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Sample records for acta zoologica sinica

  1. Acta Mechanica Sinica (selected articles)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ling, G.; Yin, X.; Jiang, J.; Li, K.

    1982-08-01

    Selected articles on fluid mechanics and heat transfer are presented. Topics discussed are: (1) the secondary vortex and the karman vortex formation; (2) viscous compressible flow in turbomachinery; (3) partial differential equations satisfied by stream functions in three dimensional turbomachinery flow; and (4) iridium electrostatic probe and its application in a high temperature wind tunnel.

  2. Acta mechanica sinica (Selected articles)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lian, J.; Lu, W.

    1984-05-01

    The coherent structure of a turbulent boundary layer at zero pressure gradient and for the gradient of adverse pressure was investigated. The hydrogen bubble method was employed to examine the turbulent flow in a two dimensional diffusion sector in a water channel. In a separate work, tensor calculus was used to derive three dimensional weak conservation form equations, time dependent flow surface iterative equations, and characteristic theory of non-orthogonal spherical coordinates. These equations and theory are useful in solving the three dimensional turbomachine transonic flow field.

  3. Acta Mechanica Sinica (selected articles)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guocan, L.; Xieyuan, Y.

    1982-05-01

    Articles on the following topics are presented: the early stages of unsteady flow around a cylinder at high Reynolds number and under laminar conditions; methods for solving three dimensional flow in turbomachinery; numerical computation of viscous compressible flow in turbomachinery; a high speed interferograph system for investigating fast phenomena; and statistical simulation of the aerodynamic behavior of the transitional region of flow past combined bodies of revolution at arbitrary angles of attack.

  4. Nobel laureates at the Stazione Zoologica Anton Dohrn: phenomenology and paths to discovery in neuroscience.

    PubMed

    Groeben, Christiane; de Sio, Fabio

    2006-12-01

    The practice of science usually involves more than a solitary genius in a solitary room, coping with the problem of her/his life. From the second half of the 19th century onwards, scientific research, especially in the field of the Natural Sciences, has grown into a more and more complex practice, which often entangles very special needs, in terms of research objects, techniques, sources, and perspectives. A few special places, such as the Stazione Zoologica di Napoli, have represented in this period the focal points of an ever growing international scientific network, promoting independent research, exchange and diffusion of novel practices and techniques and unrestricted confrontation. The so-called "Naples experience" has been cited by a large number of renowned scientists of the last two centuries as a key moment in their scientific life. Here we have tried to test it against the experience of three great scientists par excellence, i.e. three Nobel laureates (T. H. Morgan, Otto Warburg, J. D. Watson). The different experiences they have had at Naples represent, in our view, three different moments of the professional life of almost every scientist. Therefore, we have chosen to present them as a phenomenology. The final section is dedicated to a survey of the Zoological Station's contribution to neurosciences, especially to the Naples experience of the Nobel Prize winner Sir Bernard Katz and his assistant Ricardo Miledi, between 1965 and 1970. Their work on the squid at Naples allowed probing and quantitative refinement of results already obtained on different animals and contributed to reinforce the long lasting neurophysiological tradition of the institute. PMID:16997765

  5. Acta Astronautica: 60 years of excellence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chern, Rock Jeng-Shing; Chang, Eva Yi-Wei

    2014-12-01

    The Acta Astronautica is 60 years old [1]. Ever since its first publication in 1955 with the title Astronautica Acta (from 1955 to 1973), 2014 is the 60th year of Acta Astronautica (from 1955 to present). Fig. 1 is a poster to manifest the remarkable milestone during the 65th IAC held in Toronto, Canada on 29 September to 3 October 2014. Under the auspices of the IAA's Publications and Communication Committee, and the seamless cooperation and strong support of IAA, Editor-in-Chief, Co-Editors, Managing Editor, authors, reviewers, readers, publisher and all IAA Academicians, its impact factor and ranking have significant improvements recently. Fig. 2 shows the increase in impact factor from 2008 to 2013. The ranking is 7 out of the 63+ journals in the category of Aerospace Engineering.

  6. Intracellular Induction of Listeria monocytogenes actA Expression

    PubMed Central

    Shetron-Rama, Lynne M.; Marquis, Hélène; Bouwer, H. G. Archie; Freitag, Nancy E.

    2002-01-01

    Following entry into the host cytosol, the bacterial pathogen Listeria monocytogenes dramatically increases the expression of several key virulence factors. The expression of actA, whose protein product is required for L. monocytogenes actin-based intracellular motility, is increased by more than 200-fold in cytosolic bacteria in comparison to broth-grown cultures. Two distinct promoter elements have been reported to regulate actA expression. One promoter is located immediately upstream of actA coding sequences, while the second promoter is contributed by the upstream mpl gene via the generation of an mpl-actA-plcB transcript. A series of L. monocytogenes mutants were constructed to define the contributions of individual promoter elements to actA expression. The intracellular induction of actA expression was found to be dependent upon the actA proximal promoter; the mpl promoter appeared to contribute to the extracellular induction of actA but did not affect intracellular levels of expression. The actA promoter is dependent upon a regulatory factor known as PrfA for transcriptional activation; however, no increase in actA expression was detected following the introduction of a high-affinity PrfA binding site within the actA promoter. The presence of a mutationally activated form of PrfA, known as PrfA*, increased overall actA expression in broth-grown cultures of both wild-type and actA promoter mutant strains, but the levels of induction observed were still approximately 50-fold lower than those observed for intracellularly grown L. monocytogenes. Collectively, these results indicate that the dramatic induction of actA expression that occurs in the host cell cytosol is mediated through a single promoter element. Furthermore, intracellular induction of actA appears to require additional steps or factors beyond those necessary for the activation and binding of PrfA to the actA promoter. PMID:11854187

  7. Characterization of aromatic aminotransferases from Ephedra sinica Stapf.

    PubMed

    Kilpatrick, Korey; Pajak, Agnieszka; Hagel, Jillian M; Sumarah, Mark W; Lewinsohn, Efraim; Facchini, Peter J; Marsolais, Frédéric

    2016-05-01

    Ephedra sinica Stapf (Ephedraceae) is a broom-like shrub cultivated in arid regions of China, Korea and Japan. This plant accumulates large amounts of the ephedrine alkaloids in its aerial tissues. These analogs of amphetamine mimic the actions of adrenaline and stimulate the sympathetic nervous system. While much is known about their pharmacological properties, the mechanisms by which they are synthesized remain largely unknown. A functional genomics platform was established to investigate their biosynthesis. Candidate enzymes were obtained from an expressed sequence tag collection based on similarity to characterized enzymes with similar functions. Two aromatic aminotransferases, EsAroAT1 and EsAroAT2, were characterized. The results of quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction indicated that both genes are expressed in young stem tissue, where ephedrine alkaloids are synthesized, and in mature stem tissue. Nickel affinity-purified recombinant EsAroAT1 exhibited higher catalytic activity and was more homogeneous than EsAroAT2 as determined by size-exclusion chromatography. EsAroAT1 was highly active as a tyrosine aminotransferase with α-ketoglutarate followed by α-ketomethylthiobutyrate and very low activity with phenylpyruvate. In the reverse direction, catalytic efficiency was similar for the formation of all three aromatic amino acids using L-glutamate. Neither enzyme accepted putative intermediates in the ephedrine alkaloid biosynthetic pathway, S-phenylacetylcarbinol or 1-phenylpropane-1,2-dione, as substrates. PMID:26832171

  8. Entering the 60th year of Acta Astronautica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Yi-Wei; Chern, Jeng-Shing; Marec, Jean-Pierre

    2014-04-01

    The Acta Astronautica Journal was firstly published in 1955 as the official Journal of the International Astronautical Federation (IAF) with the title Astronautica Acta. It is entering its 60th year in 2014. In 1962, the Astronautica Acta became the official Journal of the International Academy of Astronautics (IAA) established in 1960. A total of 18 volumes had been published from 1955 to 1973 under the leadership of three Editor-in-Chiefs: F. Hecht, Theodore von Karman, and Martin Summerfield. In 1974, A.K. Oppenheim became the new Editor-in-Chief and several evolved changes were performed including change of the title to Acta Astronautica (for grammatical correctness), cover page change, and format change. From 1974 to 2010, another three Editor-in-Chiefs led the journal with 67 volumes published. They were A.K. Oppenheim, Jean-Pierre Marec, and Rupert Gerzer. The current Editor-in-Chief Jeng-Shing Chern (Rock) took over the job from 2011. Total pages and articles published in 2012 are 3586 and 356, respectively. Currently, the Acta Astronautica Editorial Board consists of one Editor-in-Chief, 15 Co-Editors, one Managing Editor and one Honorary Editor-in-Chief (Jean-Pierre Marec). After 59 years, the Acta Astronautica has become a well-known journal worldwide. Its current rank and impact factor are 7/63 and 0.701, respectively. This paper presents some of the details as well as new strategies and steps. In particular, supports from the IAA Academicians are mandatory and most welcome.

  9. Elsevier/Spectrochimica Acta Atomic Spectroscopy Award 2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Omenetto, Nicolo'; de Loos, Greet

    2016-03-01

    This is to announce the 2014 Elsevier/Spectrochimica Acta Award, the annual award honoring the most significant article(s) published in a volume. Elsevier makes this award on behalf of Spectrochimica Acta, Part B, to encourage the publication of top articles in this journal. All papers published during one year are considered for this award and the Editorial Advisory Board and the Guest Editor(s) of the special issue(s) are responsible for the selection. The award consists of a monetary prize of 1000 together with a presentation certificate.

  10. Elsevier/Spectrochimica Acta Atomic Spectroscopy Award 2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Omenetto, Nicolo'; de Loos, Greet

    2015-01-01

    This is to announce the 2013 Elsevier/Spectrochimica Acta Award, the annual award honoring the most significant article(s) published in a volume. Elsevier makes this award on behalf of Spectrochimica Acta, Part B, to encourage the publication of top articles in this journal. All papers published during one year are considered for this award and the Editorial Advisory Board and the Guest Editor(s) of the special issue(s) are responsible for the selection. The award consists of a monetary prize of 1000 together with a presentation certificate.

  11. Activity of Bacillus thuringiensis against Pryeria sinica(Lepidoptera: Zygaenidae), an invasive pest of Euonymus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pryeria sinica Moore (Lepidoptera: Zygaenidae), an invasive pest of Euonymus, is susceptible in the second instar to the Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner product Thuricide®, and to several strains isolated from other B. thuringiensis products. Third instars are also susceptible, while susceptibility...

  12. Citation Analysis of "Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta," 1951-1960.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lifshin, Arthur

    1993-01-01

    A citation analysis of the first 10 years of "Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta" from 1951 to 1960 is described. A shift from German to English language citations and the emerging importance of the journal in the field, which is undergoing a change resulting from technological innovation, are shown. Tables and graphs are included. (EAM)

  13. Localization of the ActA polypeptide of Listeria monocytogenes in infected tissue culture cell lines: ActA is not associated with actin "comets".

    PubMed Central

    Niebuhr, K; Chakraborty, T; Rohde, M; Gazlig, T; Jansen, B; Köllner, P; Wehland, J

    1993-01-01

    The ActA protein of the gram-positive pathogen Listeria monocytogenes is a 90-kDa polypeptide required for interaction of the bacteria with components of the host cell microfilament system to generate intra- and intercellular movement. To study the localization, distribution, and expression of the ActA polypeptide in L. monocytogenes grown either in broth culture or in infected tissue culture cells, we first isolated ActA by monoclonal antibody-based immunoaffinity chromatography. Polyclonal rabbit antisera raised against purified ActA revealed that ActA was associated with the cell wall and exposed on the surface of the bacteria, readily accessible to ActA antibodies. In contrast, a C-terminally truncated ActA1 polypeptide expressed by the isogenic actA1 mutant was detected only in the supernatant fluids. Immunofluorescence microscopy and electron microscopic studies using immunogold labeling showed that ActA was present on the surface of the bacteria infecting PtK2 and J774 cells at all stages of the infection cycle and was not found to be associated with the actin "tail" of individual bacteria. For the isogenic actA1 mutant strain, which grew as microcolonies within infected cells, only diffuse staining of the secreted ActA1 polypeptide in the host cytoplasm was observed. The ActA polypeptide therefore appears to be required in the initiation of actin accumulation by the bacterium and is apparently not directly involved in the generation of the actin tail. Analysis of strains of several L. monocytogenes serotypes indicated microheterogeneity in the molecular weights of the ActA polypeptides of individual strains and led to the detection of a serotype 3a strain that does not produce ActA. Images PMID:8514381

  14. Aortic Disease Presentation and Outcome Associated with ACTA2 mutations

    PubMed Central

    Regalado, Ellen S.; Guo, Dongchuan; Prakash, Siddharth; Bensend, Tracy A.; Flynn, Kelly; Estrera, Anthony; Safi, Hazim; Liang, David; Hyland, James; Child, Anne; Arno, Gavin; Boileau, Catherine; Jondeau, Guillaume; Braverman, Alan; Moran, Rocio; Morisaki, Takayuki; Morisaki, Hiroko; Consortium, Montalcino Aortic; Pyeritz, Reed; Coselli, Joseph; LeMaire, Scott; Milewicz, Dianna M.

    2015-01-01

    Background ACTA2 mutations are the major cause of familial thoracic aortic aneurysms and dissections. We sought to characterize these aortic diseases in a large case series of individuals with ACTA2 mutations. Methods and Results Aortic disease, management, and outcome associated with the first aortic event (aortic dissection or aneurysm repair) were abstracted from the medical records of 277 individuals with 41 various ACTA2 mutations. Aortic events occurred in 48% of these individuals, with the vast majority presenting with thoracic aortic dissections (88%) associated with 25% mortality. Type A dissections were more common than type B dissections (54% versus 21%), but the median age of onset of type B dissections was significantly younger than type A dissections (27 years, IQR 18–41 versus 36 years, IQR 26–45). Only 12% of aortic events were repair of ascending aortic aneurysms, which variably involved the aortic root, ascending aorta and aortic arch. Overall cumulative risk of an aortic event at age 85 years was 0.76 (95% CI 0.64, 0.86). After adjustment for intra-familial correlation, gender and race, mutations disrupting p.R179 and p.R258 were associated with significantly increased risk for aortic events, whereas p.R185Q and p.R118Q mutations showed significantly lower risk of aortic events compared to other mutations. Conclusions ACTA2 mutations are associated with high risk of presentation with an acute aortic dissection. The lifetime risk for an aortic event is only 76%, suggesting that additional environmental or genetic factors play a role in expression of aortic disease in individuals with ACTA2 mutations. PMID:25759435

  15. Cerebral arteriopathy associated with Arg179His ACTA2 mutation

    PubMed Central

    Amans, Matthew R; Stout, Charles; Fox, Christine; Narvid, Jared; Hetts, Steven W; Cooke, Daniel L; Higashida, Randall T; Dowd, Christopher F; McSwain, Hugh; Halbach, Van V

    2013-01-01

    ACTA2 mutations have recently been shown to cause a multisystem smooth muscle dysfunction syndrome that may result in pediatric stroke. We report a case of ACTA2 mutation in a 3-year-old girl presenting with acute ischemic stroke and provide high resolution imaging of the cerebral arteries demonstrating novel findings of multiple tiny aneurysms (particularly in the posterior circulation), as well as the more characteristic imaging phenotype of straightened and narrowed proximal intracranial vessels, dilated cervical vessels and occlusion of the M1 MCA segment without lenticulostriate collateral formation. This newly identified disease should be added to the differential diagnosis of pediatric stroke and cerebral vasculopathy. Neuroradiologists, interventionalists, surgeons and neurologists should become familiar with this rare disease and its clinical sequelae. PMID:24293535

  16. Cerebral arteriopathy associated with Arg179His ACTA2 mutation.

    PubMed

    Amans, Matthew R; Stout, Charles; Fox, Christine; Narvid, Jared; Hetts, Steven W; Cooke, Daniel L; Higashida, Randall T; Dowd, Christopher F; McSwain, Hugh; Halbach, Van V

    2013-01-01

    ACTA2 mutations have recently been shown to cause a multisystem smooth muscle dysfunction syndrome that may result in pediatric stroke. We report a case of ACTA2 mutation in a 3-year-old girl presenting with acute ischemic stroke and provide high resolution imaging of the cerebral arteries demonstrating novel findings of multiple tiny aneurysms (particularly in the posterior circulation), as well as the more characteristic imaging phenotype of straightened and narrowed proximal intracranial vessels, dilated cervical vessels and occlusion of the M1 MCA segment without lenticulostriate collateral formation. This newly identified disease should be added to the differential diagnosis of pediatric stroke and cerebral vasculopathy. Neuroradiologists, interventionalists, surgeons and neurologists should become familiar with this rare disease and its clinical sequelae. PMID:24293535

  17. Cerebral arteriopathy associated with Arg179His ACTA2 mutation.

    PubMed

    Amans, Matthew R; Stout, Charles; Fox, Christine; Narvid, Jared; Hetts, Steven W; Cooke, Daniel L; Higashida, Randall T; Dowd, Christopher F; McSwain, Hugh; Halbach, Van V

    2014-11-01

    ACTA2 mutations have recently been shown to cause a multisystem smooth muscle dysfunction syndrome that may result in pediatric stroke. We report a case of ACTA2 mutation in a 3-year-old girl presenting with acute ischemic stroke and provide high resolution imaging of the cerebral arteries demonstrating novel findings of multiple tiny aneurysms (particularly in the posterior circulation), as well as the more characteristic imaging phenotype of straightened and narrowed proximal intracranial vessels, dilated cervical vessels and occlusion of the M1 MCA segment without lenticulostriate collateral formation. This newly identified disease should be added to the differential diagnosis of pediatric stroke and cerebral vasculopathy. Neuroradiologists, interventionalists, surgeons and neurologists should become familiar with this rare disease and its clinical sequelae. PMID:24353327

  18. Langkocyclines: novel angucycline antibiotics from Streptomyces sp. Acta 3034(*).

    PubMed

    Kalyon, Bahar; Tan, Geok-Yuan A; Pinto, John M; Foo, Cheau-Yee; Wiese, Jutta; Imhoff, Johannes F; Süssmuth, Roderich D; Sabaratnam, Vikineswary; Fiedler, Hans-Peter

    2013-10-01

    Langkocyclines A1-A3 and B1 and B2, five new angucycline antibiotics produced by Streptomyces sp. Acta 3034, were detected in the course of our HPLC-diode array screening. The producing strain was isolated from the rhizospheric soil of a Clitorea sp. collected from Burau Bay, Langkawi, Malaysia, and was characterized by morphological, physiological and chemotaxonomic features in addition to 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequence information. Strain Acta 3034 is closely related to Streptomyces psammoticus NBRC 13971(T) and Streptomyces lanatus NBRC 12787(T). Langkocyclines consist of an angular tetracyclic benz[a]anthracene skeleton and hydrolyzable O-glycosidic sugar moieties. The yellow-colored A-type langkocyclines differ in their aglycon from the blue-lilac-colored B-type langkocyclines. The A-type langkocycline aglycon is identical to that of aquayamycin and urdamycin A. The chemical structures of the langkocyclines were elucidated by HR-MS, 1D and 2D NMR experiments. They are biologically active against Gram-positive bacteria and exhibit a moderate antiproliferative activity against various human tumor cell lines. PMID:23820614

  19. Beneficial effect of dietary Ephedra sinica on obesity and glucose intolerance in high-fat diet-fed mice.

    PubMed

    Song, Moon-Koo; Um, Jae-Young; Jang, Hyeung-Jin; Lee, Byung-Cheol

    2012-04-01

    Obesity is a major contributor to both glucose intolerance and metabolic syndrome. In this study, we investigated the anti-obesity and anti-hyperglycemic effects of Ephedra sinica on high-fat diet-fed mice. Male ICR mice were divided into four groups; the normal group, the obese and diabetic control group treated with a high-fat diet, the positive control group treated with a high-fat diet containing acarbose, and the experimental group treated with a high-fat diet containing Ephedra sinica. The effects of Ephedra sinica on obesity and glucose intolerance were measured by an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), plasma biochemistry, body and epididymal fat weight; the expression of adiponectin, peroxisome-proliferator-activated receptor α (PPAR-α), tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) and leptin was also determined. Ephedra sinica reduced weight gain and epididymal fat accumulation, improved glucose intolerance on the OGTT, decreased triglycerides and increased high-density lipoprotein cholesterol compared to the controls. Moreover, it reduced weight gain and fasting glucose levels and improved HDL-cholesterol levels more than acarbose. Gene expression analysis revealed that Ephedra sinica upregulated the expression of adiponectin and PPAR-α, and downregulated the expression of TNF-α. From these results, we suggest that Ephedra sinica may reduce obesity and hyperglycemia by increasing PPAR-α and adiponectin and reducing TNF-α, and that it may have the potential to be used clinically as an ingredient in food or drugs effective in obesity-related glucose intolerance treatments. PMID:22969956

  20. Research Activities at the Institute of Astronomy & Astrophysics, Academia Sinica, Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwok, S.

    2003-12-01

    The Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Academia Sinica (ASIAA) is an institute of Academia Sinica, the national research organization in Taiwan. The institute has a staff of approximately 100, and has operations in both Taipei and Hawaii. Present research at the ASIAA includes the Solar System, Stellar Evolution, Star Formation, Interstellar Chemistry, Galactic Dynamics, Active Galaxies, and Cosmology. We are partners in the SubMillimeter Array (SMA) project on Mauna Kea, and are developing an Array for Microwave Background Anisotropy (AMiBA) in Mauna Loa. ASIAA also participates in the CFHT Wide Field Infrared Camera development in exchange for observing time on the telescope. A 3-telescope system is being built in Lulin Mountain in Taiwan to conduct an occultation survey in search for small Kuiper Belt objects. An increasing level of theoretical and computational astrophysics is being pursued through the establishment of Theoretical Institute for Advanced Research in Astrophysics (TIARA) in collaboration with TsingHua University. In this paper, we will report on some of the current research activities at ASIAA as well as plans for the future.

  1. Smooth Muscle α Actin (Acta2) and Myofibroblast Function during Hepatic Wound Healing

    PubMed Central

    Rockey, Don C.; Weymouth, Nate; Shi, Zengdun

    2013-01-01

    Smooth muscle α actin (Acta2) expression is largely restricted to smooth muscle cells, pericytes and specialized fibroblasts, known as myofibroblasts. Liver injury, associated with cirrhosis, induces transformation of resident hepatic stellate cells into liver specific myofibroblasts, also known as activated cells. Here, we have used in vitro and in vivo wound healing models to explore the functional role of Acta2 in this transformation. Acta2 was abundant in activated cells isolated from injured livers but was undetectable in quiescent cells isolated from normal livers. Both cellular motility and contraction were dramatically increased in injured liver cells, paralleled by an increase in Acta2 expression, when compared with quiescent cells. Inhibition of Acta2 using several different techniques had no effect on cytoplasmic actin isoform expression, but led to reduced cellular motility and contraction. Additionally, Acta2 knockdown was associated with a significant reduction in Erk1/2 phosphorylation compared to control cells. The data indicate that Acta2 is important specifically in myofibroblast cell motility and contraction and raise the possibility that the Acta2 cytoskeleton, beyond its structural importance in the cell, could be important in regulating signaling processes during wound healing in vivo. PMID:24204762

  2. Identification of the glycerol kinase gene and its role in diapause embryo restart and early embryo development of Artemia sinica.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Cheng; Yao, Feng; Chu, Bing; Li, Xuejie; Liu, Yan; Wu, Yang; Mei, Yanli; Wang, Peisheng; Hou, Lin; Zou, Xiangyang

    2014-03-01

    Glycerol kinase (GK) catalyzes the rate-limiting step in glycerol utilization by transferring a phosphate from ATP to glycerol, yielding glycerol 3-phosphate, which is an important intermediate for both energy metabolism and glycerolipid production. Artemia sinica has an unusual diapause process under stress conditions of high salinity, low temperature and lack of food. In the process, diapause embryos of A. sinica (brine shrimp) accumulate high concentrations of glycerol as a cryoprotectant to prevent low temperature damage to embryos. Upon embryo restart, glycerol is converted into glucose and other carbohydrates. Therefore, GK plays an important role in the diapause embryo restart process. However, the role of GK in diapause termination of embryo development in A. sinica remains unknown. In the present study, a 2096 bp full-length cDNA of gk from A. sinica (As-gk) was obtained, encoding putative 551 amino acids, 60.6 kDa protein. As a crucial enzyme in glycerol uptake and metabolism, GK has been conserved structurally and functionally during evolution. The expression pattern of As-gk was investigated by quantitative real-time PCR and Western blotting. Expression locations of As-gk were analyzed using in situ hybridization. As-gk was widely distributed in the early embryo and several main parts of Artemia after differentiation. The expression of As-GK was also induced by stresses such as cold exposure and high salinity. This initial research into the expression pattern and stress response of GK in Artemia provides a sound basis for further understanding of the function and regulation of genes in early embryonic development in A. sinica and the stress response. PMID:24365596

  3. [Studies on chemical constituents from the root of Coriaria nepalensis wall (Coriaria sinica Maxim)].

    PubMed

    Wei, H; Zeng, F; Lu, M; Tang, R

    1998-09-01

    The root of Coriaria nepalensis Wall (Coriaria sinica Maxim) is a Chinese herbal medicine and has been used to treat numbness, toothache due to wind and heat, phlegm-retention syndrome, traumatic injury and acute conjunctivitis. Nine compounds were isolated from the root of Coriaria nepalensis Wall and they were identified as braylin (I), norbraylin (II), dihydrocoriamyrtin (III), coriamyrtin (IV), tutin (V), coriatin (VI), apotutin (VII), hydroxycoriatin (VIII) and gallic acid (IX) on the basis of their physicochemical properties and IR, UV, MS, 1HNMR, 13CNMR data. I, II were isolated from the title plant for the first time; III was obtained from plant origin for the first time, and VII, VIII were new compounds. PMID:12016873

  4. GC-MS based metabolomics study of stems and roots of Ephedra sinica.

    PubMed

    Lv, Mengying; Sun, Jianbo; Wang, Min; Huang, Wanqiu; Fan, Hongyan; Xu, Fengguo; Zhang, Zunjian

    2015-10-10

    Therapeutic effects of herbal medicines differ greatly due to the use of different anatomical parts or processing methods in traditional Chinese medicine, and Ephedra sinica (ES) is just a case in point. To better understand different traditional uses of the stems (known as Mahuang, MH) and roots (known as Mahuanggen, MHG) of ES, their therapeutic material basis should be investigated. In this study, ephedrine alkaloids were profiled simultaneously with primary metabolites using GC-MS based metabolomics. Ephedrine (E) has been reported to be the major bioactive constituent in MH for the treatment of asthma. The results showed that compared with MH, MHG contained much lower levels of five ephedrine alkaloids, which may well explain that MHG has not been used as an antiasthmatic. Additionally, these pharmacologically important ephedrine alkaloids exhibited strong positive correlation with five primary metabolites. In conclusion, this study facilitates better understanding of different traditional uses of MH and MHG. PMID:26004227

  5. The Potential Role of As-sumo-1 in the Embryonic Diapause Process and Early Embryo Development of Artemia sinica

    PubMed Central

    Chu, Bing; Yao, Feng; Cheng, Cheng; Wu, Yang; Mei, Yanli; Li, Xuejie; Liu, Yan; Wang, Peisheng; Hou, Lin; Zou, Xiangyang

    2014-01-01

    During embryonic development of Artemia sinica, environmental stresses induce the embryo diapause phenomenon, required to resist apoptosis and regulate cell cycle activity. The small ubiquitin-related modifier-1 (SUMO), a reversible post-translational protein modifier, plays an important role in embryo development. SUMO regulates multiple cellular processes, including development and other biological processes. The molecular mechanism of diapause, diapause termination and the role of As-sumo-1 in this processes and in early embryo development of Artemia sinica still remains unknown. In this study, the complete cDNA sequences of the sumo-1 homolog, sumo ligase homolog, caspase-1 homolog and cyclin B homolog from Artemia sinica were cloned. The mRNA expression patterns of As-sumo-1, sumo ligase, caspase-1, cyclin B and the location of As-sumo-1 were investigated. SUMO-1, p53, Mdm2, Caspase-1, Cyclin B and Cyclin E proteins were analyzed during different developmental stages of the embryo of A. sinica. Small interfering RNA (siRNA) was used to verify the function of sumo-1 in A. sinica. The full-length cDNA of As-sumo-1 was 476 bp, encoding a 92 amino acid protein. The As-caspases-1 cDNA was 966 bp, encoding a 245 amino-acid protein. The As-sumo ligase cDNA was 1556 bp encoding, a 343 amino acid protein, and the cyclin B cDNA was 739 bp, encoding a 133 amino acid protein. The expressions of As-sumo-1, As-caspase-1 and As-cyclin B were highest at the 10 h stage of embryonic development, and As-sumo ligase showed its highest expression at 0 h. The expression of As-SUMO-1 showed no tissue or organ specificity. Western blotting showed high expression of As-SUMO-1, p53, Mdm2, Caspase-1, Cyclin B and Cyclin E at the 10 h stage. The siRNA caused abnormal development of the embryo, with increased malformation and mortality. As-SUMO-1 is a crucial regulation and modification protein resumption of embryonic diapause and early embryo development of A. sinica. PMID:24404204

  6. Proteomic analysis of acute responses to copper sulfate stress in larvae of the brine shrimp, Artemia sinica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Qian; Wu, Changgong; Dong, Bo; Li, Fuhua; Liu, Fengqi; Xiang, Jianhai

    2010-03-01

    Proteomics was used to reveal the differential protein expression profiles of acute responses to copper sulfate exposure in larvae of Artemia sinica. Fourteen differentially displayed protein spots were detected and seven of them were identified. Three spots were up-expressed and identified: actin, heat shock protein 70, and chaperone subunit 1; three down-regulated proteins were identified: arginine kinase, elongation factor-2, and glycine-rich protein; and a newly expressed protein was identified as peroxiredoxin. The study indicates the involvement of all the differentially expressed proteins in the early responses of protein expression, and in the survival of A. sinica in the presence of copper and other heavy metals; the findings improve understanding of the organism’s adaptive responses and resistance.

  7. Acta Informatica Medica Is Indexed In Pubmed And Archived In Pubmed Central

    PubMed Central

    Masic, Izet

    2013-01-01

    Acta Informatica Medica journal has been accepted for archiving in PubMed Central from 2011 onward. The journal started in 1993 as the official journal of the Society for Medical Informatics of Bosnia and Herzegovina. During the last 3 years, Acta Informatica Medica has een included in almost all prestigious online databases, including PubMed, Scopus and EMBASE. The 20th volume of the journal is fully international, with papers from 18 countries. PMID:23572852

  8. A pure polysaccharide from Ephedra sinica treating on arthritis and inhibiting cytokines expression.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qiuhong; Shu, Zunpeng; Xing, Na; Xu, Bingqing; Wang, Changfu; Sun, Guibo; Sun, Xiaobo; Kuang, Haixue

    2016-05-01

    In our previous study, we found that the acidic polysaccharides of Ephedra sinica had immunosuppressive effect to treat rheumatoid arthritis and the pure polysaccharide ESP-B4 was the main composition of the acidic polysaccharides. At present, the exact molecular mechanism of ESP-B4 on treating arthritis is unclear. We are thus evaluating the properties of ESP-B4 on LPS-induced THP-1 pro-monocytic cells and adjuvant-induced arthritis in Wistar rats via TLR4. In vitro, ESP-B4 decreased the production of cytokines induced by LPS. In addition, ESP-B4 reduced the LPS-stimulated nuclear translocation of p65 subunit of NF-κB. Pretreatment with ESP-B4 significantly down-regulated the phosphorylation of MAPKs induced by LPS. Furthermore, in vivo, after 12 days of disease induced by adjuvant, rats were treated with ESP-B4 for 16 days. ESP-B4 significantly improved all parameters of inflammation. ESP-B4 reduced the release of inflammatory factors and cytokines by inhibiting the TLR4 signaling pathway to treat rheumatoid arthritis. PMID:26835987

  9. Beitraege zur Astronomiegeschichte, Band 5 (Acta Historica Astronomiae Vol. 18)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duerbeck, H. W.; Dick, W. R.; Hamel, J.

    2003-01-01

    The 18th volume of the Acta Historica Astronomiae is at the same time the sixth collection of essays on the history of astronomy ("Beitræge zur Astronomiegeschichte, Band 6"), edited by the historians of astronomy W.R. Dick (Potsdam) and J. Hamel (Berlin). Besides a few short notices and book reviews, the book contains eight major articles, which deal with astronomical topics covering the time from the 16th to the 19th centuries. The first article by Michael Weichenhan (Berlin) deals with "the invention of the disk-shaped earth: a chapter of Copernican apologetics". The author shows that the concept of a "disc-shaped Earth" was by no means widespread in the middle ages, but restricted to the father of the church Lactantius and some adherents. Nevertheless, it was used by adherents of Copernicus to show the absurd consequences of a strictly literal biblical interpretation -- here concerning the Earth's shape, disc versus sphere, there the geocentric versus the heliocentric system. This thorough philosophical study is followed by two very short articles. "The measuring accuracy of Tycho's large sextant" by Johann Wünsch investigates O-C values of planet-star distances, as based on Tycho's observations as published in the Historia Coelestis (a compilation, which is also based on Tycho's manuscripts, and published in Regensburg in 1672). The result is that standard deviations are 80 arcseconds for Saturn and 89 arcseconds for Jupiter and Mars, an unexpectedly poor result in view of the general opinion that Tycho was famous for his precision work. "The astronomer Christoph Grienberger and the Galilei trial" by Franz Daxecker deals with a Jesuit astronomer who was both the disciple and successor of the mathematician-astronomer Christopher Clavius at the Collegium Romanum. While he was inclined to Galilei early on, he was forced to propagate Aristotelian doctrine. The brief article is very concise, but extremely tiresome to read (3 pages of pure text are embellished by

  10. De Novo ACTA2 Mutation Causes a Novel Syndrome of Multisystemic Smooth Muscle Dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Milewicz, Dianna M.; Østergaard, John R.; Ala-Kokko, Leena M.; Khan, Nadia; Grange, Dorothy K.; Mendoza-Londono, Roberto; Bradley, Timothy J.; Olney, Ann Haskins; Adès, Lesley; Maher, Joseph F.; Guo, Dongchuan; Buja, L. Maximilian; Kim, Dong; Hyland, James C.; Regalado, Ellen S.

    2011-01-01

    Smooth muscle cells (SMCs) contract to perform many physiological functions, including regulation of blood flow and pressure in arteries, contraction of the pupils, peristalsis of the gut and voiding of the bladder. SMC lineage in these organs is characterized by cellular expression of the SMC isoform of α-actin, encoded by the ACTA2 gene. We report here on a unique and de novo mutation in ACTA2, R179H, that causes a syndrome characterized by dysfunction of SMCs throughout the body, leading to aortic and cerebrovascular disease, fixed dilated pupils, hypotonic bladder, malrotation and hypoperistalsis of the gut and pulmonary hypertension. PMID:20734336

  11. Detrimental effect of CO2-driven seawater acidification on a crustacean brine shrimp, Artemia sinica.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Chao-qun; Jeswin, Joseph; Shen, Kai-li; Lablche, Meghan; Wang, Ke-jian; Liu, Hai-peng

    2015-03-01

    The effects of the decline in ocean pH, termed as ocean acidification due to the elevated carbon dioxide in the atmosphere, on calcifying organisms such as marine crustacean are unclear. To understand the possible effects of ocean acidification on the physiological responses of a marine model crustacean brine shrimp, Artemia sinica, three groups of the cysts or animals were raised at different pH levels (8.2 as control; 7.8 and 7.6 as acidification stress according to the predictions for the end of this century and next century accordingly) for 24 h or two weeks, respectively, followed by examination of their hatching success, morphological appearance such as deformity and microstructure of animal body, growth (i.e. body length), survival rate, expression of selected genes (involved in development, immunity and cellular activity etc), and biological activity of several key enzymes (participated in antioxidant responses and physiological reactions etc). Our results clearly demonstrated that the cysts hatching rate, growth at late stage of acidification stress, and animal survival rate of brine shrimp were all reduced due to lower pH level (7.6 & 7.8) on comparison to the control group (pH 8.2), but no obvious change in deformity or microstructure of brine shrimp was present under these acidification stress by microscopy observation and section analysis. In addition, the animals subjected to a lower pH level of seawater underwent changes on their gene expressions, including Spätzle, MyD88, Notch, Gram-negative bacteria binding protein, prophenoloxidase, Apoptosis inhibitor 5, Trachealess, Caveolin-1 and Cyclin K. Meanwhile, several key enzyme activities, including superoxide dismutase, catalase, peroxidase, alkaline phosphatase and acid phosphatase, were also affected by acidified seawater stress. Taken together, our findings supports the idea that CO2-driven seawater acidification indeed has a detrimental effect, in case of hatching success, growth and survival, on

  12. Comparative analysis of volatile oils in the stems and roots of Ephedra sinica via GC-MS-based plant metabolomics.

    PubMed

    Lv, Meng-Ying; Sun, Jian-Bo; Wang, Min; Fan, Hong-Yan; Zhang, Zun-Jian; Xu, Feng-Guo

    2016-02-01

    With a great difference in therapeutic effects of Mahuang (MH, the stems of Ephedra sinica) and Mahuanggen (MHG, the roots of Ephedra sinica), chemical differences between MH and MHG should be investigated. In the present study, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS)-based plant metabolomics was employed to compare volatile oil profiles of MH and MHG. The antioxidant activities of volatile oils from MH and MHG were also compared. 32 differential chemical markers were identified according to the variable importance in the projection (VIP) value of orthogonal partial least squares discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) and P value of Mann-Whitney test. Among them, chemical markers of tetramethylpyrazine (TMP) and α-terpineol were quantified. Their contents were much higher in most MH samples compared with MHG. The antioxidant assay demonstrated that MH had significantly higher free radical-scavenging activity than MHG. Although MH and MHG derived from the same medicinal plant, there was much difference in their volatile oil profiles. MH samples had significantly higher content of two reported pharmacologically important chemical markers of TMP and α-terpineol, which may account for their different antioxidant activities. PMID:26968679

  13. Expression and roles of As-NUPR1 protein from Artemia sinica during embryo development and in response to salinity stress.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Rui; Yao, Feng; Cheng, Cheng; Chen, Yifei; Lv, Ying; Li, Zengrong; Zhao, Na; Wang, Ting; Xin, Wenting; Zou, Xiangyang; Hou, Lin

    2014-05-01

    As-NUPR1, a stress-related protein, plays an important role in post-diapause during embryonic development in the brine shrimp Artemia sinica. In the present study, successful expression of As-NUPR1 from the cDNA sequence isolated from A. sinica was demonstrated using a prokaryotic expression system. The recombinant protein consisted of 132 amino acids with a molecular weight of 15 kDa, and a predicted isoelectric point of 7.17. As-NUPR1 polyclonal antibodies were prepared by immunization of Balb/c mice with purified recombinant As-NUPR1 protein as an antigen, and immunological studies were carried out. Expression of As-NUPR1 during different developmental stages of the embryo and in response to salinity stress was analyzed in A. sinica using Western blots. The experimental results showed that the expression of As-NUPR1 is widely distributed at different developmental stages in A. sinica, and there was no tissue or organ specificity. Expression of As-NUPR1 decreased gradually during the diapause termination stage of embryo development, after which there was a general increase in expression after breaking the shell. In addition, As-NUPR1 expression was highly upregulated under conditions of high salinity. These results suggest that the As-NUPR1 protein is a stress-related protein that plays a role in protecting embryos from high salt damage in different embryonic developmental stages, especially during the post-diapause period. PMID:24510410

  14. Review of the Journal Acta Informatica Medica During Eight Year Period: 2008-2015

    PubMed Central

    Masic, Izet; Begic, Edin; Zunic, Lejla

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Acta Informatica Medica is official journal of the Academy for Medical Sciences of Bosnia and Herzegovina (from 2014 Acta Inform Med is published bimonthly). Aim: To evaluate journal “Acta Informatica Medica” in 2015 and compare findings to previous years. Material and methods: The study has retrospective and descriptive character, and included the period 2008-2015 (included 36 issues of journal). Results: A total of 83 (average 13,8 articles per journal) articles were published in Acta Informatica Medica during 2015. Analyzing the type of articles, original articles are present in majority during 2015 (68,6%) (by analyzing last eight years, 310 (67,3%) were original). During 2015, 27,7% of articles were related to the applied of Health informatics in field of clinical medicine, 63,8% preclinical medicine and 8,5% to public health. Collaboration rate in 2015 was 0,84. Most often the time required for decision on acceptance of article in 2015 is between 50 and 60 days. Articles came from 16 countries. According to scimagojr.com for 2014, Acta Informatica Medica has SCImago Journal Rank 0,166, while Cites / Doc. (2 years) parameter (widely used as impact index) is 0,70. According to GoogleScholar, h5 index is 11 and h5 median is 19. We analyzed the Acta Informatica Medica by “Publish or Perish” software - H index was 14, g index was 19 and e-index was 10.39. Conclusion: Year after year the highest number of original articles are published. Although the period of revision of articles is acceptable, the period up to two months is certainly not long, the goal is to reduce this period. Although the magazine in mentioned field found its place, although it is indexed in numerous bases, including: PubMed, PubMed Central, SCOPUS, EMBASE, EBSCO, etc. The main goal for next year is that the magazine becomes part of the Web of Science. Imperative is further internationalization of the magazine. PMID:27147796

  15. Research on imaging, sensing, and characterization of cells at Research Center for Applied Sciences (RCAS), Academia Sinica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsai, Hui-Chen; Chang, Chun-Fang; Chen, Bi-Chang; Cheng, Ji-Yen; Chu, Chih-Wei; Han, Hsieh-Cheng; Hatanaka, Koji; Hsieh, Tung-Han; Lee, Chau-Hwang; Lin, Jung-Hsin; Tung, Yi-Chung; Wei, Pei-Kuen; Yang, Fu-Liang; Tsai, Din Ping

    2015-12-01

    Development of imaging, sensing, and characterization of cells at Research Center for Applied Sciences (RCAS) of Academia Sinica in Taiwan is progressing rapidly. The research on advanced lattice light sheet microscopy for temporal visualization of cells in three dimensions at sub-cellular resolution shows novel imaging results. Label-free observation on filopodial dynamics provides a convenient assay on cancer cell motility. The newly-developed software enables us to track the movement of two types of particles through different channels and reconstruct the co-localized tracks. Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) for detecting urinary microRNA for diagnosis of acute kidney injury demonstrates excellent sensitivity. A fully automated and integrated portable reader was constructed as a home-based surveillance system for post-operation hepatocellular carcinoma. New microfluidic cell culture devices for fast and accurate characterizations prove various diagnosis capabilities.

  16. Citation analysis of Acta Dermatovenerologica Alpina, Pannonica et Adriatica: 1992-2011.

    PubMed

    Ostrbenk, Anja; Skamperle, Mateja; Poljak, Mario

    2012-09-01

    Acta Dermatovenerologica Alpina, Pannonica et Adriatica is small regional professional journal that started publishing in 1992. Despite the journal's relatively narrow readership, it has significantly improved its quality and global profile during the last 20 years, as shown in this citation analysis update. Since 1992, 654 bibliographical items have been published. Among these, 545 (83.4%) were considered WoS citable items and 109 (16.6%) WoS noncitable items. Since 2008, 90% of all published items have been considered WoS citable items and received an average of 1.9 citations per item. The predicted Acta Dermatovenerol APA impact factor calculated using data from a Cited Reference search of Thomson Scientific's Web of Science has shown steep and continuous increase since 2006, when the journal acquired full indexing status in Index Medicus/Medline, and has been above 0.5 since 2008. PMID:23267871

  17. Novel MYH11 and ACTA2 mutations reveal a role for enhanced TGFβ signaling in FTAAD

    PubMed Central

    Renard, Marjolijn; Callewaert, Bert; Baetens, Machteld; Campens, Laurence; MacDermot, Kay; Fryns, Jean-Pierre; Bonduelle, Maryse; Dietz, Hal; Gaspar, Isabel Mendes; Cavaco, Diogo; Stattin, Eva-Lena; Schrander-Stumpel, Constance; Coucke, Paul; Loeys, Bart; De Paepe, Anne; De Backer, Julie

    2011-01-01

    Background Thoracic aortic aneurysm / dissection (TAAD) is a common phenotype that may occur as an isolated manifestation or within the constellation of a defined syndrome. In contrast to syndromic TAAD, the elucidation of the genetic basis of isolated TAAD has only recently started. To date, defects have been found in genes encoding extracellular matrix proteins (fibrillin-1, FBN1; collagen type III alpha 1, COL3A1), proteins involved in transforming growth factor beta (TGFβ) signaling (TGFβ receptor 1 and 2, TGFBR1/2; and SMAD3) or proteins that build up the contractile apparatus of aortic smooth muscle cells (myosin heavy chain 11, MYH11; smooth muscle actin alpha 2, ACTA2; and MYLK). Methods and results In 110 non-syndromic TAAD patients that previously tested negative for FBN1 or TGFBR1/2 mutations, we identified 7 ACTA2 mutations in a cohort of 43 familial TAAD patients, including 2 premature truncating mutations. Sequencing of MYH11 revealed an in frame splice-site alteration in one out of two probands with TAA(D) associated with PDA but none in the series of 22 probands from the cohort of 110 patients with non-syndromic TAAD. Interestingly, immunohistochemical staining of aortic biopsies of a patient and a family member with MYH11 and patients with ACTA2 missense mutations showed upregulation of the TGFβ signaling pathway. Conclusions MYH11 mutations are rare and typically identified in patients with TAAD associated with PDA. ACTA2 mutations were identified in 16% of a cohort presenting familial TAAD. Different molecular defects in TAAD may account for a different pathogenic mechanism of enhanced TGFβ signaling. PMID:21937134

  18. Cloning and expression of retinoblastoma-binding protein 4 gene in embryo diapause termination and in response to salinity stress from brine shrimp Artemia sinica.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaolu; Yao, Feng; Liang, Xiaoyu; Zhu, Xiaolin; Zheng, Ren; Jia, Baolin; Hou, Lin; Zou, Xiangyang

    2016-10-15

    Retinoblastoma binding protein 4 (RBBP4) is a nuclear protein with four WD-repeat sequences and thus belongs to a highly conserved subfamily of proteins with such domains. This retinoblastoma-binding protein plays an important role in nucleosome assembly and histone modification, which influences gene transcription and regulates cell cycle and proliferation. Artemia sinica (brine shrimp) undergoes an unusual diapause process under stress conditions of high salinity and low temperature. However, the role of RBBP4 in diapause termination of embryo development in A. sinica remains unknown. Here, the full-length cDNA of the As-rbbp4 gene was obtained from A. sinica and found to contain 1411 nucleotides, including a 1281 bp open reading frame (ORF), 63 bp 5'-untranslated region (UTR) and a 67-bp 3'-UTR, which encodes a 427 amino acid (48 kDa) protein. Bioinformatic analysis indicated As-RBBP4 to be mainly located in the nucleus, with a theoretical isoelectric point of 4.79. Protein sequence domain analysis showed that As-RBBP4 is a conserved protein, especially in the WD40 domain. No specificity in expression of this gene was observed in tissues or organs by in situ hybridization. Real-time quantitative PCR and Western blot analyses of As-RBBP4 gene and protein expression, respectively, showed notably high levels at 10 h and a subsequent downward trend. Obvious trends in upregulation of As-RBBP4 were observed under conditions of low temperature and high salinity stress. As-E2F1 and As-CyclinE also presented similar trends as that of As-RBBP4 in Western blots. Analysis of the RBBP4 expression in early embryonic development of A. sinica indicated that this protein plays an important role in diapause termination and cell cycle regulation. PMID:27267406

  19. Transcriptome profiling of khat (Catha edulis) and Ephedra sinica reveals gene candidates potentially involved in amphetamine-type alkaloid biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Groves, Ryan A; Hagel, Jillian M; Zhang, Ye; Kilpatrick, Korey; Levy, Asaf; Marsolais, Frédéric; Lewinsohn, Efraim; Sensen, Christoph W; Facchini, Peter J

    2015-01-01

    Amphetamine analogues are produced by plants in the genus Ephedra and by khat (Catha edulis), and include the widely used decongestants and appetite suppressants (1S,2S)-pseudoephedrine and (1R,2S)-ephedrine. The production of these metabolites, which derive from L-phenylalanine, involves a multi-step pathway partially mapped out at the biochemical level using knowledge of benzoic acid metabolism established in other plants, and direct evidence using khat and Ephedra species as model systems. Despite the commercial importance of amphetamine-type alkaloids, only a single step in their biosynthesis has been elucidated at the molecular level. We have employed Illumina next-generation sequencing technology, paired with Trinity and Velvet-Oases assembly platforms, to establish data-mining frameworks for Ephedra sinica and khat plants. Sequence libraries representing a combined 200,000 unigenes were subjected to an annotation pipeline involving direct searches against public databases. Annotations included the assignment of Gene Ontology (GO) terms used to allocate unigenes to functional categories. As part of our functional genomics program aimed at novel gene discovery, the databases were mined for enzyme candidates putatively involved in alkaloid biosynthesis. Queries used for mining included enzymes with established roles in benzoic acid metabolism, as well as enzymes catalyzing reactions similar to those predicted for amphetamine alkaloid metabolism. Gene candidates were evaluated based on phylogenetic relationships, FPKM-based expression data, and mechanistic considerations. Establishment of expansive sequence resources is a critical step toward pathway characterization, a goal with both academic and industrial implications. PMID:25806807

  20. Transcriptome Profiling of Khat (Catha edulis) and Ephedra sinica Reveals Gene Candidates Potentially Involved in Amphetamine-Type Alkaloid Biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Groves, Ryan A.; Hagel, Jillian M.; Zhang, Ye; Kilpatrick, Korey; Levy, Asaf; Marsolais, Frédéric; Lewinsohn, Efraim; Sensen, Christoph W.; Facchini, Peter J.

    2015-01-01

    Amphetamine analogues are produced by plants in the genus Ephedra and by khat (Catha edulis), and include the widely used decongestants and appetite suppressants (1S,2S)-pseudoephedrine and (1R,2S)-ephedrine. The production of these metabolites, which derive from L-phenylalanine, involves a multi-step pathway partially mapped out at the biochemical level using knowledge of benzoic acid metabolism established in other plants, and direct evidence using khat and Ephedra species as model systems. Despite the commercial importance of amphetamine-type alkaloids, only a single step in their biosynthesis has been elucidated at the molecular level. We have employed Illumina next-generation sequencing technology, paired with Trinity and Velvet-Oases assembly platforms, to establish data-mining frameworks for Ephedra sinica and khat plants. Sequence libraries representing a combined 200,000 unigenes were subjected to an annotation pipeline involving direct searches against public databases. Annotations included the assignment of Gene Ontology (GO) terms used to allocate unigenes to functional categories. As part of our functional genomics program aimed at novel gene discovery, the databases were mined for enzyme candidates putatively involved in alkaloid biosynthesis. Queries used for mining included enzymes with established roles in benzoic acid metabolism, as well as enzymes catalyzing reactions similar to those predicted for amphetamine alkaloid metabolism. Gene candidates were evaluated based on phylogenetic relationships, FPKM-based expression data, and mechanistic considerations. Establishment of expansive sequence resources is a critical step toward pathway characterization, a goal with both academic and industrial implications. PMID:25806807

  1. Myopathy-inducing mutation H40Y in ACTA1 hampers actin filament structure and function.

    PubMed

    Chan, Chun; Fan, Jun; Messer, Andrew E; Marston, Steve B; Iwamoto, Hiroyuki; Ochala, Julien

    2016-08-01

    In humans, more than 200 missense mutations have been identified in the ACTA1 gene. The exact molecular mechanisms by which, these particular mutations become toxic and lead to muscle weakness and myopathies remain obscure. To address this, here, we performed a molecular dynamics simulation, and we used a broad range of biophysical assays to determine how the lethal and myopathy-related H40Y amino acid substitution in actin affects the structure, stability, and function of this protein. Interestingly, our results showed that H40Y severely disrupts the DNase I-binding-loop structure and actin filaments. In addition, we observed that normal and mutant actin monomers are likely to form distinctive homopolymers, with mutant filaments being very stiff, and not supporting proper myosin binding. These phenomena underlie the toxicity of H40Y and may be considered as important triggering factors for the contractile dysfunction, muscle weakness and disease phenotype seen in patients. PMID:27112274

  2. Langkolide, a 32-membered macrolactone antibiotic produced by Streptomyces sp. Acta 3062.

    PubMed

    Helaly, Soleiman E; Kulik, Andreas; Zinecker, Heidi; Ramachandaran, Kamalanathan; Tan, Geok Yuan Annie; Imhoff, Johannes F; Süssmuth, Roderich D; Fiedler, Hans-Peter; Sabaratnam, Vikineswary

    2012-06-22

    A new 32-membered macrolactone antibiotic, named langkolide, was isolated from the mycelium of Streptomyces sp. Acta 3062. The langkolide structure was determined by HR-MS and 1D and 2D NMR as a 32-membered macrolactone connected from an overhanging polyketide tail to a naphthoquinone unit mediated by two carbohydrate moieties. The producing strain was isolated from a rhizosphere soil of Clitorea sp. collected at Burau Bay, Langkawi, Malaysia, and was characterized by its morphological and chemotaxonomic features in addition to its 16S rRNA gene sequence. It was identified as a member of the Streptomyces galbus clade. Langkolide exhibited various bioactivities including antimicrobial and antiproliferative activities. Furthermore, langkolide inhibited human recombinant phosphodiesterase 4 with an IC(50) value of 0.48 μM. PMID:22642587

  3. Crystallization reports are the backbone of Acta Cryst. F, but do they have any spine?

    PubMed Central

    Newman, Janet; Burton, Denis R.; Caria, Sofia; Desbois, Sebastien; Gee, Christine L.; Fazio, Vincent J.; Kvansakul, Marc; Marshall, Bevan; Mills, Grant; Richter, Viviane; Seabrook, Shane A.; Wu, Mingbo; Peat, Thomas S.

    2013-01-01

    Crystallization of macromolecules is famously difficult. By knowing what has worked for others, researchers can ease the process, both in the case where the protein has already been crystallized and in the situation where more general guidelines are needed. The 264 crystallization communications published in Acta Crystallographica Section F in 2012 have been reviewed, and from this analysis some information about trends in crystallization has been gleaned. More importantly, it was found that there are several ways in which the utility of these communications could be increased: to make each individual paper a more complete crystallization record; and to provide a means for taking a snapshot of what the current ‘best practices’ are in the field. PMID:23832194

  4. Crystallization reports are the backbone of Acta Cryst. F, but do they have any spine?

    PubMed

    Newman, Janet; Burton, Denis R; Caria, Sofia; Desbois, Sebastien; Gee, Christine L; Fazio, Vincent J; Kvansakul, Marc; Marshall, Bevan; Mills, Grant; Richter, Viviane; Seabrook, Shane A; Wu, Mingbo; Peat, Thomas S

    2013-07-01

    Crystallization of macromolecules is famously difficult. By knowing what has worked for others, researchers can ease the process, both in the case where the protein has already been crystallized and in the situation where more general guidelines are needed. The 264 crystallization communications published in Acta Crystallographica Section F in 2012 have been reviewed, and from this analysis some information about trends in crystallization has been gleaned. More importantly, it was found that there are several ways in which the utility of these communications could be increased: to make each individual paper a more complete crystallization record; and to provide a means for taking a snapshot of what the current `best practices' are in the field. PMID:23832194

  5. Publications on Albert Einstein, cosmology and theory of relativity in Acta Historica Astronomiae. An annotated bibliography. (German Title: Publikationen zu Albert Einstein, Kosmologie und Relativitätstheorie in Acta Historica Astronomiae. Eine annotierte Bibliographie)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dick, Wolfgang R.

    This bibliography lists 15 publications which appeared in volumes 1 to 26 (1998 to 2005) in the series ``Acta Historica Astronomiae''. They concern life and work of Albert Einstein as well as the history of and modern developments in the theory of relativity and relativistic cosmology.

  6. Intentional introduction of Artemia sinica (Anostraca) in the high-altitude Tibetan lake Dangxiong Co: the new population and consequences for the environment and for humans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Qinxian; Anufriieva, Elena; Liu, Xifang; Kong, Fanjing; Shadrin, Nickolai

    2015-11-01

    The imbalance between supply and demand of Artemia cysts in China and around the world is increasing now. Salt lakes in Tibet may contribute to the solution of the problem. In Northern Tibet there are 26 saline lakes whose salinity and temperature may support Artemia survival at an altitude of 4 000-5 100 m. We found Artemia in 15 of these lakes. The saline lakes with Artemia populations mainly belong to the shallow basin lakes, and the majority of these lakes are small in area. The total area of lakes without Artemia is more than 1 000 km2. Lake Dangxiong Co (Co means lake in Tibet) was chosen for the intentional introduction of Artemia sinica. In 2004, 850 g of A. sinica cysts, originating from Qinghai, were introduced in the lake. Surveys in 2006-2014 showed that the average abundance of Artemia adults in the lake gradually increased from 20 ind./m3 in 2006 to 1950 ind./m3 in 2013. We assume that two subpopulations of A. sinica, separated by depth, may exist in the lake. The new Artemia population caused an increase in the number of species of phytoplankton and heterotrophic protozoa with a decrease of their total abundance. Water transparency also increased. Dominance in phytoplankton passed from cyanobacteria to diatoms. Changes occurred not only in the lake ecosystem; the number of water birds using the lakes also dramatically increased. Preliminary calculations showed that is it possible to harvest at least about 150 t cysts per year from the lake as well as 3.2 thousand tons of frozen or 350 t of dried biomass of adult Artemia.

  7. Cloning and expression patterns of the brine shrimp (Artemia sinica) glycogen phosphorylase (GPase) gene during development and in response to temperature stress.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Na; Hou, Ming; Wang, Ting; Chen, Yifei; Lv, Ying; Li, Zengrong; Zhang, Rui; Xin, Wenting; Zou, Xiangyang; Hou, Lin

    2014-01-01

    Glycogen serves as a metabolic reserve and is involved in macromolecular synthesis. Glycogen phosphorylase (GPase) is a key enzyme involved in intracellular glycogen catabolism, catalyzing the first step in glycogen degradation. In the diapause, GPase catalyzes glycogen into the closely related molecule, sorbitol. In this study, the full-length cDNA of the GPase gene (2,790 bp) was isolated from Artemia sinica for the first time by rapid amplification of cDNA ends technology. The GPase gene encoded a protein of 853 amino acids belonging to the Glycosyltransferase GTB type superfamily. The expression pattern and location of GPase were investigated at various stages during the embryonic development of A. sinica using real-time PCR and in situ hybridization. High GPase expression was detected at the 0 and 5 h stages. Subsequently, expression declined and was maintained at a low level during the stages from 10 to 40 h following by a small increase at day 3. Expression was downregulated at temperatures ranging from 25 to 20 °C and was subsequently upregulated in the range 15-5 °C. In situ hybridization assays showed wide distribution of the GPase gene during different developmental stages. From the results of this study, we conclude that the GPase gene expression is stress-related and might play an important role in Artemia development and metabolism. PMID:24323193

  8. Molecular cloning, characterization and expression analysis of the protein arginine N-methyltransferase 1 gene (As-PRMT1) from Artemia sinica.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Xue; Yao, Feng; Li, Xuejie; Jia, Baolin; Zhong, Guangying; Zhang, Jianfeng; Zou, Xiangyang; Hou, Lin

    2015-07-01

    Protein arginine N-methyltransferase 1 (PRMT1) is an important epigenetic regulation factor in eukaryotic genomes. PRMT1 is involved in histone arginine loci methylation modification, changes in eukaryotic genomes' chromatin structure, and gene expression regulation. In the present paper, the full-length 1201-bp cDNA sequence of the PRMT1 homolog of Artemia sinica (As-PRMT1) was cloned for the first time. The putative As-PRMT1 protein comprises 346 amino acids with a SAM domain and a PRMT5 domain. Multiple sequence alignments revealed that the putative sequence of As-PRMT1 protein was relatively conserved across species, especially in the SAM domain. As-PRMT1 is widely expressed during embryo development of A. sinica. This is followed by a dramatic upregulation after diapause termination and then downregulation from the nauplius stage. Furthermore, As-PRMT1 transcripts are highly upregulated under conditions of high salinity and low temperature stress. These findings suggested that As-PRMT1 is a stress-related factor that might promote or inhibit the expression of certain genes, play a critical role in embryonic development and in resistance to low temperature and high salinity stress. PMID:25843627

  9. Comparative analysis of transcriptomes in aerial stems and roots of Ephedra sinica based on high-throughput mRNA sequencing.

    PubMed

    Okada, Taketo; Takahashi, Hironobu; Suzuki, Yutaka; Sugano, Sumio; Noji, Masaaki; Kenmoku, Hiromichi; Toyota, Masao; Kanaya, Shigehiko; Kawahara, Nobuo; Asakawa, Yoshinori; Sekita, Setsuko

    2016-12-01

    Ephedra plants are taxonomically classified as gymnosperms, and are medicinally important as the botanical origin of crude drugs and as bioresources that contain pharmacologically active chemicals. Here we show a comparative analysis of the transcriptomes of aerial stems and roots of Ephedra sinica based on high-throughput mRNA sequencing by RNA-Seq. De novo assembly of short cDNA sequence reads generated 23,358, 13,373, and 28,579 contigs longer than 200 bases from aerial stems, roots, or both aerial stems and roots, respectively. The presumed functions encoded by these contig sequences were annotated by BLAST (blastx). Subsequently, these contigs were classified based on gene ontology slims, Enzyme Commission numbers, and the InterPro database. Furthermore, comparative gene expression analysis was performed between aerial stems and roots. These transcriptome analyses revealed differences and similarities between the transcriptomes of aerial stems and roots in E. sinica. Deep transcriptome sequencing of Ephedra should open the door to molecular biological studies based on the entire transcriptome, tissue- or organ-specific transcriptomes, or targeted genes of interest. PMID:27625990

  10. Structural studies of an arabinan from the stems of Ephedra sinica by methylation analysis and 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Xia, Yong-Gang; Liang, Jun; Yang, Bing-You; Wang, Qiu-Hong; Kuang, Hai-Xue

    2015-05-01

    Plant arabinan has important biological activity. In this study, a water-soluble arabinan (Mw∼6.15kDa) isolated from the stems of Ephedra sinica was found to consist of (1→5)-Araƒ, (1→3,5)-Araƒ, T-Araƒ, (1→3)-Araƒ and (1→2,5)-Araƒ residues at proportions of 10:2:3:2:1. A tentative structure was proposed by methylation analysis, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy ((1)H NMR, (13)C NMR, DEPT-135, (1)H-(1)H COSY, HSQC, HMBC and ROESY) and literature. The structure proposed includes a branched (1→5)-α-Araf backbone where branching occurs at the O-2 and O-3 positions of the residues with 7.7% and 15.4% of the 1,5-linked α-Araf substituted at the O-2 and O-3 positions. The presence of a branched structure was further observed by atomic force microscopy. This polymer was characterized as having a much longer linear (1→5)-α-Araf backbone as a repeating unit. In particular, the presence of α-Araf→3)-α-Araf-(1→3)-α-Araf-(1→ attached at the O-2 is a new finding. This study may facilitate a deeper understanding of structure-activity relationships of biological polysaccharides from the stems of E. sinica. PMID:25659720

  11. Avoidance of Autophagy Mediated by PlcA or ActA Is Required for Listeria monocytogenes Growth in Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, Gabriel; Ge, Liang; Huang, Qiongying; Chen, Chen; Kianian, Sara; Roberts, Mary F.; Schekman, Randy

    2015-01-01

    Listeria monocytogenes is a facultative intracellular pathogen that escapes from phagosomes and grows in the cytosol of infected host cells. Most of the determinants that govern its intracellular life cycle are controlled by the transcription factor PrfA, including the pore-forming cytolysin listeriolysin O (LLO), two phospholipases C (PlcA and PlcB), and ActA. We constructed a strain that lacked PrfA but expressed LLO from a PrfA-independent promoter, thereby allowing the bacteria to gain access to the host cytosol. This strain did not grow efficiently in wild-type macrophages but grew normally in macrophages that lacked ATG5, a component of the autophagy LC3 conjugation system. This strain colocalized more with the autophagy marker LC3 (42% ± 7%) at 2 h postinfection, which constituted a 5-fold increase over the colocalization exhibited by the wild-type strain (8% ± 6%). While mutants lacking the PrfA-dependent virulence factor PlcA, PlcB, or ActA grew normally, a double mutant lacking both PlcA and ActA failed to grow in wild-type macrophages and colocalized more with LC3 (38% ± 5%). Coexpression of LLO and PlcA in a PrfA-negative strain was sufficient to restore intracellular growth and decrease the colocalization of the bacteria with LC3. In a cell-free assay, purified PlcA protein blocked LC3 lipidation, a key step in early autophagosome biogenesis, presumably by preventing the formation of phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate (PI3P). The results of this study showed that avoidance of autophagy by L. monocytogenes primarily involves PlcA and ActA and that either one of these factors must be present for L. monocytogenes growth in macrophages. PMID:25776746

  12. Book Review: Beitraege zur Astronomiegeschichte, Band 5 (Acta Historica Astronomiae Vol. 15)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duerbeck, H. W.; Dick, W. R.; Hamel, J.

