure, are one of most powerful genomic tools to accelerate marker-assisted breeding. However, due to a lack of sufficient user-friendly molecular markers, no genetic linkage map has been developed for tree peonies (Paeonia Sect. Moutan), a group of important horticultural plants worldwide. Specific-locus amplified fragment sequencing (SLAF-seq) is a recent molecular marker development technology that enable the large-scale discovery and genotyping of sequence-based marker in genome-wide. In this study, we performed SLAF sequencing of an F1 population, derived from the cross P. ostti 'FenDanBai' × P. × suffruticosa 'HongQiao', to identify sufficient high-quality markers for the construction of high-density genetic linkage map in tree peonies. After SLAF sequencing, a total of 78 Gb sequencing data and 285,403,225 pair-end reads were generated. We detected 309,198 high-quality SLAFs from these data, of which 85,124 (27.5%) were polymorphic. Subsequently, 3518 of the polymorphic markers, which were successfully encoded in to Mendelian segregation types, and were in conformity with the criteria of high-quality markers, were defined as effective markers and used for genetic linkage mapping. Finally, we constructed an integrated genetic map, which comprised 1189 markers on the five linkage groups, and spanned 920.699 centiMorgans (cM) with an average inter-marker distance of 0.774 cM. There were 1115 'SNP-only' markers, 18 'InDel-only' markers, and 56 'SNP&InDel' markers on the map. Among these markers, 450 (37.85%) showed significant segregation distortion (P < 0.05). In conclusion, this investigation reported the first large-scale marker development and high-density linkage map construction for tree peony. The results of this study will serve as a solid foundation not only for marker-assisted breeding, but also for genome sequence assembly for tree peony. PMID:26010095

  3. The First High-Density Genetic Map Construction in Tree Peony (Paeonia Sect. Moutan) using Genotyping by Specific-Locus Amplified Fragment Sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Changfu; Cheng, Fang-Yun; Wu, Jing; Zhong, Yuan; Liu, Gaixiu

    2015-01-01

    Genetic linkage maps, permitting the elucidation of genome structure, are one of most powerful genomic tools to accelerate marker-assisted breeding. However, due to a lack of sufficient user-friendly molecular markers, no genetic linkage map has been developed for tree peonies (Paeonia Sect. Moutan), a group of important horticultural plants worldwide. Specific-locus amplified fragment sequencing (SLAF-seq) is a recent molecular marker development technology that enable the large-scale discovery and genotyping of sequence-based marker in genome-wide. In this study, we performed SLAF sequencing of an F1 population, derived from the cross P. ostti ‘FenDanBai’ × P. × suffruticosa ‘HongQiao’, to identify sufficient high-quality markers for the construction of high-density genetic linkage map in tree peonies. After SLAF sequencing, a total of 78 Gb sequencing data and 285,403,225 pair-end reads were generated. We detected 309,198 high-quality SLAFs from these data, of which 85,124 (27.5%) were polymorphic. Subsequently, 3518 of the polymorphic markers, which were successfully encoded in to Mendelian segregation types, and were in conformity with the criteria of high-quality markers, were defined as effective markers and used for genetic linkage mapping. Finally, we constructed an integrated genetic map, which comprised 1189 markers on the five linkage groups, and spanned 920.699 centiMorgans (cM) with an average inter-marker distance of 0.774 cM. There were 1115 ‘SNP-only’ markers, 18 ‘InDel-only’ markers, and 56 ‘SNP&InDel’ markers on the map. Among these markers, 450 (37.85%) showed significant segregation distortion (P < 0.05). In conclusion, this investigation reported the first large-scale marker development and high-density linkage map construction for tree peony. The results of this study will serve as a solid foundation not only for marker-assisted breeding, but also for genome sequence assembly for tree peony. PMID:26010095

  4. Small Engine Component Technology (SECT)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Early, M.; Dawson, R.; Zeiner, P.; Turk, M.; Benn, K.

    1986-01-01

    A study of small gas turbine engines was conducted to identify high payoff technologies for year-2000 engines and to define companion technology plans. The study addressed engines in the 186 to 746 KW (250 to 1000 shp) or equivalent thrust range for rotorcraft, commuter (turboprop), cruise missile (turbojet), and APU applications. The results show that aggressive advancement of high payoff technologies can produce significant benefits, including reduced SFC, weight, and cost for year-2000 engines. Mission studies for these engines show potential fuel burn reductions of 22 to 71 percent. These engine benefits translate into reductions in rotorcraft and commuter aircraft direct operating costs (DOC) of 7 to 11 percent, and in APU-related DOCs of 37 to 47 percent. The study further shows that cruise missile range can be increased by as much as 200 percent (320 percent with slurry fuels) for a year-2000 missile-turbojet system compared to a current rocket-powered system. The high payoff technologies were identified and the benefits quantified. Based on this, technology plans were defined for each of the four engine applications as recommended guidelines for further NASA research and technology efforts to establish technological readiness for the year 2000.

  5. Taxonomy of Wild Tomatoes and their Relatives(Solanum sect. Lycopersicoides, sect. Juglandifolia, sect. Lycopersicon; Solanaceae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wild tomatoes are tremendous sources of useful traits in tomato breeding, to improve disease resistances, environmental tolerances, and improved agronomic traits such as increased soluble solids. This chapter includes historical and updated information on the phylogenetic relationships of wild tomat...

  6. Acta Mechanica Sinica (selected articles)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ling, G.; Yin, X.; Jiang, J.; Li, K.

    1982-08-01

    Selected articles on fluid mechanics and heat transfer are presented. Topics discussed are: (1) the secondary vortex and the karman vortex formation; (2) viscous compressible flow in turbomachinery; (3) partial differential equations satisfied by stream functions in three dimensional turbomachinery flow; and (4) iridium electrostatic probe and its application in a high temperature wind tunnel.

  7. Acta mechanica sinica (Selected articles)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lian, J.; Lu, W.

    1984-05-01

    The coherent structure of a turbulent boundary layer at zero pressure gradient and for the gradient of adverse pressure was investigated. The hydrogen bubble method was employed to examine the turbulent flow in a two dimensional diffusion sector in a water channel. In a separate work, tensor calculus was used to derive three dimensional weak conservation form equations, time dependent flow surface iterative equations, and characteristic theory of non-orthogonal spherical coordinates. These equations and theory are useful in solving the three dimensional turbomachine transonic flow field.

  8. Acta Mechanica Sinica (selected articles)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guocan, L.; Xieyuan, Y.

    1982-05-01

    Articles on the following topics are presented: the early stages of unsteady flow around a cylinder at high Reynolds number and under laminar conditions; methods for solving three dimensional flow in turbomachinery; numerical computation of viscous compressible flow in turbomachinery; a high speed interferograph system for investigating fast phenomena; and statistical simulation of the aerodynamic behavior of the transitional region of flow past combined bodies of revolution at arbitrary angles of attack.

  9. Small Engine Component Technology (SECT) study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, B.

    1986-01-01

    Small advanced (450 to 850 pounds thrust, 2002 to 3781 N) gas turbine engines were studied for a subsonic strategic cruise missile application, using projected year 2000 technology. An aircraft, mission characteristics, and baseline (state-of-the-art) engine were defined to evaluate technology benefits. Engine performance and configuration analyses were performed for two and three spool turbofan and propfan engine concepts. Mission and Life Cycle Cost (LCC) analyses were performed in which the candidate engines were compared to the baseline engines over a prescribed mission. The advanced technology engines reduced system LCC up to 41 percent relative to the baseline engine. Critical aerodynamic, materials, and mechanical systems turbine engine technologies were identified and program plans were defined for each identified critical technology.

  10. Small Engine Component Technology (SECT) study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larkin, T. R.

    1986-01-01

    The objective of this study is to identify high payoff technologies for year 2000 small gas turbine engines, and to provide a technology plan to guide research and technology efforts toward revolutionizing the small gas turbine technology base. The goal is to define the required technology to provide a 30 percent reduction in mission fuel burned, to reduce direct operating costs by at least 10 percent, and to provide increased reliability and durability of the gas turbine propulsion system. The baseline established to evaluate the year 2000 technology base was an 8-passenger commercial tilt-rotor aircraft powered by a current technology gas turbine engine. Three basic engine cycles were studied: the simple cycle engine, a waste heat recovery cycle, and a wave rotor engine cycle. For the simple cycle engine, two general arrangements were considered: the traditional concentric spool arrangement and a nonconcentric spool arrangement. Both a regenerative and a recuperative cycle were studied for the waste heat recovery cycle.

  11. Small Engine Component Technology (SECT) studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyer, P. K.; Harbour, L.

    1986-01-01

    A study was conducted to identify component technology requirements for small, expendable gas turbine engines that would result in substantial improvements in performance and cost by the year 2000. A subsonic, 2600 nautical mile (4815 km) strategic cruise missile mission was selected for study. A baseline (state-of-the-art) engine and missile configuration were defined to evaluate the advanced technology engines. Two advanced technology engines were configured and evaluated using advanced component efficiencies and ceramic composite materials; a 22:1 overall pressure ratio, 3.85 bypass ratio twin-spool turbofan; and an 8:1 overall pressure, 3.66 bypass ratio, single-spool recuperated turbofan with 0.85 recuperator effectiveness. Results of mission analysis indicated a reduction in fuel burn of 38 and 47 percent compared to the baseline engine when using the advanced turbofan and recuperated turbofan, respectively. While use of either advanced engine resulted in approximately a 25 percent reduction in missile size, the unit life cycle (LCC) cost reduction of 56 percent for the advanced turbofan relative to the baseline engine gave it a decisive advantage over the recuperated turbofan with 47 percent LCC reduction. An additional range improvement of 10 percent results when using a 56 percent loaded carbon slurry fuel with either engine. These results can be realized only if significant progress is attained in the fields of solid lubricated bearings, small aerodynamic component performance, composite ceramic materials and integration of slurry fuels. A technology plan outlining prospective programs in these fields is presented.

  12. Four Newly Recorded Amanita Species in Korea: Amanita sect. Amanita and sect. Vaginatae

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Chang Sun; Jo, Jong Won; Kwag, Young-Nam; Oh, Junsang; Shrestha, Bhushan

    2013-01-01

    We collected nearly 70 specimens of Amanita species during a diversity study of Korean mushrooms conducted in 2012. In this study, we primarily investigated 23 Amanita specimens belonging to sections Amanita and Vaginatae. Based on sequence data of the internal transcribed spacers and partial large subunit of ribosomal RNA and morphological characteristics, we identified the following 15 phylogenetic species: A. alboflavescens, A. ceciliae, A. farinosa, A. fulva, A. griseofolia, A. ibotengutake, A. melleiceps, A. orientifulva, A. pantherina, A. rubrovolvata, A. sinensis, A. subglobosa, A. vaginata, A. cf. vaginata f. alba, and an undescribed Amanita species. In this study, four of the identified Amanita species (A. griseofolia, A. ibotengutake, A. orientifulva, and A. sinensis) were reported for the first time in Korea. PMID:24198667

  13. Enzyme transient state kinetics in crystal and solution from the perspective of a time-resolved crystallographer

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, Marius; Saldin, Dilano K.

    2014-01-01

    With recent technological advances at synchrotrons [Graber et al., J. Synchrotron Radiat. 18, 658–670 (2011)], it is feasible to rapidly collect time-resolved crystallographic data at multiple temperature settings [Schmidt et al., Acta Crystallogr. D 69, 2534–2542 (2013)], from which barriers of activation can be extracted. With the advent of fourth generation X-ray sources, new opportunities emerge to investigate structure and dynamics of biological macromolecules in real time [M. Schmidt, Adv. Condens. Matter Phys. 2013, 1–10] in crystals and potentially from single molecules in random orientation in solution [Poon et al., Adv. Condens. Matter Phys. 2013, 750371]. Kinetic data from time-resolved experiments on short time-scales must be interpreted in terms of chemical kinetics [Steinfeld et al., Chemical Kinetics and Dynamics, 2nd ed. (Prentience Hall, 1985)] and tied to existing time-resolved experiments on longer time-scales [Schmidt et al., Acta Crystallogr. D 69, 2534–2542 (2013); Jung et al., Nat. Chem. 5, 212–220 (2013)]. With this article, we will review and outline steps that are required to routinely determine the energetics of reactions in biomolecules in crystal and solution with newest X-ray sources. In eight sections, we aim to describe concepts and experimental details that may help to inspire new approaches to collect and interpret these data. PMID:26798774

  14. Ecogeography of Ploidy Variation in Cultivated Potato (Solanum Sect. Petota)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The taxonomy of cultivated potatoes has been highly controversial, with estimates of species numbers ranging from 3-18. Ploidy level has been one of the most important taxonomic characters to recognize cultivated potato species, with diploid (2n = 2x = 24), triploid (2n = 3x = 36), tetraploid (2n = ...

  15. Small Engine Component Technology (SECT) study. Program report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Almodovar, E.; Exley, T.; Kaehler, H.; Schneider, W.

    1986-01-01

    The study was conducted to identify high payoff technologies for year 2000 small gas turbine applications and to provide a technology plan for guiding future research and technology efforts. A regenerative cycle turboprop engine was selected for a 19 passenger commuter aircraft application. A series of engines incorporating eight levels of advanced technologies were studied and their impact on aircraft performance was evaluated. The study indicated a potential reduction in fuel burn of 38.3 percent. At $1.00 per gallon fuel price, a potential DOC benefit of 12.5 percent would be achieved. At $2.00 per gallon, the potential DOC benefit would increase to 17.0 percent. Four advanced technologies are recommended and appropriate research and technology programs were established to reach the year 2000 goals.

  16. Ecogeography of ploidy variation in cultivated potato (Solanum sect. Petota)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The taxonomy of cultivated potatoes has been highly controversial, with estimates of species numbers ranging from 3 to 17. Ploidy level has been one of the most important taxonomic characters to recognize cultivated potato species, containing diploid (2 n = 2 x = 24), triploid (2 n = 3 x = 36), tetr...

  17. The Hippocratic thorn in bioethics' hide: cults, sects, and strangeness.

    PubMed

    Koch, Tom

    2014-02-01

    Bioethicists have typically disdained where they did not simply ignore the Hippocratic tradition in medicine. Its exclusivity--an oath of and for physicians--seemed contrary to the perspective that bioethicists have attempted to invoke. Robert M. Veatch recently articulated this rejection of the Hippocratic tradition, and of a professional ethic of medicine in general, in a volume based on his Gifford lectures. Here that argument is critiqued. The strengths of the Hippocratic tradition as a flexible and ethical social doctrine are offered in its stead. PMID:24363444

  18. Cortinarius sect. Brunnei (Basidiomycota, Agaricales) in North Europe.

    PubMed

    Niskanen, Tuula; Kytövuori, Ilkka; Liimatainen, Kare

    2009-02-01

    The section Brunnei was extensively studied based on material from North Europe. To stabilise the nomenclature we studied the relevant types of taxa included in this section. Phylogenetic relationships and species limits were investigated using rDNA ITS sequences and the results were compared with the morphological data. We recognised 11 species: Cortinarius brunneus, C. clarobrunneus comb. nov., C. coleoptera, C. ectypus, C. gentilis, C. glandicolor (neotypified), C. pseudorubricosus, and four species described as new C. caesiobrunneus, C. albogaudis, C. carabus, and C. cicindela. They are described here and their taxonomy, ecology, distribution, and relationships are discussed. In addition, a key to species of the section Brunnei is provided. A total of 77 new sequences of 11 species are published including nine type sequences. Also the taxonomic assignments of sequences in the public databases belonging to the section Brunnei are revised. PMID:19027854

  19. Deuterium labeling for neutron structure-function-dynamics analysis.

    PubMed

    Meilleur, Flora; Weiss, Kevin L; Myles, Dean A A

    2009-01-01

    Neutron scattering and diffraction provide detailed information on the structure and dynamics of biological materials across time and length scales that range from picoseconds to nanoseconds and from 1 to 10,000 A, respectively. The particular sensitivity of neutrons to the isotopes of hydrogen makes selective deuterium labeling of biological systems an essential tool for maximizing the return from neutron scattering experiments. In neutron protein crystallography, the use of fully deuterated protein crystals improves the signal-to-noise ratio of the data by an order of magnitude and enhances the visibi-lity of the molecular structure (Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 97:3872-3877, 2000; Acta Crystallogr D Biol Crystallogr 61:1413-1417, 2005; Acta Crystallogr D Biol Crystallogr 61:539-544, 2005). In solution and surface scattering experiments, the incorporation of deuterium-labeled subunits or components into complex assemblies or structures makes it possible to deconvolute the scattering of the labeled and unlabeled subunits and to determine their relative dispositions within the complex (J Mol Biol 93:255-265, 1975). With multiple labeling patterns, it is also possible to reconstruct the locations of multiple subunits in ternary and higher-order complexes (Science 238:1403-1406, 1987; J Mol Biol 271:588-601, 1997; J Biol Chem 275:14432-14439, 2000; Biochemistry 42:7790-7800, 2003). In inelastic neutron scattering experiments, which probe hydrogen dynamics in biological materials, the application of site, residue, or region-specific hydrogen-deuterium-labeling patterns can be used to distinguish and highlight the specific dynamics within a system (Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 95:4970-4975, 1998).Partial, selective, or fully deuterated proteins can be readily produced by endogenous expression of recombinant proteins in bacterial systems that are adapted to growth in D(2)O solution and using selectively deuterated carbon sources. Adaptation can be achieved either by gradual

  20. A designed repeat protein as an affinity capture reagent.

    PubMed

    Speltz, Elizabeth B; Brown, Rebecca S H; Hajare, Holly S; Schlieker, Christian; Regan, Lynne

    2015-10-01

    Repeat proteins are an attractive target for protein engineering and design. We have focused our attention on the design and engineering of one particular class: tetratricopeptide repeat (TPR) proteins. In previous work, we have shown that the structure and stability of TPR proteins can be manipulated in a rational fashion [Cortajarena (2011) Prot. Sci. 20: , 1042-1047; Main (2003) Structure 11: , 497-508]. Building on those studies, we have designed and characterized a number of different peptide-binding TPR modules and we have also assembled these modules into supramolecular arrays [Cortajarena (2009) ACS Chem. Biol. 5: , 545-552; Cortajarena (2008) ACS Chem. Biol. 3: , 161-166; Jackrel (2009) Prot. Sci. 18: , 762-774; Kajander (2007) Acta Crystallogr. D Biol. Crystallogr. 63: , 800-811]. Here we focus on the development of one such TPR-peptide interaction for a practical application, affinity purification. We illustrate the general utility of our designed protein interaction. Furthermore, this example highlights how basic research on protein-peptide interactions can lead to the development of novel reagents with important practical applications. PMID:26517897

  1. Constraint around Quarter-Power Allometric Scaling in Wild Tomatoes (Solanum sect. Lycopersicon; Solanaceae).

    PubMed

    Muir, Christopher D; Thomas-Huebner, Meret

    2015-09-01

    The West-Brown-Enquist (WBE) metabolic scaling theory posits that many organismal features scale predictably with body size because of selection to minimize transport costs in resource distribution networks. Many scaling exponents are quarter-powers, as predicted by WBE, but there are also biologically significant deviations that could reflect adaptation to different environments. A central but untested prediction of the WBE model is that wide deviation from optimal scaling is penalized, leading to a pattern of constraint on scaling exponents. Here, we demonstrate, using phylogenetic comparative methods, that variation in allometric scaling between mass and leaf area across 17 wild tomato taxa is constrained around a value indistinguishable from that predicted by WBE but significantly greater than 2/3 (geometric-similarity model). The allometric-scaling exponent was highly correlated with fecundity, water use, and drought response, suggesting that it is functionally significant and therefore could be under selective constraints. However, scaling was not strictly log-log linear but rather declined during ontogeny in all species, as has been observed in many plant species. We caution that although our results supported one prediction of the WBE model, it did not strongly test the model in other important respects. Nevertheless, phylogenetic comparative methods such as those used here are powerful but underutilized tools for metabolic ecology that complement existing methods to adjudicate between models. PMID:26655358

  2. Rapid touch-stimulated movement in the androgynophore of Passiflora flowers (subgen. Decaloba; Sect. Xerogona)

    PubMed Central

    Scorza, Livia CT; Dornelas, Marcelo Carnier

    2014-01-01

    Plant touch-sensitive organs have been described since Darwin’s observations and are related to a quick response to environment stimuli. Sensitive flower organs have been associated to an increase in the chances of cross pollination but there are few studies regarding this topic. Here we describe for the first time the kinetic of the androgynophore movement of 4 Passiflora species (P. sanguinolenta, P. citrina, P. capsularis, and P. rubra). For that, we collected flowers and recorded the movement after mechano-stimulating the androgynophore. From the recordings, we described the movement regarding its response and sensibility to mechanical stimulus and calculated the duration, speed, and the angle formed by the androgynophore before and after the movement. From our data we were able to propose a link to the pollination habit of these species. The movement of the androgynophore in these Passiflora is a noteworthy floral feature that might lead us to another astonishing example of a mechanism that evolved among angiosperms to assure sexual reproduction. PMID:24487079

  3. A new species of Centaurea sect. Pseudoseridia (Asteraceae) from north-eastern Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Yüzbaşıoğlu, İbrahim Sırrı; Bona, Mehmet; Genç, İlker

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Centaurea ziganensis Yüzb., M. Bona & İ. Genç, a new species is described and illustrated from Gümüşhane province, NE Turkey. The new species grows in rocky places on the south face of Zigana Mountains, and is closely related to Centaurea drabifolioides, from which it differs mainly in stem, achene and phyllary appendage characters. Micromorphological structures of achenes and karyological features of Centaurea ziganensis and Centaurea drabifolioides were examined in this study. PMID:26312039

  4. Revision of Aspergillus section Flavipedes: seven new species and proposal of section Jani sect. nov.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aspergillus section Flavipedes contains species that are distributed world-wide in soil and rhizosphere, indoor and cave environments, plant endophytes, food contaminants, and occasionally causing human infections. They are producers of many bioactive and extensively studied secondary metabolites an...

  5. Four new morel (Morchella) species in the Elata Subclade (sect. Distantes) from Turkey

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Published multilocus molecular phylogenetic analyses of true morels (Morchella) in Turkey identified five species that could not be assigned to previously described species. Here four of them are described as new species using detailed macro- and microscopic data, namely M. mediterraneensis (Mel-27)...

  6. Taxonomy and genetic differentiation among wild and cultivated germplasm of Solanum sect. Petota

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Due to their adaptation to a diverse set of habitats and stresses, wild species of cultivated crops offer new sources of genetic diversity for germplasm improvement. Using an Infinium array representing a genome-wide set of 8303 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), we evaluated phylogenetic relat...

  7. Proceedings of the second international symposium on molecular markers in horticulture Acta Horticulturae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The second International Symposium on Molecular Markers in Horticulture was held at the CH2M Hill Alumni Center at Oregon State University (OSU), Corvallis (Oregon, US), from July 29 to August 1st, 2009. This symposium was convened by a scientist at the National Clonal Germplasm Repository (NCGR) of...

  8. Insights into the high-pressure behavior of kaolinite from infrared spectroscopy and quantum-mechanical calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Welch, Mark D.; Montgomery, Wren; Balan, Etienne; Lerch, Philippe

    2012-02-01

    The high-pressure behavior of Keokuk kaolinite has been studied to 9.5 GPa by infrared spectroscopy using synchrotron radiation. The kaolinite-I → kaolinite-II and kaolinite-II → kaolinite-III transformations have clear spectroscopic expression, with discontinuities coinciding with the transformation pressures bracketed by X-ray diffraction (Welch and Crichton in Am Mineral 95:651-654, 2010). The experimental spectra have been interpreted from band assignments derived from density functional theory for the structures of kaolinite-II and kaolinite-III, using as starting models the ab initio structures reported by Mercier and Le Page (Acta Crystallogr A B64:131-143, 2008, Mater Sci Technol 25:437-442, 2009) and unit-cell parameters from Welch and Crichton (Am Mineral 95:651-654, 2010). The relaxed theoretical structures are very similar to those reported by Mercier and Le Page (Acta Crystallogr A B64:131-143, 2008, Mater Sci Technol 25:437-442, 2009) in their theoretical investigation of kaolinite polytypes at high pressure. The vibrational spectra calculated from the quantum-mechanical analysis allow band assignments of the IR spectra to be made and provide insights into the behavior of different OH environments in the two high-pressure polytypes. The single perpendicular-interlayer OH group of kaolinite-III has a distinctive spectroscopic signature that is diagnostic of this polytype (ν = 3,595 cm-1 at 9.5 GPa) and is sensitive to the compression/expansion of the interlayer space. This OH group also has a distinctive signature in the calculated spectra. The spectra collected on decompression are those of kaolinite-III and persist largely unchanged to 4.6 GPa, except for a continuous blue shift of the 3,595 cm-1 band to 3,613 cm-1. Finally, kaolinite-I is recovered at 0.6 GPa, confirming the kaolinite-III → kaolinite-I transformation previously observed by X-ray diffraction, and the irreversibility of the kaolinite-II → kaolinite-III transformation. The

  9. Dynamical analysis of a RHEED pattern from the Si(111)-7 × 7 surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Y.; Lordi, S.; Eades, J. A.

    1994-07-01

    The multislice formalism of Cowley and Moodie [Acta Crystallogr. 10 (1957) 609] with a recently developed edge-patching method has been applied to the analysis of an experimental RHEED (reflection high energy electron diffraction) pattern from the Si(111)-7 × 7 surface. Several data sets of atomic coordinates for the Si(111)-7 × 7 reconstruction, optimized by different approaches, have been evaluated based upon comparison of visually estimated intensity ordering between the observed and calculated patterns. The results show that compared to other data sets, the coordinates optimized by ab initio-parallel computation appear closer to the true structure, so far as the RHEED in the current scheme can judge. The analysis also shows that the intensities of a RHEED pattern taken from the surface are highly surface sensitive. The surface sensitivity extends to the whole selvage region of interest with a depth of ˜10 Å. The correlation between mean inner potential V0 and the angle of incidence θ has also been investigated. This indicates that if the angle of incidence is measured with errors less than ± 0.05° for this specific case, V0 can be determined with the accuracy of ˜± 10%, and vice versa.

  10. EPICS controlled sample mounting robots at the GM/CA CAT.

    SciTech Connect

    Makarov, O. A.; Benn, R.; Corcoran, S.; Devarapalli, S.; Fischetti, R.; Hilgart, M.; Smith, W. W.; Stepanov, S.; Xu, S.; Biosciences Division

    2007-11-11

    GM/CA CAT at Sector 23 of the advanced photon source (APS) is an NIH funded facility for crystallographic structure determination of biological macromolecules by X-ray diffraction [R.F. Fischetti, et al., GM/CA canted undulator beamlines for protein crystallography, Acta Crystallogr. A 61 (2005) C139]. The facility consists of three beamlines; two based on canted undulators and one on a bending magnet. The scientific and technical goals of the CAT emphasize streamlined, efficient throughput for a variety of sample types, sizes and qualities, representing the cutting edge of structural biology research. For this purpose all three beamlines are equipped with the ALS-style robots [C.W.Cork, et al. Status of the BCSB automated sample mounting and alignment system for macromolecular crystallography at the Advanced Light Source, SRI-2003, San-Francisco, CA, USA, August 25-29, 2003] for an automated mounting of cryo-protected macromolecular crystals. This report summarizes software and technical solutions implemented with the first of the three operational robots at beamline 23-ID-B. The automounter's Dewar can hold up to 72 or 96 samples residing in six Rigaku ACTOR magazines or ALS-style pucks, respectively. Mounting of a crystal takes approximately 2 s, during which time the temperature of the crystal is maintained near that of liquid nitrogen.

  11. Crystal structure and hydrogenation properties of pseudo-binary Mg 6Pd 0.5Ni 0.5 complex metallic alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuevas, F.; Fernández, J. F.; Ares, J. R.; Leardini, F.; Latroche, M.

    2009-10-01

    The crystal structure of the Ni-substituted Mg 6.10(2)Pd 0.52(2)Ni 0.41(2) complex metallic alloy has been determined by X-ray and neutron powder diffraction. The reaction of this compound at 573 K towards deuterium absorption for pressures up to 23 bar has also been studied. The crystal structure of Mg 6.10(2)Pd 0.52(2)Ni 0.41(2) compound was determined in the light of Samson's [Acta Crystallogr. B 28 (1972) 936) and Makongo's (Philos. Mag. 86 (2006) 427] models for the binary Mg 6Pd compound. It crystallizes in F4¯3m space group with lattice parameter 20.13331(7) Å. The refined unit-cell composition is Mg 342(1)Pd 29(1)Ni 23(1) with Z=56. Nickel by palladium substitution is not fully random. Nickel atoms preferentially locate on Pd sites with low coordination number due to steric effects. Deuterium uptake is 9.6 D/f.u. under the given conditions of pressure and temperature. Upon absorption, the intermetallic compound disproportionates into MgD 2, Mg 5Pd 2 and Mg 2NiD 4 phases. The Mg 2NiD 4 phase is observed to crystallize in the orthorhombic LT2 modification for which an averaged crystal structure in the Pcc2 space group is proposed.

  12. Evolution of the magnetic properties along the RCuBi2 (R = Ce, Pr, Nd, Gd, Sm) series of intermetallic compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jesus, C. B. R.; Piva, M. M.; Rosa, P. F. S.; Adriano, C.; Pagliuso, P. G.

    2014-05-01

    In this paper, the evolution of the magnetic properties along the series of intermetallic compounds RCuBi2 (R = Ce, Pr, Nd, Gd, Sm) is discussed. These compounds crystallize in a tetragonal ZrCuSi2 (P4/nmm) structure, and our single crystals of RCuBi2 grown from Bi-flux show no evidence for Cu-deficiency [Ye et al., Acta Crystallogr. C 52, 1325 (1996)] as previously reported for R = Ce. For R = Ce, Pr, Gd, and Sm, we found an antiferromagnetic ordering at TN ˜ 16 K, 4.2 K, 13.6 K, and 4.9 K, respectively. For R = Nd, we saw no evidence for a magnetic phase transition down to T = 2 K. These values of TN clearly show a dramatic breakdown of the De Gennes factor in this series. We discuss our data taken into account the tetragonal crystalline electrical field and the anisotropic Ruderman-Kittel-Kasuya-Yoshida magnetic interaction between the R-ions in this family of compounds.

  13. Lattice dynamics of crystals having R2MX6 structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torres, D. I.; Freire, J. D.; Katiyar, R. S.

    1997-10-01

    The theory of lattice dynamics in the harmonic approximation using a rigid-ion model due to Born and Huang [Dynamical Theory of Crystal Lattices (Oxford University Press, New York, 1954)], is applied to ionic crystals of the R2MX6 type with antifluorite structure namely, K2SnCl6, K2PtBr6, Cs2SnBr6, and Rb2SnBr6 in the cubic phase. The model expresses the potential energy as the sum of long-range Coulomb interactions and repulsive short-range interactions between ions in the primitive cell. A function of axially symmetric type is used to approximate the short-range part, and the number of force constant parameters were reduced utilizing stability conditions in the manner described by Katiyar [J. Phys. C 3, 1087 (1970)]. The remaining constants were determined by a nonlinear least-squares analysis of some experimental frequencies at the critical point Γ. The long-range contributions were calculated using the Ewald transformation as described by Cowley [Acta Crystallogr. 15, 687 (1962)]. Phonon frequencies and the normal modes of vibrations at the zone center were obtained; of particular interest is the resulting lowest librational frequency for each crystal. We obtained excellent agreement between the calculated and the observed frequencies. The resulting effective charge parameters indicated that these crystals are partially ionic. In general, the results offered a better vision of the structural phase transition mechanism involving the rotational mode T1g.

  14. Sizing the Ubbelhode Effect: the Rotational Spectrum of Tert-Butylalcohol Dimer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Shouyuan; Majerz, Irena; Caminati, Walther

    2009-06-01

    We measured the molecular beam Fourier transform microwave spectra of four isotopic species of of the dimer of tert-butanol, that is C_{4}H_{9}-OH\\cdotsO(H)-C_{4}H_{9}, C_{4}H_{9}-OH\\cdotsO(D)-C_{4}H_{9}, C_{4}H_{9}-OD\\cdotsO(H)-C_{4}H_{9}, and C_{4}H_{9}-OD\\cdotsO(D)-C_{4}H_{9}. We observed that the H - D isotopic substitution of the hydroxylic hydrogen participating in the O-H\\cdotsO Hydrogen bond in the tert-butanol dimer produces an increase of the B and C rotational constants, according to the shrinkage of the O\\cdotsO distance, underlying and sizing the associated Ubbelhode effect. The conformation and structure of the complex, and an estimation of the Ubbelhode effect have been obtained by combining the experimental data with the results of MP2/6-311++G** ab initio calculations. A. R. Ubbelhode, K. J. Gallagher, Acta Crystallogr. , 1955, 8, 71

  15. Development of Molecular Markers for Determining Continental Origin of Wood from White Oaks (Quercus L. sect. Quercus).

    PubMed

    Schroeder, Hilke; Cronn, Richard; Yanbaev, Yulai; Jennings, Tara; Mader, Malte; Degen, Bernd; Kersten, Birgit

    2016-01-01

    To detect and avoid illegal logging of valuable tree species, identification methods for the origin of timber are necessary. We used next-generation sequencing to identify chloroplast genome regions that differentiate the origin of white oaks from the three continents; Asia, Europe, and North America. By using the chloroplast genome of Asian Q. mongolica as a reference, we identified 861 variant sites (672 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs); 189 insertion/deletion (indel) polymorphism) from representative species of three continents (Q. mongolica from Asia; Q. petraea and Q. robur from Europe; Q. alba from North America), and we identified additional chloroplast polymorphisms in pools of 20 individuals each from Q. mongolica (789 variant sites) and Q. robur (346 variant sites). Genome sequences were screened for indels to develop markers that identify continental origin of oak species, and that can be easily evaluated using a variety of detection methods. We identified five indels and one SNP that reliably identify continent-of-origin, based on evaluations of up to 1078 individuals representing 13 white oak species and three continents. Due to the size of length polymorphisms revealed, this marker set can be visualized using capillary electrophoresis or high resolution gel (acrylamide or agarose) electrophoresis. With these markers, we provide the wood trading market with an instrument to comply with the U.S. and European laws that require timber companies to avoid the trade of illegally harvested timber. PMID:27352242

  16. Development of Molecular Markers for Determining Continental Origin of Wood from White Oaks (Quercus L. sect. Quercus)

    PubMed Central

    Schroeder, Hilke; Cronn, Richard; Yanbaev, Yulai; Jennings, Tara; Mader, Malte; Degen, Bernd; Kersten, Birgit

    2016-01-01

    To detect and avoid illegal logging of valuable tree species, identification methods for the origin of timber are necessary. We used next-generation sequencing to identify chloroplast genome regions that differentiate the origin of white oaks from the three continents; Asia, Europe, and North America. By using the chloroplast genome of Asian Q. mongolica as a reference, we identified 861 variant sites (672 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs); 189 insertion/deletion (indel) polymorphism) from representative species of three continents (Q. mongolica from Asia; Q. petraea and Q. robur from Europe; Q. alba from North America), and we identified additional chloroplast polymorphisms in pools of 20 individuals each from Q. mongolica (789 variant sites) and Q. robur (346 variant sites). Genome sequences were screened for indels to develop markers that identify continental origin of oak species, and that can be easily evaluated using a variety of detection methods. We identified five indels and one SNP that reliably identify continent-of-origin, based on evaluations of up to 1078 individuals representing 13 white oak species and three continents. Due to the size of length polymorphisms revealed, this marker set can be visualized using capillary electrophoresis or high resolution gel (acrylamide or agarose) electrophoresis. With these markers, we provide the wood trading market with an instrument to comply with the U.S. and European laws that require timber companies to avoid the trade of illegally harvested timber. PMID:27352242

  17. Cupreoboletus (Boletaceae, Boletineae), a new monotypic genus segregated from Boletus sect. Luridi to reassign the Mediterranean species B. poikilochromus.

    PubMed

    Gelardi, Matteo; Simonini, Giampaolo; Ercole, Enrico; Davoli, Paolo; Vizzini, Alfredo

    2015-01-01

    Cupreoboletus is erected as a new monospecific genus of Boletaceae to accommodate the thermophilic southern European species Boletus poikilochromus, characterized by discoloration toward copper-red tints overall, hymenophore forming tiny crystals on drying, a pervasive and long lasting sweet odor and presence of pseudocystidia. Macro- and microscopic descriptions of the species based on re-examination of the type material and recent Italian collections including additional topotypical samples are provided and accompanied by photos and line drawings of the main anatomical structures. In addition, an epitype specimen is selected. Phylogenetic relationships were inferred from multigene molecular analysis based on partial sequences of the nuc rDNA 28S D1/D2 (28S) and internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions and genes for ribosomal RNA polymerase II subunits 1 (rpb1) and 2 (rpb2) and translation-elongation factor 1-α (tef1α). Ecological context, geographical range and delimitation from closely allied taxa also were elucidated. B. martaluciae is treated as a synonym of C. poikilochromus according to the morphological and molecular comparative study. PMID:26297785

  18. The promiscuous and the chaste: frequent allopolyploid speciation and its genomic consequences in American daisies (Melampodium sect. Melampodium; Asteraceae).

    PubMed

    Weiss-Schneeweiss, Hanna; Blöch, Cordula; Turner, Barbara; Villaseñor, José L; Stuessy, Tod F; Schneeweiss, Gerald M

    2012-01-01

    Polyploidy, an important factor in eukaryotic evolution, is especially abundant in angiosperms, where it often acts in concert with hybridization to produce allopolyploids. The application of molecular phylogenetic techniques has identified the origins of numerous allopolyploids, but little is known on genomic and chromosomal consequences of allopolyploidization, despite their important role in conferring divergence of allopolyploids from their parental species. Here, using several plastid and nuclear sequence markers, we clarify the origin of tetra- and hexaploids in a group of American daisies, allowing characterization of genome dynamics in polyploids compared to their diploid ancestors. All polyploid species are allopolyploids. Among the four diploid gene pools, the propensity for allopolyploidization is unevenly distributed phylogenetically with a few species apparently more prone to participate, but the underlying causes remain unclear. Polyploid genomes are characterized by differential loss of ribosomal DNA loci (5S and 35S rDNA), known hotspots of chromosomal evolution, but show genome size additivity, suggesting limited changes beyond those affecting rDNA loci or the presence of processes counterbalancing genome reduction. Patterns of rDNA sequence conversion and provenance of the lost loci are highly idiosyncratic and differ even between allopolyploids of identical parentage, indicating that allopolyploids deriving from the same lower-ploid parental species can follow different evolutionary trajectories. PMID:22220876

  19. Nitrate Reductase Phylogeny of Potato (Solanum sect. Petota) Genomes with Emphasis on the Origins of the Polyploid Species

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Solanum section Petota is taxonomically difficult, partly because of interspecific hybridization at both the diploid and polyploid levels. There is much disagreement regarding species boundaries and affiliation of species to series. Elucidating the phylogenetic relationships within the polyploids is...

  20. Sharp at any Age: Moho boundary thickness estimates along a trans-sect through 2 Ga of tectonic history.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Servali, A.; Levin, V. L.; VanTongeren, J. A.

    2015-12-01

    In this study we evaluate crustal thickness and Moho sharpness beneath seismic stations in three different tectonic units of the North American continent: the Archean Superior Province, the Proterozoic Grenville Province, and the Paleozoic Appalachian Orogen. Our analysis involves two steps. First, for each site, we produce P-to-S receiver functions (RFs) organized by backazimuth and epicentral distance, and use them to identify the phase most likely representing a conversion from the Moho. Second, we construct averaged RFs for groups of telesismic events located in a similar geographic region, which we employ to examine shapes of Moho P-to-S converted phases in time series with maximum frequencies increasing from 0.25Hz to 2-3 Hz. At some sites we observe a progressive narrowing of a simple Moho converted phase with an increase in frequency, typical of a vertically instantaneous boundary, while at others the converted phase becomes progressively more complex, typical of a diffuse Moho. Thus, we adopt this difference in converted wave shape dependence on increasing frequency as a measure of Moho thickness. Our estimates of Moho thickness range from less than 300 m to over 2 km, with some locations showing evidence for multiple converting boundaries in the 35-50 km depth range. In this study we define "sharp" Moho at those sites where its vertical thickness is less than 1 km. Our results show that sharp Moho is universal in the Archean terranes regardless of surface lithology, likely due to higher Moho temperatures facilitating wide-spread delamination of dense lower crustal rocks. While a sharp Moho is not unique to the Superior Province, all Grenville and Appalachians sites where we find sharp Moho are in regions of granitic plutonism, suggesting a possible general association with reworking and density sorting of the crustal material (e.g. volcanic arc).

  1. Comment on "Apatite: A new redox proxy for silicic magmas?" [Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 132 (2014) 101-119

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marks, Michael A. W.; Scharrer, Manuel; Ladenburger, Sara; Markl, Gregor

    2016-06-01

    Recently Miles et al. (2014) proposed that a negative correlation between oxygen fugacity (expressed as logfO2 and the Mn content of apatite from a range of intermediate to silicic igneous rocks could be used as an oxybarometer (Eq. (1)).

  2. Towards Understanding Leadership in Early Childhood Context: Cross-Cultural Perspectives. Acta Universitatis Ouluensis, E Scientique Rerum Socialium 35.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hujala, Eeva, Ed.; Puroila, Anna-Maija, Ed.

    Recognizing the importance of leadership in determining the quality of early care and education programs, the International Leadership Project (ILP) was initiated in 1996 to develop an understanding of cross-cultural perspectives on leadership, to develop a conceptual framework of leadership, and to develop cross-cultural methodologies for…

  3. Crystal structure and hydrogenation properties of pseudo-binary Mg{sub 6}Pd{sub 0.5}Ni{sub 0.5} complex metallic alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Cuevas, F.; Latroche, M.

    2009-10-15

    The crystal structure of the Ni-substituted Mg{sub 6.10(2)}Pd{sub 0.52(2)}Ni{sub 0.41(2)} complex metallic alloy has been determined by X-ray and neutron powder diffraction. The reaction of this compound at 573 K towards deuterium absorption for pressures up to 23 bar has also been studied. The crystal structure of Mg{sub 6.10(2)}Pd{sub 0.52(2)}Ni{sub 0.41(2)} compound was determined in the light of Samson's [Acta Crystallogr. B 28 (1972) 936) and Makongo's (Philos. Mag. 86 (2006) 427] models for the binary Mg{sub 6}Pd compound. It crystallizes in F4-bar3m space group with lattice parameter 20.13331(7) A. The refined unit-cell composition is Mg{sub 342(1)}Pd{sub 29(1)}Ni{sub 23(1)} with Z=56. Nickel by palladium substitution is not fully random. Nickel atoms preferentially locate on Pd sites with low coordination number due to steric effects. Deuterium uptake is 9.6 D/f.u. under the given conditions of pressure and temperature. Upon absorption, the intermetallic compound disproportionates into MgD{sub 2}, Mg{sub 5}Pd{sub 2} and Mg{sub 2}NiD{sub 4} phases. The Mg{sub 2}NiD{sub 4} phase is observed to crystallize in the orthorhombic LT2 modification for which an averaged crystal structure in the Pcc2 space group is proposed. - Graphical abstract: Coordination polyhedron around site Mg14 in pseudobinary Mg{sub 6}(Pd,Ni) compounds.

  4. Tropomyosin lysine reactivities and relationship to coiled-coil structure.

    PubMed

    Hitchcock-DeGregori, S E; Lewis, S F; Chou, T M

    1985-06-18

    We have carried out a detailed analysis of tropomyosin structure using lysines as specific probes for the protein surface in regions of the molecule that have not been investigated by other methods. We have measured the relative reactivities of lysines in rabbit skeletal muscle alpha, alpha-tropomyosin with acetic anhydride using a competitive labeling procedure. We have identified 37 of 39 lysines and find that they range 20-fold in reactivity. The observed reactivities are related to the coiled-coil model of the tropomyosin molecule [Crick, F.H.C. (1953) Acta Crystallogr. 6, 689-697; McLachlan, A.D., Stewart, M., & Smillie, L.B. (1975) J. Mol. Biol. 98, 281-291] and other available chemical and physical information about the structure. In most cases, the observed lysine reactivities can be explained by allowable interactions with neighboring amino acid side chains on the same or facing alpha-helix. However, we found no correlation between reactivity and helical position of a given lysine. For example, lysines in the outer helical positions included lysines of low as well as high reactivity, indicating that they vary widely in their accessibility to solvent and that the coiled coil is heterogeneous along its length. Furthermore, the middle of the molecule (residues 126-182) that is susceptible to proteolysis and known to be the least stable region of the protein also contains some of the least and most reactive lysines. We have discussed the implications of our results on our understanding the structures of tropomyosin and other coiled-coil proteins as well as globular proteins containing helical regions. PMID:3927977

  5. Unanticipated inhibition of the metallo-beta-lactamase from Bacteroides fragilis by 4-morpholineethanesulfonic acid (MES): a crystallographic study at 1.85-A resolution.

    PubMed

    Fitzgerald, P M; Wu, J K; Toney, J H

    1998-05-12

    As part of a structure-aided effort to design clinically useful inhibitors of metallo-beta-lactamases, the X-ray crystal structure of a complex between the metallo-beta-lactamase from Bacteroides fragilis and 4-morpholinoethanesulfonic acid (MES) has been determined and a model for the structure has been refined to a crystallographic R-factor of 0.151 for data between 10.0- and 1.85-A resolution. Although the binding of MES was an adventitious result of the use of MES as a buffer in the crystallization mixture, MES was subsequently shown to be a competitive inhibitor of the enzyme, with a Ki of 23 +/- 5 mM. MES binds in the same fashion to both of the molecules in the crystallographic asymmetric unit; both direct and solvent-mediated hydrogen bonds to the protein and to the binuclear zinc cluster are observed, involving the oxygens of the sulfonic acid group and the nitrogen of the morpholino ring. In addition, there are hydrophobic interactions between the morpholino ring and residues in the flexible beta-strand of the enzyme between residues 26 and 36. Comparison of this structure with the previously reported unliganded structures of the same enzyme [Concha, N. O., Rasmussen, B. A., Bush, K., and Herzberg, O. (1996) Structure 4, 823-836; Carfi, A., Duée, E., Paul-Soto, R., Galleni, M., Frère, J. -M., and Dideberg, O. (1998) Acta Crystallogr. D54, 47-57] reveals that although the overall conservation of structure in the three different crystal lattices is very high, binding of MES is correlated with a significant change in the conformation of this beta-strand. The flexibility of this beta-strand will be an important consideration in the design of inhibitors of the metallo-beta-lactamases. PMID:9578564

  6. Synopsis of Trichosanthes (Cucurbitaceae) based on recent molecular phylogenetic data

    PubMed Central

    de Boer, Hugo J.; Thulin, Mats

    2012-01-01

    Abstract The snake gourd genus, Trichosanthes, is the largest genus in the Cucurbitaceae family, with over 90 species. Recent molecular phylogenetic data have indicated that the genus Gymnopetalum is to be merged with Trichosanthes to maintain monophyly. A revised infrageneric classification of Trichosanthes including Gymnopetalum is proposed with two subgenera, (I) subg. Scotanthus comb. nov. and (II) subg. Trichosanthes, eleven sections, (i) sect. Asterospermae, (ii) sect. Cucumeroides, (iii) sect. Edulis, (iv) sect. Foliobracteola, (v) sect. Gymnopetalum, (vi) sect. Involucraria, (vii) sect. Pseudovariifera sect. nov., (viii) sect. Villosae stat. nov., (ix) sect. Trichosanthes, (x) sect. Tripodanthera, and (xi) sect. Truncata. A synopsis of Trichosanthes with the 91 species recognized here is presented, including four new combinations, Trichosanthes orientalis, Trichosanthes tubiflora, Trichosanthes scabra var. pectinata, Trichosanthes scabra var. penicaudii, and a clarified nomenclature of Trichosanthes costata and Trichosanthes scabra. PMID:22645411

  7. Species Boundaries and Interrelationships of Solanum Sect. Petota (Wild and Cultivated Potatoes) are Drastically Altered as a Result of PBI-Funded Research

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In 1990, the latest comprehensive taxonomic monograph of Solanum section Petota Dumort, recognized 232 species partitioned into 21 series. PBI-sponsored research has drastically altered knowledge of their species boundaries and interrelationships. The series contains diploids (2n = 2x = 24), tetrapl...

  8. Species Boundaries and Interrelationships of Solanum Sect. Petota (Wild and Cultivated Potatoes) are Drastically Altered as a Result of PBI-Funded Research

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In 1990, the latest comprehensive taxonomic monograph of Solanum section Petota Dumort recognized 232 species partitioned into 21 series. PBI-sponsored research has drastically altered knowledge of their species boundaries and interrelationships. The series contains diploids (2n = 2x = 24), tetraplo...

  9. Genomic in situ hybridization reveals both auto- and allopolyploid origins of different North and Central American hexaploid potato (Solanum sect. Petota) species

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wild potato (Solanum section Petota) species contain diploids (2n = 2x = 24), tetraploids (2n = 4x = 48), hexaploids (2n = 6x = 72), and rare triploids and pentaploids. Determination of the type of polyploidy and the development of the genome concept for section Petota classically was based on the a...

  10. A Morphometric Study of Species Boundaries of the Wild Potato Solanum Series Piurana (Solanaceae) and putatively related species from seven other series in Solanum Sect. Petota

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There are about 190 wild potato (Solanum section Petota) species distributed from the southwestern United States to central Argentina and adjacent Chile and Uruguay. Their overall morphological similarity has led to widely conflicting taxonomic treatments. Solanum series Piurana is one of 21 series ...

  11. Reply to "Comment on papers by K. Shanahan that propose to explain anomalous heat generated by cold fusion", E. Storms, Thermochim. Acta (2005)

    SciTech Connect

    Shanahan, Kirk

    2005-09-21

    Dr. E. Storms has published a Letter [1] in which he argues that in a sequence of recent papers [2-5], the apparent excess heat signal claimed by Dr. Shanahan to arise from a calibration constant shift is actually true excess heat. In particular he proposes that the mechanisms proposed that foster the proposed calibration constant shifts [3,5] cannot occur as postulated for several reasons. As well, he proposes Shanahan has ignored the extant data proving this. Because this Letter may lend unwarranted support to acceptance of cold fusion claims, these erroneous arguments used by Storms need to be answered.

  12. Corrigendum to "Occurrence and abundance of 6-methyl branched glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers in soils: Implications for palaeoclimate reconstruction" [Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 141 (2014) 97-112

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Jonge, Cindy; Hopmans, Ellen C.; Zell, Claudia I.; Kim, Jung-Hyun; Schouten, Stefan; Sinninghe Damsté, Jaap S.

    2016-06-01

    The authors regret that the r2 values (squared pearson correlation coefficient values) reported in Figs. 7 and 8 and in the text, are instead the non-squared r values. This has no direct influence on our interpretation. We have included the corrected Figs. 7 and 8. The text describing these results should read as follows:

  13. Reply to comment by Marks et al. (2016) on "Apatite: A new redox proxy for silicic magmas?" [Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 132 (2014) 101-119

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miles, Andrew; Graham, Colin; Hawkesworth, Chris; Gillespie, Martin; Hinton, Richard; Bromiley, Geoffrey

    2016-06-01

    Marks et al. (2016) investigate the applicability of the Mn-in-apatite oxybarometer proposed by Miles et al. (2014) across a range of magma compositions using published data on well-characterised samples. The authors show that for magma compositions outside of the calc-alkaline and intermediate to silicic range used in the preliminary calibration, fO2 values calculated from Mn-in-apatite vary significantly from independently constrained estimates. These data are used to reiterate our warnings that other controls that are additional to oxygen fugacity are likely to affect Mn partitioning into apatite in some rock types, and particularly so in magmas that lie outside of the range of compositions and conditions used in the calibration. Marks et al. (2016) highlight that temperature may have an especially important effect on Mn partitioning in apatite in some rock types.

  14. Simposio sobre Educacion de Ninas: Evidencias, Temas, Acciones. Actas de sesiones. (Symposium on Girls Education: Evidence, Issues, Actions. Proceedings). (Washington, DC, May 17-18, 2000).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agency for International Development (IDCA), Washington, DC.

