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Sample records for acta informatica medica

  1. Acta Informatica Medica Is Indexed In Pubmed And Archived In Pubmed Central

    PubMed Central

    Masic, Izet

    2013-01-01

    Acta Informatica Medica journal has been accepted for archiving in PubMed Central from 2011 onward. The journal started in 1993 as the official journal of the Society for Medical Informatics of Bosnia and Herzegovina. During the last 3 years, Acta Informatica Medica has een included in almost all prestigious online databases, including PubMed, Scopus and EMBASE. The 20th volume of the journal is fully international, with papers from 18 countries. PMID:23572852

  2. Review of the Journal Acta Informatica Medica During Eight Year Period: 2008-2015

    PubMed Central

    Masic, Izet; Begic, Edin; Zunic, Lejla

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Acta Informatica Medica is official journal of the Academy for Medical Sciences of Bosnia and Herzegovina (from 2014 Acta Inform Med is published bimonthly). Aim: To evaluate journal “Acta Informatica Medica” in 2015 and compare findings to previous years. Material and methods: The study has retrospective and descriptive character, and included the period 2008-2015 (included 36 issues of journal). Results: A total of 83 (average 13,8 articles per journal) articles were published in Acta Informatica Medica during 2015. Analyzing the type of articles, original articles are present in majority during 2015 (68,6%) (by analyzing last eight years, 310 (67,3%) were original). During 2015, 27,7% of articles were related to the applied of Health informatics in field of clinical medicine, 63,8% preclinical medicine and 8,5% to public health. Collaboration rate in 2015 was 0,84. Most often the time required for decision on acceptance of article in 2015 is between 50 and 60 days. Articles came from 16 countries. According to scimagojr.com for 2014, Acta Informatica Medica has SCImago Journal Rank 0,166, while Cites / Doc. (2 years) parameter (widely used as impact index) is 0,70. According to GoogleScholar, h5 index is 11 and h5 median is 19. We analyzed the Acta Informatica Medica by “Publish or Perish” software - H index was 14, g index was 19 and e-index was 10.39. Conclusion: Year after year the highest number of original articles are published. Although the period of revision of articles is acceptable, the period up to two months is certainly not long, the goal is to reduce this period. Although the magazine in mentioned field found its place, although it is indexed in numerous bases, including: PubMed, PubMed Central, SCOPUS, EMBASE, EBSCO, etc. The main goal for next year is that the magazine becomes part of the Web of Science. Imperative is further internationalization of the magazine. PMID:27147796

  3. Twenty Years of Society of Medical Informatics of B&H and the Journal Acta Informatica Medica

    PubMed Central

    Masic, Izet

    2012-01-01

    In 2012, Health/Medical informatics profession celebrates five jubilees in Bosnia and Herzegovina: a) Thirty five years from the introduction of the first automatic manipulation of data; b) Twenty five years from establishing Society for Medical Informatics BiH; c) Twenty years from establishing scientific and professional journal of the Society for Medical Informatics of Bosnia and Herzegovina „Acta Informatica Medica“; d) Twenty years from establishing first Cathdra for Medical Informatics on biomedical faculties in Bosnia and Herzegovina and e) Ten years from the introduction of “Distance learning” in medical curriculum. All of the five mentioned activities in the area of Medical informatics had special importance and gave appropriate contribution in the development of Health/Medical informatics in Bosnia And Herzegovina. PMID:23322947

  4. Death after Taking Medicaments

    PubMed Central

    Girdwood, R. H.

    1974-01-01

    A register of reported adverse reactions, recently made available to major hospitals and medical schools gives an indication of prescribing habits under the N.H.S. in England and Wales. An analysis is made here of the chief medicaments allegedly leading to death. Such data are incomplete because of lack of knowledge of the total use of each drug in the United Kingdom and because reporting of adverse reactions is very incomplete. Nevertheless, data about various groups of drugs do draw attention to some hazards and should encourage more widespread reporting of reactions to drugs and other medicaments. PMID:4817164

  5. Natural medicaments in dentistry

    PubMed Central

    Sinha, Dakshita J.; Sinha, Ashish A.

    2014-01-01

    The major objective in root canal treatment is to disinfect the entire root canal system. Cleaning, shaping, and use of antimicrobial medicaments are effective in reducing the bacterial load to some extent, but some bacteria do remain behind and multiply, causing reinfection. Taking into consideration the ineffectiveness, potential side-effects and safety concerns of synthetic drugs, the herbal alternatives for endodontic usage might prove to be advantageous. Over the past decade, interest in drugs derived from medicinal plants has markedly increased. Phytomedicine has been used in dentistry as anti-inflammatory, antibiotic, analgesic, sedative and also as endodontic irrigant. Herbal preparations can be derived from the root, leaves, seeds, stem, and flowers. The PubMed database search revealed that the reference list for natural medicaments featured 1480 articles and in dentistry 173 articles. A forward search was undertaken on the selected articles and author names. This review focuses on various natural drugs and products as well as their therapeutic applications when used as phytomedicine in dentistry. PMID:25558153

  6. [Materia medica in apothecary shops].

    PubMed

    Hadzović, S; Masić, I

    1999-01-01

    Even in 15th and 16th century there were people in Bosnia, preparing medicaments and selling different kinds of medical herbs. At first, they were Jews, later Muslims. They were called "attars"--drugsellers. They were very familiar with herbs of medical purpose. They could recognize herb by its colour and outlook. The goods were sold in specialized shops--attar shop. When analysing Materia Medica from an attar shop--according to the list from the 1911 (dr. Moritz Levy: "Sefards in Bosnia"), we can conclude that assortment of medical herbs and some medicaments was correct. Some Galen forms used in that time, are still in use nowadays. This paper describes all materials encompassed by Materia Medica. They are classified as organic and non-organic materials, and their use in therapy was also emphasized. Materia Medica of attar shops gives us a lot of material for research of non-official medicine and pharmacy from that time. PMID:10593126

  7. Scientometric Analysis of the Journals of the Academy of Medical Sciences in Bosnia and Herzegovina

    PubMed Central

    Masic, Izet; Begic, Edin; Zunic, Lejla

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Currently in Bosnia and Herzegovina there are 25 journals in the field of biomedicine, 6 of them are indexed in Medline/PubMed base (Medical Archives, Materia Socio-Medica, Acta Informatica Medica, Acta Medica Academica, Bosnian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences (BJBMS) and Medical Glasnik), and one (BJBMS) is indexed in Science Citation Index Expanded (SCIE)/Web of Science base. Aim: The aim of this study was to show the scope of work of the journals that were published by Academy of Medical Sciences of Bosnia and Herzegovina - Medical Archives, Materia Socio-Medica and Acta Informatica Medica. Material and Methods: The research presents a meta-analysis of three journals, or their issues, during the calendar year 2015 (retrospective and descriptive character). Results: During 2015 calendar year a total of 286 articles were published (in Medical Archives 104 (36.3%), in Materia Socio-Medica 99 (34.6%), and in Acta Informatica Medica 83 (29%)). Original articles are present in the highest number in all three journals (in Medical Archives 80.7%, in Materia Socio Medica 77.7%, and in Acta Informatica Medica 68.6%). In Medical Archives, 90.3% of the articles were related to the field of clinical medicine. In Materia Socio-Medica, the domain of clinical medicine and public health was the most represented. Preclinical areas are most frequent in Acta Informatica Medica. The period of 50-60 days for a decision on the admission of article is most common in all three journals, with trend of shortening of that period. Articles came from 19 countries, mostly from Bosnia and Herzegovina, then from Iran, Kosovo, Saudi Arabia and Greece. Conclusion: In Medical Archives original articles in the field of clinical medicine (usually internal and surgical disciplines) are most often present, and that is the case in last four years. The number of articles in Materia Socio-Medica and Acta Informatica Medica is growing from year to year. In Materia Socio-Medica there is a

  8. Acta Astronautica: 60 years of excellence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chern, Rock Jeng-Shing; Chang, Eva Yi-Wei

    2014-12-01

    The Acta Astronautica is 60 years old [1]. Ever since its first publication in 1955 with the title Astronautica Acta (from 1955 to 1973), 2014 is the 60th year of Acta Astronautica (from 1955 to present). Fig. 1 is a poster to manifest the remarkable milestone during the 65th IAC held in Toronto, Canada on 29 September to 3 October 2014. Under the auspices of the IAA's Publications and Communication Committee, and the seamless cooperation and strong support of IAA, Editor-in-Chief, Co-Editors, Managing Editor, authors, reviewers, readers, publisher and all IAA Academicians, its impact factor and ranking have significant improvements recently. Fig. 2 shows the increase in impact factor from 2008 to 2013. The ranking is 7 out of the 63+ journals in the category of Aerospace Engineering.

  9. Intracellular Induction of Listeria monocytogenes actA Expression

    PubMed Central

    Shetron-Rama, Lynne M.; Marquis, Hélène; Bouwer, H. G. Archie; Freitag, Nancy E.

    2002-01-01

    Following entry into the host cytosol, the bacterial pathogen Listeria monocytogenes dramatically increases the expression of several key virulence factors. The expression of actA, whose protein product is required for L. monocytogenes actin-based intracellular motility, is increased by more than 200-fold in cytosolic bacteria in comparison to broth-grown cultures. Two distinct promoter elements have been reported to regulate actA expression. One promoter is located immediately upstream of actA coding sequences, while the second promoter is contributed by the upstream mpl gene via the generation of an mpl-actA-plcB transcript. A series of L. monocytogenes mutants were constructed to define the contributions of individual promoter elements to actA expression. The intracellular induction of actA expression was found to be dependent upon the actA proximal promoter; the mpl promoter appeared to contribute to the extracellular induction of actA but did not affect intracellular levels of expression. The actA promoter is dependent upon a regulatory factor known as PrfA for transcriptional activation; however, no increase in actA expression was detected following the introduction of a high-affinity PrfA binding site within the actA promoter. The presence of a mutationally activated form of PrfA, known as PrfA*, increased overall actA expression in broth-grown cultures of both wild-type and actA promoter mutant strains, but the levels of induction observed were still approximately 50-fold lower than those observed for intracellularly grown L. monocytogenes. Collectively, these results indicate that the dramatic induction of actA expression that occurs in the host cell cytosol is mediated through a single promoter element. Furthermore, intracellular induction of actA appears to require additional steps or factors beyond those necessary for the activation and binding of PrfA to the actA promoter. PMID:11854187

  10. [Irrigants and intracanal medicaments in endodontics].

    PubMed

    Zehnder, Matthias; Lehnert, Birgit; Schönenberger, Kathrin; Waltimo, Tuomas

    2003-01-01

    Modern, biologic root canal therapy should be performed with suitable irrigating solutions and intracanal medicaments. The goal of endodontic treatment is to free the treated tooth from infection and prevent reinfection as thoroughly as possible by means which do not put the organism at risk. In this review of the literature, an evidence-based concept for irrigation and medication of root canal systems is presented. Irrigants and medicaments are discussed with respect to their antimicrobial, tissue-dissolving and endotoxin-decontaminating capacity in relation to their systemic toxicity. Recent findings pertaining to interactions of root canal medicaments and irrigating solutions and their impact on a sound irrigating and medicating concept are discussed. PMID:12956038

  11. Biochemia Medica's editorial policy on authorship.

    PubMed

    Supak-Smolcic, Vesna; Simundic, Ana-Maria

    2015-01-01

    Recent findings of authorship criteria violations in the manuscripts submitted to Biochemia Medica show that almost 40% of authors do not meet necessary criteria for authorship and thus indicate the need for better dissemination of editorial policy on authorship in our journal. We believe that such cases are mostly due to the authors' unawareness or the lack of understanding of the authorship criteria. With this article we therefore wish to declare our editorial policy on authorship and authorship criteria. Biochemia Medica endorses the authorship policy provided by the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE). Information on authorship is assessed by self-reported authorship claims during on-line manuscript submission. Those who meet ICMJE criteria shall be listed as authors, and all listed authors shall fulfill ICMJE criteria. All authors should be responsible for content of the article and have to know other authors' contributions to the study. Biochemia Medica will follow recommendations provided by Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE) flowcharts for possible disputes. By adhering to this procedure we hope to raise awareness about the importance of compliance with ICMJE authorship recommendations. PMID:26525911

  12. [Substance basis research on Chinese materia medica is one of key scientific problems of inheriting, development and innovation of Chinese materia medica].

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiu-wei

    2015-09-01

    The compound Chinese materia medica is the medication pattern of the traditional Chinese medicine for the disease prevention and treatment. The single Chinese materia medica (mostly in decoction pieces) is the prescription composition of the compound Chinese materia medica. The study of the effective substance basis of Chinese materia medica should be based on the chemical compositions of the compound Chinese materia medica as an entry point considering the different status of "Monarch, Minister, Assistant, and Guide" for a certain single Chinese materia medica in the different compound Chinese materia medica while substance basis research of a certain single Chinese materia medica should be a full component analysis as well as both stable and controllable quality. Substance basis research on Chinese materia medica is one of key scientific problems of inheriting, development and innovation of Chinese materia medica. PMID:26978985

  13. Entering the 60th year of Acta Astronautica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Yi-Wei; Chern, Jeng-Shing; Marec, Jean-Pierre

    2014-04-01

    The Acta Astronautica Journal was firstly published in 1955 as the official Journal of the International Astronautical Federation (IAF) with the title Astronautica Acta. It is entering its 60th year in 2014. In 1962, the Astronautica Acta became the official Journal of the International Academy of Astronautics (IAA) established in 1960. A total of 18 volumes had been published from 1955 to 1973 under the leadership of three Editor-in-Chiefs: F. Hecht, Theodore von Karman, and Martin Summerfield. In 1974, A.K. Oppenheim became the new Editor-in-Chief and several evolved changes were performed including change of the title to Acta Astronautica (for grammatical correctness), cover page change, and format change. From 1974 to 2010, another three Editor-in-Chiefs led the journal with 67 volumes published. They were A.K. Oppenheim, Jean-Pierre Marec, and Rupert Gerzer. The current Editor-in-Chief Jeng-Shing Chern (Rock) took over the job from 2011. Total pages and articles published in 2012 are 3586 and 356, respectively. Currently, the Acta Astronautica Editorial Board consists of one Editor-in-Chief, 15 Co-Editors, one Managing Editor and one Honorary Editor-in-Chief (Jean-Pierre Marec). After 59 years, the Acta Astronautica has become a well-known journal worldwide. Its current rank and impact factor are 7/63 and 0.701, respectively. This paper presents some of the details as well as new strategies and steps. In particular, supports from the IAA Academicians are mandatory and most welcome.

  14. Elsevier/Spectrochimica Acta Atomic Spectroscopy Award 2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Omenetto, Nicolo'; de Loos, Greet

    2016-03-01

    This is to announce the 2014 Elsevier/Spectrochimica Acta Award, the annual award honoring the most significant article(s) published in a volume. Elsevier makes this award on behalf of Spectrochimica Acta, Part B, to encourage the publication of top articles in this journal. All papers published during one year are considered for this award and the Editorial Advisory Board and the Guest Editor(s) of the special issue(s) are responsible for the selection. The award consists of a monetary prize of 1000 together with a presentation certificate.

  15. Elsevier/Spectrochimica Acta Atomic Spectroscopy Award 2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Omenetto, Nicolo'; de Loos, Greet

    2015-01-01

    This is to announce the 2013 Elsevier/Spectrochimica Acta Award, the annual award honoring the most significant article(s) published in a volume. Elsevier makes this award on behalf of Spectrochimica Acta, Part B, to encourage the publication of top articles in this journal. All papers published during one year are considered for this award and the Editorial Advisory Board and the Guest Editor(s) of the special issue(s) are responsible for the selection. The award consists of a monetary prize of 1000 together with a presentation certificate.

  16. Citation Analysis of "Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta," 1951-1960.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lifshin, Arthur

    1993-01-01

    A citation analysis of the first 10 years of "Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta" from 1951 to 1960 is described. A shift from German to English language citations and the emerging importance of the journal in the field, which is undergoing a change resulting from technological innovation, are shown. Tables and graphs are included. (EAM)

  17. [Influence of compendium of Materia Medica on the materia medica in the late period of the Chosun Dynasty].

    PubMed

    Oh, Chae-Kun

    2012-08-31

    In this paper, I investigated the influence of Compendium of Materia Medica (CM) on Records for Rural Life of Chosun Gentlemen (RRC), and refuted Miki Sakae's opinion, CM did not have much impact on the Materia Medica in the late period of the Chosun Dynasty. When Li Shizhen published CM, it resulted in a shift of mainstream of Materia Medica in Eastern Asia from Classified Emergency Materia Medica to CM and a new categorizing system of Materia Medica by CM led to the division of Materia Medica into medicine and natural history. It is obvious that doctors of the Chosun Dynasty also adopted the latest achievements of Materia Medica by CM, but so far there have been few studies to clarify this. Seo yugu was a scholar of the Realist School of Confucianism during the late period of the Chosun Dynasty, and RRC is his representative work. RRC is a massive encyclopedia of natural history that covers vast areas of science from agriculture, floriculture, writing and drawing, architecture, diet, and medicine, among others which absorbed the achievements of CM, the best Materia Medica book at that time. Miki Sakae also highly regarded the encyclopedic knowledge of RRC, but devalued the results of Materia Medica. He only described a part of RRC's Materia Medica, nurturing volume, on the view of life nurturing and mentioned that it had been strongly influenced by China. According to this study, a large portion of RRC, especially regarding Materia Medica, depends on CM. Seo yugu had accepted the categorizing system and new medicinal information of CM, at the same time he modified the categorizing system of CM practically by the subject of each volume of RRC. We can find many quotations of CM except the nurturing volume, but other books, Treasured Mirror of Eastern Medicine, Materia Medica for Relief of Famines are also quoted. Furthermore, Seo yugu emphasized the differences of natural environments between Chosun and China, and specified the editing criteria, "to be useful in

  18. Localization of the ActA polypeptide of Listeria monocytogenes in infected tissue culture cell lines: ActA is not associated with actin "comets".

    PubMed Central

    Niebuhr, K; Chakraborty, T; Rohde, M; Gazlig, T; Jansen, B; Köllner, P; Wehland, J

    1993-01-01

    The ActA protein of the gram-positive pathogen Listeria monocytogenes is a 90-kDa polypeptide required for interaction of the bacteria with components of the host cell microfilament system to generate intra- and intercellular movement. To study the localization, distribution, and expression of the ActA polypeptide in L. monocytogenes grown either in broth culture or in infected tissue culture cells, we first isolated ActA by monoclonal antibody-based immunoaffinity chromatography. Polyclonal rabbit antisera raised against purified ActA revealed that ActA was associated with the cell wall and exposed on the surface of the bacteria, readily accessible to ActA antibodies. In contrast, a C-terminally truncated ActA1 polypeptide expressed by the isogenic actA1 mutant was detected only in the supernatant fluids. Immunofluorescence microscopy and electron microscopic studies using immunogold labeling showed that ActA was present on the surface of the bacteria infecting PtK2 and J774 cells at all stages of the infection cycle and was not found to be associated with the actin "tail" of individual bacteria. For the isogenic actA1 mutant strain, which grew as microcolonies within infected cells, only diffuse staining of the secreted ActA1 polypeptide in the host cytoplasm was observed. The ActA polypeptide therefore appears to be required in the initiation of actin accumulation by the bacterium and is apparently not directly involved in the generation of the actin tail. Analysis of strains of several L. monocytogenes serotypes indicated microheterogeneity in the molecular weights of the ActA polypeptides of individual strains and led to the detection of a serotype 3a strain that does not produce ActA. Images PMID:8514381

  19. Aortic Disease Presentation and Outcome Associated with ACTA2 mutations

    PubMed Central

    Regalado, Ellen S.; Guo, Dongchuan; Prakash, Siddharth; Bensend, Tracy A.; Flynn, Kelly; Estrera, Anthony; Safi, Hazim; Liang, David; Hyland, James; Child, Anne; Arno, Gavin; Boileau, Catherine; Jondeau, Guillaume; Braverman, Alan; Moran, Rocio; Morisaki, Takayuki; Morisaki, Hiroko; Consortium, Montalcino Aortic; Pyeritz, Reed; Coselli, Joseph; LeMaire, Scott; Milewicz, Dianna M.

    2015-01-01

    Background ACTA2 mutations are the major cause of familial thoracic aortic aneurysms and dissections. We sought to characterize these aortic diseases in a large case series of individuals with ACTA2 mutations. Methods and Results Aortic disease, management, and outcome associated with the first aortic event (aortic dissection or aneurysm repair) were abstracted from the medical records of 277 individuals with 41 various ACTA2 mutations. Aortic events occurred in 48% of these individuals, with the vast majority presenting with thoracic aortic dissections (88%) associated with 25% mortality. Type A dissections were more common than type B dissections (54% versus 21%), but the median age of onset of type B dissections was significantly younger than type A dissections (27 years, IQR 18–41 versus 36 years, IQR 26–45). Only 12% of aortic events were repair of ascending aortic aneurysms, which variably involved the aortic root, ascending aorta and aortic arch. Overall cumulative risk of an aortic event at age 85 years was 0.76 (95% CI 0.64, 0.86). After adjustment for intra-familial correlation, gender and race, mutations disrupting p.R179 and p.R258 were associated with significantly increased risk for aortic events, whereas p.R185Q and p.R118Q mutations showed significantly lower risk of aortic events compared to other mutations. Conclusions ACTA2 mutations are associated with high risk of presentation with an acute aortic dissection. The lifetime risk for an aortic event is only 76%, suggesting that additional environmental or genetic factors play a role in expression of aortic disease in individuals with ACTA2 mutations. PMID:25759435

  20. Cerebral arteriopathy associated with Arg179His ACTA2 mutation

    PubMed Central

    Amans, Matthew R; Stout, Charles; Fox, Christine; Narvid, Jared; Hetts, Steven W; Cooke, Daniel L; Higashida, Randall T; Dowd, Christopher F; McSwain, Hugh; Halbach, Van V

    2013-01-01

    ACTA2 mutations have recently been shown to cause a multisystem smooth muscle dysfunction syndrome that may result in pediatric stroke. We report a case of ACTA2 mutation in a 3-year-old girl presenting with acute ischemic stroke and provide high resolution imaging of the cerebral arteries demonstrating novel findings of multiple tiny aneurysms (particularly in the posterior circulation), as well as the more characteristic imaging phenotype of straightened and narrowed proximal intracranial vessels, dilated cervical vessels and occlusion of the M1 MCA segment without lenticulostriate collateral formation. This newly identified disease should be added to the differential diagnosis of pediatric stroke and cerebral vasculopathy. Neuroradiologists, interventionalists, surgeons and neurologists should become familiar with this rare disease and its clinical sequelae. PMID:24293535

  1. Cerebral arteriopathy associated with Arg179His ACTA2 mutation.

    PubMed

    Amans, Matthew R; Stout, Charles; Fox, Christine; Narvid, Jared; Hetts, Steven W; Cooke, Daniel L; Higashida, Randall T; Dowd, Christopher F; McSwain, Hugh; Halbach, Van V

    2013-01-01

    ACTA2 mutations have recently been shown to cause a multisystem smooth muscle dysfunction syndrome that may result in pediatric stroke. We report a case of ACTA2 mutation in a 3-year-old girl presenting with acute ischemic stroke and provide high resolution imaging of the cerebral arteries demonstrating novel findings of multiple tiny aneurysms (particularly in the posterior circulation), as well as the more characteristic imaging phenotype of straightened and narrowed proximal intracranial vessels, dilated cervical vessels and occlusion of the M1 MCA segment without lenticulostriate collateral formation. This newly identified disease should be added to the differential diagnosis of pediatric stroke and cerebral vasculopathy. Neuroradiologists, interventionalists, surgeons and neurologists should become familiar with this rare disease and its clinical sequelae. PMID:24293535

  2. Cerebral arteriopathy associated with Arg179His ACTA2 mutation.

    PubMed

    Amans, Matthew R; Stout, Charles; Fox, Christine; Narvid, Jared; Hetts, Steven W; Cooke, Daniel L; Higashida, Randall T; Dowd, Christopher F; McSwain, Hugh; Halbach, Van V

    2014-11-01

    ACTA2 mutations have recently been shown to cause a multisystem smooth muscle dysfunction syndrome that may result in pediatric stroke. We report a case of ACTA2 mutation in a 3-year-old girl presenting with acute ischemic stroke and provide high resolution imaging of the cerebral arteries demonstrating novel findings of multiple tiny aneurysms (particularly in the posterior circulation), as well as the more characteristic imaging phenotype of straightened and narrowed proximal intracranial vessels, dilated cervical vessels and occlusion of the M1 MCA segment without lenticulostriate collateral formation. This newly identified disease should be added to the differential diagnosis of pediatric stroke and cerebral vasculopathy. Neuroradiologists, interventionalists, surgeons and neurologists should become familiar with this rare disease and its clinical sequelae. PMID:24353327

  3. [Management of Chinese materia medica market based on information asymmetry].

    PubMed

    Yang, Guang; Wang, Nuo; Guo, Lan-Ping; Wang, Yong-Yan; Huang, Lu-Qi; Liu, Jin-Xin

    2013-12-01

    Pharmaceutical market is a typical market with information asymmetry, and which can lead to "lemons" problem. In all developed countries, firms must receive regulatory approval to market a pharmaceutical product. Such administrative department including SFDA, EMA, FDA and so on. Chinese materia medica is a special part of pharmaceutical market in China. The management of Chinese materia medica is a special challenge in China. PMID:24791511

  4. Oral health concerns with sweetened medicaments: Pediatricians’ acuity

    PubMed Central

    Nirmala, S.V.S.G.; Popuri, Vimala Devi; Chilamakuri, Sandeep; Nuvvula, Sivakumar; Veluru, Sindhuri; Minor Babu, M.S.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Administration of sweetened medicaments poses many oral health related problems in children due to the lack of awareness among the pediatricians regarding their ill effects. Purpose: To assess pediatricians’ awareness and attitudes toward the use of liquid pediatric medicines and their relationship with dental caries and erosion. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted among the pediatricians residing in Nellore city. Data were obtained from 55 pediatricians using questionnaires. Results: Among the respondents, 95.6% prescribed liquid medicaments, 51.1% expressed that they may be associated with dental effects, 60% were not aware regarding the sweetness of medicaments, whereas majority of them (77.8%) opined that children complained regarding the taste, 73.3% stated that sugar substitutes were used as sweetening agents, 70.9% believed that they were not acidic, 68.9% did not recommend brushing after intake of medicines, 90% failed to deliver oral health instructions, and 54.5% believed that lack of oral hygiene was a contributing factor for development of dental caries. Conclusion: Majority of the respondents prescribed liquid medicaments and were unaware regarding the sweetening agents and acidity, which cause ill effects on the dental hard tissues. Most of them neither recommended nor delivered oral hygiene instructions (OHI) after prescribing sweetened liquid medicaments. Hence, OHI should be delivered to enhance the oral health related quality of life in children. PMID:25767765

  5. Langkocyclines: novel angucycline antibiotics from Streptomyces sp. Acta 3034(*).

    PubMed

    Kalyon, Bahar; Tan, Geok-Yuan A; Pinto, John M; Foo, Cheau-Yee; Wiese, Jutta; Imhoff, Johannes F; Süssmuth, Roderich D; Sabaratnam, Vikineswary; Fiedler, Hans-Peter

    2013-10-01

    Langkocyclines A1-A3 and B1 and B2, five new angucycline antibiotics produced by Streptomyces sp. Acta 3034, were detected in the course of our HPLC-diode array screening. The producing strain was isolated from the rhizospheric soil of a Clitorea sp. collected from Burau Bay, Langkawi, Malaysia, and was characterized by morphological, physiological and chemotaxonomic features in addition to 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequence information. Strain Acta 3034 is closely related to Streptomyces psammoticus NBRC 13971(T) and Streptomyces lanatus NBRC 12787(T). Langkocyclines consist of an angular tetracyclic benz[a]anthracene skeleton and hydrolyzable O-glycosidic sugar moieties. The yellow-colored A-type langkocyclines differ in their aglycon from the blue-lilac-colored B-type langkocyclines. The A-type langkocycline aglycon is identical to that of aquayamycin and urdamycin A. The chemical structures of the langkocyclines were elucidated by HR-MS, 1D and 2D NMR experiments. They are biologically active against Gram-positive bacteria and exhibit a moderate antiproliferative activity against various human tumor cell lines. PMID:23820614

  6. Pulpotomy Medicaments used in Deciduous Dentition: An Update.

    PubMed

    Al-Dlaigan, Yousef H

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this paper was to review the history and the scientific literature published on pulpotomy medicaments and to present the findings of these studies. The review showed that pulpotomy of primary teeth has been treated with many different techniques and medicaments, that some of these approaches are controversial and that their results have presented variables of success rates in term of clinical, radiographic and histologic observation. It is important that all clinicians, particularly for pediatric dentists, be up to date with the recent trends in this area of dental treatment for children. PMID:26323453

  7. Multiple medicament allergies in two patients with chronic leg ulceration.

    PubMed

    Rademaker, M; Wood, B; Greig, D E

    1996-08-01

    Medicament allergies in patients with chronic leg ulcers is well recognized. In the past, topical antibiotics, rubber additives and wool alcohols have been the most common reported allergens. Allergy to topical corticosteroids has been reported. We document two cases of multiple corticosteroid allergy in patients with chronic leg ulceration. PMID:8771871

  8. Smooth Muscle α Actin (Acta2) and Myofibroblast Function during Hepatic Wound Healing

    PubMed Central

    Rockey, Don C.; Weymouth, Nate; Shi, Zengdun

    2013-01-01

    Smooth muscle α actin (Acta2) expression is largely restricted to smooth muscle cells, pericytes and specialized fibroblasts, known as myofibroblasts. Liver injury, associated with cirrhosis, induces transformation of resident hepatic stellate cells into liver specific myofibroblasts, also known as activated cells. Here, we have used in vitro and in vivo wound healing models to explore the functional role of Acta2 in this transformation. Acta2 was abundant in activated cells isolated from injured livers but was undetectable in quiescent cells isolated from normal livers. Both cellular motility and contraction were dramatically increased in injured liver cells, paralleled by an increase in Acta2 expression, when compared with quiescent cells. Inhibition of Acta2 using several different techniques had no effect on cytoplasmic actin isoform expression, but led to reduced cellular motility and contraction. Additionally, Acta2 knockdown was associated with a significant reduction in Erk1/2 phosphorylation compared to control cells. The data indicate that Acta2 is important specifically in myofibroblast cell motility and contraction and raise the possibility that the Acta2 cytoskeleton, beyond its structural importance in the cell, could be important in regulating signaling processes during wound healing in vivo. PMID:24204762

  9. The relation between Greek and Islamic materia medica.

    PubMed

    El-Gammal, S Y

    1997-01-01

    Many studies have been made on the exact data of the introduction of Greek sciences to the Arabic culture. During the 8th and 9th centuries A.D. a big progress was done in the Arab-Islamic sciences, when the Caliphs of the Omayad and Abbasid dynasties invited many scientists, researchers and translators for translation of all sciences into Arabic. The Arabs paid special attention to the Greek natural sciences such as botany and pharmacy. Greek materia medica was a major common basis for Arab-Islamic medicine and pharmacy which in turn paved the way to the modern pharmaceutical therapy. PMID:12575695

  10. Beitraege zur Astronomiegeschichte, Band 5 (Acta Historica Astronomiae Vol. 18)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duerbeck, H. W.; Dick, W. R.; Hamel, J.

    2003-01-01

    The 18th volume of the Acta Historica Astronomiae is at the same time the sixth collection of essays on the history of astronomy ("Beitræge zur Astronomiegeschichte, Band 6"), edited by the historians of astronomy W.R. Dick (Potsdam) and J. Hamel (Berlin). Besides a few short notices and book reviews, the book contains eight major articles, which deal with astronomical topics covering the time from the 16th to the 19th centuries. The first article by Michael Weichenhan (Berlin) deals with "the invention of the disk-shaped earth: a chapter of Copernican apologetics". The author shows that the concept of a "disc-shaped Earth" was by no means widespread in the middle ages, but restricted to the father of the church Lactantius and some adherents. Nevertheless, it was used by adherents of Copernicus to show the absurd consequences of a strictly literal biblical interpretation -- here concerning the Earth's shape, disc versus sphere, there the geocentric versus the heliocentric system. This thorough philosophical study is followed by two very short articles. "The measuring accuracy of Tycho's large sextant" by Johann Wünsch investigates O-C values of planet-star distances, as based on Tycho's observations as published in the Historia Coelestis (a compilation, which is also based on Tycho's manuscripts, and published in Regensburg in 1672). The result is that standard deviations are 80 arcseconds for Saturn and 89 arcseconds for Jupiter and Mars, an unexpectedly poor result in view of the general opinion that Tycho was famous for his precision work. "The astronomer Christoph Grienberger and the Galilei trial" by Franz Daxecker deals with a Jesuit astronomer who was both the disciple and successor of the mathematician-astronomer Christopher Clavius at the Collegium Romanum. While he was inclined to Galilei early on, he was forced to propagate Aristotelian doctrine. The brief article is very concise, but extremely tiresome to read (3 pages of pure text are embellished by

  11. Influence of serum and necrotic soft tissue on the antimicrobial effects of intracanal medicaments.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Julio C Machado de; Alves, Flávio R F; Uzeda, Milton de; Rôças, Isabela N; Siqueira, José F

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of serum and necrotic soft tissue on the antimicrobial activity of intracanal medicaments. The medicaments tested were: calcium hydroxyde/glycerin paste, calcium hydroxide/chlorhexidine paste, calcium hydroxide/camphorated paramonochlorophenol/glycerin paste, and chlorhexidine/zinc oxide paste. Survival of Enterococcus faecalis and Candida albicans exposed to the medicaments tested in the presence or absence of serum or necrotic tissue was monitored in three in vitro experiments where samples for culturing were taken at different time periods. The overall results demonstrated that the antimicrobial activity of all intracanal medicaments tested was slowed down in the presence of necrotic tissue. Calcium hydroxide pastes in glycerin or chlorhexidine were significantly affected by serum. Of the medicaments tested in this study, the least affected was the calcium hydroxide/camphorated paramonochlorophenol/glycerin paste. PMID:20976377

  12. De Novo ACTA2 Mutation Causes a Novel Syndrome of Multisystemic Smooth Muscle Dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Milewicz, Dianna M.; Østergaard, John R.; Ala-Kokko, Leena M.; Khan, Nadia; Grange, Dorothy K.; Mendoza-Londono, Roberto; Bradley, Timothy J.; Olney, Ann Haskins; Adès, Lesley; Maher, Joseph F.; Guo, Dongchuan; Buja, L. Maximilian; Kim, Dong; Hyland, James C.; Regalado, Ellen S.

    2011-01-01

    Smooth muscle cells (SMCs) contract to perform many physiological functions, including regulation of blood flow and pressure in arteries, contraction of the pupils, peristalsis of the gut and voiding of the bladder. SMC lineage in these organs is characterized by cellular expression of the SMC isoform of α-actin, encoded by the ACTA2 gene. We report here on a unique and de novo mutation in ACTA2, R179H, that causes a syndrome characterized by dysfunction of SMCs throughout the body, leading to aortic and cerebrovascular disease, fixed dilated pupils, hypotonic bladder, malrotation and hypoperistalsis of the gut and pulmonary hypertension. PMID:20734336

  13. Nodule carbohydrate catabolism is enhanced in the Medicago truncatula A17-Sinorhizobium medicae WSM419 symbiosis

    PubMed Central

    Larrainzar, Estíbaliz; Gil-Quintana, Erena; Seminario, Amaia; Arrese-Igor, Cesar; González, Esther M.

    2014-01-01

    The symbiotic association between Medicago truncatula and Sinorhizobium meliloti is a well-established model system in the legume–Rhizobium community. Despite its wide use, the symbiotic efficiency of this model has been recently questioned and an alternative microsymbiont, S. medicae, has been proposed. However, little is known about the physiological mechanisms behind the higher symbiotic efficiency of S. medicae WSM419. In the present study, we inoculated M. truncatula Jemalong A17 with either S. medicae WSM419 or S. meliloti 2011 and compared plant growth, photosynthesis, N2-fixation rates, and plant nodule carbon and nitrogen metabolic activities in the two systems. M. truncatula plants in symbiosis with S. medicae showed increased biomass and photosynthesis rates per plant. Plants grown in symbiosis with S. medicae WSM419 also showed higher N2-fixation rates, which were correlated with a larger nodule biomass, while nodule number was similar in both systems. In terms of plant nodule metabolism, M. truncatula–S. medicae WSM419 nodules showed increased sucrose-catabolic activity, mostly associated with sucrose synthase, accompanied by a reduced starch content, whereas nitrogen-assimilation activities were comparable to those measured in nodules infected with S. meliloti 2011. Taken together, these results suggest that S. medicae WSM419 is able to enhance plant carbon catabolism in M. truncatula nodules, which allows for the maintaining of high symbiotic N2-fixation rates, better growth and improved general plant performance. PMID:25221545

  14. [LaMedica. The medical education academy on the internet].

    PubMed

    Melamed, R J; Friedl, R; Engl, T; Lanwert, S; Preisack, M B; Jonas, D; Bickeböller, R

    2002-01-01

    At present, "modern media" are still a novelty in medical education. The "LaMedica Project"--a program supported by the Federal Ministry for Education and Research--intends to provide an Internet-based education and training system for the entire field of medicine, using all available media resources. This online educational program will provide subjects for medical laypersons as well as medical experts. Various styles of learning and different learning requests will be promoted. The project presented mirrors the cutting edge of database technology, computer-based training and media didactics, critical content processing as well as supplying individual subjects. This report summarizes our 10 months of experience with this program at the Department for Urology and Pediatric Urology of the Johann Wolfgang Goethe University of Frankfurt Main. PMID:11963770

  15. [Popular knowledge about medicaments in 19th century periodicals].

    PubMed

    Arabas, Iwona

    2004-01-01

    Polish periodicals published since the beginning of 19th century contained household knowledge which was of great importance to peasants. In the second half of 19th century the number of articles related to prevention, treatment as well as life hygiene (including nutrition guidance) enlarged significantly. The term "household medicine box# was very often used in periodicals as titles of both: sections dedicated to hygiene or medicine as well as for articles describing medicaments intended to be kept in the boxes. Articles referenced law regulations stated in "law for pharmacists and pharmacies# from 1844. The availability of medical handbooks widened with the end of the century and this fact may have caused the changes in profiles of numerous medical sections in popular periodicals. However the changes did not affect publications related to contents of medical boxes. PMID:17152882

  16. Chinese Marine Materia Medica Resources: Status and Potential

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Xiu-Mei; Zhang, Meng-Qi; Shao, Chang-Lun; Li, Guo-Qiang; Bai, Hong; Dai, Gui-Lin; Chen, Qian-Wen; Kong, Wei; Fu, Xian-Jun; Wang, Chang-Yun

    2016-01-01

    Chinese marine materia medica (CMMM) is a vital part of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). Compared with terrestrial TCM, CMMM, derived from specific marine habitats, possesses peculiar chemical components with unique structures reflecting as potent pharmacological activities, distinct drug properties and functions. Nowadays, CMMM appears to be especially effective in treating such difficult diseases as cancers, diabetes, cardio-cerebrovascular diseases, immunodeficiency diseases and senile dementia, and therefore has become an important medicinal resource for the research and development of new drugs. In recent years, such development has attracted wide attention in the field of medicine. In this study, the CMMM resources in China were systematically investigated and evaluated. It was found that the historic experiences of Chinese people using CMMM have continuously accumulated over a period of more than 3600 years, and that the achievements of the research on modern CMMM are especially outstanding. By June 2015, 725 kinds of CMMMs from Chinese coastal sea areas have been identified and recorded, covering 1552 organisms and minerals. More than 3100 traditional prescriptions containing CMMMs have been imparted and inherited. However, the number of CMMMs is less than the 8188 terrestrial TCMs, from more than 12,100 medicinal terrestrial plants, animals and minerals. In the future, the research and development of CMMM should focus on the channel entries (TCM drug properties), compatibility, effective ingredients, acting mechanisms, drug metabolism and quality standard. This study reveals the high potential of CMMM development. PMID:26950133

  17. Chinese Marine Materia Medica Resources: Status and Potential.

    PubMed

    Fu, Xiu-Mei; Zhang, Meng-Qi; Shao, Chang-Lun; Li, Guo-Qiang; Bai, Hong; Dai, Gui-Lin; Chen, Qian-Wen; Kong, Wei; Fu, Xian-Jun; Wang, Chang-Yun

    2016-03-01

    Chinese marine materia medica (CMMM) is a vital part of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). Compared with terrestrial TCM, CMMM, derived from specific marine habitats, possesses peculiar chemical components with unique structures reflecting as potent pharmacological activities, distinct drug properties and functions. Nowadays, CMMM appears to be especially effective in treating such difficult diseases as cancers, diabetes, cardio-cerebrovascular diseases, immunodeficiency diseases and senile dementia, and therefore has become an important medicinal resource for the research and development of new drugs. In recent years, such development has attracted wide attention in the field of medicine. In this study, the CMMM resources in China were systematically investigated and evaluated. It was found that the historic experiences of Chinese people using CMMM have continuously accumulated over a period of more than 3600 years, and that the achievements of the research on modern CMMM are especially outstanding. By June 2015, 725 kinds of CMMMs from Chinese coastal sea areas have been identified and recorded, covering 1552 organisms and minerals. More than 3100 traditional prescriptions containing CMMMs have been imparted and inherited. However, the number of CMMMs is less than the 8188 terrestrial TCMs, from more than 12,100 medicinal terrestrial plants, animals and minerals. In the future, the research and development of CMMM should focus on the channel entries (TCM drug properties), compatibility, effective ingredients, acting mechanisms, drug metabolism and quality standard. This study reveals the high potential of CMMM development. PMID:26950133

  18. Citation analysis of Acta Dermatovenerologica Alpina, Pannonica et Adriatica: 1992-2011.

    PubMed

    Ostrbenk, Anja; Skamperle, Mateja; Poljak, Mario

    2012-09-01

    Acta Dermatovenerologica Alpina, Pannonica et Adriatica is small regional professional journal that started publishing in 1992. Despite the journal's relatively narrow readership, it has significantly improved its quality and global profile during the last 20 years, as shown in this citation analysis update. Since 1992, 654 bibliographical items have been published. Among these, 545 (83.4%) were considered WoS citable items and 109 (16.6%) WoS noncitable items. Since 2008, 90% of all published items have been considered WoS citable items and received an average of 1.9 citations per item. The predicted Acta Dermatovenerol APA impact factor calculated using data from a Cited Reference search of Thomson Scientific's Web of Science has shown steep and continuous increase since 2006, when the journal acquired full indexing status in Index Medicus/Medline, and has been above 0.5 since 2008. PMID:23267871

  19. Novel MYH11 and ACTA2 mutations reveal a role for enhanced TGFβ signaling in FTAAD

    PubMed Central

    Renard, Marjolijn; Callewaert, Bert; Baetens, Machteld; Campens, Laurence; MacDermot, Kay; Fryns, Jean-Pierre; Bonduelle, Maryse; Dietz, Hal; Gaspar, Isabel Mendes; Cavaco, Diogo; Stattin, Eva-Lena; Schrander-Stumpel, Constance; Coucke, Paul; Loeys, Bart; De Paepe, Anne; De Backer, Julie

    2011-01-01

    Background Thoracic aortic aneurysm / dissection (TAAD) is a common phenotype that may occur as an isolated manifestation or within the constellation of a defined syndrome. In contrast to syndromic TAAD, the elucidation of the genetic basis of isolated TAAD has only recently started. To date, defects have been found in genes encoding extracellular matrix proteins (fibrillin-1, FBN1; collagen type III alpha 1, COL3A1), proteins involved in transforming growth factor beta (TGFβ) signaling (TGFβ receptor 1 and 2, TGFBR1/2; and SMAD3) or proteins that build up the contractile apparatus of aortic smooth muscle cells (myosin heavy chain 11, MYH11; smooth muscle actin alpha 2, ACTA2; and MYLK). Methods and results In 110 non-syndromic TAAD patients that previously tested negative for FBN1 or TGFBR1/2 mutations, we identified 7 ACTA2 mutations in a cohort of 43 familial TAAD patients, including 2 premature truncating mutations. Sequencing of MYH11 revealed an in frame splice-site alteration in one out of two probands with TAA(D) associated with PDA but none in the series of 22 probands from the cohort of 110 patients with non-syndromic TAAD. Interestingly, immunohistochemical staining of aortic biopsies of a patient and a family member with MYH11 and patients with ACTA2 missense mutations showed upregulation of the TGFβ signaling pathway. Conclusions MYH11 mutations are rare and typically identified in patients with TAAD associated with PDA. ACTA2 mutations were identified in 16% of a cohort presenting familial TAAD. Different molecular defects in TAAD may account for a different pathogenic mechanism of enhanced TGFβ signaling. PMID:21937134

  20. The effect of endodontic regeneration medicaments on mechanical properties of radicular dentin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yassen, Ghaeth H.

    Endodontic regeneration treatment of necrotic immature teeth has gained popularity in recent years. The approach suggests a biological alternative to induce a continuous root development. In this project, three in vitro experiments were conducted to investigate the effect of three medicaments used in endodontic regeneration on mechanical properties and chemical structure of radicular dentin. In the first experiment, we investigated longitudinally the effect of medicaments on the indentation properties of the root canal surface of immature teeth using a novel BioDent reference point indenter. A significant difference in the majority of indentation parameters between all groups was found after one-week and one-month application of medicaments (p double antibiotic paste (DAP) > control > calcium hydroxide [Ca(OH)2]. The four-week exposure of dentin to TAP and DAP caused 43% and 31% increase in total indentation distance outcome, respectively. In the second experiment, we investigated longitudinally the effect of medicaments on the chemical structure of immature radicular dentin by measuring the phosphate/amide I ratios of dentin using Attenuated Total Reflection Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy. Phosphate/amide I ratios were significantly different between the four groups after one week, two weeks and four week application of medicaments (p untreated dentin > DAP-treated dentin > TAP-treated dentin. In the third experiment, we investigated longitudinally the effect of medicaments on root fracture resistance and microhardness of radicular dentin. For the microhardness, the two-way interaction between group and time was significant (p<0.001). TAP and DAP caused a significant and continuous decrease in dentin microhardness after one and three month application, respectively. The three-month intracanal application of Ca(OH)2 significantly increased the microhardness of root dentin. The time factor had a significant effect on fracture resistance (p<0.001). All

  1. [Textual research on adulteration of Chinese materia medica in ancient China].

    PubMed

    Xie, Jin; Wang, De-Qun

    2013-09-01

    By investigating the mainstream works of herbal classics of successive ages, it is found that adulteration of Chinese materia medica appeared early in ancient China. The main methods of adulteration was producing fraud medicines in the Northern-Southern Dynasties, fake medicines began to appear in the Tang Dynasty, and status of adulteration of Chinese materia medica ran unchecked since the Ming and Qing Dynasty. By statistics, there were 76 kinds of adulteration varieties before the Republican period. The main varieties were precious drugs, animal drugs and artifacts. Commonly methods used in the process included forging and adulterating, dealing with 11 kinds and 68 kinds respectively. Adulteration probably lead to the result of imposing the changes of the used medicinal parts of Herba Pogostemonis; Radix Aconiti Lateralis prepared by adding salt, Radix Angelica Sinensis processed by wine, and Radix Astragalis seu Hedysaris processed with bee honey. However, the root cause of adulteration in Chinese materia medica was the dissociation of professional physician and pharmacist, resulting in the ignorance of medical practitioners became unable to recognize Chinese materia medica; and the immorality of medicinal merchants. Besides, rating the quality of materia medica based on its producing areas without differentiating the false from the genuine may also contribute to this result passively. PMID:24429032

  2. Genetic analysis of citron (Citrus medica L.) using simple sequence repeats and single nucleotide polymorphisms

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Citron (Citrus medica L.) is one of the three basic species of the genus Citrus L. that has contributed to the development of many commercial cultivars. We analyzed the genetic diversity of a total of 54 varieties (47 citrons) to understand the relationships within the species. Thirty two varieties ...

  3. The risk of severe salicylate poisoning following the ingestion of topical medicaments or aspirin.

    PubMed

    Chan, T Y

    1996-02-01

    Apart from isolated reports of severe salicylate poisoning after ingesting an unusually large amount of a medicinal oil, there are no published data on the threat arising from attempted suicide with topical medicaments containing methyl salicylate or wintergreen oil compared with aspirin tablets. In this retrospective study, the admission plasma salicylate concentrations and clinical presentations were compared in 80 subjects who had taken aspirin tablets (n = 42) or topical medicaments (n = 38). The proportions of subjects being symptomatic were similar in the two groups. Although the admission plasma salicylate concentrations were generally higher in subjects who had ingested aspirin tablets, the two highest readings (4.3 and 3.5 mmol/1) belonged to two of the subjects who had taken topical medicaments. Because of its liquid, concentrated form and lipid solubility, methyl salicylate poses the threat of severe, rapid-onset salicylate poisoning. The toxic potential of topical medicaments containing methyl salicylate or wintergreen oil should be fully appreciated by both physicians and the general public. PMID:8871462

  4. [Revision to origin of northern Artemisia argyi in Compendium of Materia Medica (Bencao gangmu)].

    PubMed

    Huang, Lu-qi; Qiu, Le

    2014-12-01

    The origin of northern Artemisia argyi recorded in Compendium of Materia Medica(Bencao gangmu) is Fudao(Chinese characters) in Tangyin county, While there is only Fudao(Chinese characters) instead of Fudao(Chinese characters). Whether indeed Fudao(Chinese characters) is Fudao(Chinese characters)? By reviewing the genuine evolution of A. argyi, doing textual research on Fudao(Chinese characters) and combing with field survey data of national census of Chinese Materia Medica resources, this paper concluded that the word Fudao(Chinese characters) firstly emerged in Figure Canon of Chinese Materia Medica(Bencao tujing) of Susong in Song dynasty and was applied in later generations, but the implication was not clear, then emerged both Tangyin and Fudao(Chinese characters) in Compendium of Materia Medica(Bencao gangmu). The place Fudao(Chinese characters) is one of the graves of Bianque, that existed from Shang and Zhou dynasty and never changed until now, the A. argyi of Tangyin was famous from the grave of Bianque in Fudao(Chinese characters), which could infer that Lishizhen considered Fudao (Chinese characters) was Fudao(Chinese characters) indeed, and the origin of northern A. argyi was Fudao(Chinese characters) in Tangyin county. PMID:25898599

  5. Identification of Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus from Foshou (Citrus medica) in China

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In China, Foshou (Buddha’s hand), C. medica var. sarcodactylus Swing, is commonly cultured and valued for its fragrance and used medicinally as a stomach, stimulant, expectorant and tonic. Since 1999, we noted that Foshou succumbs to Huanglongbing (HLB) or yellow shoot disease with incidence up to 4...

  6. Antifungal effects of root canal irrigants and medicaments. An update review.

    PubMed

    Mohammadi, Zahed; Shalavi, Sousan

    2014-01-01

    Fungi, especially Candida albicans, play an important role in persistent/secondary endodontic infections. There are several irrigants and medicaments in the field of endodontics. The purpose of this paper is to review the antifungal activity of sodium hypochlorite, chlorhexidine, MTAD, Tetraclean, EDTA, calcium hydroxide and MTA. PMID:25672081

  7. Excerpta Medica Automated Storage and Retrieval Program of Biomedical Information. Excerpta Mark I System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Excerpta Medica Foundation, Amsterdam (Netherlands).

    This is a report of the international operations of the Excerpta Medica Foundation whose aim is to further the progress of medical knowledge by making information available to the medical and related professions on all significant basic research and clinical findings reported in any language, anywhere in the world. To accomplish this task,…

  8. The use of calcium hydroxide, antibiotics and biocides as antimicrobial medicaments in endodontics.

    PubMed

    Athanassiadis, B; Abbott, P V; Walsh, L J

    2007-03-01

    Bacteria have been implicated in the pathogenesis and progression of pulp and periapical diseases. The primary aim of endodontic treatment is to remove as many bacteria as possible from the root canal system and then to create an environment in which any remaining organisms cannot survive. This can only be achieved through the use of a combination of aseptic treatment techniques, chemomechanical preparation of the root canal, antimicrobial irrigating solutions and intracanal medicaments. The choice of which intracanal medicament to use is dependent on having an accurate diagnosis of the condition being treated, as well as a thorough knowledge of the type of organisms likely to be involved and their mechanisms of growth and survival. Since the disease is likely to have been caused by the presence of bacteria within the root canal, the use of an antimicrobial agent is essential. Many medicaments have been used in an attempt to achieve the above aims but no single preparation has been found to be completely predictable or effective. Commonly used medicaments include calcium hydroxide, antibiotics, non-phenolic biocides, phenolic biocides and iodine compounds. Each has advantages and disadvantages, and further research is required to determine which is best suited for root canal infections. PMID:17546863

  9. [Essential procedure and key methods for survey of traditional knowledge related to Chinese materia medica resources].

    PubMed

    Cheng, Gong; Huang, Lu-qi; Xue, Da-yuan; Zhang, Xiao-bo

    2014-12-01

    The survey of traditional knowledge related to Chinese materia medica resources is the important component and one of the innovative aspects of the fourth national survey of the Chinese materia medica resources. China has rich traditional knowledge of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) and the comprehensive investigation of TCM traditional knowledge aims to promote conservation and sustainable use of Chinese materia medica resources. Building upon the field work of pilot investigations, this paper introduces the essential procedures and key methods for conducting the survey of traditional knowledge related to Chinese materia medica resources. The essential procedures are as follows. First is the preparation phrase. It is important to review all relevant literature and provide training to the survey teams so that they have clear understanding of the concept of traditional knowledge and master key survey methods. Second is the field investigation phrase. When conducting field investigations, survey teams should identify the traditional knowledge holders by using the 'snowball method', record the traditional knowledge after obtaining prior informed concerned from the traditional knowledge holders. Researchers should fill out the survey forms provided by the Technical Specification of the Fourth National Survey of Chinese Materia Medica Resources. Researchers should pay particular attention to the scope of traditional knowledge and the method of inheriting the knowledge, which are the key information for traditional knowledge holders and potential users to reach mutual agreed terms to achieve benefit sharing. Third is the data compilation and analysis phrase. Researchers should try to compile and edit the TCM traditional knowledge in accordance with intellectual property rights requirements so that the information collected through the national survey can serve as the basic data for the TCM traditional knowledge database. The key methods of the survey include regional

  10. A Short History of Medical Informatics in Bosnia and Herzegovina

    PubMed Central

    Masic, Izet

    2014-01-01

    The health informatics profession in Bosnia and Herzegovina has relatively long history. Thirty five years from the introduction of the first automatic manipulation of data, thirty years from the establishment of Society for Medical Informatics BiH, twenty years from the establishment of the Scientific journal “Acta Informatica Medica (Acta Inform Med”, indexed in PubMed, PubMed Central Scopus, Embase, etc.), twenty years on from the establishment of the first Cathedra for Medical Informatics on Biomedical Faculties in Bosnia and Herzegovina, ten years on from the introduction of the method of “Distance learning” in medical curriculum. The author of this article is eager to mark the importance of the above mentioned Anniversaries in the development of Health informatics in Bosnia and Herzegovina and have attempted, very briefly, to present the most significant events and persons with essential roles throughout this period. PMID:24648621

  11. Antimicrobial and Cytotoxic Activity of Cuminum Cyminum as an Intracanal Medicament Compared to Chlorhexidine Gel

    PubMed Central

    Abbaszadegan, Abbas; Gholami, Ahmad; Ghahramani, Yasamin; Ghareghan, Razieh; Ghareghan, Marzieh; Kazemi, Aboozar; Iraji, Aida; Ghasemi, Younes

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The aims of this study were i) to define the chemical constituents of Cuminum cyminum (cumin) essential oil, ii) to compare the antimicrobial activity of this oil to that of chlorhexidine (CHX) and co-trimoxazole on planktonic and biofilm forms of bacteria isolated from the teeth with persistent endodontic infection and iii) to compare the cytotoxicity of these medicaments on L929 fibroblasts. Methods and Materials: Three groups of microorganisms [aerobic bacterial mixture, anaerobic bacterial mixture and Enterococcus faecalis (E .faecalis)] were isolated from the teeth with persistent apical periodontitis. Zone of inhibition (ZOI), minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC), minimum biofilm inhibitory concentration (MBIC) and time-kill tests were performed to assess the antimicrobial efficacy of the medicaments. Further, a cytocompatibility analysis of the medicaments was performed on L929 fibroblasts. The results obtained from disc diffusion test and mean cell viability values of the experimental medicaments were analyzed using two-way and one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA). Results: Seventeen constituents were recognized in cumin oil (predominantly cumin aldehyde and γ-terpinene). Co-trimoxazole showed the greatest ZOI followed by cumin and CHX. The smallest MIC and MBC belonged to co-trimoxazole followed by cumin and CHX for all groups of bacteria except for E. faecalis for which the MBC of cumin was smaller than co-trimoxazole. The results of time-kill assay revealed that all medicaments totally inhibited the bacterial growth in all groups after 24 h. CHX was the most cytotoxic solution while there were no significant differences between the cytocompatibility of different concentrations of cumin essential oil and co-trimoxazole. Conclusion: Cumin exhibited a strong antimicrobial efficiency against the microbial flora of the teeth with failed endodontic treatments and it was biocompatible for L929 mouse

  12. The effect of different root canal medicaments on the elimination of Enterococcus faecalis ex vivo

    PubMed Central

    Dammaschke, Till; Jung, Nina; Harks, Inga; Schafer, Edgar

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial effect of chlorhexidine gel (CHX-G) 2%, chlorhexidine powder (CHX-P) 1%, povidone-iodine (PVP-I), polyhexanide and camphorated-and-mentholated chlorophenol (ChKM) ex vivo. Materials and Methods: For every medicament group 10 root segments (15 mm long) of extracted human teeth were prepared to ISO-size 45 and sterilized (n = 50). The root segments were then inoculated with Enterococcus faecalis and aerobically incubated at 37°C. After 1 week, ten root canals were filled with one of the medicaments, respectively and aerobically incubated at 37°C for another week. Ten teeth served as positive controls and were filled with sterile saline solution. After 7 days, the medicaments were inactivated and all root canals were instrumented to ISO-size 50. The obtained dentin samples were dispersed in Ringer solution followed by the preparation of serial dilutions. 10 μl per sample were applied to an agar plate and incubated at 37°C for 48 h. The colony forming units were counted and the reduction factors (RFs) were calculated and statistically analyzed. Results: Compared with the positive controls all medicaments exhibited an antibacterial effect against E. faecalis. The RFs for CHX-G, CHX-P and ChKM were significantly higher compared to PVP-I and polyhexanide (P < 0.05). In contrast to PVP-I and polyhexanide, CHX-G, CHX-P and ChKM were able to eliminate E. faecalis from all dentin samples. Conclusions: Within the limitations of this ex vivo investigation, 2% CHX-G and CHX-P were as effective as ChKM against E. faecalis. Thus, when choosing a root canal medicament the better biocompatibility of CHX compared with ChKM should be taken in consideration. PMID:24932119

  13. [Discussion on sources of texts of Meng Sheng's Herbology of dietotherapy cited in Jinling edition of Compendium of materia medica].

    PubMed

    Shang, Z

    2000-07-01

    Most of the citations of Meng Sheng's Herbology of Dietotherapy in Compendium of Materia Medica are originated from the Daguan Herbology and Zhenghe Herbology. When comparing these sources of citations in Compendium of Materia Medica with the texts in Daguan and Zhenghe, it can be found that there are differences, In Compendium of Materia Medica, it is indicated that these sources marked "Meng Sheng's Herbology of Dietotherapy" are actually derived from other sources, while citations from other sources are marked "Meng Sheng's Herbology of Dietotherapy" which are not found in Classified Herbology (Zhenglei ben cao). This might be due to the editions of Daguan and Zhenghe Li Shizhen applied are different. PMID:11624691

  14. Myopathy-inducing mutation H40Y in ACTA1 hampers actin filament structure and function.

    PubMed

    Chan, Chun; Fan, Jun; Messer, Andrew E; Marston, Steve B; Iwamoto, Hiroyuki; Ochala, Julien

    2016-08-01

    In humans, more than 200 missense mutations have been identified in the ACTA1 gene. The exact molecular mechanisms by which, these particular mutations become toxic and lead to muscle weakness and myopathies remain obscure. To address this, here, we performed a molecular dynamics simulation, and we used a broad range of biophysical assays to determine how the lethal and myopathy-related H40Y amino acid substitution in actin affects the structure, stability, and function of this protein. Interestingly, our results showed that H40Y severely disrupts the DNase I-binding-loop structure and actin filaments. In addition, we observed that normal and mutant actin monomers are likely to form distinctive homopolymers, with mutant filaments being very stiff, and not supporting proper myosin binding. These phenomena underlie the toxicity of H40Y and may be considered as important triggering factors for the contractile dysfunction, muscle weakness and disease phenotype seen in patients. PMID:27112274

  15. Langkolide, a 32-membered macrolactone antibiotic produced by Streptomyces sp. Acta 3062.

    PubMed

    Helaly, Soleiman E; Kulik, Andreas; Zinecker, Heidi; Ramachandaran, Kamalanathan; Tan, Geok Yuan Annie; Imhoff, Johannes F; Süssmuth, Roderich D; Fiedler, Hans-Peter; Sabaratnam, Vikineswary

    2012-06-22

    A new 32-membered macrolactone antibiotic, named langkolide, was isolated from the mycelium of Streptomyces sp. Acta 3062. The langkolide structure was determined by HR-MS and 1D and 2D NMR as a 32-membered macrolactone connected from an overhanging polyketide tail to a naphthoquinone unit mediated by two carbohydrate moieties. The producing strain was isolated from a rhizosphere soil of Clitorea sp. collected at Burau Bay, Langkawi, Malaysia, and was characterized by its morphological and chemotaxonomic features in addition to its 16S rRNA gene sequence. It was identified as a member of the Streptomyces galbus clade. Langkolide exhibited various bioactivities including antimicrobial and antiproliferative activities. Furthermore, langkolide inhibited human recombinant phosphodiesterase 4 with an IC(50) value of 0.48 μM. PMID:22642587

  16. Crystallization reports are the backbone of Acta Cryst. F, but do they have any spine?

    PubMed Central

    Newman, Janet; Burton, Denis R.; Caria, Sofia; Desbois, Sebastien; Gee, Christine L.; Fazio, Vincent J.; Kvansakul, Marc; Marshall, Bevan; Mills, Grant; Richter, Viviane; Seabrook, Shane A.; Wu, Mingbo; Peat, Thomas S.

    2013-01-01

    Crystallization of macromolecules is famously difficult. By knowing what has worked for others, researchers can ease the process, both in the case where the protein has already been crystallized and in the situation where more general guidelines are needed. The 264 crystallization communications published in Acta Crystallographica Section F in 2012 have been reviewed, and from this analysis some information about trends in crystallization has been gleaned. More importantly, it was found that there are several ways in which the utility of these communications could be increased: to make each individual paper a more complete crystallization record; and to provide a means for taking a snapshot of what the current ‘best practices’ are in the field. PMID:23832194

  17. Crystallization reports are the backbone of Acta Cryst. F, but do they have any spine?

    PubMed

    Newman, Janet; Burton, Denis R; Caria, Sofia; Desbois, Sebastien; Gee, Christine L; Fazio, Vincent J; Kvansakul, Marc; Marshall, Bevan; Mills, Grant; Richter, Viviane; Seabrook, Shane A; Wu, Mingbo; Peat, Thomas S

    2013-07-01

    Crystallization of macromolecules is famously difficult. By knowing what has worked for others, researchers can ease the process, both in the case where the protein has already been crystallized and in the situation where more general guidelines are needed. The 264 crystallization communications published in Acta Crystallographica Section F in 2012 have been reviewed, and from this analysis some information about trends in crystallization has been gleaned. More importantly, it was found that there are several ways in which the utility of these communications could be increased: to make each individual paper a more complete crystallization record; and to provide a means for taking a snapshot of what the current `best practices' are in the field. PMID:23832194

  18. Publications on Albert Einstein, cosmology and theory of relativity in Acta Historica Astronomiae. An annotated bibliography. (German Title: Publikationen zu Albert Einstein, Kosmologie und Relativitätstheorie in Acta Historica Astronomiae. Eine annotierte Bibliographie)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dick, Wolfgang R.

    This bibliography lists 15 publications which appeared in volumes 1 to 26 (1998 to 2005) in the series ``Acta Historica Astronomiae''. They concern life and work of Albert Einstein as well as the history of and modern developments in the theory of relativity and relativistic cosmology.

  19. Comparison of antibacterial efficacy of intracanal medicaments in multiple visit pulpectomies in primary molars-an in vivo study.

    PubMed

    Lele, G S; Subba Reddy, V V

    2010-01-01

    Antibacterial efficacy of formocresol, 2% gluteraldehyde and iodine-potassium iodide was assessed by obtaining cultures at consecutive appointments in multiple visit pulpectomies in primary molars. Formocresol and 2% gluteraldehyde were more effective as intracanal medicaments and caused significant reduction in the counts of aerobic and anaerobic microorganisms, thereby supporting the need for placing intracanal medicaments with antibacterial properties, in multiple visit pulpectomies in primary molars. PMID:20215667

  20. [Research on the origins and development of the verse "eighteen antagonism" in Chinese material medica].