    2002-12-01

    The 15th volume of the Acta Historica Astronomiae is at the same time the fifth collection of essays on the history of astronomy (Beitraege zur Astronomiegeschichte, Band 5), edited by the historians of astronomy W.R. Dick (Potsdam) and J. Hamel (Berlin). Besides a few short notices and book reviews, the book contains 11 major articles, which deal with astronomical topics covering the time from the 16th to the 20th centuries. The first article, on the analysis and interpretation of historical horoscopes as a source of the history of science, is based on the inaugural lecture of its author, Guenther Oestmann. After a general introduction, which deals with the principles of horoscope making, the author discusses the horoscope of Count Heinrich Ranzau (1526-1598), the Danish governor of Schleswig-Holstein, who was a friend of Tycho Brahe. Oestmann shows that the astronomical-mathematical basis of such a horoscope can be reconstructed and interpreted. However, it is hardly possible to gain an insight in the process how the interpretation of a horoscope was done in detail. The second and third articles, by Franz Daxecker, deal with Athanasius Kircher and Christoph Scheiner, two catholic astronomers of the 17th century. Kircher's Organum Mathematicum is a calculating device that can be used in the fields of arithmetic, geometry, chronology, astronomy, astrology and others. The author provides extracts of the description of the Organum taken from a book by Caspar Schott, which deal with chronology and astronomy. A photograph of the Organum indicates that this tool consists of a set of tables glued on wooden or cardboard, but details of its contents and applications remain pretty obscure for the reader - a few elaborated examples would have been helpful. The second paper deals with the life of Christoph Scheiner SJ, the co-discoverer of sunspots (next to Galileo), after leaving Rome in 1633 - the year of the Galileo trial. Scheiner spent his later years in the Austrian and

  13. Association of a Novel ACTA1 Mutation With a Dominant Progressive Scapuloperoneal Myopathy in an Extended Family

    PubMed Central

    Zukosky, Kristen; Meilleur, Katherine; Traynor, Bryan J.; Dastgir, Jahannaz; Medne, Livija; Devoto, Marcella; Collins, James; Rooney, Jachinta; Zou, Yaqun; Yang, Michele L.; Gibbs, J. Raphael; Meier, Markus; Stetefeld, Joerg; Finkel, Richard S.; Schessl, Joachim; Elman, Lauren; Felice, Kevin; Ferguson, Toby A.; Ceyhan-Birsoy, Ozge; Beggs, Alan H.; Tennekoon, Gihan; Johnson, Janel O.; Bönnemann, Carsten G.

    2015-01-01

    IMPORTANCE New genomic strategies can now be applied to identify a diagnosis in patients and families with previously undiagnosed rare genetic conditions. The large family evaluated in the present study was described in 1966 and now expands the phenotype of a known neuromuscular gene. OBJECTIVE To determine the genetic cause of a slowly progressive, autosomal dominant, scapuloperoneal neuromuscular disorder by using linkage and exome sequencing. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS Fourteen affected individuals in a 6-generation family with a progressive scapuloperoneal disorder were evaluated. Participants were examined at pediatric, neuromuscular, and research clinics from March 1, 2005, to May 31, 2014. Exome and linkage were performed in genetics laboratories of research institutions. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Examination and evaluation by magnetic resonance imaging, ultrasonography, electrodiagnostic studies, and muscle biopsies (n = 3). Genetic analysis included linkage analysis (n = 17) with exome sequencing (n = 7). RESULTS Clinical findings included progressive muscle weakness in an initially scapuloperoneal and distal distribution, including wrist extensor weakness, finger and foot drop, scapular winging, mild facial weakness, Achilles tendon contractures, and diminished or absent deep tendon reflexes. Both age at onset and progression of the disease showed clinical variability within the family. Muscle biopsy specimens demonstrated type I fiber atrophy and trabeculated fibers without nemaline rods. Analysis of exome sequences within the linkage region (4.8 megabases) revealed missense mutation c.591C>A p.Glu197Asp in a highly conserved residue in exon 4 of ACTA1. The mutation cosegregated with disease in all tested individuals and was not present in unaffected individuals. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE This family defines a new scapuloperoneal phenotype associated with an ACTA1 mutation. A highly conserved protein, ACTA1 is implicated in multiple muscle

  14. Book Review: Beitraege zur Astronomiegeschichte, Band 5 (Acta Historica Astronomiae Vol. 15)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duerbeck, H. W.; Dick, W. R.; Hamel, J.

    2002-12-01

    The 15th volume of the Acta Historica Astronomiae is at the same time the fifth collection of essays on the history of astronomy (Beitraege zur Astronomiegeschichte, Band 5), edited by the historians of astronomy W.R. Dick (Potsdam) and J. Hamel (Berlin). Besides a few short notices and book reviews, the book contains 11 major articles, which deal with astronomical topics covering the time from the 16th to the 20th centuries. The first article, on the analysis and interpretation of historical horoscopes as a source of the history of science, is based on the inaugural lecture of its author, Guenther Oestmann. After a general introduction, which deals with the principles of horoscope making, the author discusses the horoscope of Count Heinrich Ranzau (1526-1598), the Danish governor of Schleswig-Holstein, who was a friend of Tycho Brahe. Oestmann shows that the astronomical-mathematical basis of such a horoscope can be reconstructed and interpreted. However, it is hardly possible to gain an insight in the process how the interpretation of a horoscope was done in detail. The second and third articles, by Franz Daxecker, deal with Athanasius Kircher and Christoph Scheiner, two catholic astronomers of the 17th century. Kircher's Organum Mathematicum is a calculating device that can be used in the fields of arithmetic, geometry, chronology, astronomy, astrology and others. The author provides extracts of the description of the Organum taken from a book by Caspar Schott, which deal with chronology and astronomy. A photograph of the Organum indicates that this tool consists of a set of tables glued on wooden or cardboard, but details of its contents and applications remain pretty obscure for the reader - a few elaborated examples would have been helpful. The second paper deals with the life of Christoph Scheiner SJ, the co-discoverer of sunspots (next to Galileo), after leaving Rome in 1633 - the year of the Galileo trial. Scheiner spent his later years in the Austrian and

  15. Systematic mutational analysis of the amino-terminal domain of the Listeria monocytogenes ActA protein reveals novel functions in actin-based motility.

    PubMed

    Lauer, P; Theriot, J A; Skoble, J; Welch, M D; Portnoy, D A

    2001-12-01

    The Listeria monocytogenes ActA protein acts as a scaffold to assemble and activate host cell actin cytoskeletal factors at the bacterial surface, resulting in directional actin polymerization and propulsion of the bacterium through the cytoplasm. We have constructed 20 clustered charged-to-alanine mutations in the NH2-terminal domain of ActA and replaced the endogenous actA gene with these molecular variants. These 20 clones were evaluated in several biological assays for phenotypes associated with particular amino acid changes. Additionally, each protein variant was purified and tested for stimulation of the Arp2/3 complex, and a subset was tested for actin monomer binding. These specific mutations refined the two regions involved in Arp2/3 activation and suggest that the actin-binding sequence of ActA spans 40 amino acids. We also identified a 'motility rate and cloud-to-tail transition' region in which nine contiguous mutations spanning amino acids 165-260 caused motility rate defects and changed the ratio of intracellular bacteria associated with actin clouds and comet tails without affecting Arp2/3 activation. Several unusual motility phenotypes were associated with amino acid changes in this region, including altered paths through the cytoplasm, discontinuous actin tails in host cells and the tendency to 'skid' or dramatically change direction while moving. These unusual phenotypes illustrate the complexity of ActA functions that control the actin-based motility of L. monocytogenes. PMID:11886549

  16. The Potential Roles of the G1LEA and G3LEA Proteins in Early Embryo Development and in Response to Low Temperature and High Salinity in Artemia sinica.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Wei; Yao, Feng; Zhang, Mengchen; Jing, Ting; Zhang, Shuang; Hou, Lin; Zou, Xiangyang

    2016-01-01

    Late embryogenesis abundant proteins (LEA) are stress resistance-related proteins that play crucial roles in protecting against desiccation, cold and high salinity in a variety of animals and plants. However, the expression pattern, distribution and functions of LEA proteins in the post-diapause period of Artemia sinica, and under high salinity and low temperature stresses, remain unknown. In this study, the complete cDNA sequences of the group 1 LEA (As-g1lea) and group 3 LEA (As-g3lea) genes from A. sinica were cloned. The expression patterns and location of As-G1LEA and As-G1LEA were investigated. The protein abundances of As-G1LEA, As-G3LEA and Trehalase were analyzed during different developmental stages of the embryo and under low temperature and high salinity stresses in A. sinica. The full-length cDNA of As-g1lea was 960 bp, encoding a 182 amino acid protein, and As-g3lea was 2089 bp, encoding a 364 amino acid protein. As-g1lea and As-g3lea showed their highest expressions at 0 h of embryonic development and both showed higher relative expression in embryonic, rather than adult, development stages. The abundances of As-G1LEA, As-G3LEA and trehalose were upregulated under low temperature and downregulated under high salinity stress. These two genes did not show any tissue or organ specific expression. Our results suggested that these LEA proteins might play a pivotal role in stress tolerance in A. sinica. PMID:27603306

  17. Metabolomics based on liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry reveals the chemical difference in the stems and roots derived from Ephedra sinica.

    PubMed

    Lv, Mengying; Chen, Jiaqing; Gao, Yiqiao; Sun, Jianbo; Zhang, Qianqian; Zhang, Mohan; Xu, Fengguo; Zhang, Zunjian

    2015-10-01

    To better understand different traditional uses of the stems (known as Mahuang) and roots (known as Mahuanggen) of Ephedra sinica, their chemical difference should be investigated. In this study, an ultra-fast liquid chromatography coupled with ion trap time-of-flight mass spectrometry untargeted metabolomics approach was established to reveal global chemical difference between Mahuang and Mahuanggen. Clear separation was observed in scores plots of principal component analysis and orthogonal partial least squares-discriminant analysis. Twenty two chemical markers responsible for such separation were screened out and unambiguously/tentatively characterized. Then chemical markers of pharmacologically important ephedrine and pseudoephedrine were absolutely quantified using liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry under multiple reaction monitoring mode. The results showed that Mahuang was rich in ephedrine-type alkaloids, while Mahuanggen was rich in macrocyclic spermine alkaloids. Additionally, different types of flavan-3-ols and flavones exist in Mahuang and Mahuanggen extracts. This research facilitates a better understanding of different traditional uses of Mahuang and Mahuanggen and provides references for chemical analysis of other medicinal plants. PMID:26224607

  18. Electrostatic and Hydrophobic Interactions Mediate Single-Stranded DNA Recognition and Acta2 Repression by Purine-Rich Element-Binding Protein B.

    PubMed

    Rumora, Amy E; Ferris, Lauren A; Wheeler, Tamar R; Kelm, Robert J

    2016-05-17

    Myofibroblast differentiation is characterized by an increased level of expression of cytoskeletal smooth muscle α-actin. In human and murine fibroblasts, the gene encoding smooth muscle α-actin (Acta2) is tightly regulated by a network of transcription factors that either activate or repress the 5' promoter-enhancer in response to environmental cues signaling tissue repair and remodeling. Purine-rich element-binding protein B (Purβ) suppresses the expression of Acta2 by cooperatively interacting with the sense strand of a 5' polypurine sequence containing an inverted MCAT cis element required for gene activation. In this study, we evaluated the chemical basis of nucleoprotein complex formation between the Purβ repressor and the purine-rich strand of the MCAT element in the mouse Acta2 promoter. Quantitative single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) binding assays conducted in the presence of increasing concentrations of monovalent salt or anionic detergent suggested that the assembly of a high-affinity nucleoprotein complex is driven by a combination of electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions. Consistent with the results of pH titration analysis, site-directed mutagenesis revealed several basic amino acid residues in the intermolecular (R267) and intramolecular (K82 and R159) subdomains that are essential for Purβ transcriptional repressor function in Acta2 promoter-reporter assays. In keeping with their diminished Acta2 repressor activity in fibroblasts, purified Purβ variants containing an R267A mutation exhibited reduced binding affinity for purine-rich ssDNA. Moreover, certain double and triple-point mutants were also defective in binding to the Acta2 corepressor protein, Y-box-binding protein 1. Collectively, these findings establish the repertoire of noncovalent interactions that account for the unique structural and functional properties of Purβ. PMID:27064749

  19. Twenty Years of Society of Medical Informatics of B&H and the Journal Acta Informatica Medica

    PubMed Central

    Masic, Izet

    2012-01-01

    In 2012, Health/Medical informatics profession celebrates five jubilees in Bosnia and Herzegovina: a) Thirty five years from the introduction of the first automatic manipulation of data; b) Twenty five years from establishing Society for Medical Informatics BiH; c) Twenty years from establishing scientific and professional journal of the Society for Medical Informatics of Bosnia and Herzegovina „Acta Informatica Medica“; d) Twenty years from establishing first Cathdra for Medical Informatics on biomedical faculties in Bosnia and Herzegovina and e) Ten years from the introduction of “Distance learning” in medical curriculum. All of the five mentioned activities in the area of Medical informatics had special importance and gave appropriate contribution in the development of Health/Medical informatics in Bosnia And Herzegovina. PMID:23322947

  20. Streptomyces rochei ACTA1551, an Indigenous Greek Isolate Studied as a Potential Biocontrol Agent against Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici

    PubMed Central

    Kanini, Grammatiki S.; Katsifas, Efstathios A.; Savvides, Alexandros L.; Karagouni, Amalia D.

    2013-01-01

    Many studies have shown that several Greek ecosystems inhabit very interesting bacteria with biotechnological properties. Therefore Streptomyces isolates from diverse Greek habitats were selected for their antifungal activity against the common phytopathogenic fungus Fusarium oxysporum. The isolate encoded ACTA1551, member of Streptomyces genus, could strongly suppress the fungal growth when examined in antagonistic bioassays in vitro. The isolate was found phylogenetically relative to Streptomyces rochei after analyzing its 16S rDNA sequence. The influence of different environmental conditions, such as medium composition, temperature, and pH on the expression of the antifungal activity was thoroughly examined. Streptomyces rochei ACTA1551 was able to protect tomato seeds from F. oxysporum infection in vivo while it was shown to promote the growth of tomato plants when the pathogen was absent. In an initial effort towards the elucidation of the biochemical and physiological nature of ACTA1551 antifungal activity, extracts from solid streptomycete cultures under antagonistic or/and not antagonistic conditions were concentrated and fractionated. The metabolites involved in the antagonistic action of the isolate showed to be more than one and produced independently of the presence of the pathogen. The above observations could support the application of Streptomyces rochei ACTA1551 as biocontrol agent against F. oxysporum. PMID:23762841

  1. Validating skinfold thickness as a proxy to estimate total body fat in wild toque macaques (Macaca sinica) using the mass of dissected adipose tissue.

    PubMed

    Dittus, Wolfgang P J; Gunathilake, K A Sunil

    2015-06-01

    Skinfold thickness (SFT) has been used often in non-human primates and humans as a proxy to estimate fatness (% body fat). We intended to validate the relation between SFT (in recently deceased specimens) and the mass of adipose tissue as determined from dissection of fresh carcasses of wild toque macaques (Macaca sinica). In adult male and female toque macaques body composition is normally 2% adipose tissue. Calipers for measuring SFT were suitable for measuring only some subcutaneous deposits of adipose tissue but were not suitable for measuring large fat deposits within the body cavity or minor intermuscular ones. The anatomical distribution of 13 different adipose deposits, in different body regions (subcutaneous, intra-abdominal and intermuscular) and their proportional size differences, were consistent in this species (as in other primates), though varying in total mass among individuals. These consistent allometric relationships were fundamental for estimating fatness of different body regions based on SFT. The best fit statistically significant correlations and regressions with the known masses of dissectible adipose tissue were evident between the SFT means of the seven sites measured, as well as with a single point on the abdomen anterior to the umbilicus. SFT related to total fat mass and intra-abdominal fat mass in curvilinear regressions and to subcutaneous fat mass in a linear relationship. To adjust for differences in body size among individuals, and to circumvent intangible variations in total body mass allocated, for example to the gastro-intestinal contents, dissected fat mass was estimated per unit body size (length of crown-rump)(3). SFT had greater coefficients of correlation and regressions with this Fat Mass Index (g/dm(3)) than with Percent Body Fat. PMID:25715692

  2. The beginnings of Acta Neurochirurgica and the work of Fritz Loew, chief editor from 1958 - 1997. An historical vignette.

    PubMed

    Reulen, Hans-Jürgen; Collmann, Hartmut

    2012-07-01

    Acta Neurochirurgica was founded in 1950, in the difficult time after World War II, by Mario Milletti (Bologna) and Wolfram Sorgo (Innsbruck), and published by Springer press, Vienna. From the beginning the new journal was conceived as an international journal with an impressive list of outstanding neurosurgeons in the editorial board. Only a few years later the issues appeared at irregular intervals due to individual problems of both editors. Wilhelm Tönnis took the initiative to keep the journal alive, when he asked-in consent with Springer press-his staff member Fritz Loew to continue the editorial work and to assemble a new prestigious editorial board. Loew succeeded with both tasks and remained editor-in-chief for nearly 38 years. Initially, all papers were published in the native languages of the authors: English, French, German, Italian and Spanish. With ongoing time the journal accepted manuscripts in English only. The slow progress of this process exemplifies the slow integration of the European countries. In 1971, at the founding meeting of the European Association of Neurosurgical Societies (EANS) in Prague, Acta Neurochirurgica became the official organ of the EANS. Right from the beginning of Acta Neurochirurgica, Supplement volumes were added. Also, the book series Advances and Technical Standards in Neurosurgery is an offspring of Acta Neurochirurgica. Acta Neurochirurgica has become one of the most important neurosurgical journals worldwide. This historical sketch is based on an interview with Fritz Loew, now 91 years old, to which data from the available literature and the Archives of German Neurosurgery, as well as personal information by several colleagues were added. PMID:22581432

  3. Treatment with ActRIIB-mFc Produces Myofiber Growth and Improves Lifespan in the Acta1 H40Y Murine Model of Nemaline Myopathy.

    PubMed

    Tinklenberg, Jennifer; Meng, Hui; Yang, Lin; Liu, Fujun; Hoffmann, Raymond G; Dasgupta, Mahua; Allen, Kenneth P; Beggs, Alan H; Hardeman, Edna C; Pearsall, R Scott; Fitts, Robert H; Lawlor, Michael W

    2016-06-01

    Nemaline myopathies (NMs) are a group of congenital muscle diseases caused by mutations in at least 10 genes and associated with a range of clinical symptoms. NM is defined on muscle biopsy by the presence of cytoplasmic rod-like structures (nemaline rods) composed of cytoskeletal material. Myofiber smallness is also found in many cases of NM and may represent a cause of weakness that can be counteracted by treatment. We have used i.p. injection of activin type IIB receptor (ActRIIB)-mFc (an inhibitor of myostatin signaling) to promote hypertrophy and increase strength in our prior murine work; we therefore tested whether ActRIIB-mFc could improve weakness in NM mice through myofiber hypertrophy. We report a study of ActRIIB-mFc treatment in the Acta1 H40Y mouse model of NM. Treatment of Acta1 H40Y mice produced significant increases in body mass, muscle mass, quadriceps myofiber size, and survival, but other measurements of strength (forelimb grip strength, ex vivo measurements of contractile function) did not improve. Our studies also identified that the complications of urethral obstruction are associated with mortality in male hemizygote Acta1 H40Y mice. The incidence of urethral obstruction and histologic evidence of chronic obstruction (inflammation) were significantly lower in Acta1 H40Y mice that had been treated with ActRIIB-mFc. ActRIIB-mFc treatment produces a mild benefit to the disease phenotype in Acta1 H40Y mice. PMID:27102768

  4. [Benedetto Croce and the Stazione Zoologica Anton Dohrn].

    PubMed

    Borrelli, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    The relationship between the family of Benedetto Croce and that of Anton Dohrn were always characterized by cordiality and mutual respect. Both houses were international meeting places of artists, intellectuals and scientists. The narrowest and most lasting relationship was that between the philosopher and Reinhard Dohrn, from 1909 to 1965 director of the Zoological Station, a long period, marked, among other things, by the two World Wars. Both events caused major problems in the life of the institution. Starting in the twenties, their relationship continued until 1952, the year of Croce's death. In the years immediately following World War I Croce strove, with his prestige and authority, to preserve the Zoological Station's nature as a private entity, directed by Dohrn. As Minister of Education, on 30 September, 1920, he issued a decree-law which repealed that of 26 May, 1918, which had aimed at the 'Italianisation' of the Zoological Station. Croce instead transformed the Station into a "non-profit organization under the supervision of the Ministry of Education". The new decree sparked a lively debate in the Parliament and in the press, between supporters and opponents of the measure. On 9 December, a major discussion took place in the Senate, published in the same year under the title On the Zoological Station in Naples. The discussion revolved around two fundamental political concepts: is it legitimate to take, for reasons of culture, civilization and the law of war, possession of the "the fruit of the talent of others"? is it legitimate "to replace with a state organization'' what had been created as a private activity, and was the result of the enthusiasm and interest of individuals? Croce's victory, however, was not lasting. During the Fascist era, with the decree of 21 October 1923, the Zoological Station was again transformed into an Italian state body. PMID:26013198

  5. Rimitas Zoologicas - para Colorear ("doodle art"). (Aminal Rhymes - for Coloring.)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marquez, Jerry

    The animal rhymes are written in Spanish and dittoed on white card stock, ready for coloring and use. The rhyme, together with a basic vocabulary and pronunciation difficulties for English-speakers, is printed on the back of each picture so that the cards may be shown and read at the same time. Rhymes are about a butterfly, frog, cow, fish, cat,…

  6. Vascular disease-causing mutation R258C in ACTA2 disrupts actin dynamics and interaction with myosin

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Hailong; Fagnant, Patricia M.; Bookwalter, Carol S.; Joel, Peteranne; Trybus, Kathleen M.

    2015-01-01

    Point mutations in vascular smooth muscle α-actin (SM α-actin), encoded by the gene ACTA2, are the most prevalent cause of familial thoracic aortic aneurysms and dissections (TAAD). Here, we provide the first molecular characterization, to our knowledge, of the effect of the R258C mutation in SM α-actin, expressed with the baculovirus system. Smooth muscles are unique in that force generation requires both interaction of stable actin filaments with myosin and polymerization of actin in the subcortical region. Both aspects of R258C function therefore need investigation. Total internal reflection fluorescence (TIRF) microscopy was used to quantify the growth of single actin filaments as a function of time. R258C filaments are less stable than WT and more susceptible to severing by cofilin. Smooth muscle tropomyosin offers little protection from cofilin cleavage, unlike its effect on WT actin. Unexpectedly, profilin binds tighter to the R258C monomer, which will increase the pool of globular actin (G-actin). In an in vitro motility assay, smooth muscle myosin moves R258C filaments more slowly than WT, and the slowing is exacerbated by smooth muscle tropomyosin. Under loaded conditions, small ensembles of myosin are unable to produce force on R258C actin-tropomyosin filaments, suggesting that tropomyosin occupies an inhibitory position on actin. Many of the observed defects cannot be explained by a direct interaction with the mutated residue, and thus the mutation allosterically affects multiple regions of the monomer. Our results align with the hypothesis that defective contractile function contributes to the pathogenesis of TAAD. PMID:26153420

  7. Vascular disease-causing mutation R258C in ACTA2 disrupts actin dynamics and interaction with myosin.

    PubMed

    Lu, Hailong; Fagnant, Patricia M; Bookwalter, Carol S; Joel, Peteranne; Trybus, Kathleen M

    2015-08-01

    Point mutations in vascular smooth muscle α-actin (SM α-actin), encoded by the gene ACTA2, are the most prevalent cause of familial thoracic aortic aneurysms and dissections (TAAD). Here, we provide the first molecular characterization, to our knowledge, of the effect of the R258C mutation in SM α-actin, expressed with the baculovirus system. Smooth muscles are unique in that force generation requires both interaction of stable actin filaments with myosin and polymerization of actin in the subcortical region. Both aspects of R258C function therefore need investigation. Total internal reflection fluorescence (TIRF) microscopy was used to quantify the growth of single actin filaments as a function of time. R258C filaments are less stable than WT and more susceptible to severing by cofilin. Smooth muscle tropomyosin offers little protection from cofilin cleavage, unlike its effect on WT actin. Unexpectedly, profilin binds tighter to the R258C monomer, which will increase the pool of globular actin (G-actin). In an in vitro motility assay, smooth muscle myosin moves R258C filaments more slowly than WT, and the slowing is exacerbated by smooth muscle tropomyosin. Under loaded conditions, small ensembles of myosin are unable to produce force on R258C actin-tropomyosin filaments, suggesting that tropomyosin occupies an inhibitory position on actin. Many of the observed defects cannot be explained by a direct interaction with the mutated residue, and thus the mutation allosterically affects multiple regions of the monomer. Our results align with the hypothesis that defective contractile function contributes to the pathogenesis of TAAD. PMID:26153420

  8. Host cell heparan sulfate proteoglycans mediate attachment and entry of Listeria monocytogenes, and the listerial surface protein ActA is involved in heparan sulfate receptor recognition.

    PubMed

    Alvarez-Domínguez, C; Vázquez-Boland, J A; Carrasco-Marín, E; López-Mato, P; Leyva-Cobián, F

    1997-01-01

    The mechanisms by which the intracellular pathogen Listeria monocytogenes interacts with the host cell surface remain largely unknown. In this study, we investigated the role of heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPG) in listerial infection. Pretreatment of bacteria with heparin or heparan sulfate (HS), but not with other glycosaminoglycans, inhibited attachment and subsequent uptake by IC-21 murine macrophages and CHO epithelial-like cells. Specific removal of HS from target cells with heparinase III significantly impaired listerial adhesion and invasion. Mutant CHO cells deficient in HS synthesis bound and internalized significantly fewer bacteria than wild-type cells did. Pretreatment of target cells with the HS-binding proteins fibronectin and platelet factor 4, or with heparinase III, impaired listerial infectivity only in those cells expressing HS. Moreover, a synthetic peptide corresponding to the HS-binding ligand in Plasmodium falciparum circumsporozoite protein (pepPf1) inhibited listerial attachment to IC-21 and CHO cells. A motif very similar to the HS-binding site of pepPf1 was found in the N-terminal region of ActA, the L. monocytogenes surface protein responsible for actin-based bacterial motility and cell-to-cell spread. In the same region of ActA, several clusters of positively charged amino acids which could function as HS-binding domains were identified. An ActA-deficient mutant was significantly impaired in attachment and entry due to altered HS recognition functions. This work shows that specific interaction with an HSPG receptor present on the surface of both professional and nonprofessional phagocytes is involved in L. monocytogenes cytoadhesion and invasion and strongly suggests that the bacterial surface protein ActA may be a ligand mediating HSPG receptor recognition. PMID:8975895

  9. Combined MRI and 31P-MRS Investigations of the ACTA1(H40Y) Mouse Model of Nemaline Myopathy Show Impaired Muscle Function and Altered Energy Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Gineste, Charlotte; Le Fur, Yann; Vilmen, Christophe; Le Troter, Arnaud; Pecchi, Emilie; Cozzone, Patrick J.; Hardeman, Edna C.; Bendahan, David; Gondin, Julien

    2013-01-01

    Nemaline myopathy (NM) is the most common disease entity among non-dystrophic skeletal muscle congenital diseases. Mutations in the skeletal muscle α-actin gene (ACTA1) account for ∼25% of all NM cases and are the most frequent cause of severe forms of NM. So far, the mechanisms underlying muscle weakness in NM patients remain unclear. Additionally, recent Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) studies reported a progressive fatty infiltration of skeletal muscle with a specific muscle involvement in patients with ACTA1 mutations. We investigated strictly noninvasively the gastrocnemius muscle function of a mouse model carrying a mutation in the ACTA1 gene (H40Y). Skeletal muscle anatomy (hindlimb muscles and fat volumes) and energy metabolism were studied using MRI and 31Phosphorus magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Skeletal muscle contractile performance was investigated while applying a force-frequency protocol (from 1–150 Hz) and a fatigue protocol (80 stimuli at 40 Hz). H40Y mice showed a reduction of both absolute (−40%) and specific (−25%) maximal force production as compared to controls. Interestingly, muscle weakness was associated with an improved resistance to fatigue (+40%) and an increased energy cost. On the contrary, the force frequency relationship was not modified in H40Y mice and the extent of fatty infiltration was minor and not different from the WT group. We concluded that the H40Y mouse model does not reproduce human MRI findings but shows a severe muscle weakness which might be related to an alteration of intrinsic muscular properties. The increased energy cost in H40Y mice might be related to either an impaired mitochondrial function or an alteration at the cross-bridges level. Overall, we provided a unique set of anatomic, metabolic and functional biomarkers that might be relevant for monitoring the progression of NM disease but also for assessing the efficacy of potential therapeutic interventions at a preclinical level. PMID:23613869

  10. BOOK REVIEW: Astronomie von Olbers bis Schwarzschild. Nationale Entwicklungen und internationale Beziehungen im 19. Jahrhundert (Acta Historica Astronomiae Vol. 16)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sterken, C.; Dick, W. R.; Hamel, J.

    2002-12-01

    The 14th volume of the Acta Historica Astronomiae is the Proceedings of a Colloquium International Relationships in Astronomy (in German) organised by the History of Astronomy Section of the Astronomische Gesellschaft held on September 18 in Lilienthal, Germany. The book contains 13 articles on astronomical topics covering the 19th and 20th centuries. The first paper is by Guenther Oestmann and deals with contemporary assessments of Johann Hieronymus Schroeter's (1745-1816) astronomical works and with later judgements of the scientific importance and significance of his observations as seen by astronomers and historians. This report is complemented by a second article on Schroeter's 25-ft reflector in Lilienthal near Bremen. To this end, author Felix Luehning has constructed a scale model of the telescope, and shows how the building of a model brings a deeper understanding of function and handling of this instrument. This brings us to a third paper on telescope building in Lilienthal: Hans-Joachim Leue describes the cooperation of Johann Hieronymus Schroeter and Johann Gottlieb Schrader in developing a white reflecting metal alloy for use as telescope mirror. The fourth article, by Klaus Schillinger, describes on the basis of archival documents the aquisition history of the Herschel telescopes, including telescope quality check, repair and building. Memorial sites referring to Wilhelm Olbers, Johann Hieronymus Schroeter, Friedrich Wilhelm Bessel and Carl Friedrich Gauss are described by Arno Langkavel in two walks outlined in the very last paper of this book. Peter Brosche, in the fifth paper, discusses the rediscovery of Ceres in December1801, a discovery that was the result of the combined efforts of a theoretician (Gauss) and an observer (Zach). Juergen Hamel's paper is based on previously unused archival sources and discusses the outstanding role played by H. C. Schumacher (1780-1850, editor of the Astronomische Nachrichten) in the communication between

  11. Multimodal MRI and 31P-MRS Investigations of the ACTA1(Asp286Gly) Mouse Model of Nemaline Myopathy Provide Evidence of Impaired In Vivo Muscle Function, Altered Muscle Structure and Disturbed Energy Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Gineste, Charlotte; Duhamel, Guillaume; Le Fur, Yann; Vilmen, Christophe; Cozzone, Patrick J.; Nowak, Kristen J.; Bendahan, David; Gondin, Julien

    2013-01-01

    Nemaline myopathy (NM), the most common non-dystrophic congenital disease of skeletal muscle, can be caused by mutations in the skeletal muscle α-actin gene (ACTA1) (~25% of all NM cases and up to 50% of severe forms of NM). Muscle function of the recently generated transgenic mouse model carrying the human Asp286Gly mutation in the ACTA1 gene (Tg(ACTA1)Asp286Gly) has been mainly investigated in vitro. Therefore, we aimed at providing a comprehensive picture of the in vivo hindlimb muscle function of Tg(ACTA1)Asp286Gly mice by combining strictly noninvasive investigations. Skeletal muscle anatomy (hindlimb muscles, intramuscular fat volumes) and microstructure were studied using multimodal magnetic resonance imaging (Dixon, T2, Diffusion Tensor Imaging [DTI]). Energy metabolism was studied using 31-phosphorus Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (31P-MRS). Skeletal muscle contractile performance was investigated while applying a force-frequency protocol (1–150 Hz) and a fatigue protocol (6 min–1.7 Hz). Tg(ACTA1)Asp286Gly mice showed a mild muscle weakness as illustrated by the reduction of both absolute (30%) and specific (15%) maximal force production. Dixon MRI did not show discernable fatty infiltration in Tg(ACTA1)Asp286Gly mice indicating that this mouse model does not reproduce human MRI findings. Increased T2 values were observed in Tg(ACTA1)Asp286Gly mice and might reflect the occurrence of muscle degeneration/regeneration process. Interestingly, T2 values were linearly related to muscle weakness. DTI experiments indicated lower λ2 and λ3 values in Tg(ACTA1)Asp286Gly mice, which might be associated to muscle atrophy and/or the presence of histological anomalies. Finally 31P-MRS investigations illustrated an increased anaerobic energy cost of contraction in Tg(ACTA1)Asp286Gly mice, which might be ascribed to contractile and non-contractile processes. Overall, we provide a unique set of information about the anatomic, metabolic and functional consequences

  12. Description of Eurystomatella sinica n. gen., n. sp., with establishment of a new family Eurystomatellidae n. fam. (Protista, Ciliophora, Scuticociliatia) and analyses of its phylogeny inferred from sequences of the small-subunit rRNA gene.

    PubMed

    Miao, Miao; Wang, Yangang; Song, Weibo; Clamp, John C; Al-Rasheid, Khaled A S

    2010-02-01

    Recently, an undescribed marine ciliate was isolated from China. Investigation of its morphology and infraciliature revealed it as an undescribed species representing a new genus, Eurystomatella n. gen., the type of the new family Eurystomatellidae n. fam. The new family is defined by close-set, apically positioned oral membranelles and a dominant buccal field that is surrounded by an almost completely circular paroral membrane. The new genus is defined by having a small oral membranelle 1 (M1), bipartite M2 and well-developed M3, a body surface faintly sculptured with a silverline system in a quadrangular, reticulate pattern and a cytostome located at the anterior third of a large buccal field. The type species of the new genus, Eurystomatella sinica n. sp., is a morphologically unique form that is defined mainly by the combination of a conspicuously flattened body, several caudal cilia, extremely long cilia associated with the buccal apparatus and a contractile vacuole located subcaudally. According to phylogenetic analyses of small-subunit (SSU) rRNA gene sequences, Eurystomatella clusters with the genus Cyclidium, as a sister group to the family Pleuronematidae. The great divergence in both buccal and somatic ciliature between Eurystomatella and all other known scuticociliates supports the establishment of a new family for Eurystomatella. PMID:19651734

  13. Description of two marine amphisiellid ciliates, Amphisiella milnei (Kahl, 1932) Horváth, 1950 and A. sinica sp. nov. (Ciliophora: Hypotrichia), with notes on their ontogenesis and SSU rDNA-based phylogeny.

    PubMed

    Li, Liqiong; Zhao, Xiaolu; Ji, Daode; Hu, Xiaozhong; Al-Rasheid, Khaled A S; Al-Farraj, Saleh A; Song, Weibo

    2016-06-01

    The morphology and taxonomy of two marine Amphisiella species, isolated from mariculture waters in northern China, were investigated using standard techniques. One species corresponds well with the original description of the poorly known Amphisiella milnei (Kahl, 1932) Horváth, 1950 by remarkable characteristics, inter alia, (i) the additional cirri between the left frontal cirrus and the buccal cirrus, and (ii) ring-shaped structure in the anterior and posterior body portion (posterior one sometimes lacking). The detailed description of the cirral pattern and an informative ontogenetic stage first reveal that the additional cirri, which are uniformly absent in all congeners, originate from the frontal-ventral transverse cirral anlage I. The other species represents a new species of Amphisiella, A. sinica sp. nov. It is distinguished from its most closely related congener A. annulata (Kahl, 1928) Borror, 1972 by having numerous ring-shaped structures with a shallow brim more or less densely centralised at both ends of the body. Brief notes on the cell division and phylogenetic analyses based on small subunit (SSU) rRNA gene sequence for both organisms are also supplied in order to get further understanding of their systematic positions. The molecular information indicates that both organisms belong to two separate clades and confirms that the genus Amphisiella might be polyphyletic. PMID:27156119

  14. Science, evolution and natural selection: in praise of Darwin at the Stazione Zoologica Anton Dohrn of Naples.

    PubMed

    Ayala, Francisco J

    2015-01-01

    Copernicus, Galileo, Newton and other physical scientists ushered in a conception of the universe as matter in motion governed by natural laws. Their discoveries brought about a fundamental revolution, namely a commitment to the postulate that the universe obeys immanent laws that can account for natural phenomena. The workings of the universe were brought into the realm of science: explanation through natural laws. Darwin completed the Copernican revolution by extending it to the living world. Darwin demonstrated the evolution of organisms. More important yet is that he discovered natural selection, the process that explains the 'design' of organisms. The adaptations and diversity of organisms, the origin of novel and complex species, even the origin of mankind, could now be explained by an orderly process of change governed by natural laws. The origin of species and the exquisite features of organisms had previously been explained as special creations of an omniscient God. Darwin brought them into the domain of science. PMID:26013200

  15. [Discriminative stimulus properties of ephedra herb (Ephedra sinica) in rats].

    PubMed

    Furuya, I; Watanabe, S

    1993-02-01

    The stimulus properties of ephedra herb (drug of Chinese medicine) were demonstrated in rats trained to discriminate between 2.5 ml/kg extract of ephedra herb and same volume of distilled water (p.o.). On the discrimination training, animals were shaped on an FR20 schedule to respond to one of two levers for food reinforcement when they were administrated ephedra herb extract, and to respond to the other lever when they were treated with distilled water. Cumulative dosing tests for the discriminative stimulus properties consisted of two to five trials of FR20 schedule; responses for both levers were reinforced. d-Methamphetamine 1.43 mg/kg p.o. indicated complete generalization to the ephedra herb. Nicotine and caffeine indicated modest generalization, but some animals generalized completely. These results suggest that the ephedra herb has d-methamphetamine-like, but unique discriminative stimulus properties. PMID:8317176

  16. Measurement of radon gas on major faults in California, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zhang, W.; King, C.-Y.

    1994-01-01

    Abundant data have been gathered through measurements of radon gas emission in the soil on several major active faults, such as San Andreas and Calaveras, in California, U.S.A.. They show radon emissions and their spatial variations at the unlocked, locked, and creeping sections of faults with different tectonic movements. The characteristics of these variations and the role of fault gases in the research on earthquake prediction are discussed in this paper. ?? 1994 Acta Seismologica Sinica.

  17. Effect of extractions from Ephedra sinica Stapf on hyperlipidemia in mice

    PubMed Central

    FAN, YANBO; LI, JINGJING; YIN, QIANG; ZHANG, YISHENG; XU, HUIFANG; SHI, XINHUA; LI, CHEN; ZHOU, YAN; ZHOU, CAIXIN

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the hypolipidemic and antioxidant potential of ephedra extractions in diet-induced hyperlipidemic mice. Mice were fed a diet high in fat to establish the hyperlipidemic model. A total of 48 mice were randomly divided into six groups, which included the normal control, model control, positive control, ephedra alkaloid, ephedra polysaccharide and ephedra non-alkaloid groups. Intragastric administration of the respective treatments was provided continuously for four weeks and the body weight was recorded weekly. The total levels of cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and malondialdehyde (MDA), and the activity levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) in the serum were recorded. In addition, changes in liver morphology and organ coefficients (ratio of organ to body weight) were evaluated, while the acute toxicity reactions of ephedra extractions were investigated using the modified Spearman-Karber method. Compared with the mice in the model control group, the weight, liver coefficient, serum levels of TC, TG and MDA, and activities of ALT and AST were significantly lower (P<0.05) in the mice in the ephedra non-alkaloid group. However, the level of HDL-C and the activity of SOD were markedly higher (P<0.05). Fatty degeneration of the liver in the ephedra alkaloid and non-alkaloid groups was notably improved compared with the model control group. The mean lethal dose (LD50) of ephedra alkaloids was 610 mg/kg, and the maximum tolerated dose of oral ephedra non-alkaloids in the mice was 367.5-fold larger than the clinical dosage in humans. In conclusion, ephedra non-alkaloids have therapeutic potential for the treatment of hyperlipidemia, since they are able to improve lipid metabolism and are relatively safe for use under the maximum tolerated dose. PMID:25574244

  18. Proceedings of the second international symposium on molecular markers in horticulture Acta Horticulturae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The second International Symposium on Molecular Markers in Horticulture was held at the CH2M Hill Alumni Center at Oregon State University (OSU), Corvallis (Oregon, US), from July 29 to August 1st, 2009. This symposium was convened by a scientist at the National Clonal Germplasm Repository (NCGR) of...

  19. Parameter identification of chaos system based on unknown parameter observer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Shaoming; Luo, Haigeng; Yue, Chaoyuan; Liao, Xiaoxin

    2008-04-01

    Parameter identification of chaos system based on unknown parameter observer is discussed generally. Based on the work of Guan et al. [X.P. Guan, H.P. Peng, L.X. Li, et al., Acta Phys. Sinica 50 (2001) 26], the design of unknown parameter observer is improved. The application of the improved approach is extended greatly. The works in some literatures [X.P. Guan, H.P. Peng, L.X. Li, et al., Acta Phys. Sinica 50 (2001) 26; J.H. Lü, S.C. Zhang, Phys. Lett. A 286 (2001) 148; X.Q. Wu, J.A. Lu, Chaos Solitons Fractals 18 (2003) 721; J. Liu, S.H. Chen, J. Xie, Chaos Solitons Fractals 19 (2004) 533] are only the special cases of our Corollaries 1 and 2. Some observers for Lü system and a new chaos system are designed to test our improved method, and simulations results demonstrate the effectiveness and feasibility of the improved approach.

  20. 40Ar/39Ar dating of the Honghuaqiao Formation in SE China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, S.; Zhang, H.; Hemming, S. R.; Mesko, G. T.; Fang, Y.

    2010-12-01

    The Jehol Biota, defined as the characteristic Eosestheria-Ephemeropsis-Lycoptera assemblage (Grabau, 1923, Bulletin of the Geological Survey of China), is widely distributed in eastern and central Asia (Li et al., 1982, Acta Geologica Sinica; Chen, 1988, Acta Palaeontologica Sinica). Abundant and varied fossils of the terrestrial Jehol Biota, including plants, insects, dinosaurs, birds, mammals, and freshwater invertebrates, have been discovered from the Dabeigou, the Yixian and the Jiufotang Formations (or their correlative strata) in northeast China from the Liaoning and Hebei Provinces and Inner Mongolia (Chen and Jin, 1999, Acta Palaeontologica Sinica). In addition, strata that may be correlative with the classic Jehol fossil-bearing formations have been identified extensively in central and eastern China, the Korean Peninsula, Mongolia, and Siberia. In the past three decades mollusk, conchostracan, ostracod, insect, fish, and plant fossils from localities in southeastern China, interpreted as related to the Jehol biota of the northeast, have been found (Mateer and Chen, 1986, Cretaceous Research; Li, 2003, Chinese Science Bulletin; Chen, Li and Batten, 2007, Geological Journal). However, a detailed correlation between the classic Jehol outcrops and the more recently found localities to the South and West has yet to emerge. Volcanic rocks from the Honghuaqiao fossil-bearing Formation in Tuzhou City of eastern Anhui Province, southeastern China provide an excellent opportunity to rectify this situation. Preliminary results of a pilot study suggest that the Honghuaqiao Formation is equivalent to the Longwanshan Formation of Anhui Province, southeastern China and the Yixian Formation, northeastern China (Chang et al., 2009, AGU abstract). Initial 40Ar/39Ar results indicate that conchostracans from the upper Honghuaqiao Formation are approximately 130 Ma. Our ongoing work aims to establish a high-resolution chronostratigraphy for Tuzhou City in Anhui Province

  1. Comment on "Apatite: A new redox proxy for silicic magmas?" [Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 132 (2014) 101-119

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marks, Michael A. W.; Scharrer, Manuel; Ladenburger, Sara; Markl, Gregor

    2016-06-01

    Recently Miles et al. (2014) proposed that a negative correlation between oxygen fugacity (expressed as logfO2 and the Mn content of apatite from a range of intermediate to silicic igneous rocks could be used as an oxybarometer (Eq. (1)).

  2. Towards Understanding Leadership in Early Childhood Context: Cross-Cultural Perspectives. Acta Universitatis Ouluensis, E Scientique Rerum Socialium 35.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hujala, Eeva, Ed.; Puroila, Anna-Maija, Ed.

    Recognizing the importance of leadership in determining the quality of early care and education programs, the International Leadership Project (ILP) was initiated in 1996 to develop an understanding of cross-cultural perspectives on leadership, to develop a conceptual framework of leadership, and to develop cross-cultural methodologies for…

  3. Reply to "Comment on papers by K. Shanahan that propose to explain anomalous heat generated by cold fusion", E. Storms, Thermochim. Acta (2005)

    SciTech Connect

    Shanahan, Kirk

    2005-09-21

    Dr. E. Storms has published a Letter [1] in which he argues that in a sequence of recent papers [2-5], the apparent excess heat signal claimed by Dr. Shanahan to arise from a calibration constant shift is actually true excess heat. In particular he proposes that the mechanisms proposed that foster the proposed calibration constant shifts [3,5] cannot occur as postulated for several reasons. As well, he proposes Shanahan has ignored the extant data proving this. Because this Letter may lend unwarranted support to acceptance of cold fusion claims, these erroneous arguments used by Storms need to be answered.

  4. Corrigendum to "Occurrence and abundance of 6-methyl branched glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers in soils: Implications for palaeoclimate reconstruction" [Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 141 (2014) 97-112

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Jonge, Cindy; Hopmans, Ellen C.; Zell, Claudia I.; Kim, Jung-Hyun; Schouten, Stefan; Sinninghe Damsté, Jaap S.

    2016-06-01

    The authors regret that the r2 values (squared pearson correlation coefficient values) reported in Figs. 7 and 8 and in the text, are instead the non-squared r values. This has no direct influence on our interpretation. We have included the corrected Figs. 7 and 8. The text describing these results should read as follows:

  5. Reply to comment by Marks et al. (2016) on "Apatite: A new redox proxy for silicic magmas?" [Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 132 (2014) 101-119

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miles, Andrew; Graham, Colin; Hawkesworth, Chris; Gillespie, Martin; Hinton, Richard; Bromiley, Geoffrey

    2016-06-01

    Marks et al. (2016) investigate the applicability of the Mn-in-apatite oxybarometer proposed by Miles et al. (2014) across a range of magma compositions using published data on well-characterised samples. The authors show that for magma compositions outside of the calc-alkaline and intermediate to silicic range used in the preliminary calibration, fO2 values calculated from Mn-in-apatite vary significantly from independently constrained estimates. These data are used to reiterate our warnings that other controls that are additional to oxygen fugacity are likely to affect Mn partitioning into apatite in some rock types, and particularly so in magmas that lie outside of the range of compositions and conditions used in the calibration. Marks et al. (2016) highlight that temperature may have an especially important effect on Mn partitioning in apatite in some rock types.

  6. Simposio sobre Educacion de Ninas: Evidencias, Temas, Acciones. Actas de sesiones. (Symposium on Girls Education: Evidence, Issues, Actions. Proceedings). (Washington, DC, May 17-18, 2000).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agency for International Development (IDCA), Washington, DC.

    This symposium highlighted core issues of controversy in girls' education and developed implications for policy and practice. Its evidence-based discussion forum encouraged dialogue, debate, and increased interaction and developed partnerships among academic institutions, nongovernmental organizations, multilateral development agencies, and other…

  7. Lithostratigraphy and depositional history of the Late Cenozoic hominid-bearing successions in the Yuanmou Basin, southwest China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urabe, Atsushi; Nakaya, Hideo; Muto, Tetsuji; Katoh, Shigehiro; Hyodo, Masayuki; Shunrong, Xue

    2001-09-01

    Late Cenozoic strata bearing hominids and hominoids are distributed in the Yuanmou Basin, Yunnan, southwest China. Incisors of Homo erectus discovered in these strata in 1965 reportedly show primitive features known in Africa (Hu, Acta geologica sinica 1 (1973, p. 65). However, recent paleomagnetic study has revealed that the age of the hominid correlates to the early Brunhes chron (Hyodo et al., Journal of human evolution (2001), submitted). The lithostratigraphy of the successions that yield many mammalian fossils including those of the hominid, and the record of Equus is re-examined. The successions are divided in ascending order into the Longchuan, Shagou, Gantang (newly proposed Yangliuchun and Daipojing Members) and Yuanmou (newly proposed Dainawu and Niujianbao Members) Formations, based on different lithology and sedimentary facies. The newly proposed depositional systems of the formations are in ascending order, alluvial fan, ephemeral braided river, sandy braided river, ephemeral gravelly braided river and alluvial fan systems. The change in facies and paleocurrents revealed in the successions suggest that the basin was initiated as a syncline basin at ca 3.5 Ma and was completed as an asymmetric half graben by active movement of the eastern marginal fault in the early Middle Pleistocene.

  8. Energy levels, wavelengths, and radiative transition probabilities for the Na-like ions with 38 [le] Z [le] 45

    SciTech Connect

    Ying Zhang; Qiren Zhu; Shoufu Pan )

    1992-11-01

    The investigation by Z.-Q Zhang et al. (Acta Optica Sinica 11, 193, 1991) shows that it is possible to realize soft X-ray lasing in the water window 23.3-43.8 [Angstrom] with the Na-like recombination scheme, which requires a lower pumping power at a high-power laser facility than that with other schemes. The fine-structure levels with n [le] 15 and l [le] 6 in Na-like ions with 38 [le] Z [le] 45 and the probabilities for radiative transitions between these levels are calculated using the multiconfiguration Dirac-Fock approach. The calculations show that the wavelengths of the anticipated laser transitions 6 f-4d and 6g-4f in the Na-like ions with 38 [le] Z [le] 43 and 5f-4d and 5g-4f in the Na-like ions with 40 [le] Z [le] 45 lie in the region of the water window.

  9. RETRACTED: The influence of sand diameter and wind velocity on sand particle lift-off and incident angles in the windblown sand flux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bo, Tian-Li; Zheng, Xiao-Jing; Duan, Shao-Zhen; Liang, Yi-Rui

    2013-05-01

    This article has been retracted: please see Elsevier Policy on Article Withdrawal. This article has been retracted at the request of the Editors-in-Chief. This article also contains significant similarity with parts of text, written by the same author(s), that have appeared in Tian-Li Bo, Xiao-Jing Zheng, Shao-Zhen Duan, Yi-Rui Liang, The influence of wind velocity and sand grain diameter on the falling velocities of sand particles, Powder Technology, Volume 241, June 2013, Pages 158-165. Tian-Li Bo, Xiao-Jing Zheng, Shao-Zhen Duan, Yi-Rui Liang, Analysis of sand particles' lift-off and incident velocities in wind-blown sand flux, Acta Mechanica Sinica, April 2013, Volume 29, Issue 2, pp 158-165. Tian-Li Bo, Xiao-Jing Zheng, Shao-Zhen Duan, Yi-Rui Liang, Influence of sand grain diameter and wind velocity on lift-off velocities of sand particles, The European Physical Journal E, May 2013, 36:50. Tian-Li Bo, Shao-Zhen Duan, Xiao-Jing Zheng, Yi-Rui Liang, The influence of sand bed temperature on lift-off and falling parameters in windblown sand flux, Geomorphology, Volume 204, 1 January 2014, Pages 477-484. The scientific community takes a very strong view on this matter and apologies are offered to readers of the journal that this was not detected during the submission process.

  10. Existence of almost periodic solutions for forced perturbed systems with piecewise constant argument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Yonghui; Huang, Zhenkun; Han, Maoan

    2007-09-01

    Certain almost periodic forced perturbed systems with piecewise argument are considered in this paper. By using the contraction mapping principle and some new analysis technique, some sufficient conditions are obtained for the existence and uniqueness of almost periodic solution of these systems. Furthermore, we study the harmonic and subharmonic solutions of these systems. The obtained results generalize the previous known results such as [A.M. Fink, Almost Periodic Differential Equation, Lecture Notes in Math., volE 377, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1974; C.Y. He, Almost Periodic Differential Equations, Higher Education Press, Beijing, 1992 (in Chinese); Z.S. Lin, The existence of almost periodic solution of linear system, Acta Math. Sinica 22 (5) (1979) 515-528 (in Chinese); C.Y. He, Existence of almost periodic solutions of perturbation systems, Ann. Differential Equations 9 (2) (1992) 173-181; Y.H. Xia, M. Lin, J. Cao, The existence of almost periodic solutions of certain perturbation system, J. Math. Anal. Appl. 310 (1) (2005) 81-96]. Finally, a tangible example and its numeric simulations show the feasibility of our results, the comparison between non-perturbed system and perturbed system, the relation between systems with and without piecewise argument.

  11. Comments on "Synthesis aspects, structural, spectroscopic, antimicrobial and room temperature ferromagnetism of zinc iodide complex with Schiff based ligand" by K. Shakila and S. Kalainathan, Spectrochim. Acta 135 A (2015) 1059-1065.

    PubMed

    Srinivasan, Bikshandarkoil R; Nadkarni, V S

    2016-06-15

    Shakila and Kalainathan report on the synthetic and structural aspects of a zinc iodide complex with Schiff based ligand, which exhibits room temperature ferromagnetism. In this comment, many points of criticism, concerning the characterization of this so called zinc iodide complex of Schiff based ligand are highlighted to prove that the title paper is completely erroneous. PMID:27037763

  12. Comments on "Synthesis aspects, structural, spectroscopic, antimicrobial and room temperature ferromagnetism of zinc iodide complex with Schiff based ligand" by K. Shakila and S. Kalainathan, Spectrochim. Acta 135 A (2015) 1059-1065

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srinivasan, Bikshandarkoil R.; Nadkarni, V. S.

    2016-06-01

    Shakila and Kalainathan report on the synthetic and structural aspects of a zinc iodide complex with Schiff based ligand, which exhibits room temperature ferromagnetism. In this comment, many points of criticism, concerning the characterization of this so called zinc iodide complex of Schiff based ligand are highlighted to prove that the title paper is completely erroneous.

  13. Comment on "Behavior of Re and Os during contact between an aqueous solution and oil: Consequences for the application of the Re-Os geochronometer to petroleum" [Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 158 (2015) 1-21

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Jia; Li, Zhen; Wang, Xuan-ce

    2016-08-01

    In a recent study, Mahdaoui et al. (2015) simulated the contact of oil with Re/Os-bearing aqueous fluids in petroleum reservoirs and concluded that both metals could be rapidly and substantially enriched in the oil fraction. These findings could have significant geological ramifications for the use of rhenium-osmium (Re-Os) geochronology in the age-dating of oil deposits. However, the lack of data reproducibility between parallel experiments and misused parameter of "recovery rate" has cast doubt on the main conclusions of the paper. Re-analyses of the raw data provided sufficient evidence to suggest that in petroleum basins with very low abundances of Re and Os, the extraction of these metals to oil is unlikely to be a geologically instantaneous process as the authors implied in their study. In addition, the possibility of reactor leakage in the contacting experiments cannot be completely ruled out.

  14. Coping with Social Change: Programs That Work. Proceedings of a Conference (Acapulco, Mexico, June 1989) = Como enfrentarse al cambio social: programas eficaces. Actas de uno Conferencia (Acapulco, Mexico, Junio de 1989).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoskins, Irene, Ed.

    Written in English and Spanish, this document contains the proceedings of the 14th International Congress of Gerontology on concerns about the impact of rapid social change on the well-being of older women and families in Latin American and the Caribbean and about effective programs that address the needs of the older populations. The first…

  15. Corrigendum to "Recycling of crustal material by the Iceland mantle plume: New evidence from nitrogen elemental and isotope systematics of subglacial basalts" [Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 176 (2016) 206-226

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halldórsson, Sæmundur A.; Hilton, David R.; Barry, Peter H.; Füri, Evelyn; Grönvold, Karl

    2016-08-01

    In Table 1 of the above published paper, N2/40Ar* ratios (column 13) are incorrect. A corrected table and updated figures (Figs. 6-8) are shown below. The correct N2/40Ar* values vary between 178 and 2.6 × 104, with a mean of 4.1 ± 2.1 (×103). Although this range in N2/40Ar* ratios is somewhat smaller compared to what was reported, it still displays considerably more heterogeneity compared to the DMM database. The new mean value is also significantly higher than the DMM mean (138 ± 65), as discussed. Therefore, the findings in the paper concerning heterogeneous and elevated N2/40Ar* ratios in Icelandic subglacial basalts still stand.

  16. Corrigendum to "Historical review: Anders Jonas Ångström and the foundation of spectroscopy - Commemorative article on the second centenary of his birth" [Spectrochim. Acta Part B, 102 (2014) 12-23

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reif-Acherman, Simón

    2015-07-01

    The following addendum should be added to the Acknowledgments of the above article. Due to the multiplicity of simultaneous activities in which I am continuously involved, I forgot mentioning that Prof. Dr. Klaus Hentschel, of the History Department of the University of Stuttgart (Germany) was helpful in obtaining some of the source material used in my review. In particular, Prof. Hentschel provided the scans of Anne Beckmann's work to which I was guided by passages in his book on "Mapping the spectrum", Oxford University Press (2002). I also followed his recommendation of contacting the Swedish historians of science, and Prof. Sven Widmalm among them; however, the correspondence was not successful.

  17. Corrigendum to "Isotopic and geochemical characterization of fossil brines of the Cambrian Mt. Simon sandstone and Ironton-Galesville formation from the Illinois Basin, USA" [Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 165 (2015) 342-360

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Labotka, Dana M.; Panno, Samuel V.; Locke, Randall A.; Freiburg, Jared T.

    2016-08-01

    The original Fig. 4 incorrectly represented data from Clayton et al. (1966). The deuterium values were reported in percent deuterium and mistaken by the authors as per mille. The corrected Fig. 4 Corrigendum is given and shows the data from Clayton et al. (1966) plotting in a similar manner as other published data for groundwater in the Illinois Basin. The data from Clayton et al. (1966) was not used in the discussion of the deep-seated Cambrian brines, and, therefore, this misrepresentation does not affect the conclusions of the original manuscript. The authors apologize for the oversight.

  18. Actas de la 4th mesa redonda sobre investigacion en "Lenguas Extranjeras" en la Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana 1996. (Proceedings from the 4th Roundtable on Investigation in Foreign Languages in the Autonomous Metropolitan University 1996).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zoreda, Margaret Lee, Comp.; Diop, Mamoudou Si, Comp.; Vivaldo Lima, Javier, Comp.

    The articles included in this volume were selected as exemplary papers from the conference in Mexico. The goal of the forum was to provide an opportunity for researchers from the three branches of the Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana (UAM) to meet and discuss research projects currently in progress at the university. The works presented here…

  19. Corrigendum to ‘Evidence for shock heating and constraints on Martian surface temperatures revealed by 40Ar/39Ar thermochronometry of Martian meteorites’ [Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta (2010) 6900–6920

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Cassata, William S.; Shuster, David L.; Renne, Paul R.; Weiss, Benjamin P.

    2014-10-23

    Here, the authors regret they have discovered errors in Eq. (3) and in a spreadsheet used to calculate cosmogenic exposure ages shown in Table 1. Eq. (3) is missing a term. The spreadsheet errors concerned an incorrect cell reference and application of Eq. (3). Correction of these errors results in ~15–20% changes to the exposure ages of all samples, minor (generally <0.2%) changes to the radioisotopic ages of some samples (those that entailed a correction for chlorine-derived 38Ar calculated based on the exposure age; see Section 3.3), and statistically insignificant changes to the inferred trapped components identified through isochron analyses.more » These modifications have no impact on the modeling, discussions, or conclusions in the paper, nor do the changes to radioisotopic ages exceed the 1 sigma uncertainties.« less

  20. Corrigendum to ‘Evidence for shock heating and constraints on Martian surface temperatures revealed by 40Ar/39Ar thermochronometry of Martian meteorites’ [Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta (2010) 6900–6920

    SciTech Connect

    Cassata, William S.; Shuster, David L.; Renne, Paul R.; Weiss, Benjamin P.

    2014-10-23

    Here, the authors regret they have discovered errors in Eq. (3) and in a spreadsheet used to calculate cosmogenic exposure ages shown in Table 1. Eq. (3) is missing a term. The spreadsheet errors concerned an incorrect cell reference and application of Eq. (3). Correction of these errors results in ~15–20% changes to the exposure ages of all samples, minor (generally <0.2%) changes to the radioisotopic ages of some samples (those that entailed a correction for chlorine-derived 38Ar calculated based on the exposure age; see Section 3.3), and statistically insignificant changes to the inferred trapped components identified through isochron analyses. These modifications have no impact on the modeling, discussions, or conclusions in the paper, nor do the changes to radioisotopic ages exceed the 1 sigma uncertainties.