    This symposium highlighted core issues of controversy in girls' education and developed implications for policy and practice. Its evidence-based discussion forum encouraged dialogue, debate, and increased interaction and developed partnerships among academic institutions, nongovernmental organizations, multilateral development agencies, and other…

  15. Characterization of a corrinoid protein involved in the C1 metabolism of strict anaerobic bacterium Moorella thermoacetica.

    PubMed

    Das, Amaresh; Fu, Zheng-Qing; Tempel, Wolfram; Liu, Zhi-Jie; Chang, Jessie; Chen, Lirong; Lee, Doowon; Zhou, Weihong; Xu, Hao; Shaw, Neil; Rose, John P; Ljungdahl, Lars G; Wang, Bi-Cheng

    2007-04-01

    The strict anaerobic, thermophilic bacterium Moorella thermoacetica metabolizes C1 compounds for example CO(2)/H(2), CO, formate, and methanol into acetate via the Wood/Ljungdahl pathway. Some of the key steps in this pathway include the metabolism of the C1 compounds into the methyl group of methylenetetrahydrofolate (MTHF) and the transfer of the methyl group from MTHF to the methyl group of acetyl-CoA catalyzed by methyltransferase, corrinoid protein and CO dehydrogenase/acetyl CoA synthase. Recently, we reported the crystallization of a 25 kDa methanol-induced corrinoid protein from M. thermoacetica (Zhou et al., Acta Crystallogr F 2005; 61:537-540). In this study we analyzed the crystal structure of the 25 kDa protein and provide genetic and biochemical evidences supporting its role in the methanol metabolism of M. thermoacetia. The 25 kDa protein was encoded by orf1948 of contig 303 in the M. thermoacetica genome. It resembles similarity to MtaC the corrinoid protein of the methanol:CoM methyltransferase system of methane producing archaea. The latter enzyme system also contains two additional enzymes MtaA and MtaB. Homologs of MtaA and MtaB were found to be encoded by orf2632 of contig 303 and orf1949 of contig 309, respectively, in the M. thermoacetica genome. The orf1948 and orf1949 were co-transcribed from a single polycistronic operon. Metal analysis and spectroscopic data confirmed the presence of cobalt and the corrinoid in the purified 25 kDa protein. High resolution X-ray crystal structure of the purified 25 kDa protein revealed corrinoid as methylcobalamin with the imidazole of histidine as the alpha-axial ligand replacing benziimidazole, suggesting base-off configuration for the corrinoid. Methanol significantly activated the expression of the 25 kDa protein. Cyanide and nitrate inhibited methanol metabolism and suppressed the level of the 25 kDa protein. The results suggest a role of the 25 kDa protein in the methanol metabolism of M

  16. Single-crystal diffraction at megabar conditions by synchrotron radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merlini, Marco; Hanfland, Michael

    2013-08-01

    Crystal structure determination at extreme pressures is currently possible at synchrotron beamlines optimized for such a purpose. We report the description of the experimental setup available at European Synchrotron Radiation Facility ID09 beamline (Grenoble, France) and, with two examples, we illustrate the state-of-the-art experiments currently performed at third-generation synchrotrons. The first example concerns the determination of the equation of state and the structural behavior of low-spin Fe-bearing siderite in the megabar pressure range. Siderite, in fact, undergoes a first-order isosymmetric transition at 45 GPa, and, above this pressure, it features Fe2+ in electronic low-spin configuration. The local configuration of Fe coordination polyhedra, determined by structural refinements, significantly deviates from a regular octahedron. Nevertheless, no further structural transition is detected up to the maximum pressure reached in our experiments, 135 GPa. The analysis of the Fe-O bond length extrapolated to ambient pressure, which indicates that the difference in ionic radii between the high- and the low-spin state of Fe2+ is 0.172 Å, in excellent agreement with the tabulated data by Shannon and Prewitt [Effective ionic radii in oxides and fluorides. Acta Crystallogr. 1969;B25:925-946]. The second example concerns the determination and refinement of the oP8 structure adopted by sodium in the pressure interval 118-125 GPa, using an experimental dataset collected at 118 GPa. The orthorhombic [a=4.7687(15) Å, b=3.0150(6) Å, c=5.2423(7) Å, V=75.4(3) Å3] oP8 structure is topologically related to the MnP structure, with two non-equivalent atoms in the unit cell. Despite the weak scattering factor of Na atoms, the quality of the data also allows meaningful displacement parameters refinements (R1=4.6%, 14 parameters, 190 diffractions, and 105 unique) demonstrating that the current accuracy of diffraction data at extreme pressures can be comparable with ambient

  17. Mapping of the potato leafroll virus resistance gene, Rlretb, from Solanum etuberosum identifies interchromosomal translocations among its E-genome chromosomes 4 and 9 relative to the A-genome of Solanum L. sect. Petota

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Gene Rlretb, derived from the potato species Solanum etuberosum, confers resistance to potato leafroll virus (PLRV). Mapping of this gene would aid in developing marker-assisted selection protocols to facilitate its introgression into cultivated potato. One RFLP marker and 45 cleaved amplified pol...

  18. Comments on "Synthesis aspects, structural, spectroscopic, antimicrobial and room temperature ferromagnetism of zinc iodide complex with Schiff based ligand" by K. Shakila and S. Kalainathan, Spectrochim. Acta 135 A (2015) 1059-1065.

    PubMed

    Srinivasan, Bikshandarkoil R; Nadkarni, V S

    2016-06-15

    Shakila and Kalainathan report on the synthetic and structural aspects of a zinc iodide complex with Schiff based ligand, which exhibits room temperature ferromagnetism. In this comment, many points of criticism, concerning the characterization of this so called zinc iodide complex of Schiff based ligand are highlighted to prove that the title paper is completely erroneous. PMID:27037763

  19. Comments on "Synthesis aspects, structural, spectroscopic, antimicrobial and room temperature ferromagnetism of zinc iodide complex with Schiff based ligand" by K. Shakila and S. Kalainathan, Spectrochim. Acta 135 A (2015) 1059-1065

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srinivasan, Bikshandarkoil R.; Nadkarni, V. S.

    2016-06-01

    Shakila and Kalainathan report on the synthetic and structural aspects of a zinc iodide complex with Schiff based ligand, which exhibits room temperature ferromagnetism. In this comment, many points of criticism, concerning the characterization of this so called zinc iodide complex of Schiff based ligand are highlighted to prove that the title paper is completely erroneous.

  20. Comment on "Behavior of Re and Os during contact between an aqueous solution and oil: Consequences for the application of the Re-Os geochronometer to petroleum" [Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 158 (2015) 1-21

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Jia; Li, Zhen; Wang, Xuan-ce

    2016-08-01

    In a recent study, Mahdaoui et al. (2015) simulated the contact of oil with Re/Os-bearing aqueous fluids in petroleum reservoirs and concluded that both metals could be rapidly and substantially enriched in the oil fraction. These findings could have significant geological ramifications for the use of rhenium-osmium (Re-Os) geochronology in the age-dating of oil deposits. However, the lack of data reproducibility between parallel experiments and misused parameter of "recovery rate" has cast doubt on the main conclusions of the paper. Re-analyses of the raw data provided sufficient evidence to suggest that in petroleum basins with very low abundances of Re and Os, the extraction of these metals to oil is unlikely to be a geologically instantaneous process as the authors implied in their study. In addition, the possibility of reactor leakage in the contacting experiments cannot be completely ruled out.

  1. Coping with Social Change: Programs That Work. Proceedings of a Conference (Acapulco, Mexico, June 1989) = Como enfrentarse al cambio social: programas eficaces. Actas de uno Conferencia (Acapulco, Mexico, Junio de 1989).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoskins, Irene, Ed.

    Written in English and Spanish, this document contains the proceedings of the 14th International Congress of Gerontology on concerns about the impact of rapid social change on the well-being of older women and families in Latin American and the Caribbean and about effective programs that address the needs of the older populations. The first…

  2. Corrigendum to "Recycling of crustal material by the Iceland mantle plume: New evidence from nitrogen elemental and isotope systematics of subglacial basalts" [Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 176 (2016) 206-226

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halldórsson, Sæmundur A.; Hilton, David R.; Barry, Peter H.; Füri, Evelyn; Grönvold, Karl

    2016-08-01

    In Table 1 of the above published paper, N2/40Ar* ratios (column 13) are incorrect. A corrected table and updated figures (Figs. 6-8) are shown below. The correct N2/40Ar* values vary between 178 and 2.6 × 104, with a mean of 4.1 ± 2.1 (×103). Although this range in N2/40Ar* ratios is somewhat smaller compared to what was reported, it still displays considerably more heterogeneity compared to the DMM database. The new mean value is also significantly higher than the DMM mean (138 ± 65), as discussed. Therefore, the findings in the paper concerning heterogeneous and elevated N2/40Ar* ratios in Icelandic subglacial basalts still stand.

  3. Corrigendum to "Historical review: Anders Jonas Ångström and the foundation of spectroscopy - Commemorative article on the second centenary of his birth" [Spectrochim. Acta Part B, 102 (2014) 12-23

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reif-Acherman, Simón

    2015-07-01

    The following addendum should be added to the Acknowledgments of the above article. Due to the multiplicity of simultaneous activities in which I am continuously involved, I forgot mentioning that Prof. Dr. Klaus Hentschel, of the History Department of the University of Stuttgart (Germany) was helpful in obtaining some of the source material used in my review. In particular, Prof. Hentschel provided the scans of Anne Beckmann's work to which I was guided by passages in his book on "Mapping the spectrum", Oxford University Press (2002). I also followed his recommendation of contacting the Swedish historians of science, and Prof. Sven Widmalm among them; however, the correspondence was not successful.

  4. Corrigendum to "Isotopic and geochemical characterization of fossil brines of the Cambrian Mt. Simon sandstone and Ironton-Galesville formation from the Illinois Basin, USA" [Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 165 (2015) 342-360

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Labotka, Dana M.; Panno, Samuel V.; Locke, Randall A.; Freiburg, Jared T.

    2016-08-01

    The original Fig. 4 incorrectly represented data from Clayton et al. (1966). The deuterium values were reported in percent deuterium and mistaken by the authors as per mille. The corrected Fig. 4 Corrigendum is given and shows the data from Clayton et al. (1966) plotting in a similar manner as other published data for groundwater in the Illinois Basin. The data from Clayton et al. (1966) was not used in the discussion of the deep-seated Cambrian brines, and, therefore, this misrepresentation does not affect the conclusions of the original manuscript. The authors apologize for the oversight.

  5. Actas de la 4th mesa redonda sobre investigacion en "Lenguas Extranjeras" en la Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana 1996. (Proceedings from the 4th Roundtable on Investigation in Foreign Languages in the Autonomous Metropolitan University 1996).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zoreda, Margaret Lee, Comp.; Diop, Mamoudou Si, Comp.; Vivaldo Lima, Javier, Comp.

    The articles included in this volume were selected as exemplary papers from the conference in Mexico. The goal of the forum was to provide an opportunity for researchers from the three branches of the Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana (UAM) to meet and discuss research projects currently in progress at the university. The works presented here…

  6. Corrigendum to ‘Evidence for shock heating and constraints on Martian surface temperatures revealed by 40Ar/39Ar thermochronometry of Martian meteorites’ [Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta (2010) 6900–6920

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Cassata, William S.; Shuster, David L.; Renne, Paul R.; Weiss, Benjamin P.

    2014-10-23

    Here, the authors regret they have discovered errors in Eq. (3) and in a spreadsheet used to calculate cosmogenic exposure ages shown in Table 1. Eq. (3) is missing a term. The spreadsheet errors concerned an incorrect cell reference and application of Eq. (3). Correction of these errors results in ~15–20% changes to the exposure ages of all samples, minor (generally <0.2%) changes to the radioisotopic ages of some samples (those that entailed a correction for chlorine-derived 38Ar calculated based on the exposure age; see Section 3.3), and statistically insignificant changes to the inferred trapped components identified through isochron analyses.more » These modifications have no impact on the modeling, discussions, or conclusions in the paper, nor do the changes to radioisotopic ages exceed the 1 sigma uncertainties.« less

  7. Corrigendum to ‘Evidence for shock heating and constraints on Martian surface temperatures revealed by 40Ar/39Ar thermochronometry of Martian meteorites’ [Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta (2010) 6900–6920

    SciTech Connect

    Cassata, William S.; Shuster, David L.; Renne, Paul R.; Weiss, Benjamin P.

    2014-10-23

    Here, the authors regret they have discovered errors in Eq. (3) and in a spreadsheet used to calculate cosmogenic exposure ages shown in Table 1. Eq. (3) is missing a term. The spreadsheet errors concerned an incorrect cell reference and application of Eq. (3). Correction of these errors results in ~15–20% changes to the exposure ages of all samples, minor (generally <0.2%) changes to the radioisotopic ages of some samples (those that entailed a correction for chlorine-derived 38Ar calculated based on the exposure age; see Section 3.3), and statistically insignificant changes to the inferred trapped components identified through isochron analyses. These modifications have no impact on the modeling, discussions, or conclusions in the paper, nor do the changes to radioisotopic ages exceed the 1 sigma uncertainties.

  8. Corrigendum to "Synthesis and spectral characterization of new homologous 1,3,5-triaryl-2-pyrazolines: Influence of alkyloxy chain length on fluorescence" [Spectrochim. Acta Part A: Mol. Biomol. Spectrosc. 133 (2014) 182-189

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbas, Asghar; Hussain, Safdar; Hafeez, Noureen; Naseer, Muhammad Moazzam

    2015-03-01

    The authors regret to inform that the affiliation of one of the authors, namely, Noureen Hafeez has been written as Department of Forensic Medicine & Toxicology, Rawalpindi Institute of Health Sciences (RIHS), Bahria University, Islamabad, Pakistan in the published article. The correct address is shown above.

  9. Western Hemisphere Conference on Persons with Disabilities. Conference Proceedings (Washington, D.C., March 14-18, 1993) = Conferencia Hemisferica Occidental sobre Personas con Discapacidades. Actas de la Conferencia. (Washington, D.C., 14 al 18 de Marzo de 1993).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelley, Jerry D., Ed.; And Others

    This document presents the proceedings of a conference which brought together delegates and First Ladies representing western hemisphere nations to address needs and issues affecting people with disabilities in the Americas. It presents the texts of two keynote addresses: "Small Triumphs, Big Victories: A Global View of Persons with Disabilities,"…

  10. Corrigendum to "Basin-scale controls on the molybdenum-isotope composition of seawater during Oceanic Anoxic Event 2 (Late Cretaceous)" [Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 178 (2016) 291-306

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dickson, Alexander J.; Jenkyns, Hugh C.; Porcelli, Donald; van den Boorn, Sander; Idiz, Erdem; Owens, Jeremy D.

    2016-09-01

    A recent molybdenum-isotope estimate of the extent of anoxic and euxinic conditions in the world ocean during Oceanic Anoxic Event 2 (∼94 Ma) concluded by discussing a contrast between the new results with existing estimates of marine euxinia based on sulphur isotopes. This suggested contrast was erroneous; when areal extents of marine anoxia and euxinia are calculated for both isotopic proxies, the agreement is actually striking, and highlights the fact that large areas of the global ocean probably remained well ventilated during this event.

  11. Corrigendum to "Natural dye extract of lawsonia inermis seed as photo sensitizer for titanium dioxide based dye sensitized solar cells" [Spectrochim. Acta A Mol. Biomol. Spectrosc. 128 (2014) 420-426

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ananth, S.; Vivek, P.; Arumanayagam, T.; Murugakoothan, P.

    2015-05-01

    The authors regret to inform that the following text in page No. 425, "The conventionally prepared TiO2 based DSSC exhibits the observed values of Isc = 1.6 mA cm-2, Voc = 0.48 V and the calculated value of FF is 64.32%. Similarly, for pre dye treated TiO2 based DSSC, the observed values of Isc = 2.99 mA cm-2, Voc = 0.50 V and the calculated value of FF is 66.9%" should be read as, "The conventionally prepared TiO2 based DSSC exhibits the observed values of Isc = 2.99 mA cm-2, Voc = 0.50 V and the calculated value of FF is 66.9%. Similarly, for pre dye treated TiO2 based DSSC, the observed values of Isc = 4.2 mA cm-2, Voc = 0.56 V and the calculated value of FF is 62.5%". Though the text is typed wrongly, the I-V graph, the discussions and our conclusions are as same as that of our published article.

  12. Derechos Educacionales de los Padres: Una Explicacion de los Procedimientos de Seguridad para los Padres de Ninos con Discapacidades. Bajo la Clausula del Acta de Educacion para Individuos con Discapacidades (IDEA) y las Reglas para la Administracion del Acta de Educacion para Ninos Excepcionales (Educational Rights of Parents: An Explanation of Procedural Safeguards Available to Parents of Children with Disabilities. Under Provisions of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) and the Rules for the Administration of the Exceptional Children's Educational Act [ECEA]).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mountain Plains Regional Resource Center, Des Moines, IA.

    This pamphlet, in Spanish, describes Colorado parents' educational rights under federal and state special education rules and regulations. It addresses: (1) free appropriate public education and termination of services; (2) required prior notice to parents if there is a proposed change or refusal to change a child's special education program; (3)…

  13. Crystal structures of spinel-type Na2MoO4 and Na2WO4 revisited using neutron powder diffraction.

    PubMed

    Fortes, A Dominic

    2015-06-01

    Time-of-flight neutron powder diffraction data have been collected from Na2MoO4 and Na2WO4 to a resolution of sin (θ)/λ = 1.25 Å(-1), which is substanti-ally better than the previous analyses using Mo Kα X-rays, providing roughly triple the number of measured reflections with respect to the previous studies [Okada et al. (1974 ▶). Acta Cryst. B30, 1872-1873; Bramnik & Ehrenberg (2004 ▶). Z. Anorg. Allg. Chem. 630, 1336-1341]. The unit-cell parameters are in excellent agreement with literature data [Swanson et al. (1962 ▶). NBS Monograph No. 25, sect. 1, pp. 46-47] and the structural parameters for the molybdate agree very well with those of Bramnik & Ehrenberg (2004 ▶). However, the tungstate structure refinement of Okada et al. (1974 ▶) stands apart as being conspicuously inaccurate, giving significantly longer W-O distances, 1.819 (8) Å, and shorter Na-O distances, 2.378 (8) Å, than are reported here or in other simple tungstates. As such, this work represents an order-of-magnitude improvement in precision for sodium molybdate and an equally substantial improvement in both accuracy and precision for sodium tungstate. Both compounds adopt the spinel structure type. The Na(+) ions have site symmetry .-3m and are in octa-hedral coordination while the transition metal atoms have site symmetry -43m and are in tetra-hedral coordination. PMID:26090129

  14. 3-(1H-Indol-3-yl)-2-(2-nitro­benzene­sulfonamido)­propanoic acid including an unknown solvate

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Islam Ullah; Mubashar-ur-Rehman, Hafiz; Aziz, Salman; Harrison, William T. A.

    2012-01-01

    In the title compound, C17H15N3O6S, which crystallized with highly disordered methanol and/or water solvent mol­ecules, the dihedral angle between the the indole and benzene ring systems is 5.3 (2)°, which allows for the formation of intra­molecular π–π stacking inter­actions [centroid–centroid separations = 3.641 (3) and 3.694 (3) Å] and an approximate overall U-shape for the mol­ecule. In the crystal, dimers linked by pairs of Ns—H⋯Oc (s = sulfonamide and c = carboxyl­ate) hydrogen bonds generate R 2 2(10) loops, whereas Ni—H⋯π (i = indole) inter­actions lead to chains propagating in [100] or [010]. Together, these lead to a three-dimensional network in which the solvent voids are present as inter­secting (two-dimensional) systems of [100] and [010] channels. The title compound was found to contain a heavily disordered solvent mol­ecule, which could be methanol or water or a mixture of the two. Due to its uncertain nature and the unresolvable disorder, the data were processed with the SQUEEZE option in PLATON [Spek (2009 ▶). Acta Cryst. D65, 148–155], which revealed 877.8 Å3 of solvent-accessible volume per unit cell and 126 electron-units of scattering density or 109.7 Å3 (16 electron units) per organic mol­ecule.. This was not included in the calculations of overall formula weight, density and absorption coefficient. PMID:22807845

  15. Crystal structures of spinel-type Na2MoO4 and Na2WO4 revisited using neutron powder diffraction

    PubMed Central

    Fortes, A. Dominic

    2015-01-01

    Time-of-flight neutron powder diffraction data have been collected from Na2MoO4 and Na2WO4 to a resolution of sin (θ)/λ = 1.25 Å−1, which is substanti­ally better than the previous analyses using Mo Kα X-rays, providing roughly triple the number of measured reflections with respect to the previous studies [Okada et al. (1974 ▸). Acta Cryst. B30, 1872–1873; Bramnik & Ehrenberg (2004 ▸). Z. Anorg. Allg. Chem. 630, 1336–1341]. The unit-cell parameters are in excellent agreement with literature data [Swanson et al. (1962 ▸). NBS Monograph No. 25, sect. 1, pp. 46–47] and the structural parameters for the molybdate agree very well with those of Bramnik & Ehrenberg (2004 ▸). However, the tungstate structure refinement of Okada et al. (1974 ▸) stands apart as being conspicuously inaccurate, giving significantly longer W—O distances, 1.819 (8) Å, and shorter Na—O distances, 2.378 (8) Å, than are reported here or in other simple tungstates. As such, this work represents an order-of-magnitude improvement in precision for sodium molybdate and an equally substantial improvement in both accuracy and precision for sodium tungstate. Both compounds adopt the spinel structure type. The Na+ ions have site symmetry .-3m and are in octa­hedral coordination while the transition metal atoms have site symmetry -43m and are in tetra­hedral coordination. PMID:26090129

  16. The physics of polarization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landi Degl'Innocenti, Egidio

    This course is intended to give a description of the basic physical concepts which underlie the study and the interpretation of polarization phenomena. Apart from a brief historical introduction (Sect. 1), the course is organized in three parts. A first part (Sects. 2 - 6) covers the most relevant facts about the polarization phenomena that are typically encountered in laboratory applications and in everyday life. In Sect. 2, the modern description of polarization in terms of the Stokes parameters is recalled, whereas Sect. 3 is devoted to introduce the basic tools of laboratory polarimetry, such as the Jones calculus and the Mueller matrices. The polarization phenomena which are met in the reflection and refraction of a beam of radiation at the separation surface between two dielectrics, or between a dielectric and a metal, are recalled in Sect. 4. Finally, Sect. 5 gives an introduction to the phenomena of dichroism and of anomalous dispersion and Sect. 6 summarizes the polarization phenomena that are commonly encountered in everyday life. The second part of this course (Sects. 7-14) deals with the description, within the formalism of classical physics, of the spectro-polarimetric properties of the radiation emitted by accelerated charges. Such properties are derived by taking as starting point the Liénard and Wiechert equations that are recalled and discussed in Sect. 7 both in the general case and in the non-relativistic approximation. The results are developed to find the percentage polarization, the radiation diagram, the cross-section and the spectral characteristics of the radiation emitted in different phenomena particularly relevant from the astrophysical point of view. The emission of a linear antenna is derived in Sect. 8. The other Sections are devoted to Thomson scattering (Sect. 9), Rayleigh scattering (Sect. 10), Mie scattering (Sect. 11), bremsstrahlung radiation (Sect. 12), cyclotron radiation (Sect. 13), and synchrotron radiation (Sect. 14

  17. Mario Bunge's Scientific Realism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cordero, Alberto

    2012-10-01

    This paper presents and comments on Mario Bunge's scientific realism. After a brief introduction in Sects. 1 and 2 outlines Bunge's conception of realism. Focusing on the case of quantum mechanics, Sect. 3 explores how his approach plays out for problematic theories. Section 4 comments on Bunge's project against the background of the current debate on realism in contemporary analytic philosophy.

  18. Mario Bunge's Scientific Realism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cordero, Alberto

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents and comments on Mario Bunge's scientific realism. After a brief introduction in Sects. 1 and 2 outlines Bunge's conception of realism. Focusing on the case of quantum mechanics, Sect. 3 explores how his approach plays out for problematic theories. Section 4 comments on Bunge's project against the background of the current…

  19. Allopolyploid speciation of the Mexican tetraploid potato species Solanum stoloniferum and S. hjertingii revealed by genomic in situ hybridization

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    About 20% of the wild potato (Solanum sect. Petota) species are polyploid, with 15% of them tetraploid at 2n = 4x = 48. Determination of the type of polyploidy and the development of the genome concept for members of sect. Petota has been based mainly on the analysis of chromosome pairing in species...

  20. The Behaviors that College Students Classify as Political Bias: Preliminary Findings and Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tollini, Craig

    2009-01-01

    There have been a number of recently published books and reports about the existence of a liberal bias in academia (e.g., ACTA 2005, ACTA 2006, Berube 2006, Black 2004, Horowitz 2006, Horowitz 2008, and Shapiro 2004). Sociology is one of the disciplines that is most frequently cited as "producers" of bias in two of these studies (ACTA 2006,…

  1. Sitnikov cyclic configuration of N+1-body problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shahbaz Ullah, M.; Hassan, M. R.

    2014-12-01

    This manuscript deals with the generalisation of all previous works on series solutions and linear stability of equilibrium points of the Sitnikov problem. Following Giacaglia (1967), in Sect. 2 we have derived the equation of motion of the infinitesimal mass moving along the z-axis about which the plane of motion is rotating with unit angular velocity. In Sects. 3, 4 and 5 the series solutions of the Sitnikov problem have been developed by the method of MacMillan, Lindstedt-Poincaré and iteration of Green's function respectively. In Sect. 6 the three series solutions have been compared graphically by putting N=2, 3, 4. In Sect. 7 the coordinates of equilibrium points have been calculated. In Sect. 8 the linear stability of equilibrium points has been examined by the method of Murray and Dermott (Solar System Dynamics, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1999) and it was found that the equilibrium points are stable in Sitnikov problem.

  2. Reply to the comment by Wu et al. (2016) on "Behavior of Re and Os during contact between an aqueous solution and oil: Consequences for the application of the Re-Os geochronometer to petroleum" [Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 158 (2015) 1-21

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reisberg, Laurie; Michels, Raymond; Mahdaoui, Fatima

    2016-08-01

    We reply here to the questions raised by Wu et al. concerning the results published by Mahdaoui et al. (2015). This paper describes experiments in which aqueous solutions containing ReO4- and OsCl62- were brought in contact with natural oils at various ranges of concentration, time and temperature. The main observation is that the transfer of Re and Os to oils is very efficient under all experimental conditions. Wu et al. argue that thermodynamic equilibrium was not achieved in these experiments as apparent partition coefficients are inconsistent. They conclude that the experiments were flawed by possible leaking of reactors and that the conclusions by Mahdaoui et al. (2015) were not justified. In the following reply we explain that Mahdaoui et al. (2015) never claimed that thermodynamic equilibrium was achieved. Any calculations or considerations in this context are therefore meaningless. We recall the objectives of our publication, which were to experimentally test the behavior of ReO4- and OsCl6- (two plausible chemical forms of Re and Os in deep aquifers of petroleum systems) in aqueous solution-oil systems. To our knowledge these are the first experiments of their kind. The parameters that could influence the precision and reproducibility of our results were discussed in detail in Mahdaoui et al. (2015). The essential point is that all 60 of the experiments provide evidence of substantial transfer of Re and Os from water to oil. In contrast to what was mistakenly understood by Wu et al., the paper does not challenge the use of Re-Os to date geological events affecting petroleum. Instead, by providing a mechanism that might allow Os isotopic homogenization on a basin-wide scale, a critical step missing from most current models, it offers a possible explanation of how Re-Os geochronology in oils could potentially work. More generally, our study suggests that transfer of Re and Os from waters to oil may be an important phenomenon that should not be overlooked.

  3. Comment on "Structural and vibrational studies on 1-(5-Methyl- [1,3,4] thiadiazol-2-yl)-pyrolidin-2-ol" [Spectrochimica Acta Part A, 152 (2016) 252-261]. The importance of intramolecular OH ⋯ N hydrogen bonding in the conformational properties of thiadiazol-pyrrolidin-2-ol bearing species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laurella, Sergio L.; Erben, Mauricio F.

    2016-07-01

    The title paper [1] reports a study on the spectroscopic and physicochemical properties of 1-(5-methyl- [1,3,4]thiadiazol-2-yl)-pyrrolidin-2-ol (MTPN) based on experimental and theoretical data. The latter ones are based on the computed molecular structure for a rather unusual conformer. Here, after a careful analysis of the conformational space of MTPN, the most stable conformation was determined for the molecule isolated in a vacuum, which results to be 21.9 kJ/mol more stable than the conformer reported previously. Our study also includes the closely related species 1-(5-trifluoromethyl- [1,3,4]thiadiazol-2-yl)-pyrrolidin-2-ol (FMTPN). An intramolecular OH ⋯ N hydrogen bond determines the conformational behavior of the [1,3,4]thiadiazol-2-yl)-pyrrolidin-2-ol group as demonstrated by Natural Bond Orbital population analysis.

  4. Guia del Proceso del IFSP de Colorado: Conexiones para la Ninez Temprana, Iniciativa Infantil de Colorado Parte C del Acta de Educacion para Individuos con Desabilidades (Colorado Guidelines for the IFSP Process: Early Childhood Connections, Colorado's Infant/Toddler Initiative for Part C of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Jerri; Petersen, Sandy

    This booklet for Spanish-speaking parents of young children with disabilities describes Colorado's Individualized Family Service Plan (IFSP) process. It explains guidelines, shares family stories and reflections for families and care providers, and the describes the values that drive the IFSP process in Colorado. Information is provided on…

  5. Comment on "Structural and vibrational studies on 1-(5-Methyl- [1,3,4] thiadiazol-2-yl)-pyrolidin-2-ol" [Spectrochimica Acta Part A, 152 (2016) 252-261]. The importance of intramolecular OH⋯N hydrogen bonding in the conformational properties of thiadiazol-pyrrolidin-2-ol bearing species.

    PubMed

    Laurella, Sergio L; Erben, Mauricio F

    2016-07-01

    The title paper [1] reports a study on the spectroscopic and physicochemical properties of 1-(5-methyl- [1,3,4]thiadiazol-2-yl)-pyrrolidin-2-ol (MTPN) based on experimental and theoretical data. The latter ones are based on the computed molecular structure for a rather unusual conformer. Here, after a careful analysis of the conformational space of MTPN, the most stable conformation was determined for the molecule isolated in a vacuum, which results to be 21.9kJ/mol more stable than the conformer reported previously. Our study also includes the closely related species 1-(5-trifluoromethyl- [1,3,4]thiadiazol-2-yl)-pyrrolidin-2-ol (FMTPN). An intramolecular OH⋯N hydrogen bond determines the conformational behavior of the [1,3,4]thiadiazol-2-yl)-pyrrolidin-2-ol group as demonstrated by Natural Bond Orbital population analysis. PMID:27070529

  6. [Role of Activin A and Myostatin in cancer cachexia].

    PubMed

    Thissen, Jean-Paul; Loumaye, Audrey

    2013-05-01

    Recent works suggest that Activin A (ActA) and Myostatin (Mstn), two members of the TGFβ superfamily, could contribute to skeletal muscle atrophy observed in some cancers. It is known that several human tumoral cell lines synthesize and secrete ActA and Mstn. In addition, systemic treatment with ActA and Mstn in mice induce muscle atrophy. Likewise, Inhibin-α knock-out mice, which are characterized by elevated circulating levels of ActA, exhibit muscle atrophy and die of cachexia. Finally, administration of ActA and Mstn antagonists prevents muscular atrophy and mortality induced by some animal tumors. Collectively, these findings suggest that ActA or Mstn production by several cancers could contribute to cachexia and thus to mortality associated with some cancers in human. This hypothesis is very interesting since new molecules that are able to inhibit ActA and Mstn, in particularly the sActRIIB, are under development. PMID:23566617

  7. Nuclear ribosomal DNA evidence for a western North American origin of Hawaiian and South American species of Sanicula (Apiaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Vargas, Pablo; Baldwin, Bruce G.; Constance, Lincoln

    1998-01-01

    Results from phylogenetic analysis of nuclear rDNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences from a worldwide sample of Sanicula indicate that Hawaiian sanicles (Sanicula sect. Sandwicenses) constitute a monophyletic group that descended from a western North American ancestor in Sanicula sect. Sanicoria, a paraphyletic assemblage of mostly Californian species. A monophyletic group comprising representatives of all 15 species of S. sect. Sanicoria and the three sampled species of S. sect. Sandwicenses was resolved in all maximally parsimonious trees, rooted with sequences from species of Astrantia and Eryngium. All sequences sampled from eastern North American, European, and Asian species of Sanicula fell outside the ITS clade comprising S. sect. Sanicoria and S. sect. Sandwicenses. A lineage comprising the Hawaiian taxa and three species endemic to coastal or near-coastal habitats in western North America (Sanicula arctopoides, Sanicula arguta, and Sanicula laciniata) is diagnosed by nucleotide substitutions and a 24-bp deletion in ITS2. The hooked fruits in Sanicula lead us to conclude that the ancestor of Hawaiian sanicles arrived from North America by external bird dispersal; similar transport has been hypothesized for the North American tarweed ancestor of the Hawaiian silversword alliance (Asteraceae). Two additional long-distance dispersal events involving members of S. sect. Sanicoria can be concluded from the ITS phylogeny: dispersal of Sanicula crassicaulis and Sanicula graveolens from western North America to southern South America. PMID:9419359

  8. A revision of the Dulcamaroid Clade of  Solanum L. (Solanaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Knapp, Sandra

    2013-01-01

    Abstract The Dulcamaroid clade of Solanum contains 45 species of mostly vining or weakly scandent species, including the common circumboreal weed Solanum dulcamara L. The group comprises members of the previously recognised infrageneric groupings sect. Andropedas Rusby, sect. Californisolanum A. Child, sect. Dulcamara (Moench) Dumort., sect. Holophylla (G.Don) Walp., sect. Jasminosolanum (Bitter) Seithe, sect.Lysiphellos (Bitter) Seithe, subsect. Nitidum A.Child and sect. Subdulcamara Dunal. These infrageneric groups are not monophyletic as traditionally recognised, and the complex history of the classification of the dulcamaroid solanums is reviewed. Many of the species in the clade are quite variable morphologically; plants are shrubs, herbaceous vines or woody canopy lianas, and habits can vary between these states in a single locality. Variation in leaf shape and pubescence density and type is also extreme and has lead to the description of many minor morphological variants as distinct species. The flowers of members of the group are generally very showy, and several species (e.g., Solanum crispum Ruiz & Pav., Solanum laxum Spreng., Solanum seaforthianum Andrews) are popular ornamental plants that have occasionally escaped from cultivation and become naturalised. The clade is here divided into five morphologically and geographically delimited species groups to facilitate further study. One new species from southern Ecuador, Solanum agnoston S.Knapp sp. nov., is described here. Full descriptions and synonymies (including designations of lectotypes or neotypes), preliminary conservation assessments, illustrations, distribution maps, and an extensive list of localities are provided for all species. PMID:23794937

  9. Chromosome numbers and karyotype evolution in holoparasitic Orobanche (Orobanchaceae) and related genera

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schneeweiss, G.M.; Palomeque, T.; Colwell, A.E.; Weiss-Schneeweiss, H.

    2004-01-01

    Chromosome numbers and karyotypes of species of Orobanche, Cistanche, and Diphelypaea (Orobanchaceae) were investigated, and 108 chromosome counts of 53 taxa, 19 counted for the first time, are presented with a thorough compilation of previously published data. Additionally, karyotypes of representatives of these genera, including Orobanche sects. Orobanche and Trionychon, are reported. Cistanche (x = 20) has large meta- to submetacentric chromosomes, while those of Diphelypaea (x = 19) are medium-sized submeta-to acrocentrics. Within three analyzed sections of Orobanche, sects. Myzorrhiza (x = 24) and Trionychon (x = 12) possess medium-sized submeta- to acrocentrics, while sect. Orobanche (x = 19) has small, mostly meta- to submetacentric, chromosomes. Polyploidy is unevenly distributed in Orobanche and restricted to a few lineages, e.g., O. sect. Myzorrhiza or Orobanche gracilis and its relatives (sect. Orobanche). The distribution of basic chromosome numbers supports the groups found by molecular phylogenetic analyses: Cistanche has x = 20, the Orobanche-group (Orobanche sect. Orobanche, Diphelypaea) has x = 19, and the Phelipanche-group (Orobanche sects. Gymnocaulis, Myzorrhiza, Trionychon) has x = 12, 24. A model of chromosome number evolution in Orobanche and related genera is presented: from two ancestral base numbers, xh = 5 and xh = 6, independent polyploidizations led to x = 20 (Cistanche) and (after dysploidization) x = 19 (Orobanche-group) and to x = 12 and x = 24 (Phelipanche-group), respectively.

  10. Gravitational wave astronomy: the current status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blair, David; Ju, Li; Zhao, ChunNong; Wen, LinQing; Chu, Qi; Fang, Qi; Cai, RongGen; Gao, JiangRui; Lin, XueChun; Liu, Dong; Wu, Ling-An; Zhu, ZongHong; Reitze, David H.; Arai, Koji; Zhang, Fan; Flaminio, Raffaele; Zhu, XingJiang; Hobbs, George; Manchester, Richard N.; Shannon, Ryan M.; Baccigalupi, Carlo; Gao, Wei; Xu, Peng; Bian, Xing; Cao, ZhouJian; Chang, ZiJing; Dong, Peng; Gong, XueFei; Huang, ShuangLin; Ju, Peng; Luo, ZiRen; Qiang, Li'E.; Tang, WenLin; Wan, XiaoYun; Wang, Yue; Xu, ShengNian; Zang, YunLong; Zhang, HaiPeng; Lau, Yun-Kau; Ni, Wei-Tou

    2015-12-01

    In the centenary year of Einstein's General Theory of Relativity, this paper reviews the current status of gravitational wave astronomy across a spectrum which stretches from attohertz to kilohertz frequencies. Sect. 1 of this paper reviews the historical development of gravitational wave astronomy from Einstein's first prediction to our current understanding the spectrum. It is shown that detection of signals in the audio frequency spectrum can be expected very soon, and that a north-south pair of next generation detectors would provide large scientific benefits. Sect. 2 reviews the theory of gravitational waves and the principles of detection using laser interferometry. The state of the art Advanced LIGO detectors are then described. These detectors have a high chance of detecting the first events in the near future. Sect. 3 reviews the KAGRA detector currently under development in Japan, which will be the first laser interferometer detector to use cryogenic test masses. Sect. 4 of this paper reviews gravitational wave detection in the nanohertz frequency band using the technique of pulsar timing. Sect. 5 reviews the status of gravitational wave detection in the attohertz frequency band, detectable in the polarisation of the cosmic microwave background, and discusses the prospects for detection of primordial waves from the big bang. The techniques described in sects. 1-5 have already placed significant limits on the strength of gravitational wave sources. Sects. 6 and 7 review ambitious plans for future space based gravitational wave detectors in the millihertz frequency band. Sect. 6 presents a roadmap for development of space based gravitational wave detectors by China while sect. 7 discusses a key enabling technology for space interferometry known as time delay interferometry.

  11. Circumscription and synopsis of Eugenia section Speciosae Bünger & Mazine (Myrtaceae).

    PubMed

    de Oliveira Bünger, Mariana; Mazine, Fiorella Fernanda; Lucas, Eve J; Stehmann, João Renato

    2016-01-01

    A new section of Eugenia (Myrtaceae) is described, segregate from Eugenia sect. Phyllocalyx. Phylogenetic studies suggest that Eugenia sect. Phyllocalyx as traditionally delimited is paraphyletic. To maintain the monophyly of each of the sections in Eugenia s.l., we herein opt to circumscribe a new section and recognize six taxa in sect. Speciosae, which has a distribution mostly in southeastern Brazil and northern South America. Nomenclatural notes are made and a taxonomic key is provided for the species of the section. PMID:27081351

  12. Circumscription and synopsis of Eugenia section Speciosae Bünger & Mazine (Myrtaceae)

    PubMed Central

    de Oliveira Bünger, Mariana; Mazine, Fiorella Fernanda; Lucas, Eve J.; Stehmann, João Renato

    2016-01-01

    Abstract A new section of Eugenia (Myrtaceae) is described, segregate from Eugenia sect. Phyllocalyx. Phylogenetic studies suggest that Eugenia sect. Phyllocalyx as traditionally delimited is paraphyletic. To maintain the monophyly of each of the sections in Eugenia s.l., we herein opt to circumscribe a new section and recognize six taxa in sect. Speciosae, which has a distribution mostly in southeastern Brazil and northern South America. Nomenclatural notes are made and a taxonomic key is provided for the species of the section. PMID:27081351

  13. Hieracium sinoaestivum (Asteraceae), a new species from North China.

    PubMed

    Sennikov, Alexander N

    2014-01-01

    Hieracium sinoaestivum Sennikov sp. nov. is described as new to science and illustrated. This presumably apomictic species is solely known from two old collections made in a single locality in the Shanxi Province of China. It belongs to the hybridogenous group Hieracium sect. Aestiva (Hieracium sect. Prenanthoidea × Hieracium sect. Umbellata) and is most similar to Hieracium veresczaginii from southern Siberia. The new species occurs at low altitudes in the forest belt of Lülian Mts. and belongs to taiga forest elements. PMID:25197222

  14. 32 CFR Attachment A to Subpart B... - Standard A-National Agency Check With Local Agency Checks and Credit Check (NACLC)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Access Programs by sect. 4.4 of Executive Order 12958) (60 FR 19825, 3 CFR 1995 Comp., p. 333); (2) “L...) Date and Place of Birth: Corroboration of date and place of birth through a check of...

  15. 38 CFR 1.583-1.584 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...; 3 CFR 1949-1953 Comp. Expanded Remote Access to Computerized Veterans Claims Records by Accredited... Employees of Department of Veterans Affairs Authority: Sections 1.650 to 1.666 issued under sect. 1, 66...

  16. Series solutions of the Sitnikov restricted N+1-body problem: elliptic case

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shahbaz Ullah, M.; Majda, B.; Ullah, M. Zafar; Shahnawaz Ullah, M.

    2015-06-01

    Following Giacaglia (1967), in Sect. 2 we have developed equation of motion of the Sitnikov restricted N+1-body problem in elliptic case. We assumed that the primaries are at the vertices of a regular N-gon so the distances of the primaries from center of mass are time depending. In Sect. 3 we have linearized the equation of motion to obtain the Hill's type equation and then find the approximate solution. In Sects. 4 and 5 the series solutions of the Sitnikov restricted N+1-body problem have been developed by the method of Lindstedt-Poincaré and iteration of Green's function respectively. In Sect. 6 the two series solutions have been compared graphically by putting N=2, 3 and 4 for different eccentricity.

  17. 38 CFR 1.583-1.584 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...; 3 CFR 1949-1953 Comp. Expanded Remote Access to Computerized Veterans Claims Records by Accredited... Employees of Department of Veterans Affairs Authority: Sections 1.650 to 1.666 issued under sect. 1, 66...

  18. 38 CFR 1.583-1.584 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...; 3 CFR 1949-1953 Comp. Expanded Remote Access to Computerized Veterans Claims Records by Accredited... Employees of Department of Veterans Affairs Authority: Sections 1.650 to 1.666 issued under sect. 1, 66...

  19. 38 CFR 1.583-1.584 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...; 3 CFR 1949-1953 Comp. Expanded Remote Access to Computerized Veterans Claims Records by Accredited... Employees of Department of Veterans Affairs Authority: Sections 1.650 to 1.666 issued under sect. 1, 66...

  20. 38 CFR 1.583-1.584 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...; 3 CFR 1949-1953 Comp. Expanded Remote Access to Computerized Veterans Claims Records by Accredited... Employees of Department of Veterans Affairs Authority: Sections 1.650 to 1.666 issued under sect. 1, 66...

  1. VizieR Online Data Catalog: HI observations of Coma Supercluster (Gavazzi+, 2006)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gavazzi, G.; O'Neil, K.; Boselli, A.; van Driel, W.

    2006-11-01

    Using the refurbished 305-m Arecibo Gregorian radio telescope, we observed 35 galaxies in the Coma Supercluster, (plus 13 in the Virgo cluster) (see Sect. 2) in February 2004 and January-March 2005. (2 data files).

  2. Phylogenetic Insights into Chinese Rubus (Rosaceae) from Multiple Chloroplast and Nuclear DNAs.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yan; Chen, Qing; Chen, Tao; Tang, Haoru; Liu, Lin; Wang, Xiaorong

    2016-01-01

    Rubus L. is a large and taxonomically complex genus, species of which exhibit apomixis, polyploidy, and frequent hybridization. Most of Chinese Rubus are assigned in two major sections, Idaeobatus and Malachobatus. To explore the phylogenetic relationships within Chinese Rubus, inferences upon three chloroplast DNA (rbcL, rpl20-rps12, and trnG-trnS), nuclear ribosomal ITS, and two low-copy nuclear markers (GBSSI-2 and PEPC) were deduced in 142 Rubus taxa from 17 subsections in 6 sections. nrITS and GBSSI-2 were the most informative among the six DNA regions assessed. Phylogenetic relationships within Rubus were well-resolved by combined nuclear datasets rather than chloroplast markers. The phylogenetic inferences strongly supported that section Idaeobatus was a polyphyletic group with four distant clades. All samples of sect. Malachobatus formed a monophyletic clade, in which R. tsangorum and R. amphidasys of sect. Dalibardastrum, and R. peltatus from subsection Peltati of sect. Idaeobatus were always nested. Rubus pentagonus (2n = 2x = 14) from subsect. Alpestres of sect. Idaeobatus was a sister group to the polyploid sect. Malachobatus, as well as the polytomy of three sect. Cyalctis members. This suggests that some polyploids of Malachobatus might originate from common ancestors, via polyploidization of hybrids between R. pentagonus and sect. Cylactis species. They had experienced species explosion in a short time. Section Dalibardastrum species have potential parental lineages from subsects. Moluccani and Stipulosi of sect. Malachobatus. Based on molecular phylogenies, we also provided recommendations for the taxonomic treatments of four taxa. In addition, our results showed certain incongruence between chloroplast and nuclear markers, which might be due to hybridization and introgression. PMID:27446191

  3. Phylogenetic Insights into Chinese Rubus (Rosaceae) from Multiple Chloroplast and Nuclear DNAs

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yan; Chen, Qing; Chen, Tao; Tang, Haoru; Liu, Lin; Wang, Xiaorong

    2016-01-01

    Rubus L. is a large and taxonomically complex genus, species of which exhibit apomixis, polyploidy, and frequent hybridization. Most of Chinese Rubus are assigned in two major sections, Idaeobatus and Malachobatus. To explore the phylogenetic relationships within Chinese Rubus, inferences upon three chloroplast DNA (rbcL, rpl20-rps12, and trnG-trnS), nuclear ribosomal ITS, and two low-copy nuclear markers (GBSSI-2 and PEPC) were deduced in 142 Rubus taxa from 17 subsections in 6 sections. nrITS and GBSSI-2 were the most informative among the six DNA regions assessed. Phylogenetic relationships within Rubus were well-resolved by combined nuclear datasets rather than chloroplast markers. The phylogenetic inferences strongly supported that section Idaeobatus was a polyphyletic group with four distant clades. All samples of sect. Malachobatus formed a monophyletic clade, in which R. tsangorum and R. amphidasys of sect. Dalibardastrum, and R. peltatus from subsection Peltati of sect. Idaeobatus were always nested. Rubus pentagonus (2n = 2x = 14) from subsect. Alpestres of sect. Idaeobatus was a sister group to the polyploid sect. Malachobatus, as well as the polytomy of three sect. Cyalctis members. This suggests that some polyploids of Malachobatus might originate from common ancestors, via polyploidization of hybrids between R. pentagonus and sect. Cylactis species. They had experienced species explosion in a short time. Section Dalibardastrum species have potential parental lineages from subsects. Moluccani and Stipulosi of sect. Malachobatus. Based on molecular phylogenies, we also provided recommendations for the taxonomic treatments of four taxa. In addition, our results showed certain incongruence between chloroplast and nuclear markers, which might be due to hybridization and introgression. PMID:27446191

  4. The next detectors for gravitational wave astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blair, David; Ju, Li; Zhao, ChunNong; Wen, LinQing; Miao, HaiXing; Cai, RongGen; Gao, JiangRui; Lin, XueChun; Liu, Dong; Wu, Ling-An; Zhu, ZongHong; Hammond, Giles; Paik, Ho Jung; Fafone, Viviana; Rocchi, Alessio; Blair, Carl; Ma, YiQiu; Qin, JiaYi; Page, Michael

    2015-12-01

    This paper focuses on the next detectors for gravitational wave astronomy which will be required after the current ground based detectors have completed their initial observations, and probably achieved the first direct detection of gravitational waves. The next detectors will need to have greater sensitivity, while also enabling the world array of detectors to have improved angular resolution to allow localisation of signal sources. Sect. 1 of this paper begins by reviewing proposals for the next ground based detectors, and presents an analysis of the sensitivity of an 8 km armlength detector, which is proposed as a safe and cost-effective means to attain a 4-fold improvement in sensitivity. The scientific benefits of creating a pair of such detectors in China and Australia is emphasised. Sect. 2 of this paper discusses the high performance suspension systems for test masses that will be an essential component for future detectors, while sect. 3 discusses solutions to the problem of Newtonian noise which arise from fluctuations in gravity gradient forces acting on test masses. Such gravitational perturbations cannot be shielded, and set limits to low frequency sensitivity unless measured and suppressed. Sects. 4 and 5 address critical operational technologies that will be ongoing issues in future detectors. Sect. 4 addresses the design of thermal compensation systems needed in all high optical power interferometers operating at room temperature. Parametric instability control is addressed in sect. 5. Only recently proven to occur in Advanced LIGO, parametric instability phenomenon brings both risks and opportunities for future detectors. The path to future enhancements of detectors will come from quantum measurement technologies. Sect. 6 focuses on the use of optomechanical devices for obtaining enhanced sensitivity, while sect. 7 reviews a range of quantum measurement options.

  5. Linguistics, cognitive psychology, and the Now-or-Never bottleneck.

    PubMed

    Endress, Ansgar D; Katzir, Roni

    2016-01-01

    Christiansen & Chater (C&C)'s key premise is that "if linguistic information is not processed rapidly, that information is lost for good" (sect. 1, para. 1). From this "Now-or-Never bottleneck" (NNB), C&C derive "wide-reaching and fundamental implications for language processing, acquisition and change as well as for the structure of language itself" (sect. 2, para. 10). We question both the premise and the consequentiality of its purported implications. PMID:27561603

  6. Creativity and Democratic Governance. Adult Learning: A Strategic Choice. Proceedings of the ICAE World Assembly (6th, Ocho Rios, Jamaica, August 9-12, 2001) = Creativite et Gouvernance Democratique. L'apprentissage des Adultes: Un Choix Strategique. Actes de la Assemblee Mondiale du CIEA (6th, Ocho Rios, Jamaique, 9 au 12 aout 2001) = Creatividad y Gobernabilidad Democratica. Educacion de Adultos: Una Eleccion Estrategica. Actas de la Asamblea Mundial del ICAE (6th, Ocho Rios, Jamaica, Agosto 9-12, 2001).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dobson, Stephan, Ed.