    PubMed

    Yang, Huan; Fan, Xin-Sheng; Bian, Ya-Li; Li, Yun; Jiang, Chen-Xue

    2013-03-01

    The verse "eighteen antagonism" of Chinese materia medica is a kind of describing of drug nature concerning the incompatibility of drugs in compound prescription. Through organizing the medical books in different historical periods, it is found that the drugs in this verse basically coming from TAO Hong-jing's ben cao jing ji zhu (Variorum of Shennong's Classic of Materia Medica), while the style of verse mostly appeared during the Song-Jin-Yuan period was made. The formed verse was explained and supplemented further in the Ming Dynasty, the basis of which appeared in the Song-Jin-Yuan Dynasty, resulting in the increase of the number of antagonistic drugs and lengthy verse. The origin of the verse seen in Ru men shi qin (Confucians' Duties to Their Parents) and those in other books was not identical and was the most popular one after the Qing Dynasty, becoming the most popularly known even today. PMID:24135473

  1. Antimicrobial Effects of Four Intracanal Medicaments on Enterococcus Faecalis: An in Vitro Study

    PubMed Central

    Mozayeni, Mohammad Ali; Haeri, Ali; Dianat, Omid; Jafari, Ali Reza

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of four intracanal medicaments on Enterococcus Faecalis (E. Faecalis). Methods and Materials: Fifty extracted single-rooted human teeth were prepared with standard method. After contaminating the canals with E. Faecalis, the samples were divided into one control and four experimental groups (n=10). The teeth in each group were treated with one of the experimental medicaments, including calcium hydroxide (CH), 2% chlorhexidine gel (CHX), triple antibiotic paste (TAP) and nanosilver (NS). In control group, canals were filled with a neutral gel. Microbial samples were obtained from the roots after 7 days and optical density of the cultures was determined after 24 h of incubation. Optical density values were analyzed with one-way analysis of variance and Tukey’s post hoc tests. Results: CHX gel and TAP were significantly more effective against E. Faecalis than CH, which was also significantly more efficient than NS and normal saline. In the paper cone samples, CHX gel was more effective than TAP; however, samples obtained with sizes 2 and 4 Gate Glidden drills, indicated that TAP was much more efficient than CHX. Normal saline and NS had similar effects on E. Faecalis. Conclusion: NS gel was not efficient enough against E. Faecalis; however, TAP and CHX gel showed better antibacterial efficacy than CH and can be used as an alternative intracanal medicaments in root canal therapies. PMID:25031593

  2. Yeast α-Glucosidase Inhibitory Phenolic Compounds Isolated from Gynura medica Leaf

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Chao; Wang, Qunxing; Luo, Chunhua; Chen, Sai; Li, Qianyuan; Li, Peng

    2013-01-01

    Gynura medica leaf extract contains significant amounts of flavonols and phenolic acids and exhibits powerful hypoglycemic activity against diabetic rats in vivo. However, the hypoglycemic active constituents that exist in the plant have not been fully elaborated. The purpose of this study is to isolate and elaborate the hypoglycemic activity compounds against inhibition the yeast α-glucosidase in vitro. Seven phenolic compounds including five flavonols and two phenolic acids were isolated from the leaf of G. medica. Their structures were identified by the extensive NMR and mass spectral analyses as: kaempferol (1), quercetin (2), kaempferol-3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (3), kaempferol-3-O-rutinoside (4), rutin (5), chlorogenic acid (6) and 3,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid methyl ester (7). All of the compounds except 1 and 3 were isolated for the first time from G. medica. Compounds 1–7 were also assayed for their hypoglycemic activity against yeast α-glucosidase in vitro. All of the compounds except 1 and 6 showed good yeast α-glucosidase inhibitory activity with the IC50 values of 1.67 mg/mL, 1.46 mg/mL, 0.38 mg/mL, 0.10 mg/mL and 0.53 mg/mL, respectively. PMID:23358246

  3. Avoidance of Autophagy Mediated by PlcA or ActA Is Required for Listeria monocytogenes Growth in Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, Gabriel; Ge, Liang; Huang, Qiongying; Chen, Chen; Kianian, Sara; Roberts, Mary F.; Schekman, Randy

    2015-01-01

    Listeria monocytogenes is a facultative intracellular pathogen that escapes from phagosomes and grows in the cytosol of infected host cells. Most of the determinants that govern its intracellular life cycle are controlled by the transcription factor PrfA, including the pore-forming cytolysin listeriolysin O (LLO), two phospholipases C (PlcA and PlcB), and ActA. We constructed a strain that lacked PrfA but expressed LLO from a PrfA-independent promoter, thereby allowing the bacteria to gain access to the host cytosol. This strain did not grow efficiently in wild-type macrophages but grew normally in macrophages that lacked ATG5, a component of the autophagy LC3 conjugation system. This strain colocalized more with the autophagy marker LC3 (42% ± 7%) at 2 h postinfection, which constituted a 5-fold increase over the colocalization exhibited by the wild-type strain (8% ± 6%). While mutants lacking the PrfA-dependent virulence factor PlcA, PlcB, or ActA grew normally, a double mutant lacking both PlcA and ActA failed to grow in wild-type macrophages and colocalized more with LC3 (38% ± 5%). Coexpression of LLO and PlcA in a PrfA-negative strain was sufficient to restore intracellular growth and decrease the colocalization of the bacteria with LC3. In a cell-free assay, purified PlcA protein blocked LC3 lipidation, a key step in early autophagosome biogenesis, presumably by preventing the formation of phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate (PI3P). The results of this study showed that avoidance of autophagy by L. monocytogenes primarily involves PlcA and ActA and that either one of these factors must be present for L. monocytogenes growth in macrophages. PMID:25776746

  4. Book Review: Beitraege zur Astronomiegeschichte, Band 5 (Acta Historica Astronomiae Vol. 15)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duerbeck, H. W.; Dick, W. R.; Hamel, J.

    2002-12-01

    The 15th volume of the Acta Historica Astronomiae is at the same time the fifth collection of essays on the history of astronomy (Beitraege zur Astronomiegeschichte, Band 5), edited by the historians of astronomy W.R. Dick (Potsdam) and J. Hamel (Berlin). Besides a few short notices and book reviews, the book contains 11 major articles, which deal with astronomical topics covering the time from the 16th to the 20th centuries. The first article, on the analysis and interpretation of historical horoscopes as a source of the history of science, is based on the inaugural lecture of its author, Guenther Oestmann. After a general introduction, which deals with the principles of horoscope making, the author discusses the horoscope of Count Heinrich Ranzau (1526-1598), the Danish governor of Schleswig-Holstein, who was a friend of Tycho Brahe. Oestmann shows that the astronomical-mathematical basis of such a horoscope can be reconstructed and interpreted. However, it is hardly possible to gain an insight in the process how the interpretation of a horoscope was done in detail. The second and third articles, by Franz Daxecker, deal with Athanasius Kircher and Christoph Scheiner, two catholic astronomers of the 17th century. Kircher's Organum Mathematicum is a calculating device that can be used in the fields of arithmetic, geometry, chronology, astronomy, astrology and others. The author provides extracts of the description of the Organum taken from a book by Caspar Schott, which deal with chronology and astronomy. A photograph of the Organum indicates that this tool consists of a set of tables glued on wooden or cardboard, but details of its contents and applications remain pretty obscure for the reader - a few elaborated examples would have been helpful. The second paper deals with the life of Christoph Scheiner SJ, the co-discoverer of sunspots (next to Galileo), after leaving Rome in 1633 - the year of the Galileo trial. Scheiner spent his later years in the Austrian and

  5. Identification of Sinorhizobium (Ensifer) medicae based on a specific genomic sequence unveiled by M13-PCR fingerprinting.

    PubMed

    Dourado, Ana Catarina; Alves, Paula I L; Tenreiro, Tania; Ferreira, Eugénio M; Tenreiro, Rogério; Fareleira, Paula; Crespo, M Teresa Barreto

    2009-12-01

    A collection of nodule isolates from Medicago polymorpha obtained from southern and central Portugal was evaluated by M13-PCR fingerprinting and hierarchical cluster analysis. Several genomic clusters were obtained which, by 16S rRNA gene sequencing of selected representatives, were shown to be associated with particular taxonomic groups of rhizobia and other soil bacteria. The method provided a clear separation between rhizobia and co-isolated non-symbiotic soil contaminants. Ten M13-PCR groups were assigned to Sinorhizobium (Ensifer) medicae and included all isolates responsible for the formation of nitrogen-fixing nodules upon re-inoculation of M. polymorpha test-plants. In addition, enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus (ERIC)-PCR fingerprinting indicated a high genomic heterogeneity within the major M13- PCR clusters of S. medicae isolates. Based on nucleotide sequence data of an M13-PCR amplicon of ca. 1500 bp, observed only in S. medicae isolates and spanning locus Smed_3707 to Smed_3709 from the pSMED01 plasmid sequence of S. medicae WSM419 genome's sequence, a pair of PCR primers was designed and used for direct PCR amplification of a 1399-bp sequence within this fragment. Additional in silico and in vitro experiments, as well as phylogenetic analysis, confirmed the specificity of this primer combination and therefore the reliability of this approach in the prompt identification of S. medicae isolates and their distinction from other soil bacteria. PMID:20112226

  6. ICMJE authorship criteria are not met in a substantial proportion of manuscripts submitted to Biochemia Medica

    PubMed Central

    Šupak-Smolčić, Vesna; Mlinarić, Ana; Antončić, Dragana; Horvat, Martina; Omazić, Jelena; Šimundić, Ana-Maria

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Our aim was to investigate if: (a) authors of Biochemia Medica meet authorship criteria given by International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE), (b) authorship violations are more frequent in submissions containing some type of scientific misconduct. Materials and methods Self-reported authorship contributions regarding the three ICMJE criteria were analysed for all submissions to Biochemia Medica (February 2013-April 2015) which were forwarded to peer-review. To test the differences in frequencies we used Chi-squared test. P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results 186 manuscripts were authored by 804 authors. All ICMJE criteria were met by 487/804 (61%) authors. The first and the last author met all the criteria more frequently than those authors in between (P < 0.001). The degree to which ICMJE criteria was met for the first author did not differ between manuscripts authored by only one author and those authored by >1 author (P = 0.859). In 9% of the manuscripts ICMJE criteria were not met by a single author. Authors of the 171/186 manuscripts declared that all persons qualify for authorship but only 49% of them satisfied all ICMJE criteria. Authors have failed to acknowledge contributors in 88/186 (47%) manuscripts; instead these contributors have been listed as authors without fulfilling ICMJE criteria. Authorship violation was not more common in 42 manuscripts with some type of scientific misconduct (P = 0.135). Conclusion Large proportion of authors of the manuscripts submitted to Biochemia Medica do not fulfil ICMJE criteria. Violation of authorship criteria is not more common for manuscripts with some type of scientific misconduct. PMID:26526700

  7. [The translation and its meanings of Materia Medica Part. I in the Jejungwon].

    PubMed

    Park, Junhyoung; Park, Hyoungwoo

    2011-12-31

    For more systematic medical education, Dr. O. R. Avison translated medical textbooks into Korean since he took charge of Jejungwon in 1893. The first book he chose was Anatomy of the Human Body. He, however, failed to see it published after losing its manuscript twice. Instead, Materia Medica Part. I was brought into the world first in 1905, for which he translated Materia Medica and Therapeutics written by John Mitchell Bruce from the U. K. At that time, this book was in widespread use in the English-speaking world as a textbook for pharmacology. It is also assumed that Avison used it as a textbook for his classes in Canada before coming to Korea. For the publication of Materia Medica Part. I, Avison did not translate Bruce's original text in full, but translated only the selected passages. He followed a principle of using Korean alphabets (Hangeul) only, but in combination with Chinese characters, if necessary. He put pharmacological terms into existing Korean equivalents or newly coined words, but also borrowed many from Japanese terms. That's because Japan moved faster to introduce Western medicine than Korea did, so that many pharmacological terms could be defined and arranged more systematically in Japanese. Moreover, Japan took such a favorable stance in the state of international affairs that many of Japanese-style terms could be introduced into Korea in most fields including medicine. By translating Materia Medica Part. I in cooperation with his disciple KIM Pilsoon after Gray's Anatomy of the Human Body, Avison tried to lay groundwork for providing medical education in Korea based on the British-American medicine. It is assumed that he took an independent stance in selecting and translating Western medical textbooks on his own rather than simply accepting the existing Chinese translation of Western medical textbooks. Despite all his efforts, he might find it difficult to translate all the Western medical terms into Korean within a short period of time

  8. Evaluation of the antibacterial activities of calcium hydroxide, chlorhexidine, and camphorated paramonochlorophenol as intracanal medicament. A clinical and laboratory study.

    PubMed

    Barbosa, C A; Gonçalves, R B; Siqueira, J F; De Uzeda, M

    1997-05-01

    The antibacterial activities of camphorated paramonochlorophenol, chlorhexidine, and calcium hydroxide were compared using a clinical and laboratory evaluation. In the clinical experiment, root canals that yielded positive cultures a week after complete chemomechanical preparation and camphorated paramonochlorophenol dressing were medicated with one of the three substances tested. Postmedication samples were taken from the canal 1 week later. In the laboratory experiment, the agar diffusion test was used to evaluate the inhibitory activity of the medicaments against bacteria commonly found in endodontic infections. The results of the clinical evaluation showed that all medicaments were effective in reducing or eliminating the endodontic microbiota, as demonstrated by the incidence of negative cultures. There was no statistically significant difference among the medicaments tested. In the laboratory evaluation, camphorated paramonochlorophenol showed the largest zones of bacterial inhibition against all bacterial strains tested. PMID:9545931

  9. Identification of species and materia medica within Angelica L. (Umbelliferae) based on phylogeny inferred from DNA barcodes

    PubMed Central

    YUAN, QING-JUN; ZHANG, BIN; JIANG, DAN; ZHANG, WEN-JING; LIN, TSAI-YUN; WANG, NIAN-HE; CHIOU, SHU-JIAU; HUANG, LU-QI

    2015-01-01

    DNA barcodes have been increasingly used in authentication of medicinal plants, while their wide application in materia medica is limited in their accuracy due to incomplete sampling of species and absence of identification for materia medica. In this study, 95 leaf accessions of 23 species (including one variety) and materia medica of three Pharmacopoeia-recorded species of Angelica in China were collected to evaluate the effectiveness of four DNA barcodes (rbcL, matK, trnH-psbA and ITS). Our results showed that ITS provided the best discriminatory power by resolving 17 species as monophyletic lineages without shared alleles and exhibited the largest barcoding gap among the four single barcodes. The phylogenetic analysis of ITS showed that Levisticum officinale and Angelica sinensis were sister taxa, which indicates that L. officinale should be considered as a species of Angelica. The combination of ITS + rbcL + matK + trnH-psbA performed slight better discriminatory power than ITS, recovering 23 species without shared alleles and 19 species as monophyletic clades in ML tree. Authentication of materia medica using ITS revealed that the decoction pieces of A. sinensis and A. biserrata were partially adulterated with those of L. officinale, and the temperature around 80 °C processing A. dahurica decoction pieces obviously reduced the efficiency of PCR and sequencing. The examination of two cultivated varieties of A. dahurica from different localities indicated that the four DNA barcodes are inefficient for discriminating geographical authenticity of conspecific materia medica. This study provides an empirical paradigm in identification of medicinal plants and their materia medica using DNA barcodes. PMID:24961287

  10. [Research practices of conversion efficiency of resources utilization model of castoff from Chinese material medica industrialization].

    PubMed

    Duan, Jin-Ao; Su, Shu-Lan; Guo, Sheng; Liu, Pei; Qian, Da-Wei; Jiang, Shu; Zhu, Hua-Xu; Tang, Yu-Ping; Wu, Qi-Nan

    2013-12-01

    The industrialization chains and their products, which were formed from the process of the production of medicinal materials-prepared drug in pieces and deep processed product of Chinese material medica (CMM) resources, have generated large benefits of social and economic. However, The large of herb-medicine castoff of "non-medicinal parts" and "rejected materials" produced inevitably during the process of Chinese medicinal resources produce and process, and the residues, waste water and waste gas were produced during the manufactured and deep processed product of CMM. These lead to the waste of resources and environmental pollution. Our previous researches had proposed the "three utilization strategies" and "three types of resources models" of herb-medicine castoff according to the different physicochemical property of resources constitutes, resources potential and utility value of herb-medicine castoff. This article focus on the conversion efficiency of resources model and analysis the ways, technologies, practices, and application in herb-medicine cast off of the conversion efficiency of resources model based on the recycling economy theory of resources and thoughts of resources chemistry of CMM. These data may be promote and resolve the key problems limited the industrialization of Chinese material medica for long time and promote the realization of herb-medicine castoff resources utilization. PMID:24791476

  11. Bacteriological evaluation of Allium sativum oil as a new medicament for pulpotomy of primary teeth

    PubMed Central

    Mohammad, Shukry Gamal; Baroudi, Kusai

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To compare the effects of Allium sativum oil and formocresol on the pulp tissue of the pulpotomized teeth. Materials and Methods: Twenty children were selected for this study. All children had a pair of non-vital primary molars. A sterile paper point was dipped in the root canals prior to the mortal pulpotomy. These paper points were collected in transfer media and immediately transported to the microbiological lab to be investigated microbiologically (for Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus acidophilus). Then the procedure of mortal pulpotomy was performed. After 2 weeks, the cotton pellets were removed and sterile paper points were dipped in the root canals for microbiological examination. Then comparison between the count of bacteria before and after treatment was conducted. Statistical analysis was performed using independent t-test and paired t-test at the significance level of α = 0.05. Results: After application of both medicaments, there was a marked decrease in S. mutans and L. acidophilus counts. The difference between the mean of log values of the count before and after the application was highly significant for both medicaments (P < 0.05); however, better results were obtained when A. sativum oil was used. Conclusion: A. sativum oil had more powerful antimicrobial effects than formocresol on the bacteria of the infected root canals. PMID:25992338

  12. Association of a Novel ACTA1 Mutation With a Dominant Progressive Scapuloperoneal Myopathy in an Extended Family

    PubMed Central

    Zukosky, Kristen; Meilleur, Katherine; Traynor, Bryan J.; Dastgir, Jahannaz; Medne, Livija; Devoto, Marcella; Collins, James; Rooney, Jachinta; Zou, Yaqun; Yang, Michele L.; Gibbs, J. Raphael; Meier, Markus; Stetefeld, Joerg; Finkel, Richard S.; Schessl, Joachim; Elman, Lauren; Felice, Kevin; Ferguson, Toby A.; Ceyhan-Birsoy, Ozge; Beggs, Alan H.; Tennekoon, Gihan; Johnson, Janel O.; Bönnemann, Carsten G.

    2015-01-01

    IMPORTANCE New genomic strategies can now be applied to identify a diagnosis in patients and families with previously undiagnosed rare genetic conditions. The large family evaluated in the present study was described in 1966 and now expands the phenotype of a known neuromuscular gene. OBJECTIVE To determine the genetic cause of a slowly progressive, autosomal dominant, scapuloperoneal neuromuscular disorder by using linkage and exome sequencing. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS Fourteen affected individuals in a 6-generation family with a progressive scapuloperoneal disorder were evaluated. Participants were examined at pediatric, neuromuscular, and research clinics from March 1, 2005, to May 31, 2014. Exome and linkage were performed in genetics laboratories of research institutions. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Examination and evaluation by magnetic resonance imaging, ultrasonography, electrodiagnostic studies, and muscle biopsies (n = 3). Genetic analysis included linkage analysis (n = 17) with exome sequencing (n = 7). RESULTS Clinical findings included progressive muscle weakness in an initially scapuloperoneal and distal distribution, including wrist extensor weakness, finger and foot drop, scapular winging, mild facial weakness, Achilles tendon contractures, and diminished or absent deep tendon reflexes. Both age at onset and progression of the disease showed clinical variability within the family. Muscle biopsy specimens demonstrated type I fiber atrophy and trabeculated fibers without nemaline rods. Analysis of exome sequences within the linkage region (4.8 megabases) revealed missense mutation c.591C>A p.Glu197Asp in a highly conserved residue in exon 4 of ACTA1. The mutation cosegregated with disease in all tested individuals and was not present in unaffected individuals. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE This family defines a new scapuloperoneal phenotype associated with an ACTA1 mutation. A highly conserved protein, ACTA1 is implicated in multiple muscle

  13. Book Review: Beitraege zur Astronomiegeschichte, Band 5 (Acta Historica Astronomiae Vol. 15)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duerbeck, H. W.; Dick, W. R.; Hamel, J.

    2002-12-01

    The 15th volume of the Acta Historica Astronomiae is at the same time the fifth collection of essays on the history of astronomy (Beitraege zur Astronomiegeschichte, Band 5), edited by the historians of astronomy W.R. Dick (Potsdam) and J. Hamel (Berlin). Besides a few short notices and book reviews, the book contains 11 major articles, which deal with astronomical topics covering the time from the 16th to the 20th centuries. The first article, on the analysis and interpretation of historical horoscopes as a source of the history of science, is based on the inaugural lecture of its author, Guenther Oestmann. After a general introduction, which deals with the principles of horoscope making, the author discusses the horoscope of Count Heinrich Ranzau (1526-1598), the Danish governor of Schleswig-Holstein, who was a friend of Tycho Brahe. Oestmann shows that the astronomical-mathematical basis of such a horoscope can be reconstructed and interpreted. However, it is hardly possible to gain an insight in the process how the interpretation of a horoscope was done in detail. The second and third articles, by Franz Daxecker, deal with Athanasius Kircher and Christoph Scheiner, two catholic astronomers of the 17th century. Kircher's Organum Mathematicum is a calculating device that can be used in the fields of arithmetic, geometry, chronology, astronomy, astrology and others. The author provides extracts of the description of the Organum taken from a book by Caspar Schott, which deal with chronology and astronomy. A photograph of the Organum indicates that this tool consists of a set of tables glued on wooden or cardboard, but details of its contents and applications remain pretty obscure for the reader - a few elaborated examples would have been helpful. The second paper deals with the life of Christoph Scheiner SJ, the co-discoverer of sunspots (next to Galileo), after leaving Rome in 1633 - the year of the Galileo trial. Scheiner spent his later years in the Austrian and

  14. [Feasibility analysis of application of future contract in Chinese materia medica transaction].

    PubMed

    Huang, Luqi; Yang, Guang; Zhang, Ruixian; Ma, Chaoyi

    2011-08-01

    With the rapid development of Chinese economy, the traditional Chinese medicine has been paid more attention worldwide because of its therapeutic effect and the special health care function. The future contract which was born under the modern economic system, by its price discovery function and the circumvention risk function, occupies the main superiority in the commodity exchange. The traditional Chinese medicine, which has a glorious transaction history commodity, whether future contract could be used to carry on the transaction still to lack the scientific examination. This article reviewed traditional Chinese medicine tradition trading mode forms with in the evolution foundation, summarized the Chinese materia medica tradition trading mode characteristic, discussed necessity and feasibility of the future contract as a supplement sale way for traditional Chinese medicine transaction. It also forecasted possible risk of future contract, proposed the preliminary implementation method for traditional Chinese medicine future contract. PMID:22066430

  15. Magic, Mind Control, and the Body Electric: "Materia Medica" in Sir Walter Scott's Library at Abbotsford.

    PubMed

    Levy, Lindsay

    2014-01-01

    This chapter examines the medical texts, or "Materia Medica", held by Sir Walter Scott in his library at Abbotsford. While the vast majority of Scott's medical texts are antiquarian, his library also contains rare tracts and ephemera relating to the medical practice of the infamous quack, Dr James Graham (1745-94), and the Burke and Hare controversy of 1828 and its aftermath. Examining Scott's holdings of medical texts in relation to his own health and that of his family and friends, it is argued that the lack of contemporary medical self-help texts in his library is striking and indicative of his stoical attitude towards health, despite his clear interest in medical culture. PMID:27132356

  16. [Academic heritage of Jiu huang ben cao (Materia Medica for Relief of Famines) in Japan].

    PubMed

    He, Huiling; Xiao, Yongzhi

    2014-11-01

    Jiu huang ben cao (Materia Medica for Relief of Famines) was the first monograph on famines herbal in the history of China, which creates a new research field of edible plants. Around the middle and late 17th century, Jiu huang ben cao was spread to Japan and aroused great attention of famous Japanese herbalists. Thus, all versions of different edition systems were circulated in Japan. Later, some famous Japanese scholar ssuccessively quoted texts of Jiu huang ben cao from the Nong zheng quan shu (Whole book on Agricultural Administration) spread in Japan, and block-printed it as an independent work. As a result, Jiu huang ben cao virtually circulated widely in Japan. PMID:25620360

  17. From Materia Medica to the Pharmacopoeia: Challenges of Writing the History of Drugs in India

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Historians of indigenous medicine in colonial India have looked more closely at the changes, reinventions and reformulations of institutions of Ayurveda and Unani than at the cognitive content of the drugs themselves. The few historians who have examined the changing content of indigenous medicines have conceptualised the creation of materia medica of Indian drugs through two tropes: one of circulation (of specific drugs) through epistemological and geographic boundaries and the second, of marginalisation of certain other drugs either through a lack of textual legitimacy or the lack of the newly discovered ‘active principles’ within each drug. While these approaches have been useful, there is a case to be made for understanding the creation of formularies of Indian drugs in 19th and 20th centuries through the prism of medical praxis in India. PMID:27570491

  18. PAT: From Western solid dosage forms to Chinese materia medica preparations using NIR-CI.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Luwei; Xu, Manfei; Wu, Zhisheng; Shi, Xinyuan; Qiao, Yanjiang

    2016-01-01

    Near-infrared chemical imaging (NIR-CI) is an emerging technology that combines traditional near-infrared spectroscopy with chemical imaging. Therefore, NIR-CI can extract spectral information from pharmaceutical products and simultaneously visualize the spatial distribution of chemical components. The rapid and non-destructive features of NIR-CI make it an attractive process analytical technology (PAT) for identifying and monitoring critical control parameters during the pharmaceutical manufacturing process. This review mainly focuses on the pharmaceutical applications of NIR-CI in each unit operation during the manufacturing processes, from the Western solid dosage forms to the Chinese materia medica preparations. Finally, future applications of chemical imaging in the pharmaceutical industry are discussed. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:25877484

  19. [Key content and formulation of national Chinese materia medica resources survey at county level].

    PubMed

    Lu, Jian-Wei; Zhang, Xiao-Bo; Li, Hai-Tao; Guo, Lan-Ping; Zhao, Run-Huai; Zhang, Ben-Gang; Sun, Li-Ying; Huang, Lu-Qi

    2013-08-01

    According to National Census for Water, National Population Census, National Land and Resources Survey, and work experience of experimental measures for national Chinese materia medica resources(CMMR) survey,the national CMMR survey at the county level is the key point of whole survey, that includes organization and management, field survey, sorting data three key links. Organization and management works of national CMMR survey needs to finish four key contents, there are definite goals and tasks, practicable crew, preparation directory, and security assurance. Field survey works of the national CMMR survey needs to finish five key contents, there are preparation works for field survey, the choice of the key survey area (samples), fill in the questionnaire, video data collection, specimen and other physical collection. Sorting data works of the national CMMR survey needs to finish tree key contents, there are data, specimen and census results. PMID:24228581

  20. An Update on the Management of Endodontic Biofilms Using Root Canal Irrigants and Medicaments

    PubMed Central

    Mohammadi, Zahed; Soltani, Mohammad Karim; Shalavi, Sousan

    2014-01-01

    Microbial biofilm is defined as a sessile multicellular microbial community characterized by cells that are firmly attached to a surface and enmeshed in a self-produced matrix of extracellular polymeric substances. Biofilms play a very important role in pulp and periradicular pathosis. The aim of this article was to review the role of endodontic biofilms and the effects of root canal irrigants, medicaments as well as lasers on biofilms A Medline search was performed on the English articles published from 1982 to 2013 and was limited to papers published in English. The searched keywords were “Biofilms AND endodontics”, “Biofilms AND sodium hypochlorite”, "Biofilms AND chlorhexidine", "Biofilms AND MTAD", "Biofilms AND calcium hydroxide", “Biofilms AND ozone”, “Biofilms AND lasers” and "Biofilms AND nanoparticles". The reference list of each article was manually searched to find other suitable sources of information. PMID:24688576

  1. Alshamel fi Sana’at Tebbi’at: A Comprehensive Book on the Materia Medica

    PubMed Central

    Mosaffa-Jahromi, Maryam; Kiani, Hossein

    2016-01-01

    Background: Ala-al-din abu Al-Hassan Ali ibn Abi-Hazm al-Qarshi al-Dimashqi, known as Ibn al-Nafis (1210-1288 AD), was a Muslim Syrian physician primarily famous for being the first to describe the pulmonary circulation of the blood. The most voluminous of his books is Alshamel fi Sana’at tebbi’at, which is a comprehensive medical encyclopedia. It comprised 300 volumes of notes, from which only 80 volumes are published. His writings are cataloged in many libraries around the world. The aim of this review article, as a tribute to Ibn al-Nafis, was to introduce his valuable but neglected encyclopedia of Materia Medica. Methods: Ibn al-Nafis’ traditional approach in his “Alshamel fi Sana’at tebbi’at” book is studied in the present article. Results: Alshamel fi Sana’at tebbi’at covers three branches of knowledge. The first category is devoted to theoretical traditional medicine. The second is in four sections where much of it is not available yet. The third category is on Materia Medica covering the aspect of Unani medicine, from which only 28 volumes of the comprehensive book on the traditional medicine have been found so far. The latter, introduces mono-ingredient medications in alphabetical order. Each chapter, in several parts, is dedicated to the botanical characteristics and nature of each mono-ingredient medication. In addition, this book explains traditional pharmacokinetic of every single medication for each human body organs. Conclusion: Based on pharmaco-mechanistic perspective on Alshamel fi Sana’at tebbi’at, it could be considered as the main reference book on traditional medicine and pharmacy, worthy of revival. PMID:27516653

  2. Systematic mutational analysis of the amino-terminal domain of the Listeria monocytogenes ActA protein reveals novel functions in actin-based motility.

    PubMed

    Lauer, P; Theriot, J A; Skoble, J; Welch, M D; Portnoy, D A

    2001-12-01

    The Listeria monocytogenes ActA protein acts as a scaffold to assemble and activate host cell actin cytoskeletal factors at the bacterial surface, resulting in directional actin polymerization and propulsion of the bacterium through the cytoplasm. We have constructed 20 clustered charged-to-alanine mutations in the NH2-terminal domain of ActA and replaced the endogenous actA gene with these molecular variants. These 20 clones were evaluated in several biological assays for phenotypes associated with particular amino acid changes. Additionally, each protein variant was purified and tested for stimulation of the Arp2/3 complex, and a subset was tested for actin monomer binding. These specific mutations refined the two regions involved in Arp2/3 activation and suggest that the actin-binding sequence of ActA spans 40 amino acids. We also identified a 'motility rate and cloud-to-tail transition' region in which nine contiguous mutations spanning amino acids 165-260 caused motility rate defects and changed the ratio of intracellular bacteria associated with actin clouds and comet tails without affecting Arp2/3 activation. Several unusual motility phenotypes were associated with amino acid changes in this region, including altered paths through the cytoplasm, discontinuous actin tails in host cells and the tendency to 'skid' or dramatically change direction while moving. These unusual phenotypes illustrate the complexity of ActA functions that control the actin-based motility of L. monocytogenes. PMID:11886549

  3. [Investigation on pattern of quality control for Chinese materia medica based on famous-region drug and bioassay--the work reference].

    PubMed

    Yan, Dan; Xiao, Xiaohe

    2011-05-01

    Selection and standardization of the work reference are the technical issues to be faced with in the bioassay of Chinese materia medica. Taking the bioassay of Coptis chinensis. as an example, the manufacture process of the famous-region drugs extraction was explained from the aspects of original identification, routine examination, component analysis and bioassay. The common technologies were extracted, and the selection and standardization procedures of the work reference for the bioassay of Chinese materia medica were drawn up, so as to provide technical support for constructing a new mode and method of the quality control of Chinese materia medica based on the famous-region drugs and bioassay. PMID:21842660

  4. Electrostatic and Hydrophobic Interactions Mediate Single-Stranded DNA Recognition and Acta2 Repression by Purine-Rich Element-Binding Protein B.

    PubMed

    Rumora, Amy E; Ferris, Lauren A; Wheeler, Tamar R; Kelm, Robert J

    2016-05-17

    Myofibroblast differentiation is characterized by an increased level of expression of cytoskeletal smooth muscle α-actin. In human and murine fibroblasts, the gene encoding smooth muscle α-actin (Acta2) is tightly regulated by a network of transcription factors that either activate or repress the 5' promoter-enhancer in response to environmental cues signaling tissue repair and remodeling. Purine-rich element-binding protein B (Purβ) suppresses the expression of Acta2 by cooperatively interacting with the sense strand of a 5' polypurine sequence containing an inverted MCAT cis element required for gene activation. In this study, we evaluated the chemical basis of nucleoprotein complex formation between the Purβ repressor and the purine-rich strand of the MCAT element in the mouse Acta2 promoter. Quantitative single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) binding assays conducted in the presence of increasing concentrations of monovalent salt or anionic detergent suggested that the assembly of a high-affinity nucleoprotein complex is driven by a combination of electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions. Consistent with the results of pH titration analysis, site-directed mutagenesis revealed several basic amino acid residues in the intermolecular (R267) and intramolecular (K82 and R159) subdomains that are essential for Purβ transcriptional repressor function in Acta2 promoter-reporter assays. In keeping with their diminished Acta2 repressor activity in fibroblasts, purified Purβ variants containing an R267A mutation exhibited reduced binding affinity for purine-rich ssDNA. Moreover, certain double and triple-point mutants were also defective in binding to the Acta2 corepressor protein, Y-box-binding protein 1. Collectively, these findings establish the repertoire of noncovalent interactions that account for the unique structural and functional properties of Purβ. PMID:27064749

  5. [Research on Zhang's collated edition of Lei gong pao zhi lun (Master Lei's Discourse on Processing of Chinese Materia Medica)].

    PubMed

    Cheng, Li

    2010-05-01

    Lei gong pao zhi lun (Master Lei's Discourse on Processing of Chinese Materia Medica) collated by Zhang Ji, and printed by Zhang's Yisheng Tang in Chengdu in 1932 was the first collated edition. Its original edition was not Jing shi zheng lei bei ji ben cao (Classified Materia Medica from Historical Classics for Emergency) of the Song Dynasty, but was Xiu shi zhi nan (Instruction for Drug Processing) and Lei gong pao zhi yao xing jie (Explanation on Master Lei's Properties of Drugs Processing) of the Qing Dynasty. The contents of this collated edition was far from Lei gong pao zhi lun with many mistakes, and was not the best edition to study Lei gong pao zhi lun. PMID:21029711

  6. Genome sequence of Ensifer medicae strain WSM1369; an effective microsymbiont of the annual legume Medicago sphaerocarpos

    PubMed Central

    Terpolilli, Jason; Garau, Giovanni; Hill, Yvette; Tian, Rui; Howieson, John; Bräu, Lambert; Goodwin, Lynne; Han, James; Liolios, Konstantinos; Huntemann, Marcel; Pati, Amrita; Woyke, Tanja; Mavromatis, Konstantinos; Markowitz, Victor; Ivanova, Natalia; Kyrpides, Nikos; Reeve, Wayne

    2013-01-01

    Ensifer medicae WSM1369 is an aerobic, motile, Gram-negative, non-spore-forming rod that can exist as a soil saprophyte or as a legume microsymbiont of Medicago. WSM1369 was isolated in 1993 from a nodule recovered from the roots of Medicago sphaerocarpos growing at San Pietro di Rudas, near Aggius in Sardinia (Italy). WSM1369 is an effective microsymbiont of the annual forage legumes M. polymorpha and M. sphaerocarpos. Here we describe the features of E. medicae WSM1369, together with genome sequence information and its annotation. The 6,402,557 bp standard draft genome is arranged into 307 scaffolds of 307 contigs containing 6,656 protein-coding genes and 79 RNA-only encoding genes. This rhizobial genome is one of 100 sequenced as part of the DOE Joint Genome Institute 2010 Genomic Encyclopedia for Bacteria and Archaea-Root Nodule Bacteria (GEBA-RNB) project. PMID:24976897

  7. Streptomyces rochei ACTA1551, an Indigenous Greek Isolate Studied as a Potential Biocontrol Agent against Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici

    PubMed Central

    Kanini, Grammatiki S.; Katsifas, Efstathios A.; Savvides, Alexandros L.; Karagouni, Amalia D.

    2013-01-01

    Many studies have shown that several Greek ecosystems inhabit very interesting bacteria with biotechnological properties. Therefore Streptomyces isolates from diverse Greek habitats were selected for their antifungal activity against the common phytopathogenic fungus Fusarium oxysporum. The isolate encoded ACTA1551, member of Streptomyces genus, could strongly suppress the fungal growth when examined in antagonistic bioassays in vitro. The isolate was found phylogenetically relative to Streptomyces rochei after analyzing its 16S rDNA sequence. The influence of different environmental conditions, such as medium composition, temperature, and pH on the expression of the antifungal activity was thoroughly examined. Streptomyces rochei ACTA1551 was able to protect tomato seeds from F. oxysporum infection in vivo while it was shown to promote the growth of tomato plants when the pathogen was absent. In an initial effort towards the elucidation of the biochemical and physiological nature of ACTA1551 antifungal activity, extracts from solid streptomycete cultures under antagonistic or/and not antagonistic conditions were concentrated and fractionated. The metabolites involved in the antagonistic action of the isolate showed to be more than one and produced independently of the presence of the pathogen. The above observations could support the application of Streptomyces rochei ACTA1551 as biocontrol agent against F. oxysporum. PMID:23762841

  8. European Materia Medica in Historical Texts: Longevity of a Tradition and Implications for Future Use

    PubMed Central

    De Vos, Paula

    2010-01-01

    Recent research in the area of new drug discovery has shown the continued promise of looking to natural products for bioactive compounds. Researchers have thus turned to traditional medicine, which is still used widely throughout the world and increasingly in industrialized countries as well, to provide clues as to which products to investigate. The oral traditions on which much of this medical knowledge rests, however, are unstable, prompting researchers to turn to textual sources for potential drugs. This study uses Mediterranean/European medical texts from the 5th century BC to the 19th century A.D. to compile a list of the most commonly used “simples” – or single action drug substances – used in therapeutics in traditional European medicine. It finds that traditional European materia medica was based on a Dioscordean tradition that lasted through the 19th century with remarkably little variation, but is significantly different from the present-day herbal pharmacopoeia as represented by the National Institutes of Health. The most prominent simples of that tradition can thus provide clues to further bioactive compounds that have not as of yet been fully exploited for their potential, but were clearly of great use in the past. PMID:20561577

  9. Complete genome sequence of the Medicago microsymbiont Ensifer (Sinorhizobium) medicae strain WSM419

    SciTech Connect

    Reeve, Wayne; Chain, Patrick S. G.; O'Hara, Graham; Ardley, Julie; Nandesena, Kemanthi; Brau, Lambert; Tiwari, Ravi; Malfatti, Stephanie; Kiss, Hajnalka; Lapidus, Alla L.; Copeland, A; Nolan, Matt; Land, Miriam L; Hauser, Loren John; Chang, Yun-Juan; Ivanova, N; Mavromatis, K; Markowitz, Victor; Kyrpides, Nikos C; Gollagher, Margaret; Yates, Ron; Dilworth, Michael; Howieson, John

    2010-01-01

    Ensifer (Sinorhizobium) medicae is an effective nitrogen fixing microsymbiont of a diverse range of annual Medicago (medic) species. Strain WSM419 is an aerobic, motile, non-spore forming, Gram-negative rod isolated from a M. murex root nodule collected in Sardinia, Italy in 1981. WSM419 was manufactured commercially in Australia as an inoculant for annual medics during 1985 to 1993 due to its nitrogen fixation, saprophytic competence and acid tolerance properties. Here we describe the basic features of this organism, together with the complete genome sequence, and annotation. This is the first report of a complete genome sequence for a microsymbiont of the group of annual medic species adapted to acid soils. We reveal that its genome size is 6,817,576 bp encoding 6,518 protein-coding genes and 81 RNA only encoding genes. The genome contains a chromosome of size 3,781,904 bp and 3 plasmids of size 1,570,951 bp, 1,245,408 bp and 219,313 bp. The smallest plasmid is a feature unique to this medic microsymbiont.

  10. Biochemia Medica introduces the revised policy on statement of conflict of Interest.

    PubMed

    Simundic, Ana-Maria

    2011-01-01

    Biochemia Medica announces that from this issue Journal will be publishing the Statement on Conflict of Interest for Authors for all article types in printed as well as in electronic form of the Journal. This way Journal wishes to provide its readers the opportunity to unambiguously judge the quality and reliability of the data presentation and potential competing interests that could have biased the quality of the presented work in any way. This decision was made because we believe that scientific journals have an ultimate responsibility to provide unbiased scientific articles to its readership. We also believe that if any potential source of bias exists, it is the responsibility of the journal to disclose this information, since this might influence the judging the manuscript by editors, reviewers and readers. Therefore, when submitting their work in the future, author are kindly invited to make sure that they have carefully considered and disclosed all potential sources of competing interests that might have influenced their work. We hope that in such way we can help build a better future for the evidence based scientific research, on an international level. PMID:22135848

  11. Green synthesis of copper nanoparticles by Citrus medica Linn. (Idilimbu) juice and its antimicrobial activity.

    PubMed

    Shende, Sudhir; Ingle, Avinash P; Gade, Aniket; Rai, Mahendra

    2015-06-01

    We report an eco-friendly method for the synthesis of copper nanoparticles (CuNPs) using Citron juice (Citrus medica Linn.), which is nontoxic and cheap. The biogenic copper nanoparticles were characterized by UV-Vis spectrophotometer showing a typical resonance (SPR) at about 631 nm which is specific for CuNPs. Nanoparticles tracking analysis by NanoSight-LM20 showed the particles in the range of 10-60 nm with the concentration of 2.18 × 10(8) particles per ml. X-ray diffraction revealed the FCC nature of nanoparticles with an average size of 20 nm. The antimicrobial activity of CuNPs was determined by Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method against some selected species of bacteria and plant pathogenic fungi. It was reported that the synthesized CuNPs demonstrated a significant inhibitory activity against Escherichia coli followed by Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Propionibacterium acnes and Salmonella typhi. Among the plant pathogenic fungi tested, Fusarium culmorum was found to be most sensitive followed by F. oxysporum and F. graminearum. The novelty of this work is that for the first time citron juice was used for the synthesis of CuNPs. PMID:25761857

  12. The Integration of Chinese Material Medica into the Chinese Health Care Delivery System, an Update.

    PubMed

    Dang, Haixia; Wang, Qiong; Wang, Hainan; Yan, Ming; Liu, Xinmin

    2016-02-01

    Integration of Traditional Chinese medicine, including Chinese materia medica (CMM), into the national healthcare delivery system, is now an essential national policy in China and is increasing rapidly. This case study summarizes the profile of integration of CMM in China, describing markets, industries, management mechanisms, education, research and development, human resources and international cooperation related to Traditional Chinese medicine, and CMM in particular. It provides a basis for policies for integrating TM into national healthcare systems to save costs and improve the general health of the population. By the end of 2014, the overall sale value of CMM exceeded $US120bn, representing 31% of the total pharmaceutical industry markets in China. More than 200 CMM formulated drugs and 1100 prepared CMM are now on the national 'Essential Drug List' and the financial budget for CMM from the Chinese government in 2014 was approximately $US4.66bn, almost double that of 2011, indicating an increasing and long-term commitment to integrated medicine in China. PMID:26728426

  13. Evaluation of the Erosive Potential of Various Pediatric Liquid Medicaments: An in-vitro Study

    PubMed Central

    Tupalli, Abhinaya Reddy; Satish, B; Shetty, Bharath Raj; Battu, Someshwar; Kumar, J Phani; Nagaraju, B

    2014-01-01

    Background: The present in-vitro study was a scanning electron microscope (SEM) study conducted in primary teeth in order to evaluate the erosive potential of ten commonly used pediatric liquid medications (PLMs). Materials & Methods: 10 commonly used PLMs and 33 exfoliated or extracted primary teeth were collected. The 33 teeth were divided into two groups, the control group (n=3) and the study group (n=30). The endogenous pH of all the teeth was measured using a pH electrode meter. The control group teeth were immersed in artificial saliva for three different time intervals- 1 minute, 10 minutes and 8 hours. The study group teeth were also maintained for 1 minute, 10 minutes and 8 hours in various selected PLMs. The primary enamel surface (PES) changes were then observed under the SEM for all the teeth of both groups. Results: All the PLMs used in the study showed an erosive effect on the PES when viewed under SEM. Majority of the medications caused etched prism pattern followed by crater formation and sporadic rod ends in that order on PES. Conclusion: There is a need to educate parents and professionals about the association between dental erosion and PLMs which predisposes to dental caries. How to cite the article: Tupalli AR, Satish B, Shetty BR, Battu S, Kumar JP, Nagaraju B. Evaluation of the Erosive Potential of Various Pediatric Liquid Medicaments: An In-vitro Study. J Int Oral Health 2014;6(1):59-65. PMID:24653605

  14. Phenotypic and genetic diversity in Sinorhizobium meliloti and S. medicae from drought and salt affected regions of Morocco

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Sinorhizobium meliloti and S. medicae are symbiotic nitrogen fixing bacteria in root nodules of forage legume alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.). In Morocco, alfalfa is usually grown in marginal soils of arid and semi-arid regions frequently affected by drought, extremes of temperature and soil pH, soil salinity and heavy metals, which affect biological nitrogen fixing ability of rhizobia and productivity of the host. This study examines phenotypic diversity for tolerance to the above stresses and genotypic diversity at Repetitive Extragenic Pallindromic DNA regions of Sinorhizobium nodulating alfalfa, sampled from marginal soils of arid and semi-arid regions of Morocco. Results RsaI digestion of PCR amplified 16S rDNA of the 157 sampled isolates, assigned 136 isolates as S. meliloti and the rest as S. medicae. Further phenotyping of these alfalfa rhizobia for tolerance to the environmental stresses revealed a large degree of variation: 55.41%, 82.16%, 57.96% and 3.18% of the total isolates were tolerant to NaCl (>513 mM), water stress (-1.5 MPa), high temperature (40°C) and low pH (3.5), respectively. Sixty-seven isolates of S. meliloti and thirteen isolates of S. medicae that were tolerant to salinity were also tolerant to water stress. Most of the isolates of the two species showed tolerance to heavy metals (Cd, Mn and Zn) and antibiotics (chloramphenicol, spectinomycin, streptomycin and tetracycline). The phenotypic clusters observed by the cluster analysis clearly showed adaptations of the S. meliloti and S. medicae strains to the multiple stresses. Genotyping with rep-PCR revealed higher genetic diversity within these phenotypic clusters and classified all the 157 isolates into 148 genotypes. No relationship between genotypic profiles and the phenotypes was observed. The Analysis of Molecular Variance revealed that largest proportion of significant (P < 0.01) genetic variation was distributed within regions (89%) than among regions (11%). Conclusion

  15. The beginnings of Acta Neurochirurgica and the work of Fritz Loew, chief editor from 1958 - 1997. An historical vignette.

    PubMed

    Reulen, Hans-Jürgen; Collmann, Hartmut

    2012-07-01

    Acta Neurochirurgica was founded in 1950, in the difficult time after World War II, by Mario Milletti (Bologna) and Wolfram Sorgo (Innsbruck), and published by Springer press, Vienna. From the beginning the new journal was conceived as an international journal with an impressive list of outstanding neurosurgeons in the editorial board. Only a few years later the issues appeared at irregular intervals due to individual problems of both editors. Wilhelm Tönnis took the initiative to keep the journal alive, when he asked-in consent with Springer press-his staff member Fritz Loew to continue the editorial work and to assemble a new prestigious editorial board. Loew succeeded with both tasks and remained editor-in-chief for nearly 38 years. Initially, all papers were published in the native languages of the authors: English, French, German, Italian and Spanish. With ongoing time the journal accepted manuscripts in English only. The slow progress of this process exemplifies the slow integration of the European countries. In 1971, at the founding meeting of the European Association of Neurosurgical Societies (EANS) in Prague, Acta Neurochirurgica became the official organ of the EANS. Right from the beginning of Acta Neurochirurgica, Supplement volumes were added. Also, the book series Advances and Technical Standards in Neurosurgery is an offspring of Acta Neurochirurgica. Acta Neurochirurgica has become one of the most important neurosurgical journals worldwide. This historical sketch is based on an interview with Fritz Loew, now 91 years old, to which data from the available literature and the Archives of German Neurosurgery, as well as personal information by several colleagues were added. PMID:22581432

  16. Treatment with ActRIIB-mFc Produces Myofiber Growth and Improves Lifespan in the Acta1 H40Y Murine Model of Nemaline Myopathy.

    PubMed

    Tinklenberg, Jennifer; Meng, Hui; Yang, Lin; Liu, Fujun; Hoffmann, Raymond G; Dasgupta, Mahua; Allen, Kenneth P; Beggs, Alan H; Hardeman, Edna C; Pearsall, R Scott; Fitts, Robert H; Lawlor, Michael W

    2016-06-01

    Nemaline myopathies (NMs) are a group of congenital muscle diseases caused by mutations in at least 10 genes and associated with a range of clinical symptoms. NM is defined on muscle biopsy by the presence of cytoplasmic rod-like structures (nemaline rods) composed of cytoskeletal material. Myofiber smallness is also found in many cases of NM and may represent a cause of weakness that can be counteracted by treatment. We have used i.p. injection of activin type IIB receptor (ActRIIB)-mFc (an inhibitor of myostatin signaling) to promote hypertrophy and increase strength in our prior murine work; we therefore tested whether ActRIIB-mFc could improve weakness in NM mice through myofiber hypertrophy. We report a study of ActRIIB-mFc treatment in the Acta1 H40Y mouse model of NM. Treatment of Acta1 H40Y mice produced significant increases in body mass, muscle mass, quadriceps myofiber size, and survival, but other measurements of strength (forelimb grip strength, ex vivo measurements of contractile function) did not improve. Our studies also identified that the complications of urethral obstruction are associated with mortality in male hemizygote Acta1 H40Y mice. The incidence of urethral obstruction and histologic evidence of chronic obstruction (inflammation) were significantly lower in Acta1 H40Y mice that had been treated with ActRIIB-mFc. ActRIIB-mFc treatment produces a mild benefit to the disease phenotype in Acta1 H40Y mice. PMID:27102768

  17. What has been overlooked on study of Chinese materia medica in the West?

    PubMed

    Liu, Willow J H

    2015-07-01

    Chinese materia medica (CMM), including Chinese herbal, animal, and mineral medicine, has been widely researched in the past century for their biological and pharmacological activities. However, their mechanism and clinical efficacy studies did not always give expected results. For example, the most commonly used Chinese herb for menstrual disorders, Radix Angelicae sinensis, showed neither estrogenic nor progesteronic activity in laboratory and clinical studies. Its efficacy should not be denied simply based on such results, because it is mostly used together with other herbs in formulae. Moreover, its regulation on menstruation may take effect through other mechanisms, such as regulation of blood circulation. The key difference of Chinese medicine (CM) from conventional medicine is its unique holistic view on human body and diseases. CMM is mostly applied in clinic in the form of formulae. Study on individual CMM, simply using methods for development of conventional drugs, is unable to thoroughly reveal the power of CMM formulae. The reason may partly result from improper design due to the lack understanding about application principle of CMMs in CM, and/or to current lack of knowledge about the causes of some symptoms and diseases. This paper will introduce the importance of qi and blood in CM etiology and pathology, Zheng differentiation, formulation of CMMs, and explain why one formula can treat different diseases and one disease can be treated with different formulae. Examples in the paper will demonstrate that proper studies on Zheng and its corresponding clinically proven formulae could help scientists find new direction to explain and treat symptoms and diseases that so far modern medicine has been unable to, provided that the designer properly understands CM theories, etiology and pathology of CM, as well as modern medicine. Strategy suggestions about research methods for CMM and its formulae will be given at the end. PMID:26156100

  18. Effect of intracanal medicaments on push-out bond strength of Smart-Seal system

    PubMed Central

    Hegde, Vibha; Arora, Shashank

    2015-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate the effects of calcium hydroxide (CH), triple and double antibiotic pastes (DAPs) on the bond strength of Smart-Seal obturation, C-points with Endosequence Bio-ceramic (BC) sealer to the root canal dentin. Materials and Methods: Sixty-four freshly extracted single-rooted human mandibular premolars were de-coronated and prepared using rotary Pro-taper system with full sequence till F3. The specimens were randomly divided into a control group (without intracanal dressing) and 3 experimental groups that received an intracanal dressing with either CH, DAP, or triple antibiotic paste (TAP) (n = 16). The intracanal dressing was removed after 3 weeks by rinsing with 10 mL 17% ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, followed by 10 mL 3% sodium hypochlorite. The root canals were then obturated with C-points and Endosequence BC sealer. A push-out test was used to measure the bond strength between the root canal dentin and the obturating system. The data were analyzed using two-way analysis of variance and Tukey post-hoc test. Results: The push-out bond strength values were significantly affected by the intracanal medicaments (P < 0.001), but not by the root canal thirds (P > 0.05). In the middle and apical third, the bond strength of the TAP group was higher than those of the CH and DAP groups (P < 0.05). Conclusions: The DAP and CH did not affect the bond strength of the novel hydrophilic obutrating system. TAP improved the bond strength of Smart-Seal system in the middle and apical thirds. PMID:26430308

  19. Alfalfa microsymbionts from different ITS and nodC lineages of Ensifer meliloti and Ensifer medicae symbiovar meliloti establish efficient symbiosis with alfalfa in Spanish acid soils.

    PubMed

    Ramírez-Bahena, Martha-Helena; Vargas, Margarita; Martín, María; Tejedor, Carmen; Velázquez, Encarna; Peix, Álvaro

    2015-06-01

    Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) is an important crop worldwide whose cropping in acid soils is hampered by the poor nodulation and yield commonly attributed to the sensitivity of its endosymbionts to acid pH. In this work, we isolated several acid-tolerant strains from alfalfa nodules in three acid soils in northwestern Spain. After grouping by RAPD fingerprinting, most strains were identified as Ensifer meliloti and only two strains as Ensifer medicae according to their 16S-23S intergenic spacer (ITS) sequences that allowed the differentiation of two groups within each one of these species. The two ITS groups of E. meliloti and the ITS group I of E. medicae have been previously found in Medicago nodules; however, the group II of E. medicae has been only found to date in Prosopis alba nodules. The analysis of the nodC gene showed that all strains isolated in this study belong to the symbiovar meliloti, grouping with the type strains of E. meliloti or E. medicae, but some harboured nodC gene alleles different from those found to date in alfalfa nodules. The strains of E. medicae belong to the symbiovar meliloti which should be also recognised in this species, although they harboured a nodC allele phylogenetically divergent to those from E. meliloti strains. Microcosm experiments showed that inoculation of alfalfa with selected acid-tolerant strains significantly increased yields in acid soils representing a suitable agricultural practice for alfalfa cropping in these soils. PMID:25586575

  20. META-ANALYSIS OF THE SCIENTIFIC CONTENTS OF MATERIA SOCIO-MEDICA JOURNAL IN THE PERIOD 2009–2015

    PubMed Central

    Masic, Izet; Begic, Edin; Zunic, Lejla; Donev, Doncho

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Materia Socio Medica Journal has a long history. It was founded in 1978. Aim: To evaluate journal articles in 2015 and compare findings to previous years. Material and methods: The study has retrospective and descriptive character, and included the period 2009-2015. Results: A total of 99 articles were published in Materia Socio Medica during 2015 and it shows an upward trend during the period 2009-2015. Original articles are present in majority during the last seven years (69,2%). Analyzing the last seven years, 44,1% of articles were from the field of clinical medicine. Articles from the fields of public health show an upward trend during the last four years. Collaboration rate in 2015 was 0,95. Authors of the articles are from ten countries (four continents). H index of journal is 8 and g index is 12 (Publish or Perish software). According to GoogleScholar, h5 index for Materia Socio Medica is 8 and h5 median is 9. Conclusions: The objectives of the journal in the next year are: to become a part of the Scopus and Web of Science databases, further internationalization and promotion of the journal in the country and the region, revision and broadening of the Editorial Board, trying to follow trend in reducing the number of days required for a decision on acceptance or revision of article and involvement of the younger generation of professionals and scientists into the journal work and publishing scope, which will lead to emergence of new enthusiasm and ideas (Journal intends to follow the trends of modern biomedical publishing worldwide). PMID:27047258

  1. [Inheritance on and innovation of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) flavor theory and TCM flavor standardization principle flavor theory in Compendium of Materia Medica].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Rui-xian; Li, Jian

    2015-12-01

    All previous literatures about Chinese herbal medicines show distinctive traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) flavors. Compendium of Materia Medica is an influential book in TCM history. The TCM flavor theory and flavor standardization principle in this book has important significance for modern TCM flavor standardization. Compendium of Materia Medica pays attention to the flavor theory, explain the relations between the flavor of medicine and its therapeutic effects by means of Neo-Confucianism of the Song and Ming Dynasties. However,the book has not reflected and further developed the systemic theory, which originated in the Jin and Yuan dynasty. In Compendium of Materia Medica , flavor are standardized just by tasting medicines, instead of deducing flavors. Therefore, medicine tasting should be adopted as the major method to standardize the flavor of medicine. PMID:27245045

  2. Vascular disease-causing mutation R258C in ACTA2 disrupts actin dynamics and interaction with myosin

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Hailong; Fagnant, Patricia M.; Bookwalter, Carol S.; Joel, Peteranne; Trybus, Kathleen M.

    2015-01-01

    Point mutations in vascular smooth muscle α-actin (SM α-actin), encoded by the gene ACTA2, are the most prevalent cause of familial thoracic aortic aneurysms and dissections (TAAD). Here, we provide the first molecular characterization, to our knowledge, of the effect of the R258C mutation in SM α-actin, expressed with the baculovirus system. Smooth muscles are unique in that force generation requires both interaction of stable actin filaments with myosin and polymerization of actin in the subcortical region. Both aspects of R258C function therefore need investigation. Total internal reflection fluorescence (TIRF) microscopy was used to quantify the growth of single actin filaments as a function of time. R258C filaments are less stable than WT and more susceptible to severing by cofilin. Smooth muscle tropomyosin offers little protection from cofilin cleavage, unlike its effect on WT actin. Unexpectedly, profilin binds tighter to the R258C monomer, which will increase the pool of globular actin (G-actin). In an in vitro motility assay, smooth muscle myosin moves R258C filaments more slowly than WT, and the slowing is exacerbated by smooth muscle tropomyosin. Under loaded conditions, small ensembles of myosin are unable to produce force on R258C actin-tropomyosin filaments, suggesting that tropomyosin occupies an inhibitory position on actin. Many of the observed defects cannot be explained by a direct interaction with the mutated residue, and thus the mutation allosterically affects multiple regions of the monomer. Our results align with the hypothesis that defective contractile function contributes to the pathogenesis of TAAD. PMID:26153420

  3. Vascular disease-causing mutation R258C in ACTA2 disrupts actin dynamics and interaction with myosin.

    PubMed

    Lu, Hailong; Fagnant, Patricia M; Bookwalter, Carol S; Joel, Peteranne; Trybus, Kathleen M

    2015-08-01

    Point mutations in vascular smooth muscle α-actin (SM α-actin), encoded by the gene ACTA2, are the most prevalent cause of familial thoracic aortic aneurysms and dissections (TAAD). Here, we provide the first molecular characterization, to our knowledge, of the effect of the R258C mutation in SM α-actin, expressed with the baculovirus system. Smooth muscles are unique in that force generation requires both interaction of stable actin filaments with myosin and polymerization of actin in the subcortical region. Both aspects of R258C function therefore need investigation. Total internal reflection fluorescence (TIRF) microscopy was used to quantify the growth of single actin filaments as a function of time. R258C filaments are less stable than WT and more susceptible to severing by cofilin. Smooth muscle tropomyosin offers little protection from cofilin cleavage, unlike its effect on WT actin. Unexpectedly, profilin binds tighter to the R258C monomer, which will increase the pool of globular actin (G-actin). In an in vitro motility assay, smooth muscle myosin moves R258C filaments more slowly than WT, and the slowing is exacerbated by smooth muscle tropomyosin. Under loaded conditions, small ensembles of myosin are unable to produce force on R258C actin-tropomyosin filaments, suggesting that tropomyosin occupies an inhibitory position on actin. Many of the observed defects cannot be explained by a direct interaction with the mutated residue, and thus the mutation allosterically affects multiple regions of the monomer. Our results align with the hypothesis that defective contractile function contributes to the pathogenesis of TAAD. PMID:26153420

  4. [Good agricultural practice (GAP) of Chinese materia medica (CMM) for ten years: achievements, problems and proposals].

    PubMed

    Guo, Lan-Ping; Zhang, Yan; Zhu, Shou-Dong; Wang, Gui-Hua; Wang, Xiu; Zhang, Xiao-Bo; Chen, Mei-Lan; He, Ya-Li; Han, Bang-Xing; Chen, Nai-Fu; Huang, Lu-Qi

    2014-04-01

    This paper aims to summarize the achievements during the implementation process of good agricultural practice (GAP) in Chinese Materia Medica (CMM), and on basis of analyzing the existing problems of GAP, to propose further implementation of GAP in TCM growing. Since the launch of GAP in CMM growing ten years ago, it has acquired great achievements, including: (1) The promulgation of a series of measures for the administration of the GAP approval in the CMM growing; (2) The expanded planting area of CMM; (3) The increased awareness of standardized CMM growing among farmers and enterprises; (4) The establishment of GAP implementation bases for CMM growing; (5) The improvement of theory and methodology for CMM growing; (6) The development of a large group of experts and scholars in GAP approval for CMM production. The problems existing in the production include: (1) A deep understanding of GAP and its certification is still needed; (2) The distribution of the certification base is not reasonable; (3) The geo-economics effect and the backward farming practices are thought to be the bottlenecks in the standardization of CMM growing and the scale production of CMM; (4) Low comparative effectiveness limits the development of the GAP; (5) The base of breeding improved variety is blank; (6) The immature of the cultivation technique lead to the risk of production process; (7) The degradation of soil microbial and the continuous cropping obstacle restrict the sustainable development of the GAP base. To further promote the health and orderly GAP in the CMM growing, the authors propose: (1) To change the mode of production; (2) To establish a sound standard system so as to ensure quality products for fair prices; (3) To fully consider the geo-economic culture and vigorously promote the definite cultivating of traditional Chinese medicinal materials; (4) To strengthen the transformation and generalization of basic researches and achievements, in order to provide technical

  5. The Doctrine of Signatures, Materia Medica of Orchids, and the Contributions of Doctor - Orchidologists.

    PubMed

    Pearn, John

    2012-12-01

    The heritage of medicine is written in many forms. One repository is to be found in the history of orchids, the world's largest family of flowering plants. Orchids were so named by Theophrastus (c.372-288 BC) who recorded their medicinal use as an aphrodisiac and the promoter of virility, in the context of the Doctrine of Signatures. Such use endured for millennia, and was recorded both by Paracelsus (1493-1551) and Linnaeus (1707-1778). The history of orchidology and medicine are entwined in four domains: (a) orchids and their historical materia medica, within the paradigm of the Doctrine of Signatures; (b) the enduring and extensive contemporary medicinal and culinary use of orchids such as Vanilla and salep extracts of Orchis; (c) the scientific contributions of doctors as orchidologists; and (d) the heritage of more than a hundred doctors' names in the scientific etymology of the Orchidaceae family. Prominent orchidologists have included the Scottish doctor-soldier and botanist, Robert Brown (1773-1858); the Director of the State Herbarium at Leyden and the Rijks Museum, Carl Ludwig Blume (1796-1862); and Dr William Sterling MD (1888-1967). Among the more than 1250 genus names (and 33,000 species) of orchids are the names of more than a hundred doctors, their lives and works perpetuated in the scientific etymology of this family of exotic, beautiful, flamboyant, intriguing and often expensive flowers. Generic names record the lives and works of such as Aristotle (384-322BC) in Aristotelia Loureiro 1790; Cadet de Gassicourt (1769-1821) in Cadetia Gaudichaud 1826; Sir Joseph Dalton Hooker (1817-1911) in Sirhookera O. Kuntze 1891; and Dr Theodore Daniel Vrydag Zynen (fl. 1820-1850) in Vrydagzynea Blume 1858. One of the principal horticultural genera of orchids, Brassavola, records the life and work of the Ferrara and Padua physician and botanist, Antonio Musa Brassavola (1500-1555). The first Slipper Orchid bred as a hybrid, Paphiopedilum harrisianum (by John

  6. [Investigation on pattern and methods of quality control for Chinese materia medica based on dao-di herbs and bioassay - bioassay for Coptis chinensis].