  1. Corrigendum to "Synthesis and spectral characterization of new homologous 1,3,5-triaryl-2-pyrazolines: Influence of alkyloxy chain length on fluorescence" [Spectrochim. Acta Part A: Mol. Biomol. Spectrosc. 133 (2014) 182-189

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbas, Asghar; Hussain, Safdar; Hafeez, Noureen; Naseer, Muhammad Moazzam

    2015-03-01

    The authors regret to inform that the affiliation of one of the authors, namely, Noureen Hafeez has been written as Department of Forensic Medicine & Toxicology, Rawalpindi Institute of Health Sciences (RIHS), Bahria University, Islamabad, Pakistan in the published article. The correct address is shown above.

  2. Western Hemisphere Conference on Persons with Disabilities. Conference Proceedings (Washington, D.C., March 14-18, 1993) = Conferencia Hemisferica Occidental sobre Personas con Discapacidades. Actas de la Conferencia. (Washington, D.C., 14 al 18 de Marzo de 1993).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelley, Jerry D., Ed.; And Others

    This document presents the proceedings of a conference which brought together delegates and First Ladies representing western hemisphere nations to address needs and issues affecting people with disabilities in the Americas. It presents the texts of two keynote addresses: "Small Triumphs, Big Victories: A Global View of Persons with Disabilities,"…

  3. Corrigendum to "Basin-scale controls on the molybdenum-isotope composition of seawater during Oceanic Anoxic Event 2 (Late Cretaceous)" [Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 178 (2016) 291-306

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dickson, Alexander J.; Jenkyns, Hugh C.; Porcelli, Donald; van den Boorn, Sander; Idiz, Erdem; Owens, Jeremy D.

    2016-09-01

    A recent molybdenum-isotope estimate of the extent of anoxic and euxinic conditions in the world ocean during Oceanic Anoxic Event 2 (∼94 Ma) concluded by discussing a contrast between the new results with existing estimates of marine euxinia based on sulphur isotopes. This suggested contrast was erroneous; when areal extents of marine anoxia and euxinia are calculated for both isotopic proxies, the agreement is actually striking, and highlights the fact that large areas of the global ocean probably remained well ventilated during this event.

  4. Corrigendum to "Natural dye extract of lawsonia inermis seed as photo sensitizer for titanium dioxide based dye sensitized solar cells" [Spectrochim. Acta A Mol. Biomol. Spectrosc. 128 (2014) 420-426

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ananth, S.; Vivek, P.; Arumanayagam, T.; Murugakoothan, P.

    2015-05-01

    The authors regret to inform that the following text in page No. 425, "The conventionally prepared TiO2 based DSSC exhibits the observed values of Isc = 1.6 mA cm-2, Voc = 0.48 V and the calculated value of FF is 64.32%. Similarly, for pre dye treated TiO2 based DSSC, the observed values of Isc = 2.99 mA cm-2, Voc = 0.50 V and the calculated value of FF is 66.9%" should be read as, "The conventionally prepared TiO2 based DSSC exhibits the observed values of Isc = 2.99 mA cm-2, Voc = 0.50 V and the calculated value of FF is 66.9%. Similarly, for pre dye treated TiO2 based DSSC, the observed values of Isc = 4.2 mA cm-2, Voc = 0.56 V and the calculated value of FF is 62.5%". Though the text is typed wrongly, the I-V graph, the discussions and our conclusions are as same as that of our published article.

  5. Derechos Educacionales de los Padres: Una Explicacion de los Procedimientos de Seguridad para los Padres de Ninos con Discapacidades. Bajo la Clausula del Acta de Educacion para Individuos con Discapacidades (IDEA) y las Reglas para la Administracion del Acta de Educacion para Ninos Excepcionales (Educational Rights of Parents: An Explanation of Procedural Safeguards Available to Parents of Children with Disabilities. Under Provisions of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) and the Rules for the Administration of the Exceptional Children's Educational Act [ECEA]).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mountain Plains Regional Resource Center, Des Moines, IA.

    This pamphlet, in Spanish, describes Colorado parents' educational rights under federal and state special education rules and regulations. It addresses: (1) free appropriate public education and termination of services; (2) required prior notice to parents if there is a proposed change or refusal to change a child's special education program; (3)…

  6. CPTAC Establishes Formal Relationships with Two Academic Institutions in Taiwan - Office of Cancer Clinical Proteomics Research

    Cancer.gov

    The National Cancer Institute's Clinical Proteomic Tumor Analysis Consortium (CPTAC) has entered into memorandum of understandings (MOUs) with Chang Gung University and Academia Sinica, in Taipei, Taiwan.

  7. CROSS-DISCIPLINARY PHYSICS AND RELATED AREAS OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY: The structural analysis of protein sequences based on the quasi-amino acids code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Ping; Tang, Xu-Qing; Xu, Zhen-Yuan

    2009-01-01

    Proteomics is the study of proteins and their interactions in a cell. With the successful completion of the Human Genome Project, it comes the postgenome era when the proteomics technology is emerging. This paper studies protein molecule from the algebraic point of view. The algebraic system (Σ, +, *) is introduced, where Σ is the set of 64 codons. According to the characteristics of (Σ, +, *), a novel quasi-amino acids code classification method is introduced and the corresponding algebraic operation table over the set ZU of the 16 kinds of quasi-amino acids is established. The internal relation is revealed about quasi-amino acids. The results show that there exist some very close correlations between the properties of the quasi-amino acids and the codon. All these correlation relationships may play an important part in establishing the logic relationship between codons and the quasi-amino acids during the course of life origination. According to Ma F et al (2003 J. Anhui Agricultural University 30 439), the corresponding relation and the excellent properties about amino acids code are very difficult to observe. The present paper shows that (ZU, ⊕, otimes) is a field. Furthermore, the operational results display that the codon tga has different property from other stop codons. In fact, in the mitochondrion from human and ox genomic codon, tga is just tryptophane, is not the stop codon like in other genetic code, it is the case of the Chen W C et al (2002 Acta Biophysica Sinica 18(1) 87). The present theory avoids some inexplicable events of the 20 kinds of amino acids code, in other words it solves the problem of 'the 64 codon assignments of mRNA to amino acids is probably completely wrong' proposed by Yang (2006 Progress in Modern Biomedicine 6 3).

  8. RETRACTED: The influence of sand bed temperature on lift-off and falling parameters in windblown sand flux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bo, Tian-Li; Duan, Shao-Zhen; Zheng, Xiao-Jing; Liang, Yi-Rui

    2014-01-01

    This article has been retracted: please see Elsevier Policy on Article Withdrawal (http://www.elsevier.com/locate/withdrawalpolicy) This article has been retracted at the request of the Editors-in-Chief. This article also contains significant similarity with parts of text, written by the same author(s), that have appeared in Tian-Li Bo, Xiao-Jing Zheng, Shao-Zhen Duan, Yi-Rui Liang, The influence of sand diameter and wind velocity on sand particle lift-off and incident angles in the windblown sand flux, Sedimentary Geology, Volume 290, 15 May 2013, Pages 149-156. Tian-Li Bo, Xiao-Jing Zheng, Shao-Zhen Duan, Yi-Rui Liang, The influence of wind velocity and sand grain diameter on the falling velocities of sand particles, Powder Technology, Volume 241, June 2013, Pages 158-165. Tian-Li Bo, Xiao-Jing Zheng, Shao-Zhen Duan, Yi-Rui Liang, Analysis of sand particles' lift-off and incident velocities in wind-blown sand flux, Acta Mechanica Sinica, April 2013, Volume 29, Issue 2, pp 158-165. Tian-Li Bo, Xiao-Jing Zheng, Shao-Zhen Duan, Yi-Rui Liang, Influence of sand grain diameter and wind velocity on lift-off velocities of sand particles, The European Physical Journal E, May 2013, 36:50. The "slicing" of research that would form one meaningful paper into several different papers represents an abuse of the scientific publishing system. The scientific community takes a very strong view on this matter and apologies are offered to readers of the journal that this was not detected during the submission process.

  9. Obliquity-Dominated High-Latitude Continental Triassic-Jurassic Climate, from the Coal-Bearing Junggar Basin, (Ürümqi, China)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olsen, P. E.; Sha, J.; Pan, Y.; Xu, D.; Yao, X.; Wang, Y.; Zhang, X.

    2014-12-01

    Sedimentary facies-based climate proxy data from the thick, coal-bearing, fluvial-lacustrine Haojiagou and Badaowan fms. of the high-paleolatitude (55-65° N) Junggar Basin of northwestern China show that Late Triassic and Early Jurassic (~210-190 Ma) high latitude climate variability was strongly paced by obliquity cycle-dominated (~40-50 ky) orbital variations (1), based on an age model using the 405 ky cycle of eccentricity and the end-Triassic extinction tie point (2,3). In contrast, contemporaneous low-latitude continental climate was nearly exclusively paced by climatic precession, with virtually no hint of obliquity (4). While obliquity-dominance at high latitude is not necessarily unexpected, the envelope of variability of eccentricity, as well as its period (for cycles > 405 ky) at both high and low latitudes deviate in major ways from the expectations of current numerical solutions of orbital variations (5), but is consistent with chaotic diffusion of the Solar System (6), while our preliminary data also suggest that the Earth-Mars orbital secular resonance was in today's 2-to-1 ratio of eccentricity to inclination periods (5). Previously unknown, this obliquity-dominated, non-analog climate variation in the apparently warm and glacier-free high-latitudes of Pangea, coupled with documented low-latitude climatic precession-dominated climate variation, provides a glimpse of an empirical basis for mapping the behavior of the Solar System during times when its behavior was significantly different than present day. This is a contribution to IGCP 632 (Continental crises of the Jurassic). 1, Sha+, 2010, Earth Sci. Frontiers 17:22; 2, Sha+, 2011, Acta Geol. Sinica 85:421; 3, Blackburn+, 2013, Science 340:941; 4, Olsen & Kent, 1996, Palaeogeo. Palaeoclim. Palaeoeco. 122:1; 5, Laskar+, 2011, A&A 532:A89 DOI:10.1051/0004-6361/201116836; 6, Laskar, 1999, Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc. London A 357:1735.

  10. An appreciation of Christiane Groehen: the correspondence between Charles Darwin and Anton Dohrn.

    PubMed

    Browne, Janet

    2015-01-01

    Anton Dohrn was introduced to Darwinism by Ernst Haeckel during his student years at Jena, and became an eager disciple of Charles Darwin's work. He founded the Stazione Zoologica in 1872. Darwin became a patron of Dohrn's Stazione, and the two naturalists corresponded regularly. This article discusses their relationship and the contributions of Christiane Groeben to its elucidation. PMID:26013199

  11. Benzaldehyde is a precursor of phenylpropylamino alkaloids as revealed by targeted metabolic profiling and comparative biochemical analyses in Ephedra spp.

    PubMed

    Krizevski, Raz; Bar, Einat; Shalit, O R; Levy, Asaf; Hagel, Jillian M; Kilpatrick, Korey; Marsolais, Frédéric; Facchini, Peter J; Ben-Shabat, Shimon; Sitrit, Yaron; Lewinsohn, Efraim

    2012-09-01

    Ephedrine and pseudoephedrine are phenylpropylamino alkaloids widely used in modern medicine. Some Ephedra species such as E. sinica Stapf (Ephedraceae), a widely used Chinese medicinal plant (Chinese name: Ma Huang), accumulate ephedrine alkaloids as active constituents. Other Ephedra species, such as E. foeminea Forssk. (syn. E. campylopoda C.A. Mey) lack ephedrine alkaloids and their postulated metabolic precursors 1-phenylpropane-1,2-dione and (S)-cathinone. Solid-phase microextraction analysis of freshly picked young E. sinica and E. foeminea stems revealed the presence of increased benzaldehyde levels in E. foeminea, whereas 1-phenylpropane-1,2-dione was detected only in E. sinica. Soluble protein preparations from E. sinica and E. foeminea stems catalyzed the conversion of benzaldehyde and pyruvate to (R)-phenylacetylcarbinol, (S)-phenylacetylcarbinol, (R)-2-hydroxypropiophenone (S)-2-hydroxypropiophenone and 1-phenylpropane-1,2-dione. The activity, termed benzaldehyde carboxyligase (BCL) required the presence of magnesium and thiamine pyrophosphate and was 40 times higher in E. sinica as compared to E. foeminea. The distribution patterns of BCL activity in E. sinica tissues correlates well with the distribution pattern of the ephedrine alkaloids. (S)-Cathinone reductase enzymatic activities generating (1R,2S)-norephedrine and (1S,1R)-norephedrine were significantly higher in E. sinica relative to the levels displayed by E. foeminea. Surprisingly, (1R,2S)-norephedrine N-methyltransferase activity which is a downstream enzyme in ephedrine biosynthesis was significantly higher in E. foeminea than in E. sinica. Our studies further support that benzaldehyde is the metabolic precursor to phenylpropylamino alkaloids in E. sinica. PMID:22727117

  12. On searching applicants for mechanism of solar-lithosphere relations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kairatkyzy, Dina; Andreyev, Alexey; Zhumabayeva, Saltanat; Seraliyev, Alibek

    2016-04-01

    It is actively discussed at present a question on possible influence of solar activity (high-speed solar wind streams bearing the "frozen" magnetic field lines of the Sun) on the stress status of the lithosphere and, consequently, on the Earth's seismic activity (e.g. Zhang, 1998, Acta Seismologica Sinica; Khachikyan et al., EGU2016-2754-1; IUGG2015-3132). There are at least two ideas on possible applicants for physical mechanism of solar-lithosphere relations: (i) - the muons of cosmic rays, which can penetrate the Earth's crust to a depth of at least the first ten kilometers and in tense seismic environment generate nuclear-electromagnetic cascade which energy can be a trigger of earthquake (Tsarev and Chechin, 1988, Preprint № 179, Physical Institute after Lebedev, Moscow); (ii) - the geomagnetic storms (Sobolev et al., 1998, Physics of the Earth #7) when the high-frequency oscillations of the geomagnetic field during the main phase of the storm generate significant induction currents which electric energy entering into the crust can be converted into mechanical energy increasing the stress status of the lithosphere (Sobolev and Demin, Mechano-electric phenomena into the Earth. M . Nauka. 1980). Besides this, among the possible cosmogenic factors changing the stress state of the lithosphere, could be the variation of the angular velocity of rotation of the Earth (e.g. Bostrom, 2000. Tectonic consequence of the Earth's Rotation), if it depends on solar activity variations. More of 50 years ago, Munk and Donald (The Rotation of the Earth, Cambrige University Press, 1960) suggested that the interaction between solar wind and geomagnetic field would probably influence the short period variation of angular velocity of the Earth. In this work, we check up this suggestion on the base of very precise data on the length of day (LOD) from 1986 to the present, which are presented by the International Earth Rotation and Reference Systems Service (IERS). Using the methods

  13. Changes in Precipitation Amount, Frequency and Persistency and their Impacts on Eco-system in Northern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhai, Panmao; Wang, Yawei

    2015-04-01

    over Northern China. Acta Meteorologica Sinica,2008,66(3):474-477 4.Niu, Ruoyun,Panmao Zhai, Study on forest fire danger over Northern China during the recent 50 years, Climatic Change:, 2012, 111(3-4), 723-736, 2012/4. 3. 634 5. Zhai P. M. et al, Trends in Total Precipitation and Frequency of Daily Precipitation Extremes over China, J. Climat., 2005,18(7):1096-1108. 6.Zou, X. K. and P. M. Zhai*, Relationship between vegetation coverage and spring dust storms over northern China, J. Geophys. Res., 109, D03104, doi:10.1029/2003JD003913, 2004

  14. Microinclusion of Lower-Mantle Rock in Diamond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaminsky, Felix; Wirth, Richard

    2014-05-01

    A microinclusion of a rock fragment was identified within one of the diamonds from the Rio Soriso placer deposit in the Juina area, Brazil. It is composed of iron carbide, magnesiowüstite and two orthorhombic, postspinel phases, Fe-Mg-Cr and Ca-Cr oxides. All mineral grains are closely intergrown, demonstrating their single-stage origin, except iron carbide, which is partly resorped that implies its early crystallization. Diffraction patterns of iron carbide grains reveal two mineral species, nitrogen-containing analogues of chalypite Fe7C3 (or Fe2C) [1] and yarlongite Fe9C4 [2]. They contain up to 17.5 at.% of N in the cation part (N/(C+N) = 0.47) and should be considered as nitrocarbides. In addition to N, admixtures of O and Si present in these mineral species. Magnesiowüstite has, in its cation composition, 47.75-67.16 at.% Fe, 36.72-47.75 at.% Mg, and minor admixtures of Mn and Cr. Among the two new oxides with orthorhombic structure, one is a polymorph of chromite (Fe2+,Mg,Mn) (Cr,Fe3+,Al,V)2O4, which is new in terrestrial environment. It is analogues to xieite, found in the Suizhou meteorite [3], but strongly enriched in Fe. The other orthorhombic mineral fits the stoichiometry Ca(Cr,Fe3+)2O4. This compound is new in the natural environment; the CaCr2O4 postspinel phase is known only as a synthetic compound [4]. The studied association was formed within the lower mantle at pressure conditions above 40 GPa (that correspond to the formation of CaTi2O4 [5]). The presence of magnesiowüstite and chalypite suggests the rock origin in the lower part of the lower mantle. References: Kaminsky, F.V., Wirth, R. (2011) Iron carbide inclusions in lower-mantle diamond from Juina, Brazil. Canadian Mineralogist 49(2), p. 555-572. Shi, N., Bai, W., Li, G., Xiong, M., Fang, Q., Yang, J., Ma, Z., Rong, H. (2009) Yarlongite: A new metallic carbide mineral. Acta Geologica Sinica 83(1), 52-56. Chen, M., Shu, J., Mao, H.-k. (2008) Xieite, a new mineral of high-pressure FeCr2O4

  15. In situ SIMS oxygen isotope analysis of olivine in the Tibetan mantle xenoliths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Zhidan; Zhu, Di-Cheng; Liu, Dong; Mo, Xuanxue

    2016-04-01

    around 90, but also as low as Fo of 70; (4) In olivine crystals in mantle xenolith, the oxygen isotopes in rim (δ18O=6.96-7.98‰ Fo#=78-82) significantly shift to high δ18O values that similar to their neighboring lava olivine phenocrysts (δ18O=8.03‰ Fo# =80). These data suggest that the oxygen isotopes in mantle xenolith olivines are more stable during the processes of metasomatism. The mantle xenolith may have been metasomatized by the host lava, in addition to other enriched reservoir in the sub-arc mantle. [Financially supported by the NSF of China, grants 41273044, 41225006, 41230209, 41130314]. References: [1] Zhao Z, et al., 2008a. Acta Petrologica Sinica, 24 (2): 193-202 [2] Zhao Z, et al., 2008b. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 72, 12 (Supp.): A1095 [3] Zhao Z, et al., 2009. Lithos, 113: 190-212 [4] Liu C-Z, et al., 2011, Geology, 39, 923-926 [5] Liu C-Z, et al., 2014, Geology, Scientific Report, 4, 4232; DOI:10.1038/srep04232

  16. Two new species of the genus Amphilimna (Echinodermata: Ophiuroidea) from southern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, Yulin

    1989-12-01

    Two new species of the ophiuriod genus Amphilimna from 280 m depth water east of Hainan Island are described. A. sinica sp. nov. shows affinities with A. transacta (Koehler), and A. granulosa is related to A. cribriformis A. M. Clark.

  17. Ephedra

    MedlinePlus

    ... Wilkins; 2000:110–117. Ephedra. Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database Web site. Accessed at www.naturaldatabase.com on May ... 2009. Ephedra ( Ephedra sinica )/Ma huang. Natural Standard Database Web site. Accessed at www.naturalstandard.com on May ...

  18. The Behaviors that College Students Classify as Political Bias: Preliminary Findings and Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tollini, Craig

    2009-01-01

    There have been a number of recently published books and reports about the existence of a liberal bias in academia (e.g., ACTA 2005, ACTA 2006, Berube 2006, Black 2004, Horowitz 2006, Horowitz 2008, and Shapiro 2004). Sociology is one of the disciplines that is most frequently cited as "producers" of bias in two of these studies (ACTA 2006,…

  19. Taiwan Earthquake Damage Index Sin Mei Nga* and Masataka Andob a* Department of Geology, Chinese Culture University, No. 55, Hwa-Kang Road, Yang-Ming-Shan, Taipei 11114, Taiwan b Institute of Earth Sciences, Academia Sinica, 128, Sec2, Academia Road, Nangang, Taipei 11529, Taiwan * Corresponding author. Tel.: +886 (02) 28 61 05 11 ext.26133 fax: +886 (02) 28 61 49 59 E-mail: wsw2@ulive.pccu.edu.tw or sin_mei_josephine_ng@hotmail.com

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ng, S.

    2012-12-01

    Taking advantage of a previous study and twelve-year, free-field strong motion data in Taiwan, a preliminary, five-level earthquake damage index is newly proposed: I-No (no damage), II-Very Light, III-Light, IV-Moderate, and V-Heavy. For index I, PGA and PGV are, respectively, <62.5 gal and <11 cm/s. Likewise, for index II, PGA is ≧62.5 and ≦187.5 gal; but, PGV is ≧11 and ≦35 cm/s. Similarly, PGA is ≧187.5 and ≦325 gal; but, PGV is ≧35 and ≦55 cm/s for index III. The corresponding PGA and PGV, for index IV, are ≧325 and ≦450 gal and ≧55 and ≦75 cm/s. Finally, for index V, PGA and PGV are respectively >450 gal and >75 cm/s. Ten damaging seismic events in the past twelve years are redefined using this new earthquake damage index, with the devastating Chi-Chi earthquake and one non-damaging event as reference earthquakes. This newly proposed index depicts seismic hazard of these earthquakes with higher accuracy when compared to the existing intensity scale in Taiwan region. For further analysis, Japan earthquakes are also plotted as references.

  20. Reply to the comment by Wu et al. (2016) on "Behavior of Re and Os during contact between an aqueous solution and oil: Consequences for the application of the Re-Os geochronometer to petroleum" [Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 158 (2015) 1-21

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reisberg, Laurie; Michels, Raymond; Mahdaoui, Fatima

    2016-08-01

    We reply here to the questions raised by Wu et al. concerning the results published by Mahdaoui et al. (2015). This paper describes experiments in which aqueous solutions containing ReO4- and OsCl62- were brought in contact with natural oils at various ranges of concentration, time and temperature. The main observation is that the transfer of Re and Os to oils is very efficient under all experimental conditions. Wu et al. argue that thermodynamic equilibrium was not achieved in these experiments as apparent partition coefficients are inconsistent. They conclude that the experiments were flawed by possible leaking of reactors and that the conclusions by Mahdaoui et al. (2015) were not justified. In the following reply we explain that Mahdaoui et al. (2015) never claimed that thermodynamic equilibrium was achieved. Any calculations or considerations in this context are therefore meaningless. We recall the objectives of our publication, which were to experimentally test the behavior of ReO4- and OsCl6- (two plausible chemical forms of Re and Os in deep aquifers of petroleum systems) in aqueous solution-oil systems. To our knowledge these are the first experiments of their kind. The parameters that could influence the precision and reproducibility of our results were discussed in detail in Mahdaoui et al. (2015). The essential point is that all 60 of the experiments provide evidence of substantial transfer of Re and Os from water to oil. In contrast to what was mistakenly understood by Wu et al., the paper does not challenge the use of Re-Os to date geological events affecting petroleum. Instead, by providing a mechanism that might allow Os isotopic homogenization on a basin-wide scale, a critical step missing from most current models, it offers a possible explanation of how Re-Os geochronology in oils could potentially work. More generally, our study suggests that transfer of Re and Os from waters to oil may be an important phenomenon that should not be overlooked.

  1. Comment on "Structural and vibrational studies on 1-(5-Methyl- [1,3,4] thiadiazol-2-yl)-pyrolidin-2-ol" [Spectrochimica Acta Part A, 152 (2016) 252-261]. The importance of intramolecular OH ⋯ N hydrogen bonding in the conformational properties of thiadiazol-pyrrolidin-2-ol bearing species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laurella, Sergio L.; Erben, Mauricio F.

    2016-07-01

    The title paper [1] reports a study on the spectroscopic and physicochemical properties of 1-(5-methyl- [1,3,4]thiadiazol-2-yl)-pyrrolidin-2-ol (MTPN) based on experimental and theoretical data. The latter ones are based on the computed molecular structure for a rather unusual conformer. Here, after a careful analysis of the conformational space of MTPN, the most stable conformation was determined for the molecule isolated in a vacuum, which results to be 21.9 kJ/mol more stable than the conformer reported previously. Our study also includes the closely related species 1-(5-trifluoromethyl- [1,3,4]thiadiazol-2-yl)-pyrrolidin-2-ol (FMTPN). An intramolecular OH ⋯ N hydrogen bond determines the conformational behavior of the [1,3,4]thiadiazol-2-yl)-pyrrolidin-2-ol group as demonstrated by Natural Bond Orbital population analysis.

  2. Guia del Proceso del IFSP de Colorado: Conexiones para la Ninez Temprana, Iniciativa Infantil de Colorado Parte C del Acta de Educacion para Individuos con Desabilidades (Colorado Guidelines for the IFSP Process: Early Childhood Connections, Colorado's Infant/Toddler Initiative for Part C of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Jerri; Petersen, Sandy

    This booklet for Spanish-speaking parents of young children with disabilities describes Colorado's Individualized Family Service Plan (IFSP) process. It explains guidelines, shares family stories and reflections for families and care providers, and the describes the values that drive the IFSP process in Colorado. Information is provided on…

  3. Comment on "Structural and vibrational studies on 1-(5-Methyl- [1,3,4] thiadiazol-2-yl)-pyrolidin-2-ol" [Spectrochimica Acta Part A, 152 (2016) 252-261]. The importance of intramolecular OH⋯N hydrogen bonding in the conformational properties of thiadiazol-pyrrolidin-2-ol bearing species.

    PubMed

    Laurella, Sergio L; Erben, Mauricio F

    2016-07-01

    The title paper [1] reports a study on the spectroscopic and physicochemical properties of 1-(5-methyl- [1,3,4]thiadiazol-2-yl)-pyrrolidin-2-ol (MTPN) based on experimental and theoretical data. The latter ones are based on the computed molecular structure for a rather unusual conformer. Here, after a careful analysis of the conformational space of MTPN, the most stable conformation was determined for the molecule isolated in a vacuum, which results to be 21.9kJ/mol more stable than the conformer reported previously. Our study also includes the closely related species 1-(5-trifluoromethyl- [1,3,4]thiadiazol-2-yl)-pyrrolidin-2-ol (FMTPN). An intramolecular OH⋯N hydrogen bond determines the conformational behavior of the [1,3,4]thiadiazol-2-yl)-pyrrolidin-2-ol group as demonstrated by Natural Bond Orbital population analysis. PMID:27070529

  4. [Role of Activin A and Myostatin in cancer cachexia].

    PubMed

    Thissen, Jean-Paul; Loumaye, Audrey

    2013-05-01

    Recent works suggest that Activin A (ActA) and Myostatin (Mstn), two members of the TGFβ superfamily, could contribute to skeletal muscle atrophy observed in some cancers. It is known that several human tumoral cell lines synthesize and secrete ActA and Mstn. In addition, systemic treatment with ActA and Mstn in mice induce muscle atrophy. Likewise, Inhibin-α knock-out mice, which are characterized by elevated circulating levels of ActA, exhibit muscle atrophy and die of cachexia. Finally, administration of ActA and Mstn antagonists prevents muscular atrophy and mortality induced by some animal tumors. Collectively, these findings suggest that ActA or Mstn production by several cancers could contribute to cachexia and thus to mortality associated with some cancers in human. This hypothesis is very interesting since new molecules that are able to inhibit ActA and Mstn, in particularly the sActRIIB, are under development. PMID:23566617

  5. Multi-stage barites in partially melted UHP eclogite: implications for fluid/melt activities during deep continental subduction in the Sulu orogenic belt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Songjie; Wang, Lu

    2015-04-01

    . Zr-in-rutile thermometry shows their formation temperature to be 586-664 oC at 1.5-2.5 GPa. Barite-bearing MS inclusions with Ba-bearing K-feldspar (type-II) connected by Kfs+Pl+Bt veinlets of in-situ phengite breakdown and thin barite veinlets along grain boundaries (type-III) are products of phengite breakdown and induced fluid flow during exhumation. These barites have witnessed the gradational separation process of melt/ fluid from miscibility on/above the second critical endpoint during UHP metamorphism, to immiscibility along the exhumation path of the subducted slab. Associated reactions from pyrite to hematite and goethite with the type-III barite ring surrounding the pyrite provide evidence for a local high oxygen fugacity environment during eclogite partial melting and subsequent melt/fluid crystallization processes. Moreover, large grain barite aggregations (type-IV) modified by amphibole+albite symplectite are most likely formed by release of molecular and hydroxyl water from anhydrous minerals of eclogite during high-grade amphibolite-facies retrogression. The growth of multi-stage barites in UHP eclogite further advances our understanding of fluid/melt transfer, crystallization processes along the subduction-exhumation path of the partially melted eclogite, broadening our knowledge of melt/fluid evolution within subduction-collision zones worldwide. REFERENCES Chen Y.X., et al., 2014, Lithos, 200, 1-21. Liu J.B., et al., 2000, Acta Petrologica Sinica 16(4), 482-484. Zeng L.S., et al., 2007, Chinese Science Bulletin, 52(21), 2995-3001. Gao X.Y., et al., 2012, Journal of Metamorphic Geology, 30(2), 193-212.

  6. The Genesis of tectonically and hydrothermally controlled industry mineral deposits: A geochemical and structural study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wölfler, Anke; Prochaska, Walter; Henjes-Kunst, Friedhelm; Fritz, Harald

    2010-05-01

    surfaces was proposed by Sandrone & Zucchetti, 1988. Magnesite and talc bearing shearzones in ultramafic hostrocks (Lahnaslampi & Horsmanaho, Finland): Both deposits are situated in the Proterozoic schist belt where the talc-magnesite rocks at Lahnaslampi are associated with minor serpentine breccias. The steatitization took place in two different stages: During prograde metamorphism with H2O-dominated solutions and at declining temperature and pressure in the presence of CO2-bearing fluids that resulted in the main steatitization along tectonic structures. A combined geological, petrological and geochronological is chosen to resolve mechanism of mineralisation within the different tectonic setting. Different phases of mineral formation are first distinguished by pertrological and structural field work and then dated by radiometric techniques. Fluid species and chemical environment during mineralisation is resolved by geochemical techniques and stable isotope studies. References Grillo, S., Prochaska, W. (2007): Fluid Chemistry and Stable Isotope Evidence of Shearzone related Talc and Chlorite Mineralizations in Central Sardinia-Italy, In: Conference Abstracts SGA-Meeting. Radvanec, M., Koděra, P., Prochaska, W. (2004): Mg replacement of the Gemerska Poloma talk-magnesite deposit, Western Carpathians, Slovakia. Acta Petrologica Sinica, 20, 773-790. Sandrone, Zucchetti (1988): Geology of the Italian high-quality cosmetic talc from the Pinerolo district (Western Alps). Zuffar' Days - Symposium held in Cagliari, 10-15

  7. Continental Collision Zones are Primary Sites of net Continental Crustal Growth: Evidence From the Linzizong Volcanic Succession in Southern Tibet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niu, Y.; Mo, X.; Dong, G.; Zhao, Z.; Hou, Z.; Zhou, S.; Ke, S.

    2007-12-01

    amphibole that possesses super-chondritic Nb/Ta ratio explains the sub-chondritic Nb/Ta ratio in the melt, typical of continental crust [10]. These observations and reasoning plus the remarkable compositional similarity between the lower andesitic formation and the model bulk continental crust [11] corroborates our proposal [6] that continental collision zones are sites of net crustal growth (juvenile crust) through process of syncollisional granitoid magmatism. While these interpretations are reasonable in terms of petrology, geochemistry and tectonics, they require further testing through detailed studies of samples with a greater spatial coverage along the entire Gangdese belt, which are currently underway. References: [1] Yin, Harrison, Ann. Rev. Earth Planet. Sci., 28, 211-280, 2000; [2] Mo et al., Earth Sci. Front., 10, 135-148, 2003; [3] Mo et al., Acta Geol. Sinica, 79, 66-76, 2005; [4] Mo et al., Geol. Soc. Am. Spec. Pap., 409, 507-530, 2006; [5] Mo, Hou, Niu et al., Lithos, 96, 225-242, 2007; [6] Mo, Niu, Dong et al., Chem. Geol. (submitted); [7] Niu, Lesher, Econ. Geol., 86, 983-1001, 1991; [8] Plank, Langmuir, Chem. Geol., 145, 325-394, 1998; [9] Elliot, Geophys. Monogr., 138, 23-46, 2003; [10] Foley et al., Nature, 417, 837- 840, 2002; [11] Rudnick & Gao, Treatise on Geochemistry, 3, 1-64, 2003.

  8. Creativity and Democratic Governance. Adult Learning: A Strategic Choice. Proceedings of the ICAE World Assembly (6th, Ocho Rios, Jamaica, August 9-12, 2001) = Creativite et Gouvernance Democratique. L'apprentissage des Adultes: Un Choix Strategique. Actes de la Assemblee Mondiale du CIEA (6th, Ocho Rios, Jamaique, 9 au 12 aout 2001) = Creatividad y Gobernabilidad Democratica. Educacion de Adultos: Una Eleccion Estrategica. Actas de la Asamblea Mundial del ICAE (6th, Ocho Rios, Jamaica, Agosto 9-12, 2001).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dobson, Stephan, Ed.

    This document contains information from and about a world assembly on creativity and democratic governance in adult learning that was held by the International Council for Adult Education (ICAE) and its partner organizations in the Caribbean. The proceedings begin with English, French, and Spanish translations of the address…

  9. Music and biology at the Naples Zoological Station.

    PubMed

    Fantini, Bernardino

    2015-01-01

    Anton Dohrn projected the Stazione Zoologica as composed of two complementary halves: nature and culture. This attitude was not only expression of the general cultural background of the nineteenth century cultural elite, for Dohrn both formed a coherent and organized whole. In my essay I will analyse the different levels of the relationship between music and biology. In particular, I will demonstrate that both share similar "styles of thought". In the last part I will show that Dohrn's most important scientific contribution, the concept or "principle" of Functionswechsel, provides evidence for the link he had established between music and biology. PMID:26013193

  10. The Vanishing Shakespeare: A Report by the American Council of Trustees and Alumni

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neal, Anne D.; Mitchell, Charles

    2007-01-01

    As this report goes to press, the nation's capital is in the midst of a six-moth, city-wide celebration of William Shakespeare. With this celebration as a backdrop, the American Council of Trustees and Alumni (ACTA) researched how Shakespeare fits into English curricula at 70 of the nation's leading colleges and universities. ACTA surveyed English…

  11. Genetics Home Reference: paramyotonia congenita

    MedlinePlus

    ... impact of permanent muscle weakness on quality of life in periodic paralysis: a survey of 66 patients. Acta Myol. 2012 Oct;31(2):126-33. Citation on PubMed or Free article on PubMed Central Finsterer J. Primary periodic paralyses. Acta Neurol Scand. 2008 Mar;117(3):145-58. Epub 2007 Nov 20. ...

  12. Leading the Charge: Governors, Higher Education and Accountability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Council of Trustees and Alumni, 2014

    2014-01-01

    With this new tool, ACTA [American Council of Trustees and Alumni] is working to expand its outreach to governors nationwide on behalf of higher education reform, focusing on key issues of quality, cost, and accountability. ACTA has worked with governors and education leaders from across the country, and that experience has proven that innovative…

  13. Advances in membrane protein crystallography: in situ and in meso data collection

    SciTech Connect

    Weyand, Simone; Tate, Christopher G.

    2015-05-23

    Membrane protein structural biology has made tremendous advances over the last decade but there are still many challenges associated with crystallization, data collection and structure determination. Two independent groups, Axford et al. [(2015), Acta Cryst. D71, 1228–1237] and Huang et al. [(2015), Acta Cryst. D71, 1238–1256], have published methods that make a major contribution to addressing these challenges.

  14. Draft Genome Sequence of an Anaerobic Ammonium-Oxidizing Bacterium, “Candidatus Brocadia sinica”

    PubMed Central

    Oshiki, Mamoru; Shinyako-Hata, Kaori; Satoh, Hisashi

    2015-01-01

    A draft genome sequence of an anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing (anammox) bacterium, “Candidatus Brocadia sinica,” was determined by pyrosequencing and by screening a fosmid library. A 4.07-Mb genome sequence comprising 3 contigs was assembled, in which 3,912 gene-coding regions, 47 tRNAs, and a single rrn operon were annotated. PMID:25883286

  15. The Structure of Oceanography in China.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Churgin, James

    1984-01-01

    Describes the structure of marine science in China. Includes organization and activities of China's National Bureau of Oceanography and programs administered through various ministries, Academia Sinica (China's Academy of Sciences), universities, and provincial institutes. Comments on research vessionals and other development initiatives are also…

  16. Bibliography of Chinese Materials on Tai Linguistics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boltz, William G.

    This bibliography is an effort to establish a convenient listing of works in Chinese which deal with any of the various aspects of Tai linguistics. There are 50 entries including cross-references. Some of the sources covered are: Academia Sinica, Bulletin of the Institute of History and Philology, Institute of History and Philology, Yu-yen…

  17. Four new species of the subfamily Gryllacridinae (Orthoptera: Gryllacrididae) from China.

    PubMed

    Li, Miaomiao; Liu, Xianwei; Li, Kai

    2016-01-01

    A taxonomic study of the subfamily Gryllacridinae is presented. Four new species belonging to two genera are described: Larnaca sinica sp. nov., Larnaca hainanica sp. nov.; Prosopogryllacris chinensis sp. nov., Prosopogryllacris incisa sp. nov.. A revised key and distributional data are given. PMID:27615930

  18. Science and Technology Policy in the People's Republic of China: Organizational Structures and Processes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Handberg, Roger; Xinming, Liu

    In the People's Republic of China, science and technology policy is directed by the state and is an all encompassing managerial system through which courses of action are determined. The Chinese Academy of Sciences (Academia Sinica), a national comprehensive research center was established in 1949 to train qualified scientists and technicians. The…

  19. Developing SNMS for Full-Spectrum High-Sensitivity In-Situ Isotopic Analysis of Individual Comet Grains Collected by Stardust?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, C.-Y.; Shen, J. J.; Lee, T.; Calaway, W.; Veryovkin, I.; Moore, J.; Pellin, M. J.

    2005-03-01

    In anticipation of the return of comet dust grains by the Star-Dust mission in mid-January next year, Academia Sinica and Argonne National Laboratory have entered into a collaboration to develop instrument and method for the isotopic analysis of these samples.

  20. AMiBA-array for microwave background anisotropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kesteven, M.

    2002-03-01

    AMiBA is a 90 GHz interferometric array of the ASIAA (Academia Sinica, Institue of Astronomy and Astrophysics). It will make a detailed study of the polarization of the CMB anisotropy; it will also undertake a survey of Sunyaev-Zel'dovich clusters. It is under construction at present, with an expected completion date of late 2003. .

  1. A novel denitrifying methanotroph of the NC10 phylum and its microcolony.

    PubMed

    He, Zhanfei; Cai, Chaoyang; Wang, Jiaqi; Xu, Xinhua; Zheng, Ping; Jetten, Mike S M; Hu, Baolan

    2016-01-01

    The NC10 phylum is a candidate phylum of prokaryotes and is considered important in biogeochemical cycles and evolutionary history. NC10 members are as-yet-uncultured and are difficult to enrich, and our knowledge regarding this phylum is largely limited to the first species 'Candidatus Methylomirabilis oxyfera' (M. oxyfera). Here, we enriched NC10 members from paddy soil and obtained a novel species of the NC10 phylum that mediates the anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM) coupled to nitrite reduction. By comparing the new 16S rRNA gene sequences with those already in the database, this new species was found to be widely distributed in various habitats in China. Therefore, we tentatively named it 'Candidatus Methylomirabilis sinica' (M. sinica). Cells of M. sinica are roughly coccus-shaped (0.7-1.2 μm), distinct from M. oxyfera (rod-shaped; 0.25-0.5 × 0.8-1.1 μm). Notably, microscopic inspections revealed that M. sinica grew in honeycomb-shaped microcolonies, which was the first discovery of microcolony of the NC10 phylum. This finding opens the possibility to isolate NC10 members using microcolony-dependent isolation strategies. PMID:27582299

  2. High circulating activin A level is associated with tumor progression and predicts poor prognosis in lung adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Hoda, Mir Alireza; Rozsas, Anita; Lang, Elisabeth; Klikovits, Thomas; Lohinai, Zoltan; Torok, Szilvia; Berta, Judit; Bendek, Matyas; Berger, Walter; Hegedus, Balazs; Klepetko, Walter; Renyi-Vamos, Ferenc; Grusch, Michael; Dome, Balazs; Laszlo, Viktoria

    2016-01-01

    Activin A (ActA)/follistatin (FST) signaling has been shown to be deregulated in different tumor types including lung adenocarcinoma (LADC). Here, we report that serum ActA protein levels are significantly elevated in LADC patients (n=64) as compared to controls (n=46, p=0.015). ActA levels also correlated with more advanced disease stage (p<0.0001) and T (p=0.0035) and N (p=0.0002) factors. M1 patients had significantly higher ActA levels than M0 patients (p<0.001). High serum ActA level was associated with poor overall survival (p<0.0001) and was confirmed as an independent prognostic factor (p=0.004). Serum FST levels were increased only in female LADC patients (vs. female controls, p=0.031). Two out of five LADC cell lines secreted biologically active ActA, while FST was produced in all of them. Transcripts of both type I and II ActA receptors were detected in all five LADC cell lines. In conclusion, our study does not only suggest that measuring blood ActA levels in LADC patients might improve the prediction of prognosis, but also indicates that this parameter might be a novel non-invasive biomarker for identifying LADC patients with organ metastases. PMID:26950277

  3. USING BIOMONITORING DATA TO INFORM EXPOSURE ASSESSMENT IN CHILDREN

    EPA Science Inventory

    Discussing the challenges associated with estimating and interpreting toxicant exposures and health risks from biomonitoring data. Extended abstract will also be translated in Spanish and published in Acta Toxicologica Argentina.

  4. Uso de los Datos de Biomonitoreo para Informar sobre la Evaluacion Infantil (American translation is: USING BIOMONITORING DATA TO INFORM EXPOSURE ASSESSMENT IN CHILDREN)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Discussing the challenges associated with estimating and interpreting toxicant exposures and health risks from biomonitoring data. This extended abstract was translated in Spanish and published in Acta Toxicologica Argentina.

  5. Genetics Home Reference: glucose-galactose malabsorption

    MedlinePlus

    ... mutations in SGLT1 cause glucose-galactose malabsorption by trafficking defects. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1999 Feb 24;1453( ... Accessibility FOIA Viewers & Players U.S. Department of Health & Human Services National Institutes of Health National Library of ...

  6. Genetics Home Reference: myosin storage myopathy

    MedlinePlus

    ... proteins accumulate in type I skeletal muscle fibers, forming the protein clumps characteristic of the disorder. It ... Epub 2007 Mar 2. Citation on PubMed Tajsharghi H, Oldfors A. Myosinopathies: pathology and mechanisms. Acta Neuropathol. ...

  7. Genetics Home Reference: oculopharyngeal muscular dystrophy

    MedlinePlus

    ... advances in the understanding of the molecular pathogenic mechanisms and treatment strategies. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2007 Feb; ... further evidence for unequal recombination as the mutational mechanism. Hum Genet. 2005 Mar;116(4):267-71. ...

  8. Errors in Crystal structure of HINT from Helicobacter pylori

    PubMed Central

    Maize, Kimberly M.

    2016-01-01

    Inaccuracies in the article, Crystal structure of HINT from Helicobacter pylori by Tarique et al. [(2016) Acta Cryst. F72, 42–48] are presented, and a brief history of HINT nomenclature is discussed. PMID:27050269

  9. VISIÓN GENERAL DE LA EVALUACIÓN DEL RIESGO EN SALUD INFANTIL EMPLEANDO UN ENFOQUE POR ETAPAS DE DESARROLLO (American translation is: Overview of a Life Stage Approach to Children's Health Risk Assessment)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Discussing the challenges associated with estimating and interpreting toxicant exposures and health risks from biomonitoring data. This extended abstract was translated in Spanish and published in Acta Toxicologica Argentina.

  10. Erratum: Di-μ-nitrosyl-bis-[(η-penta-methyl-cyclo-penta-dien-yl)ruthenium(0)](Ru-Ru). Corrigendum.

    PubMed

    Pearsal, Matthew; Gembicky, Milan; Dominiak, Paulina; Larsen, Anna; Coppens, Philip

    2010-01-01

    The acknowledgement in the paper by Pearsal, Gembicky, Dominiak, Larsen & Coppens [Acta Cryst. (2007), E63, m2596] is extended and an omitted reference is added.[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1107/S1600536807045321.]. PMID:21578980

  11. 75 FR 79069 - Anti-Counterfeiting Trade Agreement: Request for Comments From the Public

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-17

    ... practices. Together these provisions will help to protect American jobs in innovative and creative... business confidential information, the filer should type ``ACTA Comments--Business Confidential'' in the ``Type Comment & Upload file'' field. Any page containing business confidential information must...

  12. Metagenomic insights into the effects of volatile fatty acids on microbial community structures and functional genes in organotrophic anammox process.

    PubMed

    Shu, Duntao; He, Yanling; Yue, Hong; Zhu, Liang; Wang, Qingyi

    2015-11-01

    To explore the metabolic versatility of "Candidatus Brocadia sinica" in the presence of VFAs, the impacts of VFAs on anammox activity and nitrogen removal were investigated in this study. Results found that low VFAs concentrations has no affect on anammox activity and the removal efficiencies of NH4(+)-N and NO2(-)-N. However, "Ca. Brocadia sinica" showed higher adaptability to some VFAs stresses. Furthermore, Illumina MiSeq pyrosequencing results indicated that the microbial community structures varied significantly and the phyla Chloroflexi, Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes and Chlorobi were dominated. Finally, qPCR was performed to validate the growth of anammox bacteria and gain the quantitative insights into the correlation between nitrogen transformation rates and the key functional genes in the organotrophic anammox system. Combined analysis clearly demonstrated that the coupling of the anammox, denitrification and DNRA were the noteworthy pathway for the simultaneous removal of nitrogen and organic carbon. PMID:26299977

  13. On Chinese earthquake history - An attempt to model an incomplete data set by point process analysis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lee, W.H.K.; Brillinger, D.R.

    1979-01-01

    Since the 1950s, the Academia Sinica in Peking, People's Republic of China, has carried out extensive research on the Chinese earthquake history. With a historical record dating back some 3000 years, a wealth of information on Chinese earthquakes exists. Despite this monumental undertaking by the Academia Sinica, much work is still necessary to correct the existing earthquake data for historical changes in population, customs, modes of communication, and dynasties. In this paper we report on the status of our investigation of Chinese earthquake history and present some preliminary results. By applying point process analysis of earthquakes in 'Central China', we found suggestions of (1) lower earthquake activity at intervals of about 175 years and 375 years, and (2) higher earthquake activity at an interval of about 300 years. ?? 1979 Birkha??user Verlag.

  14. Asia Federation Report on International Symposium on Grid Computing (ISGC) 2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grey, Francois; Lin, Simon C.

    This report provides an overview of developments in the Asia-Pacific region, based on presentations made at the International Symposium on Grid Computing 2010 (ISGC 2010), held 5-12 March at Academia Sinica, Taipei. The document includes a brief overview of the EUAsiaGrid project as well as progress reports by representatives of 13 Asian countries presented at ISGC 2010. In alphabetical order, these are: Australia, China, India, Indonesia, Japan, Malaysia, Pakistan, Philippines, Singapore, South Korea, Taiwan, Thailand and Vietnam.

  15. A novel denitrifying methanotroph of the NC10 phylum and its microcolony

    PubMed Central

    He, Zhanfei; Cai, Chaoyang; Wang, Jiaqi; Xu, Xinhua; Zheng, Ping; Jetten, Mike S. M.; Hu, Baolan

    2016-01-01

    The NC10 phylum is a candidate phylum of prokaryotes and is considered important in biogeochemical cycles and evolutionary history. NC10 members are as-yet-uncultured and are difficult to enrich, and our knowledge regarding this phylum is largely limited to the first species ‘Candidatus Methylomirabilis oxyfera’ (M. oxyfera). Here, we enriched NC10 members from paddy soil and obtained a novel species of the NC10 phylum that mediates the anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM) coupled to nitrite reduction. By comparing the new 16S rRNA gene sequences with those already in the database, this new species was found to be widely distributed in various habitats in China. Therefore, we tentatively named it ‘Candidatus Methylomirabilis sinica’ (M. sinica). Cells of M. sinica are roughly coccus-shaped (0.7–1.2 μm), distinct from M. oxyfera (rod-shaped; 0.25–0.5 × 0.8–1.1 μm). Notably, microscopic inspections revealed that M. sinica grew in honeycomb-shaped microcolonies, which was the first discovery of microcolony of the NC10 phylum. This finding opens the possibility to isolate NC10 members using microcolony-dependent isolation strategies. PMID:27582299

  16. Contents of carbohydrates and lipids in the bodies of two planktonic crustaceans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Yongquan; Yan, Hong; Zhang, Huan

    1990-03-01

    The carbohydrate and lipid contents in two planktonic crustaceans, i. e. Pseudeuphausia sinica and Acetes chinensis sampled from Xiamen coastal waters were estimated. In P. sinica, the contents of carbohydrates (in dry weight) and lipids varied from 2.19 2.33% and 21.2 21.9% respectively; in A. chinensis from 1.74 2.55% and 14.43 15.10% respectively. The analyses of fatty acids by gas-chromatograph (Model 103) showed that eight fatty acids of 14∶0, 15∶0, 16∶0, 17∶0, 18∶0, 18∶2, 20∶2 and 22∶2 were found in these two animals, that 16∶0, 18∶0, 18∶2, and 20∶2 formed the major constituents with 91.08% ( P. sinica) and 74.80% ( A. chinensis) of the total fatty acids, and that the values of odd carbon types (15∶0 and 17∶0) were fairly low, 4.47% and 3.36% respectively. Three monosaccharides: glucose, fructose, and galactose detected by high-liquid chromatograph (Waters 208) accounted for more than 60% of the total carbohydrates, especially the glucose, exceeding by 40%.

  17. Redescription of Pontella species (Calanoida, Pontellidae) from Korean waters, with notes on their spatio-temporal distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeong, Hyeon Gyeong; Suh, Hae-Lip; Yoon, Yang Ho; Soh, Ho Young

    2008-12-01

    To understand physical structures in the Korean waters, we investigated the spatio-temporal distribution of Pontella species known as indicator species of water mass using a David-Hempel neuston net from April 2002 to March 2003. Five Pontella species ( P. chierchiae Giesbrecht, P. fera Dana, P. latifurca Chen and Zhang, P. securifer Brady and P. sinica Chen and Zhang) were found. Their abundance increased from May to October with increasing the surface water temperature. Pontella chierchiae predominantly appeared in the whole areas while P. latifurca scarcely occurred in coastal waters. The other three species ( P. fera, P. securifer and P. sinica) were rarely found in the South Sea of Korea on August to September. We suggest that P. securifer and P. fera as oceanic species can play a role in an indicator species of the Tsushima Warm Current while P. sinica as Chinese coastal species is affected by the diluted waters of the Yantze River. We also provide re-description of the three species ( P. chierchiae, P. fera and P. latifurca) insufficiently described and discuss their zoogeography.

  18. Five scientists on excursion — a picture of marine biology on Helgoland before 1892

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zissler, D.

    1995-03-01

    Five scientists on excursion — a picture of marine biology on Helgoland before 1892. The picture, of which several variant poses with minor differences exist, is a photograph taken on Helgoland in September, 1865. The original is to be found in the collections of the Ernst-Haeckel-Haus in Jena. The photograph shows only a few objects and fewer persons, but they are arranged like a bouquet: in front, collecting vessels; behind, grouped around a table, five scientists, Dohrn, Greeff, Haeckel, Salverda, Marchi. They hold up their catching nets like insignia, identifying their basic activity. This photograph is a unique document for the marine biological research on Helgoland before 1892. Furthermore, it illustrates a time and place for the birth of the idea of establishing the world's most famous marine biological station, the Stazione Zoologica di Napoli.

  19. Invertebrate neuroscience and CephsInAction at the Mediterranean Society for Neuroscience Meeting Cagliari 2015.

    PubMed

    Holden-Dye, Lindy; Fiorito, Graziano; Ponte, Giovanna

    2015-12-01

    Invertebrate neuroscience, and in particular cephalopod research, is well represented in the Mediterranean region. Therefore, the recent meeting of the Mediterranean Society for Neuroscience in Santa Margherita di Pula, Sardinia (12-15 June 2015) provided an excellent opportunity for invertebrate contributions. Furthermore, the Chair of an EU COST Action for cephalopod research (FA1301; www.cephsinaction.org ), Giovanna Ponte, together with Graziano Fiorito from the Stazione Zoologica, Naples, aligned a meeting of research groups working in the field of cephalopod neurophysiology from across Europe to coincide with the neuroscience meeting. This provided an exciting forum for exchange of ideas. Here we provide brief highlights of both events and an explanation of the activities of the COST Action for the broader invertebrate neuroscience community. PMID:26386979

  20. Precise detection of L. monocytogenes hitting its highly conserved region possessing several specific antibody binding sites.

    PubMed

    Jahangiri, Abolfazl; Rasooli, Iraj; Reza Rahbar, Mohammad; Khalili, Saeed; Amani, Jafar; Ahmadi Zanoos, Kobra

    2012-07-21

    Listeria monocytogenes, a facultative intracellular fast-growing Gram-positive food-borne pathogen, can infect immunocompromised individuals leading to meningitis, meningoencephalitis and septicaemias. From the pool of virulence factors of the organism, ActA, a membrane protein, has a critical role in the life cycle of L. monocytogenes. High mortality rate of listeriosis necessitates a sensitive and rapid diagnostic test for precise identification of L. monocytogenes. We used bioinformatic tools to locate a specific conserved region of ActA for designing and developing an antibody-antigen based diagnostic test for the detection of L. monocytogenes. A number of databases were looked for ActA related sequences. Sequences were analyzed with several online software to find an appropriate region for our purpose. ActA protein was found specific to Listeria species with no homologs in other organisms. We finally introduced a highly conserved region within ActA sequence that possess several antibody binding sites specific to L. monocytogenes. This protein sequence can serve as an antigen for designing a relatively cheap, sensitive, and specific diagnostic test for detection of L. monocytogenes. PMID:22575546

  1. Modulating myosin restores muscle function in a mouse model of nemaline myopathy

    PubMed Central

    Lindqvist, Johan; Levy, Yotam; Pati‐Alam, Alisha; Hardeman, Edna C.; Gregorevic, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Objective Nemaline myopathy, one of the most common congenital myopathies, is associated with mutations in various genes including ACTA1. This disease is also characterized by various forms/degrees of muscle weakness, with most cases being severe and resulting in death in infancy. Recent findings have provided valuable insight into the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms. Mutations in ACTA1 directly disrupt binding interactions between actin and myosin, and consequently the intrinsic force‐generating capacity of muscle fibers. ACTA1 mutations are also associated with variations in myofiber size, the mechanisms of which have been unclear. In the present study, we sought to test the hypotheses that the compromised functional and morphological attributes of skeletal muscles bearing ACTA1 mutations (1) would be directly due to the inefficient actomyosin complex and (2) could be restored by manipulating myosin expression. Methods We used a knockin mouse model expressing the ACTA1 His40Tyr actin mutation found in human patients. We then performed in vivo intramuscular injections of recombinant adeno‐associated viral vectors harboring a myosin transgene known to facilitate muscle contraction. Results We observed that in the presence of the transgene, the intrinsic force‐generating capacity was restored and myofiber size was normal. Interpretation This demonstrates a direct link between disrupted attachment of myosin molecules to actin monomers and muscle fiber atrophy. These data also suggest that further therapeutic interventions should primarily target myosin dysfunction to alleviate the pathology of ACTA1‐related nemaline myopathy. Ann Neurol 2016;79:717–725 PMID:26891371

  2. Scientometric Analysis of the Journals of the Academy of Medical Sciences in Bosnia and Herzegovina

    PubMed Central

    Masic, Izet; Begic, Edin; Zunic, Lejla

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Currently in Bosnia and Herzegovina there are 25 journals in the field of biomedicine, 6 of them are indexed in Medline/PubMed base (Medical Archives, Materia Socio-Medica, Acta Informatica Medica, Acta Medica Academica, Bosnian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences (BJBMS) and Medical Glasnik), and one (BJBMS) is indexed in Science Citation Index Expanded (SCIE)/Web of Science base. Aim: The aim of this study was to show the scope of work of the journals that were published by Academy of Medical Sciences of Bosnia and Herzegovina - Medical Archives, Materia Socio-Medica and Acta Informatica Medica. Material and Methods: The research presents a meta-analysis of three journals, or their issues, during the calendar year 2015 (retrospective and descriptive character). Results: During 2015 calendar year a total of 286 articles were published (in Medical Archives 104 (36.3%), in Materia Socio-Medica 99 (34.6%), and in Acta Informatica Medica 83 (29%)). Original articles are present in the highest number in all three journals (in Medical Archives 80.7%, in Materia Socio Medica 77.7%, and in Acta Informatica Medica 68.6%). In Medical Archives, 90.3% of the articles were related to the field of clinical medicine. In Materia Socio-Medica, the domain of clinical medicine and public health was the most represented. Preclinical areas are most frequent in Acta Informatica Medica. The period of 50-60 days for a decision on the admission of article is most common in all three journals, with trend of shortening of that period. Articles came from 19 countries, mostly from Bosnia and Herzegovina, then from Iran, Kosovo, Saudi Arabia and Greece. Conclusion: In Medical Archives original articles in the field of clinical medicine (usually internal and surgical disciplines) are most often present, and that is the case in last four years. The number of articles in Materia Socio-Medica and Acta Informatica Medica is growing from year to year. In Materia Socio-Medica there is a

  3. Re-refinement of 4xan: hen egg-white lysozyme with carboplatin in sodium bromide solution

    PubMed Central

    Tanley, Simon W. M.; Schreurs, Antoine M. M.; Kroon-Batenburg, Loes M. J.; Helliwell, John R.

    2016-01-01

    A re-refinement of 4xan, hen egg-white lysozyme (HEWL) with carboplatin crystallized in NaBr solution, has been made and is published here as an addendum to Tanley et al. [(2014), Acta Cryst. F70, 1135–1142]. This follows a previous re-refinement and PDB deposition (4yem) by Shabalin et al. [(2015), Acta Cryst. D71, 1965–1979]. The critical evaluation of the original PDB deposition (4xan), and the subsequent critical examination of the re-refined structure (4yem), has led to an improved model (PDB code 5hmj). PMID:26919531

  4. An In Vivo Selection Identifies Listeria monocytogenes Genes Required to Sense the Intracellular Environment and Activate Virulence Factor Expression

    PubMed Central

    Portnoy, Daniel A.

    2016-01-01

    Listeria monocytogenes is an environmental saprophyte and facultative intracellular bacterial pathogen with a well-defined life-cycle that involves escape from a phagosome, rapid cytosolic growth, and ActA-dependent cell-to-cell spread, all of which are dependent on the master transcriptional regulator PrfA. The environmental cues that lead to temporal and spatial control of L. monocytogenes virulence gene expression are poorly understood. In this study, we took advantage of the robust up-regulation of ActA that occurs intracellularly and expressed Cre recombinase from the actA promoter and 5’ untranslated region in a strain in which loxP sites flanked essential genes, so that activation of actA led to bacterial death. Upon screening for transposon mutants that survived intracellularly, six genes were identified as necessary for ActA expression. Strikingly, most of the genes, including gshF, spxA1, yjbH, and ohrA, are predicted to play important roles in bacterial redox regulation. The mutants identified in the genetic selection fell into three broad categories: (1) those that failed to reach the cytosolic compartment; (2) mutants that entered the cytosol, but failed to activate the master virulence regulator PrfA; and (3) mutants that entered the cytosol and activated transcription of actA, but failed to synthesize it. The identification of mutants defective in vacuolar escape suggests that up-regulation of ActA occurs in the host cytosol and not the vacuole. Moreover, these results provide evidence for two non-redundant cytosolic cues; the first results in allosteric activation of PrfA via increased glutathione levels and transcriptional activation of actA while the second results in translational activation of actA and requires yjbH. Although the precise host cues have not yet been identified, we suggest that intracellular redox stress occurs as a consequence of both host and pathogen remodeling their metabolism upon infection. PMID:27414028

  5. An In Vivo Selection Identifies Listeria monocytogenes Genes Required to Sense the Intracellular Environment and Activate Virulence Factor Expression.

    PubMed

    Reniere, Michelle L; Whiteley, Aaron T; Portnoy, Daniel A

    2016-07-01

    Listeria monocytogenes is an environmental saprophyte and facultative intracellular bacterial pathogen with a well-defined life-cycle that involves escape from a phagosome, rapid cytosolic growth, and ActA-dependent cell-to-cell spread, all of which are dependent on the master transcriptional regulator PrfA. The environmental cues that lead to temporal and spatial control of L. monocytogenes virulence gene expression are poorly understood. In this study, we took advantage of the robust up-regulation of ActA that occurs intracellularly and expressed Cre recombinase from the actA promoter and 5' untranslated region in a strain in which loxP sites flanked essential genes, so that activation of actA led to bacterial death. Upon screening for transposon mutants that survived intracellularly, six genes were identified as necessary for ActA expression. Strikingly, most of the genes, including gshF, spxA1, yjbH, and ohrA, are predicted to play important roles in bacterial redox regulation. The mutants identified in the genetic selection fell into three broad categories: (1) those that failed to reach the cytosolic compartment; (2) mutants that entered the cytosol, but failed to activate the master virulence regulator PrfA; and (3) mutants that entered the cytosol and activated transcription of actA, but failed to synthesize it. The identification of mutants defective in vacuolar escape suggests that up-regulation of ActA occurs in the host cytosol and not the vacuole. Moreover, these results provide evidence for two non-redundant cytosolic cues; the first results in allosteric activation of PrfA via increased glutathione levels and transcriptional activation of actA while the second results in translational activation of actA and requires yjbH. Although the precise host cues have not yet been identified, we suggest that intracellular redox stress occurs as a consequence of both host and pathogen remodeling their metabolism upon infection. PMID:27414028

  6. Biological effects of carbon ions with medium energy on plant seeds

    SciTech Connect

    Zengquan Wei; Yuyan Liu; Guiling Wang; Xuebing Chen; Huiling Li; Hanmin Yang; Lihong Wang; Qingxiang Gao; Chongying Wang; Yafu Wang

    1995-03-01

    The biological effects of 46.6 MeV/u {sup 12}C{sup 6+} ions on four kinds of plant seeds were studied at the Heavy Ion Research Facility in Lanzhou (HIRFL), Institute of Modern Physics (IMP), Academia Sinica. The results show that germination of the seeds is inhibited by exposure to ions. In root tip cells of irradiated seeds, a great variety of chromosomal aberrations were observed. Sensitivities in terms of inhibition of germination and induction of chromosomal aberrations in the four species are correlated. 7 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  7. Simulation of an rf gun injector for the Beijing free electron laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Hongxiu

    1990-09-01

    An rf gun injector is being developed in the Institute of High Energy Physics, Academia Sinica. It will be used for a 30 MeV, 2856 MHz disk-loaded travelling-wave linac to drive the Beijing free electron laser (BFEL). It consists of an rf thermionic gun with a LaB 6 cathode and an achromatic but nonisochronic alpha magnet serving as the momentum filter. The transverse and longitudinal dynamics of a single electron bunch were simulated using SUPERFISH and PARMELA. The injector performance was examined in the light of the simulation results.