    This document contains information from and about a world assembly on creativity and democratic governance in adult learning that was held by the International Council for Adult Education (ICAE) and its partner organizations in the Caribbean. The proceedings begin with English, French, and Spanish translations of the address…

  7. What is Atraphaxis L. (Polygonaceae, Polygoneae): cryptic taxa and resolved taxonomic complexity instead of the formal lumping and the lack of morphological synapomorphies

    PubMed Central

    Kuznetsova, Oxana I.; Mavrodieva, Maria E.; Mavrodiev, Evgeny V.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The recently proposed recircumscription of the genus Atraphaxis (incl. Atraphaxis section Ovczinnikovia O.V. Yurtseva ex. S. Tavakkoli and Polygonum sect. Spinescentia Boissier (=A. sect. Polygonoides S. Tavakkoli, Kaz. Osaloo & Mozaff.) makes this genus fairly heterogeneous and therefore almost undefinable based on morphology. A critical comprehensive reappraisal of the group is necessary. Methods: Using the DNA sequence data (ITS1&2 regions of nrDNA and combined trnL intron + trnL–F IGS and rpl32–trnL(UAG) IGS regions of plastid genome), Maximum Likelihood (ML) and Bayesian analyses (BI) were applied for phylogenetic reconstructions of the tribe Polygoneae with special attention to Atraphaxis, and related taxa. Maximum parsimony reconstructions of the evolution of perianth morphology and sporoderm ornamentation in the tribe Polygoneae were also performed. Life history, morphology of shoots, leaf blades, ocreas, perianth and achene morphology, ultrasculpture of achene surface, and pollen morphology were compared, and SEM and LM images were provided. Principal findings: The genera Atraphaxis and Polygonum were found to be widely polyphyletic. The rarest and morphologically remarkable endemic of Tian-Shan and Pamir Atraphaxis ovczinnikovii (Atraphaxis sect. Ovczinnikovia O.V. Yurtseva ex. S. Tavakkoli) was confirmed to be a sister of the clade (Atraphaxis + Polygonum sect. Spinescentia) in plastid topology. The genus Bactria (=Atraphaxis sect. Ovczinnikovia), which circumscribes two species, is newly established as a result of this analyses. Morphological data confirm the originality of the taxon. Discussion: We are arguing for a narrow delimitation of Atraphaxis with petalloid segments and striato-perforate sporoderm ornamentation as morphological synapomorphies. The recently proposed inclusion of Polygonum sect. Spinescentia in Atraphaxis is fairly questionable from a morphological standpoint. The rank of Polygonum sect. Spinescentia requires

  8. How to Measure Thermal Conductivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ventura, Guglielmo; Perfetti, Mauro

    The methods to measure the thermal conductivity at low temperature are described: the steady-state techniques, (Sect. 2.2 ); the 3ω technique (Sect. 2.3 ); and the thermal diffusivity measurement (Sect. 2.4 ). Each of these techniques has its own advantages as well as its inherent limitations, with some techniques more appropriate to specific sample geometry, such as the 3ω technique for thin films which is discussed in detail in Sect. 2.4.2 . The radial flux method is reported in Sect. 2.2.4 , the laser flash diffusivity method in Sect. 2.4.1 and the "pulsed power or Maldonado technique" in Sect. 2.3.2 .

  9. The Vanishing Shakespeare: A Report by the American Council of Trustees and Alumni

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neal, Anne D.; Mitchell, Charles

    2007-01-01

    As this report goes to press, the nation's capital is in the midst of a six-moth, city-wide celebration of William Shakespeare. With this celebration as a backdrop, the American Council of Trustees and Alumni (ACTA) researched how Shakespeare fits into English curricula at 70 of the nation's leading colleges and universities. ACTA surveyed English…

  10. Genetics Home Reference: paramyotonia congenita

    MedlinePlus

    ... impact of permanent muscle weakness on quality of life in periodic paralysis: a survey of 66 patients. Acta Myol. 2012 Oct;31(2):126-33. Citation on PubMed or Free article on PubMed Central Finsterer J. Primary periodic paralyses. Acta Neurol Scand. 2008 Mar;117(3):145-58. Epub 2007 Nov 20. ...

  11. Leading the Charge: Governors, Higher Education and Accountability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Council of Trustees and Alumni, 2014

    2014-01-01

    With this new tool, ACTA [American Council of Trustees and Alumni] is working to expand its outreach to governors nationwide on behalf of higher education reform, focusing on key issues of quality, cost, and accountability. ACTA has worked with governors and education leaders from across the country, and that experience has proven that innovative…

  12. Advances in membrane protein crystallography: in situ and in meso data collection

    SciTech Connect

    Weyand, Simone; Tate, Christopher G.

    2015-05-23

    Membrane protein structural biology has made tremendous advances over the last decade but there are still many challenges associated with crystallization, data collection and structure determination. Two independent groups, Axford et al. [(2015), Acta Cryst. D71, 1228–1237] and Huang et al. [(2015), Acta Cryst. D71, 1238–1256], have published methods that make a major contribution to addressing these challenges.

  13. Alternaria section Alternaria: Species, formae speciales or pathotypes?

    PubMed Central

    Woudenberg, J.H.C.; Seidl, M.F.; Groenewald, J.Z.; de Vries, M.; Stielow, J.B.; Thomma, B.P.H.J.; Crous, P.W.

    2015-01-01

    The cosmopolitan fungal genus Alternaria consists of multiple saprophytic and pathogenic species. Based on phylogenetic and morphological studies, the genus is currently divided into 26 sections. Alternaria sect. Alternaria contains most of the small-spored Alternaria species with concatenated conidia, including important plant, human and postharvest pathogens. Species within sect. Alternaria have been mostly described based on morphology and / or host-specificity, yet molecular variation between them is minimal. To investigate whether the described morphospecies within sect. Alternaria are supported by molecular data, whole-genome sequencing of nine Alternaria morphospecies supplemented with transcriptome sequencing of 12 Alternaria morphospecies as well as multi-gene sequencing of 168 Alternaria isolates was performed. The assembled genomes ranged in size from 33.3–35.2 Mb within sect. Alternaria and from 32.0–39.1 Mb for all Alternaria genomes. The number of repetitive sequences differed significantly between the different Alternaria genomes; ranging from 1.4–16.5 %. The repeat content within sect. Alternaria was relatively low with only 1.4–2.7 % of repeats. Whole-genome alignments revealed 96.7–98.2 % genome identity between sect. Alternaria isolates, compared to 85.1–89.3 % genome identity for isolates from other sections to the A. alternata reference genome. Similarly, 1.4–2.8 % and 0.8–1.8 % single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were observed in genomic and transcriptomic sequences, respectively, between isolates from sect. Alternaria, while the percentage of SNPs found in isolates from different sections compared to the A. alternata reference genome was considerably higher; 8.0–10.3 % and 6.1–8.5 %. The topology of a phylogenetic tree based on the whole-genome and transcriptome reads was congruent with multi-gene phylogenies based on commonly used gene regions. Based on the genome and transcriptome data, a set of core

  14. Classification of Camellia (Theaceae) Species Using Leaf Architecture Variations and Pattern Recognition Techniques

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sean; Nitin, Mantri

    2012-01-01

    Leaf characters have been successfully utilized to classify Camellia (Theaceae) species; however, leaf characters combined with supervised pattern recognition techniques have not been previously explored. We present results of using leaf morphological and venation characters of 93 species from five sections of genus Camellia to assess the effectiveness of several supervised pattern recognition techniques for classifications and compare their accuracy. Clustering approach, Learning Vector Quantization neural network (LVQ-ANN), Dynamic Architecture for Artificial Neural Networks (DAN2), and C-support vector machines (SVM) are used to discriminate 93 species from five sections of genus Camellia (11 in sect. Furfuracea, 16 in sect. Paracamellia, 12 in sect. Tuberculata, 34 in sect. Camellia, and 20 in sect. Theopsis). DAN2 and SVM show excellent classification results for genus Camellia with DAN2's accuracy of 97.92% and 91.11% for training and testing data sets respectively. The RBF-SVM results of 97.92% and 97.78% for training and testing offer the best classification accuracy. A hierarchical dendrogram based on leaf architecture data has confirmed the morphological classification of the five sections as previously proposed. The overall results suggest that leaf architecture-based data analysis using supervised pattern recognition techniques, especially DAN2 and SVM discrimination methods, is excellent for identification of Camellia species. PMID:22235330

  15. Gravitational wave astrophysics, data analysis and multimessenger astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Hyung Mok; Le Bigot, Eric-Olivier; Du, ZhiHui; Lin, ZhangXi; Guo, XiangYu; Wen, LinQing; Phukon, Khun Sang; Pandey, Vihan; Bose, Sukanta; Fan, Xi-Long; Hendry, Martin

    2015-12-01

    This paper reviews gravitational wave sources and their detection. One of the most exciting potential sources of gravitational waves are coalescing binary black hole systems. They can occur on all mass scales and be formed in numerous ways, many of which are not understood. They are generally invisible in electromagnetic waves, and they provide opportunities for deep investigation of Einstein's general theory of relativity. Sect. 1 of this paper considers ways that binary black holes can be created in the universe, and includes the prediction that binary black hole coalescence events are likely to be the first gravitational wave sources to be detected. The next parts of this paper address the detection of chirp waveforms from coalescence events in noisy data. Such analysis is computationally intensive. Sect. 2 reviews a new and powerful method of signal detection based on the GPUimplemented summed parallel infinite impulse response filters. Such filters are intrinsically real time alorithms, that can be used to rapidly detect and localise signals. Sect. 3 of the paper reviews the use of GPU processors for rapid searching for gravitational wave bursts that can arise from black hole births and coalescences. In sect. 4 the use of GPU processors to enable fast efficient statistical significance testing of gravitational wave event candidates is reviewed. Sect. 5 of this paper addresses the method of multimessenger astronomy where the discovery of electromagnetic counterparts of gravitational wave events can be used to identify sources, understand their nature and obtain much greater science outcomes from each identified event.

  16. Crystallographic CourseWare

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kastner, Margaret E.; Vasbinder, Eric; Kowalcyzk, Deborah; Jackson, Sean; Giammalvo, Joseph; Braun, James; Dimarco, Keith

    2000-09-01

    Literature Cited

    1. International Tables for Crystallography: Volume A: Space Group Symmetry; Hanh, T., Ed.; D. Reidel: Boston, 1983.
    2. International Tables for Crystallography, Brief Teaching Edition of Volume A, Space-Group Symmetry, 3rd ed.; Hanh, T., Ed.; Dordrecht: Boston, 1993.
    3. Kastner, M. E. J. Appl. Crystallogr. 1999, 32, 327-331.
    4. Macromedia Director, version 6.5; Macromedia, Inc., San Francisco, CA; 1998.
    5. QuickTime, version 3.0; Apple Computer: Cupertino, CA, 1998.
    6. ToolBook II, Instructor, version 6.0; Asymetrix: Bellevue, WA, 1998.
    7. HyperCard 2.3.5; Apple Computer: Cupertino, CA, 1998.

  17. The correct name for a section of Ludwigia L. (Onagraceae)

    PubMed Central

    Hoch, Peter C.; Wagner, Warren L.; Raven, Peter H.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract In 1953, Hara provided new combinations for many sectional and species names when he combined Jussiaea L. with Ludwigia L., and at the time, Ludwigia sect. Oligospermum (Micheli) H.Hara was the correct name for one well-defined section. However, subsequent changes to/clarifications of the botanical code have necessitated a change for that name in that now an autonym is treated as having priority over the name or names of the same date and rank that established it. Since Hara’s combination was based on Jussiaea sect. Oligospermum Micheli, the correct name for this section is Ludwigia sect. Jussiaea (L.) Hoch, W.L.Wagner, & P.H.Raven. PMID:26140018

  18. Research on Modern Gas Discharge Light Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Born, M.; Markus, T.

    This article gives an overview of today's gas discharge light sources and their application fields with focus on research aspects. In Sect. 15.1 of this chapter, an introduction to electric light sources, the lighting market and related research topics is outlined. Due to the complexity of the subject, we have focused on selected topics in the field of high intensity discharge (HID) lamps since these represent an essential part of modern lamp research. The working principle and light technical properties of HID lamps are described in Sect. 15.2. Physical and thermochemical modelling procedures and tools as well as experimental analysis are discussed in Sects. 15.3 and 15.4, respectively. These tools result in a detailed scientific insight into the complexity of real discharge lamps. In particular, analysis and modelling are the keys for further improvement and development of existing and new products.

  19. Taxonomic changes in Oenothera sections Gaura and Calylophus (Onagraceae)

    PubMed Central

    Wagner, Warren L.; Krakos, Kyra N.; Hoch, Peter C.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract The long-recognized genus Gaura was shown recently to be deeply nested within one of two major clades of Oenothera. New molecular data indicate further taxonomic changes are necessary in Oenothera sect. Gaura. We make these changes here, including three new combinations, in advance of the Onagraceae treatment for the Flora of North America. The new phylogenetic studies show that several pairs of taxa treated as subspecies in the most recent revision by Raven and Gregory (1972) had independent origins within sect. Gaura, and are here elevated to species level (Oenothera nealleyi for Gaura suffulta subsp. nealleyi; Oenothera dodgeniana for Gaura neomexicana subsp. neomexicana; and Oenothera podocarpa for Gaura hexandra subsp. gracilis). Also, a nomenclatural problem in Oenothera sect. Calylophus is corrected by adopting the name Oenothera capillifolia Scheele for the species known previously, and nomenclaturally correct, as Calylophus berlandieri Spach. This problem necessitates a new combination Oenothera capillifolia subsp. berlandieri. PMID:24399892

  20. Toxicological benchmarks for potential contaminants of concern for effects on soil and litter invertebrates and heterotrophic process

    SciTech Connect

    Will, M.E.; Suter, G.W. II

    1995-09-01

    An important step in ecological risk assessments is screening the chemicals occur-ring on a site for contaminants of potential concern. Screening may be accomplished by comparing reported ambient concentrations to a set of toxicological benchmarks. Multiple endpoints for assessing risks posed by soil-borne contaminants to organisms directly impacted by them have been established. This report presents benchmarks for soil invertebrates and microbial processes and addresses only chemicals found at United States Department of Energy (DOE) sites. No benchmarks for pesticides are presented. After discussing methods, this report presents the results of the literature review and benchmark derivation for toxicity to earthworms (Sect. 3), heterotrophic microbes and their processes (Sect. 4), and other invertebrates (Sect. 5). The final sections compare the benchmarks to other criteria and background and draw conclusions concerning the utility of the benchmarks.

  1. Microsatellites for Oenothera gayleana and O. hartwegii subsp. filifolia (Onagraceae), and their utility in section Calylophus1

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Emily M.; Fant, Jeremie B.; Moore, Michael J.; Hastings, Amy P.; Larson, Erica L.; Agrawal, Anurag A.; Skogen, Krissa A.

    2016-01-01

    Premise of the study: Eleven nuclear and four plastid microsatellite markers were screened for two gypsum endemic species, Oenothera gayleana and O. hartwegii subsp. filifolia, and tested for cross-amplification in the remaining 11 taxa within Oenothera sect. Calylophus (Onagraceae). Methods and Results: Microsatellite markers were tested in two to three populations spanning the ranges of both O. gayleana and O. hartwegii subsp. filifolia. The nuclear microsatellite loci consisted of both di- and trinucleotide repeats with one to 17 alleles per population. Several loci showed significant deviation from Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium, which may be evidence of chromosomal rings. The plastid microsatellite markers identified one to seven haplotypes per population. The transferability of these markers was confirmed in all 11 taxa within Oenothera sect. Calylophus. Conclusions: The microsatellite loci characterized here are the first developed and tested in Oenothera sect. Calylophus. These markers will be used to assess whether pollinator foraging distance influences population genetic parameters in predictable ways. PMID:26949578

  2. Metals and Ceramics Division progress report for period ending December 31, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Craig, D.F.; Bradley, R.A.; Weir, J.R. Jr.

    1994-07-01

    This report provides an overview of activities and accomplishsments of the division from October 1992 through December 1993; the division is organized to provide technical support, mainly in the area of high-temperature materials, for technologies being developed by DOE. Activities span the range from basic research to industrial interactions (cooperative research and technology transfer). Sections 1-5 describe the different functional groups (engineering materials, high-temperature materials, materials science, ceramics, nuclear fuel materials). Sect. 6 provides an alternative view of the division in terms of the major programs, most of which cross group lines. Sect. 7 summarizes external interactions including cooperative R and D programs and technology transfer functions. Finally, Sect. 8 briefly describes the division`s involvement in educational activities. Several organizational changes were effected during this period.

  3. Taxonomy and phylogenetic relationships of nine species of Hypocrea with anamorphs assignable to Trichoderma section Hypocreanum

    PubMed Central

    Overton, Barrie E.; Stewart, Elwin L.; Geiser, David M.

    2006-01-01

    Morphological studies and phylogenetic analyses of DNA sequences from the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions of the nuclear ribosomal gene repeat, a partial sequence of RNA polymerase II subunit (rpb2), and a partial sequence of the large exon of tef1 (LEtef1) were used to investigate the taxonomy and systematics of nine Hypocrea species with anamorphs assignable to Trichoderma sect. Hypocreanum. Hypocrea corticioides and H. sulphurea are reevaluated. Their Trichoderma anamorphs are described and the phylogenetic positions of these species are determined. Hypocrea sulphurea and H. subcitrina are distinct species based on studies of the type specimens. Hypocrea egmontensis is a facultative synonym of the older name H. subcitrina. Hypocrea with anamorphs assignable to Trichoderma sect. Hypocreanum formed a well-supported clade. Five species with anamorphs morphologically similar to sect. Hypocreanum, H. avellanea, H. parmastoi, H. megalocitrina, H. alcalifuscescens, and H. pezizoides, are not located in this clade. Protocrea farinosa belongs to Hypocrea s.s. PMID:18490989

  4. Taxonomic re-evaluation of species in Talaromyces section Islandici, using a polyphasic approach.

    PubMed

    Yilmaz, N; Visagie, C M; Frisvad, J C; Houbraken, J; Jacobs, K; Samson, R A

    2016-06-01

    The taxonomy of Talaromyces rugulosus, T. wortmannii and closely related species, classified in Talaromyces sect. Islandici, is reviewed in this paper. The species of Talaromyces sect. Islandici have restricted growth on MEA and CYA, generally have yellow mycelia and produce rugulosin and/or skyrin. They are important in biotechnology (e.g. T. rugulosus, T. wortmannii) and in medicine (e.g. T. piceus, T. radicus). The taxonomy of sect. Islandici was resolved using a combination of morphological, extrolite and phylogenetic data, using the Genealogical Concordance Phylogenetic Species Recognition (GCPSR) concept, with special focus on the T. rugulosus and T. wortmannii species complexes. In this paper, we synonymise T. variabilis, Penicillium concavorugulosum and T. sublevisporus with T. wortmannii, and introduce four new species as T. acaricola, T. crassus, T. infraolivaceus and T. subaurantiacus. Finally, we provide a synoptic table for the identification of the 19 species classified in the section. PMID:27616787

  5. Taxonomy and phylogenetic relationships of nine species of Hypocrea with anamorphs assignable to Trichoderma section Hypocreanum.

    PubMed

    Overton, Barrie E; Stewart, Elwin L; Geiser, David M

    2006-01-01

    Morphological studies and phylogenetic analyses of DNA sequences from the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions of the nuclear ribosomal gene repeat, a partial sequence of RNA polymerase II subunit (rpb2), and a partial sequence of the large exon of tef1 (LEtef1) were used to investigate the taxonomy and systematics of nine Hypocrea species with anamorphs assignable to Trichoderma sect. Hypocreanum. Hypocrea corticioides and H. sulphurea are reevaluated. Their Trichoderma anamorphs are described and the phylogenetic positions of these species are determined. Hypocrea sulphurea and H. subcitrina are distinct species based on studies of the type specimens. Hypocrea egmontensis is a facultative synonym of the older name H. subcitrina. Hypocrea with anamorphs assignable to Trichoderma sect. Hypocreanum formed a well-supported clade. Five species with anamorphs morphologically similar to sect. Hypocreanum, H. avellanea, H. parmastoi, H. megalocitrina, H. alcalifuscescens, and H. pezizoides, are not located in this clade. Protocrea farinosa belongs to Hypocrea s.s. PMID:18490989

  6. High circulating activin A level is associated with tumor progression and predicts poor prognosis in lung adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Hoda, Mir Alireza; Rozsas, Anita; Lang, Elisabeth; Klikovits, Thomas; Lohinai, Zoltan; Torok, Szilvia; Berta, Judit; Bendek, Matyas; Berger, Walter; Hegedus, Balazs; Klepetko, Walter; Renyi-Vamos, Ferenc; Grusch, Michael; Dome, Balazs; Laszlo, Viktoria

    2016-01-01

    Activin A (ActA)/follistatin (FST) signaling has been shown to be deregulated in different tumor types including lung adenocarcinoma (LADC). Here, we report that serum ActA protein levels are significantly elevated in LADC patients (n=64) as compared to controls (n=46, p=0.015). ActA levels also correlated with more advanced disease stage (p<0.0001) and T (p=0.0035) and N (p=0.0002) factors. M1 patients had significantly higher ActA levels than M0 patients (p<0.001). High serum ActA level was associated with poor overall survival (p<0.0001) and was confirmed as an independent prognostic factor (p=0.004). Serum FST levels were increased only in female LADC patients (vs. female controls, p=0.031). Two out of five LADC cell lines secreted biologically active ActA, while FST was produced in all of them. Transcripts of both type I and II ActA receptors were detected in all five LADC cell lines. In conclusion, our study does not only suggest that measuring blood ActA levels in LADC patients might improve the prediction of prognosis, but also indicates that this parameter might be a novel non-invasive biomarker for identifying LADC patients with organ metastases. PMID:26950277

  7. Genetic variability and mycohost association of Ampelomyces quisqualis isolates inferred from phylogenetic analyses of ITS rDNA and actin gene sequences.

    PubMed

    Park, Mi-Jeong; Choi, Young-Joon; Hong, Seung-Beom; Shin, Hyeon-Dong

    2010-01-01

    Ampelomyces quisqualis complex is well known as the most common and widespread hyperparasite of the family Erysiphaceae, the cause of powdery mildew diseases. As commercial biopesticide products it is widely used to control the disease in field and plastic houses. Although genetic diversity within Ampelomyces isolates has been previously recognized, a single name A. quisqualis is still applied to all pycnidial intracellular hyperparasites of powdery mildew fungi. In this study, the phylogenetic relationships among Ampelomyces isolates originating from various powdery mildew fungi in Korea were inferred from Bayesian and maximum parsimony analyses of the sequences of ITS rDNA region and actin gene. In the phylogenetic trees, the Ampelomyces isolates could be divided into four distinct groups with high sequence divergences in both regions. The largest group, Clade 1, mostly accommodated Ampelomyces isolates originating from the mycohost Podosphaera spp. (sect. Sphaerotheca). Clade 2 comprised isolates from several genera of powdery mildews, Golovinomyces, Erysiphe (sect. Erysiphe), Arthrocladiella, and Phyllactinia, and was further divided into two subclades. An isolate obtained from Podosphaera (sect. Sphaerotheca) pannosa was clustered into Clade 3, with those from powdery mildews infecting rosaceous hosts. The mycohosts of Ampelomyces isolates in Clade 4 mostly consisted of species of Erysiphe (sect. Erysiphe, sect. Microsphaera, and sect. Uncinula). The present phylogenetic study demonstrates that Ampelomyces hyperparasite is indeed an assemblage of several distinct lineages rather than a sole species. Although the correlation between Ampelomyces isolates and their mycohosts is not obviously clear, the isolates show not only some degree of host specialization but also adaptation to their mycohosts during the evolution of the hyperparasite. PMID:20943134

  8. Lentinellus herbarum, a rediscovered unclamped species.

    PubMed

    Moreau, Pierre-Arthur; Garcia, Guy; Roux, Pierre

    2003-06-01

    The fungus first described as Lentinus flabelliformis var. herbarum has been found fruiting on dead Epilobium angustifolium stalks at La Chaise-Dieu (France), the first record since its original diagnosis. The basidiospore characters, trama and hymenium structure indicate the species belongs Lentinellus sect. Omphalodei (Hericiales), but the absence of clamps is a remarkable character, new for this genus. The new combination L. herbarum comb. nov. (syn. Lentinus flabelliformis var. herbarum) is made and a neotype designated. A key to the eight European taxa of sect. Omphalodei is included. PMID:12951802

  9. Phylogeny of Penicillium and the segregation of Trichocomaceae into three families

    PubMed Central

    Houbraken, J.; Samson, R.A.

    2011-01-01

    are proposed. Analysis of Penicillium below genus rank revealed the presence of 25 clades. A new classification system including both anamorph and teleomorph species is proposed and these 25 clades are treated here as sections. An overview of species belonging to each section is presented. Taxonomic novelties: New sections, all in Penicillium: sect. Sclerotiora Houbraken & Samson, sect. Charlesia Houbraken & Samson, sect. Thysanophora Houbraken & Samson,sect. Ochrosalmonea Houbraken & Samson, sect. Cinnamopurpurea Houbraken & Samson, Fracta Houbraken & Samson, sect. Stolkia Houbraken & Samson, sect. Gracilenta Houbraken & Samson, sect. Citrina Houbraken & Samson, sect. Turbata Houbraken & Samson, sect. Paradoxa Houbraken & Samson, sect. Canescentia Houbraken & Samson. New combinations: Penicillium asymmetricum (Subramanian & Sudha) Houbraken & Samson, P. bovifimosum (Tuthill & Frisvad) Houbraken & Samson, P. glaucoalbidum (Desmazières) Houbraken & Samson, P. laeve (K. Ando & Manoch) Houbraken & Samson, P. longisporum (Kendrick) Houbraken & Samson, P. malachiteum (Yaguchi & Udagawa) Houbraken & Samson, P. ovatum (K. Ando & Nawawi) Houbraken & Samson, P. parviverrucosum (K. Ando & Pitt) Houbraken & Samson, P. saturniforme (Wang & Zhuang) Houbraken & Samson, P. taiwanense (Matsushima) Houbraken & Samson. New names: Penicillium coniferophilum Houbraken & Samson, P. hennebertii Houbraken & Samson, P. melanostipe Houbraken & Samson, P. porphyreum Houbraken & Samson. PMID:22308045

  10. USING BIOMONITORING DATA TO INFORM EXPOSURE ASSESSMENT IN CHILDREN

    EPA Science Inventory

    Discussing the challenges associated with estimating and interpreting toxicant exposures and health risks from biomonitoring data. Extended abstract will also be translated in Spanish and published in Acta Toxicologica Argentina.

  11. Uso de los Datos de Biomonitoreo para Informar sobre la Evaluacion Infantil (American translation is: USING BIOMONITORING DATA TO INFORM EXPOSURE ASSESSMENT IN CHILDREN)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Discussing the challenges associated with estimating and interpreting toxicant exposures and health risks from biomonitoring data. This extended abstract was translated in Spanish and published in Acta Toxicologica Argentina.

  12. Genetics Home Reference: glucose-galactose malabsorption

    MedlinePlus

    ... mutations in SGLT1 cause glucose-galactose malabsorption by trafficking defects. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1999 Feb 24;1453( ... Accessibility FOIA Viewers & Players U.S. Department of Health & Human Services National Institutes of Health National Library of ...

  13. Genetics Home Reference: myosin storage myopathy

    MedlinePlus

    ... proteins accumulate in type I skeletal muscle fibers, forming the protein clumps characteristic of the disorder. It ... Epub 2007 Mar 2. Citation on PubMed Tajsharghi H, Oldfors A. Myosinopathies: pathology and mechanisms. Acta Neuropathol. ...

  14. Genetics Home Reference: oculopharyngeal muscular dystrophy

    MedlinePlus

    ... advances in the understanding of the molecular pathogenic mechanisms and treatment strategies. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2007 Feb; ... further evidence for unequal recombination as the mutational mechanism. Hum Genet. 2005 Mar;116(4):267-71. ...

  15. Errors in Crystal structure of HINT from Helicobacter pylori

    PubMed Central

    Maize, Kimberly M.

    2016-01-01

    Inaccuracies in the article, Crystal structure of HINT from Helicobacter pylori by Tarique et al. [(2016) Acta Cryst. F72, 42–48] are presented, and a brief history of HINT nomenclature is discussed. PMID:27050269

  16. VISIÓN GENERAL DE LA EVALUACIÓN DEL RIESGO EN SALUD INFANTIL EMPLEANDO UN ENFOQUE POR ETAPAS DE DESARROLLO (American translation is: Overview of a Life Stage Approach to Children's Health Risk Assessment)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Discussing the challenges associated with estimating and interpreting toxicant exposures and health risks from biomonitoring data. This extended abstract was translated in Spanish and published in Acta Toxicologica Argentina.

  17. Erratum: Di-μ-nitrosyl-bis-[(η-penta-methyl-cyclo-penta-dien-yl)ruthenium(0)](Ru-Ru). Corrigendum.

    PubMed

    Pearsal, Matthew; Gembicky, Milan; Dominiak, Paulina; Larsen, Anna; Coppens, Philip

    2010-01-01

    The acknowledgement in the paper by Pearsal, Gembicky, Dominiak, Larsen & Coppens [Acta Cryst. (2007), E63, m2596] is extended and an omitted reference is added.[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1107/S1600536807045321.]. PMID:21578980

  18. 75 FR 79069 - Anti-Counterfeiting Trade Agreement: Request for Comments From the Public

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-17

    ... practices. Together these provisions will help to protect American jobs in innovative and creative... business confidential information, the filer should type ``ACTA Comments--Business Confidential'' in the ``Type Comment & Upload file'' field. Any page containing business confidential information must...

  19. 32 CFR 1636.6 - Analysis of belief.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... religious, ethical, or moral convictions were acquired through training, study, contemplation, or other... required to be a member of a peace church or any other church, religious organization, or religious sect to... those of a traditional church or religious organization must show that he basically adheres to...

  20. 32 CFR 1636.6 - Analysis of belief.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... religious, ethical, or moral convictions were acquired through training, study, contemplation, or other... required to be a member of a peace church or any other church, religious organization, or religious sect to... those of a traditional church or religious organization must show that he basically adheres to...

  1. 32 CFR 1636.6 - Analysis of belief.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... religious, ethical, or moral convictions were acquired through training, study, contemplation, or other... required to be a member of a peace church or any other church, religious organization, or religious sect to... those of a traditional church or religious organization must show that he basically adheres to...

  2. VizieR Online Data Catalog: JHK photometry around IRAS 09149-4743 (Ortiz+, 2007)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortiz, R.; Roman-Lopes, A.; Abraham, Z.

    2006-10-01

    Table 2 contains positions and JHK photometry of a set of infrared sources, situated in two crowded areas of the stellar cluster associated with IRAS 09149-4743. All measurements were carried out with the infrared camera "CamIV", as described in Sect. 3 of the paper. (1 data file).

  3. Pieced in the Plains: Kansas Amish Quilts and Cultural Adaptation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smucker, Janneken L.

    2004-01-01

    While the Old Order Amish are often thought of as the plain dressing religious sect that attracts millions of tourists annually to Pennsylvania Dutch country, this Anabaptist group also has a significant history in the Great Plains. The Amish who settled in the Great Plains share commonalities with the Old Order Amish who remained in more…

  4. Israel, Schools, and Arab Conflict in the Middle East.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Franklin

    This paper examines how Israel's educational system attempts to deal with major social, geographic, religious, economic, and political problems. Problems are presented in two main categories--internal and external. Internal problems include high immigration levels, religious and cultural differences among various Jewish sects and between Jews and…

  5. 76 FR 67363 - Extending Religious and Family Member FICA and FUTA Exceptions to Disregarded Entities

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-01

    ... Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Parts 31 and 301 RIN 1545-BJ07 Extending Religious and Family Member FICA...)(3) (concerning individuals who work for certain family members), 3127 (concerning members of...) to extend the FICA and FUTA exceptions for family members and religious sect members to...

  6. Teachers or Missionaries? Duality of Purpose for ESOL Professionals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biava, Christina

    This paper discusses issues in the education of teachers of English for speakers of other languages (ESOL) who intend to use their training as missionaries. The issues arose as a result of one teacher trainer's experience in a community that holds the headquarters of a fundamentalist religious sect. First, the relationship of western linguistics…

  7. Academic Freedom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tobin, Brian G.

    The strength of academic freedom has always depended upon historical circumstances. In the United States, higher education began with institutions founded and controlled by religious sects. The notion of who gets educated and to what ends expanded as American democracy expanded. By the 1980's, legitimate calls for equality became a general…

  8. Molecular phylogeny of Larrea and its allies (Zygophyllaceae): reticulate evolution and the probable time of creosote bush arrival to North America.

    PubMed

    Lia, V V; Confalonieri, V A; Comas, C I; Hunziker, J H

    2001-11-01

    Nucleotide sequences of Rubisco Large Subunit (rbcL) and the internal transcribed spacers (ITS) of nrDNA were obtained for the five species of Larrea and one species each of Bulnesia (ITS only) and Plectrocarpa (rbcL only). Parsimony analyses were conducted, including sequences from seven genera of Zygophyllaceae reported by other authors-Kallstroemia, Zygophyllum, Augea, Fagonia, Pintoa, Guaiacum, and Porlieria. The main conclusions of the present study are (1) the Argentine endemic Plectrocarpa tetracantha belongs to the subfamily Larreoideae (New World Clade); (2) all three phylogenies obtained from rbcL, ITS, and combined data sets show a close relationship between the tetraploid L. cuneifolia (sect. Bifolium) and the diploid multifoliolate pair L. nitida-L. ameghinoi (sect. Larrea), which could result from a possible intersectional hybrid origin of the tetraploid; (3) L. divaricata (sect. Bifolium) and L. tridentata (sect. Bifolium) form a highly supported monophyletic group, which agrees with previous cytogenetic and molecular evidence; and (4) the rate of nucleotide substitution of rbcL was estimated based on geological and fossil records. Under the molecular clock hypothesis, nucleotide sequence divergence between L. divaricata and L. tridentata suggests a Late Neogene (8.4 to 4.2 mybp) time of arrival of the diploid ancestors of L. tridentata to North American deserts. PMID:11697924

  9. Phylogeny of the ectomycorrhizal mushroom genus Alnicola (Basidiomycota, Cortinariaceae) based on rDNA sequences with special emphasis on host specificity and morphological characters.

    PubMed

    Moreau, Pierre-Arthur; Peintner, Ursula; Gardes, Monique

    2006-03-01

    Alnicola (=Naucoria, pro parte) is a mushroom genus of strictly temperate, obligately ectomycorrhizal species, traditionally included in the family Cortinariaceae. Most Alnicola spp. are primarily host specific on Alnus, although a few are mycobionts of Salix or other hosts. The different species of Alnicola exhibit unique morphological (cystidia, pileipellis) and cytological (dikaryotic or monokaryotic hyphae) characters. This makes the genus Alnicola of particular interest for studying the evolution of host specificity and morphological characters in ectomycorrhizal basidiomycetes. We used a combination of classical morphological and phylogenetic methods (rDNA ITS and LSU sequences) to address the following questions: (i) Is Alnicola monophyletic? And (ii) Are characters like host specificity or microscopical structures synapomorphic for certain clades? The study included nearly all currently known European Alnicola sp. Our results demonstrated that, on one hand, the genus Alnicola is polyphyletic, with sistergroup relationships to Hebeloma, Anamika or the clades /Hymenogaster I and /Hymenogaster II. On the other hand, Alnicola splits into three well-supported clades corresponding to the sections Alnicola, Submelinoides, and Salicicolae. The strict host-specificity to Alnus is a derived character and has occurred at least twice. The following morphological characters are synapomorphic for defined clades: the spindle-shaped hymenial cystidia for sect. Alnicola, the hymeniform pileipellis for sect. Submelinoides, and monocaryotic/clampless hyphae for sect. Salicicolae and its sistergroup /Hymenogaster II. As a taxonomical consequence, polyphyly of Alnicola implies that the sects. Submelinoides and Salicicolae need to be segregated from Alnicola. PMID:16314113

  10. Aspergillus asperus and Aspergillus collinsii, two new species from Aspergillus section Usti

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In sampling fungi from the built environment, two isolates that could not confidently be placed in described species were encountered. Phenotypic analysis suggested that they belonged in Aspergillus sect. Usti. In order to verify the sectional placement and to assure that they were undescribed rathe...

  11. Great Plains gasification project, Mercer County, North Dakota; water assessment report section 13(c)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-12-01

    This report was prepared under the provisions of paragraph (c) of Sect. 13 of the Federal Nonnuclear Energy Research and Development Act of 1974. It assesses (1) the availability of adequate water supplies to meet the water requirement of the project, supporting activities and other development induced by the project and (2) the changes in the water resources that will result from the project.

  12. Quality assurance plan for Waste Area Grouping 6 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-01-01

    This Quality Assurance Plan (QAP) is concerned with design and construction (Sect. 2) and characterization and monitoring (Sect. 3). The basis for Sect. 2 is the Quality Assurance Plan for the Design and Construction of Waste Area Grouping 6 Closure at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, and the basis for Sect. 3 is the Environmental Restoration Quality Program Plan. Combining the two areas into one plan gives a single, overall document that explains the requirements and from which the individual QAPs and quality assurance project plans can be written. The Waste Area Grouping (WAG) 6 QAP establishes the procedures and requirements to be implemented for control of quality-related activities for the WAG 6 project. Quality Assurance (QA) activities are subject to requirements detailed in the Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. (Energy Systems), QA Program and the Environmental Restoration (ER) QA Program, as well as to other quality requirements. These activities may be performed by Energy Systems organizations, subcontractors to Energy Systems, and architect-engineer (A-E) under prime contract to the US Department of Energy (DOE), or a construction manager under prime contract to DOE. This plan specifies the overall Energy Systems quality requirements for the project. The WAG 6 QAP will be supplemented by subproject QAPs that will identify additional requirements pertaining to each subproject.

  13. Chan Teaching and Learning: An Aesthetic Analysis of Its Educational Import

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meng, Lingqi; Uhrmacher, P. Bruce

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the sudden enlightenment sect of Chan (or Zen in Japanese terms) in order to understand various aspects of teaching and learning in the Buddhist tradition in China. To unravel Chan's educational import, we analyze its aesthetic features through a Western lens in order to highlight significant aspects of the…

  14. A morphometric study of species boundaries of the wild potato Solanum brevicaule complex: replicated field trials in Argentina and Peru

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Solanum brevicaule complex is a group of about 20 wild potato species (sect. Petota), containing about 30 taxa with included subspecies and varieties. The complex is defined entirely by morphological similarity of its constituent members that are distributed from Peru south to central Argentina....

  15. Phylogenetic relationships of Solanum series Conicibaccata and related species in Solanum section Petota inferred from five conserved ortholog sequences

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Solanum series Conicibaccata is the second largest series in sect. Petota, containing 40 species widely distributed from southern Mexico to central Bolivia. It contains diploids (2n = 2x = 24), tetraploids (2n = 4x = 48) and hexaploids (2n = 6x = 72), and a limited number of examined species have be...

  16. A Replicated Morphological Study in Peru of Solanum Series Conicibaccata

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Solanum series Conicibaccata is composed of about 40 wild potato (sect. Petota) species distributed from central Mexico south to Bolivia. It forms the second largest series in section Petota. It contains diploids (2n=2x=24), tetraploids (2n=4x=48) and hexaploids (2n = 6x=72). Many species are morpho...

  17. MODEL FOR MEASURING THE HEALTH IMPACT FROM CHANGING LEVELS OF AMBIENT AIR POLLUTION: MORTALITY STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The major objective of this study is to answer the questions, Is a recent mortality decline in the city of Chicago caused by a decrease in the amount of major air pollutants such as suspended particulate and sulfur dioxide. Based on multiple regression analysis for the cross-sect...

  18. The Impact of Church Affiliation on Language Use in Kwara'ae (Solomon Islands).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson-Gegeo, Karen Ann; Gegeo, David Welchman

    1991-01-01

    The impact of church affiliation on language use, identity, and change among Kwara'ae speakers in the Solomon Islands is examined. It was found that members of different sects signal their separate identities not only through linguistic code but also through discourse patterns and nonverbal aspects of communication. (26 references) (JL)

  19. Functional analyses of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) immature fiber (im) mutant reveal that fiber cell wall development is associated with sensitivity to stress.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Cotton fiber maturity refers the degree of fiber cell wall development and is an important factor for determining commercial value of cotton. The molecular mechanism regulating the fiber cell wall development has not been well characterized. Microscopic image analysis of the cross-sect...

  20. Social Class, Amish Culture, and an Egalitarian Ethos: Case Study from a Rural School Serving Amish Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howley, Aimee; Howley, Craig; Burgess, Larry; Pusateri, Drew

    2008-01-01

    This article presents a case study of egalitarian educational practices evident in a rural school that served a large proportion (40%) of Amish students. The Amish are a pacifist Christian sect widely misunderstood as quaint and even backward; their traditional work is small-scale farming. In 1972 the Amish wrested the national right--via a US…

  1. Contrasting andean geodynamics drive evolution of lowland taxa in western Amazonia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Using a palm lineage of 15 species (Astrocaryum sect. Huicungo), we tested an hypothesis that past geologic events in western Amazonia influenced the modern configuration of the upper Amazon drainage and thus diversification and distribution of these palsm, which found only in this region. The chang...

  2. [The issue of cults in psychiatry].

    PubMed

    Bilikiewicz, A; Pietraszczyk-Kedziora, B

    2000-01-01

    The cult indoctrination, mechanisms operating within sects, manipulation techniques and the role of the leader are presented in the article. Authors discuss personality features and situational factors leading to cult-entering and psychopathological effects on cult members. There are also the basics of brainwashing and its efficiency included, followed by the psychiatrists and families position in diagnosing and therapy of cultists. PMID:10853355

  3. A World Apart.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zehr, Mary Ann

    2000-01-01

    Describes the Hutterites, a communal German-speaking Christian sect in the northwestern United States and western Canada, who typically school their children only through eighth grade and allow further education only for teacher training. Discusses how well Hutterite children do in public schools, Hutterite teacher education programs at…

  4. Reappraisal of Aspergillus section Nidulantes with descriptions of two new sterigmatocystin producing species

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aspergillus section Nidulantes is a species rich section encompassing many well-known soil-borne, indoor and food-borne species, some of them act as human pathogens or producers of mycotoxins. The concept of sect. Nidulantes changed significantly since description and many species were re-classified...

  5. Alternaria redefined

    PubMed Central

    Woudenberg, J.H.C.; Groenewald, J.Z.; Binder, M.; Crous, P.W.

    2013-01-01

    breviramosa Woudenb. & Crous, Alternaria chlamydosporigena Woudenb. & Crous, Alternaria concatenata Woudenb. & Crous, Alternaria embellisia Woudenb. & Crous, Alternaria heterospora Woudenb. & Crous, Alternaria papavericola Woudenb. & Crous, Alternaria terricola Woudenb. & Crous. Resurrected names - Alternaria cetera E.G. Simmons, Alternaria chartarum Preuss, Alternaria consortialis (Thüm.) J.W. Groves & S. Hughes, Alternaria cucurbitae Letendre & Roum., Alternaria dennisii M.B. Ellis, Alternaria eureka E.G. Simmons, Alternaria gomphrenae Togashi, Alternaria malorum (Ruehle) U. Braun, Crous & Dugan, Alternaria phragmospora Emden, Alternaria scirpicola (Fuckel) Sivan. New sections, all in Alternaria - sect. Chalastospora Woudenb. & Crous, sect. Cheiranthus Woudenb. & Crous, sect. Crivellia Woudenb. & Crous, sect. Dianthicola Woudenb. & Crous, sect. Embellisia Woudenb. & Crous, sect. Embellisioides Woudenb. & Crous, sect. Eureka Woudenb. & Crous, sect. Infectoriae Woudenb. & Crous, sect. Japonicae Woudenb. & Crous, sect. Nimbya Woudenb. & Crous, sect. Phragmosporae Woudenb. & Crous, sect. Pseudoulocladium Woudenb. & Crous, sect. Teretispora Woudenb. & Crous, sect. Ulocladioides Woudenb. & Crous, sect. Ulocladium Woudenb. & Crous, sect. Undifilum Woudenb. & Crous. New genus - Paradendryphiella Woudenb. & Crous. PMID:24014900

  6. Preliminary phylogeny of Solanum series Conicibaccata based on morphological and molecular data

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Solanum series Conicibaccata contains about 40 wild potato (sect. Petota) species distributed from southern Mexico to central Bolivia. It contains diploids (2n = 2x = 24), tetraploids (2n = 4x = 48) and hexaploids (2n = 6x = 72) and some polyploids are likely allopolyploids. Previous morphological s...

  7. The Use and Limits of AFLP Data in the Taxonomy of Polyploid Wild Potato Species in Solanum Series Conicibaccata

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Solanum sect. Petota (tuber-bearing wild and cultivated potatoes) are a group of approximately 190 wild species distributed throughout the Americas from the southwestern United States south to Argentina, Chile, and Uruguay. Solanum series Conicibaccata are a group of approximately 40 species within ...

  8. Validation of the hybrid flowering cherry Prunus xincam Ingram (Rosaceae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This contribution provides scientific validation for a widely-used scientific name of a nothospecies in Prunus sect. Pseudocerasus. This name has been used informally for many years, but without the publication of a full description in a recognized journal and the designation of a type specimen the ...

  9. Symmetries of Spectral Problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shabat, A.

    Deriving abelian KdV and NLS hierarchies, we describe non-abelian symmetries and "pre-Lax" elementary approach to Lax pairs. Discrete symmetries of spectral problems are considered in Sect. 4.2. Here we prove Darboux classical theorem and discuss a modern theory of dressing chains.

  10. Educational Disparities and Conflict: Evidence from Lebanon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tfaily, Rania; Diab, Hassan; Kulczycki, Andrzej

    2013-01-01

    This article examines the impact of Lebanon's civil war (1975-1991) on disparities in education among the country's main religious sects and across various regions. District of registration is adopted as a proxy for religious affiliation through a novel, detailed classification to assess sectarian differentials by region and regional differentials…

  11. A taxonomic review of Penicillium species producing conidiophores with solitary phialides, classified in section Torulomyces.

    PubMed

    Visagie, C M; Houbraken, J; Dijksterhuis, J; Seifert, K A; Jacobs, K; Samson, R A

    2016-06-01

    The genus Torulomyces was characterised by species that typically have conidiophores consisting of solitary phialides that produce long chains of conidia connected by disjunctors. Based on the phylogenetic position of P. lagena (generic ex-neotype), the genus and its seven species were transferred to Penicillium and classified in sect. Torulomyces along with P. cryptum and P. lassenii. The aim of this study was to review the species currently classified in sect. Torulomyces using morphology and phylogenies of the ITS, BenA, CaM and RPB2 regions. Based on our results, we accept 16 species in sect. Torulomyces, including 12 new species described as P. aeris, P. austricola, P. cantabricum, P. catalonicum, P. oregonense, P. marthae-christenseniae, P. riverlandense, P. tubakianum, P. variratense, P. williamettense, P. wisconsinense and P. wollemiicola. In addition, we reclassify P. laeve and P. ovatum in sect. Exilicaulis and correct the typification of P. lagena. We provide descriptions and notes on the identification of the species. PMID:27616790

  12. Credibility, credulity, and redistribution.

    PubMed

    Viciana, Hugo A; Loverdo, Claude; Gomila, Antoni

    2016-01-01

    After raising some doubts for cultural group selection as an explanation of prosocial religiosity, we propose an alternative that views it as a "greenbeard effect." We combine the dynamic constraints on the evolution of greenbeard effects with Iannaccone's (1994) account of strict sects. Our model shows that certain social conditions may foster credulity and prosociality. PMID:26948743

  13. Differentiation of low-attenuation intracranial hemorrhage and calcification using dual-energy computed tomography in a phantom system

    PubMed Central

    Nute, Jessica L.; Roux, Lucia Le; Chandler, Adam G.; Baladandayuthapani, Veera; Schellingerhout, Dawid; Cody, Dianna D.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Calcific and hemorrhagic intracranial lesions with attenuation levels of <100 Hounsfield Units (HU) cannot currently be reliably differentiated by single-energy computed tomography (SECT). The proper differentiation of these lesion types would have a multitude of clinical applications. A phantom model was used to test the ability of dual-energy CT (DECT) to differentiate such lesions. Materials and Methods Agar gel-bound ferric oxide and hydroxyapatite were used to model hemorrhage and calcification, respectively. Gel models were scanned using SECT and DECT and organized into SECT attenuation-matched pairs at 16 attenuation levels between 0 and 100 HU. DECT data were analyzed using 3D Gaussian mixture models (GMMs), as well as a simplified threshold plane metric derived from the 3D GMM, to assign voxels to hemorrhagic or calcific categories. Accuracy was calculated by comparing predicted voxel assignments with actual voxel identities. Results We measured 6,032 voxels from each gel model, for a total of 193,024 data points (16 matched model pairs). Both the 3D GMM and its more clinically implementable threshold plane derivative yielded similar results, with >90% accuracy at matched SECT attenuation levels ≥50 HU. Conclusions Hemorrhagic and calcific lesions with attenuation levels between 50 and 100 HU were differentiable using DECT in a clinically relevant phantom system with >90% accuracy. This method warrants further testing for potential clinical applications. PMID:25162534

  14. Structure and Dynamics of Cylinder Forming Block Copolymers in Thin Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsarkova, Larisa A.

    In this chapter, we present fundamental aspects of the phase behavior and ordering dynamics in thin films of compositionally asymmetric block copoly- mers. Cylinder-forming AB diblock and ABA triblock copolymers are used as model systems. In the introduction we briefly describe the physics which commonly governs block copolymer phase behavior both in bulk and in thin films; then we define characteristic features of thin film behavior with spe- cial emphasis on the parameters that are readily controlled in experiments. Along with the discussion of surface fields and confinement effects in Sect. 2, we focus on the issues that are seldom discussed in the literature such as molecular weight and molecular architecture effects on the phase behavior and on microdomain dynamics (Sect. 2), and the analysis of the characteristic microdomain dimensions (Sect. 3).We present measurements of the character- istic spacings and film thickness with sub-micron resolution and demonstrate confinement induced distortions of microdomain dimensions in thin films rela- tive to the respective parameters in bulk. In Sect. 4 we describe time-resolved details of structural ordering of cylinder microdomains which indicate that the dynamics of defect annihilation in block copolymer thin films is considerably more complex than anticipated so far.

  15. Genomic Origins of the Cultivated Potato Species: GBSSI Sequencing Data

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chromosome pairing relationships within cultivated potato (Solanum tuberosum) and its wild tuber-bearing relatives (Solanum sect. Petota) have been interpreted by genome formulas, developed in the early 1900s, through techniques of classic meiotic analysis of interspecific hybrids. Here we reexamine...

  16. What Is Amish in Old Amish Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ediger, Marlow

    The Old Order Amish society is unique among diverse Mennonite sects. Their traditions and simplicity of lifestyle are evident in their manner of dress, non-mechanized farming practices, and rejection of electricity or running water in their homes. In an Old Order Amish education, children are taught the "four R's:" reading, writing, arithmetic,…

  17. A Note on Morley's Triangle Theorem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mueller, Nancy; Tikoo, Mohan; Wang, Haohao

    2012-01-01

    In this note, we offer a proof of a variant of Morley's triangle theorem, when the exterior angles of a triangle are trisected. We also offer a generalization of Morley's theorem when angles of an "n"-gon are "n"-sected. (Contains 9 figures.)

  18. The Ethics of Quantification and Why It Doesn't Work; or Life among the Numerologists, Inumerates, and Qualitatives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sax, Gilbert

    The paper states that quantification is neither ethical nor unethical, but is ethically neutral. It is the behavior or intent of the human being that is clearly a matter of ethical concern. Like numerology and the sects of inumerates and qualitatives, there is not so much an unethical practice that is supported as there is a lack of vision and…

  19. The Hutterite Brethern: An Annotated Bibliography with Special Reference to South Dakota Hutterite Colonies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riley, Marvin P.

    South Dakota is the home of a small religious group known as the Hutterite Brethren. The members of this sect live in small cooperative colonies in the northern United States and in several provinces in Canada. The Hutterites are unique in that, while using modern agricultural technology, they have isolated themselves from the main current of…

  20. Species Boundaries and Interrelationships of Solanum Series Conicibaccata

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Solanum series Conicibaccata Bitter previously contained 40 wild potato (sect. Petota Dumort.) species distributed from southern Mexico to central Bolivia. It contained diploids (2n = 2x = 24), tetraploids (2n = 4x= 48) and hexaploids (2n = 6x = 72). We previously reported the morphological phenetic...