    PubMed

    Yan, Dan; Xiao, Xiao-he

    2011-05-01

    Establishment of bioassay methods is the technical issues to be faced with in the bioassay of Chinese materia medica. Taking the bioassay of Coptis chinensis Franch. as an example, the establishment process and application of the bioassay methods (including bio-potency and bio-activity fingerprint) were explained from the aspects of methodology, principle of selection, experimental design, method confirmation and data analysis. The common technologies were extracted and formed with the above aspects, so as to provide technical support for constructing pattern and method of the quality control for Chinese materia medica based on the dao-di herbs and bioassay. PMID:21800546

  7. [Classes of crude drugs and its distribution of producing area in the attached illustrations in Ben cao tu jing (Illustrated Classic of Materia Medica)].

    PubMed

    Xu, T; Peng, H S

    2016-03-01

    Ben cao tu jing (Illustrated Classic of Materia Medica) is the earliest extant atlas book of materia medica in China, with 933 attached drawings. Among them, the largest portion, amounting to 670, are herbaceous plants, mostly commonly used, with definite marks of the origin producing areas, distributed across 149 administrative divisions(prefectures and counties) of the Song Dynasty, most of them in Northern area which were distributed denser than those in Southern area. The densest ones were located in Southern Shanxi, Eastern Sichuan and Eastern Anhui. In the attached drawings, the frequency of highest occurrence appeared in this Classic are three prefectures, Chuzhou, Shizhou and Guangzhou. PMID:27255195

  8. Optimization of Total Flavonoid Compound Extraction from Gynura medica Leaf Using Response Surface Methodology and Chemical Composition Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Wei; Yu, Yanying; Yang, Ruzhen; Wan, Chunpeng; Xu, Binbin; Cao, Shuwen

    2010-01-01

    Optimization of total flavonoid compound (TFC) extraction from Gynura medica leaf was investigated using response surface methodology (RSM) in this paper. The conditions investigated were 30–60% (v/v) ethanol concentration (X1), 85–95 °C extraction temperature (X2) and 30–50 (v/w) liquid-to-solid ratio (X3). Statistical analysis of the experiments indicated that temperature and liquid-to-solid ratio significantly affected TFC extraction (p < 0.01). The Box-Behnken experiment design showed that polynomial regression models were in good agreement with the experimental results, with the coefficients of determination of 0.9325 for TFC yield. The optimal conditions for maximum TFC yield were 55% ethanol, 92 °C and 50 (v/w) liquid-to-solid ratio with a 30 min extraction time. Extracts from these conditions showed a moderate antioxidant value of 54.78 μmol quercetin/g dry material (DM), 137.3 μmol trolox/g DM for 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 108.21 μmol quercetin/g DM, 242.31 μmol trolox/g DM for 2,2-azino-bis-(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS+), respectively. HPLC-DAD-MS analysis showed that kaempferol-3-O-glucoside was the principal flavonoid compound in Gynura medica leaf. PMID:21151469

  9. Clinical and radiographical evaluation of mineral trioxide aggregate, biodentine and propolis as pulpotomy medicaments in primary teeth

    PubMed Central

    Rakesh, Kumar; Richa, Khanna

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA), Biodentine and Propolis as pulpotomy medicaments in primary dentition, both clinically and radiographically. Materials and Methods A total of 75 healthy 3 to 10 yr old children each having at least one carious primary molar tooth were selected. Random assignment of the pulpotomy medicaments was done as follows: Group I, MTA; Group II, Biodentine; Group III, Propolis. All the pulpotomized teeth were evaluated at 3, 6, and 9 mon clinically and radiographically, based on the scoring criteria system. Results The clinical success rates were found to be similar among the three groups at 3 and 6 mon where as a significant decrease in success rate was observed in Group III (84%) compared to both Group I (100%) and Group II (100%) at 9 mon. Radiographic success rates over a period of 9 mon in Groups I, II, and III were 92, 80, and 72%, respectively. Conclusions Teeth treated with MTA and Biodentine showed more favorable clinical and radiographic success as compared to Propolis at 9 mon follow-up. PMID:26587413

  10. Effect of addition of lycopene to calcium hydroxide and chlorhexidine as intracanal medicament on fracture resistance of radicular dentin at two different time intervals: An in vitro study

    PubMed Central

    Madhusudhana, Koppolu; Archanagupta, Kasamsetty; Suneelkumar, Chinni; Lavanya, Anumula; Deepthi, Mandava

    2015-01-01

    Background: Long-term use of intracanal medicaments such as calcium hydroxide (CH) reduces the fracture resistance of dentin. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the fracture resistance of radicular dentin on long-term use of CH, chlorhexidine (CHX) with lycopene (LP). Aim: To compare the fracture resistance of radicular dentin when intracanal medicaments such as CH, CHX with LP were used for 1-week and 1-month time interval. Settings and Design: Sixty single-rooted extracted human permanent premolars were collected, and complete instrumentation was done. Samples were divided into three groups based on intracanal medicament used. Materials and Methods: Group 1 - no medicament was placed (CON), group 2 - mixture of 1.5 g of CH and 1 ml of 2% CHX (CHCHX), group 3 - mixture of 1.5 g of CH, 1 ml of CHX and 1 ml of 5% LP solution (CHCHXLP). After storage period of each group for 1-week and 1-month, middle 8 mm root cylinder was sectioned and tested for fracture resistance. Statistical Analysis: Results were analyzed using paired t-test. Results: At 1-month time interval, there was a statistically significant difference in fracture resistance between CHCHX and CHCHXLP groups. Conclusion: Addition of LP has not decreased the fracture resistance of radicular dentin after 1-month. PMID:26069405

  11. [Study on supply and demand relation based on two stages division of market of Chinese materia medica].

    PubMed

    Yang, Guang; Guo, Lan-Ping; Wang, Nuo; Zeng, Yan; Huang, Lu-Qi

    2014-01-01

    The complex production processes and long industrial chain in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) market result in difficulty in Chinese market microstructure research. Based on the defining the logical relationships among different concepts. This paper divides TCM market into two stages as Chinese materia medica resource market and traditional Chinese Patent Medicines market. Under this foundation, we investigated the supply capacity, approaching rules and motivation system of suppliers in TCM market, analyzed the demand situation in the perspective of demand side, and evaluated the purchasing power in terms of population profile, income, and insurance. Furthermore we also analyzed the price formation mechanism in two stages of TCM market. We hope this study can make a positive and promotion effect on TCM market related research. PMID:24761655

  12. [The significance of drawing on experience of experimental study on Chinese materia medica during the Republican period].

    PubMed

    Li, Nan; Wan, Fang

    2015-05-01

    During the period of the Republic of China, researches of experiments on Chinese materia medica developed extensively with the scientific process of Chinese medicine. Although the technology standard was relatively low and the reference value, limited. The experiences, positive or negative, obtained at that time still has reference significance to today's Chinese medicine scientific research. The notion that traditional Chinese medical and scientific research be conducted under the guidance of TCM theory; valuable experience contained in the ancient literature of traditional Chinese medicine be collected; and the transformation capacity of scientific research be elevated, has been accepted by modern TCM professionals. If you go back to the history, it can be seen that this notion was summarized through repeated practice during the critical moment of traditional Chinese medicine, which should be emphasized and its understanding deepened at any time. PMID:26420524

  13. Host cell heparan sulfate proteoglycans mediate attachment and entry of Listeria monocytogenes, and the listerial surface protein ActA is involved in heparan sulfate receptor recognition.

    PubMed

    Alvarez-Domínguez, C; Vázquez-Boland, J A; Carrasco-Marín, E; López-Mato, P; Leyva-Cobián, F

    1997-01-01

    The mechanisms by which the intracellular pathogen Listeria monocytogenes interacts with the host cell surface remain largely unknown. In this study, we investigated the role of heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPG) in listerial infection. Pretreatment of bacteria with heparin or heparan sulfate (HS), but not with other glycosaminoglycans, inhibited attachment and subsequent uptake by IC-21 murine macrophages and CHO epithelial-like cells. Specific removal of HS from target cells with heparinase III significantly impaired listerial adhesion and invasion. Mutant CHO cells deficient in HS synthesis bound and internalized significantly fewer bacteria than wild-type cells did. Pretreatment of target cells with the HS-binding proteins fibronectin and platelet factor 4, or with heparinase III, impaired listerial infectivity only in those cells expressing HS. Moreover, a synthetic peptide corresponding to the HS-binding ligand in Plasmodium falciparum circumsporozoite protein (pepPf1) inhibited listerial attachment to IC-21 and CHO cells. A motif very similar to the HS-binding site of pepPf1 was found in the N-terminal region of ActA, the L. monocytogenes surface protein responsible for actin-based bacterial motility and cell-to-cell spread. In the same region of ActA, several clusters of positively charged amino acids which could function as HS-binding domains were identified. An ActA-deficient mutant was significantly impaired in attachment and entry due to altered HS recognition functions. This work shows that specific interaction with an HSPG receptor present on the surface of both professional and nonprofessional phagocytes is involved in L. monocytogenes cytoadhesion and invasion and strongly suggests that the bacterial surface protein ActA may be a ligand mediating HSPG receptor recognition. PMID:8975895

  14. Combined MRI and 31P-MRS Investigations of the ACTA1(H40Y) Mouse Model of Nemaline Myopathy Show Impaired Muscle Function and Altered Energy Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Gineste, Charlotte; Le Fur, Yann; Vilmen, Christophe; Le Troter, Arnaud; Pecchi, Emilie; Cozzone, Patrick J.; Hardeman, Edna C.; Bendahan, David; Gondin, Julien

    2013-01-01

    Nemaline myopathy (NM) is the most common disease entity among non-dystrophic skeletal muscle congenital diseases. Mutations in the skeletal muscle α-actin gene (ACTA1) account for ∼25% of all NM cases and are the most frequent cause of severe forms of NM. So far, the mechanisms underlying muscle weakness in NM patients remain unclear. Additionally, recent Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) studies reported a progressive fatty infiltration of skeletal muscle with a specific muscle involvement in patients with ACTA1 mutations. We investigated strictly noninvasively the gastrocnemius muscle function of a mouse model carrying a mutation in the ACTA1 gene (H40Y). Skeletal muscle anatomy (hindlimb muscles and fat volumes) and energy metabolism were studied using MRI and 31Phosphorus magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Skeletal muscle contractile performance was investigated while applying a force-frequency protocol (from 1–150 Hz) and a fatigue protocol (80 stimuli at 40 Hz). H40Y mice showed a reduction of both absolute (−40%) and specific (−25%) maximal force production as compared to controls. Interestingly, muscle weakness was associated with an improved resistance to fatigue (+40%) and an increased energy cost. On the contrary, the force frequency relationship was not modified in H40Y mice and the extent of fatty infiltration was minor and not different from the WT group. We concluded that the H40Y mouse model does not reproduce human MRI findings but shows a severe muscle weakness which might be related to an alteration of intrinsic muscular properties. The increased energy cost in H40Y mice might be related to either an impaired mitochondrial function or an alteration at the cross-bridges level. Overall, we provided a unique set of anatomic, metabolic and functional biomarkers that might be relevant for monitoring the progression of NM disease but also for assessing the efficacy of potential therapeutic interventions at a preclinical level. PMID:23613869

  15. BOOK REVIEW: Astronomie von Olbers bis Schwarzschild. Nationale Entwicklungen und internationale Beziehungen im 19. Jahrhundert (Acta Historica Astronomiae Vol. 16)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sterken, C.; Dick, W. R.; Hamel, J.

    2002-12-01

    The 14th volume of the Acta Historica Astronomiae is the Proceedings of a Colloquium International Relationships in Astronomy (in German) organised by the History of Astronomy Section of the Astronomische Gesellschaft held on September 18 in Lilienthal, Germany. The book contains 13 articles on astronomical topics covering the 19th and 20th centuries. The first paper is by Guenther Oestmann and deals with contemporary assessments of Johann Hieronymus Schroeter's (1745-1816) astronomical works and with later judgements of the scientific importance and significance of his observations as seen by astronomers and historians. This report is complemented by a second article on Schroeter's 25-ft reflector in Lilienthal near Bremen. To this end, author Felix Luehning has constructed a scale model of the telescope, and shows how the building of a model brings a deeper understanding of function and handling of this instrument. This brings us to a third paper on telescope building in Lilienthal: Hans-Joachim Leue describes the cooperation of Johann Hieronymus Schroeter and Johann Gottlieb Schrader in developing a white reflecting metal alloy for use as telescope mirror. The fourth article, by Klaus Schillinger, describes on the basis of archival documents the aquisition history of the Herschel telescopes, including telescope quality check, repair and building. Memorial sites referring to Wilhelm Olbers, Johann Hieronymus Schroeter, Friedrich Wilhelm Bessel and Carl Friedrich Gauss are described by Arno Langkavel in two walks outlined in the very last paper of this book. Peter Brosche, in the fifth paper, discusses the rediscovery of Ceres in December1801, a discovery that was the result of the combined efforts of a theoretician (Gauss) and an observer (Zach). Juergen Hamel's paper is based on previously unused archival sources and discusses the outstanding role played by H. C. Schumacher (1780-1850, editor of the Astronomische Nachrichten) in the communication between

  16. Multimodal MRI and 31P-MRS Investigations of the ACTA1(Asp286Gly) Mouse Model of Nemaline Myopathy Provide Evidence of Impaired In Vivo Muscle Function, Altered Muscle Structure and Disturbed Energy Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Gineste, Charlotte; Duhamel, Guillaume; Le Fur, Yann; Vilmen, Christophe; Cozzone, Patrick J.; Nowak, Kristen J.; Bendahan, David; Gondin, Julien

    2013-01-01

    Nemaline myopathy (NM), the most common non-dystrophic congenital disease of skeletal muscle, can be caused by mutations in the skeletal muscle α-actin gene (ACTA1) (~25% of all NM cases and up to 50% of severe forms of NM). Muscle function of the recently generated transgenic mouse model carrying the human Asp286Gly mutation in the ACTA1 gene (Tg(ACTA1)Asp286Gly) has been mainly investigated in vitro. Therefore, we aimed at providing a comprehensive picture of the in vivo hindlimb muscle function of Tg(ACTA1)Asp286Gly mice by combining strictly noninvasive investigations. Skeletal muscle anatomy (hindlimb muscles, intramuscular fat volumes) and microstructure were studied using multimodal magnetic resonance imaging (Dixon, T2, Diffusion Tensor Imaging [DTI]). Energy metabolism was studied using 31-phosphorus Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (31P-MRS). Skeletal muscle contractile performance was investigated while applying a force-frequency protocol (1–150 Hz) and a fatigue protocol (6 min–1.7 Hz). Tg(ACTA1)Asp286Gly mice showed a mild muscle weakness as illustrated by the reduction of both absolute (30%) and specific (15%) maximal force production. Dixon MRI did not show discernable fatty infiltration in Tg(ACTA1)Asp286Gly mice indicating that this mouse model does not reproduce human MRI findings. Increased T2 values were observed in Tg(ACTA1)Asp286Gly mice and might reflect the occurrence of muscle degeneration/regeneration process. Interestingly, T2 values were linearly related to muscle weakness. DTI experiments indicated lower λ2 and λ3 values in Tg(ACTA1)Asp286Gly mice, which might be associated to muscle atrophy and/or the presence of histological anomalies. Finally 31P-MRS investigations illustrated an increased anaerobic energy cost of contraction in Tg(ACTA1)Asp286Gly mice, which might be ascribed to contractile and non-contractile processes. Overall, we provide a unique set of information about the anatomic, metabolic and functional consequences

  17. Effectiveness of N-acetyl cysteine, 2% chlorhexidine, and their combination as intracanal medicaments on Enterococcus faecalis biofilm

    PubMed Central

    Palaniswamy, Udayakumar; Lakkam, Surender Ram; Arya, Shikha; Aravelli, Swathi

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the antibacterial efficacies of 2% chlorhexidine (CHX), N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) and assess their synergistic or antagonist action as intracanal medicament. Materials and Methods: Agar diffusion test was performed with 2% CHX, NAC, and their combination against E. faecalis planktonic cells. The diameters of the zones of bacterial inhibition were measured and recorded for each solution. The assay was further extended to 2 weeks old E. faecalis dentinal biofilm. Sixteen freshly extracted teeth were vertically sectioned into two halves resulting in a total of 32 samples. The samples were inoculated with bacterial suspension and incubated at 37°C for 2 weeks for biofilm formation. The samples were then divided into four experimental groups with 8 samples in each group. The samples were gently washed in saline and placed in culture wells containing the test solutions, i.e., 2% CHX, NAC, a combination of 2% CHX and NAC in 1:1 ratio, and a control group containing saline. The biofilm formed on the root canal surface were removed with a sterile scalpel and inoculated on blood agar plates to check for the formation of E. faecalis colonies. Statistical Analysis: For agar diffusion test, data were analyzed statistically using one-way analysis of variance and then by post-hoc Scheffe's test to compare the antimicrobial efficacy between the groups. Statistical analysis was not done for the cultures obtained from the biofilm as there was no growth in all the three test groups except the control group, i.e., saline. Results: In agar diffusion test, among the three groups tested, 2% CHX and NAC showed almost equal zones of inhibition whereas maximum inhibition was shown by a combination of NAC and 2% CHX suggesting a synergistic action. The results obtained were highly significant (P < 0.001) for the combination of medicament when compared to individual test group. In culture analysis, which was done for the biofilm, no growth was

  18. Effect of calcium hydroxide and triple antibiotic paste as intracanal medicaments on the incidence of inter-appointment flare-up in diabetic patients: An in vivo study

    PubMed Central

    Pai, Swathi; Vivekananda Pai, A. R.; Thomas, Manuel S.; Bhat, Vishal

    2014-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate and compare the effect of antibacterial intracanal medicaments on inter-appointment flare-up in diabetic patients. Materials and Methods: Fifty diabetic patients requiring root canal treatment were assigned into groups I, II, and III. In group I, no intracanal medicament was placed. In groups II and III, calcium hydroxide and triple antibiotic pastes were placed as intracanal medicaments, respectively. Patients were instructed to record their pain on days 1, 2, 3, 7, and 14. Inter-appointment flare-up was evaluated using verbal rating scale (VRS). Results: Overall incidence of inter-appointment flare-up among diabetic patients was found to be 16%. In group I, 50% of the patients and in group II, 15% of the patients developed inter-appointment flare-up. However, no patients in group III developed inter-appointment flare-up. The comparison of these results was found to be statistically significant (P = 0.002; χ2 = 12.426). However, with respect to intergroup comparison, only the difference between groups I and III was found to be statistically significant (P = 0.002; χ2 = 12.00). Conclusions: Calcium hydroxide and triple antibiotic paste are effective for managing inter-appointment flare-ups in diabetic patients. Triple antibiotic paste is more effective than calcium hydroxide in preventing the occurrence of flare-up in diabetic patients. PMID:24944440

  19. High-quality permanent draft genome sequence of Ensifer medicae strain WSM244, a microsymbiont isolated from Medicago polymorpha growing in alkaline soil

    SciTech Connect

    Ardley, Julie; Tian, Rui; O’Hara, Graham; Seshadri, Rekha; Reddy, T. B. K.; Pati, Amrita; Woyke, Tanja; Markowitz, Victor; Ivanova, Natalia; Kyrpides, Nikos; Howieson, John; Reeve, Wayne

    2015-12-01

    We report that Ensifer medicae WSM244 is an aerobic, motile, Gram-negative, non-spore-forming rod that can exist as a soil saprophyte or as a legume microsymbiont of Medicago species. WSM244 was isolated in 1979 from a nodule recovered from the roots of the annual Medicago polymorpha L. growing in alkaline soil (pH 8.0) in Tel Afer, Iraq. WSM244 is the only acid-sensitive E. medicae strain that has been sequenced to date. It is effective at fixing nitrogen with M. polymorpha L., as well as with more alkaline-adapted Medicago spp. such as M. littoralis Loisel., M. scutellata (L.) Mill., M. tornata (L.) Mill. and M. truncatula Gaertn. This strain is also effective with the perennial M. sativa L. Here we describe the features of E. medicae WSM244, together with genome sequence information and its annotation. The 6,650,282 bp high-quality permanent draft genome is arranged into 91 scaffolds of 91 contigs containing 6,427 protein-coding genes and 68 RNA-only encoding genes, and is one of the rhizobial genomes sequenced as part of the DOE Joint Genome Institute 2010 Genomic Encyclopedia for Bacteria and Archaea-Root Nodule Bacteria (GEBA-RNB) project proposal.

  20. High-quality permanent draft genome sequence of Ensifer medicae strain WSM244, a microsymbiont isolated from Medicago polymorpha growing in alkaline soil

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Ardley, Julie; Tian, Rui; O’Hara, Graham; Seshadri, Rekha; Reddy, T. B. K.; Pati, Amrita; Woyke, Tanja; Markowitz, Victor; Ivanova, Natalia; Kyrpides, Nikos; et al

    2015-12-01

    We report that Ensifer medicae WSM244 is an aerobic, motile, Gram-negative, non-spore-forming rod that can exist as a soil saprophyte or as a legume microsymbiont of Medicago species. WSM244 was isolated in 1979 from a nodule recovered from the roots of the annual Medicago polymorpha L. growing in alkaline soil (pH 8.0) in Tel Afer, Iraq. WSM244 is the only acid-sensitive E. medicae strain that has been sequenced to date. It is effective at fixing nitrogen with M. polymorpha L., as well as with more alkaline-adapted Medicago spp. such as M. littoralis Loisel., M. scutellata (L.) Mill., M. tornata (L.)more » Mill. and M. truncatula Gaertn. This strain is also effective with the perennial M. sativa L. Here we describe the features of E. medicae WSM244, together with genome sequence information and its annotation. The 6,650,282 bp high-quality permanent draft genome is arranged into 91 scaffolds of 91 contigs containing 6,427 protein-coding genes and 68 RNA-only encoding genes, and is one of the rhizobial genomes sequenced as part of the DOE Joint Genome Institute 2010 Genomic Encyclopedia for Bacteria and Archaea-Root Nodule Bacteria (GEBA-RNB) project proposal.« less

  1. Inferring Phylogenetic Relationships of Indian Citron (Citrus medica L.) based on rbcL and matK Sequences of Chloroplast DNA.

    PubMed

    Uchoi, Ajit; Malik, Surendra Kumar; Choudhary, Ravish; Kumar, Susheel; Rohini, M R; Pal, Digvender; Ercisli, Sezai; Chaudhury, Rekha

    2016-06-01

    Phylogenetic relationships of Indian Citron (Citrus medica L.) with other important Citrus species have been inferred through sequence analyses of rbcL and matK gene region of chloroplast DNA. The study was based on 23 accessions of Citrus genotypes representing 15 taxa of Indian Citrus, collected from wild, semi-wild, and domesticated stocks. The phylogeny was inferred using the maximum parsimony (MP) and neighbor-joining (NJ) methods. Both MP and NJ trees separated all the 23 accessions of Citrus into five distinct clusters. The chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) analysis based on rbcL and matK sequence data carried out in Indian taxa of Citrus was useful in differentiating all the true species and species/varieties of probable hybrid origin in distinct clusters or groups. Sequence analysis based on rbcL and matK gene provided unambiguous identification and disposition of true species like C. maxima, C. medica, C. reticulata, and related hybrids/cultivars. The separation of C. maxima, C. medica, and C. reticulata in distinct clusters or sub-clusters supports their distinctiveness as the basic species of edible Citrus. However, the cpDNA sequence analysis of rbcL and matK gene could not find any clear cut differentiation between subgenera Citrus and Papeda as proposed in Swingle's system of classification. PMID:26956119

  2. Clinical and radiographic comparison of various medicaments used for pulpotomy in primary molars: A randomized clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Goyal, Prachi; Pandit, I. K.; Gugnani, Neeraj; Gupta, Monica; Goel, Richa; Gambhir, Ramandeep Singh

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate and compare the efficacy of ferric sulfate, glutaraldehyde, and mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) as pulpotomy medicaments in primary molars. Materials and Methods: This was a perspective randomized clinical trial. A total of 90 molars from 42 children aged 4–8 years were selected for pulpotomy procedure. Teeth were randomly divided into three equal groups of 30 teeth each. Teeth in Group I were intended to be treated with ferric sulfate, Group II were intended to be treated with buffered glutaraldehyde and Group III with MTA. All the molars were evaluated clinically at 24 h and both clinically and radio graphically at 1, 3, and 6 months. The observations were statistically analyzed using Chi-square test and Fisher's exact test. Results: After 1 month, there was no clinical finding observed in all the three groups. At 3 months postoperative evaluation, 13.3% of teeth in Group I and 12.5% of teeth in Group II had mobility. At 6 months interval, pain and sinus formation each was noted in 9.1% of primary teeth in Group I while periodontal ligament widening was reported in 66.7% of teeth in Group I and 85.7% of teeth in Group II. Conclusion: MTA exhibited overall best results as pulpotomy agent for primary molars followed by 15.5% ferric sulfate, whereas 2% buffered glutaraldehyde was found to be least effective as a pulpotomy agent. PMID:27403046

  3. [Applications and prospects of on-line near infrared spectroscopy technology in manufacturing of Chinese materia medica].

    PubMed

    Li, Yang; Wu, Zhi-Sheng; Pan, Xiao-Ning; Shi, Xin-Yuan; Guo, Ming-Ye; Xu, Bing; Qiao, Yan-Jiang

    2014-10-01

    The quality of Chinese materia medica (CMM) is affected by every process in CMM manufacturing. According to multi-unit complex features in the production of CMM, on-line near infrared spectroscopy (NIR) is used as an evaluating technology with its rapid, non-destructive and non-pollution etc. advantages. With the research in institutions, the on-line NIR applied in process analysis and control of CMM was described systematically, and the on-line NIR platform building was used as an example to clarify the feasibility of on-line NIR technology in CMM manufacturing process. Then, from the point of application by pharmaceutical companies, the current on-line NIR research on CMM and its production in pharmaceutical companies was relatively comprehensively summarized. Meanwhile, the types of CMM productions were classified in accordance with two formulations (liquid and solid dosage formulations). The different production processes (extraction, concentration and alcohol precipitation, etc. ) were used as liquid formulation diacritical points; the different types (tablets, capsules and plasters, etc.) were used as solid dosage formulation diacritical points, and the reliability of on-line NIR used in the whole process in CMM production was proved in according to the summary of literatures in recent 10 years, which could support the modernization of CMM production. PMID:25739199

  4. Assessment of the potential of Allium sativum oil as a new medicament for non-vital pulpotomy of primary teeth

    PubMed Central

    Mohammad, Shukry Gamal; Baroudi, Kusai

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this study was to compare the clinical and radiographic effects of Allium sativum oil and formocresol in nonvital pulpotomy in primary teeth. Materials and Methods: Twenty children ranging in age from 4 to 8 years were included in the study. In every one of those children, pulpotomy was indicated for the primary molars. Pulpotomy procedure was performed and the radicular pulp tissue of one molar was capped with A. sativum oil in a cotton pellet while the other molar was capped with formocresol. The teeth were evaluated clinically and radiographically before and after 6 months using standard clinical and radiographic criteria. Statistically, these results revealed significant difference between the radiographic findings of nonvital pulpotomy in primary molars with the two medicaments. Statistical analysis was performed using independent t-test and paired t-test at the significance level of α = 0.05. Results: A. sativum oil has potent antibacterial properties that enable it to combat intracanal microbes in the infected pulp of primary molars. Better results were obtained when A. sativum oil was used. Conclusion: A. sativum oil had more powerful effects than formocresol on the infected pulp of primary nonvital molars. PMID:26312232

  5. Essential oil composition of Citrus medica L. Cv. Diamante (Diamante citron) determined after using different extraction methods.

    PubMed

    Gabriele, Bartolo; Fazio, Alessia; Dugo, Paola; Costa, Rosaria; Mondello, Luigi

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we report the qualitative and quantitative composition of the volatile and the oxygenated heterocyclic fraction of citron (Citrus medica L. cv. Diamante (Diamante citron)). The fruits selected for the extraction were of three types: green citron of little size, green citron of big size, and yellow citron after 1 month from the harvest. The essential oils were extracted using three different methods. The nine samples of oil thus obtained were analyzed by high resolution GC (HRGC)-flame ionization detection (FID), HRGC-MS, and RP-HPLC. They differ only in the quantitative composition, while the qualitative profile was the same. The volatile fraction of every sample of oil is characterized by a high content of limonene, gamma-terpinene, and monoterpene aldehydes and a lower content of alpha- and beta-pinene and myrcene, sesquiterpenes, and aliphatic aldehydes. Enantioselective (Es)-GC analysis of the extracts allowed the determination of the enantiomeric distribution of five terpenoid compounds; a prevalence of four dextrorotatory isomers was observed. Oxypeucedanin was the main component of the oxygenated heterocyclic fraction in the extracts of green fruits, while citropten was the major oxygenated compound in the oil obtained from yellow citron. PMID:19051190

  6. Clinical and Radiographic Evaluation of Allium sativum Oil as a New Medicament for Vital Pulp Treatment of Primary Teeth

    PubMed Central

    Mohammad, Shukry Gamal; Raheel, Syed Ahmed; Baroudi, Kusai

    2014-01-01

    Background: The objective of this study was to compare between the clinical and radiographic effects of Allium sativum oil and those of formocresol in vital pulpotomy in primary teeth. Materials and Methods: A total of 20 children age ranged from 4 to 8 years were included in the study. In every one of those children, the primary molars indicated for pulpotomy. Pulpotomy procedure was performed, and the radicular pulp tissue of one molar capped with A. sativum oil in a cotton pellet, whereas the other molar capped with formocresol, the teeth evaluated clinically and radiographically before and after 6 months, using standard clinical and radiographical criteria. Statistically, these results revealed no significant difference between the radiographic findings of vital pulpotomy in primary molars with the two medicaments was found. Results: A. sativum oil offers a good healing potential, leaving the remaining pulp tissue healthy and functioning. Vital pulpotomy with allium sativa oil was given raise 90% success rate while that with formocresol was 85%. Conclusion: A. sativum oil is a biocompatible material that is compatible with vital human pulp tissue. It offers a good healing potential, leaving the remaining pulp tissue healthy and functioning. PMID:25628480

  7. Comparative Evaluation of Propolis, Metronidazole with Chlorhexidine, Calcium Hydroxide and Curcuma Longa Extract as Intracanal Medicament Against E.faecalis– An Invitro Study

    PubMed Central

    Nair, Rashmi; Asrani, Hemant

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The increase of potential side effects and safety concerns of conventional medicaments have led to the recent popularity of herbal alternative medications. The herbal products are known for its high antimicrobial activity, biocompatibility, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. Aim The purpose of this study was to investigate and compare the effectiveness of Propolis, Metronidazole with Chlorhexidine gel, Curcuma Longa and Calcium Hydroxide for elimination of E.faecalis bacteria in extracted teeth samples. Materials and Methods Ninety extracted single rooted intact teeth were taken for the study. Decoronation, removal of apices and chemomechanical preparation was done for all samples. These sterilized samples were then contaminated with pure culture of E.faecalis under laminar flow. The samples were incubated for a period of 21 days. The infected samples were assigned to 5 groups: Group I- Propolis; Group II- Metronidazole with Chlorhexidine gel; Group III- Calcium hydroxide; Group IV- Curcuma Longa; and control group- Saline. Efficacy of newer intracanal medicaments against E.faecalis were carried out in the samples at the end of 1, 2 & 5 days for each group with the help of colorimeter. Student paired t-test, ANOVA and multiple tukey test were used for statistical analysis. Results The value of optical density was statistically significant in all groups when compared to that of control group. Group I (Propolis) produced better antimicrobial efficacy followed by Chlorhexidine Metronidazole combination, Curcuma Longa and Calcium hydroxide. Conclusion Within the limitations of this study, it can be concluded that Propolis showed better antimicrobial properties against E.faecalis than other medicaments. PMID:26673857

  8. Review of Allergic and Photoallergic Contact Dermatitis from an Ingredient in a Medicament Vehicle Consisting of a Compress, Poultice, Plaster, and Tape

    PubMed Central

    Oiso, Naoki; Kawada, Akira

    2011-01-01

    The topical application of a medicament vehicle consisting of a compress, poultice, plaster, and tape containing a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug or methyl salicylate is prevalent in Japan. The method is effective for conveying ingredients to the muscles via the skin for the relief of muscular pain. However, an ingredient in the occlusive vehicle can cause allergic and photoallergic contact dermatitis. We summarize cases reported over the past decade and discuss the current strategy for diminishing the risk of allergic and photoallergic contact dermatitis. PMID:21603165

  9. Assertive or antiquated: ProMedica vows to appeal loss against FTC as questions loom over whether mergers lead to efficiencies or clout.

    PubMed

    Carlson, Joe

    2011-12-12

    ProMedica vows to fight the feds over the acquisition of St. Luke's Hospital. Here is what they have to say. "The cost of healthcare is a real problem for all Americans, and the commission seeks to address this national problem by using all the tools Congress gave to us, and by devoting significant resources so that competition will enable market participants to deliver on the promises of cost-containment and continued excellence and innovation," says the FTC's Jon Leibowitz. PMID:22299225

  10. [Designation of occupation and proper name--onomastical considerations on the early Christian inscription of Sarmanna medica from Gondorf on the River Mosel].

    PubMed

    Haas, Jochen

    2011-01-01

    Some time ago, the author published some hypotheses regarding the etymological roots of the name Sarmanna which appears in an early Christian epitaph, which may be as old as the 5th century A.D. In this paper, some of these hypotheses will be elaborated upon, based on additional evidence in support of its eastern germanic origin which suggests close semantic links to medica, Sarmanna's profession. This kind of semantic connection seems to be unique among known ancient epitaphs. It thus offers important sociological and historical evidence for processes of acculturation and assimilation also in the medical realm at the transition from late Antiquity to the early Middle Ages. PMID:22400189

  11. Bioactive Glass S53P4 versus Chlorhexidine Gluconate as Intracanal Medicament in Primary Teeth: An In-vivo Study Using Polymerase Chain Reaction Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Goel, Ankit; Sinha, Abhishek; Khandeparker, Rakshit Vijay Sinai; Mehrotra, Rachit; Vashisth, Pallavi; Garg, Anuj

    2015-01-01

    Background: Bacteria have long been recognized as the primary etiology for pulpal and periapical lesions, which necessitates the elimination of bacteria from the root canal system. In primary teeth, irrigation and debridement is the main protocol required to disinfect the canal. Biomechanical preparation cannot be vigorously done on the primary teeth due to anatomical barrier such as thin and flared roots. This calls for the use of an effective intracanal medication that will assist disinfection of root canal system. Aim of the study was to examine the in-vivo susceptibility of root canal bacteria to chlorhexidine (CHX) gluconate-1% gel and bioactive glass (BAG) S53P4 when used as intracanal medicaments using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Methodology: PCR (analysis used oligonucleotide primers of Escherichia coli) was used to detect and compare the microbial load reduction after medication of 14 teeth for a week with either CHX gel - 1% or BAG S53P4. The pre and post microbial load was checked in the form of colony forming units. When analysis was done, a statistically significant difference was observed between the two groups. Results: The study revealed that both medicaments caused a considerable amount of microbial load reduction. BAG S53P4 caused much more reduction than CHX 1% gel. Statistical analysis showed a significant difference between the two groups. Conclusion: BAG S53P4 has superior antibacterial property as compared to CHX 1% gel. PMID:26464542

  12. Genetic structure and diversity of natural and domesticated populations of Citrus medica L. in the Eastern Himalayan region of Northeast India.

    PubMed

    Barbhuiya, Atiqur R; Khan, Mohammed L; Dayanandan, Selvadurai

    2016-06-01

    Citron (Citrus medica L.) is a medicinally important species of citrus native to India and occurs in natural forests and home gardens in the foothills of the eastern Himalayan region of northeast India. The wild populations of citron in the region have undergone rapid decline due to natural and anthropogenic disturbances and most of the remaining individuals of citron are found in fragmented natural forests and home gardens in the region. In order to assess the genetic structure and diversity of citron in wild and domesticated populations, we analyzed 219 individuals of C. medica collected from four wild and eight domesticated populations using microsatellite markers. The genetic analysis based on five polymorphic microsatellite loci revealed an average of 13.40 allele per locus. The mean observed and expected heterozygosity values ranged between 0.220-0.540 and 0.438-0.733 respectively among the wild and domesticated populations. Domesticated populations showed close genetic relationships as compared to wild populations and pairwise Nei's genetic distance ranged from 0.062 to 2.091 among wild and domesticated populations. Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) showed higher genetic diversity among- than within populations. The analysis of population structure revealed five groups. Mixed ancestry of few individuals of different populations revealed exchange of genetic materials among farmers in the region. Citron populations in the region show high genetic variation. The knowledge gained through this study is invaluable for devising genetically sound strategies for conservation of citron genetic resources in the region. PMID:27516853

  13. Acta Mechanica Sinica (selected articles)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ling, G.; Yin, X.; Jiang, J.; Li, K.

    1982-08-01

    Selected articles on fluid mechanics and heat transfer are presented. Topics discussed are: (1) the secondary vortex and the karman vortex formation; (2) viscous compressible flow in turbomachinery; (3) partial differential equations satisfied by stream functions in three dimensional turbomachinery flow; and (4) iridium electrostatic probe and its application in a high temperature wind tunnel.

  14. Acta mechanica sinica (Selected articles)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lian, J.; Lu, W.

    1984-05-01

    The coherent structure of a turbulent boundary layer at zero pressure gradient and for the gradient of adverse pressure was investigated. The hydrogen bubble method was employed to examine the turbulent flow in a two dimensional diffusion sector in a water channel. In a separate work, tensor calculus was used to derive three dimensional weak conservation form equations, time dependent flow surface iterative equations, and characteristic theory of non-orthogonal spherical coordinates. These equations and theory are useful in solving the three dimensional turbomachine transonic flow field.

  15. Acta Mechanica Sinica (selected articles)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guocan, L.; Xieyuan, Y.

    1982-05-01

    Articles on the following topics are presented: the early stages of unsteady flow around a cylinder at high Reynolds number and under laminar conditions; methods for solving three dimensional flow in turbomachinery; numerical computation of viscous compressible flow in turbomachinery; a high speed interferograph system for investigating fast phenomena; and statistical simulation of the aerodynamic behavior of the transitional region of flow past combined bodies of revolution at arbitrary angles of attack.

  16. [The Seongho () School's Study of the Ancient Learning () and Its Influence on the Debate about Materia Medica in the Late Joseon Dynasty].

    PubMed

    Cho, Sung-San

    2015-08-01

    This study will determine the ways in which the ancient learning (gu xue, ) scholarship of the Seongho School, and its interest in the materia medica (ben cao xue, ) were related during the late Joseon period. The Seongho School centered its studies mainly on classical Chinese texts of the Han (206 BC-AD 220) and pre-Han (?-221 BC) (xian-qin lianghan, ) periods rather than those of the Tang and Song dynasties (618-1279). gu xue scholarship emerged during the Ming dynasty era (1368 -1644) as an alternative to the scholarly trends of the Song dynasty, which were dependent on Zhu Xi's (, 1130-1200) Neo-Confucianism and its interpretation of Han and pre-Han classical Chinese texts. This scholarly trend influenced Korean and Japanese literature, philosophy, and even medicine from the seventeenth through the nineteenth centuries. Focusing on Korean scholarship, we find a great deal of research regarding the influence of gu xue on Korean classical Chinese literature and Confucian philosophy in the late Joseon period; however, no study has examined how this style of scholarship influenced the field of medicine during the same period. This study will investigate how the intellectuals of the Seongho School, who did the most to develop gu xue among Joseon intellectuals, were influenced by this style of scholarship in their study of the materia medica. Jeong Yak-yong (1762-1836), the representative intellectual of the Seongho School, did not focus on complicated metaphysical medical theories, such as the Yin-Yang and Five Elements theory (yin yang wu xing shui, ) or the Five Movements and Six Atmospheres theory (wu yun liu qi shui, ). Instead, his interests lay in the exact diagnoses of diseases and meticulous herbal prescriptions which formed an essential part of the Treatise on Exogenous Febrile Disease (Shang han lun, ) written by Zhang Zhungjing (, 150-219) in the Han dynasty. The Treatise was compatible with the scholarly purpose of gu xue in that they both

  17. Antimicrobial effect of calcium hydroxide as an intracanal medicament in root canal treatment: a literature review - Part II. in vivo studies

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The first part of this study reviewed the characteristics of calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)2) and summarized the results of in vitro studies related to its antimicrobial effects. The second part of this review covers in vivo studies including human clinical studies and animal studies. The use of Ca(OH)2 as an intracanal medicament represented better histological results in animal studies. However, human clinical studies showed limited antimicrobial effects that microorganisms were reduced but not eliminated through the treatment, and that some species had resistance to Ca(OH)2. Most of clinical outcome studies supported that there is no improvement in healing of periapical lesions when Ca(OH)2 was applied between appointments. Further studies are required for the antimicrobial effects of Ca(OH)2, and search for the ideal material and technique to completely clean infected root canals should be continued. PMID:25984470

  18. In vitro susceptibility of e.faecalis and c.albicans isolates from apical periodontitis to common antimicrobial agents, antibiotics and antifungal medicaments

    PubMed Central

    Yoldas, Oguz; Yilmaz, Sehnaz; Akcimen, Beril; Seydaoglu, Gulsah; Kipalev, Arzu; Koksal, Fatih

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate in vitro antimicrobial activity of 4 antibiotic agents (for E.faecalis) and 4 antifungal agents (for C.albicans) by agar dilution method. Additionally, modified strip diffusion method was used for detection of in vitro antimicrobial activities of 5% NaOCl, 2.5% NaOCl, 17% EDTA and 2% CHX and agar diffusion method for detection of in vitro susceptibilities of three intracanal medicaments for 18 E.faecalis and 18 C.albicans isolates from primary and secondary root canal infection. Isolates were recovered from 231 endodontic samples of patients, with the need of root canal treatment and retreatment. All tested E.faecalis isolates showed resistance to antibiotics. For irrigation solutions, 2% CHX was more effective in eliminating E.faecalis but 5% NaOCl showed larger inhibition zone than 2.5% NaOCl, 17% EDTA and 2% CHX. For intracanal medication, Ca(OH)2-CHX worked efficiently in killing E.faecalis isolates compared to Ca(OH)2-Steril saline solution, Ca(OH)2-Glycerin. For C.albicans, 18 isolates were susceptible to amphotericin B, nistatin, fluconazole but showed resistance to ketoconazole. 5% NaOCl was more effective in eliminating and produced larger inhibition zone compared to 2.5% NaOCl, 17% EDTA and 2% CHX. Ca(OH)2-Glycerin intracanal medication was better in eliminating C.albicans isolates and produced larger inhibition zone compared to other Ca(OH)2 medicaments. Key words:E.faecalis, C.albicans, antimicrobial, antibiotic, antifungal. PMID:24558517

  19. Insights into the history of a bacterial group II intron remnant from the genomes of the nitrogen-fixing symbionts Sinorhizobium meliloti and Sinorhizobium medicae

    PubMed Central

    Toro, N; Martínez-Rodríguez, L; Martínez-Abarca, F

    2014-01-01

    Group II introns are self-splicing catalytic RNAs that act as mobile retroelements. In bacteria, they are thought to be tolerated to some extent because they self-splice and home preferentially to sites outside of functional genes, generally within intergenic regions or in other mobile genetic elements, by mechanisms including the divergence of DNA target specificity to prevent target site saturation. RmInt1 is a mobile group II intron that is widespread in natural populations of Sinorhizobium meliloti and was first described in the GR4 strain. Like other bacterial group II introns, RmInt1 tends to evolve toward an inactive form by fragmentation, with loss of the 3′ terminus. We identified genomic evidence of a fragmented intron closely related to RmInt1 buried in the genome of the extant S. meliloti/S. medicae species. By studying this intron, we obtained evidence for the occurrence of intron insertion before the divergence of ancient rhizobial species. This fragmented group II intron has thus existed for a long time and has provided sequence variation, on which selection can act, contributing to diverse genetic rearrangements, and to generate pan-genome divergence after strain differentiation. The data presented here suggest that fragmented group II introns within intergenic regions closed to functionally important neighboring genes may have been microevolutionary forces driving adaptive evolution of these rhizobial species. PMID:24736785

  20. Insights into the history of a bacterial group II intron remnant from the genomes of the nitrogen-fixing symbionts Sinorhizobium meliloti and Sinorhizobium medicae.

    PubMed

    Toro, N; Martínez-Rodríguez, L; Martínez-Abarca, F

    2014-10-01

    Group II introns are self-splicing catalytic RNAs that act as mobile retroelements. In bacteria, they are thought to be tolerated to some extent because they self-splice and home preferentially to sites outside of functional genes, generally within intergenic regions or in other mobile genetic elements, by mechanisms including the divergence of DNA target specificity to prevent target site saturation. RmInt1 is a mobile group II intron that is widespread in natural populations of Sinorhizobium meliloti and was first described in the GR4 strain. Like other bacterial group II introns, RmInt1 tends to evolve toward an inactive form by fragmentation, with loss of the 3' terminus. We identified genomic evidence of a fragmented intron closely related to RmInt1 buried in the genome of the extant S. meliloti/S. medicae species. By studying this intron, we obtained evidence for the occurrence of intron insertion before the divergence of ancient rhizobial species. This fragmented group II intron has thus existed for a long time and has provided sequence variation, on which selection can act, contributing to diverse genetic rearrangements, and to generate pan-genome divergence after strain differentiation. The data presented here suggest that fragmented group II introns within intergenic regions closed to functionally important neighboring genes may have been microevolutionary forces driving adaptive evolution of these rhizobial species. PMID:24736785

  1. Ameliorating effects of traditional Chinese medicine preparation, Chinese materia medica and active compounds on ischemia/reperfusion-induced cerebral microcirculatory disturbances and neuron damage.

    PubMed

    Sun, Kai; Fan, Jingyu; Han, Jingyan

    2015-01-01

    Ischemic stroke and ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury induced by thrombolytic therapy are conditions with high mortality and serious long-term physical and cognitive disabilities. They have a major impact on global public health. These disorders are associated with multiple insults to the cerebral microcirculation, including reactive oxygen species (ROS) overproduction, leukocyte adhesion and infiltration, brain blood barrier (BBB) disruption, and capillary hypoperfusion, ultimately resulting in tissue edema, hemorrhage, brain injury and delayed neuron damage. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has been used in China, Korea, Japan and other Asian countries for treatment of a wide range of diseases. In China, the usage of compound TCM preparation to treat cerebrovascular diseases dates back to the Han Dynasty. Even thousands of years earlier, the medical formulary recorded many classical prescriptions for treating cerebral I/R-related diseases. This review summarizes current information and underlying mechanisms regarding the ameliorating effects of compound TCM preparation, Chinese materia medica, and active components on I/R-induced cerebral microcirculatory disturbances, brain injury and neuron damage. PMID:26579420

  2. Evaluation of calcium ion, hydroxyl ion release and pH levels in various calcium hydroxide based intracanal medicaments: An in vitro study

    PubMed Central

    Fulzele, Punit; Baliga, Sudhindra; Thosar, Nilima; Pradhan, Debaprya

    2011-01-01

    Aims: Evaluation of calcium ion and hydroxyl ion release and pH levels in various calcium hydroxide based intracanal medicaments. Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate calcium and hydroxyl ion release and pH levels of calcium hydroxide based products, namely, RC Cal, Metapex, calcium hydroxide with distilled water, along with the new gutta-percha points with calcium hydroxide. Materials and Methods: The materials were inserted in polyethylene tubes and immersed in deionized water. The pH variation, Ca++ and OH- release were monitored periodically for 1 week. Statistical Analysis Used: Statistical analysis was carried out using one-way analysis of variance and Tukey's post hoc tests with PASW Statistics version 18 software to compare the statistical difference. Results: After 1 week, calcium hydroxide with distilled water and RC Cal raised the pH to 12.7 and 11.8, respectively, while a small change was observed for Metapex, calcium hydroxide gutta-percha points. The calcium released after 1 week was 15.36 mg/dL from RC Cal, followed by 13.04, 1.296, 3.064 mg/dL from calcium hydroxide with sterile water, Metapex and calcium hydroxide gutta-percha points, respectively. Conclusions: Calcium hydroxide with sterile water and RC Cal pastes liberate significantly more calcium and hydroxyl ions and raise the pH higher than Metapex and calcium hydroxidegutta-percha points. PMID:22346155

  3. Ameliorating effects of traditional Chinese medicine preparation, Chinese materia medica and active compounds on ischemia/reperfusion-induced cerebral microcirculatory disturbances and neuron damage

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Kai; Fan, Jingyu; Han, Jingyan

    2015-01-01

    Ischemic stroke and ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury induced by thrombolytic therapy are conditions with high mortality and serious long-term physical and cognitive disabilities. They have a major impact on global public health. These disorders are associated with multiple insults to the cerebral microcirculation, including reactive oxygen species (ROS) overproduction, leukocyte adhesion and infiltration, brain blood barrier (BBB) disruption, and capillary hypoperfusion, ultimately resulting in tissue edema, hemorrhage, brain injury and delayed neuron damage. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has been used in China, Korea, Japan and other Asian countries for treatment of a wide range of diseases. In China, the usage of compound TCM preparation to treat cerebrovascular diseases dates back to the Han Dynasty. Even thousands of years earlier, the medical formulary recorded many classical prescriptions for treating cerebral I/R-related diseases. This review summarizes current information and underlying mechanisms regarding the ameliorating effects of compound TCM preparation, Chinese materia medica, and active components on I/R-induced cerebral microcirculatory disturbances, brain injury and neuron damage. PMID:26579420

  4. [Textual research on Guang dong xin yu (New Sayings of Guangdong) quoted in Ben cao gang mu shi yi (Supplements to Compendium of Materia Medica].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ruixian; Zhang, Wei; Li, Jian; Liang, Fei

    2014-05-01

    Altogether 15 terms for Guang dong xin yu (New Sayings of Guangdong) were used in Ben cao gang mu shi yi (Supplements to Compendium of Materia Medica), including Yue yu (Cantonese sayings), Chong yu (Sayings from Insect Drug), Jie yu (Sayings from Crustacean Drug), Xin yu (New Sayings), Yue hai xiang yu (Fragrant Sayings from Cantonese Region), Yue zhi mu yu (Sayings from Plants in Cantonese Annals), Guang dong suo yu (Trivial Sayings from Guangdong), Yue shan lu (Records of Cantonese Mountains), Yue lu (Cantonese Records), Jiao guang lu (Joint Guangdong Records), Yue cao zhi (Records of Cantonese Grasses), Guang guo lu (Records of Guangdong Fruits), Nan yue suo ji (Trivial Records of Southern Canton), Guang zhi (Guangdong Records), Yue zhi (Cantonese Records) etc. dealing with 57 sorts of drugs (with individual overlapping ones), the author of Xin yu was Qu Dajun, a surviving fogy of the Ming Dynasty actively involved in the activities to restore the old dynasty and resist the Qing Dynasty, and was persecuted in the literary inquisition in which his works were burnt so that Zhao Xuemin, when quoting his texts, had to go in a roundabout way. PMID:25208840

  5. Chemical composition and bioactivity of Citrus medica L. cv. Diamante essential oil obtained by hydrodistillation, cold-pressing and supercritical carbon dioxide extraction.

    PubMed

    Menichini, Federica; Tundis, Rosa; Bonesi, Marco; de Cindio, Bruno; Loizzo, Monica R; Conforti, Filomena; Statti, Giancarlo A; Menabeni, Roberta; Bettini, Ruggero; Menichini, Francesco

    2011-04-01

    The chemical composition of the essential oil of Citrus medica L. cv. Diamante peel obtained by hydrodistillation, cold-pressing and supercritical carbon dioxide extraction techniques was determined by GC/MS analysis. Forty-six components were fully characterised. Limonene and γ-terpinene were the major components of the oils obtained by hydrodistillation (HD) and cold-pressing (CP), while citropten was the major constituent in the oil obtained by supercritical carbon dioxide extraction (SFE). Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) inhibitory activities were evaluated. The essential oil obtained by hydrodistillation exerted the highest inhibitory activity against BChE (IC₅₀ value of 154.6 µg mL⁻¹) and AChE (IC₅₀ value of 171.3 µg mL⁻¹. Interestingly, the oil obtained by cold-pressing exhibited a selective inhibitory activity against AChE. The essential oils have also been evaluated for the inhibition of NO production in LPS induced RAW 264.7 macrophages. The oil obtained by hydrodistillation exerted a significant inhibition of NO production with an IC₅₀ value of 17 µg mL⁻¹ (IC₅₀ of positive control 53 µg mL⁻¹). PMID:21337254

  6. Authentication of Polygonati Odorati Rhizoma and other two Chinese Materia Medica of the Liliaceae family by pharmacognosy technique with GC-MS analysis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yingjiao; Liu, Canhuang; Yu, Yafei; Xu, Bei; Gong, Limin; Zeng, Xiaoyan; Xiao, Lan; Cheng, Qilai; Liu, Tasi

    2015-02-01

    Yuzhu (Polygonati Odorati Rhizoma), Kangdingyuzhu (Polygonati Prattii Rhizoma), and zhugenqiyuzhu (Disporopsis Fuscopictae Rhizoma) are of the same family, but of different genera. They have all often used in Chinese Materia Medica (CMM) as Polygonati Odorati Rhizoma in China market. Three species of CMM are confused. For better application, we need to identify these plants accurately. This study use pharmacognosy technique and GC-MS analysis, three species of CMM were authenticated. In macroscopic characteristics, the fruit of Polygonati Odorati Rhizoma is blue-black, while the other two are maroon and dark purple orderly. Nodes of Polygonati Odorati Rhizoma are upward and light uplift, about 1 cm spacing, while the other are not. As for microscopic characteristics, the cortex of Polygonati Odorati Rhizoma only occupies about 1/5 of the radius of the transverse section with inconspicuous endodermis, which is much smaller than others. The type of vascular bundles of Polygonati Odorati Rhizoma is closed collateral, but the other is amphivasal. Raphides of calcium oxalate are scattered, but Raphides of the other two are like brooms and neat rows. GC-MS analysis of essential oil could provide different characteristics to distinguish three species. Twenty-three compounds were identified from essential oil of Polygonati Odorati Rhizoma and the main components were n-hexadecanoic acid (49.45%), while n-hexadecanoic acid of the other two are 23.92% and 9.45%. The content of n-hexadecanoic is strongly different. This research was aimed to establish a method by pharmacognosy and GC-MS analysis to identify three CMM and for providing scientifical data to ensure accuracy of origin of three species. PMID:25408497

  7. [Marihuana and cannobinoids as medicaments].

    PubMed

    Tkaczyk, Marek; Florek, Ewa; Piekoszewski, Wojciech

    2012-01-01

    Biological activity of cannabinoids is caused by binding to two cannabinoid receptors CB1 and CB2. Psychoactive is not only tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) but also: cannabidiol, cannabigerol or cannabichromen. Formerly, the usefulness of hemp was assessed in the relation to temporary appeasement of the symptoms of some ailments as nausea or vomiting. Present discoveries indicates that cannabis-based drugs has shown ability to alleviate of autoimmunological disorders such as: Multiple sclerosis (MS), Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) or inflammatory bowel disease. Another studies indicates that cannabinoids play role in treatment of neurological disorders like Alzheimer disease or Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) or even can reduce spreading of tumor cells. Cannabinoids stand out high safety profile considering acute toxicity, it is low possibility of deadly overdosing and side-effects are comprise in range of tolerated side-effects of other medications. In some countries marinol and nabilone are used as anti vomiting and nausea drug. First cannabis-based drug containg naturally occurring cannabinoids is Sativex. Sativex is delivered in an mucosal spray for patients suffering from spasticity in MS, pain relevant with cancer and neuropathic pain of various origin. Despite the relatively low acute toxicity of cannabinoids they should be avoid in patients with psychotic disorders, pregnant or breastfeeding woman. Cannabinoids prolong a time of reaction and decrease power of concentration that's why driving any vehicles is forbidden. Cannabis side-effects varies and depend from several factors like administrated dose, rout of administration and present state of mind. After sudden break from long-lasting use, withdrawal symptoms can appear, although they entirely disappear after a week or two. PMID:23421098

  8. [Study on carving workers of Chong xiu zheng he jing shi zheng lei bei yong ben cao (Revised Prepared Materia Medica Classified under Syndromes in Zhenghe Period) published by Huiming Xuan (Huiming Sanctum)].

    PubMed

    Liang, Fei; Li, Jian; Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Rui-Xian

    2012-11-01

    The ancient carving workers have made a great contribution to the xylographic printing art in ancient China, so the studies on them are significant for a survey of ancient Chinese printing history, and for the identification of ancient Chinese books edition. Zheng lei ben cao published by Huiming Xuan (Huiming Sanctum) in the Jin and Yuan dynasties, which is the earliest extant edition of Zhenghe version system of Zheng lei ben cao and has important literature value. Thirty carving workers were involved in its printing process. On the whole, these workers had a relatively high technique and completed a remarkably fine work. In addition to lettering, 28 persons of them also made a total of 536 pages with 900 exquisite engraving illustrations on Chinese materia medica included in this book. Because of the high levels on carving, this precious book has been the representative of Pingshui edition, which has a great reputation but has very few works now. PMID:23363847

  9. A multi-residue method for simultaneous determination of 74 pesticides in Chinese material medica using modified QuEChERS sample preparation procedure and gas chromatography tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiao-qin; Li, Yun-fei; Meng, Wen-ting; Li, Dong-xiang; Sun, Henry; Tong, Ling; Sun, Guo-xiang

    2016-03-15

    The present study is focused on the development of an analytical method for the simultaneous analysis of seventy-four pesticides belonging to different chemical classes (organochlorines, organophosphates, pyrethroids, dinitroanilines, dicarboximides, triazoles, etc.) in Chinese material medica. The samples were extracted according to the acetate QuEChERS protocol. To reduce the amount of co-extracted compounds, n-hexane instead of acetonitrile was employed as the extraction solvent. To improve the overall recoveries of problematic basic and base-sensitive compounds, sodium acetate was used to adjust the pH to a neutral condition, and florisil combined with octadecyl-modified silica (C18) were utilized in the cleanup step. The samples were analysed by GC-MS/MS, and quantified by matrix-matched calibration. The validation study was carried out on two representative herbs, Chuanxiong Rhizoma and Angelica Sinensis Radix. In two matrices, the linearity of the calibration was good between 5 and 250 ng/mL concentration ranges, and the limits of quantification (LOQs) less than 0.01 mg/kg for most pesticides. At the LOQs and ten times the LOQs, the mean recoveries of almost all pesticides were within 70-120%, with relative standard deviations (RSDs) lower than 10%. The method was applied on twenty real samples. Seven batches of Chuanxiong and five batches of Danggui were found to contain the residues. The combination of modified QuEChERS and GC-MS/MS offers low cost of analysis as well as excellent accuracy and sensitivity. This method could be especially useful for trace analysis of pesticide residues in complex matrices. PMID:26894850

  10. Scientometric Analysis of Scientific Validity of Medical Archives Regarding Other Medical Journals in Bosnia and Herzegovina

    PubMed Central

    Masic, Izet; Begic, Edin; Zunic, Lejla

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Medical Archives is the oldest medical journal in Bosnia and Herzegovina (B&H) (founded in 1947.). A total of 104 articles were published in Medical Archives during 2015. Analyzing the type of articles, original articles are present in majority during 2015–80.7% (in last seven years, 561 (76%) were original out of 738). In last seven years, 651 (88.2%) articles were from the field of clinical medicine (preclinical disciplines, in the last three years are more represented than in previous years). Collaboration rate in 2015 was 0,92. Articles written in collaboration of five authors (21.1 %) are found to be predominant. From year to year, most often required time for a decision on acceptance or on the revision prior acceptance is between 50 and 60 days (30% of cases in 2015). During 2015, 47.1% of articles were originally from B&H (eleven countries were represented). H index of Medical Archive for 2014 was 12, and does not vary during the last decade. Findings: In 2015 in B&H about twenty-five journals are issued in the field of biomedical and life sciences in general (six are indexed on Medline/PubMed, one is indexed in the Science Citation Index Expanded (SCIE)/Web of Science base). According to GoogleScholar the biggest h5 index has Bosnian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences (BJBMS) and Medical Archives, while the biggest h5 median has BJBMS i Acta Informatica Medica. The highest H-index (13) in B&H has Izet Masic MD, PhD, Enver Zerem MD, PhD and Semir Vranic MD, PhD, while highest g-index (22) has Enver Zerem MD, PhD (analyzed by software package “Publish or Perish”). Conclusion: By comparing the state of medical publishing in B&H with neighboring countries (Croatia, Serbia, Montenegro), we have concluded that B&H is behind Croatia and Serbia by following parameters: Total Documents, Total Cites and H index but in front of Montenegro. PMID:26980926

  11. Meta-analysis as Statistical and Analytical Method of Journal’s Content Scientific Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Masic, Izet; Begic, Edin

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: A meta-analysis is a statistical and analytical method which combines and synthesizes different independent studies and integrates their results into one common result. Goal: Analysis of the journals “Medical Archives”, “Materia Socio Medica” and “Acta Informatica Medica”, which are located in the most eminent indexed databases of the biomedical milieu. Material and methods: The study has retrospective and descriptive character, and included the period of the calendar year 2014. Study included six editions of all three journals (total of 18 journals). Results: In this period was published a total of 291 articles (in the “Medical Archives” 110, “Materia Socio Medica” 97, and in “Acta Informatica Medica” 84). The largest number of articles was original articles. Small numbers have been published as professional, review articles and case reports. Clinical events were most common in the first two journals, while in the journal “Acta Informatica Medica” belonged to the field of medical informatics, as part of pre-clinical medical disciplines. Articles are usually required period of fifty to fifty nine days for review. Articles were received from four continents, mostly from Europe. The authors are most often from the territory of Bosnia and Herzegovina, then Iran, Kosovo and Macedonia. Conclusion: The number of articles published each year is increasing, with greater participation of authors from different continents and abroad. Clinical medical disciplines are the most common, with the broader spectrum of topics and with a growing number of original articles. Greater support of the wider scientific community is needed for further development of all three of the aforementioned journals. PMID:25870484

  12. Una Metodologia de Analisis de la Interaccion Alumno-Orgendaor en la Investigacion Sobre Informatica Educativa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Estepa, A.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    The recording of the interaction between pupil and computer is one of the data sources frequently used in research on the use of computers in teaching. Describes the analysis methodology of these recordings to determine the use of computers in statistics and its adaptation to other research work on the use of computers in education. (Author/MDH)

  13. [Status and future of natural resource for Chinese materia medica].

    PubMed

    Ma, Xiao-jing; Guo, Juan; Tang, Jin-fu; Ma, Xiao-hui; Ma, Ying; Dai, Zhu-bo; Guo, Lan-ping; Huang, Lu-qi

    2015-05-01

    For thousands of years, the natural resource for Chinese materiamedica has been the foundation of the traditional Chinese medicine industry, which provides abundant medicine for human. In recent years, increasing demands and irrational exploitation led to a lot of problems such as rapid decrease of traditional Chinese herbs reserves, low quality of medicine and dismishing traditional cultures. These restricted the development of the traditional Chinese medicine. To solve these problems, scientists have done much work on investigating traditional Chinese medicine resources, exploring the metabolic pathway of bioactive ingredients, cultivating new varieties, and carrying out synthetic biology. These studies provided a theoretical basis for sustainable utilizationand future developmentof traditional Chinese medicine resources. PMID:26390642

  14. The scientific conferences organized during war time (1992-1995) in sarajevo.

    PubMed

    Masic, Izet

    2011-01-01

    Author of this paper spent 1479 days in the siege of Sarajevo, during the period of war time in Bosnia and Herzegovina (B&H). This siege, lasting from 1992 to 1995 (e.g. Dayton Piece agreement was signed in November, 1995) represents the longest siege in the history of the world. Besides usual daily work, as the associate professor of Health education, Medical deontology and Medical informatics for the students of the Faculty of medicine, Faculty of dental medicine, Faculty of Pharmacy and Nursing college of University of Sarajevo, the author organized by himself and contributors, 10 scientific conferences in a sieged Sarajevo. All presented papers at those conferences are published in Proceedings abstract books, as the proof of continuing scientific work, in Sarajevo and other cities in B&H. Additionally, the author continued to publish, in that time, unique PubMed/MedLine indexed journal, - Medical Archives, (i.e. established in 1947) and, in 1993 formed a new journal named - "Acta Informatica Medica" (AIM) , as the Journal of the Bosnian Society of Medical informatics. Bosnian Society of Medical Informatics, thus became the first scientific association from Bosnia and Herzegovina, included in 1994, in the European Federation of Medical Informatics (EFMI) and the International Medical Informatics Assiciation (IMIA) , which was "miracle" from the besieged Sarajevo and war time result of aggression on Bosnia and Herzegovina. It should be noted that the importance of maintaining these academic gatherings, in the circumstances of war, was multifaceted. First of all, thanks to these meetings, the continuity of scientific meetings and activities in the besieged city of Sarajevo was not broken, as well as the continuity of scientific publication, which was crucial for the maintenance of the teaching staff at the university and, finally, in the expansion of the "scientific truth" about what happened in Sarajevo and B&H in these difficult times. All of this was critical

  15. The Jubilee of Medical Informatics in Bosnia and Herzegovina - 20 Years Anniversary

    PubMed Central

    Masic, Izet

    2009-01-01

    CONFLICT OF INTEREST: NONE DECLARED Last two years, the health informatics profession celebrated five jubilees in Bosnia and Herzegovina: thirty years from the introduction of the first automatic manipulation of data, twenty years from the establishment of Society for Medical Informatics BiH, fifteen years from the establishment of the Scientific and Professional Journal of the Society for Medical Informatics of Bosnia and Herzegovina „Acta Informatica Medica“, fifteen years on from the establishment of the first Cathedra for Medical Informatics on Biomedical Faculties in Bosnia and Herzegovina and five years on from the introduction of the method of “Distance learning” in medical curriculum. The author of this article are eager to mark the importance of the above mentioned Anniversaries in the development of Health informatics in Bosnia and Herzegovina and have attempted, very briefly, to present the most significant events and persons with essential roles throughout this period. PMID:24133382

  16. Proceedings of the second international symposium on molecular markers in horticulture Acta Horticulturae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The second International Symposium on Molecular Markers in Horticulture was held at the CH2M Hill Alumni Center at Oregon State University (OSU), Corvallis (Oregon, US), from July 29 to August 1st, 2009. This symposium was convened by a scientist at the National Clonal Germplasm Repository (NCGR) of...