  8. Education or Reputation? A Look at America's Top-Ranked Liberal Arts Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poliakoff, Michael; Alacbay, Armand

    2014-01-01

    ACTA [American Council of Trustees and Alumni] today released a report that examines the country's most prestigious liberal arts colleges. Despite endowments soaring as high as $1.8 billion, nearly all institutions increased tuition during the Great Recession to finance bloated administrative spending, with many college presidents enjoying…

  9. Experiences of a local arrangement committee for a large scientific conference

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This paper is an an invited condensation of a paper that appeared in Acta. Hort. 745: 513-532 last year. It describes the history and organization of the combined meeting of the 90th Annual Meeting of the Potato Association of America, the VI International Solanaceae Conference, and the III Solanace...

  10. Erratum to: Vascular endothelial growth factor induces contralesional corticobulbar plasticity and functional neurological recovery in the ischemic brain.

    PubMed

    Reitmeir, Raluca; Kilic, Ertugrul; Reinboth, Barbara S; Guo, Zeyun; ElAli, Ayman; Zechariah, Anil; Kilic, Ülkan; Hermann, Dirk M

    2015-10-01

    Erratum to: Acta Neuropathol (2012) 123:273–284. DOI 10.1007/s00401‑011‑0914‑z. The authors would like to correct Fig. 3 of the original manuscript, since the image in Fig. 3b does not correspond to a VEGF treated animal. Corrected Fig. 3 is shown below. We apologize for this mistake. PMID:26341346

  11. Extension of working range in Zeeman graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry by nonlinear calibration with prior correction for stray light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lonardo, Robert F.; Yuzefovsky, Alexander I.; Zhou, Jack X.; McCaffrey, John T.; Michel, Robert G.

    1996-09-01

    The nonlinear working range of a Perkin-Elmer 4100Zl atomic absorption spectrometer was improved in three steps. Firstly, each absorbance datum within the transient profile was corrected for the presence of stray light by an algorithm originally developed by L'vov and co-workers (Spectrochim. Acta Part B, 47 (1992) 889-895 and 1187-1202), but with the incorporation of the Newton method of successive approximations (Spectrochim. Acta Part B, 49 (1994) 1643-1656. Secondly, a dip correction procedure was performed on temporal signal profiles that exhibited a dip due to rollover. In the final step, an analytically useful working curve was generated by the nonlinear calibration routine of Barnett (Spectrochim. Acta Part B, 39 (1984) 829). Goodness of fit between the resultant calibration curve and the data was measured by the method suggested by Miller-Ihli et al. (Spectrochim. Acta Part B, 39 (1984) 1603) that is based on the sum of squares of the percentage deviation (SSPD) and the root mean square (RMS) percentage deviation. For lead, silver, copper, thallium, and cadmium, the analytical nonlinear working range was increased by as much as one and a half orders of magnitude, without any significant effect on the RMS. For chromium and manganese, no significant improvement in the nonlinear working range was observed, while the RMS improved by 50%. In the case of nickel, neither the working range nor the RMS was improved.

  12. Eventos de Agosto (August Events).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toro, Leonor; Pla, Myrna

    Written in Spanish, this booklet contains brief information on seven August events celebrated by Puerto Ricans: Herbert Hoover's birthdate (August 10); Acta del Seguro Social (Social Security Act, August 14); Julian E. Blanco (August 14), Enmienda 19 Sufragia de la Mujer (Amendment 19, Women's Suffrage, August 26); Benjamin Harrison (August 20);…

  13. Intradistrict Resource Allocation: Key Findings and Policy Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houck, Eric A.

    2011-01-01

    The focus on school-level performance brought about by the No Child Left Behind Act--as well as recent court cases challenging the use of race in student assignment policies--has brought greater attention to the need to for careful study of the allocation of resources within school districts. This paper describes the policy context, reviews key…

  14. Nebraska Swims Hard against Testing's Tides

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borja, Rhea R.

    2007-01-01

    Sometimes assessments that work in theory fall apart in reality. This article discusses the unique learning-measurement system in Nebraska. Instead of relying on statewide standardized tests to comply with the accountability requirements of the federal No Child Left Behind Act--as is the case in the other 49 states--districts in Nebraska use their…

  15. Antimicrobial resistance of Listeria monocytogenes isolated from a poultry further processing plant

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to compare antimicrobial resistance profiles of distinct types of Listeria monocytogenes isolated from a commercial poultry cooking plant. One hundred fifty seven L. monocytogenes isolates representing 14 different ActA types were tested for susceptibility to 19 ant...

  16. The Cost of Chaos in the Curriculum. Perspectives on Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Capaldi Phillips, Elizabeth D.; Poliakoff, Michael B.

    2015-01-01

    ACTA's report "The Cost of Chaos in the Curriculum" reveals that the vast array of course choices given to college students is a cause of exploding costs and poor academic outcomes. And a bloated undergraduate curriculum is particularly detrimental to the success of students from lower socioeconomic backgrounds. The report documents how…

  17. Diffusive Insights: On the Disagreement of Christian Bohr and August Krogh at the Centennial of the Seven Little Devils

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gjedde, Albert

    2010-01-01

    The year 2010 is the centennial of the publication of the "Seven Little Devils" in the predecessor of "Acta Physiologica". In these seven papers, August and Marie Krogh sought to refute Christian Bohr's theory that oxygen diffusion from the lungs to the circulation is not entirely passive but rather facilitated by a specific cellular activity…

  18. Investigating Multitasking in High-Functioning Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorders Using the Virtual Errands Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rajendran, Gnanathusharan; Law, Anna S.; Logie, Robert H.; van der Meulen, Marian; Fraser, Diane; Corley, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Using a modified version of the Virtual Errands Task (VET; McGeorge et al. in "Presence-Teleop Virtual Environ" 10(4):375-383, 2001), we investigated the executive ability of multitasking in 18 high-functioning adolescents with ASD and 18 typically developing adolescents. The VET requires multitasking (Law et al. in "Acta Psychol" 122(1):27-44,…

  19. Prepared in Mind and Resources? A Report on Public Higher Education in South Carolina

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alacbay, Armand; Poliakoff, Michael

    2011-01-01

    In 2011, South Carolina Governor Nikki Haley signed into law the South Carolina Higher Education Efficiency and Administrative Policies Act, maintaining the transparency and accountability that lead to increased academic quality and affordability at colleges and universities. It is in this context that ACTA (American Council of Trustees and…

  20. Measures of Muscular Strength in U.S. Children and Adolescents, 2012

    MedlinePlus

    ... performance and DXA-derived lean body mass and fat mass in pre-pubertal children. Acta Pædiatr 100(10):1359–67. 2011. Suggested citation Ervin RB, Wang C-Y, Fryar CD, et al. Measures of ...

  1. SPR Biosensor for the Detection of L. monocytogenes using Phage Displayed Antibody

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Whole cells of Listeria monocytogenes were detected with a compact, surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensor using a phage-displayed scFv antibody to the virulence factor ActA for biorecognition. Phage Lm P4:A8, expressing the scFv antibody fused to the pIII surface protein was immobilized to the se...

  2. Governance for a New Era: A Blueprint for Higher Education Trustees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Benno C.

    2014-01-01

    "Governance for a New Era: A Blueprint for Higher Education Governance," is the product of a summit facilitated by ACTA [American Council of Trustees and Alumni] and chaired by Benno Schmidt, City University of New York Board chairman. Signatories to the statement, a diverse group of 22 distinguished national leaders, include college…

  3. Bold Leadership Real Reform [Annual Report, 2014

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Council of Trustees and Alumni, 2015

    2015-01-01

    Higher education has never been more "front and center"--almost daily we hear about spiraling costs, the lack of academic rigor, and the stifling political correctness on our college campuses. Long before such issues were hot, ACTA [American Council of Trustees and Alumni] was already pointing out these worrisome trends and calling on…

  4. BIOGEOCHEMICAL CONTROLS ON REACTION OF SEDIMENTARY ORGANIC MATTER AND AQUEOUS SULFIDES IN HOLOCENE SEDIMENTS OF MUD LAKE FLORIDA: JOURNAL ARTICLE

    EPA Science Inventory

    JOURNAL NRMRL-ADA-00133 Filley,T.R., Freeman, K.H., Wilkin*, R.T., and Hatcher, P.G. Biogeochemical Controls on Reaction of Sedimentary Organic Matter and Aqueous Sulfides in Holocene Sediments of Mud Lake Florida. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 66 (6):937-954...

  5. Development of Guidance for States Transitioning to New Safety Analysis Tools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alluri, Priyanka

    2010-01-01

    With about 125 people dying on US roads each day, the US Department of Transportation heightened the awareness of critical safety issues with the passage of SAFETEA-LU (Safe Accountable Flexible Efficient Transportation Equity Act--A Legacy for Users) legislation in 2005. The legislation required each of the states to develop a Strategic Highway…

  6. Polarization in RMnO3 multiferroics.

    PubMed

    Pirogov, A N

    2016-02-01

    Some comments on the review by Sim et al. [(2016). Acta Cryst. B72, 3-19] are given. The review is devoted to hexagonal multiferroics RMnO3, in which there are ferroelectric and magnetic orders. Strong interaction between these orders causes a series of interesting properties of multiferroics. PMID:26830791

  7. Activity Scale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerpelman, Larry C.; Weiner, Michael J.

    This twenty-four item scale assesses students' actual and desired political-social activism in terms of physical participation, communication activities, and information-gathering activities. About ten minutes are required to complete the instrument. The scale is divided into two subscales. The first twelve items (ACT-A) question respondents on…

  8. Higher: Setting a Higher Bar for Higher Ed. 2013 Annual Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Council of Trustees and Alumni, 2014

    2014-01-01

    The American Council of Trustees and Alumni (ACTA) is leading the charge to return "higher" to higher education. We are challenging the status quo to restore academic freedom, academic rigor, and real accountability to higher education. And, we are doing so with an ever-widening network of supporters and partners.

  9. Magnus Strandqvist: 50th anniversary of his doctoral thesis.

    PubMed

    Kajanti, M J

    1994-01-01

    This article is dedicated to Magnus Strandqvist's famous doctoral thesis "Studien über die kumulative Wirkung der Röntgenstrahlen bei Fraktionierung. Erfahrungen aus dem Radiumhemmet an 280 Haut- und Lippenkarzinomen" published in Acta Radiologica in 1944. After a short biography of Strandqvist some central points of his work and their influence on future development of modern radiotherapy are presented. PMID:7993639

  10. Effects of space flights on human allergic status (IgE-mediated sensitivity)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buravkova, L. B.; Rykova, M. P.; Gertsik, Y. G.; Antropova, E. N.

    2007-02-01

    Suppression of the immune system after space flights of different duration has been reported earlier by Konstantinova [Immune system in extreme conditions, Space immunology. B. 59. M. Science 1988. 289p. (in Russian) [4]; Immunoresistance of man in space flight, Acta Astronautica 23 (1991) 123-127 [5

  11. International Symposium on Grids and Clouds (ISGC) 2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The International Symposium on Grids and Clouds (ISGC) 2014 will be held at Academia Sinica in Taipei, Taiwan from 23-28 March 2014, with co-located events and workshops. The conference is hosted by the Academia Sinica Grid Computing Centre (ASGC).“Bringing the data scientist to global e-Infrastructures” is the theme of ISGC 2014. The last decade has seen the phenomenal growth in the production of data in all forms by all research communities to produce a deluge of data from which information and knowledge need to be extracted. Key to this success will be the data scientist - educated to use advanced algorithms, applications and infrastructures - collaborating internationally to tackle society’s challenges. ISGC 2014 will bring together researchers working in all aspects of data science from different disciplines around the world to collaborate and educate themselves in the latest achievements and techniques being used to tackle the data deluge. In addition to the regular workshops, technical presentations and plenary keynotes, ISGC this year will focus on how to grow the data science community by considering the educational foundation needed for tomorrow’s data scientist. Topics of discussion include Physics (including HEP) and Engineering Applications, Biomedicine & Life Sciences Applications, Earth & Environmental Sciences & Biodiversity Applications, Humanities & Social Sciences Application, Virtual Research Environment (including Middleware, tools, services, workflow, ... etc.), Data Management, Big Data, Infrastructure & Operations Management, Infrastructure Clouds and Virtualisation, Interoperability, Business Models & Sustainability, Highly Distributed Computing Systems, and High Performance & Technical Computing (HPTC).

  12. Morphology of three new marine Frontonia species (Ciliophora; Peniculida) with note on the phylogeny of this genus.

    PubMed

    Fan, Xinpeng; Lin, Xiaofeng; Liu, Weiwei; Xu, Yuan; Al-Farraj, Saleh A; Al-Rasheid, Khaled A S; Warren, Alan

    2013-05-01

    Members of the ciliate genus Frontonia are common colonizers of periphytic communities in aquatic biotopes. Recent studies indicate that their species diversity is higher than previously supposed. In this study the morphology and infraciliature of three new species, Frontonia sinica spec. nov., F. pusilla spec. nov., and F. elegans spec. nov., isolated from coastal waters of China, were investigated using live observation and silver impregnation methods. Frontonia sinica differs from its congeners by the following combination of characters: ellipsoidal body, about 116 somatic and five or six vestibular kineties, peniculi 1 and 2 four-rowed, peniculus 3 two-rowed, and a single contractile vacuole. Frontonia pusilla has about 72 somatic kineties, four-rowed peniculi 1 and 2, a two-rowed peniculus 3, and two contractile vacuoles. Frontonia elegans has 73 somatic kineties, four-rowed peniculi 1 and 2, a three-rowed peniculus 3, and two contractile vacuoles. In the present work, six new small-subunit rRNA gene sequences of six Frontonia species are used to construct the phylogenetic trees. Our phylogenetic analysis supports that the genus Frontonia may be paraphyletic. Meanwhile, no pattern of correlation could be found between the structures of peniculi and the phylogenetic relationships of Frontonia species in the present study. PMID:22824455

  13. The Metalloprotease Mpl Supports Listeria monocytogenes Dissemination through Resolution of Membrane Protrusions into Vacuoles.

    PubMed

    Alvarez, Diego E; Agaisse, Hervé

    2016-06-01

    Listeria monocytogenes is an intracellular pathogen that disseminates within the intestinal epithelium through acquisition of actin-based motility and formation of plasma membrane protrusions that project into adjacent cells. The resolution of membrane protrusions into vacuoles from which the pathogen escapes results in bacterial spread from cell to cell. This dissemination process relies on the mlp-actA-plcB operon, which encodes ActA, a bacterial nucleation-promoting factor that mediates actin-based motility, and PlcB, a phospholipase that mediates vacuole escape. Here we investigated the role of the metalloprotease Mpl in the dissemination process. In agreement with previous findings showing that Mpl is required for PlcB activation, infection of epithelial cells with the ΔplcB or Δmpl strains resulted in the formation of small infection foci. As expected, the ΔplcB strain displayed a strong defect in vacuole escape. However, the Δmpl strain showed an unexpected defect in the resolution of protrusions into vacuoles, in addition to the expected but mild defect in vacuole escape. The Δmpl strain displayed increased levels of ActA on the bacterial surface in protrusions. We mapped an Mpl-dependent processing site in ActA between amino acid residues 207 to 238. Similar to the Δmpl strain, the ΔactA207-238 strain displayed increased levels of ActA on the bacterial surface in protrusions. Although the ΔactA207-238 strain displayed wild-type actin-based motility, it formed small infection foci and failed to resolve protrusions into vacuoles. We propose that, in addition to its role in PlcB processing and vacuole escape, the metalloprotease Mpl is required for ActA processing and protrusion resolution. PMID:27068088

  14. Species distribution within the free-living marine nematode genus Dichromadora in the Weddell Sea and adjacent areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vermeeren, Hannelore; Vanreusel, Ann; Vanhove, Sandra

    2004-07-01

    Studies of Antarctic, free-living, marine nematodes are mostly restricted to genus level. In the current study, the genus Dichromadora (Kreis, H.A., 1929. Capita Zoologica 2(7), 1-98) is analysed to species level. Dichromadora is one of the genera that are frequently present along the continental margin of the eastern Weddell Sea. Samples were retrieved from the 1000-2000 m depth line in the eastern Weddell Sea (Halley Bay, Vestkapp and Kapp Norvegia), South Sandwich Trench and the Drake Passage. Eight species are distinguished within the genus Dichromadora of which seven are new to science. Out of these seven species, five are described taxonomically: Dichromadora weddellensis sp. n. , Dichromadora southernis sp. n. , Dichromadora polarsternis sp. n., Dichromadora parva sp. n., and Dichromadora polaris sp. n. The two other species ( D. spec A, D. spec B) receive, as to the scarcety of available specimens, no scientific name. The distribution of the Dichromadora species from Antarctica are discussed in the context of deep-sea (1000-2000 m) observations in Arctic, Atlantic, Pacific and Indian oceans.

  15. Determination of ephedrine alkaloids in botanicals and dietary supplements by HPLC-UV: collaborative study.

    PubMed

    Roman, Mark C

    2004-01-01

    An international collaborative study was conducted of a high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-UV method for the determination of the major (ephedrine [EP] and pseudoephedrine [PS]) and minor (norephedrine [NE], norpseudoephedrine [NP], methylephedrine [ME], and methylpseudoephedrine [MP]) alkaloids in selected dietary supplements representative of the commercially available products. Ten collaborating laboratories determined the ephedrine-type alkaloid content in 8 blind replicate samples. Five products contained ephedra ground herb or ephedra extract. These 5 products included ground botanical raw material of Ephedra sinica, a common powdered extract of Ephedra sinica, a finished product containing only Ephedra sinica ground botanical raw material, a complex multicomponent dietary supplement containing Ma Huang, and a high-protein chocolate flavored drink mix containing Ma Huang extract. In addition, collaborating laboratories received a negative control and negative control spiked with ephedrine alkaloids at high and low levels for recovery studies. Test extracts were treated to solid-phase extraction using a strong-cation exchange column to help remove interferences. The HPLC analyses were performed on a polar-embedded phenyl column using UV detection at 210 nm. Repeatability relative standard deviations (RSDr) ranged from 0.64-3.0% for EP and 2.0-6.6% for PS, excluding the high protein drink mix. Reproducibility relative standard deviations (RSDR) ranged from 2.1-6.6% for EP and 9.0-11.4% for PS, excluding the high protein drink mix. Recoveries ranged from 84.7-87.2% for EP and 84.6-98.2% for PS. The data developed for the minor alkaloids are more variable with generally unsatisfactory HORRATS (i.e., >2). However, since these alkaloids generally add little to the total alkaloid content of the products, the method gives satisfactory results in measuring total alkaloid content (RSDr 0.85-3.13%; RSDR 2.03-10.97%, HORRAT 0.69-3.23, exclusive of the results

  16. Second monoclinic polymorph of 4-[(1H-benzimidazol-1-yl)meth­yl]benzoic acid

    PubMed Central

    Kuai, Hai-Wei; Cheng, Xiao-Chun

    2011-01-01

    Recently, we reported the first monoclinic [Kuai & Cheng (2011). Acta Cryst., E67, o2787] and the ortho­rhom­bic polymorph [Kuai & Cheng (2011). Acta Cryst., E67, o3014] of the title compound, C15H12N2O2. Another monoclinic polymorph was obtained accidentally by the hydro­thermal reaction of the title compound with manganese chloride in the presence of potassium hydroxide at 413 K. The asymmetric unit consists of four independent mol­ecules. In the crystal, O—H⋯N hydrogen bonds link the independent mol­ecules into four separate chains parallel to the b axis. PMID:22199726

  17. A Short History of Medical Informatics in Bosnia and Herzegovina

    PubMed Central

    Masic, Izet

    2014-01-01

    The health informatics profession in Bosnia and Herzegovina has relatively long history. Thirty five years from the introduction of the first automatic manipulation of data, thirty years from the establishment of Society for Medical Informatics BiH, twenty years from the establishment of the Scientific journal “Acta Informatica Medica (Acta Inform Med”, indexed in PubMed, PubMed Central Scopus, Embase, etc.), twenty years on from the establishment of the first Cathedra for Medical Informatics on Biomedical Faculties in Bosnia and Herzegovina, ten years on from the introduction of the method of “Distance learning” in medical curriculum. The author of this article is eager to mark the importance of the above mentioned Anniversaries in the development of Health informatics in Bosnia and Herzegovina and have attempted, very briefly, to present the most significant events and persons with essential roles throughout this period. PMID:24648621

  18. The spectral sensitivity of the human short-wavelength sensitive cones derived from thresholds and color matches.

    PubMed

    Stockman, A; Sharpe, L T; Fach, C

    1999-08-01

    We used two methods to estimate short-wave (S) cone spectral sensitivity. Firstly, we measured S-cone thresholds centrally and peripherally in five trichromats, and in three blue-cone monochromats, who lack functioning middle-wave (M) and long-wave (L) cones. Secondly, we analyzed standard color-matching data. Both methods yielded equivalent results, on the basis of which we propose new S-cone spectral sensitivity functions. At short and middle-wavelengths, our measurements are consistent with the color matching data of Stiles and Burch (1955, Optica Acta, 2, 168-181; 1959, Optica Acta, 6, 1-26), and other psychophysically measured functions, such as pi 3 (Stiles, 1953, Coloquio sobre problemas opticos de la vision, 1, 65-103). At longer wavelengths, S-cone sensitivity has previously been over-estimated. PMID:10492818

  19. Autosomal dominant nemaline myopathy caused by a novel alpha-tropomyosin 3 mutation.

    PubMed

    Kiphuth, I C; Krause, S; Huttner, H B; Dekomien, G; Struffert, T; Schröder, R

    2010-04-01

    Nemaline myopathy (NM) is a genetically and clinically heterogenous muscle disorder, which is myopathologically characterized by nemaline bodies. Mutations in six genes have been reported to cause NM: Nebulin (NEB Pelin 1999), alpha-skeletal muscle actin (ACTA1 Nowak 1999), alpha-slow tropomyosin (TPM3 Laing 1995), beta-tropomyosin (TPM2 Donner 2002), slow troponin T (TNNT1 Johnston 2000) and cofilin 2 (CFL2 Agrawal 2007). The majority of cases are due to mutation in NEB and ACTA1. We report on the clinical, myopathological and muscle MRI findings in a German family with autosomal dominant NM due to a novel pathogenic TPM3 mutation (p.Ala156Thr). PMID:20012312

  20. Periodic entanglement III: tangled degree-3 finite and layer net intergrowths from rare forests.

    PubMed

    Evans, Myfanwy E; Hyde, Stephen T

    2015-11-01

    Entanglements of two-dimensional honeycomb nets are constructed from free tilings of the hyperbolic plane (H2) on triply periodic minimal surfaces. The 2-periodic nets that comprise the structures are guaranteed by considering regular, rare free tilings in H2. This paper catalogues an array of entanglements that are both beautiful and challenging for current classification techniques, including examples that are realized in metal-organic materials. The compactification of these structures to the genus-3 torus is considered as a preliminary method for generating entanglements of finite θ-graphs, potentially useful for gaining insight into the entanglement of the periodic structure. This work builds on previous structural enumerations given in Periodic entanglement Parts I and II [Evans et al. (2013). Acta Cryst. A69, 241-261; Evans et al. (2013). Acta Cryst. A69, 262-275]. PMID:26522409

  1. Meeting Report: 7th World Congress on Itch

    PubMed Central

    Azimi, Ehsan; Lerner, Ethan A.

    2014-01-01

    The 7th World Congress on Itch was held in Boston in September 2013. This is the biennial meeting of the International Forum for the Study of Itch (IFSI), www.itchforum.net, There were 240 attendees from 17 countries. They spanned clinical practice, academics and patient advocacy while the opportunity for translation was demonstrated as 80 attendees were from industry. A large academic neuroscience contingent was present. There were plenary sessions, basic and clinical tracts, and sixty posters during the 2½ day meeting. The meeting program and 160 abstracts are available at www.itchboston.org and the open access journal, Acta Dermato-Venereologica, www.medicaljournals.se/acta/. This report highlights selected aspects of the congress and the latest advances in the field. PMID:24924756

  2. 4-(3-Fluoro­phen­yl)-1-(propan-2-yl­idene)thio­semicarbazone

    PubMed Central

    Miroslaw, Barbara; Szulczyk, Daniel; Koziol, Anna E.; Struga, Marta

    2011-01-01

    The title compound, C10H12FN3S, crystallizes in the same space group (P21/c) as two polymorphic forms of 4-phenyl-1-(propan-2-yl­idene)thio­semicarbazone [Jian et al. (2005). Acta Cryst. E61, o653–o654; Venkatraman et al. (2005). Acta Cryst. E61, o3914–o3916]. The arrangement of mol­ecules relative to the twofold screw axes is similar to that in the crystal structure of the lower density polymorph. In the solid state, the mol­ecular conformation is stabilized by an intra­molecular N—H⋯N hydrogen bond. The mol­ecules form centrosymmetric R 2 2(8) dimers in the crystal through pairs of N—H⋯S hydrogen bonds. PMID:22220027

  3. Optical excitation and quenching of photocurrent in single-crystal diamond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jeson; Lourette, Sean; Rezai, Kristine; Kehayias, Pauli; Lake, Michael; Jarmola, Andrey; Nesladek, Milos; Bouchard, Louis; Hemmer, Philip; Budker, Dmitry

    2016-05-01

    Diamond has found important applications in optoelectronics including electron emitters, windows for high power devices, and x-ray photon detectors, thanks to its unique properties, such as a wide bandgap, high thermal conductance and broadband optical transmittance. It is thus of paramount importance to investigate the photoelectric properties of diamond in greater details. Here we report the observation of optical quenching of photocurrent in diamond using simultaneous illumination of pulsed and continuous wave lasers at the same wavelength and different wavelengths. The quenched photocurrent shows a recovery related to the external bias voltage, pulsed optical power and wavelength. The recovery of the quenched photocurrent provides information on the nature of the electron trap states in diamond. Current: Academia Sinica, Taiwan.

  4. Scenarios on a rotating two-fluid interface with a density contrast - the morphology and the transitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Wei-Ting; Lai, Ching-Yau; Chang, Chi-Chung; Chen, Yih-Yuh; Tsai, Jih-Chiang; Inst. of Physics, Academia Sinica Collaboration; Dept. of Physics, Nat'l Taiwan University Collaboration

    2011-11-01

    We study experimentally an oil-water interface maintained in a cylindrical container with its upper boundary rotating at constant speeds. The interface exhibits intriguing morphology as the rotation speeds up, making transitions from a smooth hump that presumably compensates the centrifugal-force induced pressure dip, to more fascinating geometries such as a spinning flap top (a plateau) or a mound with distinct spatial steps. The available scenarios can be controlled by varying the depths of two fluids as well. Increasing the rotation rates also tends to induce wavy patterns that break the axial symmetry of those base shapes, while a violent collapse of the oil-water interface occurs at sufficiently fast rotations. We attempt to give partial explanations for the different scenarios. Supported by Academia Sinica and NSC, Taiwan.

  5. SMA Observations of the Massive Star-forming Regions NGC 6334 I & I(N)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hunter, Todd R.; Beuther, Henrik; Megeath, Tom; Menten, Karl; Thorwirth, Sven; Zhang, Qizhou

    We present high-resolution observations of the massive star-formation regions NGC 6334 I and I(N) in the 230 GHz band. Data were obtained during Spring 2004 and 2005 in the compact and extended configurations of the Submillimeter Array (SMA), a joint venture of the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory and the Academica Sinica Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics. Various pieces of evidence, including a molecular line survey by Thorwirth et al. (2003), have suggested that these two fields exist in different evolutionary stages, with field I(N) being younger. Our new observations will help to explore this hypothesis. We have detected and imaged a number of molecular lines that trace the outflow activity and dense gas in both fields. In field I, we have begun to resolve the strong dust continuum emission into multiple sources. In a separate work, these new sources were found to coincide with strong thermal centimeter lines of ammonia and methanol (Beuther et al. 2005).

  6. PREFACE: International Conference on Computing in High Energy and Nuclear Physics (CHEP 2010)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Simon C.; Shen, Stella; Neufeld, Niko; Gutsche, Oliver; Cattaneo, Marco; Fisk, Ian; Panzer-Steindel, Bernd; Di Meglio, Alberto; Lokajicek, Milos

    2011-12-01

    The International Conference on Computing in High Energy and Nuclear Physics (CHEP) was held at Academia Sinica in Taipei from 18-22 October 2010. CHEP is a major series of international conferences for physicists and computing professionals from the worldwide High Energy and Nuclear Physics community, Computer Science, and Information Technology. The CHEP conference provides an international forum to exchange information on computing progress and needs for the community, and to review recent, ongoing and future activities. CHEP conferences are held at roughly 18 month intervals, alternating between Europe, Asia, America and other parts of the world. Recent CHEP conferences have been held in Prauge, Czech Republic (2009); Victoria, Canada (2007); Mumbai, India (2006); Interlaken, Switzerland (2004); San Diego, California(2003); Beijing, China (2001); Padova, Italy (2000) CHEP 2010 was organized by Academia Sinica Grid Computing Centre. There was an International Advisory Committee (IAC) setting the overall themes of the conference, a Programme Committee (PC) responsible for the content, as well as Conference Secretariat responsible for the conference infrastructure. There were over 500 attendees with a program that included plenary sessions of invited speakers, a number of parallel sessions comprising around 260 oral and 200 poster presentations, and industrial exhibitions. We thank all the presenters, for the excellent scientific content of their contributions to the conference. Conference tracks covered topics on Online Computing, Event Processing, Software Engineering, Data Stores, and Databases, Distributed Processing and Analysis, Computing Fabrics and Networking Technologies, Grid and Cloud Middleware, and Collaborative Tools. The conference included excursions to various attractions in Northern Taiwan, including Sanhsia Tsu Shih Temple, Yingko, Chiufen Village, the Northeast Coast National Scenic Area, Keelung, Yehliu Geopark, and Wulai Aboriginal Village

  7. Effects of standing wave states on low temperature growth of 2D Pb islands on Si(111) surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsong, Tien T.

    2002-03-01

    Flat-top 2D Pb islands of nanometer size with critical and magic thickness have been observed in the Pb/Si(111)-7x7 system at low temperature using scanning tunneling microscopy. The growth behavior, formation of new electronic bound states, redistribution of surface charge density, and oscillatory relaxations in the island thickness arise from quantum size effects. All these properties are perfectly correlated to each other [1]. This and other more recent results will be presented. Work supported by the NSC of ROC and Academia Sinica. [1]. W. B. Su, S. H. Chang, W. B. Jian, C. S. Chang, L. J. Chen and T. T. Tsong, Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 5116 (2001); W. B. Su, S. H. Chang, C. S. Chang, L. J. Chen and T. T. Tsong, Jpn J. Appl. Phys. 40, 4299 (2001).

  8. Pattern Transitions in Bacterial Oscillating System under Nanofluidic Confinement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Jie-Pan; Chou, Chia-Fu

    2011-03-01

    Successful binary fission in E. coli relies on remarkable oscillatory behavior of the MinCDE protein system to determine the exact division site. The most favorable models to explain this fascinating spatiotemporal regulation on dynamic MinDE pattern formation in cells are based on reaction-diffusion scenario. Although not fully understood, geometric factors caused by bacterial morphology play a crucial role in MinDE dynamics. In the present study, bacteria were cultured, confined and reshaped in various micro/nanofluidic devices, to mimic either curvature changes of cell peripherals. Fluorescence imaging was utilized to detail the mode transitions in multiple MinDE patterns. The understanding of the physics in multiple pattern formations is further complemented via in silico modeling. The study synergizes the join merits of in vivo, in vitro and in silico approaches, to grasp the insight of stochastic dynamics inherited from the noisy mesoscopic biophysics. We acknowledge support from the Foresight Project, Academia Sinica.

  9. Building and operating the Automated Telescope Array for the Taiwanese-American Occultation Survey (TAOS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marshall, S.; Cook, K.; Porrata, R.; Alcock, C.; Dave, R.; Giammarco, J.; Lehner, M.; Chen, W.-P.; Lee, T.; King, S.-K.; Wang, A.; Wang, S.-Y.; Wen, C.-Y.; Byun, Y.-I.; de Pater, I.; Liang, C.; Rice, J.; Lissauer, J.

    2003-05-01

    The Taiwanese-American Occultation Survey (TAOS) is a program dedicated to performing a survey of small objects (<10 km) in the trans-Neptunian Region of the Solar System by detecting the occultations of bright stars by these objects. To carry this out, we have developed an automated observatory, based on an array of four small, (50 cm), telescopes, each equipped with a 2048x2048 pixel CCD camera. The telescopes will operate in tandem fashion, coupled to a real-time analysis pipeline designed to monitor ˜ 2000 stars simultaneously at ˜ 5 Hz. This system is partially installed at a site in the central highlands of Taiwan. An overview of the system components, software architecture, and some of the challenges encountered will be presented. This project is supported by DOE (at LLNL), NASA (at UPenn), Academia Sinica (at ASIAA), NSC (at NCU), and KRF (at Yonsei).

  10. Status of the Transneptunian Automated Occultation Survey (TAOS II)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reyes-Ruiz, Mauricio

    2014-11-01

    TAOS II is a next generation occultation survey with the goal of measuring the size distribution of the small objects (diameters between 0.5 and 30 km) in the Kuiper Belt. The project is a collaboration between the Academia Sinica Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, the Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, and the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, The survey will operate three 1.3 m telescopes at San Pedro Martir Observatory in Baja California, Mexico. Each telescope will be equipped with a custom camera comprising a focal plane array of CMOS imagers. Each camera will be capable of reading out image data from 10,000 stars at a cadence of 20 Hz. All telescopes will monitor the same set of stars simultaneously to search for coincident occultation events while minimizing the false positive rate. This poster describes the project and reports on the progress of the development of the survey infrastructure.

  11. A jump-start for astronomy education in Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Wen-Ping

    Spurred by the leaping developments of research activities (SMA, TAOS, AMIBA), Taiwan is catching up its education in astronomy in virtually all aspects. The first astronomy research institute was established by the Academia Sinica about 10 years ago, which catalyzed within 2 years the first graduate school of astronomy, as well as an elaborative astronomy museum. Since then the astronomy education at all levels, from colleges to primary schools, has been booming. More than a dozen universities are offering astronomy courses, and two more graduate schools will soon be instituted. Textbooks get written, and books on popular sciences, either translated or composed by local authors, have mushroomed on the market. I will outline these ongoing activities along with plans in the horizon.

  12. Progress of the array of microwave background anisotropy (AMiBA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raffin, Philippe; Koch, Patrick; Huang, Yau-De; Chang, Chia-Hao; Chang, Joshua; Chen, Ming-Tang; Chen, Ke-Yung; Ho, Paul T. P.; Huang, Chih-Wie; Ibañez Roman, Fabiola; Jiang, Homin; Kesteven, Michael; Lin, Kai-Yang; Liu, Guo-Chin; Nishioka, Hiroaki; Umetsu, Keiichi

    2006-06-01

    The Academia Sinica, Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics (ASIAA) is installing the AMiBA interferometric array telescope at the Mauna Loa Observatory, Hawaii. The 6-meter carbon fiber fully steerable platform is mounted on the Hexapod Mount. After integration and equipment with dummy weights, the platform has been measured by photogrammetry to verify its behavior predicted by Finite Element Analysis. The Hexapod servo control is now operational and equipment of the platform with the initial 7 60-cm dishes, the correlator and electronics is underway. Pointing has started with the aid of the optical telescope. We present the status of the telescope after the servo and initial pointing tests have been carried out. We also present the results of platform measurements by photogrammetry.

  13. Chinese duo fired for scientific fraud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiao, Li

    2010-02-01

    A major case of academic fraud in China has led to calls for the country to adopt a new system of academic evaluation that steers away from heavily supporting scientists who publish the most papers. The calls have been made after some 70 papers published by Chinese scientists in Acta Crystallographica Section E were retracted from the journal late last year. The authors acknowledged that their analysis had been fabricated.

  14. Congenital Heart Defects Are Rarely Caused by Mutations in Cardiac and Smooth Muscle Actin Genes

    PubMed Central

    Khodyuchenko, Tatiana; Zlotina, Anna; Pervunina, Tatiana; Zverev, Dmitry; Malashicheva, Anna; Kostareva, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Background. Congenital heart defects (CHDs) often have genetic background due to missense mutations in cardiomyocyte-specific genes. For example, cardiac actin was shown to be involved in pathogenesis of cardiac septum defects and smooth muscle actin in pathogenesis of aortic aneurysm in combination with patent ductus arteriosus (PDA). In the present study, we further searched for mutations in human α-cardiac actin (ACTC1) and smooth muscle α-actin (ACTA2) genes as a possible cause of atrial septum defect type II (ASDII) and PDA. Findings. Total genomic DNA was extracted from peripheral blood of 86 individuals with ASDs and 100 individuals with PDA. Coding exons and flanking intron regions of ACTC1 (NM_005159.4) and ACTA2 (NM_001613) were amplified by PCR with specific primers designed according to the corresponding gene reference sequences. PCR fragments were directly sequenced and analyzed. Sequence analysis of ACTC1 and ACTA2 did not identify any nucleotide changes that altered the coding sense of the genes. In ACTC1 gene, we were able to detect one previously described nucleotide polymorphism (rs2307493) resulting in a synonymous substitution. The frequency of this SNP was similar in the study and control group, thus excluding it from the possible disease-associated variants. Conclusions. Our results confirmed that the mutations in ACTC1 gene are rare (at least <1%) cause of ASDII. Mutations in ACTA2 gene were not detected in patients with PDA, thus being excluded from the list of frequent PDA-associated genetic defects. PMID:25861618

  15. National Registry of Genetically Triggered Thoracic Aortic Aneurysms and Cardiovascular Conditions

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-12-08

    Marfan Syndrome; Turner Syndrome; Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome; Loeys-Dietz Syndrome; FBN1, TGFBR1, TGFBR2, ACTA2 or MYH11 Genetic Mutation; Bicuspid Aortic Valve Without Known Family History; Bicuspid Aortic Valve With Family History; Bicuspid Aortic Valve With Coarctation; Familial Thoracic Aortic Aneurysm and Dissections; Shprintzen-Goldberg Syndrome; Other Aneur/Diss of Thoracic Aorta Not Due to Trauma, <50yo; Other Congenital Heart Disease

  16. What Will They Learn? A Survey of Core Requirements at Our Nation's Colleges and Universities. 2011-12

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kempson, Lauri; Bako, Tom; Markley, Eric

    2012-01-01

    What does it mean to be a college graduate? One knows about the time and ever-increasing amount of money that a diploma demands. But when it comes down to what matters--the skills and knowledge acquired--what does a college degree mean? That is the question the American Council of Trustees and Alumni (ACTA) answers in this book. Inside one will…

  17. Characterization of a Cartilage-Like Engineered Biomass Using a Self-Aggregating Suspension Culture Model: Molecular Composition Using FT-IRIS

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Minwook; Kraft, Jeffrey J.; Volk, Andrew C.; Pugarelli, Joan; Pleshko, Nancy; Dodge, George R.

    2011-01-01

    Maintenance of chondrocyte phenotype and robust expression and organization of macromolecular components with suitable cartilaginous properties is an ultimate goal in cartilage tissue engineering. We used a self-aggregating suspension culture (SASC) method to produce an engineered cartilage, “cartilage tissue analog” (CTA). With an objective of understanding the stability of phenotype of the CTA over long periods, we cultured chondrocytes up to 4 years and analyzed the matrix. Both early (eCTAs) (6 months) and aged (aCTAs) (4 years) showed type II collagen throughout with higher concentrations near the edge. Using Fourier transform-infrared imaging spectroscopy (FT-IRIS), proteoglycan/collagen ratio of eCTA was 2.8 times greater than native cartilage at 1 week, but the ratio was balanced to native level (p = 0.017) by 36 weeks. Surprisingly, aCTAs maintained the hyaline characteristics, but there was evidence of calcification within the tissue with a distinct range of intensities. Mineral/matrix ratio of those aCTA with “intensive” calcification was significantly higher (p = 0.017) than the “partial,” but when compared to native bone the ratio of “intensive” aCTAs was 2.4 times lower. In this study we utilized the imaging approach of FT-IRIS and have shown that a biomaterial formed is compositionally closely related to natural cartilage for long periods in culture. We show that this culture platform can maintain a CTA for extended periods of time (4 years) and under those conditions signs of mineralization can be found. This method of cartilage tissue engineering is a promising method to generate cartilaginous biomaterial and may have potential to be utilized in both cartilage and boney repairs. PMID:21630329

  18. Triclinic polymorph of 4-[4-(4-formyl-phen-oxy)but-oxy]benzaldehyde.

    PubMed

    Balić, Tomislav; Marković, Berislav; Balić, Ivana

    2013-01-01

    The title compound, C18H18O4, is a triclinic polymorph of the previously reported monoclinic polymorph [Han & Zhen (2005 ▶). Acta Cryst. E61, o4358-o4359]. In the crystal of the triclinic polymorph, molecules are linked by two pairs of C-H⋯O hydrogen bonds, forming a two-dimensional network parallel to (102), and enclosing loops with graph set motifs of R2(2)(8) and R2(2)(6). PMID:23476387

  19. Triclinic polymorph of 4-[4-(4-formyl­phen­oxy)but­oxy]benzaldehyde

    PubMed Central

    Balić, Tomislav; Marković, Berislav; Balić, Ivana

    2013-01-01

    The title compound, C18H18O4, is a triclinic polymorph of the previously reported monoclinic polymorph [Han & Zhen (2005 ▶). Acta Cryst. E61, o4358–o4359]. In the crystal of the triclinic polymorph, molecules are linked by two pairs of C—H⋯O hydrogen bonds, forming a two-dimensional network parallel to (102), and enclosing loops with graph set motifs of R 2 2(8) and R 2 2(6). PMID:23476387

  20. Cosmochemistry and Mineralogy of Primitive Meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buseck, Peter R.

    2003-01-01

    We have produced significant research results during the grant period. These have been reported in five papers published in Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta and Meteoritics and Planetary Science and several others are in review. We also presented 17 abstracted talks at professional meetings. The citations are given in section 2, and abstracts of the papers are provided in section 3. The full papers are available on request.

  1. Parameter-free exchange potential for excitation in the density-functional theory: Application to excitation energies within the fractional-occupation approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagy, Á.

    1990-10-01

    The density-functional theory for ensembles of fractional occupation formulated by Gross, Oliveira, and Kohn [Phys. Rev. A 37, 2821 (1988)] has been applied. The excitation energies of several atoms have been determined using a parameter-free exchange potential of Gáspár [Acta Phys. Hung. 35, 213 (1974)]. The calculated excitation energies are in good agreement with the experimental values.

  2. Thin film adhesion by nanoindentation-induced superlayers. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Gerberich, William W.; Volinsky, A.A.

    2001-06-01

    This work has analyzed the key variables of indentation tip radius, contact radius, delamination radius, residual stress and superlayer/film/interlayer properties on nanoindentation measurements of adhesion. The goal to connect practical works of adhesion for very thin films to true works of adhesion has been achieved. A review of this work titled ''Interfacial toughness measurements of thin metal films,'' which has been submitted to Acta Materialia, is included.

  3. Finite gradient elasticity and plasticity: a constitutive mechanical framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertram, Albrecht

    2015-11-01

    Following a suggestion by Forest and Sievert (Acta Mech 160:71-111, 2003), a constitutive frame for a general gradient elastoplasticity for finite deformations is established. The basic assumptions are the principle of Euclidean invariance and the isomorphy of the elastic ranges. Both the elastic and the plastic laws include the first and the second deformation gradient. The starting point is an objective expression for the stress power.

  4. A survey of recently published papers on orthopedics in the Brazilian scientific press

    PubMed Central

    Rocha-e-Silva, Mauricio; Gomes, Ariane Maris

    2012-01-01

    This paper is a review of articles published in Brazilian scientific periodicals in recent years. Its main purpose is to bring to the attention of the readership of Acta Ortopedica Brasileira original contributions to the field published in non-specialized journals. We hope that this will serve as a general scientific update for readers. The review includes works published in six ISI indexed non-orthopedic journals, following a literature search conducted in fourteen such journals. PMID:24453633

  5. MicroRNA-208b Alleviates Post-Infarction Myocardial Fibrosis in a Rat Model by Inhibiting GATA4

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Chaoyuan; Cui, Qintao; Su, Guobao; Guo, Xiaoliang; Liu, Xiaochen; Zhang, Jie

    2016-01-01

    Background Myocardial infarction affects the health of many people. Post-infarction myocardial fibrosis has attracted much attention, but details of the mechanism remain elusive. In this study, the role of microRNA-208b (miR-208b) in modulating post-infarction myocardial fibrosis and the related mechanism were investigated. Material/Methods A rat model of myocardial infarction induced by ligating the left anterior descending artery was used to analyze the expression and roles of miR-208b by overexpression with the lentivirus vector of pre-miR-208b. Myocardial function was assessed and the expression of fibrosis-related factors type I collagen (COL1) and ACTA2 (alias αSMA) was detected. Myocardial fibroblasts isolated from newborn rats were transfected with luciferase reporter vectors containing wild-type or mutant Gata4 3′ UTR to verify the relationship between Gata4 and miR-208b. We then transfected the specific small interference RNA of Gata4 to detect changes in COL1 and ACTA2. Results miR-208b was down-regulated in hearts of model rats (P<0.01). Overexpressing miR-208b improved myocardial functions, such as reducing the infarction area (P<0.05) and promoting LVEF and LVFS (P<0.01), and inhibited COL1 and ACTA2 (P<0.01). Luciferase reporter assay proved Gata4 to be the direct target of miR-208b, with the target sequence in the 3′UTR. Inhibiting GATA4 resulted in the down-regulation of COL1 and ACTA2, suggesting that the role of miR-208b was achieved via regulating GATA4. Conclusions This study demonstrates the protective function of miR-208b via GATA4 in post-infarction myocardial fibrosis, providing a potential therapeutic target for treating myocardial fibrosis. PMID:27236543

  6. Growth of Mouse Oocytes to Maturity from Premeiotic Germ Cells In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zhi-Peng; Liang, Gui-Jin; Zhang, Xi-Feng; Zhang, Guo-Liang; Chao, Hu-He; Li, Lan; Sun, Xiao-Feng; Min, Ling-Jiang; Pan, Qing-Jie; Shi, Qing-Hua; Sun, Qing-Yuan; De Felici, Massimo; Shen, Wei

    2012-01-01

    In the present study, we established an in vitro culture system suitable for generating fertilizable oocytes from premeiotic mouse female germ cells. These results were achieved after first establishing an in vitro culture system allowing immature oocytes from 12–14 day- old mice to reach meiotic maturation through culture onto preantral granulosa cell (PAGC) monolayers in the presence of Activin A (ActA). To generate mature oocytes from premeiotic germ cells, pieces of ovaries from 12.5 days post coitum (dpc) embryos were cultured in medium supplemented with ActA for 28 days and the oocytes formed within the explants were isolated and cocultured onto PAGC monolayers in the presence of ActA for 6–7 days. The oocytes were then subjected to a final meiotic maturation assay to evaluate their capability to undergo germinal vesicle break down (GVBD) and reach the metaphase II (MII) stage. We found that during the first 28 days of culture, a significant number of oocytes within the ovarian explants reached nearly full growth and formed preantral follicle-like structures with the surrounding somatic cells. GSH level and Cx37 expression in the oocytes within the explants were indicative of proper developmental conditions. Moreover, the imprinting of Igf2r and Peg3 genes in these oocytes was correctly established. Further culture onto PAGCs in the presence of ActA allowed about 16% of the oocytes to undergo GVBD, among which 17% reached the MII stage during the final 16–18 hr maturation culture. These MII oocytes showed normal spindle and chromosome assembly and a correct ERK1/2 activity. About 35% of the in vitro matured oocytes were fertilized and 53.44% of them were able to reach the 2-cell stage. Finally, around 7% of the 2-cell embryos developed to the morula/blastocyst stage. PMID:22848595

  7. The International Symposium on Grids and Clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The International Symposium on Grids and Clouds (ISGC) 2012 will be held at Academia Sinica in Taipei from 26 February to 2 March 2012, with co-located events and workshops. The conference is hosted by the Academia Sinica Grid Computing Centre (ASGC). 2012 is the decennium anniversary of the ISGC which over the last decade has tracked the convergence, collaboration and innovation of individual researchers across the Asia Pacific region to a coherent community. With the continuous support and dedication from the delegates, ISGC has provided the primary international distributed computing platform where distinguished researchers and collaboration partners from around the world share their knowledge and experiences. The last decade has seen the wide-scale emergence of e-Infrastructure as a critical asset for the modern e-Scientist. The emergence of large-scale research infrastructures and instruments that has produced a torrent of electronic data is forcing a generational change in the scientific process and the mechanisms used to analyse the resulting data deluge. No longer can the processing of these vast amounts of data and production of relevant scientific results be undertaken by a single scientist. Virtual Research Communities that span organisations around the world, through an integrated digital infrastructure that connects the trust and administrative domains of multiple resource providers, have become critical in supporting these analyses. Topics covered in ISGC 2012 include: High Energy Physics, Biomedicine & Life Sciences, Earth Science, Environmental Changes and Natural Disaster Mitigation, Humanities & Social Sciences, Operations & Management, Middleware & Interoperability, Security and Networking, Infrastructure Clouds & Virtualisation, Business Models & Sustainability, Data Management, Distributed Volunteer & Desktop Grid Computing, High Throughput Computing, and High Performance, Manycore & GPU Computing.

  8. [The effects of transgenic Cry1Ac+Cry2Ab cotton on cotton bollworm control and functional response of predators on whitefly].

    PubMed

    Junyu, Luo; Shuai, Zhang; Limin, L V; Chunyi, Wang; Xiangzhen, Zhu; Jinjie, Cuil

    2015-06-01

    In this study, we detected and clarified the roles of transgenic Cry1Ac+Cry2Ab cotton "639020" in controlling cotton bollworm (Helicoverpa armigera) during critical periods of bud stage (second generation of bollworm), flowering stage (third generation of bollworm) and bolling stage (fourth generation of bollworm) as well as the influences of 639020 cotton on functional response of the main predators (Chrysopa sinica larvae, Propylaea japonica, Orius and Erigonidium graminicola ) on whitefly using transgenic Cry1Ac cotton "CCRI41" and conventional cotton "CCRI49" as the control. Our results showed that the 639020 cotton well controlled the second and third generation of bollworm, and the level of insect resistance increased by 52.85% and 16.22% separately compared with that of CCRI41, with a significant effect on the second generation of bollworm. Moreover, the number of bollworm eggs in 639020 cotton field was lower than that in CCRI41 and CCRI49 cotton fields (except the second generation of bollworm) during the cotton bud, flowering and bolling stages. Although the number of bollworm larvae in 639020 cotton field was significantly lower than that in CCRI49 field, and both under the controlling index, it has no significant difference compared with that in CCRI41 cotton field. There were also no obvious changes in predator functions of Chrysopa sinica, Propylaea japonica, Orius and Erigonidium graminicola on bemisia tabaci between 639020, CCRI41 and CCRI49 cotton filed. This study evaluated the safety of new transgenic cotton on environment, anti-insect activity of exogenous gene and the safety of production and application prospect. PMID:26351054

  9. "DUST BUSTER" - A Single Photon Ionization TOF MS for Cometary Dusts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, C.-Y.; Calaway, W. F.; Lee, Typhoon; Moore, J. F.; Pellin, M. J.; Veryovkin, I. V.

    2003-01-01

    It is hard to predict the properties and composition of dust that will be returned by STARDUST from WED- 2. The most interesting but challenging case would be grains, pg to fg in weight, each carrying its own isotopic signature characteristic of its source zones in a variety of stars. How do we extract the maximum amount of science from such grains? Clearly, the best that can be accomplished is to measure every atom in each grain.Academia Sinica and Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) have entered into a collaboration to develop a SPI TOF MS instrument for analysis of stardust grains. A new instrument will be built at Academia Sinica based on the new TOF mass spectrometer design developed, built and operating at ANL. The instrument is intended for SPI TOF MS analysis of elements from Ca to Cu plus Li after first using SIMS to measure H, C, N, 0, Si, and S. There are still technical challenges facing the technique. We will need to improve submicrometer sample handling, avoid the effects of space charge, and increase the Mamie range of the detector. The most difficult obstacle to overcome may be the fact that the flux density of present high repetition rate, WV lasers is below the level needed to ensure full ionization (saturation) in the source region, which must be several mm in size to achieve the high useful yield needed for analysis of small stardust grains. A potential breakthrough effort is to exploit the novel free electron laser being pioneered at ANL. In principle, this FEL can reach ionization saturation and is tunable up to photon energies of 25 eV, which is higher than the ionization potential of any element.

  10. Clinical, pathological, and genetic analysis of a Korean family with thoracic aortic aneurysms and dissections carrying a novel Asp26Tyr mutation.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Eun-Hyung; Choi, Seung Hyuk; Jang, Shin Yi; Suh, Yeon-Lim; Lee, Inchul; Song, Jae-Kwan; Choe, Yeon Hyeon; Kim, Jong-Won; Ki, Chang-Seok; Kim, Duk-Kyung

    2010-01-01

    Non-syndromic familial thoracic aortic aneurysms and dissections (TAADs), inherited in an autosomal dominant manner in up to 19% of patients, are genetically heterogeneous. The ACTA2 gene, which encodes the vascular smooth muscle cell (SMC)-specific isoform of alpha-actin, is known to cause TAADs and occlusive vascular diseases, including coronary artery disease and premature ischemic stroke. We have investigated a Korean family with DeBakey type I aortic dissection related to pregnancy and a strong family history of TAADs. All affected family members underwent surgical repair of the ascending aorta. Other clinical features of familial TAAD, including inguinal hernias, iris flocculi, and livedo reticularis, were not observed. Histologic studies of aortic tissues showed medial degeneration and SMC hyperplasia in the aorta, consistent with previous observations. Molecular analyses of the ACTA2 gene showed a novel heterozygous missense mutation (c.76G>T; p.Asp26Tyr). Further analysis of a female patient and members of her family revealed that two affected sisters and her asymptomatic son had the same mutation. The novel Asp26Tyr mutation resides in SM alpha-actin subdomain 1 and is linked to TAAD with hypertrophy and disarray of SMCs and severe migraine, but not to livedo reticularis or iris flocculi. This study expands the spectrum of mutations of the ACTA2 gene by identifying a novel missense mutation. This is the first report of a pathologically- and genetically-confirmed family with TAAD in Korea. PMID:20689142

  11. Mutations of the Act Promoter in Myxococcus xanthus▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Gronewold, Thomas M. A.; Kaiser, Dale

    2007-01-01

    Mutations within the −12 and −24 elements provide evidence that the act promoter is recognized by sigma-54 RNA polymerase. Deletion of the −20 base pair, which lies between the two conserved elements of sigma-54 promoters, decreased expression by 90%. In addition, mutation of a potential enhancer sequence, around −120, led to an 80% reduction in act gene expression. actB, the second gene in the act operon, encodes a sigma-54 activator protein that is proposed to be an enhancer-binding protein for the act operon. All act genes, actA to actE, are expressed together and constitute an operon, because an in-frame deletion of actB decreased expression of actA and actE to the same extent. After an initially slow phase of act operon expression, which depends on FruA, there is a rapid phase. The rapid phase is shown to be due to the activation of the operon expression by ActB, which completes a positive feedback loop. That loop appears to be nested within a larger positive loop in which ActB is activated by the C signal via ActA, and the act operon activates transcription of the csgA gene. We propose that, as cells engage in more C signaling, positive feedback raises the number of C-signal molecules per cell and drives the process of fruiting body development forward. PMID:17189369

  12. Chromite alteration processes within Vourinos ophiolite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grieco, Giovanni; Merlini, Anna

    2012-09-01

    The renewed interest in chromite ore deposits is directly related to the increase in Cr price ruled by international market trends. Chromite, an accessory mineral in peridotites, is considered to be a petrogenetic indicator because its composition reflects the degree of partial melting that the mantle experienced while producing the chromium spinel-bearing rock (Burkhard in Geochim Cosmochim Acta 57:1297-1306, 1993). However, the understanding of chromite alteration and metamorphic modification is still controversial (e.g. Evans and Frost in Geochim Cosmochim Acta 39:959-972, 1975; Burkhard in Geochim Cosmochim Acta 57:1297-1306, 1993; Oze et al. in Am J Sci 304:67-101, 2004). Metamorphic alteration leads to major changes in chromite chemistry and to the growth of secondary phases such as ferritchromite and chlorite. In this study, we investigate the Vourinos complex chromitites (from the mines of Rizo, Aetoraches, Xerolivado and Potamia) with respect to textural and chemical analyses in order to highlight the most important trend of alteration related to chromite transformation. The present study has been partially funded by the Aliakmon project in collaboration between the Public Power Corporation of Greece and Institute of Geology and Mineral Exploration of Kozani.

  13. Retraction statement: Dynamics of Cytochrome C Oxidase Activity in Acute Ischemic Stroke' by Selaković, V.M., Jovanović, M.D., Mihajlović, R.R. and Radenović, L.L.J.

    PubMed

    2016-10-01

    The above article from Acta Neurologica Scandinavica, published online on 7 April 2005 in Wiley Online Library (wileyonlinelibrary.com) and in Volume 111, pp. 329-332, has been retracted by agreement between the journal Editor in Chief, Professor Elinor Ben-Menachem, and John Wiley & Sons Ltd. The article has been retracted because a similar article had previously been published in the Jugoslovenska medicinska biohemija in 2003. The authors presumed that since the journal was no longer existing, they felt the need to re-publish their work in Acta Neuorologica Scandinavica. However, in the consideration of the Journal, this constitutes dual publication. References SelakovićVM, JovanovićMD, MihajlovićR, RadenovićLLJ. Cytochrome c oxidase in patients with acute ischaemic brain disease. Jugoslovenska medicinska biohemija. 2003;22:329-334. SelakovićVM, JovanovićMD, MihajlovićRR, RadenovićLLJ. Dynamics of cytochrome c oxidase activity in acute ischemic stroke. Acta Neurol Scand. 2005;111:329-332. PMID:27592845

  14. Determination of Structural and Vibrational Properties of 5-QUINOLINECARBOXALDEHYDE Using Experimental Ft-Ir Ft-Raman Techniques and Theoretical HF and DFT Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumru, Mustafa; Kocademir, Mustafa; Bardakci, Tayyibe

    2013-06-01

    Quinoline derivatives have been used in several pharmaceuticals. They have vital roles in regulating the functions of DNA and cancerous cells. It's necessary to determine the structures and spectroscopic properties of quinoline derivates. In this study, the FT-IR (including mid and far regions) and FT-Raman spectra of 5-quinolinecarboxaldehyde have been investigated. Hartree-Fock (HF) and density functional B3LYP calculations have also been employed with the 6-311++G(d,p) basis set for investigating the structural and spectroscopic properties of the cis and trans conformers of 5-quinolinecarboxaldehyde. Experimental and theoretical results have been compared and the results are in good agreement with each other. Keywords: 5-quinolinecarboxaldehyde; Vibrational Spectroscopy; FT-IR spectra; FT-Raman spectra; Vibrational Modes; HF; DFT [1] V. Kucuk, A. Altun, M. Kumru, Spectrochim. Acta Part A 85(2012)92-98 [2] M. Kumru, V. Kucuk, T. Bardakci, Spectrochim. Acta Part A 90(2012)28-34 [3] M. Kumru, V. Kucuk, M. Kocademir, Spectrochim. Acta Part A, 96 (2012) 242-251 We thank the Turkish Scientific and Technical Research Council (TUBITAK) for their financial support through National Postdoctoral Research Scholarship Programme and Scientific Research Fund of Fatih University under the project number P50011001 G (1457).

  15. Bidirectional reflectance spectroscopy of carbonaceous chondrites: Implications for water quantification and primary composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garenne, A.; Beck, P.; Montes-Hernandez, G.; Brissaud, O.; Schmitt, B.; Quirico, E.; Bonal, L.; Beck, C.; Howard, K. T.

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we measured bidirectional reflectance spectra (0.5-4.0 μm) of 24 CMs, five CRs, one CI, one CV, and one C2 carbonaceous chondrites. These meteorites are known to have experienced an important variability in their relative degrees of aqueous alteration degree (Rubin et al. [2007]. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 71, 2361-2382; Howard et al. [2009]. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 73, 4576-4589; Howard et al. [2011]. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 75, 2735-2751; Alexander et al. [2013]. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 123, 244-260). These measurements were performed on meteorite powders inside an environmental cell under a primary vacuum and heated at 60 °C in order to minimize adsorbed terrestrial water. This protocol allows controlling of atmospheric conditions (i.e. humidity) in order to avoid contamination by terrestrial water. We discuss various spectral metrics (e.g. reflectance, band depth, single-scattering albedo, …) in the light of recent bulk composition characterization (Howard et al. [2009]. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 73, 4576-4589; Howard et al. [2015]. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 149, 206-222; Alexander et al. [2012]. Science 337, 721; Beck et al. [2014]. Icarus 229, 263-277; Garenne et al. [2014]. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 137, 93-112). This study reveals variability of reflectance among meteorite groups. The reflectance is not correlated with carbon or hydrogen abundance neither with measured grain size distribution. We suggest that it is rather controlled by the nature of accreted components, in particular the initial matrix/chondrule proportion. Band depth, integrated band depth, mean optical path length, normalized optical path length, effective single-particle absorption thickness were calculated on the so called 3-μm band for reflectance spectra and for single scattering albedo spectra. They were compared with hydrated phase proportions from previous study on the same meteorites by thermogravimetric analyses and infrared spectroscopy in transmission. We find

  16. The Crystallography of Quasicrystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rabson, David Alan

    A century ago, E. S. Fedorov, A. Schonflies, and W. Barlow, working independently, classified the 230 distinct symmetry groups of objects repeated periodically in three-dimensional space. The 230 space groups determine the symmetries of macroscopic properties and provide crystallographers with their most important tool in deducing structure; as such, they find use in biology, organic chemistry, and virology as well as in physics, geology, and materials science. With the discovery in 1984 of quasicrystals, well-ordered but aperiodic metallic alloys with crystallographically forbidden rotational symmetries, the need arose to develop a space-group theory for these new materials. Based on the work by Rokhsar, Wright, and Mermin^1 in two dimensions, Rabson, Mermin, Rokhsar, and Wright have classified all quasicrystal and crystal three -dimensional axial space groups.^2 Our classification, proceeding in reciprocal space, is elementary, does not rely on projecting higher-dimensional crystallographic space groups, and is valid for arbitrary rotational symmetry. As an additional illustration of quasicrystallographic space groups, I derive and demonstrate algorithms that produce two-dimensional tilings of rhombi with each of the possible plane-group symmetries.^3 While the analogous task for crystallographic plane groups is trivial, the lack of translational symmetry in a quasicrystal tiling makes these constructions interesting. Since the symmetry of a quasicrystal appears more naturally in reciprocal than in direct space, it is not surprising that some of the resulting tilings seem intricate, although in fact their symmetries are quite simple. ftn^1 Acta Cryst. A44, 197-211 (1988). ^2 "The Space Groups of Axial Crystals and Quasicrystals," preprint. ^3See also Rabson, Ho, and Mermin, Acta Cryst. A44, 678 (1988) and Acta Cryst. A45, 538 (1989).