  1. History of Higher Education Annual, 2002.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geiger, Roger L., Ed.

    2002-01-01

    This annual volume brings together papers related to the history of higher education in the United States and abroad. The papers are: (1) "A Canon of Democratic Intent: Reinterpreting the Roots of the Great Books Movement" (Katherine Chaddock Reynolds); (2) "Small Towns, Small Sects, and Coeducation in Midwestern Colleges, 1853-1861 (Doris…

  2. Quaternary diversification in European alpine plants: pattern and process.

    PubMed Central

    Kadereit, Joachim W; Griebeler, Eva Maria; Comes, Hans Peter

    2004-01-01

    Molecular clock approaches applied previously to European alpine plants suggest that Primula sect. Auricula, Gentiana sect. Ciminalis and Soldanella diversified at the beginning of the Quaternary or well within this period, whereas Globularia had already started diversifying in the (Late-)Tertiary. In the first part of this paper we present evidence that, in contrast to Globularia and Soldanella, the branching patterns of the molecular internal transcribed spacer phylogenies of both Primula and Gentiana are incompatible with a constant-rates birth-death model. In both of these last two taxa, speciation probably decreased through Quaternary times, perhaps because of some niche-filling process and/or a decrease in specific range size. In the second part, we apply nonlinear regression analyses to the lineage-through-time plots of P. sect. Auricula to test a range of capacity-dependent models of diversification, and the effect of Quaternary climatic oscillations on diversification and extinction. At least for one major clade of sect. Auricula there is firm evidence that both diversification and extinction are a function of temperature. Intriguingly, temperature appears to be correlated positively with extinction, but negatively with diversification. This suggests that diversification did not take place, as previously assumed, in geographical isolation in high-altitude interglacial refugia, but rather at low altitudes in geographically isolated glacial refugia. PMID:15101582

  3. Evolution of the Earth Observing System (EOS) Data and Information System (EOSDIS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramapriyan, Hampapuram K.; Behnke, Jeanne; Sofinowski, Edwin; Lowe, Dawn; Esfandiari, Mary Ann

    2008-01-01

    One of the strategic goals of the U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is to "Develop a balanced overall program of science, exploration, and aeronautics consistent with the redirection of the human spaceflight program to focus on exploration". An important sub-goal of this goal is to "Study Earth from space to advance scientific understanding and meet societal needs." NASA meets this subgoal in partnership with other U.S. agencies and international organizations through its Earth science program. A major component of NASA s Earth science program is the Earth Observing System (EOS). The EOS program was started in 1990 with the primary purpose of modeling global climate change. This program consists of a set of space-borne instruments, science teams, and a data system. The instruments are designed to obtain highly accurate, frequent and global measurements of geophysical properties of land, oceans and atmosphere. The science teams are responsible for designing the instruments as well as scientific algorithms to derive information from the instrument measurements. The data system, called the EOS Data and Information System (EOSDIS), produces data products using those algorithms as well as archives and distributes such products. The first of the EOS instruments were launched in November 1997 on the Japanese satellite called the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) and the last, on the U.S. satellite Aura, were launched in July 2004. The instrument science teams have been active since the inception of the program in 1990 and have participation from Brazil, Canada, France, Japan, Netherlands, United Kingdom and U.S. The development of EOSDIS was initiated in 1990, and this data system has been serving the user community since 1994. The purpose of this chapter is to discuss the history and evolution of EOSDIS since its beginnings to the present and indicate how it continues to evolve into the future. this chapter is organized as follows. Sect

  4. Electrical and Thermal Conductivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ventura, Guglielmo; Perfetti, Mauro

    After a Sect. 1.1 devoted to electrical conductivity and a section that deals with magnetic and dielectric losses ( 1.2 ), this chapter explores the theory of thermal conduction in solids. The examined categories of solids are: metals Sect. 1.3.2 , Dielectrics Sects. 1.3.3 and 1.3.4 and Nanocomposites Sect. 1.3.5 . In Sect. 1.3.6 the problem of thermal and electrical contact between materials is considered because contact resistance occurring at conductor joints in magnets or other high power applications can lead to undesirable electrical losses. At low temperature, thermal contact is also critical in the mounting of temperature sensors, where bad contacts can lead to erroneous results, in particular when superconductivity phenomena are involved.

  5. Biogenic Impact on Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stephan, Ina; Askew, Peter; Gorbushina, Anna; Grinda, Manfred; Hertel, Horst; Krumbein, Wolfgang; Müller, Rolf-Joachim; Pantke, Michael; Plarre, Rüdiger (Rudy); Schmitt, Guenter; Schwibbert, Karin

    Materials as constituents of products or components of technical systems rarely exist in isolation and many must cope with exposure in the natural world. This chapter describes methods that simulate how a material is influenced through contact with living systems such as microorganisms and arthropods. Both unwanted and desirable interactions are considered. This biogenic impact on materials is intimately associated with the environment to which the material is exposed (Materials-Environment Interaction, Chap. 15). Factors such as moisture, temperature and availability of food sources all have a significant influence on biological systems. Corrosion (Chap. 12) and wear (Chap. 13) can also be induced or enhanced in the presence of microorganisms. Section 14.1 introduces the categories between desired (biodegradation) and undesired (biodeterioration) biological effects on materials. It also introduces the role of biocides for the protection of materials. Section 14.2 describes the testing of wood as a building material especially against microorganisms and insects. Section 14.3 characterizes the test methodologies for two other groups of organic materials, namely polymers (Sect. 14.3.1) and paper and textiles (Sect. 14.3.2). Section 14.4 deals with the susceptibility of inorganic materials such as metals (Sect. 14.4.1), concrete (Sect. 14.4.2) and ceramics (Sect. 14.4.3) to biogenic impact. Section 14.5 treats the testing methodology concerned with the performance of coatings and coating materials. In many of these tests specific strains of organisms are employed. It is vital that these strains retain their ability to utilize/attack the substrate from which they were isolated, even when kept for many years in the laboratory. Section 14.6 therefore considers the importance of maintaining robust and representative test organisms that are as capable of utilizing a substrate as their counterparts in nature such that realistic predictions of performance can be made.

  6. Deriving concentrations of oxygen and carbon in human tissues using single- and dual-energy CT for ion therapy applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landry, Guillaume; Parodi, Katia; Wildberger, Joachim E.; Verhaegen, Frank

    2013-08-01

    Dedicated methods of in-vivo verification of ion treatment based on the detection of secondary emitted radiation, such as positron-emission-tomography and prompt gamma detection require high accuracy in the assignment of the elemental composition. This especially concerns the content in carbon and oxygen, which are the most abundant elements of human tissue. The standard single-energy computed tomography (SECT) approach to carbon and oxygen concentration determination has been shown to introduce significant discrepancies in the carbon and oxygen content of tissues. We propose a dual-energy CT (DECT)-based approach for carbon and oxygen content assignment and investigate the accuracy gains of the method. SECT and DECT Hounsfield units (HU) were calculated using the stoichiometric calibration procedure for a comprehensive set of human tissues. Fit parameters for the stoichiometric calibration were obtained from phantom scans. Gaussian distributions with standard deviations equal to those derived from phantom scans were subsequently generated for each tissue for several values of the computed tomography dose index (CTDIvol). The assignment of %weight carbon and oxygen (%wC,%wO) was performed based on SECT and DECT. The SECT scheme employed a HU versus %wC,O approach while for DECT we explored a Zeff versus %wC,O approach and a (Zeff, ρe) space approach. The accuracy of each scheme was estimated by calculating the root mean square (RMS) error on %wC,O derived from the input Gaussian distribution of HU for each tissue and also for the noiseless case as a limiting case. The (Zeff, ρe) space approach was also compared to SECT by comparing RMS error for hydrogen and nitrogen (%wH,%wN). Systematic shifts were applied to the tissue HU distributions to assess the robustness of the method against systematic uncertainties in the stoichiometric calibration procedure. In the absence of noise the (Zeff, ρe) space approach showed more accurate %wC,O assignment (largest error of

  7. Microbial Siderophores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Budzikiewicz, Herbert

    Iron is of great importance for many metabolic processes since the redox potential between its two valence states Fe2+ and Fe3+ lies within the range of physiological processes. Actually, iron is not a rare element, it is fourth in abundance in the earth crust, but it is not readily available for microorganisms. In the soil ferric oxide hydrates are formed at pH values around seven and the concentration of free Fe3+ is at best 10-17 mol/dm3 while about 10-6 mol/dm3 would be needed. In living organisms iron is usually strongly bound to peptidic substances such as transferrins. To increase the supply of soluble iron microorganisms other than those living in an acidic habitat may circumvent the problem by reduction of Fe3+ to Fe2+ (182), which seems to be of major importance for marine phytoplankton (151); see also amphiphilic marine bacteria (Sect.2.8) and Fe2+ binding ligands (Sect. 7) below. An important alternative is the production of Fe3+ chelating compounds, so-called siderophores. Siderophores are secondary metabolites with masses below 2,000 Da and a high affinity to Fe3+. Small iron-siderophore complexes can enter the cell via unspecific porins, larger ones need a transport system that recognizes the ferri-siderophore at the cell surface. In the cell, iron is released mostly by reduction to the less strongly bound Fe2+ state (137), and the free siderophore is re-exported ("shuttle mechanism"); for a modified shuttle system see pyoverdins (Sect. 2.1) and amonabactins (Sect. 2.7). Rarely the siderophore is degraded in the periplasmatic space as, e.g. enterobactin (Sect. 2.7). Alternatively Fe3+ is transferred at the cell surface from the ferri-siderophore to a trans-membrane transport system ("taxi mechanism"). A probably archaic and unspecific variety of the taxi mechanism comprises the reduction of Fe3+ at the cell surface (see ferrichrome A, Sect. 2.6 (99, 105)). The terms "shuttle" and "taxi mechanism" were coined by Raymond and Carrano (296).

  8. In Vivo Comparison of Radiation Exposure of Dual-Energy CT Versus Low-Dose CT Versus Standard CT for Imaging Urinary Calculi

    PubMed Central

    Jepperson, Maria A.; Cernigliaro, Joseph G.; Ibrahim, El-Sayed H.; Morin, Richard L.; Haley, William E.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Purpose: Dual-energy computed tomography (DECT) is an emerging imaging modality with the unique capability of determining urinary stone composition. This study compares radiation exposure of DECT, standard single-energy CT (SECT), and low-dose renal stone protocol single-energy CT (LDSECT) for the evaluation of nephrolithiasis in a single in vivo patient cohort. Materials and Methods: Following institutional review board (IRB) approval, we retrospectively reviewed 200 consecutive DECT examinations performed on patients with suspected urolithiasis over a 6-month period. Of these, 35 patients had undergone examination with our LDSECT protocol, and 30 patients had undergone examination of the abdomen and pelvis with our SECT imaging protocol within 2 years of the DECT examination. The CT dose index volume (CTDIvol) was used to compare radiation exposure between scans. Image quality was objectively evaluated by comparing image noise. Statistical evaluation was performed using a Student's t-test. Results: DECT performed at 80/140 kVp and 100/140 kVp did not produce a significant difference in radiation exposure compared with LDSECT (p=0.09 and 0.18, respectively). DECT performed at 80/140 kVp and 100/140 kVp produced an average 40% and 31%, respectively, reduction in radiation exposure compared with SECT (p<0.001). For patients imaged with the 100/140 kVp protocol, average values for images noise were higher in the LDSECT images compared with DECT images (p<0.001) and there was no significant difference in image noise between DECT and SECT images in the same patient (p=0.88). Patients imaged with the 80/140 kVp protocol had equivocal image noise compared with LDSECT images (p=0.44), however, DECT images had greater noise compared with SECT images in the same patient (p<0.001). Of the 75 patients included in the study, stone material was available for 16; DECT analysis correctly predicted stone composition in 15/16 patients (93%). Conclusion: DECT

  9. Precise detection of L. monocytogenes hitting its highly conserved region possessing several specific antibody binding sites.

    PubMed

    Jahangiri, Abolfazl; Rasooli, Iraj; Reza Rahbar, Mohammad; Khalili, Saeed; Amani, Jafar; Ahmadi Zanoos, Kobra

    2012-07-21

    Listeria monocytogenes, a facultative intracellular fast-growing Gram-positive food-borne pathogen, can infect immunocompromised individuals leading to meningitis, meningoencephalitis and septicaemias. From the pool of virulence factors of the organism, ActA, a membrane protein, has a critical role in the life cycle of L. monocytogenes. High mortality rate of listeriosis necessitates a sensitive and rapid diagnostic test for precise identification of L. monocytogenes. We used bioinformatic tools to locate a specific conserved region of ActA for designing and developing an antibody-antigen based diagnostic test for the detection of L. monocytogenes. A number of databases were looked for ActA related sequences. Sequences were analyzed with several online software to find an appropriate region for our purpose. ActA protein was found specific to Listeria species with no homologs in other organisms. We finally introduced a highly conserved region within ActA sequence that possess several antibody binding sites specific to L. monocytogenes. This protein sequence can serve as an antigen for designing a relatively cheap, sensitive, and specific diagnostic test for detection of L. monocytogenes. PMID:22575546

  10. Phylogenetic Analysis of a 'Jewel Orchid' Genus Goodyera (Orchidaceae) Based on DNA Sequence Data from Nuclear and Plastid Regions.

    PubMed

    Hu, Chao; Tian, Huaizhen; Li, Hongqing; Hu, Aiqun; Xing, Fuwu; Bhattacharjee, Avishek; Hsu, Tianchuan; Kumar, Pankaj; Chung, Shihwen

    2016-01-01

    A molecular phylogeny of Asiatic species of Goodyera (Orchidaceae, Cranichideae, Goodyerinae) based on the nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region and two chloroplast loci (matK and trnL-F) was presented. Thirty-five species represented by 132 samples of Goodyera were analyzed, along with other 27 genera/48 species, using Pterostylis longifolia and Chloraea gaudichaudii as outgroups. Bayesian inference, maximum parsimony and maximum likelihood methods were used to reveal the intrageneric relationships of Goodyera and its intergeneric relationships to related genera. The results indicate that: 1) Goodyera is not monophyletic; 2) Goodyera could be divided into four sections, viz., Goodyera, Otosepalum, Reticulum and a new section; 3) sect. Reticulum can be further divided into two subsections, viz., Reticulum and Foliosum, whereas sect. Goodyera can in turn be divided into subsections Goodyera and a new subsection. PMID:26927946

  11. Rediscovery of Alnicola cholea (Cortinariaceae): taxonomic revision and description of its mycorrhiza with Polygonum viviparum (Polygonaceae).

    PubMed

    Moreau, Pierre-Arthur; Mleczko, Piotr; Ronikier, Michał; Ronikier, Anna

    2006-01-01

    Alnicola cholea, a little-known species so far reported only from the two original localities in the French Alps, is redefined here based on revision of herbarium materials and studies of recent field collections. A detailed morphological and anatomical description of fruit bodies of Alnicola cholea, including a discussion on its taxonomic status and distribution data is provided. Due to the unique combination of characters of Alnicola cholea within the genus, a new monospecific section is introduced for this species: Alnicola sect. Cholea, sect. nov. Mycorrhizal symbiosis of A. cholea with an arcticalpine plant Polygonum viviparum was observed in the Tatra Mountains (Poland). A description of these mycorrhizae is given, providing first detailed data on an identified herbaceous plant mycorrhiza. PMID:17040076

  12. The "Bestie di Satana" murders.

    PubMed

    Birkhoff, Jutta; Candelli, Chiara; Zeroli, Stefania; La Tegola, Donatella; Carabellese, Felice

    2013-11-01

    In recent years, satanic groups have been responsible for various types and degrees of crimes. We report the case of a number of murders committed in Italy by a group of young people calling themselves the "Bestie di Satana". Forensic psychiatric assessment of the members of a satanic sect charged with the crime revealed that all the young people had a fragile, immature personality, a very low level of education and were socially disadvantaged. The trial of the members of the "Bestie di Satana" sect was concluded with the verdict of deliberate murder, and all the members were given long jail sentences. This report should lead us to explore social and cultural responses to juvenile satanism, statistically shown to be a relatively rare phenomenon but with a high criminal potential. PMID:24117906

  13. Phylogenetic Analysis of a ‘Jewel Orchid’ Genus Goodyera (Orchidaceae) Based on DNA Sequence Data from Nuclear and Plastid Regions

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Chao; Tian, Huaizhen; Li, Hongqing; Hu, Aiqun; Xing, Fuwu; Bhattacharjee, Avishek; Hsu, Tianchuan; Kumar, Pankaj; Chung, Shihwen

    2016-01-01

    A molecular phylogeny of Asiatic species of Goodyera (Orchidaceae, Cranichideae, Goodyerinae) based on the nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region and two chloroplast loci (matK and trnL-F) was presented. Thirty-five species represented by 132 samples of Goodyera were analyzed, along with other 27 genera/48 species, using Pterostylis longifolia and Chloraea gaudichaudii as outgroups. Bayesian inference, maximum parsimony and maximum likelihood methods were used to reveal the intrageneric relationships of Goodyera and its intergeneric relationships to related genera. The results indicate that: 1) Goodyera is not monophyletic; 2) Goodyera could be divided into four sections, viz., Goodyera, Otosepalum, Reticulum and a new section; 3) sect. Reticulum can be further divided into two subsections, viz., Reticulum and Foliosum, whereas sect. Goodyera can in turn be divided into subsections Goodyera and a new subsection. PMID:26927946

  14. A Re-examination of the Taxonomic Status of Embellisia astragali.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jianli; Li, Yanzhong; Creamer, Rebecca

    2016-04-01

    The plant pathogen Embellisia astragali causes a disease termed yellow stunt and root rot in standing milk-vetch (Astragalus adsurgens). The genus Embellisia and 12 allied genera were redefined as being synonymous with Alternaria in 2013. However, that taxonomic revision did not include E. astragali. The objective of this study was to determine the taxonomic status of this fungal species by comparing its morphological and molecular characteristics with those of other species. A phylogenetic tree developed based on the sequences of 3 loci (GPD, RPB2, and TEF-1) strongly supported the placement of E. astragali in Alternaria sect. Undifilum. The fungus also exhibited germ tubes and mycelia with a 'wavy' appearance on potato carrot agar, which is a characteristic of sect. Undifilum. Embellisia astragali was described here as Alternaria gansuense comb. nov. because the species epithet "astragali" was already occupied. PMID:26693723

  15. Thermal quenching sample chamber for grazing incidence small angle x-ray scattering studies of polymer films.

    PubMed

    Singh, M A; Groves, M N; Müller, M S; Stahlbrand, I J; Smilgies, D-M

    2007-11-01

    The second generation of a sample chamber designed for in situ measurement of temperature- and time-dependent polymer film nanostructure using the method of grazing incidence small angle x-ray scattering is presented. An increased operating temperature limit (from 260 to 400 degrees C) with precise control (+/-0.1 degrees C) at fixed temperatures as well as a fourfold increase in maximum instantaneous cooling rate (up to 73 degrees C/s) relative to the first generation chamber [M. N. Groves et al, J. Appl. Crystallogr. 39, 120 (2006)] are reported. Thermal quenches from 220 to 90 degrees C are shown to be reproducible to within +/-1 degrees C of the final temperature. Experimental tests on spin-coated films of symmetric diblock styrene-butadiene copolymer demonstrate the ability to resolve the kinetics of orientation of lamellar domains parallel to the silicon substrate, distinct from the initial formation of randomly oriented lamellar domains immediately following the thermal quench. PMID:18052491

  16. Thermal quenching sample chamber for grazing incidence small angle x-ray scattering studies of polymer films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, M. A.; Groves, M. N.; Müller, M. S.; Stahlbrand, I. J.; Smilgies, D.-M.

    2007-11-01

    The second generation of a sample chamber designed for in situ measurement of temperature- and time-dependent polymer film nanostructure using the method of grazing incidence small angle x-ray scattering is presented. An increased operating temperature limit (from 260to400°C) with precise control (±0.1°C) at fixed temperatures as well as a fourfold increase in maximum instantaneous cooling rate (up to 73°C/s) relative to the first generation chamber [M. N. Groves et al, J. Appl. Crystallogr. 39, 120 (2006)] are reported. Thermal quenches from 220to90°C are shown to be reproducible to within ±1°C of the final temperature. Experimental tests on spin-coated films of symmetric diblock styrene-butadiene copolymer demonstrate the ability to resolve the kinetics of orientation of lamellar domains parallel to the silicon substrate, distinct from the initial formation of randomly oriented lamellar domains immediately following the thermal quench.

  17. Unusual ferromagnetic YMnO3 phase in YMnO3/La2 / 3Sr1 / 3MnO3 heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Autieri, Carmine; Sanyal, Biplab

    2014-11-01

    By means of first-principles density functional calculations, we study the structural, magnetic and electronic properties of YMnO3/L{{a}2/3}S{{r}1/3}MnO3 heterostructures. Although in the bulk the ground state of YMnO3 is an antiferromagnet, the YMnO3/L{{a}2/3}S{{r}1/3}MnO3 heterostructure stabilizes the ferromagnetic (FM) phase in YMnO3 in the interface region over a wide range of Coulomb repulsion parameters. The hypothetical FM phase of bulk YMnO3 is dielectric and due to substantial differences between the lattice constants in the ab plane, a strong magnetocrystalline anisotropy is present. This anisotropy produces a high coercivity of the unusual FM YMnO3 that can explain the large vertical shift in the hysteresis loops observed in recent experiments (Paul et al 2014 J. Appl. Crystallogr. 47 1054). The correlation between weak exchange bias and the vertical shift is proposed, which calls for reinvestigation of various systems showing vertical shifts.

  18. Typification of Zapałowicz’s names in Aconitum section Aconitum

    PubMed Central

    Wacławska-Ćwiertnia, Klaudia; Mitka, Józef

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Hugo Zapałowicz described and named 27 taxa in Aconitum sect. Aconitum. Their names are typified here. Two of them (Aconitum berdaui, Aconitum bucovinense) are deemed correct for currently accepted species of the Carpathians, 24 are reduced to synonymy under five taxa, and for one no original material has been located. The correct place and exact date of their publication, which differs from those usually assumed, have been ascertained by bibliographic verification and the study of archival documents. PMID:26884711

  19. Stationary axisymmetric solutions involving a third order equation irreducible to Painlevé transcendents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gariel, J.; Marcilhacy, G.; Santos, N. O.

    2008-02-01

    We extend the method of separation of variables, studied by Léauté and Marcilhacy [Ann. Inst. Henri Poincare, Sect. A 331, 363 (1979)], to obtain transcendent solutions of the field equations for stationary axisymmetric systems. These solutions depend on transcendent functions satisfying a third order differential equation. For some solutions this equation satisfies the necessary conditions, but not sufficient, to have fixed critical points.

  20. 40 CFR 52.1770 - Identification of plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Carolina under section 110 of the Clean Air Act, 42 U.S.C. 7401, and 40 CFR part 51 to meet national... reference by the Director of the Federal Register in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51.../01/87 02/29/88, 53 FR 5974 Sect .0506 Particulates from Hot Mix Asphalt Plants 03/20/98 11/10/99,...

  1. Effective Transport Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mauri, Roberto

    In this chapter we study a particular case of multiphase systems, namely two-phase materials in which one of the phases is randomly dispersed in the other, so that the composite can be viewed on a macroscale as an effective continuum, with well defined properties. In general, the theoretical determination of the parameter for an effective medium requires, as a rule, the solution of a corresponding transport problem at the microscale, which takes into account the morphology of the system and its evolution. As the mathematical problem is well-posed on a microscale, this can be accomplished using, for example, the multiple scale approach shown in Chap. 11 ; however, the task requires massive computations and is therefore difficult to implement from the practical standpoint. Here, instead, we focus on a deterministic approach to the problem, where the geometry and spatial configuration of the particles comprising the included phase are given and the solution to the microscale problem is therefore sought analytically. As examples, we study the effective thermal conductivity of solid reinforced materials (Sect. 10.1), the effective viscosity of non-colloidal suspensions (Sect. 10.2), the effective permeability of porous materials (10.3) and the effective self- and gradient diffusivities of colloidal suspensions (Sect. 10.4). Then, in Sect. 10.5, an alternative dynamic definition of the transport coefficients is considered, which can also serve as a basis to determine the effective properties of complex systems.

  2. Transportation and packaging resource guide

    SciTech Connect

    Arendt, J.W.; Gove, R.M.; Welch, M.J.

    1994-12-01

    The purpose of this resource guide is to provide a convenient reference document of information that may be useful to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and DOE contractor personnel involved in packaging and transportation activities. An attempt has been made to present the terminology of DOE community usage as it currently exists. DOE`s mission is changing with emphasis on environmental cleanup. The terminology or nomenclature that has resulted from this expanded mission is included for the packaging and transportation user for reference purposes. Older terms still in use during the transition have been maintained. The Packaging and Transportation Resource Guide consists of four sections: Sect. 1, Introduction; Sect. 2, Abbreviations and Acronyms; Sect. 3, Definitions; and Sect. 4, References for packaging and transportation of hazardous materials and related activities, and Appendices A and B. Information has been collected from DOE Orders and DOE documents; U.S Department of Transportation (DOT), U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) regulations; and International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) standards and other international documents. The definitions included in this guide may not always be a regulatory definition but are the more common DOE usage. In addition, the definitions vary among regulatory agencies. It is, therefore, suggested that if a definition is to be used in a regulatory or a legal compliance issue, the definition should be verified with the appropriate regulation. To assist in locating definitions in the regulations, a listing of all definition sections in the regulations are included in Appendix B. In many instances, the appropriate regulatory reference is indicated in the right-hand margin.

  3. Transition probability of the 5971-A line in neutral uranium from collision-induced fluorescence spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Gagne, J.M.; Mongeau, B.; Demers, Y.; Pianarosa, P.

    1981-09-01

    From collision-induced fluorescence spectroscopy measurements, we have determined the transition probability Aof the 5971-A transition in neutral uranium. Our value, A/sub 5971/ = (5.9 +- 1.8) x 10/sup 5/ sec/sup -1/, is, within experimental error, in good agreement with the previous determination of Corliss, A/sub 5971/ = (7.3 +- 3.0) x 10/sup 5/ sec/sup -1/ (J. Res. Nat. Bur. Stand. Sect. A 80,1 (1976)).

  4. The influence of pre- and post-zygotic barriers on interspecific Corymbia hybridization

    PubMed Central

    Dickinson, Geoffrey R.; Lee, David J.; Wallace, Helen M.

    2012-01-01

    Background and Aims Corymbia species from different sections hybridize readily, with some of increasing economic importance to plantation forestry. This study explores the locations of reproductive barriers between interspecific Corymbia hybrids and investigates the reproductive success of a wide taxonomic range of C. torelliana hybrid crosses. Methods Pollen, pistil and embryo development were investigated for four C. torelliana crosses (×C. torelliana, ×C. citriodora subsp. citriodora, ×C. tessellaris and ×C. intermedia) using fluorescent and standard microscopy to identify the locations of interspecific reproductive isolating barriers. Corymbia torelliana was also crossed with 16 taxa, representing six of the seven Corymbia sections, both Corymbia subgenera and one species each from the related genera, Angophora and Eucalyptus. All crosses were assessed for capsule and seed yields. Key Results Interspecific C. torelliana hybridization was controlled by pre-zygotic reproductive isolating barriers inhibiting pollen adhesion to the stigma, pollen germination, pollen tube growth in the style and pollen tube penetration of the micropyle. Corymbia torelliana (subgenus Blakella, sect. Torellianae) was successfully hybridized with Corymbia species from subgenus Blakella, particularly C. citriodora subsp. citriodora, C. citriodora subsp. variegata, C. henryi (sect. Maculatae) and C. tessellaris (sect. Abbreviatae), and subgenus Corymbia, particularly C. clarksoniana and C. erythrophloia (sect. Septentrionales). Attempted intergeneric hybrids between C. torelliana and either Angophora floribunda or Eucalyptus pellita were unsuccessful. Conclusions Corymbia hybrids were formed between species from different sections and subgenera, but not with species from the related genera Angophora or Eucalyptus. Reproductive isolation between the interspecific Corymbia hybrid crosses was controlled by early- and late-acting pre-zygotic isolating barriers, with reproductive success

  5. N=2 Supersymmetric Dynamics for Pedestrians

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tachikawa, Yuji

    In this chapter, we come back to the observation made at the end of Sect. 5.2 that there is a very singular point of the Coulomb branch of the N f = 1 theory. We study the physics at that point and its generalizations.

  6. On the Birational Invariance of the BCOV Torsion of Calabi-Yau Threefolds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maillot, V.; Rössler, D.

    2012-04-01

    Fang et al. (J. Diff. Geom. 80(2):175-259, 2008, Sect. 4, Conj. 4.17) conjecture that a certain spectral string-theoretic invariant of Calabi-Yau threefolds (the BCOV torsion) is a birational invariant. We prove a weak form of this conjecture. The proof combines the arithmetic Riemann-Roch theorem in Arakelov geometry with some inputs from motivic integration theory.

  7. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Arp 220 6 and 33GHz images (Barcos-Munoz+, 2015)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barcos-Munoz, L.; Leroy, A. K.; Evans, A. S.; Privon, G. C.; Armus, L.; Condon, J.; Mazzarella, J. M.; Meier, D. S.; Momjian, E.; Murphy, E. J.; Ott, J.; Reichardt, A.; Sakamoto, K.; Sanders, D. B.; Schinnerer, E.; Stierwalt, S.; Surace, J. A.; Thompson, T. A.; Walter, F.

    2016-07-01

    The FITS images show radio continuum emission towards Arp 220 as observed by the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array. The two images are the "combined" ones, as described in Sect. 2 of the paper, where whe 6GHz image is obtained from the combined 4.7GHz and 7.2GHz data, and the 33GHz image is obtained from the combined 29GHz and 36GHz data. (2 data files).

  8. Modulating myosin restores muscle function in a mouse model of nemaline myopathy

    PubMed Central

    Lindqvist, Johan; Levy, Yotam; Pati‐Alam, Alisha; Hardeman, Edna C.; Gregorevic, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Objective Nemaline myopathy, one of the most common congenital myopathies, is associated with mutations in various genes including ACTA1. This disease is also characterized by various forms/degrees of muscle weakness, with most cases being severe and resulting in death in infancy. Recent findings have provided valuable insight into the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms. Mutations in ACTA1 directly disrupt binding interactions between actin and myosin, and consequently the intrinsic force‐generating capacity of muscle fibers. ACTA1 mutations are also associated with variations in myofiber size, the mechanisms of which have been unclear. In the present study, we sought to test the hypotheses that the compromised functional and morphological attributes of skeletal muscles bearing ACTA1 mutations (1) would be directly due to the inefficient actomyosin complex and (2) could be restored by manipulating myosin expression. Methods We used a knockin mouse model expressing the ACTA1 His40Tyr actin mutation found in human patients. We then performed in vivo intramuscular injections of recombinant adeno‐associated viral vectors harboring a myosin transgene known to facilitate muscle contraction. Results We observed that in the presence of the transgene, the intrinsic force‐generating capacity was restored and myofiber size was normal. Interpretation This demonstrates a direct link between disrupted attachment of myosin molecules to actin monomers and muscle fiber atrophy. These data also suggest that further therapeutic interventions should primarily target myosin dysfunction to alleviate the pathology of ACTA1‐related nemaline myopathy. Ann Neurol 2016;79:717–725 PMID:26891371

  9. Hamiltonian approach to frame dragging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Epstein, Kenneth J.

    2008-07-01

    A Hamiltonian approach makes the phenomenon of frame dragging apparent “up front” from the appearance of the drag velocity in the Hamiltonian of a test particle in an arbitrary metric. Hamiltonian (1) uses the inhomogeneous force equation (4), which applies to non-geodesic motion as well as to geodesics. The Hamiltonian is not in manifestly covariant form, but is covariant because it is derived from Hamilton’s manifestly covariant scalar action principle. A distinction is made between manifest frame dragging such as that in the Kerr metric, and hidden frame dragging that can be made manifest by a coordinate transformation such as that applied to the Robertson-Walker metric in Sect. 2. In Sect. 3 a zone of repulsive gravity is found in the extreme Kerr metric. Section 4 treats frame dragging in special relativity as a manifestation of the equivalence principle in accelerated frames. It answers a question posed by Bell about how the Lorentz contraction can break a thread connecting two uniformly accelerated rocket ships. In Sect. 5 the form of the Hamiltonian facilitates the definition of gravitomagnetic and gravitoelectric potentials.

  10. [The Essenes and medicine].

    PubMed

    Kottek, Samuel

    2011-01-01

    The Essenes were a Jewish sect, which flourished around the first century. We have limited our study to hygienic and medical aspects, as documented in the works of Josephus Flavius, Philo of Alexandria, and Pliny the Elder; Josephus and Philo were personally in contact with these sectarian Jews. We have described the regimen of life of these communities, who lived in strictly organised fashion, their meals taken in common, their bathing in cold water, their clothing, the Sabbath rest, the lavatories, and more. Most Essenes remained single, they adopted however small children, and educated them in accordance to their principles. There was no private property, but old people and sick residents were taken care of by the community. The Essenes, as well as the Therapeuts described by Philo, were knowledgeable in medical lore, they treasured old books and studied the virtues of medicinal plants. There is no clear-cut consensus whether the Essenes, the Therapeuts, and the Qumran residents were one and the same sect, or whether they were similar sub-sects. The calm, strictly regulated and frugal way of life of the Essenes enabled them to attain old age, often beyond 100 years. PMID:22400470

  11. Complex biogeographic patterns in Androsace (Primulaceae) and related genera: evidence from phylogenetic analyses of nuclear internal transcribed spacer and plastid trnL-F sequences.

    PubMed

    Schneeweiss, Gerald; Schönswetter, Peter; Kelso, Sylvia; Niklfeld, Harald

    2004-12-01

    We conducted phylogenetic analyses of Androsace and the closely related genera Douglasia, Pomatosace, and Vitaliana using DNA sequences of the nuclear internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and the plastid trnL-F region. Analyses using maximum parsimony and Bayesian inference yield congruent relationships among several major lineages found. These lineages largely disagree with previously recognized taxonomic groups. Most notably, (1) Androsace sect. Andraspis, comprising the short-lived taxa, is highly polyphyletic; (2) Pomatosace constitutes a separate phylogenetic lineage within Androsace; and (3) Douglasia and Vitaliana nest within Androsace sect. Aretia. Our results suggest multiple origins of the short-lived lifeform and a possible reversal from annual or biennial to perennial habit at the base of a group that now contains mostly perennial high mountain or arctic taxa. The group containing Androsace sect. Aretia, Douglasia, and Vitaliana includes predominantly high alpine and arctic taxa with an arctic-alpine distribution, but is not found in the European and northeastern American Arctic or in Central and East Asia. This group probably originated in Europe in the Pliocene, from where it reached the amphi-Beringian region in the Pleistocene or late Pliocene. PMID:15764556

  12. Carbon Nanotubes: From Symmetry to Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Damnjanović, M.

    In this chapter, we show how the concept of symmetry gives theoretical explanation of the properties, which made carbon nanotubes (NTs) one of the most interesting materials of nanotechnology. First, in Sect. 3.1, we consider basic facts on single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs), including their configuration and symmetry. Then, we discuss double-wall nanotubes.Next, Sect. 3.2 is devoted to elementary symmetry-based physical properties. More precisely, we explain the energy spectrum of electrons and phonons, showing that as the consequence of the symmetry, energies must be arranged in the so-called bands. Elementary properties of these band structures may be a priory discussed, yielding easily famous conducting law, showing strong dependence of conductivity on the type of nanotube. Conserved quantum numbers enable us to extract selection rules for various physical processes. This way, radial breathing mode appears to be very important for the characterization of the samples by Raman spectroscopy. Also, optical properties are derived.Finally, in Sect. 3.3, mutual interaction between the walls of double-wall nanotubes is discussed. It is explained why this interaction is very weak, which is used to propose nanomachines with almost superslippery parts.

  13. Phylogeny of holoparasitic Orobanche (Orobanchaceae) inferred from nuclear ITS sequences

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schneeweiss, G.M.; Colwell, A.; Park, J.-M.; Jang, C.-G.; Stuessy, Tod F.

    2004-01-01

    Orobanche is the largest genus among the holoparasitic members of Orobanchaceae. We present the first molecular phylogenetic analysis (using nuclear ITS sequences) that includes members of all sections of Orobanche, Gymnocaulis, Myzorrhiza, Trionychon, and Orobanche. Orobanche is not monophyletic, but falls into two lineages: (1) the Orobanche group comprises Orobanche sect. Orobanche and the small Near Asian genus Diphelypaea and is characterized by a chromosome base number of x = 19 and (2) the Phelipanche group contains Orobanche sects. Gymnocaulis, Myzorrhiza, and Trionychon and possesses a chromosome base number of x = 12. The relationships between these two groups and to other genera such as Boschniakia or Cistanche remain unresolved. Within the Orobanche group, Orobanche macrolepis and Orobanche anatolica (including Orobanche colorata) constitute two phylogenetically distinct lineages. Intrasectional structurings proposed by some authors for O. sect. Orobanche are not confirmed by the molecular data. In most cases, intraspecific sequence divergence between accessions, if present, is negligible and not correlated with morphological or ecological traits. In a few cases, however, there is evidence for the presence of cryptic taxa. ?? 2003 Elsevier Science (USA). All rights reserved.

  14. Open-Source GIS

    SciTech Connect

    Vatsavai, Raju; Burk, Thomas E; Lime, Steve

    2012-01-01

    The components making up an Open Source GIS are explained in this chapter. A map server (Sect. 30.1) can broadly be defined as a software platform for dynamically generating spatially referenced digital map products. The University of Minnesota MapServer (UMN Map Server) is one such system. Its basic features are visualization, overlay, and query. Section 30.2 names and explains many of the geospatial open source libraries, such as GDAL and OGR. The other libraries are FDO, JTS, GEOS, JCS, MetaCRS, and GPSBabel. The application examples include derived GIS-software and data format conversions. Quantum GIS, its origin and its applications explained in detail in Sect. 30.3. The features include a rich GUI, attribute tables, vector symbols, labeling, editing functions, projections, georeferencing, GPS support, analysis, and Web Map Server functionality. Future developments will address mobile applications, 3-D, and multithreading. The origins of PostgreSQL are outlined and PostGIS discussed in detail in Sect. 30.4. It extends PostgreSQL by implementing the Simple Feature standard. Section 30.5 details the most important open source licenses such as the GPL, the LGPL, the MIT License, and the BSD License, as well as the role of the Creative Commons.

  15. Scientometric Analysis of the Journals of the Academy of Medical Sciences in Bosnia and Herzegovina

    PubMed Central

    Masic, Izet; Begic, Edin; Zunic, Lejla

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Currently in Bosnia and Herzegovina there are 25 journals in the field of biomedicine, 6 of them are indexed in Medline/PubMed base (Medical Archives, Materia Socio-Medica, Acta Informatica Medica, Acta Medica Academica, Bosnian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences (BJBMS) and Medical Glasnik), and one (BJBMS) is indexed in Science Citation Index Expanded (SCIE)/Web of Science base. Aim: The aim of this study was to show the scope of work of the journals that were published by Academy of Medical Sciences of Bosnia and Herzegovina - Medical Archives, Materia Socio-Medica and Acta Informatica Medica. Material and Methods: The research presents a meta-analysis of three journals, or their issues, during the calendar year 2015 (retrospective and descriptive character). Results: During 2015 calendar year a total of 286 articles were published (in Medical Archives 104 (36.3%), in Materia Socio-Medica 99 (34.6%), and in Acta Informatica Medica 83 (29%)). Original articles are present in the highest number in all three journals (in Medical Archives 80.7%, in Materia Socio Medica 77.7%, and in Acta Informatica Medica 68.6%). In Medical Archives, 90.3% of the articles were related to the field of clinical medicine. In Materia Socio-Medica, the domain of clinical medicine and public health was the most represented. Preclinical areas are most frequent in Acta Informatica Medica. The period of 50-60 days for a decision on the admission of article is most common in all three journals, with trend of shortening of that period. Articles came from 19 countries, mostly from Bosnia and Herzegovina, then from Iran, Kosovo, Saudi Arabia and Greece. Conclusion: In Medical Archives original articles in the field of clinical medicine (usually internal and surgical disciplines) are most often present, and that is the case in last four years. The number of articles in Materia Socio-Medica and Acta Informatica Medica is growing from year to year. In Materia Socio-Medica there is a

  16. Re-refinement of 4xan: hen egg-white lysozyme with carboplatin in sodium bromide solution

    PubMed Central

    Tanley, Simon W. M.; Schreurs, Antoine M. M.; Kroon-Batenburg, Loes M. J.; Helliwell, John R.

    2016-01-01

    A re-refinement of 4xan, hen egg-white lysozyme (HEWL) with carboplatin crystallized in NaBr solution, has been made and is published here as an addendum to Tanley et al. [(2014), Acta Cryst. F70, 1135–1142]. This follows a previous re-refinement and PDB deposition (4yem) by Shabalin et al. [(2015), Acta Cryst. D71, 1965–1979]. The critical evaluation of the original PDB deposition (4xan), and the subsequent critical examination of the re-refined structure (4yem), has led to an improved model (PDB code 5hmj). PMID:26919531

  17. An In Vivo Selection Identifies Listeria monocytogenes Genes Required to Sense the Intracellular Environment and Activate Virulence Factor Expression

    PubMed Central

    Portnoy, Daniel A.

    2016-01-01

    Listeria monocytogenes is an environmental saprophyte and facultative intracellular bacterial pathogen with a well-defined life-cycle that involves escape from a phagosome, rapid cytosolic growth, and ActA-dependent cell-to-cell spread, all of which are dependent on the master transcriptional regulator PrfA. The environmental cues that lead to temporal and spatial control of L. monocytogenes virulence gene expression are poorly understood. In this study, we took advantage of the robust up-regulation of ActA that occurs intracellularly and expressed Cre recombinase from the actA promoter and 5’ untranslated region in a strain in which loxP sites flanked essential genes, so that activation of actA led to bacterial death. Upon screening for transposon mutants that survived intracellularly, six genes were identified as necessary for ActA expression. Strikingly, most of the genes, including gshF, spxA1, yjbH, and ohrA, are predicted to play important roles in bacterial redox regulation. The mutants identified in the genetic selection fell into three broad categories: (1) those that failed to reach the cytosolic compartment; (2) mutants that entered the cytosol, but failed to activate the master virulence regulator PrfA; and (3) mutants that entered the cytosol and activated transcription of actA, but failed to synthesize it. The identification of mutants defective in vacuolar escape suggests that up-regulation of ActA occurs in the host cytosol and not the vacuole. Moreover, these results provide evidence for two non-redundant cytosolic cues; the first results in allosteric activation of PrfA via increased glutathione levels and transcriptional activation of actA while the second results in translational activation of actA and requires yjbH. Although the precise host cues have not yet been identified, we suggest that intracellular redox stress occurs as a consequence of both host and pathogen remodeling their metabolism upon infection. PMID:27414028

  18. An In Vivo Selection Identifies Listeria monocytogenes Genes Required to Sense the Intracellular Environment and Activate Virulence Factor Expression.

    PubMed

    Reniere, Michelle L; Whiteley, Aaron T; Portnoy, Daniel A

    2016-07-01

    Listeria monocytogenes is an environmental saprophyte and facultative intracellular bacterial pathogen with a well-defined life-cycle that involves escape from a phagosome, rapid cytosolic growth, and ActA-dependent cell-to-cell spread, all of which are dependent on the master transcriptional regulator PrfA. The environmental cues that lead to temporal and spatial control of L. monocytogenes virulence gene expression are poorly understood. In this study, we took advantage of the robust up-regulation of ActA that occurs intracellularly and expressed Cre recombinase from the actA promoter and 5' untranslated region in a strain in which loxP sites flanked essential genes, so that activation of actA led to bacterial death. Upon screening for transposon mutants that survived intracellularly, six genes were identified as necessary for ActA expression. Strikingly, most of the genes, including gshF, spxA1, yjbH, and ohrA, are predicted to play important roles in bacterial redox regulation. The mutants identified in the genetic selection fell into three broad categories: (1) those that failed to reach the cytosolic compartment; (2) mutants that entered the cytosol, but failed to activate the master virulence regulator PrfA; and (3) mutants that entered the cytosol and activated transcription of actA, but failed to synthesize it. The identification of mutants defective in vacuolar escape suggests that up-regulation of ActA occurs in the host cytosol and not the vacuole. Moreover, these results provide evidence for two non-redundant cytosolic cues; the first results in allosteric activation of PrfA via increased glutathione levels and transcriptional activation of actA while the second results in translational activation of actA and requires yjbH. Although the precise host cues have not yet been identified, we suggest that intracellular redox stress occurs as a consequence of both host and pathogen remodeling their metabolism upon infection. PMID:27414028

  19. Annual Report for 2008 - 2009 Detection Monitoring at the Environmental Management Waste Management Facility, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    Walker J.R.

    2010-03-01

    This annual Environmental Monitoring Report (EMR) presents results of environmental monitoring performed during fiscal year (FY) 2009 (October 1, 2008 - September 30, 2009) at the Environmental Management Waste Management Facility (EMWMF). The EMWMF is an operating state-of-the-art hazardous waste landfill located in Bear Creek Valley (BCV) west of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12) on the DOE Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee (Appendix A, Fig. A.1). Opened in 2002 and operated by a DOE prime contractor, Bechtel Jacobs Company LLC (BJC), the EMWMF was built specifically to accommodate disposal of acceptable solid wastes generated from Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA) remedial actions for former waste sites and buildings that have been impacted by past DOE operations on the ORR and at DOE sites off the ORR within the state of Tennessee. Environmental monitoring at the EMWMF is performed to detect and monitor the impact of facility operations on groundwater, surface water, stormwater, and air quality and to determine compliance with applicable or relevant and appropriate requirements (ARARs) specified in governing CERCLA decision documents. Annually, the EMR presents an evaluation of the groundwater, surface water, stormwater, and air monitoring data with respect to the applicable EMWMF performance standards. The purpose of the evaluation is to: (1) identify monitoring results that indicate evidence of a contaminant release from the EMWMF to groundwater, surface water, stormwater, or air, and (2) recommend appropriate changes to the associated sampling and analysis requirements, including sampling locations, methods, and frequencies; field measurements; or laboratory analytes that may be warranted in response to the monitoring data. Sect. 2 of this annual EMR provides background information relevant to environmental monitoring at the landfill, including

  20. Patterns of plastid and nuclear variation among apomictic polyploids of Hieracium: evolutionary processes and taxonomic implications

    PubMed Central

    Tyler, Torbjörn; Jönsson, Jane

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims Apomictic species (with asexual seed production) make up for 20–50 % of all taxonomically recognized species in northern Europe, but the phylogenetic relationships of apomictic species and the mode of evolution and speciation remain largely unknown and their taxonomy is consequently disputed. Methods In the present study, plastid psbD-trnT sequences (349 accessions) and 12 nuclear microsatellite loci (478 accessions) were used to create an overview of the molecular variation in (mainly) northern European members of the most species-rich of all plant genera, Hieracium s.s. The results are discussed and interpreted in the context of morphological and cytological data on the same species. Key Results and Conclusions The complete psbD-trnT alignment was 1243 bp and 50 polymorphisms defined 40 haplotypes. All haplotypes found in the sections of the genus distributed in the northern European lowlands fell into one of two main groups, group H and group V, mutually separated by seven or eight polymorphisms. All accessions belonging to H. sects. Foliosa, Hieracioides (viz. H. umbellatum) and Tridentata and all but one accession of triploid species of H. sects. Oradea and Vulgata showed haplotypes of group V. Haplotypes of group H were found in all accessions of H. sects. Bifida and Hieracium and in all tetraploid representatives of H. sects. Oreadea and Vulgata. Additional haplotypes were found in accessions of the genus Pilosella and in southern European and Alpine sections of Hieracium. In contrast, the distribution of individual haplotypes in the two major groups appeared uncorrelated with morphology and current taxonomy, but polymorphisms within species were only rarely encountered. In total, 160 microsatellite alleles were identified. Levels of variation were generally high with only nine pairs of accessions being identical at all loci (in all cases representing accessions of the same species). In the neighbor-joining analysis based on the

  1. Tissue decomposition from dual energy CT data for MC based dose calculation in particle therapy

    PubMed Central

    Hünemohr, Nora; Paganetti, Harald; Greilich, Steffen; Jäkel, Oliver; Seco, Joao

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The authors describe a novel method of predicting mass density and elemental mass fractions of tissues from dual energy CT (DECT) data for Monte Carlo (MC) based dose planning. Methods: The relative electron density ϱe and effective atomic number Zeff are calculated for 71 tabulated tissue compositions. For MC simulations, the mass density is derived via one linear fit in the ϱe that covers the entire range of tissue compositions (except lung tissue). Elemental mass fractions are predicted from the ϱe and the Zeff in combination. Since particle therapy dose planning and verification is especially sensitive to accurate material assignment, differences to the ground truth are further analyzed for mass density, I-value predictions, and stopping power ratios (SPR) for ions. Dose studies with monoenergetic proton and carbon ions in 12 tissues which showed the largest differences of single energy CT (SECT) to DECT are presented with respect to range uncertainties. The standard approach (SECT) and the new DECT approach are compared to reference Bragg peak positions. Results: Mean deviations to ground truth in mass density predictions could be reduced for soft tissue from (0.5±0.6)% (SECT) to (0.2±0.2)% with the DECT method. Maximum SPR deviations could be reduced significantly for soft tissue from 3.1% (SECT) to 0.7% (DECT) and for bone tissue from 0.8% to 0.1%. Mean I-value deviations could be reduced for soft tissue from (1.1±1.4%, SECT) to (0.4±0.3%) with the presented method. Predictions of elemental composition were improved for every element. Mean and maximum deviations from ground truth of all elemental mass fractions could be reduced by at least a half with DECT compared to SECT (except soft tissue hydrogen and nitrogen where the reduction was slightly smaller). The carbon and oxygen mass fraction predictions profit especially from the DECT information. Dose studies showed that most of the 12 selected tissues would profit significantly (up to 2

  2. Tissue decomposition from dual energy CT data for MC based dose calculation in particle therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Hünemohr, Nora Greilich, Steffen; Paganetti, Harald; Seco, Joao; Jäkel, Oliver

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: The authors describe a novel method of predicting mass density and elemental mass fractions of tissues from dual energy CT (DECT) data for Monte Carlo (MC) based dose planning. Methods: The relative electron density ϱ{sub e} and effective atomic number Z{sub eff} are calculated for 71 tabulated tissue compositions. For MC simulations, the mass density is derived via one linear fit in the ϱ{sub e} that covers the entire range of tissue compositions (except lung tissue). Elemental mass fractions are predicted from the ϱ{sub e} and the Z{sub eff} in combination. Since particle therapy dose planning and verification is especially sensitive to accurate material assignment, differences to the ground truth are further analyzed for mass density, I-value predictions, and stopping power ratios (SPR) for ions. Dose studies with monoenergetic proton and carbon ions in 12 tissues which showed the largest differences of single energy CT (SECT) to DECT are presented with respect to range uncertainties. The standard approach (SECT) and the new DECT approach are compared to reference Bragg peak positions. Results: Mean deviations to ground truth in mass density predictions could be reduced for soft tissue from (0.5±0.6)% (SECT) to (0.2±0.2)% with the DECT method. Maximum SPR deviations could be reduced significantly for soft tissue from 3.1% (SECT) to 0.7% (DECT) and for bone tissue from 0.8% to 0.1%. MeanI-value deviations could be reduced for soft tissue from (1.1±1.4%, SECT) to (0.4±0.3%) with the presented method. Predictions of elemental composition were improved for every element. Mean and maximum deviations from ground truth of all elemental mass fractions could be reduced by at least a half with DECT compared to SECT (except soft tissue hydrogen and nitrogen where the reduction was slightly smaller). The carbon and oxygen mass fraction predictions profit especially from the DECT information. Dose studies showed that most of the 12 selected tissues would

  3. Education or Reputation? A Look at America's Top-Ranked Liberal Arts Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poliakoff, Michael; Alacbay, Armand

    2014-01-01

    ACTA [American Council of Trustees and Alumni] today released a report that examines the country's most prestigious liberal arts colleges. Despite endowments soaring as high as $1.8 billion, nearly all institutions increased tuition during the Great Recession to finance bloated administrative spending, with many college presidents enjoying…

  4. Experiences of a local arrangement committee for a large scientific conference

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This paper is an an invited condensation of a paper that appeared in Acta. Hort. 745: 513-532 last year. It describes the history and organization of the combined meeting of the 90th Annual Meeting of the Potato Association of America, the VI International Solanaceae Conference, and the III Solanace...

  5. Erratum to: Vascular endothelial growth factor induces contralesional corticobulbar plasticity and functional neurological recovery in the ischemic brain.

    PubMed

    Reitmeir, Raluca; Kilic, Ertugrul; Reinboth, Barbara S; Guo, Zeyun; ElAli, Ayman; Zechariah, Anil; Kilic, Ülkan; Hermann, Dirk M

    2015-10-01

    Erratum to: Acta Neuropathol (2012) 123:273–284. DOI 10.1007/s00401‑011‑0914‑z. The authors would like to correct Fig. 3 of the original manuscript, since the image in Fig. 3b does not correspond to a VEGF treated animal. Corrected Fig. 3 is shown below. We apologize for this mistake. PMID:26341346

  6. Extension of working range in Zeeman graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry by nonlinear calibration with prior correction for stray light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lonardo, Robert F.; Yuzefovsky, Alexander I.; Zhou, Jack X.; McCaffrey, John T.; Michel, Robert G.