  17. From rustics to savants: indigenous materia medica in eighteenth-century Mexico.

    PubMed

    Achim, Miruna

    2011-09-01

    This essay explores how indigenous knowledge about plant and animal remedies was gathered, classified, tested, and circulated across wide networks of exchange for natural knowledge between Europe and the Americas. There has been much recent interest in the "bioprospecting" of local natural resources-medical and otherwise-by Europeans in the early modern world and the strategies employed by European travellers, missionaries, or naturalists have been well documented. By contrast, less is known about the role played by indigenous and Creole intermediaries in this process. And yet, the transmission of knowledge between indigenous communities and the European cabinet was neither transparent nor natural, and often involved epistemological, linguistic, and religious obstacles. Drawing on printed and manuscript collections of indigenous remedies, written in colonial Mexico between the sixteenth and the eighteenth centuries, I focus on how local intermediaries, like creoles scholars, sought to overcome such obstacles by observing indigenous uses of remedies, by studying indigenous languages and by producing natural histories and pharmacopoeias in indigenous languages. Ultimately, behind the Creole participation in the transmission of indigenous remedies, one can point to political and cultural interests and to inclusive definitions of knowledge, which cut across oppositions between science and superstition, cabinet and field, centre and periphery. PMID:21802632

  18. The trouble with teething--misdiagnosis and misuse of a topical medicament.

    PubMed

    Wilson, P H R; Mason, C

    2002-05-01

    For many clinicians and parents "teething" remains a convenient diagnosis to explain all manner of local and systemic upset in the young child. Many therapies are on the market to help alleviate the symptoms of primary tooth eruption. In this article we highlight the problems of "teething" as a diagnosis by presenting a case where an initial misdiagnosis of teething compromised a patient's life. The same patient then suffered from topical analgesic misuse during the recovery period. PMID:12028314

  19. [History of the Halle Ars medica Judaica. V. Scientific achievements and medical publications of 2 centuries].

    PubMed

    Kaiser, W; Völker, A

    1989-05-01

    A medico-scientific journalism of Jewish origin which became increasedly recognizable on the German territory in the second half of the 17th century was at first based on the activities of Spanish-Portuguese exiles. Beginning with the 18th century at first the inaugural papers, but then also the publications of renowned Jewish physicians determined the profile of this literary group. The access to academic teaching professions becoming possible in the 19th century developed concentration points of research engagement, which in this place shall be indicated at the instance of the Medical Faculty of Halle University. PMID:2662660

  20. Comparison of five preanesthetic medicaments in thiopental-anesthetized cats: antagonism by selected compounds.

    PubMed

    Hatch, R C; Kitzman, J V; Zahner, J M; Clark, J D

    1984-11-01

    Effects of IM injections of saline solution (groups 1, 2, 3, and 4), xylazine (2.2 mg/kg of body weight, groups 5 and 6), acepromazine (0.11 mg/kg, groups 7 and 8), ketamine (11 mg/kg, groups 9 and 10), meperidine (4.4 mg/kg, groups 11 and 12), and diazepam (1 mg/kg, groups 13 and 14) were compared in atropinized cats. Treated cats were anesthetized to loss of palpebral reflex with thiopental, IV. Within 2 minutes, the cats were given IV injections of 0.15 mg of 4-aminopyridine (4-AP) with 0.125 mg of yohimbine/kg (groups 2, 6, 8, and 10), 0.04 mg of naloxone/kg (groups 3 and 12), or 5 mg of the benzodiazepine antagonist Ro 15-1788/kg (groups 4 and 14). Groups 1, 5, 7, 9, 11, and 13 were given saline solution instead of the test antagonists. Required doses of thiopental, arousal time, walk time (measured from injection of antagonists), respiratory rate, and heart rate were recorded. Induction phenomena were also recorded. Emergence was graded as smooth, fairly smooth, fairly smooth in some cats to fairly rough in other cats, rough, or very rough. In group 1 cats, mean arousal time (MAT) was 20.1 minutes, mean walk time (MWT) was 50 minutes, and emergence was rough. In groups given saline solution as the antagonist, the MAT, MWT (both expressed in minutes), and emergence, respectively, were: group 5 = 52.5, 65.5, smooth; group 7 = 15.6, 36.2, fairly smooth; group 9 = 22.5, 58.1, rough; group 11 = 31.3, 52.7, fairly smooth to fairly rough; and group 13 = 91.8, 427, very rough.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:6151814

  1. Medicago ciliaris growing in Tunisian soils is preferentially nodulated by Sinorhizobium medicae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Variation in growth of Medicago ciliaris was recorded across soils from five different regions in Tunisia that represented different soil types and climatic zones. In four of these soils (Mateur, Enfidha, Rhayet and Soliman) this variation appeared to be related to the nodule number on the roots of ...

  2. Effect of intracanal medicament on the sealing ability of root canals filled with Resilon.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ching S; Debelian, Gilberto J; Teixeira, Fabricio B

    2006-06-01

    The purpose of this in vitro study was to investigate the effects of the use of calcium hydroxide as an intracanal dressing on the sealing ability of a thermoplastic synthetic polymer-based root filling (Resilon). Forty-seven single rooted teeth were decoronated and instrumented to ISO sizes 40. The teeth were randomly divided into three experimental groups of 15 roots each. Group 1 was immediately filled. Group 2 and group 3 had calcium hydroxide paste placed with lentulo-spiral filler. After 7 days, calcium hydroxide was removed from the canals with two different techniques: #15 K-file agitated irrigation with 17% Ethylenediaminetetracitic acid (EDTA) (group 2) or ultrasonically agitated irrigation with 17% EDTA (group 3) for 2 min. All teeth were filled with Resilon points and the resin sealer (Ephiphany root canal sealant) using lateral condensation technique. Two teeth were immediately filled with Resilon master point size 40/.04 without sealer to act as a positive control. A split chamber microbial leakage model using Streptococcus mutans was used and the leakage was evaluated daily for a period of 30 days. Overall, 6 of 44 (14%) of samples filled with Resilon points and the resin sealer had microbial leakage. Three samples in group 1 (21%), two samples in group 2 (13%), and one specimen in group 3 (7%) had bacterial leakage. Using the Fisher's Exact test, there was no statistically significant difference in leakage between the groups with calcium hydroxide dressing and the group without calcium hydroxide (p > 0.05). Under the condition of this study, calcium hydroxide did not adversely affect the seal of the root-canal system filled with Resilon. PMID:16728244

  3. Clinical observation on application of Chinese materia medica after intralaryngeal microsurgery.

    PubMed

    Ni, H

    1994-06-01

    41 cases still showing various symptoms and signs after having been operated on for intralaryngeal conditions were treated with Yiqi Kaiyin Tang [symbol: see text] the vital energy replenishing and voice restoring decoction). The chief clinical manifestations were hoarseness of voice, lack of strength for speech, feeling of dryness and pain in the throat with foreign body sensation or burning sensation, and aphonia. The treatment lasted 15-60 days, resulting in cure in 19 cases, improvement in 16 cases, and no response in 6 cases, making a total effectiveness rate of 85.4%. PMID:7967690

  4. Comment on "Apatite: A new redox proxy for silicic magmas?" [Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 132 (2014) 101-119

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marks, Michael A. W.; Scharrer, Manuel; Ladenburger, Sara; Markl, Gregor

    2016-06-01

    Recently Miles et al. (2014) proposed that a negative correlation between oxygen fugacity (expressed as logfO2 and the Mn content of apatite from a range of intermediate to silicic igneous rocks could be used as an oxybarometer (Eq. (1)).

  5. Towards Understanding Leadership in Early Childhood Context: Cross-Cultural Perspectives. Acta Universitatis Ouluensis, E Scientique Rerum Socialium 35.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hujala, Eeva, Ed.; Puroila, Anna-Maija, Ed.

    Recognizing the importance of leadership in determining the quality of early care and education programs, the International Leadership Project (ILP) was initiated in 1996 to develop an understanding of cross-cultural perspectives on leadership, to develop a conceptual framework of leadership, and to develop cross-cultural methodologies for…

  6. La linguistica, la glottodidattica e l'elaboratore elettronico: Note sull'introduzione dell'informatica nell'insegnamento delle lingue (Linguistics, Language Pedagogy, and Computers: Notes on the Introduction of Computer Science in the Teaching of Languages).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colmayer, Ciro

    1991-01-01

    Attempts to show that the use of computers in the classroom should not be limited to the teaching of math but that the language classroom is an even more appropriate place for the introduction and use of computers. (CFM)

  7. Two different stable low molecular weight RNA (LMW RNA) profiles within Sinorhizobium meliloti and within Sinorhizobium medicae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    LMW RNA profiles of 179 isolates from Medicago, Melilotus and Trigonella species growing in a field site in northern Spain were analysed. Four different LMW RNA profiles designated I through IV were identified. Most of the isolates displayed either LMW RNA profile I or III (37 and 45%, respectively)...

  8. Effectiveness of four different techniques in removing intracanal medicament from the root canals: An in vitro study

    PubMed Central

    Bhuyan, A. C.; Seal, Mukut; Pendharkar, Kartik

    2015-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate the effectiveness of different techniques in removing calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)2) from the root canal. Materials and Methods: Twenty-four freshly extracted mandibular premolars were instrumented using ProTaper rotary instruments. The teeth were longitudinally split into two halves, cleaned of debris. The two halves were then reassembled and filled with Ca(OH)2 and were divided into four groups. In Group I, the teeth were irrigated with 5 mL of 2.5% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) and 5 mL of 17% of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid. In Group II, the teeth were irrigated with 5 mL of 2.5% NaOCl and a rotary ProTaper F3 instrument was used. In Group III, the teeth were irrigated with 5 mL of 2.5% NaOCl and agitated using an ultrasonic unit. In Group IV, the teeth were irrigated with 5 mL of 2.5% NaOCl and a CanalBrush was used to remove Ca(OH)2. The roots were disassembled, and photographs were taken. The amount of residual Ca(OH)2 was calculated using an image analysis software as a percentage of the total canal surface area. The data were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance and post-hoc Tukey test. Results: CanalBrush and ultrasonic techniques showed significantly less residual Ca(OH)2 than irrigants and rotary techniques. There was no significant difference between the rotary and irrigant techniques. Conclusion: None of the techniques used were completely able to remove Ca(OH)2 from the root canals. But the CanalBrush and ultrasonic techniques were significantly better than the rotary instrument and irrigant groups. PMID:26321826

  9. Retrievabilty of calcium hydroxide intracanal medicament with Chitosan from root canals: An in vitro CBCT volumetric analysis

    PubMed Central

    Vineeta, Nikhil; Gupta, Sachin; Chandra, Aditi

    2014-01-01

    Aim: This study compared the amount of aqueous-based and oil-based calcium hydroxide [Ca(OH)2 ] remaining in the canal, after removal with two different chelators 17% EDTA and 0.2% Chitosan in combination with ultrasonic agitation. Materials and Methods: Cleaning and shaping of root canals of 28 mandibular premolar was done and canals were filled either with Metapex or Ca(OH)2 mixed with distilled water. Volumetric analysis was performed utilizing cone beam-computed tomography (CBCT) after 7 days of incubation. Ca(OH)2 was removed using either 17% EDTA or 0.2% Chitosan in combination with ultrasonic agitation. Volumetric analysis was repeated and percentage difference was calculated and statistically analysed using Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U test. Results: Both the chelators failed to remove aqueous-based as well as oil-based Ca(OH)2 completely from the root canal. Aqueous-based Ca(OH)2 was easier to be removed than oil-based Ca(OH)2. 0.2% Chitosan was significantly more effective for removal of oil-based Ca(OH)2 (P < 0.01) while both 17% EDTA and 0.2% Chitosan were equally effective in removing aqueous-based Ca(OH)2 . Conclusion: Combination of 0.2% Chitosan and ultrasonic agitation results in lower amount of Ca(OH)2 remnants than 17% EDTA irrespective of type of vehicle present in the mix. PMID:25298647

  10. Outcomes of vital pulp therapy in permanent teeth with different medicaments based on review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Akhlaghi, Najmeh; Khademi, Abbasali

    2015-01-01

    Vital pulp therapy (VPT) is a biologic and conservative treatment modality to preserve the vitality and function of the coronal or remaining radicular pulp tissue in vital permanent teeth. A search was conducted via the Cochrane database, PubMed, MEDLINE, and Ovid for any articles with the criteria for “pulp-capping,” or “pulp-capping materials” and “VPT outcomes” from 1978 to mid 2014. All articles were evaluated and the valid papers were selected. The outcomes of various VPT techniques, including indirect pulp treatment, direct pulp treatment, partial pulpotomy, and complete pulpotomy in vital permanent teeth were extracted. Although various studies have different research approach, most studies noted a favorable treatment outcome. Mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) appears to be more effective than calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)2) for maintaining long-term pulp vitality after indirect and direct pulp-capping. However, it seems that the success rate for partial pulpotomy and pulpotomy with Ca(OH)2 is similar to MTA. PMID:26604953

  11. [The struggle of early Christians against Isis medica: breaks and continuity in traditions in the context of health and healing].

    PubMed

    Moog, Ferdinand Peter

    2009-01-01

    The study of health and healing gods may offer significant examples of how certain ideas survive, with hardly any substantial loss, across periods of great change. It is no surprise that, following centuries of struggle by early Christians against the worship of pagan gods, some originally heathen ideas and elements of thinking should have been in due course, if with prudence, adapted to Christian needs and sensibilities. A most remarkable instance of such practice is to be found, somewhat surprisingly, in the life of the bishop St. Cyril of Alexandria. He opposed rigorously the cult of Isis, above all in Egypt, but nevertheless adapted features of Isis to his conception of the Blessed Virgin Mary as 'Theotokos'. In this manner Isis, the goddess-mother, with her child Horus became--in a certain measure--a type of the Blessed Virgin Mother of God, accompanied by the Infant Jesus. The legendary arson perpetrated at the start of the 6th century A.D. against a temple in Cologne wherein a healing deity was worshipped should, it is argued here for the first time, be understood in the context of conflict between early Christianity and the cult of Isis. There is good reason to believe that the aforementioned temple set on fire by Gallus, later Bishop of Clermont, was in fact the shrine of Isis in Cologne. PMID:20509444

  12. Enhancing the antibacterial activity of the gold standard intracanal medicament with incorporation of silver zeolite: An in vitro study

    PubMed Central

    Ghatole, Kiran; Gowdra, Ramesh Halebathi Giriyappa; Azher, Samer; Sabharwal, Sumit; Singh, Veerandar T.; Sundararajan, Bharath Vardhana

    2016-01-01

    Background: Enterococcus faecalis is a persistent organism that plays a major role in the etiology of persistent periradicular lesions after root canal treatment has been associated with different forms of periradicular disease including primary endodontic infections and persistent infections. The present study compares the antibacterial activities of calcium hydroxide, calcium hydroxide mixed with silver zeolite, and calcium hydroxide mixed with 2% chlorhexidine against E. faecalis using direct contact test. Materials and Methods: The test materials of the in vitro experimental study were grouped as group 1—calcium hydroxide mixed with sterile water, group 2—2% silver zeolite added in calcium hydroxide mixed with sterile water, and group 3—calcium hydroxide mixed with 2% chlorhexidine. The bottom of microtiter plate were coated with freshly mixed tested material and a 10 μL of bacterial suspension was placed. After 1 h of incubation at 37°C, brain–heart infusion (BHI) broth (245 μL) was added and mixed for 2 min. These were designated as “subgroup 1” wells. A volume of 15 μL of broth then transferred from subgroup 1 wells to an adjacent set of four wells containing fresh BHI medium (215 μL); these wells were designated as “subgroup 2”’ wells. The optical density was measured by a spectrophotometer after the first day, third day, and seventh day. One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tukey tests were performed for the analysis. Results: Calcium hydroxide mixed with silver zeolite showed maximum antibacterial activity. Conclusion: Silver zeolite can be added in calcium hydroxide to enhance the latter's antibacterial activity against E. faecalis. PMID:27011937

  13. The use of medicaments in space--therapeutic measures and potential impact of pharmacokinetics due to weightlessness.

    PubMed

    Pavy-Le Traon, A; Guell, A; Saivin, S; Houin, G; Soulez-Lariviere, C; Pujos, M

    1994-01-01

    In support of the preparatory programme for the European manned space infrastructure, the Long-Term Programme Office (LTPO) within ESA's Space Station and Microgravity Directorate initiated a series of studies aimed at a better understanding of the physiological and psychological aspects of living in space. In this context, in 1991 MEDES (Institut de medecine et physiologie spatiale) was contracted by the Agency to investigate the type and efficacy of drugs available for use by astronauts during space missions to counteract the effects of weightlessness or for medical treatments. This paper summarises the main outcome of this research, in the context of the so-called 'Pharmemsi Study'. The first part is dedicated to the content of the medical kits used by astronauts in flight, while the second describes how weightlessness can modify the action of drugs (i.e. pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics parameters) on the human body. Recommendations are given on 'Space Pharmacopoeia' as well as the areas of research needed to adapt medication to the weightless environment. PMID:11541451

  14. [Contention on the theory of processing techniques of Chinese materia medica in the Ming-Qing period].

    PubMed

    Chen, Bin; Jia, Tianzhu

    2015-03-01

    On the basis of the golden stage of development of processing techniques of medicinals in the Song dynasty, the theory and techniques of processing in the Ming-Qing dynasties developed and accomplished further. The knowledge of some physicians on the processing of common medicinal, such as Radix rehmannia and Radixophiopogonis, was questioned, with new idea of processing methods put forward and argued against those insisting traditional ones, marking the progress of the art of processing. By reviewing the contention of technical theory of medicinal processing in the Ming-Qing period, useful references can be provided for the inheritance and development of the traditional art of processing medicinals. PMID:26420409

  15. Outcomes of vital pulp therapy in permanent teeth with different medicaments based on review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Akhlaghi, Najmeh; Khademi, Abbasali

    2015-01-01

    Vital pulp therapy (VPT) is a biologic and conservative treatment modality to preserve the vitality and function of the coronal or remaining radicular pulp tissue in vital permanent teeth. A search was conducted via the Cochrane database, PubMed, MEDLINE, and Ovid for any articles with the criteria for "pulp-capping," or "pulp-capping materials" and "VPT outcomes" from 1978 to mid 2014. All articles were evaluated and the valid papers were selected. The outcomes of various VPT techniques, including indirect pulp treatment, direct pulp treatment, partial pulpotomy, and complete pulpotomy in vital permanent teeth were extracted. Although various studies have different research approach, most studies noted a favorable treatment outcome. Mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) appears to be more effective than calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)2) for maintaining long-term pulp vitality after indirect and direct pulp-capping. However, it seems that the success rate for partial pulpotomy and pulpotomy with Ca(OH)2 is similar to MTA. PMID:26604953

  16. Ions Release and pH of Calcium Hydroxide-, Chlorhexidine- and Bioactive Glass-Based Endodontic Medicaments.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Ceci Nunes; Freire, Laila Gonzales; Carvalho, Alexandre Pinheiro Lima de; Duarte, Marco Antonio Húngaro; Bauer, José; Gavini, Giulio

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated pH and release of calcium, sodium and phosphate ions from different medications in human dentin. Fifty premolars were prepared and randomly divided into groups: (CHX) - 2% chlorhexidine gel; (CHX + CH) - CHX + calcium hydroxide PA; (CH) - CH + propylene glycol 600; (NPBG) - experimental niobium phosphate bioactive glass + distilled water; (BG) - bioactive glass (Bio-Gran) + distilled water. The specimens were immersed in deionized water and the pH variations were measured. The quantification of ions in the solutions was made by inductively coupled plasma - atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP/AES) at 10 min, 24 h, 7, 14, 21 and 30 days. The results were analyzed by ANOVA and Tukey`s test, with a significance level of 5%. CH had the highest level of calcium ions release at 30 days, while CHX and BG released more sodium ions. BG, NPBG and CHX released a higher amount of phosphate ions. The pH of CH was significantly higher compared with the other groups. CH favored the greatest increase of pH and calcium ions release. The bioactive glasses released more sodium and phosphate ions and presented an alkaline pH immediately and after 30 days. PMID:27224568

  17. Nationwide program of education for undergraduates in the field of disaster medicine: development of a core curriculum centered on blended learning and simulation tools.

    PubMed

    Ingrassia, Pier Luigi; Ragazzoni, Luca; Tengattini, Marco; Carenzo, Luca; Della Corte, Francesco

    2014-10-01

    In recent years, effective models of disaster medicine curricula for medical schools have been established. However, only a small percentage of medical schools worldwide have considered at least basic disaster medicine teaching in their study program. In Italy, disaster medicine has not yet been included in the medical school curriculum. Perceiving the lack of a specific course on disaster medicine, the Segretariato Italiano Studenti in Medicina (SISM) contacted the Centro di Ricerca Interdipartimentale in Medicina di Emergenza e dei Disastri ed Informatica applicata alla didattica e alla pratica Medica (CRIMEDIM) with a proposal for a nationwide program in this field. Seven modules (introduction to disaster medicine, prehospital disaster management, definition of triage, characteristics of hospital disaster plans, treatment of the health consequences of different disasters, psychosocial care, and presentation of past disasters) were developed using an e-learning platform and a 12-hour classroom session which involved problem-based learning (PBL) activities, table-top exercises, and a computerized simulation (Table 1). The modules were designed as a framework for a disaster medicine curriculum for undergraduates and covered the three main disciplines (clinical and psychosocial, public health, and emergency and risk management) of the core of "Disaster Health" according to the World Association for Disaster and Emergency Medicine (WADEM) international guidelines for disaster medicine education. From January 2011 through May 2013, 21 editions of the course were delivered to 21 different medical schools, and 524 students attended the course. The blended approach and the use of simulation tools were appreciated by all participants and successfully increased participants' knowledge of disaster medicine and basic competencies in performing mass-casualty triage. This manuscript reports on the designing process and the initial outcomes with respect to learners

  18. Reply to "Comment on papers by K. Shanahan that propose to explain anomalous heat generated by cold fusion", E. Storms, Thermochim. Acta (2005)

    SciTech Connect

    Shanahan, Kirk

    2005-09-21

    Dr. E. Storms has published a Letter [1] in which he argues that in a sequence of recent papers [2-5], the apparent excess heat signal claimed by Dr. Shanahan to arise from a calibration constant shift is actually true excess heat. In particular he proposes that the mechanisms proposed that foster the proposed calibration constant shifts [3,5] cannot occur as postulated for several reasons. As well, he proposes Shanahan has ignored the extant data proving this. Because this Letter may lend unwarranted support to acceptance of cold fusion claims, these erroneous arguments used by Storms need to be answered.

  19. Corrigendum to "Occurrence and abundance of 6-methyl branched glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers in soils: Implications for palaeoclimate reconstruction" [Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 141 (2014) 97-112

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Jonge, Cindy; Hopmans, Ellen C.; Zell, Claudia I.; Kim, Jung-Hyun; Schouten, Stefan; Sinninghe Damsté, Jaap S.

    2016-06-01

    The authors regret that the r2 values (squared pearson correlation coefficient values) reported in Figs. 7 and 8 and in the text, are instead the non-squared r values. This has no direct influence on our interpretation. We have included the corrected Figs. 7 and 8. The text describing these results should read as follows:

  20. Reply to comment by Marks et al. (2016) on "Apatite: A new redox proxy for silicic magmas?" [Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 132 (2014) 101-119

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miles, Andrew; Graham, Colin; Hawkesworth, Chris; Gillespie, Martin; Hinton, Richard; Bromiley, Geoffrey

    2016-06-01

    Marks et al. (2016) investigate the applicability of the Mn-in-apatite oxybarometer proposed by Miles et al. (2014) across a range of magma compositions using published data on well-characterised samples. The authors show that for magma compositions outside of the calc-alkaline and intermediate to silicic range used in the preliminary calibration, fO2 values calculated from Mn-in-apatite vary significantly from independently constrained estimates. These data are used to reiterate our warnings that other controls that are additional to oxygen fugacity are likely to affect Mn partitioning into apatite in some rock types, and particularly so in magmas that lie outside of the range of compositions and conditions used in the calibration. Marks et al. (2016) highlight that temperature may have an especially important effect on Mn partitioning in apatite in some rock types.

  1. Simposio sobre Educacion de Ninas: Evidencias, Temas, Acciones. Actas de sesiones. (Symposium on Girls Education: Evidence, Issues, Actions. Proceedings). (Washington, DC, May 17-18, 2000).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agency for International Development (IDCA), Washington, DC.

    This symposium highlighted core issues of controversy in girls' education and developed implications for policy and practice. Its evidence-based discussion forum encouraged dialogue, debate, and increased interaction and developed partnerships among academic institutions, nongovernmental organizations, multilateral development agencies, and other…

  2. The Influence of Dentine on the pH of Calcium Hydroxide, Chlorhexidine Gel, and Experimental Bioactive Glass-Based Root Canal Medicament

    PubMed Central

    Nunes Carvalho, Ceci; Gonzales Freire, Laila; Pinheiro Lima de Carvalho, Alexandre; Luiz Siqueira, Evandro; Bauer, José; Cunha Gritti, Giovana; Pereira de Souza, Juliana; Gavini, Giulio

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. To evaluate the influence of dentine on the pH of different medications in standardized simulated canals. Materials and Methods. Forty resin blocks were divided into groups with and without dentine powder, as follows: 2% chlorhexidine gel; 2% chlorhexidine gel associated with calcium hydroxide PA; calcium hydroxide PA delivered in propylene glycol 600; and NPG delivered in distilled water. The dentine powder was obtained from the root dentine of bovine teeth and added to the medications. The simulated canals were placed in containers with 1.5 mL of deionized water and pH was monitored in multiple intervals, up to 30 days. The mean pH values were calculated and submitted to statistical analysis using paired Student's t-test and ANOVA complemented by the Tukey test (p < 0.05). Results. There was no statistical difference between the groups with and without dentine powder (p > 0.05). The pH values of calcium hydroxide were significantly higher than those of NPG in the first 24 hours (p < 0.05). After 7 days, both behaved in a similar manner. Conclusion. The addition of dentine powder to the medications evaluated did not alter the pH of the external solution in any of the time points tested. PMID:26347249

  3. Attitudes of Italian general practitioners in the treatment of cancer pain. The Committee of the Associazione Italiana di Oncologia Medica (AIOM).

    PubMed

    Minotti, V; Betti, M

    1997-01-01

    The attitude of Italian general practitioners in prescribing practices for patients with cancer pain was assessed by means of a questionnaire. The results indicated that among most of the doctors who completed the questionnaire the basic principles of pain treatment in cancer patients are largely understood. Oral morphine emerged as the most commonly used opioid (60%) and controlled-release morphine as the preferred preparation. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs were the most commonly used minor analgesics. Fear of side effects and restrictive prescribing regulations emerged as the most important barrier against adequate pain management. The survey emphasised the need for continued efforts in implementing specific educational programming for improvement in cancer pain management. PMID:9349310

  4. [History of the Halle Ars medica Judaica. IV. Development from the middle of the 19th century to the end of the Weimar Republic].

    PubMed

    Kaiser, W; Völker, A

    1989-04-15

    The possibilities of an academic career of Jewish physicians were alleviated by the legalities of the second half of the 19th century, however, up to 1918 in many places restrictive statutes in higher education considerably confined a career as professor in ordinary of specialists of Jewish belief. The conditions at Halle university reflect this situation. A complete equalization beginning after 1918 only at some points of scientific concentration led to a recognizable increase of the Jewish-German members in the teaching staff. But already in this phase on the basis of a quickly spreading racial ideology an increasingly appreciable vulgar antisemitism developed. PMID:2662658

  5. Comments on "Synthesis aspects, structural, spectroscopic, antimicrobial and room temperature ferromagnetism of zinc iodide complex with Schiff based ligand" by K. Shakila and S. Kalainathan, Spectrochim. Acta 135 A (2015) 1059-1065.

    PubMed

    Srinivasan, Bikshandarkoil R; Nadkarni, V S

    2016-06-15

    Shakila and Kalainathan report on the synthetic and structural aspects of a zinc iodide complex with Schiff based ligand, which exhibits room temperature ferromagnetism. In this comment, many points of criticism, concerning the characterization of this so called zinc iodide complex of Schiff based ligand are highlighted to prove that the title paper is completely erroneous. PMID:27037763

  6. Comments on "Synthesis aspects, structural, spectroscopic, antimicrobial and room temperature ferromagnetism of zinc iodide complex with Schiff based ligand" by K. Shakila and S. Kalainathan, Spectrochim. Acta 135 A (2015) 1059-1065

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srinivasan, Bikshandarkoil R.; Nadkarni, V. S.

    2016-06-01

    Shakila and Kalainathan report on the synthetic and structural aspects of a zinc iodide complex with Schiff based ligand, which exhibits room temperature ferromagnetism. In this comment, many points of criticism, concerning the characterization of this so called zinc iodide complex of Schiff based ligand are highlighted to prove that the title paper is completely erroneous.

  7. Comment on "Behavior of Re and Os during contact between an aqueous solution and oil: Consequences for the application of the Re-Os geochronometer to petroleum" [Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 158 (2015) 1-21

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Jia; Li, Zhen; Wang, Xuan-ce

    2016-08-01

    In a recent study, Mahdaoui et al. (2015) simulated the contact of oil with Re/Os-bearing aqueous fluids in petroleum reservoirs and concluded that both metals could be rapidly and substantially enriched in the oil fraction. These findings could have significant geological ramifications for the use of rhenium-osmium (Re-Os) geochronology in the age-dating of oil deposits. However, the lack of data reproducibility between parallel experiments and misused parameter of "recovery rate" has cast doubt on the main conclusions of the paper. Re-analyses of the raw data provided sufficient evidence to suggest that in petroleum basins with very low abundances of Re and Os, the extraction of these metals to oil is unlikely to be a geologically instantaneous process as the authors implied in their study. In addition, the possibility of reactor leakage in the contacting experiments cannot be completely ruled out.

  8. Coping with Social Change: Programs That Work. Proceedings of a Conference (Acapulco, Mexico, June 1989) = Como enfrentarse al cambio social: programas eficaces. Actas de uno Conferencia (Acapulco, Mexico, Junio de 1989).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoskins, Irene, Ed.

    Written in English and Spanish, this document contains the proceedings of the 14th International Congress of Gerontology on concerns about the impact of rapid social change on the well-being of older women and families in Latin American and the Caribbean and about effective programs that address the needs of the older populations. The first…

  9. Corrigendum to "Recycling of crustal material by the Iceland mantle plume: New evidence from nitrogen elemental and isotope systematics of subglacial basalts" [Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 176 (2016) 206-226

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halldórsson, Sæmundur A.; Hilton, David R.; Barry, Peter H.; Füri, Evelyn; Grönvold, Karl

    2016-08-01

    In Table 1 of the above published paper, N2/40Ar* ratios (column 13) are incorrect. A corrected table and updated figures (Figs. 6-8) are shown below. The correct N2/40Ar* values vary between 178 and 2.6 × 104, with a mean of 4.1 ± 2.1 (×103). Although this range in N2/40Ar* ratios is somewhat smaller compared to what was reported, it still displays considerably more heterogeneity compared to the DMM database. The new mean value is also significantly higher than the DMM mean (138 ± 65), as discussed. Therefore, the findings in the paper concerning heterogeneous and elevated N2/40Ar* ratios in Icelandic subglacial basalts still stand.

  10. Corrigendum to "Historical review: Anders Jonas Ångström and the foundation of spectroscopy - Commemorative article on the second centenary of his birth" [Spectrochim. Acta Part B, 102 (2014) 12-23

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reif-Acherman, Simón

    2015-07-01

    The following addendum should be added to the Acknowledgments of the above article. Due to the multiplicity of simultaneous activities in which I am continuously involved, I forgot mentioning that Prof. Dr. Klaus Hentschel, of the History Department of the University of Stuttgart (Germany) was helpful in obtaining some of the source material used in my review. In particular, Prof. Hentschel provided the scans of Anne Beckmann's work to which I was guided by passages in his book on "Mapping the spectrum", Oxford University Press (2002). I also followed his recommendation of contacting the Swedish historians of science, and Prof. Sven Widmalm among them; however, the correspondence was not successful.

  11. Corrigendum to "Isotopic and geochemical characterization of fossil brines of the Cambrian Mt. Simon sandstone and Ironton-Galesville formation from the Illinois Basin, USA" [Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 165 (2015) 342-360

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Labotka, Dana M.; Panno, Samuel V.; Locke, Randall A.; Freiburg, Jared T.

    2016-08-01

    The original Fig. 4 incorrectly represented data from Clayton et al. (1966). The deuterium values were reported in percent deuterium and mistaken by the authors as per mille. The corrected Fig. 4 Corrigendum is given and shows the data from Clayton et al. (1966) plotting in a similar manner as other published data for groundwater in the Illinois Basin. The data from Clayton et al. (1966) was not used in the discussion of the deep-seated Cambrian brines, and, therefore, this misrepresentation does not affect the conclusions of the original manuscript. The authors apologize for the oversight.

  12. Actas de la 4th mesa redonda sobre investigacion en "Lenguas Extranjeras" en la Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana 1996. (Proceedings from the 4th Roundtable on Investigation in Foreign Languages in the Autonomous Metropolitan University 1996).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zoreda, Margaret Lee, Comp.; Diop, Mamoudou Si, Comp.; Vivaldo Lima, Javier, Comp.

    The articles included in this volume were selected as exemplary papers from the conference in Mexico. The goal of the forum was to provide an opportunity for researchers from the three branches of the Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana (UAM) to meet and discuss research projects currently in progress at the university. The works presented here…

  13. Corrigendum to ‘Evidence for shock heating and constraints on Martian surface temperatures revealed by 40Ar/39Ar thermochronometry of Martian meteorites’ [Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta (2010) 6900–6920

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Cassata, William S.; Shuster, David L.; Renne, Paul R.; Weiss, Benjamin P.

    2014-10-23

    Here, the authors regret they have discovered errors in Eq. (3) and in a spreadsheet used to calculate cosmogenic exposure ages shown in Table 1. Eq. (3) is missing a term. The spreadsheet errors concerned an incorrect cell reference and application of Eq. (3). Correction of these errors results in ~15–20% changes to the exposure ages of all samples, minor (generally <0.2%) changes to the radioisotopic ages of some samples (those that entailed a correction for chlorine-derived 38Ar calculated based on the exposure age; see Section 3.3), and statistically insignificant changes to the inferred trapped components identified through isochron analyses.more » These modifications have no impact on the modeling, discussions, or conclusions in the paper, nor do the changes to radioisotopic ages exceed the 1 sigma uncertainties.« less

  14. Corrigendum to ‘Evidence for shock heating and constraints on Martian surface temperatures revealed by 40Ar/39Ar thermochronometry of Martian meteorites’ [Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta (2010) 6900–6920

    SciTech Connect

    Cassata, William S.; Shuster, David L.; Renne, Paul R.; Weiss, Benjamin P.

    2014-10-23

    Here, the authors regret they have discovered errors in Eq. (3) and in a spreadsheet used to calculate cosmogenic exposure ages shown in Table 1. Eq. (3) is missing a term. The spreadsheet errors concerned an incorrect cell reference and application of Eq. (3). Correction of these errors results in ~15–20% changes to the exposure ages of all samples, minor (generally <0.2%) changes to the radioisotopic ages of some samples (those that entailed a correction for chlorine-derived 38Ar calculated based on the exposure age; see Section 3.3), and statistically insignificant changes to the inferred trapped components identified through isochron analyses. These modifications have no impact on the modeling, discussions, or conclusions in the paper, nor do the changes to radioisotopic ages exceed the 1 sigma uncertainties.

  15. Corrigendum to "Synthesis and spectral characterization of new homologous 1,3,5-triaryl-2-pyrazolines: Influence of alkyloxy chain length on fluorescence" [Spectrochim. Acta Part A: Mol. Biomol. Spectrosc. 133 (2014) 182-189

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbas, Asghar; Hussain, Safdar; Hafeez, Noureen; Naseer, Muhammad Moazzam

    2015-03-01

    The authors regret to inform that the affiliation of one of the authors, namely, Noureen Hafeez has been written as Department of Forensic Medicine & Toxicology, Rawalpindi Institute of Health Sciences (RIHS), Bahria University, Islamabad, Pakistan in the published article. The correct address is shown above.

  16. Western Hemisphere Conference on Persons with Disabilities. Conference Proceedings (Washington, D.C., March 14-18, 1993) = Conferencia Hemisferica Occidental sobre Personas con Discapacidades. Actas de la Conferencia. (Washington, D.C., 14 al 18 de Marzo de 1993).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelley, Jerry D., Ed.; And Others

    This document presents the proceedings of a conference which brought together delegates and First Ladies representing western hemisphere nations to address needs and issues affecting people with disabilities in the Americas. It presents the texts of two keynote addresses: "Small Triumphs, Big Victories: A Global View of Persons with Disabilities,"…

  17. Corrigendum to "Basin-scale controls on the molybdenum-isotope composition of seawater during Oceanic Anoxic Event 2 (Late Cretaceous)" [Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 178 (2016) 291-306

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dickson, Alexander J.; Jenkyns, Hugh C.; Porcelli, Donald; van den Boorn, Sander; Idiz, Erdem; Owens, Jeremy D.

    2016-09-01

    A recent molybdenum-isotope estimate of the extent of anoxic and euxinic conditions in the world ocean during Oceanic Anoxic Event 2 (∼94 Ma) concluded by discussing a contrast between the new results with existing estimates of marine euxinia based on sulphur isotopes. This suggested contrast was erroneous; when areal extents of marine anoxia and euxinia are calculated for both isotopic proxies, the agreement is actually striking, and highlights the fact that large areas of the global ocean probably remained well ventilated during this event.

  18. Corrigendum to "Natural dye extract of lawsonia inermis seed as photo sensitizer for titanium dioxide based dye sensitized solar cells" [Spectrochim. Acta A Mol. Biomol. Spectrosc. 128 (2014) 420-426

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ananth, S.; Vivek, P.; Arumanayagam, T.; Murugakoothan, P.

    2015-05-01

    The authors regret to inform that the following text in page No. 425, "The conventionally prepared TiO2 based DSSC exhibits the observed values of Isc = 1.6 mA cm-2, Voc = 0.48 V and the calculated value of FF is 64.32%. Similarly, for pre dye treated TiO2 based DSSC, the observed values of Isc = 2.99 mA cm-2, Voc = 0.50 V and the calculated value of FF is 66.9%" should be read as, "The conventionally prepared TiO2 based DSSC exhibits the observed values of Isc = 2.99 mA cm-2, Voc = 0.50 V and the calculated value of FF is 66.9%. Similarly, for pre dye treated TiO2 based DSSC, the observed values of Isc = 4.2 mA cm-2, Voc = 0.56 V and the calculated value of FF is 62.5%". Though the text is typed wrongly, the I-V graph, the discussions and our conclusions are as same as that of our published article.

  19. Derechos Educacionales de los Padres: Una Explicacion de los Procedimientos de Seguridad para los Padres de Ninos con Discapacidades. Bajo la Clausula del Acta de Educacion para Individuos con Discapacidades (IDEA) y las Reglas para la Administracion del Acta de Educacion para Ninos Excepcionales (Educational Rights of Parents: An Explanation of Procedural Safeguards Available to Parents of Children with Disabilities. Under Provisions of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) and the Rules for the Administration of the Exceptional Children's Educational Act [ECEA]).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mountain Plains Regional Resource Center, Des Moines, IA.

    This pamphlet, in Spanish, describes Colorado parents' educational rights under federal and state special education rules and regulations. It addresses: (1) free appropriate public education and termination of services; (2) required prior notice to parents if there is a proposed change or refusal to change a child's special education program; (3)…

  20. Fiche pratique: Des proverbes en pagaille; Debat filme; Faire un journal televise; Du bon usage d'un medicament (Practical Ideas: Proverbs in a Muddle; Filmed Debate; To Make a Televised Journal; Good Use of a Medicine).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lisboa, Maria Fernanda Araujo; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Four French language class activities are described, including a game using proverbs to review animal names and encourage comprehension; videotaping a class debate in French, to promote both exchange of ideas and student confidence before a group; a role-playing exercise in which a television news program is created; and a specialized activity to…

  1. [Deciphering the argots of the names of materia medica and its dosage in the Yi lin kou pu liu zhi mi shu (A Secret Medical Book of Six Therapies in Rhymes of Medical Professionals)].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jian; Lin, Shiyi; Liu, Shijue

    2014-11-01

    Yi lin kou pu liu zhi mi shu (A Secret Medical Book of Six Therapies in Rhymes of Medical Professionals) was additionally compiled, supplemented and annotated by Zhou Sheng, a famous doctor of the Qing Dynasty, based on Yi lin kou pu (Rhymes of Medical Professionals) which was composed by Lu Qi. The book contains four volumes in total, dealing mainly with the miscellaneous diseases of internal medicine, as well as external medicine, gynecology, and pediatrics etc. The syndrome differentiation and treatment, prescriptions and medications in this book has its own characteristic with rather high academic value and practical significance. There were 20 drug names were deciphered by the argots, for instance, "you che" was the argot of golden thread, and "wu yue (May)" was the argot of medicinal evodia fruit, etc. In addition, the argots were often used to decipher numerals and quantifiers, for example, "su, qi, zi, qi, man" referring to 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 respectively, and "huo, pu, xiang, feng, lai" referring to 6, 7, 8, 9, 10 respectively, and "qing","zhong","xi" referring to qian, liang and fen respectively. Hence, deciphering of these argots could help to understand and apply these prescriptions correctly. PMID:25620357

  2. La Seccion de Investigacion sobre Educacion Medica de la Facultad de Medicina de la Universidad National Autonoma de Mexico (The Medical Education Investigation Section of the School of Medicine of UNAM).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campillo Sainz, Carlos; Alvarez, Tostado, Juan

    This document is an English-language abstract (approximately 1,500 words) of a survey of Mexican medical education needs for the future. To plan for these needs, SISEM of UNAM was formed with the objectives of carrying out and promoting investigations in the different areas of medical education. It also wants to distribute the information…

  3. Computer Education in the Vocational Teacher Training Centre at Eindhoven.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houben, J. W. M. A.; Verbunt, J. A.

    1985-01-01

    Teachers from The Netherland's 26 higher technical colleges in need of a teaching qualification (called an "informatica") were able to obtain it by in-service training, organized and offered by universities. Types of courses offered and policy describing information technology activities to be developed in the country by 1989 are discussed. (JN)

  4. Informacion Bibliografica: Ano 3, Num. 9, Enero-Febrero, 1972 (Bibliographic Information: Volume 3, Number 9, January-February 1972).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinez Martinez, Antonio L., Ed.

    This bulletin contains several articles on various topics concerning information science. The first article is a report on the November 1971 Seminar on Documentation and Pedagogical Information in Latin America held in Panama. The second article, entitled "Informatica," provides a discussion of information science by three Soviet writers;…

  5. The Scientific Conferences Organized During War Time (1992-1995) in Sarajevo

    PubMed Central

    Masic, Izet

    2011-01-01

    Author of this paper spent 1479 days in the siege of Sarajevo, during the period of war time in Bosnia and Herzegovina (B&H). This siege, lasting from 1992 to 1995 (e.g. Dayton Piece agreement was signed in November, 1995) represents the longest siege in the history of the world. Besides usual daily work, as the associate professor of Health education, Medical deontology and Medical informatics for the students of the Faculty of medicine, Faculty of dental medicine, Faculty of Pharmacy and Nursing college of University of Sarajevo, the author organized by himself and contributors, 10 scientific conferences in a sieged Sarajevo. All presented papers at those conferences are published in Proceedings abstract books, as the proof of continuing scientific work, in Sarajevo and other cities in B&H. Additionally, the author continued to publish, in that time, unique PubMed/MedLine indexed journal, - Medical Archives, (i.e. established in 1947) and, in 1993 formed a new journal named - “Acta Informatica Medica” (AIM) , as the Journal of the Bosnian Society of Medical informatics. Bosnian Society of Medical Informatics, thus became the first scientific association from Bosnia and Herzegovina, included in 1994, in the European Federation of Medical Informatics (EFMI) and the International Medical Informatics Assiciation (IMIA) , which was “miracle” from the besieged Sarajevo and war time result of aggression on Bosnia and Herzegovina. It should be noted that the importance of maintaining these academic gatherings, in the circumstances of war, was multifaceted. First of all, thanks to these meetings, the continuity of scientific meetings and activities in the besieged city of Sarajevo was not broken, as well as the continuity of scientific publication, which was crucial for the maintenance of the teaching staff at the university and, finally, in the expansion of the “scientific truth” about what happened in Sarajevo and B&H in these difficult times. All of this

  6. The Behaviors that College Students Classify as Political Bias: Preliminary Findings and Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tollini, Craig

    2009-01-01

    There have been a number of recently published books and reports about the existence of a liberal bias in academia (e.g., ACTA 2005, ACTA 2006, Berube 2006, Black 2004, Horowitz 2006, Horowitz 2008, and Shapiro 2004). Sociology is one of the disciplines that is most frequently cited as "producers" of bias in two of these studies (ACTA 2006,…

  7. Reply to the comment by Wu et al. (2016) on "Behavior of Re and Os during contact between an aqueous solution and oil: Consequences for the application of the Re-Os geochronometer to petroleum" [Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 158 (2015) 1-21

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reisberg, Laurie; Michels, Raymond; Mahdaoui, Fatima

    2016-08-01

    We reply here to the questions raised by Wu et al. concerning the results published by Mahdaoui et al. (2015). This paper describes experiments in which aqueous solutions containing ReO4- and OsCl62- were brought in contact with natural oils at various ranges of concentration, time and temperature. The main observation is that the transfer of Re and Os to oils is very efficient under all experimental conditions. Wu et al. argue that thermodynamic equilibrium was not achieved in these experiments as apparent partition coefficients are inconsistent. They conclude that the experiments were flawed by possible leaking of reactors and that the conclusions by Mahdaoui et al. (2015) were not justified. In the following reply we explain that Mahdaoui et al. (2015) never claimed that thermodynamic equilibrium was achieved. Any calculations or considerations in this context are therefore meaningless. We recall the objectives of our publication, which were to experimentally test the behavior of ReO4- and OsCl6- (two plausible chemical forms of Re and Os in deep aquifers of petroleum systems) in aqueous solution-oil systems. To our knowledge these are the first experiments of their kind. The parameters that could influence the precision and reproducibility of our results were discussed in detail in Mahdaoui et al. (2015). The essential point is that all 60 of the experiments provide evidence of substantial transfer of Re and Os from water to oil. In contrast to what was mistakenly understood by Wu et al., the paper does not challenge the use of Re-Os to date geological events affecting petroleum. Instead, by providing a mechanism that might allow Os isotopic homogenization on a basin-wide scale, a critical step missing from most current models, it offers a possible explanation of how Re-Os geochronology in oils could potentially work. More generally, our study suggests that transfer of Re and Os from waters to oil may be an important phenomenon that should not be overlooked.

  8. Comment on "Structural and vibrational studies on 1-(5-Methyl- [1,3,4] thiadiazol-2-yl)-pyrolidin-2-ol" [Spectrochimica Acta Part A, 152 (2016) 252-261]. The importance of intramolecular OH ⋯ N hydrogen bonding in the conformational properties of thiadiazol-pyrrolidin-2-ol bearing species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laurella, Sergio L.; Erben, Mauricio F.

    2016-07-01

    The title paper [1] reports a study on the spectroscopic and physicochemical properties of 1-(5-methyl- [1,3,4]thiadiazol-2-yl)-pyrrolidin-2-ol (MTPN) based on experimental and theoretical data. The latter ones are based on the computed molecular structure for a rather unusual conformer. Here, after a careful analysis of the conformational space of MTPN, the most stable conformation was determined for the molecule isolated in a vacuum, which results to be 21.9 kJ/mol more stable than the conformer reported previously. Our study also includes the closely related species 1-(5-trifluoromethyl- [1,3,4]thiadiazol-2-yl)-pyrrolidin-2-ol (FMTPN). An intramolecular OH ⋯ N hydrogen bond determines the conformational behavior of the [1,3,4]thiadiazol-2-yl)-pyrrolidin-2-ol group as demonstrated by Natural Bond Orbital population analysis.

  9. Guia del Proceso del IFSP de Colorado: Conexiones para la Ninez Temprana, Iniciativa Infantil de Colorado Parte C del Acta de Educacion para Individuos con Desabilidades (Colorado Guidelines for the IFSP Process: Early Childhood Connections, Colorado's Infant/Toddler Initiative for Part C of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Jerri; Petersen, Sandy

    This booklet for Spanish-speaking parents of young children with disabilities describes Colorado's Individualized Family Service Plan (IFSP) process. It explains guidelines, shares family stories and reflections for families and care providers, and the describes the values that drive the IFSP process in Colorado. Information is provided on…

  10. Comment on "Structural and vibrational studies on 1-(5-Methyl- [1,3,4] thiadiazol-2-yl)-pyrolidin-2-ol" [Spectrochimica Acta Part A, 152 (2016) 252-261]. The importance of intramolecular OH⋯N hydrogen bonding in the conformational properties of thiadiazol-pyrrolidin-2-ol bearing species.

    PubMed

    Laurella, Sergio L; Erben, Mauricio F

    2016-07-01

    The title paper [1] reports a study on the spectroscopic and physicochemical properties of 1-(5-methyl- [1,3,4]thiadiazol-2-yl)-pyrrolidin-2-ol (MTPN) based on experimental and theoretical data. The latter ones are based on the computed molecular structure for a rather unusual conformer. Here, after a careful analysis of the conformational space of MTPN, the most stable conformation was determined for the molecule isolated in a vacuum, which results to be 21.9kJ/mol more stable than the conformer reported previously. Our study also includes the closely related species 1-(5-trifluoromethyl- [1,3,4]thiadiazol-2-yl)-pyrrolidin-2-ol (FMTPN). An intramolecular OH⋯N hydrogen bond determines the conformational behavior of the [1,3,4]thiadiazol-2-yl)-pyrrolidin-2-ol group as demonstrated by Natural Bond Orbital population analysis. PMID:27070529

  11. [Role of Activin A and Myostatin in cancer cachexia].

    PubMed

    Thissen, Jean-Paul; Loumaye, Audrey

    2013-05-01

    Recent works suggest that Activin A (ActA) and Myostatin (Mstn), two members of the TGFβ superfamily, could contribute to skeletal muscle atrophy observed in some cancers. It is known that several human tumoral cell lines synthesize and secrete ActA and Mstn. In addition, systemic treatment with ActA and Mstn in mice induce muscle atrophy. Likewise, Inhibin-α knock-out mice, which are characterized by elevated circulating levels of ActA, exhibit muscle atrophy and die of cachexia. Finally, administration of ActA and Mstn antagonists prevents muscular atrophy and mortality induced by some animal tumors. Collectively, these findings suggest that ActA or Mstn production by several cancers could contribute to cachexia and thus to mortality associated with some cancers in human. This hypothesis is very interesting since new molecules that are able to inhibit ActA and Mstn, in particularly the sActRIIB, are under development. PMID:23566617

  12. Biosignal alterations generated by parabolic flights of small aerobatic aircrafts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simon, M. Jose; Perez-Poch, Antoni; Ruiz, Xavier; Gavalda, Fina; Saez, Nuria

    characteristics of the aerobatic parabolic flights are different from the ones corresponding to the big Airbus-300 of Novespace-CNES-ESA aircraft. In this case, the two episodes of hypergravity reach 1.8g for 3 seconds with 20-25 seconds of low gravity in between whereas the small aerobatic plane reaches 3g level during roughly 2.5 seconds and 8 seconds period of low gravity. This means that the present potential alterations of the human body are more aggressive but also faster. [1] Y. Kawai, M. Doi, A. Setogawa, R. Shimoyama, K. Ueda, Y. Asai, K. Tatebayashi, Effects of Microgravity on Cerebral Hemodynamics, Yonago Acta Medica, 46 (2003) 1-8. [2] E.A.I. Aidu, V.G. Trunov, L.I. Titomir, A. Capderou, P. Vaïda, Transformation of Vectorcardiogram Due to Gravitation Alteration, Measurement, Science Review, 3 (2003) 29-32. [3] R.J. Von Baumgarten, G. Baldrighi, G.L. Schillinger, O. Harth, R. Thuemler, Vestibular function in the space environment, Acta Astronautica, 2 (1975) 49-58. [4] http://reversiblefigures.blogspot.com.es/p/outreach.html

  13. Creativity and Democratic Governance. Adult Learning: A Strategic Choice. Proceedings of the ICAE World Assembly (6th, Ocho Rios, Jamaica, August 9-12, 2001) = Creativite et Gouvernance Democratique. L'apprentissage des Adultes: Un Choix Strategique. Actes de la Assemblee Mondiale du CIEA (6th, Ocho Rios, Jamaique, 9 au 12 aout 2001) = Creatividad y Gobernabilidad Democratica. Educacion de Adultos: Una Eleccion Estrategica. Actas de la Asamblea Mundial del ICAE (6th, Ocho Rios, Jamaica, Agosto 9-12, 2001).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dobson, Stephan, Ed.

    This document contains information from and about a world assembly on creativity and democratic governance in adult learning that was held by the International Council for Adult Education (ICAE) and its partner organizations in the Caribbean. The proceedings begin with English, French, and Spanish translations of the address…

  14. The Vanishing Shakespeare: A Report by the American Council of Trustees and Alumni

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neal, Anne D.; Mitchell, Charles

    2007-01-01

    As this report goes to press, the nation's capital is in the midst of a six-moth, city-wide celebration of William Shakespeare. With this celebration as a backdrop, the American Council of Trustees and Alumni (ACTA) researched how Shakespeare fits into English curricula at 70 of the nation's leading colleges and universities. ACTA surveyed English…

  15. Genetics Home Reference: paramyotonia congenita

    MedlinePlus

    ... impact of permanent muscle weakness on quality of life in periodic paralysis: a survey of 66 patients. Acta Myol. 2012 Oct;31(2):126-33. Citation on PubMed or Free article on PubMed Central Finsterer J. Primary periodic paralyses. Acta Neurol Scand. 2008 Mar;117(3):145-58. Epub 2007 Nov 20. ...

  16. Leading the Charge: Governors, Higher Education and Accountability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Council of Trustees and Alumni, 2014

    2014-01-01

    With this new tool, ACTA [American Council of Trustees and Alumni] is working to expand its outreach to governors nationwide on behalf of higher education reform, focusing on key issues of quality, cost, and accountability. ACTA has worked with governors and education leaders from across the country, and that experience has proven that innovative…

  17. Advances in membrane protein crystallography: in situ and in meso data collection

    SciTech Connect

    Weyand, Simone; Tate, Christopher G.

    2015-05-23

    Membrane protein structural biology has made tremendous advances over the last decade but there are still many challenges associated with crystallization, data collection and structure determination. Two independent groups, Axford et al. [(2015), Acta Cryst. D71, 1228–1237] and Huang et al. [(2015), Acta Cryst. D71, 1238–1256], have published methods that make a major contribution to addressing these challenges.

  18. On bi-orthogonal systems of trigonometric functions and quadrature formulas for periodic integrands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cruz-Barroso, Ruymán; González-Vera, Pablo; Njåstad, Olav

    2007-04-01

    In this paper, quadrature formulas with an arbitrary number of nodes and exactly integrating trigonometric polynomials up to degree as high as possible are constructed in order to approximate 2?-periodic weighted integralsE For this purpose, certain bi-orthogonal systems of trigonometric functions are introduced and their most relevant properties studied. Some illustrative numerical examples are also given. The paper completes the results previously given by Szeg? in Magy Tud Akad Mat Kut Intez K?zl 8:255?273, 1963 and by some of the authors in Annales Mathematicae et Informaticae 32:5?44, 2005.

  19. Implantable drug therapy device: A concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feldstein, C.

    1972-01-01

    Design is described of small, rechargeable, implantable infusor which contains fluid medicament stored under pressure and which dispenses fluid continuously through catheter. Body of infusor is covered by pliable silicone rubber sheath attached to suture pad for securing device.

  20. The toxicology of Octopus maculosa: the blue-ringed octopus.

    PubMed

    Bonnet, M S

    1999-10-01

    The biotoxicology of the Australian blue-ringed octopus is detailed with the view of introducing it as a remedy into the homoeopathic Materia Medica and stimulating the second step of proving this venom. PMID:10582647

  1. High circulating activin A level is associated with tumor progression and predicts poor prognosis in lung adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Hoda, Mir Alireza; Rozsas, Anita; Lang, Elisabeth; Klikovits, Thomas; Lohinai, Zoltan; Torok, Szilvia; Berta, Judit; Bendek, Matyas; Berger, Walter; Hegedus, Balazs; Klepetko, Walter; Renyi-Vamos, Ferenc; Grusch, Michael; Dome, Balazs; Laszlo, Viktoria

    2016-01-01

    Activin A (ActA)/follistatin (FST) signaling has been shown to be deregulated in different tumor types including lung adenocarcinoma (LADC). Here, we report that serum ActA protein levels are significantly elevated in LADC patients (n=64) as compared to controls (n=46, p=0.015). ActA levels also correlated with more advanced disease stage (p<0.0001) and T (p=0.0035) and N (p=0.0002) factors. M1 patients had significantly higher ActA levels than M0 patients (p<0.001). High serum ActA level was associated with poor overall survival (p<0.0001) and was confirmed as an independent prognostic factor (p=0.004). Serum FST levels were increased only in female LADC patients (vs. female controls, p=0.031). Two out of five LADC cell lines secreted biologically active ActA, while FST was produced in all of them. Transcripts of both type I and II ActA receptors were detected in all five LADC cell lines. In conclusion, our study does not only suggest that measuring blood ActA levels in LADC patients might improve the prediction of prognosis, but also indicates that this parameter might be a novel non-invasive biomarker for identifying LADC patients with organ metastases. PMID:26950277

  2. USING BIOMONITORING DATA TO INFORM EXPOSURE ASSESSMENT IN CHILDREN

    EPA Science Inventory

    Discussing the challenges associated with estimating and interpreting toxicant exposures and health risks from biomonitoring data. Extended abstract will also be translated in Spanish and published in Acta Toxicologica Argentina.

  3. Uso de los Datos de Biomonitoreo para Informar sobre la Evaluacion Infantil (American translation is: USING BIOMONITORING DATA TO INFORM EXPOSURE ASSESSMENT IN CHILDREN)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Discussing the challenges associated with estimating and interpreting toxicant exposures and health risks from biomonitoring data. This extended abstract was translated in Spanish and published in Acta Toxicologica Argentina.

  4. Genetics Home Reference: glucose-galactose malabsorption

    MedlinePlus

    ... mutations in SGLT1 cause glucose-galactose malabsorption by trafficking defects. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1999 Feb 24;1453( ... Accessibility FOIA Viewers & Players U.S. Department of Health & Human Services National Institutes of Health National Library of ...

  5. Genetics Home Reference: myosin storage myopathy

    MedlinePlus

    ... proteins accumulate in type I skeletal muscle fibers, forming the protein clumps characteristic of the disorder. It ... Epub 2007 Mar 2. Citation on PubMed Tajsharghi H, Oldfors A. Myosinopathies: pathology and mechanisms. Acta Neuropathol. ...

  6. Genetics Home Reference: oculopharyngeal muscular dystrophy

    MedlinePlus

    ... advances in the understanding of the molecular pathogenic mechanisms and treatment strategies. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2007 Feb; ... further evidence for unequal recombination as the mutational mechanism. Hum Genet. 2005 Mar;116(4):267-71. ...

  7. Errors in Crystal structure of HINT from Helicobacter pylori

    PubMed Central

    Maize, Kimberly M.

    2016-01-01

    Inaccuracies in the article, Crystal structure of HINT from Helicobacter pylori by Tarique et al. [(2016) Acta Cryst. F72, 42–48] are presented, and a brief history of HINT nomenclature is discussed. PMID:27050269

  8. VISIÓN GENERAL DE LA EVALUACIÓN DEL RIESGO EN SALUD INFANTIL EMPLEANDO UN ENFOQUE POR ETAPAS DE DESARROLLO (American translation is: Overview of a Life Stage Approach to Children's Health Risk Assessment)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Discussing the challenges associated with estimating and interpreting toxicant exposures and health risks from biomonitoring data. This extended abstract was translated in Spanish and published in Acta Toxicologica Argentina.

  9. Erratum: Di-μ-nitrosyl-bis-[(η-penta-methyl-cyclo-penta-dien-yl)ruthenium(0)](Ru-Ru). Corrigendum.

    PubMed

    Pearsal, Matthew; Gembicky, Milan; Dominiak, Paulina; Larsen, Anna; Coppens, Philip

    2010-01-01

    The acknowledgement in the paper by Pearsal, Gembicky, Dominiak, Larsen & Coppens [Acta Cryst. (2007), E63, m2596] is extended and an omitted reference is added.[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1107/S1600536807045321.]. PMID:21578980

  10. 75 FR 79069 - Anti-Counterfeiting Trade Agreement: Request for Comments From the Public

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-17

    ... practices. Together these provisions will help to protect American jobs in innovative and creative... business confidential information, the filer should type ``ACTA Comments--Business Confidential'' in the ``Type Comment & Upload file'' field. Any page containing business confidential information must...

  11. Antibacterial properties of the Vietnamese cajeput oil and ocimum oil in combination with antibacterial agents.

    PubMed

    Jedlicková, Z; Mottl, O; Serý, V

    1992-01-01

    Main antibacterially active agents obtained from plants-Cajeput essential oil--1,8 cineol, linalool, alpha-terpineol and terpinen-4-ol, for example from Melalleuce leucadendron (Myrtaceae) as well as essential oil from Ocimum gratissimum (Labiatae) were combined in tests in vitro with selected antibiotics. Above mentioned plant products were found to be effective medicaments for local application in modern medical practice. Combinations with antibiotics potentiated their therapeutical action. On the basis of tests in vitro the synergistic action of these two kinds of medicaments, i.e., preparations traditionally used for a few last decades--antibiotics--might be well applied for therapeutical needs. PMID:1293213

  12. An Empire's Extract: Chemical Manipulations of Cinchona Bark in the Eighteenth-Century Spanish Atlantic World.

    PubMed

    Crawford, Matthew James

    2014-01-01

    In 1790, the Spanish Crown sent a "botanist-chemist" to South America to implement production of a chemical extract made from cinchona bark, a botanical medicament from the Andes used throughout the Atlantic World to treat malarial fevers. Even though the botanist-chemist's efforts to produce the extract failed, this episode offers important insight into the role of chemistry in the early modern Atlantic World. Well before the Spanish Crown tried to make it a tool of empire, chemistry provided a vital set of techniques that circulated among a variety of healers, who used such techniques to make botanical medicaments useful and intelligible in new ways. PMID:26103756

  13. Precise detection of L. monocytogenes hitting its highly conserved region possessing several specific antibody binding sites.

    PubMed

    Jahangiri, Abolfazl; Rasooli, Iraj; Reza Rahbar, Mohammad; Khalili, Saeed; Amani, Jafar; Ahmadi Zanoos, Kobra

    2012-07-21

    Listeria monocytogenes, a facultative intracellular fast-growing Gram-positive food-borne pathogen, can infect immunocompromised individuals leading to meningitis, meningoencephalitis and septicaemias. From the pool of virulence factors of the organism, ActA, a membrane protein, has a critical role in the life cycle of L. monocytogenes. High mortality rate of listeriosis necessitates a sensitive and rapid diagnostic test for precise identification of L. monocytogenes. We used bioinformatic tools to locate a specific conserved region of ActA for designing and developing an antibody-antigen based diagnostic test for the detection of L. monocytogenes. A number of databases were looked for ActA related sequences. Sequences were analyzed with several online software to find an appropriate region for our purpose. ActA protein was found specific to Listeria species with no homologs in other organisms. We finally introduced a highly conserved region within ActA sequence that possess several antibody binding sites specific to L. monocytogenes. This protein sequence can serve as an antigen for designing a relatively cheap, sensitive, and specific diagnostic test for detection of L. monocytogenes. PMID:22575546

  14. Interface of drug use.

    PubMed

    Ludescher, N O; Vergilio, R R; Lucio, C C; Santos, J E G

    2012-01-01

    Packaging and labeling play a crucial role awhile protecting medicaments and transmitting a range of crucial information to the users. Taking into account the scarcity of specific studies in this area, it was considered great the need for a comprehensive survey about customers' satisfaction when handling these containers. PMID:22317633

  15. [Complex therapy of cystine calculi].