  17. Nanoscale Structure at Mineral-Fluid Interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sturchio, N. C.; Sturchio, N. C.; Fenter, P.; Cheng, L.; Park, C.; Zhang, Z.; Zhang, Z.; Nagy, K. L.; Schlegel, M. L.

    2001-12-01

    The nature of nanoparticles and their role in the natural environment is currently a subject of renewed interest. The high surface area (and surface area-to-volume ratio) of nanoparticles exerts a widespread influence on geochemical reactions and transport processes. A thorough understanding of the nanoscale world remains largely hypothetical, however, because of the challenges associated with characterizing nanoscale structures and processes. Recent insights gained from high-resolution synchrotron x-ray reflectivity measurements at the solid-fluid interfaces of macroscopic (i.e., mm-scale) mineral particles may provide relevant guidelines for expected nanoparticle surface structures. For example, at calcite-water and barite-water interfaces, undercoordinated surface cations bond with water species of variable protonation, and modest relaxations (to several hundredths of a nanometer) affect the outermost unit cells [1,2]. Undercoordinated tetrahedral ions at aluminosilicate surfaces also bond with water species, whereas interstitial or interlayer alkali or alkaline earth ions at the surface may readily exchange with hydronium or other ions; modest relaxations also affect the outermost unit cells [3,4]. Modulation of liquid water structure out to about one nanometer has been observed at the (001) cleavage surface of muscovite in deionized water, and may be present at other mineral-fluid interfaces [4]. Dissolution mechanisms at the orthoclase-water interface have been clarified by combining x-ray reflectivity and scanning force microscopy measurements [5]. Further progress in understanding nanoscale structures and processes at macroscopic mineral-water interfaces is likely to benefit nanoparticle studies. [1] Fenter et al. (2000) Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 64, 1221-1228. [2] Fenter et al. (2001) J. Phys. Chem. B 105(34), 8112-8119. [3] Fenter et al. (2000) Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 64, 3663-3673. [4] Cheng et al. (2001) Phys. Rev. Lett., (in press). [5] Teng et al

  18. Nemaline myopathy caused by mutations in the muscle alpha-skeletal-actin gene.

    PubMed

    Ilkovski, B; Cooper, S T; Nowak, K; Ryan, M M; Yang, N; Schnell, C; Durling, H J; Roddick, L G; Wilkinson, I; Kornberg, A J; Collins, K J; Wallace, G; Gunning, P; Hardeman, E C; Laing, N G; North, K N

    2001-06-01

    Nemaline myopathy (NM) is a clinically and genetically heterogeneous disorder characterized by muscle weakness and the presence of nemaline bodies (rods) in skeletal muscle. Disease-causing mutations have been reported in five genes, each encoding a protein component of the sarcomeric thin filament. Recently, we identified mutations in the muscle alpha-skeletal-actin gene (ACTA1) in a subset of patients with NM. In the present study, we evaluated a new series of 35 patients with NM. We identified five novel missense mutations in ACTA1, which suggested that mutations in muscle alpha-skeletal actin account for the disease in approximately 15% of patients with NM. The mutations appeared de novo and represent new dominant mutations. One proband subsequently had two affected children, a result consistent with autosomal dominant transmission. The seven patients exhibited marked clinical variability, ranging from severe congenital-onset weakness, with death from respiratory failure during the 1st year of life, to a mild childhood-onset myopathy, with survival into adulthood. There was marked variation in both age at onset and clinical severity in the three affected members of one family. Common pathological features included abnormal fiber type differentiation, glycogen accumulation, myofibrillar disruption, and "whorling" of actin thin filaments. The percentage of fibers with rods did not correlate with clinical severity; however, the severe, lethal phenotype was associated with both severe, generalized disorganization of sarcomeric structure and abnormal localization of sarcomeric actin. The marked variability, in clinical phenotype, among patients with different mutations in ACTA1 suggests that both the site of the mutation and the nature of the amino acid change have differential effects on thin-filament formation and protein-protein interactions. The intrafamilial variability suggests that alpha-actin genotype is not the sole determinant of phenotype. PMID:11333380

  19. Myc Potentiates Apoptosis by Stimulating Bax Activity at the Mitochondria†

    PubMed Central

    Soucie, Erinn L.; Annis, Matthew G.; Sedivy, John; Filmus, Jorge; Leber, Brian; Andrews, David W.; Penn, Linda Z.

    2001-01-01

    The ability of the c-Myc oncoprotein to potentiate apoptosis has been well documented; however, the mechanism of action remains ill defined. We have previously identified spatially distinct apoptotic pathways within the same cell that are differentially inhibited by Bcl-2 targeted to either the mitochondria (Bcl-acta) or the endoplasmic reticulum (Bcl-cb5). We show here that in Rat1 cells expressing an exogenous c-myc allele, distinct apoptotic pathways can be inhibited by Bcl-2 or Bcl-acta yet be distinguished by their sensitivity to Bcl-cb5 as either susceptible (serum withdrawal, taxol, and ceramide) or refractory (etoposide and doxorubicin). Myc expression and apoptosis were universally associated with Bcl-acta and not Bcl-cb5, suggesting that Myc acts downstream at a point common to these distinct apoptotic signaling cascades. Analysis of Rat1 c-myc null cells shows these same death stimuli induce apoptosis with characteristic features of nuclear condensation, membrane blebbing, poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase cleavage, and DNA fragmentation; however, this Myc-independent apoptosis is not inhibited by Bcl-2. During apoptosis, Bax translocation to the mitochondria occurs in the presence or absence of Myc expression. Moreover, Bax mRNA and protein expression remain unchanged in the presence or absence of Myc. However, in the absence of Myc, Bax is not activated and cytochrome c is not released into the cytoplasm. Reintroduction of Myc into the c-myc null cells restores Bax activation, cytochrome c release, and inhibition of apoptosis by Bcl-2. These results demonstrate a role for Myc in the regulation of Bax activation during apoptosis. Moreover, apoptosis that can be triggered in the absence of Myc provides evidence that signaling pathways exist which circumvent Bax activation and cytochrome c release to trigger caspase activation. Thus, Myc increases the cellular competence to die by enhancing disparate apoptotic signals at a common mitochondrial amplification

  20. An examination of the regulatory mechanism of Pxdn mutation-induced eye disorders using microarray analysis

    PubMed Central

    YANG, YANG; XING, YIQIAO; LIANG, CHAOQUN; HU, LIYA; XU, FEI; MEI, QI

    2016-01-01

    The present study aimed to identify biomarkers for peroxidasin (Pxdn) mutation-induced eye disorders and study the underlying mechanisms involved in this process. The microarray dataset GSE49704 was used, which encompasses 4 mouse samples from embryos with Pxdn mutation and 4 samples from normal tissues. After data preprocessing, the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between Pxdn mutation and normal tissues were identified using the t-test in the limma package, followed by functional enrichment analysis. The protein-protein interaction (PPI) network was constructed based on the STRING database, and the transcriptional regulatory (TR) network was established using the GeneCodis database. Subsequently, the overlapping DEGs with high degrees in two networks were identified, as well as the sub-network extracted from the TR network. In total, 121 (75 upregulated and 46 downregulated) DEGs were identified, and these DEGs play important roles in biological processes (BPs), including neuron development and differentiation. A PPI network containing 25 nodes such as actin, alpha 1, skeletal muscle (Acta1) and troponin C type 2 (fast) (Tnnc2), and a TR network including 120 nodes were built. By comparing the two networks, seven crucial genes which overlapped were identified, including cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1B (Cdkn1b), Acta1 and troponin T type 3 (Tnnt3). In the sub-network, Cdkn1b was predicted as the target of miRNAs such as mmu-miR-24 and transcription factors (TFs) including forkhead box O4 (FOXO4) and activating enhancer binding protein 4 (AP4). Thus, we suggest that seven crucial genes, including Cdkn1b, Acta1 and Tnnt3, play important roles in the progression of eye disorders such as glaucoma. We suggest that Cdkn1b exert its effects via the inhibition of proliferation and is mediated by mmu-miR-24 and targeted by the TFs FOXO4 and AP4. PMID:27121343

  1. Meta-analysis as Statistical and Analytical Method of Journal’s Content Scientific Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Masic, Izet; Begic, Edin

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: A meta-analysis is a statistical and analytical method which combines and synthesizes different independent studies and integrates their results into one common result. Goal: Analysis of the journals “Medical Archives”, “Materia Socio Medica” and “Acta Informatica Medica”, which are located in the most eminent indexed databases of the biomedical milieu. Material and methods: The study has retrospective and descriptive character, and included the period of the calendar year 2014. Study included six editions of all three journals (total of 18 journals). Results: In this period was published a total of 291 articles (in the “Medical Archives” 110, “Materia Socio Medica” 97, and in “Acta Informatica Medica” 84). The largest number of articles was original articles. Small numbers have been published as professional, review articles and case reports. Clinical events were most common in the first two journals, while in the journal “Acta Informatica Medica” belonged to the field of medical informatics, as part of pre-clinical medical disciplines. Articles are usually required period of fifty to fifty nine days for review. Articles were received from four continents, mostly from Europe. The authors are most often from the territory of Bosnia and Herzegovina, then Iran, Kosovo and Macedonia. Conclusion: The number of articles published each year is increasing, with greater participation of authors from different continents and abroad. Clinical medical disciplines are the most common, with the broader spectrum of topics and with a growing number of original articles. Greater support of the wider scientific community is needed for further development of all three of the aforementioned journals. PMID:25870484

  2. Potential Role of Glycogen Synthase Kinase-3β in Regulation of Myocardin Activity in Human Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yi-Xia; Shi, Zhan; Singh, Pavneet; Yin, Hao; Yu, Yan-Ni; Li, Long; Walsh, Michael P; Gui, Yu; Zheng, Xi-Long

    2016-02-01

    Glycogen synthase kinase (GSK)-3β, a serine/threonine kinase with an inhibitory role in glycogen synthesis in hepatocytes and skeletal muscle, is also expressed in cardiac and smooth muscles. Inhibition of GSK-3β results in cardiac hypertrophy through reducing phosphorylation and increasing transcriptional activity of myocardin, a transcriptional co-activator for serum response factor. Myocardin plays critical roles in differentiation of smooth muscle cells (SMCs). This study, therefore, aimed to examine whether and how inhibition of GSK-3β regulates myocardin activity in human vascular SMCs. Treatment of SMCs with the GSK-3β inhibitors AR-A014418 and TWS 119 significantly reduced endogenous myocardin activity, as indicated by lower expression of myocardin target genes (and gene products), CNN1 (calponin), TAGLN1 (SM22), and ACTA2 (SM α-actin). In human SMCs overexpressing myocardin through the T-REx system, treatment with either GSK-3β inhibitor also inhibited the expression of CNN1, TAGLN1, and ACTA2. These effects of GSK-3β inhibitors were mimicked by transfection with GSK-3β siRNA. Notably, both AR-A014418 and TWS 119 decreased the serine/threonine phosphorylation of myocardin. The chromatin immunoprecipitation assay showed that AR-A014418 treatment reduced myocardin occupancy of the promoter of the myocardin target gene ACTA2. Overexpression of a dominant-negative GSK-3β mutant in myocardin-overexpressing SMCs reduced the expression of calponin, SM22, and SM α-actin. As expected, overexpression of constitutively active or wild-type GSK-3β in SMCs without myocardin overexpression increased expression of these proteins. In summary, our results indicate that inhibition of GSK-3β reduces myocardin transcriptional activity, suggesting a role for GSK-3β in myocardin transcriptional activity and smooth muscle differentiation. PMID:26129946

  3. Autocrine production of TGF-β1 promotes myofibroblastic differentiation of neonatal lung mesenchymal stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Popova, Antonia P.; Bozyk, Paul D.; Goldsmith, Adam M.; Linn, Marisa J.; Lei, Jing; Bentley, J. Kelley

    2010-01-01

    We have isolated mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) from tracheal aspirates of premature infants with respiratory distress. We examined the capacity of MSCs to differentiate into myofibroblasts, cells that participate in lung development, injury, and repair. Gene expression was measured by array, qPCR, immunoblot, and immunocytochemistry. Unstimulated MSCs expressed mRNAs encoding contractile (e.g., ACTA2, TAGLN), extracellular matrix (COL1A1 and ELN), and actin-binding (DBN1, PXN) proteins, consistent with a myofibroblast phenotype, although there was little translation into immunoreactive protein. Incubation in serum-free medium increased contractile protein (ACTA2, MYH11) gene expression. MSC-conditioned medium showed substantial levels of TGF-β1, and treatment of serum-deprived cells with a type I activin receptor-like kinase inhibitor, SB-431542, attenuated the expression of genes encoding contractile and extracellular matrix proteins. Treatment of MSCs with TGF-β1 further induced the expression of mRNAs encoding contractile (ACTA2, MYH11, TAGLN, DES) and extracellular matrix proteins (FN1, ELN, COL1A1, COL1A2), and increased the protein expression of α-smooth muscle actin, myosin heavy chain, and SM22. In contrast, human bone marrow-derived MSCs failed to undergo TGF-β1-induced myofibroblastic differentiation. Finally, primary cells from tracheal aspirates behaved in an identical manner as later passage cells. We conclude that human neonatal lung MSCs demonstrate an mRNA expression pattern characteristic of myofibroblast progenitor cells. Autocrine production of TGF-β1 further drives myofibroblastic differentiation, suggesting that, in the absence of other signals, fibrosis represents the “default program” for neonatal lung MSC gene expression. These data are consistent with the notion that MSCs play a key role in neonatal lung injury and repair. PMID:20190033

  4. Density- and wavefunction-normalized Cartesian spherical harmonics for l ≤ 20.

    PubMed

    Michael, J Robert; Volkov, Anatoliy

    2015-03-01

    The widely used pseudoatom formalism [Stewart (1976). Acta Cryst. A32, 565-574; Hansen & Coppens (1978). Acta Cryst. A34, 909-921] in experimental X-ray charge-density studies makes use of real spherical harmonics when describing the angular component of aspherical deformations of the atomic electron density in molecules and crystals. The analytical form of the density-normalized Cartesian spherical harmonic functions for up to l ≤ 7 and the corresponding normalization coefficients were reported previously by Paturle & Coppens [Acta Cryst. (1988), A44, 6-7]. It was shown that the analytical form for normalization coefficients is available primarily for l ≤ 4 [Hansen & Coppens, 1978; Paturle & Coppens, 1988; Coppens (1992). International Tables for Crystallography, Vol. B, Reciprocal space, 1st ed., edited by U. Shmueli, ch. 1.2. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers; Coppens (1997). X-ray Charge Densities and Chemical Bonding. New York: Oxford University Press]. Only in very special cases it is possible to derive an analytical representation of the normalization coefficients for 4 < l ≤ 7 (Paturle & Coppens, 1988). In most cases for l > 4 the density normalization coefficients were calculated numerically to within seven significant figures. In this study we review the literature on the density-normalized spherical harmonics, clarify the existing notations, use the Paturle-Coppens (Paturle & Coppens, 1988) method in the Wolfram Mathematica software to derive the Cartesian spherical harmonics for l ≤ 20 and determine the density normalization coefficients to 35 significant figures, and computer-generate a Fortran90 code. The article primarily targets researchers who work in the field of experimental X-ray electron density, but may be of some use to all who are interested in Cartesian spherical harmonics. PMID:25727874

  5. PREFACE: IARD 2010: The 7th Biennial Conference on Classical and Quantum Relativistic Dynamics of Particles and Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horwitz, Lawrence; Hu, Bei-Lok; Lee, Da-Shin; Gill, Tepper; Land, Martin

    2011-12-01

    Although the subject of relativistic dynamics has been explored from both classical and quantum mechanical points of view since the work of Einstein and Dirac, its most striking development has been in the framework of quantum field theory. The very accurate calculations of spectral and scattering properties, for example, of the anamolous magnetic moment of the electron and the Lamb shift in quantum electrodynamics, and many qualitative features of the strong and electroweak interactions, demonstrate the very great power of description achieved in this framework. Yet, many fundamental questions remain to be clarified, such as the structure of classical realtivistic dynamical theories on the level of Hamilton and Lagrange in Minkowski space as well as on the curved manifolds of general relativity. There moreover remains the important question of the covariant classical description of systems at high energy for which particle production effects are not large, such as discussed in Synge's book, The Relativistic Gas, and in Balescu's book on relativistic statistical mechanics. In recent years, the study of high energy plasmas and heavy ion collisions has emphasized the importance of developing the techniques of relativistic mechanics. The results of Linder et al (Phys. Rev. Lett. 95 0040401 (2005)) as well as the more recent work of Palacios et al (Phys. Rev. Lett. 103 253001 (2009)) and others, have shown that there must be a quantum theory with coherence in time. Such a theory, manifestly covariant under the transformations of special relativity with an invariant evolution parameter, such as that of Stueckelberg (Helv. Phys. Acta 14 322, 588 (1941); 15 23 (1942); see also R P Feynman Phys. Rev. 80 4401 and J S Schwinger Phys. Rev. 82 664 (1951)) could provide a suitable basis for the study of such questions, as well as many others for which the application of the standard methods of quantum field theory are difficult to manage, involving, in particular, local

  6. A monoclinic form of dendocarbin A: a borderline case of one-dimensional isostructural polymorphism.

    PubMed

    Paz, Cristian; Burgos, Viviana; Suarez, Sebastián; Baggio, Ricardo

    2015-04-01

    The title compound, dendocarbin A [systematic name: (1R,5aS,9aS,9bR)-1-hydroxy-6,6,9a-trimethyldodecahydronaphtho[1,2-c]furan-3-one], C15H22O3, is a sesquiterpene lactone isolated from Drimys winteri var chilensis. The monoclinic phase described herein displays an identical molecular structure to the orthorhombic phase that we reported previously [Paz Robles et al. (2014). Acta Cryst. C70, 1007-1010], while varying significantly in chain pitch, and can thus be considered as a borderline case of one-dimensional isostructural polymorphism. PMID:25836288

  7. Second-order Optimality Conditions for Optimal Control of the Primitive Equations of the Ocean with Periodic Inputs

    SciTech Connect

    Tachim Medjo, T.

    2011-02-15

    We investigate in this article the Pontryagin's maximum principle for control problem associated with the primitive equations (PEs) of the ocean with periodic inputs. We also derive a second-order sufficient condition for optimality. This work is closely related to Wang (SIAM J. Control Optim. 41(2):583-606, 2002) and He (Acta Math. Sci. Ser. B Engl. Ed. 26(4):729-734, 2006), in which the authors proved similar results for the three-dimensional Navier-Stokes (NS) systems.

  8. Discovery of a meta-stable Al–Sm phase with unknown stoichiometry using a genetic algorithm

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Feng; McBrearty, Ian; Ott, R T; Park, E; Mendelev, Mikhail I; Kramer, M J; Wang, Cai-Zhuang; Ho, Kai-Ming

    2014-06-01

    Unknown crystalline phases observed during the devitrification process of glassy metal alloys significantly limit our ability to understand and control phase selection in these systems driven far from equilibrium. Here, we report a new meta-stable Al5Sm phase identified by simultaneously searching Al-rich compositions of the Al-Sm system, using an efficient genetic algorithm. The excellent match between calculated and experimental X-ray diffraction patterns confirms that this new phase appeared in the crystallization of melt-spun Al90Sm10 alloys. Published by Elsevier Ltd. on behalf of Acta Materialia Inc.

  9. The Local Orthogonality Between Quantum States and Entanglement Decomposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Sunho; Wu, Junde; Zhang, Lin; Cho, Minhyung

    2016-06-01

    In the paper, we show that when a quantum state can be decomposed as a convex combination of locally orthogonal mixed states, its entanglement can be decomposed into the entanglement of these mixed states without losing them. The obtained result generalizes a corresponding one proved by Horodecki (Acta Phys. Slov. 48, 141 1998). But, for the entanglement cost it requires certain conditions for holding the decomposition, and the distillable entanglement only has a week result as inequality. Finally, we presented an example to show that the conditions of our conclusions are existence.

  10. (E)-Ethyl 3-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)prop-2-enoate: a natural polymorph extracted from Aristotelia chilensis (Maqui).

    PubMed

    Paz, Cristian; Moreno, Yanko; Becerra, José; Silva, Mario; Burgos, Viviana; Freire, Eleonora; Baggio, Ricardo

    2013-07-01

    The natural title compound, C11H12O4, extracted from the Chilean native tree Aristotelia chilensis (Maqui), is a polymorph of the synthetic E form reported by Xia, Hu & Rao [Acta Cryst. (2004), E60, o913-o914]. Both rotational conformers are identical from a metrical point of view, and only differ in the orientation of the 3,4-dihydroxyphenyl ring with respect to the rest of the molecule, which leads to completely different crystal structure arrangements and packing efficiencies. The reasons behind both reside in the different hydrogen-bonding interactions. PMID:23832039

  11. On the effective ionic radii for ammonium.

    PubMed

    Sidey, Vasyl

    2016-08-01

    A set of effective ionic radii corresponding to different coordination numbers (CNs) and compatible with the radii system by Shannon [Acta Cryst. (1976), A32, 751-767] has been derived for ammonium: 1.40 Å (CN = IV), 1.48 Å (CN = VI), 1.54 Å (CN = VIII) and 1.67 Å (CN = XII). The bond-valence parameters r0 = 2.3433 Å and B = 0.262 Å have been determined for ammonium-fluorine bonds. PMID:27484382

  12. The application of eigensymmetries of face forms to X-ray diffraction intensities of crystals twinned by `reticular merohedry'

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klapper, H.; Hahn, Th

    2012-01-01

    Crystallographic face forms {hkl} are interpreted as sets of symmetry-equivalent X-ray reflections. Extending an earlier paper on twinning by merohedry [ [Sigma] = 1, Klapper & Hahn (2010). Acta Cryst. A66, 327-346], the eigensymmetry of these forms is used to derive general relations between the diffraction intensities of overlapping twin-related reflections. The following twins by reticular merohedry are treated: [Sigma] 3 twins of rhombohedral and cubic, [Sigma] 5 twins of tetragonal and [Sigma] 7 twins of hexagonal crystals.

  13. Aortic Aneurysm: Etiopathogenesis and Clinicopathologic Correlations

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Aortic aneurysm (AA) is one of the life-threatening aortic diseases, leading to aortic rupture of any cause including atherosclerotic and non-atherosclerotic diseases. AA is diagnosed in a variable proportion of patients with dilated aorta by imaging modality. The etiopathogenesis of AA remains unclear in many aortic diseases. Furthermore, although it may be difficult to explain all phenotypes of patients even if genetic mutation could be identified in some proteins such as smooth muscle cell α-actin (ACTA2), myosin heavy chain 11 (MYH11) or SMAD3, individualized consideration of these factors in each patient is essential on the basis of clinicopathological characteristics. PMID:27375798

  14. Comparison of beetroot extracts originating from several sites using time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rabasović, M. S.; Šević, D.; Terzić, M.; Marinković, B. P.

    2012-05-01

    Beetroot (Beta vulgaris) juice contains a large number of fluorophores which can fluoresce. There is a growing interest in beetroot extracts analysis. In contrast, there is only limited information about beetroot obtained without sample preparation and/or extraction of components from the sample. In this work, we continue our previous study (Rabasović et al 2009 Acta Phys. Pol. A 116 570-2), analyzing and comparing beetroot extracts from several sites, using the time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence technique to measure the fluorescence of samples at different excitation wavelengths (340-470 nm) and for different sample dilutions.

  15. GENERAL: Efficient quantum secure communication with a publicly known key

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Chun-Yan; Li, Xi-Han; Deng, Fu-Guo; Zhou, Hong-Yu

    2008-07-01

    This paper presents a simple way for an eavesdropper to eavesdrop freely the secret message in the experimental realization of quantum communication protocol proposed by Beige et al (2002 Acta Phys. Pol. A 101 357). Moreover, it introduces an efficient quantum secure communication protocol based on a publicly known key with decoy photons and two biased bases by modifying the original protocol. The total efficiency of this new protocol is double that of the original one. With a low noise quantum channel, this protocol can be used for transmitting a secret message. At present, this protocol is good for generating a private key efficiently.

  16. The analysis of protein conformation by infrared spectroscopy: An introduction of the editor to a scientific dispute

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mäntele, Werner

    2015-03-01

    Spectrochimica Acta A is open for a vivid exchange among scientists and fosters the open discussion of published papers. This may proceed in the form of a "Comment on a published paper", submitted to our journal as a short communication. Typically, this comment will be sent to the authors of the original article to give them a chance for rebuttal in a "Reply to Comment". Both the Comment and the Reply will be published together in one issue after review by experts. In the interest of a fair discussion, both contributions will eventually have to undergo some editing before publication can be made.

  17. A Multiparty Controlled Bidirectional Quantum Secure Direct Communication and Authentication Protocol Based on EPR Pairs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Yan; Zhang, Shi-Bin; Yan, Li-Li; Sheng, Zhi-Wei

    2013-06-01

    A multiparty controlled bidirectional quantum secure direct communication and authentication protocol is proposed based on EPR pair and entanglement swapping. The legitimate identities of communicating parties are encoded to Bell states which act as a detection sequence. Secret messages are transmitted by using the classical XOR operation, which serves as a one-time-pad. No photon with secret information transmits in the quantum channel. Compared with the protocols proposed by Wang et al. [Acta Phys. Sin. 56 (2007) 673; Opt. Commun. 266 (2006) 732], the protocol in this study implements bidirectional communication and authentication, which defends most attacks including the ‘man-in-the-middle’ attack efficiently.

  18. Critical analysis and extension of the Hirshfeld atoms in molecules.

    PubMed

    Bultinck, Patrick; Van Alsenoy, Christian; Ayers, Paul W; Carbó-Dorca, Ramon

    2007-04-14

    The computational approach to the Hirshfeld [Theor. Chim. Acta 44, 129 (1977)] atom in a molecule is critically investigated, and several difficulties are highlighted. It is shown that these difficulties are mitigated by an alternative, iterative version, of the Hirshfeld partitioning procedure. The iterative scheme ensures that the Hirshfeld definition represents a mathematically proper information entropy, allows the Hirshfeld approach to be used for charged molecules, eliminates arbitrariness in the choice of the promolecule, and increases the magnitudes of the charges. The resulting "Hirshfeld-I charges" correlate well with electrostatic potential derived atomic charges. PMID:17444705

  19. Critical analysis and extension of the Hirshfeld atoms in molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bultinck, Patrick; Van Alsenoy, Christian; Ayers, Paul W.; Carbó-Dorca, Ramon

    2007-04-01

    The computational approach to the Hirshfeld [Theor. Chim. Acta 44, 129 (1977)] atom in a molecule is critically investigated, and several difficulties are highlighted. It is shown that these difficulties are mitigated by an alternative, iterative version, of the Hirshfeld partitioning procedure. The iterative scheme ensures that the Hirshfeld definition represents a mathematically proper information entropy, allows the Hirshfeld approach to be used for charged molecules, eliminates arbitrariness in the choice of the promolecule, and increases the magnitudes of the charges. The resulting "Hirshfeld-I charges" correlate well with electrostatic potential derived atomic charges.

  20. Reinvestigation of growth of urea thiosemicarbazone monohydrate crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srinivasan, Bikshandarkoil R.; Raghavaiah, Pallepogu; Nadkarni, V. S.

    2013-08-01

    The reaction of urea with thiosemicarbazide in 1:1 mole ratio in aqueous solution does not result in the formation of urea thiosemicarbazone monohydrate crystal, as reported by Hanumantharao, Kalainathan and Bhagavannarayana [Spectrochim. Acta A91 (2012) 345-351]. A reinvestigation of the reported reaction reveals that the crystal obtained is the starting material namely thiosemicarbazide, which has been unambiguously confirmed with the aid of infrared and 1H NMR spectra and single crystal X-ray structure determination. Analysis of 1H NMR spectrum reveals that thiosemicarbazide exhibits thione-thiol tautomerism in solution. In contrast, thiosemicarbazide exists as the thione tautomer in the solid state.

  1. Crystal structure of benzene-1,3,5-tri-carb-oxy-lic acid-4-pyridone (1/3).

    PubMed

    Staun, Selena L; Oliver, Allen G

    2015-11-01

    Slow co-crystallization of a solution of benzene-1,3,5-tri-carb-oxy-lic acid with a large excess of 4-hy-droxy-pyridine produces an inter-penetrating, three-dimensional, hydrogen-bonded framework consisting of three 4-pyridone and one benzene-1,3,5-tri-carb-oxy-lic acid mol-ecules, C9H6O6·3C5H5NO. This structure represents an ortho-rhom-bic polymorph of the previously reported C-centered, monoclinic structure [Campos-Gaxiola et al. (2014 ▸). Acta Cryst. E70, o453-o454]. PMID:26594492

  2. On the mathematical and geometrical structure of the determining equations for shear waves in nonlinear isotropic incompressible elastodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saccomandi, Giuseppe; Vitolo, Raffaele

    2014-08-01

    Using the theory of 1 + 1 hyperbolic systems we put in perspective the mathematical and geometrical structure of the celebrated circularly polarized waves solutions for isotropic hyperelastic materials determined by Carroll [Acta Mechanica 3, 167-181 (1967)]. We show that a natural generalization of this class of solutions yields an infinite family of linear solutions for the equations of isotropic elastodynamics. Moreover, we determine a huge class of hyperbolic partial differential equations having the same property of the shear wave system. Restricting the attention to the usual first order asymptotic approximation of the equations determining transverse waves we provide the complete integration of this system using generalized symmetries.

  3. Redetermination of tetra­kis(N,N-diethyl­dithio­carbamato)tin(IV)

    PubMed Central

    Okio, Coco K. Y. A.; Speziali, Nivaldo L.

    2009-01-01

    The crystal structure of the title compound, [Sn(C5H10NS2)4], was originally determined by Harreld & Schlemper [Acta Cryst. (1971), B27, 1964–1969] using intensity data estimated from Weissenberg films. In comparison with the previous refinement, the current redetermination reveals anisotropic displacement parameters for all non-H atoms, localization of the H atoms, and higher precision of lattice parameters and inter­atomic distances. The complex features a distorted S6 octa­hedral coordination geometry for tin and a cis disposition of the monodentate dithio­carbamate ligands. PMID:21583036

  4. Use of an alumina column in estimating total iron-binding capacity.

    PubMed

    Starr, R T

    1980-01-01

    I describe a simple, rapid technique for saturating the transferrin in serum and then removing unbound (excess) iron. This technique involves use of an easily prepared column of basic chromatographic alumina and a saturating solution of ferric chloride in citric acid. This method, when compared with the magnesium carbonate method of Ramsay (Clin. Chim. Acta 2: 221, 1957) by regression analysis and tests of precision, showed a negative bias for results by the alumina technique with respect to the magnesium carbonate method. PMID:7356553

  5. RbZnFe(PO4)2: synthesis and crystal structure

    PubMed Central

    Badri, Abdessalem; Ben Amara, Mongi

    2016-01-01

    A new iron phosphate, rubidium zinc iron(III) phosphate, RbZnFe(PO4)2, has been synthesized as single crystals by the flux method. This compound is isostructural to the previously reported KCoAl(PO4)2 [Chen et al. (1997 ▸). Acta Cryst. C53,1754–1756]. Its structure consists of a three-dimensional framework built up from corner-sharing PO4 and (Zn,Fe)O4 tetra­hedra. This mode of linkage forms channels parallel to the [100], [010] and [001] directions in which the Rb+ ions are located. PMID:27536385

  6. Reaustenitization in Fe-C steels revisited

    SciTech Connect

    Mancini, R.; Budde, C.

    1999-08-10

    A finite difference method used in order to model the reaustenitization from a ferrite/cementite mixture in Fe-C steels is presented in this paper. The numerical results obtained are compared with the exact solution of the diffusion equion that describes the process for the planar geometry. The agreement between both methods is excellent in a large range of temperatures. Incidentally, the authors consider worth noting that the second moment of mass condition used by Akbay et al. [Acta Metallurgica et Materialia 47, 1649 (1994)] does not seem to be necessary in the framework of the numerical method. Finally, they compare their results with available experimental values finding good agreement.

  7. Comment on "Density functional theory studies on molecular structure, vibrational spectra and electronic properties of cyanuric acid".

    PubMed

    Reva, Igor

    2015-12-01

    In a recently published paper [Spectrochim. Acta A: Mol. Biomol. Spect. 138 (2015) 711-722], Prabhaharan, Prabakaran, Srinivasan, and Gunasekaran presented a combined experimental and theoretical study on molecular structure, vibrational spectra and NBO analysis of cyanuric acid, and explain their findings using the tri-hydroxy tautomeric form of the compound. In reality, the compound adopts the tri-oxo tautomeric form, which is by over 100kJmol(-1) more stable comparatively to the tri-hydroxy tautomer discussed and characterized by Prabhaharan et al. PMID:26142656

  8. Infantile hypophosphatasia without bone deformities presenting with severe pyridoxine-resistant seizures.

    PubMed

    de Roo, Marieke G A; Abeling, Nico G G M; Majoie, Charles B; Bosch, Annet M; Koelman, Johannes H T M; Cobben, Jan M; Duran, Marinus; Poll-The, Bwee Tien

    2014-03-01

    An infant carrying a heterozygous c.43_46delACTA and a heterozygous c.668 G>A mutation in the ALPL gene with hypophosphatasia in the absence of bone deformities presented with therapy-resistant seizures. Pyridoxal phosphate was extremely high in CSF and plasma. Pyridoxine treatment had only a transient effect and the severe encephalopathy was fatal. Repeated brain MRIs showed progressive cerebral damage. The precise metabolic cause of the seizures remains unknown and pyridoxine treatment apparently does not cure the epilepsy. PMID:24100244

  9. Spherical nanoindentation stress-strain curves of commercially pure titanium and Ti-6Al-4V

    DOE Data Explorer

    Weaver, Jordan S. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Priddy, Matthew W. [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States); McDowell, David L. [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States); Kalidindi, Surya R. [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    2016-07-27

    Spherical nanoindentation combined with electron back-scattered diffraction was employed to characterize the grain-scale elastic and plastic anisotropy of single crystal alpha-Ti for commercially pure (CP-Ti) and alloyed (Ti-64) titanium. In addition, alpha-beta Ti (single colony) grains were characterized. The data set includes the nanoindentation force, displacement, and contact stiffness, the nanoindentation stress-strain analysis, and the alpha-Ti crystal orientations. Details of the samples and experimental protocols can be found in Weaver et al. (2016) Acta Materialia doi:10.1016/j.actamat.2016.06.053.

  10. Statistical thermodynamics of strain hardening in polycrystalline solids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langer, J. S.

    2015-09-01

    This paper starts with a systematic rederivation of the statistical thermodynamic equations of motion for dislocation-mediated plasticity proposed in 2010 by Langer, Bouchbinder, and Lookman [Acta Mat. 58, 3718 (2010), 10.1016/j.actamat.2010.03.009]. It then uses that theory to explain the anomalous rate-hardening behavior reported in 1988 by Follansbee and Kocks and to explore the relation between hardening rate and grain size reported in 1995 by Meyers et al. A central theme is the need for physics-based, nonequilibrium analyses in developing predictive theories of the strength of polycrystalline materials.

  11. Sediment transport mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ballio, Francesco; Tait, Simon

    2012-12-01

    The Editor of Acta Geophysica and the Guest Editors wish to dedicate this Topical Issue on Sediment Transport Mechanics to the memory of Stephen Coleman, who died recently. During his career, Stephen had made an outstanding scientific contribution to the topic of Sediment Transport. The level of his contribution is demonstrated in the paper by Aberle, Coleman, and Nikora included in this issue, on which he started working before becoming aware of the illness that led to his untimely death. For scholars and colleagues Stephen remains an example of intellectual honesty and scientific insight.

  12. An amino-imino resonance study of 2-amino-4-methylpyridinium nitrate and 2-amino-5-methylpyridinium nitrate.

    PubMed

    Yan, Xing-Chen; Fan, Yu-Hua; Bi, Cai-Feng; Zhang, Xia; Zhang, Zhong-Yu

    2013-01-01

    The contributions of the amino and imino resonance forms to the ground-state structures of 2-amino-4-methylpyridinium nitrate, C(6)H(9)N(2)(+)·NO(3)(-), and the previously reported 2-amino-5-methylpyridinium nitrate [Yan, Fan, Bi, Zuo & Zhang (2012). Acta Cryst. E68, o2084], were studied using a combination of IR spectroscopy, X-ray crystallography and density functional theory (DFT). The results show that the structures of 2-amino-4-methylpyridine and 2-amino-5-methylpyridine obtained upon protonation are best described as existing largely in the imino resonance forms. PMID:23282916

  13. Structural complexity and configurational entropy of crystals.

    PubMed

    Krivovichev, Sergey V

    2016-04-01

    Using a statistical approach, it is demonstrated that the complexity of a crystal structure measured as the Shannon information per atom [Krivovichev (2012). Acta Cryst. A68, 393-398] represents a negative contribution to the configurational entropy of a crystalline solid. This conclusion is in full accordance with the general agreement that information and entropy are reciprocal variables. It also agrees well with the understanding that complex structures possess lower entropies relative to their simpler counterparts. The obtained equation is consistent with the Landauer principle and points out that the information encoded in a crystal structure has a physical nature. PMID:27048729

  14. Magmas and their sources: A special issue honoring Frederick A. Frey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia, Michael O.; Rhodes, J. Michael; Huang, Shichun; Hickey-Vargas, Rosemary

    2016-07-01

    This special issue is dedicated to Frederick A. Frey (Fig. 1), a pioneer in the use of trace element geochemistry (especially the rare-earth elements, REE) to interpret the origin and evolution of basalts and andesites, peridotites, granites, meteorites, tektites and even sediments. Fred's remarkable career spans more than 5 decades starting in 1964 with his seminal paper with advisor Larry Haskin entitled "rare earths in oceanic basalts" (Frey and Haskin, 1964). Given that Fred was an Associate Editor of Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta (GCA) for 20 years, GCA is a highly appropriate venue for this collection of twenty-seven new scientific papers in his honor.

  15. RbZnFe(PO4)2: synthesis and crystal structure.

    PubMed

    Badri, Abdessalem; Ben Amara, Mongi

    2016-08-01

    A new iron phosphate, rubidium zinc iron(III) phosphate, RbZnFe(PO4)2, has been synthesized as single crystals by the flux method. This compound is isostructural to the previously reported KCoAl(PO4)2 [Chen et al. (1997 ▸). Acta Cryst. C53,1754-1756]. Its structure consists of a three-dimensional framework built up from corner-sharing PO4 and (Zn,Fe)O4 tetra-hedra. This mode of linkage forms channels parallel to the [100], [010] and [001] directions in which the Rb(+) ions are located. PMID:27536385

  16. Trimethyl-3-meth­oxy-4-oxo-5-triphenyl­phospho­ranyl­idene­cyclo­pent-1-ene-1,2,3-tricarboxyl­ate

    PubMed Central

    Krawczyk, Krzysztof K.; Wojtasiewicz, Krystyna; Maurin, Jan K.; Gronowska, Ewa; Czarnocki, Zbigniew

    2010-01-01

    The title compound, C30H27O8P (2), was formed as one of two products {(1) [Krawczyk et al. (2010 ▶). Acta Cryst. E66 (cv2752)] and (2)} in the reaction of dimethyl acetyl­enedicarboxyl­ate with triphenyl­phosphine. The mol­ecule of (2) consists of a five-membered carbocyclic ring. The P atom is a part of a triphenylphosphoranylidene substituent. In contrast to (1), the five-membered ring of (2) is planar, the r.m.s. deviation being only 0.009 (2) Å. PMID:21588989

  17. PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Events for which complete information is available are listed in chronological order. Those taking place in Italy are in bold script. Information, following the style of the present list, should be submitted to the Editorial Secretariat of Acta Otorhinolaryngologica Italica. In accordance with the Regulations of S.I.O. and Ch.C.-F. (Art. 8) Members of the Society organising Courses, Congresses or other scientific events should inform the Secretary of the Association (A.U.O.R.L., A.O.O.I.) within the deadlines set down in the respective Statutes and Regulations.

  18. NRAO Welcomes Taiwan as a New North American ALMA Partner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2008-12-01

    The National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) has announced a formal agreement enabling Taiwanese astronomers to participate in the North American component of the international ALMA partnership, alongside American and Canadian astronomers. Taiwan's efforts will be led by the Academia Sinica Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics (ASIAA). ALMA, the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array, is the most ambitious ground-based astronomical observatory in history. Currently under construction in Chile’s Atacama Desert at an altitude of 16,500 feet, it promises to revolutionize our understanding of the formation of planets, stars, and galaxies when it begins full science operations early in the next decade. The agreement, signed by the Taipei Economic and Cultural Representative Office and the American Institute in Taiwan, provides for approximately $20 million in ALMA construction funding through the National Science Council (NSC), Taiwan’s equivalent to the US National Science Foundation (NSF) and Canada's National Research Council (NRC), which have jointly funded North America's existing contribution to the international ALMA project. Activities under the agreement will include joint research projects, development projects, collaboration on construction, support of observatory operations and other forms of cooperation. Access to ALMA observing time will be shared, as will membership on advisory committees. “Taiwan is a world-class center for submillimeter-wavelength astronomical research, and we’re delighted that the ALMA project and all its future users will benefit from the resources and expertise that Taiwan’s deepening participation brings to this great, global endeavor,” said Dr. Fred Lo, NRAO's director. This new agreement increases and diversifies Taiwan’s Academia Sinica investment in ALMA beyond the levels achieved through its participation in the East Asian component of the ALMA partnership, which is led by the National Astronomical

  19. Towards real-time regional earthquake simulation I: real-time moment tensor monitoring (RMT) for regional events in Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Shiann-Jong; Liang, Wen-Tzong; Cheng, Hui-Wen; Tu, Feng-Shan; Ma, Kuo-Fong; Tsuruoka, Hiroshi; Kawakatsu, Hitoshi; Huang, Bor-Shouh; Liu, Chun-Chi

    2014-01-01

    We have developed a real-time moment tensor monitoring system (RMT) which takes advantage of a grid-based moment tensor inversion technique and real-time broad-band seismic recordings to automatically monitor earthquake activities in the vicinity of Taiwan. The centroid moment tensor (CMT) inversion technique and a grid search scheme are applied to obtain the information of earthquake source parameters, including the event origin time, hypocentral location, moment magnitude and focal mechanism. All of these source parameters can be determined simultaneously within 117 s after the occurrence of an earthquake. The monitoring area involves the entire Taiwan Island and the offshore region, which covers the area of 119.3°E to 123.0°E and 21.0°N to 26.0°N, with a depth from 6 to 136 km. A 3-D grid system is implemented in the monitoring area with a uniform horizontal interval of 0.1° and a vertical interval of 10 km. The inversion procedure is based on a 1-D Green's function database calculated by the frequency-wavenumber (fk) method. We compare our results with the Central Weather Bureau (CWB) catalogue data for earthquakes occurred between 2010 and 2012. The average differences between event origin time and hypocentral location are less than 2 s and 10 km, respectively. The focal mechanisms determined by RMT are also comparable with the Broadband Array in Taiwan for Seismology (BATS) CMT solutions. These results indicate that the RMT system is realizable and efficient to monitor local seismic activities. In addition, the time needed to obtain all the point source parameters is reduced substantially compared to routine earthquake reports. By connecting RMT with a real-time online earthquake simulation (ROS) system, all the source parameters will be forwarded to the ROS to make the real-time earthquake simulation feasible. The RMT has operated offline (2010-2011) and online (since January 2012 to present) at the Institute of Earth Sciences (IES), Academia Sinica

  20. The origin of organic emission in NGC 2071

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Kempen, T. A.; McCoey, C.; Tisi, S.; Johnstone, D.; Fich, M.

    2014-09-01

    Herschel observations. Herschel is an ESA space observatory with science instruments provided by European-led Principal Investigator consortia and with important participation from NASA. This paper also makes use of SMA observations. The Submillimeter Array is a joint project between the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory and the Academia Sinica Institute of A&A and is funded by the Smithsonian Institution and the Academia Sinica.

  1. The Enigmatic Core L1451-mm: A First Hydrostatic Core? Or a Hidden VeLLO?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pineda, Jaime E.; Arce, Héctor G.; Schnee, Scott; Goodman, Alyssa A.; Bourke, Tyler; Foster, Jonathan B.; Robitaille, Thomas; Tanner, Joel; Kauffmann, Jens; Tafalla, Mario; Caselli, Paola; Anglada, Guillem

    2011-12-01

    We present the detection of a dust continuum source at 3 mm (CARMA) and 1.3 mm (Submillimeter Array, SMA), and 12CO (2-1) emission (SMA) toward the L1451-mm dense core. These detections suggest a compact object and an outflow where no point source at mid-infrared wavelengths is detected using Spitzer. An upper limit for the dense core bolometric luminosity of 0.05 L ⊙ is obtained. By modeling the broadband spectral energy distribution and the continuum interferometric visibilities simultaneously, we confirm that a central source of heating is needed to explain the observations. This modeling also shows that the data can be well fitted by a dense core with a young stellar object (YSO) and a disk, or by a dense core with a central first hydrostatic core (FHSC). Unfortunately, we are not able to decide between these two models, which produce similar fits. We also detect 12CO (2-1) emission with redshifted and blueshifted emission suggesting the presence of a slow and poorly collimated outflow, in opposition to what is usually found toward YSOs but in agreement with prediction from simulations of an FHSC. This presents the best candidate, so far, for an FHSC, an object that has been identified in simulations of collapsing dense cores. Whatever the true nature of the central object in L1451-mm, this core presents an excellent laboratory to study the earliest phases of low-mass star formation. Based on observations carried out with the IRAM 30 m Telescope, the Submillimeter Array, and CARMA. IRAM is supported by INSU/CNRS (France), MPG (Germany), and IGN (Spain). The Submillimeter Array is a joint project between the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory and the Academia Sinica Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics and is funded by the Smithsonian Institution and the Academia Sinica. Support for CARMA construction was derived from the states of California, Illinois, and Maryland, the James S. McDonnell Foundation, the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation, the Kenneth T

  2. Transdifferentiation of human endothelial progenitors into smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Ji, HaYeun; Atchison, Leigh; Chen, Zaozao; Chakraborty, Syandan; Jung, Youngmee; Truskey, George A; Christoforou, Nicolas; Leong, Kam W

    2016-04-01

    Access to smooth muscle cells (SMC) would create opportunities for tissue engineering, drug testing, and disease modeling. Herein we report the direct conversion of human endothelial progenitor cells (EPC) to induced smooth muscle cells (iSMC) by induced expression of MYOCD. The EPC undergo a cytoskeletal rearrangement resembling that of mesenchymal cells within 3 days post initiation of MYOCD expression. By day 7, the reprogrammed cells show upregulation of smooth muscle markers ACTA2, MYH11, and TAGLN by qRT-PCR and ACTA2 and MYH11 expression by immunofluorescence. By two weeks, they resemble umbilical artery SMC in microarray gene expression analysis. The iSMC, in contrast to EPC control, show calcium transients in response to phenylephrine stimulation and a contractility an order of magnitude higher than that of EPC as determined by traction force microscopy. Tissue-engineered blood vessels constructed using iSMC show functionality with respect to flow- and drug-mediated vasodilation and vasoconstriction. PMID:26874281

  3. Hobartine: a tetracyclic indole alkaloid extracted from Aristotelia chilensis (maqui).

    PubMed

    Paz Robles, Cristian; Badilla Vidal, Natalia; Suarez, Sebastián; Baggio, Ricardo

    2014-11-01

    The natural compound hobartine {systematic name: (1R)-3-[(1S,5S)-(4,4,8-trimethylbicyclo[3.3.1]non-7-en-2-yl)methyl]-2,3-dihydro-1H-indole}, C20H26N2, (I), is an indole alkaloid isolated from Aristotelia chilensis as part of a study of secondary metabolites from Chilean flora. The colourless compound has a tetracyclic structure closely related to the strongly coloured polymorphic structures discussed in Paz et al. [Acta Cryst. (2013), C69, 1509-1512] and Watson et al. [Acta Cryst. (1989), C45, 1322-1324]. The main differences reside in the absence of a keto group in (I) compared with the previous structures, as well as an endo double bond in (I) contrasting with the exo double bond found in the previous structures. The supramolecular structure of (I) in strongly related to the twofold screw axis, around which isolated chains build up, internally linked by an N-H···N hydrogen bond which is the only significant intermolecular interaction present in the structure. PMID:25370110

  4. Lithium isotopes as a probe of weathering processes: Orinoco River

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huh, Youngsook; Chan, Lui-Heung; Edmond, John M.

    2001-12-01

    Lithium isotopes have the potential to be effective tracers of weathering processes due to their large relative mass difference and therefore fractionation. In this study an attempt is made to fill a major gap in the knowledge of Li isotope fractionation during continental weathering and of the mechanisms involved. Finally the relationship between the suspended and dissolved material is made on a basin-wide scale. The Orinoco basin provides a clear contrast in reaction-limited and transport-limited weathering regimes that has already been documented by a comprehensive study on its fluvial geochemistry (Edmond et al., Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 60 (1996) 2949-2976; Edmond et al., Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 59 (1995) 3301-3325). Conspicuous in our new results is the difference in δ6Li of the dissolved load between the Andean (-30 to -22‰) and Shield (-22 to -7‰) tributaries, while the δ6Li of the suspended load is similar between the two. To a first approximation, during superficial weathering in high-relief, tectonically active terrains the dissolved load is high in Li and isotopically heavy (more negative δ6Li), whereas in stable Shield regions the concentrations are low and isotopically light in proportion to the increasing degree of weathering.

  5. Aspherical-atom modeling of coordination compounds by single-crystal X-ray diffraction allows the correct metal atom to be identified.

    PubMed

    Dittrich, Birger; Wandtke, Claudia M; Meents, Alke; Pröpper, Kevin; Mondal, Kartik Chandra; Samuel, Prinson P; Amin Sk, Nurul; Singh, Amit Pratap; Roesky, Herbert W; Sidhu, Navdeep

    2015-02-01

    Single-crystal X-ray diffraction (XRD) is often considered the gold standard in analytical chemistry, as it allows element identification as well as determination of atom connectivity and the solid-state structure of completely unknown samples. Element assignment is based on the number of electrons of an atom, so that a distinction of neighboring heavier elements in the periodic table by XRD is often difficult. A computationally efficient procedure for aspherical-atom least-squares refinement of conventional diffraction data of organometallic compounds is proposed. The iterative procedure is conceptually similar to Hirshfeld-atom refinement (Acta Crystallogr. Sect. A- 2008, 64, 383-393; IUCrJ. 2014, 1,61-79), but it relies on tabulated invariom scattering factors (Acta Crystallogr. Sect. B- 2013, 69, 91-104) and the Hansen/Coppens multipole model; disordered structures can be handled as well. Five linear-coordinate 3d metal complexes, for which the wrong element is found if standard independent-atom model scattering factors are relied upon, are studied, and it is shown that only aspherical-atom scattering factors allow a reliable assignment. The influence of anomalous dispersion in identifying the correct element is investigated and discussed. PMID:25393218

  6. Internalin must be on the bacterial surface to mediate entry of Listeria monocytogenes into epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Lebrun, M; Mengaud, J; Ohayon, H; Nato, F; Cossart, P

    1996-08-01

    Entry of Listeria monocytogenes into cultured epithelial cells requires production of internalin, a protein with features characteristic of some Gram-positive bacterial surface proteins, in particular an LPXTG motif preceding a hydrophobic sequence and a few basic residues at its C-terminal end. By immunofluorescence and immunogold labelling, we show that in wild-type L. monocytogenes, internalin is present on the cell surface and has a polarized distribution similar to that of ActA, another surface protein of L. monocytogenes involved in actin assembly. Through a genetic analysis, we establish that the C-terminal region of internalin is necessary for cell-surface association, and that although internalin is partially released in the culture medium, its location on the bacterial surface is required to promote entry. Finally, using a 'domain-swapping' strategy-replacement of the cell wall anchor of IniA by the membrane anchor of ActA- we show that the reduced ability to adhere and enter cells of strains expressing IniA-ActA correlates with a lower amount of surface-exposed internalin. Taken together, these results suggest that internalin exposed on the bacterial surface mediates direct contact between the bacterium and the host cell. PMID:8866480

  7. Crystal structure of a Pd4 carbonyl tri-phenyl-phosphane cluster [Pd4(CO)5(PPh3)4]·2C4H8O, comparing solvates.

    PubMed

    Robeyns, Koen; Willocq, Christopher; Tinant, Bernard; Devillers, Michel; Hermans, Sophie

    2016-02-01

    Attempts to synthesize Au-Pd heterometallic compounds from homonuclear palladium or gold complexes, [Pd(PtBu2)2] and [Au(PPh3)Cl] in a tetra-hydro-furan (THF) solution under a CO atmosphere resulted in a homonuclear Pd cluster, namely penta-kis-(μ-carbonyl-κ(2) C:C)tetra-kis-(tri-phenyl-phosphane-κP)tetrapalladium(5 Pd-Pd) tetra-hydro-furan disolvate, [Pd4(CO)5(C18H15P)4]·2C4H8O. The complex mol-ecule lies on a twofold rotation axis. The crystal structure is described in relation to the CH2Cl2 solvate previously determined by our group [Willocq et al. (2011 ▸). Inorg. Chim. Acta, 373, 233-242], and in particular to the desolvated structure [Feltham et al. (1985 ▸). Inorg. Chem. 24, 1503-1510]. It is assumed that the title compound transforms into the latter structure, upon gradual loss of solvent mol-ecules. In the title compound, the symmetry-unique THF solvent mol-ecule is linked to the complex mol-ecule by a weak C-H⋯O hydrogen bond. Contributions of disordered solvent molecules to the diffraction intensities, most likely associated with methanol, were removed with the SQUEEZE [Spek (2015). Acta Cryst. C71, 9-18] algorithm. PMID:26958368

  8. Crystal Structure of the Streptomyces coelicolor TetR-Like Protein ActR Alone and in Complex with Actinorhodin or the Actinorhodin Biosynthetic Precursor (S)-DNPA

    SciTech Connect

    Willems,A.; Tahlan, K.; Taguchi, T.; Zhang, K.; Lee, Z.; Ichinose, K.; Junop, M.; Nodwell, J.

    2008-01-01

    Actinorhodin, an antibiotic produced by Streptomyces coelicolor, is exported from the cell by the ActA efflux pump. actA is divergently transcribed from actR, which encodes a TetR-like transcriptional repressor. We showed previously that ActR represses transcription by binding to an operator from the actA/actR intergenic region. Importantly, actinorhodin itself or various actinorhodin biosynthetic intermediates can cause ActR to dissociate from its operator, leading to derepression. This suggests that ActR may mediate timely self-resistance to an endogenously produced antibiotic by responding to one of its biosynthetic precursors. Here, we report the structural basis for this precursor-mediated derepression with crystal structures of homodimeric ActR by itself and in complex with either actinorhodin or the actinorhodin biosynthetic intermediate (S)-DNPA [4-dihydro-9-hydroxy-1-methyl-10-oxo-3-H-naphtho-[2, 3-c]-pyran-3-(S)-acetic acid]. The ligand-binding tunnel in each ActR monomer has a striking hydrophilic/hydrophobic/hydrophilic arrangement of surface residues that accommodate either one hexacyclic actinorhodin molecule or two back-to-back tricyclic (S)-DNPA molecules. Moreover, our work also reveals the strongest structural evidence to date that TetR-mediated antibiotic resistance may have been acquired from an antibiotic-producer organism.

  9. Task effects, performance levels, features, configurations, and holistic face processing: a reply to Rossion.

    PubMed

    Riesenhuber, Maximilian; Wolff, Brian S

    2009-11-01

    A recent article in Acta Psychologica ("Picture-plane inversion leads to qualitative changes of face perception" by Rossion [Rossion, B. (2008). Picture-plane inversion leads to qualitative changes of face perception. Acta Psychologica (Amst), 128(2), 274-289]) criticized several aspects of an earlier paper of ours [Riesenhuber, M., Jarudi, I., Gilad, S., & Sinha, P. (2004). Face processing in humans is compatible with a simple shape-based model of vision. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B (Supplements), 271, S448-S450]. We here address Rossion's criticisms and correct some misunderstandings. To frame the discussion, we first review our previously presented computational model of face recognition in cortex [Jiang, X., Rosen, E., Zeffiro, T., Vanmeter, J., Blanz, V., & Riesenhuber, M. (2006). Evaluation of a shape-based model of human face discrimination using FMRI and behavioral techniques. Neuron, 50(1), 159-172] that provides a concrete biologically plausible computational substrate for holistic coding, namely a neural representation learned for upright faces, in the spirit of the original simple-to-complex hierarchical model of vision by Hubel and Wiesel. We show that Rossion's and others' data support the model, and that there is actually a convergence of views on the mechanisms underlying face recognition, in particular regarding holistic processing. PMID:19665104

  10. Enzyme transient state kinetics in crystal and solution from the perspective of a time-resolved crystallographer

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, Marius; Saldin, Dilano K.

    2014-01-01

    With recent technological advances at synchrotrons [Graber et al., J. Synchrotron Radiat. 18, 658–670 (2011)], it is feasible to rapidly collect time-resolved crystallographic data at multiple temperature settings [Schmidt et al., Acta Crystallogr. D 69, 2534–2542 (2013)], from which barriers of activation can be extracted. With the advent of fourth generation X-ray sources, new opportunities emerge to investigate structure and dynamics of biological macromolecules in real time [M. Schmidt, Adv. Condens. Matter Phys. 2013, 1–10] in crystals and potentially from single molecules in random orientation in solution [Poon et al., Adv. Condens. Matter Phys. 2013, 750371]. Kinetic data from time-resolved experiments on short time-scales must be interpreted in terms of chemical kinetics [Steinfeld et al., Chemical Kinetics and Dynamics, 2nd ed. (Prentience Hall, 1985)] and tied to existing time-resolved experiments on longer time-scales [Schmidt et al., Acta Crystallogr. D 69, 2534–2542 (2013); Jung et al., Nat. Chem. 5, 212–220 (2013)]. With this article, we will review and outline steps that are required to routinely determine the energetics of reactions in biomolecules in crystal and solution with newest X-ray sources. In eight sections, we aim to describe concepts and experimental details that may help to inspire new approaches to collect and interpret these data. PMID:26798774

  11. An assessment of the accuracy of isochore location techniques for H 2O-CO 2-NaCl fluids at granulite facies pressure-temperature conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Eric Lee

    1992-01-01

    Synthetic H 2O-CO 2-NaCl fluid inclusions with XCO2 compositions ranging from 0.10-0.51 and relative salinities ( r-s = wtNaCl/( wt NaCl + wt H 2O )) of 6 to 23.9 wt% have been produced in spontaneously nucleated forsterite, diopside, and orthopyroxene hosts. Molar volumes of the fluids at the pressure and temperature of formation have been calculated using microthermometric data from the fluid inclusions. These P- V- T data are used to compare the accuracy of published methods of isochore location for H 2O-CO 2-NaCl fluids at elevated pressures and temperatures. The results of these analyses show that isochores calculated with the MRK equation of BOWERS and HELGESON ( Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, vol. 47, 1247-1275, 1983) reproduce the trapping pressures and temperatures well for fluids with XCO2 ≤ 0.3 and up to 23.9 wt% NaCl. For a fluid with XCO2 = 0.49 and relative salinity of 15%, however, the agreement is poor. For these fluid compositions, the observed molar volume is larger than that predicted from the MRK equation of Bowers and Helgeson and, if not corrected, will give isochores that are too low in pressure for a given temperature. The ideal geometric mixing model of BROWN and LAMB ( Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, vol. 53, 1209-1221, 1989) provides less satisfactory results for the fluid compositions studied.

  12. Diagnosis and epidemiological association of Listeria monocytogenes strains in two outbreaks of listerial encephalitis in small ruminants.

    PubMed Central

    Wiedmann, M; Czajka, J; Bsat, N; Bodis, M; Smith, M C; Divers, T J; Batt, C A

    1994-01-01

    Two outbreaks of epizootic listerial encephalitis, one in sheep and one in goats, were investigated through pathology, microbiology, and DNA amplification-based techniques. Efforts were made to survey the diversity of Listeria monocytogenes strains in the silage consumed by affected animals and to verify the causal relationship between silage and disease outbreak. In both outbreaks, L. monocytogenes was isolated from silage and brain tissue samples. Random amplified polymorphic DNA patterns revealed two distinct L. monocytogenes strains, one of which was identical to the sheep brain isolate, in the silage associated with the outbreak in sheep. Three brain isolates and one silage isolate, all of which had different random amplified polymorphic DNA patterns, were found in the outbreak involving goats. All isolates from both outbreaks were indistinguishable in an in vitro assay for cell-to-cell spread and growth in macrophages. All brain isolates from the goat outbreak had identical intracellular ActA patterns, which were different from the pattern for the silage isolate. While the sheep brain isolate had an ActA pattern different from that of the corresponding silage isolate, the patterns for the brain isolates from the two outbreaks were not identical. This survey demonstrates the diversity of L. monocytogenes in silage and suggests the existence of one or more selective processes by which certain strains are more prone to give rise to disease. Images PMID:8027356

  13. Ultra High-Resolution In vivo Computed Tomography Imaging of Mouse Cerebrovasculature Using a Long Circulating Blood Pool Contrast Agent

    PubMed Central

    Starosolski, Zbigniew; Villamizar, Carlos A.; Rendon, David; Paldino, Michael J.; Milewicz, Dianna M.; Ghaghada, Ketan B.; Annapragada, Ananth V.