    1996-09-01

    The nonlinear working range of a Perkin-Elmer 4100Zl atomic absorption spectrometer was improved in three steps. Firstly, each absorbance datum within the transient profile was corrected for the presence of stray light by an algorithm originally developed by L'vov and co-workers (Spectrochim. Acta Part B, 47 (1992) 889-895 and 1187-1202), but with the incorporation of the Newton method of successive approximations (Spectrochim. Acta Part B, 49 (1994) 1643-1656. Secondly, a dip correction procedure was performed on temporal signal profiles that exhibited a dip due to rollover. In the final step, an analytically useful working curve was generated by the nonlinear calibration routine of Barnett (Spectrochim. Acta Part B, 39 (1984) 829). Goodness of fit between the resultant calibration curve and the data was measured by the method suggested by Miller-Ihli et al. (Spectrochim. Acta Part B, 39 (1984) 1603) that is based on the sum of squares of the percentage deviation (SSPD) and the root mean square (RMS) percentage deviation. For lead, silver, copper, thallium, and cadmium, the analytical nonlinear working range was increased by as much as one and a half orders of magnitude, without any significant effect on the RMS. For chromium and manganese, no significant improvement in the nonlinear working range was observed, while the RMS improved by 50%. In the case of nickel, neither the working range nor the RMS was improved.

  7. Eventos de Agosto (August Events).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toro, Leonor; Pla, Myrna

    Written in Spanish, this booklet contains brief information on seven August events celebrated by Puerto Ricans: Herbert Hoover's birthdate (August 10); Acta del Seguro Social (Social Security Act, August 14); Julian E. Blanco (August 14), Enmienda 19 Sufragia de la Mujer (Amendment 19, Women's Suffrage, August 26); Benjamin Harrison (August 20);…

  8. Intradistrict Resource Allocation: Key Findings and Policy Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houck, Eric A.

    2011-01-01

    The focus on school-level performance brought about by the No Child Left Behind Act--as well as recent court cases challenging the use of race in student assignment policies--has brought greater attention to the need to for careful study of the allocation of resources within school districts. This paper describes the policy context, reviews key…

  9. Nebraska Swims Hard against Testing's Tides

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borja, Rhea R.

    2007-01-01

    Sometimes assessments that work in theory fall apart in reality. This article discusses the unique learning-measurement system in Nebraska. Instead of relying on statewide standardized tests to comply with the accountability requirements of the federal No Child Left Behind Act--as is the case in the other 49 states--districts in Nebraska use their…

  10. Antimicrobial resistance of Listeria monocytogenes isolated from a poultry further processing plant

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to compare antimicrobial resistance profiles of distinct types of Listeria monocytogenes isolated from a commercial poultry cooking plant. One hundred fifty seven L. monocytogenes isolates representing 14 different ActA types were tested for susceptibility to 19 ant...

  11. The Cost of Chaos in the Curriculum. Perspectives on Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Capaldi Phillips, Elizabeth D.; Poliakoff, Michael B.

    2015-01-01

    ACTA's report "The Cost of Chaos in the Curriculum" reveals that the vast array of course choices given to college students is a cause of exploding costs and poor academic outcomes. And a bloated undergraduate curriculum is particularly detrimental to the success of students from lower socioeconomic backgrounds. The report documents how…

  12. Diffusive Insights: On the Disagreement of Christian Bohr and August Krogh at the Centennial of the Seven Little Devils

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gjedde, Albert

    2010-01-01

    The year 2010 is the centennial of the publication of the "Seven Little Devils" in the predecessor of "Acta Physiologica". In these seven papers, August and Marie Krogh sought to refute Christian Bohr's theory that oxygen diffusion from the lungs to the circulation is not entirely passive but rather facilitated by a specific cellular activity…

  13. Investigating Multitasking in High-Functioning Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorders Using the Virtual Errands Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rajendran, Gnanathusharan; Law, Anna S.; Logie, Robert H.; van der Meulen, Marian; Fraser, Diane; Corley, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Using a modified version of the Virtual Errands Task (VET; McGeorge et al. in "Presence-Teleop Virtual Environ" 10(4):375-383, 2001), we investigated the executive ability of multitasking in 18 high-functioning adolescents with ASD and 18 typically developing adolescents. The VET requires multitasking (Law et al. in "Acta Psychol" 122(1):27-44,…

  14. Prepared in Mind and Resources? A Report on Public Higher Education in South Carolina

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alacbay, Armand; Poliakoff, Michael

    2011-01-01

    In 2011, South Carolina Governor Nikki Haley signed into law the South Carolina Higher Education Efficiency and Administrative Policies Act, maintaining the transparency and accountability that lead to increased academic quality and affordability at colleges and universities. It is in this context that ACTA (American Council of Trustees and…

  15. Measures of Muscular Strength in U.S. Children and Adolescents, 2012

    MedlinePlus

    ... performance and DXA-derived lean body mass and fat mass in pre-pubertal children. Acta Pædiatr 100(10):1359–67. 2011. Suggested citation Ervin RB, Wang C-Y, Fryar CD, et al. Measures of ...

  16. SPR Biosensor for the Detection of L. monocytogenes using Phage Displayed Antibody

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Whole cells of Listeria monocytogenes were detected with a compact, surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensor using a phage-displayed scFv antibody to the virulence factor ActA for biorecognition. Phage Lm P4:A8, expressing the scFv antibody fused to the pIII surface protein was immobilized to the se...

  17. Governance for a New Era: A Blueprint for Higher Education Trustees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Benno C.

    2014-01-01

    "Governance for a New Era: A Blueprint for Higher Education Governance," is the product of a summit facilitated by ACTA [American Council of Trustees and Alumni] and chaired by Benno Schmidt, City University of New York Board chairman. Signatories to the statement, a diverse group of 22 distinguished national leaders, include college…

  18. Bold Leadership Real Reform [Annual Report, 2014

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Council of Trustees and Alumni, 2015

    2015-01-01

    Higher education has never been more "front and center"--almost daily we hear about spiraling costs, the lack of academic rigor, and the stifling political correctness on our college campuses. Long before such issues were hot, ACTA [American Council of Trustees and Alumni] was already pointing out these worrisome trends and calling on…

  19. BIOGEOCHEMICAL CONTROLS ON REACTION OF SEDIMENTARY ORGANIC MATTER AND AQUEOUS SULFIDES IN HOLOCENE SEDIMENTS OF MUD LAKE FLORIDA: JOURNAL ARTICLE

    EPA Science Inventory

    JOURNAL NRMRL-ADA-00133 Filley,T.R., Freeman, K.H., Wilkin*, R.T., and Hatcher, P.G. Biogeochemical Controls on Reaction of Sedimentary Organic Matter and Aqueous Sulfides in Holocene Sediments of Mud Lake Florida. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 66 (6):937-954...

  20. Development of Guidance for States Transitioning to New Safety Analysis Tools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alluri, Priyanka

    2010-01-01

    With about 125 people dying on US roads each day, the US Department of Transportation heightened the awareness of critical safety issues with the passage of SAFETEA-LU (Safe Accountable Flexible Efficient Transportation Equity Act--A Legacy for Users) legislation in 2005. The legislation required each of the states to develop a Strategic Highway…

  1. Polarization in RMnO3 multiferroics.

    PubMed

    Pirogov, A N

    2016-02-01

    Some comments on the review by Sim et al. [(2016). Acta Cryst. B72, 3-19] are given. The review is devoted to hexagonal multiferroics RMnO3, in which there are ferroelectric and magnetic orders. Strong interaction between these orders causes a series of interesting properties of multiferroics. PMID:26830791

  2. Activity Scale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerpelman, Larry C.; Weiner, Michael J.

    This twenty-four item scale assesses students' actual and desired political-social activism in terms of physical participation, communication activities, and information-gathering activities. About ten minutes are required to complete the instrument. The scale is divided into two subscales. The first twelve items (ACT-A) question respondents on…

  3. Higher: Setting a Higher Bar for Higher Ed. 2013 Annual Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Council of Trustees and Alumni, 2014

    2014-01-01

    The American Council of Trustees and Alumni (ACTA) is leading the charge to return "higher" to higher education. We are challenging the status quo to restore academic freedom, academic rigor, and real accountability to higher education. And, we are doing so with an ever-widening network of supporters and partners.

  4. Magnus Strandqvist: 50th anniversary of his doctoral thesis.

    PubMed

    Kajanti, M J

    1994-01-01

    This article is dedicated to Magnus Strandqvist's famous doctoral thesis "Studien über die kumulative Wirkung der Röntgenstrahlen bei Fraktionierung. Erfahrungen aus dem Radiumhemmet an 280 Haut- und Lippenkarzinomen" published in Acta Radiologica in 1944. After a short biography of Strandqvist some central points of his work and their influence on future development of modern radiotherapy are presented. PMID:7993639

  5. Effects of space flights on human allergic status (IgE-mediated sensitivity)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buravkova, L. B.; Rykova, M. P.; Gertsik, Y. G.; Antropova, E. N.

    2007-02-01

    Suppression of the immune system after space flights of different duration has been reported earlier by Konstantinova [Immune system in extreme conditions, Space immunology. B. 59. M. Science 1988. 289p. (in Russian) [4]; Immunoresistance of man in space flight, Acta Astronautica 23 (1991) 123-127 [5

  6. The Metalloprotease Mpl Supports Listeria monocytogenes Dissemination through Resolution of Membrane Protrusions into Vacuoles.

    PubMed

    Alvarez, Diego E; Agaisse, Hervé

    2016-06-01

    Listeria monocytogenes is an intracellular pathogen that disseminates within the intestinal epithelium through acquisition of actin-based motility and formation of plasma membrane protrusions that project into adjacent cells. The resolution of membrane protrusions into vacuoles from which the pathogen escapes results in bacterial spread from cell to cell. This dissemination process relies on the mlp-actA-plcB operon, which encodes ActA, a bacterial nucleation-promoting factor that mediates actin-based motility, and PlcB, a phospholipase that mediates vacuole escape. Here we investigated the role of the metalloprotease Mpl in the dissemination process. In agreement with previous findings showing that Mpl is required for PlcB activation, infection of epithelial cells with the ΔplcB or Δmpl strains resulted in the formation of small infection foci. As expected, the ΔplcB strain displayed a strong defect in vacuole escape. However, the Δmpl strain showed an unexpected defect in the resolution of protrusions into vacuoles, in addition to the expected but mild defect in vacuole escape. The Δmpl strain displayed increased levels of ActA on the bacterial surface in protrusions. We mapped an Mpl-dependent processing site in ActA between amino acid residues 207 to 238. Similar to the Δmpl strain, the ΔactA207-238 strain displayed increased levels of ActA on the bacterial surface in protrusions. Although the ΔactA207-238 strain displayed wild-type actin-based motility, it formed small infection foci and failed to resolve protrusions into vacuoles. We propose that, in addition to its role in PlcB processing and vacuole escape, the metalloprotease Mpl is required for ActA processing and protrusion resolution. PMID:27068088

  7. Thermal expansion of Fe3C at high pressure and carbon in the Earth's inner core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, L.; Chen, B.; Wang, Y.; Li, J.

    2008-12-01

    Carbon is one of the major candidates for the principal light element in the Earth's core. Wood [1993] proposed that Fe3C, rather than iron-nickel alloy, is the dominant phase in the Earth's solid inner core. Testing the model of Fe3C-rich inner core requires knowledge on the thermal equation-of-state (EoS) of Fe3C under core conditions. To date, EoS data of Fe3C are only available at high pressure and 0 or 300 K [Scott et al., 2001, Li et al., 2002, Vocadlo et al., 2002] or at high temperature and 1 bar [Wood et al., 2004]. Wood et al. [2004] found that the thermal expansion coefficient is significantly affected by the ferromagnetic to paramagnetic transition above the Curie temperature. In this study, we have determined the thermal expansion coefficient of Fe3C up to 20 GPa and 1273 K, using a T-cup device and synchrotron x-ray diffraction techniques at beamline 13-ID of the Advanced Photon Source. Our results place constraints on the abundance of carbon the Earth's inner core. This work is supported by NSF EAR 06-09639. References: Gao et al. (2008), Geophys. Res. Lett., doi:10.1029/2008GL034817. Li, J. et al. (2002), Phys. Chem. Miner., 29(3), 166-169. Scott, H. P. et al. (2001), Geophys. Res. Lett., 28, 1875-1878 Vocadlo, L., et al. (2002), Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 203(1), 567-575. 347. Wood, B. J. (1993), Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 117(3-4), 593-607. Wood, I. G. et al. (2004), J. Appl. Crystallogr., 37, 82-90.

  8. A Compact X-Ray System for Macromolecular Crystallography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gubarev, Mikhail; Ciszak, Ewa; Ponomarev, Igor; Gibson, Walter; Joy, Marshall

    2000-01-01

    We describe the design and performance of a high flux x-ray system for a macromolecular crystallography that combines a microfocus x-ray generator (40 micrometer full width at half maximum spot size at a power level of 46.5 W) and a collimating polycapillary optic. The Cu Ka lpha x-ray flux produced by this optimized system through a 500,um diam orifice is 7.0 times greater than the x-ray flux previously reported by Gubarev et al. [M. Gubarev et al., J. Appl. Crystallogr. 33, 882 (2000)]. The x-ray flux from the microfocus system is also 2.6 times higher than that produced by a rotating anode generator equipped with a graded multilayer monochromator (green optic, Osmic Inc. CMF24-48-Cu6) and 40% less than that produced by a rotating anode generator with the newest design of graded multilayer monochromator (blue optic, Osmic, Inc. CMF12-38-Cu6). Both rotating anode generators operate at a power level of 5000 W, dissipating more than 100 times the power of our microfocus x-ray system. Diffraction data collected from small test crystals are of high quality. For example, 42 540 reflections collected at ambient temperature from a lysozyme crystal yielded R(sub sym)=5.0% for data extending to 1.70 A, and 4.8% for the complete set of data to 1.85 A. The amplitudes of the observed reflections were used to calculate difference electron density maps that revealed positions of structurally important ions and water molecules in the crystal of lysozyme using the phases calculated from the protein model.

  9. Prediction of new high pressure structural sequence in thorium carbide: A first principles study

    SciTech Connect

    Sahoo, B. D. Joshi, K. D.; Gupta, Satish C.

    2015-05-14

    In the present work, we report the detailed electronic band structure calculations on thorium monocarbide. The comparison of enthalpies, derived for various phases using evolutionary structure search method in conjunction with first principles total energy calculations at several hydrostatic compressions, yielded a high pressure structural sequence of NaCl type (B1) → Pnma → Cmcm → CsCl type (B2) at hydrostatic pressures of ∼19 GPa, 36 GPa, and 200 GPa, respectively. However, the two high pressure experimental studies by Gerward et al. [J. Appl. Crystallogr. 19, 308 (1986); J. Less-Common Met. 161, L11 (1990)] one up to 36 GPa and other up to 50 GPa, on substoichiometric thorium carbide samples with carbon deficiency of ∼20%, do not report any structural transition. The discrepancy between theory and experiment could be due to the non-stoichiometry of thorium carbide samples used in the experiment. Further, in order to substantiate the results of our static lattice calculations, we have determined the phonon dispersion relations for these structures from lattice dynamic calculations. The theoretically calculated phonon spectrum reveal that the B1 phase fails dynamically at ∼33.8 GPa whereas the Pnma phase appears as dynamically stable structure around the B1 to Pnma transition pressure. Similarly, the Cmcm structure also displays dynamic stability in the regime of its structural stability. The B2 phase becomes dynamically stable much below the Cmcm to B2 transition pressure. Additionally, we have derived various thermophysical properties such as zero pressure equilibrium volume, bulk modulus, its pressure derivative, Debye temperature, thermal expansion coefficient and Gruneisen parameter at 300 K and compared these with available experimental data. Further, the behavior of zero pressure bulk modulus, heat capacity and Helmholtz free energy has been examined as a function temperature and compared with the experimental data of Danan [J

  10. Remedial investigation/feasibility study of the Clinch River/Poplar Creek operable unit. Volume 1, main text

    SciTech Connect

    1996-03-01

    This document is the combined Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study (RI/FS) Report for the Clinch River/Poplar Creek Operable Unit (CR/PC OU), an off-site OU associated with environmental restoration activities at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR). As a result of past, present, and potential future releases of hazardous substances into the environment, the ORR was placed on the National Priorities List in December 1989 (54 FR 48184). Sites on this list must be investigated for possible remedial action, as required by the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA, 42 U.S.C. 9601, et seq.). This report documents the findings of the remedial investigation of this OU and the feasibility of potential remedial action alternatives. These studies are authorized by Sect. 117 of CERCLA and were conducted in accordance with the requirements of the National Contingency Plan (40 CFR Part 300). DOE, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC) have entered into a Federal Facility Agreement (FFA), as authorized by Sect. 120 of CERCLA and Sects. 3008(h) and 6001 of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) (42 U.S.C. 6901, et seq.). The purpose of this agreement is to ensure a coordinated and effective response for all environmental restoration activities occurring at the ORR. In addition to other responsibilities, the FFA parties mutually define the OU boundaries, set remediation priorities, establish remedial investigation priorities and strategies, and identify and select remedial actions. A copy of this FFA is available from the DOE Information Resource Center in Oak Ridge, Tennessee.

  11. Five Nuclear Loci Resolve the Polyploid History of Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) and Relatives

    PubMed Central

    Triplett, Jimmy K.; Wang, Yunjing; Zhong, Jinshun; Kellogg, Elizabeth A.

    2012-01-01

    Polyploidy poses challenges for phylogenetic reconstruction because of the need to identify and distinguish between homoeologous loci. This can be addressed by use of low copy nuclear markers. Panicum s.s. is a genus of about 100 species in the grass tribe Paniceae, subfamily Panicoideae, and is divided into five sections. Many of the species are known to be polyploids. The most well-known of the Panicum polyploids are switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) and common or Proso millet (P. miliaceum). Switchgrass is in section Virgata, along with P. tricholaenoides, P. amarum, and P. amarulum, whereas P. miliaceum is in sect. Panicum. We have generated sequence data from five low copy nuclear loci and two chloroplast loci and have clarified the origin of P. virgatum. We find that all members of sects. Virgata and Urvilleana are the result of diversification after a single allopolyploidy event. The closest diploid relatives of switchgrass are in sect. Rudgeana, native to Central and South America. Within sections Virgata and Urvilleana, P. tricholaenoides is sister to the remaining species. Panicum racemosum and P. urvilleanum form a clade, which may be sister to P. chloroleucum. Panicum amarum, P. amarulum, and the lowland and upland ecotypes of P. virgatum together form a clade, within which relationships are complex. Hexaploid and octoploid plants are likely allopolyploids, with P. amarum and P. amarulum sharing genomes with P. virgatum. Octoploid P. virgatum plants are formed via hybridization between disparate tetraploids. We show that polyploidy precedes diversification in a complex set of polyploids; our data thus suggest that polyploidy could provide the raw material for diversification. In addition, we show two rounds of allopolyploidization in the ancestry of switchgrass, and identify additional species that may be part of its broader gene pool. This may be relevant for development of the crop for biofuels. PMID:22719924

  12. Large-spored Alternaria pathogens in section Porri disentangled

    PubMed Central

    Woudenberg, J.H.C.; Truter, M.; Groenewald, J.Z.; Crous, P.W.

    2014-01-01

    The omnipresent fungal genus Alternaria was recently divided into 24 sections based on molecular and morphological data. Alternaria sect. Porri is the largest section, containing almost all Alternaria species with medium to large conidia and long beaks, some of which are important plant pathogens (e.g. Alternaria porri, A. solani and A. tomatophila). We constructed a multi-gene phylogeny on parts of the ITS, GAPDH, RPB2, TEF1 and Alt a 1 gene regions, which, supplemented with morphological and cultural studies, forms the basis for species recognition in sect. Porri. Our data reveal 63 species, of which 10 are newly described in sect. Porri, and 27 species names are synonymised. The three known Alternaria pathogens causing early blight on tomato all cluster in one clade, and are synonymised under the older name, A. linariae. Alternaria protenta, a species formerly only known as pathogen on Helianthus annuus, is also reported to cause early blight of potato, together with A. solani and A. grandis. Two clades with isolates causing purple blotch of onion are confirmed as A. allii and A. porri, but the two species cannot adequately be distinguished based on the number of beaks and branches as suggested previously. This is also found among the pathogens of Passifloraceae, which are reduced from four to three species. In addition to the known pathogen of sweet potato, A. bataticola, three more species are delineated of which two are newly described. A new Alternaria section is also described, comprising two large-spored Alternaria species with concatenate conidia. PMID:25492985

  13. Five nuclear loci resolve the polyploid history of switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) and relatives.

    PubMed

    Triplett, Jimmy K; Wang, Yunjing; Zhong, Jinshun; Kellogg, Elizabeth A

    2012-01-01

    Polyploidy poses challenges for phylogenetic reconstruction because of the need to identify and distinguish between homoeologous loci. This can be addressed by use of low copy nuclear markers. Panicum s.s. is a genus of about 100 species in the grass tribe Paniceae, subfamily Panicoideae, and is divided into five sections. Many of the species are known to be polyploids. The most well-known of the Panicum polyploids are switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) and common or Proso millet (P. miliaceum). Switchgrass is in section Virgata, along with P. tricholaenoides, P. amarum, and P. amarulum, whereas P. miliaceum is in sect. Panicum. We have generated sequence data from five low copy nuclear loci and two chloroplast loci and have clarified the origin of P. virgatum. We find that all members of sects. Virgata and Urvilleana are the result of diversification after a single allopolyploidy event. The closest diploid relatives of switchgrass are in sect. Rudgeana, native to Central and South America. Within sections Virgata and Urvilleana, P. tricholaenoides is sister to the remaining species. Panicum racemosum and P. urvilleanum form a clade, which may be sister to P. chloroleucum. Panicum amarum, P. amarulum, and the lowland and upland ecotypes of P. virgatum together form a clade, within which relationships are complex. Hexaploid and octoploid plants are likely allopolyploids, with P. amarum and P. amarulum sharing genomes with P. virgatum. Octoploid P. virgatum plants are formed via hybridization between disparate tetraploids. We show that polyploidy precedes diversification in a complex set of polyploids; our data thus suggest that polyploidy could provide the raw material for diversification. In addition, we show two rounds of allopolyploidization in the ancestry of switchgrass, and identify additional species that may be part of its broader gene pool. This may be relevant for development of the crop for biofuels. PMID:22719924

  14. Evolutionary lineages of nickel hyperaccumulation and systematics in European Alysseae (Brassicaceae): evidence from nrDNA sequence data

    PubMed Central

    Cecchi, Lorenzo; Gabbrielli, Roberto; Arnetoli, Miluscia; Gonnelli, Cristina; Hasko, Agim; Selvi, Federico

    2010-01-01

    Background and Aims Nickel (Ni) hyperaccumulation is a rare form of physiological specialization shared by a small number of angiosperms growing on ultramafic soils. The evolutionary patterns of this feature among European members of tribe Alysseae (Brassicaceae) are investigated using a phylogenetic approach to assess relationships among Ni hyperaccumulators at the genus, species and below-species level. Methods Internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences were generated for multiple accessions of Alysseae. Phylogenetic trees were obtained for the genera of the tribe and Alyssum sect. Odontarrhena. All accessions and additional herbarium material were tested for Ni hyperaccumulation with the dimethylglyoxime colorimetric method. Key Results Molecular data strongly support the poorly known hyperaccumulator endemic Leptoplax (Peltaria) emarginata as sister to hyperaccumulator species of Bornmuellera within Alysseae. This is contrary to current assumptions of affinity between L. emarginata and the non-hyperaccumulator Peltaria in Thlaspideae. The lineage Bornmuellera–Leptoplax is, in turn, sister to the two non-hyperaccumulator Mediterranean endemics Ptilotrichum rupestre and P. cyclocarpum. Low ITS sequence variation was found within the monophyletic Alyssum sect. Odontarrhena and especially in A. murale sensu lato. Nickel hyperaccumulation was not monophyletic in any of three main clades retrieved, each consisting of hyperaccumulators and non-hyperaccumulators of different geographical origin. Conclusions Nickel hyperaccumulation in Alysseae has a double origin, but it did not evolve in Thlaspideae. In Bornmuellera–Leptoplax it represents an early synapomorphy inherited from an ancestor shared with the calcicolous, sister clade of Mediterranean Ptilotrichum. In Alyssum sect. Odontarrhena it has multiple origins even within the three European clades recognized. Lack of geographical cohesion suggests that accumulation ability has been lost or gained over the

  15. Large-spored Alternaria pathogens in section Porri disentangled.

    PubMed

    Woudenberg, J H C; Truter, M; Groenewald, J Z; Crous, P W

    2014-09-01

    The omnipresent fungal genus Alternaria was recently divided into 24 sections based on molecular and morphological data. Alternaria sect. Porri is the largest section, containing almost all Alternaria species with medium to large conidia and long beaks, some of which are important plant pathogens (e.g. Alternaria porri, A. solani and A. tomatophila). We constructed a multi-gene phylogeny on parts of the ITS, GAPDH, RPB2, TEF1 and Alt a 1 gene regions, which, supplemented with morphological and cultural studies, forms the basis for species recognition in sect. Porri. Our data reveal 63 species, of which 10 are newly described in sect. Porri, and 27 species names are synonymised. The three known Alternaria pathogens causing early blight on tomato all cluster in one clade, and are synonymised under the older name, A. linariae. Alternaria protenta, a species formerly only known as pathogen on Helianthus annuus, is also reported to cause early blight of potato, together with A. solani and A. grandis. Two clades with isolates causing purple blotch of onion are confirmed as A. allii and A. porri, but the two species cannot adequately be distinguished based on the number of beaks and branches as suggested previously. This is also found among the pathogens of Passifloraceae, which are reduced from four to three species. In addition to the known pathogen of sweet potato, A. bataticola, three more species are delineated of which two are newly described. A new Alternaria section is also described, comprising two large-spored Alternaria species with concatenate conidia. PMID:25492985

  16. Galaxy Formation and Evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagamine, Kentaro; Reddy, Naveen; Daddi, Emanuele; Sargent, Mark T.

    2016-07-01

    In this chapter, we discuss the current status of observational and computational studies on galaxy formation and evolution. In particular, a joint analysis of star-formation rates (SFRs), stellar masses, and metallicities of galaxies throughout cosmic time can shed light on the processes by which galaxies build up their stellar mass and enrich the environment with heavy elements. Comparison of such observations and the results of numerical simulations can give us insights on the physical importance of various feedback effects by supernovae and active galactic nuclei. In Sect. 1, we first discuss the primary methods used to deduce the SFRs, stellar masses, and (primarily) gas-phase metallicities in high-redshift galaxies. Then, we show how these quantities are related to each other and evolve with time. In Sect. 2, we further examine the distribution of SFRs in galaxies following the `Main Sequence' paradigm. We show how the so-called `starbursts' display higher specific SFRs and SF efficiencies by an order of magnitude. We use this to devise a simple description of the evolution of the star-forming galaxy population since z ˜3 that can successfully reproduce some of the observed statistics in the infrared (IR) wavelength. We also discuss the properties of molecular gas. In Sect. 3, we highlight some of the recent studies of high-redshift galaxy formation using cosmological hydrodynamic simulations. We discuss the physical properties of simulated galaxies such as luminosity function and escape fraction of ionizing photons, which are important statistics for reionization of the Universe. In particular the escape fraction of ionizing photons has large uncertainties, and studying gamma-ray bursts (which is the main topic of this conference) can also set observational constraints on this uncertain physical parameter as well as cosmic star formation rate density.

  17. Poster — Thur Eve — 14: Improving Tissue Segmentation for Monte Carlo Dose Calculation using DECT

    SciTech Connect

    Di Salvio, A.; Bedwani, S.; Carrier, J-F.; Bouchard, H.

    2014-08-15

    Purpose: To improve Monte Carlo dose calculation accuracy through a new tissue segmentation technique with dual energy CT (DECT). Methods: Electron density (ED) and effective atomic number (EAN) can be extracted directly from DECT data with a stoichiometric calibration method. Images are acquired with Monte Carlo CT projections using the user code egs-cbct and reconstructed using an FDK backprojection algorithm. Calibration is performed using projections of a numerical RMI phantom. A weighted parameter algorithm then uses both EAN and ED to assign materials to voxels from DECT simulated images. This new method is compared to a standard tissue characterization from single energy CT (SECT) data using a segmented calibrated Hounsfield unit (HU) to ED curve. Both methods are compared to the reference numerical head phantom. Monte Carlo simulations on uniform phantoms of different tissues using dosxyz-nrc show discrepancies in depth-dose distributions. Results: Both SECT and DECT segmentation methods show similar performance assigning soft tissues. Performance is however improved with DECT in regions with higher density, such as bones, where it assigns materials correctly 8% more often than segmentation with SECT, considering the same set of tissues and simulated clinical CT images, i.e. including noise and reconstruction artifacts. Furthermore, Monte Carlo results indicate that kV photon beam depth-dose distributions can double between two tissues of density higher than muscle. Conclusions: A direct acquisition of ED and the added information of EAN with DECT data improves tissue segmentation and increases the accuracy of Monte Carlo dose calculation in kV photon beams.

  18. Hom-Hopf group coalgebras and braided T-categories obtained from Hom-Hopf algebras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    You, Miman; Zhou, Nan; Wang, Shuanhong

    2015-11-01

    The main aim of this paper is to provide new examples of braided T-categories in the sense of Turaev [Arabian J. Sci. Eng., Sect. C 33(2C), 483-503 (2008)]. For this purpose, we first introduce a class of new twisted Yetter-Drinfeld modules categories. Then, we construct a new braided T-category, generalizing the main constructions by Panaite and Staic [Isr. J. Math. 158, 349-366 (2007)]. Finally, we show that the new braided T-category in some conditions coincides with the representations of a certain Hom-Hopf group-coalgebra that we construct.

  19. Practical Session: Logistic Regression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clausel, M.; Grégoire, G.

    2014-12-01

    An exercise is proposed to illustrate the logistic regression. One investigates the different risk factors in the apparition of coronary heart disease. It has been proposed in Chapter 5 of the book of D.G. Kleinbaum and M. Klein, "Logistic Regression", Statistics for Biology and Health, Springer Science Business Media, LLC (2010) and also by D. Chessel and A.B. Dufour in Lyon 1 (see Sect. 6 of http://pbil.univ-lyon1.fr/R/pdf/tdr341.pdf). This example is based on data given in the file evans.txt coming from http://www.sph.emory.edu/dkleinb/logreg3.htm#data.

  20. [Influences of Confucianism, Taoism and Buddhism on Chinese Medical Formulas in Jin-Tang Dynasties].

    PubMed

    Wu, Xiao-xiang

    2006-04-01

    In the Jin-Tang Dynasties, when Confucianism, Taoism and Buddhism contended, conflicted and well blent, forming a state of mingled thoughts of the three sects. It exerted profound influences on Chinese Medical Formulas and promoted the academic fashion of compiling books about medical formulas characterized by collecting various formulas especially the simple and proved recipes. This plays a role in the formation of the formulas used in the Jin-Tang Dynasties, featuring simplicity, convenience, cheapness, and effectiveness, different from those of other periods. PMID:17096988

  1. [Studies on genetic relationship of Dioscorea].

    PubMed

    Huang, Han-han; Li, Xia; Gao, Wen-yuan; Xiao, Pei-gen

    2015-09-01

    Based on the results of the morphologic studies on genus Dioscorea, the paper summarized the entire chemical constituent that isolated from this genus and analyzed it with the methods of chemotaxonomy. The rules of the chemical constituent and pharmacodynamic effects were analyzed. Seventeen species which belong to Sect. Stenophora Uline of Dioscorea contain steroidal sapogenin. Other species with different main components such as polysaccharide and tannin have have different effects. This chemotaxonomic view point will conduce to establish a phylogeny of the genus Dioscorea. PMID:26978991

  2. Synthesis of Novel Basic Skeletons Derived from Naltrexone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagase, Hiroshi; Fujii, Hideaki

    We will describe eight interesting reactions using naltrexone derivatives. Almost all these reactions are characteristic of naltrexone derivatives, and can lead to the synthesis of many novel skeletons that provide new interesting pharmacological data. Some of the new reactions that were found with naltrexone derivatives were expanded into general reactions. For example, the reaction of 6α-hydroxyaldehyde derived from naltrexone led to the oxazoline dimer and the 1,3,5-trioxazatriquinane skeleton (triplet drug); this reaction was applied to general ketones which were converted to α-hydroxyaldehydes, followed by conversion to dimers and trimers, as described in Sect. 7.

  3. VizieR Online Data Catalog: LARS VIII. Spatially resolved Halpha kinematics (Herenz+, 2016)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herenz, E. C.; Gruyters, P.; Orlitova, I.; Hayes, M.; Ostlin, G.; Cannon, J. M.; Roth, M.; Bik, A.; Pardy, S.; Oti-Floranes, H.; Mas-Hesse, J. M.; Adamo, A.; Atek, H.; Duval, F.; Guaita, L.; Kunth, D.; Laursen, P.; Melinder, J.; Puschnig, J.; Rivera-Thorsen, T. E.; Schaerer, D.; Verhamme, A.

    2015-11-01

    The FITS files contain the reduced Calar-Alto 3.5m PMAS flux datacubes. Observations and datareduction are described in Sects. 2 and 3 of the paper. We also provide errorcubes and the resolving power maps that were used in our derivation of the Hα velocity fields. WCS information is included only in the fluxcubes. The cubes were registered to our HST imaging data, so the WCS information might not be correct in an absolute sense. Wavelengths are in air as measured, i.e. no barycentric correction is applied. (2 data files).

  4. Sandia scientists enhancing K-12 education: How we`ve done it and what we`ve learned

    SciTech Connect

    Eckelmeyer, K.H.

    1994-07-01

    Sandia National Laboratories became seriously involved in the science education reform movement in 1989 in response to a Department of Energy directive: ``We must expand our involvement in science education to inspire the youth of American to either enter or feel more comfortable in the fields of math, science and engineering. With our labs and facilities we are uniquely well positioned to provide major assistance in strengthening science and engineering motivation and education, making it `come alive` for the main body of students who too often fear these disciplines or who cannot relate to them``. (Adm. James D. Watkins, U.S. Sec`t. of Energy, 9/5/89)

  5. Psychiatry and ethics: the problematics of respect for religious meanings.

    PubMed

    Post, S G

    1993-09-01

    Over the past two decades American psychiatrists have had to address the emergence of an increasingly fervent religious pluralism. Particularly in cases of socially controversial new religious movements (NRMs), distressed families have pressured psychiatrists to assess the mental state of recruits to such sects, often labeled "cults." At this inevitably acrimonious interface between family values and religious liberties, psychiatrists have for the most part resisted pressures to medicalize religious conversions. This article provides an historical review of American psychiatric response to NRMs with respect to nosology and practice. It introduces this response in the more general context of ethics and the problematics of respect for religious meanings. PMID:8269715

  6. Simulation study on potential accuracy gains from dual energy CT tissue segmentation for low-energy brachytherapy Monte Carlo dose calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landry, Guillaume; Granton, Patrick V.; Reniers, Brigitte; Öllers, Michel C.; Beaulieu, Luc; Wildberger, Joachim E.; Verhaegen, Frank

    2011-10-01

    This work compares Monte Carlo (MC) dose calculations for 125I and 103Pd low-dose rate (LDR) brachytherapy sources performed in virtual phantoms containing a series of human soft tissues of interest for brachytherapy. The geometries are segmented (tissue type and density assignment) based on simulated single energy computed tomography (SECT) and dual energy (DECT) images, as well as the all-water TG-43 approach. Accuracy is evaluated by comparison to a reference MC dose calculation performed in the same phantoms, where each voxel's material properties are assigned with exactly known values. The objective is to assess potential dose calculation accuracy gains from DECT. A CT imaging simulation package, ImaSim, is used to generate CT images of calibration and dose calculation phantoms at 80, 120, and 140 kVp. From the high and low energy images electron density ρe and atomic number Z are obtained using a DECT algorithm. Following a correction derived from scans of the calibration phantom, accuracy on Z and ρe of ±1% is obtained for all soft tissues with atomic number Z in [6,8] except lung. GEANT4 MC dose calculations based on DECT segmentation agreed with the reference within ±4% for 103Pd, the most sensitive source to tissue misassignments. SECT segmentation with three tissue bins as well as the TG-43 approach showed inferior accuracy with errors of up to 20%. Using seven tissue bins in our SECT segmentation brought errors within ±10% for 103Pd. In general 125I dose calculations showed higher accuracy than 103Pd. Simulated image noise was found to decrease DECT accuracy by 3-4%. Our findings suggest that DECT-based segmentation yields improved accuracy when compared to SECT segmentation with seven tissue bins in LDR brachytherapy dose calculation for the specific case of our non-anthropomorphic phantom. The validity of our conclusions for clinical geometry as well as the importance of image noise in the tissue segmentation procedure deserves further

  7. Simulation study on potential accuracy gains from dual energy CT tissue segmentation for low-energy brachytherapy Monte Carlo dose calculations.

    PubMed

    Landry, Guillaume; Granton, Patrick V; Reniers, Brigitte; Ollers, Michel C; Beaulieu, Luc; Wildberger, Joachim E; Verhaegen, Frank

    2011-10-01

    This work compares Monte Carlo (MC) dose calculations for (125)I and (103)Pd low-dose rate (LDR) brachytherapy sources performed in virtual phantoms containing a series of human soft tissues of interest for brachytherapy. The geometries are segmented (tissue type and density assignment) based on simulated single energy computed tomography (SECT) and dual energy (DECT) images, as well as the all-water TG-43 approach. Accuracy is evaluated by comparison to a reference MC dose calculation performed in the same phantoms, where each voxel's material properties are assigned with exactly known values. The objective is to assess potential dose calculation accuracy gains from DECT. A CT imaging simulation package, ImaSim, is used to generate CT images of calibration and dose calculation phantoms at 80, 120, and 140 kVp. From the high and low energy images electron density ρ(e) and atomic number Z are obtained using a DECT algorithm. Following a correction derived from scans of the calibration phantom, accuracy on Z and ρ(e) of ±1% is obtained for all soft tissues with atomic number Z ∊ [6,8] except lung. GEANT4 MC dose calculations based on DECT segmentation agreed with the reference within ±4% for (103)Pd, the most sensitive source to tissue misassignments. SECT segmentation with three tissue bins as well as the TG-43 approach showed inferior accuracy with errors of up to 20%. Using seven tissue bins in our SECT segmentation brought errors within ±10% for (103)Pd. In general (125)I dose calculations showed higher accuracy than (103)Pd. Simulated image noise was found to decrease DECT accuracy by 3-4%. Our findings suggest that DECT-based segmentation yields improved accuracy when compared to SECT segmentation with seven tissue bins in LDR brachytherapy dose calculation for the specific case of our non-anthropomorphic phantom. The validity of our conclusions for clinical geometry as well as the importance of image noise in the tissue segmentation procedure deserves

  8. IOT Overview Polarimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ageorges, N.

    This contribution concentrates on the polarimetric modes offered by different instruments at ESO. In the introduction, I will demonstrate the importance of polarimetry, the kind of science it permits to achieve and list the instruments which offer these modes. Sects. 2 and 3 will present the involved modes in more details as well as the currently related calibrations, as part of the calibration plans.ESO does not offer any pure polarimetric instrument. As a consequence the polarimetric modes are just one (or more) mode(s) of the given instruments. Polarimetric modes might be mentioned in the related IOT but are not followed up thoroughly as is e.g. spectroscopy.

  9. β-K(VO2)2(PO4).

    PubMed

    Ezzine Yahmed, Safa; Ayed, Meriem; Zid, Mohamed Faouzi; Driss, Ahmed

    2013-01-01

    A new vanadium oxide, potassium bis-(dioxovanad-yl) phosphate, β-K(VO2)2(PO4), has been synthesized by a solid-state reaction. In the title compound, the [V2PO8] framework is built up from infinite pyramidal [V2O8]∞ and [VPO7]∞ chains linked together by V-O-P bridges, leading to a three-dimensional framework which delimits two types of inter-secting tunnels running along [100] and [010] in which the four unique K(+) ions, showing coordination numbers of nine and ten, are located. PMID:23476311

  10. On exponential stability of linear Levin-Nohel integro-differential equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tien Dung, Nguyen

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this paper is to investigate the exponential stability for linear Levin-Nohel integro-differential equations with time-varying delays. To the best of our knowledge, the exponential stability for such equations has not yet been discussed. In addition, since we do not require that the kernel and delay are continuous, our results improve those obtained in Becker and Burton [Proc. R. Soc. Edinburgh, Sect. A: Math. 136, 245-275 (2006)]; Dung [J. Math. Phys. 54, 082705 (2013)]; and Jin and Luo [Comput. Math. Appl. 57(7), 1080-1088 (2009)].

  11. Fiscal year 1988 program report: Pennsylvania Center for Water Resources Research

    SciTech Connect

    McDonnell, A.J.

    1989-08-01

    Three projects and a program of technology transfer were conducted under the Pennsylvania Fiscal Year 1988 State Water Resources Research Grants Program (PL 98-242, Sect. 104). In a completed study focused on the protection of water supplies, mature slow sand filters were found to remove 100 percent of Cryptosporidium and Giardia cysts. A site specific study examined the behavior of sedimentary iron and manganese in an acid mine drainage wetland system. A study was initiated to link a comprehensive non-point source model, AGNPS with current GIS technology to enhance the models' utility for evaluating regional water quality problems related to non-point source agricultural pollution.

  12. An empirical coverage test for the g-sample problem

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Orlowski, L.A.; Grundy, W.D.; Mielke, P.W., Jr.

    1991-01-01

    A nonparametric g-sample empirical coverage test has recently been developed for univariate continuous data. It is based upon the empirical coverages which are spacings of multiple random samples. The test is capable of detecting any distributional differences which may exist among the parent populations, without additional assumptions beyond randomness and continuity. The test can be effective with the limited and/or unequal sample sizes most often encountered in geologic studies. A computer program for implementing this procedure, G-SECT 1, is available. ?? 1991 International Association for Mathematical Geology.

  13. Division G Commission 36: Theory of Stellar Atmospheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puls, Joachim; Hubeny, Ivan; Asplund, Martin; Allard, France; Prieto, Carlos Allende; Ayres, Thomas R.; Carlsson, Mats; Gustafsson, Bengt; Kudritzki, Rolf-Peter; Ryabchikova, Tatiana A.

    2016-04-01

    Different from previous triennial reports, this report covers the activities of IAU Commission 36 `Theory of Stellar Atmospheres' over the past six years†, and will be the last report from the `old' Commission 36. After the General Assembly in Honolulu (August 2015), a new Commission `Stellar and Planetary Atmospheres' (C.G5, under Division G, `Stars and Stellar Physics') has come into life, and will continue our work devoted to the outer envelopes of stars, as well as extend it to the atmospheres of planets (see Sect. 4).

  14. Second monoclinic polymorph of 4-[(1H-benzimidazol-1-yl)meth­yl]benzoic acid

    PubMed Central

    Kuai, Hai-Wei; Cheng, Xiao-Chun

    2011-01-01

    Recently, we reported the first monoclinic [Kuai & Cheng (2011). Acta Cryst., E67, o2787] and the ortho­rhom­bic polymorph [Kuai & Cheng (2011). Acta Cryst., E67, o3014] of the title compound, C15H12N2O2. Another monoclinic polymorph was obtained accidentally by the hydro­thermal reaction of the title compound with manganese chloride in the presence of potassium hydroxide at 413 K. The asymmetric unit consists of four independent mol­ecules. In the crystal, O—H⋯N hydrogen bonds link the independent mol­ecules into four separate chains parallel to the b axis. PMID:22199726

  15. A Short History of Medical Informatics in Bosnia and Herzegovina

    PubMed Central

    Masic, Izet

    2014-01-01

    The health informatics profession in Bosnia and Herzegovina has relatively long history. Thirty five years from the introduction of the first automatic manipulation of data, thirty years from the establishment of Society for Medical Informatics BiH, twenty years from the establishment of the Scientific journal “Acta Informatica Medica (Acta Inform Med”, indexed in PubMed, PubMed Central Scopus, Embase, etc.), twenty years on from the establishment of the first Cathedra for Medical Informatics on Biomedical Faculties in Bosnia and Herzegovina, ten years on from the introduction of the method of “Distance learning” in medical curriculum. The author of this article is eager to mark the importance of the above mentioned Anniversaries in the development of Health informatics in Bosnia and Herzegovina and have attempted, very briefly, to present the most significant events and persons with essential roles throughout this period. PMID:24648621

  16. The spectral sensitivity of the human short-wavelength sensitive cones derived from thresholds and color matches.

    PubMed

    Stockman, A; Sharpe, L T; Fach, C

    1999-08-01

    We used two methods to estimate short-wave (S) cone spectral sensitivity. Firstly, we measured S-cone thresholds centrally and peripherally in five trichromats, and in three blue-cone monochromats, who lack functioning middle-wave (M) and long-wave (L) cones. Secondly, we analyzed standard color-matching data. Both methods yielded equivalent results, on the basis of which we propose new S-cone spectral sensitivity functions. At short and middle-wavelengths, our measurements are consistent with the color matching data of Stiles and Burch (1955, Optica Acta, 2, 168-181; 1959, Optica Acta, 6, 1-26), and other psychophysically measured functions, such as pi 3 (Stiles, 1953, Coloquio sobre problemas opticos de la vision, 1, 65-103). At longer wavelengths, S-cone sensitivity has previously been over-estimated. PMID:10492818

  17. Autosomal dominant nemaline myopathy caused by a novel alpha-tropomyosin 3 mutation.

    PubMed

    Kiphuth, I C; Krause, S; Huttner, H B; Dekomien, G; Struffert, T; Schröder, R

    2010-04-01

    Nemaline myopathy (NM) is a genetically and clinically heterogenous muscle disorder, which is myopathologically characterized by nemaline bodies. Mutations in six genes have been reported to cause NM: Nebulin (NEB Pelin 1999), alpha-skeletal muscle actin (ACTA1 Nowak 1999), alpha-slow tropomyosin (TPM3 Laing 1995), beta-tropomyosin (TPM2 Donner 2002), slow troponin T (TNNT1 Johnston 2000) and cofilin 2 (CFL2 Agrawal 2007). The majority of cases are due to mutation in NEB and ACTA1. We report on the clinical, myopathological and muscle MRI findings in a German family with autosomal dominant NM due to a novel pathogenic TPM3 mutation (p.Ala156Thr). PMID:20012312

  18. Periodic entanglement III: tangled degree-3 finite and layer net intergrowths from rare forests.

    PubMed

    Evans, Myfanwy E; Hyde, Stephen T

    2015-11-01

    Entanglements of two-dimensional honeycomb nets are constructed from free tilings of the hyperbolic plane (H2) on triply periodic minimal surfaces. The 2-periodic nets that comprise the structures are guaranteed by considering regular, rare free tilings in H2. This paper catalogues an array of entanglements that are both beautiful and challenging for current classification techniques, including examples that are realized in metal-organic materials. The compactification of these structures to the genus-3 torus is considered as a preliminary method for generating entanglements of finite θ-graphs, potentially useful for gaining insight into the entanglement of the periodic structure. This work builds on previous structural enumerations given in Periodic entanglement Parts I and II [Evans et al. (2013). Acta Cryst. A69, 241-261; Evans et al. (2013). Acta Cryst. A69, 262-275]. PMID:26522409

  19. Meeting Report: 7th World Congress on Itch

    PubMed Central

    Azimi, Ehsan; Lerner, Ethan A.

    2014-01-01

    The 7th World Congress on Itch was held in Boston in September 2013. This is the biennial meeting of the International Forum for the Study of Itch (IFSI), www.itchforum.net, There were 240 attendees from 17 countries. They spanned clinical practice, academics and patient advocacy while the opportunity for translation was demonstrated as 80 attendees were from industry. A large academic neuroscience contingent was present. There were plenary sessions, basic and clinical tracts, and sixty posters during the 2½ day meeting. The meeting program and 160 abstracts are available at www.itchboston.org and the open access journal, Acta Dermato-Venereologica, www.medicaljournals.se/acta/. This report highlights selected aspects of the congress and the latest advances in the field. PMID:24924756

  20. 4-(3-Fluoro­phen­yl)-1-(propan-2-yl­idene)thio­semicarbazone

    PubMed Central

    Miroslaw, Barbara; Szulczyk, Daniel; Koziol, Anna E.; Struga, Marta

    2011-01-01

    The title compound, C10H12FN3S, crystallizes in the same space group (P21/c) as two polymorphic forms of 4-phenyl-1-(propan-2-yl­idene)thio­semicarbazone [Jian et al. (2005). Acta Cryst. E61, o653–o654; Venkatraman et al. (2005). Acta Cryst. E61, o3914–o3916]. The arrangement of mol­ecules relative to the twofold screw axes is similar to that in the crystal structure of the lower density polymorph. In the solid state, the mol­ecular conformation is stabilized by an intra­molecular N—H⋯N hydrogen bond. The mol­ecules form centrosymmetric R 2 2(8) dimers in the crystal through pairs of N—H⋯S hydrogen bonds. PMID:22220027

  1. Chinese duo fired for scientific fraud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiao, Li

    2010-02-01

    A major case of academic fraud in China has led to calls for the country to adopt a new system of academic evaluation that steers away from heavily supporting scientists who publish the most papers. The calls have been made after some 70 papers published by Chinese scientists in Acta Crystallographica Section E were retracted from the journal late last year. The authors acknowledged that their analysis had been fabricated.

  2. Measurement of radon gas on major faults in California, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zhang, W.; King, C.-Y.

    1994-01-01

    Abundant data have been gathered through measurements of radon gas emission in the soil on several major active faults, such as San Andreas and Calaveras, in California, U.S.A.. They show radon emissions and their spatial variations at the unlocked, locked, and creeping sections of faults with different tectonic movements. The characteristics of these variations and the role of fault gases in the research on earthquake prediction are discussed in this paper. ?? 1994 Acta Seismologica Sinica.

  3. Congenital Heart Defects Are Rarely Caused by Mutations in Cardiac and Smooth Muscle Actin Genes

    PubMed Central

    Khodyuchenko, Tatiana; Zlotina, Anna; Pervunina, Tatiana; Zverev, Dmitry; Malashicheva, Anna; Kostareva, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Background. Congenital heart defects (CHDs) often have genetic background due to missense mutations in cardiomyocyte-specific genes. For example, cardiac actin was shown to be involved in pathogenesis of cardiac septum defects and smooth muscle actin in pathogenesis of aortic aneurysm in combination with patent ductus arteriosus (PDA). In the present study, we further searched for mutations in human α-cardiac actin (ACTC1) and smooth muscle α-actin (ACTA2) genes as a possible cause of atrial septum defect type II (ASDII) and PDA. Findings. Total genomic DNA was extracted from peripheral blood of 86 individuals with ASDs and 100 individuals with PDA. Coding exons and flanking intron regions of ACTC1 (NM_005159.4) and ACTA2 (NM_001613) were amplified by PCR with specific primers designed according to the corresponding gene reference sequences. PCR fragments were directly sequenced and analyzed. Sequence analysis of ACTC1 and ACTA2 did not identify any nucleotide changes that altered the coding sense of the genes. In ACTC1 gene, we were able to detect one previously described nucleotide polymorphism (rs2307493) resulting in a synonymous substitution. The frequency of this SNP was similar in the study and control group, thus excluding it from the possible disease-associated variants. Conclusions. Our results confirmed that the mutations in ACTC1 gene are rare (at least <1%) cause of ASDII. Mutations in ACTA2 gene were not detected in patients with PDA, thus being excluded from the list of frequent PDA-associated genetic defects. PMID:25861618

  4. National Registry of Genetically Triggered Thoracic Aortic Aneurysms and Cardiovascular Conditions

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-12-08

    Marfan Syndrome; Turner Syndrome; Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome; Loeys-Dietz Syndrome; FBN1, TGFBR1, TGFBR2, ACTA2 or MYH11 Genetic Mutation; Bicuspid Aortic Valve Without Known Family History; Bicuspid Aortic Valve With Family History; Bicuspid Aortic Valve With Coarctation; Familial Thoracic Aortic Aneurysm and Dissections; Shprintzen-Goldberg Syndrome; Other Aneur/Diss of Thoracic Aorta Not Due to Trauma, <50yo; Other Congenital Heart Disease

  5. What Will They Learn? A Survey of Core Requirements at Our Nation's Colleges and Universities. 2011-12

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kempson, Lauri; Bako, Tom; Markley, Eric

    2012-01-01

    What does it mean to be a college graduate? One knows about the time and ever-increasing amount of money that a diploma demands. But when it comes down to what matters--the skills and knowledge acquired--what does a college degree mean? That is the question the American Council of Trustees and Alumni (ACTA) answers in this book. Inside one will…

  6. Characterization of a Cartilage-Like Engineered Biomass Using a Self-Aggregating Suspension Culture Model: Molecular Composition Using FT-IRIS

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Minwook; Kraft, Jeffrey J.; Volk, Andrew C.; Pugarelli, Joan; Pleshko, Nancy; Dodge, George R.