    PubMed

    Hamvas, A; Berényi, M; Frang, D

    1993-11-14

    Authors report their experiences with management of cystine urolithiasis between 1975-1992. 61 patients were observed and treated with dietotherapy, medicaments, open surgery, percutaneous nephrolithotomy and extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy. Difficulties of treatment of this rare stone have been demonstrated with data of 3 patients (lack of screening and early diagnosis, unsystematic prophylaxis, formation of large stones). PMID:8233469

  16. Over-the-Counter Drugs: A Challenge for Drug Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Serrone, David M.

    1973-01-01

    Drug education should be a complete program including information on the all too frequently overused group of self medicaments. Misuse of these drugs by self medication may, in many circumstances, lead to serious consequences. Knowledge of their use should be an effort of every drug education program. (Author)

  17. Genotoxicity of Endodontic Materials: A Critical Review.

    PubMed

    Mohammadi, Zahed; Shalavi, Sousan; Jafarzadeh, Hamid; Bhandi, Shilpa; Patil, Shankargouda

    2015-08-01

    Genotoxicity is an action on cell's genetic material which may affect its integrity. This includes certain types of radiations and also certain chemical compounds. Genotoxic materials are those with affinity to interact with DNA but render them potentially carcinogenic or mutagenic. This review will address the genotoxicity of endodontic irrigants, medicaments and sealers. PMID:26423507

  18. COMPARISON OF RHIZOBIA THAT NODULATE MEDICAGO LACINIATA AND M. TRUNCATULA PRESENT IN A SINGLE TUNISIAN ARID SOIL.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The rhizobia present in a single arid-region Tunisian soil that nodulate Medicago laciniata and M. truncatula were compared. All isolates, 40 from each host, probably were more closely related to S. meliloti than to S. medicae based on 16S rRNA PCR-RFLP. There was no apparent relationship between ...

  19. 76 FR 70520 - Rovac Corp., RS Group of Companies, Inc., Rymer Foods, Inc. Stratus Services Group, Inc., Sun Cal...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION Rovac Corp., RS Group of Companies, Inc., Rymer Foods, Inc. Stratus Services Group, Inc., Sun Cal Energy, Inc., Sun Motor International, Inc., Surebet Casinos, Inc., and Swiss Medica, Inc.; Order of Suspension of Trading November 9, 2011...

  20. Searching the History of Science Online.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skinner, Robert E.

    1983-01-01

    Surveys major databases offering access to historical and biographical information in the sciences and highlights special features of each--Histline, America: History and Life, Historical Abstracts, Agricola, Biosis Previews, CA Condensates, Compendex, Excerpta Medica, Inspec, and Medline. Two references are listed. (EJS)

  1. Identification and characterization of Citrus yellow vein clearing virus, a putative new member of the genus Mandarivirus infecting Citrus spp.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Yellow vein clearing virus, an uncharacterized filamentous virus, was first observed in Pakistan in 1988 and later in India in 1997 in Etrog citron (Citrus medica). Based on electron microscopic evidence of filamentous particles, the virus, provisionally named Citrus yellow vein clearing virus (CYVC...

  2. Laser-assisted drug delivery in dermatology: from animal models to clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Ali, Faisal R; Al-Niaimi, Firas

    2016-02-01

    Topical medicaments are the mainstay of the dermatologists' therapeutic arsenal. Laser-assisted drug delivery enhances the ability of topically applied medicaments to penetrate the skin. We discuss the mechanisms of laser-assisted drug delivery and animal models that have informed clinical practice. We review clinical studies that have employed laser-assisted drug delivery for a range of indications to date including non-melanoma skin cancer, vitiligo, scarring, vaccination, local anaesthesia, analgesia, viral warts, infantile haemangiomas and cosmetic uses. Studies thus far suggest that laser pre-treatment improves transepidermal absorption of topical agents and allows for a much deeper penetration of drugs than is possible with topical medicaments alone. This may allow more efficacious action of current treatments, such that conventional duration of treatment can be shortened or lower concentrations of active agents be used, potentially obviating side effects of treatment. The prospect of using laser technologies to facilitate transdermal vaccination and as an adjunct for inflammatory dermatoses and cosmetic indications remains in its infancy. As larger trials are published, involving greater numbers of patients and utilising various laser and topical medicament parameters, we will enhance our understanding of this nascent modality of treatment delivery. PMID:26694489

  3. Online Database Coverage of Forensic Medicine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snow, Bonnie; Ifshin, Steven L.

    1984-01-01

    Online seaches of sample topics in the area of forensic medicine were conducted in the following life science databases: Biosis Previews, Excerpta Medica, Medline, Scisearch, and Chemical Abstracts Search. Search outputs analyzed according to criteria of recall, uniqueness, overlap, and utility reveal the need for a cross-database approach to…

  4. Application of Multilocus Sequence Typing To Study the Genetic Structure of Megaplasmids in Medicago-Nodulating Rhizobia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A multilocus sequence typing (MLST) analysis was used to examine the relatedness and distribution of genotypic variants of the two large extrachromosomal replicons in Medicago-nodulating rhizobia (Sinorhizobium meliloti and S. medicae). One goal was to develop a strategy for the characterization of...

  5. Mineral trioxide aggregate as a pulpotomy agent in primary molars: an in vivo study.

    PubMed

    Naik, S; Hegde, A H

    2005-03-01

    The retention of pulpally involved deciduous tooth in a healthy state until the time of normal exfoliation remains to be one of the challenges for Pedodontists. A scientific noise has been generated about several materials some of which have been popular pulpotomy medicaments. Concerns have been raised about the toxicity and potential carcinogenicity of these materials, and alternatives have been proposed to maintain the partial pulp vitality, however to date no material has been accepted as an ideal pulpotomy agent. Mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) is a biocompatible material which provides a biological seal. MTA has been proposed as a potential medicament for various pulpal procedures like pulp capping with reversible pulpitis, apexification, repair of root perforations, etc. Hence the present study was done to evaluate the efficacy of MTA as a pulpotomy medicament. A clinical and radiographic evaluation was done on children where MTA was used as pulpotomy medicament in primary molars for a period of 6 months and it was found to be a successful material. PMID:15858300

  6. A Integracao de Ensino das Ciencias da Saude (An Integrated Medical Education Program [in Brazil]).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pourchet-Campos, M. A.; Guimaraes Junior, Paulino

    At the Sixth Annual Reunion of the Brazilian Association of Medical Schools (VI Reuniao Anual da Associacao Brasileira de Escolas Medicas) leaders in the Brazilian medical profession proposed an integrated educational program for training students in the fields of medicine and public health. Under Brazil's present system of education, all…

  7. Computerized Drug Information Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    And Others; Smith, Daniel R.

    1972-01-01

    To compare computerized services in chemistry, pharmacology, toxicology, and clinical medicine of pharmaceutical interest, equivalent profiles were run on magnetic tape files of CA-Condensates," CBAC," Excerpta Medica," MEDLARS" and Ringdoc." The results are tabulated for overlap of services, relative speed of citing references, and unique…

  8. Gating of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore by long chain fatty acyl analogs in vivo.

    PubMed

    Samovski, Dmitri; Kalderon, Bella; Yehuda-Shnaidman, Einav; Bar-Tana, Jacob

    2010-03-01

    The role played by long chain fatty acids (LCFA) in promoting energy expenditure is confounded by their dual function as substrates for oxidation and as putative classic uncouplers of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation. LCFA analogs of the MEDICA (MEthyl-substituted DICarboxylic Acids) series are neither esterified into lipids nor beta-oxidized and may thus simulate the uncoupling activity of natural LCFA in vivo, independently of their substrate role. Treatment of rats or cell lines with MEDICA analogs results in low conductance gating of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore (PTP), with 10-40% decrease in the inner mitochondrial membrane potential. PTP gating by MEDICA analogs is accounted for by inhibition of Raf1 expression and kinase activity, resulting in suppression of the MAPK/RSK1 and the adenylate cyclase/PKA transduction pathways. Suppression of RSK1 and PKA results in a decrease in phosphorylation of their respective downstream targets, Bad(Ser-112) and Bad(Ser-155). Decrease in Bad(Ser-112, Ser-155) phosphorylation results in increased binding of Bad to mitochondrial Bcl2 with concomitant displacement of Bax, followed by PTP gating induced by free mitochondrial Bax. Low conductance PTP gating by LCFA/MEDICA may account for their thyromimetic calorigenic activity in vivo. PMID:20037159

  9. Characterisation of the efficacy of endodontic medications using a three-dimensional fluorescent tooth model: An ex vivo study.

    PubMed

    Chen, Emily W; Carey, Alison J; Ulett, Glen C; George, Roy

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to establish a three-dimensional fluorescent tooth model to investigate bacterial viability against intra-canal medicaments across the thickness and surface of root dentine. Dental microbial biofilms (Enterococcus faecalis and Streptococcus mutans) were established on the external root surface and bacterial kill was monitored over time against intra-canal medicament (Ca(OH)2 ) using fluorescent microscopy in conjunction with BacLight SYTO9 and propidium iodide stains. An Olympus digital camera fitted to SZX16 fluorescent microscope captured images of bacterial cells in biofilms on the external root surface. Viability of biofilm was measured by calculating the total pixel area of green (viable bacteria) and red (non-viable bacteria) for each image using ImageJ® software. All data generated were assessed for normality and then analysed using a Mann-Whitney t-test. The viability of S. mutans biofilm following Ca(OH)2 treatment showed a significant decline compared with the untreated group (P = 0.0418). No significant difference was seen for E. faecalis biofilm between the Ca(OH)2 and untreated groups indicating Ca(OH)2 medicament is ineffective against E. faecalis biofilm. This novel three-dimensional fluorescent biofilm model provides a new clinically relevant tool for testing of medicaments against dental biofilms. PMID:25583457

  10. 1/f noise application in reflexotherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ostrova, S. O.; Bulgakov, A. E.; Klyushkin, I. V.; Abdullina, A. M.

    1993-08-01

    The instruments and methods which make it possible to apply 1/f noise in reflexotherapy by action of physical factors on biologically active points are dealt with. The efficiency of their application was shown on the example of treatment of gastric and duodenal ulcers without medicaments.

  11. "Hedges". . . The Sometimes Ignored Search Technique That Can Save a Lot of Time.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schiffmann, Genevieve N.

    1985-01-01

    Describes storing of "hedges"--lists of terms on specific subjects--for use in responding to repeated search requests which cannot be retrieved via existing controlled vocabulary. Use of hedges at National Library of Medicine and National Institutes of Health Library, frequently used examples, and Excerpta Medica hedges are highlighted. (5…

  12. Modulating myosin restores muscle function in a mouse model of nemaline myopathy

    PubMed Central

    Lindqvist, Johan; Levy, Yotam; Pati‐Alam, Alisha; Hardeman, Edna C.; Gregorevic, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Objective Nemaline myopathy, one of the most common congenital myopathies, is associated with mutations in various genes including ACTA1. This disease is also characterized by various forms/degrees of muscle weakness, with most cases being severe and resulting in death in infancy. Recent findings have provided valuable insight into the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms. Mutations in ACTA1 directly disrupt binding interactions between actin and myosin, and consequently the intrinsic force‐generating capacity of muscle fibers. ACTA1 mutations are also associated with variations in myofiber size, the mechanisms of which have been unclear. In the present study, we sought to test the hypotheses that the compromised functional and morphological attributes of skeletal muscles bearing ACTA1 mutations (1) would be directly due to the inefficient actomyosin complex and (2) could be restored by manipulating myosin expression. Methods We used a knockin mouse model expressing the ACTA1 His40Tyr actin mutation found in human patients. We then performed in vivo intramuscular injections of recombinant adeno‐associated viral vectors harboring a myosin transgene known to facilitate muscle contraction. Results We observed that in the presence of the transgene, the intrinsic force‐generating capacity was restored and myofiber size was normal. Interpretation This demonstrates a direct link between disrupted attachment of myosin molecules to actin monomers and muscle fiber atrophy. These data also suggest that further therapeutic interventions should primarily target myosin dysfunction to alleviate the pathology of ACTA1‐related nemaline myopathy. Ann Neurol 2016;79:717–725 PMID:26891371

  13. Re-refinement of 4xan: hen egg-white lysozyme with carboplatin in sodium bromide solution

    PubMed Central

    Tanley, Simon W. M.; Schreurs, Antoine M. M.; Kroon-Batenburg, Loes M. J.; Helliwell, John R.

    2016-01-01

    A re-refinement of 4xan, hen egg-white lysozyme (HEWL) with carboplatin crystallized in NaBr solution, has been made and is published here as an addendum to Tanley et al. [(2014), Acta Cryst. F70, 1135–1142]. This follows a previous re-refinement and PDB deposition (4yem) by Shabalin et al. [(2015), Acta Cryst. D71, 1965–1979]. The critical evaluation of the original PDB deposition (4xan), and the subsequent critical examination of the re-refined structure (4yem), has led to an improved model (PDB code 5hmj). PMID:26919531

  14. An In Vivo Selection Identifies Listeria monocytogenes Genes Required to Sense the Intracellular Environment and Activate Virulence Factor Expression

    PubMed Central

    Portnoy, Daniel A.

    2016-01-01

    Listeria monocytogenes is an environmental saprophyte and facultative intracellular bacterial pathogen with a well-defined life-cycle that involves escape from a phagosome, rapid cytosolic growth, and ActA-dependent cell-to-cell spread, all of which are dependent on the master transcriptional regulator PrfA. The environmental cues that lead to temporal and spatial control of L. monocytogenes virulence gene expression are poorly understood. In this study, we took advantage of the robust up-regulation of ActA that occurs intracellularly and expressed Cre recombinase from the actA promoter and 5’ untranslated region in a strain in which loxP sites flanked essential genes, so that activation of actA led to bacterial death. Upon screening for transposon mutants that survived intracellularly, six genes were identified as necessary for ActA expression. Strikingly, most of the genes, including gshF, spxA1, yjbH, and ohrA, are predicted to play important roles in bacterial redox regulation. The mutants identified in the genetic selection fell into three broad categories: (1) those that failed to reach the cytosolic compartment; (2) mutants that entered the cytosol, but failed to activate the master virulence regulator PrfA; and (3) mutants that entered the cytosol and activated transcription of actA, but failed to synthesize it. The identification of mutants defective in vacuolar escape suggests that up-regulation of ActA occurs in the host cytosol and not the vacuole. Moreover, these results provide evidence for two non-redundant cytosolic cues; the first results in allosteric activation of PrfA via increased glutathione levels and transcriptional activation of actA while the second results in translational activation of actA and requires yjbH. Although the precise host cues have not yet been identified, we suggest that intracellular redox stress occurs as a consequence of both host and pathogen remodeling their metabolism upon infection. PMID:27414028

  15. An In Vivo Selection Identifies Listeria monocytogenes Genes Required to Sense the Intracellular Environment and Activate Virulence Factor Expression.

    PubMed

    Reniere, Michelle L; Whiteley, Aaron T; Portnoy, Daniel A

    2016-07-01

    Listeria monocytogenes is an environmental saprophyte and facultative intracellular bacterial pathogen with a well-defined life-cycle that involves escape from a phagosome, rapid cytosolic growth, and ActA-dependent cell-to-cell spread, all of which are dependent on the master transcriptional regulator PrfA. The environmental cues that lead to temporal and spatial control of L. monocytogenes virulence gene expression are poorly understood. In this study, we took advantage of the robust up-regulation of ActA that occurs intracellularly and expressed Cre recombinase from the actA promoter and 5' untranslated region in a strain in which loxP sites flanked essential genes, so that activation of actA led to bacterial death. Upon screening for transposon mutants that survived intracellularly, six genes were identified as necessary for ActA expression. Strikingly, most of the genes, including gshF, spxA1, yjbH, and ohrA, are predicted to play important roles in bacterial redox regulation. The mutants identified in the genetic selection fell into three broad categories: (1) those that failed to reach the cytosolic compartment; (2) mutants that entered the cytosol, but failed to activate the master virulence regulator PrfA; and (3) mutants that entered the cytosol and activated transcription of actA, but failed to synthesize it. The identification of mutants defective in vacuolar escape suggests that up-regulation of ActA occurs in the host cytosol and not the vacuole. Moreover, these results provide evidence for two non-redundant cytosolic cues; the first results in allosteric activation of PrfA via increased glutathione levels and transcriptional activation of actA while the second results in translational activation of actA and requires yjbH. Although the precise host cues have not yet been identified, we suggest that intracellular redox stress occurs as a consequence of both host and pathogen remodeling their metabolism upon infection. PMID:27414028

  16. Education or Reputation? A Look at America's Top-Ranked Liberal Arts Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poliakoff, Michael; Alacbay, Armand

    2014-01-01

    ACTA [American Council of Trustees and Alumni] today released a report that examines the country's most prestigious liberal arts colleges. Despite endowments soaring as high as $1.8 billion, nearly all institutions increased tuition during the Great Recession to finance bloated administrative spending, with many college presidents enjoying…

  17. Experiences of a local arrangement committee for a large scientific conference

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This paper is an an invited condensation of a paper that appeared in Acta. Hort. 745: 513-532 last year. It describes the history and organization of the combined meeting of the 90th Annual Meeting of the Potato Association of America, the VI International Solanaceae Conference, and the III Solanace...

  18. Erratum to: Vascular endothelial growth factor induces contralesional corticobulbar plasticity and functional neurological recovery in the ischemic brain.

    PubMed

    Reitmeir, Raluca; Kilic, Ertugrul; Reinboth, Barbara S; Guo, Zeyun; ElAli, Ayman; Zechariah, Anil; Kilic, Ülkan; Hermann, Dirk M

    2015-10-01

    Erratum to: Acta Neuropathol (2012) 123:273–284. DOI 10.1007/s00401‑011‑0914‑z. The authors would like to correct Fig. 3 of the original manuscript, since the image in Fig. 3b does not correspond to a VEGF treated animal. Corrected Fig. 3 is shown below. We apologize for this mistake. PMID:26341346

  19. Extension of working range in Zeeman graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry by nonlinear calibration with prior correction for stray light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lonardo, Robert F.; Yuzefovsky, Alexander I.; Zhou, Jack X.; McCaffrey, John T.; Michel, Robert G.

    1996-09-01

    The nonlinear working range of a Perkin-Elmer 4100Zl atomic absorption spectrometer was improved in three steps. Firstly, each absorbance datum within the transient profile was corrected for the presence of stray light by an algorithm originally developed by L'vov and co-workers (Spectrochim. Acta Part B, 47 (1992) 889-895 and 1187-1202), but with the incorporation of the Newton method of successive approximations (Spectrochim. Acta Part B, 49 (1994) 1643-1656. Secondly, a dip correction procedure was performed on temporal signal profiles that exhibited a dip due to rollover. In the final step, an analytically useful working curve was generated by the nonlinear calibration routine of Barnett (Spectrochim. Acta Part B, 39 (1984) 829). Goodness of fit between the resultant calibration curve and the data was measured by the method suggested by Miller-Ihli et al. (Spectrochim. Acta Part B, 39 (1984) 1603) that is based on the sum of squares of the percentage deviation (SSPD) and the root mean square (RMS) percentage deviation. For lead, silver, copper, thallium, and cadmium, the analytical nonlinear working range was increased by as much as one and a half orders of magnitude, without any significant effect on the RMS. For chromium and manganese, no significant improvement in the nonlinear working range was observed, while the RMS improved by 50%. In the case of nickel, neither the working range nor the RMS was improved.

  20. Eventos de Agosto (August Events).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toro, Leonor; Pla, Myrna

    Written in Spanish, this booklet contains brief information on seven August events celebrated by Puerto Ricans: Herbert Hoover's birthdate (August 10); Acta del Seguro Social (Social Security Act, August 14); Julian E. Blanco (August 14), Enmienda 19 Sufragia de la Mujer (Amendment 19, Women's Suffrage, August 26); Benjamin Harrison (August 20);…

  1. Intradistrict Resource Allocation: Key Findings and Policy Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houck, Eric A.

    2011-01-01

    The focus on school-level performance brought about by the No Child Left Behind Act--as well as recent court cases challenging the use of race in student assignment policies--has brought greater attention to the need to for careful study of the allocation of resources within school districts. This paper describes the policy context, reviews key…

  2. Nebraska Swims Hard against Testing's Tides

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borja, Rhea R.

    2007-01-01

    Sometimes assessments that work in theory fall apart in reality. This article discusses the unique learning-measurement system in Nebraska. Instead of relying on statewide standardized tests to comply with the accountability requirements of the federal No Child Left Behind Act--as is the case in the other 49 states--districts in Nebraska use their…

  3. Antimicrobial resistance of Listeria monocytogenes isolated from a poultry further processing plant

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to compare antimicrobial resistance profiles of distinct types of Listeria monocytogenes isolated from a commercial poultry cooking plant. One hundred fifty seven L. monocytogenes isolates representing 14 different ActA types were tested for susceptibility to 19 ant...

  4. The Cost of Chaos in the Curriculum. Perspectives on Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Capaldi Phillips, Elizabeth D.; Poliakoff, Michael B.

    2015-01-01

    ACTA's report "The Cost of Chaos in the Curriculum" reveals that the vast array of course choices given to college students is a cause of exploding costs and poor academic outcomes. And a bloated undergraduate curriculum is particularly detrimental to the success of students from lower socioeconomic backgrounds. The report documents how…

  5. Diffusive Insights: On the Disagreement of Christian Bohr and August Krogh at the Centennial of the Seven Little Devils

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gjedde, Albert

    2010-01-01

    The year 2010 is the centennial of the publication of the "Seven Little Devils" in the predecessor of "Acta Physiologica". In these seven papers, August and Marie Krogh sought to refute Christian Bohr's theory that oxygen diffusion from the lungs to the circulation is not entirely passive but rather facilitated by a specific cellular activity…

  6. Investigating Multitasking in High-Functioning Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorders Using the Virtual Errands Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rajendran, Gnanathusharan; Law, Anna S.; Logie, Robert H.; van der Meulen, Marian; Fraser, Diane; Corley, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Using a modified version of the Virtual Errands Task (VET; McGeorge et al. in "Presence-Teleop Virtual Environ" 10(4):375-383, 2001), we investigated the executive ability of multitasking in 18 high-functioning adolescents with ASD and 18 typically developing adolescents. The VET requires multitasking (Law et al. in "Acta Psychol" 122(1):27-44,…

  7. Prepared in Mind and Resources? A Report on Public Higher Education in South Carolina

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alacbay, Armand; Poliakoff, Michael

    2011-01-01

    In 2011, South Carolina Governor Nikki Haley signed into law the South Carolina Higher Education Efficiency and Administrative Policies Act, maintaining the transparency and accountability that lead to increased academic quality and affordability at colleges and universities. It is in this context that ACTA (American Council of Trustees and…

  8. Measures of Muscular Strength in U.S. Children and Adolescents, 2012

    MedlinePlus

    ... performance and DXA-derived lean body mass and fat mass in pre-pubertal children. Acta Pædiatr 100(10):1359–67. 2011. Suggested citation Ervin RB, Wang C-Y, Fryar CD, et al. Measures of ...

  9. SPR Biosensor for the Detection of L. monocytogenes using Phage Displayed Antibody

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Whole cells of Listeria monocytogenes were detected with a compact, surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensor using a phage-displayed scFv antibody to the virulence factor ActA for biorecognition. Phage Lm P4:A8, expressing the scFv antibody fused to the pIII surface protein was immobilized to the se...

  10. Governance for a New Era: A Blueprint for Higher Education Trustees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Benno C.

    2014-01-01

    "Governance for a New Era: A Blueprint for Higher Education Governance," is the product of a summit facilitated by ACTA [American Council of Trustees and Alumni] and chaired by Benno Schmidt, City University of New York Board chairman. Signatories to the statement, a diverse group of 22 distinguished national leaders, include college…

  11. Bold Leadership Real Reform [Annual Report, 2014

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Council of Trustees and Alumni, 2015

    2015-01-01

    Higher education has never been more "front and center"--almost daily we hear about spiraling costs, the lack of academic rigor, and the stifling political correctness on our college campuses. Long before such issues were hot, ACTA [American Council of Trustees and Alumni] was already pointing out these worrisome trends and calling on…

  12. BIOGEOCHEMICAL CONTROLS ON REACTION OF SEDIMENTARY ORGANIC MATTER AND AQUEOUS SULFIDES IN HOLOCENE SEDIMENTS OF MUD LAKE FLORIDA: JOURNAL ARTICLE

    EPA Science Inventory

    JOURNAL NRMRL-ADA-00133 Filley,T.R., Freeman, K.H., Wilkin*, R.T., and Hatcher, P.G. Biogeochemical Controls on Reaction of Sedimentary Organic Matter and Aqueous Sulfides in Holocene Sediments of Mud Lake Florida. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 66 (6):937-954...

  13. Development of Guidance for States Transitioning to New Safety Analysis Tools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alluri, Priyanka

    2010-01-01

    With about 125 people dying on US roads each day, the US Department of Transportation heightened the awareness of critical safety issues with the passage of SAFETEA-LU (Safe Accountable Flexible Efficient Transportation Equity Act--A Legacy for Users) legislation in 2005. The legislation required each of the states to develop a Strategic Highway…

  14. Polarization in RMnO3 multiferroics.

    PubMed

    Pirogov, A N

    2016-02-01

    Some comments on the review by Sim et al. [(2016). Acta Cryst. B72, 3-19] are given. The review is devoted to hexagonal multiferroics RMnO3, in which there are ferroelectric and magnetic orders. Strong interaction between these orders causes a series of interesting properties of multiferroics. PMID:26830791

  15. Activity Scale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerpelman, Larry C.; Weiner, Michael J.

    This twenty-four item scale assesses students' actual and desired political-social activism in terms of physical participation, communication activities, and information-gathering activities. About ten minutes are required to complete the instrument. The scale is divided into two subscales. The first twelve items (ACT-A) question respondents on…

  16. Higher: Setting a Higher Bar for Higher Ed. 2013 Annual Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Council of Trustees and Alumni, 2014

    2014-01-01

    The American Council of Trustees and Alumni (ACTA) is leading the charge to return "higher" to higher education. We are challenging the status quo to restore academic freedom, academic rigor, and real accountability to higher education. And, we are doing so with an ever-widening network of supporters and partners.

  17. Magnus Strandqvist: 50th anniversary of his doctoral thesis.

    PubMed

    Kajanti, M J

    1994-01-01

    This article is dedicated to Magnus Strandqvist's famous doctoral thesis "Studien über die kumulative Wirkung der Röntgenstrahlen bei Fraktionierung. Erfahrungen aus dem Radiumhemmet an 280 Haut- und Lippenkarzinomen" published in Acta Radiologica in 1944. After a short biography of Strandqvist some central points of his work and their influence on future development of modern radiotherapy are presented. PMID:7993639

  18. Effects of space flights on human allergic status (IgE-mediated sensitivity)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buravkova, L. B.; Rykova, M. P.; Gertsik, Y. G.; Antropova, E. N.

    2007-02-01

    Suppression of the immune system after space flights of different duration has been reported earlier by Konstantinova [Immune system in extreme conditions, Space immunology. B. 59. M. Science 1988. 289p. (in Russian) [4]; Immunoresistance of man in space flight, Acta Astronautica 23 (1991) 123-127 [5

  19. Bactericidal activity of propylene glycol, glycerine, polyethylene glycol 400, and polyethylene glycol 1000 against selected microorganisms

    PubMed Central

    Nalawade, Triveni Mohan; Bhat, Kishore; Sogi, Suma H. P.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the bactericidal activity of propylene glycol, glycerine, polyethylene glycol 400 (PEG 400), and polyethylene glycol 1000 (PEG 1000) against selected microorganisms in vitro. Materials and Methods: Five vehicles, namely propylene glycol, glycerine, PEG 400, PEG 1000, and combination of propylene glycol with PEG 400, were tested for their bactericidal activity. The minimum bactericidal concentration was noted against four standard strains of organisms, i.e. Streptococcus mutans American Type Culture Collection (ATCC) 25175, Streptococcus mutans ATCC 12598, Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 35550, and Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, using broth dilution assay. Successful endodontic therapy depends upon thorough disinfection of root canals. In some refractory cases, routine endodontic therapy is not sufficient, so intracanal medicaments are used for proper disinfection of canals. Intracanal medicaments are dispensed with vehicles which aid in increased diffusion through the dentinal tubules and improve their efficacy. Among the various vehicles used, glycerine is easily available, whereas others like propylene glycol and polyethylene glycol have to be procured from appropriate sources. Also, these vehicles, being viscous, aid in sustained release of the medicaments and improve their handling properties. The most commonly used intracanal medicaments like calcium hydroxide are ineffective on many microorganisms, while most of the other medicaments like MTAD (Mixture of Tetracycline, an Acid, and a Detergent) and Triple Antibiotic Paste (TAP) consist of antibiotics which can lead to development of antibiotic resistance among microorganisms. Thus, in order to use safer and equally effective intracanal medicaments, newer alternatives like chlorhexidine gluconate, ozonized water, etc., are being explored. Similarly, the five vehicles mentioned above are being tested for their antimicrobial activity in this study. Results: All vehicles

  20. The Metalloprotease Mpl Supports Listeria monocytogenes Dissemination through Resolution of Membrane Protrusions into Vacuoles.

    PubMed

    Alvarez, Diego E; Agaisse, Hervé

    2016-06-01

    Listeria monocytogenes is an intracellular pathogen that disseminates within the intestinal epithelium through acquisition of actin-based motility and formation of plasma membrane protrusions that project into adjacent cells. The resolution of membrane protrusions into vacuoles from which the pathogen escapes results in bacterial spread from cell to cell. This dissemination process relies on the mlp-actA-plcB operon, which encodes ActA, a bacterial nucleation-promoting factor that mediates actin-based motility, and PlcB, a phospholipase that mediates vacuole escape. Here we investigated the role of the metalloprotease Mpl in the dissemination process. In agreement with previous findings showing that Mpl is required for PlcB activation, infection of epithelial cells with the ΔplcB or Δmpl strains resulted in the formation of small infection foci. As expected, the ΔplcB strain displayed a strong defect in vacuole escape. However, the Δmpl strain showed an unexpected defect in the resolution of protrusions into vacuoles, in addition to the expected but mild defect in vacuole escape. The Δmpl strain displayed increased levels of ActA on the bacterial surface in protrusions. We mapped an Mpl-dependent processing site in ActA between amino acid residues 207 to 238. Similar to the Δmpl strain, the ΔactA207-238 strain displayed increased levels of ActA on the bacterial surface in protrusions. Although the ΔactA207-238 strain displayed wild-type actin-based motility, it formed small infection foci and failed to resolve protrusions into vacuoles. We propose that, in addition to its role in PlcB processing and vacuole escape, the metalloprotease Mpl is required for ActA processing and protrusion resolution. PMID:27068088

  1. [Drug treatment of Alzheimer's disease].

    PubMed

    González González, J A

    2001-01-01

    The Alzheimer's disease is caused by a today unknown plurietiopathology that does not allow to establish an effective treatment. In the last years, important advances about neuronal physiology and its molecular bases of functioning has been attempt. At the same time, the research and finding of medicaments which used individually or together allow us to advance from a symptomatic treatment to influence and be effective etiopathologically in the Alzheimer's disease. A few are trying to maintain the structure and function of the neurons (synapsis). Others are concentrated on prevent their death or substitute the damaged cells by embryonic mother cells. Nowadays, there are important projects in an experimental stage of research with the hope that "they will be useful for everything" or unless to slow down or stop the Alzheimer's disease. We are going to talk about these medicaments in this article. PMID:11783035

  2. Comparative Evaluation of Rice Bran Wax as an Ointment Base with Standard Base

    PubMed Central

    Sabale, Vidya; Sabale, P. M.; Lakhotiya, C. L.

    2009-01-01

    Waxes have been used in many cosmetic preparations and pharmaceuticals as formulation aids. Rice bran wax is a byproduct of rice bran oil industry. Present investigation has been aimed to explore the possible utility of rice bran wax as ointment base compared to standard base. The rice bran wax obtained, purified and its physicochemical characteristics were determined. Ointment base acts as a carrier for medicaments. The ointment base composition determines not only the extent of penetration but also controls the transfer of medicaments from the base to the body tissues. Rice bran wax base was compared with standard base for appearance, spreadability, water number, wash ability and diffusibility. The results show that rice bran wax acts as an ointment base as far as its pharmaceutical properties are concerned and it could effectively replace comparatively costlier available ointment bases. PMID:20177466

  3. Primitive African Medical Lore and Witchcraft *

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Ethel E.

    1965-01-01

    This article presents a comprehensive study of the methods, practices, equipment, and paraphernalia of African witch doctors in carrying out primitive medical practices. The chief tribes studied are the Azandes of the Sudan, the Manos of Liberia, the Congo tribes, the Bundas of Angola, and the Zulus and other Bantu tribes of South Africa. Primitive beliefs and customs are discussed only insofar as they have a direct bearing on medical practices. The medical practices considered deal mainly with the application of general remedies for ailments and diseases, but certain specialized fields such as obstetrics, surgery, treatment for fractures, and dentistry are also included. Primitive medicaments are presented with reference to their application for various illnesses. An alphabetical list of these medicaments is given at the end of the article. PMID:14223742

  4. Comparative evaluation of rice bran wax as an ointment base with standard base.

    PubMed

    Sabale, Vidya; Sabale, P M; Lakhotiya, C L

    2009-01-01

    Waxes have been used in many cosmetic preparations and pharmaceuticals as formulation aids. Rice bran wax is a byproduct of rice bran oil industry. Present investigation has been aimed to explore the possible utility of rice bran wax as ointment base compared to standard base. The rice bran wax obtained, purified and its physicochemical characteristics were determined. Ointment base acts as a carrier for medicaments. The ointment base composition determines not only the extent of penetration but also controls the transfer of medicaments from the base to the body tissues. Rice bran wax base was compared with standard base for appearance, spreadability, water number, wash ability and diffusibility. The results show that rice bran wax acts as an ointment base as far as its pharmaceutical properties are concerned and it could effectively replace comparatively costlier available ointment bases. PMID:20177466

  5. [Research on the changes of name of Wuzhuyu (Medicinal Evodia Fruit)].

    PubMed

    Mao, Bin-bin; Wang, De-qun

    2010-01-01

    The name of Wuzhuyu (Medicinal Evodia Fruit) comes from the place of "Wu", and the shape of its fruit, which is like a 'Zhuyu'. In addition, it is also called "Yi, Sha, Jiao, Dang, Yuejiao and Qiu" for different reasons; for example, "Yi" because of its processing and sacrificial function; and "Sha" because of the bug-killing function of its root and cortex. In Xin Xiu Ben Cao (Newly Revised Materia Medica) of the Tang Dynasty, its names were unified as Wuzhuyu. Because it can be eaten, it was also called "Shizhuyu". In the Song Dynasty, with the discontinued vogue of eating Zhuyu, people had difference attitudes to the "Wuzhuyu" and "Shizhuyu". Nowadays, "Wuzhuyu" is the established name of these kinds of materia medica. PMID:20403258

  6. [Not Available].

    PubMed

    Ibragimova, V S

    1970-01-01

    Scientists from the Eastern countries have a great merit for the enrichment of the range of medicaments, as well as for the scientific development of pharmacology. In this respect, worth of special interest is a manuscript source, dealing with the medicaments of the XIV century and entitled: "Selected Pharmacopeia, dedicated to Badia al Jemal"--Ihtiyarat of Badia, written by Ali Bin Hussein al Ansari, usually known by his nickname Hodja Zayn al Atar. Most of the concepts, found in the cited manuscript, conserve their significance up to the present day, all the more that the drugs listed, their indications, way of preparation and application are thoroughly described. The Ihtiyarat of Badia, containing the description of 1100 drug denominations of vegetable, animal and mineral origin, is not merely a historical document of medieval pharmacology, but might serve as a source for enriching the armamentarium of modern medicine with drugs. PMID:11636551

  7. [Laennec Hospital].

    PubMed

    Dauphin, A; Mazin-Deslandes, C

    2000-01-01

    When the Laennec Hospital of Paris closed, after 366 years of activities for the patients, the articles about the circumstances of the foundation and the main stapes of the institution which became an very famous university hospital it present the available information of the history of the apothecaries, of the "gagnants-maitrise", pharmacists and the pharmacy's interns who succeeded themselves to create and dispense the medicaments necessary to the patients hospitalized or welcomed in ambulatory. It describes the evolution of the places, of the material, of forms, of the organization, of the medicaments and of the missions of what became the Pharmacy department after the recent individualization of the biological analysis in the biochemistry. PMID:11625687

  8. [Historical textual research on Shan biandou with discussion on the misnaming of plant title].

    PubMed

    Li, J B

    2016-05-01

    The original plants of Shan biandou, first seen in Jiu huang ben cao (Materia Medica for Relief of Famines), include the plants of Astragalusgenus, such as A. scaberrimus and/or A. complanatus in the Ming and Qing Dynasties. But Cassia mimosoides was named as Shan biandou by Japanese scholars in the 19th century. This mistaken identification and misnaming, still in use today in Chinese and Japanese circles of botany and materia medica, did cause some confusion. The merits and demerits of using the plant names in Chinese characters from the Japanese language by Chinese botanists were analyzed, the disadvantages of which should be well avoided. Because of the vicissitude in the names of plants and Chinese herbs, it is necessary to strengthen the study and develop the significant value of A. complanatus and C. mimosoides in health care so as to promote its contributions to the cause of TCM. PMID:27485866

  9. [Pharmaceutical research progress of rhynchophylla based on chemical stability].

    PubMed

    Hao, Bo; Yang, Xiu-Juan; Feng, Yi; Hong, Yan-Long

    2014-12-01

    Rhynchophylla is a Chinese herb commonly used in clinical practice. It's also the primary herb of some famous Chinese herbal compound such as Tianma Gouteng decoction, and Lingyang Gouteng decoction. According the record from many previous materia medica literatures, rhynchophylla should be added later during decoction. Pharmaceutical research showed that rhynchophylla alkaloids were not stable. Which has resulted in many problems in the research and its application. For example, there was not a quantitative determination method in "Chinese Pharmacopoeia" of past and present versions, which seriously impacted its quality control and product application. Firstly, records from previous materia medica literatures and "Chinese Pharmacopoeia" were systematically sorted based on the chemical stability of rhynchophylla. Secondly, pharmaceutical research including chemical compositions and their stability, pharmacological effects, extraction process and quality analysis, was reviewed after reference of literatures published at home and abroad in recent decades. Positive reference and evidence for further research and development of rhynchophylla will be provided in the article. PMID:25911796

  10. Searching online and Web-based resources for information on natural products used as drugs.

    PubMed Central

    Stone, V L; Fishman, D L; Frese, D B

    1998-01-01

    Finding and evaluating information on natural products used as drugs can present challenges to the information professional. In this study, eight databases including resources retrieved on the Web were compared for relevancy and uniqueness. Ten reference questions related to natural products used as drugs were searched in the latest three year file of a number of databases, including MEDLINE, International Pharmaceutical Abstracts, and EMBASE/Excerpta Medica. In addition, the Web was searched for relevant Internet sites using the Alta Vista search engine. EMBASE/Excerpta Medica retrieved the largest number of relevant citations for four of the ten questions. MEDLINE, the Health Reference Center, and Alta Vista each retrieved the largest numbers in two questions. Overall, the standard medical databases were the first choice for the health professional and for many lay people because of their more extensive indexing and coverage of authoritative journals. PMID:9803295

  11. [The pharmacist: health professional and citizen].

    PubMed

    Rozenfeld, Suely

    2008-04-01

    This text was presented at the V Congress on Pharmacy Care/Riopharma with the intent to approach some aspects important for discussing the role of the pharmacist as health professional and citizen capable of acting in society. To this purpose we decided to recall some of the cornerstones of the Brazilian health reform; the pressure of the industry on health professionals and regulatory agencies; the inequity in the distribution of medicaments among the different social classes. Some of the changes proposed in this paper are: to widen the role the pharmacist plays in pharmacotherapy; to prohibit drug advertising; a global and independent evaluation of the national regulatory agency; inclusion of information about medicament consumption during hospitalizations in the national databases. PMID:21936158

  12. Antimicrobial activity of herbal medicines (tulsi extract, neem extract) and chlorhexidine against Enterococcus faecalis in Endodontics: An in vitro study

    PubMed Central

    Chandrappa, Pradeep Muttagadur; Dupper, Akash; Tripathi, Pragya; Arroju, Ramakrishna; Sharma, Preeti; Sulochana, Konthoujam

    2015-01-01

    Background: Successful endodontic treatment depends on effective disinfection and complete sealing of root canal. Various medicaments are advised for disinfecting root canal, such as herbal and non-herbal medicaments. This study was done to assess the antimicrobial activity of herbal medicines (neem extract, tulsi extract) and chlorhexidine against Enterococcus faecalis in Endodontics. Materials and Methods: Agar diffusion method was used to evaluate the antimicrobial action of different medicines. Sixty samples were segregated into four groups with 15 samples in each: Group I: chlorhexidine 2%, Group II: neem extract, Group III: tulsi extract, and Group IV: distilled water. The inhibition zones against E. faecalis were recorded and statistically assessed using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) test (P < 0.05). Results: Significant antibacterial effect against E. faecalis was observed with chlorhexidine followed by neem extract and tulsi extract. Conclusion: Herbal medicines seemed to be effective against E. faecalis compared to 2% chlorhexidine gluconate. PMID:26942123

  13. The Advances in Research on the Pharmacological Effects of Fructus Ligustri Lucidi

    PubMed Central

    Pang, Zunting; Zhi-yan, Zhou; Wang, Wei; Ma, Yanni; Feng-ju, Niu; Zhang, Xuelan; Han, Chunchao

    2015-01-01

    Fructus Ligustri Lucidi is a well-known invigorator in Chinese materia medica with hepatoprotective effect, anticancer activity, antioxidant activity, and so on. And oleanolic acids are the major pharmacologically active components in Fructus Ligustri Lucidi. So it has great value in medical health, and may be developed to a complementary and alternative medicine through further research. In this paper, the advances in research on pharmacological effects of Fructus Ligustri Lucidi were summarized by reviewing the recent related literature. PMID:25874204

  14. [The National Pharmacopoeia and the therapeutic status of flora in Mexican biomedicine].

    PubMed

    Hersch Martinez, P

    2001-01-01

    The paper analyses the transformation of the Mexican pharmacopoeia, focusing on the presence of medicinal plants. Reflecting diverse processes, editions of the pharmacopoeia show a progressive modification in its content and profile. A text written to shape a Mexican materia medica, recognising empirical knowledge by the inclusion of popularly used resources and involving clinicians as authors and recipients, was transformed into a mainly industrial publication with no clinical references. The origin and implications of this process are explored. PMID:12001931

  15. Self-treatment of a basal cell carcinoma with "black and yellow salve".

    PubMed

    Osswald, Sandra S; Elston, Dirk M; Farley, Mary F; Alberti, John G; Cordero, Steven C; Kalasinsky, Victor F

    2005-09-01

    Patients may seek "alternative" or "non-traditional" therapies for dermatologic problems, frequently in search of a miraculous cure. However, many of these medicaments contain unknown compounds with questionable benefit and a potential for significant harm. We describe a patient who developed a large ulceration on her nose after applying "black and yellow salves" obtained from Mexico in an attempt to self-treat a basal cell carcinoma. PMID:16112364

  16. Effect of Calcium Hydroxide, Chlorhexidine Digluconate and Camphorated Monochlorophenol on the Sealing Ability of Biodentine Apical Plug

    PubMed Central

    Srivastava, Harshit; Prasad, Ashwini B; Raisingani, Deepak; Soni, Dileep

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Teeth with immature apex are managed by establishing an apical plug using various materials and techniques. However, the use of previously placed intracanal medicament may affect the sealing ability of permanent filling material used as an apical plug. Aim To evaluate the effect of removal of previously placed Calcium Hydroxide, Chlorhexidine Digluconate and Camphorated Monochlorophenol as an intracanal medicament on the sealing ability of the Biodentine as an apical plug. Materials and Methods A total of 72 recently extracted human permanent teeth with single root were selected and stored in saline at room temperature. The crown portion of each tooth was removed at the level of cemento enamel junction; 14mm root length was taken as standard length. All the roots were submerged in 20% sulphuric acid up to 3 mm from the apex, for four days for root resorption. One sample was cut longitudinally to look for root resorption under stereo microscope. The canal preparation was done; the roots were kept in moist gauze after instrumentation. A total of 71 roots were randomly divided into three groups. GROUP 1:Calcium hydroxide paste, GROUP 2: Chlorhexidine digluconate, GROUP 3: Camphorated Monochlorophenol (CMCP). The medicaments were removed with stainless steel hand files and 0.5% sodium hypochlorite irrigation. After removal of medicament Biodentine was placed in apical third of resorbed roots and the remaining portion of the canals was filled with gutta-percha. All the 71 roots were analysed with fluid filtration method for evaluating microleakage. Results Comparing all the three groups statistically there was no significant difference. The mean values were found more for group 1 followed by group 2 & 3. Conclusion All the groups showed microleakage. Calcium hydroxide showed the maximum microleakage followed by Chlorhexidine digluconate and least with CMCP. PMID:27504409

  17. UCSF Protocol for Caries Arrest Using Silver Diamine Fluoride: Rationale, Indications, and Consent

    PubMed Central

    Horst, Jeremy A; Ellenikiotis, Hellene; Milgrom, Peter M

    2016-01-01

    The Food and Drug Administration recently cleared silver diamine fluoride for reducing tooth sensitivity. Clinical trials document arrest and prevention of dental caries by silver diamine fluoride; this off-label use is now permissible and appropriate under U.S. law. A CDT code was approved for caries arresting medicaments for 2016 to facilitate documentation and billing. We present a systematic review, clinical indications, clinical protocol, and consent procedure to guide application for caries arrest treatment. PMID:26897901

  18. Biocompatibility of dental materials used in contemporary endodontic therapy: a review. Part 1. Intracanal drugs and substances.

    PubMed

    Hauman, C H J; Love, R M

    2003-02-01

    Irrigation solutions and intracanal medicaments are used within the root canal to clean and aid in disinfecting the dentinal walls. Although these materials are intended to be contained within the root canal, they invariably contact the periapical tissues, either through inadvertent extrusion through the apex or leaching. This paper is a review on the methodology involved in biocompatibility testing followed by a discussion on biocompatibility of contemporary intracanal drugs and substances used in endodontics. PMID:12657150

  19. UCSF Protocol for Caries Arrest Using Silver Diamine Fluoride: Rationale, Indications and Consent.

    PubMed

    Horst, Jeremy A; Ellenikiotis, Hellene; Milgrom, Peter L

    2016-01-01

    The Food and Drug Administration recently cleared silver diamine fluoride for reducing tooth sensitivity. Clinical trials document arrest and prevention of dental caries by silver diamine fluoride. This off-label use is now permissible and appropriate under U.S. law. A CDT code was approved for caries arresting medicaments for 2016 to facilitate documentation and billing. We present a systematic review, clinical indications, clinical protocol and consent procedure to guide application for caries arrest treatment. PMID:26897901

  20. Tunnel defects in dentin bridges: their formation following direct pulp capping.

    PubMed

    Cox, C F; Sübay, R K; Ostro, E; Suzuki, S; Suzuki, S H

    1996-01-01

    This study was conducted to observe the formation and nature of tunnel defects in dentin bridges, assess the nature of the associated soft tissue elements, and note the relationship of pulp inflammation and necrosis associated with these defects. A total of 235 teeth with class 5 cavity preparation exposures were randomly distributed throughout the dentitions of 14 adult rhesus monkeys. Each pulp was exposed and left open to the oral microflora at one of four time intervals, flushed with saline, debrided, capped with one of two hard-set calcium hydroxide medicaments [Ca(OH)2 (Dycal or Life)] and restored with a dispersed-phase amalgam alloy. Observation times were 14 days, 5 weeks, and 1 and 2 years. A total of 192 dentin bridges formed against the Ca(OH)2 medicaments Life or Dycal in 235 pulp-capped teeth. Considering all four capping periods, 89% of all dentin bridges contained tunnel defects (172 of 192). Forty-one percent (78) of the 192 dentin bridges were associated with recurring pulp inflammation or necrosis and were always associated with the presence of inflammatory cells and stained bacterial profiles. This study demonstrates that a statistically significant number of dentin bridges contain multiple tunnel defects, most of which appear to remain patent. These patent tunnels fail to provide a hermetic seal to the underlying pulp against recurring infection due to microleakage. Most Ca(OH)2 medicaments have been reported to disintegrate and wash out after 6 months, leaving a void underneath the restoration and thereby a pathway for bacterial infection. This study reemphasizes the need to employ biologically relevant measures that will provide a long-term clinical seal against microleakage following direct pulp capping with Ca(OH)2 medicaments alone. PMID:8957909

  1. [Medical problems of the elderly traveler].

    PubMed

    Leischker, A H

    2006-09-28

    Prior good medical preparation and counseling enable senior citizens to travel abroad in safety. The recommendations for travel vaccinations apply also to the elderly traveler. In addition, adequate protection against viral influenza and pneumococci must be ensured. In the case of travelers to Mediterranean countries, suitable protection against mosquito bites should be provided (leishmaniasis). Those with previous diseases should carry with them a copy of a recent resting ECG, and a list of medicaments with the international generic names. PMID:17059196

  2. Nonsurgical endodontic management of dens invaginatus with open apex: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Rani, Nidhi; Sroa, Renu B

    2015-01-01

    Dens invaginatus is a rare malformation with a widely varied morphology. It typically affects permanent maxillary lateral incisors, central incisors, and premolars. This article demonstrates rapid management of type II dens invagination with open apex and large periradicular lesion using calcium hydroxide as intracanal medicament for 1-week followed by apical plug formation with mineral trioxide aggregate Plus and lateral condensation of Gutta-percha. At 24-month follow-up, the patient was asymptomatic and lesion was entirely resolved. PMID:26751206

  3. A Review of Antibacterial Agents in Endodontic Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Rahimi, Saeed; Janani, Maryam; Lotfi, Mehrdad; Shahi, Shahriar; Aghbali, Amirala; Vahid Pakdel, Mahdi; Salem Milani, Amin; Ghasemi, Negin

    2014-01-01

    Microorganisms play a major role in initiation and perpetuation of pulpal and periapical diseases. Therefore, elimination of the microorganisms present in the root canal system is the fundamental objective of endodontic treatment. The use of mechanical debridement, chemical irrigation or other antimicrobial protocols and intra-canal medicaments are critical to attain this goal. The aim of this article was to review the antimicrobial agents and their properties in endodontics. PMID:25031587

  4. Biochemia Medica’s editorial policy on authorship

    PubMed Central

    Supak-Smolcic, Vesna; Simundic, Ana-Maria

    2015-01-01

    Recent findings of authorship criteria violations in the manuscripts submitted to Biochemia Medica show that almost 40% of authors do not meet necessary criteria for authorship and thus indicate the need for better dissemination of editorial policy on authorship in our journal. We believe that such cases are mostly due to the authors’ unawareness or the lack of understanding of the authorship criteria. With this article we therefore wish to declare our editorial policy on authorship and authorship criteria. Biochemia Medica endorses the authorship policy provided by the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE). Information on authorship is assessed by self-reported authorship claims during on-line manuscript submission. Those who meet ICMJE criteria shall be listed as authors, and all listed authors shall fulfill ICMJE criteria. All authors should be responsible for content of the article and have to know other authors’ contributions to the study. Biochemia Medica will follow recommendations provided by Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE) flowcharts for possible disputes. By adhering to this procedure we hope to raise awareness about the importance of compliance with ICMJE authorship recommendations. PMID:26525911

  5. Biocompatibility of Intracanal Medications Based on Calcium Hydroxide

    PubMed Central

    Andolfatto, Carolina; da Silva, Guilherme Ferreira; Cornélio, Ana Livia Gomes; Guerreiro-Tanomaru, Juliane Maria; Tanomaru-Filho, Mario; Faria, Gisele; Bonetti-Filho, Idomeo; Cerri, Paulo Sérgio

    2012-01-01

    Objective. The aim of this study was to evaluate the rat subcutaneous tissue reaction to calcium hydroxide-based intracanal medicaments, UltraCal XS (calcium hydroxide, barium sulphate, aqueous matrix), Hydropast (calcium hydroxide, barium sulphate, and propyleneglycol), and Calen (Calcium hydroxide, zinc oxide, colophony, and polyethyleneglycol), used as a control. Methods. Forty-eight rats (Rattus Norvegicus Holtzman) were distributed in three groups: Calen, UltraCal XS, and Hydropast. Polyethylene tubes filled with one of the medicaments were implanted in the dorsal subcutaneous. After 7 and 30 days, the implants were removed and the specimens were fixed and embedded in paraffin. Morphological and quantitative analyses were carried out in the HE-stained sections. The numerical density of inflammatory cells in the capsule was evaluated and statistical analyses were performed (P ≤ 0.05). Results. At 7 days, all materials induced an inflammatory reaction in the subcutaneous tissue adjacent to the implants. In all groups, a significant reduction in the number of inflammatory cells and giant cells was verified in the period of 30 days. Conclusion. These results indicate that the calcium hydroxide-based medicaments evaluated present biocompatibility similar to Calen. PMID:23320187

  6. Dental pulp response to collagen and pulpotec cement as pulpotomy agents in primary dentition: A histological study

    PubMed Central

    Kakarla, Pranitha; Avula, Jogendra Sai Sankar; Mellela, George Manojkumar; Bandi, Sujatha; Anche, Sampath

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: As the search for a better biocompatible medicament is on, aim of the present study was to evaluate the pulpal response to collagen particles impregnated in antibiotics (Biofil-AB™) and new commercially available cement (Pulpotec) that can be used as pulpal medicament. Materials and Methods: Total sample of 40 teeth from 20 children in the age group of 7-10 years which are noncarious having bilateral retained primary teeth were enrolled for the study. Nine teeth each were treated with collagen particles (group I) and Pulpotec cement (group II), and the remaining samples were discarded due to various reasons. Both groups were randomly subdivided into three teeth each that were extracted after 7, 15, and 30 days intervals and examined histologically. Results: Moderate to severe inflammatory cells with newly formed blood vessels and disorganized odontoblastic cell layer was observed in group I after all three intervals with dentinal bridge formation in two specimens. On contrary, none of the specimens in group II showed any signs of inflammation, but there was a discontinuity in the odontoblastic layer lining along the dentin walls. Conclusion: Both materials were proven to be promising alternatives as pulp medicaments. However, collagen was found to be a better material. PMID:24082573

  7. Ethno-diversity within current ethno-pharmacology as part of Israeli traditional medicine – A review

    PubMed Central

    2006-01-01

    The Holy Land has absorbed millions of immigrants in recent centuries: Jews from East and West, Druze, Circassians, Muslim and Christian Arabs. The land is unique and diverse in geographical location and ethnic groups, and also in its cultural characteristics, including traditional medicine and use of materia medica. However, these traditions have waned over the years. The young state of Israel adopted a "melting pot" approach to fashion Jews from all over the world into Israelis. The traditional medicine and materia medica of different ethnic groups (Yemenite, Iranian, and Iraqi Jews) are reviewed in this paper, as well as the ethno-botanical survey (first conducted in the 1980s, covering Bedouins, Druze, Circassians, and Muslim and Christian Arabs), and the matching ethno-pharmacological survey (conducted in the late 1990s) covering the medicines sold in stores. Present-day healers are usually not young and are believed to be the end of the chain of traditional medical knowledge. The ethno-diversity of Israel is becoming blurred; modernity prevails, and ethnic characteristics are fading. The characteristic lines of traditional medicine and materia medica have hardly lasted three generations. A salient former dividing line between ethnic groups, namely their use of different medicinal substances, paradoxically becomes a bridge for conservative users of all groups and religions. Shops selling these substances have become centers for "nostalgia" and preserving the oriental heritage, traditional medicine, and medicinal substances! PMID:16401348

  8. [Textual research on the literature sources, its related names and medicinal part of Lonicera japonica Thunb].

    PubMed

    Wang, Peng; Zhou, Yang; Fu, Xian-Jun; Wang, Zhen-Guo

    2013-05-01

    The "jin yin hua" (Lonicera japonica Thunb.) used in the clinic nowadays is the flower of honeysuckle, excluding its stem, leave, branch, vine or the whole plant. In the early time, the name of "ren dong" (honeysuckle) or "ren dong teng" (Caulis lonicerae) didn't refer exclusively to the flower of honeysuckle. A few early literature, such as Xin xiu ben cao (Newly Revised Materia Medica) recorded briefly the flower, yet only mentions its time of blossom and shape without mentioning the medicinal use of its flower, nor the title of "jin yin hua", as the identification for this plant. Therefore, it cannot be regarded as the primary source of "jin yin hua". This research points out that the first appearance of the name of "jin yin hua" should be in Su shen liang fang (Su-Shen's Effective Prescriptions) of the Song Dynasty, and the first usage of the flower "jin yin hua" as a single drug was in Wai ke jing yao (Essence of External Diseases) of the Song Dynasty. Thus, the conclusion that "jin yin hua" is first seen in Xin xiu ben cao or lv chan yan ben cao (Mountainous Materia Medica) quoted in the ninth edition of teaching material of Traditional Chinese Pharmacology, and Chinese Materia Medica are all wrong and should be corrected accordingly. PMID:24060026

  9. Chlorhexidine in endodontics.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Brenda P F A; Vianna, Morgana E; Zaia, Alexandre A; Almeida, José Flávio A; Souza-Filho, Francisco J; Ferraz, Caio C R

    2013-01-01

    Chemical auxiliary substances (CAS) are essential for a successful disinfection and cleanness of the root canals, being used during the instrumentation and if necessary, as antimicrobial intracanal medicaments. Different CAS have been proposed and used, among which sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl), chlorhexidine (CHX), 17% EDTA, citric acid, MTAD and 37% phosphoric acid solution. CHX has been used in Endodontics as an irrigating substance or intracanal medicament, as it possesses a wide range of antimicrobial activity, substantivity (residual antimicrobial activity), lower cytotoxicity than NaOCl whilst demonstrating efficient clinical performance, lubricating properties, rheological action (present in the gel presentation, keeping the debris in suspension); it inhibits metalloproteinase, is chemically stable, does not stain cloths, it is odorless, water soluble, among other properties. CHX has been recommended as an alternative to NaOCl, especially in cases of open apex, root resorption, foramen enlargement and root perforation, due to its biocompatibility, or in cases of allergy related to bleaching solutions. The aim of this paper is to review CHX's general use in the medical field and in dentistry; its chemical structure, presentation form and storage; mechanism of action; antimicrobial activity including substantivity, effects on biofilms and endotoxins, effects on coronal and apical microbial microleakage; tissue dissolution ability; interaction with endodontic irrigants; effects on dentin bonding, metalloproteinases and collagen fibrils; its use as intracanal medicament and diffusion into the dentinal tubules; its use as disinfectant agent of obturation cones; other uses in the endodontic therapy; and possible adverse effects, cytotoxicity and genotoxicity. PMID:23780357

  10. [History of incompability among medicinals of "Glycyrrhiza antagonistic to Sargassum, Euphorbia Pekinensis, Kansui, and Genkwa" and its modern recognition].

    PubMed

    Jiang, Chenxue; Bian, Yali; Fan, Xinsheng

    2015-05-01

    The allegation of "Glycyrrhiza antagonistic to Sargassum, Euphorbia Pekinensis, Kansui, and Genkwa", being one of the hypotheses of "18 antagonisms" in TCM pharmacology, is referring to the antagonistic action among the Radix et Rhizoma Glycyrrhiza and Radix Euphorbiae Kansui, Radix Euphorbiae Pekinensis, Flos Genkwa, and Sargassum when compounded together in a single recipe. By reviewing its history concerted with modern knowledge, it can be found that the theory of "seven emotions" was originated from Shennong's Classic of Materia Medica; while the Variorum of the Classic of Materia Medica firstly and definitely records that Radix et Rhizoma Glycyrrhizae is forbidden to be used with Radix Kansui, Flos Genkwa, Radix Euphorbiae Pekinensis, Sargassum together in a single formula. It was summarized into a Chinese poetic sentence as above-mentioned later. In the works of later ages, including Chinese Pharmacopoeia, A Great Dictionary of Chinese Materia Medica, and China's Herbology, etc., all enhance the understanding of the prohibited combination of Radix et Rhizoma Glycyrrhizae and its incompatible herbs. Nevertheless, there are discrepancies between the results of modern experimental and clinical studies on this problem, which, needless to say, should be resolved by further investigations. PMID:26420521

  11. [Research and analysis of data source--analysis of the items of medical plants in Xiandai Bencao Gangmu].

    PubMed

    Lin, Duan-yi; Zhou, Chang-en; Lai, Xin-mei; Yang, Shu-jing

    2008-09-01

    Scientific data is the source of innovation in knowledge. In order to change the situation that there is few information in plenty of data and to obtain useful knowledge which has high information content, it is necessary to clean data and ensure data's accuracy and without noise off when database is established initially. High-quality data comes from high-quality data source. But incomplete and incorrect and irregular data exist widely in the data source of Chinese materia medica. The phenomenon of synonyms and homonym is quite serious, and there is no unified description for the name and origin of Chinese materia medica among different data sources. So data processing including data analysis and research is very important in the establishment of Chinese materia medica database. In order to get the most accurate and standard data, this paper analyzed the items of Medical Plants in Xiandai Bencao Gangmu, including classification analysis of medical plants: distribution analysis of different classes and analysis of medical part; analysis of synonyms and homonym; analysis of incorrect data and analysis of advantage and disadvantage of data sources. PMID:19066048

  12. CHIPS: A New Way to Monitor Colonias Along the United States-Mexico Border

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parcher, Jean W.; Humberson, Delbert G.

    2007-01-01

    Colonias, which are unincorporated border settlements in the United States, have emerged in rural areas without the governance and services normally provided by local government. Colonia residents live in poverty and lack adequate health care, potable water, and sanitation systems. These conditions create substantial health risks for colonias and surrounding communities. By 2001, more than 1,400 colonias were identified in Texas. Cooperation with the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development, Offices of the Texas Attorney General, Secretary of State, and the Texas Water Development Board has allowed the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to improve colonia Geographic Information System (GIS) boundaries and develop the Colonia Health, Infrastructure, and Platting Status tool (CHIPS). Together, the GIS boundaries and CHIPS aid the Texas government in prioritizing the limited funds that are available for infrastructure improvement. CHIPS's report generator can be tailored to the needs of the user, providing either broad or specific output. For example, a congressman could use CHIPS to list colonias with wastewater issues in a specific county, whereas a health researcher could list all colonias without clinical access. To help cities along the United States-Mexico border manage issues related to colonias growth, CHIPS will become publicly available in an Internet-enabled GIS as part of a cooperative study between the USGS, the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development, and the Mexican Instituto Nacional de Estadistica Geografia e Informatica.

  13. A global digital elevation model - GTOP030

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    1999-01-01

    GTOP030, the U.S. Geological Survey's (USGS) digital elevation model (DEM) of the Earth, provides the flrst global coverage of moderate resolution elevation data.  The original GTOP30 data set, which was developed over a 3-year period through a collaborative effort led by the USGS, was completed in 1996 at the USGS EROS Data Center in Sioux Falls, South Dakota.  The collaboration involved contributions of staffing, funding, or source data from cooperators including the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the United Nations Environment Programme Global Resource Information Database (UNEP/GRID), the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID), the Instituto Nacional de Estadistica Geografia e Informatica (INEGI) of Mexico, the Geographical Survey Institute (GSI) of Japan, Manaaki Whenua Landcare Research of New Zealand, and the Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research (SCAR). In 1999, work was begun on an update to the GTOP030 data set. Additional data sources are being incorporated into GTOP030 with an enhanced and improved data set planned for release in 2000.

  14. ETICS: the international software engineering service for the grid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meglio, A. D.; Bégin, M.-E.; Couvares, P.; Ronchieri, E.; Takacs, E.

    2008-07-01

    The ETICS system is a distributed software configuration, build and test system designed to fulfil the needs of improving the quality, reliability and interoperability of distributed software in general and grid software in particular. The ETICS project is a consortium of five partners (CERN, INFN, Engineering Ingegneria Informatica, 4D Soft and the University of Wisconsin-Madison). The ETICS service consists of a build and test job execution system based on the Metronome software and an integrated set of web services and software engineering tools to design, maintain and control build and test scenarios. The ETICS system allows taking into account complex dependencies among applications and middleware components and provides a rich environment to perform static and dynamic analysis of the software and execute deployment, system and interoperability tests. This paper gives an overview of the system architecture and functionality set and then describes how the EC-funded EGEE, DILIGENT and OMII-Europe projects are using the software engineering services to build, validate and distribute their software. Finally a number of significant use and test cases will be described to show how ETICS can be used in particular to perform interoperability tests of grid middleware using the grid itself.