    2015-01-01

    Abnormalities in the cerebrovascular system play a central role in many neurologic diseases. The on-going expansion of rodent models of human cerebrovascular diseases and the need to use these models to understand disease progression and treatment has amplified the need for reproducible non-invasive imaging methods for high-resolution visualization of the complete cerebral vasculature. In this study, we present methods for in vivo high-resolution (19 μm isotropic) computed tomography imaging of complete mouse brain vasculature. This technique enabled 3D visualization of large cerebrovascular networks, including the Circle of Willis. Blood vessels as small as 40 μm were clearly delineated. ACTA2 mutations in humans cause cerebrovascular defects, including abnormally straightened arteries and a moyamoya-like arteriopathy characterized by bilateral narrowing of the internal carotid artery and stenosis of many large arteries. In vivo imaging studies performed in a mouse model of Acta2 mutations demonstrated the utility of this method for studying vascular morphometric changes that are practically impossible to identify using current histological methods. Specifically, the technique demonstrated changes in the width of the Circle of Willis, straightening of cerebral arteries and arterial stenoses. We believe the use of imaging methods described here will contribute substantially to the study of rodent cerebrovasculature. PMID:25985192

  14. Symmetry breaking in actin gels - Implications for cellular motility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    John, Karin; Peyla, Philippe; Misbah, Chaouqi

    2007-03-01

    The physical origin of cell motility is not fully understood. Recently minimal model systems have shown, that polymerizing actin itself can produce a motile force, without the help of motor proteins. Pathogens like Shigella or Listeria use actin to propel themselves forward in their host cell. The same process can be mimicked with polystyrene beads covered with the activating protein ActA, which reside in a solution containing actin monomers. ActA induces the growth of an actin gel at the bead surface. Initially the gel grows symmetrically around the bead until a critical size is reached. Subsequently one observes a symmetry breaking and the gel starts to grow asymmetrically around the bead developing a tail of actin at one side. This symmetry breaking is accompanied by a directed movement of the bead, with the actin tail trailing behind the bead. Force generation relies on the combination of two properties: growth and elasticity of the actin gel. We study this phenomenon theoretically within the framework of a linear elasticity theory and linear flux-force relationships for the evolution of an elastic gel around a hard sphere. Conditions for a parity symmetry breaking are identified analytically and illustrated numerically with the help of a phasefield model.

  15. Crystal structure of a Pd4 carbonyl tri­phenyl­phosphane cluster [Pd4(CO)5(PPh3)4]·2C4H8O, comparing solvates

    PubMed Central

    Robeyns, Koen; Willocq, Christopher; Tinant, Bernard; Devillers, Michel; Hermans, Sophie

    2016-01-01

    Attempts to synthesize Au–Pd heterometallic compounds from homonuclear palladium or gold complexes, [Pd(PtBu2)2] and [Au(PPh3)Cl] in a tetra­hydro­furan (THF) solution under a CO atmosphere resulted in a homonuclear Pd cluster, namely penta­kis­(μ-carbonyl-κ2 C:C)tetra­kis­(tri­phenyl­phosphane-κP)tetrapalladium(5 Pd—Pd) tetra­hydro­furan disolvate, [Pd4(CO)5(C18H15P)4]·2C4H8O. The complex mol­ecule lies on a twofold rotation axis. The crystal structure is described in relation to the CH2Cl2 solvate previously determined by our group [Willocq et al. (2011 ▸). Inorg. Chim. Acta, 373, 233–242], and in particular to the desolvated structure [Feltham et al. (1985 ▸). Inorg. Chem. 24, 1503–1510]. It is assumed that the title compound transforms into the latter structure, upon gradual loss of solvent mol­ecules. In the title compound, the symmetry-unique THF solvent mol­ecule is linked to the complex mol­ecule by a weak C—H⋯O hydrogen bond. Contributions of disordered solvent molecules to the diffraction intensities, most likely associated with methanol, were removed with the SQUEEZE [Spek (2015). Acta Cryst. C71, 9–18] algorithm. PMID:26958368

  16. Monte Carlo simulation of electrothermal atomization on a desktop personal computer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Histen, Timothy E.; Güell, Oscar A.; Chavez, Iris A.; Holcombea, James A.

    1996-07-01

    Monte Carlo simulations have been applied to electrothermal atomization (ETA) using a tubular atomizer (e.g. graphite furnace) because of the complexity in the geometry, heating, molecular interactions, etc. The intense computational time needed to accurately model ETA often limited its effective implementation to the use of supercomputers. However, with the advent of more powerful desktop processors, this is no longer the case. A C-based program has been developed and can be used under Windows TM or DOS. With this program, basic parameters such as furnace dimensions, sample placement, furnace heating and kinetic parameters such as activation energies for desorption and adsorption can be varied to show the absorbance profile dependence on these parameters. Even data such as time-dependent spatial distribution of analyte inside the furnace can be collected. The DOS version also permits input of external temperaturetime data to permit comparison of simulated profiles with experimentally obtained absorbance data. The run-time versions are provided along with the source code. This article is an electronic publication in Spectrochimica Acta Electronica (SAE), the electronic section of Spectrochimica Acta Part B (SAB). The hardcopy text is accompanied by a diskette with a program (PC format), data files and text files.

  17. Syntenic assignment of human chromosome 1 homologous loci in the bovine.

    PubMed

    Threadgill, D S; Threadgill, D W; Moll, Y D; Weiss, J A; Zhang, N; Davey, H W; Wildeman, A G; Womack, J E

    1994-08-01

    Three mouse chromosomes (MMU 1, 3, and 4) carry homologs of human chromosome 1 (HSA 1) genes. A similar situation is found in the bovine, where five bovine chromosomes (BTA 2, 3, 5, 16, and unassigned syntenic group U25) contain homologs of HSA 1 loci. To evaluate further the syntenic relationship of HSA 1 homologs in cattle, 10 loci have been physically mapped through segregation analysis in bovine-rodent hybrid somatic cells. These loci, chosen for their location on HSA 1, are antithrombin 3 (AT3), renin (REN), complement component receptor 2 (CR2), phosphofructokinase muscle type (PFKM), Gardner-Rasheed feline sarcoma viral (v-fgr) oncogene homolog (FGR), alpha fucosidase (FUCA1), G-protein beta 1 subunit (GNB1), alpha 1A amylase, (AMY1), the neuroblastoma RAS viral (v-ras) oncogene homolog (NRAS), and alpha skeletal actin (ACTA1). AT3, REN, CR2, and GNB1 mapped to BTA 16, PFKM to BTA 5, AMY1A and NRAS to BTA 3, FGR and FUCA1 to BTA 2, and ACTA1 to BTA 28. PMID:8001974

  18. The Kalman filter approach to inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Veen, E. H.; Bosch, S.; De Loos-Vollebregt, M. T. C.

    1994-07-01

    This article is an electronic publication in Spectrochimica Acta Electronica (SAE), the electronic section of Spectrochimica Acta Part B (SAB). The hardcopy text, comprising the main article and two appendices, is accompanied by a disk containing the compiled program, a reference manual and data files. The work deals with data handling in inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). With this technique, the analyte signal is superimposed on a background signal. When separating the signals by manual or automated three-point background correction, there are many instances in which the data reduction fails. Based on scans recorded in a fast-scanning mode and on a library of pure-component scans, the Kaiman filter approach models the emission in the spectral window (about 100 pm) of the analyte and mathematically solves the problem of background correction. By using a criterion-based algorithm to correct for optical instability, the uncertainty in the determination of the interferent line signal is eliminated. Therefore, the present filter implementation yields more accurate and precise results, especially in the case of line overlap. The Kalman filter Approach to Atomic Spectrometry (KAAS) software automatically processes Perkin-Elmer Plasma 1000/2000 text files, but can also handle ASCII data files. Practical and comprehensive examples are given to evoke the "Kalman filter feeling" in the crucial step of creating the emission model.

  19. Listeria monocytogenes Exploits Normal Host Cell Processes to Spread from Cell to Cell✪

    PubMed Central

    Robbins, Jennifer R.; Barth, Angela I.; Marquis, Hélène; de Hostos, Eugenio L.; Nelson, W. James; Theriot, Julie A.

    1999-01-01

    The bacterial pathogen, Listeria monocytogenes, grows in the cytoplasm of host cells and spreads intercellularly using a form of actin-based motility mediated by the bacterial protein ActA. Tightly adherent monolayers of MDCK cells that constitutively express GFP-actin were infected with L. monocytogenes, and intercellular spread of bacteria was observed by video microscopy. The probability of formation of membrane-bound protrusions containing bacteria decreased with host cell monolayer age and the establishment of extensive cell-cell contacts. After their extension into a recipient cell, intercellular membrane-bound protrusions underwent a period of bacterium-dependent fitful movement, followed by their collapse into a vacuole and rapid vacuolar lysis. Actin filaments in protrusions exhibited decreased turnover rates compared with bacterially associated cytoplasmic actin comet tails. Recovery of motility in the recipient cell required 1–2 bacterial generations. This delay may be explained by acid-dependent cleavage of ActA by the bacterial metalloprotease, Mpl. Importantly, we have observed that low levels of endocytosis of neighboring MDCK cell surface fragments occurs in the absence of bacteria, implying that intercellular spread of bacteria may exploit an endogenous process of paracytophagy. PMID:10491395

  20. Mutation-Specific Effects on Thin Filament Length in Thin Filament Myopathy

    PubMed Central

    de Winter, Josine M.; Joureau, Barbara; Lee, Eun-Jeong; Kiss, Balázs; Yuen, Michaela; Gupta, Vandana A.; Pappas, Christopher T.; Gregorio, Carol C.; Stienen, Ger J. M.; Edvardson, Simon; Wallgren-Pettersson, Carina; Lehtokari, Vilma-Lotta; Pelin, Katarina; Malfatti, Edoardo; Romero, Norma B.; van Engelen, Baziel G.; Voermans, Nicol C.; Donkervoort, Sandra; Bönnemann, C. G.; Clarke, Nigel F.; Beggs, Alan H.; Granzier, Henk; Ottenheijm, Coen A. C.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Thin filament myopathies are among the most common nondystrophic congenital muscular disorders, and are caused by mutations in genes encoding proteins that are associated with the skeletal muscle thin filament. Mechanisms underlying muscle weakness are poorly understood, but might involve the length of the thin filament, an important determinant of force generation. Methods We investigated the sarcomere length-dependence of force, a functional assay that provides insights into the contractile strength of muscle fibers as well as the length of the thin filaments, in muscle fibers from 51 patients with thin filament myopathy caused by mutations in NEB, ACTA1, TPM2, TPM3, TNNT1, KBTBD13, KLHL40, and KLHL41. Results Lower force generation was observed in muscle fibers from patients of all genotypes. In a subset of patients who harbor mutations in NEB and ACTA1, the lower force was associated with downward shifted force–sarcomere length relations, indicative of shorter thin filaments. Confocal microscopy confirmed shorter thin filaments in muscle fibers of these patients. A conditional Neb knockout mouse model, which recapitulates thin filament myopathy, revealed a compensatory mechanism; the lower force generation that was associated with shorter thin filaments was compensated for by increasing the number of sarcomeres in series. This allowed muscle fibers to operate at a shorter sarcomere length and maintain optimal thin–thick filament overlap. Interpretation These findings might provide a novel direction for the development of therapeutic strategies for thin filament myopathy patients with shortened thin filament lengths. PMID:27074222

  1. Determination of barium, chromium, cadmium, manganese, lead and zinc in atmospheric particulate matter by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boevski, I. V.; Daskalova, N.; Havezov, I.

    2000-11-01

    The present paper has shown that the Q concept, as proposed by P.W.J.M. Boumans, J.J.A.M. Vrakking, Spectrochim. Acta Part B 43 (1988) 69, can be used as a basic methodology in the determination of Ba, Cr, Cd, Mn, Pb and Zn in pairs of atmospheric particles by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). The data base of Q values for line interference [ QIj(λ a)] and Q values for wing background interference [ QWJ(Δλ a)] were obtained in our former work [N. Daskalova, Iv. Boevski, Spectral interferences in the determination of trace elements in environmental materials by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry, Spectrochim. Acta Part B 54 (1999) 1099-1122]. The samples of atmospheric particles were collected by the Bergerhoff method. The ICP-AES determination was performed after sample digestion with aqua regia. Q values were used for the calculation of both the total interfering signal under the analysis lines and the true detection limits, depending on the matrix constituents in the different samples. Comparative data for the concentration of analytes were obtained by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS) and direct current arc atomic emission spectrographic method (dc arc-AES).

  2. Influence of static magnetic fields combined with human insulin-like growth factor 1 on human satellite cell cultures.

    PubMed

    Birk, Richard; Sommer, J Ulrich; Haas, Dominik; Faber, Anne; Aderhold, Christoph; Schultz, Johannes D; Hoermann, Karl; Stern-Straeter, Jens

    2014-01-01

    Tissue engineering represents a promising research field, targeting the creation of new functional muscle tissue in vitro. The aim of the present study was to show the influence of static magnetic fields (SMF) and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF1), as enhancing stimuli on human satellite cell cultures, which are preferred sources of stem cells in engineering skeletal muscle tissue. To detect effects on myogenic maturation and proliferation, AlamarBlue® proliferation, assay and semi-quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction of following markers was performed: desmin (DES), myogenic factor-5 (MYF5), myogenic differentiation antigen-1 (MYOD1), myogenin (MYOG), myosin heavy chain (MYH) and α1 actin (ACTA1). As a distinct marker of differentiation, immunohistochemical staining and fusion index determination was performed on satellite cell cultures stimulated with IGF1 and IGF1-plus-SMF with an intensity of 80 mT. Proliferation was increased by additional SMF application to IGF1-stimulated cell cultures on the first day of myogenesis. Relative gene expression of measured markers was increased by IGF1 application in the first days of myogenesis except for ACTA1. Additional SMF application enhanced this effect. Nevertheless we were unable to demonstrate the formation of contractile muscle tissue. Immunhistochemical staining verified muscle origin and all markers were displayed. PMID:25189891

  3. idTarget: a web server for identifying protein targets of small chemical molecules with robust scoring functions and a divide-and-conquer docking approach

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jui-Chih; Chu, Pei-Ying; Chen, Chung-Ming; Lin, Jung-Hsin

    2012-01-01

    Identification of possible protein targets of small chemical molecules is an important step for unravelling their underlying causes of actions at the molecular level. To this end, we construct a web server, idTarget, which can predict possible binding targets of a small chemical molecule via a divide-and-conquer docking approach, in combination with our recently developed scoring functions based on robust regression analysis and quantum chemical charge models. Affinity profiles of the protein targets are used to provide the confidence levels of prediction. The divide-and-conquer docking approach uses adaptively constructed small overlapping grids to constrain the searching space, thereby achieving better docking efficiency. Unlike previous approaches that screen against a specific class of targets or a limited number of targets, idTarget screen against nearly all protein structures deposited in the Protein Data Bank (PDB). We show that idTarget is able to reproduce known off-targets of drugs or drug-like compounds, and the suggested new targets could be prioritized for further investigation. idTarget is freely available as a web-based server at http://idtarget.rcas.sinica.edu.tw. PMID:22649057

  4. Measurement of nuclear dependence of pT at Fermilab

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Suyin; E906/SeaQuest Collaboration

    2015-10-01

    The suppression of JPsi and Psi' production in the heavy ion collisions relative to their production in the p+p collisions has been proposed as one of the important signatures of the quark-gluon plasma (QGP) formation. The nuclear dependence of JPsi and Psi' production in the p+A collisions is essential to characterize the important baseline of the cold nuclear matter effect in both the initial and final states of collisions. In addition the final-state effect can be further differentiated in comparison with the nuclear dependence of Drell-Yan process. Fermilab E906/SeaQuest is a fixed-target experiment where the JPsi, Psi' and Drell-Yan productions from 120-GeV proton beam colliding with protons and various nuclear targets are measured simultaneously via the dimuon channel. In this talk we will report the recent progress of nuclear dependence of these productions as a function of the transverse momentum of dimuon from E906/SeaQuest's measurements. The results will be compared to those of E866 experiment obtained at higher beam energies. SuYin Wang is with Institute of Physics, Academia Sinica, Taiwan, and Particle Physics Division, Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, USA. She is also a Ph.D. student from Department of Physics, National Kaohsiung Normal University, Taiwan.

  5. Developing SNMS for Full-Spectrum High-Sensitivity In-Situ Isotopic Analysis of Individual Comet Grains Collected by Stardust?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Chun-Yen; Shen, Jason Jiun-San; Lee, Typhoon; Calaway, Wallis; Veryovkin, Igor; Moore, Jerry; Pellin, Michael

    2005-01-01

    In anticipation of the return of comet (and ISM?) dust grains by the Stardust mission [1] in mid-January next year, Academia Sinica (AS) and Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) have entered into a collaboration to develop instrument and method for the isotopic analysis of these samples. We need to achieve the highest possible sensitivity so that we can analyze individual grains one at a time to the smallest possible size. Only by doing so can we hope to reach one of the main science goals of the mission, namely the recognition of those isotopically distinct grains each carrying the characteristic signature of a particular nucleosynthetic stage of its parent star. In order to facilitate the interpretation of these grains the second requirement of our method is that the measurements must be made over the widest possible mass range before samples exhaustion. For instance, the thermonuclear fusion reactions that produced the isotopes of various major elements of a wide mass range required drastically different temperatures. Therefore their abundances could constrain the conditions at greatly varying depth inside the source star hence its structure and evolution.

  6. SMART: Statistical Metabolomics Analysis-An R Tool.

    PubMed

    Liang, Yu-Jen; Lin, Yu-Ting; Chen, Chia-Wei; Lin, Chien-Wei; Chao, Kun-Mao; Pan, Wen-Harn; Yang, Hsin-Chou

    2016-06-21

    Metabolomics data provide unprecedented opportunities to decipher metabolic mechanisms by analyzing hundreds to thousands of metabolites. Data quality concerns and complex batch effects in metabolomics must be appropriately addressed through statistical analysis. This study developed an integrated analysis tool for metabolomics studies to streamline the complete analysis flow from initial data preprocessing to downstream association analysis. We developed Statistical Metabolomics Analysis-An R Tool (SMART), which can analyze input files with different formats, visually represent various types of data features, implement peak alignment and annotation, conduct quality control for samples and peaks, explore batch effects, and perform association analysis. A pharmacometabolomics study of antihypertensive medication was conducted and data were analyzed using SMART. Neuromedin N was identified as a metabolite significantly associated with angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitors in our metabolome-wide association analysis (p = 1.56 × 10(-4) in an analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) with an adjustment for unknown latent groups and p = 1.02 × 10(-4) in an ANCOVA with an adjustment for hidden substructures). This endogenous neuropeptide is highly related to neurotensin and neuromedin U, which are involved in blood pressure regulation and smooth muscle contraction. The SMART software, a user guide, and example data can be downloaded from http://www.stat.sinica.edu.tw/hsinchou/metabolomics/SMART.htm . PMID:27248514

  7. Securing health through food systems: an initiative of the nutrition consortium of the National Health Research Institutes in Taiwan and Asia Pacific regional partners as a network.

    PubMed

    Wahlqvist, Mark L; Kuo, Ken N

    2009-01-01

    There are growing concerns about the health impacts of climate change with ecosystem degradation and global warming, finite reserves of non-renewable energy, water shortages in food-producing regions, limits to contemporary agriculture with its dependence on exhaustible petrochemical nitrogen and rock phosphate fertilizers, and failure of the global financial system. To date, health security has meant attention to safe environments especially water, sanitation and waste disposal; and access to health care and its affordability. Its dependency on food security (safety, sufficiency, sustainability, and satisfaction which requires diversity and quality) has been under-estimated because the current and imminent risks have increased and extended to more populations, because these may be less tractable and because the nature, extent and dynamics of nutritionally-related health are better appreciated. As a step towards more collaborative food and health systems, the National Health Research Institutes in Taiwan has created an interdisciplinary Nutrition Consortium (NC) with research and policy agendas. The NC held a food in Health Security (FIHS) in the Asia Pacific region roundtable in conjunction with the World Vegetable Center based in Tainan, supported by the National Science Council and Academia Sinica in Taiwan and the Australian Academies of Science and of Science Technology and Engineering, August 2-5th 2009 in Taiwan. A FIHS Network is being established to further the initiative. It should form part of the broader Human Security agenda. PMID:19965334

  8. OBS development and data analysis in Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, C.; Wang, C.; Chen, P.; Chang, H.; Jang, J.; Kuo, B.

    2012-12-01

    Since 1991 there have been various types of ocean bottom seismometers (OBS) deployed in the waters around Taiwan with different scientific goals. A few years of experiences taught us that many aspects of the instruments can be improved without too much effort. These include extension of deployment time, extension of the recording bandwidth of a short period OBS, and more flexibly to accommodate scientific demands without instrumental overhaul. Scientists will not burden themselves by these tasks, and sending back the instrument to original manufactory for modifications is usually impractical budget-wise, in timeline, and for mission goals. It is thus necessary to develop a sustainable OBS program in Taiwan. Academia Sinica has been collaborating with Taiwan Ocean Research Institute (TORI) and National Sun Yat-sen University (NSYSU) to build a new short-period OBS which has passed a series of tests and have been deployed in the Okinawa trough, Bashi channel, east Korea offshore and on service in Huatung basin. This paper describes the design goal of this OBS, component specification, and reports the preliminary analyses of data and the future directions of instrument development. Keywords: Ocean bottom seismometer, OBS

  9. Minimum-cost 4-m telescope developed at October 1979 Nanjing study of telescope design and construction.

    PubMed

    Meinel, A B; Meinel, M P; Ningshen, H; Qiqian, H; Chunhua, P

    1980-08-15

    A lightweight 4-m telescope with a 6400-kg primary mirror of f/11.5 was developed during a two-week workshop at the Nanjing Astronomical Instruments Factory sponsored by the Purple Mountain Observatory, Academia Sinica, Nanjing, People's Republic of China. A central column supports the secondary mirror, thus eliminating all structures around the periphery of the primary mirror. The altazimuth mounting has the elevation axis behind the primary mirror and cell, requiring a counterweight. The Cassegrain focal position coincides with the elevation axis. A single secondary mirror and appropriate field correctors enable operations at the Harland Epps-Dan Schulte (HEDS), Cassegrain, Nasmyth, and coudé foci. Relay of the Cassegrain beam to the coudé is via an elliptical relay mirror. Cost scaling law considerations indicate that this 4-m design will have a cost comparable with that of a conventional 2.2-m telescope. A discussion of the double-tapered lightweight Cer-Vit-type mirror is included. PMID:20234489

  10. A Novel Method for Identification and Quantification of Consistently Differentially Methylated Regions

    PubMed Central

    Hsiao, Ching-Lin; Hsieh, Ai-Ru; Lian, Ie-Bin; Lin, Ying-Chao; Wang, Hui-Min; Fann, Cathy S. J.

    2014-01-01

    Advances in biotechnology have resulted in large-scale studies of DNA methylation. A differentially methylated region (DMR) is a genomic region with multiple adjacent CpG sites that exhibit different methylation statuses among multiple samples. Many so-called “supervised” methods have been established to identify DMRs between two or more comparison groups. Methods for the identification of DMRs without reference to phenotypic information are, however, less well studied. An alternative “unsupervised” approach was proposed, in which DMRs in studied samples were identified with consideration of nature dependence structure of methylation measurements between neighboring probes from tiling arrays. Through simulation study, we investigated effects of dependencies between neighboring probes on determining DMRs where a lot of spurious signals would be produced if the methylation data were analyzed independently of the probe. In contrast, our newly proposed method could successfully correct for this effect with a well-controlled false positive rate and a comparable sensitivity. By applying to two real datasets, we demonstrated that our method could provide a global picture of methylation variation in studied samples. R source codes to implement the proposed method were freely available at http://www.csjfann.ibms.sinica.edu.tw/eag/programlist/ICDMR/ICDMR.html. PMID:24818602

  11. Study of Automatic Image Rectification and Registration of Scanned Historical Aerial Photographs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, H. R.; Tseng, Y. H.

    2016-06-01

    Historical aerial photographs directly provide good evidences of past times. The Research Center for Humanities and Social Sciences (RCHSS) of Taiwan Academia Sinica has collected and scanned numerous historical maps and aerial images of Taiwan and China. Some maps or images have been geo-referenced manually, but most of historical aerial images have not been registered since there are no GPS or IMU data for orientation assisting in the past. In our research, we developed an automatic process of matching historical aerial images by SIFT (Scale Invariant Feature Transform) for handling the great quantity of images by computer vision. SIFT is one of the most popular method of image feature extracting and matching. This algorithm extracts extreme values in scale space into invariant image features, which are robust to changing in rotation scale, noise, and illumination. We also use RANSAC (Random sample consensus) to remove outliers, and obtain good conjugated points between photographs. Finally, we manually add control points for registration through least square adjustment based on collinear equation. In the future, we can use image feature points of more photographs to build control image database. Every new image will be treated as query image. If feature points of query image match the features in database, it means that the query image probably is overlapped with control images.With the updating of database, more and more query image can be matched and aligned automatically. Other research about multi-time period environmental changes can be investigated with those geo-referenced temporal spatial data.

  12. Performance and microbial community of simultaneous anammox and denitrification (SAD) process in a sequencing batch reactor.

    PubMed

    Li, Jin; Qiang, Zhimin; Yu, Deshuang; Wang, Dan; Zhang, Peiyu; Li, Yue

    2016-10-01

    A sequencing batch reactor (SBR) was used to test the simultaneous anammox and denitrification process. Optimal nitrogen removal was achieved with chemical oxygen demand (COD) of 150mg/L, during which almost all of ammonia, nitrite and nitrate could be removed. Organic matter was a key factor to regulate the synergy of anammox and denitrification. Both experimental ΔNO2(-)-N/ΔNH4(+)-N and ΔNO3(-)-N/ΔNH4(+)-N values deviated from their theoretical values with increasing COD. Denitrifying bacteria exhibited good diversity and abundance, but the diversity of anammox bacteria was less abundant. Brocadia sinica was able to grow in the presence of organic matter and tolerate high nitrite concentration. Anammox bacteria were predominant at low COD contents, while denitrifying bacteria dominated the microbial community at high COD contents. Anammox and denitrifying bacteria could coexist in one reactor to achieve the simultaneous carbon and nitrogen removal through the synergy of anammox and denitrification. PMID:27459683

  13. A psycholinguistic database for traditional Chinese character naming.

    PubMed

    Chang, Ya-Ning; Hsu, Chun-Hsien; Tsai, Jie-Li; Chen, Chien-Liang; Lee, Chia-Ying

    2016-03-01

    In this study, we aimed to provide a large-scale set of psycholinguistic norms for 3,314 traditional Chinese characters, along with their naming reaction times (RTs), collected from 140 Chinese speakers. The lexical and semantic variables in the database include frequency, regularity, familiarity, consistency, number of strokes, homophone density, semantic ambiguity rating, phonetic combinability, semantic combinability, and the number of disyllabic compound words formed by a character. Multiple regression analyses were conducted to examine the predictive powers of these variables for the naming RTs. The results demonstrated that these variables could account for a significant portion of variance (55.8%) in the naming RTs. An additional multiple regression analysis was conducted to demonstrate the effects of consistency and character frequency. Overall, the regression results were consistent with the findings of previous studies on Chinese character naming. This database should be useful for research into Chinese language processing, Chinese education, or cross-linguistic comparisons. The database can be accessed via an online inquiry system (http://ball.ling.sinica.edu.tw/namingdatabase/index.html). PMID:25630311

  14. Flavor changing heavy Higgs interactions at the LHC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCoy, Brent; Altunkaynak, Baris; Kao, Chung; Hou, Wei-Shou; Kohda, Masaya

    2016-03-01

    A general two Higgs doublet model (2HDM) is adopted to study the signature of flavor changing neutral Higgs (FCNH) decay ϕ0 --> t c + t c , where ϕ0 could be a CP-even scalar (H0) or a CP-odd pseudoscalar (A0). Measurement of the light 126 GeV neutral Higgs boson (h0) couplings at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) favor the decoupling limit or the alignment limit of a 2HDM, in which gauge boson and diagonal fermion couplings of h0 approach Standard Model values. In such a limit, FCNH couplings of h0 are naturally suppressed by a small mixing parameter cos (β - α) , while the off-diagonal couplings of heavier neutral scalars ϕ0 are sustained by sin (β - α) ~ 1 . We study physics background from dominant processes with realistic acceptance cuts and tagging efficiencies. Promising results are found for the LHC running at 13 or 14 TeV collision energies. Academia Sinica, National Taiwan University; OU Supercomputing Center for Education & Research; U.S. Department of Energy, Grant No. DEFG01-13ER41979; Academic Summit Grants: MOST 103-2745-M-002-001-ASP, NTU-EPR-103R8915, and NSC 102-2112-M-033-007-MY3.

  15. Preliminary study of the genetic diversity of eastern Assamese macaques (Macaca assamensis assamensis) in Thailand based on mitochondrial DNA and microsatellite markers.

    PubMed

    Sukmak, Manakorn; Malaivijitnond, Suchinda; Schülke, Oliver; Ostner, Julia; Hamada, Yuzuru; Wajjwalku, Worawidh

    2014-04-01

    Human overpopulation, deforestation, invasion of agricultural areas, and livestock are the primary causes for population fragmentation of wildlife. The distribution range of species of the genus Macaca is constantly decreasing and becoming increasingly fragmented due to forest deterioration. Assamese macaques (M. assamensis) are classified as near threatened in the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Red List of Threatened Animals (2008) and have been declared a protected wildlife animal according to Wildlife Preservation and Protection Act, B.E.2535 (1992) of Thailand. As studies of the population history and genetic diversity of Assamese macaques in Thailand are currently lacking, we aimed at a first investigation of their genetic diversity based on mitochondrial DNA [hypervariable regions 1 and 2 (HV1, HV2) and cytochrome B (CYTB) regions], as well as 15 microsatellite markers of five sampling sites distributed across Thailand. Our results indicate that Assamese macaques in Thailand are diverse, with eight maternal haplotypes and a low inbreeding coefficient in the Phu Khieo Wildlife Sanctuary (PKWS) population. Moreover, our phylogenetic and median-joining network analysis based on mitochondrial (mt)DNA suggests a population distribution in accordance with the evolutionary scenario proposed for M. sinica. Today, the population of Assamese macaques is fragmented, and conservation strategies are needed to ensure the maintenance of genetic diversity of this primate species. PMID:24142419

  16. SLITHER: a web server for generating contiguous conformations of substrate molecules entering into deep active sites of proteins or migrating through channels in membrane transporters.

    PubMed

    Lee, Po-Hsien; Kuo, Kuei-Ling; Chu, Pei-Ying; Liu, Eric M; Lin, Jung-Hsin

    2009-07-01

    Many proteins use a long channel to guide the substrate or ligand molecules into the well-defined active sites for catalytic reactions or for switching molecular states. In addition, substrates of membrane transporters can migrate to another side of cellular compartment by means of certain selective mechanisms. SLITHER (http://bioinfo.mc.ntu.edu.tw/slither/or http://slither.rcas.sinica.edu.tw/) is a web server that can generate contiguous conformations of a molecule along a curved tunnel inside a protein, and the binding free energy profile along the predicted channel pathway. SLITHER adopts an iterative docking scheme, which combines with a puddle-skimming procedure, i.e. repeatedly elevating the potential energies of the identified global minima, thereby determines the contiguous binding modes of substrates inside the protein. In contrast to some programs that are widely used to determine the geometric dimensions in the ion channels, SLITHER can be applied to predict whether a substrate molecule can crawl through an inner channel or a half-channel of proteins across surmountable energy barriers. Besides, SLITHER also provides the list of the pore-facing residues, which can be directly compared with many genetic diseases. Finally, the adjacent binding poses determined by SLITHER can also be used for fragment-based drug design. PMID:19433508

  17. Composition of the volatiles from intact and mechanically pierced tea aphid-tea shoot complexes and their attraction to natural enemies of the tea aphid.

    PubMed

    Han, B Y; Chen, Z M

    2002-04-24

    The volatile components from intact tea shoots (ITS), obtained by air entrainment, were identified by their mass spectra and retention times and confirmed by comparison with standard samples. They are E-2-hexenal, ocimene, Z-3-hexenyl acetate, Z-3-hexen-1-ol, butanoic acid-3-hexenyl ester, linalool, 1-octanol, geraniol, and indole. Volatiles from mechanically pierced tea shoots (MPTS) were identified as E-2-hexenal, ocimene, Z-3-hexen-1-ol, butanoic acid-3-hexenyl ester, linalool, geraniol, indole, E-2-hexenoic acid, Z-3-hexenyl formate, methyl salicylate, and benzyl alcohol, and volatiles from tea aphid-tea shoot complexes (TATSC) were identified as E-2-hexenal, ocimene, Z-3-hexenyl acetate, Z-3-hexen-1-ol, linalool, geraniol, indole, benzaldehyde, and E-2-hexenoic acid. Z-3-Hexen-1-ol is the main component in the three different types of volatiles, and the amount of benzaldehyde in TATSC volatiles is very ample. The attraction of the volatiles from ITS, MPTS, and TATSC, and the nine components of TATSC volatiles to the natural enemies, the coccinellid, Coccinella septempunctata, the parasite, Aphidius sp., and the lacewing, Chrysopa sinica, were determined by electroantennogram (EAG) and the wind tunnel bioassay. TATSC volatiles and benzaldehyde elicited much larger EAG responses and stronger upwind flight and arresting behavior from each natural enemy in the wind tunnel than other infochemicals. PMID:11958624

  18. Anammox for nitrogen removal from anaerobically pre-treated municipal wastewater: Effect of COD/N ratios on process performance and bacterial community structure.

    PubMed

    Leal, Cíntia Dutra; Pereira, Alyne Duarte; Nunes, Fernando Terra; Ferreira, Luísa Ornelas; Coelho, Aline Carolina Cirilo; Bicalho, Sarah Kinaip; Mac Conell, Erika F Abreu; Ribeiro, Thiago Bressani; de Lemos Chernicharo, Carlos Augusto; de Araújo, Juliana Calábria

    2016-07-01

    Long-term effects of COD/N ratios on the nitrogen removal performance and bacterial community of an anammox reactor were evaluated by adding a synthetic medium (with glucose) and real anaerobic effluent to a SBR. At a COD/N ratio of 2.8 (COD, 390mg·L(-1)) ammonium removal efficiency was 66%, while nitrite removal remained high (99%). However, at a COD/N ratio of 5.0 (COD, 300mg·L(-1)), ammonium and nitrite removal efficiencies were high (84% and 99%, respectively). High COD, nitrite, and ammonium removal efficiencies (80%, 90% and 95%, respectively) were obtained on adding anaerobically pre-treated municipal wastewater (with nitrite) to the reactor. DGGE revealed that the addition of anaerobic effluent changed the bacterial community structure and selected for DNA sequences related to Brocadia sinica and Chloroflexi. Adding glucose and anaerobic effluent increased denitrifiers concentration threefold. Thus, the possibility of using the anammox process to remove nitrogen from anaerobically pre-treated municipal wastewater was demonstrated. PMID:27023380

  19. LISE: a server using ligand-interacting and site-enriched protein triangles for prediction of ligand-binding sites.

    PubMed

    Xie, Zhong-Ru; Liu, Chuan-Kun; Hsiao, Fang-Chih; Yao, Adam; Hwang, Ming-Jing

    2013-07-01

    LISE is a web server for a novel method for predicting small molecule binding sites on proteins. It differs from a number of servers currently available for such predictions in two aspects. First, rather than relying on knowledge of similar protein structures, identification of surface cavities or estimation of binding energy, LISE computes a score by counting geometric motifs extracted from sub-structures of interaction networks connecting protein and ligand atoms. These network motifs take into account spatial and physicochemical properties of ligand-interacting protein surface atoms. Second, LISE has now been more thoroughly tested, as, in addition to the evaluation we previously reported using two commonly used small benchmark test sets and targets of two community-based experiments on ligand-binding site predictions, we now report an evaluation using a large non-redundant data set containing >2000 protein-ligand complexes. This unprecedented test, the largest ever reported to our knowledge, demonstrates LISE's overall accuracy and robustness. Furthermore, we have identified some hard to predict protein classes and provided an estimate of the performance that can be expected from a state-of-the-art binding site prediction server, such as LISE, on a proteome scale. The server is freely available at http://lise.ibms.sinica.edu.tw. PMID:23609546

  20. Effects of anti-obesity drugs, phentermine and mahuang, on the behavioral patterns in Sprague-Dawley rat model

    PubMed Central

    Go, Ryeo-Eun; Hwang, Kyung-A; Kim, Seung-Hee; Lee, Min-Young; Kim, Cho-Won; Jeon, So-Ye; Kim, Yun-Bae

    2014-01-01

    According to WHO global estimates from 2008, more than 1.4 billion adults were overweight and among them, over 200 million men and 300 million women were obese. Although the main treatment modalities for overweight and obese individuals remain dieting and physical exercise, the synthetic anti-obesity medications have been increasingly used due to their perceived convenience. Generally, anti-obesity medications are classified as appetite suppressants or fat absorption blockers. In the present study, we examined the adverse side-effects in respect of behavior changes of phentermine and Ephedra sinica (mahuang) that are anti-obesity drugs currently distributed to domestic consumers. Phentermine is mainly classified as an anorexing agent and mahuang a thermogenic agent. Because phentermine and mahuang are considered to display effectiveness through the regulation of nerve system, their potential influences of on behavioral changes were examined employing animal experiments. From the results of experiments testing locomotor activity through the use of treadmill, rota-rod, and open field system, phentermine and mahuang were commonly revealed to induce behavioral changes of rats by reducing a motor ability, an ability to cope with an external stimulus, and a sense of balance or by augmenting wariness or excitement. These adverse effects of phenternime and mahuang in behavioral changes need to be identified in humans and anti-obesity medications such as phentermine and mahuang should be prescribed for only obesity where it is anticipated that the benefits of the treatment outweigh their potential risks. PMID:24999361

  1. A study of ambient seismic noise on the seafloor of the Okinawa trough and the Bashi Channel south of Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, C.; Kuo, B.; Wang, C.

    2013-12-01

    Since September. 2006, the Institute of Earth Sciences, Acadmia Sinica (IES-AS) has begun deployment of Ocean Bottom Seismometers (OBSs) in the waters around Taiwan in collaboration with the National Sun Yat-sen University and the Taiwan Ocean Research Institute. So far there are three kinds of OBSs with different bandwidth that have been deployed and analyzed: 120 s - 50 Hz for WHOI designed broadband OBS, 60 s - 50 Hz for Lobster, KUM, and 20 s - 45 Hz for Yardbird-20s designed by IES (Lin et al., 2012). We have analyzed noise levels for these OBSs deployed in the Okinawa trough to the NE of Taiwan and, the Bashi channel south of Taiwan, and the Huatung basin east of Tawian. The early results had very few samples in the Okinawa trough and the Huatung basin ( Lin et al., 2010). This poster presents new results offshore southern Taiwan and increases the samples in previously studied regions. References: Ching-Ren Lin, Chai-ChangWang, Po-Chi Chen, Hsu-Kuang Chang, Jia-Pu Jang, Ban-Yuan Kuo (2012), OBS development and data analysis in Taiwan. 2012 AGU Fall Meeting. Lin, C.R., B. Y. Kuo, W. T. Liang, W. C. Chi, Y. C. Huang, J. Collins and C. Y. Wang (2010), Ambient Noise and Teleseismic Signals Recorded by Ocean-Bottom Seismometers Offshore Eastern Taiwan. Terr. Atmos. Ocea Sci., 21, No. 5, 743-75510.

  2. Antibacterial Azaphilones from an Endophytic Fungus, Colletotrichum sp. BS4.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wen-Xuan; Kusari, Souvik; Laatsch, Hartmut; Golz, Christopher; Kusari, Parijat; Strohmann, Carsten; Kayser, Oliver; Spiteller, Michael

    2016-04-22

    Three new compounds, colletotrichones A-C (1-3), and one known compound, chermesinone B (4a), were isolated from an endophytic fungus, Colletotrichum sp. BS4, harbored in the leaves of Buxus sinica, a well-known boxwood plant used in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). Their structures were determined by extensive spectroscopic analyses including 1D and 2D NMR, HRMS, ECD spectra, UV, and IR, as well as single-crystal X-ray diffraction, and shown to be azaphilones sharing a 3,6a-dimethyl-9-(2-methylbutanoyl)-9H-furo[2,3-h]isochromene-6,8-dione scaffold. Owing to the remarkable antibacterial potency of known azaphilones coupled to the usage of the host plant in TCM, we evaluated the antibacterial efficacy of the isolated compounds against two commonly dispersed environmental strains of Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis, as well as against two human pathogenic clinical strains of Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Compound 1 exhibited marked antibacterial potencies against the environmental strains that were comparable to the standard antibiotics. Compound 3 was also active against E. coli. Finally, compound 2a exhibited the same efficacy as streptomycin against the clinically relevant bacterium S. aureus. The in vitro cytotoxicity of these compounds on a human acute monocytic leukemia cell line (THP-1) was also assessed. Our results provide a scientific rationale for further investigations into endophyte-mediated host chemical defense against specialist and generalist pathogens. PMID:26905687

  3. An Investigation On The Problems Of The Intermittent High-Speed Camera Of 360 Frames/S

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhihong, Rong

    1989-06-01

    This paper discusses several problems on the JX-300 intermittent synchronous high-speed camera developed by the Institue of Optics and Electronics (10E), Academia Sinica in 1985. It is shown that when a framing rate is no more than 120 frames/s, a relatively high reliability is obtained resulting from low acceleration of the moving elements, weak intermittent pulldown strength, low frequency vibration, etc. At the time when a framing rate increases to over 200 frames/s, the photographic resolving power, as well as the film running reliability reduce due to the dramatic increase in vibration and pulldown strenth, which is similar to that in the stationary photography. It is getting worse when the framing rate is up to 300 frames/s. Therefore, deliberating on the choice of a claw mechanism having a framing rate of over 300 frames/s and conducting a series of technical measures are particularly important for a camera to obtain a sharp object image securely, otherwise it can hardly reach the framing rate of 300 frames/s for an intermittent camera. Even if this framing rate is attained, the image quality is also deformed and the mechanism would be rapidly worn off from high vibration.

  4. Taiwan's underwater cultural heritage documentation management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tung, Y.-Y.

    2015-09-01

    Taiwan is an important trading and maritime channels for many countries since ancient time. Numerous relics lie underwater due to weather, wars, and other factors. In the year of 2006, Bureau of Cultural Heritage (BOCH) entrusted the Underwater Archaeological Team of Academia Sinica to execute the underwater archaeological investigation projects. Currently, we verified 78 underwater targets, with 78 site of those had been recognized as shipwrecks sites. Up to date, there is a collection of 638 underwater objects from different underwater archaeological sites. Those artefacts are distributed to different institutions and museums. As very diverse management methods/systems are applied for every individual institution, underwater cultural heritage data such as survey, excavation report, research, etc. are poorly organized and disseminated for use. For better communication regarding to Taiwan's underwater cultural heritage in every level, a universal format of documentation should be established. By comparing the existing checklist used in Taiwan with guidelines that are followed in other countries, a more intact and appropriate underwater cultural heritage condition documentation system can be established and adapted in Taiwan.

  5. Cycloxaprid: A novel cis-nitromethylene neonicotinoid insecticide to control imidacloprid-resistant cotton aphid (Aphis gossypii).

    PubMed

    Cui, Li; Qi, Haoliang; Yang, Daibin; Yuan, Huizhu; Rui, Changhui

    2016-09-01

    Imidacloprid is a nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) agonist with potent insecticidal activity. However, resistance to imidacloprid is a significant threat and has been identified in several pest species. Cycloxaprid with cis-configuration is a novel neonicotinoid insecticide, which shows high activity against imidacloprid-resistant pests. The LC50 of imidacloprid against the resistant Aphis gossypii was 14.33mgL(-1) while it was only 0.70mgL(-1) for the susceptible population, giving a resistance ratio of 20.47. In this imidacloprid-resistant population, a point mutation (R81T) located in the loop D region of the nAChR β1 subunit was found out. But this point mutation did not decrease the activity of cycloxaprid against A. gossypii. The LC50 of cycloxaprid was 1.05 and 1.36mgL(-1) for the imidacloprid-susceptible and imidacloprid-resistant populations, respectively. In addition, cycloxaprid provided better efficacies against resistant A. gossypii than imidacloprid in the fields. Although cycloxaprid was highly toxic to A. gossypii, it showed high selective activity between A. gossypii and its predominant natural enemies, Harmonia axyridis and Chrysoperla sinica. These results demonstrate that cycloxaprid is a promising insecticide against imidacloprid-resistant A. gossypii and suitable for the integrated pest management. PMID:27521919

  6. Field-amplified sample injection in capillary electrophoresis with amperometric detection for the ultratrace analysis of diastereomeric ephedrine alkaloids.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiaoyan; Tang, Yanxia; Wang, Shaoyun; Song, Yunping; Tang, Fengxiang; Wu, Xiaoping

    2015-08-01

    A coupling method of field-amplified sample injection (FASI) CE with amperometric detection is developed for ultratrace analysis of ephedrine alkaloids stereoisomers. FASI was introduced by injecting electrokinetically the sample solution for 10 s into the capillary filled with highly conductive background electrolyte (BGE). The diastereomeric selectivity and the detection sensitivity were improved by using borate buffer of high ionic strength as BGE. Parameters affecting FASI and CE separation were investigated to achieve the optimal conditions. Four analytes were separated within 15 min using 200 mmol/L borate buffer (pH 9.5) and separation voltage of +18 kV, with detection potential at +1.0 V (vs. Ag/AgCl) and carbon disc electrode as working electrode. Excellent linearity was observed between peak current and concentration of analytes in the range of 0.1-100 ng/mL. The LODs (S/N = 3) for (-)-ephedrine, (+)-pseudoephedrine, (-)-N-methylephedrine and (+)-N-methylpseudoephedrine were 39.3, 54.9, 30.8, and 44.1 pg/mL, respectively. The proposed method was successfully applied to the determination of alkaloids in Ephedra sinica, with results agreed well with HPLC method. Mean recoveries of 102.1-109.7% and RSDs less than 6% were found. And the merits of high sensitivity and selectivity, as well as a simple and stable operation, have been demonstrated. PMID:25873262

  7. The Greenland Telescope (GLT): antenna status and future plans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raffin, Philippe; Algaba-Marcosa, Juan Carlos; Asada, Keiichi; Blundell, Raymond; Burgos, Roberto; Chang, Chih-Cheng; Chen, Ming-Tang; Christensen, Robert; Grimes, Paul K.; Han, C. C.; Ho, Paul T. P.; Huang, Yau-De; Inoue, Makoto; Koch, Patrick M.; Kubo, Derek; Leiker, Steve; Liu, Ching-Tang; Martin-Cocher, Pierre; Matsushita, Satoki; Nakamura, Masanori; Nishioka, Hiroaki; Nystrom, George; Paine, Scott N.; Patel, Nimesh A.; Pradel, Nicolas; Pu, Hung-Yi; Shen, H.-Y.; Snow, William; Sridharan, Tirupati K.; Srinivasan, Ranjani; Tong, Edward; Wang, Jackie

    2014-07-01

    The ALMA North America Prototype Antenna was awarded to the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory (SAO) in 2011. SAO and the Academia Sinica Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics (ASIAA), SAO's main partner for this project, are working jointly to relocate the antenna to Greenland to carry out millimeter and submillimeter VLBI observations. This paper presents the work carried out on upgrading the antenna to enable operation in the Arctic climate by the GLT Team to make this challenging project possible, with an emphasis on the unexpected telescope components that had to be either redesigned or changed. Five-years of inactivity, with the antenna laying idle in the desert of New Mexico, coupled with the extreme weather conditions of the selected site in Greenland have it necessary to significantly refurbish the antenna. We found that many components did need to be replaced, such as the antenna support cone, the azimuth bearing, the carbon fiber quadrupod, the hexapod, the HVAC, the tiltmeters, the antenna electronic enclosures housing servo and other drive components, and the cables. We selected Vertex, the original antenna manufacturer, for the main design work, which is in progress. The next coming months will see the major antenna components and subsystems shipped to a site of the US East Coast for test-fitting the major antenna components, which have been retrofitted. The following step will be to ship the components to Greenland to carry out VLBI

  8. Direct Particle Simulations of Saturn's Rings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griv, E.; Gedalin, M.; Yuan, C.

    2001-11-01

    An asymptotic theory of spiral density waves and their instabilities in the Saturnian ring system of mutually gravitating and colliding particles has been developed (Griv et al. 2000, Pl&SS, 48, 679-698). The theory is successfully applied to interpreting the observations of the fine-scale structure of Saturn's rings. Our aim is to confirm the validity of the theory by computer many-body (N-body) calculations. As is known, N-body models of Saturn's rings suffer from graininess due to the finite number of particles in direct simulations; the graininess manifests itself as a numerical noise in the calculation. For the first time in planetary ring dynamics, we change the existing direct simulation code. This change involves multiprocessing: with the multiple processors in supercomputers it is possible to reduce the running time by processing more than one group of particles at a time. Use of the 112-processor SGI Origin 2000 supercomputer is enabled us to make long runs using realistic numbers of particles in the direct simulation code and thus simulate phenomena not previously studied numerically. The study will be held in order to predict the ``hyperfine" Saturn's ring system structure of the order 100 m or even less prior to its exploration by Cassini spacecraft that will start in 2004. Partial support for this work was provided by the Israel Science Foundation, the Israeli Ministry of Immigrant Absorption, and the Academia Sinica in Taiwan.

  9. White-cheeked macaque (Macaca leucogenys): A new macaque species from Medog, southeastern Tibet.

    PubMed

    Li, Cheng; Zhao, Chao; Fan, Peng-Fei

    2015-07-01

    We describe a newly discovered Macaca species from the Medog, in southeastern Tibet, China, Macaca leucogenys sp. nov or the "white-cheeked macaque". Based on 738 photos taken during direct observations and captured by camera traps this new species appears to be distinct from the Macaca sinica species group. Moreover, the species is distinguished from all potential sympatric macaque species (M. mulatta, M. thibetana, M. assamensis, and M. munzala) in exhibiting a suite of pelage characteristics including relatively uniform dorsal hair pattern, hairy ventral pelage, relative hairless short tail, prominent pale to white side- and chin-whiskers creating a white cheek and round facial appearance, dark facial skin on the muzzle, long and thick hairs on its neck, and a round rather than arrow-shaped male genitalia. This new macaque species was found to exploit a diverse set of habitat types from tropical forest at 1395 m, to primary and secondary evergreen broad-leaved forest at 2000 m, as well as mixed broadleaf-conifer forest at 2700 m. Its range may extend to neighboring counties in Tibet and the part of southeastern Tibet controlled by India. The white-cheeked macaque is threatened by illegal hunting and the construction of hydropower stations. Discovery of this new primate species further highlights the high value for biodiversity conservation of southeastern Tibet and calls for more intensive surveys, studies, and environmental protection in this area. PMID:25809642

  10. Real-space observation of metal-insulator transition at complex oxide heterointerface with cross-sectional STM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiu, Ya-Ping; Lin, Jheng-Cyuan; Thanh, Tra-Vu; Lin, Tai-Te; Huang, Po-Cheng; Huang, Bo-Chao; Lin, Jiunn-Yuan; Chu, Ying-Hao

    We report the direct observation of tunable electronic property through visible light at LaAlO3 / SrTiO3 (LAO/STO) complex oxide heterointerface using cross-sectional scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy (XSTM/S). Many researches have shown that for the interface to be conducting, the thickness of LAO should be equal to or greater than the critical value 4 unit cells (u.c.). With LAO surface modification by Au clusters, interfacial two-dimensional electron gas presents a giant optical switching effect under visible light illuminated. In this study, through the interaction between photons and electrons system, a direct observation of the evolution of electronic structures from insulating to conducting has been revealed in the LAO (3u.c.)/STO model using the technique of cross-sectional scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy. Results clearly reveal the changes in the built-in electric field in LAO and the band bending in the STO adjacent to the interface after light illumination. National Sun Yat-sen University, Taiwan; Academia Sinica, Taiwan.

  11. High Resolution Imaging of Circumstellar Disks at Millimeter Wavelengths

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilner, David J.

    2003-01-01

    Our program uses the techniques of millimeter interferometry to make high resolution observations of dust continuum emission to study the structure of protoplanetary disks and debris disks around nearby stars. Observations of dust emission at these wavelengths are advantageous because the dust emission is generally optically thin and directly proportional to mass, and contrast with stellar photospheres is not a problem. We are using of several observational facilities, including (1) the Very Large Array (VLA) of the National Radio Astronomy Observatories, (2) the Plateau de Bure Interferometer (PdBI) of the Institut de RadioAstronomie Millimetrique, and (3) the Submillimeter Array (SMA), now under construction by the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory and Academia Sinica (Taiwan). In the past year, we have accomplished the following (more details below): (1) We continued work on our 'low resolution' VLA survey of disks in Herbig Ae star and binary systems, primarily to identify candidates for higher resolution follow-up. We have submitted a paper for publication on the detailed analysis of the structure of the disk around CQ Tauri; (2) We completed analysis of our PdBI observations of the debris disk around Vega, and we presented these results at (1) the 199th AAS meeting in Washington, DC, and (2) a symposium in memory of Fred Gillett on Debris Disks and the Formation of Planets, in Tucson, AZ; (3) We continue commissioning observations with the SMA, which include the first ever interferometric images in the 850 micron wavelength band, in preparation for eventually imaging debris disks.

  12. Natural and anthropogenic climate change. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, W.C.; Ronberg, B.; Gutowski, W.; Molnar, G.; Li, K.R.

    1986-08-01

    The report describes a one-year research project which was the initial phase of a research program intended: (1) to refine and validate a 2-D climate model for studying the CO/sub 2/ and trace gases climatic effects; and (2) to participate in the United States of America (USA) Department of Energy/The People's Republic of China (PRC) Academia Sinica research project on CO/sub 2/-induced climate changes. The overall objective is to find ways to model regional climate change in a global warming environment potentially induced by CO/sub 2/ increase. The first task has two subtasks: (a) to incorporate a boundary layer parameterization into the 2-D radiative-dynamical model of Wang et al. (1984) and study its impact on climate sensitivity; and (b) to validate the 2-D radiative-dynamical models through comparisons with data and with other more comprehensive climate models so that our confidence in the model simulation of trace gases climatic effects can be increased. The second task is intended to: (a) analyze the climate data to improve our understanding of local/regional climate changes (in particular the desertification problem); and (b) coordinate the various research programs within the USA/PRC CO/sub 2/ project, which is critical in successfully achieving the research project scientific goals.

  13. The Increasing Interest of ANAMMOX Research in China: Bacteria, Process Development, and Application

    PubMed Central

    Chai, Li-Yuan; Tang, Chong-Jian; Zheng, Ping; Min, Xiao-Bo; Yang, Zhi-Hui; Song, Yu-Xia

    2013-01-01

    Nitrogen pollution created severe environmental problems and increasingly has become an important issue in China. Since the first discovery of ANAMMOX in the early 1990s, this related technology has become a promising as well as sustainable bioprocess for treating strong nitrogenous wastewater. Many Chinese research groups have concentrated their efforts on the ANAMMOX research including bacteria, process development, and application during the past 20 years. A series of new and outstanding outcomes including the discovery of new ANAMMOX bacterial species (Brocadia sinica), sulfate-dependent ANAMMOX bacteria (Anammoxoglobus sulfate and Bacillus benzoevorans), and the highest nitrogen removal performance (74.3–76.7 kg-N/m3/d) in lab scale granule-based UASB reactors around the world were achieved. The characteristics, structure, packing pattern and floatation mechanism of the high-rate ANAMMOX granules in ANAMMOX reactors were also carefully illustrated by native researchers. Nowadays, some pilot and full-scale ANAMMOX reactors were constructed to treat different types of ammonium-rich wastewater including monosodium glutamate wastewater, pharmaceutical wastewater, and leachate. The prime objective of the present review is to elucidate the ongoing ANAMMOX research in China from lab scale to full scale applications, comparative analysis, and evaluation of significant findings and to set a design to usher ANAMMOX research in culmination. PMID:24381935

  14. Precise genotyping and recombination detection of Enterovirus

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Enteroviruses (EV) with different genotypes cause diverse infectious diseases in humans and mammals. A correct EV typing result is crucial for effective medical treatment and disease control; however, the emergence of novel viral strains has impaired the performance of available diagnostic tools. Here, we present a web-based tool, named EVIDENCE (EnteroVirus In DEep conception, http://symbiont.iis.sinica.edu.tw/evidence), for EV genotyping and recombination detection. We introduce the idea of using mixed-ranking scores to evaluate the fitness of prototypes based on relatedness and on the genome regions of interest. Using phylogenetic methods, the most possible genotype is determined based on the closest neighbor among the selected references. To detect possible recombination events, EVIDENCE calculates the sequence distance and phylogenetic relationship among sequences of all sliding windows scanning over the whole genome. Detected recombination events are plotted in an interactive figure for viewing of fine details. In addition, all EV sequences available in GenBank were collected and revised using the latest classification and nomenclature of EV in EVIDENCE. These sequences are built into the database and are retrieved in an indexed catalog, or can be searched for by keywords or by sequence similarity. EVIDENCE is the first web-based tool containing pipelines for genotyping and recombination detection, with updated, built-in, and complete reference sequences to improve sensitivity and specificity. The use of EVIDENCE can accelerate genotype identification, aiding clinical diagnosis and enhancing our understanding of EV evolution. PMID:26678286

  15. DR_bind: a web server for predicting DNA-binding residues from the protein structure based on electrostatics, evolution and geometry

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yao Chi; Wright, Jon D.; Lim, Carmay

    2012-01-01

    DR_bind is a web server that automatically predicts DNA-binding residues, given the respective protein structure based on (i) electrostatics, (ii) evolution and (iii) geometry. In contrast to machine-learning methods, DR_bind does not require a training data set or any parameters. It predicts DNA-binding residues by detecting a cluster of conserved, solvent-accessible residues that are electrostatically stabilized upon mutation to Asp−/Glu−. The server requires as input the DNA-binding protein structure in PDB format and outputs a downloadable text file of the predicted DNA-binding residues, a 3D visualization of the predicted residues highlighted in the given protein structure, and a downloadable PyMol script for visualization of the results. Calibration on 83 and 55 non-redundant DNA-bound and DNA-free protein structures yielded a DNA-binding residue prediction accuracy/precision of 90/47% and 88/42%, respectively. Since DR_bind does not require any training using protein–DNA complex structures, it may predict DNA-binding residues in novel structures of DNA-binding proteins resulting from structural genomics projects with no conservation data. The DR_bind server is freely available with no login requirement at http://dnasite.limlab.ibms.sinica.edu.tw. PMID:22661576

  16. Alleviating salt stress in tomato seedlings using Arthrobacter and Bacillus megaterium isolated from the rhizosphere of wild plants grown on saline-alkaline lands.