    2011-01-01

    Maintenance of chondrocyte phenotype and robust expression and organization of macromolecular components with suitable cartilaginous properties is an ultimate goal in cartilage tissue engineering. We used a self-aggregating suspension culture (SASC) method to produce an engineered cartilage, “cartilage tissue analog” (CTA). With an objective of understanding the stability of phenotype of the CTA over long periods, we cultured chondrocytes up to 4 years and analyzed the matrix. Both early (eCTAs) (6 months) and aged (aCTAs) (4 years) showed type II collagen throughout with higher concentrations near the edge. Using Fourier transform-infrared imaging spectroscopy (FT-IRIS), proteoglycan/collagen ratio of eCTA was 2.8 times greater than native cartilage at 1 week, but the ratio was balanced to native level (p = 0.017) by 36 weeks. Surprisingly, aCTAs maintained the hyaline characteristics, but there was evidence of calcification within the tissue with a distinct range of intensities. Mineral/matrix ratio of those aCTA with “intensive” calcification was significantly higher (p = 0.017) than the “partial,” but when compared to native bone the ratio of “intensive” aCTAs was 2.4 times lower. In this study we utilized the imaging approach of FT-IRIS and have shown that a biomaterial formed is compositionally closely related to natural cartilage for long periods in culture. We show that this culture platform can maintain a CTA for extended periods of time (4 years) and under those conditions signs of mineralization can be found. This method of cartilage tissue engineering is a promising method to generate cartilaginous biomaterial and may have potential to be utilized in both cartilage and boney repairs. PMID:21630329

  7. Triclinic polymorph of 4-[4-(4-formyl-phen-oxy)but-oxy]benzaldehyde.

    PubMed

    Balić, Tomislav; Marković, Berislav; Balić, Ivana

    2013-01-01

    The title compound, C18H18O4, is a triclinic polymorph of the previously reported monoclinic polymorph [Han & Zhen (2005 ▶). Acta Cryst. E61, o4358-o4359]. In the crystal of the triclinic polymorph, molecules are linked by two pairs of C-H⋯O hydrogen bonds, forming a two-dimensional network parallel to (102), and enclosing loops with graph set motifs of R2(2)(8) and R2(2)(6). PMID:23476387

  8. Triclinic polymorph of 4-[4-(4-formyl­phen­oxy)but­oxy]benzaldehyde

    PubMed Central

    Balić, Tomislav; Marković, Berislav; Balić, Ivana

    2013-01-01

    The title compound, C18H18O4, is a triclinic polymorph of the previously reported monoclinic polymorph [Han & Zhen (2005 ▶). Acta Cryst. E61, o4358–o4359]. In the crystal of the triclinic polymorph, molecules are linked by two pairs of C—H⋯O hydrogen bonds, forming a two-dimensional network parallel to (102), and enclosing loops with graph set motifs of R 2 2(8) and R 2 2(6). PMID:23476387

  9. Cosmochemistry and Mineralogy of Primitive Meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buseck, Peter R.

    2003-01-01

    We have produced significant research results during the grant period. These have been reported in five papers published in Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta and Meteoritics and Planetary Science and several others are in review. We also presented 17 abstracted talks at professional meetings. The citations are given in section 2, and abstracts of the papers are provided in section 3. The full papers are available on request.

  10. Parameter-free exchange potential for excitation in the density-functional theory: Application to excitation energies within the fractional-occupation approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagy, Á.

    1990-10-01

    The density-functional theory for ensembles of fractional occupation formulated by Gross, Oliveira, and Kohn [Phys. Rev. A 37, 2821 (1988)] has been applied. The excitation energies of several atoms have been determined using a parameter-free exchange potential of Gáspár [Acta Phys. Hung. 35, 213 (1974)]. The calculated excitation energies are in good agreement with the experimental values.

  11. Thin film adhesion by nanoindentation-induced superlayers. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Gerberich, William W.; Volinsky, A.A.

    2001-06-01

    This work has analyzed the key variables of indentation tip radius, contact radius, delamination radius, residual stress and superlayer/film/interlayer properties on nanoindentation measurements of adhesion. The goal to connect practical works of adhesion for very thin films to true works of adhesion has been achieved. A review of this work titled ''Interfacial toughness measurements of thin metal films,'' which has been submitted to Acta Materialia, is included.

  12. Finite gradient elasticity and plasticity: a constitutive mechanical framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertram, Albrecht

    2015-11-01

    Following a suggestion by Forest and Sievert (Acta Mech 160:71-111, 2003), a constitutive frame for a general gradient elastoplasticity for finite deformations is established. The basic assumptions are the principle of Euclidean invariance and the isomorphy of the elastic ranges. Both the elastic and the plastic laws include the first and the second deformation gradient. The starting point is an objective expression for the stress power.

  13. A survey of recently published papers on orthopedics in the Brazilian scientific press

    PubMed Central

    Rocha-e-Silva, Mauricio; Gomes, Ariane Maris

    2012-01-01

    This paper is a review of articles published in Brazilian scientific periodicals in recent years. Its main purpose is to bring to the attention of the readership of Acta Ortopedica Brasileira original contributions to the field published in non-specialized journals. We hope that this will serve as a general scientific update for readers. The review includes works published in six ISI indexed non-orthopedic journals, following a literature search conducted in fourteen such journals. PMID:24453633

  14. MicroRNA-208b Alleviates Post-Infarction Myocardial Fibrosis in a Rat Model by Inhibiting GATA4

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Chaoyuan; Cui, Qintao; Su, Guobao; Guo, Xiaoliang; Liu, Xiaochen; Zhang, Jie

    2016-01-01

    Background Myocardial infarction affects the health of many people. Post-infarction myocardial fibrosis has attracted much attention, but details of the mechanism remain elusive. In this study, the role of microRNA-208b (miR-208b) in modulating post-infarction myocardial fibrosis and the related mechanism were investigated. Material/Methods A rat model of myocardial infarction induced by ligating the left anterior descending artery was used to analyze the expression and roles of miR-208b by overexpression with the lentivirus vector of pre-miR-208b. Myocardial function was assessed and the expression of fibrosis-related factors type I collagen (COL1) and ACTA2 (alias αSMA) was detected. Myocardial fibroblasts isolated from newborn rats were transfected with luciferase reporter vectors containing wild-type or mutant Gata4 3′ UTR to verify the relationship between Gata4 and miR-208b. We then transfected the specific small interference RNA of Gata4 to detect changes in COL1 and ACTA2. Results miR-208b was down-regulated in hearts of model rats (P<0.01). Overexpressing miR-208b improved myocardial functions, such as reducing the infarction area (P<0.05) and promoting LVEF and LVFS (P<0.01), and inhibited COL1 and ACTA2 (P<0.01). Luciferase reporter assay proved Gata4 to be the direct target of miR-208b, with the target sequence in the 3′UTR. Inhibiting GATA4 resulted in the down-regulation of COL1 and ACTA2, suggesting that the role of miR-208b was achieved via regulating GATA4. Conclusions This study demonstrates the protective function of miR-208b via GATA4 in post-infarction myocardial fibrosis, providing a potential therapeutic target for treating myocardial fibrosis. PMID:27236543

  15. Growth of Mouse Oocytes to Maturity from Premeiotic Germ Cells In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zhi-Peng; Liang, Gui-Jin; Zhang, Xi-Feng; Zhang, Guo-Liang; Chao, Hu-He; Li, Lan; Sun, Xiao-Feng; Min, Ling-Jiang; Pan, Qing-Jie; Shi, Qing-Hua; Sun, Qing-Yuan; De Felici, Massimo; Shen, Wei

    2012-01-01

    In the present study, we established an in vitro culture system suitable for generating fertilizable oocytes from premeiotic mouse female germ cells. These results were achieved after first establishing an in vitro culture system allowing immature oocytes from 12–14 day- old mice to reach meiotic maturation through culture onto preantral granulosa cell (PAGC) monolayers in the presence of Activin A (ActA). To generate mature oocytes from premeiotic germ cells, pieces of ovaries from 12.5 days post coitum (dpc) embryos were cultured in medium supplemented with ActA for 28 days and the oocytes formed within the explants were isolated and cocultured onto PAGC monolayers in the presence of ActA for 6–7 days. The oocytes were then subjected to a final meiotic maturation assay to evaluate their capability to undergo germinal vesicle break down (GVBD) and reach the metaphase II (MII) stage. We found that during the first 28 days of culture, a significant number of oocytes within the ovarian explants reached nearly full growth and formed preantral follicle-like structures with the surrounding somatic cells. GSH level and Cx37 expression in the oocytes within the explants were indicative of proper developmental conditions. Moreover, the imprinting of Igf2r and Peg3 genes in these oocytes was correctly established. Further culture onto PAGCs in the presence of ActA allowed about 16% of the oocytes to undergo GVBD, among which 17% reached the MII stage during the final 16–18 hr maturation culture. These MII oocytes showed normal spindle and chromosome assembly and a correct ERK1/2 activity. About 35% of the in vitro matured oocytes were fertilized and 53.44% of them were able to reach the 2-cell stage. Finally, around 7% of the 2-cell embryos developed to the morula/blastocyst stage. PMID:22848595

  16. Retrotransposon-Based Molecular Markers for Analysis of Genetic Diversity within the Genus Linum

    PubMed Central

    Melnikova, Nataliya V.; Kudryavtseva, Anna V.; Zelenin, Alexander V.; Lakunina, Valentina A.; Yurkevich, Olga Yu.; Speranskaya, Anna S.; Dmitriev, Alexey A.; Krinitsina, Anastasia A.; Belenikin, Maxim S.; Uroshlev, Leonid A.; Snezhkina, Anastasiya V.; Sadritdinova, Asiya F.; Koroban, Nadezda V.; Amosova, Alexandra V.; Samatadze, Tatiana E.; Guzenko, Elena V.; Lemesh, Valentina A.; Savilova, Anastasya M.; Rachinskaia, Olga A.; Kishlyan, Natalya V.; Rozhmina, Tatiana A.; Bolsheva, Nadezhda L.; Muravenko, Olga V.

    2014-01-01

    SSAP method was used to study the genetic diversity of 22 Linum species from sections Linum, Adenolinum, Dasylinum, Stellerolinum, and 46 flax cultivars. All the studied flax varieties were distinguished using SSAP for retrotransposons FL9 and FL11. Thus, the validity of SSAP method was demonstrated for flax marking, identification of accessions in genebank collections, and control during propagation of flax varieties. Polymorphism of Fl1a, Fl1b, and Cassandra insertions were very low in flax varieties, but these retrotransposons were successfully used for the investigation of Linum species. Species clusterization based on SSAP markers was in concordance with their taxonomic division into sections Dasylinum, Stellerolinum, Adenolinum, and Linum. All species of sect. Adenolinum clustered apart from species of sect. Linum. The data confirmed the accuracy of the separation in these sections. Members of section Linum are not as closely related as members of other sections, so taxonomic revision of this section is desirable. L. usitatissimum accessions genetically distant from modern flax cultivars were revealed in our work. These accessions are of utmost interest for flax breeding and introduction of new useful traits into flax cultivars. The chromosome localization of Cassandra retrotransposon in Linum species was determined. PMID:25243121

  17. A revision of Poa subsection Aphanelytrum (Poaceae, Pooideae, Poaeae, Poinae); and a new species, Poa auriculata

    PubMed Central

    Peterson, Paul M.; Soreng, Robert J.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract In this study the peculiar Andean grass genus Aphanelytrum, with two species, is reduced to Poa subsect. Aphanelytrum comb. & stat. nov. A third species, Festuca reclinata, is assigned to the subsection, which shows states transitional between a more typical Poa and Aphanelytrum. Poa subgen. Poa supersect. Homalopoa sect. Dioicopoa subsect. Aphanelytrum comb. & stat. nov. is characterized in having stooling perennials with decumbent to spreading culm bases that continuously branch and often root at low to mid-culm nodes, glabrous spikelets with long rachillas 1.2–4.2 mm long, short glumes less than ½ the length of the florets, and lemmas with bifid apexes that are mucronate to short-awned. We provide for the three species taxonomic discussions, morphological and anatomical descriptions, keys, illustrations, and a list of specimens. Also, we provide two new names, Poa hitchcockiana nom. nov. and Poa sanchez-vegae nom. nov., and one new combination, Poa reclinata comb. nov. A new species, Poa auriculata sp. nov. from Peru, not thought to be a member of Poa subsect. Aphanelytrum, is presented. It is the first in the genus with prominent auricles. In addition, we place Poa apiculata in Poa subgen. Poa supersect. Homalopoa sect. Dioicopoa subsect. Tovarochloa comb. & stat. nov. PMID:27489482

  18. Mishmarot Calendars from Qumran Cave 4: Congruence and Divergence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snyder, George, Jr.

    1997-09-01

    This study examines the calendar observed by the sect whose writings have been found in the caves of the Judean desert. Chapter I introduces the Qumran calendar as an outgrowth of the 364-day pseudo-solar year described in the astronomical chapters of 1 Enoch and defended in the Book of Jubilees. The Temple Scroll completes a calendric foundation by making canonical several summer harvest festivals not found in the Hebrew Scriptures. Chapters II through VII detail the eight mishmarot manuscripts, providing text, translation, and analysis toward understanding the fully developed calendric structure. These investigations manifest arguments that establish the beginning of the sect's lunar month at the full moon, present coordination methodologies that balance the 364-day solar year with the 354-day lunar one, and reveal two different arrangements of the festival cycle. The Conclusion gathers under the heads of Enoch and Jubilees evidence to propose two sectarian calendar traditions and brings forward other texts which could be similarly categorized. Three appendices and a glossary support the discussion from non-mishmarot calendars and presenting an eclectic six-year calendar in full detail.

  19. A revision of Poa subsection Aphanelytrum (Poaceae, Pooideae, Poaeae, Poinae); and a new species, Poa auriculata.

    PubMed

    Peterson, Paul M; Soreng, Robert J

    2016-01-01

    In this study the peculiar Andean grass genus Aphanelytrum, with two species, is reduced to Poa subsect. Aphanelytrum comb. & stat. nov. A third species, Festuca reclinata, is assigned to the subsection, which shows states transitional between a more typical Poa and Aphanelytrum. Poa subgen. Poa supersect. Homalopoa sect. Dioicopoa subsect. Aphanelytrum comb. & stat. nov. is characterized in having stooling perennials with decumbent to spreading culm bases that continuously branch and often root at low to mid-culm nodes, glabrous spikelets with long rachillas 1.2-4.2 mm long, short glumes less than ½ the length of the florets, and lemmas with bifid apexes that are mucronate to short-awned. We provide for the three species taxonomic discussions, morphological and anatomical descriptions, keys, illustrations, and a list of specimens. Also, we provide two new names, Poa hitchcockiana nom. nov. and Poa sanchez-vegae nom. nov., and one new combination, Poa reclinata comb. nov. A new species, Poa auriculata sp. nov. from Peru, not thought to be a member of Poa subsect. Aphanelytrum, is presented. It is the first in the genus with prominent auricles. In addition, we place Poa apiculata in Poa subgen. Poa supersect. Homalopoa sect. Dioicopoa subsect. Tovarochloa comb. & stat. nov. PMID:27489482

  20. Aum Shinrikyo's Chemical and Biological Weapons: More Than Sarin.

    PubMed

    Tu, A T

    2014-07-01

    The radical religious group Aum Shinrikyo was founded in Japan in the 1980s and grew rapidly in the 1990s. Aum members perpetrated a mass murder in Matsumoto City in 1994, where they used sarin as a chemical weapon to poison approximately 500 civilians. On March 20, 1995, Aum deployed sarin in an even larger terrorist attack on the Tokyo Subway System, which poisoned some 6,000 people. After the Tokyo Subway attack, the Japanese Police arrested the sect's senior members. From 2005 through 2011, 13 of these senior members were sentenced to death. In this article, aspects of Aum's chemical and biological terrorism are reviewed. Sarin production efforts by the sect are described, including how the degradation product of sarin in soil, methylphosphonic acid, enabled the detection of sarin production sites. Also, Aum's chemical-warfare agents other than sarin are described, as are its biological weapons. The author was permitted by the Japanese government to interview Dr. Tomomasa Nakagawa, one of the senior members of Aum Shinrikyo. From Dr. Nakagawa the author obtained valuable inside information about Aum's chemical and biological weapons programs. PMID:26227027

  1. Women in the Maharaj libel case: a re-examination.

    PubMed

    Shodhan, A

    1997-01-01

    This article applies a gender perspective to the history of social reform efforts in mid-19th century Bombay to help illuminate the origins of Indian modernism. In the Maharaj Libel Case, two social reformers successfully defended a libel suit after they published charges of sexual misconduct against the religious priests of the Pushtimarga Vaishnava sect. The paper contextualizes the discussion with a brief review of the rise of British education in Bombay, a note that the social reformers considered the ideal woman to be a domestic helpmate, and a sketch of the history of the devotional religious sect that worships Krishna. The libel case attracted immense public attention, and the reformers based their defense on charges that the Maharajs (priests) were immoral and exploited female devotees sexually. The priests were described as ignorant and blind while the women were considered merely passive objects subordinate to males. No woman was called to give evidence, but evidence shows that the women willingly visited the priests for sexual acts. The reformers' solution to the problem was for the women they regarded as infantilized and/or degraded to be more firmly controlled by their male kin. The conclusion that the reformers were patriarchal and not concerned about the well-being of women is supported by three cases. The reformers ignored the two in which women brought charges against priests and only urged action in the case of a rape/murder by a priest. PMID:12321343

  2. X-231B technology demonstration for in situ treatment of contaminated soil: Contaminant characterization and three dimensional spatial modeling

    SciTech Connect

    West, O.R.; Siegrist, R.L.; Mitchell, T.J.; Pickering, D.A.; Muhr, C.A.; Greene, D.W.; Jenkins, R.A.

    1993-11-01

    Fine-textured soils and sediments contaminated by trichloroethylene (TCE) and other chlorinated organics present a serious environmental restoration challenge at US Department of Energy (DOE) sites. DOE and Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. initiated a research and demonstration project at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The goal of the project was to demonstrate a process for closure and environmental restoration of the X-231B Solid Waste Management Unit at the DOE Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant. The X-231B Unit was used from 1976 to 1983 as a land disposal site for waste oils and solvents. Silt and clay deposits beneath the unit were contaminated with volatile organic compounds and low levels of radioactive substances. The shallow groundwater was also contaminated, and some contaminants were at levels well above drinking water standards. This document begins with a summary of the subsurface physical and contaminant characteristics obtained from investigative studies conducted at the X-231B Unit prior to January 1992 (Sect. 2). This is then followed by a description of the sample collection and analysis methods used during the baseline sampling conducted in January 1992 (Sect. 3). The results of this sampling event were used to develop spatial models for VOC contaminant distribution within the X-231B Unit.

  3. Waste Characterization Data Manual for the inactive liquid low-level waste tank systems at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Environmental Restoration Program

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-06-01

    This Waste Characterization Data Manual contains the results of an analysis of the contents of liquid low-level waste (LLLW) tanks that have been removed from service in accordance with the requirements of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Federal Facility Agreement (FFA), Section IX.G.1. Section IX.G.1 of the FFA requires waste characterizations be conducted and provided to EPA and TDEC for all LLLW tanks that are removed from service. These waste characterizations shall include the results of sampling and analysis of the tank contents, including wastes, liquids, and sludges. This manual was first issued as ORNL/ER-80 in June 1992. The waste characterization data were extracted from ORNL reports that described tank sampling and analysis conducted in 1988 for 32 out-of-service tanks. This revision of the manual contains waste characterization data for 54 tanks, including the 32 tanks from the 1988 sampling campaign (Sects. 2.1 through 2.32) and the 22 additional tanks from a subsequent sampling campaign in 1992 and 1993 (Sects. 2.33 through 2.54). Data are presented from analyses of volatile organic compounds, semivolatile organic compounds, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), pesticides, radiochemical compounds, and inorganic compounds. As additional data resulting from analyses of out-of-service tank samples become available, they will be added to this manual.

  4. Lebanon.

    PubMed

    1988-04-01

    General notes about Lebanon are presented: political history, government, population, geography, economy and foreign relations. Lebanon lies on the eastern shore of the Mediterranean, and is composed of a coastal plain bound on the east by high mountains. The population numbers about 2.5 million, although no census has been taken since 1932. 6 different types of Christian sects and 3 of Muslims contribute to instability. The strife has been aggravated by invasions by Israel against Palestinians encamped there, and by Syria as part of an Arab peace-keeping force. Despite constant civil war since the 1950s, the Lebanese government has continued to function, a parliamentary constitutional system with a judicial system based on the Napoleonic code. Amendments to the 1926 constitution have mandated that representation in the National Assembly and among top government positions be apportioned based on distribution of significant religious groups. Political parties in Lebanon are extremely complex, and include parties loyal to clan or local leaders, those ranging from the right to left, those resembling Arab parties in other nations, and those dedicated to religious sects. The economy is normally based on agriculture, and on commerce and banking in the primary coastal cities, but is in decline currently. PMID:12178001

  5. Metals and Ceramics Division progress report for period ending September 30, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-03-01

    This report provides a brief overview of the activities and accomplishments of the Metals and Ceramics (M&C) Division during fiscal year (FY) 1991. The division is organized to provide technical support, primarily in the area of high-temperature materials, for the various technologies being developed by the US Department of Energy (DOE). Activities span the range from basic research (through applied research and engineering development) to industrial interactions (through cooperative research and a strong technology transfer program). The division is organized in functional groups that encompass nearly all of the disciplines needed to develop and to apply materials in high-temperature applications. Sections I through 5 describe the different functional groups; Sect. 6 provides an alternative view of the division in terms of the major programs, most of which cross group lines; and Sect. 7 summarizes external interactions including cooperative research and development programs, educational activities, and technology transfer functions. Appendices describe the organizational structure, note personnel changes, present honors and awards received by division members, and contain listings of publications completed and presentations made at technical meetings.

  6. Metals and Ceramics Division progress report for period ending September 30, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-03-01

    This report provides a brief overview of the activities and accomplishments of the Metals and Ceramics (M C) Division during fiscal year (FY) 1991. The division is organized to provide technical support, primarily in the area of high-temperature materials, for the various technologies being developed by the US Department of Energy (DOE). Activities span the range from basic research (through applied research and engineering development) to industrial interactions (through cooperative research and a strong technology transfer program). The division is organized in functional groups that encompass nearly all of the disciplines needed to develop and to apply materials in high-temperature applications. Sections I through 5 describe the different functional groups; Sect. 6 provides an alternative view of the division in terms of the major programs, most of which cross group lines; and Sect. 7 summarizes external interactions including cooperative research and development programs, educational activities, and technology transfer functions. Appendices describe the organizational structure, note personnel changes, present honors and awards received by division members, and contain listings of publications completed and presentations made at technical meetings.

  7. Genome size shifts: karyotype evolution in Crepis section Neglectoides (Asteraceae).

    PubMed

    Enke, N; Kunze, R; Pustahija, F; Glöckner, G; Zimmermann, J; Oberländer, J; Kamari, G; Siljak-Yakovlev, S

    2015-07-01

    Plant genome size evolution is a very dynamic process: the ancestral genome of angiosperms was initially most likely small, which led to a tendency towards genome increase during evolution. However, findings in several angiosperm lineages demonstrate mechanisms that also led to genome size contraction. Recent molecular investigations on the Asteraceae genus Crepis suggest that several genomic reduction events have occurred during the evolution of the genus. This study focuses on the Mediterranean Crepis sect. Neglectoides, which includes three species with some of the smallest genomes within the whole genus. Crepis neglecta has the largest genome in sect. Neglectoides, approximately twice the size of the two species Crepis cretica and Crepis hellenica. Whereas C. cretica and C. hellencia are more closely related to each other than to C. neglecta the karyotypes of the latter species and C. cretica are similar, while that of C. hellenica differs considerably. Here, the karyotypic organisation of the three species is investigated with fluorescence in-situ hybridisation and studied in a molecular phylogenetic framework based on the nuclear markers Actin, CHR12, CPN60B, GPCR1 and XTH23. Our findings further corroborate the occurrence of genome size contraction in Crepis, and suggest that the difference in genome size between C. neglecta and C. cretica is mostly due to elimination of dispersed repetitive elements, whereas chromosomal reorganisation was involved in the karyotype formation of C. hellenica. PMID:25683604

  8. The Evolving Impact of G Protein-Coupled Receptor Kinases in Cardiac Health and Disease

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Priscila Y.; Chuprun, J. Kurt; Schwartz, Mathew; Koch, Walter J.

    2015-01-01

    G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are important regulators of various cellular functions via activation of intracellular signaling events. Active GPCR signaling is shut down by GPCR kinases (GRKs) and subsequent β-arrestin-mediated mechanisms including phosphorylation, internalization, and either receptor degradation or resensitization. The seven-member GRK family varies in their structural composition, cellular localization, function, and mechanism of action (see sect. II). Here, we focus our attention on GRKs in particular canonical and novel roles of the GRKs found in the cardiovascular system (see sects. III and IV). Paramount to overall cardiac function is GPCR-mediated signaling provided by the adrenergic system. Overstimulation of the adrenergic system has been highly implicated in various etiologies of cardiovascular disease including hypertension and heart failure. GRKs acting downstream of heightened adrenergic signaling appear to be key players in cardiac homeostasis and disease progression, and herein we review the current data on GRKs related to cardiac disease and discuss their potential in the development of novel therapeutic strategies in cardiac diseases including heart failure. PMID:25834229

  9. New penicillin-producing Penicillium species and an overview of section Chrysogena.

    PubMed

    Houbraken, J; Frisvad, J C; Seifert, K A; Overy, D P; Tuthill, D M; Valdez, J G; Samson, R A

    2012-12-01

    Species classified in Penicillium sect. Chrysogena are primary soil-borne and the most well-known members are P. chrysogenum and P. nalgiovense. Penicillium chrysogenum has received much attention because of its role in the production on penicillin and as a contaminant of indoor environments and various food and feedstuffs. Another biotechnologically important species is P. nalgiovense, which is used as a fungal starter culture for the production of fermented meat products. Previous taxonomic studies often had conflicting species circumscriptions. Here, we present a multigene analysis, combined with phenotypic characters and extrolite data, demonstrating that sect. Chrysogena consists of 18 species. Six of these are newly described here (P. allii-sativi, P. desertorum, P. goetzii, P. halotolerans, P. tardochrysogenum, P. vanluykii) and P. lanoscoeruleum was found to be an older name for P. aethiopicum. Each species produces a unique extrolite profile. The species share phenotypic characters, such as good growth on CYA supplemented with 5 % NaCl, ter- or quarterverticillate branched conidiophores and short, ampulliform phialides (< 9 μm). Conidial colours, production of ascomata and ascospores, shape and ornamentation of conidia and growth rates on other agar media are valuable for species identification. Eight species (P. allii-sativi, P. chrysogenum, P. dipodomyis, P. flavigenum, P. nalgiovense, P. rubens, P. tardochrysogenum and P. vanluykii) produce penicillin in culture. PMID:23606767

  10. How to Measure the Thermal Expansion Coefficient at Low Temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ventura, Guglielmo; Perfetti, Mauro

    Thermal expansion measurements in the high temperature range have been thoroughly explored, and various experimental methods are available even as commercial instrumentation, measurements at cryogenic temperatures have been confined to the field of high-precision laboratory experiments, needing large experimental efforts and expenses, and often also suffering from intrinsic limitations. All techniques used for the measurements of thermal expansion can be divided into two categories, namely: absolute methods and relative methods. While in the former the linear changes of dimension of the sample are directly measured at various temperature, in the latter the coefficient of thermal expansion is determined through comparison with a reference materials of known thermal expansion. A lot of experimental set-ups are described in Sect. 2.1 , while Sect. 2.2 some examples of measurements performed at very low temperatures are listed.

  11. Possible Low-Energy Manifestations of Strings and Gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antoniadis, Ignatios

    Despite the important experimental success of general relativity, there are several theoretical reasons indicating that gravitational phenomena may change radically from the predictions of Einstein's theory at very short distances. A main motivation comes from studies of unifying all fundamental forces in the framework of a consistent quantum theory, called string theory. In the first part of my lectures (Sects. 1-6), I discuss the main motivations and directions for physics beyond the Standard Model of elementary particles and I give a short introduction on perturbative string theory. This theory introduces a new physical constant, the string length, under which a new fundamental structure appears, changing drastically the laws of nature. In particular, lowering the string scale in the TeV region provides a theoretical framework for solving the so-called mass hierarchy problem: the apparent weakness of gravity can be accounted for by the existence of large internal dimensions, in the submillimeter region, and transverse to a braneworld where our observed universe is confined. In the second part of my lectures (Sects. 7-11), I describe the main properties of this scenario and its implications for new gravitational phenomena that can be observed at both particle colliders, and in non-accelerator experiments searching for new short-range forces.

  12. Influence of Culturing Conditions on Bioprospecting and the Antimicrobial Potential of Endophytic Fungi from Schinus terebinthifolius.

    PubMed

    Tonial, Fabiana; Maia, Beatriz H L N S; Gomes-Figueiredo, Josiane A; Sobottka, Andrea M; Bertol, Charise D; Nepel, Angelita; Savi, Daiani C; Vicente, Vânia A; Gomes, Renata R; Glienke, Chirlei

    2016-02-01

    In this study, we analyzed the antimicrobial activity of extracts harvested from 17 endophytic fungi isolated from the medicinal plant Schinus terebinthifolius. Morphological and molecular analyses indicated that these fungal species belonged to the genera Alternaria, Bjerkandera, Colletotrichum, Diaporthe, Penicillium, and Xylaria. Of the endophytes analyzed, 64.7 % produced antimicrobial compounds under at least one of the fermentation conditions tested. Nine isolates produced compounds that inhibited growth of Staphylococcus aureus, four produced compounds that inhibited Candida albicans, and two that inhibited Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The fermentation conditions of the following endophytes were optimized: Alternaria sp. Sect. Alternata-LGMF626, Xylaria sp.-LGMF673, and Bjerkandera sp.-LGMF713. Specifically, the carbon and nitrogen sources, initial pH, temperature, and length of incubation were varied. In general, production of antimicrobial compounds was greatest when galactose was used as a carbon source, and acidification of the growth medium enhanced the production of compounds that inhibited C. albicans. Upon large-scale fermentation, Alternaria sp. Sect. Alternata-LGMF626 produced an extract containing two fractions that were active against methicillin-resistant S. aureus. One of the extracts exhibited high activity (minimum inhibitory concentration of 18.52 µg/mL), and the other exhibited moderate activity (minimum inhibitory concentration of 55.55 µg/mL). The compounds E-2-hexyl-cinnamaldehyde and two compounds of the pyrrolopyrazine alkaloids class were identified in the active fractions by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. PMID:26563302

  13. The fruit cuticles of wild tomato species exhibit architectural and chemical diversity, providing a new model for studying the evolution of cuticle function

    PubMed Central

    Yeats, Trevor H.; Buda, Gregory J.; Wang, Zhonghua; Chehanovsky, Noam; Moyle, Leonie C.; Jetter, Reinhard; Schaffer, Arthur A.; Rose, Jocelyn K.C.

    2013-01-01

    Summary The cuticle covers the aerial epidermis of land plants and plays a primary role in water regulation and protection from external stresses. Remarkable species diversity in the structure and composition of its components, cutin and wax, have been catalogued, but few functional or genetic correlations have emerged. Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) is part of a complex of closely related wild species endemic to the northern Andes and the Galapagos Islands (Solanum Sect. Lycopersicon). Although sharing an ancestor less than seven million years ago, these species are found in diverse environments and are subject to unique selective pressures. Furthermore, they are genetically tractable, since they can be crossed with S. lycopersicum, which has a sequenced genome. With the aim of evaluating the relationships between evolution, structure and function of the cuticle, we characterized the morphological and chemical diversity of fruit cuticles of seven species from Solanum Sect. Lycopersicon. Striking differences in cuticular architecture and quantities of cutin and waxes were observed, with wild species wax coverage exceeding that of S. lycopersicum by up to seven fold. Wax composition varied in the occurrence of wax esters and triterpenoid isomers. Using a S. habrochaites introgression line population, we mapped triterpenoid differences to a genomic region that includes two S. lycopersicum triterpene synthases. Based on known metabolic pathways for acyl wax compounds, hypotheses are discussed to explain the appearance of wax esters with atypical chain lengths. These results establish a model system for understanding the ecological and evolutionary functional genomics of plant cuticles. PMID:22007785

  14. Retrotransposon-based molecular markers for analysis of genetic diversity within the Genus Linum.

    PubMed

    Melnikova, Nataliya V; Kudryavtseva, Anna V; Zelenin, Alexander V; Lakunina, Valentina A; Yurkevich, Olga Yu; Speranskaya, Anna S; Dmitriev, Alexey A; Krinitsina, Anastasia A; Belenikin, Maxim S; Uroshlev, Leonid A; Snezhkina, Anastasiya V; Sadritdinova, Asiya F; Koroban, Nadezda V; Amosova, Alexandra V; Samatadze, Tatiana E; Guzenko, Elena V; Lemesh, Valentina A; Savilova, Anastasya M; Rachinskaia, Olga A; Kishlyan, Natalya V; Rozhmina, Tatiana A; Bolsheva, Nadezhda L; Muravenko, Olga V

    2014-01-01

    SSAP method was used to study the genetic diversity of 22 Linum species from sections Linum, Adenolinum, Dasylinum, Stellerolinum, and 46 flax cultivars. All the studied flax varieties were distinguished using SSAP for retrotransposons FL9 and FL11. Thus, the validity of SSAP method was demonstrated for flax marking, identification of accessions in genebank collections, and control during propagation of flax varieties. Polymorphism of Fl1a, Fl1b, and Cassandra insertions were very low in flax varieties, but these retrotransposons were successfully used for the investigation of Linum species. Species clusterization based on SSAP markers was in concordance with their taxonomic division into sections Dasylinum, Stellerolinum, Adenolinum, and Linum. All species of sect. Adenolinum clustered apart from species of sect. Linum. The data confirmed the accuracy of the separation in these sections. Members of section Linum are not as closely related as members of other sections, so taxonomic revision of this section is desirable. L. usitatissimum accessions genetically distant from modern flax cultivars were revealed in our work. These accessions are of utmost interest for flax breeding and introduction of new useful traits into flax cultivars. The chromosome localization of Cassandra retrotransposon in Linum species was determined. PMID:25243121

  15. The Attitude of Iranian Nurses About Do Not Resuscitate Orders

    PubMed Central

    Mogadasian, Sima; Abdollahzadeh, Farahnaz; Rahmani, Azad; Ferguson, Caleb; Pakanzad, Fermisk; Pakpour, Vahid; Heidarzadeh, Hamid

    2014-01-01

    Background: Do not resuscitate (DNR) orders are one of many challenging issues in end of life care. Previous research has not investigated Muslim nurses’ attitudes towards DNR orders. Aims: This study aims to investigate the attitude of Iranian nurses towards DNR orders and determine the role of religious sects in forming attitudes. Materials and Methods: In this descriptive-comparative study, 306 nurses from five hospitals affiliated to Tabriz University of Medical Sciences (TUOMS) in East Azerbaijan Province and three hospitals in Kurdistan province participated. Data were gathered by a survey design on attitudes on DNR orders. Data were analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL) software examining descriptive and inferential statistics. Results: Participants showed their willingness to learn more about DNR orders and highlights the importance of respecting patients and their families in DNR orders. In contrast, in many key items participants reported their negative attitude towards DNR orders. There were statistical differences in two items between the attitude of Shiite and Sunni nurses. Conclusions: Iranian nurses, regardless of their religious sects, reported negative attitude towards many aspects of DNR orders. It may be possible to change the attitude of Iranian nurses towards DNR through education. PMID:24600178

  16. Work plan and health and safety plan for Building 3019B underground storage tank at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    Burman, S.N.; Brown, K.S.; Landguth, D.C.

    1992-08-01

    As part of the Underground Storage Tank Program at the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, this Health and Safety Plan has been developed for removal of the 110-gal leaded fuel underground storage tank (UST) located in the Building 3019B area at ORNL This Health and Safety Plan was developed by the Measurement Applications and Development Group of the Health and Safety Research Division at ORNL The major components of the plan follow: (1) A project description that gives the scope and objectives of the 110-gal tank removal project and assigns responsibilities, in addition to providing emergency information for situations occurring during field operations; (2) a health and safety plan in Sect. 15 for the Building 3019B UST activities, which describes general site hazards and particular hazards associated with specific tasks, personnel protection requirements and mandatory safety procedures; and (3) discussion of the proper form completion and reporting requirements during removal of the UST. This document addresses Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) requirements in 29 CFR 1910.120 with respect to all aspects of health and safety involved in a UST removal. In addition, the plan follows the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) QAMS 005/80 (1980) format with the inclusion of the health and safety section (Sect. 15).

  17. Work plan and health and safety plan for Building 3019B underground storage tank at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    Burman, S.N.; Brown, K.S.; Landguth, D.C.

    1992-08-01

    As part of the Underground Storage Tank Program at the Department of Energy`s Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, this Health and Safety Plan has been developed for removal of the 110-gal leaded fuel underground storage tank (UST) located in the Building 3019B area at ORNL This Health and Safety Plan was developed by the Measurement Applications and Development Group of the Health and Safety Research Division at ORNL The major components of the plan follow: (1) A project description that gives the scope and objectives of the 110-gal tank removal project and assigns responsibilities, in addition to providing emergency information for situations occurring during field operations; (2) a health and safety plan in Sect. 15 for the Building 3019B UST activities, which describes general site hazards and particular hazards associated with specific tasks, personnel protection requirements and mandatory safety procedures; and (3) discussion of the proper form completion and reporting requirements during removal of the UST. This document addresses Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) requirements in 29 CFR 1910.120 with respect to all aspects of health and safety involved in a UST removal. In addition, the plan follows the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) QAMS 005/80 (1980) format with the inclusion of the health and safety section (Sect. 15).

  18. Anti- (conjugate) linearity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uhlmann, Armin

    2016-03-01

    This is an introduction to antilinear operators. In following Wigner the terminus antilinear is used as it is standard in Physics. Mathematicians prefer to say conjugate linear. By restricting to finite-dimensional complex-linear spaces, the exposition becomes elementary in the functional analytic sense. Nevertheless it shows the amazing differences to the linear case. Basics of antilinearity is explained in sects. 2, 3, 4, 7 and in sect. 1.2: Spectrum, canonical Hermitian form, antilinear rank one and two operators, the Hermitian adjoint, classification of antilinear normal operators, (skew) conjugations, involutions, and acq-lines, the antilinear counterparts of 1-parameter operator groups. Applications include the representation of the Lagrangian Grassmannian by conjugations, its covering by acq-lines. As well as results on equivalence relations. After remembering elementary Tomita-Takesaki theory, antilinear maps, associated to a vector of a two-partite quantum system, are defined. By allowing to write modular objects as twisted products of pairs of them, they open some new ways to express EPR and teleportation tasks. The appendix presents a look onto the rich structure of antilinear operator spaces.

  19. Validation of KENO V.a Comparison with Critical Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Jordan, W.C.

    1999-01-01

    Section 1 of this report documents the validation of KENO V.a against 258 critical experiments. Experiments considered were primarily high or low enriched uranium systems. The results indicate that the KENO V.a Monte Carlo Criticality Program accurately calculates a broad range of critical experiments. A substantial number of the calculations showed a positive or negative bias in excess of 1 1/2% in k-effective (k{sub eff}). Classes of criticals which show a bias include 3% enriched green blocks, highly enriched uranyl fluoride slab arrays, and highly enriched uranyl nitrate arrays. If these biases are properly taken into account, the KENO V.a code can be used with confidence for the design and criticality safety analysis of uranium-containing systems. Section 2 of this report documents the results of investigation into the cause of the bias observed in Sect. 1. The results of this study indicate that the bias seen in Sect. 1 is caused by code bias, cross-section bias, reporting bias, and modeling bias. There is evidence that many of the experiments used in this validation and in previous validations are not adequately documented. The uncertainty in the experimental parameters overshadows bias caused by the code and cross sections and prohibits code validation to better than about 1% in k{sub eff}.

  20. The Efficiency of Delone Coverings of the Canonical Tilings T^*(A4) and T^*(D6)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papadopolos, Zorka; Kasner, Gerald

    This chapter is devoted to the coverings of the two quasiperiodic canonical tilings T^*(A4) and T^*(D6) T^*(2F), obtained by projection from the root lattices A4 and D6, respectively. In the first major part of this chapter, in Sect. 5.2, we shall introduce a Delone covering C^sT^*(A4) of the 2-dimensional decagonal tiling T^*(A4). In the second major part of this chapter, Sect. 5.3, we summarize the results related to the Delone covering of the icosahedral tiling T^*(D6), CT^*(D6) and determine the zero-, single-, and double- deckings and the resulting thickness of the covering. In the conclusions section, we give some suggestions as to how the definition of the Delone covering might be changed in order to reach some real (full) covering of the icosahedral tiling T^*(D6). In Section 5.2 the definition of the Delone covering is also changed in order to avoid an unnecessary large thickness of the covering.

  1. Clinical, pathological, and genetic analysis of a Korean family with thoracic aortic aneurysms and dissections carrying a novel Asp26Tyr mutation.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Eun-Hyung; Choi, Seung Hyuk; Jang, Shin Yi; Suh, Yeon-Lim; Lee, Inchul; Song, Jae-Kwan; Choe, Yeon Hyeon; Kim, Jong-Won; Ki, Chang-Seok; Kim, Duk-Kyung

    2010-01-01

    Non-syndromic familial thoracic aortic aneurysms and dissections (TAADs), inherited in an autosomal dominant manner in up to 19% of patients, are genetically heterogeneous. The ACTA2 gene, which encodes the vascular smooth muscle cell (SMC)-specific isoform of alpha-actin, is known to cause TAADs and occlusive vascular diseases, including coronary artery disease and premature ischemic stroke. We have investigated a Korean family with DeBakey type I aortic dissection related to pregnancy and a strong family history of TAADs. All affected family members underwent surgical repair of the ascending aorta. Other clinical features of familial TAAD, including inguinal hernias, iris flocculi, and livedo reticularis, were not observed. Histologic studies of aortic tissues showed medial degeneration and SMC hyperplasia in the aorta, consistent with previous observations. Molecular analyses of the ACTA2 gene showed a novel heterozygous missense mutation (c.76G>T; p.Asp26Tyr). Further analysis of a female patient and members of her family revealed that two affected sisters and her asymptomatic son had the same mutation. The novel Asp26Tyr mutation resides in SM alpha-actin subdomain 1 and is linked to TAAD with hypertrophy and disarray of SMCs and severe migraine, but not to livedo reticularis or iris flocculi. This study expands the spectrum of mutations of the ACTA2 gene by identifying a novel missense mutation. This is the first report of a pathologically- and genetically-confirmed family with TAAD in Korea. PMID:20689142

  2. Mutations of the Act Promoter in Myxococcus xanthus▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Gronewold, Thomas M. A.; Kaiser, Dale

    2007-01-01

    Mutations within the −12 and −24 elements provide evidence that the act promoter is recognized by sigma-54 RNA polymerase. Deletion of the −20 base pair, which lies between the two conserved elements of sigma-54 promoters, decreased expression by 90%. In addition, mutation of a potential enhancer sequence, around −120, led to an 80% reduction in act gene expression. actB, the second gene in the act operon, encodes a sigma-54 activator protein that is proposed to be an enhancer-binding protein for the act operon. All act genes, actA to actE, are expressed together and constitute an operon, because an in-frame deletion of actB decreased expression of actA and actE to the same extent. After an initially slow phase of act operon expression, which depends on FruA, there is a rapid phase. The rapid phase is shown to be due to the activation of the operon expression by ActB, which completes a positive feedback loop. That loop appears to be nested within a larger positive loop in which ActB is activated by the C signal via ActA, and the act operon activates transcription of the csgA gene. We propose that, as cells engage in more C signaling, positive feedback raises the number of C-signal molecules per cell and drives the process of fruiting body development forward. PMID:17189369

  3. Chromite alteration processes within Vourinos ophiolite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grieco, Giovanni; Merlini, Anna

    2012-09-01

    The renewed interest in chromite ore deposits is directly related to the increase in Cr price ruled by international market trends. Chromite, an accessory mineral in peridotites, is considered to be a petrogenetic indicator because its composition reflects the degree of partial melting that the mantle experienced while producing the chromium spinel-bearing rock (Burkhard in Geochim Cosmochim Acta 57:1297-1306, 1993). However, the understanding of chromite alteration and metamorphic modification is still controversial (e.g. Evans and Frost in Geochim Cosmochim Acta 39:959-972, 1975; Burkhard in Geochim Cosmochim Acta 57:1297-1306, 1993; Oze et al. in Am J Sci 304:67-101, 2004). Metamorphic alteration leads to major changes in chromite chemistry and to the growth of secondary phases such as ferritchromite and chlorite. In this study, we investigate the Vourinos complex chromitites (from the mines of Rizo, Aetoraches, Xerolivado and Potamia) with respect to textural and chemical analyses in order to highlight the most important trend of alteration related to chromite transformation. The present study has been partially funded by the Aliakmon project in collaboration between the Public Power Corporation of Greece and Institute of Geology and Mineral Exploration of Kozani.

  4. Retraction statement: Dynamics of Cytochrome C Oxidase Activity in Acute Ischemic Stroke' by Selaković, V.M., Jovanović, M.D., Mihajlović, R.R. and Radenović, L.L.J.

    PubMed

    2016-10-01

    The above article from Acta Neurologica Scandinavica, published online on 7 April 2005 in Wiley Online Library (wileyonlinelibrary.com) and in Volume 111, pp. 329-332, has been retracted by agreement between the journal Editor in Chief, Professor Elinor Ben-Menachem, and John Wiley & Sons Ltd. The article has been retracted because a similar article had previously been published in the Jugoslovenska medicinska biohemija in 2003. The authors presumed that since the journal was no longer existing, they felt the need to re-publish their work in Acta Neuorologica Scandinavica. However, in the consideration of the Journal, this constitutes dual publication. References SelakovićVM, JovanovićMD, MihajlovićR, RadenovićLLJ. Cytochrome c oxidase in patients with acute ischaemic brain disease. Jugoslovenska medicinska biohemija. 2003;22:329-334. SelakovićVM, JovanovićMD, MihajlovićRR, RadenovićLLJ. Dynamics of cytochrome c oxidase activity in acute ischemic stroke. Acta Neurol Scand. 2005;111:329-332. PMID:27592845

  5. Determination of Structural and Vibrational Properties of 5-QUINOLINECARBOXALDEHYDE Using Experimental Ft-Ir Ft-Raman Techniques and Theoretical HF and DFT Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumru, Mustafa; Kocademir, Mustafa; Bardakci, Tayyibe

    2013-06-01

    Quinoline derivatives have been used in several pharmaceuticals. They have vital roles in regulating the functions of DNA and cancerous cells. It's necessary to determine the structures and spectroscopic properties of quinoline derivates. In this study, the FT-IR (including mid and far regions) and FT-Raman spectra of 5-quinolinecarboxaldehyde have been investigated. Hartree-Fock (HF) and density functional B3LYP calculations have also been employed with the 6-311++G(d,p) basis set for investigating the structural and spectroscopic properties of the cis and trans conformers of 5-quinolinecarboxaldehyde. Experimental and theoretical results have been compared and the results are in good agreement with each other. Keywords: 5-quinolinecarboxaldehyde; Vibrational Spectroscopy; FT-IR spectra; FT-Raman spectra; Vibrational Modes; HF; DFT [1] V. Kucuk, A. Altun, M. Kumru, Spectrochim. Acta Part A 85(2012)92-98 [2] M. Kumru, V. Kucuk, T. Bardakci, Spectrochim. Acta Part A 90(2012)28-34 [3] M. Kumru, V. Kucuk, M. Kocademir, Spectrochim. Acta Part A, 96 (2012) 242-251 We thank the Turkish Scientific and Technical Research Council (TUBITAK) for their financial support through National Postdoctoral Research Scholarship Programme and Scientific Research Fund of Fatih University under the project number P50011001 G (1457).

  6. Bidirectional reflectance spectroscopy of carbonaceous chondrites: Implications for water quantification and primary composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garenne, A.; Beck, P.; Montes-Hernandez, G.; Brissaud, O.; Schmitt, B.; Quirico, E.; Bonal, L.; Beck, C.; Howard, K. T.

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we measured bidirectional reflectance spectra (0.5-4.0 μm) of 24 CMs, five CRs, one CI, one CV, and one C2 carbonaceous chondrites. These meteorites are known to have experienced an important variability in their relative degrees of aqueous alteration degree (Rubin et al. [2007]. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 71, 2361-2382; Howard et al. [2009]. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 73, 4576-4589; Howard et al. [2011]. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 75, 2735-2751; Alexander et al. [2013]. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 123, 244-260). These measurements were performed on meteorite powders inside an environmental cell under a primary vacuum and heated at 60 °C in order to minimize adsorbed terrestrial water. This protocol allows controlling of atmospheric conditions (i.e. humidity) in order to avoid contamination by terrestrial water. We discuss various spectral metrics (e.g. reflectance, band depth, single-scattering albedo, …) in the light of recent bulk composition characterization (Howard et al. [2009]. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 73, 4576-4589; Howard et al. [2015]. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 149, 206-222; Alexander et al. [2012]. Science 337, 721; Beck et al. [2014]. Icarus 229, 263-277; Garenne et al. [2014]. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 137, 93-112). This study reveals variability of reflectance among meteorite groups. The reflectance is not correlated with carbon or hydrogen abundance neither with measured grain size distribution. We suggest that it is rather controlled by the nature of accreted components, in particular the initial matrix/chondrule proportion. Band depth, integrated band depth, mean optical path length, normalized optical path length, effective single-particle absorption thickness were calculated on the so called 3-μm band for reflectance spectra and for single scattering albedo spectra. They were compared with hydrated phase proportions from previous study on the same meteorites by thermogravimetric analyses and infrared spectroscopy in transmission. We find

  7. Developments and Tendencies in Fission Reactor Concepts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adamov, E. O.; Fuji-Ie, Y.