  15. Second monoclinic polymorph of 4-[(1H-benzimidazol-1-yl)meth­yl]benzoic acid

    PubMed Central

    Kuai, Hai-Wei; Cheng, Xiao-Chun

    2011-01-01

    Recently, we reported the first monoclinic [Kuai & Cheng (2011). Acta Cryst., E67, o2787] and the ortho­rhom­bic polymorph [Kuai & Cheng (2011). Acta Cryst., E67, o3014] of the title compound, C15H12N2O2. Another monoclinic polymorph was obtained accidentally by the hydro­thermal reaction of the title compound with manganese chloride in the presence of potassium hydroxide at 413 K. The asymmetric unit consists of four independent mol­ecules. In the crystal, O—H⋯N hydrogen bonds link the independent mol­ecules into four separate chains parallel to the b axis. PMID:22199726

  16. The spectral sensitivity of the human short-wavelength sensitive cones derived from thresholds and color matches.

    PubMed

    Stockman, A; Sharpe, L T; Fach, C

    1999-08-01

    We used two methods to estimate short-wave (S) cone spectral sensitivity. Firstly, we measured S-cone thresholds centrally and peripherally in five trichromats, and in three blue-cone monochromats, who lack functioning middle-wave (M) and long-wave (L) cones. Secondly, we analyzed standard color-matching data. Both methods yielded equivalent results, on the basis of which we propose new S-cone spectral sensitivity functions. At short and middle-wavelengths, our measurements are consistent with the color matching data of Stiles and Burch (1955, Optica Acta, 2, 168-181; 1959, Optica Acta, 6, 1-26), and other psychophysically measured functions, such as pi 3 (Stiles, 1953, Coloquio sobre problemas opticos de la vision, 1, 65-103). At longer wavelengths, S-cone sensitivity has previously been over-estimated. PMID:10492818

  17. Autosomal dominant nemaline myopathy caused by a novel alpha-tropomyosin 3 mutation.

    PubMed

    Kiphuth, I C; Krause, S; Huttner, H B; Dekomien, G; Struffert, T; Schröder, R

    2010-04-01

    Nemaline myopathy (NM) is a genetically and clinically heterogenous muscle disorder, which is myopathologically characterized by nemaline bodies. Mutations in six genes have been reported to cause NM: Nebulin (NEB Pelin 1999), alpha-skeletal muscle actin (ACTA1 Nowak 1999), alpha-slow tropomyosin (TPM3 Laing 1995), beta-tropomyosin (TPM2 Donner 2002), slow troponin T (TNNT1 Johnston 2000) and cofilin 2 (CFL2 Agrawal 2007). The majority of cases are due to mutation in NEB and ACTA1. We report on the clinical, myopathological and muscle MRI findings in a German family with autosomal dominant NM due to a novel pathogenic TPM3 mutation (p.Ala156Thr). PMID:20012312

  18. Periodic entanglement III: tangled degree-3 finite and layer net intergrowths from rare forests.

    PubMed

    Evans, Myfanwy E; Hyde, Stephen T

    2015-11-01

    Entanglements of two-dimensional honeycomb nets are constructed from free tilings of the hyperbolic plane (H2) on triply periodic minimal surfaces. The 2-periodic nets that comprise the structures are guaranteed by considering regular, rare free tilings in H2. This paper catalogues an array of entanglements that are both beautiful and challenging for current classification techniques, including examples that are realized in metal-organic materials. The compactification of these structures to the genus-3 torus is considered as a preliminary method for generating entanglements of finite θ-graphs, potentially useful for gaining insight into the entanglement of the periodic structure. This work builds on previous structural enumerations given in Periodic entanglement Parts I and II [Evans et al. (2013). Acta Cryst. A69, 241-261; Evans et al. (2013). Acta Cryst. A69, 262-275]. PMID:26522409

  19. Meeting Report: 7th World Congress on Itch

    PubMed Central

    Azimi, Ehsan; Lerner, Ethan A.

    2014-01-01

    The 7th World Congress on Itch was held in Boston in September 2013. This is the biennial meeting of the International Forum for the Study of Itch (IFSI), www.itchforum.net, There were 240 attendees from 17 countries. They spanned clinical practice, academics and patient advocacy while the opportunity for translation was demonstrated as 80 attendees were from industry. A large academic neuroscience contingent was present. There were plenary sessions, basic and clinical tracts, and sixty posters during the 2½ day meeting. The meeting program and 160 abstracts are available at www.itchboston.org and the open access journal, Acta Dermato-Venereologica, www.medicaljournals.se/acta/. This report highlights selected aspects of the congress and the latest advances in the field. PMID:24924756

  20. 4-(3-Fluoro­phen­yl)-1-(propan-2-yl­idene)thio­semicarbazone

    PubMed Central

    Miroslaw, Barbara; Szulczyk, Daniel; Koziol, Anna E.; Struga, Marta

    2011-01-01

    The title compound, C10H12FN3S, crystallizes in the same space group (P21/c) as two polymorphic forms of 4-phenyl-1-(propan-2-yl­idene)thio­semicarbazone [Jian et al. (2005). Acta Cryst. E61, o653–o654; Venkatraman et al. (2005). Acta Cryst. E61, o3914–o3916]. The arrangement of mol­ecules relative to the twofold screw axes is similar to that in the crystal structure of the lower density polymorph. In the solid state, the mol­ecular conformation is stabilized by an intra­molecular N—H⋯N hydrogen bond. The mol­ecules form centrosymmetric R 2 2(8) dimers in the crystal through pairs of N—H⋯S hydrogen bonds. PMID:22220027

  1. Chinese duo fired for scientific fraud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiao, Li

    2010-02-01

    A major case of academic fraud in China has led to calls for the country to adopt a new system of academic evaluation that steers away from heavily supporting scientists who publish the most papers. The calls have been made after some 70 papers published by Chinese scientists in Acta Crystallographica Section E were retracted from the journal late last year. The authors acknowledged that their analysis had been fabricated.

  2. Measurement of radon gas on major faults in California, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zhang, W.; King, C.-Y.

    1994-01-01

    Abundant data have been gathered through measurements of radon gas emission in the soil on several major active faults, such as San Andreas and Calaveras, in California, U.S.A.. They show radon emissions and their spatial variations at the unlocked, locked, and creeping sections of faults with different tectonic movements. The characteristics of these variations and the role of fault gases in the research on earthquake prediction are discussed in this paper. ?? 1994 Acta Seismologica Sinica.

  3. Congenital Heart Defects Are Rarely Caused by Mutations in Cardiac and Smooth Muscle Actin Genes

    PubMed Central

    Khodyuchenko, Tatiana; Zlotina, Anna; Pervunina, Tatiana; Zverev, Dmitry; Malashicheva, Anna; Kostareva, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Background. Congenital heart defects (CHDs) often have genetic background due to missense mutations in cardiomyocyte-specific genes. For example, cardiac actin was shown to be involved in pathogenesis of cardiac septum defects and smooth muscle actin in pathogenesis of aortic aneurysm in combination with patent ductus arteriosus (PDA). In the present study, we further searched for mutations in human α-cardiac actin (ACTC1) and smooth muscle α-actin (ACTA2) genes as a possible cause of atrial septum defect type II (ASDII) and PDA. Findings. Total genomic DNA was extracted from peripheral blood of 86 individuals with ASDs and 100 individuals with PDA. Coding exons and flanking intron regions of ACTC1 (NM_005159.4) and ACTA2 (NM_001613) were amplified by PCR with specific primers designed according to the corresponding gene reference sequences. PCR fragments were directly sequenced and analyzed. Sequence analysis of ACTC1 and ACTA2 did not identify any nucleotide changes that altered the coding sense of the genes. In ACTC1 gene, we were able to detect one previously described nucleotide polymorphism (rs2307493) resulting in a synonymous substitution. The frequency of this SNP was similar in the study and control group, thus excluding it from the possible disease-associated variants. Conclusions. Our results confirmed that the mutations in ACTC1 gene are rare (at least <1%) cause of ASDII. Mutations in ACTA2 gene were not detected in patients with PDA, thus being excluded from the list of frequent PDA-associated genetic defects. PMID:25861618

  4. National Registry of Genetically Triggered Thoracic Aortic Aneurysms and Cardiovascular Conditions

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-12-08

    Marfan Syndrome; Turner Syndrome; Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome; Loeys-Dietz Syndrome; FBN1, TGFBR1, TGFBR2, ACTA2 or MYH11 Genetic Mutation; Bicuspid Aortic Valve Without Known Family History; Bicuspid Aortic Valve With Family History; Bicuspid Aortic Valve With Coarctation; Familial Thoracic Aortic Aneurysm and Dissections; Shprintzen-Goldberg Syndrome; Other Aneur/Diss of Thoracic Aorta Not Due to Trauma, <50yo; Other Congenital Heart Disease

  5. What Will They Learn? A Survey of Core Requirements at Our Nation's Colleges and Universities. 2011-12

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kempson, Lauri; Bako, Tom; Markley, Eric

    2012-01-01

    What does it mean to be a college graduate? One knows about the time and ever-increasing amount of money that a diploma demands. But when it comes down to what matters--the skills and knowledge acquired--what does a college degree mean? That is the question the American Council of Trustees and Alumni (ACTA) answers in this book. Inside one will…

  6. Characterization of a Cartilage-Like Engineered Biomass Using a Self-Aggregating Suspension Culture Model: Molecular Composition Using FT-IRIS

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Minwook; Kraft, Jeffrey J.; Volk, Andrew C.; Pugarelli, Joan; Pleshko, Nancy; Dodge, George R.

    2011-01-01

    Maintenance of chondrocyte phenotype and robust expression and organization of macromolecular components with suitable cartilaginous properties is an ultimate goal in cartilage tissue engineering. We used a self-aggregating suspension culture (SASC) method to produce an engineered cartilage, “cartilage tissue analog” (CTA). With an objective of understanding the stability of phenotype of the CTA over long periods, we cultured chondrocytes up to 4 years and analyzed the matrix. Both early (eCTAs) (6 months) and aged (aCTAs) (4 years) showed type II collagen throughout with higher concentrations near the edge. Using Fourier transform-infrared imaging spectroscopy (FT-IRIS), proteoglycan/collagen ratio of eCTA was 2.8 times greater than native cartilage at 1 week, but the ratio was balanced to native level (p = 0.017) by 36 weeks. Surprisingly, aCTAs maintained the hyaline characteristics, but there was evidence of calcification within the tissue with a distinct range of intensities. Mineral/matrix ratio of those aCTA with “intensive” calcification was significantly higher (p = 0.017) than the “partial,” but when compared to native bone the ratio of “intensive” aCTAs was 2.4 times lower. In this study we utilized the imaging approach of FT-IRIS and have shown that a biomaterial formed is compositionally closely related to natural cartilage for long periods in culture. We show that this culture platform can maintain a CTA for extended periods of time (4 years) and under those conditions signs of mineralization can be found. This method of cartilage tissue engineering is a promising method to generate cartilaginous biomaterial and may have potential to be utilized in both cartilage and boney repairs. PMID:21630329

  7. Triclinic polymorph of 4-[4-(4-formyl-phen-oxy)but-oxy]benzaldehyde.

    PubMed

    Balić, Tomislav; Marković, Berislav; Balić, Ivana

    2013-01-01

    The title compound, C18H18O4, is a triclinic polymorph of the previously reported monoclinic polymorph [Han & Zhen (2005 ▶). Acta Cryst. E61, o4358-o4359]. In the crystal of the triclinic polymorph, molecules are linked by two pairs of C-H⋯O hydrogen bonds, forming a two-dimensional network parallel to (102), and enclosing loops with graph set motifs of R2(2)(8) and R2(2)(6). PMID:23476387

  8. Triclinic polymorph of 4-[4-(4-formyl­phen­oxy)but­oxy]benzaldehyde

    PubMed Central

    Balić, Tomislav; Marković, Berislav; Balić, Ivana

    2013-01-01

    The title compound, C18H18O4, is a triclinic polymorph of the previously reported monoclinic polymorph [Han & Zhen (2005 ▶). Acta Cryst. E61, o4358–o4359]. In the crystal of the triclinic polymorph, molecules are linked by two pairs of C—H⋯O hydrogen bonds, forming a two-dimensional network parallel to (102), and enclosing loops with graph set motifs of R 2 2(8) and R 2 2(6). PMID:23476387

  9. Cosmochemistry and Mineralogy of Primitive Meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buseck, Peter R.

    2003-01-01

    We have produced significant research results during the grant period. These have been reported in five papers published in Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta and Meteoritics and Planetary Science and several others are in review. We also presented 17 abstracted talks at professional meetings. The citations are given in section 2, and abstracts of the papers are provided in section 3. The full papers are available on request.

  10. Parameter-free exchange potential for excitation in the density-functional theory: Application to excitation energies within the fractional-occupation approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagy, Á.

    1990-10-01

    The density-functional theory for ensembles of fractional occupation formulated by Gross, Oliveira, and Kohn [Phys. Rev. A 37, 2821 (1988)] has been applied. The excitation energies of several atoms have been determined using a parameter-free exchange potential of Gáspár [Acta Phys. Hung. 35, 213 (1974)]. The calculated excitation energies are in good agreement with the experimental values.

  11. Thin film adhesion by nanoindentation-induced superlayers. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Gerberich, William W.; Volinsky, A.A.

    2001-06-01

    This work has analyzed the key variables of indentation tip radius, contact radius, delamination radius, residual stress and superlayer/film/interlayer properties on nanoindentation measurements of adhesion. The goal to connect practical works of adhesion for very thin films to true works of adhesion has been achieved. A review of this work titled ''Interfacial toughness measurements of thin metal films,'' which has been submitted to Acta Materialia, is included.

  12. Finite gradient elasticity and plasticity: a constitutive mechanical framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertram, Albrecht

    2015-11-01

    Following a suggestion by Forest and Sievert (Acta Mech 160:71-111, 2003), a constitutive frame for a general gradient elastoplasticity for finite deformations is established. The basic assumptions are the principle of Euclidean invariance and the isomorphy of the elastic ranges. Both the elastic and the plastic laws include the first and the second deformation gradient. The starting point is an objective expression for the stress power.

  13. A survey of recently published papers on orthopedics in the Brazilian scientific press

    PubMed Central

    Rocha-e-Silva, Mauricio; Gomes, Ariane Maris

    2012-01-01

    This paper is a review of articles published in Brazilian scientific periodicals in recent years. Its main purpose is to bring to the attention of the readership of Acta Ortopedica Brasileira original contributions to the field published in non-specialized journals. We hope that this will serve as a general scientific update for readers. The review includes works published in six ISI indexed non-orthopedic journals, following a literature search conducted in fourteen such journals. PMID:24453633

  14. MicroRNA-208b Alleviates Post-Infarction Myocardial Fibrosis in a Rat Model by Inhibiting GATA4

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Chaoyuan; Cui, Qintao; Su, Guobao; Guo, Xiaoliang; Liu, Xiaochen; Zhang, Jie

    2016-01-01

    Background Myocardial infarction affects the health of many people. Post-infarction myocardial fibrosis has attracted much attention, but details of the mechanism remain elusive. In this study, the role of microRNA-208b (miR-208b) in modulating post-infarction myocardial fibrosis and the related mechanism were investigated. Material/Methods A rat model of myocardial infarction induced by ligating the left anterior descending artery was used to analyze the expression and roles of miR-208b by overexpression with the lentivirus vector of pre-miR-208b. Myocardial function was assessed and the expression of fibrosis-related factors type I collagen (COL1) and ACTA2 (alias αSMA) was detected. Myocardial fibroblasts isolated from newborn rats were transfected with luciferase reporter vectors containing wild-type or mutant Gata4 3′ UTR to verify the relationship between Gata4 and miR-208b. We then transfected the specific small interference RNA of Gata4 to detect changes in COL1 and ACTA2. Results miR-208b was down-regulated in hearts of model rats (P<0.01). Overexpressing miR-208b improved myocardial functions, such as reducing the infarction area (P<0.05) and promoting LVEF and LVFS (P<0.01), and inhibited COL1 and ACTA2 (P<0.01). Luciferase reporter assay proved Gata4 to be the direct target of miR-208b, with the target sequence in the 3′UTR. Inhibiting GATA4 resulted in the down-regulation of COL1 and ACTA2, suggesting that the role of miR-208b was achieved via regulating GATA4. Conclusions This study demonstrates the protective function of miR-208b via GATA4 in post-infarction myocardial fibrosis, providing a potential therapeutic target for treating myocardial fibrosis. PMID:27236543

  15. Growth of Mouse Oocytes to Maturity from Premeiotic Germ Cells In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zhi-Peng; Liang, Gui-Jin; Zhang, Xi-Feng; Zhang, Guo-Liang; Chao, Hu-He; Li, Lan; Sun, Xiao-Feng; Min, Ling-Jiang; Pan, Qing-Jie; Shi, Qing-Hua; Sun, Qing-Yuan; De Felici, Massimo; Shen, Wei

    2012-01-01

    In the present study, we established an in vitro culture system suitable for generating fertilizable oocytes from premeiotic mouse female germ cells. These results were achieved after first establishing an in vitro culture system allowing immature oocytes from 12–14 day- old mice to reach meiotic maturation through culture onto preantral granulosa cell (PAGC) monolayers in the presence of Activin A (ActA). To generate mature oocytes from premeiotic germ cells, pieces of ovaries from 12.5 days post coitum (dpc) embryos were cultured in medium supplemented with ActA for 28 days and the oocytes formed within the explants were isolated and cocultured onto PAGC monolayers in the presence of ActA for 6–7 days. The oocytes were then subjected to a final meiotic maturation assay to evaluate their capability to undergo germinal vesicle break down (GVBD) and reach the metaphase II (MII) stage. We found that during the first 28 days of culture, a significant number of oocytes within the ovarian explants reached nearly full growth and formed preantral follicle-like structures with the surrounding somatic cells. GSH level and Cx37 expression in the oocytes within the explants were indicative of proper developmental conditions. Moreover, the imprinting of Igf2r and Peg3 genes in these oocytes was correctly established. Further culture onto PAGCs in the presence of ActA allowed about 16% of the oocytes to undergo GVBD, among which 17% reached the MII stage during the final 16–18 hr maturation culture. These MII oocytes showed normal spindle and chromosome assembly and a correct ERK1/2 activity. About 35% of the in vitro matured oocytes were fertilized and 53.44% of them were able to reach the 2-cell stage. Finally, around 7% of the 2-cell embryos developed to the morula/blastocyst stage. PMID:22848595

  16. Clinical, pathological, and genetic analysis of a Korean family with thoracic aortic aneurysms and dissections carrying a novel Asp26Tyr mutation.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Eun-Hyung; Choi, Seung Hyuk; Jang, Shin Yi; Suh, Yeon-Lim; Lee, Inchul; Song, Jae-Kwan; Choe, Yeon Hyeon; Kim, Jong-Won; Ki, Chang-Seok; Kim, Duk-Kyung

    2010-01-01

    Non-syndromic familial thoracic aortic aneurysms and dissections (TAADs), inherited in an autosomal dominant manner in up to 19% of patients, are genetically heterogeneous. The ACTA2 gene, which encodes the vascular smooth muscle cell (SMC)-specific isoform of alpha-actin, is known to cause TAADs and occlusive vascular diseases, including coronary artery disease and premature ischemic stroke. We have investigated a Korean family with DeBakey type I aortic dissection related to pregnancy and a strong family history of TAADs. All affected family members underwent surgical repair of the ascending aorta. Other clinical features of familial TAAD, including inguinal hernias, iris flocculi, and livedo reticularis, were not observed. Histologic studies of aortic tissues showed medial degeneration and SMC hyperplasia in the aorta, consistent with previous observations. Molecular analyses of the ACTA2 gene showed a novel heterozygous missense mutation (c.76G>T; p.Asp26Tyr). Further analysis of a female patient and members of her family revealed that two affected sisters and her asymptomatic son had the same mutation. The novel Asp26Tyr mutation resides in SM alpha-actin subdomain 1 and is linked to TAAD with hypertrophy and disarray of SMCs and severe migraine, but not to livedo reticularis or iris flocculi. This study expands the spectrum of mutations of the ACTA2 gene by identifying a novel missense mutation. This is the first report of a pathologically- and genetically-confirmed family with TAAD in Korea. PMID:20689142

  17. Mutations of the Act Promoter in Myxococcus xanthus▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Gronewold, Thomas M. A.; Kaiser, Dale

    2007-01-01

    Mutations within the −12 and −24 elements provide evidence that the act promoter is recognized by sigma-54 RNA polymerase. Deletion of the −20 base pair, which lies between the two conserved elements of sigma-54 promoters, decreased expression by 90%. In addition, mutation of a potential enhancer sequence, around −120, led to an 80% reduction in act gene expression. actB, the second gene in the act operon, encodes a sigma-54 activator protein that is proposed to be an enhancer-binding protein for the act operon. All act genes, actA to actE, are expressed together and constitute an operon, because an in-frame deletion of actB decreased expression of actA and actE to the same extent. After an initially slow phase of act operon expression, which depends on FruA, there is a rapid phase. The rapid phase is shown to be due to the activation of the operon expression by ActB, which completes a positive feedback loop. That loop appears to be nested within a larger positive loop in which ActB is activated by the C signal via ActA, and the act operon activates transcription of the csgA gene. We propose that, as cells engage in more C signaling, positive feedback raises the number of C-signal molecules per cell and drives the process of fruiting body development forward. PMID:17189369

  18. Chromite alteration processes within Vourinos ophiolite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grieco, Giovanni; Merlini, Anna

    2012-09-01

    The renewed interest in chromite ore deposits is directly related to the increase in Cr price ruled by international market trends. Chromite, an accessory mineral in peridotites, is considered to be a petrogenetic indicator because its composition reflects the degree of partial melting that the mantle experienced while producing the chromium spinel-bearing rock (Burkhard in Geochim Cosmochim Acta 57:1297-1306, 1993). However, the understanding of chromite alteration and metamorphic modification is still controversial (e.g. Evans and Frost in Geochim Cosmochim Acta 39:959-972, 1975; Burkhard in Geochim Cosmochim Acta 57:1297-1306, 1993; Oze et al. in Am J Sci 304:67-101, 2004). Metamorphic alteration leads to major changes in chromite chemistry and to the growth of secondary phases such as ferritchromite and chlorite. In this study, we investigate the Vourinos complex chromitites (from the mines of Rizo, Aetoraches, Xerolivado and Potamia) with respect to textural and chemical analyses in order to highlight the most important trend of alteration related to chromite transformation. The present study has been partially funded by the Aliakmon project in collaboration between the Public Power Corporation of Greece and Institute of Geology and Mineral Exploration of Kozani.

  19. Retraction statement: Dynamics of Cytochrome C Oxidase Activity in Acute Ischemic Stroke' by Selaković, V.M., Jovanović, M.D., Mihajlović, R.R. and Radenović, L.L.J.

    PubMed

    2016-10-01

    The above article from Acta Neurologica Scandinavica, published online on 7 April 2005 in Wiley Online Library (wileyonlinelibrary.com) and in Volume 111, pp. 329-332, has been retracted by agreement between the journal Editor in Chief, Professor Elinor Ben-Menachem, and John Wiley & Sons Ltd. The article has been retracted because a similar article had previously been published in the Jugoslovenska medicinska biohemija in 2003. The authors presumed that since the journal was no longer existing, they felt the need to re-publish their work in Acta Neuorologica Scandinavica. However, in the consideration of the Journal, this constitutes dual publication. References SelakovićVM, JovanovićMD, MihajlovićR, RadenovićLLJ. Cytochrome c oxidase in patients with acute ischaemic brain disease. Jugoslovenska medicinska biohemija. 2003;22:329-334. SelakovićVM, JovanovićMD, MihajlovićRR, RadenovićLLJ. Dynamics of cytochrome c oxidase activity in acute ischemic stroke. Acta Neurol Scand. 2005;111:329-332. PMID:27592845

  20. Determination of Structural and Vibrational Properties of 5-QUINOLINECARBOXALDEHYDE Using Experimental Ft-Ir Ft-Raman Techniques and Theoretical HF and DFT Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumru, Mustafa; Kocademir, Mustafa; Bardakci, Tayyibe

    2013-06-01

    Quinoline derivatives have been used in several pharmaceuticals. They have vital roles in regulating the functions of DNA and cancerous cells. It's necessary to determine the structures and spectroscopic properties of quinoline derivates. In this study, the FT-IR (including mid and far regions) and FT-Raman spectra of 5-quinolinecarboxaldehyde have been investigated. Hartree-Fock (HF) and density functional B3LYP calculations have also been employed with the 6-311++G(d,p) basis set for investigating the structural and spectroscopic properties of the cis and trans conformers of 5-quinolinecarboxaldehyde. Experimental and theoretical results have been compared and the results are in good agreement with each other. Keywords: 5-quinolinecarboxaldehyde; Vibrational Spectroscopy; FT-IR spectra; FT-Raman spectra; Vibrational Modes; HF; DFT [1] V. Kucuk, A. Altun, M. Kumru, Spectrochim. Acta Part A 85(2012)92-98 [2] M. Kumru, V. Kucuk, T. Bardakci, Spectrochim. Acta Part A 90(2012)28-34 [3] M. Kumru, V. Kucuk, M. Kocademir, Spectrochim. Acta Part A, 96 (2012) 242-251 We thank the Turkish Scientific and Technical Research Council (TUBITAK) for their financial support through National Postdoctoral Research Scholarship Programme and Scientific Research Fund of Fatih University under the project number P50011001 G (1457).

  1. Bidirectional reflectance spectroscopy of carbonaceous chondrites: Implications for water quantification and primary composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garenne, A.; Beck, P.; Montes-Hernandez, G.; Brissaud, O.; Schmitt, B.; Quirico, E.; Bonal, L.; Beck, C.; Howard, K. T.

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we measured bidirectional reflectance spectra (0.5-4.0 μm) of 24 CMs, five CRs, one CI, one CV, and one C2 carbonaceous chondrites. These meteorites are known to have experienced an important variability in their relative degrees of aqueous alteration degree (Rubin et al. [2007]. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 71, 2361-2382; Howard et al. [2009]. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 73, 4576-4589; Howard et al. [2011]. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 75, 2735-2751; Alexander et al. [2013]. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 123, 244-260). These measurements were performed on meteorite powders inside an environmental cell under a primary vacuum and heated at 60 °C in order to minimize adsorbed terrestrial water. This protocol allows controlling of atmospheric conditions (i.e. humidity) in order to avoid contamination by terrestrial water. We discuss various spectral metrics (e.g. reflectance, band depth, single-scattering albedo, …) in the light of recent bulk composition characterization (Howard et al. [2009]. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 73, 4576-4589; Howard et al. [2015]. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 149, 206-222; Alexander et al. [2012]. Science 337, 721; Beck et al. [2014]. Icarus 229, 263-277; Garenne et al. [2014]. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 137, 93-112). This study reveals variability of reflectance among meteorite groups. The reflectance is not correlated with carbon or hydrogen abundance neither with measured grain size distribution. We suggest that it is rather controlled by the nature of accreted components, in particular the initial matrix/chondrule proportion. Band depth, integrated band depth, mean optical path length, normalized optical path length, effective single-particle absorption thickness were calculated on the so called 3-μm band for reflectance spectra and for single scattering albedo spectra. They were compared with hydrated phase proportions from previous study on the same meteorites by thermogravimetric analyses and infrared spectroscopy in transmission. We find

  2. Long-term, large scale banking of citrus species embryos: comparisons between cryopreservation and other seed banking temperatures.

    PubMed

    Malik, S K; Chaudhury, R; Pritchard, H W

    2012-01-01

    The long-term, large scale application of embryo cryopreservation has been assessed rarely and comparisons of viability loss for partially dried material with conventional seed bank storage conditions infrequently made. Five citrus species were cryopreserved following air drying of embryos (seed minus the testa) and embryonic axes: rough lemon (Citrus jambhiri), pommelo (C. grandis), mandarin (C. reticulata), citron (C. medica) and kagzi lime (C. aurantifolia). Although drying rates to c. 10 percent moisture content (MC) were approximately 10-times faster for isolated axes compared to embryos, the optimum MCs for cryopreservation were generally similar within a species, varying from c. 10 percent (C. jambhiri) to c. 20 percent (C. medica). Nonetheless, the hydration window for cryopreservation of the axis was usually wider than for the embryo. For all species, embryo or axis survival after cryopreservation ranged from 65 to 96 percent (C. medica axes), producing normal healthy seedlings from embryos and plantlets from axes without intervening callus growth in vitro. Whilst partially dried embryos of all five species survived fully liquid nitrogen vapour storage for 120 days, viability loss was rapid at -20 degree C, 5 degree C and ambient temperature, with a maximum interpolated half-life across these temperatures of c. 80 days for C. grandis at 5 degree C. The developed cryopreservation protocols were applied routinely to cryobank 377 accessions of Citrus germplasm from field genebanks, farmer's orchards, semi-wild and wild sources. After an average of 6.3 to 8.4 years cryo-storage, between 69 and 81 percent of accessions per species retained > 70 percent of the viability after desiccation. The results provide irrevocable evidence for the importance of cryopreservation for the banking of seeds of higher plants. PMID:23250405

  3. Single Versus Multi-visit Endodontic Treatment of Teeth with Apical Periodontitis: An in vivo Study with 1-year Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Gill, GS; Bhuyan, AC; Kalita, C; Das, L; Kataki, R; Bhuyan, D

    2016-01-01

    Background: Apical periodontitis (AP) is one of the most prevalent diseases of the teeth. Treatment of AP is based on the removal of the cause, i.e., bacteria from the root canals. Achievement of adequate bacterial eradication in one appointment treatment remains a controversy. Aim: This prospective study was conducted with the objective to compare the periapical healing of teeth with AP treated in (a) single visit versus (b) two visits, either with or without Vitapex as an intracanal medicament. Subjects and Methods: Patients were selected randomly from the Department of Conservative Dentistry and Endodontics. Forty-three patients (81 teeth) met the inclusion criteria, i.e., AP (both symptomatic and asymptomatic) visible radiographically size ≥2 mm × 2 mm, not suffering from any immune-compromising disease, age between 16 and 65 years and tooth not accessed previously. Patients were randomly divided into three groups, i.e., single-visit group (Group 1), multi-visit group without any intracanal medicament (Group 2), and multi-visit group with Vitapex as interim intracanal medicament (Group 3). Comparison was done radiographically using periapical index (PAI). The primary outcome measure was the change in periapical radiolucency after 1 year assessed by PAI scores. The Mann-Whitney U-test was used to evaluate differences between groups at baseline (immediate postoperative) and at the 12-month follow-up evaluation. Change in PAI score for each group from baseline to 12-month follow-up evaluation was tested with the Wilcoxon signed rank test. The secondary outcome measures, proportion of teeth in each group that could be considered improved (decreased PAI score) or healed (PAI <2), were assessed with the Chi-square test. Results: No statistically significant difference in periapical healing was found between three groups. Conclusion: After 1-year evaluation, no difference in periapical healing was found between single-visit treatment and multi-visit treatment

  4. Prevention and management of external inflammatory resorption following trauma to teeth.

    PubMed

    Abbott, P V

    2016-03-01

    External inflammatory resorption is one of the potential consequences of trauma to the teeth. It occurs when there has been loss of cementum due to damage to the external surface of the tooth root during trauma, plus the root canal system has become infected with bacteria. It is characterized by the radiographic appearance of loss of tooth substance with a radiolucency in the adjacent periodontal ligament and bone. The loss of cementum allows the intracanal bacteria and/or their endotoxins to reach the periodontal ligament more readily and this can lead to the development of the inflammatory resorptive process. External inflammatory resorption can ultimately lead to loss of the tooth if it is not managed in a timely manner. There are some injuries that are very likely to develop this type of resorption and a preventive approach can be adopted by commencing root canal treatment immediately as part of the emergency management of such cases. In cases where the resorptive process is already established, root canal treatment can arrest the resorption and encourage hard tissue repair. The use of a corticosteroid-antibiotic intracanal medicament has been shown to be particularly useful in the prevention and management of external inflammatory resorption. Calcium hydroxide should not be used as an immediate medicament because of its inherent toxicity and irritant properties but it is valuable as a subsequent medicament to encourage hard tissue repair where required. This review outlines the external inflammatory resorptive process and the management strategies that can be employed to prevent it from occurring, and to treat it if already present. PMID:26923450

  5. Rejuvenating Hydrator: Restoring Epidermal Hyaluronic Acid Homeostasis With Instant Benefits.

    PubMed

    Narurkar, Vic A; Fabi, Sabrina G; Bucay, Vivian W; Tedaldi, Ruth; Downie, Jeanine B; Zeichner, Joshua A; Butterwick, Kimberly; Taub, Amy; Kadoya, Kuniko; Makino, Elizabeth T; Mehta, Rahul C; Vega, Virginia L

    2016-01-01

    Skin aging is a combination of multifactorial mechanisms that are not fully understood. Intrinsic and extrinsic factors modulate skin aging, activating distinctive processes that share similar molecular pathways. One of the main characteristics of youthful skin is its large capacity to retain water, and this decreases significantly as we age. A key molecule involved in maintaining skin hydration is hyaluronic acid (HA). Concentration of HA in the skin is determined by the complex balance between its synthesis, deposition, association with cellular structures, and degradation. HA bio-equivalency and bio-compatibility have been fundamental in keeping this macromolecule as the favorite of the skincare industry for decades. Scientific evidence now shows that topically applied HA is unable to penetrate the skin and is rapidly degraded on the skin surface. SkinMedica's HA5 Rejuvenating Hydrator (SkinMedica Inc., an Allergan company, Irvine, CA) promotes restoration of endogenous epidermal HA homeostasis and provides instant smoothing and hydration of the skin. These dual benefits are accomplished through the combination of 2 breakthrough technologies: 1) a unique blend of actives powered by SkinMedica proprietary flower-derived stem cell extract that restores the endogenous production of HA; and 2) a proprietary mix of 5 HA forms that plump the skin, decreasing the appearance of fine lines/wrinkles. Pre-clinical studies demonstrated that HA5 induces expression of key epidermal differentiation and barrier markers as well as epidermal HA synthases. A decrease expression of hyaluronidases was also observed upon HA5 application. Initial clinical studies showed that within 15 minutes of application, HA5 instantly improves the appearance of fine lines/wrinkles and skin hydration. Subjects that continue using HA5 (for 8 weeks) demonstrated significant improvements in fine lines/wrinkles, tactile roughness, and skin hydration. In summary, the blend of these 2 key technologies

  6. The Methodus medendi innovation in Giorgio Baglivi's work.

    PubMed

    Vidal, M

    2000-01-01

    The need to overcome the critical situation in the medical art of his time and to establish a unifying foundation for medicine urged Giorgio Baglivi to write his De praxi medica. His innovative methodus medendi was achieved by reinstating Hippocrates and adopting Francis Bacon's scientific method. A comparison with T. Sydenham's work evidences further aspects of Baglivi's complex method, in which skepticism towards theoretical medicine is overcome and mechanist theories are embraced. In his solidistic work of physiopathology, De fibra motrice et morbosa, Baglivi goes deeper into the matter, applying to medical knowledge the new scientific concepts of Galilei, Bellini, Borelli, Torricelli, Mayow and Boyle. PMID:11624711

  7. Routine patch testing with paraben esters.

    PubMed

    Menné, T; Hjorth, N

    1988-09-01

    Paraben esters are the most widely used preservatives in cosmetics and topical medicaments. Their sensitization potential is low, based on both experimental and human experience. A paraben mixture is included in the ICDRG standard series, and in patch test studies, approximately 1% of eczema patients react to it. The present study confirms this frequency in 8020 patients patch tested consecutively. Testing with the individual paraben esters was employed as confirmation, which makes it unlikely that the excited skin syndrome is a significant problem in this context. It remains undetermined whether the present paraben mixture is the optimal patch test material for diagnosing paraben sensitivity. PMID:3191679

  8. The spider family Filistatidae (Araneae) in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Marusik, Yuri M.; Zamani, Alireza

    2015-01-01

    Abstract All species of Filistatidae occurring in Iran are surveyed. Zaitunia akhanii sp. n. is described on the basis of female specimens collected in Tehran province, and the previously unknown male of Sahastata sinuspersica Marusik, Zamani & Mirshamsi, 2014 is described for the first time. Also, the endogynes of the holotypes of Zaitunia alexandri Brignoli, 1982, Zaitunia medica Brignoli, 1982 and Zaitunia persica Brignoli, 1982 are illustrated. Including these results, the number of Iranian species of Filistatidae is increased to seven, which indicates the highest species-richness of this family in the Western Palaearctic. PMID:26312024

  9. A snapshot of the electronic transmission and processing of prescriptions project in the Iranian Social Security Organization.

    PubMed

    Moghaddam, Ramin; Badredine, Hala

    2006-01-01

    Iranian Social Security Organization (ISSO) is going to enable the sharing of health related information in a secure environment by means of reliable data in the right time to improve health of insured people throughout the country. There are around 7000 pharmacy throughout the country that ISSO contracted with them in order to deliver seamless services to 30 million insured people. The management of the huge amount of prescriptions based on a scientific basis with considering the financial issues of rising the cost of medicaments certainly needs a sophisticated business process re-engineering using ICT; the work that is going to be completed in the ISSO in next few months. PMID:17238655

  10. [De Bra and Wier on varen].

    PubMed

    Cobben, J J

    1995-01-01

    In part XIII of the Opuscula Selecta Neerlandicorum de Arte Medica (1935) a letter is reproduced about varen by Hendrik de Bra to Pieter van Foreest. This disease has been described by John Wier in his Artzney Buch. In this article it will be shown that de Bra's letter is a plagiarism of the most important parts of the essay of Wier. Close reading of both texts offers an occasion to pay attention ot the strange worm disease varen. In additiion two cases of the illness, described by Wier, are restated. PMID:11640493

  11. Experimental studies on the inhibition effects of 1000 Chinese medicinal herbs on the surface antigen of hepatitis B virus.

    PubMed

    Zheng, M; Zheng, Y

    1992-09-01

    The reverse passive hemagglutination inhibition test was used in the screening of 1000 Chinese materia medica for inhibitors of hepatitis B virus surface antigen. The herbal drugs were commercially available and the surface antigen was from sera of hepatitis B patients. 127 effective drugs were obtained from the survey of which 28 were highly inhibitory (8:1), 35 were moderately effective (4:1), and 64 mildly effective (2:1). Further experiments with varying dosages of the drug, dosages of HBsAg and duration of contact showed 10 drugs to be of optimal effect. PMID:1453758

  12. [Health foods: definitions, status, public health. Round table no. 4. XV].

    PubMed

    Basdevant, A; Cudennec, C A; Lehner, J P

    2000-01-01

    'Alicaments' ('ali' for 'aliment' = 'food' in French, and 'cament' for medicament = drug), is an inappropriate term to designate a developing domain: functional foods, in other words health claims in nutrition. It is not easy to delineate the frontier between foods and drugs; this results in some regulatory problems. The key question is the evaluation of health claims. In this report, we synthesize the discussions of a workshop bringing together specialists from the food industry and nutritionists, scientists and representatives of public health departments. PMID:11098735

  13. The eye and its diseases in Ancient Egypt.

    PubMed

    Andersen, S R

    1997-06-01

    Based on a study of mummies, skeletons, burial rites, medical instruments, medicaments, literature and objets d'art from Ancient Egypt before the Hellenistic Period, the understanding of the eye, its diseases and their treatment at that time is described. Magic spells, religious rites and medical treatments, especially with eye ointments, were probably used often complementary to one another. We must be very cautious about our conclusions in regard to the effectiveness of the treatments. Eye diseases have been depicted only exceptionally in Egyptian art, except for blindness and 'symbolic blindness'. PMID:9253993

  14. [Diagnosis and integrative evaluation on soil fertility of three Chinese medicinal materials in GAP plots].

    PubMed

    Pan, Chaomei; Huang, Haibo; Zhan, Ruoting; Xu, Honghua; Liao, Guanrong

    2002-03-01

    The fertility of soil was diagnosed and integratively evaluated by modified Nemoro Index with eight indexes, i.e. pH, organic matter, total N, P, K and available N, P, K on three national Chinese medicinal materials GAP (Good Agricultural Practice) experimental plots of Pogostemon cablin, Citrus medica and Morinda officinalis in Guangdong. The results showed that the pH, organic matter and other major nutrient contents were low and imbalance. There are lots of nutritive disturbance factors. The level of soil integrative fertility in any of the plots was poor. PMID:12583155

  15. [Calcitonin as an alternative treatment for root resorption].

    PubMed

    Pierce, A; Berg, J O; Lindskog, S

    1989-01-01

    Inflammatory root resorption is a common finding following trauma and will cause eventual destruction of the tooth root if left untreated. This study examined the effects of intrapulpal application of calcitonin, a hormone known to inhibit osteoclastic bone resorption, on experimental inflammatory root resorption induced in monkeys. Results were histologically evaluated using a morphometric technique and revealed that calcitonin was an effective medicament for the treatment of inflammatory root resorption. It was concluded that this hormone could be a useful therapeutic adjunct in difficult cases of external root resorption. PMID:2576918

  16. [Analysis of patients with acute exogenous poisoning at an intensive care unit].

    PubMed

    Thiele, R; Meier, F; Penk, I; Striehn, E

    1987-02-01

    Over a period of 2 years patients with exogenic intoxications take 16% in the total number of patients of the department for internal intensive care. The cases in question were 43.3% males and 56.7% females. The average age of the patients with 31 years was low. The mortality was 2.4%. In the first place of the exogenic intoxications were intoxications with the groups of medicaments sedatives, hypnotics, tranquilizers, analgetics and antipyretics followed by intoxications with neuroleptics, beta-receptor blockers, antidepressives, antiepileptics and glycosides. The rate of complications was greatest in the mixed intoxications. PMID:3590879

  17. [275 years of Halle's drug exporting establishment].

    PubMed

    Kaiser, W

    1984-04-01

    The forwarding of medicaments in Halle stands in the first place in the early history of the pharmaceutic industry. The enterprise established in the years 1708/1709 worked according to economic points of view seeming modern and occupied temporarily a central position in the export business of drugs. It reached its culmination point in the second half of the 18th century. In the 19th century the export business was fused with the still nowadays existing Waisenhaus druggist 's shop in Halle. PMID:6375176

  18. Recent Progress of Research on Herbal Products Used in Traditional Chinese Medicine: the Herbs belonging to The Divine Husbandman's Herbal Foundation Canon (神農本草經 Shén Nóng Běn Cǎo Jīng)

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kuo-Hsiung; Morris-Natschke, Susan; Qian, Keduo; Dong, Yizhou; Yang, Xiaoming; Zhou, Ting; Belding, Eileen; Wu, Shou-Fang; Wada, Koji; Akiyama, Toshiyuki

    2012-01-01

    This article will review selected herbal products from Chinese Materia Medica that are used in Traditional Chinese Medicine. The herbs come from the upper, middle, and lower class medicines as listed in The Divine Husbandman's Herbal Foundation Canon (神農本草經 Shén Nóng Běn Cǎo Jīng). The review will focus on the active constituents of the herbs and their bioactivities, with emphasis on the most recent progress in research for the period of 2003 to 2011. PMID:24716110

  19. [Production of cinchona in the French empire: A. Yersin and E. Perrot].

    PubMed

    Delaveau, P; Clair, G

    1995-01-01

    In the wake of the war of 1914-1918, Professor E. Perrot and Dr A. Yersin were concerned with providing various territories of the French empire with sufficient cinchona resources to fight off malaria. This aim was particularly important in case of a conflict which could impede the supply of quinine due to the quasi-monopoly held by the Netherlands with their overseas possessions in Indonesia. Beginning with documents, in particular the correspondence held by the Museum of Materia Medica at the Faculty of Pharmacy in Paris, an attempt is made to illustrate the policy carried out with difficulty by Perrot and Yersin. PMID:11640400

  20. [The historical conditions of introduction and diffusion of American ginseng in the Qing Dynasty].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Baolin

    2014-01-01

    The American ginseng (Panax quinquefolium L.), originally a native product of the United States and Canada, was introduced into China in the Qing Dynasty, and then spread and applied extensively. This was closely related to the contemporary exchange between China and foreign counties, which became the cultural background for the introduction of American ginseng; the development of pharmacology, which contributed to the commercial opportunity for its diffusion; the shortage of resources of ginseng, resulting in the urgent need for its introduction; and the publication of popular books of materia medica, which accelerated the velocity of its diffusion. PMID:24774892

  1. Natural Therapeutic Options in Endodontics - A Review

    PubMed Central

    Venkateshbabu, Nagendrababu; Anand, Suresh; Abarajithan, Mohan; Sheriff, Sultan O.; Jacob, Pulikkotil S.; Sonia, Nath

    2016-01-01

    Complete eradication of microbial biofilms and elimination of the smear layer are the key factors during endodontic treatment. Various chemical irrigants have been proposed in the literature for the same. The major setback with these chemical irrigants is that they are not bio-friendly to the dental and peri-radicular tissues. In the recent years, research to use natural products for root canal disinfection has gained importance. The aim of this article is to compile various herbal products that have been used as an irrigants and intracanal medicaments in the field of Endodontics to eradicate the biofilm and remove smear layer. PMID:27386007

  2. Management of the pulp in primary teeth--an update.

    PubMed

    Brosnan, M G; Natarajan, A K; Campbell, J M; Drummond, B K

    2014-12-01

    Management of the pulpal tissue in primary teeth is a clinical challenge facing dental practitioners on a regular basis. This article reviews the most common treatments used at the present time in the management of the pulp in deciduous teeth. It gives an overview of treatment options and the indications and contra-indications for the different treatment modalities. The evidence behind the medicaments used, their actions and success rates are discussed. Practical guidelines for choosing to retain or extract deciduous teeth and management of the primary tooth pulp with different clinical presentations are discussed. Areas of future research are highlighted. PMID:25597190

  3. Microwave assisted green synthesis of silver nanorods as catalysts for rhodamine B degradation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeyapragasam, Tharini; Kannan, R. Sayee

    2016-07-01

    Silver nanorods were prepared using aqueous extract of Citrus medica fruits under microwave irradiation for dye degradation. Green synthesized silver nanoparticles were characterized by Ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy and Scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The length of the silver nanorods ranges from 0.5 to 1.5 μm and they exhibit good catalytic activity for the reduction of rhodamine dye. The degradation of rhodamine follows the pseudo first order kinetics. The rate constants were calculated for the different concentrations of rhodamine. The possible mechanism behind the catalytic performance exhibited by silver nanorods is briefly discussed.

  4. Substance and materiality? The archaeology of Talensi medicine shrines and medicinal practices

    PubMed Central

    Insoll, Timothy

    2011-01-01

    Talensi materia medica is varied, encompassing plant, mineral, and animal substances. Healing, medicines, and medicinal practices and knowledge can be shrine-based and linked with ritual practices. This is explored utilising ethnographic data and from an archaeological perspective with reference to future possibilities for research both on Talensi medicine and, by implication, more generally through considering the archaeology of Talensi medicine preparation, use, storage, spread, and disposal. It is suggested that configuring the archaeology of medicine shrines and practices more broadly in terms of health would increase archaeological visibility and research potential. PMID:21810036

  5. The widow spider Latrodectus tredecimguttatus: source of the remedy Tarentula hispanica?

    PubMed

    Richardson-Boedler, C

    2001-01-01

    The European wolf spider, Lycosa tarentula, said to have caused the historical phenomenon of 'tarantism', is the official medicinal source of the homeopathic remedy Tarentula hispanica. Yet, scientific evidence links the spider's venomous effects with mild necrotic and minor systemic effects that contrast with the proving symptoms of Tarentula hispanica which show a cerebral and neural component. A comparative investigation by use of toxicological, clinical findings, supported by modern and antique biological texts, as well as homeopathic materia medica, traces the source of the remedy Tarentula hispanica to the Mediterranean widow spider Latrodectus tredecimguttatus, thus warranting a re-evaluation of pharmacological preparation. PMID:11212089

  6. Lavender and the Nervous System

    PubMed Central

    Koulivand, Peir Hossein; Khaleghi Ghadiri, Maryam; Gorji, Ali

    2013-01-01

    Lavender is traditionally alleged to have a variety of therapeutic and curative properties, ranging from inducing relaxation to treating parasitic infections, burns, insect bites, and spasm. There is growing evidence suggesting that lavender oil may be an effective medicament in treatment of several neurological disorders. Several animal and human investigations suggest anxiolytic, mood stabilizer, sedative, analgesic, and anticonvulsive and neuroprotective properties for lavender. These studies raised the possibility of revival of lavender therapeutic efficacy in neurological disorders. In this paper, a survey on current experimental and clinical state of knowledge about the effect of lavender on the nervous system is given. PMID:23573142

  7. Molecular simulation of receptors of physiologically active compounds for purposes of medical chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baskin, Igor I.; Palyulin, Vladimir A.; Zefirov, Nikolai S.

    2009-06-01

    The general strategy of the molecular simulation of biological receptors and their interaction with ligands is considered. The procedures for construction of 3D protein models, molecular docking, evaluation of model quality, determination of the free energy of protein binding with ligands are discussed. The methods of molecular design of new medicaments based on molecular models of biological targets: virtual screening and de novo design, are presented. Examples of the above-listed approaches for the simulation of a number of pharmacologically significant receptors, analysis of receptor-ligand interactions and design of new biologically active organic compounds are given.

  8. Natural Therapeutic Options in Endodontics - A Review.

    PubMed

    Venkateshbabu, Nagendrababu; Anand, Suresh; Abarajithan, Mohan; Sheriff, Sultan O; Jacob, Pulikkotil S; Sonia, Nath

    2016-01-01

    Complete eradication of microbial biofilms and elimination of the smear layer are the key factors during endodontic treatment. Various chemical irrigants have been proposed in the literature for the same. The major setback with these chemical irrigants is that they are not bio-friendly to the dental and peri-radicular tissues. In the recent years, research to use natural products for root canal disinfection has gained importance. The aim of this article is to compile various herbal products that have been used as an irrigants and intracanal medicaments in the field of Endodontics to eradicate the biofilm and remove smear layer. PMID:27386007

  9. Importance and globalization status of good manufacturing practice (GMP) requirements for pharmaceutical excipients

    PubMed Central

    Abdellah, Abubaker; Noordin, Mohamed Ibrahim; Wan Ismail, Wan Azman

    2013-01-01

    Pharmaceutical excipients are no longer inert materials but it is effective and able to improve the characteristics of the products’ quality, stability, functionality, safety, solubility and acceptance of patients. It can interact with the active ingredients and alter the medicament characteristics. The globalization of medicines’ supply enhances the importance of globalized good manufacturing practice (GMP) requirements for pharmaceutical excipients. This review was intended to assess the globalization status of good manufacturing practice (GMP) requirements for pharmaceutical excipients. The review outcomes demonstrate that there is a lack of accurately defined methods to evaluate and measure excipients’ safety. Furthermore good manufacturing practice requirements for excipients are not effectively globalized. PMID:25685037

  10. Medicinal plants in therapy*

    PubMed Central

    Farnsworth, Norman R.; Akerele, Olayiwola; Bingel, Audrey S.; Soejarto, Djaja D.; Guo, Zhengang

    1985-01-01

    One of the prerequisites for the success of primary health care is the availability and use of suitable drugs. Plants have always been a common source of medicaments, either in the form of traditional preparations or as pure active principles. It is thus reasonable for decision-makers to identify locally available plants or plant extracts that could usefully be added to the national list of drugs, or that could even replace some pharmaceutical preparations that need to be purchased and imported. This update article presents a list of plant-derived drugs, with the names of the plant sources, and their actions or uses in therapy. PMID:3879679

  11. Substance and materiality? The archaeology of Talensi medicine shrines and medicinal practices.

    PubMed

    Insoll, Timothy

    2011-08-01

    Talensi materia medica is varied, encompassing plant, mineral, and animal substances. Healing, medicines, and medicinal practices and knowledge can be shrine-based and linked with ritual practices. This is explored utilising ethnographic data and from an archaeological perspective with reference to future possibilities for research both on Talensi medicine and, by implication, more generally through considering the archaeology of Talensi medicine preparation, use, storage, spread, and disposal. It is suggested that configuring the archaeology of medicine shrines and practices more broadly in terms of health would increase archaeological visibility and research potential. PMID:21810036

  12. [Delayed healings of the epithelium of the cornea due to soft lenssolutions].

    PubMed

    Ehrich, W; Könsgen, R

    1975-01-01

    Six different soft lens solution have been tested to investigate their effect on the healing process of a corneal erosion, experimentally scratched in rabbit-cornea. Healing delays have been observed in every cases; also by three medicaments which are used for "dry" eyes. The latter ones should never have a conjunctival application. Theexplanation of those healing delays is given by the concentration properties of HEMA-lenses for disinfectants. The admixtures of soft lens solutions like buffers and liquid polymerscause and additive effect on retardment of coeneal regeneration. PMID:239607

  13. Data Foundry: Data Warehousing and Integration for Scientific Data Management

    SciTech Connect

    Musick, R.; Critchlow, T.; Ganesh, M.; Fidelis, Z.; Zemla, A.; Slezak, T.

    2000-02-29

    Data warehousing is an approach for managing data from multiple sources by representing them with a single, coherent point of view. Commercial data warehousing products have been produced by companies such as RebBrick, IBM, Brio, Andyne, Ardent, NCR, Information Advantage, Informatica, and others. Other companies have chosen to develop their own in-house data warehousing solution using relational databases, such as those sold by Oracle, IBM, Informix and Sybase. The typical approaches include federated systems, and mediated data warehouses, each of which, to some extent, makes use of a series of source-specific wrapper and mediator layers to integrate the data into a consistent format which is then presented to users as a single virtual data store. These approaches are successful when applied to traditional business data because the data format used by the individual data sources tends to be rather static. Therefore, once a data source has been integrated into a data warehouse, there is relatively little work required to maintain that connection. However, that is not the case for all data sources. Data sources from scientific domains tend to regularly change their data model, format and interface. This is problematic because each change requires the warehouse administrator to update the wrapper, mediator, and warehouse interfaces to properly read, interpret, and represent the modified data source. Furthermore, the data that scientists require to carry out research is continuously changing as their understanding of a research question develops, or as their research objectives evolve. The difficulty and cost of these updates effectively limits the number of sources that can be integrated into a single data warehouse, or makes an approach based on warehousing too expensive to consider.

  14. Toxicity of Calcium Hydroxide Nanoparticles on Murine Fibroblast Cell Line

    PubMed Central

    Dianat, Omid; Azadnia, Sina; Mozayeni, Mohammad Ali

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: One of the major contributing factors, which may cause failure of endodontic treatment, is the presence of residual microorganisms in the root canal system. For years, most dentists have been using calcium hydroxide (CH) as the intracanal medicament between treatment sessions to eliminate remnant microorganisms. Reducing the size of CH particles into nanoparticles enhances the penetration of this medicament into dentinal tubules and increases their antimicrobial efficacy. This in vitro study aimed to compare the cytotoxicity of CH nanoparticles and conventional CH on fibroblast cell line using the Mosmann’s Tetrazolium Toxicity (MTT) assay. Methods and Materials: This study was conducted on L929 murine fibroblast cell line by cell culture and evaluation of the direct effect of materials on the cultured cells. Materials were evaluated in two groups of 10 samples each at 24, 48 and 72 h. At each time point, 10 samples along with 5 positive and 5 negative controls were evaluated. The samples were transferred into tubes and exposed to fibroblast cells. The viability of cells was then evaluated. The Two-way ANOVA was used for statistical analysis and the level of significance was set at 0.05. Results: Cytotoxicity of both materials decreased over time and for conventional CH was lower than that of nanoparticles. However, this difference was not statistically significant (P>0.05). Conclusion: The cytotoxicity of CH nanoparticles was similar to that of conventional CH. PMID:25598810

  15. Comparison of Antifungal Activity of 2% Chlorhexidine, Calcium Hydroxide, and Nanosilver gels against Candida Albicans

    PubMed Central

    Mozayeni, Mohammad Ali; Hadian, Ali; Bakhshaei, Pedram; Dianat, Omid

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Residual microorganisms in the root canal system (RCS) after endodontic therapy such as Candida albicans are a major cause of endodontic failure. Calcium hydroxide (CH) and chlorhexidine (CHX) have suitable antimicrobial activity against bacteria and can be used as intracanal medicaments. Nanosilver has also shown antimicrobial activity against microorganisms. This study aimed to compare the antifungal effect of calcium hydroxide, 2% chlorhexidine and nanosilver gels on Candida albicans. Materials and Methods: Eighty-one single-rooted teeth were selected. After root canal preparation, the teeth were contaminated. After culture, the teeth were randomly divided into 4 groups. In experimental groups, 24 teeth were selected and completely filled with CH, 2% CHX and nanosilver gels in each group. Nine teeth were selected in the control group and filled with saline solution. After 1, 3, and 7 days, samples were obtained by #30 sterile paper points, and #2 and #4 Gates Glidden drills and cultured on solid Sabouraud agar. Results: The results demonstrated that CH and 2% CHX had equal antifungal effects on samples taken by paper point and #2 Gates Glidden drill at all time points. Both CH and 2% CHX were more effective than nanosilver at all time periods. There was no statistically significant difference between medicaments in samples taken by #4 Gates Glidden drill. Conclusion: CH and 2% CHX gels have significantly higher antifungal activity than nanosilver gel. Also, CH and 2% CHX gels are equally effective against Candida albicans. PMID:26056520

  16. Postoperative pain following the use of two different intracanal medications.

    PubMed

    Gama, Tulio G V; de Oliveira, Julio C Machado; Abad, Ernani C; Rôças, Isabela N; Siqueira, José F

    2008-12-01

    This study evaluated the incidence of postoperative pain after intracanal dressings with either 0.12% chlorhexidine digluconate gel (CHX) or a calcium hydroxide/camphorated paramonochlorophenol/glycerin paste (CH/CPMC). Overall, 138 asymptomatic teeth had their canals instrumented under irrigation with 2.5% NaOCl and then dressed with either CH/CPMC or CHX. The incidence of different intensity levels of postoperative pain was registered for the period between appointments. Data revealed that 84% of the total number of cases treated with either medicament showed absence of any level of pain. No case medicated with CH/CPMC and four cases (5.8%) medicated with CHX were categorized as flare-ups. There were no statistically significant differences between all possible comparisons involving the two medicaments in treatment/retreatment cases and teeth with/without apical periodontitis lesions. The low incidence of postoperative pain after the use of both medications, coupled to their antimicrobial effectiveness, gives support to using one or the other in routine treatment/retreatment. PMID:18401602

  17. Antibacterial efficacy and drug-induced tooth discolouration of antibiotic combinations for endodontic regenerative procedures.

    PubMed

    Mandras, N; Roana, J; Allizond, V; Pasqualini, D; Crosasso, P; Burlando, M; Banche, G; Denisova, T; Berutti, E; Cuffini, A M

    2013-01-01

    Elimination of microbial contamination from the root canal system is a precondition for successful root canal treatment. Teeth with immature root development, necrotic pulps and apical periodontitis present multiple challenges for successful treatment. Disinfection is achieved by irrigation followed by the placement of an intracanal medicament. A mixture of ciprofloxacin, metronidazole and minocycline (3-MIX S) has been shown to be very effective in eliminating endodontic pathogens in vitro and in vivo. Among the components of the mixture, minocycline can induce tooth discolouration after long-term oral use. Therefore, the elimination of minocycline from the above-mentioned combination has been suggested to prevent the occasion of this undesirable effect. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential antimicrobial efficacy of alternative antibiotic combinations [3-MIX C (clarithromycin); 3-MIX F (fosfomycin)] against bacteria from infected root canals. An additional objective was to evaluate their discolouration potential as possible alternatives to minocycline-based intracanal medicaments. Our in vitro results clearly demonstrated that 3-MIX C and 3-MIX F had a greater antimicrobial activity than 3-MIX S, underlying that clarithromycin still had a higher capacity to kill endodontic pathogens in vitro compared to fosfomycin. Both 3-MIX C and 3-MIX F were able to avoid the permanent staining effect of the crown. PMID:23755774

  18. Poisoning due to Chinese proprietary medicines.

    PubMed

    Chan, T Y; Lee, K K; Chan, A Y; Critchley, J A

    1995-05-01

    1. To determine the toxic potentials of those Chinese proprietary medicines (CPM) which are commonly used for self-poisoning by adults in Hong Kong, all patients admitted to four of the eight general medical wards at the Prince of Wales Hospital between January 1988 and December 1993 were retrospectively studied. 2. There were 54 women and 17 men with their age ranging from 15 to 86 years. Twenty-three subjects (32%) also took alcohol, chemicals or drugs. Of the 51 subjects (72%) who had taken topical medicaments, 22 had no symptoms while 28 had minor features of gastrointestinal irritation (n = 26), mild (n = 2) or severe (n = 1) salicylate poisoning. Of the 17 subjects (24%) who had taken CPM tablets/capsules, nine had mild symptoms including nausea/vomiting and drowsiness. The three remaining patients (4%) who had ingested liquid CPM preparations were asymptomatic. Elevated plasma salicylate or paracetamol concentrations (> 0.1 mmol l-1) were found in some patients who had taken topical medicaments and CPM tablets/capsules, respectively. All the 71 patients completely recovered. 3. Most of the CPM used for self-poisoning in Hong Kong were of low to moderate toxicity except for those containing wintergreen oil (methyl salicylate). PMID:7612306

  19. Phytochemical and pharmacological aspects of Descurainia sophia Webb ex Prantl: modern and traditional applications.

    PubMed

    Nimrouzi, Majid; Zarshenas, Mohammad Mahdi

    2016-01-01

    Seed of Descurainia sophia Webb ex Prantl has been traditionally prescribed as treatment for palpitation, varicose vein, varicocele, constipation, hemorrhoid, skin eruptions, and impotence. To outline a view for further approaches, current work compiled a survey on all relevant clinical properties of this medicament in addition to the traditional reports. To do this, databases as PubMed, Scopus, EMBASE, IranMedex and Science information databases (SID) were searched by keywords, i.e., "Descurainia sophia", "Khaksheer", and "Flixweed" as well as "pharmacology" and "phytochemistry". According to the findings, scant experimental evaluation and clinical assessment have been performed on this medicament. Of those, only anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and antipyretic effects as well as antioxidant and anthelmintic activities were assessed and confirmed in experimental studies. Despite broad administration of this herb in folk and traditional medicine, only two human clinical trials in bowel discomfort and pregnant subjects were conducted. Taken as a whole, more comprehensive clinical evaluations should be conducted on respective applications to support those traditional and folk uses. PMID:27462549

  20. [Textual research for Tibetan medicine Qumazi].