    PubMed

    Fan, Pengfei; Chen, Daitao; He, Yanan; Zhou, Qingxia; Tian, Yongqiang; Gao, Lihong

    2016-11-01

    Salt-induced soil degradation is common in farmlands and limits the growth and development of numerous crop plants in the world. In this study, we isolated salt-tolerant bacteria from the rhizosphere of Tamarix chinensis, Suaeda salsa and Zoysia sinica, which are common wild plants grown on a saline-alkaline land, to test these bacteria's efficiency in alleviating salt stress in tomato plants. We screened out seven strains (TF1-7) that are efficient in reducing salt stress in tomato seedlings. The sequence data of 16S rRNA genes showed that these strains belong to Arthrobacter and Bacillus megaterium. All strains could hydrolyze casein and solubilize phosphate, and showed at least one plant growth promotion (PGP)-related gene, indicating their potential in promoting plant growth. The Arthrobacter strains TF1 and TF7 and the Bacillus megaterium strain TF2 and TF3 could produce indole acetic acid under salt stress, further demonstrating their PGP potential. Tomato seed germination, seedling length, vigor index, and plant fresh and dry weight were enhanced by inoculation of Arthrobacter and B. megaterium strains under salt stress. Our results demonstrated that salt-tolerant bacteria isolated from the rhizosphere of wild plants grown on saline-alkaline lands could be used for alleviating salt stress in crop plants. PMID:27196364

  17. PREFACE: International Conference on Computing in High Energy and Nuclear Physics (CHEP 2010)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Simon C.; Shen, Stella; Neufeld, Niko; Gutsche, Oliver; Cattaneo, Marco; Fisk, Ian; Panzer-Steindel, Bernd; Di Meglio, Alberto; Lokajicek, Milos

    2011-12-01

    The International Conference on Computing in High Energy and Nuclear Physics (CHEP) was held at Academia Sinica in Taipei from 18-22 October 2010. CHEP is a major series of international conferences for physicists and computing professionals from the worldwide High Energy and Nuclear Physics community, Computer Science, and Information Technology. The CHEP conference provides an international forum to exchange information on computing progress and needs for the community, and to review recent, ongoing and future activities. CHEP conferences are held at roughly 18 month intervals, alternating between Europe, Asia, America and other parts of the world. Recent CHEP conferences have been held in Prauge, Czech Republic (2009); Victoria, Canada (2007); Mumbai, India (2006); Interlaken, Switzerland (2004); San Diego, California(2003); Beijing, China (2001); Padova, Italy (2000) CHEP 2010 was organized by Academia Sinica Grid Computing Centre. There was an International Advisory Committee (IAC) setting the overall themes of the conference, a Programme Committee (PC) responsible for the content, as well as Conference Secretariat responsible for the conference infrastructure. There were over 500 attendees with a program that included plenary sessions of invited speakers, a number of parallel sessions comprising around 260 oral and 200 poster presentations, and industrial exhibitions. We thank all the presenters, for the excellent scientific content of their contributions to the conference. Conference tracks covered topics on Online Computing, Event Processing, Software Engineering, Data Stores, and Databases, Distributed Processing and Analysis, Computing Fabrics and Networking Technologies, Grid and Cloud Middleware, and Collaborative Tools. The conference included excursions to various attractions in Northern Taiwan, including Sanhsia Tsu Shih Temple, Yingko, Chiufen Village, the Northeast Coast National Scenic Area, Keelung, Yehliu Geopark, and Wulai Aboriginal Village

  18. Chromosome-centric Human Proteome Project (C-HPP): Chromosome 12.

    PubMed

    Chaiyarit, Sakdithep; Singhto, Nilubon; Chen, Yi-Ju; Cheng, Chia-Ying; Chiangjong, Wararat; Kanlaya, Rattiyaporn; Lam, Henry H N; Peerapen, Paleerath; Sung, Ting-Yi; Tipthara, Phornpimon; Pandey, Akhilesh; Poon, Terence C W; Chen, Yu-Ju; Sirdeshmukh, Ravi; Chung, Maxey C M; Thongboonkerd, Visith

    2014-07-01

    Following an official announcement of the Chromosome-centric Human Proteome Project (C-HPP), the Chromosome 12 (Ch12) Consortium has been established by five representative teams from five Asian countries including Thailand (Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University), Singapore (National University of Singapore), Taiwan (Academia Sinica), Hong Kong (The Chinese University of Hong Kong), and India (Institute of Bioinformatics). We have worked closely together to extensively and systematically analyze all missing and known proteins encoded by Ch12 for their tissue/cellular/subcellular localizations. The target organs/tissues/cells include kidney, brain, gastrointestinal tissues, blood/immune cells, and stem cells. In the later phase, post-translational modifications and functional significance of Ch12-encoded proteins as well as their associations with human diseases (i.e., immune diseases, metabolic disorders, and cancers) will be defined. We have collaborated with other chromosome teams, Human Kidney and Urine Proteome Project (HKUPP), AOHUPO Membrane Proteomics Initiative, and other existing HUPO initiatives in the Biology/Disease-Based Human Proteome Project (B/D-HPP) to delineate functional roles and medical implications of Ch12-encoded proteins. The data set to be obtained from this multicountry consortium will be an important piece of the jigsaw puzzle to fulfill the missions and goals of the C-HPP and the global Human Proteome Project (HPP). PMID:24831074

  19. The Relationship between Phytoplankton Evenness and Copepod Abundance in Lake Nansihu, China.

    PubMed

    Tian, Wang; Zhang, Huayong; Zhao, Lei; Xu, Xiang; Huang, Hai

    2016-01-01

    The relationship between biodiversity and ecosystem functioning is a central issue in ecology. Previous studies have shown that producer diversity can impact the consumer community via predator-prey interactions. However, direct observations of this relationship remain rare, in particular for aquatic ecosystems. In this research, the relationship between phytoplankton diversity (species richness and evenness) and the abundance of copepods was analyzed in Lake Nansihu, a meso-eutrophic lake in China. The results showed that copepods abundance was significantly decreased with increasing phytoplankton evenness throughout the year. However, both species richness and phytoplankton biomass showed no significant relationship with the abundance of copepods. Canonical correspondence analysis revealed that phytoplankton evenness was negatively correlated with Thermocyclops kawamurai, Cyclops vicinus, Eucyclops serrulatus, Mesocyclops leuckarti, Sinocalanus tenellus, Sinocalanus dorrii, Copepods nauplius, but positively correlated with many Cyanophyta species (Chroococcus minutus, Dactylococcopsis acicularis, Microcystis incerta, Merismopedia tenuissima, Merismopedia sinica and Lyngbya limnetica). Based on our results, phytoplankton evenness was a better predictor of copepods abundance in meso-eutrophic lakes. These results provide new insights into the relationship between diversity and ecosystem functioning in aquatic ecosystems. PMID:27589782

  20. A dataset from bottom trawl survey around Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Shao, Kwang-Tsao; Lin, Jack; Wu, Chung-Han; Yeh, Hsin-Ming; Cheng, Tun-Yuan

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Bottom trawl fishery is one of the most important coastal fisheries in Taiwan both in production and economic values. However, its annual production started to decline due to overfishing since the 1980s. Its bycatch problem also damages the fishery resource seriously. Thus, the government banned the bottom fishery within 3 nautical miles along the shoreline in 1989. To evaluate the effectiveness of this policy, a four year survey was conducted from 2000–2003, in the waters around Taiwan and Penghu (Pescadore) Islands, one region each year respectively. All fish specimens collected from trawling were brought back to lab for identification, individual number count and body weight measurement. These raw data have been integrated and established in Taiwan Fish Database (http://fishdb.sinica.edu.tw). They have also been published through TaiBIF (http://taibif.tw), FishBase and GBIF (website see below). This dataset contains 631 fish species and 3,529 records, making it the most complete demersal fish fauna and their temporal and spatial distributional data on the soft marine habitat in Taiwan. PMID:22707908

  1. MAGIC-web: a platform for untargeted and targeted N-linked glycoprotein identification.

    PubMed

    Lih, T Mamie; Choong, Wai-Kok; Chen, Chen-Chun; Cheng, Cheng-Wei; Lin, Hsin-Nan; Chen, Ching-Tai; Chang, Hui-Yin; Hsu, Wen-Lian; Sung, Ting-Yi

    2016-07-01

    MAGIC-web is the first web server, to the best of our knowledge, that performs both untargeted and targeted analyses of mass spectrometry-based glycoproteomics data for site-specific N-linked glycoprotein identification. The first two modules, MAGIC and MAGIC+, are designed for untargeted and targeted analysis, respectively. MAGIC is implemented with our previously proposed novel Y1-ion pattern matching method, which adequately detects Y1- and Y0-ion without prior information of proteins and glycans, and then generates in silico MS(2) spectra that serve as input to a database search engine (e.g. Mascot) to search against a large-scale protein sequence database. On top of that, the newly implemented MAGIC+ allows users to determine glycopeptide sequences using their own protein sequence file. The third module, Reports Integrator, provides the service of combining protein identification results from Mascot and glycan-related information from MAGIC-web to generate a complete site-specific protein-glycan summary report. The last module, Glycan Search, is designed for the users who are interested in finding possible glycan structures with specific numbers and types of monosaccharides. The results from MAGIC, MAGIC+ and Reports Integrator can be downloaded via provided links whereas the annotated spectra and glycan structures can be visualized in the browser. MAGIC-web is accessible from http://ms.iis.sinica.edu.tw/MAGIC-web/index.html. PMID:27084943

  2. [Determination of markers from characteristic HPLC chromatogram of phenols in three official origins of Ephedrae Herba and quantitative analysis of four phenols].

    PubMed

    Zuo, Xue; Hong, Hao; Zang, Xin-yu; Xu, Feng; Shang, Ming-ying; Wang, Xuan; Cai, Shao-qing

    2015-12-01

    This study is to establish the characteristic HPLC chromatogram of phenols in Ephedrae Herba, from which to pick out the marker peaks, followed by the analysis of the regularity of their distribution and content in the herbaceous stems of Ephedra sinica, E. intermedia and E. equisetina. The HPLC-DAD method for the characteristic chromatogram as well as quantitative analysis was established. The separation was carried out on a YMC-Pack ODS-A column (4.6 mm x 250 mm, 5 µm), eluted with the mobile phases as 0.01% formic acid aqueous solution (A) and acetonitrile (B) in a linear gradient (0-10 min, 17% B; 10-25 min, 17%-19% B; 25- 33 min, 19%-48% B; 33-35 min, 48%-51% B; 35-44 min, 51% B). The flow rate was kept at 1.0 mL · min⁻¹. The column tem- perature was 40 °C, and the detection wavelength was set at 350 nm (0-16 min) and 330 nm (16-44 min). Forty-six batches of collected samples from three official origins of Ephedrae Herba were detected, whose liquid chromatograms proven to be helpful to the differentiation of different origins. With principal component analysis and the analysis of distribution of peak area, twelve key peaks from the chromatogram were discussed in details on their contributions to the characteristics and differences of three official origins of the herb: peak area of peak 10, 11, 12 were found out to be significantly higher in E. equisetina than in other two origins, whose sum (higher than 146 mAU in E. equisetina) was useful for the discrimination between E. equisetina and the other two origins; peak area of 1 and 4 were respectively higher in E. sinica and E. intermedia than in other official origins, indicating their important effect on the differen- tiation of corresponding origins; peak 8 and 9 were picked out as two characteristic common peaks in three official origins of the herb, whose peak area showed little difference among different origins; further, peak area of other key peaks in the chromatogram also showed some difference

  3. Oxygen vacancies induced Spin polarized current in Co-doped ZnO by Andreev reflection technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Kung-Shang; Chou, Hsiung; Chan, Wen Ling; Chen, Bo-Yu; Shang-Fan Lee Collaboration

    Dilute magnetic semiconductor (DMO) is a semiconducting system with spin-polarized carriers and magnetic properties. However, since most studies had been focused on existence of FM, the proportion of spin-polarized current (SPC) in DMO is far from being determined. We used Point-contact Andreev reflection measurements on various Zn0.95Co0.05O thin films, with controlled oxygen vacancies by sputtering in various H2 partial pressure with Ar atmosphere. We found that conductance versus voltage (G-V) spectra suppresses as oxygen vacancy concentration increases. It indicates oxygen vacancies play significant role in inducing the SPC. To understand the origin of spin polarized current at the interface of the superconducting tip/CZO system, we use modified Blonder-Tinkham-Klapwijk (MBTK) model in ballistic and diffusive regime to interpret GV curve. The extracted SPC value were up to 70% in ballistic regime and 65% in diffusive regime. The results suggest tiny routes have been formed by oxygen vacancies which are extended throughout the whole films. This result confirmed that MBTK model in ballistic regime is more suitable for our GV spectra and this explains the observation of such a high SPC Institute of Physics, Academia Sinica Taiwan.

  4. SLITHER: a web server for generating contiguous conformations of substrate molecules entering into deep active sites of proteins or migrating through channels in membrane transporters

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Po-Hsien; Kuo, Kuei-Ling; Chu, Pei-Ying; Liu, Eric M.; Lin, Jung-Hsin

    2009-01-01

    Many proteins use a long channel to guide the substrate or ligand molecules into the well-defined active sites for catalytic reactions or for switching molecular states. In addition, substrates of membrane transporters can migrate to another side of cellular compartment by means of certain selective mechanisms. SLITHER (http://bioinfo.mc.ntu.edu.tw/slither/or http://slither.rcas.sinica.edu.tw/) is a web server that can generate contiguous conformations of a molecule along a curved tunnel inside a protein, and the binding free energy profile along the predicted channel pathway. SLITHER adopts an iterative docking scheme, which combines with a puddle-skimming procedure, i.e. repeatedly elevating the potential energies of the identified global minima, thereby determines the contiguous binding modes of substrates inside the protein. In contrast to some programs that are widely used to determine the geometric dimensions in the ion channels, SLITHER can be applied to predict whether a substrate molecule can crawl through an inner channel or a half-channel of proteins across surmountable energy barriers. Besides, SLITHER also provides the list of the pore-facing residues, which can be directly compared with many genetic diseases. Finally, the adjacent binding poses determined by SLITHER can also be used for fragment-based drug design. PMID:19433508

  5. [Ecological risk assessment of hydropower dam construction on aquatic species in middle reaches of Lancang River, Southwest China based on ESHIPPO model].

    PubMed

    Li, Xiao-Yan; Peng, Ming-Chun; Dong, Shi-Kui; Liu, Shi-Liang; Li, Jin-Peng; Yang, Zhi-Feng

    2013-02-01

    An investigation was conducted on the phytoplankton, zooplankton, and fish at 8 sampling sections in the Manwan Reservoir before and after the construction of Xiaowan Hydropower Dam. The modified ESHIPPO model was applied to study the changes of the featured aquatic species, including endangered species, endemic specie, peis resource species, and native fish, aimed to make an ecological risk assessment of the dam construction on the aquatic species. The dam construction had definite ecological risk on the aquatic species, especially the endemic fish, in Langcang River, due to the changes of hydrological conditions. The endemic species including Bangia atropurpurea, Lemanea sinica, Prasiola sp., Attheyella yunnanensis, and Neutrodiaptomus mariadvigae were at high ecological risk, and thus, besides monitoring, protection measures were needed to be taken to lower the possibility of the species extinction. The widely distributed species of phytoplankton and zooplankton were at medium ecological risk, and protection measures besides monitoring should be prepared. Twelve kinds of native fish, including Barbodes huangchuchieni, Sinilabeo laticeps, Racoma lantsangensis, Racoma lissolabiatus, Paracobitis anguillioides, Schistura latifasciata, Botia nigrolineata, Vanmanenia striata, Homaloptera yunnanensis, Platytropius longianlis, Glyptothorax zanaensis, and Pseudecheneis immaculate, were at high ecological risk, and protection measures needed to be developed to prevent the possibility of the species loss and extinction. PMID:23705400

  6. Precise genotyping and recombination detection of Enterovirus.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chieh-Hua; Wang, Yu-Bin; Chen, Shu-Hwa; Hsiung, Chao Agnes; Lin, Chung-Yen

    2015-01-01

    Enteroviruses (EV) with different genotypes cause diverse infectious diseases in humans and mammals. A correct EV typing result is crucial for effective medical treatment and disease control; however, the emergence of novel viral strains has impaired the performance of available diagnostic tools. Here, we present a web-based tool, named EVIDENCE (EnteroVirus In DEep conception, http://symbiont.iis.sinica.edu.tw/evidence), for EV genotyping and recombination detection. We introduce the idea of using mixed-ranking scores to evaluate the fitness of prototypes based on relatedness and on the genome regions of interest. Using phylogenetic methods, the most possible genotype is determined based on the closest neighbor among the selected references. To detect possible recombination events, EVIDENCE calculates the sequence distance and phylogenetic relationship among sequences of all sliding windows scanning over the whole genome. Detected recombination events are plotted in an interactive figure for viewing of fine details. In addition, all EV sequences available in GenBank were collected and revised using the latest classification and nomenclature of EV in EVIDENCE. These sequences are built into the database and are retrieved in an indexed catalog, or can be searched for by keywords or by sequence similarity. EVIDENCE is the first web-based tool containing pipelines for genotyping and recombination detection, with updated, built-in, and complete reference sequences to improve sensitivity and specificity. The use of EVIDENCE can accelerate genotype identification, aiding clinical diagnosis and enhancing our understanding of EV evolution. PMID:26678286

  7. Accretion and differentiation of carbon in the early Earth.

    PubMed

    Tingle, T N

    1998-05-15

    The abundance of C in carbonaceous and ordinary chondrites decreases exponentially with increasing shock pressure as inferred from the petrologic shock classification of Scott et al. [Scott, E.R.D., Keil, K., Stoffler, D., 1992. Shock metamorphism of carbonaceous chondrites. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 56, 4281-4293] and Stoffler et al. [Stoffler, D., Keil, K., Scott, E.R.D., 1991. Shock metamorphism of ordinary chondrites. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 55, 3845-3867]. This confirms the experimental results of Tyburczy et al. [Tyburczy, J.A., Frisch, B., Ahrens, T.J., 1986. Shock-induced volatile loss from a carbonaceous chondrite: implications for planetary accretion. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 80, 201-207] on shock-induced devolatization of the Murchison meteorite showing that carbonaceous chondrites appear to be completely devolatilized at impact velocities greater than 2 km s-1. Both of these results suggest that C incorporation would have been most efficient in the early stages of accretion, and that the primordial C content of the Earth was between 10(24) and 10(25) g C (1-10% efficiency of incorporation). This estimate agrees well with the value of 3-7 x 10(24) g C based on the atmospheric abundance of 36Ar and the chondritic C/36Ar (Marty and Jambon, 1987). Several observations suggest that C likely was incorporated into the Earth's core during accretion. (1) Graphite and carbides are commonly present in iron meteorites, and those iron meteorites with Widmanstatten patterns reflecting the slowest cooling rates (mostly Group I and IIIb) contain the highest C abundances. The C abundance-cooling rate correlation is consistent with dissolution of C into Fe-Ni liquids that segregated to form the cores of the iron meteorite parent bodies. (2) The carbon isotopic composition of graphite in iron meteorites exhibits a uniform value of -5% [Deines, P., Wickman, F.E. 1973. The isotopic composition of 'graphitic' carbon from iron meteorites and some remarks on the troilitic

  8. Hydrogeologic uncertainties and policy implications: The Water Consumer Protection Act of Tucson, Arizona, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, L. G.; Matlock, W. G.; Jacobs, K. L.

    confusion entre "infiltration" et "recharge". C'est ainsi que la loi laisse entendre que l'infiltration à partir des lits de rivières le long du champ captant central favorise la recharge de cette zone. En réalité, les différences de perméabilité entre les alluvions du lit et les dépôts sous-jacents remplissant le bassin peuvent provoquer un écoulement sous-jacent. En outre, même si une recharge par l'eau de la rivière Colorado se produit dans cette zone, la nappe sera progressivement salifiée. Les restrictions imposées par la loi quant à l'utilisation de l'eau de la station centrale d'Arizona affectent les quatre outils réglementaires du Code des eaux souterraines de l'Arizona de 1980, en ce qu'ils concernent la zone de gestion active de Tucson: (a) l'augmentation de l'approvisionnement (b) les conditions requises pour les prélèvements d'eau souterraine et les autorisations; (c) les conditions requises pour le plan de gestion, en particulier la pérennité du concessionnaire et les résultats en matière de qualité de l'eau et (d) la condition que tous les nouveaux districts aient recours à des ressources en eau renouvelables à la place de l'eau souterraine. Les demandes concernant la mise en oeuvre de la loi ont conduit jusqu'à l'arrêt des activités normales des instances politiques. Resumen El Acta de Protección de los Usuarios de Agua de Tucson, Arizona (EE.UU.) de 1995 (el Acta) se aprobó a raíz de las quejas de los usuarios de agua de Tucson que recibían agua tratada por el Proyecto de Arizona Central (CAP). Las consecuencias del Acta demuestran las incertidumbres y dificultades que se producen cuando se le pide al público que vote sobre temas muy técnicos. Los requerimientos de recarga del Acta desprecian incertidumbres hidrogeológicas al confundir entre "infiltración" y "recarga". Así, el Acta dice que la infiltración en los canales de los arroyos a lo largo del Campo de Producción Central aumentará la recarga a dicho campo. De

  9. Automated CO2 extraction from air for clumped isotope analysis in the atmo- and biosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hofmann, Magdalena; Ziegler, Martin; Pons, Thijs; Lourens, Lucas; Röckmann, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    The conventional stable isotope ratios 13C/12C and 18O/16O in atmospheric CO2 are a powerful tool for unraveling the global carbon cycle. In recent years, it has been suggested that the abundance of the very rare isotopologue 13C18O16O on m/z 47 might be a promising tracer to complement conventional stable isotope analysis of atmospheric CO2 [Affek and Eiler, 2006; Affek et al. 2007; Eiler and Schauble, 2004; Yeung et al., 2009]. Here we present an automated analytical system that is designed for clumped isotope analysis of atmo- and biospheric CO2. The carbon dioxide gas is quantitatively extracted from about 1.5L of air (ATP). The automated stainless steel extraction and purification line consists of three main components: (i) a drying unit (a magnesium perchlorate unit and a cryogenic water trap), (ii) two CO2 traps cooled with liquid nitrogen [Werner et al., 2001] and (iii) a GC column packed with Porapak Q that can be cooled with liquid nitrogen to -30°C during purification and heated up to 230°C in-between two extraction runs. After CO2 extraction and purification, the CO2 is automatically transferred to the mass spectrometer. Mass spectrometric analysis of the 13C18O16O abundance is carried out in dual inlet mode on a MAT 253 mass spectrometer. Each analysis generally consists of 80 change-over-cycles. Three additional Faraday cups were added to the mass spectrometer for simultaneous analysis of the mass-to-charge ratios 44, 45, 46, 47, 48 and 49. The reproducibility for δ13C, δ18O and Δ47 for repeated CO2 extractions from air is in the range of 0.11o (SD), 0.18o (SD) and 0.02 (SD)o respectively. This automated CO2 extraction and purification system will be used to analyse the clumped isotopic signature in atmospheric CO2 (tall tower, Cabauw, Netherlands) and to study the clumped isotopic fractionation during photosynthesis (leaf chamber experiments) and soil respiration. References Affek, H. P., Xu, X. & Eiler, J. M., Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 71, 5033

  10. An examination of the regulatory mechanism of Pxdn mutation-induced eye disorders using microarray analysis.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yang; Xing, Yiqiao; Liang, Chaoqun; Hu, Liya; Xu, Fei; Mei, Qi

    2016-06-01

    The present study aimed to identify biomarkers for peroxidasin (Pxdn) mutation-induced eye disorders and study the underlying mechanisms involved in this process. The microarray dataset GSE49704 was used, which encompasses 4 mouse samples from embryos with Pxdn mutation and 4 samples from normal tissues. After data preprocessing, the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between Pxdn mutation and normal tissues were identified using the t-test in the limma package, followed by functional enrichment analysis. The protein-protein interaction (PPI) network was constructed based on the STRING database, and the transcriptional regulatory (TR) network was established using the GeneCodis database. Subsequently, the overlapping DEGs with high degrees in two networks were identified, as well as the sub-network extracted from the TR network. In total, 121 (75 upregulated and 46 downregulated) DEGs were identified, and these DEGs play important roles in biological processes (BPs), including neuron development and differentiation. A PPI network containing 25 nodes such as actin, alpha 1, skeletal muscle (Acta1) and troponin C type 2 (fast) (Tnnc2), and a TR network including 120 nodes were built. By comparing the two networks, seven crucial genes which overlapped were identified, including cyclin‑dependent kinase inhibitor 1B (Cdkn1b), Acta1 and troponin T type 3 (Tnnt3). In the sub-network, Cdkn1b was predicted as the target of miRNAs such as mmu-miR-24 and transcription factors (TFs) including forkhead box O4 (FOXO4) and activating enhancer binding protein 4 (AP4). Thus, we suggest that seven crucial genes, including Cdkn1b, Acta1 and Tnnt3, play important roles in the progression of eye disorders such as glaucoma. We suggest that Cdkn1b exert its effects via the inhibition of proliferation and is mediated by mmu-miR-24 and targeted by the TFs FOXO4 and AP4. PMID:27121343

  11. Predictive Framework and Experimental Tests of the Kinetic Isotope Effect at Redox-Active Interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kavner, A.; John, S.; Black, J. R.

    2013-12-01

    Electrochemical reactions provide a compelling framework to study kinetic isotope effects because redox-related processes are important for a wide variety of geological and environmental processes. In the laboratory, electrochemical reaction rates can be electronically controlled and measured in the laboratory using a potentiostat. This enables variation of redox reactions rates independent of changes in chemistry and, and the resulting isotope compositions of reactants and products can be separated and analyzed. In the past years, a series of experimental studies have demonstrated a large, light, and tunable kinetic isotope effect during electrodeposition of metal Fe, Zn, Li, Cu, and Mo from a variety of solutions (e.g. Black et al., 2009, 2010, 2011). A theoretical framework based on Marcus kinetic theory predicts a voltage-dependent kinetic isotope effect (Kavner et al., 2005, 2008), however while this framework was able to predict the tunable nature of the effect, it was not able to simultaneously predict absolute reaction rates and relative isotope rates. Here we present a more complete development of a statistical mechanical framework for simple interfacial redox reactions, which includes isotopic behavior. The framework is able to predict a kinetic isotope effect as a function of temperature and reaction rate, starting with three input parameters: a single reorganization energy which describes the overall kinetics of the electron transfer reaction, and the equilibrium reduced partition function ratios for heavy and light isotopes in the product and reactant phases. We show the framework, elucidate some of the predictions, and show direct comparisons against isotope fractionation data obtained during laboratory and natural environment redox processes. A. Kavner, A. Shahar, F. Bonet, J. Simon and E. Young (2005) Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, 69(12), 2971-2979. A. Kavner, S. G. John, S. Sass, and E. A. Boyle (2008), Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, vol 72, pp. 1731

  12. Mechanism of amorphous silica particles precipitation: simulation approach compared to experimental results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noguera, Claudine; Fritz, Bertrand; Clement, Alain

    2015-04-01

    Despite its importance in numerous industrial and natural processes, many unsolved questions remain regarding the mechanism of silica precipitation in aqueous solutions: order of the reaction, role of silica oligomers, existence of an induction time and characteristics of the particle population. Beyond empirical approaches used in the past, we demonstrate that the classical nucleation theory associated to a size dependent growth law, as embedded in the NANOKIN code (1-3), allows a quantitative description of precipitation occurring under largely different experimental conditions : preexisting initial supersaturation in a large domain of temperature (5-150°C) and chemical composition (4), supersaturation reached by neutralization of a high pH silica solution (5) or by fast cooling (6). In that way, the mechanism of silica precipitation can be unraveled. We are able to discard the hypothesis of an induction time as an explanation for the plateaus observed in the saturation curves in these experiments. We challenge the role of oligomer incorporation at the growth stage to account for the observed rate laws and we stress the difference between the order of the growth law and the order of the total reaction rate. We also demonstrate that the characteristics of the particle population are strongly dependent on the way supersaturation is reached (7). Such a microscopic approach thus proves to be well suited to elucidate the mechanism of nanoparticle formation in natural and industrial contexts, involving silica, but also other mineral phases produced as nanoparticles (8). (1) Noguera C., Fritz B., Clément A. and Barronet A., J. Cryst. Growth, 2006, 297, 180. (2) Noguera C., Fritz B., Clément A. and Barronet A., J. Cryst. Growth, 2006, 297, 187. (3) Fritz B., Clément A., Amal Y. and Noguera C., Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, 2009, 73, 1340. (4) Rothbaum, H.P. and Rohde A.G., J. Colloid Interf. Sci., 1979,71, 533. (5) Tobler D.J., Shaw S. and Benning L.G., Geochim

  13. Biogeochemistry of Sulfur Intermediates in Marine Sediments - Insights from Laboratory and Field Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferdelman, T. G.; Milucka, J.; Kuypers, M. M. M.; Berg, J.; Buckner, C.; Graf, J.; Holmkvist, L.; Jørgensen, B. B.; Kamyshny, A.; Piepgras, L.

    2014-12-01

    The sulfur cycle in marine sediments exerts a major control on the redox state of the ocean and atmosphere. The overall driver in the sulfur cycle is the microbial mediated sulfate reduction to sulfide (SR), In near-surface sediments, only a small fraction of the sulfide produced becomes permanently buried in the reduced form as pyrite (FeS2) Paradoxically, the deep, reduced, sulfidic zone of marine sediments is often characterized by the presence of zero-valent sulfur compounds, e.g. elemental sulfur and polysulfides [1,2,3]. The presence of oxidized iron and manganese has been suggested as the source of oxidizing power for the formation of elemental S and polysulfides in these deep, anoxic and sulfidic sediment environments, which often lie at or below the sulfate-methane transition [1,3]. The findings of Milucka et al. [4] suggest that anaerobic oxidation of methane coupled to sulfate reduction (AOM) may provide another source of zerovalent sulfur to such environments. AOM is thought to be mediated by a consortium of methanotrophic archaea (ANME) and sulfate-reducing Deltaproteobacteria. Milucka et al. [4] show that zero-valent sulfur compounds (S0) are formed during AOM-coupled SR and conclude that the S0 is a product of a novel pathway for sulfate reduction performed by the ANME. Thus, AOM may not be an obligately syntrophic process. Furthermore, the produced S0, in the form of hydrodisulfide, can serve as a substrate for disproportionation by the Deltaproteobacteria associated with the ANME, and that this disproptionation proceeds under sulfidic conditions. These observations may have significant implications for role of sulfur intermediates in our understanding of the biogeochemical carbon and sulfur cycle in modern and past environments. [1] Holmkvist et al. (2011) Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 75, 3581-3599. [2] Lichtschlag et al. (2013) Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 105, 130-145. [3] Holmkvist et al. (2014) Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, accepted. [4] Milucka et al

  14. An update on 11B,10B fractionation in the fundamental reaction: 10B(OH)3 + 11B(OH)4- = 11B(OH)3 + 10B(OH)4-

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klochko, K.; Tossell, J. A.

    2007-12-01

    It has recently been demonstrated experimentally by Byrne, et al. (2006) and Klochko, et al. (2006) that the equilibrium constant for the isotopic exchange reaction: 10B(OH)3 + 11B(OH)4- = 11B(OH)3 + 10B(OH)4- (1) has a value around 1.027 for seawater at 25°C, for total B concentrations from 0.01 to 0.05 molal. These experimental studies involved essentially the accurate determination of the small pKa difference between the 11B and 10B isotopomers of boric acid. This new equilibrium constant value is significantly higher than the traditional value of 1.0194 from Kakihana, et al. (1977). This result has been obscured in recent controversies (Honisch, et al., 2007). The new value agrees well with the ab initio quantum cluster calculated values of Liu and Tossell (2005) and with the ab initio MD harmonic values of Rustad and Bylaska (2007). We will present additional calculations supporting and extending the study of Liu and Tossell (2005) and will discuss the general unsuitability of methods such as Sanchez-Valle, et al. (2005) which employ experimental spectral data. We have also established that polyborate formation in solutions as concentrated as 0.50 molal total B has little effect on the equilibrium constant. A mechanism is also presented for the interaction of B(OH)3 and B(OH)4- with HCO3- species occurring on the calcite surface. References: Byrne, et al. Deep-Sea Research I (2006) 53, 684-688. Honisch, et al. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta (2007) 71, 1636-1641. Kakihana, et al. Bull. Chem. Soc. Jpn. (1977) 50, 158-163. Klochko, et al. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. (2006) 248, 276-285. Liu and Tossell Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta (2005) 69, 3995-4006. Rustad and Bylaska J. Am. Chem. Soc. (2007) 129, 2222-2223. Sanchez-Valle, et al. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta (2005) 69, 4301-4313.

  15. Major Cation, Carbon System and Trace Element Chemistry in Pore Waters from a Depth Transect of Cores on the Iberian Margin: Implications for Paleoproxies.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greaves, M.; Elderfield, H.; Hodell, D. A.; Skinner, L. C.; Sevilgen, D.; Grauel, A. L.; de la Fuente, M.; Misra, S.

    2014-12-01

    A significant body of work exists on the chemistry of pore waters from DSDP and ODP drilling cores (e.g. Gieskes 1975; Sayles 1981) showing large gradients in sea salt cations and anions interpreted in terms of diagenetic reactions such as the formation of Mg-rich clays and dolomite formation (Higgins and Schrag, 2010). Another class of diagenetic reactions involves the breakdown of organic matter and trace element behaviour (Froelich et al., 1979). The translation of chemical gradients into fluxes requires estimates of pore water chemistry across the sea water - sediment surface boundary. Additionally, the use of the chemistry of benthic foraminiferal calcite for seawater paleochemistry requires estimation of the chemistry of pore waters which may differ from that of bottom seawater because of diagenetic reactions. In this work we have collected multi core samples from 10 core sites on cruise RRS James Cook JC089 on the southwest Iberian continental margin. Pore waters were extracted from the core surface and at 1 cm depth intervals down core (typically to ~40 cm depth) using Rhizon samplers and analysed for Alkalinity, DIC, ∂13C and Na, K, Mg, Ca, Li, Mn, Fe, Ba, B, Sr by atomic emission spectrophotometry as well as O2 penetration and pH by microelectrodes. This has allowed us to inspect chemical behavior at the bottom water - sediment interface. Some examples of results are a large gradient in ∂13C of DIC, the similarity of zero O2 penetration followed by an increase in Mn concentration and then decrease to zero, the similarity of Li to Mn and, in contrast to much DSDP/ODP work, Ca2+ and Mg2+both decrease with depth in pore waters near the sediment surface. References: Gieskes J.M. Annu. Rev. Earth Planet. Sci. 3, 433 (1975). Sayles F. L. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta45, 1061 (1981). Higgins J.A. and D.P. Schrag. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta.74, 5039 (2010). Froelich, P.N., et al., Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta. 43, 1075 (1979).

  16. Epigenetic and phenotypic changes result from a continuous pre and post natal dietary exposure to phytoestrogens in an experimental population of mice

    PubMed Central

    Guerrero-Bosagna, Carlos M; Sabat, Pablo; Valdovinos, Fernanda S; Valladares, Luis E; Clark, Susan J

    2008-01-01

    Background Developmental effects of exposure to endocrine disruptors can influence adult characters in mammals, but could also have evolutionary consequences. The aim of this study was to simulate an environmental exposure of an experimental population of mice to high amounts of nutritional phytoestrogens and to evaluate parameters of relevance for evolutionary change in the offspring. The effect of a continuous pre- and post-natal exposure to high levels of dietary isoflavones was evaluated on sexual maturity, morphometric parameters and DNA methylation status in mice. Adult mice male/female couples were fed ad libitum either with control diet (standard laboratory chow) or ISF diet (control diet plus a soy isoflavone extract at 2% (w/w) that contained the phytoestrogens genistein and daidzein). In the offspring we measured: i) the onset of vaginal opening (sexual maturation) in females, ii) weight and size in all pups at 7, 14, 21 and 42 days post-natal (dpn) and iii) DNA methylation patterns in skeletal α-actin (Acta1), estrogen receptor-α and c-fos in adults (42 dpn). Results Vaginal opening was advanced in female pups in the ISF group, from 31.6 ± 0.75 dpn to 25.7 ± 0.48. No differences in size or weight at ages 7, 14 or 21 dpn were detected between experimental groups. Nevertheless, at age 42 dpn reduced size and weight were observed in ISF pups, in addition to suppression of normal gender differences in weight seen in the control group (males heavier that females). Also, natural differences seen in DNA methylation at Acta1 promoter in the offspring originated in the control group were suppressed in the ISF group. Acta1 is known to be developmentally regulated and related to morphomotric features. Conclusion This study demonstrates in mammals that individuals from a population subjected to a high consumption of isoflavones can show alterations in characters that may be of importance from an evolutionary perspective, such as epigenetic and morphometric

  17. Detection of multiple virulence-associated genes in Listeria monocytogenes isolated from bovine mastitis cases.

    PubMed

    Rawool, D B; Malik, S V S; Shakuntala, I; Sahare, A M; Barbuddhe, S B

    2007-01-25

    Clinical samples (n=725) were collected from bovines (n=243) which were positive for mastitis using the California mastitis test (CMT) and somatic cell count (SCC). The clinical samples comprising blood (n=239), milk (n=243), and faecal swabs (n=243) were examined for the presence of pathogenic Listeria spp. Isolation of the pathogen was done using selective enrichment in University of Vermont Medium and plating onto Dominguez-Rodriguez isolation agar. Confirmation of the isolates was based on biochemical tests and Christie, Atkins, Munch-Petersen (CAMP) test followed by pathogenicity testing. Pathogenicity of the isolates was tested by phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C (PI-PLC) assay as well as in vivo tests namely, chick embryo and mice inoculation tests. The isolates were subjected to PCR assay for five virulence-associated genes, plcA, prfA, hlyA, actA and iap. Listeria spp. were isolated from 12 (1.66%) samples. Of these 4 (0.55%) and 1 (0.14%) were confirmed as Listeria monocytogenes and Listeria ivanovii, respectively. L. monocytogenes and L. ivanovii were recovered from milk samples (2) and faecal (3) of mastitic cattle (3) and buffaloes (2). L. monocytogenes recovered from the milk of mastitic cattle and L. ivanovii from the faecal swab of buffalo turned out to be pathogenic. However, the remaining three hemolytic isolates exhibiting positive CAMP test turned out to be negative in PI-PLC assay, chick embryo and mice inoculation. L. monocytogenes and L. ivanovii isolates characterized as pathogenic by PI-PLC assay and in vivo pathogenicity tests were found to possess all the five virulence-associated genes and three genes, plcA, prfA and actA respectively. The remaining three hemolytic but non-pathogenic L. monocytogenes isolates were negative for plcA by PCR. It seems that the plcA gene and its expression (in the PI-PLC assay) have an important role as virulence determinants in pathogenic Listeria spp. In conclusion, the PI-PLC assay and

  18. Isolation, identification, and characterization of Listeria spp. from various animal origin foods

    PubMed Central

    Nayak, Deepti N.; Savalia, C. V.; Kalyani, I. H.; Kumar, Rajeev; Kshirsagar, D. P.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The present study was undertaken with the prime objective of isolating and identifying Listeria spp. from various foods of animal origin sold at retail market outlets in the city of Navsari, Gujarat. Materials and Methods: Total 200 samples comprising of milk, milk products, meat, and fish (50 each) collected aseptically from local market which were subjected first to pre-enrichment in half strength Fraser broth followed by enrichment in full strength Fraser broth and subsequent plating on PALCAM agar. The growth with the typical colony characteristics were further identified up to species level on the basis of their morphological and biochemical characteristics. Cultures identified as Listeria monocytogenes were further subjected to in vitro pathogenicity tests and detection of different virulence-associated genes viz. actA, hlyA, and iap using polymerase chain reaction. Results: Of the total 200 food samples of animal origin; 18 (9%) were found positive for Listeria spp. which were identified as Listeria seeligeri (6, 33.3%), Listeria innocua (5, 27.7%), Listeria welshimeri (4, 22.2%), and L. monocytogenes (3, 16.6%). The highest prevalence was observed in milk samples (8). Species wise, 6 isolates of L. seeligeri which included two each from cow milk, buffalo milk, and meat samples; 5 L. innocua isolates included four recovered from fish and one from meat sample; 4 L. welshimeri comprised of two isolates from ice cream and one each from buffalo milk and meat sample; and 3 isolates of L. monocytogenes recovered from milk (1 cow and 2 buffalo milk). All 3 L. monocytogenes isolates screened for the presence of virulence genes viz. actA, hlyA, and iap using the specific primers revealed the presence of all the genes suggesting the possibility of danger of foodborne listeriosis among raw milk consumers. Conclusion: Listeria spp. was isolated from 9% (18/200) of the animal origin food samples viz.; milk, milk products, meat, and fish with the highest prevalence

  19. Si transfers during Archean weathering processes traced by silicon isotopes and Ge/Si ratios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delvigne, Camille; Opfergelt, Sophie; Hofmann, Axel; Cardinal, Damien; André, Luc

    2015-04-01

    Weathering conditions in the Mesoarchean are poorly constrained. Recent advances in analytical capabilities have added Si isotopes and Ge/Si ratios to the repertoire of tracers used in the study of soil formation processes: neoformation of secondary clay minerals is associated with large Si isotope and Ge/Si fractionation in response to desilication processes and the weathering degree [1, 2, 3, 4]. Here we combine Si isotopes and Ge/Si ratios of a Mesoarchean paleosol (~2.95 Ga) and of nearly coeval but younger shales as proxies of weathering processes and Si mass transfer at the early Earth's surface. The paleosol is developed on andesite and shows a well defined mineralogical and chemical differentiation. In a first step, similar to modern soils, neoformation of secondary clay minerals in the paleosol was associated with fractionation of Si isotopes and Ge/Si ratios in response to chemical weathering degree and soil desilication. In a second step, the loss of Fe(II)-rich minerals, likely Fe-rich smectites, due to low pO2 conditions produced additional control on Si and Ge mobilities. Opposite fractionation behaviors are observed: products of desilication acted as 28Si and Ge sink while the leaching of Fe(II)-rich minerals released 28Si and Ge to soil solutions. Furthermore, the shales deposited immediately after the paleosol display δ30Si and Ge/Si compositions which may be explained as mixtures of the recognized Archean paleosols components. Their recording within the sedimentary pile suggests that the observed weathering-induced desilication might have been widely effective during the Mesoarchean as well as Fe(II)-rich minerals leaching in a lesser extent and pointing out these processes as determinant in the Si transfers from continents to hydrosphere. [1] Kurtz et al., (2002) Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 66, 1525-1537 [2] Ziegler et al., (2005) Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 69, 4597-4610. [3] Opfergelt et al., (2010) Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 74, 225-240. [4

  20. Molybdenum Cycling in Upwelling Sediments: An Example from Namibian Margin Sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnold, G. L.; Goldhammer, T.; Formolo, M.; Brunner, B.; Ferdelman, T.

    2008-12-01

    (1973), Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 87, 1415. (2)McManus et al. (2006), Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 70, 4643. (3)Erickson and Helz (2000) Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 64, 1149.

  1. Crystal structure of bis­(2-amino-5-chloro­pyridinium) tetra­chlorido­cobaltate(II)

    PubMed Central

    Mghandef, Marwa; Boughzala, Habib

    2015-01-01

    The title salt, (C5H6ClN2)2[CoCl4], was synthesized by slow evaporation of an aqueous solution at room temperature. The asymmetric unit consists of two essentially planar (C5H6ClN2)+ cations [maximum deviations = 0.010 (3) and 0.014 (3) Å] that are nearly perpendicular to each other [dihedral angle = 84.12 (7)°]. They are bonded through N—H⋯Cl hydrogen bonds to distorted [CoCl4]2− tetra­hedra, leading to the formation of undulating layers parallel to (100). The structure is isotypic with the Zn analogue [Kefi et. al (2011). Acta Cryst. E67, m355–m356.] PMID:25995878

  2. Redetermination of cytosinium hydrogen maleate–cytosine (1/1) from the original data

    PubMed Central

    Fábry, Jan

    2016-01-01

    The title salt, C4H6N3O+·C4H3O4 −·C4H5N3O, has been redetermined from the data published by Benali-Cherif, Falek & Direm [Acta Cryst. (2009), E65, o3058–o3059]. The improvement of the present redetermination consists in the discovery of the splitting of one of the H atoms into two disordered positions, the occupancies of which are equal to 0.55 (2) and 0.45 (2). These H atoms are involved in an N⋯N hydrogen bond and are shifted towards its centre. The disorder of these H atoms is in agreement with a similar environment of the two independent, but chemically equivalent, cytosinium/cytosine mol­ecules. PMID:27375877

  3. 3α-Hy­droxy­tirucalla-8,24-dien-21-oic acid

    PubMed Central

    Yousuf, S.; Kamdem, R. S. T.; Ngadjui, B. T.; Wafo, P.; Fun, Hoong-Kun

    2011-01-01

    The title compound, C30H48O3, a triterpene isolated from the resin of canarium schweinfurthiiand, is an isomer of the previously reported triterpene 3α-hy­droxy­tirucalla-7,24-dien-21-oic acid [Mora et al. (2001 ▶). Acta Cryst. C57, 638–640], which crystallizes in the same trigonal space group. The title mol­ecule consists of four fused rings having chair, half-chair, half-chair and envelope conformations for rings A, B, C and D, respectively (steroid labelling). An intra­molecular C—H⋯O hydrogen bond generates an S(7) ring. In the crystal, mol­ecules are linked by O—H⋯O and C—H⋯O inter­actions, forming (001) sheets. PMID:21754206

  4. Tetra-amminepalladium(II) dichloride ammonia tetra-solvate.

    PubMed

    Grassl, Tobias; Korber, Nikolaus

    2014-07-01

    The title compound, [Pd(NH3)4]Cl2·4NH3, was crystallized in liquid ammonia from the salt Pd(en)Cl2 (en is ethylenediamine) and is isotypic with [Pt(NH3)4]Cl2·4NH3 [Grassl & Korber (2014 ▶). Acta Cryst. E70, i31]. The Pd(2+) cation is coordinated by four ammonia mol-ecules, exhibiting a square-planar geometry. The chloride anions are surrounded by nine ammonia mol-ecules. These are either bound in the palladium complex or solvent mol-ecules. The packing of the ammonia solvent mol-ecules enables the formation of an extended network of N-H⋯N and N-H⋯Cl inter-actions with nearly ideal hydrogen-bonding geometry. PMID:25161505

  5. Tetra-ammineplatinum(II) dichloride ammonia tetra-solvate.

    PubMed

    Grassl, Tobias; Korber, Nikolaus

    2014-07-01

    The title compound, [Pt(NH3)4]Cl2·4NH3, was crystallized in liquid ammonia from the salt PtCl2. The platinum cation is coordinated by four ammonia mol-ecules, forming a square-planar complex. The chloride anions are surrounded by nine ammonia mol-ecules, either bound within the platinum complex or solvent mol-ecules. The solvent ammonia mol-ecules are packed in such a way that an extended network of N-H⋯N and N-H⋯Cl hydrogen bonds is formed. The structure is isotypic with [Pd(NH3)4]Cl2·4NH3 [Grassl & Korber (2014). Acta Cryst. E70, i32]. PMID:25161504

  6. Editorial

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gill, Eberhard

    2016-06-01

    This Special Section of Acta Astronautica is a collection of selected peer reviewed papers presented at the eighth International Workshop on Satellite Constellations and Formation Flying (IWSCFF). The event was, as its predecessors, organized by the Astrodynamics Committee of the International Astronautical Federation (IAF) with the objective to bring together specialists in the area of astrodynamics and space mission analysis and design and to promote discussions on lessons from past missions, to present recent results, and to address challenges for future space missions. The Workshop was held at the Faculty of Aerospace Engineering of the Delft University of Technology from June 8-10, 2015. The Workshop was coordinated by its Chairs Eberhard Gill (The Netherlands) and Alfred Ng (Canada) with support from the recently established TU Delft Space Institute, an extended International Program Committee, a Local Organizing Committee and a variety of industrial and institutional sponsors.

  7. Glycomic and sialoproteomic data of gastric carcinoma cells overexpressing ST3GAL4

    PubMed Central

    Mereiter, Stefan; Magalhães, Ana; Adamczyk, Barbara; Jin, Chunsheng; Almeida, Andreia; Drici, Lylia; Ibáñez-Vea, Maria; Larsen, Martin R.; Kolarich, Daniel; Karlsson, Niclas G.; Reis, Celso A.

    2016-01-01

    Gastric carcinoma MKN45 cells stably transfected with the full-length ST3GAL4 gene were characterised by glycomic and sialoproteomic analysis. Complementary strategies were applied to assess the glycomic alterations induced by ST3GAL4 overexpression. The N- and O-glycome data were generated in two parallel structural analyzes, based on PGC-ESI-MS/MS. Data on glycan structure identification and relative abundance in ST3GAL4 overexpressing cells and respective mock control are presented. The sialoproteomic analysis based on titanium-dioxide enrichment of sialopeptides with subsequent LC-MS/MS identification was performed. This analysis identified 47 proteins with significantly increased sialylation. The data in this article is associated with the research article published in Biochim Biophys Acta “Glycomic analysis of gastric carcinoma cells discloses glycans as modulators of RON receptor tyrosine kinase activation in cancer” [1]. PMID:27077082

  8. Acanthamoeba polyphaga mimivirus NDK: preliminary crystallographic analysis of the first viral nucleoside diphosphate kinase

    PubMed Central

    Jeudy, Sandra; Coutard, Bruno; Lebrun, Régine; Abergel, Chantal

    2005-01-01

    The complete sequence of the largest known double-stranded DNA virus, Acanthamoeba polyphaga mimivirus, has recently been determined [Raoult et al. (2004 ▶), Science, 306, 1344–1350] and revealed numerous genes not expected to be found in a virus. A comprehensive structural and functional study of these gene products was initiated [Abergel et al. (2005 ▶), Acta Cryst. F61, 212–215] both to better understand their role in the virus physiology and to obtain some clues to the origin of DNA viruses. Here, the preliminary crystallographic analysis of the viral nucleoside diphosphate kinase protein is reported. The crystal belongs to the cubic space group P213, with unit-cell parameter 99.425 Å. The self-rotation function confirms that there are two monomers per asymmetric unit related by a twofold non-crystallographic axis and that the unit cell thus contains four biological entities. PMID:16511098

  9. Redetermination of cytosinium hydrogen maleate-cytosine (1/1) from the original data.

    PubMed

    Fábry, Jan

    2016-04-01

    The title salt, C4H6N3O(+)·C4H3O4 (-)·C4H5N3O, has been redetermined from the data published by Benali-Cherif, Falek & Direm [Acta Cryst. (2009), E65, o3058-o3059]. The improvement of the present redetermination consists in the discovery of the splitting of one of the H atoms into two disordered positions, the occupancies of which are equal to 0.55 (2) and 0.45 (2). These H atoms are involved in an N⋯N hydrogen bond and are shifted towards its centre. The disorder of these H atoms is in agreement with a similar environment of the two independent, but chemically equivalent, cytosinium/cytosine mol-ecules. PMID:27375877

  10. The investigation of chemical structure of coal macerals via transmitted-light FT-IR microscopy by X. Sun

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hower, J.C.; Suarez-Ruiz, I.; Mastalerz, Maria; Cook, A.C.

    2007-01-01

    A recent paper by Sun [X. Sun, Spectrochim. Acta A 62 (1-3) (2005) 557] attempts to characterize a variety of liptinite, termed "barkinite", from Chinese Permian coals. The component identified does not appear to fundamentally differ from previously-described liptinite macerals included in the International Committee for Coal and Organic Petrology's system of maceral nomenclature. Further, chemical comparisons made with macerals from coals of different rank and age are flawed because the author did not account for changes in chemistry with rank or for the chemical changes associated with botanical changes through geologic time. The author has not satisfactorily proved his hypothesis that the component differs morphologically or chemically from known liptinite-group macerals. ?? 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. On the Euclidean version of the photon number integral

    SciTech Connect

    Ruijsenaars, S.; Stodolsky, L.

    2008-02-15

    We reconsider the Euclidean version of the photon number integral introduced by Stodolsky [Acta Phys. Pol. B 33, 2659 (2002), e-print hep-th/02053131].This integral is well defined for any smooth non-self-intersecting curve in R{sup N}. Besides studying general features of this integral (including its conformal invariance), we evaluate it explicitly for the ellipse. The result is n{sub ellipse}=({xi}{sup -1}+{xi}){pi}{sup 2}, where {xi} is the ratio of the minor and major axes. This is in agreement with the previous result n{sub circle}=2{pi}{sup 2} and also with the conjecture that the minimum value of n for any plane curve occurs for the circle.

  12. Crystal structure of 2,4-di­nitro­phenyl 4-methyl­benzene­sulfonate: a new polymorph

    PubMed Central

    Cooley, Tyler A.; Riley, Sean; Biros, Shannon M.; Staples, Richard J.; Ngassa, Felix N.

    2015-01-01

    The title compound, C13H10N2O7S, was synthesized via a nucleophilic substitution reaction between 2,4-di­nitro­phenol and p-toluene­sulfonyl chloride. This crystal structure is a polymorph of CSD entry WUVYUH [Vembu et al. (2003). Acta Cryst, E59, o378–380]. The aromatic substituents on the sulfonate group are oriented gauche to one another with a C—O—S—C torsion angle of −62.0 (3)°. The supra­molecular features that contribute to the crystal stability are offset π–π [centroid–centroid distance = 3.729 (2) Å] and multiple C—H⋯O inter­actions. PMID:26396855

  13. Heterogeneous Crystal Nucleation: The Effect of Lattice Mismatch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tóth, Gyula I.; Tegze, György; Pusztai, Tamás; Gránásy, László

    2012-01-01

    A simple dynamical density functional theory is used to investigate freezing of an undercooled liquid in the presence of a crystalline substrate. We find that the adsorption of the crystalline phase on the substrate, the contact angle, and the height of the nucleation barrier are nonmonotonic functions of the lattice constant of the substrate. We show that the free-growth-limited model of particle-induced freezing by Greer et al. [Acta Mater. 48, 2823 (2000)ACMAFD1359-645410.1016/S1359-6454(00)00094-X] is valid for larger nanoparticles and a small anisotropy of the interface free energy. Faceting due to the small size of the foreign particle or a high anisotropy decouples free growth from the critical size of homogeneous nuclei.

  14. A redetermination from the original data of the crystal structure of 2-amino-4,6-di-meth-oxy-pyrimidin-1-ium 4-amino-benzoate.

    PubMed

    Fábry, Jan

    2016-04-01

    The title structure, C6H9.5N3O2 (0.5+)·C7H6.5NO2 (0.5-), which might be named schematically as 2-amino-4,6-di-meth-oxy-pyrimidine-(μ2-hydrogen)-4-amino-benzoate to indicate a bridging H atom, has been redetermined from the data published by Thanigaimani, Mu-thiah & Lynch [Acta Cryst. (2006), E62, o2976-o2978]. The improvement of the present redetermination consists in a released geometry of the primary amine groups, which were originally assumed to be planar, as well as in a redetermination of the position of the hy-droxy H atom. This H atom, whose parameters were originally constrained, turns out to be situated about the centre of the O⋯N hydrogen bond in two disordered positions with occupancies of 0.5 each. PMID:27375878

  15. Crystal structure of bis­[tetra­kis­(tri­phenyl­phosphane-κP)silver(I)] (nitrilo­tri­acetato-κ4 N,O,O′,O′′)(tri­phenyl­phosphane-κP)argentate(I) with an unknown amount of methanol as solvate

    PubMed Central

    Noll, Julian; Korb, Marcus; Lang, Heinrich

    2016-01-01

    The structure of the title compound, [Ag(C18H15P)4]2[Ag(C6H6NO6)(C18H15P)], exhibits trigonal (P-3) symmetry, with a C 3 axis through all three complex ions, resulting in an asymmetric unit that contains one third of the atoms present in the formula unit. The formula unit thus contains two of the cations, one anion and disordered mol­ecules of methanol as the packing solvent. Attempts to refine the solvent model were unsuccessful, indicating uninter­pretable disorder. Thus, the SQUEEZE procedure in PLATON [Spek (2015 ▸). Acta Cryst. C71, 9–18] was applied, accounting for 670 electrons per unit cell, representing approximately 18 mol­ecules of methanol in the formula unit. The stated crystal data for M r, μ etc do not take these into account. PMID:27006796

  16. Crystal structure of bis-[tetra-kis-(tri-phenyl-phosphane-κP)silver(I)] (nitrilo-tri-acetato-κ(4) N,O,O',O'')(tri-phenyl-phosphane-κP)argentate(I) with an unknown amount of methanol as solvate.

    PubMed

    Noll, Julian; Korb, Marcus; Lang, Heinrich

    2016-03-01

    The structure of the title compound, [Ag(C18H15P)4]2[Ag(C6H6NO6)(C18H15P)], exhibits trigonal (P-3) symmetry, with a C 3 axis through all three complex ions, resulting in an asymmetric unit that contains one third of the atoms present in the formula unit. The formula unit thus contains two of the cations, one anion and disordered mol-ecules of methanol as the packing solvent. Attempts to refine the solvent model were unsuccessful, indicating uninter-pretable disorder. Thus, the SQUEEZE procedure in PLATON [Spek (2015 ▸). Acta Cryst. C71, 9-18] was applied, accounting for 670 electrons per unit cell, representing approximately 18 mol-ecules of methanol in the formula unit. The stated crystal data for M r, μ etc do not take these into account. PMID:27006796

  17. Evolution of local atomic structure during solidification of Al2Au liquid: An ab initio study

    SciTech Connect

    Xiong, L H; Lou, H B; Wang, X D; Debela, T T; Cao, Q P; Zhang, D X; Wang, S Y; Wang, C Z; Jiang, J Z

    2014-04-01

    The local atomic structure evolution in Al2Au alloy during solidification from 2000 K to 400 K was studied by ab initio molecular dynamics simulations and analyzed using the structure factor, pair correlation functions, bond angle distributions, the Honeycutt-Anderson (HA) index and Voronoi tessellation methods. It was found that the icosahedral-like clusters are negligible in the Al2Au stable liquid and supercooled liquid states, and the most abundant clusters are those having HA indices of 131 and 120 or Voronoi indices of < 0,4,4,0 >, < 0,3, 6,0 > and < 0,4,4,2 > with coordination numbers of 8, 9 and 10, respectively. These clusters are similar to the local atomic structures in the CaF2-type Al2Au crystal, revealing the existence of structure heredity between liquid and crystalline phase in Al2Au alloy. (C) 2014 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Genetics of hereditary large vessel diseases.

    PubMed

    Morisaki, Takayuki; Morisaki, Hiroko

    2016-01-01

    Recent progress in the study of hereditary large vessel diseases such as Marfan syndrome (MFS) have not only identified responsible genes but also provided better understanding of the pathophysiology and revealed possible new therapeutic targets. Genes identified for these diseases include FBN1, TGFBR1, TGFBR2, SMAD3, TGFB2, TGFB3, SKI, EFEMP2, COL3A1, FLNA, ACTA2, MYH11, MYLK and SLC2A10, as well as others. Their dysfunction disrupts the function of transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) signaling pathways, as well as that of the extracellular matrix and smooth muscle contractile apparatus, resulting in progression of structural damage to large vessels, including aortic aneurysms and dissections. Notably, it has been shown that the TGF-β signaling pathway has a key role in the pathogenesis of MFS and related disorders, which may be important for development of strategies for medical and surgical treatment of thoracic aortic aneurysms and dissections. PMID:26446364

  19. Quantitative micro-Raman analysis of volcanic glasses: influence and correction of matrix effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Muro, Andrea

    2014-05-01

    . Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 74, 5641-5656. Mercier, M., Di Muro, A., Giordano, D., Métrich, N.,Pichavant, M., Clocchiatti, R., Montagnac, G. (2009) The influence of glass polymerization and oxidation on micro-Raman water analysis in alumino-silicate glasses. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 73, 197-217 Di Muro, A., Métrich, N., Mercier, M., Giordano, D., Massare, D., Montagnac, G. (2009) Micro-Raman determination of iron redox state in dry natural glasses : application to peralkaline rhyolites and basalts. Chemical Geology (Special volume on experimental techniques for the study of hydrothermal fluids and silicate melts) 259:78-88. Di Muro A, Villemant B, Montagnac G, Scaillet B, Reynard B (2006) The influence of glass composition on the determination of water content and speciation by Raman spectrometry. Geochimica and Cosmochimica Acta, 70, 2868-2884 Di Muro A, Giordano D., Villemant B, Montagnac G, Romano C. (2006) Influence of composition and thermal history of volcanic glasses on water content determination by microRaman spectrometry. Applied Geochemistry (Special volume on developments in analytical geochemistry). 21, 802-812. Application Di Muro, A., Staudacher, T., Ferrazzini, V., Villemant, B., Besson, P., Garofalo, C. (2014) Tracking magma injection in the Piton de la Fournaise volcanic edifice after the 2007 Summit Caldera Collapse by Pele's Hair Composition. Chapman Special Volume on Hawaiian volcanoes, AGU Books. Ardia, P., Di Muro, A., Giordano, D., Massare, D., Sanchez-Valle, C., Schmidt, M.W. (2014) Densification mechanisms of haplogranite glasses as a function of water content and pressure based on density and Raman data. Under review, submitted to Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta. Métrich, N, Allard, P., Aiuppa, A., Bani, P., Bertagnini, A., Belhadj, O., Di Muro, A., Garaebiti, E., Massare, D., Parello, F., Shinohara, H. (2011) Magma and volatile feeding of post-caldera Yasur volcanism and block resurgence in Tanna island (Vanuatu arc). Journal of

  20. Triclinic polymorph of bis­(triphenyl­sil­yl) oxide toluene disolvate

    PubMed Central

    Purdy, Andrew P.; Smoot, Emily; Butcher, Ray J.; Kerr, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    A new polymorph of the title compound, C36H30OSi2·2C7H8, is reported, which is triclinic (P-1) instead of possessing the previously reported rhombohedral symmetry [Hönle et al. (1990). Acta Cryst. C46, 1982–1984]. Each of the –SiPh3 units are related by the inversion center. The Si—O—Si moiety is linear with the O atom sitting on an inversion center, and the O—Si—(toluene ring centroid) angle is 3.69 (15)°. Each toluene mol­ecule is 5.622 (2) Å from the Si atom and has its closest contacts with the phenyl rings outside of the van der Waals radii. PMID:22412504

  1. Dominance of foreign citations in Brazilian orthopedics journals☆☆☆

    PubMed Central

    Teixeira, Renan Kleber Costa; Yamaki, Vitor Nagai; Rosa, Rita de Cássia Rodrigues; de Barros, Rui Sergio Monteiro; Botelho, Nara Macedo

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate whether there is any preference for citing journals from other countries to the detriment of Brazilian journals, in three Brazilian orthopedics journals. Methods All the references of articles published in 2011 by the journals Acta Ortopédica Brasileira, Coluna/Columna and Revista Brasileira de Ortopedia were evaluated to as certain how many of these came from Brazilian journals and how many from foreign journals. Results 3813 references distributed among 187 articles were analyzed. Out of this total, 306 (8.02%) were from Brazilian journals. There was no difference between the three journals analyzed. There were 76 articles (40.64%) without any citations of articles in Brazilian journals and only two articles (1%) cited more Brazilian articles than articles published elsewhere. Conclusion There is a need for Brazilian researchers to cite articles from Brazilian journals more often. PMID:26229879

  2. Multiscale model for phase transformation in magnetic shape memory alloy single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoilov, Vesselin

    2006-03-01

    This paper investigates the nano-macro transition in magnetic shape memory alloy(MSMA) thin films using a recently developed sharp phase front-based three-dimensional (3D) constitutive model outlined by Stoilov (JSMS 2005), and originally proposed in the 1D context by Stoilov and Bhattacharyya (Acta Mat 2002). The key ingredient in the model is the recognition of martensitic variants as separate phases in a MSMA domain. Evolution of the interface between these phases is taken as an indicator of the process of reorientation in progress. A formulation of the Helmholtz free energy potential based on Ising model has been derived. The implications of the external magnetic field on the initiation of phase transformation are studied for various mechanical loading modes.

  3. Multiscale theory of thin film magnetic shape memory alloy microactuators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoilov, Vesselin

    2007-04-01

    This paper investigates the nano-macro transition in magnetic shape memory alloy(MSMA) thin films using a recently developed sharp phase front-based three-dimensional (3D) constitutive model outlined by Stoilov (JSMS 2007), and originally proposed in the 1D context by Stoilov and Bhattacharyya (Acta Mat 2002). The key ingredient in the model is the recognition of martensitic variants as separate phases in a MSMA domain. Evolution of the interface between these phases is taken as an indicator of the process of reorientation in progress. A formulation of the Helmholtz free energy potential based on Ising model has been derived. The implications of the external magnetic field on the initiation of phase transformation are studied for various mechanical loading modes.

  4. The Jubilee of Medical Informatics in Bosnia and Herzegovina - 20 Years Anniversary

    PubMed Central

    Masic, Izet

    2009-01-01

    CONFLICT OF INTEREST: NONE DECLARED Last two years, the health informatics profession celebrated five jubilees in Bosnia and Herzegovina: thirty years from the introduction of the first automatic manipulation of data, twenty years from the establishment of Society for Medical Informatics BiH, fifteen years from the establishment of the Scientific and Professional Journal of the Society for Medical Informatics of Bosnia and Herzegovina „Acta Informatica Medica“, fifteen years on from the establishment of the first Cathedra for Medical Informatics on Biomedical Faculties in Bosnia and Herzegovina and five years on from the introduction of the method of “Distance learning” in medical curriculum. The author of this article are eager to mark the importance of the above mentioned Anniversaries in the development of Health informatics in Bosnia and Herzegovina and have attempted, very briefly, to present the most significant events and persons with essential roles throughout this period. PMID:24133382

  5. Calculation of open and closed system elastic coefficients for multicomponent solids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishin, Y.

    2015-06-01

    Thermodynamic equilibrium in multicomponent solids subject to mechanical stresses is a complex nonlinear problem whose exact solution requires extensive computations. A few decades ago, Larché and Cahn proposed a linearized solution of the mechanochemical equilibrium problem by introducing the concept of open system elastic coefficients [Acta Metall. 21, 1051 (1973), 10.1016/0001-6160(73)90021-7]. Using the Ni-Al solid solution as a model system, we demonstrate that open system elastic coefficients can be readily computed by semigrand canonical Monte Carlo simulations in conjunction with the shape fluctuation approach. Such coefficients can be derived from a single simulation run, together with other thermodynamic properties needed for prediction of compositional fields in solid solutions containing defects. The proposed calculation approach enables streamlined solutions of mechanochemical equilibrium problems in complex alloys. Second order corrections to the linear theory are extended to multicomponent systems.

  6. The tholeiite-TTG connection during Eoarchean crust formation in Isua, southern West Greenland: the role of subduction processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffmann, J. E.; Münker, C.; Nagel, T. J.; Næraa, T.; Polat, A.; Rosing, M. T.