    This chapter describes, in two parts, new-generation nuclear energy systems that are required to be in harmony with nature and to make full use of nuclear resources. The issues of transmutation and containment of radioactive waste will also be addressed. After a short introduction to the first part, Sect. 58.1.2 will detail the requirements these systems must satisfy on the basic premise of peaceful use of nuclear energy. The expected designs themselves are described in Sect. 58.1.3. The subsequent sections discuss various types of advanced reactor systems. Section 58.1.4 deals with the light water reactor (LWR) whose performance is still expected to improve, which would extend its application in the future. The supercritical-water-cooled reactor (SCWR) will also be shortly discussed. Section 58.1.5 is mainly on the high temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR), which offers efficient and multipurpose use of nuclear energy. The gas-cooled fast reactor (GFR) is also included. Section 58.1.6 focuses on the sodium-cooled fast reactor (SFR) as a promising concept for advanced nuclear reactors, which may help both to achieve expansion of energy sources and environmental protection thus contributing to the sustainable development of mankind. The molten-salt reactor (MSR) is shortly described in Sect. 58.1.7. The second part of the chapter deals with reactor systems of a new generation, which are now found at the research and development (R&D) stage and in the medium term of 20-30 years can shape up as reliable, economically efficient, and environmentally friendly energy sources. They are viewed as technologies of cardinal importance, capable of resolving the problems of fuel resources, minimizing the quantities of generated radioactive waste and the environmental impacts, and strengthening the regime of nonproliferation of the materials suitable for nuclear weapons production. Particular attention has been given to naturally safe fast reactors with a closed fuel cycle (CFC

  8. Desiccant-Based Preconditioning Market Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Fischer, J.

    2001-01-11

    A number of important conclusions can be drawn as a result of this broad, first-phase market evaluation. The more important conclusions include the following: (1) A very significant market opportunity will exist for specialized outdoor air-handling units (SOAHUs) as more construction and renovation projects are designed to incorporate the recommendations made by the ASHRAE 62-1989 standard. Based on this investigation, the total potential market is currently $725,000,000 annually (see Table 6, Sect. 3). Based on the market evaluations completed, it is estimated that approximately $398,000,000 (55%) of this total market could be served by DBC systems if they were made cost-effective through mass production. Approximately $306,000,000 (42%) of the total can be served by a non-regenerated, desiccant-based total recovery approach, based on the information provided by this investigation. Approximately $92,000,000 (13%) can be served by a regenerated desiccant-based cooling approach (see Table 7, Sect. 3). (2) A projection of the market selling price of various desiccant-based SOAHU systems was prepared using prices provided by Trane for central-station, air-handling modules currently manufactured. The wheel-component pricing was added to these components by SEMCO. This resulted in projected pricing for these systems that is significantly less than that currently offered by custom suppliers (see Table 4, Sect. 2). Estimated payback periods for all SOAHU approaches were quite short when compared with conventional over-cooling and reheat systems. Actual paybacks may vary significantly depending on site-specific considerations. (3) In comparing cost vs benefit of each SOAHU approach, it is critical that the total system design be evaluated. For example, the cost premium of a DBC system is very significant when compared to a conventional air handling system, yet the reduced chiller, boiler, cooling tower, and other expense often equals or exceeds this premium, resulting in a

  9. Vacuum-Assisted Venous Drainage: A 2014 Safety Survey.

    PubMed

    Gambino, Rachel; Searles, Bruce; Darling, Edward M

    2015-09-01

    Despite the widespread use of vacuum-assisted venous drainage (VAVD) and case reports describing catastrophic incidents related to VAVD, there is a lack of data cataloging specific safety measures that individuals and institutions have incorporated into their VAVD practices for the prevention of these incidents. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to survey the perfusion community to gather data on VAVD practices, and to compare these current practices with literature recommendations and the American Society of ExtraCorporeal Technology (AmSECT) Standards and Guidelines. In September 2014, a survey was distributed via PerfList and PerfMail, and by direct e-mail to members of the New York State Society of Perfusionists, targeting certified clinical perfusionists in New York State. Survey topics pertaining to VAVD practice included 1) equipment, 2) pressure monitoring and alarms, 3) protocols, checklists, and documentation, and 4) VAVD-related incidents. Of ∼200 certified clinical perfusionists who live and/or work in New York State (NYS), 88 responded (42%). Most respondents (90.1%) report they use VAVD. Of these, 87.3% report that they monitor VAVD pressure, with 51.6% having audible and visual alarms for both positive and excessive negative pressures. At the institutional level, 61.2% of respondents reported that there is a protocol in place at for their team limiting negative pressure in the reservoir, 28.4% document VAVD pressure in the pump record, and AmSECT's three recommended VAVD checklist items are met with 53.7%, 55.1%, and 33.8% compliance. In conclusion, the results of this study reveal that the use of VAVD has increased and has become nearly universal in 2014. There is high compliance to some of the literature recommendations and AmSECT Standards and Guidelines, however, there are still some gaps between current practices and these recommendations. Continued improvement, both at the individual and institutional levels, will help to improve

  10. B, D and K decays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buchalla, G.; Komatsubara, T. K.; Muheim, F.; Silvestrini, L.; Artuso, M.; Asner, D. M.; Ball, P.; Baracchini, E.; Bell, G.; Beneke, M.; Berryhill, J.; Bevan, A.; Bigi, I. I.; Blanke, M.; Bobeth, Ch.; Bona, M.; Borzumati, F.; Browder, T.; Buanes, T.; Buchmüller, O.; Buras, A. J.; Burdin, S.; Cassel, D. G.; Cavanaugh, R.; Ciuchini, M.; Colangelo, P.; Crosetti, G.; Dedes, A.; de Fazio, F.; Descotes-Genon, S.; Dickens, J.; Doležal, Z.; Dürr, S.; Egede, U.; Eggel, C.; Eigen, G.; Fajfer, S.; Feldmann, Th.; Ferrandes, R.; Gambino, P.; Gershon, T.; Gibson, V.; Giorgi, M.; Gligorov, V. V.; Golob, B.; Golutvin, A.; Grossman, Y.; Guadagnoli, D.; Haisch, U.; Hazumi, M.; Heinemeyer, S.; Hiller, G.; Hitlin, D.; Huber, T.; Hurth, T.; Iijima, T.; Ishikawa, A.; Isidori, G.; Jäger, S.; Khodjamirian, A.; Koppenburg, P.; Lagouri, T.; Langenegger, U.; Lazzeroni, C.; Lenz, A.; Lubicz, V.; Lucha, W.; Mahlke, H.; Melikhov, D.; Mescia, F.; Misiak, M.; Nakao, M.; Napolitano, J.; Nikitin, N.; Nierste, U.; Oide, K.; Okada, Y.; Paradisi, P.; Parodi, F.; Patel, M.; Petrov, A. A.; Pham, T. N.; Pierini, M.; Playfer, S.; Polesello, G.; Policicchio, A.; Poschenrieder, A.; Raimondi, P.; Recksiegel, S.; Řezníček, P.; Robert, A.; Rosner, J. L.; Ruggiero, G.; Sarti, A.; Schneider, O.; Schwab, F.; Simula, S.; Sivoklokov, S.; Slavich, P.; Smith, C.; Smizanska, M.; Soni, A.; Speer, T.; Spradlin, P.; Spranger, M.; Starodumov, A.; Stech, B.; Stocchi, A.; Stone, S.; Tarantino, C.; Teubert, F.; T'jampens, S.; Toms, K.; Trabelsi, K.; Trine, S.; Uhlig, S.; Vagnoni, V.; van Hunen, J. J.; Weiglein, G.; Weiler, A.; Wilkinson, G.; Xie, Y.; Yamauchi, M.; Zhu, G.; Zupan, J.; Zwicky, R.

    2008-09-01

    The present report documents the results of Working Group 2: B, D and K decays, of the workshop on Flavor in the Era of the LHC, held at CERN from November 2005 through March 2007. With the advent of the LHC, we will be able to probe New Physics (NP) up to energy scales almost one order of magnitude larger than it has been possible with present accelerator facilities. While direct detection of new particles will be the main avenue to establish the presence of NP at the LHC, indirect searches will provide precious complementary information, since most probably it will not be possible to measure the full spectrum of new particles and their couplings through direct production. In particular, precision measurements and computations in the realm of flavor physics are expected to play a key role in constraining the unknown parameters of the Lagrangian of any NP model emerging from direct searches at the LHC. The aim of Working Group 2 was twofold: on the one hand, to provide a coherent up-to-date picture of the status of flavor physics before the start of the LHC; on the other hand, to initiate activities on the path towards integrating information on NP from high- p T and flavor data. This report is organized as follows: in Sect. 1, we give an overview of NP models, focusing on a few examples that have been discussed in some detail during the workshop, with a short description of the available computational tools for flavor observables in NP models. Section 2 contains a concise discussion of the main theoretical problem in flavor physics: the evaluation of the relevant hadronic matrix elements for weak decays. Section 3 contains a detailed discussion of NP effects in a set of flavor observables that we identified as “benchmark channels” for NP searches. The experimental prospects for flavor physics at future facilities are discussed in Sect. 4. Finally, Sect. 5 contains some assessments on the work done at the workshop and the prospects for future developments.

  11. From biologically-inspired physics to physics-inspired biology From biologically-inspired physics to physics-inspired biology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kornyshev, Alexei A.

    2010-10-01

    Physics Today paper. But in support of his opponent, Bob Austin, I wish to quote the conclusion from a memorable Steven Hawking's talk at the White House: 'The greatest discoveries of the 21st century will be, where we don't expect them'. So, physics will bring surprises to biology, and the conference left us no doubt of it. Acknowledgments I wish to thank John Seddon (Imperial College, UK) for useful remarks about these comments. The initial version of this article featured a collection of post stamps/photos, illustrating the discoveries mentioned in it. As it was difficult to obtain permissions to reproduce these pictures in print, we had to delete all of them, at the last moment. I apologize for this, but although the presentation became less flashy, I still think that the arguments remained clear. There is therefore nobody to acknowledge on this front. References [1] Cochran W, Crick F H C and Vand V 1952 The structure of synthetic polypeptides. I. The transform of atoms on a helix Acta Crystallogr. 5 581 [2] Kornyshev A A, Lee D J, Leikin S and Wynveen A 2007 Structure and interactions of biological helices Rev. Mod. Phys. 79 943-96 [3] Wynveen A, Lee D J, Kornyshev A A and Leikin S 2008 Helical coherence of DNA in crystals and solution Nucl. Acids Res. 36 5540-51 [4] Shapiro I S 1973 On the history of the discovery of Maxwell's equations Sov. Phys. Usp. 15 651 [5] http://cdsagenda5.ictp.trieste.it/full_display.php?ida=a08164 [6] Kupiec M 2008 Finding a match: how do homologous sequences get together for recombination Nature Rev. Genetics 9 27-37 [7] Baldwin G et al 2008 Duplex DNA recognize sequence homology in protein free environment J. Phys. Chem. B 112 1060-64 [8] Danilowicz C, Lee C H, Kim K, Hatch K, Coljee V W, Kleckner N and Prentiss M 2009 Single molecule detection of direct, homologous, DNA/DNA pairing Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci USA 106 19824-9 [9] Kornyshev A and Leikin S 2001 Sequence recognition in the pairing of DNA duplexes Phys. Rev. Lett. 86 13666

  12. Thunder among the pines: defining a pan-Asian soma.

    PubMed

    Dannaway, Frederick

    2009-03-01

    Many ancient cultures and religions engaged in various techniques and used various substances to instigate religious experience and to alter perception. These techniques of psycho-sexual drug yoga reached an unparalleled level of sophistication that arose and was often cloaked in practical terms of alchemy and metallurgy. The Vedic tradition describes this plant-based ritualism as soma, which has been identified by Gordon Wasson as the mushroom Amanita muscaria. This article traces these soma-influenced sects of esoteric Buddhism that exerted influences from India, China and Tibet to Japan. Some of the key components, practices and symbolism are retained despite numerous cultural filters. Japan's tradition of esoteric Buddhism can thus be seen to have preserved and incorporated the soma/amrita mushroom lore into its own traditions of mountain ascetic mystics. PMID:19455911

  13. Aspergillus mulundensis sp. nov., a new species for the fungus producing the antifungal echinocandin lipopeptides, mulundocandins.

    PubMed

    Bills, Gerald F; Yue, Qun; Chen, Li; Li, Yan; An, Zhiqiang; Frisvad, Jens C

    2016-03-01

    The invalidly published name Aspergillus sydowii var. mulundensis was proposed for a strain of Aspergillus that produced new echinocandin metabolites designated as the mulundocadins. Reinvestigation of this strain (Y-30462=DSMZ 5745) using phylogenetic, morphological, and metabolic data indicated that it is a distinct and novel species of Aspergillus sect. Nidulantes. The taxonomic novelty, Aspergillus mulundensis, is introduced for this historically important echinocandin-producing strain. The closely related A. nidulans FGSC A4 has one of the most extensively characterized secondary metabolomes of any filamentous fungus. Comparison of the full-genome sequences of DSMZ 5745 and FGSC A4 indicated that the two strains share 33 secondary metabolite biosynthetic gene clusters. These shared gene clusters represent ~45% of the total secondary metabolome of each strain, thus indicating a high level intraspecific divergence in terms of secondary metabolism. PMID:26464011

  14. 'Religious fanaticism' and wrongful confinement in Victorian England: the affair of Louisa Nottidge.

    PubMed

    Schwieso, J J

    1996-08-01

    Louisa Nottidge was kidnapped and committed to a private asylum in 1846 by her family because she had joined a millenarian sect of which they disapproved. After eighteen months the Commissioners in Lunacy were pressurised into ordering her release. Subsequently, she successfully sued her brother and brother-in-law for wrongful imprisonment. The judge's criticisms of the medical profession led to an acrimonious public debate about the nature of mental illness and its treatment, a debate that involved some of the leading 'mad doctors' of the day including Dr. John Conolly. The complex history of this case, frequently referred to in recent scholarly work, but never discussed in detail, is examined together with its implications for our understanding of Victorian psychiatry, and its attitude to mental illnesses involving religious matters. PMID:11613445

  15. Validation procedures used in the Background Soil Characterization Project on the Oak Ridge Reservation, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Environmental Restoration Program

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-01

    The purpose of this report is (1) to document the data validation process developed for the Background Soil Characterization Project (BSCP); (2) to offer members of other project teams and potential data users the benefit of the experience gained in the BSCP in the area of developing project-specific data validation criteria and procedures based on best available guidance and technical information; and (3) to provide input and guidance to the efforts under way within Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., to develop standard operating procedures to streamline and optimize the analytical laboratory data validation process for general use by making it more technically rigorous, consistent, and cost effective. Lessons learned from the BSCP are also provided to meet this end (Sect. 1.3).

  16. Cyptotrama (Physalacriaceae, Agaricales) from Asia.

    PubMed

    Qin, Jiao; Yang, Zhu-Liang

    2016-04-01

    Cyptotrama was divided into several sections, of which sect. Xerulina was often treated as a separate genus by some mycologists. In this study, collections of Cyptotrama from East Asia, Southeast Asia, and South Asia were studied. For comparison, materials from North America and New Zealand were analysed. Our multi-gene phylogenetic analyses indicated that Cyptotrama is monophyletic and Xerulina should be treated as a section within the genus Cyptotrama. Different scenarios of morphological character evolution in Cyptotrama are discovered. A total of seven species of Cyptotrama can be recognized from Asia, three of which, Cyptotrama angustispora, C. glabra, and C. shennongjia, are new to science. Meanwhile, three taxa previously placed in Xerulina or Marasmius were proved to be members of Cyptotrama, and the new combinations, namely Cyptotrama trogioides, C. megaspora, and C. myochroa, are accordingly proposed. A key for the diagnosis of worldwide Cyptotrama species is provided. PMID:27020153

  17. [Religious affiliation and mental health in Brazil].

    PubMed

    Dalgalarrondo, P

    1994-12-01

    Religiosity is a complex and fundamental socio-cultural phenomenon. Its possible positive or negative influence on the ethiology and treatment of mental illness remains controversial. Evangelical sects, specially the Pentecostals, have expanded dramatically in the last 40 years, in Latin America. Until now, the socio-cultural implications of this process have not been systematically studied. In the present study a group of patients admitted to a psychiatric unit in a general hospital in Campinas, Brazil, was investigated. Diagnosis distribution and length of hospital stay was related to religion affiliation. More functional psychosis and a shorter length of stay was found in the Pentecostal group. Possible implications of these findings are critically discussed. PMID:7484187

  18. Observing and Analyzing the ζ Aurigae Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griffin, R. Elizabeth; Eaton, Joel A.; Ake, Thomas B.; Schröder, Klaus-Peter

    This chapter reviews the scientific information that has been extracted from the ζ Aur binaries by various methods, surveys the kinds of spectroscopic data that have been used in those analyses, and examines each of the 10 known eclipsing systems in turn, except for VV Cep which is treated separately in Chap. 3, 10.1007/978-3-319-09198-3_3. It describes what has been achieved by modelling, and assesses what has been learned so far about the mass loss and winds from the cool giants and supergiants in those systems. It tries to keep in focus the fundamental questions posed at the end of the previous chapter (Sect. 1.8, 10.1007/978-3-319-09198-3_1#Sec8"), in particular the role of the ζ Aur binaries as templates for single stars, and suggests observing strategies for the future.

  19. Practical Session: Multiple Linear Regression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clausel, M.; Grégoire, G.

    2014-12-01

    Three exercises are proposed to illustrate the simple linear regression. In the first one investigates the influence of several factors on atmospheric pollution. It has been proposed by D. Chessel and A.B. Dufour in Lyon 1 (see Sect. 6 of http://pbil.univ-lyon1.fr/R/pdf/tdr33.pdf) and is based on data coming from 20 cities of U.S. Exercise 2 is an introduction to model selection whereas Exercise 3 provides a first example of analysis of variance. Exercises 2 and 3 have been proposed by A. Dalalyan at ENPC (see Exercises 2 and 3 of http://certis.enpc.fr/~dalalyan/Download/TP_ENPC_5.pdf).

  20. Conceptual Aspects of Gauge/Gravity Duality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Haro, Sebastian; Mayerson, Daniel R.; Butterfield, Jeremy N.

    2016-07-01

    We give an introductory review of gauge/gravity duality, and associated ideas of holography, emphasising the conceptual aspects. The opening sections gather the ingredients, viz. anti-de Sitter spacetime, conformal field theory and string theory, that we need for presenting, in Sect. 5, the central and original example: Maldacena's AdS/CFT correspondence. Sections 6 and 7 develop the ideas of this example, also in applications to condensed matter systems, QCD, and hydrodynamics. Sections 8 and 9 discuss the possible extensions of holographic ideas to de Sitter spacetime and to black holes. Section 10 discusses the bearing of gauge/gravity duality on two philosophical topics: the equivalence of physical theories, and the idea that spacetime, or some features of it, are emergent.

  1. Exclusive electroproduction of strange mesons with JLab 12 GeV

    SciTech Connect

    Strikman, Mark; Weiss, Christian

    2009-01-01

    We summarize the physics topics which can be addressed by measurements of high-Q^2 exclusive electroproduction of strange mesons, gamma* N -> phi N, K* Lambda, K Lambda, K Sigma, at Jefferson Lab with 11 GeV beam energy. The proposed investigations are aimed both at exploring the reaction mechanism (dominance of point-like configurations) and extracting information about baryon structure from the data (generalized parton distributions, or GPDs). They include (a) probing the t-dependence of the nucleon's gluon GPD (transverse spatial distribution of gluons) in phi meson production; (b) separating the nucleon helicity-flip and nonflip quark GPDs in K* Lambda production with measurement of the Lambda recoil polarization; (c) probing strangeness polarization in the nucleon in K Lambda and K Sigma production. These studies rely only on the analysis of cross section ratios, which are less affected by the theoretical uncertainties of present GPD-based calculations than absolute cross sect

  2. New stability conditions for mixed linear Levin-Nohel integro-differential equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dung, Nguyen Tien

    2013-08-01

    For the mixed Levin-Nohel integro-differential equation, we obtain new necessary and sufficient conditions of asymptotic stability. These results improve those obtained by Becker and Burton ["Stability, fixed points and inverse of delays," Proc. - R. Soc. Edinburgh, Sect. A 136, 245-275 (2006)], 10.1017/S0308210500004546 and Jin and Luo ["Stability of an integro-differential equation," Comput. Math. Appl. 57(7), 1080-1088 (2009)], 10.1016/j.camwa.2009.01.006 when b(t) = 0 and supplement the 3/2-stability theorem when a(t, s) = 0. In addition, the case of the equations with several delays is discussed as well.

  3. Vaginal douching practices and beliefs in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Kukulu, Kamile

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify women's motivations for vaginal douching, vaginal douching practices, and women's reactions to situations that discourage vaginal douching. Research took place in the outskirts of Antalya, a city located on the Mediterranean coast of Turkey. A total of 776 women participated in the study. Age, religious affiliation, place of residence, and poverty were found to influence women's attitudes to douching. Motivating factors included mothers' attitudes as well as women's own individual motivations. Women who douched believed that it was a normal and routine behaviour. Women who were members of the Shafii sect were much less likely to practice vaginal douching. Healthcare providers should be aware of women's beliefs and concerns about feminine hygiene and tailor their strategies accordingly. PMID:16846944

  4. The mystery of reincarnation.

    PubMed

    Nagaraj, Anil Kumar Mysore; Nanjegowda, Raveesh Bevinahalli; Purushothama, S M

    2013-01-01

    One of the mysteries puzzling human mind since the origin of mankind is the concept of "reincarnation" which literally means "to take on the flesh again." As the civilizations evolved, beliefs got discriminated and disseminated into various religions. The major division manifested was "East" and "West." The eastern religions being more philosophical and less analytical, have accepted reincarnation. However, the different eastern religions like Hinduism, Jainism, and Buddhism have differed in their faith on rebirth. Further, the Islam as well as the most dominant religion of the world, Christianity, having its origin in the west, have largely denied reincarnation, though some sub-sects still show interest in it. Also many mystic and esoteric schools like theosophical society have their unique description on rebirth. This article describes reincarnation as perceived by various religions and new religious movements as well as some research evidence. PMID:23858250

  5. CORRIGENDUM: A critical review on advanced velocity measurement techniques in pulsating flows A critical review on advanced velocity measurement techniques in pulsating flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nabavi, Majid; Siddiqui, Kamran

    2010-06-01

    The correct list of authors in reference [40] should be: Dennis S C R, Banks W H H, Drazin P G and Zaturska M B. In reference [67], the correct author's name is Ligęza P. Reference [69] should be given as follows: [69] Comte-Bellot G and Foss J F 2007 Thermal anemometry Handbook of Experimental Fluid Mechanics ed C Tropea, A L Yarin and J F Foss (Berlin: Springer) sect. 5.2 pp 229-87. The correct list of authors in reference [71] should be: Comte-Bellot G, Sarma G R, Faure T M, Dussauge J P, Dupont P and Debiève J F. In reference [72], the page numbers are 33-53, not 33-63.

  6. Exploring the role of auxin in the androgynophore movement in Passiflora

    PubMed Central

    Scorza, Livia C.T.; Dornelas, Marcelo Carnier

    2015-01-01

    The flowers of the species belonging to the genus Passiflorashow a range of features that are thought to have arisen as adaptations to different pollinators. Some Passiflora species belonging to the subgenus Decaloba sect. Xerogona, show touch-sensitive motile androgynophores. We tested the role of auxin polar transport in the modulation of the androgynophore movement by applying auxin (IAA) or an inhibitor of auxin polar transport (NPA) in the flowers. We recorded the movement of the androgynophore during mechano-stimulation and analyzed the duration, speed, and the angle formed by the androgynophore before and after the movement, and found that both IAA and NPA increase the amplitude of the movement in P. sanguinolenta. We hypothesize that auxin might have a role in modulating the fitness of these Decaloba species to different pollination syndromes and demonstrate that an interspecific hybrid between insect- and hummingbird-pollinated Xerogona species present a heterosis effect on the speed of the androgynophore movement. PMID:26500433

  7. [Double ritual murder by the Satanist cult members based on the casuistry of the Forensic Medicine Department in Katowice].

    PubMed

    Chowaniec, Czesław; Jałfoński, Christian; Kabiesz-Neniczka, Stanisława; Kobek, Mariusz; Rygol, Krystian

    2006-01-01

    In recent years, an increased activity of various sects, especially Satanist ones, has been observed in Poland. This is associated with an increase in the number of various crimes, including offences against life and health. The ideology of Satanism came to Poland in the early eighties of the last century, along with heavy metal music and its variants. In 1999, two cases of the murders of a 21-year-old woman and a 19-year-old man committed by Satanist cult members during their ritual mass were reported at the Forensic Medicine Department in Katowice. In the report, the authors present some issues associated with Satanism, the circumstances of these two murders and the results of medico-legal examinations of the victims. PMID:17249377

  8. Estimating Exposure of Terrestrial Wildlife to Contaminants

    SciTech Connect

    Sample, B.E.

    1994-01-01

    This report presents a general model for exposure of terrestrial wildlife to contaminants (Sect. 2), methods for estimating parameters of the model (Sect. 3), species specific parameters for endpoint species on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) (Sect. 4), and a sample application (Sect. 5). Exposure can be defined as the coincidence in both space and time of a receptor and a stressor, such that the receptor and stressor come into contact and interact (Risk Assessment Forum 1992). In the context of ecological risk assessment, receptors include all endpoint species or communities identified for a site [see Suter (1989) and Suter et al. (1994) for discussions of ecological endpoints for waste sites]. In the context of waste site assessments, stressors are chemical contaminations, and the contact and interaction are uptake of the contaminant by the receptor. Without sufficient exposure of the receptor to the contaminants, there is no ecological risk. Unlike some other endpoint assemblages, terrestrial wildlife are significantly exposed to contaminants in multiple media. They may drink or swim in contaminated water, ingest contaminated food and soil, and breath contaminated air. In addition, because most wildlife are mobile, moving among and within habitats, exposure is not restricted to a single location. They may integrate contamination from several spatially discrete sources. Therefore, exposure models for terrestrial wildlife must include multiple media. This document provides models and parameters for estimating exposure of birds and mammals. Reptiles and amphibians are not considered because few data exist with which to assess exposure to these organisms. In addition, because toxicological data are scarce for both classes, evaluation of the significance of exposure estimates is problematic. However, the general exposure estimation procedure developed herein for birds and mammals is applicable to reptiles and amphibians. Exposure models must be appropriate to the

  9. Carbohydrate Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bemiller, James N.

    Carbohydrates are important in foods as a major source of energy, to impart crucial textural properties, and as dietary fiber which influences physiological processes. Digestible carbohydrates, which are converted into monosaccharides, which are absorbed, provide metabolic energy. Worldwide, carbohydrates account for more than 70% of the caloric value of the human diet. It is recommended that all persons should limit calories from fat (the other significant source) to not more than 30% and that most of the carbohydrate calories should come from starch. Nondigestible polysaccharides (all those other than starch) comprise the major portion of dietary fiber (Sect. 10.5). Carbohydrates also contribute other attributes, including bulk, body, viscosity, stability to emulsions and foams, water-holding capacity, freeze-thaw stability, browning, flavors, aromas, and a range of desirable textures (from crispness to smooth, soft gels). They also provide satiety. Basic carbohydrate structures, chemistry, and terminology can be found in references (1, 2).

  10. Praying until Death: Apostolicism, Delays and Maternal Mortality in Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    Munyaradzi Kenneth, Dodzo; Marvellous, Mhloyi; Stanzia, Moyo; Memory, Dodzo-Masawi

    2016-01-01

    Religion affects people's daily lives by solving social problems, although it creates others. Female sexual and reproductive health are among the issues most affected by religion. Apostolic sect members in Zimbabwe have been associated with higher maternal mortality. We explored apostolic beliefs and practices on maternal health using 15 key informant interviews in 5 purposively selected districts of Zimbabwe. Results show that apostolicism promotes high fertility, early marriage, non-use of contraceptives and low or non-use of hospital care. It causes delays in recognizing danger signs, deciding to seek care, reaching and receiving appropriate health care. The existence of a customized spiritual maternal health system demonstrates a huge desire for positive maternal health outcomes among apostolics. We conclude that apostolic beliefs and practices exacerbate delays between onset of maternal complications and receiving help, thus increasing maternal risk. We recommend complementary and adaptive approaches that address the maternal health needs of apostolics in a religiously sensitive manner. PMID:27509018

  11. Syngonanthus androgynus, a Striking New Species from South America, its Phylogenetic Placement and Implications for Evolution of Bisexuality in Eriocaulaceae

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, Mauricio Takashi Coutinho; Hensold, Nancy; Sano, Paulo Takeo

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, we describe and illustrate a remarkable new species of Syngonanthus from South America (Bolivia, Brazil and Peru). This new species is quickly distinguished from all species in the genus by trimerous and bisexual flowers, a unique set of characteristics in Syngonanthus. Complementary to this study, sequences of 33 species were downloaded from GenBank and four species had sequences newly generated for this study. Molecular phylogenetic analyses based on nuclear ribosomal ITS and the plastid regions psbA-trnH and trnL-F were performed to determine its systematic position. The results have shown S. androgynus closely related to a well-supported clade that has been treated as Syngonanthus sect. Carphocephalus. Floral traits associated with this new plant also were surveyed. Character reconstruction suggests that the bisexual flowers originated independently more than once in the genus. However, trimerous flowers appear to be an ancestral condition of the whole genus. PMID:26559183

  12. Econophysics of a religious cult: The Antoinists in Belgium [1920-2000

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ausloos, Marcel

    2012-06-01

    In the framework of applying econophysics ideas in religious topics, the finances of the Antoinist religious movement organised in Belgium between 1920 and 2000 are studied. The interest of investigating financial aspects of such a, sometimes called, sect stems in finding characteristics of conditions and mechanisms under which definitely growth and decay features of communities can be understood. The legally reported yearly income and expenses between 1920 and 2000 are studied. A three wave asymmetric regime is observed over a trend among marked fluctuations at times of crises. The data analysis leads to the proposition of a general mechanistic model taking into account an average GDP growth, oscillatory monetary inflation and a logistic population drift.

  13. Beyond pluralism: psychoanalysis and the workings of mind.

    PubMed

    Pine, Fred

    2011-10-01

    Subjects that Freud excluded or incompletely explored have been sites of theoretical expansion in over a century of observation: the role of the other, the self, the preoedipal period, action, the countertransference, limits to neutrality/anonymity/abstinence, the loci of the analytic drama, effects beyond interpretation, agency, and basic needs (versus wishes). These developments have led to conflicting theories and sect-like groupings within the field. Group psychological processes underlying this are discussed; and a broad and inclusive view of psychoanalysis is proposed under the heading of the study of the workings of mind. Additionally, substantial integrative proposals are offered with respect to the central tasks of individual development, theories of mind, the relational turn, and aspects of technique. PMID:22034677

  14. Secretion is required for late events in the cell-fusion pathway of mating yeast.

    PubMed

    Grote, Eric

    2010-06-01

    Secretory vesicles accumulate adjacent to the contact site between the two cells of a yeast mating pair before they fuse, but there is no direct evidence that secretion is required to complete fusion. In this study, temperature-sensitive secretion (sec(ts)) mutants were used to investigate the role of secretion in yeast cell fusion. Cell fusion arrested less than 5 minutes after inhibiting secretion. This rapid fusion arrest was not an indirect consequence of reduced mating pheromone signaling, mating-pair assembly or actin polarity. Furthermore, secretion was required to complete cell fusion when it was transiently inhibited by addition and removal of the lipophilic styryl dye, FM4-64. These results indicate that ongoing secretion is required for late events in the cell-fusion pathway, which include plasma-membrane fusion and the completion of cell-wall remodeling, and they demonstrate a just-in-time delivery mechanism for the cell-fusion machinery. PMID:20460435

  15. Bread of heaven or wines of light: entheogenic legacies and esoteric cosmologies.

    PubMed

    Dannaway, Frederick R; Piper, Alan; Webster, Peter

    2006-12-01

    This is an article in two parts. The first part discusses current research in psychoactive preparations of ergot in various religious systems with a particular emphasis on Persian, Greek, Jewish and Islamic sources. Certain poems, hadith, and scriptural writings suggest an entheogenic heritage to various ancient sects that exerted and received philosophical and ritual influences over large distances and over time. Particularly, some esoteric Shia and Sufi writings are highly suggestive of a "celestial botany" that employed psychoactive plants for initiatory and ritual purposes. The second part will address current research methods that render ergot alkaloids nontoxic and entheogenic, a most crucial part of the discussion in the absence of a modern bioassay. This is essential, as without a chemical reality to support that such a preparation of entheogenic ergot is possible, all ergot theories concerning mystery traditions would remain largely speculative. PMID:17373565

  16. Rheological Principles for Food Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daubert, Christopher R.; Foegeding, E. Allen

    Food scientists are routinely confronted with the need to measure physical properties related to sensory texture and processing needs. These properties are determined by rheological methods, where rheology is a science devoted to the deformation and flow of all materials. Rheological properties should be considered a subset of the textural properties of foods, because the sensory detection of texture encompasses factors beyond rheological properties. Specifically, rheological methods accurately measure "force," "deformation," and "flow," and food scientists and engineers must determine how best to apply this information. For example, the flow of salad dressing from a bottle, the snapping of a candy bar, or the pumping of cream through a homogenizer are each related to the rheological properties of these materials. In this chapter, we describe fundamental concepts pertinent to the understanding of the subject and discuss typical examples of rheological tests for common foods. A glossary is included as Sect. 30.6 to clarify and summarize rheological definitions throughout the chapter.

  17. Therapist Competence and Treatment Adherence for a Brief Intervention addressing Alcohol and Violence among Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Resko, Stella M.; Walton, Maureen A.; Chermack, Stephen T.; Blow, Frederic C.; Cunningham, Rebecca M.

    2011-01-01

    This study examines therapist competency and treatment adherence for a brief intervention addressing alcohol misuse and violent behaviors among adolescents aged 14–18. Three observational measures of fidelity were used by independent raters to evaluate 60 therapist-delivered sessions (m=32.5 minutes). Individual items from the Content Adherence scale, the Global Rating of Competence (GROMIT) and Self Exploration and Change Talk (SECT) demonstrated fair to excellent inter-rater reliability (intraclass correlations ranged from .40 to 1.0). Principal components analysis (PCA) was utilized to identify the underlying factor structure of the Content Adherence and GROMIT. Parallel analysis suggested the extraction of three components for the Content Adherence reflecting the three distinct goals for each segment of the intervention. Two components were identified for the GROMIT representing the general spirit of motivational interviewing and empowerment. Findings provide support for the fidelity instruments adapted for this study and offer direction for future training and clinical supervision. PMID:22119182

  18. Environmental, safety, and health plan for the remedial investigation of Waste Area Grouping 10, Operable Unit 3, at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Environmental Restoration Program

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-10-01

    This document outlines the environmental, safety, and health (ES&H) approach to be followed for the remedial investigation of Waste Area Grouping (WAG) 10 at Oak at Ridge National Laboratory. This ES&H Plan addresses hazards associated with upcoming Operable Unit 3 field work activities and provides the program elements required to maintain minimal personnel exposures and to reduce the potential for environmental impacts during field operations. The hazards evaluation for WAG 10 is presented in Sect. 3. This section includes the potential radiological, chemical, and physical hazards that may be encountered. Previous sampling results suggest that the primary contaminants of concern will be radiological (cobalt-60, europium-154, americium-241, strontium-90, plutonium-238, plutonium-239, cesium-134, cesium-137, and curium-244). External and internal exposures to radioactive materials will be minimized through engineering controls (e.g., ventilation, containment, isolation) and administrative controls (e.g., procedures, training, postings, protective clothing).

  19. Fiscal Year 2007 Phased Construction Completion Report for the Zone 2 Soils, Slabs, and Subsurface Structures at East Tennessee Technology Park, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    RSI

    2008-03-01

    for unrestricted industrial use to 10 ft bgs; (3) Identify additional areas not defined in the Zone 2 ROD that require remediation based on the DVS evaluation results; and (4) Describe the RAs performed in Zone 2. The Zone 2 ROD divided the Zone 2 area into 7 geographic areas and 44 EUs. To facilitate the DQOs of the DVS process, the Zone 2 RDR/RAWP regrouped the 44 EUs into 12 DQO scoping EU groups. These groups facilitated the DQO process by placing similar facilities and their support facilities together and allowed identification of data gaps. The EU groups were no longer pertinent after DQO planning was completed, and characterization was conducted as areas became accessible. As the opportunity to complete characterization became available, the planned DVS program was executed and completed in FY 2007 for the 11 EUs addressed in this document. The main body of this report describes both the DVS process and scope of work performed and the RAs completed. The scope and approach for performing DVS activities performed in FY 2007 that lead to action/no further action decisions are presented in Sects. 2 through 4. RAs performed in FY 2007 are presented in Sects. 5 through 10. Future land use is described in Sect. 11, and the status of all Zone 2 EUs as of this PCCR is presented in Sect. 12.

  20. Koranic education and militant Islam in Nigeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winters, Clyde Ahmad

    1987-06-01

    In this article the author outlines and discusses the influence of Koranic schools, and their students ( almagiri) on the rise of fundamentalism and the spreading of militant Islam in Northern Nigeria. The author contends that while Islamic fundamentalism is the banner of both the Western-oriented Muslims and traditional Nigerian Muslims, it differs in expression in Northern Nigeria. The article shows that these differences result from the influence of the Koranic schools on the traditional teachers ( ulama) and their students on the one hand, and Western universities, Wahhabi Arabs, and Western-oriented teachers and their students on the other. The origins of the Koranic school curriculum in Nigeria, the training of traditional Muslim teachers, and the lifestyle of the students are discussed. The author shows how certain socialization patterns found in the Koranic schools and `almagiri' system seem congruent with the political attitudes and values stressed by spokesmen of militant Islamic sects in Northern Nigeria.

  1. Exploring the role of auxin in the androgynophore movement in Passiflora.

    PubMed

    Scorza, Livia C T; Dornelas, Marcelo Carnier

    2015-01-01

    The flowers of the species belonging to the genus Passiflorashow a range of features that are thought to have arisen as adaptations to different pollinators. Some Passiflora species belonging to the subgenus Decaloba sect. Xerogona, show touch-sensitive motile androgynophores. We tested the role of auxin polar transport in the modulation of the androgynophore movement by applying auxin (IAA) or an inhibitor of auxin polar transport (NPA) in the flowers. We recorded the movement of the androgynophore during mechano-stimulation and analyzed the duration, speed, and the angle formed by the androgynophore before and after the movement, and found that both IAA and NPA increase the amplitude of the movement in P. sanguinolenta. We hypothesize that auxin might have a role in modulating the fitness of these Decaloba species to different pollination syndromes and demonstrate that an interspecific hybrid between insect- and hummingbird-pollinated Xerogona species present a heterosis effect on the speed of the androgynophore movement. PMID:26500433

  2. Morphological and Molecular Phylogenetic Data Reveal a New Species of Primula (Primulaceae) from Hunan, China.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yuan; Yu, Xun-Lin; Hu, Chi-Ming; Hao, Gang

    2016-01-01

    A new species of Primulaceae, Primula undulifolia, is described from the hilly area of Hunan province in south-central China. Its morphology and distributional range suggest that it is allied to P. kwangtungensis, both adapted to subtropical climate, having contiguous distribution and similar habitat, growing on shady and moist cliffs. Petioles, scapes and pedicels of them are densely covered with rusty multicellular hairs, but the new species can be easily distinguished by its smaller flowers and narrowly oblong leaves with undulate margins. Molecular phylogenetic analysis based on four DNA markers (ITS, matK, trnL-F and rps16) confirmed the new species as an independent lineage and constitutes a main clade together with P. kwangtungensis, P. kweichouensis, P. wangii and P. hunanensis of Primula sect. Carolinella. PMID:27579832

  3. Two New Isomers of Palmityl-4-hydroxycinnamate from Flowers of Taraxacum Species.

    PubMed

    Dudáš, Matej; Vilková, Mária; Béres, Tibor; Repcák, Miroslav; Mártonfi, Pavol

    2016-06-01

    Two isomers, (Z)- and (E)-palmityl 4-hydroxycinnamate [hexadecyl(2Z)-3-(4-hydroxyphenyl)prop-2-enoate and hexadecyl(2E)-3-(4-hydroxyphenyl)prop-2-enoate] were isolated for the first time from ligulate flowers of Taraxacum linearisquameum Soest (sect. Taraxacum). The highest amount of these compounds was detected in pollen grains; 0.26 mg/100 mg DW of the (E)-isomer and 0.096 mg/100 mg DW of the (Z)-isomer. The structures of these compounds were elucidated by a combination of HPLC-ESI-Qtof-MS and 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy. Their presence was confirmed in other species of Taraxacum, but they were not found in the male - sterile triploid agamospermous taxon T. parnassicum. PMID:27534130

  4. Praying until Death: Apostolicism, Delays and Maternal Mortality in Zimbabwe

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Religion affects people’s daily lives by solving social problems, although it creates others. Female sexual and reproductive health are among the issues most affected by religion. Apostolic sect members in Zimbabwe have been associated with higher maternal mortality. We explored apostolic beliefs and practices on maternal health using 15 key informant interviews in 5 purposively selected districts of Zimbabwe. Results show that apostolicism promotes high fertility, early marriage, non-use of contraceptives and low or non-use of hospital care. It causes delays in recognizing danger signs, deciding to seek care, reaching and receiving appropriate health care. The existence of a customized spiritual maternal health system demonstrates a huge desire for positive maternal health outcomes among apostolics. We conclude that apostolic beliefs and practices exacerbate delays between onset of maternal complications and receiving help, thus increasing maternal risk. We recommend complementary and adaptive approaches that address the maternal health needs of apostolics in a religiously sensitive manner. PMID:27509018

  5. Advanced technology payoffs for future rotorcraft, commuter aircraft, cruise missile, and APU propulsion systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turk, M. A.; Zeiner, P. K.

    1986-01-01

    In connection with the significant advances made regarding the performance of larger gas turbines, challenges arise concerning the improvement of small gas turbine engines in the 250 to 1000 horsepower range. In response to these challenges, the NASA/Army-sponsored Small Engine Component Technology (SECT) study was undertaken with the objective to identify the engine cycle, configuration, and component technology requirements for the substantial performance improvements desired in year-2000 small gas turbine engines. In the context of this objective, an American turbine engine company evaluated engines for four year-2000 applications, including a rotorcraft, a commuter aircraft, a supersonic cruise missile, and an auxiliary power unit (APU). Attention is given to reference missions, reference engines, reference aircraft, year-2000 technology projections, cycle studies, advanced engine selections, and a technology evaluation.

  6. The mystery of reincarnation

    PubMed Central

    Nagaraj, Anil Kumar Mysore; Nanjegowda, Raveesh Bevinahalli; Purushothama, S. M.

    2013-01-01

    One of the mysteries puzzling human mind since the origin of mankind is the concept of “reincarnation” which literally means “to take on the flesh again.” As the civilizations evolved, beliefs got discriminated and disseminated into various religions. The major division manifested was “East” and “West.” The eastern religions being more philosophical and less analytical, have accepted reincarnation. However, the different eastern religions like Hinduism, Jainism, and Buddhism have differed in their faith on rebirth. Further, the Islam as well as the most dominant religion of the world, Christianity, having its origin in the west, have largely denied reincarnation, though some sub-sects still show interest in it. Also many mystic and esoteric schools like theosophical society have their unique description on rebirth. This article describes reincarnation as perceived by various religions and new religious movements as well as some research evidence. PMID:23858250

  7. Influence of Tantra on ayurveda and Kamasutra.

    PubMed

    Rao, B Rama

    2004-01-01

    A close study of ancient works of ayurveda and Kamasutra shows that the knowledge of anatomy and physiology of different parts of reproductive organs particularly of female genitals is lacking. Hymen, defloration and clitoris do not find any mention in earlier works. Works of medieval and late medieval period mention the different parts and their utility and function especially in the sexual enjoyment. Worship of vagina or Yonipuja was a common practice in some sects of Tantrists like Kaulas, Kapalikas and others. This practice resulted in the close observation of different parts and thereby knowing their importance and role in the sexual enjoyment, which was also a part of the practices of Tantrism. This knowledge appears to have been incorporated in works like Bhavaprakasa of ayurveda and Paururavamanasijasutra and others of Kamasutra. They describe three Nadis in the female genitalia and clitoris others. PMID:17152613

  8. Polio eradication efforts in regions of geopolitical strife: the Boko Haram threat to efforts in sub-Saharan Africa.

    PubMed

    Bigna, Jean Joel R

    2016-06-01

    The World Health Organization aims to eradicate wild poliovirus worldwide by the end of 2018. Cameroon and Nigeria, neighboring countries, have been affected by the terrorist and militant activities of the Islamist sect Boko Haram. Impacted regions are mainly the far North of Cameroon and Northern Nigeria. Targets of Boko Haram aggression in these zones include violence against polio workers, disruption of polio immunization campaigns, with consequent reduced access to health care and immunization. In addition to this significant problem, Northern Nigeria has historically seen rejection of polio virus vaccine initiatives. It remains to know how health systems can continue operations against polio in areas where Boko Haram operates. If appropriate measures are not urgently taken, it will be not possible to meet the 2018 goal of polio virus eradication. The response should include specialized immunization activities in conflict zones, will engagement of leaders. Countries should also explore immunization activities by soldiers and military personnel. PMID:27605975

  9. Gravitational lensing in quasar samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Claeskens, Jean-François; Surdej, Jean

    The first cosmic mirage was discovered approximately 20 years ago as the double optical counterpart of a radio source. This phenomenon had been predicted some 70 years earlier as a consequence of General Relativity. We present here a summary of what we have learnt since. The applications are so numerous that we had to concentrate on a few selected aspects of this new field of research. This review is focused on strong gravitational lensing, i.e. the formation of multiple images, in QSO samples. It is intended to give the reader an up-to-date status of the observations and to present an overview of its most interesting potential applications in cosmology and astrophysics, as well as numerous important results achieved so far. The first section follows an intuitive approach to the basics of gravitational lensing and is developed in view of our interest in multiply imaged quasars. The astrophysical and cosmological applications of gravitational lensing are outlined in Sect. 2 and the most important results are presented in Sect. 5. Sections 3 and 4 are devoted to the observations. Finally, conclusions are summarized in the last section. We have tried to avoid duplication with existing (and excellent) introductions to the field of gravitational lensing. For this reason, we did not concentrate on the individual properties of specific lens models, as these are already well presented in Narayan and Bartelmann (1996) and on a more intuitive ground in Refsdal and Surdej (1994). Wambsganss (1998) proposes a broad view on gravitational lensing in astronomy; the reviews by Fort and Mellier (1994) and Hattori et al. (1999) deal with lensing by galaxy clusters; microlensing in the Galaxy and the local group is reviewed by Paczynski (1996) and a general panorama on weak lensing is given by Bartelmann and Schneider (1999) and Mellier (1999). The monograph on the theory of gravitational lensing by Schneider, Ehlers and Falco (1992) also remains a reference in the field.

  10. Diversity patterns of selected Andean plant groups correspond to topography and habitat dynamics, not orogeny.

    PubMed

    Mutke, Jens; Jacobs, Rana; Meyers, Katharina; Henning, Tilo; Weigend, Maximilian

    2014-01-01

    The tropical Andes are a hotspot of biodiversity, but detailed altitudinal and latitudinal distribution patterns of species are poorly understood. We compare the distribution and diversity patterns of four Andean plant groups on the basis of georeferenced specimen data: the genus Nasa (Loasaceae), the two South American sections of Ribes (sect. Parilla and sect. Andina, Grossulariaceae), and the American clade of Urtica (Urticaceae). In the tropical Andes, these often grow together, especially in (naturally or anthropogenically) disturbed or secondary vegetation at middle to upper elevations. The climatic niches of the tropical groups studied here are relatively similar in temperature and temperature seasonality, but do differ in moisture seasonality. The Amotape-Huancabamba Zone (AHZ) between 3 and 8° S shows a clear diversity peak of overall species richness as well as for narrowly endemic species across the groups studied. For Nasa, we also show a particular diversity of growth forms in the AHZ. This can be interpreted as proxy for a high diversity of ecological niches based on high spatial habitat heterogeneity in this zone. Latitudinal ranges are generally larger toward the margins of overall range of the group. Species number and number of endemic species of our taxa peak at elevations of 2,500-3,500 m in the tropical Andes. Altitudinal diversity patterns correspond well with the altitudinal distribution of slope inclination. We hypothesize that the likelihood and frequency of landslides at steeper slopes translate into temporal habitat heterogeneity. The frequency of landslides may be causally connected to diversification especially for the numerous early colonizing taxa, such as Urtica and annual species of Nasa. In contrast to earlier hypotheses, uplift history is not reflected in the pattern here retrieved, since the AHZ is the area of the most recent Andean uplift. Similarly, a barrier effect of the low-lying Huancabamba depression is not retrieved in

  11. Comparison of genomes of eight species of sections Linum and Adenolinum from the genus Linum based on chromosome banding, molecular markers and RAPD analysis.

    PubMed

    Muravenko, Olga V; Yurkevich, Olga Yu; Bolsheva, Nadezhda L; Samatadze, Tatiana E; Nosova, Inna V; Zelenina, Daria A; Volkov, Alexander A; Popov, Konstantin V; Zelenin, Alexander V

    2009-03-01

    Karyotypes of species sects. Linum and Adenolinum have been studied using C/DAPI-banding, Ag-NOR staining, FISH with 5S and 26S rDNA and RAPD analysis. C/DAPI-banding patterns enabled identification of all homologous chromosome pairs in the studied karyotypes. The revealed high similarity between species L. grandiflorum (2n = 16) and L. decumbens by chromosome and molecular markers proved their close genome relationship and identified the chromosome number in L. decumbens as 2n = 16. The similarity found for C/DAPI-banding patterns between species with the same chromosome numbers corresponds with the results obtained by RAPD-analysis, showing clusterization of 16-, 18- and 30-chromosome species into three separate groups. 5S rDNA and 26S rDNA were co-localized in NOR-chromosome 1 in the genomes of all species investigated. In 30-chromosome species, there were three separate 5S rDNA sites in chromosomes 3, 8 and 13. In 16-chromosome species, a separate 5S rDNA site was also located in chromosome 3, whereas in 18-chromosome species it was found in the long arm of NOR-chromosome 1. Thus, the difference in localization of rDNA sites in species with 2n = 16, 2n = 30 and 2n = 18 confirms taxonomists opinion, who attributed these species to different sects. Linum and Adenolinum, respectively. The obtained results suggest that species with 2n = 16, 2n = 18 and 2n = 30 originated from a 16-chromosome ancestor. PMID:18500654

  12. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Molecule and grain abundances (Marchand+, 2016)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marchand, P.; Masson, J.; Chabrier, G.; Hennebelle, P.; Commercon, B.; Vaytet, N.

    2016-06-01

    chemistry.tar is the fortran code that was used to compute the following table. abundance.txt is a 3D table giving the abundances of several ionised species over a wide range of density, temperature and cosmic rays ionisation rate, useful in prestellar core collapse conditions. The table is organised as follow : density (cm-3), temperature (K), ionisation rate (s-1), abundance of electrons, abundances of ions (metal (Mg etc.), molecular ions (HCO+), H3+, H+, C+, He+, K+, Na+), abundances of grains (grains +, grain -, neutral grains) for bins 1 to 5 (see Sect. 2.4 of the paper), total abundances of grains, integration time. Format : '(31(e24.17,2X))' Reading : ------------------------------------------------------------------------- read(unit,format) nrho, nT, nX, nvar read(unit,format) read(unit,format) read(unit,format) read(unit,format) do i=1,nX do j=1,nT do k=1,nrho read(unit,format) rho(k), T(j), Xi(i), abundance(k,j,i,1:nvar) end do read(unit,format) read(unit,format) end do read(unit,format) read(unit,format) end do ---------------------------------------------------------------------- The description of each column can be found in the header of the file. You can compute the resistivities using read_table.f90, which creates a table of resistivities with the same parameters and adding the magnetic field dependance (see Sect. 2.1 of the paper for the formulae used). You can use it as a subroutine in your code. (4 data files).

  13. Notes on "Quantum Gravity" and Noncommutative Geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gracia-Bondía, J. M.

    I hesitated for a long time before giving shape to these notes, originally intended for preliminary reading by the attendees to the Summer School "New paths towards quantum gravity" (Holbaek Bay, Denmark, May 2008). At the end, I decide against just selling my mathematical wares, and for a survey, necessarily very selective, but taking a global phenomenological approach to its subject matter. After all, noncommutative geometry does not purport yet to solve the riddle of quantum gravity; it is more of an insurance policy against the probable failure of the other approaches. The plan is as follows: the introduction invites students to the fruitful doubts and conundrums besetting the application of even classical gravity. Next, the first experiments detecting quantum gravitational states inoculate us a healthy dose of scepticism on some of the current ideologies. In Sect. 1.3 we look at the action for general relativity as a consequence of gauge theory for quantum tensor fields. Section 1.4 briefly deals with the unimodular variants. Section 1.5 arrives at noncommutative geometry. I am convinced that, if this is to play a role in quantum gravity, commutative and noncommutative manifolds must be treated on the same footing, which justifies the place granted to the reconstruction theorem. Together with Sect. 1.3, this part constitutes the main body of the notes. Only very summarily at the end of this section do we point to some approaches to gravity within the noncommutative realm. The last section delivers a last dose of scepticism. My efforts will have been rewarded if someone from the young generation learns to mistrust current mindsets.