    PubMed

    Luo, Wu-zheng; Li, Qi-en; Chen, Jing; Dor, Jerenchen; Tao, Si-yu; Shi Jin-bo; Xu, Ying-zhou; Yan, Xing-li

    2015-05-01

    Qumazi is a commonly used Tibetan medicine. With a long history, it can be found in the Four Medical Tantras written by gYu-thog rNying-ma Yon-tan mGon-po since the 8th century AD. Qumazi grows in mudflats and fields, including species growing in highlands, lowlands, mountains and farmlands. According to records in Crystal Beads Materia Medica, it features green sword-shaped leaves, thin stems with red veins, inserted panicles, white chicken-like flowers and copper needle row-like roots. However, there are many inconsistent morphological descriptions for Qumazi plants in many Chinese versions of Tibetan medicine books. In this article, after studying ancient and modern Tibetan medicine books, consulting experts and conducting surveys, the authors confirmed that Qumazi belongs to Rheum of Polygonaceae, including Rheum nobile Hook. f. et. Thoms, R. globulosum Gage, R. alexandrae Hook. f. et. Thoms, R. pumilum Maxim and R. delavayi Franch. In some regions, Qumazi is substituted by R. spiciforme Royle and R. przewalskyi Losinsk. After the Chinese version of Qinghai-Tibet Plateau Drug Illustrations was published in 1972, Qumazi has been miswritten as P. sibiricum Laxm in many Chinese versions of Tibetan medicine books, perhaps because P. sibiricum Laxm has many similar features with Qumazi as described in Crystal Beads Materia Medica and then is mistranslated from Tibetan to Chinese versions. According to records, Qumazi can reduce edema and is mainly applied to treat the minamata disease in clinic. PMID:26390671

  1. Trehalose-Based Eye Drops Preserve Viability and Functionality of Cultured Human Corneal Epithelial Cells during Desiccation

    PubMed Central

    Hill-Bator, Aneta; Misiuk-Hojło, Marta; Marycz, Krzysztof; Grzesiak, Jakub

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the evaluation of cytoprotective ability of trehalose-based eye drops in comparison with commercially available preparations during the experimental desiccation of cultured human corneal epithelial cells. Cultured human corneal epithelial cells (hCEC) underwent incubation with 7 different, commercially available medicaments used commonly in dry eye syndrome treatment, followed by desiccation trial performed on air under the flow hood for 5, 15, 30, and 45 minutes. Cell viability was quantified by live/dead fluorescent assay, while the presence of apoptotic cells was estimated by immunofluorescent staining for active caspase 3 protein. The preservation of membrane functions was evaluated using neutral red staining, while the preservation of proper morphology and phenotype was determined by fluorescent staining for actin filaments, nuclei, and p63 protein. The trehalose-based eye drops showed the highest efficiency in prevention of cell death from desiccation; moreover, this preparation preserved the normal cellular morphology, functions of cell membrane, and proliferative activity more effectively than other tested medicaments. PMID:24995283

  2. Evaluation of formocresol, calcium hydroxide, ferric sulfate, and MTA primary molar pulpotomies

    PubMed Central

    Yildiz, Esma; Tosun, Gul

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study is to evaluate four different pulpotomy medicaments in primary molars. Materials and Methods: A total of 147 primary molars with deep caries were treated with four different pulpotomy medicaments (FC: formocresol, FS: ferric sulfate, CH: calcium hydroxide, and MTA: mineral trioxide aggregate) in this study. The criteria for tooth selection for inclusion were no clinical and radiographic evidence of pulp pathology. During 30 months of follow-up at 6-month intervals, clinical and radiographic success and failures were recorded. The differences between the groups were statistically analyzed using the Chi-square test and Kaplan-Meier analysis. Results: At 30 months, clinical success rates were 100%, 95.2%, 96.4%, and 85% in the FC, FS, MTA, and CH groups, respectively. In radiographic analysis, the MTA group had the highest (96.4%), and the CH group had the lowest success rate (85%). There were no clinical and radiographic differences between materials (P > 0.05). Conclusions: Although there were no differences between materials, only in the CH group did three teeth require extraction due to further clinical symptoms of radiographic failures during the 30-month follow-up period. None of the failed teeth in the other groups required extraction during the 30-month follow-up period. PMID:24966776

  3. Suppression of B-Raf(V600E) cancers by MAPK hyper-activation

    PubMed Central

    Eldad, Sophia; Smeir, Elia; Bar-Tana, Jacob

    2016-01-01

    B-Raf(V600E) activates MEK/MAPK signalling and acts as oncogenic driver of a variety of cancers, including melanoma, colorectal and papillary thyroid carcinoma. Specific B-Raf(V600E) kinase inhibitors (e.g., Vemurafenib) prove initial efficacy in melanoma followed shortly by acquired resistance, while failing in most other B-Raf(V600E) cancers due to primary resistance. Resistance is due to acquired mutations in the Ras/Raf/MEK/MAPK pathway and/or other oncogenic drivers that bypass B-Raf(V600E). Surprisingly, hyper-activation of MAPK by inhibiting its protein phosphatase 2A by a synthetic long-chain fatty acid analogue (MEDICA), results in oncogene-induced growth arrest and apoptosis of B-Raf(V600E) cancer cells. Growth arrest is accompanied by MAPK-mediated serine/threonine phosphorylation and suppression of a variety of oncogenic drivers that resist treatment by B-Raf(V600E) kinase inhibitors, including ErbB members, c-Met, IGFR, IRS, STAT3 and Akt. The combined activities of mutated B-Raf and MEDICA are required for generating hyper-activated MAPK, growth arrest and apoptosis, implying strict specificity for mutated B-Raf cancer cells. PMID:26959890

  4. Phytochemical and pharmacological aspects of Descurainia sophia Webb ex Prantl: modern and traditional applications

    PubMed Central

    Nimrouzi, Majid; Zarshenas, Mohammad Mahdi

    2016-01-01

    Seed of Descurainia sophia Webb ex Prantl has been traditionally prescribed as treatment for palpitation, varicose vein, varicocele, constipation, hemorrhoid, skin eruptions, and impotence. To outline a view for further approaches, current work compiled a survey on all relevant clinical properties of this medicament in addition to the traditional reports. To do this, databases as PubMed, Scopus, EMBASE, IranMedex and Science information databases (SID) were searched by keywords, i.e., “Descurainia sophia”, “Khaksheer”, and “Flixweed” as well as “pharmacology” and “phytochemistry”. According to the findings, scant experimental evaluation and clinical assessment have been performed on this medicament. Of those, only anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and antipyretic effects as well as antioxidant and anthelmintic activities were assessed and confirmed in experimental studies. Despite broad administration of this herb in folk and traditional medicine, only two human clinical trials in bowel discomfort and pregnant subjects were conducted. Taken as a whole, more comprehensive clinical evaluations should be conducted on respective applications to support those traditional and folk uses. PMID:27462549

  5. Modification of the Host Cell Lipid Metabolism Induced by Hypolipidemic Drugs Targeting the Acetyl Coenzyme A Carboxylase Impairs West Nile Virus Replication

    PubMed Central

    Merino-Ramos, Teresa; Vázquez-Calvo, Ángela; Casas, Josefina; Sobrino, Francisco; Saiz, Juan-Carlos

    2015-01-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) is a neurotropic flavivirus transmitted by the bite of mosquitoes that causes meningitis and encephalitis in humans, horses, and birds. Several studies have highlighted that flavivirus infection is highly dependent on cellular lipids for virus replication and infectious particle biogenesis. The first steps of lipid synthesis involve the carboxylation of acetyl coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA) to malonyl-CoA that is catalyzed by the acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC). This makes ACC a key enzyme of lipid synthesis that is currently being evaluated as a therapeutic target for different disorders, including cancers, obesity, diabetes, and viral infections. We have analyzed the effect of the ACC inhibitor 5-(tetradecyloxy)-2-furoic acid (TOFA) on infection by WNV. Lipidomic analysis of TOFA-treated cells confirmed that this drug reduced the cellular content of multiple lipids, including those directly implicated in the flavivirus life cycle (glycerophospholipids, sphingolipids, and cholesterol). Treatment with TOFA significantly inhibited the multiplication of WNV in a dose-dependent manner. Further analysis of the antiviral effect of this drug showed that the inhibitory effect was related to a reduction of viral replication. Furthermore, treatment with another ACC inhibitor, 3,3,14,14-tetramethylhexadecanedioic acid (MEDICA 16), also inhibited WNV infection. Interestingly, TOFA and MEDICA 16 also reduced the multiplication of Usutu virus (USUV), a WNV-related flavivirus. These results point to the ACC as a druggable cellular target suitable for antiviral development against WNV and other flaviviruses. PMID:26503654

  6. Origin and evolution of China Pharmacopoeia and its implication for traditional medicines.

    PubMed

    Hao, Yun-Fang; Jiang, Jian-Guo

    2015-01-01

    Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) has a history that can be dated back to several thousand years ago. The extant earliest medical book is Huangdi Neijing (Canon of Internal Medicine, 770 BC~221 BC), and the earliest pharmacy monograph is Shengnong Bencao Jing (Shengnong Materia Medica, AD25~AD220). The most influential pharmacy monograph is the Bencao Gangmu (Compendium of Materia Medica, AD1368~AD1644). There were also many other far-reaching influencial monographs, which become the main and the most important derived resources of modern China pharmacopoeia for TCM. In this paper, we try to introduce some representative medicine and pharmacy works of ancient China, and elaborate the origin, development and improvement process of modern China pharmacopoeia, which may have referential significance for traditional and natural drugs. China Pharmacopoeia and TCM still have to face many problems in authenticity discrimination, action mechanism, and adverse reaction, etc. The improvement of China Pharmacopoeia still has room for progress with the solutions of modern analytical methods to the problems. The start-up and development of Herbalomics project will be helpful to further improve the China Pharmacopoeia, especially Chinese patented medicine and compound prescription. PMID:25877600

  7. [Evolution of the Origin of Herba Schizonepetae].

    PubMed

    Song, X W; Li, G Y; Wang, D Q; Han, B X

    2016-05-01

    Herba Schizonepetae was firstly recorded in the Sheng nong ben caojing (Shennong's Materia Medica) with the title Jiasu. It could be sure that the original plant of Jiasu is Ocimumbasilicum L. ofLabiatae based on the record of Jiasu's name, morphology, edible property before the Song Dynasty. Beginning from the Ben cao tu jing (Illustrated Classic of Materia Medica) in the Song Dynasty, the source of this drug evolved as SchizonepetatenuisfoliaBriq. ofLabiatae, and it has been in use until now. Hence, the sources of Jiasu should be both O. basilicum L. and the co-existence of S. tenuisfolia Briq in the Qing Dynasty. It is claimed that the hometowns of those herb writers who considered the source ofOcimumbasilicum L. to be the producing areas of cultivation of the edible Ocimumbasilicum L. It was found that the source of Jiasu recorded in the Sheng nong ben cao jing should be O. basilicum L. , hence, it is suggested the title Jiasu should be recorded for the source of O. basilicum L, and the original plant of Herba Schizonepetae was Schizonepetatenuisfolia Briq. of Labiatae, and this medicine should be separately recorded. In fact, Jiasu and Herba Schizonepetae were two different kinds of medicines. PMID:27485864

  8. Success Rates of Ankaferd Blood Stopper and Ferric Sulfate as Pulpotomy Agents in Primary Molars

    PubMed Central

    Cantekin, Kenan; Gümüş, Hüsniye

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. The purpose of this study was to evaluate clinical and radiographic findings of treatments using a new hemostatic agent (Ankaferd blood stopper (ABS)), as compared to ferric sulfate (FS), when used as a pulpotomy medicament in primary teeth. Materials and Methods. The primary molars (70) were selected from 35 children aged 4 to 6 years. The teeth were randomized into two groups for pulpotomy with the ABS (n = 35) and the FS (n = 35) agents. The patients were recalled for clinical and radiographic evaluation at 3-, 6-, 9-, and 12-month intervals. Results. At the 3- and 6-month clinical and radiographic evaluations, total success rates of 100% were observed in each group. In ABS and FS groups, the clinical success rates, however, reduced to 90.9% and 93.9% at the 9-month examination and 84,8% and 90.9% at the 12-month examination, respectively. Similarly, the teeth in the ABS and FS groups had radiographic success rates of 90.9% and 93.9% at 9 months and 84.8% and 87.8% at 12 moths, respectively. Conclusion. Although the findings indicated that ABS agents may be useful agents for pulpotomy medicament, further long-term and comprehensive histological investigations of ABS treatments are necessary. PMID:27437463

  9. Comparison of Gray Mineral Trioxide Aggregate and Diluted Formocresol in Pulpotomized Primary Molars: A 6- to 24-month Observation

    PubMed Central

    Sushynski, John M.; Zealand, Cameron M.; Botero, Tatiana M.; Boynton, James R.; Majewski, Robert F.; Shelburne, Charles E.; Hu, Jan ChingChun

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this multisite, multioperator, prospective, randomized, controlled clinical trial was to evaluate 2-year outcomes of diluted formocresol (DFC) compared to gray mineral trioxide aggregate (GMTA) as pulpotomy medicaments. Methods Following the standard pulpotomy procedure, the pulp stumps of 252 primary molars in 168 healthy children were randomly covered with GMTA or DFC. Pulp chambers were filled with Intermediate Restorative Material (IRM®) and teeth were restored with stainless steel crowns. At each follow-up appointment, the clinical status of the treated tooth was assessed and radiographs were taken. A total of 694 clinical and radiographic evaluations were analyzed. Results Gender, study site, arch type, and tooth type did not influence treatment outcome. At the combined 6- to 24-month follow-up, clinical success in the DFC group was no different than for the GMTA group. Radiographically, a significantly lower success rate was found in the DFC group vs the MTA group at all time points (P<.01). Dentin bridge formation was observed at a significantly higher frequency among the GMTA group (P<.01), while internal root resorption was observed at a higher frequency in the DFC group (P<.01). Conclusion At the combined 6- to 24-month follow-up, gray mineral trioxide aggregate demonstrated significantly better radiographic outcomes vs diluted formocresol as pulpotomy medicaments. PMID:23211896

  10. Preanalytical phase--a continuous challenge for laboratory professionals.

    PubMed

    Simundic, Ana-Maria; Lippi, Giuseppe

    2012-01-01

    Preanalytical phase is the most vulnerable part of the total testing process and is considered to be among the greatest challenges to the laboratory professionals. However, preanalytical activities, management of unsuitable specimens and reporting policies are not fully standardized, nor harmonized worldwide. Several standards related to blood sampling and sample transportation and handling are available, but compliance to those guidelines is low, especially outside the laboratory and if blood sampling is done without the direct supervision of the laboratory staff. Furthermore, for some most critical procedures within the preanalytical phase, internationally accepted guidelines and recommendations as well as related quality measures are unfortunately unavailable. There is large heterogeneity in the criteria for sample rejection, the different strategies by which unacceptable samples are managed, processed and test results reported worldwide. Management of unacceptable specimens warrants therefore immediate harmonization. Alongside the challenging and long road of patient safety, preanalytical phase offers room for improvement, and Editors at Biochemia Medica Journal definitely hope to continue providing a respective mean for reporting studies on different preanalytical phase topics. With pleasure and delight we invite potential future authors to submit their articles examining the quality of various preanalytical activities to Biochemia Medica. We will keep nurturing this topic as our prominent feature and by this we hope to be able to deliver valid evidence for some future guidelines and recommendations. PMID:22838180

  11. Suppression of B-Raf(V600E) cancers by MAPK hyper-activation.

    PubMed

    Atiq, Rawan; Hertz, Rachel; Eldad, Sophia; Smeir, Elia; Bar-Tana, Jacob

    2016-04-01

    B-Raf(V600E) activates MEK/MAPK signalling and acts as oncogenic driver of a variety of cancers, including melanoma, colorectal and papillary thyroid carcinoma. Specific B-Raf(V600E) kinase inhibitors (e.g., Vemurafenib) prove initial efficacy in melanoma followed shortly by acquired resistance, while failing in most other B-Raf(V600E) cancers due to primary resistance. Resistance is due to acquired mutations in the Ras/Raf/MEK/MAPK pathway and/or other oncogenic drivers that bypass B-Raf(V600E). Surprisingly, hyper-activation of MAPK by inhibiting its protein phosphatase 2A by a synthetic long-chain fatty acid analogue (MEDICA), results in oncogene-induced growth arrest and apoptosis of B-Raf(V600E) cancer cells. Growth arrest is accompanied by MAPK-mediated serine/threonine phosphorylation and suppression of a variety of oncogenic drivers that resist treatment by B-Raf(V600E) kinase inhibitors, including ErbB members, c-Met, IGFR, IRS, STAT3 and Akt. The combined activities of mutated B-Raf and MEDICA are required for generating hyper-activated MAPK, growth arrest and apoptosis, implying strict specificity for mutated B-Raf cancer cells. PMID:26959890

  12. Use of Medicines from the Group of Benzodiazepines in the Period of 2003-2013 Year in the Republic of Macedonia

    PubMed Central

    Petrushevska, Tatjana; Velik Stefanovska, Vesna

    2015-01-01

    AIM: The aim of this study was to analyze the use of benzodiazepines in the period of 2003-2013 year in the Republic of Macedonia (MKD). METHOD: The study was cross sectional and analyzes the available data on the use of benzodiazepines in the country. This study used several sources of data: Statistical Reports of the United Nations regarding the consumption of psychotropic substances; data from the Ministry of Health associated with the use of benzodiazepines (BZD), derived from reports of Ministry of Health stakeholders; Data extracted from the database of the Ministry of Health in the electronic database “My term” and Analysis of reports of Health Insurance Fund. RESULTS: The analysis for the period 2003-2013 showed that the most consumed drug in MKD from the group of BZD is Diazepam, with 54.8 and predominantly is use of diazepam of 5 mg with 59 %. According to the Health Insurance Fund, Diazepam is second most prescribed medicaments of all medicaments with marketing authorization in MKD. CONCLUSIONS: The analysis shows that the use of BZD in MKD is particularly high. Limited number of studies was performed for this kind of drugs relating to their effects; differences in use between genders; adult population. There is need for additional focused research that will contribute to developing a full picture of the situation.

  13. In vitro effectiveness of Brazilian brown propolis against Enterococcus faecalis.

    PubMed

    Pimenta, Hévelin Couto; Violante, Ivana Maria Povoa; Musis, Carlo Ralph de; Borges, Álvaro Henrique; Aranha, Andreza Maria Fábio

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro antimicrobial activity of Brazilian brown propolis as an intracanal medication against Enterococcus faecalis. Thirty dentin discs prepared from intact freshly extracted bovine maxillary central incisors were infected with E. faecalis for 21 days. The specimens were distributed into six groups according to the medicament used as follows: G1- calcium hydroxide paste; G2- Carbowax 400 (control group); G3- 20% brown propolis paste; G4- 40% brown propolis paste; G5- 20% brown propolis paste + calcium hydroxide paste; and G6- 40% brown propolis paste + calcium hydroxide paste. The experimental pastes were placed into the canal lumen and left for 14 days. After each period, irrigation was performed with sterile saline to remove the medicament, and the canals were dried with sterile paper points. The dentin chips were removed from the canals with sequential sterile round burs at low speed and were immediately collected in separate test tubes containing BHI broth. The tubes were incubated at 37°C, and microbial growth was analyzed by spectrophotometry after 15 days. All the experimental medications significantly reduced the number of viable bacteria. The G4 and G5 pastes were more effective than the G1 paste, with 35.8%, 41%, and 21.3% antibacterial activity, respectively. Brazilian brown propolis shows antibacterial capacity against E. faecalis. PMID:25992787

  14. Dyspepsia treatment with Al compounds widely used in clinical practice — an animal model approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinheiro, T.; Canena, J.; Reis, J.; Santos, A. M.; Pinto, A. S.; Quina, M. G.; Reis, M. A.; Alves, L. C.

    1996-04-01

    The potential toxic effects of Al to organs and tissues used in drugs commonly applied in dyspepsia as therapeutic, have been studied. Brain, liver, kidney and serum samples obtained from Wistar rats treated with two commercial Al complexes were studied and compared with equivalent samples collected from healthy animals receiving a placebo. The major alterations found, connected with the persistent intake of medicaments based on Al compounds, are relative to the accumulation of Al in liver and kidney. Also, the Al levels increase in brain and serum of rats supplemented with one of the Al complexes used. In the liver and kidney samples analyzed alterations in the Cu and Zn content levels were observed. Furthermore, a tendency to the decrease of Fe content in kidney and an increase of the Mn levels in brain is observed. The elemental alterations found are probably related to the intake of the drugs tested and are dependent on the type of the Al complex administered. The results obtained suggest that the long term use of these medicaments in the clinical practice should be thought over.

  15. The Crystallography of Quasicrystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rabson, David Alan

    A century ago, E. S. Fedorov, A. Schonflies, and W. Barlow, working independently, classified the 230 distinct symmetry groups of objects repeated periodically in three-dimensional space. The 230 space groups determine the symmetries of macroscopic properties and provide crystallographers with their most important tool in deducing structure; as such, they find use in biology, organic chemistry, and virology as well as in physics, geology, and materials science. With the discovery in 1984 of quasicrystals, well-ordered but aperiodic metallic alloys with crystallographically forbidden rotational symmetries, the need arose to develop a space-group theory for these new materials. Based on the work by Rokhsar, Wright, and Mermin^1 in two dimensions, Rabson, Mermin, Rokhsar, and Wright have classified all quasicrystal and crystal three -dimensional axial space groups.^2 Our classification, proceeding in reciprocal space, is elementary, does not rely on projecting higher-dimensional crystallographic space groups, and is valid for arbitrary rotational symmetry. As an additional illustration of quasicrystallographic space groups, I derive and demonstrate algorithms that produce two-dimensional tilings of rhombi with each of the possible plane-group symmetries.^3 While the analogous task for crystallographic plane groups is trivial, the lack of translational symmetry in a quasicrystal tiling makes these constructions interesting. Since the symmetry of a quasicrystal appears more naturally in reciprocal than in direct space, it is not surprising that some of the resulting tilings seem intricate, although in fact their symmetries are quite simple. ftn^1 Acta Cryst. A44, 197-211 (1988). ^2 "The Space Groups of Axial Crystals and Quasicrystals," preprint. ^3See also Rabson, Ho, and Mermin, Acta Cryst. A44, 678 (1988) and Acta Cryst. A45, 538 (1989).

  16. Nanoscale Structure at Mineral-Fluid Interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sturchio, N. C.; Sturchio, N. C.; Fenter, P.; Cheng, L.; Park, C.; Zhang, Z.; Zhang, Z.; Nagy, K. L.; Schlegel, M. L.

    2001-12-01

    The nature of nanoparticles and their role in the natural environment is currently a subject of renewed interest. The high surface area (and surface area-to-volume ratio) of nanoparticles exerts a widespread influence on geochemical reactions and transport processes. A thorough understanding of the nanoscale world remains largely hypothetical, however, because of the challenges associated with characterizing nanoscale structures and processes. Recent insights gained from high-resolution synchrotron x-ray reflectivity measurements at the solid-fluid interfaces of macroscopic (i.e., mm-scale) mineral particles may provide relevant guidelines for expected nanoparticle surface structures. For example, at calcite-water and barite-water interfaces, undercoordinated surface cations bond with water species of variable protonation, and modest relaxations (to several hundredths of a nanometer) affect the outermost unit cells [1,2]. Undercoordinated tetrahedral ions at aluminosilicate surfaces also bond with water species, whereas interstitial or interlayer alkali or alkaline earth ions at the surface may readily exchange with hydronium or other ions; modest relaxations also affect the outermost unit cells [3,4]. Modulation of liquid water structure out to about one nanometer has been observed at the (001) cleavage surface of muscovite in deionized water, and may be present at other mineral-fluid interfaces [4]. Dissolution mechanisms at the orthoclase-water interface have been clarified by combining x-ray reflectivity and scanning force microscopy measurements [5]. Further progress in understanding nanoscale structures and processes at macroscopic mineral-water interfaces is likely to benefit nanoparticle studies. [1] Fenter et al. (2000) Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 64, 1221-1228. [2] Fenter et al. (2001) J. Phys. Chem. B 105(34), 8112-8119. [3] Fenter et al. (2000) Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 64, 3663-3673. [4] Cheng et al. (2001) Phys. Rev. Lett., (in press). [5] Teng et al

  17. Nemaline myopathy caused by mutations in the muscle alpha-skeletal-actin gene.

    PubMed

    Ilkovski, B; Cooper, S T; Nowak, K; Ryan, M M; Yang, N; Schnell, C; Durling, H J; Roddick, L G; Wilkinson, I; Kornberg, A J; Collins, K J; Wallace, G; Gunning, P; Hardeman, E C; Laing, N G; North, K N

    2001-06-01

    Nemaline myopathy (NM) is a clinically and genetically heterogeneous disorder characterized by muscle weakness and the presence of nemaline bodies (rods) in skeletal muscle. Disease-causing mutations have been reported in five genes, each encoding a protein component of the sarcomeric thin filament. Recently, we identified mutations in the muscle alpha-skeletal-actin gene (ACTA1) in a subset of patients with NM. In the present study, we evaluated a new series of 35 patients with NM. We identified five novel missense mutations in ACTA1, which suggested that mutations in muscle alpha-skeletal actin account for the disease in approximately 15% of patients with NM. The mutations appeared de novo and represent new dominant mutations. One proband subsequently had two affected children, a result consistent with autosomal dominant transmission. The seven patients exhibited marked clinical variability, ranging from severe congenital-onset weakness, with death from respiratory failure during the 1st year of life, to a mild childhood-onset myopathy, with survival into adulthood. There was marked variation in both age at onset and clinical severity in the three affected members of one family. Common pathological features included abnormal fiber type differentiation, glycogen accumulation, myofibrillar disruption, and "whorling" of actin thin filaments. The percentage of fibers with rods did not correlate with clinical severity; however, the severe, lethal phenotype was associated with both severe, generalized disorganization of sarcomeric structure and abnormal localization of sarcomeric actin. The marked variability, in clinical phenotype, among patients with different mutations in ACTA1 suggests that both the site of the mutation and the nature of the amino acid change have differential effects on thin-filament formation and protein-protein interactions. The intrafamilial variability suggests that alpha-actin genotype is not the sole determinant of phenotype. PMID:11333380

  18. Myc Potentiates Apoptosis by Stimulating Bax Activity at the Mitochondria†

    PubMed Central

    Soucie, Erinn L.; Annis, Matthew G.; Sedivy, John; Filmus, Jorge; Leber, Brian; Andrews, David W.; Penn, Linda Z.

    2001-01-01

    The ability of the c-Myc oncoprotein to potentiate apoptosis has been well documented; however, the mechanism of action remains ill defined. We have previously identified spatially distinct apoptotic pathways within the same cell that are differentially inhibited by Bcl-2 targeted to either the mitochondria (Bcl-acta) or the endoplasmic reticulum (Bcl-cb5). We show here that in Rat1 cells expressing an exogenous c-myc allele, distinct apoptotic pathways can be inhibited by Bcl-2 or Bcl-acta yet be distinguished by their sensitivity to Bcl-cb5 as either susceptible (serum withdrawal, taxol, and ceramide) or refractory (etoposide and doxorubicin). Myc expression and apoptosis were universally associated with Bcl-acta and not Bcl-cb5, suggesting that Myc acts downstream at a point common to these distinct apoptotic signaling cascades. Analysis of Rat1 c-myc null cells shows these same death stimuli induce apoptosis with characteristic features of nuclear condensation, membrane blebbing, poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase cleavage, and DNA fragmentation; however, this Myc-independent apoptosis is not inhibited by Bcl-2. During apoptosis, Bax translocation to the mitochondria occurs in the presence or absence of Myc expression. Moreover, Bax mRNA and protein expression remain unchanged in the presence or absence of Myc. However, in the absence of Myc, Bax is not activated and cytochrome c is not released into the cytoplasm. Reintroduction of Myc into the c-myc null cells restores Bax activation, cytochrome c release, and inhibition of apoptosis by Bcl-2. These results demonstrate a role for Myc in the regulation of Bax activation during apoptosis. Moreover, apoptosis that can be triggered in the absence of Myc provides evidence that signaling pathways exist which circumvent Bax activation and cytochrome c release to trigger caspase activation. Thus, Myc increases the cellular competence to die by enhancing disparate apoptotic signals at a common mitochondrial amplification

  19. An examination of the regulatory mechanism of Pxdn mutation-induced eye disorders using microarray analysis

    PubMed Central

    YANG, YANG; XING, YIQIAO; LIANG, CHAOQUN; HU, LIYA; XU, FEI; MEI, QI

    2016-01-01

    The present study aimed to identify biomarkers for peroxidasin (Pxdn) mutation-induced eye disorders and study the underlying mechanisms involved in this process. The microarray dataset GSE49704 was used, which encompasses 4 mouse samples from embryos with Pxdn mutation and 4 samples from normal tissues. After data preprocessing, the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between Pxdn mutation and normal tissues were identified using the t-test in the limma package, followed by functional enrichment analysis. The protein-protein interaction (PPI) network was constructed based on the STRING database, and the transcriptional regulatory (TR) network was established using the GeneCodis database. Subsequently, the overlapping DEGs with high degrees in two networks were identified, as well as the sub-network extracted from the TR network. In total, 121 (75 upregulated and 46 downregulated) DEGs were identified, and these DEGs play important roles in biological processes (BPs), including neuron development and differentiation. A PPI network containing 25 nodes such as actin, alpha 1, skeletal muscle (Acta1) and troponin C type 2 (fast) (Tnnc2), and a TR network including 120 nodes were built. By comparing the two networks, seven crucial genes which overlapped were identified, including cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1B (Cdkn1b), Acta1 and troponin T type 3 (Tnnt3). In the sub-network, Cdkn1b was predicted as the target of miRNAs such as mmu-miR-24 and transcription factors (TFs) including forkhead box O4 (FOXO4) and activating enhancer binding protein 4 (AP4). Thus, we suggest that seven crucial genes, including Cdkn1b, Acta1 and Tnnt3, play important roles in the progression of eye disorders such as glaucoma. We suggest that Cdkn1b exert its effects via the inhibition of proliferation and is mediated by mmu-miR-24 and targeted by the TFs FOXO4 and AP4. PMID:27121343

  20. Potential Role of Glycogen Synthase Kinase-3β in Regulation of Myocardin Activity in Human Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yi-Xia; Shi, Zhan; Singh, Pavneet; Yin, Hao; Yu, Yan-Ni; Li, Long; Walsh, Michael P; Gui, Yu; Zheng, Xi-Long

    2016-02-01

    Glycogen synthase kinase (GSK)-3β, a serine/threonine kinase with an inhibitory role in glycogen synthesis in hepatocytes and skeletal muscle, is also expressed in cardiac and smooth muscles. Inhibition of GSK-3β results in cardiac hypertrophy through reducing phosphorylation and increasing transcriptional activity of myocardin, a transcriptional co-activator for serum response factor. Myocardin plays critical roles in differentiation of smooth muscle cells (SMCs). This study, therefore, aimed to examine whether and how inhibition of GSK-3β regulates myocardin activity in human vascular SMCs. Treatment of SMCs with the GSK-3β inhibitors AR-A014418 and TWS 119 significantly reduced endogenous myocardin activity, as indicated by lower expression of myocardin target genes (and gene products), CNN1 (calponin), TAGLN1 (SM22), and ACTA2 (SM α-actin). In human SMCs overexpressing myocardin through the T-REx system, treatment with either GSK-3β inhibitor also inhibited the expression of CNN1, TAGLN1, and ACTA2. These effects of GSK-3β inhibitors were mimicked by transfection with GSK-3β siRNA. Notably, both AR-A014418 and TWS 119 decreased the serine/threonine phosphorylation of myocardin. The chromatin immunoprecipitation assay showed that AR-A014418 treatment reduced myocardin occupancy of the promoter of the myocardin target gene ACTA2. Overexpression of a dominant-negative GSK-3β mutant in myocardin-overexpressing SMCs reduced the expression of calponin, SM22, and SM α-actin. As expected, overexpression of constitutively active or wild-type GSK-3β in SMCs without myocardin overexpression increased expression of these proteins. In summary, our results indicate that inhibition of GSK-3β reduces myocardin transcriptional activity, suggesting a role for GSK-3β in myocardin transcriptional activity and smooth muscle differentiation. PMID:26129946

  1. Autocrine production of TGF-β1 promotes myofibroblastic differentiation of neonatal lung mesenchymal stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Popova, Antonia P.; Bozyk, Paul D.; Goldsmith, Adam M.; Linn, Marisa J.; Lei, Jing; Bentley, J. Kelley

    2010-01-01

    We have isolated mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) from tracheal aspirates of premature infants with respiratory distress. We examined the capacity of MSCs to differentiate into myofibroblasts, cells that participate in lung development, injury, and repair. Gene expression was measured by array, qPCR, immunoblot, and immunocytochemistry. Unstimulated MSCs expressed mRNAs encoding contractile (e.g., ACTA2, TAGLN), extracellular matrix (COL1A1 and ELN), and actin-binding (DBN1, PXN) proteins, consistent with a myofibroblast phenotype, although there was little translation into immunoreactive protein. Incubation in serum-free medium increased contractile protein (ACTA2, MYH11) gene expression. MSC-conditioned medium showed substantial levels of TGF-β1, and treatment of serum-deprived cells with a type I activin receptor-like kinase inhibitor, SB-431542, attenuated the expression of genes encoding contractile and extracellular matrix proteins. Treatment of MSCs with TGF-β1 further induced the expression of mRNAs encoding contractile (ACTA2, MYH11, TAGLN, DES) and extracellular matrix proteins (FN1, ELN, COL1A1, COL1A2), and increased the protein expression of α-smooth muscle actin, myosin heavy chain, and SM22. In contrast, human bone marrow-derived MSCs failed to undergo TGF-β1-induced myofibroblastic differentiation. Finally, primary cells from tracheal aspirates behaved in an identical manner as later passage cells. We conclude that human neonatal lung MSCs demonstrate an mRNA expression pattern characteristic of myofibroblast progenitor cells. Autocrine production of TGF-β1 further drives myofibroblastic differentiation, suggesting that, in the absence of other signals, fibrosis represents the “default program” for neonatal lung MSC gene expression. These data are consistent with the notion that MSCs play a key role in neonatal lung injury and repair. PMID:20190033

  2. Density- and wavefunction-normalized Cartesian spherical harmonics for l ≤ 20.

    PubMed

    Michael, J Robert; Volkov, Anatoliy

    2015-03-01

    The widely used pseudoatom formalism [Stewart (1976). Acta Cryst. A32, 565-574; Hansen & Coppens (1978). Acta Cryst. A34, 909-921] in experimental X-ray charge-density studies makes use of real spherical harmonics when describing the angular component of aspherical deformations of the atomic electron density in molecules and crystals. The analytical form of the density-normalized Cartesian spherical harmonic functions for up to l ≤ 7 and the corresponding normalization coefficients were reported previously by Paturle & Coppens [Acta Cryst. (1988), A44, 6-7]. It was shown that the analytical form for normalization coefficients is available primarily for l ≤ 4 [Hansen & Coppens, 1978; Paturle & Coppens, 1988; Coppens (1992). International Tables for Crystallography, Vol. B, Reciprocal space, 1st ed., edited by U. Shmueli, ch. 1.2. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers; Coppens (1997). X-ray Charge Densities and Chemical Bonding. New York: Oxford University Press]. Only in very special cases it is possible to derive an analytical representation of the normalization coefficients for 4 < l ≤ 7 (Paturle & Coppens, 1988). In most cases for l > 4 the density normalization coefficients were calculated numerically to within seven significant figures. In this study we review the literature on the density-normalized spherical harmonics, clarify the existing notations, use the Paturle-Coppens (Paturle & Coppens, 1988) method in the Wolfram Mathematica software to derive the Cartesian spherical harmonics for l ≤ 20 and determine the density normalization coefficients to 35 significant figures, and computer-generate a Fortran90 code. The article primarily targets researchers who work in the field of experimental X-ray electron density, but may be of some use to all who are interested in Cartesian spherical harmonics. PMID:25727874

  3. A monoclinic form of dendocarbin A: a borderline case of one-dimensional isostructural polymorphism.

    PubMed

    Paz, Cristian; Burgos, Viviana; Suarez, Sebastián; Baggio, Ricardo

    2015-04-01

    The title compound, dendocarbin A [systematic name: (1R,5aS,9aS,9bR)-1-hydroxy-6,6,9a-trimethyldodecahydronaphtho[1,2-c]furan-3-one], C15H22O3, is a sesquiterpene lactone isolated from Drimys winteri var chilensis. The monoclinic phase described herein displays an identical molecular structure to the orthorhombic phase that we reported previously [Paz Robles et al. (2014). Acta Cryst. C70, 1007-1010], while varying significantly in chain pitch, and can thus be considered as a borderline case of one-dimensional isostructural polymorphism. PMID:25836288

  4. Second-order Optimality Conditions for Optimal Control of the Primitive Equations of the Ocean with Periodic Inputs

    SciTech Connect

    Tachim Medjo, T.

    2011-02-15

    We investigate in this article the Pontryagin's maximum principle for control problem associated with the primitive equations (PEs) of the ocean with periodic inputs. We also derive a second-order sufficient condition for optimality. This work is closely related to Wang (SIAM J. Control Optim. 41(2):583-606, 2002) and He (Acta Math. Sci. Ser. B Engl. Ed. 26(4):729-734, 2006), in which the authors proved similar results for the three-dimensional Navier-Stokes (NS) systems.

  5. Discovery of a meta-stable Al–Sm phase with unknown stoichiometry using a genetic algorithm

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Feng; McBrearty, Ian; Ott, R T; Park, E; Mendelev, Mikhail I; Kramer, M J; Wang, Cai-Zhuang; Ho, Kai-Ming

    2014-06-01

    Unknown crystalline phases observed during the devitrification process of glassy metal alloys significantly limit our ability to understand and control phase selection in these systems driven far from equilibrium. Here, we report a new meta-stable Al5Sm phase identified by simultaneously searching Al-rich compositions of the Al-Sm system, using an efficient genetic algorithm. The excellent match between calculated and experimental X-ray diffraction patterns confirms that this new phase appeared in the crystallization of melt-spun Al90Sm10 alloys. Published by Elsevier Ltd. on behalf of Acta Materialia Inc.

  6. The Local Orthogonality Between Quantum States and Entanglement Decomposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Sunho; Wu, Junde; Zhang, Lin; Cho, Minhyung

    2016-06-01

    In the paper, we show that when a quantum state can be decomposed as a convex combination of locally orthogonal mixed states, its entanglement can be decomposed into the entanglement of these mixed states without losing them. The obtained result generalizes a corresponding one proved by Horodecki (Acta Phys. Slov. 48, 141 1998). But, for the entanglement cost it requires certain conditions for holding the decomposition, and the distillable entanglement only has a week result as inequality. Finally, we presented an example to show that the conditions of our conclusions are existence.

  7. (E)-Ethyl 3-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)prop-2-enoate: a natural polymorph extracted from Aristotelia chilensis (Maqui).

    PubMed

    Paz, Cristian; Moreno, Yanko; Becerra, José; Silva, Mario; Burgos, Viviana; Freire, Eleonora; Baggio, Ricardo

    2013-07-01

    The natural title compound, C11H12O4, extracted from the Chilean native tree Aristotelia chilensis (Maqui), is a polymorph of the synthetic E form reported by Xia, Hu & Rao [Acta Cryst. (2004), E60, o913-o914]. Both rotational conformers are identical from a metrical point of view, and only differ in the orientation of the 3,4-dihydroxyphenyl ring with respect to the rest of the molecule, which leads to completely different crystal structure arrangements and packing efficiencies. The reasons behind both reside in the different hydrogen-bonding interactions. PMID:23832039

  8. On the effective ionic radii for ammonium.

    PubMed

    Sidey, Vasyl

    2016-08-01

    A set of effective ionic radii corresponding to different coordination numbers (CNs) and compatible with the radii system by Shannon [Acta Cryst. (1976), A32, 751-767] has been derived for ammonium: 1.40 Å (CN = IV), 1.48 Å (CN = VI), 1.54 Å (CN = VIII) and 1.67 Å (CN = XII). The bond-valence parameters r0 = 2.3433 Å and B = 0.262 Å have been determined for ammonium-fluorine bonds. PMID:27484382

  9. The application of eigensymmetries of face forms to X-ray diffraction intensities of crystals twinned by `reticular merohedry'

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klapper, H.; Hahn, Th

    2012-01-01

    Crystallographic face forms {hkl} are interpreted as sets of symmetry-equivalent X-ray reflections. Extending an earlier paper on twinning by merohedry [ [Sigma] = 1, Klapper & Hahn (2010). Acta Cryst. A66, 327-346], the eigensymmetry of these forms is used to derive general relations between the diffraction intensities of overlapping twin-related reflections. The following twins by reticular merohedry are treated: [Sigma] 3 twins of rhombohedral and cubic, [Sigma] 5 twins of tetragonal and [Sigma] 7 twins of hexagonal crystals.

  10. Aortic Aneurysm: Etiopathogenesis and Clinicopathologic Correlations

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Aortic aneurysm (AA) is one of the life-threatening aortic diseases, leading to aortic rupture of any cause including atherosclerotic and non-atherosclerotic diseases. AA is diagnosed in a variable proportion of patients with dilated aorta by imaging modality. The etiopathogenesis of AA remains unclear in many aortic diseases. Furthermore, although it may be difficult to explain all phenotypes of patients even if genetic mutation could be identified in some proteins such as smooth muscle cell α-actin (ACTA2), myosin heavy chain 11 (MYH11) or SMAD3, individualized consideration of these factors in each patient is essential on the basis of clinicopathological characteristics. PMID:27375798

  11. Comparison of beetroot extracts originating from several sites using time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rabasović, M. S.; Šević, D.; Terzić, M.; Marinković, B. P.

    2012-05-01

    Beetroot (Beta vulgaris) juice contains a large number of fluorophores which can fluoresce. There is a growing interest in beetroot extracts analysis. In contrast, there is only limited information about beetroot obtained without sample preparation and/or extraction of components from the sample. In this work, we continue our previous study (Rabasović et al 2009 Acta Phys. Pol. A 116 570-2), analyzing and comparing beetroot extracts from several sites, using the time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence technique to measure the fluorescence of samples at different excitation wavelengths (340-470 nm) and for different sample dilutions.

  12. GENERAL: Efficient quantum secure communication with a publicly known key

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Chun-Yan; Li, Xi-Han; Deng, Fu-Guo; Zhou, Hong-Yu

    2008-07-01

    This paper presents a simple way for an eavesdropper to eavesdrop freely the secret message in the experimental realization of quantum communication protocol proposed by Beige et al (2002 Acta Phys. Pol. A 101 357). Moreover, it introduces an efficient quantum secure communication protocol based on a publicly known key with decoy photons and two biased bases by modifying the original protocol. The total efficiency of this new protocol is double that of the original one. With a low noise quantum channel, this protocol can be used for transmitting a secret message. At present, this protocol is good for generating a private key efficiently.

  13. The analysis of protein conformation by infrared spectroscopy: An introduction of the editor to a scientific dispute

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mäntele, Werner

    2015-03-01

    Spectrochimica Acta A is open for a vivid exchange among scientists and fosters the open discussion of published papers. This may proceed in the form of a "Comment on a published paper", submitted to our journal as a short communication. Typically, this comment will be sent to the authors of the original article to give them a chance for rebuttal in a "Reply to Comment". Both the Comment and the Reply will be published together in one issue after review by experts. In the interest of a fair discussion, both contributions will eventually have to undergo some editing before publication can be made.

  14. A Multiparty Controlled Bidirectional Quantum Secure Direct Communication and Authentication Protocol Based on EPR Pairs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Yan; Zhang, Shi-Bin; Yan, Li-Li; Sheng, Zhi-Wei

    2013-06-01

    A multiparty controlled bidirectional quantum secure direct communication and authentication protocol is proposed based on EPR pair and entanglement swapping. The legitimate identities of communicating parties are encoded to Bell states which act as a detection sequence. Secret messages are transmitted by using the classical XOR operation, which serves as a one-time-pad. No photon with secret information transmits in the quantum channel. Compared with the protocols proposed by Wang et al. [Acta Phys. Sin. 56 (2007) 673; Opt. Commun. 266 (2006) 732], the protocol in this study implements bidirectional communication and authentication, which defends most attacks including the ‘man-in-the-middle’ attack efficiently.

  15. Critical analysis and extension of the Hirshfeld atoms in molecules.

    PubMed

    Bultinck, Patrick; Van Alsenoy, Christian; Ayers, Paul W; Carbó-Dorca, Ramon

    2007-04-14

    The computational approach to the Hirshfeld [Theor. Chim. Acta 44, 129 (1977)] atom in a molecule is critically investigated, and several difficulties are highlighted. It is shown that these difficulties are mitigated by an alternative, iterative version, of the Hirshfeld partitioning procedure. The iterative scheme ensures that the Hirshfeld definition represents a mathematically proper information entropy, allows the Hirshfeld approach to be used for charged molecules, eliminates arbitrariness in the choice of the promolecule, and increases the magnitudes of the charges. The resulting "Hirshfeld-I charges" correlate well with electrostatic potential derived atomic charges. PMID:17444705

  16. Critical analysis and extension of the Hirshfeld atoms in molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bultinck, Patrick; Van Alsenoy, Christian; Ayers, Paul W.; Carbó-Dorca, Ramon

    2007-04-01

    The computational approach to the Hirshfeld [Theor. Chim. Acta 44, 129 (1977)] atom in a molecule is critically investigated, and several difficulties are highlighted. It is shown that these difficulties are mitigated by an alternative, iterative version, of the Hirshfeld partitioning procedure. The iterative scheme ensures that the Hirshfeld definition represents a mathematically proper information entropy, allows the Hirshfeld approach to be used for charged molecules, eliminates arbitrariness in the choice of the promolecule, and increases the magnitudes of the charges. The resulting "Hirshfeld-I charges" correlate well with electrostatic potential derived atomic charges.

  17. Reinvestigation of growth of urea thiosemicarbazone monohydrate crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srinivasan, Bikshandarkoil R.; Raghavaiah, Pallepogu; Nadkarni, V. S.

    2013-08-01

    The reaction of urea with thiosemicarbazide in 1:1 mole ratio in aqueous solution does not result in the formation of urea thiosemicarbazone monohydrate crystal, as reported by Hanumantharao, Kalainathan and Bhagavannarayana [Spectrochim. Acta A91 (2012) 345-351]. A reinvestigation of the reported reaction reveals that the crystal obtained is the starting material namely thiosemicarbazide, which has been unambiguously confirmed with the aid of infrared and 1H NMR spectra and single crystal X-ray structure determination. Analysis of 1H NMR spectrum reveals that thiosemicarbazide exhibits thione-thiol tautomerism in solution. In contrast, thiosemicarbazide exists as the thione tautomer in the solid state.

  18. Crystal structure of benzene-1,3,5-tri-carb-oxy-lic acid-4-pyridone (1/3).

    PubMed

    Staun, Selena L; Oliver, Allen G

    2015-11-01

    Slow co-crystallization of a solution of benzene-1,3,5-tri-carb-oxy-lic acid with a large excess of 4-hy-droxy-pyridine produces an inter-penetrating, three-dimensional, hydrogen-bonded framework consisting of three 4-pyridone and one benzene-1,3,5-tri-carb-oxy-lic acid mol-ecules, C9H6O6·3C5H5NO. This structure represents an ortho-rhom-bic polymorph of the previously reported C-centered, monoclinic structure [Campos-Gaxiola et al. (2014 ▸). Acta Cryst. E70, o453-o454]. PMID:26594492

  19. On the mathematical and geometrical structure of the determining equations for shear waves in nonlinear isotropic incompressible elastodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saccomandi, Giuseppe; Vitolo, Raffaele

    2014-08-01

    Using the theory of 1 + 1 hyperbolic systems we put in perspective the mathematical and geometrical structure of the celebrated circularly polarized waves solutions for isotropic hyperelastic materials determined by Carroll [Acta Mechanica 3, 167-181 (1967)]. We show that a natural generalization of this class of solutions yields an infinite family of linear solutions for the equations of isotropic elastodynamics. Moreover, we determine a huge class of hyperbolic partial differential equations having the same property of the shear wave system. Restricting the attention to the usual first order asymptotic approximation of the equations determining transverse waves we provide the complete integration of this system using generalized symmetries.

  20. Redetermination of tetra­kis(N,N-diethyl­dithio­carbamato)tin(IV)

    PubMed Central

    Okio, Coco K. Y. A.; Speziali, Nivaldo L.

    2009-01-01

    The crystal structure of the title compound, [Sn(C5H10NS2)4], was originally determined by Harreld & Schlemper [Acta Cryst. (1971), B27, 1964–1969] using intensity data estimated from Weissenberg films. In comparison with the previous refinement, the current redetermination reveals anisotropic displacement parameters for all non-H atoms, localization of the H atoms, and higher precision of lattice parameters and inter­atomic distances. The complex features a distorted S6 octa­hedral coordination geometry for tin and a cis disposition of the monodentate dithio­carbamate ligands. PMID:21583036

  1. Use of an alumina column in estimating total iron-binding capacity.

    PubMed

    Starr, R T

    1980-01-01

    I describe a simple, rapid technique for saturating the transferrin in serum and then removing unbound (excess) iron. This technique involves use of an easily prepared column of basic chromatographic alumina and a saturating solution of ferric chloride in citric acid. This method, when compared with the magnesium carbonate method of Ramsay (Clin. Chim. Acta 2: 221, 1957) by regression analysis and tests of precision, showed a negative bias for results by the alumina technique with respect to the magnesium carbonate method. PMID:7356553

  2. RbZnFe(PO4)2: synthesis and crystal structure

    PubMed Central

    Badri, Abdessalem; Ben Amara, Mongi

    2016-01-01

    A new iron phosphate, rubidium zinc iron(III) phosphate, RbZnFe(PO4)2, has been synthesized as single crystals by the flux method. This compound is isostructural to the previously reported KCoAl(PO4)2 [Chen et al. (1997 ▸). Acta Cryst. C53,1754–1756]. Its structure consists of a three-dimensional framework built up from corner-sharing PO4 and (Zn,Fe)O4 tetra­hedra. This mode of linkage forms channels parallel to the [100], [010] and [001] directions in which the Rb+ ions are located. PMID:27536385

  3. Reaustenitization in Fe-C steels revisited

    SciTech Connect

    Mancini, R.; Budde, C.

    1999-08-10

    A finite difference method used in order to model the reaustenitization from a ferrite/cementite mixture in Fe-C steels is presented in this paper. The numerical results obtained are compared with the exact solution of the diffusion equion that describes the process for the planar geometry. The agreement between both methods is excellent in a large range of temperatures. Incidentally, the authors consider worth noting that the second moment of mass condition used by Akbay et al. [Acta Metallurgica et Materialia 47, 1649 (1994)] does not seem to be necessary in the framework of the numerical method. Finally, they compare their results with available experimental values finding good agreement.

  4. Comment on "Density functional theory studies on molecular structure, vibrational spectra and electronic properties of cyanuric acid".

    PubMed

    Reva, Igor

    2015-12-01

    In a recently published paper [Spectrochim. Acta A: Mol. Biomol. Spect. 138 (2015) 711-722], Prabhaharan, Prabakaran, Srinivasan, and Gunasekaran presented a combined experimental and theoretical study on molecular structure, vibrational spectra and NBO analysis of cyanuric acid, and explain their findings using the tri-hydroxy tautomeric form of the compound. In reality, the compound adopts the tri-oxo tautomeric form, which is by over 100kJmol(-1) more stable comparatively to the tri-hydroxy tautomer discussed and characterized by Prabhaharan et al. PMID:26142656

  5. Infantile hypophosphatasia without bone deformities presenting with severe pyridoxine-resistant seizures.

    PubMed

    de Roo, Marieke G A; Abeling, Nico G G M; Majoie, Charles B; Bosch, Annet M; Koelman, Johannes H T M; Cobben, Jan M; Duran, Marinus; Poll-The, Bwee Tien

    2014-03-01

    An infant carrying a heterozygous c.43_46delACTA and a heterozygous c.668 G>A mutation in the ALPL gene with hypophosphatasia in the absence of bone deformities presented with therapy-resistant seizures. Pyridoxal phosphate was extremely high in CSF and plasma. Pyridoxine treatment had only a transient effect and the severe encephalopathy was fatal. Repeated brain MRIs showed progressive cerebral damage. The precise metabolic cause of the seizures remains unknown and pyridoxine treatment apparently does not cure the epilepsy. PMID:24100244

  6. Spherical nanoindentation stress-strain curves of commercially pure titanium and Ti-6Al-4V

    DOE Data Explorer

    Weaver, Jordan S. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Priddy, Matthew W. [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States); McDowell, David L. [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States); Kalidindi, Surya R. [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    2016-07-27

    Spherical nanoindentation combined with electron back-scattered diffraction was employed to characterize the grain-scale elastic and plastic anisotropy of single crystal alpha-Ti for commercially pure (CP-Ti) and alloyed (Ti-64) titanium. In addition, alpha-beta Ti (single colony) grains were characterized. The data set includes the nanoindentation force, displacement, and contact stiffness, the nanoindentation stress-strain analysis, and the alpha-Ti crystal orientations. Details of the samples and experimental protocols can be found in Weaver et al. (2016) Acta Materialia doi:10.1016/j.actamat.2016.06.053.

  7. Statistical thermodynamics of strain hardening in polycrystalline solids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langer, J. S.

    2015-09-01

    This paper starts with a systematic rederivation of the statistical thermodynamic equations of motion for dislocation-mediated plasticity proposed in 2010 by Langer, Bouchbinder, and Lookman [Acta Mat. 58, 3718 (2010), 10.1016/j.actamat.2010.03.009]. It then uses that theory to explain the anomalous rate-hardening behavior reported in 1988 by Follansbee and Kocks and to explore the relation between hardening rate and grain size reported in 1995 by Meyers et al. A central theme is the need for physics-based, nonequilibrium analyses in developing predictive theories of the strength of polycrystalline materials.

  8. Sediment transport mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ballio, Francesco; Tait, Simon

    2012-12-01

    The Editor of Acta Geophysica and the Guest Editors wish to dedicate this Topical Issue on Sediment Transport Mechanics to the memory of Stephen Coleman, who died recently. During his career, Stephen had made an outstanding scientific contribution to the topic of Sediment Transport. The level of his contribution is demonstrated in the paper by Aberle, Coleman, and Nikora included in this issue, on which he started working before becoming aware of the illness that led to his untimely death. For scholars and colleagues Stephen remains an example of intellectual honesty and scientific insight.

  9. An amino-imino resonance study of 2-amino-4-methylpyridinium nitrate and 2-amino-5-methylpyridinium nitrate.

    PubMed

    Yan, Xing-Chen; Fan, Yu-Hua; Bi, Cai-Feng; Zhang, Xia; Zhang, Zhong-Yu

    2013-01-01

    The contributions of the amino and imino resonance forms to the ground-state structures of 2-amino-4-methylpyridinium nitrate, C(6)H(9)N(2)(+)·NO(3)(-), and the previously reported 2-amino-5-methylpyridinium nitrate [Yan, Fan, Bi, Zuo & Zhang (2012). Acta Cryst. E68, o2084], were studied using a combination of IR spectroscopy, X-ray crystallography and density functional theory (DFT). The results show that the structures of 2-amino-4-methylpyridine and 2-amino-5-methylpyridine obtained upon protonation are best described as existing largely in the imino resonance forms. PMID:23282916

  10. Structural complexity and configurational entropy of crystals.

    PubMed

    Krivovichev, Sergey V

    2016-04-01

    Using a statistical approach, it is demonstrated that the complexity of a crystal structure measured as the Shannon information per atom [Krivovichev (2012). Acta Cryst. A68, 393-398] represents a negative contribution to the configurational entropy of a crystalline solid. This conclusion is in full accordance with the general agreement that information and entropy are reciprocal variables. It also agrees well with the understanding that complex structures possess lower entropies relative to their simpler counterparts. The obtained equation is consistent with the Landauer principle and points out that the information encoded in a crystal structure has a physical nature. PMID:27048729

  11. Magmas and their sources: A special issue honoring Frederick A. Frey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia, Michael O.; Rhodes, J. Michael; Huang, Shichun; Hickey-Vargas, Rosemary

    2016-07-01

    This special issue is dedicated to Frederick A. Frey (Fig. 1), a pioneer in the use of trace element geochemistry (especially the rare-earth elements, REE) to interpret the origin and evolution of basalts and andesites, peridotites, granites, meteorites, tektites and even sediments. Fred's remarkable career spans more than 5 decades starting in 1964 with his seminal paper with advisor Larry Haskin entitled "rare earths in oceanic basalts" (Frey and Haskin, 1964). Given that Fred was an Associate Editor of Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta (GCA) for 20 years, GCA is a highly appropriate venue for this collection of twenty-seven new scientific papers in his honor.

  12. RbZnFe(PO4)2: synthesis and crystal structure.

    PubMed

    Badri, Abdessalem; Ben Amara, Mongi

    2016-08-01

    A new iron phosphate, rubidium zinc iron(III) phosphate, RbZnFe(PO4)2, has been synthesized as single crystals by the flux method. This compound is isostructural to the previously reported KCoAl(PO4)2 [Chen et al. (1997 ▸). Acta Cryst. C53,1754-1756]. Its structure consists of a three-dimensional framework built up from corner-sharing PO4 and (Zn,Fe)O4 tetra-hedra. This mode of linkage forms channels parallel to the [100], [010] and [001] directions in which the Rb(+) ions are located. PMID:27536385

  13. Trimethyl-3-meth­oxy-4-oxo-5-triphenyl­phospho­ranyl­idene­cyclo­pent-1-ene-1,2,3-tricarboxyl­ate

    PubMed Central

    Krawczyk, Krzysztof K.; Wojtasiewicz, Krystyna; Maurin, Jan K.; Gronowska, Ewa; Czarnocki, Zbigniew

    2010-01-01

    The title compound, C30H27O8P (2), was formed as one of two products {(1) [Krawczyk et al. (2010 ▶). Acta Cryst. E66 (cv2752)] and (2)} in the reaction of dimethyl acetyl­enedicarboxyl­ate with triphenyl­phosphine. The mol­ecule of (2) consists of a five-membered carbocyclic ring. The P atom is a part of a triphenylphosphoranylidene substituent. In contrast to (1), the five-membered ring of (2) is planar, the r.m.s. deviation being only 0.009 (2) Å. PMID:21588989

  14. PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Events for which complete information is available are listed in chronological order. Those taking place in Italy are in bold script. Information, following the style of the present list, should be submitted to the Editorial Secretariat of Acta Otorhinolaryngologica Italica. In accordance with the Regulations of S.I.O. and Ch.C.-F. (Art. 8) Members of the Society organising Courses, Congresses or other scientific events should inform the Secretary of the Association (A.U.O.R.L., A.O.O.I.) within the deadlines set down in the respective Statutes and Regulations.

  15. Transdifferentiation of human endothelial progenitors into smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Ji, HaYeun; Atchison, Leigh; Chen, Zaozao; Chakraborty, Syandan; Jung, Youngmee; Truskey, George A; Christoforou, Nicolas; Leong, Kam W

    2016-04-01

    Access to smooth muscle cells (SMC) would create opportunities for tissue engineering, drug testing, and disease modeling. Herein we report the direct conversion of human endothelial progenitor cells (EPC) to induced smooth muscle cells (iSMC) by induced expression of MYOCD. The EPC undergo a cytoskeletal rearrangement resembling that of mesenchymal cells within 3 days post initiation of MYOCD expression. By day 7, the reprogrammed cells show upregulation of smooth muscle markers ACTA2, MYH11, and TAGLN by qRT-PCR and ACTA2 and MYH11 expression by immunofluorescence. By two weeks, they resemble umbilical artery SMC in microarray gene expression analysis. The iSMC, in contrast to EPC control, show calcium transients in response to phenylephrine stimulation and a contractility an order of magnitude higher than that of EPC as determined by traction force microscopy. Tissue-engineered blood vessels constructed using iSMC show functionality with respect to flow- and drug-mediated vasodilation and vasoconstriction. PMID:26874281

  16. Hobartine: a tetracyclic indole alkaloid extracted from Aristotelia chilensis (maqui).

    PubMed

    Paz Robles, Cristian; Badilla Vidal, Natalia; Suarez, Sebastián; Baggio, Ricardo

    2014-11-01

    The natural compound hobartine {systematic name: (1R)-3-[(1S,5S)-(4,4,8-trimethylbicyclo[3.3.1]non-7-en-2-yl)methyl]-2,3-dihydro-1H-indole}, C20H26N2, (I), is an indole alkaloid isolated from Aristotelia chilensis as part of a study of secondary metabolites from Chilean flora. The colourless compound has a tetracyclic structure closely related to the strongly coloured polymorphic structures discussed in Paz et al. [Acta Cryst. (2013), C69, 1509-1512] and Watson et al. [Acta Cryst. (1989), C45, 1322-1324]. The main differences reside in the absence of a keto group in (I) compared with the previous structures, as well as an endo double bond in (I) contrasting with the exo double bond found in the previous structures. The supramolecular structure of (I) in strongly related to the twofold screw axis, around which isolated chains build up, internally linked by an N-H···N hydrogen bond which is the only significant intermolecular interaction present in the structure. PMID:25370110

  17. Lithium isotopes as a probe of weathering processes: Orinoco River

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huh, Youngsook; Chan, Lui-Heung; Edmond, John M.

    2001-12-01

    Lithium isotopes have the potential to be effective tracers of weathering processes due to their large relative mass difference and therefore fractionation. In this study an attempt is made to fill a major gap in the knowledge of Li isotope fractionation during continental weathering and of the mechanisms involved. Finally the relationship between the suspended and dissolved material is made on a basin-wide scale. The Orinoco basin provides a clear contrast in reaction-limited and transport-limited weathering regimes that has already been documented by a comprehensive study on its fluvial geochemistry (Edmond et al., Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 60 (1996) 2949-2976; Edmond et al., Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 59 (1995) 3301-3325). Conspicuous in our new results is the difference in δ6Li of the dissolved load between the Andean (-30 to -22‰) and Shield (-22 to -7‰) tributaries, while the δ6Li of the suspended load is similar between the two. To a first approximation, during superficial weathering in high-relief, tectonically active terrains the dissolved load is high in Li and isotopically heavy (more negative δ6Li), whereas in stable Shield regions the concentrations are low and isotopically light in proportion to the increasing degree of weathering.

  18. Aspherical-atom modeling of coordination compounds by single-crystal X-ray diffraction allows the correct metal atom to be identified.

    PubMed

    Dittrich, Birger; Wandtke, Claudia M; Meents, Alke; Pröpper, Kevin; Mondal, Kartik Chandra; Samuel, Prinson P; Amin Sk, Nurul; Singh, Amit Pratap; Roesky, Herbert W; Sidhu, Navdeep

    2015-02-01

    Single-crystal X-ray diffraction (XRD) is often considered the gold standard in analytical chemistry, as it allows element identification as well as determination of atom connectivity and the solid-state structure of completely unknown samples. Element assignment is based on the number of electrons of an atom, so that a distinction of neighboring heavier elements in the periodic table by XRD is often difficult. A computationally efficient procedure for aspherical-atom least-squares refinement of conventional diffraction data of organometallic compounds is proposed. The iterative procedure is conceptually similar to Hirshfeld-atom refinement (Acta Crystallogr. Sect. A- 2008, 64, 383-393; IUCrJ. 2014, 1,61-79), but it relies on tabulated invariom scattering factors (Acta Crystallogr. Sect. B- 2013, 69, 91-104) and the Hansen/Coppens multipole model; disordered structures can be handled as well. Five linear-coordinate 3d metal complexes, for which the wrong element is found if standard independent-atom model scattering factors are relied upon, are studied, and it is shown that only aspherical-atom scattering factors allow a reliable assignment. The influence of anomalous dispersion in identifying the correct element is investigated and discussed. PMID:25393218

  19. Internalin must be on the bacterial surface to mediate entry of Listeria monocytogenes into epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Lebrun, M; Mengaud, J; Ohayon, H; Nato, F; Cossart, P

    1996-08-01

    Entry of Listeria monocytogenes into cultured epithelial cells requires production of internalin, a protein with features characteristic of some Gram-positive bacterial surface proteins, in particular an LPXTG motif preceding a hydrophobic sequence and a few basic residues at its C-terminal end. By immunofluorescence and immunogold labelling, we show that in wild-type L. monocytogenes, internalin is present on the cell surface and has a polarized distribution similar to that of ActA, another surface protein of L. monocytogenes involved in actin assembly. Through a genetic analysis, we establish that the C-terminal region of internalin is necessary for cell-surface association, and that although internalin is partially released in the culture medium, its location on the bacterial surface is required to promote entry. Finally, using a 'domain-swapping' strategy-replacement of the cell wall anchor of IniA by the membrane anchor of ActA- we show that the reduced ability to adhere and enter cells of strains expressing IniA-ActA correlates with a lower amount of surface-exposed internalin. Taken together, these results suggest that internalin exposed on the bacterial surface mediates direct contact between the bacterium and the host cell. PMID:8866480

  20. Crystal structure of a Pd4 carbonyl tri-phenyl-phosphane cluster [Pd4(CO)5(PPh3)4]·2C4H8O, comparing solvates.

    PubMed

    Robeyns, Koen; Willocq, Christopher; Tinant, Bernard; Devillers, Michel; Hermans, Sophie

    2016-02-01

    Attempts to synthesize Au-Pd heterometallic compounds from homonuclear palladium or gold complexes, [Pd(PtBu2)2] and [Au(PPh3)Cl] in a tetra-hydro-furan (THF) solution under a CO atmosphere resulted in a homonuclear Pd cluster, namely penta-kis-(μ-carbonyl-κ(2) C:C)tetra-kis-(tri-phenyl-phosphane-κP)tetrapalladium(5 Pd-Pd) tetra-hydro-furan disolvate, [Pd4(CO)5(C18H15P)4]·2C4H8O. The complex mol-ecule lies on a twofold rotation axis. The crystal structure is described in relation to the CH2Cl2 solvate previously determined by our group [Willocq et al. (2011 ▸). Inorg. Chim. Acta, 373, 233-242], and in particular to the desolvated structure [Feltham et al. (1985 ▸). Inorg. Chem. 24, 1503-1510]. It is assumed that the title compound transforms into the latter structure, upon gradual loss of solvent mol-ecules. In the title compound, the symmetry-unique THF solvent mol-ecule is linked to the complex mol-ecule by a weak C-H⋯O hydrogen bond. Contributions of disordered solvent molecules to the diffraction intensities, most likely associated with methanol, were removed with the SQUEEZE [Spek (2015). Acta Cryst. C71, 9-18] algorithm. PMID:26958368

  1. Crystal Structure of the Streptomyces coelicolor TetR-Like Protein ActR Alone and in Complex with Actinorhodin or the Actinorhodin Biosynthetic Precursor (S)-DNPA

    SciTech Connect

    Willems,A.; Tahlan, K.; Taguchi, T.; Zhang, K.; Lee, Z.; Ichinose, K.; Junop, M.; Nodwell, J.

    2008-01-01

    Actinorhodin, an antibiotic produced by Streptomyces coelicolor, is exported from the cell by the ActA efflux pump. actA is divergently transcribed from actR, which encodes a TetR-like transcriptional repressor. We showed previously that ActR represses transcription by binding to an operator from the actA/actR intergenic region. Importantly, actinorhodin itself or various actinorhodin biosynthetic intermediates can cause ActR to dissociate from its operator, leading to derepression. This suggests that ActR may mediate timely self-resistance to an endogenously produced antibiotic by responding to one of its biosynthetic precursors. Here, we report the structural basis for this precursor-mediated derepression with crystal structures of homodimeric ActR by itself and in complex with either actinorhodin or the actinorhodin biosynthetic intermediate (S)-DNPA [4-dihydro-9-hydroxy-1-methyl-10-oxo-3-H-naphtho-[2, 3-c]-pyran-3-(S)-acetic acid]. The ligand-binding tunnel in each ActR monomer has a striking hydrophilic/hydrophobic/hydrophilic arrangement of surface residues that accommodate either one hexacyclic actinorhodin molecule or two back-to-back tricyclic (S)-DNPA molecules. Moreover, our work also reveals the strongest structural evidence to date that TetR-mediated antibiotic resistance may have been acquired from an antibiotic-producer organism.

  2. Task effects, performance levels, features, configurations, and holistic face processing: a reply to Rossion.

    PubMed

    Riesenhuber, Maximilian; Wolff, Brian S

    2009-11-01

    A recent article in Acta Psychologica ("Picture-plane inversion leads to qualitative changes of face perception" by Rossion [Rossion, B. (2008). Picture-plane inversion leads to qualitative changes of face perception. Acta Psychologica (Amst), 128(2), 274-289]) criticized several aspects of an earlier paper of ours [Riesenhuber, M., Jarudi, I., Gilad, S., & Sinha, P. (2004). Face processing in humans is compatible with a simple shape-based model of vision. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B (Supplements), 271, S448-S450]. We here address Rossion's criticisms and correct some misunderstandings. To frame the discussion, we first review our previously presented computational model of face recognition in cortex [Jiang, X., Rosen, E., Zeffiro, T., Vanmeter, J., Blanz, V., & Riesenhuber, M. (2006). Evaluation of a shape-based model of human face discrimination using FMRI and behavioral techniques. Neuron, 50(1), 159-172] that provides a concrete biologically plausible computational substrate for holistic coding, namely a neural representation learned for upright faces, in the spirit of the original simple-to-complex hierarchical model of vision by Hubel and Wiesel. We show that Rossion's and others' data support the model, and that there is actually a convergence of views on the mechanisms underlying face recognition, in particular regarding holistic processing. PMID:19665104

  3. Enzyme transient state kinetics in crystal and solution from the perspective of a time-resolved crystallographer

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, Marius; Saldin, Dilano K.

    2014-01-01

    With recent technological advances at synchrotrons [Graber et al., J. Synchrotron Radiat. 18, 658–670 (2011)], it is feasible to rapidly collect time-resolved crystallographic data at multiple temperature settings [Schmidt et al., Acta Crystallogr. D 69, 2534–2542 (2013)], from which barriers of activation can be extracted. With the advent of fourth generation X-ray sources, new opportunities emerge to investigate structure and dynamics of biological macromolecules in real time [M. Schmidt, Adv. Condens. Matter Phys. 2013, 1–10] in crystals and potentially from single molecules in random orientation in solution [Poon et al., Adv. Condens. Matter Phys. 2013, 750371]. Kinetic data from time-resolved experiments on short time-scales must be interpreted in terms of chemical kinetics [Steinfeld et al., Chemical Kinetics and Dynamics, 2nd ed. (Prentience Hall, 1985)] and tied to existing time-resolved experiments on longer time-scales [Schmidt et al., Acta Crystallogr. D 69, 2534–2542 (2013); Jung et al., Nat. Chem. 5, 212–220 (2013)]. With this article, we will review and outline steps that are required to routinely determine the energetics of reactions in biomolecules in crystal and solution with newest X-ray sources. In eight sections, we aim to describe concepts and experimental details that may help to inspire new approaches to collect and interpret these data. PMID:26798774

  4. An assessment of the accuracy of isochore location techniques for H 2O-CO 2-NaCl fluids at granulite facies pressure-temperature conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Eric Lee

    1992-01-01

    Synthetic H 2O-CO 2-NaCl fluid inclusions with XCO2 compositions ranging from 0.10-0.51 and relative salinities ( r-s = wtNaCl/( wt NaCl + wt H 2O )) of 6 to 23.9 wt% have been produced in spontaneously nucleated forsterite, diopside, and orthopyroxene hosts. Molar volumes of the fluids at the pressure and temperature of formation have been calculated using microthermometric data from the fluid inclusions. These P- V- T data are used to compare the accuracy of published methods of isochore location for H 2O-CO 2-NaCl fluids at elevated pressures and temperatures. The results of these analyses show that isochores calculated with the MRK equation of BOWERS and HELGESON ( Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, vol. 47, 1247-1275, 1983) reproduce the trapping pressures and temperatures well for fluids with XCO2 ≤ 0.3 and up to 23.9 wt% NaCl. For a fluid with XCO2 = 0.49 and relative salinity of 15%, however, the agreement is poor. For these fluid compositions, the observed molar volume is larger than that predicted from the MRK equation of Bowers and Helgeson and, if not corrected, will give isochores that are too low in pressure for a given temperature. The ideal geometric mixing model of BROWN and LAMB ( Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, vol. 53, 1209-1221, 1989) provides less satisfactory results for the fluid compositions studied.

  5. Diagnosis and epidemiological association of Listeria monocytogenes strains in two outbreaks of listerial encephalitis in small ruminants.

    PubMed Central

    Wiedmann, M; Czajka, J; Bsat, N; Bodis, M; Smith, M C; Divers, T J; Batt, C A

    1994-01-01

    Two outbreaks of epizootic listerial encephalitis, one in sheep and one in goats, were investigated through pathology, microbiology, and DNA amplification-based techniques. Efforts were made to survey the diversity of Listeria monocytogenes strains in the silage consumed by affected animals and to verify the causal relationship between silage and disease outbreak. In both outbreaks, L. monocytogenes was isolated from silage and brain tissue samples. Random amplified polymorphic DNA patterns revealed two distinct L. monocytogenes strains, one of which was identical to the sheep brain isolate, in the silage associated with the outbreak in sheep. Three brain isolates and one silage isolate, all of which had different random amplified polymorphic DNA patterns, were found in the outbreak involving goats. All isolates from both outbreaks were indistinguishable in an in vitro assay for cell-to-cell spread and growth in macrophages. All brain isolates from the goat outbreak had identical intracellular ActA patterns, which were different from the pattern for the silage isolate. While the sheep brain isolate had an ActA pattern different from that of the corresponding silage isolate, the patterns for the brain isolates from the two outbreaks were not identical. This survey demonstrates the diversity of L. monocytogenes in silage and suggests the existence of one or more selective processes by which certain strains are more prone to give rise to disease. Images PMID:8027356

  6. Ultra High-Resolution In vivo Computed Tomography Imaging of Mouse Cerebrovasculature Using a Long Circulating Blood Pool Contrast Agent

    PubMed Central

    Starosolski, Zbigniew; Villamizar, Carlos A.; Rendon, David; Paldino, Michael J.; Milewicz, Dianna M.; Ghaghada, Ketan B.; Annapragada, Ananth V.

    2015-01-01

    Abnormalities in the cerebrovascular system play a central role in many neurologic diseases. The on-going expansion of rodent models of human cerebrovascular diseases and the need to use these models to understand disease progression and treatment has amplified the need for reproducible non-invasive imaging methods for high-resolution visualization of the complete cerebral vasculature. In this study, we present methods for in vivo high-resolution (19 μm isotropic) computed tomography imaging of complete mouse brain vasculature. This technique enabled 3D visualization of large cerebrovascular networks, including the Circle of Willis. Blood vessels as small as 40 μm were clearly delineated. ACTA2 mutations in humans cause cerebrovascular defects, including abnormally straightened arteries and a moyamoya-like arteriopathy characterized by bilateral narrowing of the internal carotid artery and stenosis of many large arteries. In vivo imaging studies performed in a mouse model of Acta2 mutations demonstrated the utility of this method for studying vascular morphometric changes that are practically impossible to identify using current histological methods. Specifically, the technique demonstrated changes in the width of the Circle of Willis, straightening of cerebral arteries and arterial stenoses. We believe the use of imaging methods described here will contribute substantially to the study of rodent cerebrovasculature. PMID:25985192

  7. Symmetry breaking in actin gels - Implications for cellular motility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    John, Karin; Peyla, Philippe; Misbah, Chaouqi

    2007-03-01

    The physical origin of cell motility is not fully understood. Recently minimal model systems have shown, that polymerizing actin itself can produce a motile force, without the help of motor proteins. Pathogens like Shigella or Listeria use actin to propel themselves forward in their host cell. The same process can be mimicked with polystyrene beads covered with the activating protein ActA, which reside in a solution containing actin monomers. ActA induces the growth of an actin gel at the bead surface. Initially the gel grows symmetrically around the bead until a critical size is reached. Subsequently one observes a symmetry breaking and the gel starts to grow asymmetrically around the bead developing a tail of actin at one side. This symmetry breaking is accompanied by a directed movement of the bead, with the actin tail trailing behind the bead. Force generation relies on the combination of two properties: growth and elasticity of the actin gel. We study this phenomenon theoretically within the framework of a linear elasticity theory and linear flux-force relationships for the evolution of an elastic gel around a hard sphere. Conditions for a parity symmetry breaking are identified analytically and illustrated numerically with the help of a phasefield model.

  8. Crystal structure of a Pd4 carbonyl tri­phenyl­phosphane cluster [Pd4(CO)5(PPh3)4]·2C4H8O, comparing solvates

    PubMed Central

    Robeyns, Koen; Willocq, Christopher; Tinant, Bernard; Devillers, Michel; Hermans, Sophie

    2016-01-01

    Attempts to synthesize Au–Pd heterometallic compounds from homonuclear palladium or gold complexes, [Pd(PtBu2)2] and [Au(PPh3)Cl] in a tetra­hydro­furan (THF) solution under a CO atmosphere resulted in a homonuclear Pd cluster, namely penta­kis­(μ-carbonyl-κ2 C:C)tetra­kis­(tri­phenyl­phosphane-κP)tetrapalladium(5 Pd—Pd) tetra­hydro­furan disolvate, [Pd4(CO)5(C18H15P)4]·2C4H8O. The complex mol­ecule lies on a twofold rotation axis. The crystal structure is described in relation to the CH2Cl2 solvate previously determined by our group [Willocq et al. (2011 ▸). Inorg. Chim. Acta, 373, 233–242], and in particular to the desolvated structure [Feltham et al. (1985 ▸). Inorg. Chem. 24, 1503–1510]. It is assumed that the title compound transforms into the latter structure, upon gradual loss of solvent mol­ecules. In the title compound, the symmetry-unique THF solvent mol­ecule is linked to the complex mol­ecule by a weak C—H⋯O hydrogen bond. Contributions of disordered solvent molecules to the diffraction intensities, most likely associated with methanol, were removed with the SQUEEZE [Spek (2015). Acta Cryst. C71, 9–18] algorithm. PMID:26958368

  9. Monte Carlo simulation of electrothermal atomization on a desktop personal computer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Histen, Timothy E.; Güell, Oscar A.; Chavez, Iris A.; Holcombea, James A.

    1996-07-01

    Monte Carlo simulations have been applied to electrothermal atomization (ETA) using a tubular atomizer (e.g. graphite furnace) because of the complexity in the geometry, heating, molecular interactions, etc. The intense computational time needed to accurately model ETA often limited its effective implementation to the use of supercomputers. However, with the advent of more powerful desktop processors, this is no longer the case. A C-based program has been developed and can be used under Windows TM or DOS. With this program, basic parameters such as furnace dimensions, sample placement, furnace heating and kinetic parameters such as activation energies for desorption and adsorption can be varied to show the absorbance profile dependence on these parameters. Even data such as time-dependent spatial distribution of analyte inside the furnace can be collected. The DOS version also permits input of external temperaturetime data to permit comparison of simulated profiles with experimentally obtained absorbance data. The run-time versions are provided along with the source code. This article is an electronic publication in Spectrochimica Acta Electronica (SAE), the electronic section of Spectrochimica Acta Part B (SAB). The hardcopy text is accompanied by a diskette with a program (PC format), data files and text files.

  10. Syntenic assignment of human chromosome 1 homologous loci in the bovine.

    PubMed

    Threadgill, D S; Threadgill, D W; Moll, Y D; Weiss, J A; Zhang, N; Davey, H W; Wildeman, A G; Womack, J E

    1994-08-01

    Three mouse chromosomes (MMU 1, 3, and 4) carry homologs of human chromosome 1 (HSA 1) genes. A similar situation is found in the bovine, where five bovine chromosomes (BTA 2, 3, 5, 16, and unassigned syntenic group U25) contain homologs of HSA 1 loci. To evaluate further the syntenic relationship of HSA 1 homologs in cattle, 10 loci have been physically mapped through segregation analysis in bovine-rodent hybrid somatic cells. These loci, chosen for their location on HSA 1, are antithrombin 3 (AT3), renin (REN), complement component receptor 2 (CR2), phosphofructokinase muscle type (PFKM), Gardner-Rasheed feline sarcoma viral (v-fgr) oncogene homolog (FGR), alpha fucosidase (FUCA1), G-protein beta 1 subunit (GNB1), alpha 1A amylase, (AMY1), the neuroblastoma RAS viral (v-ras) oncogene homolog (NRAS), and alpha skeletal actin (ACTA1). AT3, REN, CR2, and GNB1 mapped to BTA 16, PFKM to BTA 5, AMY1A and NRAS to BTA 3, FGR and FUCA1 to BTA 2, and ACTA1 to BTA 28. PMID:8001974

  11. The Kalman filter approach to inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Veen, E. H.; Bosch, S.; De Loos-Vollebregt, M. T. C.

    1994-07-01

    This article is an electronic publication in Spectrochimica Acta Electronica (SAE), the electronic section of Spectrochimica Acta Part B (SAB). The hardcopy text, comprising the main article and two appendices, is accompanied by a disk containing the compiled program, a reference manual and data files. The work deals with data handling in inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). With this technique, the analyte signal is superimposed on a background signal. When separating the signals by manual or automated three-point background correction, there are many instances in which the data reduction fails. Based on scans recorded in a fast-scanning mode and on a library of pure-component scans, the Kaiman filter approach models the emission in the spectral window (about 100 pm) of the analyte and mathematically solves the problem of background correction. By using a criterion-based algorithm to correct for optical instability, the uncertainty in the determination of the interferent line signal is eliminated. Therefore, the present filter implementation yields more accurate and precise results, especially in the case of line overlap. The Kalman filter Approach to Atomic Spectrometry (KAAS) software automatically processes Perkin-Elmer Plasma 1000/2000 text files, but can also handle ASCII data files. Practical and comprehensive examples are given to evoke the "Kalman filter feeling" in the crucial step of creating the emission model.

  12. Listeria monocytogenes Exploits Normal Host Cell Processes to Spread from Cell to Cell✪

    PubMed Central

    Robbins, Jennifer R.; Barth, Angela I.; Marquis, Hélène; de Hostos, Eugenio L.; Nelson, W. James; Theriot, Julie A.

    1999-01-01

    The bacterial pathogen, Listeria monocytogenes, grows in the cytoplasm of host cells and spreads intercellularly using a form of actin-based motility mediated by the bacterial protein ActA. Tightly adherent monolayers of MDCK cells that constitutively express GFP-actin were infected with L. monocytogenes, and intercellular spread of bacteria was observed by video microscopy. The probability of formation of membrane-bound protrusions containing bacteria decreased with host cell monolayer age and the establishment of extensive cell-cell contacts. After their extension into a recipient cell, intercellular membrane-bound protrusions underwent a period of bacterium-dependent fitful movement, followed by their collapse into a vacuole and rapid vacuolar lysis. Actin filaments in protrusions exhibited decreased turnover rates compared with bacterially associated cytoplasmic actin comet tails. Recovery of motility in the recipient cell required 1–2 bacterial generations. This delay may be explained by acid-dependent cleavage of ActA by the bacterial metalloprotease, Mpl. Importantly, we have observed that low levels of endocytosis of neighboring MDCK cell surface fragments occurs in the absence of bacteria, implying that intercellular spread of bacteria may exploit an endogenous process of paracytophagy. PMID:10491395

  13. Mutation-Specific Effects on Thin Filament Length in Thin Filament Myopathy

    PubMed Central

    de Winter, Josine M.; Joureau, Barbara; Lee, Eun-Jeong; Kiss, Balázs; Yuen, Michaela; Gupta, Vandana A.; Pappas, Christopher T.; Gregorio, Carol C.; Stienen, Ger J. M.; Edvardson, Simon; Wallgren-Pettersson, Carina; Lehtokari, Vilma-Lotta; Pelin, Katarina; Malfatti, Edoardo; Romero, Norma B.; van Engelen, Baziel G.; Voermans, Nicol C.; Donkervoort, Sandra; Bönnemann, C. G.; Clarke, Nigel F.; Beggs, Alan H.; Granzier, Henk; Ottenheijm, Coen A. C.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Thin filament myopathies are among the most common nondystrophic congenital muscular disorders, and are caused by mutations in genes encoding proteins that are associated with the skeletal muscle thin filament. Mechanisms underlying muscle weakness are poorly understood, but might involve the length of the thin filament, an important determinant of force generation. Methods We investigated the sarcomere length-dependence of force, a functional assay that provides insights into the contractile strength of muscle fibers as well as the length of the thin filaments, in muscle fibers from 51 patients with thin filament myopathy caused by mutations in NEB, ACTA1, TPM2, TPM3, TNNT1, KBTBD13, KLHL40, and KLHL41. Results Lower force generation was observed in muscle fibers from patients of all genotypes. In a subset of patients who harbor mutations in NEB and ACTA1, the lower force was associated with downward shifted force–sarcomere length relations, indicative of shorter thin filaments. Confocal microscopy confirmed shorter thin filaments in muscle fibers of these patients. A conditional Neb knockout mouse model, which recapitulates thin filament myopathy, revealed a compensatory mechanism; the lower force generation that was associated with shorter thin filaments was compensated for by increasing the number of sarcomeres in series. This allowed muscle fibers to operate at a shorter sarcomere length and maintain optimal thin–thick filament overlap. Interpretation These findings might provide a novel direction for the development of therapeutic strategies for thin filament myopathy patients with shortened thin filament lengths. PMID:27074222

  14. Determination of barium, chromium, cadmium, manganese, lead and zinc in atmospheric particulate matter by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boevski, I. V.; Daskalova, N.; Havezov, I.

    2000-11-01

    The present paper has shown that the Q concept, as proposed by P.W.J.M. Boumans, J.J.A.M. Vrakking, Spectrochim. Acta Part B 43 (1988) 69, can be used as a basic methodology in the determination of Ba, Cr, Cd, Mn, Pb and Zn in pairs of atmospheric particles by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). The data base of Q values for line interference [ QIj(λ a)] and Q values for wing background interference [ QWJ(Δλ a)] were obtained in our former work [N. Daskalova, Iv. Boevski, Spectral interferences in the determination of trace elements in environmental materials by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry, Spectrochim. Acta Part B 54 (1999) 1099-1122]. The samples of atmospheric particles were collected by the Bergerhoff method. The ICP-AES determination was performed after sample digestion with aqua regia. Q values were used for the calculation of both the total interfering signal under the analysis lines and the true detection limits, depending on the matrix constituents in the different samples. Comparative data for the concentration of analytes were obtained by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS) and direct current arc atomic emission spectrographic method (dc arc-AES).

  15. Parameter identification of chaos system based on unknown parameter observer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Shaoming; Luo, Haigeng; Yue, Chaoyuan; Liao, Xiaoxin

    2008-04-01

    Parameter identification of chaos system based on unknown parameter observer is discussed generally. Based on the work of Guan et al. [X.P. Guan, H.P. Peng, L.X. Li, et al., Acta Phys. Sinica 50 (2001) 26], the design of unknown parameter observer is improved. The application of the improved approach is extended greatly. The works in some literatures [X.P. Guan, H.P. Peng, L.X. Li, et al., Acta Phys. Sinica 50 (2001) 26; J.H. Lü, S.C. Zhang, Phys. Lett. A 286 (2001) 148; X.Q. Wu, J.A. Lu, Chaos Solitons Fractals 18 (2003) 721; J. Liu, S.H. Chen, J. Xie, Chaos Solitons Fractals 19 (2004) 533] are only the special cases of our Corollaries 1 and 2. Some observers for Lü system and a new chaos system are designed to test our improved method, and simulations results demonstrate the effectiveness and feasibility of the improved approach.

  16. Influence of static magnetic fields combined with human insulin-like growth factor 1 on human satellite cell cultures.

    PubMed

    Birk, Richard; Sommer, J Ulrich; Haas, Dominik; Faber, Anne; Aderhold, Christoph; Schultz, Johannes D; Hoermann, Karl; Stern-Straeter, Jens

    2014-01-01

    Tissue engineering represents a promising research field, targeting the creation of new functional muscle tissue in vitro. The aim of the present study was to show the influence of static magnetic fields (SMF) and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF1), as enhancing stimuli on human satellite cell cultures, which are preferred sources of stem cells in engineering skeletal muscle tissue. To detect effects on myogenic maturation and proliferation, AlamarBlue® proliferation, assay and semi-quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction of following markers was performed: desmin (DES), myogenic factor-5 (MYF5), myogenic differentiation antigen-1 (MYOD1), myogenin (MYOG), myosin heavy chain (MYH) and α1 actin (ACTA1). As a distinct marker of differentiation, immunohistochemical staining and fusion index determination was performed on satellite cell cultures stimulated with IGF1 and IGF1-plus-SMF with an intensity of 80 mT. Proliferation was increased by additional SMF application to IGF1-stimulated cell cultures on the first day of myogenesis. Relative gene expression of measured markers was increased by IGF1 application in the first days of myogenesis except for ACTA1. Additional SMF application enhanced this effect. Nevertheless we were unable to demonstrate the formation of contractile muscle tissue. Immunhistochemical staining verified muscle origin and all markers were displayed. PMID:25189891

  17. Survey of attitudes, materials and methods preferred in root canal therapy by general dental practice in Turkey: Part 1

    PubMed Central

    Unal, Gul Celik; Kaya, Bulem Ureyen; Tac, Ali Gurhan; Kececi, Ayse Diljin

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To gather information on the materials and methods employed in root canal treatment by dentists in Turkey. Methods: A questionnaire was distributed to 1,527 dentists who attended the Turkish Dental Association Congress. Respondents were asked to choose one or more suitable answers for the questions. Data was gathered for demographic and professional information regarding stages, materials, and methods commonly used in endodontic therapy. The collected data was analyzed using the statistical package SPSS. Descriptive statistics were given as frequencies (n) and percent (%). Chi-square (χ2) test was used to investigate the influence of gender and the years of professional activity for the materials and techniques employed. Results: The response rate was 49%. A total of 97% of respondents were working in a general dental practice. Of respondents, 44% were using an agent containing arsenic or aldehyde. Only 5.1% of the respondents preferred the rubber dam isolation method. Sodium hypochlorite was the most popular choice (73%) as a root canal irrigation solution. Calcium hydroxide was the most commonly used medicament (53%). Most of the practitioners (77%) preferred radiographs for working-length determination. Root canal preparation done solely with K-Files or in combination with other instruments was preferred by 73.1% of the respondents. Ni-Ti hand or rotary files were used by 79.7% of the practitioners. Polymer based root canal sealers were the sealers most frequently chosen (48.4%). The majority of the respondents (66.2%) preferred cold lateral condensation as an obturation technique. Gender affected the preference of intracanal medicament, periapical radiographs for working-length determination, root canal instrument, root canal sealers, and root canal obturation technique (P<.05). Years of professional experience affected the preference of devitalizing agents, irrigation solutions, intracanal medicament, root canal instrument, root canal sealer, and

  18. The world's longest surviving paediatric practices: some themes of Aboriginal medical ethnobotany in Australia.

    PubMed

    Pearn, John

    2005-01-01

    Contemporary paediatric practices of Australian Aboriginal men and women, in more than 100 Aboriginal Language Groups, comprise a living discipline whose origins predate Western medicine by tens of millennia. The history of paediatrics acknowledges this surviving continuum of the world's oldest child-care practices. Because of the inextricable nexus between Aboriginal men and women and the land in which they live, medical ethnobotany forms a major part of the medical aspects of Aboriginal child care. Traditional tribal healers, called 'Nungungi' in some language groups of Central Australia, are identified as such whilst still young children and are given special education in the healing arts, especially that of medical ethnobotany, by older healers. Distinct from this specialized role, all Aboriginal men and women (and in particular grandmothers) in traditional communities use a sophisticated botanical materia medica in the treatment of sick and injured children. In cultures in transition, medical ethnobotanical practices may persist long after the local use of flora as sources of traditional food, weaponry, totemic identity and religious rites have disappeared. Some selected botanical 'cures' were adopted by early European settlers and a number of such relict uses have become part of mainstream Western life today, particularly as this applies to self-medication. Drugs and medicaments used in the treatment of children are obtained from leaves, bark, roots and flowers, usually as fresh preparations. They are prepared as infusions, decoctions and macerations and may be enjoined with emollients such as emu or kangaroo fat for topical application. Botanical drugs and medicaments are usually prepared fresh for each administration and are rarely stored. Contemporary Australian ethnobotany exploits the medicinal properties of more than 100 genera - using such extracts as antiseptics, analgesics, astringents, antipyretics, sedatives, hypnotics, expectorants and

  19. Conformon-driven biopolymer shape changes in cell modeling.

    PubMed

    Ji, Sungchul; Ciobanu, Gabriel

    2003-07-01

    Conceptual models of the atom preceded the mathematical model of the hydrogen atom in physics in the second decade of the 20th century. The computer modeling of the living cell in the 21st century may follow a similar course of development. A conceptual model of the cell called the Bhopalator was formulated in the mid-1980s, along with its twin theories known as the conformon theory of molecular machines and the cell language theory of biopolymer interactions [Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 227 (1974) 211; BioSystems 44 (1997) 17; Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 870 (1999a) 411; BioSystems 54 (2000) 107; Semiotica 138 (1-4) (2002a) 15; Fundamenta Informaticae 49 (2002b) 147]. The conformon theory accounts for the reversible actions of individual biopolymers coupled to irreversible chemical reactions, while the cell language theory provides a theoretical framework for understanding the complex networks of dynamic interactions among biopolymers in the cell. These two theories are reviewed and further elaborated for the benefit of both computational biologists and computer scientists who are interested in modeling the living cell and its functions. One of the critical components of the mechanisms of cell communication and cell computing has been postulated to be space- and time-organized teleonomic (i.e. goal-directed) shape changes of biopolymers that are driven by exergonic (free energy-releasing) chemical reactions. The generalized Franck-Condon principle is suggested to be essential in resolving the apparent paradox arising when one attempts to couple endergonic (free energy-requiring) biopolymer shape changes to the exergonic chemical reactions that are catalyzed by biopolymer shape changes themselves. Conformons, defined as sequence-specific mechanical strains of biopolymers first invoked three decades ago to account for energy coupling in mitochondria, have been identified as shape changers, the agents that cause shape changes in biopolymers. Given a set of space- and time

  20. Isla Guadalupe, Mexico (GUAX, SCIGN/PBO) a Relative Constraint for California Borderland and Northern Gulf of California Motions.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzalez-Garcia, J. J.

    2004-12-01

    Using ITRF2000 as a common reference frame link, I analyzed survey mode and permanent GPS published results, together with SOPAC public data and results (http://sopac.ucsd.edu), in order to evaluate relative present day crustal deformation in California and northern Mexico. The crustal velocity field of Mexico (Marquez-Azua and DeMets, 2003) obtained from continuous GPS measurements conducted by Instituto Nacional de Geografia e Informatica (INEGI) for 1993-2001, was partially used. The preferred model for an instantaneous rigid motion between North-America and Pacific plates (NAPA), is obtained using results of Isla Guadalupe GPS surveys (1991-2002) giving a new constraint for Pacific plate (PA) motion (Gonzalez-Garcia et al., 2003). It produces an apparent reduction of 1 mm/yr in the absolute motion in the border zone between PA and North-America (NA) plates in this region, as compared with other GPS models (v.g. Prawirodirdjo and Bock, 2004); and it is 3 mm/yr higher than NNRNUVEL-1A. In the PA reference frame, westernmost islands from San Francisco (FARB), Los Angeles (MIG1), and Ensenada (GUAX); give current residuals of 1.8, 1.7 and 0.9 mm/yr and azimuths that are consistent with local tectonic setting, respectively. In the NA reference frame, besides the confirmation of 2 mm/yr E-W extension for the southern Basin and Range province in northern Mexico; a present day deformation rate of 40.5 mm/yr between San Felipe, Baja California (SFBC) and Hermosillo, Sonora, is obtained. This rate agrees with a 6.3 to 6.7 Ma for the "initiation of a full sea-floor spreading" in the northern Gulf of California. SFBC has a 7 mm/yr motion in the PA reference frame, giving then, a full NAPA theoretical absolute motion of 47.5 mm/yr. For Puerto Penasco, Sonora (PENA) there is a NAPA motion of 46.2 mm/yr and a residual of 1.2 mm/yr in the NA reference frame, this site is located only 75 km to the northeast from the Wagner basin center. For southern Isla Guadalupe (GUAX) there

  1. Web Based Seismological Monitoring (wbsm)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giudicepietro, F.; Meglio, V.; Romano, S. P.; de Cesare, W.; Ventre, G.; Martini, M.

    Over the last few decades the seismological monitoring systems have dramatically improved tanks to the technological advancements and to the scientific progresses of the seismological studies. The most modern processing systems use the network tech- nologies to realize high quality performances in data transmission and remote controls. Their architecture is designed to favor the real-time signals analysis. This is, usually, realized by adopting a modular structure that allow to easy integrate any new cal- culation algorithm, without affecting the other system functionalities. A further step in the seismic processing systems evolution is the large use of the web based appli- cations. The web technologies can be an useful support for the monitoring activities allowing to automatically publishing the results of signals processing and favoring the remote access to data, software systems and instrumentation. An application of the web technologies to the seismological monitoring has been developed at the "Os- servatorio Vesuviano" monitoring center (INGV) in collaboration with the "Diparti- mento di Informatica e Sistemistica" of the Naples University. A system named Web Based Seismological Monitoring (WBSM) has been developed. Its main objective is to automatically publish the seismic events processing results and to allow displaying, analyzing and downloading seismic data via Internet. WBSM uses the XML tech- nology for hypocentral and picking parameters representation and creates a seismic events data base containing parametric data and wave-forms. In order to give tools for the evaluation of the quality and reliability of the published locations, WBSM also supplies all the quality parameters calculated by the locating program and allow to interactively display the wave-forms and the related parameters. WBSM is a modular system in which the interface function to the data sources is performed by two spe- cific modules so that to make it working in conjunction with a

  2. Multivariate cluster analysis of forest fire events in Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tonini, Marj; Pereira, Mario; Vega Orozco, Carmen; Parente, Joana

    2015-04-01

    -Kernel density map to visualise and highlight spatio-temporal local aggregations performed by the investigated events. References - Bivand R., Rowlingson B., and Diggle P. 2012: splancs package in R project - Diggle P., Chetwynd A., Haggkvist R. and Morris S. 1995: Second-order analysis of space-time clustering. Statistical Methods in Medical Research, vol. 4(2): 124-136. - Tonini M., Pedrazzini A., Penna I., Jaboyedoff M., 07-2014. Spatial pattern of landslides in Swiss Rhone valley. Natural Hazards - Vega Orozco C., Tonini M., Conedera M., Kanveski M. 2012: Cluster recognition in spatial-temporal sequences: the case of forest fires, GeoInformatica, vol. 16(4): 653-673.

  3. World Trade in Medicinal Plants from Spanish America, 1717–1815

    PubMed Central

    Gänger, Stefanie

    2015-01-01

    This article outlines the history of the commerce in medicinal plants and plant-based remedies from the Spanish American territories in the eighteenth century. It maps the routes used to transport the plants from Spanish America to Europe and, along the arteries of European commerce, colonialism and proselytism, into societies across the Americas, Asia and Africa. Inquiring into the causes of the global ‘spread’ of American remedies, it argues that medicinal plants like ipecacuanha, guaiacum, sarsaparilla, jalap root and cinchona moved with relative ease into Parisian medicine chests, Moroccan court pharmacies and Manila dispensaries alike, because of their ‘exotic’ charisma, the force of centuries-old medical habits, and the increasingly measurable effectiveness of many of these plants by the late eighteenth century. Ultimately and primarily, however, it was because the disease environments of these widely separated places, their medical systems and materia medica had long become entangled by the eighteenth century. PMID:25498437

  4. Prolotherapy (proliferation therapy) in the treatment of TMD.

    PubMed

    Hakala, Roy V

    2005-10-01

    Proliferation therapy, or "prolotherapy," is also known as regenerative injection therapy (RIT). Since the 1930s, the technique has been used to stabilize injured joints and to relieve joint pain. This article reviews the history and scientific literature regarding prolotherapy and describes the application of the technique to treat injured or unstable temporomandibular joints (TMJ). Alternative medicaments and the likely mechanisms of action are discussed. A brief preliminary summary of a retrospective clinical study of the efficacy of prolotherapy is included. The study shows that prolotherapy can be an effective therapeutic modality that reduces TMJ pain and joint noise in a majority of patients who have reached a plateau with use of an intraoral appliance, physical therapy, and home care. PMID:16353469

  5. [Study of attribution of multicomponent original medicinal materials in gegen qinlian decoction with intestinal permeability].

    PubMed

    Zhu, Mei-Ling; Yang, Wen-Ning; Dong, Ling; Dong, Hong-Huan; Hou, Cheng-Bo; Liu, Yang

    2014-12-01

    The complex level of constructing biopharmaceutics classification system of Chinese materia medica CMMBCS) was the study of traditional Chinese compound, on the premise of insisting that the multicomponent simultaneous determination, when carrying out the study of intestinal permeability, the primary task was to define the source of the components that was absorbed through the intestinal wall, namely, which medicinal material the components belonged to in traditional Chinese compound. The technology of chemical fingerprint and in vitro everted gut sac model were used in this research to make multicomponent an intuitive source attribution which permeated the intestine in the classic formula Gegen Qinlian decoction, and to lay the foundation for the further qualitative and quantitative research of intestinal permeability. PMID:25911788

  6. Cytochrome P450-based cancer gene therapy: current status.

    PubMed

    Kan, On; Kingsman, Susan; Naylor, Stuart

    2002-12-01

    Results from a number of preclinical studies have demonstrated that a P450-based gene-directed enzyme prodrug therapy (GDEPT) strategy for the treatment of cancer is both safe and efficacious. This strategy has now moved forward into the clinic. At least two different approaches using different delivery methods (retroviral vector MetXia [Oxford BioMedica] and encapsulated P450 expressing cells), different cytochrome P450 isoforms (human CYP2B6 versus rat CYP2B1) and different prodrugs (cyclophosphamide [CPA] versus ifosfamide [IFA]) have concluded Phase I/II clinical trial with encouraging results. In the future, P450-based GDEPT can potentially be further enhanced by improved vectors for P450 gene delivery and disease-targeted promoters for focused gene expression at the target site. In addition, there is scope for developing synthetic P450s and their respective prodrugs to improve both enzyme kinetics and the profile of the active moiety. PMID:12517265

  7. Synthesis and characterization of a HAp-based biomarker with controlled drug release for breast cancer.

    PubMed

    González, Maykel; Merino, Ulises; Vargas, Susana; Quintanilla, Francisco; Rodríguez, Rogelio

    2016-04-01

    A biocompatible hybrid porous polymer-ceramic material was synthesized to be used as a biomarker in the treatment of breast cancer. This device was equipped with the capacity to release medicaments locally in a controlled manner. The biomaterial was Hydroxyapatite(HAp)-based and had a controlled pore size and pore volume fraction. It was implemented externally using a sharp end and a pair of barbed rings placed opposite each other to prevent relative movement once implanted. The biomarker was impregnated with cis-diamine dichloride platinum (II) [Cl2-Pt-(NH3)2]; the rate of release was obtained using inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES), and release occurred over the course of three months. Different release profiles were obtained as a function of the pore volume fraction. The biomaterial was characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Raman spectroscopy. PMID:26838911

  8. Role of provisional restorations in endodontic therapy

    PubMed Central

    Sivakumar, Jambai Sampathkumar; Suresh Kumar, Beri Narasimiah; Shyamala, Palaniyandi Vadivel

    2013-01-01

    Root-canal treatment can be carried out in single visit in vital, non-infected teeth, eliminating the need for dressing and provisionalization. Many clinical cases with infected canals require dressing with antibacterial medicaments in a multivisit treatment in which effective provisionalization for different periods of time becomes mandatory. Successful root-canal treatment requires effective mechanical and chemical debridement, elimination of bacteria and pulp tissue remnants and proper canal shaping to facilitate effective obturation. Lack of satisfactory temporary restorations during endodontic therapy ranked second amongst the contributing factors in continuing pain after the commencement of treatment. This review aims to provide an overview of the materials used for provisionalization during and immediately after endodontic treatment. PMID:23946564

  9. Evaluation of the Antibacterial Efficacy of Azadirachta Indica, Commiphora Myrrha, Glycyrrhiza Glabra Against Enterococcus Faecalis using Real Time PCR

    PubMed Central

    Anand, Suresh; Rajan, Mathan; Venkateshbabu, Nagendrababu; Kandaswamy, Deivanayagam; Shravya, Yarramreddy; Rajeswari, Kalaiselvam

    2016-01-01

    Aim: To compare the antibacterial efficacy of Azadirachta indica (Neem), Commiphora myrrha (Myrrh), Glycyrrhiza glabra (Liquorice) with 2% Chlorhexidine (CHX) against E. faecalis by using Real Time PCR Materials and Methods: A total of fifty teeth specimens (n=50) were inoculated with E. faecalis for 21 days. Specimens were divided into five groups (Group 1: Myrrh, Group 2: Neem, Group 3: Liquorice, Group 4: 2% CHX and Group 5: Saline (negative control)). The intracanal medicaments were packed inside the tooth. After 5 days, the remaining microbial load was determined by using real time PCR Results: Threshold cycle (Ct) values of Myrrh extract, Neem extract, Liquorice Extract, 2% CHX and saline were found to be 30.94, 23.85, 21.38, 30.93 and 17.8 respectively Conclusion: Myrrh extract showed inhibition of E.faecalis equal to that of 2% CHX followed by Neem, Liquorice and Saline PMID:27386000

  10. [Manuscript "Many different remedies for headache treatment" from the archives of Sinj Friary].

    PubMed

    Kujundzic, Nikola; Glibota, Milan; Inic, Suzana

    2011-01-01

    Manuscripts containing collections of folk recipes for treatment of deseases were written mostly by Catholic priests especially Franciscians in Croatia in the past centuries. They were used as manuals for preparation of remedies and gave directions for their use. These writtings provide valuble data for etnographers and historians of ethnomedicine. The paper describes the manuscript "Many different remedies for headache treatment" written by unknown author probably in 18. century in Sinj, Dalmatia. The manuscript was found in the archives of Sinj Friary. The collection contains 16 recipes for headache treatment. Materia medica of the manuscript is composed of drugs of plant origin. Valuable information is given about the folk names for medicinal plants as well as descriptions of the ways of preparing remedies. Latin as well as contemporaly croatian names are attributed to the plants species mentioned in the manuscript. Use of the plants for treatment of the specific deseases were compared with their use in modern fitotherapy. PMID:22292543

  11. Folk medical uses of plant foods in southern Appalachia, United States.

    PubMed

    Cavender, A

    2006-11-01

    An analysis of information obtained from interviews with 660 older native inhabitants of the southern Appalachian region in the United States indicates that plant foods, especially cultivars and materials processed from them, and some wildcrafted plant foods as well, constituted the bulk of the folk materia medica in the 1920s and 1930s. Aside from their use for the treatment of common ailments, many plant foods were, and still are to a lesser extent, valued in the region for cleaning and building blood, cleaning the bowel, and as a source of vitamins and minerals. The dependence on plant foods and wildcrafted medicinal plants, however, appears to have diminished considerably in recent years. PMID:16806760

  12. [Role of renal inflammation in the physiopathology of salt-sensitive hypertension].

    PubMed

    Castro Torres, Yaniel; Santos Portela, Alejandro Emilio; Garrido Bősze, Ildiko María

    2014-01-01

    Salt-sensitive hypertension is produced by a decrease in salt renal excretion after a salt overload. Over the last few years, a new theory has been developed to explain this condition based on renal tissue inflammation. This process begins with free radicals production in renal tissue due to oxidative metabolism. Then they favor a renal inflammation mechanism with T-lymphocytes infiltration and other immune cells. Essentially, T-lymphocytes determine an increase in angiotensin ii production which raises sodium and water retention. Association among autoimmune diseases and hypertension may be explained, in part, by the relationship between salt-sensitive hypertension and renal inflammation. The use of antioxidant drugs and the development of new medicaments may be a choice for treating patients affected with this condition. PMID:25024004

  13. Discovery of tetrahydrotetramethylnaphthalene analogs as adult T-cell leukemia cell-selective proliferation inhibitors in a small chemical library constructed based on multi-template hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Masahiko; Hamasaki, Takayuki; Tokitou, Maiko; Baba, Masanori; Hashimoto, Yuichi; Aoyama, Hiroshi

    2009-07-01

    Adult T cell leukemia (ATL), caused by infection of human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1), has a poor prognosis and curative therapy is unavailable, so it is important to find or design superior lead compounds for the drug treatment of ATL. We used our micro-reversed fragment-based drug design hypothesis and multi-template hypothesis to extract the tetrahydrotetramethylnaphthalene (TMN) skeleton from tamibarotene, a useful medicament for the treatment of acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL). Structural development of TMN yielded highly ATL cell-selective growth inhibitors, including 2-acetyl-3-hydroxy-5,6,7,8-tetrahydro-5,5,8,8-tetramethylnaphthalene (6). Structure-activity relationship analysis suggests the existence of a specific target molecule for ATL cell-selective inhibition of proliferation through G2 arrest. PMID:19443225

  14. [Art nouveau: pharmacy shops in Nancy].

    PubMed

    Leclerc, Florence; Labrude, Pierre

    2002-01-01

    At the beginning of the 20th century, an important artistic activity develops in Nancy. The "Ecole de Nancy" transforms a provincial city into one of the metropolis of "Art Nouveau". The pharmacists participate at the activity of their town and eight of them choose the new style for their pharmacy. In 1902, Rosfelder is the first to modify his shop, and later, Jacques, Delidon, Mouzin, Godfrin brothers, Monal and Fandre, before, during and after the First World War, have a same step. For the ornament, the artists use plants derived from local medicinal flora. "Art Nouveau", adept of curves, appears to be ideal to symbolize vegetable kingdom. In these pharmacy shops, fine arts join materia medica. PMID:12515268

  15. [Research on the citation of Herbal in Dongeuibogam].

    PubMed

    Xiao, Yongzhi; Dang, Zhizheng

    2014-07-01

    Dongeuibogam is the most prestigious traditional medical book in Korea, written by Heo Joon, who codified it by picking the essence of Chinese traditional medical books before the Ming Dynasty and some other ancient Chinese books and sorted them out. Among the citations of this book, those marked as"Herbal" is more complicated. We made a preliminary research on the citations of such Herbal, from their distribution, sources, citation manners, pharmacological features, to find that 23 rolls of main text to include citations of Herbal in each roll. We also found that most Herbal referred by Heo Joon come from Zheng lei ben cao (Classified Materia Medica), and a few of the contents are mixed with the contents of other medical books. Heo Joon abstracted and modified the citations from the source literature, embodying his ideas of pursuing conciseness and practicability. PMID:25429883

  16. Kenyan medicinal plants used as antivenin: a comparison of plant usage

    PubMed Central

    Owuor, Bethwell O; Kisangau, Daniel P

    2006-01-01

    The success of snake bite healers is vaguely understood in Kenya, partly due to their unknown materia medica and occult-mystical nature of their practice. A comparison is made of plants used in snake bite treatments by two culturally distinct African groups (the Kamba and Luo). Thirty two plants used for snakebite treatment are documented. The majority of the antidotes are prepared from freshly collected plant material – frequently leaves. Though knowledge of snake bite conditions etiological perceptions of the ethnic groups is similar, field ethnobotanical data suggests that plant species used by the two ethnic groups are independently derived. Antivenin medicinal plants effectively illustrate the cultural context of medicine. Randomness or the use of a variety of species in different families appears to be a feature of traditional snake bite treatments. A high degree of informant consensus for the species was observed. The study indicates rural Kenya inhabitants rely on medicinal plants for healthcare. PMID:16451723

  17. Intellectual Property: a powerful tool to develop biotech research.

    PubMed

    Giugni, Diego; Giugni, Valter

    2010-09-01

    Today biotechnology is perhaps the most important technology field because of the strong health and food implications. However, due to the nature of said technology, there is the need of a huge amount of investments to sustain the experimentation costs. Consequently, investors aim to safeguard as much as possible their investments. Intellectual Property, and in particular patents, has been demonstrated to actually constitute a powerful tool to help them. Moreover, patents represent an extremely important means to disclose biotechnology inventions. Patentable biotechnology inventions involve products as nucleotide and amino acid sequences, microorganisms, processes or methods for modifying said products, uses for the manufacture of medicaments, etc. There are several ways to protect inventions, but all follow the three main patentability requirements: novelty, inventive step and industrial application. PMID:21255349

  18. Rapid turbidimetric assay for quantification of fusidic acid in a dermatological cream.

    PubMed

    Curbete, Mariane Machado; Salgado, Hérida Regina Nunes

    2016-06-01

    Fusidic acid is an antibiotic steroid widely used for the treatment of serious infections caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains. Microbiological methods are indispensable to determine the mean percentage of antimicrobial in medicaments during manufacturing and quality control processes. The aim of this study was to develop and validate a microbiological method for the quantification of fusidic acid in dermatological cream by turbidimetry, using Staphylococcus epidermidis (ATCC 12228) and casoy broth as the culture medium. The validation parameters were in accordance with ICH specifications and demonstrated accuracy, precision, selectivity, and robustness, with linear ranges from 0.25 to 2.25μgmL(-1). This method is an alternative to the diffusion agar assay currently employed to quantify fusidic acid in dermatological cream, since it is sensitive, fast, and more economical. PMID:27130089

  19. [WU Xiao-ren: an outstanding physician of acupuncture and moxibustion].

    PubMed

    Li, Jia-Jian; Ma, Ying-Ge; Wang, Li-Ping; Wang, Lin-Peng

    2014-05-01

    WU Xiao-ren devoted his whole life into acupuncture practice and education. During his 50 years clinical practice, teaching and researching, he focused on standardization and application of acupuncture manipulations. Through the integration of western and Chinese medicine as well as technique innovation, he developed new therapies for hypertension, stroke and various pain syndromes with the combination of acupuncture and materia medica and various acupoint prescription. He was against parochial prejudice by advocating absorption of others successful experiences and integration of different schools. Moreover, being conscientious and meticulous, WU Xiao-ren was always strict with his followers. He set up examples for his students with both precept and practice, and made great contribution to the inheritance of both acupuncture theory and practice. PMID:25022133

  20. Role of Unani System of Medicine in Management of Orofacial Diseases: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Hongal, Sudhir; Pankaj, Goel; Chandrashekhar, B.R; Gouraha, Abhishek

    2014-01-01

    In recent times, oral diseases have gained an importance and are considered as a major health problem worldwide. Oral cancer, dental caries, and periodontal diseases are among the most important global oral health problems. Although new treatments and technologies for dealing with them are plentiful, nonetheless more and more patients are now looking for simpler, gentler therapies for improving the quality of life and avoiding iatrogenic problems. Traditional medical systems are easily accessible, cheaper and relatively safer than other conventional medicines. The time tested herbal formulations indicated in Unani material medica have been proven effective and safe. The exploration and identification of various botanicals used in traditional and complementary medicine, may lead to development of novel preventive or therapeutic strategies for oral health. The present scientific evidence based review is focused on possible role of Unani system of medicines in the management of various orofacial disorders. PMID:25478474

  1. Can Multiple Mini Interviews work in an Irish setting? A feasibility study.

    PubMed

    Kelly, M; Dowell, J; Husbands, A; Kropmans, T; Jackson, A E; Dunne, F; O'Flynn, S; Newell, J; Murphy, A W

    2014-01-01

    Multiple Mini Interview (MMI) is a new selection tool for medical school applicants. Developed at McMaster University in 2004 it comprises a series of interview stations designed to measure performance across a range of competencies including communication skills, team work, and ethical reasoning. In September 2012, 109 First Year Medical students underwent the MMI. It consisted of 10 stations. The median total score, out of 150, was 100 (min 63, max 129). Cronbach Alphas for the 10 individual stations range from 0.74 to 0.80. Overall Cronbach Alpha of MMI items was 0.78. Staff and student feedback was positive. The outline cost per student was estimated at Euro 145. This study demonstrates that it is feasible to hold a MMI with acceptable levels of reliability and stakeholder approval in an Irish setting. Further work is ongoing to establish the concurrent and predictive validity of MMI in this cohort of medica students. PMID:25226716

  2. Some salient features of 'Kitabul-Hashaish' with special reference to the manuscript preserved in Khuda Baksh O.P. Library, Patna.

    PubMed

    Shafqat Azmi, K A; Mehdi, G; Shamsi, K J

    1993-07-01

    The contributions of Dioscorides in the field of materia medica and pharmacology are unparalleled in the history of medicine. This great botanist of the 1st century A.D. made personal observations of the specific properties of drugs and presented them through illustrations for the first time. Almost all the physician authors of Unani system of medicine from Galen to Azam Khan have quoted Dioscorides. Kitabul-Hashaish was rendered into English and arabic and published repeatedly in the West. The book has great value and is quoted widely due to its authenticity. This unique work needs to be edited critically and afterwards translated into Urdu and other languages for the benefit of the present day students and scholars. PMID:11639485

  3. [The beneficial effect of mineral waters of Fiuggi on Pope Bonifacio VIII and Michelangelo: two prominent calculous patients].

    PubMed

    Androutsos, Georges

    2005-09-01

    Going back to the dawn of time, we deal with two historical figures, that of Pope Bonifacio VIII, and that of the hierophant of art, Michelangelo Buonarroti. The texts and the codes of the British Museum (Department of Manuscripts), of the Biblioteca Medica Laurenziana (Archivio Buonarroti) of Florence, and the Biblioteca Apostolica of Vatican, convincing detalled evidence that both figures were urological patients. It concerns two clinical cases with especially pertain to the history of lithiasis of urinary tract. Even though, both of them--the first with nephrolithiasis or gravel, and the second with a bladder stone--were historically bound with the well-known cures of Fiuggi in Italy. PMID:16459705

  4. Current trends in primary tooth pulp therapy.

    PubMed

    Haney, Kevin L

    2007-10-01

    Pulp therapy in the primary dentition remains a technique generating a tremendous amount of study. Formocresol has been and continues to be the most commonly used intrapulpal medicament despite its known ability to escape the microcirculation of the pulp. Ferric sulfate has gained significant favor as a result of formocresol's disadvantages, though at the cost of requiring a much more acute awareness of the potential for remaining disease and its ability to mask that process. Mineral trioxide aggregate perhaps offers the best immediate alternative to either of the above though at this time it is still cost-prohibitive in a practice that actively treats many children. And, as MTA has no fixative properties of its own, accurately analyzing the extent of the pulpal disease becomes even more critical to the overall success of the procedure. As with other techniques in dentistry, the debate is sure to continue for severl years to come. PMID:18019933

  5. [Herbalogical textual research of Wuyi].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Hai-liang; Zhang, Rui-xian

    2015-11-01

    Wuyi is one of the Chinese medicine recorded in Shennong's Herbal Classic and many other herbal books during the long history period. Up to now, Wuyi is still an important medicine used for insecticidal and removing food retention. Recent researches indicated that Wuyi also had the function of anti-malaria and treating herpetic simplex keratitis. Therefore, Wuyi had notable value on clinic and development of new medicine. The herbalogical textual research on Wuyi was conducted through investigation of the literature of materia medica during the long historical period from Han Dynasty. It was demonstrated by this work that the original plants of Wuyi include Ulmus macrocarpa Hance and Hemiptelea davidii (Hance) Planch, in which, U. macrocarpa was the quality specie. U. pumila was the false specie which cause confusing. The medicine Wuyi was the processed product made from the nutlet of the plants through fermentation with other additive agents. PMID:27097433

  6. Analysis of vibrational, structural, and electronic properties of rivastigmine by density functional theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prasad, O.; Sinha, L.; Misra, N.; Narayan, V.; Kumar, N.; Kumar, A.

    2010-09-01

    The present work deals with the structural, electronic, and vibrational analysis of rivastigmine. Rivastigmine, an antidementia medicament, is credited with significant therapeutic effects on the cognitive, functional, and behavioural problems that are commonly associated with Alzheimer’s dementia. For rivastigmine, a number of minimum energy conformations are possible. The geometry of twelve possible conformers has been analyzed and the most stable conformer was further optimized at a higher basis set. The electronic properties and vibrational frequencies were then calculated using a density functional theory at the B3LYP level with the 6-311+G(d, p) basis set. The different molecular surfaces have also been drawn to understand the activity of the molecule. A narrower frontier orbital energy gap in rivastigmine makes it softer and more reactive than water and dimethylfuran. The calculated value of the dipole moment is 2.58 debye.

  7. Role of Ayurveda in management of oral health

    PubMed Central

    Torwane, Nilesh Arjun; Hongal, Sudhir; Goel, Pankaj; Chandrashekar, B. R.

    2014-01-01

    Oral diseases continue to be a major health problem world-wide. Oral health is integral to general well-being and relates to the quality-of-life that extends beyond the functions of the craniofacial complex. The standard Western medicine has had only limited success in the prevention of periodontal disease and in the treatment of a variety of oral diseases. Hence, the search for alternative products continues and natural phytochemicals isolated from plants used in traditional medicine are considered to be good alternatives to synthetic chemicals. The botanicals in the Ayurvedic material medica have been proven to be safe and effective, through several hundred to several thousand years of use. The exploration of botanicals used in traditional medicine may lead to the development of novel preventive or therapeutic strategies for oral health. The present scientific evidence based review is focused on the possible role of Ayurveda in the management of various orofacial disorders. PMID:24600192

  8. [Inheritance and innovation of traditional Chinese medicinal authentication].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Zhong-zhen; Chen, Hu-biao; Xiao, Pei-gen; Guo, Ping; Liang, Zhi-tao; Hung, Fanny; Wong, Lai-lai; Brand, Eric; Liu, Jing

    2015-09-01

    Chinese medicinal authentication is fundamental for the standardization and globalization of Chinese medicine. The discipline of authentication addresses difficult issues that have remained unresolved for thousands of years, and is essential for preserving safety. Chinese medicinal authentication has both scientific and traditional cultural connotations; the use of scientific methods to elucidate traditional experience-based differentiation carries the legacy of Chinese medicine forward, and offers immediate practical significance and long-term scientific value. In this paper, a path of inheritance and innovation is explored through the scientific exposition of Chinese medicinal authentication, featuring a review of specialized publications, the establishment of a Chinese medicine specimen center and Chinese medicinal image databases, the expansion of authentication technologies, and the formation of a cultural project dedicated to the Compedium of Materia Medica. PMID:26978977

  9. Intellectual Property: a powerful tool to develop biotech research

    PubMed Central

    Giugni, Diego; Giugni, Valter

    2010-01-01

    Summary Today biotechnology is perhaps the most important technology field because of the strong health and food implications. However, due to the nature of said technology, there is the need of a huge amount of investments to sustain the experimentation costs. Consequently, investors aim to safeguard as much as possible their investments. Intellectual Property, and in particular patents, has been demonstrated to actually constitute a powerful tool to help them. Moreover, patents represent an extremely important means to disclose biotechnology inventions. Patentable biotechnology inventions involve products as nucleotide and amino acid sequences, microorganisms, processes or methods for modifying said products, uses for the manufacture of medicaments, etc. There are several ways to protect inventions, but all follow the three main patentability requirements: novelty, inventive step and industrial application. PMID:21255349

  10. [EXPERIENCE IN TREATING HELMINTHISM WITH MICRONIZED ALBENDAZOLE (GELMODOL)].

    PubMed

    Zavoikin, V D; Tumolskaya, N I; Mazmanyan, M V; Zelya, O P; Tikhonova, D V

    2015-01-01

    The paper gives the results of treatment with micronized albendazole (Gelmodol-BM, World Medicine, UK) in 87 patients of the Department of Medical Parasitology and Tropical Diseases, Clinical and Diagnostic Center, Clinical Center, I.M.Sechenov First Moscow State Medical University. Thirty-two patients with echinococcosis 8 with alveococcosis (including 4 inoperable patients), 10 with ascariasis, 10 with toxocariasis, 15 with enterobiasis, and 12 people diagnosed with larva migrans were treated in 2013-2014. The drug's routine doses and dosage regimens were used. Albendazole (Gelmodol, World Medicine, UK) showed a high efficacy with good tolerability, which is highly competitive with that of the drugs manufactured by IPCA Laboratories Ltd., India (such as nemozole). Both medicaments above-mentioned may be successfully used in the treatment of many helminthisms. PMID:26827590

  11. [Artichoke--herbal drug].

    PubMed

    Kulza, Maksymilian; Adamska, Katarzyna; Seńczuk-Przybyłowska, Monika; Woźniak, Anna; Wachowiak, Anna; Miechowicz, Izabela; Horoszkiewicz, Malgorzata; Nowak, Gerard; Florek, Ewa

    2012-01-01

    The liver is the gland most vulnerable to the toxic effects of xenobiotics, as responsible for their metabolism. Significant impact on the functioning of this gland has a style of life: alcohol consumption, diet with high fats ingredients and prooxidative substances and synthetic drugs. Very improtant aspect in herbal medicaments is protective properties on parenchymal organ-damaging. Concomitant intake of plant extracts containing cytoprotective compounds, may increase the efficacy of treatment and reduce side effects. One of the plants of the hepatoprotective action is artichoke (Cynara scolymus L.). Artichoke with multiple therapeutic properties and practically no side effects is recommended not only in disorders of the liver, but also in the prevention of atherosclerosis and hyperlipidemia or dyspeptic disorders. PMID:23421105

  12. [Brief explanation of shi lin (urolithic stranguria)].

    PubMed

    Li, Yuan-yuan

    2010-05-01

    Shi lin (urolithic stranguria) is a kind of stranguria, manifested as pain occurred when pissing and sand-like in the urine, developed from the early concept of shi long. This name of disease was appeared firstly in Shen nong ben cao jing (Shennong's Classic of Materia Medica), and then, the disease name of sha lin, sha shi lin and sha lin were derived from it by the Song Dynasty. It was said that the disease with sha (sand-like) was easy to treat, and with shi (stone-like) was difficult to cure. This disease was also happened in the children, and the reasons were the same with ones of the adult. Furthermore, there was a name of disease, xue sha lin, which was a kind of woman disease and had nothing to do with shi lin. PMID:21029715

  13. [Evolution and changes of authentic medicinal of Rhizoma Corydalis].

    PubMed

    Chu, Shanshan; Peng, Huasheng

    2015-09-01

    Rhizoma Corydalis was first recorded in Ben cao shi yi (A Supplement to Materia Medica). In the Tang and Song Dynasties, Rhizoma Corydalis used was derived from Corydalis turtschaninovii Bess. grown in the Northeast China. After the Ming Dynasty, the producing area migrated to the South and Rhizoma Corydalis was replaced by the"Maoshan Rhizoma Corydalis", that is Corydalis yanhusuo W. T. Wang nowadays, and those produced in Jiangsu and Zhejiang areas were recognized as the authentic ones. The collected time of Rhizoma Corydalis was also changed from fall to the beginning of summer. And then the processing methods in the production places underwent a change from the "critical dry", "shade dry" to the modern "boiling" method. In addition, the evaluation of quality of this medicinal was gradually changed from the location of its origin to its medicinal properties. PMID:26813088

  14. [The physicians' recognition and treatment of hypochondriac pain before the Ming Dynasty].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jin-Zhong; Wang, Zhen-Rui

    2013-03-01

    There were two phases for the recognition and treatment of hypochondriac pain before the Ming Dynasty, and the Song Dynasty being their demarcation line. Before the Song Dynasty, hypochondriac pain was regarded generally as a concomitant symptom, generally attributed to pathogen of coldness, and the materia medica with the warm nature were always used for the treatment. This recognition was related with the traditional idea paying attention predominantly to the yang of the yin-yang theory. Since the Song Dynasty, especially the Jin-Yuan Period, the hypochondriac pain was regarded gradually as an independent symptom. Physicians got more and more recognition about its causes and pathogenesis. The treatment was changed from dispelling cold to activating qi, and the idea of treatment based on syndrome differentiation on hypochondriac pain was finally established, reflecting the influence of spirit of medical innovation during the Jin-Yuan Period on the recognition of disease. PMID:24135472

  15. [Evolution of the origin of strain of Shancigu (Rhizoma Pleionis)].

    PubMed

    Li, Guangyan; Song, Xiangwen; Han, Bangxing; Fang, Shiying

    2015-05-01

    Shancigu (Rhizome Pleionis) was first recorded in the Ben cao shiyi (Supplements to Chinese Materia Medica). The source of the strain of this medicinal was unclear because of its too simple description in the medical books in the Tang and Song dynasties. Its original plant could be Cremastra appendiculata (D.Don) Makino, Tulipa edulis (Miq.) Baker and so on. The original plant of Shanciguwas Tulipaedulis since the Ming dynasty to the Republican period. The name of "Guangcigu" began to appear in the Republican period because of the changes of its processing method. The original plants evolved into Cremastra appendiculata, Pleione bulbocodioides (Franch.) Rolfe and Pleione yunnanensis Rolfe, with Tulipa edulisas the original plant of Guangcigu (Bulbus of Tulipasedulis). It is found that only the Tulipaedulis is the unequivocal origin with the longest medicinal history through sorting out of the original plants of Shancigu. Hence, it is suggested that Tulipa edulis should be recovered as the original strain of Shancigu. PMID:26420522

  16. [Dermatoglyphic morphology in some diseases].

    PubMed

    Łopuszańska, M; Jankowska, E A

    2001-09-01

    Dermatoglyphic polymorphism results from the co-operation of genetic and environmental factors during the early stages of ontogenesis. Such elements as intrauterine viral infection, radiation, alcohol, drug or certain medicaments taken by pregnant women are able to essentially disturb the formation of dermatoglyphics, if only act before the 19th week of pregnancy. Also various genetic anomalies can result in improper morphology of ridge traits. Therefore, the dermatoglyphic analysis is a valuable completion of diagnosis of some diseases (phenyloketonuria) and syndromes genetically determined (e.g. Down, Turner or Klinefelter syndromes). Regardless of the mechanism resulting in disturbed ridge traits, the new figures of dermatoglyphics are never formed, instead the altered prevalence of particular forms of ridge traits and/or the changed direction of dermatoglyphics are revealed. The improper types of dermatoglypics--in particular when found in complexes--suggest the existence of developmental instability of an organism. PMID:11761831

  17. Shoe allergic contact dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Matthys, Erin; Zahir, Amir; Ehrlich, Alison

    2014-01-01

    Foot dermatitis is a widespread condition, affecting men and women of all ages. Because of the location, this condition may present as a debilitating problem to those who have it. Allergic contact dermatitis involving the feet is frequently due to shoes or socks. The allergens that cause shoe dermatitis can be found in any constituent of footwear, including rubber, adhesives, leather, dyes, metals, and medicaments. The goal of treatment is to identify and minimize contact with the offending allergen(s). The lack of product information released from shoe manufacturers and the continually changing trends in footwear present a challenge in treating this condition. The aim of this study is to review the current literature on allergic contact shoe dermatitis; clinical presentation, allergens, patch testing, and management will be discussed. PubMed and MEDLINE databases were used for the search, with a focus on literature updates from the last 15 years. PMID:25000234

  18. ['Our mulattos are more exuberant'].

    PubMed

    Corrêa, Mariza

    2008-01-01

    Raimundo Nina Rodrigues (1862-1906) will still engender considerable debate in the academic world. The centennial of his death, for which this translation has been made, has merited a special editions of the prestigious Gazeta Medica da Bahia and other newspapers in the state of Bahia. Nevertheless, his books have not become any more accessible or well known. Almost all of them have been out of print, in some cases for over one hundred years. The text published here, "Miscegenation, degeneracy and crime", is especially interesting, both for the ethnography, which deserves to be revisited, and because of the author's use of genealogies and case studies, unprecedented in Brazil at that time. PMID:19824326

  19. Evolution of Comprehensive Care, Part 3. Periodontal Treatment Continues to Evolve.

    PubMed

    Kurtzman, Gregori M; Hughes, Mary K

    2015-05-01

    Perio treatment has evolved beyond simple scaling with hand instruments. Ultrasonics and diode lasers have improved both the efficiency of treatment as well as treatment prognosis to arresting the disease process and gaining clinical attachment and decreasing pocket depth. Add to this the benefits of adjunct medicaments both at time of treatment via site placement and during routine home care by the patient, and we are able to tip treatment outcome in a more favorable direction. Periodontology has been closely linked to systemic health both as a causative agent to health issues and as a secondary site for some medical conditions. Dentistry has truly--and finally--become a part of total healthcare. PMID:26470578

  20. [Analysis of the continuity, circulation and productivity of the Revista Española de Quimioterapia].

    PubMed

    Gimeno Sieres, E

    2007-06-01

    The primary objective of this study was to compare some of the bibliometric indicators of the continuity, circulation and productivity of the Revista Espanola de Quimioterapia up to 2003 with other spanish journals of Pharmacy and Pharmacology. This was done by reviewing periodicals directories, such as the ISSN (International Standard Serial Number/Número Internacional Normalizado de Publicaciones Seriadas) and ULRICH'S (Periodicals Directory), as well as the CDU (Classification Universal Decimal), national and international databases including IME (Indice Médico Español), ICYT (Indice Espanol de Ciencia y Tecnologia), IPA (International Pharmaceutical Abstracts), SCI Expanded (Science Citation Index Expanded), MEDLINE (Index Medicus), EMBASE (Excerpta Medica), BIOSIS PREVIEWS, ANALYTICAL ABSTRACTS, FSTA (Food Science and Technology Abstracts), SCIFINDER SCHOLAR and CHEMISTRY CITATION INDEX. According to the results, the Revista Española de Quimioterapia, in publication for 15 years, is widely distributed and has a good rating among other scientific journals of the same discipline. PMID:17893754