  14. The pre-Flexnerian reports: Mark Twain's criticism of medicine in the United States.

    PubMed

    Ober, K P

    1997-01-15

    By the time Mark Twain was born, in 1835, the political forces of Jacksonian democracy had created an era of unregulated medical practice in the United States. Licensure laws were almost nonexistent, and any citizen could practice medicine. Regular ("allopathic") medicine was competing with at least two dozen other sects, including homeopathic, botanical, and hydropathic medicine. Although allopathy presented itself as the "scientific" branch of medicine and proclaimed the practices of the other sects to be "quackery," its therapies were aggressive and toxic and had no proven advantage over the treatments used by competitors. Through the efforts of the American Medical Association (AMA), allopathic medicine eliminated its competition by promoting the reestablishment of licensure laws in the late 1800s. In a continuation of the same endeavor, the AMA sought to identify weak and inadequate medical schools and commissioned Abraham Flexner to write the famous Flexner report of 1910 (the year of Mark Twain's death). Twain, an insightful political observer and social critic who was familiar with the competing medical systems and the medical politics of the 19th century, questioned the wisdom of limiting patients' medical options. He doubted the competence and intentions of physicians as a group even as he maintained confidence in the abilities of his own physicians. He was critical of the empirical medical practices used during his youth, but he saw hope in the new scientific orientation of medicine in the early 20th century. Twain's commentaries provide a unique perspective on pre-Flexnerian medicine in the United States. PMID:9005751

  15. A Human Deciduous Tooth and New 40Ar/39Ar Dating Results from the Middle Pleistocene Archaeological Site of Isernia La Pineta, Southern Italy.

    PubMed

    Peretto, Carlo; Arnaud, Julie; Moggi-Cecchi, Jacopo; Manzi, Giorgio; Nomade, Sébastien; Pereira, Alison; Falguères, Christophe; Bahain, Jean-Jacques; Grimaud-Hervé, Dominique; Berto, Claudio; Sala, Benedetto; Lembo, Giuseppe; Muttillo, Brunella; Gallotti, Rosalia; Thun Hohenstein, Ursula; Vaccaro, Carmela; Coltorti, Mauro; Arzarello, Marta

    2015-01-01

    Isernia La Pineta (south-central Italy, Molise) is one of the most important archaeological localities of the Middle Pleistocene in Western Europe. It is an extensive open-air site with abundant lithic industry and faunal remains distributed across four stratified archaeosurfaces that have been found in two sectors of the excavation (3c, 3a, 3s10 in sect. I; 3a in sect. II). The prehistoric attendance was close to a wet environment, with a series of small waterfalls and lakes associated to calcareous tufa deposits. An isolated human deciduous incisor (labelled IS42) was discovered in 2014 within the archaeological level 3 coll (overlying layer 3a) that, according to new 40Ar/39Ar measurements, is dated to about 583-561 ka, i.e. to the end of marine isotope stage (MIS) 15. Thus, the tooth is currently the oldest human fossil specimen in Italy; it is an important addition to the scanty European fossil record of the Middle Pleistocene, being associated with a lithic assemblage of local raw materials (flint and limestone) characterized by the absence of handaxes and reduction strategies primarily aimed at the production of small/medium-sized flakes. The faunal assemblage is dominated by ungulates often bearing cut marks. Combining chronology with the archaeological evidence, Isernia La Pineta exhibits a delay in the appearance of handaxes with respect to other European Palaeolithic sites of the Middle Pleistocene. Interestingly, this observation matches the persistence of archaic morphological features shown by the human calvarium from the Middle Pleistocene site of Ceprano, not far from Isernia (south-central Italy, Latium). In this perspective, our analysis is aimed to evaluate morphological features occurring in IS42. PMID:26457581

  16. Protein Microarrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ricard-Blum, S.

    Proteins are key actors in the life of the cell, involved in many physiological and pathological processes. Since variations in the expression of messenger RNA are not systematically correlated with variations in the protein levels, the latter better reflect the way a cell functions. Protein microarrays thus supply complementary information to DNA chips. They are used in particular to analyse protein expression profiles, to detect proteins within complex biological media, and to study protein-protein interactions, which give information about the functions of those proteins [3-9]. They have the same advantages as DNA microarrays for high-throughput analysis, miniaturisation, and the possibility of automation. Section 18.1 gives a brief overview of proteins. Following this, Sect. 18.2 describes how protein microarrays can be made on flat supports, explaining how proteins can be produced and immobilised on a solid support, and discussing the different kinds of substrate and detection method. Section 18.3 discusses the particular format of protein microarrays in suspension. The diversity of protein microarrays and their applications are then reported in Sect. 18.4, with applications to therapeutics (protein-drug interactions) and diagnostics. The prospects for future developments of protein microarrays are then outlined in the conclusion. The bibliography provides an extensive list of reviews and detailed references for those readers who wish to go further in this area. Indeed, the aim of the present chapter is not to give an exhaustive or detailed analysis of the state of the art, but rather to provide the reader with the basic elements needed to understand how proteins are designed and used.

  17. First comprehensive phylogenetic analysis of the genus Erysiphe (Erysiphales, Erysiphaceae) II: the Uncinula lineage.

    PubMed

    Takamatsu, Susumu; Ito Arakawa, Hanako; Shiroya, Yoshiaki; Kiss, Levente; Heluta, Vasyl

    2015-01-01

    Phylogenetic relationships of the Uncinula lineage, which is the basal group in the genus Erysiphe, were investigated with 167 sequences of nuc ITS1-5. 8S-ITS2 and the 28S rDNA regions. Backbone tree analyses with six datasets and two tree-constructing methods revealed that the Uncinula lineage is divided into seven distinct clades. Clades 1-5 each contained a representative powdery mildew species, namely E. australiana in Clade 1, E. liquidambaris in Clade 2, E. adunca in Clade 3, E. fraxinicola in Clade 4 and E. actinidiae in Clade 5. Clade 6 comprises 71 sequences including the Microsphaera lineage and 17 species of the Uncinula lineage, such as E. carpinicola, E. carpinilaxiflorae, E. miyabei, E. glycines and E. necator. Topology tests supported the Microsphaera lineage forming a monophyletic clade in Clade 6, suggesting that Microsphaera-type appendages appeared only once in this clade to diverge into the Microsphaera lineage. Clade 7 consists of 72 sequences containing 30 species, including species of sects. Californiomyces and Typhulochaeta, four species from Nothofagus, species of sect. Erysiphe parasitising herbaceous plants belonging to the Asteraceae, Rosaceae and Saxifragaceae. Molecular clock analysis suggests that the major seven clades appeared 50-30 million years ago (Ma) in the Paleogene Period. The Microsphaera lineage may have split from the Uncinula lineage at the boundary of the Paleogene and Neogene, when appendages with dichotomously branched tips appeared. The clade of the species on Nothofagus split from the northern hemisphere species about 20-10 million years ago (Ma) in the Miocene Epoch, and host-shift from trees to herbs also might have occurred in this period. PMID:26240302

  18. A Human Deciduous Tooth and New 40Ar/39Ar Dating Results from the Middle Pleistocene Archaeological Site of Isernia La Pineta, Southern Italy

    PubMed Central

    Peretto, Carlo; Arnaud, Julie; Moggi-Cecchi, Jacopo; Manzi, Giorgio; Nomade, Sébastien; Pereira, Alison; Falguères, Christophe; Bahain, Jean-Jacques; Grimaud-Hervé, Dominique; Berto, Claudio; Sala, Benedetto; Lembo, Giuseppe; Muttillo, Brunella; Gallotti, Rosalia; Thun Hohenstein, Ursula; Vaccaro, Carmela; Coltorti, Mauro; Arzarello, Marta

    2015-01-01

    Isernia La Pineta (south-central Italy, Molise) is one of the most important archaeological localities of the Middle Pleistocene in Western Europe. It is an extensive open-air site with abundant lithic industry and faunal remains distributed across four stratified archaeosurfaces that have been found in two sectors of the excavation (3c, 3a, 3s10 in sect. I; 3a in sect. II). The prehistoric attendance was close to a wet environment, with a series of small waterfalls and lakes associated to calcareous tufa deposits. An isolated human deciduous incisor (labelled IS42) was discovered in 2014 within the archaeological level 3 coll (overlying layer 3a) that, according to new 40Ar/39Ar measurements, is dated to about 583–561 ka, i.e. to the end of marine isotope stage (MIS) 15. Thus, the tooth is currently the oldest human fossil specimen in Italy; it is an important addition to the scanty European fossil record of the Middle Pleistocene, being associated with a lithic assemblage of local raw materials (flint and limestone) characterized by the absence of handaxes and reduction strategies primarily aimed at the production of small/medium-sized flakes. The faunal assemblage is dominated by ungulates often bearing cut marks. Combining chronology with the archaeological evidence, Isernia La Pineta exhibits a delay in the appearance of handaxes with respect to other European Palaeolithic sites of the Middle Pleistocene. Interestingly, this observation matches the persistence of archaic morphological features shown by the human calvarium from the Middle Pleistocene site of Ceprano, not far from Isernia (south-central Italy, Latium). In this perspective, our analysis is aimed to evaluate morphological features occurring in IS42. PMID:26457581

  19. Diversity patterns of selected Andean plant groups correspond to topography and habitat dynamics, not orogeny

    PubMed Central

    Mutke, Jens; Jacobs, Rana; Meyers, Katharina; Henning, Tilo; Weigend, Maximilian

    2014-01-01

    The tropical Andes are a hotspot of biodiversity, but detailed altitudinal and latitudinal distribution patterns of species are poorly understood. We compare the distribution and diversity patterns of four Andean plant groups on the basis of georeferenced specimen data: the genus Nasa (Loasaceae), the two South American sections of Ribes (sect. Parilla and sect. Andina, Grossulariaceae), and the American clade of Urtica (Urticaceae). In the tropical Andes, these often grow together, especially in (naturally or anthropogenically) disturbed or secondary vegetation at middle to upper elevations. The climatic niches of the tropical groups studied here are relatively similar in temperature and temperature seasonality, but do differ in moisture seasonality. The Amotape–Huancabamba Zone (AHZ) between 3 and 8° S shows a clear diversity peak of overall species richness as well as for narrowly endemic species across the groups studied. For Nasa, we also show a particular diversity of growth forms in the AHZ. This can be interpreted as proxy for a high diversity of ecological niches based on high spatial habitat heterogeneity in this zone. Latitudinal ranges are generally larger toward the margins of overall range of the group. Species number and number of endemic species of our taxa peak at elevations of 2,500–3,500 m in the tropical Andes. Altitudinal diversity patterns correspond well with the altitudinal distribution of slope inclination. We hypothesize that the likelihood and frequency of landslides at steeper slopes translate into temporal habitat heterogeneity. The frequency of landslides may be causally connected to diversification especially for the numerous early colonizing taxa, such as Urtica and annual species of Nasa. In contrast to earlier hypotheses, uplift history is not reflected in the pattern here retrieved, since the AHZ is the area of the most recent Andean uplift. Similarly, a barrier effect of the low-lying Huancabamba depression is not retrieved

  20. Ethical issues in human reproduction: Islamic perspectives.

    PubMed

    Serour, G I

    2013-11-01

    Sexual and reproductive rights of women are essential components of human rights. They should never be transferred, renounced or denied for any reason based on race, religion, origin, political opinion or economic conditions. Women have the right to the highest attainable standard of health care for all aspects of their reproductive and sexual health (RSH). The principle of autonomy emphasizes the important role of women in the decision-making. Choices of women in reproduction, after providing evidence based information, should be respected. Risks, benefits and alternatives should be clearly explained before they make their free informed consent. Justice requires that all be treated with equal standard and have equal access to their health needs without discrimination or coercion. When resources are limited there is tension between the principle of justice and utility. Islamic perspectives of bioethics are influenced by primary Sharia namely the Holy Quran, authenticated traditions and saying of the Profit Mohamed (PBUH), Igmaa and Kias (analogy). All the contemporary ethical principles are emphasized in Islamic Shariaa, thus these principles should be observed when providing reproductive and sexual health services for Muslim families or communities. The Family is the basic unit in Islam. Safe motherhood, family planning, and quality reproductive and sexual health information and services and assisted reproductive technology are all encouraged within the frame of marriage. While the Shiaa sect permits egg donation, and surrogacy the Sunni sect forbids a third party contribution to reproduction. Harmful practices in RSH as FGM, child marriage and adolescent pregnancy are prohibited in Islam. Conscientious objection to treatment should not refrain the physician from appropriate referral. PMID:24004295

  1. The Crystallography of Quasicrystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rabson, David Alan

    A century ago, E. S. Fedorov, A. Schonflies, and W. Barlow, working independently, classified the 230 distinct symmetry groups of objects repeated periodically in three-dimensional space. The 230 space groups determine the symmetries of macroscopic properties and provide crystallographers with their most important tool in deducing structure; as such, they find use in biology, organic chemistry, and virology as well as in physics, geology, and materials science. With the discovery in 1984 of quasicrystals, well-ordered but aperiodic metallic alloys with crystallographically forbidden rotational symmetries, the need arose to develop a space-group theory for these new materials. Based on the work by Rokhsar, Wright, and Mermin^1 in two dimensions, Rabson, Mermin, Rokhsar, and Wright have classified all quasicrystal and crystal three -dimensional axial space groups.^2 Our classification, proceeding in reciprocal space, is elementary, does not rely on projecting higher-dimensional crystallographic space groups, and is valid for arbitrary rotational symmetry. As an additional illustration of quasicrystallographic space groups, I derive and demonstrate algorithms that produce two-dimensional tilings of rhombi with each of the possible plane-group symmetries.^3 While the analogous task for crystallographic plane groups is trivial, the lack of translational symmetry in a quasicrystal tiling makes these constructions interesting. Since the symmetry of a quasicrystal appears more naturally in reciprocal than in direct space, it is not surprising that some of the resulting tilings seem intricate, although in fact their symmetries are quite simple. ftn^1 Acta Cryst. A44, 197-211 (1988). ^2 "The Space Groups of Axial Crystals and Quasicrystals," preprint. ^3See also Rabson, Ho, and Mermin, Acta Cryst. A44, 678 (1988) and Acta Cryst. A45, 538 (1989).

  2. Nanoscale Structure at Mineral-Fluid Interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sturchio, N. C.; Sturchio, N. C.; Fenter, P.; Cheng, L.; Park, C.; Zhang, Z.; Zhang, Z.; Nagy, K. L.; Schlegel, M. L.

    2001-12-01

    The nature of nanoparticles and their role in the natural environment is currently a subject of renewed interest. The high surface area (and surface area-to-volume ratio) of nanoparticles exerts a widespread influence on geochemical reactions and transport processes. A thorough understanding of the nanoscale world remains largely hypothetical, however, because of the challenges associated with characterizing nanoscale structures and processes. Recent insights gained from high-resolution synchrotron x-ray reflectivity measurements at the solid-fluid interfaces of macroscopic (i.e., mm-scale) mineral particles may provide relevant guidelines for expected nanoparticle surface structures. For example, at calcite-water and barite-water interfaces, undercoordinated surface cations bond with water species of variable protonation, and modest relaxations (to several hundredths of a nanometer) affect the outermost unit cells [1,2]. Undercoordinated tetrahedral ions at aluminosilicate surfaces also bond with water species, whereas interstitial or interlayer alkali or alkaline earth ions at the surface may readily exchange with hydronium or other ions; modest relaxations also affect the outermost unit cells [3,4]. Modulation of liquid water structure out to about one nanometer has been observed at the (001) cleavage surface of muscovite in deionized water, and may be present at other mineral-fluid interfaces [4]. Dissolution mechanisms at the orthoclase-water interface have been clarified by combining x-ray reflectivity and scanning force microscopy measurements [5]. Further progress in understanding nanoscale structures and processes at macroscopic mineral-water interfaces is likely to benefit nanoparticle studies. [1] Fenter et al. (2000) Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 64, 1221-1228. [2] Fenter et al. (2001) J. Phys. Chem. B 105(34), 8112-8119. [3] Fenter et al. (2000) Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 64, 3663-3673. [4] Cheng et al. (2001) Phys. Rev. Lett., (in press). [5] Teng et al

  3. Nemaline myopathy caused by mutations in the muscle alpha-skeletal-actin gene.

    PubMed

    Ilkovski, B; Cooper, S T; Nowak, K; Ryan, M M; Yang, N; Schnell, C; Durling, H J; Roddick, L G; Wilkinson, I; Kornberg, A J; Collins, K J; Wallace, G; Gunning, P; Hardeman, E C; Laing, N G; North, K N

    2001-06-01

    Nemaline myopathy (NM) is a clinically and genetically heterogeneous disorder characterized by muscle weakness and the presence of nemaline bodies (rods) in skeletal muscle. Disease-causing mutations have been reported in five genes, each encoding a protein component of the sarcomeric thin filament. Recently, we identified mutations in the muscle alpha-skeletal-actin gene (ACTA1) in a subset of patients with NM. In the present study, we evaluated a new series of 35 patients with NM. We identified five novel missense mutations in ACTA1, which suggested that mutations in muscle alpha-skeletal actin account for the disease in approximately 15% of patients with NM. The mutations appeared de novo and represent new dominant mutations. One proband subsequently had two affected children, a result consistent with autosomal dominant transmission. The seven patients exhibited marked clinical variability, ranging from severe congenital-onset weakness, with death from respiratory failure during the 1st year of life, to a mild childhood-onset myopathy, with survival into adulthood. There was marked variation in both age at onset and clinical severity in the three affected members of one family. Common pathological features included abnormal fiber type differentiation, glycogen accumulation, myofibrillar disruption, and "whorling" of actin thin filaments. The percentage of fibers with rods did not correlate with clinical severity; however, the severe, lethal phenotype was associated with both severe, generalized disorganization of sarcomeric structure and abnormal localization of sarcomeric actin. The marked variability, in clinical phenotype, among patients with different mutations in ACTA1 suggests that both the site of the mutation and the nature of the amino acid change have differential effects on thin-filament formation and protein-protein interactions. The intrafamilial variability suggests that alpha-actin genotype is not the sole determinant of phenotype. PMID:11333380

  4. Myc Potentiates Apoptosis by Stimulating Bax Activity at the Mitochondria†

    PubMed Central

    Soucie, Erinn L.; Annis, Matthew G.; Sedivy, John; Filmus, Jorge; Leber, Brian; Andrews, David W.; Penn, Linda Z.

    2001-01-01

    The ability of the c-Myc oncoprotein to potentiate apoptosis has been well documented; however, the mechanism of action remains ill defined. We have previously identified spatially distinct apoptotic pathways within the same cell that are differentially inhibited by Bcl-2 targeted to either the mitochondria (Bcl-acta) or the endoplasmic reticulum (Bcl-cb5). We show here that in Rat1 cells expressing an exogenous c-myc allele, distinct apoptotic pathways can be inhibited by Bcl-2 or Bcl-acta yet be distinguished by their sensitivity to Bcl-cb5 as either susceptible (serum withdrawal, taxol, and ceramide) or refractory (etoposide and doxorubicin). Myc expression and apoptosis were universally associated with Bcl-acta and not Bcl-cb5, suggesting that Myc acts downstream at a point common to these distinct apoptotic signaling cascades. Analysis of Rat1 c-myc null cells shows these same death stimuli induce apoptosis with characteristic features of nuclear condensation, membrane blebbing, poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase cleavage, and DNA fragmentation; however, this Myc-independent apoptosis is not inhibited by Bcl-2. During apoptosis, Bax translocation to the mitochondria occurs in the presence or absence of Myc expression. Moreover, Bax mRNA and protein expression remain unchanged in the presence or absence of Myc. However, in the absence of Myc, Bax is not activated and cytochrome c is not released into the cytoplasm. Reintroduction of Myc into the c-myc null cells restores Bax activation, cytochrome c release, and inhibition of apoptosis by Bcl-2. These results demonstrate a role for Myc in the regulation of Bax activation during apoptosis. Moreover, apoptosis that can be triggered in the absence of Myc provides evidence that signaling pathways exist which circumvent Bax activation and cytochrome c release to trigger caspase activation. Thus, Myc increases the cellular competence to die by enhancing disparate apoptotic signals at a common mitochondrial amplification

  5. An examination of the regulatory mechanism of Pxdn mutation-induced eye disorders using microarray analysis

    PubMed Central

    YANG, YANG; XING, YIQIAO; LIANG, CHAOQUN; HU, LIYA; XU, FEI; MEI, QI

    2016-01-01

    The present study aimed to identify biomarkers for peroxidasin (Pxdn) mutation-induced eye disorders and study the underlying mechanisms involved in this process. The microarray dataset GSE49704 was used, which encompasses 4 mouse samples from embryos with Pxdn mutation and 4 samples from normal tissues. After data preprocessing, the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between Pxdn mutation and normal tissues were identified using the t-test in the limma package, followed by functional enrichment analysis. The protein-protein interaction (PPI) network was constructed based on the STRING database, and the transcriptional regulatory (TR) network was established using the GeneCodis database. Subsequently, the overlapping DEGs with high degrees in two networks were identified, as well as the sub-network extracted from the TR network. In total, 121 (75 upregulated and 46 downregulated) DEGs were identified, and these DEGs play important roles in biological processes (BPs), including neuron development and differentiation. A PPI network containing 25 nodes such as actin, alpha 1, skeletal muscle (Acta1) and troponin C type 2 (fast) (Tnnc2), and a TR network including 120 nodes were built. By comparing the two networks, seven crucial genes which overlapped were identified, including cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1B (Cdkn1b), Acta1 and troponin T type 3 (Tnnt3). In the sub-network, Cdkn1b was predicted as the target of miRNAs such as mmu-miR-24 and transcription factors (TFs) including forkhead box O4 (FOXO4) and activating enhancer binding protein 4 (AP4). Thus, we suggest that seven crucial genes, including Cdkn1b, Acta1 and Tnnt3, play important roles in the progression of eye disorders such as glaucoma. We suggest that Cdkn1b exert its effects via the inhibition of proliferation and is mediated by mmu-miR-24 and targeted by the TFs FOXO4 and AP4. PMID:27121343

  6. Meta-analysis as Statistical and Analytical Method of Journal’s Content Scientific Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Masic, Izet; Begic, Edin

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: A meta-analysis is a statistical and analytical method which combines and synthesizes different independent studies and integrates their results into one common result. Goal: Analysis of the journals “Medical Archives”, “Materia Socio Medica” and “Acta Informatica Medica”, which are located in the most eminent indexed databases of the biomedical milieu. Material and methods: The study has retrospective and descriptive character, and included the period of the calendar year 2014. Study included six editions of all three journals (total of 18 journals). Results: In this period was published a total of 291 articles (in the “Medical Archives” 110, “Materia Socio Medica” 97, and in “Acta Informatica Medica” 84). The largest number of articles was original articles. Small numbers have been published as professional, review articles and case reports. Clinical events were most common in the first two journals, while in the journal “Acta Informatica Medica” belonged to the field of medical informatics, as part of pre-clinical medical disciplines. Articles are usually required period of fifty to fifty nine days for review. Articles were received from four continents, mostly from Europe. The authors are most often from the territory of Bosnia and Herzegovina, then Iran, Kosovo and Macedonia. Conclusion: The number of articles published each year is increasing, with greater participation of authors from different continents and abroad. Clinical medical disciplines are the most common, with the broader spectrum of topics and with a growing number of original articles. Greater support of the wider scientific community is needed for further development of all three of the aforementioned journals. PMID:25870484

  7. Potential Role of Glycogen Synthase Kinase-3β in Regulation of Myocardin Activity in Human Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yi-Xia; Shi, Zhan; Singh, Pavneet; Yin, Hao; Yu, Yan-Ni; Li, Long; Walsh, Michael P; Gui, Yu; Zheng, Xi-Long

    2016-02-01

    Glycogen synthase kinase (GSK)-3β, a serine/threonine kinase with an inhibitory role in glycogen synthesis in hepatocytes and skeletal muscle, is also expressed in cardiac and smooth muscles. Inhibition of GSK-3β results in cardiac hypertrophy through reducing phosphorylation and increasing transcriptional activity of myocardin, a transcriptional co-activator for serum response factor. Myocardin plays critical roles in differentiation of smooth muscle cells (SMCs). This study, therefore, aimed to examine whether and how inhibition of GSK-3β regulates myocardin activity in human vascular SMCs. Treatment of SMCs with the GSK-3β inhibitors AR-A014418 and TWS 119 significantly reduced endogenous myocardin activity, as indicated by lower expression of myocardin target genes (and gene products), CNN1 (calponin), TAGLN1 (SM22), and ACTA2 (SM α-actin). In human SMCs overexpressing myocardin through the T-REx system, treatment with either GSK-3β inhibitor also inhibited the expression of CNN1, TAGLN1, and ACTA2. These effects of GSK-3β inhibitors were mimicked by transfection with GSK-3β siRNA. Notably, both AR-A014418 and TWS 119 decreased the serine/threonine phosphorylation of myocardin. The chromatin immunoprecipitation assay showed that AR-A014418 treatment reduced myocardin occupancy of the promoter of the myocardin target gene ACTA2. Overexpression of a dominant-negative GSK-3β mutant in myocardin-overexpressing SMCs reduced the expression of calponin, SM22, and SM α-actin. As expected, overexpression of constitutively active or wild-type GSK-3β in SMCs without myocardin overexpression increased expression of these proteins. In summary, our results indicate that inhibition of GSK-3β reduces myocardin transcriptional activity, suggesting a role for GSK-3β in myocardin transcriptional activity and smooth muscle differentiation. PMID:26129946

  8. Autocrine production of TGF-β1 promotes myofibroblastic differentiation of neonatal lung mesenchymal stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Popova, Antonia P.; Bozyk, Paul D.; Goldsmith, Adam M.; Linn, Marisa J.; Lei, Jing; Bentley, J. Kelley

    2010-01-01

    We have isolated mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) from tracheal aspirates of premature infants with respiratory distress. We examined the capacity of MSCs to differentiate into myofibroblasts, cells that participate in lung development, injury, and repair. Gene expression was measured by array, qPCR, immunoblot, and immunocytochemistry. Unstimulated MSCs expressed mRNAs encoding contractile (e.g., ACTA2, TAGLN), extracellular matrix (COL1A1 and ELN), and actin-binding (DBN1, PXN) proteins, consistent with a myofibroblast phenotype, although there was little translation into immunoreactive protein. Incubation in serum-free medium increased contractile protein (ACTA2, MYH11) gene expression. MSC-conditioned medium showed substantial levels of TGF-β1, and treatment of serum-deprived cells with a type I activin receptor-like kinase inhibitor, SB-431542, attenuated the expression of genes encoding contractile and extracellular matrix proteins. Treatment of MSCs with TGF-β1 further induced the expression of mRNAs encoding contractile (ACTA2, MYH11, TAGLN, DES) and extracellular matrix proteins (FN1, ELN, COL1A1, COL1A2), and increased the protein expression of α-smooth muscle actin, myosin heavy chain, and SM22. In contrast, human bone marrow-derived MSCs failed to undergo TGF-β1-induced myofibroblastic differentiation. Finally, primary cells from tracheal aspirates behaved in an identical manner as later passage cells. We conclude that human neonatal lung MSCs demonstrate an mRNA expression pattern characteristic of myofibroblast progenitor cells. Autocrine production of TGF-β1 further drives myofibroblastic differentiation, suggesting that, in the absence of other signals, fibrosis represents the “default program” for neonatal lung MSC gene expression. These data are consistent with the notion that MSCs play a key role in neonatal lung injury and repair. PMID:20190033

  9. Density- and wavefunction-normalized Cartesian spherical harmonics for l ≤ 20.

    PubMed

    Michael, J Robert; Volkov, Anatoliy

    2015-03-01

    The widely used pseudoatom formalism [Stewart (1976). Acta Cryst. A32, 565-574; Hansen & Coppens (1978). Acta Cryst. A34, 909-921] in experimental X-ray charge-density studies makes use of real spherical harmonics when describing the angular component of aspherical deformations of the atomic electron density in molecules and crystals. The analytical form of the density-normalized Cartesian spherical harmonic functions for up to l ≤ 7 and the corresponding normalization coefficients were reported previously by Paturle & Coppens [Acta Cryst. (1988), A44, 6-7]. It was shown that the analytical form for normalization coefficients is available primarily for l ≤ 4 [Hansen & Coppens, 1978; Paturle & Coppens, 1988; Coppens (1992). International Tables for Crystallography, Vol. B, Reciprocal space, 1st ed., edited by U. Shmueli, ch. 1.2. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers; Coppens (1997). X-ray Charge Densities and Chemical Bonding. New York: Oxford University Press]. Only in very special cases it is possible to derive an analytical representation of the normalization coefficients for 4 < l ≤ 7 (Paturle & Coppens, 1988). In most cases for l > 4 the density normalization coefficients were calculated numerically to within seven significant figures. In this study we review the literature on the density-normalized spherical harmonics, clarify the existing notations, use the Paturle-Coppens (Paturle & Coppens, 1988) method in the Wolfram Mathematica software to derive the Cartesian spherical harmonics for l ≤ 20 and determine the density normalization coefficients to 35 significant figures, and computer-generate a Fortran90 code. The article primarily targets researchers who work in the field of experimental X-ray electron density, but may be of some use to all who are interested in Cartesian spherical harmonics. PMID:25727874

  10. [Development of integrated traditional Chinese and western medicine and change of medical policy in China].

    PubMed

    Shin, S S

    1999-01-01

    "Sect of Integration of Chinese and Western Medicine" came into the world four hundred years ago when Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) contacted Western Medicine (WM) at the beginning of the 17th century. It collected historical experiences showing that the cooperation of TCM and WM is more efficient for the cure and prevention of disease than each of them separately. Now the recognition that the cooperation of eastern and western medicine is more efficient to cure disease is spreading widely. This study will help Korean eastern and western medicine to find their directions. First, the concept of "sect of Integration of Chinese and Western Medicine" which was established between the beginning of the 17th century and the middle of the 20th century, and Integration of Traditional Chinese and Western Medicine (ITCWM) which was formed after the middle of the 20th century will be discussed. The relationship of "sect of Integration of Chinese and Western Medicine" and ITCWM and political consideration for the establishment of ITCWM will also be discussed. Finally, the current status of ITCWM in China will be discussed. New trends of thought appeared in Chinese medicine, owing to the cultural background of modern China, the development of WM, and the academic background of the intellectual class. "Sect of Integration of Chinese and Western Medicine" and ITCWM are different in historical and social background. However, purpose, foundation of thoughts and logical idea are fundamentally the same. It can be said that "sect of Integration of Chinese and Western Medicine" provided academic mood to open the way for ITCWM and ITCWM is a succession of "sect of Integration of Chinese and Western Medicine". The concept of ITCWM has many ways of explanation. However, it can be said to build up the foundation of new medical area including Chinese special way of medical treatment and new methods of modern medicine, succeeding a legacy of TCM. ITCWM began before the establishment of

  11. A monoclinic form of dendocarbin A: a borderline case of one-dimensional isostructural polymorphism.

    PubMed

    Paz, Cristian; Burgos, Viviana; Suarez, Sebastián; Baggio, Ricardo

    2015-04-01

    The title compound, dendocarbin A [systematic name: (1R,5aS,9aS,9bR)-1-hydroxy-6,6,9a-trimethyldodecahydronaphtho[1,2-c]furan-3-one], C15H22O3, is a sesquiterpene lactone isolated from Drimys winteri var chilensis. The monoclinic phase described herein displays an identical molecular structure to the orthorhombic phase that we reported previously [Paz Robles et al. (2014). Acta Cryst. C70, 1007-1010], while varying significantly in chain pitch, and can thus be considered as a borderline case of one-dimensional isostructural polymorphism. PMID:25836288

  12. Second-order Optimality Conditions for Optimal Control of the Primitive Equations of the Ocean with Periodic Inputs

    SciTech Connect

    Tachim Medjo, T.

    2011-02-15

    We investigate in this article the Pontryagin's maximum principle for control problem associated with the primitive equations (PEs) of the ocean with periodic inputs. We also derive a second-order sufficient condition for optimality. This work is closely related to Wang (SIAM J. Control Optim. 41(2):583-606, 2002) and He (Acta Math. Sci. Ser. B Engl. Ed. 26(4):729-734, 2006), in which the authors proved similar results for the three-dimensional Navier-Stokes (NS) systems.

  13. Discovery of a meta-stable Al–Sm phase with unknown stoichiometry using a genetic algorithm

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Feng; McBrearty, Ian; Ott, R T; Park, E; Mendelev, Mikhail I; Kramer, M J; Wang, Cai-Zhuang; Ho, Kai-Ming

    2014-06-01

    Unknown crystalline phases observed during the devitrification process of glassy metal alloys significantly limit our ability to understand and control phase selection in these systems driven far from equilibrium. Here, we report a new meta-stable Al5Sm phase identified by simultaneously searching Al-rich compositions of the Al-Sm system, using an efficient genetic algorithm. The excellent match between calculated and experimental X-ray diffraction patterns confirms that this new phase appeared in the crystallization of melt-spun Al90Sm10 alloys. Published by Elsevier Ltd. on behalf of Acta Materialia Inc.

  14. The Local Orthogonality Between Quantum States and Entanglement Decomposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Sunho; Wu, Junde; Zhang, Lin; Cho, Minhyung

    2016-06-01

    In the paper, we show that when a quantum state can be decomposed as a convex combination of locally orthogonal mixed states, its entanglement can be decomposed into the entanglement of these mixed states without losing them. The obtained result generalizes a corresponding one proved by Horodecki (Acta Phys. Slov. 48, 141 1998). But, for the entanglement cost it requires certain conditions for holding the decomposition, and the distillable entanglement only has a week result as inequality. Finally, we presented an example to show that the conditions of our conclusions are existence.

  15. (E)-Ethyl 3-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)prop-2-enoate: a natural polymorph extracted from Aristotelia chilensis (Maqui).

    PubMed

    Paz, Cristian; Moreno, Yanko; Becerra, José; Silva, Mario; Burgos, Viviana; Freire, Eleonora; Baggio, Ricardo

    2013-07-01

    The natural title compound, C11H12O4, extracted from the Chilean native tree Aristotelia chilensis (Maqui), is a polymorph of the synthetic E form reported by Xia, Hu & Rao [Acta Cryst. (2004), E60, o913-o914]. Both rotational conformers are identical from a metrical point of view, and only differ in the orientation of the 3,4-dihydroxyphenyl ring with respect to the rest of the molecule, which leads to completely different crystal structure arrangements and packing efficiencies. The reasons behind both reside in the different hydrogen-bonding interactions. PMID:23832039

  16. On the effective ionic radii for ammonium.

    PubMed

    Sidey, Vasyl

    2016-08-01

    A set of effective ionic radii corresponding to different coordination numbers (CNs) and compatible with the radii system by Shannon [Acta Cryst. (1976), A32, 751-767] has been derived for ammonium: 1.40 Å (CN = IV), 1.48 Å (CN = VI), 1.54 Å (CN = VIII) and 1.67 Å (CN = XII). The bond-valence parameters r0 = 2.3433 Å and B = 0.262 Å have been determined for ammonium-fluorine bonds. PMID:27484382

  17. The application of eigensymmetries of face forms to X-ray diffraction intensities of crystals twinned by `reticular merohedry'

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klapper, H.; Hahn, Th

    2012-01-01

    Crystallographic face forms {hkl} are interpreted as sets of symmetry-equivalent X-ray reflections. Extending an earlier paper on twinning by merohedry [ [Sigma] = 1, Klapper & Hahn (2010). Acta Cryst. A66, 327-346], the eigensymmetry of these forms is used to derive general relations between the diffraction intensities of overlapping twin-related reflections. The following twins by reticular merohedry are treated: [Sigma] 3 twins of rhombohedral and cubic, [Sigma] 5 twins of tetragonal and [Sigma] 7 twins of hexagonal crystals.

  18. Aortic Aneurysm: Etiopathogenesis and Clinicopathologic Correlations

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Aortic aneurysm (AA) is one of the life-threatening aortic diseases, leading to aortic rupture of any cause including atherosclerotic and non-atherosclerotic diseases. AA is diagnosed in a variable proportion of patients with dilated aorta by imaging modality. The etiopathogenesis of AA remains unclear in many aortic diseases. Furthermore, although it may be difficult to explain all phenotypes of patients even if genetic mutation could be identified in some proteins such as smooth muscle cell α-actin (ACTA2), myosin heavy chain 11 (MYH11) or SMAD3, individualized consideration of these factors in each patient is essential on the basis of clinicopathological characteristics. PMID:27375798

  19. Comparison of beetroot extracts originating from several sites using time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rabasović, M. S.; Šević, D.; Terzić, M.; Marinković, B. P.

    2012-05-01

    Beetroot (Beta vulgaris) juice contains a large number of fluorophores which can fluoresce. There is a growing interest in beetroot extracts analysis. In contrast, there is only limited information about beetroot obtained without sample preparation and/or extraction of components from the sample. In this work, we continue our previous study (Rabasović et al 2009 Acta Phys. Pol. A 116 570-2), analyzing and comparing beetroot extracts from several sites, using the time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence technique to measure the fluorescence of samples at different excitation wavelengths (340-470 nm) and for different sample dilutions.

  20. GENERAL: Efficient quantum secure communication with a publicly known key

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Chun-Yan; Li, Xi-Han; Deng, Fu-Guo; Zhou, Hong-Yu

    2008-07-01

    This paper presents a simple way for an eavesdropper to eavesdrop freely the secret message in the experimental realization of quantum communication protocol proposed by Beige et al (2002 Acta Phys. Pol. A 101 357). Moreover, it introduces an efficient quantum secure communication protocol based on a publicly known key with decoy photons and two biased bases by modifying the original protocol. The total efficiency of this new protocol is double that of the original one. With a low noise quantum channel, this protocol can be used for transmitting a secret message. At present, this protocol is good for generating a private key efficiently.

  1. The analysis of protein conformation by infrared spectroscopy: An introduction of the editor to a scientific dispute

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mäntele, Werner

    2015-03-01

    Spectrochimica Acta A is open for a vivid exchange among scientists and fosters the open discussion of published papers. This may proceed in the form of a "Comment on a published paper", submitted to our journal as a short communication. Typically, this comment will be sent to the authors of the original article to give them a chance for rebuttal in a "Reply to Comment". Both the Comment and the Reply will be published together in one issue after review by experts. In the interest of a fair discussion, both contributions will eventually have to undergo some editing before publication can be made.

  2. A Multiparty Controlled Bidirectional Quantum Secure Direct Communication and Authentication Protocol Based on EPR Pairs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Yan; Zhang, Shi-Bin; Yan, Li-Li; Sheng, Zhi-Wei

    2013-06-01

    A multiparty controlled bidirectional quantum secure direct communication and authentication protocol is proposed based on EPR pair and entanglement swapping. The legitimate identities of communicating parties are encoded to Bell states which act as a detection sequence. Secret messages are transmitted by using the classical XOR operation, which serves as a one-time-pad. No photon with secret information transmits in the quantum channel. Compared with the protocols proposed by Wang et al. [Acta Phys. Sin. 56 (2007) 673; Opt. Commun. 266 (2006) 732], the protocol in this study implements bidirectional communication and authentication, which defends most attacks including the ‘man-in-the-middle’ attack efficiently.

  3. Critical analysis and extension of the Hirshfeld atoms in molecules.

    PubMed

    Bultinck, Patrick; Van Alsenoy, Christian; Ayers, Paul W; Carbó-Dorca, Ramon

    2007-04-14

    The computational approach to the Hirshfeld [Theor. Chim. Acta 44, 129 (1977)] atom in a molecule is critically investigated, and several difficulties are highlighted. It is shown that these difficulties are mitigated by an alternative, iterative version, of the Hirshfeld partitioning procedure. The iterative scheme ensures that the Hirshfeld definition represents a mathematically proper information entropy, allows the Hirshfeld approach to be used for charged molecules, eliminates arbitrariness in the choice of the promolecule, and increases the magnitudes of the charges. The resulting "Hirshfeld-I charges" correlate well with electrostatic potential derived atomic charges. PMID:17444705

  4. Critical analysis and extension of the Hirshfeld atoms in molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bultinck, Patrick; Van Alsenoy, Christian; Ayers, Paul W.; Carbó-Dorca, Ramon

    2007-04-01

    The computational approach to the Hirshfeld [Theor. Chim. Acta 44, 129 (1977)] atom in a molecule is critically investigated, and several difficulties are highlighted. It is shown that these difficulties are mitigated by an alternative, iterative version, of the Hirshfeld partitioning procedure. The iterative scheme ensures that the Hirshfeld definition represents a mathematically proper information entropy, allows the Hirshfeld approach to be used for charged molecules, eliminates arbitrariness in the choice of the promolecule, and increases the magnitudes of the charges. The resulting "Hirshfeld-I charges" correlate well with electrostatic potential derived atomic charges.

  5. Reinvestigation of growth of urea thiosemicarbazone monohydrate crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srinivasan, Bikshandarkoil R.; Raghavaiah, Pallepogu; Nadkarni, V. S.

    2013-08-01

    The reaction of urea with thiosemicarbazide in 1:1 mole ratio in aqueous solution does not result in the formation of urea thiosemicarbazone monohydrate crystal, as reported by Hanumantharao, Kalainathan and Bhagavannarayana [Spectrochim. Acta A91 (2012) 345-351]. A reinvestigation of the reported reaction reveals that the crystal obtained is the starting material namely thiosemicarbazide, which has been unambiguously confirmed with the aid of infrared and 1H NMR spectra and single crystal X-ray structure determination. Analysis of 1H NMR spectrum reveals that thiosemicarbazide exhibits thione-thiol tautomerism in solution. In contrast, thiosemicarbazide exists as the thione tautomer in the solid state.

  6. Crystal structure of benzene-1,3,5-tri-carb-oxy-lic acid-4-pyridone (1/3).

    PubMed

    Staun, Selena L; Oliver, Allen G

    2015-11-01

    Slow co-crystallization of a solution of benzene-1,3,5-tri-carb-oxy-lic acid with a large excess of 4-hy-droxy-pyridine produces an inter-penetrating, three-dimensional, hydrogen-bonded framework consisting of three 4-pyridone and one benzene-1,3,5-tri-carb-oxy-lic acid mol-ecules, C9H6O6·3C5H5NO. This structure represents an ortho-rhom-bic polymorph of the previously reported C-centered, monoclinic structure [Campos-Gaxiola et al. (2014 ▸). Acta Cryst. E70, o453-o454]. PMID:26594492

  7. On the mathematical and geometrical structure of the determining equations for shear waves in nonlinear isotropic incompressible elastodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saccomandi, Giuseppe; Vitolo, Raffaele

    2014-08-01

    Using the theory of 1 + 1 hyperbolic systems we put in perspective the mathematical and geometrical structure of the celebrated circularly polarized waves solutions for isotropic hyperelastic materials determined by Carroll [Acta Mechanica 3, 167-181 (1967)]. We show that a natural generalization of this class of solutions yields an infinite family of linear solutions for the equations of isotropic elastodynamics. Moreover, we determine a huge class of hyperbolic partial differential equations having the same property of the shear wave system. Restricting the attention to the usual first order asymptotic approximation of the equations determining transverse waves we provide the complete integration of this system using generalized symmetries.

  8. Redetermination of tetra­kis(N,N-diethyl­dithio­carbamato)tin(IV)

    PubMed Central

    Okio, Coco K. Y. A.; Speziali, Nivaldo L.

    2009-01-01

    The crystal structure of the title compound, [Sn(C5H10NS2)4], was originally determined by Harreld & Schlemper [Acta Cryst. (1971), B27, 1964–1969] using intensity data estimated from Weissenberg films. In comparison with the previous refinement, the current redetermination reveals anisotropic displacement parameters for all non-H atoms, localization of the H atoms, and higher precision of lattice parameters and inter­atomic distances. The complex features a distorted S6 octa­hedral coordination geometry for tin and a cis disposition of the monodentate dithio­carbamate ligands. PMID:21583036

  9. Use of an alumina column in estimating total iron-binding capacity.

    PubMed

    Starr, R T

    1980-01-01

    I describe a simple, rapid technique for saturating the transferrin in serum and then removing unbound (excess) iron. This technique involves use of an easily prepared column of basic chromatographic alumina and a saturating solution of ferric chloride in citric acid. This method, when compared with the magnesium carbonate method of Ramsay (Clin. Chim. Acta 2: 221, 1957) by regression analysis and tests of precision, showed a negative bias for results by the alumina technique with respect to the magnesium carbonate method. PMID:7356553

  10. RbZnFe(PO4)2: synthesis and crystal structure

    PubMed Central

    Badri, Abdessalem; Ben Amara, Mongi

    2016-01-01

    A new iron phosphate, rubidium zinc iron(III) phosphate, RbZnFe(PO4)2, has been synthesized as single crystals by the flux method. This compound is isostructural to the previously reported KCoAl(PO4)2 [Chen et al. (1997 ▸). Acta Cryst. C53,1754–1756]. Its structure consists of a three-dimensional framework built up from corner-sharing PO4 and (Zn,Fe)O4 tetra­hedra. This mode of linkage forms channels parallel to the [100], [010] and [001] directions in which the Rb+ ions are located. PMID:27536385

  11. Reaustenitization in Fe-C steels revisited

    SciTech Connect

    Mancini, R.; Budde, C.

    1999-08-10

    A finite difference method used in order to model the reaustenitization from a ferrite/cementite mixture in Fe-C steels is presented in this paper. The numerical results obtained are compared with the exact solution of the diffusion equion that describes the process for the planar geometry. The agreement between both methods is excellent in a large range of temperatures. Incidentally, the authors consider worth noting that the second moment of mass condition used by Akbay et al. [Acta Metallurgica et Materialia 47, 1649 (1994)] does not seem to be necessary in the framework of the numerical method. Finally, they compare their results with available experimental values finding good agreement.

  12. Comment on "Density functional theory studies on molecular structure, vibrational spectra and electronic properties of cyanuric acid".

    PubMed

    Reva, Igor

    2015-12-01

    In a recently published paper [Spectrochim. Acta A: Mol. Biomol. Spect. 138 (2015) 711-722], Prabhaharan, Prabakaran, Srinivasan, and Gunasekaran presented a combined experimental and theoretical study on molecular structure, vibrational spectra and NBO analysis of cyanuric acid, and explain their findings using the tri-hydroxy tautomeric form of the compound. In reality, the compound adopts the tri-oxo tautomeric form, which is by over 100kJmol(-1) more stable comparatively to the tri-hydroxy tautomer discussed and characterized by Prabhaharan et al. PMID:26142656

  13. Infantile hypophosphatasia without bone deformities presenting with severe pyridoxine-resistant seizures.

    PubMed

    de Roo, Marieke G A; Abeling, Nico G G M; Majoie, Charles B; Bosch, Annet M; Koelman, Johannes H T M; Cobben, Jan M; Duran, Marinus; Poll-The, Bwee Tien

    2014-03-01

    An infant carrying a heterozygous c.43_46delACTA and a heterozygous c.668 G>A mutation in the ALPL gene with hypophosphatasia in the absence of bone deformities presented with therapy-resistant seizures. Pyridoxal phosphate was extremely high in CSF and plasma. Pyridoxine treatment had only a transient effect and the severe encephalopathy was fatal. Repeated brain MRIs showed progressive cerebral damage. The precise metabolic cause of the seizures remains unknown and pyridoxine treatment apparently does not cure the epilepsy. PMID:24100244

  14. Spherical nanoindentation stress-strain curves of commercially pure titanium and Ti-6Al-4V

    DOE Data Explorer

    Weaver, Jordan S. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Priddy, Matthew W. [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States); McDowell, David L. [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States); Kalidindi, Surya R. [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    2016-07-27

    Spherical nanoindentation combined with electron back-scattered diffraction was employed to characterize the grain-scale elastic and plastic anisotropy of single crystal alpha-Ti for commercially pure (CP-Ti) and alloyed (Ti-64) titanium. In addition, alpha-beta Ti (single colony) grains were characterized. The data set includes the nanoindentation force, displacement, and contact stiffness, the nanoindentation stress-strain analysis, and the alpha-Ti crystal orientations. Details of the samples and experimental protocols can be found in Weaver et al. (2016) Acta Materialia doi:10.1016/j.actamat.2016.06.053.

  15. Statistical thermodynamics of strain hardening in polycrystalline solids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langer, J. S.

    2015-09-01

    This paper starts with a systematic rederivation of the statistical thermodynamic equations of motion for dislocation-mediated plasticity proposed in 2010 by Langer, Bouchbinder, and Lookman [Acta Mat. 58, 3718 (2010), 10.1016/j.actamat.2010.03.009]. It then uses that theory to explain the anomalous rate-hardening behavior reported in 1988 by Follansbee and Kocks and to explore the relation between hardening rate and grain size reported in 1995 by Meyers et al. A central theme is the need for physics-based, nonequilibrium analyses in developing predictive theories of the strength of polycrystalline materials.

  16. Sediment transport mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ballio, Francesco; Tait, Simon

    2012-12-01

    The Editor of Acta Geophysica and the Guest Editors wish to dedicate this Topical Issue on Sediment Transport Mechanics to the memory of Stephen Coleman, who died recently. During his career, Stephen had made an outstanding scientific contribution to the topic of Sediment Transport. The level of his contribution is demonstrated in the paper by Aberle, Coleman, and Nikora included in this issue, on which he started working before becoming aware of the illness that led to his untimely death. For scholars and colleagues Stephen remains an example of intellectual honesty and scientific insight.

  17. An amino-imino resonance study of 2-amino-4-methylpyridinium nitrate and 2-amino-5-methylpyridinium nitrate.

    PubMed

    Yan, Xing-Chen; Fan, Yu-Hua; Bi, Cai-Feng; Zhang, Xia; Zhang, Zhong-Yu

    2013-01-01

    The contributions of the amino and imino resonance forms to the ground-state structures of 2-amino-4-methylpyridinium nitrate, C(6)H(9)N(2)(+)·NO(3)(-), and the previously reported 2-amino-5-methylpyridinium nitrate [Yan, Fan, Bi, Zuo & Zhang (2012). Acta Cryst. E68, o2084], were studied using a combination of IR spectroscopy, X-ray crystallography and density functional theory (DFT). The results show that the structures of 2-amino-4-methylpyridine and 2-amino-5-methylpyridine obtained upon protonation are best described as existing largely in the imino resonance forms. PMID:23282916

  18. Structural complexity and configurational entropy of crystals.

    PubMed

    Krivovichev, Sergey V

    2016-04-01

    Using a statistical approach, it is demonstrated that the complexity of a crystal structure measured as the Shannon information per atom [Krivovichev (2012). Acta Cryst. A68, 393-398] represents a negative contribution to the configurational entropy of a crystalline solid. This conclusion is in full accordance with the general agreement that information and entropy are reciprocal variables. It also agrees well with the understanding that complex structures possess lower entropies relative to their simpler counterparts. The obtained equation is consistent with the Landauer principle and points out that the information encoded in a crystal structure has a physical nature. PMID:27048729

  19. Magmas and their sources: A special issue honoring Frederick A. Frey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia, Michael O.; Rhodes, J. Michael; Huang, Shichun; Hickey-Vargas, Rosemary

    2016-07-01

    This special issue is dedicated to Frederick A. Frey (Fig. 1), a pioneer in the use of trace element geochemistry (especially the rare-earth elements, REE) to interpret the origin and evolution of basalts and andesites, peridotites, granites, meteorites, tektites and even sediments. Fred's remarkable career spans more than 5 decades starting in 1964 with his seminal paper with advisor Larry Haskin entitled "rare earths in oceanic basalts" (Frey and Haskin, 1964). Given that Fred was an Associate Editor of Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta (GCA) for 20 years, GCA is a highly appropriate venue for this collection of twenty-seven new scientific papers in his honor.

  20. RbZnFe(PO4)2: synthesis and crystal structure.

    PubMed

    Badri, Abdessalem; Ben Amara, Mongi

    2016-08-01

    A new iron phosphate, rubidium zinc iron(III) phosphate, RbZnFe(PO4)2, has been synthesized as single crystals by the flux method. This compound is isostructural to the previously reported KCoAl(PO4)2 [Chen et al. (1997 ▸). Acta Cryst. C53,1754-1756]. Its structure consists of a three-dimensional framework built up from corner-sharing PO4 and (Zn,Fe)O4 tetra-hedra. This mode of linkage forms channels parallel to the [100], [010] and [001] directions in which the Rb(+) ions are located. PMID:27536385