    2012-04-01

    thickened mafic crust to form the TTGs. The cause for the decoupled behavior of the Hf and Nd isotope compositions is most likely a subduction-related mantle source overprint, because Nd behaves more mobile in subduction components compared to the less mobile Hf (Hoffmann et al., 2011a). Other scenarios explaining the Hf-Nd decoupling may include cumulate segregation processes in an early magma ocean or an early metamorphic overprint during intrusion of the TTGs might also (Hoffmann et al., 2011a; Rizo et al., 2011). These scenarios are possible, however, they are only very difficult to reconcile with all observed trace element and isotope features of Isua rocks. Overall, we therefore propose that the most likely geodynamic setting to form the TTGs in the Isua region is an arc-arc collisional model, where the arc tholeiites melt at 10-20% of partial melting to form the TTGs. Caro, G., Bourdon, B. et al. (2006) Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 70, 164-191. Hoffmann, J.E., Münker, C. et al. (2010) Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 74, 7236-7260. Hoffmann, J.E., Münker, C. et al. (2011a) Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 75, 6610-6628. Hoffmann, J.E., Münker, C. et al. (2011b) Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 75, 4157-4178. Nagel, T., Hoffmann, J.E., Münker, C. (2012) Geology DOI: doi:10.1130/G32729.1. Næraa, T., Scherstén, A., et al., (submitted). Rizo, H., Boyet, M. et al. (2011) Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 312, 267-279.

  7. [Contribution of the AMDP scale to quantitative psychopathology].

    PubMed

    Bobon, D

    1985-01-01

    The AMDP-System, elaborated by the Association for Methodology and Documentation in Psychiatry, comprises three anamnestic forms and two rating scales on present psychopathological and somatic state. Its success is increasing in the German-speaking and French-speaking countries. The author's thesis bears among others on the following aspects: importance of the naming of the items for the reliability of the underlying concepts, elaboration of a semi-structured interview and of a video methodology, programming of a new measure of interrater reliability in single cases, improvement of the somatic scale, and franco-belgian factor analyses showing the stability of the AMDP structure and the interest of anxiety items specific for the French version [Acta psychiat. belg., 85, 1-252 (1985)]. PMID:3887843

  8. Crystal structure of (E)-2-(4-chloro­benzyl­idene)-3,4-di­hydro­naphthalen-1(2H)-one: a second monoclinic polymorph

    PubMed Central

    Haroon, Muhammad; Akhtar, Tashfeen; Tahir, Muhammad Nawaz

    2015-01-01

    The title compound, C17H13ClO, is the second monoclinic polymorph to crystallize in the space group P21/c. The first polymorph crystallized with two independent mol­ecules in the asymmetric unit [Bolognesi et al. (1975 ▸). Acta Cryst. A31, S119; Z′ = 2; no atomic coordinates available], whereas the title compound has Z′ = 1. In the title polymorph, the dihedral angle between the plane of the benzene ring of the tetra­lone moiety and that of the 4-chloro­benzyl ring is 52.21 (11)°. The cyclo­hex-2-en-1-one ring of the tetra­lone moiety has a screw-boat conformation. In the crystal, mol­ecules are liked by pairs of C—H⋯π inter­actions forming inversion dimers. There are no other significant inter­molecular inter­actions present. PMID:26594452

  9. Molecular Simulations of the Diffusion of Uranyl Carbonate Species in Nanosized Mineral Fractures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerisit, S.; Liu, C.

    2010-12-01

    water and that of the electrolyte ions differ significantly from those in bulk aqueous solutions. We will then present MD simulations of the diffusion of a series of alkaline-earth uranyl carbonate species in aqueous solutions [7]. The MD simulations show that the alkaline-earth uranyl carbonate complexes have distinct water exchange dynamics, which could lead to different reactivities. Finally, we will present recent results on the diffusion and adsorption of uranyl carbonate species in intragrain micropores, modeled with the feldspar-water interfaces mentioned in the above, to help interpret the diffusion behavior of uranium in contaminated sediments. [1] Liu C. et al. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 68 4519 (2004) [2] McKinley J. P. et al. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 70 1873 (2006) [3] Liu C. et al. Water Resour. Res. 42 W12420 (2006) [4] Ilton E. S. et al. Environ. Sci. Technol. 42 1565 (2009) [5] Kerisit S. et al. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 72 1481 (2008) [6] Kerisit S. and Liu C. Environ. Sci. Technol. 43 777 (2009) [7] Kerisit S. and Liu C. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 74 4937 (2010)

  10. Pit Formation during the Self-Assembly of Dithiol Monolayers on Au(111)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macdairmid, A. R.; Cappello, M. L.; Keeler, W. J.; Banks, J. T.; Gallagher, M. C.

    2000-03-01

    The formation of pits one gold atom deep during the growth of alkanethiol monolayers on Au(111), has been observed previously by others. Explanations for pit formation include etching of the substrate, or mass transport of gold atom + thiol molecule on the surface, due to changes in surface energy^1. We have investigated the structure of dithiothreitol (DTT) SAMs on Au(111). Ex situ STM measurements indicate similar pitting occurs during formation of the dithiol monolayer. The degree of pitting depends on exposure time, sample temperature during formation, and subsequent annealing of the sample. Pitting is enhanced considerasbly when DTT is coordinated with Ti, in fact DTT/Ti films exhibit considerable pit motion during STM imaging. ^1 F. Teran et al. Electrochimica Acta 44, 1053 (1998).

  11. CME for neurosurgeons in the Netherlands: the "quality" conferences.

    PubMed

    Mooij, J J A; Albrecht, K W; Grotenhuis, J A; Zeilstra, D J; Staal, M J; Koot, R W

    2009-02-01

    In 1993 the Netherlands Society for Neurosurgery started a yearly event, a "Quality Conference", specifically devoted to continuous medical education (CME). These conferences differ from "normal" scientific meetings, in the choice for specific topics, in the preparation with inquiries among all the Dutch neurosurgical centres, and in the way the results of these inquiries are discussed, preceded by lectures concerning the chosen topic by guest faculty and Dutch neurosurgeons. Each year's principal guest delivers the "Beks Lecture", named after the former professor in Neurosurgery in Groningen, Jan Beks. On several occasions, the foreign guests suggested to present this format for a larger neurosurgical forum. Therefore, it was decided to describe the various aspects of this format for CME in the Netherlands in a paper for Acta Neurochirugica. Examples of topics are given, a summary of two recent inquiries are presented and discussed, and the way of organizing such a conference including finance and the obligatory character are described. PMID:19194649

  12. Further results involving a class of generalized Hurwitz-Lerch zeta functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srivastava, H. M.; Gaboury, S.; Fugère, B.-J.

    2014-10-01

    In this paper, we present several new expansion formulas for a class of generalized Hurwitz-Lerch zeta functions which were introduced by Raina and Chhajed [R. K. Raina and P. K. Chhajed, "Certain Results Involving a Class of Functions Associated with the Hurwitz Zeta Function," Acta Math. Univ. Comenian. 73, 89-100 (2004)] and (more recently) by Srivastava et al. [H. M. Srivastava, M.-J. Luo, and R. K. Raina, "New Results Involving a Class of Generalized Hurwitz-Lerch Zeta Functions and Their Applications," Turkish J. Anal. Number Theory 1, 26-35 (2013)]. These expansion formulas are obtained with the help of some fractional calculus theorems such as the generalized Leibniz rules, the Taylorlike expansions in terms of different functions and the generalized chain rule. Several (known or new) special cases are also considered.

  13. Oxygen isotope heterogeneity of the mantle beneath the Canary Islands: a discussion of the paper of Gurenko et al.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Day, James M. D.; Macpherson, Colin G.; Lowry, David; Pearson, D. Graham

    2012-07-01

    Gurenko et al. (Contrib Mineral Petrol 162:349-363, 2011) report laser-assisted fluorination (LF) and secondary ionization mass spectrometry (SIMS) 18O/16O datasets for olivine grains from the Canary Islands of Gran Canaria, Tenerife, La Gomera, La Palma and El Hierro. As with prior studies of oxygen isotopes in Canary Island lavas (e.g. Thirlwall et al. Chem Geol 135:233-262, 1997; Day et al. Geology 37:555-558, 2009, Geochim Cosmochim Acta 74:6565-6589, 2010), these authors find variations in δ18Ool (~4.6-6.0 ‰) beyond that measured for mantle peridotite olivine (Mattey et al. Earth Planet Sci Lett 128:231-241, 1994) and interpret this variation to reflect contributions from pyroxenite-peridotite mantle sources. Furthermore, Gurenko et al. (Contrib Mineral Petrol 162:349-363, 2011) speculate that δ18Ool values for La Palma olivine grains measured by LF (Day et al. Geology 37:555-558, 2009, Geochim Cosmochim Acta 74:6565-6589, 2010) may be biased to low values due to the presence of altered silicate, possibly serpentine. The range in δ18Ool values for Canary Island lavas are of importance for constraining their origin. Gurenko et al. (Contrib Mineral Petrol 162:349-363, 2011) took a subset (39 SIMS analyses from 13 grains from a single El Hierro lava; EH4) of a more extensive dataset (321 SIMS analyses from 110 grains from 16 Canary Island lavas) to suggest that δ18Ool is weakly correlated ( R 2 = 0.291) with the parameter used by Gurenko et al. (Earth Planet Sci Lett 277:514-524, 2009) to describe the estimated weight fraction of pyroxenite-derived melt ( Xpx). With this relationship, end-member δ18O values for HIMU-peridotite (δ18O = 5.3 ± 0.3 ‰) and depleted pyroxenite (δ18O = 5.9 ± 0.3 ‰) were defined. Although the model proposed by Gurenko et al. (Contrib Mineral Petrol 162:349-363, 2011) implicates similar pyroxenite-peridotite mantle sources to those proposed by Day et al. (Geology 37:555-558, 2009, Geochim Cosmochim Acta 74:6565-6589, 2010

  14. A second polymorph of sodium di­hydrogen citrate, NaH2C6H5O7: structure solution from powder diffraction data and DFT comparison

    PubMed Central

    Rammohan, Alagappa; Kaduk, James A.

    2016-01-01

    The crystal structure of a second polymorph of sodium di­hydrogen citrate, Na+·H2C6H5O7 −, has been solved and refined using laboratory X-ray powder diffraction data, and optimized using density functional techniques. The powder pattern of the commercial sample used in this study did not match that corresponding to the known crystal structure [Glusker et al. (1965). Acta Cryst. 19, 561–572; refcode NAHCIT]. In this polymorph, the [NaO7] coordination polyhedra form edge-sharing chains propagating along the a axis, while in NAHCIT the octa­hedral [NaO6] groups form edge-sharing pairs bridged by two hy­droxy groups. The most notable difference is that in this polymorph one of the terminal carboxyl groups is deprotonated, while in NAHCIT the central carboxyl­ate group is deprotonated, as is more typical. PMID:27308058

  15. Groundwater-silicates Reaction Kinetics in the Navajo Sandstone Aquifer, Black Mesa, Arizona (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, C.

    2009-12-01

    laboratory experiments that complement the field study supports the hypothesis. Zhu, C. (2005) In situ feldspar dissolution rates in an aquifer. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta v. 69, no.6, 1435-1453, 2005. Zhu, C. Veblen, D.R., Blum, A.E, Chipera, S. (2006) Naturally weathered feldspar surfaces in the Navajo Sandstone aquifer, Black Mesa, Arizona: Electron microscopic characterization. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta v. 70, no.18, 4600-4616, 2006 doi:10.1016/j.gca.2006.07.013. Georg, R. B., Zhu, C. Reynolds, R.C., and Halliday, A.N. (2009) Stable silicon isotopes of groundwater, feldspars, and clay coatings in the Navajo Sandstone aquifer, Black Mesa, Arizona, USA. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, v.73, 229-2241. Fu, Q., P ‡Lu, H. ‡Konishi, R. Dilmore, H. Xu, W. E. Seyfried, Jr., and C. Zhu (2009) Coupled alkali-feldspar Dissolution and Secondary Mineral Precipitation in Batch Systems: 1. New Experimental Data at 200°C and 300 bars. Chemical Geology, 91(3), 955-964. Zhu, C., and ‡Lu, P. (2009) Alkali Feldspar Dissolution and Secondary Mineral Precipitation in Batch Systems: 3. Saturation States of Product Minerals and Reaction Paths. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta. v.73, p.3171-3120. doi: 10.1016/j.gca.2009.03.015.

  16. Multicentre randomised controlled trials in obstetrics and gynaecology: an analysis of trends over three decades.

    PubMed

    Raza, A; Chien, P F W; Khan, K S

    2009-07-01

    To assess the trend in multicentre randomised controlled trials (RCTs), a database of 670 RCTs was assembled from four generic obstetric and gynaecological journals (Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica, British Journal of Obstetrics & Gynaecology, Obstetrics & Gynecology and American Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology) for 1975, 1980, 1985, 1990, 1995, 2000 and 2005. During this period, there was an inflationary trend with the proportion of published multicentre RCTs (from 12.9% in 1975 of all RCTs to 23.8% in 2005; P = 0.008). Multicentre RCTs had multiauthored publications (OR = 2.90; 95% CI 1.99-4.22) and more often received external funding (OR = 2.41; 95% CI 1.70-3.48) than single centre RCTs. The inflationary trend in multicentre RCTs requiring funding and collaboration represents the increasing complexity of medical research necessary to underpin evidence-based practice. PMID:19459867

  17. Redetermined crystal structure of N-(β-carb-oxy-eth-yl)-α-isoleucine.

    PubMed

    Chandrarekha, M; Srinivasan, N; Krishnakumar, R V

    2015-09-01

    Redetermination of the crystal structure of N-(β-carb-oxy-eth-yl)-α-isoleucine, C9H18N2O3, reported earlier by Nehls et al. [Acta Cryst. (2013), E69, o172-o173], was undertaken in which the ionization state assigned to the mol-ecule as unionized has been modified as zwitterionic in the present work. Single-crystal X-ray intensity data obtained from freshly grown crystals and freely refining the amino H atoms provide enhanced refinement and structural parameters, particularly the hydrogen-bonding scheme. N-H⋯O hydrogen bonds dominate the inter-molecular inter-actions along with a C-H⋯O hydrogen bond. The inter-molecular inter-action pattern is a three-dimensional network. The structure was refined as a two-component perfect inversion twin. PMID:26396893

  18. An Algorithm for Emulsion Stability Simulations: Account of Flocculation, Coalescence, Surfactant Adsorption and the Process of Ostwald Ripening

    PubMed Central

    Urbina-Villalba, German

    2009-01-01

    The first algorithm for Emulsion Stability Simulations (ESS) was presented at the V Conferencia Iberoamericana sobre Equilibrio de Fases y Diseño de Procesos [Luis, J.; García-Sucre, M.; Urbina-Villalba, G. Brownian Dynamics Simulation of Emulsion Stability In: Equifase 99. Libro de Actas, 1st Ed., Tojo J., Arce, A., Eds.; Solucion’s: Vigo, Spain, 1999; Volume 2, pp. 364–369]. The former version of the program consisted on a minor modification of the Brownian Dynamics algorithm to account for the coalescence of drops. The present version of the program contains elaborate routines for time-dependent surfactant adsorption, average diffusion constants, and Ostwald ripening. PMID:19399220

  19. Crystal structure of 4-(tri­methyl­germ­yl)benzoic acid

    PubMed Central

    Knauer, Lena; Barth, Eva R.; Golz, Christopher; Strohmann, Carsten

    2015-01-01

    The title compound, [Ge(CH3)3(C7H5O2)], was obtained as a by-product in the synthesis of the corresponding aldehyde. Two slightly different mol­ecules are present in the asymmetric unit. In both mol­ecules, the geometry of the aromatic ring plane is distorted by varying intensities. Additionally, the Ge atoms deviate from the mean aromatic ring planes. Whereas the distance of the Ge atom to the ring plane is only 0.101 (4) Å in the first mol­ecule, this distance is increased to 0.210 (4) Å in the second. In the crystal structure, centrosymmetric O—H⋯O hydrogen-bonded dimers are formed. The title compound is isostructural with the Si analogue [Haberecht et al. (2004 ▸). Acta Cryst. E60, o329–0330]. PMID:26090151

  20. A combinatorial chemistry approach to new materials for non-linear optics. II. 4-(Dimethylamino)cinnamaldehyde and a molecular complex of 4-methoxycinnamaldehyde with 2,4-dinitroaniline

    PubMed

    Nesterov; Timofeeva; Antipin; Clark

    2000-08-01

    The combinatorial chemistry approach has been used to synthesize an array of Schiff bases. The structures of five of these Schiff bases have been confirmed by X-ray analysis [Nesterov, Timofeeva, Borbulevych, Antipin & Clark (2000). Acta Cryst. C56, 971-975]. In two cases, the reaction conditions were not sufficient to obtain the products in question. In one case, a molecular complex, C(10)H(10)O(2).C(6)H(5)N(3)O(4), of the starting products 4-methoxycinnamaldehyde and 2,4-dinitroaniline was found. X-ray analysis revealed hydrogen-bond formation between the molecules of these reagents in the crystal. In the other case, X-ray analysis demonstrated that no chemical reaction occurred under the reaction conditions, and only one starting reagent, 4-(dimethylamino)cinnamaldehyde, C(11)H(13)NO, was found in the precipitate. PMID:10944294

  1. The mitochondrial permeability transition from yeast to mammals

    PubMed Central

    Azzolin, Luca; von Stockum, Sophia; Basso, Emy; Petronilli, Valeria; Forte, Michael A.; Bernardi, Paolo

    2010-01-01

    Regulated permeability changes have been detected in mitochondria across species. We review here their key features, with the goal of assessing whether a “permeability transition” similar to that observed in higher eukaryotes is present in other species. The recent discoveries (i) that treatment with cyclosporin A unmasks an inhibitory site for Pi [Basso et al. (2008) J. Biol Chem. 283, 26307–26311], the classical inhibitor of the permeability transition of yeast; and (ii) that under proper experimental conditions a matrix Ca2+-dependence can be demonstrated in yeast as well [Yamada et al. (2009) Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1787, 1486–1491] suggest that the mitochondrial permeability transition has been conserved during evolution. PMID:20398660

  2. Effects of thyroid hormones on the bypasses of the antimycin A block in the bc1 complex of rat liver mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Horrum, M A; Tobin, R B; Ecklund, R E

    1991-07-15

    The effect of thyroid hormones on the electron flow through the bc1 complex of rat liver mitochondria was studied using two dye bypasses of the Antimycin A block of the bc1 complex by the method of Alexandre and Lehninger (Biochim. Biophys. Acta 767:120; 1984). Bypass respiration rates with both DCIP (2,6-dichlorophenolindophenol) and TMPD (N,N,N',N'-tetramethyl-p-phenylenediamine dihydrochloride) were elevated in the hyperthyroid rats and depressed in the hypothyroid groups compared to the euthyroid controls. T3 treatment of hypothyroid rats returned the bypass rates to control levels in 24 hours with the TMPD dye but not for the DCIP. This further demonstrates that different portions of the bc1 complex respond individually to the thyroid state. PMID:1648915

  3. Longtime Well-posedness for the 2D Groma-Balogh Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wan, Renhui; Chen, Jiecheng

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, we consider the cauchy problem for the 2D Groma-Balogh model (Acta Mater 47:3647-3654, 1999). From the works Cannone et al. (Arch Ration Mech Anal 196:71-96, 2010) and El Hajj (Ann Inst Henri Poincaré Anal Nonlinéaire 27:21-35, 2010), one can see global well-posedness for this model is an open question. However, we can prove longtime well-posedness. In particular, we show that this model admits a unique solution with the lifespan T^star satisfying T^star log ^2(1+T^star )≳ ɛ ^{-2} if the initial data is of size ɛ . To achieve this, we first establish some new decay estimates concerning the operator e^{-{R}_{12}^2t} . Then, we prove the longtime well-posedness by utilizing the weak dissipation to deal with the nonlinear terms.

  4. About the hybrid Fourier syntheses: a probabilistic approach.

    PubMed

    Burla, Maria Cristina; Carrozzini, Benedetta; Cascarano, Giovanni Luca; Giacovazzo, Carmelo; Polidori, Giampiero

    2011-09-01

    The difference electron density has recently been revisited via the method of joint probability distribution functions [Burla et al. (2010). Acta Cryst. A 66, 347-361]. New Fourier coefficients were devised which were the basis of a new ab initio method for the solution of the phase problem (i.e. VLD, vive la difference). In this paper we study the joint probability distribution functions P(F, F(p), F(Q)), where F(Q) is the structure factor corresponding to the ideal hybrid Fourier synthesis ρ(Q) = τρ - ωρ(p) and τ and ω are any pair of real numbers. New Fourier coefficients for the calculations of any hybrid synthesis are obtained, and the properties of the corresponding electron-density maps are discussed. The first applications show the correctness of our theoretical approach and suggest possible applications in phasing procedures. PMID:21844649

  5. A simplification of the Kovarik formula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yan-Ni; Du, Hong-Ke; Pang, Yong-Feng

    2007-07-01

    Let P,Q be two idempotents on a Hilbert space. Z.V. Kovarik (Z.V. Kovarik, Similarity and interpolation between projectors, Acta Sci. Math. (Szeged) 39 (1977) 341-351) showed that when P+Q-I is invertible, the formula K(P,Q)=P(P+Q-I)-2Q gives the only idempotent such that , , where and denote the nullspace and the range of a bounded linear operator T on a Hilbert space, respectively. This formula was later extended to the context of Banach algebras and used in 1983 by J. Esterle to show that two homotopic idempotents may always be connected by a polynomial idempotent valued path. In the present paper, we give a simplification of Kovarik's original formula and one natural generalization of it.

  6. Retracing diagenetic processes in marine porewaters using Ca isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ockert, C.; Teichert, B. M.; Kaufhold, S.; Gussone, N. C.

    2012-12-01

    ammonium and δ44/40Ca depends on the presence of clay minerals in the lithology, displaying a better fit when clay minerals occur. These findings resolve that exchange of Ca with marine sediments has an important effect on the porewater isotopy which must be considered when interpreting Ca isotope porewater profiles. References: Fantle MS and DePaolo DJ (2007) Ca isotopes in carbonate sediment and pore fluid from ODP Site 807A: The Ca2+(aq)-calcite equilibrium fractionation factor and calcite recrystallization rates in Pleistocene sediments. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 71: 2524-2546. Skulan J, DePaolo DJ and Owens TL (1997) Biological control of calcium isotopic abundances in the global calcium cycle. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 61: 2505-2510. Teichert BMA, Gussone N, Torres ME (2009) Controls on calcium isotope fractionation in sedimentary porewaters. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 279: 373-382. Turchyn A and DePaolo DJ (2011) Calcium isotope evidene for suppression of carbonate dissolution in carbonate bearing organic rich sediments. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 75: 7081-7098. Zhu P, MacDougall JD (1998) Calcium isotopes in the marine environment and the oceanic calcium cycle. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 62:1691-1698.

  7. Surface-force-induced deformations of monodisperse polystyrene spheres on planar silicon substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rimai, D. S.; DeMejo, L. P.; Bowen, R. C.

    1990-12-01

    The contact radii between polystyrene spheres, having diameters between approximately 1.5 and 12 μm, and polished silicon wafers, arising from adhesion forces, were determined using scanning electron microscopy. It was found that the contact radius varied approximately as the square root of the particle radius. This dependence is consistent with nonelastic response models of adhesion, such as those proposed by Krupp [H. Krupp, Adv. Colloid Interface Sci. 1, 111 (1967)] and by Maugis and Pollock [D. Maugis and H. M. Pollock, Acta Metall. 32, 1323 (1984)], but is inconsistent with various elastic response models which assume Hertzian deformations. The experimentally determined contact radii are also compared to those obtained for polystyrene spheres on a polyurethane substrate [D. S. Rimai, L. P. DeMejo, and R. C. Bowen, J. Appl. Phys. 66, 3574 (1989)].

  8. 3-[1-(3-Hy­droxy­benz­yl)-1H-benzimid­azol-2-yl]phenol dimethyl sulfoxide monosolvate

    PubMed Central

    Quezada-Miriel, Magdalena; Avila-Sorrosa, Alcives; German-Acacio, Juan Manuel; Reyes-Martínez, Reyna; Morales-Morales, David

    2012-01-01

    Crystals of the title compound were obtained as a 1:1 dimethyl sulfoxide solvate, C20H16N2O2·C2H6O. The mol­ecular conformation of the organic mol­ecule is similar to that in the previously reported unsolvated structure [Eltayeb et al. (2009 ▶). Acta Cryst. E65, o1374–o1375]. Thus, the dihedral angles formed by the benzimidazole moiety with the two benzene rings are 57.54 (4) and 76.22 (5)°, and the dihedral angle between the benzene rings is 89.23 (5)°. In the crystal, a three-dimensional network features O—H⋯O, O—H⋯N and O—H⋯S hydrogen bonds, as well as C—H⋯O and C—H⋯π inter­actions. PMID:23125815

  9. Direct analysis of blood serum by total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectrometry and application of an artificial neural network approach for cancer diagnosis*1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernández-Caraballo, Edwin A.; Marcó-Parra, Lué M.

    2003-12-01

    Iron, copper, zinc and selenium were determined directly in serum samples from healthy individuals ( n=33) and cancer patients ( n=27) by total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectrometry using the Compton peak as internal standard [L.M. Marcó P. et al., Spectrochim. Acta Part B 54 (1999) 1469-1480]. The standardized concentrations of these elements were used as input data for two-layer artificial neural networks trained with the generalized delta rule in order to classify such individuals according to their health status. Various artificial neural networks, comprising a linear function in the input layer, a hyperbolic tangent function in the hidden layer and a sigmoid function in the output layer, were evaluated for such a purpose. Of the networks studied, the (4:4:1) gave the highest estimation (98%) and prediction rates (94%). The latter demonstrates the potential of the total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectrometry/artificial neural network approach in clinical chemistry.

  10. Second monoclinic form of (E)-3-(4-fluoro­phen­yl)-1-phenyl­prop-2-en-1-one

    PubMed Central

    Arias-Ruiz, Saira N.; Romero, Nancy; Lobato-García, Carlos E.; Gómez-Rivera, Abraham; Mendoza, Angel

    2013-01-01

    The unit-cell dimensions and space group of the second monoclinic polymorph of the title compound, C15H11FO, differ from those of the previously reported form [Jing (2009 ▶). Acta Cryst. E65, o2515]. The title compound shows an E conformation of the C=C bond with the 4-fluoro­phenyl group opposite to the benzoyl group. The torsion angle of between the planes of the 4-fluoro­phenyl and benzoyl groups is 10.53 (6)°. In the crystal, weak C—H⋯O and C—H⋯F inter­actions form a cross-linked packing motif, building sheets parallel to (-102). PMID:24454121

  11. A Priori Bound on the Velocity in Axially Symmetric Navier-Stokes Equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lei, Zhen; Navas, Esteban A.; Zhang, Qi S.

    2016-01-01

    Let v be the velocity of Leray-Hopf solutions to the axially symmetric three-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations. Under suitable conditions for initial values, we prove the following a priori bound |v(x, t)| ≤ C |ln r|^{1/2}/r^2, qquad 0 < r ≤ 1/2, where r is the distance from x to the z axis, and C is a constant depending only on the initial value. This provides a pointwise upper bound (worst case scenario) for possible singularities, while the recent papers (Chiun-Chuan et al., Commun PDE 34(1-3):203-232, 2009; Koch et al., Acta Math 203(1):83-105, 2009) gave a lower bound. The gap is polynomial order 1 modulo a half log term.

  12. Comparison of Monte Carlo simulations of cytochrome b6f with experiment using Latin hypercube sampling.

    PubMed

    Schumaker, Mark F; Kramer, David M

    2011-09-01

    We have programmed a Monte Carlo simulation of the Q-cycle model of electron transport in cytochrome b(6)f complex, an enzyme in the photosynthetic pathway that converts sunlight into biologically useful forms of chemical energy. Results were compared with published experiments of Kramer and Crofts (Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1183:72-84, 1993). Rates for the simulation were optimized by constructing large numbers of parameter sets using Latin hypercube sampling and selecting those that gave the minimum mean square deviation from experiment. Multiple copies of the simulation program were run in parallel on a Beowulf cluster. We found that Latin hypercube sampling works well as a method for approximately optimizing very noisy objective functions of 15 or 22 variables. Further, the simplified Q-cycle model can reproduce experimental results in the presence or absence of a quinone reductase (Q(i)) site inhibitor without invoking ad hoc side-reactions. PMID:21221830

  13. Data analysis and other considerations concerning the study of precipitation in Al–Mg–Si alloys by Atom Probe Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Zandbergen, M.W.; Xu, Q.; Cerezo, A.; Smith, G.D.W.

    2015-01-01

    Atom Probe Tomography (APT) analysis and hardness measurements were used to characterize the early stages of precipitation in an Al–0.51 at%Mg–0.94 at%Si alloy as reported in the accompanying Acta Materialia paper [1]. The changes in microstructure were investigated after single-stage or multi-stage heat treatments including natural ageing at 298 K (NA), pre-ageing at 353 K (PA), and automotive paint-bake ageing conditions at 453 K (PB). This article provides Supporting information and a detailed report on the experimental conditions and the data analysis methods used for this investigation. Careful design of experimental conditions and analysis methods was carried out to obtain consistent and reliable results. Detailed data on clustering for prolonged NA and PA treatments have been reported. PMID:26958619

  14. Properties of X-ray resonant scattering in the Bragg case revealed on the Riemann surface.

    PubMed

    Saka, Takashi

    2016-07-01

    Continuing the work described in the previous paper [Saka (2016). Acta Cryst. A72, 338-348], the dynamical theory for perfect crystals in the Bragg case is reformulated using the Riemann surface. In particular, diffraction under resonant scattering conditions is investigated. The characteristic features of the dispersion surface and the rocking curve are analytically revealed using four parameters, which are the real and imaginary parts of two quantities specifying the degree of departure from the exact Bragg conditions and the reflection strength. Characteristic properties that have been deduced through numerical analysis are derived analytically using these four parameters. Visualization of the geometric relationships between the four parameters on the Riemann surface is useful for understanding many properties such as symmetry and sharpness of the rocking curve under special conditions. Therefore, employing the Riemann surface is instructive for numerical analysis and useful for understanding dynamical diffraction in the Bragg case. PMID:27357849

  15. A triclinic polymorph of (E)-2-(4-iso­butyl­phen­yl)-N′-[1-(4-nitro­phen­yl)ethyl­idene]propano­hydrazide

    PubMed Central

    Manjunath, B. C.; Madan Kumar, S.; Vinayaka, A. C.; Jayasheelan, S.; Sadashiva, M. P.; Lokanath, N. K.

    2013-01-01

    The asymmetric unit of the triclinic polymorph of the title compound, C21H25N3O3, consists of two mol­ecules, whereas for the monoclinic polymorph Z′ = 1 [Fun et al. (2009 ▶). Acta Cryst. E65, o445]. The two mol­ecules exhibit an E configuration with respect to the C=N bond. The mol­ecules are linked into dimers by N—H⋯O and C—H⋯O hydrogen bonds forming R 2 2(8) ring motifs. In addition, π–π inter­actions occur between nitro­phenyl groups [minimum centroid–centroid distance 3.940 (2) Å], stacking the molecules along the ac plane. PMID:24109404

  16. Engineering an artificial amoeba propelled by nanoparticle-triggered actin polymerization.

    PubMed

    Yi, Jinsoo; Schmidt, Jacob; Chien, Aichi; Montemagno, Carlo D

    2009-02-25

    We have engineered an amoeba system combining nanofabricated inorganic materials with biological components, capable of propelling itself via actin polymerization. The nanofabricated materials have a mechanism similar to the locomotion of the Listeria monocytogenes, food poisoning bacteria. The propulsive force generation utilizes nanoparticles made from nickel and gold functionalized with the Listeria monocytogenes transmembrane protein, ActA. These Listeria-mimic nanoparticles were in concert with actin, actin binding proteins, ATP (adenosine triphosphate) and encapsulated within a lipid vesicle. This system is an artificial cell, such as a vesicle, where artificial nanobacteria and actin polymerization machinery are used in driving force generators inside the cell. The assembled structure was observed to crawl on a glass surface analogously to an amoeba, with the speed of the movement dependent on the amount of actin monomers and ATP present. PMID:19417437

  17. Engineering an artificial amoeba propelled by nanoparticle-triggered actin polymerization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, Jinsoo; Schmidt, Jacob; Chien, Aichi; Montemagno, Carlo D.

    2009-02-01

    We have engineered an amoeba system combining nanofabricated inorganic materials with biological components, capable of propelling itself via actin polymerization. The nanofabricated materials have a mechanism similar to the locomotion of the Listeria monocytogenes, food poisoning bacteria. The propulsive force generation utilizes nanoparticles made from nickel and gold functionalized with the Listeria monocytogenes transmembrane protein, ActA. These Listeria-mimic nanoparticles were in concert with actin, actin binding proteins, ATP (adenosine triphosphate) and encapsulated within a lipid vesicle. This system is an artificial cell, such as a vesicle, where artificial nanobacteria and actin polymerization machinery are used in driving force generators inside the cell. The assembled structure was observed to crawl on a glass surface analogously to an amoeba, with the speed of the movement dependent on the amount of actin monomers and ATP present.

  18. A redetermination of the structure of poly[[μ4-(R)-2-ammonio-3-sulfonato­propano­ato]aqua­sodium], originally reported as poly[[μ7-l-cysteato(2−)]disodium

    PubMed Central

    Brown, I. David

    2012-01-01

    The structure originally reported as poly[[μ7-l-cysteato(2−)]disodium], [Na2(C3H5NO5S)]n [Liu (2002). Acta Cryst. E67, m1346–m1347], has been redetermined with one of the sodium atoms replaced with a water mol­ecule and an additional proton attached to the amine group, resulting in the revised formula [Na{CO2CH(CH2SO3)NH3}(H2O)]n. The agreement index, wR, has been reduced from 0.159 to 0.087 and the global instability index from 0.56 vu (valence units) to the acceptable value of 0.11 vu. PMID:22606082

  19. Cybip, a starfish cyclin B-binding protein, is involved in meiotic M-phase exit.

    PubMed

    Offner, Nicolas; Derancourt, Jean; Lozano, Jean Claude; Schatt, Philippe; Picard, André; Peaucellier, Gérard

    2003-01-01

    We designed a screen to identify starfish oocyte proteins able to bind monomeric cyclin B by affinity chromatography on a cyclin B splice variant displaying low affinity for cdc2. We identified a 15kDa protein previously described as a cdk-binding protein [Biochim. Biophys. Acta Mol. Cell Res. 1589 (2002) 219-231]. Cybip is encoded by a single polymorphic gene and the native protein is matured by cleaving a signal peptide. We firmly establish the fact that it is a true cyclin B-binding protein, since the recombinant protein binds recombinant cyclin B in absence of any cdk. Finally, we show that the microinjection of GST-cybip, and of anti-cybip antibody, in maturing starfish oocytes, inhibits H1 kinase and MPF inactivation, and first polar body emission. PMID:12480530

  20. Barrow, Leibniz and the geometrical proof of the fundamental theorem of the calculus.

    PubMed

    Nauenberg, Michael

    2014-07-01

    In 1693, Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz published in the Acta Eruditorum a geometrical proof of the fundamental theorem of the calculus. It is shown that this proof closely resembles Isaac Barrow's proof in Proposition 11, Lecture 10, of his Lectiones Geometricae, published in 1670. This comparison provides evidence that Leibniz gained substantial help from Barrow's book in formulating and presenting his geometrical formulation of this theorem. The analysis herein also supports the work of J. M. Child, who in 1920 studied the early manuscripts of Leibniz and concluded that he had frequently copied his diagrams from Barrow's book, but without acknowledgement. It is also shown that the diagram of Leibniz associated with his 1693 proof has often been reproduced with errors that make some aspects of his text difficult to comprehend. PMID:24908795

  1. Characterization and expression of two genes encoding isoforms of a putative Na, K-ATPase in the chytridiomycete Blastocladiella emersonii.

    PubMed

    Fietto, Luciano Gomes; Pugliese, Luciana; Gomes, Suely Lopes

    2002-06-01

    A P-type ATPase gene (BePAT1) from the aquatic fungus Blastocladiella emersonii, which surprisingly showed high similarity with the alpha-subunit of Na, K-ATPases from animal cells, has been reported recently [Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1383 (1998) 183]. In the present study, we describe the characterization of a second gene, denominated BePAT2, and show that these two genes have a different intron-exon structure but encode putative proteins with greater than 90% amino acid identity. Northern blot and multiplex reverse transcription and polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assays have revealed that BePAT1 and BePAT2 genes have a non-coordinate, developmentally regulated expression during B. emersonii life cycle. Phosphoenzyme formation experiments using the immunopurified enzymes have indicated the presence of a Na, K-ATPase-like activity. Furthermore, immunofluorescence studies using B. emersonii zoospores localized the ATPases on the plasma membrane of these cells. PMID:12031485

  2. Thermo-hydrologic modelling of permafrost with OpenFOAM®: perspectives of applications to the study of weathering in boreal areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laurent, Orgogozo; Oleg S., Pokrovsky; Yves, Goddéris; Christophe, Grenier; Jerome, Viers; David, Labat; Stephane, Audry; Anatoly, Prokushkin

    2015-04-01

    this tool for the study of the weathering processes in boreal areas will be discussed. [1] Pokrovsky O.S. et al., 2005. Geochimi. Cosmochim. Acta 69. [2] Pokrovsky O.S. et al., 2006. Geochimi. Cosmochim. Acta 70. [3] Bagard M.-L. et al., 2011. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 75. [4] Berner R.A., 1992. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 56. [5] Zimov S.A. et al., 2006. Science 312. [6] http://www.openfoam.com/ [7] Orgogozo et al., 2014. Comput. Phys. Commun. 185. [8] Beaulieu E. et al., 2010. Geochem. Geophys. Geosyst. 11. [9] Goddéris Y. et al., 2012. Biogeosciences Discuss. 9. [10] Grenier C. et al., 2013. AGU, Fall Meeting 2013, abstract #C44B-06 [11] https://wiki.lsce.ipsl.fr/interfrost/doku.php?id=home [12] Orgogozo L. et al., 2014. In "Permafrost: Distribution, Composition and Impacts on Infrastructure and Ecosystems", ed. O.S. Pokrovsky, Nova Publishers.

  3. On the efficiency of VBSCF algorithms, a comment on "An efficient algorithm for energy gradients and orbital optimization in valence bond theory".

    PubMed

    van Lenthe, J H; Broer-Braam, H B; Rashid, Z

    2012-03-30

    We comment on the paper [Song et al., J. Comput. Chem. 2009, 30, 399]. and discuss the efficiency of the orbital optimization and gradient evaluation in the Valence Bond Self Consistent Field (VBSCF) method. We note that Song et al. neglect to properly reference Broer et al., who published an algorithm [Broer and Nieuwpoort, Theor. Chim. Acta 1988, 73, 405] to use a Fock matrix to compute a matrix element between two different determinants, which can be used for an orbital optimization. Further, Song et al. publish a misleading comparison with our VBSCF algorithm [Dijkstra and van Lenthe, J. Chem. Phys. 2000, 113, 2100; van Lenthe et al., Mol. Phys. 1991, 73, 1159] to enable them to favorably compare their algorithm with ours. We give detail timings in terms of different orbital types in the calculation and actual timings for the example cases. PMID:22278948

  4. A family of ternary decagonal tilings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujita, Nobuhisa

    2010-04-01

    A new family of decagonal quasiperiodic tilings are constructed by the use of generalized point substitution processes, which is a new substitution formalism developed by the author [N. Fujita, Acta Cryst. A 65, 342 (2009)]. These tilings are composed of three prototiles: an acute rhombus, a regular pentagon and a barrel shaped hexagon. In the perpendicular space, these tilings have windows with fractal boundaries, and the windows are analytically derived as the fixed sets of the conjugate maps associated with the relevant substitution rules. It is shown that the family contains an infinite number of local isomorphism classes which can be grouped into several symmetry classes (e.g., C10, D5, etc.). The member tilings are transformed into one another through collective simpleton flips, which are associated with the reorganization in the window boundaries.

  5. Chronology of meteorites and the early solar system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krot, Alexander N.; Bizzarro, Martin

    2009-09-01

    Understanding the chronology of the chondritic and differentiated meteorites can potentially important constraints on the accretion and origin of the solar system planets, life-time of our protoplanetary disk and circumstellar disks around solar mass stars, and astrophysical setting of the solar system formation. The special issue of Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta consists of invited and contributed papers presented at the Workshop on The Chronology of Meteorites and the Early Solar System, Kauai, 2007 and is honoring the outstanding contributions of C.J. Allégre, G.W. Lugmair, L.E. Nyquist, D.A. Papanastassiou, and G.J. Wasserburg to our understanding of the chronology of the early Solar System.

  6. Helical plasma striations in liners in the presence of an external axial magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atoyan, L.; Hammer, D. A.; Kusse, B. R.; Byvank, T.; Cahill, A. D.; Greenly, J. B.; Pikuz, S. A.; Shelkovenko, T. A.

    2016-02-01

    Awe et al. found on the 20 MA Z machine [Acta Phys. Pol. A 115, 956 (2009)] that applying an externally generated axial magnetic field to an imploding liner leads to a helical pattern in the liner when viewed with soft x-ray radiography ([Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 235005 (2013)] and [Phys. Plasmas 21, 056303 (2014)]). Here, we show that this phenomenon is also observed in extreme ultraviolet self-emission images of 10 mm long cylindrical metal liners having varying diameters and varying wall thicknesses on a 1 MA, 100-200 ns pulsed power generator. The magnetic field in these experiments is created using either twisted return current wires positioned close to the liner, generating a time-varying Bz, or a Helmholtz coil, generating a steady-state Bz.

  7. Bcl-2 mutants with restricted subcellular location reveal spatially distinct pathways for apoptosis in different cell types.

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, W; Cowie, A; Wasfy, G W; Penn, L Z; Leber, B; Andrews, D W

    1996-01-01

    Human Bcl-2 is located in multiple intracellular membranes when expressed in MDCK and Rat-1/myc cells. We restricted expression to the endoplasmic reticulum or mitochondria by exchanging the Bcl-2 carboxy-terminal insertion sequence for an equivalent sequence from cytochrome b5 or ActA, respectively. MDCK cells are protected from serum deprivation-induced apoptosis by both wild-type Bcl-2 and the mutant targeted to mitochondria but not by the mutant targeted to endoplasmic reticulum. In contrast, when expressed in Rat-1/myc cells, the Bcl-2 mutant located at the endoplasmic reticulum is more effective than that targeted to mitochondria. In MDCK cells both mutants bind Bax as effectively as wild-type, demonstrating that Bax binding is not sufficient to prevent apoptosis. Images PMID:8861942

  8. Cloning and Heterologous Expression of the Grecocycline Biosynthetic Gene Cluster.

    PubMed

    Bilyk, Oksana; Sekurova, Olga N; Zotchev, Sergey B; Luzhetskyy, Andriy

    2016-01-01

    Transformation-associated recombination (TAR) in yeast is a rapid and inexpensive method for cloning and assembly of large DNA fragments, which relies on natural homologous recombination. Two vectors, based on p15a and F-factor replicons that can be maintained in yeast, E. coli and streptomycetes have been constructed. These vectors have been successfully employed for assembly of the grecocycline biosynthetic gene cluster from Streptomyces sp. Acta 1362. Fragments of the cluster were obtained by PCR and transformed together with the "capture" vector into the yeast cells, yielding a construct carrying the entire gene cluster. The obtained construct was heterologously expressed in S. albus J1074, yielding several grecocycline congeners. Grecocyclines have unique structural moieties such as a dissacharide side chain, an additional amino sugar at the C-5 position and a thiol group. Enzymes from this pathway may be used for the derivatization of known active angucyclines in order to improve their desired biological properties. PMID:27410036

  9. A spectroscopic and computational study of Al(III) complexes in cryolite melts: Effect of cation nature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nazmutdinov, Renat R.; Zinkicheva, Tamara T.; Vassiliev, Sergey Yu.; Glukhov, Dmitrii V.; Tsirlina, Galina A.; Probst, Michael

    2013-02-01

    Lithium, sodium and potassium cryolite melts are probed by Raman spectroscopy in a wide range of the melt composition. The experimental data demonstrate a slight red shift of main peaks and a decrease of their half-widths in the row Li+, Na+, K+. Quantum chemical modelling of the systems is performed at the density functional theory level. The ionic environment is found to play a crucial role in the energy of fluoroaluminates. Potential energy surfaces describing the formation/dissociation of certain complex species, as well as model Raman spectra are constructed and compared with those obtained recently for sodium containing cryolite melts (R.R. Nazmutdinov, et al., Spectrochim, Acta A 75 (2010) 1244.). The calculations show that the cation nature affects the geometry of the ionic associates as well as the equilibrium and kinetics of the complexation processes. This enables to interpret both original experimental data and those reported in literature.

  10. A spectroscopic and computational study of Al(III) complexes in cryolite melts: Effect of cation nature

    PubMed Central

    Nazmutdinov, Renat R.; Zinkicheva, Tamara T.; Vassiliev, Sergey Yu.; Glukhov, Dmitrii V.; Tsirlina, Galina A.; Probst, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Lithium, sodium and potassium cryolite melts are probed by Raman spectroscopy in a wide range of the melt composition. The experimental data demonstrate a slight red shift of main peaks and a decrease of their half-widths in the row Li+, Na+, K+. Quantum chemical modelling of the systems is performed at the density functional theory level. The ionic environment is found to play a crucial role in the energy of fluoroaluminates. Potential energy surfaces describing the formation/dissociation of certain complex species, as well as model Raman spectra are constructed and compared with those obtained recently for sodium containing cryolite melts (R.R. Nazmutdinov, et al., Spectrochim, Acta A 75 (2010) 1244.). The calculations show that the cation nature affects the geometry of the ionic associates as well as the equilibrium and kinetics of the complexation processes. This enables to interpret both original experimental data and those reported in literature. PMID:23408115

  11. A spectroscopic and computational study of Al(III) complexes in cryolite melts: Effect of cation nature.

    PubMed

    Nazmutdinov, Renat R; Zinkicheva, Tamara T; Vassiliev, Sergey Yu; Glukhov, Dmitrii V; Tsirlina, Galina A; Probst, Michael

    2013-02-01

    Lithium, sodium and potassium cryolite melts are probed by Raman spectroscopy in a wide range of the melt composition. The experimental data demonstrate a slight red shift of main peaks and a decrease of their half-widths in the row Li(+), Na(+), K(+). Quantum chemical modelling of the systems is performed at the density functional theory level. The ionic environment is found to play a crucial role in the energy of fluoroaluminates. Potential energy surfaces describing the formation/dissociation of certain complex species, as well as model Raman spectra are constructed and compared with those obtained recently for sodium containing cryolite melts (R.R. Nazmutdinov, et al., Spectrochim, Acta A 75 (2010) 1244.). The calculations show that the cation nature affects the geometry of the ionic associates as well as the equilibrium and kinetics of the complexation processes. This enables to interpret both original experimental data and those reported in literature. PMID:23408115

  12. Siderophore-mediated oxidation of Ce and fractionation of HREE by Mn (hydr)oxide-coprecipitation and sorption on MnO2: Experimental evidence for negative Ce-anomalies in abiogenic manganese precipitates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krämer, Dennis; Tepe, Nathalie; Bau, Michael

    2014-05-01

    )oxides (e.g., Tanaka et al., 2010, Loges et al., 2012). Our experimental results demonstrate that biogenic organic ligands such as hydroxamate siderophores, may produce solutions with positive Ce anomaly (Bau et al., 2013) and may even counteract the surface oxidation of Ce on Mn (hydr)oxides. References Bau, M., Tepe, N., Mohwinkel, D., 2013. Siderophore-promoted transfer of rare earth elements and iron from volcanic ash into glacial meltwater, river and ocean water. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 364, 30-36. Christenson E. A. and Schijf J. (2011) Stability of YREE complexes with the trihydroxamate siderophore desferrioxamine B at seawater ionic strength. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 75, 7047-7062. Loges, A., Wagner, T., Barth, M., Bau, M., Göb, S., and Markl, G. 2012. Negative Ce anomalies in Mn oxides: The role of Ce4+ mobility during water-mineral interaction. Geochimica and Cosmochimica Acta 86, 296-317 Ohta A. and Kawabe I. (2001) REE (III) adsorption onto Mn dioxide (delta-MnO2) and Fe oxyhydroxide: Ce(III) oxidation by delta-MnO2. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 65, 695-703. Tanaka K., Tani Y., Takahashi Y., Tanimizu M., Suzuki Y., Kozai N. and Ohnuki T. (2010) A specific Ce oxidation process during sorption of rare earth elements on biogenic Mn oxide produced by Acremonium sp. strain KR21-2. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 74, 5463-5477.

  13. 3-[2-(3-Methyl­quinoxalin-2-yl­oxy)eth­yl]-1,3-oxazolidin-2-one

    PubMed Central

    Ahoya, Caleb Anothane; Bouhfid, Rachid; Daouda, Ballo; Essassi, El Mokhtar; El Ammari, Lahcen

    2010-01-01

    Two isomers were isolated during the reaction between 3-methyl­quinoxalin-2-one and bis­(2-chloro­ethyl)amine hydro­chloride. The crystal structure of one isomer has already been reported [Caleb, Bouhfid, Essassi & El Ammari (2009). Acta Cryst. E65, o2024–o2025], while that of the second isomer is the subject of this work. The title compound, C14H15N3O3, has a new structure containing oxazolidine and quinoxaline rings linked by an eth­oxy group. The main difference between the two isomers is the position of the oxazolidine group with respect to the quinoxaline system. The dihedral angle between the fused planar rings and the oxazolidin-2-one ring is 41.63 (8)° in the title mol­ecule. PMID:21579110

  14. Tunable-channel multiaccess (TCMA) networks: a new class of high-speed networks suitable for multimedia integrated networking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheung, Kwok-wai; Chen, Lian-Kuan; Su, C.; Yeung, C. T.; To, P. T.

    1993-11-01

    Tunable-channel multi-access (TCMA) networks are a new class of multi-channel networks that employ local channel tuning to reduce the node complexity. These networks are hybrids of switching networks and multiaccess networks and are vary suitable for high-speed multimedia integrated networking. Various distributed network protocols for these TCMA networks based on star, bus and ring topologies are discussed, including two particularly promising protocols, ACTA and EQEB. Both are based on bus/ring topologies, compatible to ATM, have simple design, high throughput, low delay and a performance that is independent of the round-trip delay. Various multiplexing strategies (space-division, wavelength-division, time-division and subcarrier) employing regenerative and non-regenerative implementations are also discussed.

  15. Trimesic acid dimethyl sulfoxide solvate: space group revision

    PubMed Central

    Bernès, Sylvain; Hernández, Guadalupe; Portillo, Roberto; Gutiérrez, René

    2008-01-01

    The structure of the title solvate, C9H6O6·C2H6OS, was determined 30 years ago [Herbstein, Kapon & Wasserman (1978 ▶). Acta Cryst. B34, 1613–1617], with data collected at room temperature, and refined in the space group P21. The present redetermination, based on high-resolution diffraction data, shows that the actual space group is more likely to be P21/m. The crystal structure contains layers of trimesic acid molecules lying on mirror planes. A mirror plane also passes through the S and O atoms of the solvent molecule. The molecules in each layer are inter­connected through strong O—H⋯O hydrogen bonds, forming a two-dimensional supra­molecular network within each layer. The donor groups are the hydroxyls of the trimesic acid mol­ecules, while the acceptors are the carbonyl or the sulfoxide O atoms. PMID:21202984

  16. Infrared and density functional theory studies of formic acid hydrate clusters in noble gas matrices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ito, Fumiyuki

    2016-08-01

    Infrared absorption spectra of formic acid hydrate clusters (HCOOH)m(H2O)n have been measured in noble gas matrices (Ar and Kr). The concentration dependence of the spectra and the comparison with a previous experimental study on HCOOH(H2O) and HCOOH(H2O)2 [Geoge et al., Spectrochim. Acta, Part A 60 (2004) 3225] led to the identification of large clusters. Density functional theory calculations at the B3LYP-DCP/6-31+G(2d,2p) level were carried out to determine the anharmonic vibrational properties of the clusters, enabling a consistent assignment of the observed vibrational peaks to specific clusters.

  17. Separate binding sites for antimycin and mucidin in the respiratory chain of the bacterium Paracoccus denitrificans and their occurrence in other denitrificans bacteria.

    PubMed Central

    Kucera, I; Hedbávný, R; Dadák, V

    1988-01-01

    By means of the method of fluorimetric titration it has been shown that mucidin does not affect the attachment of antimycin to membranes from anaerobically grown Paracoccus denitrificans. The fluorimetric titration with antimycin can be used in the determination of the amount of the cytochrome bc1 complex in the membrane. In cells inhibited with antimycin, the oxidation of cytochromes c was accompanied by the reduction of cytochrome b; in the presence of mucidin this effect did not take place. The results, which indicated a difference in binding sites, were interpreted in terms of the Q-cycle [Mitchell (1976) J. Theor. Biol. 62, 327-367; Trumpower (1981) Biochim. Biophys. Acta 639, 129-155]. Comparable sensitivity towards antimycin and mucidin was shown by other typical denitrifying bacteria: Pseudomonas stutzeri and Alcaligenes xylosoidans, subspecies denitrificans. PMID:2844159

  18. Redetermination of AgPO(3).

    PubMed

    Terebilenko, Katherina V; Zatovsky, Igor V; Ogorodnyk, Ivan V; Baumer, Vyacheslav N; Slobodyanik, Nikolay S

    2011-01-01

    Single crystals of silver(I) polyphosphate(V), AgPO(3), were prepared via a phospho-ric acid melt method using a solution of Ag(3)PO(4) in H(3)PO(4). In comparison with the previous study based on single-crystal Weissenberg photographs [Jost (1961 ▶). Acta Cryst. 14, 779-784], the results were mainly confirmed, but with much higher precision and with all displacement parameters refined anisotropically. The structure is built up from two types of distorted edge- and corner-sharing [AgO(5)] polyhedra, giving rise to multidirectional ribbons, and from two types of PO(4) tetra-hedra linked into meandering chains (PO(3))(n) spreading parallel to the b axis with a repeat unit of four tetra-hedra. The calculated bond-valence sum value of one of the two Ag(I) ions indicates a significant strain of the structure. PMID:21522230

  19. Cloning and Heterologous Expression of the Grecocycline Biosynthetic Gene Cluster

    PubMed Central

    Bilyk, Oksana; Sekurova, Olga N.; Zotchev, Sergey B.; Luzhetskyy, Andriy

    2016-01-01

    Transformation-associated recombination (TAR) in yeast is a rapid and inexpensive method for cloning and assembly of large DNA fragments, which relies on natural homologous recombination. Two vectors, based on p15a and F-factor replicons that can be maintained in yeast, E. coli and streptomycetes have been constructed. These vectors have been successfully employed for assembly of the grecocycline biosynthetic gene cluster from Streptomyces sp. Acta 1362. Fragments of the cluster were obtained by PCR and transformed together with the “capture” vector into the yeast cells, yielding a construct carrying the entire gene cluster. The obtained construct was heterologously expressed in S. albus J1074, yielding several grecocycline congeners. Grecocyclines have unique structural moieties such as a dissacharide side chain, an additional amino sugar at the C-5 position and a thiol group. Enzymes from this pathway may be used for the derivatization of known active angucyclines in order to improve their desired biological properties. PMID:27410036

  20. Is it jolly SAD?

    PubMed

    Dodson, Eleanor

    2003-11-01

    Examples of phasing macromolecular crystal structures based on single-wavelength anomalous dispersion (SAD) have demonstrated that this approach may have general applications in structural biology. With better data-collection facilities and cryogenic techniques, combined with powerful data-processing, phasing and density-modification programs, the SAD approach may prove simpler than phasing from multi-wavelength (MAD) measurements. It can be performed at any wavelength where anomalous scattering can be observed, in many cases using laboratory X-ray sources. However, there is still a need for accurate data, successful phase improvement and a certain amount of luck. This paper extends the discussion of Jolly SAD in Dauter et al. [Dauter, Z., Dauter, M. & Dodson, E. (2002), Acta Cryst. D58, 494-506]. PMID:14573950

  1. 2,2′-(1,3-Diazinane-1,3-di­yl)diaceto­nitrile: a second monoclinic polymorph

    PubMed Central

    Rivera, Augusto; Maldonado, Mauricio; Ríos-Motta, Jaime; Fejfarová, Karla; Dušek, Michal

    2011-01-01

    A new monoclinic polymorph of the title compound, C8H12N4, in the space group P21/n (Z = 4) is reported. The previously known form was also monoclinic, P21 /c (Z = 4), but the unit-cell parameters and crystal packing were different [Shoja & Saba (1993 ▶). Acta Cryst. C49, 354–355]. The hexa­hydro­pyrimidine ring of the title compound adopts a chair conformation with a diequatorial substitution and with the CH2-C N groups oriented nearly parallel and in the same direction [NC—CH2⋯CH2—CN pseudo torsion angle = −6.27 (18)°]. In the crystal, inter­molecular C—H⋯ N hydrogen bonds connects the mol­ecules into a chain along the b axis. PMID:22065712

  2. Refining a model electron-density map via the Phantom Derivative method.

    PubMed

    Burla, Maria Cristina; Carrozzini, Benedetta; Cascarano, Giovanni Luca; Giacovazzo, Carmelo; Polidori, Giampiero

    2015-09-01

    The Phantom Derivative (PhD) method [Giacovazzo (2015), Acta Cryst. A71, 483-512] has recently been described for ab initio and non-ab initio phasing. It is based on the random generation of structures with the same unit cell and the same space group as the target structure (called ancil structures), which are used to create derivatives devoid of experimental diffraction amplitudes. In this paper, the non-ab initio variant of the method was checked using phase sets obtained by molecular-replacement techniques as a starting point for phase extension and refinement. It has been shown that application of PhD is able to extend and refine phases in a way that is competitive with other electron-density modification techniques. PMID:26327376

  3. A Unique Type 4 Chondrite from the Sahara-Acfer 217

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bland, P.; Hutchison, R.; Pillinger, C. T.; Bischoff, A.

    1992-07-01

    therefore is a mixture between chromite, magnetite, and ulvospinel. Variation in the composition of this phase is principally in total Fe and Cr, which vary inversely. No Fe-Ni metal was found and troilite is extremely rare; the only analysis has trace Ni. Ni is undetectable in olivine and is depleted in the sample as a whole and this, together with higher mean Fa-values, would tend to rule out a relationship with CK-chondrites (Kallemeyn et al., 1990). Similarly, whilst the fayalite content in olivine might suggest a high-grade CO chondrite the lack of troilite, kamacite, and taenite and the abundance of Cr-rich spinel would tend to preclude this (McSween, 1976). Acfer 217 is a chondrite that is exceptionally poor in metal and sulfide and rich in oxidised Fe. It appears to be unique. Further work will include an oxygen isotope study to determine any relationship with known groups of meteorites. References: Kallemeyn G. W., Rubin A. E. and Wasson J. T. (1990) Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 55, 881-892. McSween H. Y. (1976) Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 41, 477-491. McSween H. Y. (1977) Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 41, 1843-60. Stoffler D., Keil K. and Scott E.R.D. (1991) Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 55, 3845-3867.

  4. Exotic Molecules in Space: A Coordinated Astronomical Laboratory and Theoretical Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stringfellow, Guy (Technical Monitor); Thaddeus, Patrick

    2004-01-01

    The final report covers the two year of a grant which represents a direct continuation of NASA NAG5-4050, with the same title as before. It is dedicated as before to the discovery and characterization of new astrophysical molecules. The four years (two of the original grant plus two years extension) have been extremely productive, yielding many new discoveries of astronomical interest at both radio and optical wavelengths, and the publication or submission of the 49 papers listed below. These articles have appeared or will soon appear in the leading refereed journals of astrophysics, chemical physics, physics, or molecular spectroscopy. One is a major invited review (#27) for Moleculur Physics. One of our other invited reviews published in Spectrochimica Acta in 2001 was recently awarded the Sir Harold Thompson Memorial Award, annually given to the best paper in that journal. Michael McCarthy has recently been awarded the Broida Prize.

  5. The Relationship Between Metal and Silicates in Type I Chondrules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hewins, R. H.; Zanda, B.

    1992-07-01

    ranges could have different metal-silicate ratios. High concentrations of Si, Cr, and P in metal in chondrules have been explained as due to precursor grains of condensation origin (Grossman and Olsen, 1974; Desnoyers, 1980; Zanda, 1992) but might alternatively be due to reduction during melting at very low oxygen fugacities (Dickinson et al., 1992). We find the highest concentrations of Cr and Si in the metal in the chondrules with the highest degree of melting associated with the most magnesian silicates. This suggests that these elements were reduced into the metal during chondrule melting. However, among these forsteritic chondrules, those that experienced higher oxygen fugacities based on Cr partitioning between olivine and metal have metal grains with silica melt droplets instead of reduced Si. This indicates oxidation during cooling at temperatures exceeding 1713 degrees C. Clearly metal, like silicate, was modified during chondrule formation and that probably accounts both for the integration of Cr and Si into metal and the formation of the round silica inclusions observed by Perron et al. (1992). References: McSween H. Jr. (1977) Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 41, 1843-1860. Zanda B., Bourot-Denise M., and Perron C. (1991) Lunar Planet. Sci. XXII, 1543-1544. Rambaldi E.R. and Wasson J.T. (1981) Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 45, 1001-1015. Grossman J. and Wasson J.T. (1987) Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 51, 3003-3011. Grossman L. and Olsen E. (1974) Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 38, 173- 187. Desnoyer C. (1980) Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 47, 223-234. Dickinson T.L., Lofgren G.E., and Casanova I. (1992) Lunar Planet. Sci. XXII, 309-310. Perron C., Zanda B., Bourot-Denise M., and Mostefaoui S. (1992) Meteoritics, this volume.

  6. Tetra­methyl 1,1,2-triphenyl-2H-1λ5-phosphole-2,3,4,5-tetra­carboxyl­ate

    PubMed Central

    Krawczyk, Krzysztof K.; Wojtasiewicz, Krystyna; Maurin, Jan K.; Gronowska, Ewa; Czarnocki, Zbigniew

    2010-01-01

    The title compound, C30H27O8P (1), was formed as one of two products {(1) and (2) [Krawczyk et al. (2010 ▶). Acta Cryst. E66 (cv2753)]} in the reaction of dimethyl acetyl­enedicarboxyl­ate with triphenyl­phosphine. The mol­ecule of (1) consists of a five-membered ring, in which the P atom is incorporated. One of the phenyl groups of the triphenyl­phosphine migrated to a vicinal C atom during the reaction. The five-membered ring of (1) is corrugated [r.m.s. deviation = 0.0719 (8) Å], whereas that in compound (2) is planar, the r.m.s. deviation being only 0.009 (2) Å. PMID:21588988

  7. 1,3,5-Tri-p-tolyl­pentane-1,5-diol

    PubMed Central

    Thiruvalluvar, A.; Chithiravel, R.; Muthusubramanian, S.; Butcher, R. J.

    2014-01-01

    In the title compound, C26H30O2, the central benzene ring forms dihedral angles of 14.85 (15) and 28.17 (14)° with the terminal benzene rings. The dihedral angle between the terminal benzene rings is 32.14 (13)°. The crystal packing exhibits two strong inter­molecular O—H⋯O hydrogen bonds, forming directed four-membered co-operative rings. A region of disordered electron density, most probably disordered ethyl acetate solvent mol­ecules, occupying voids of ca 519 Å3 for an electron count of 59, was treated using the SQUEEZE routine in PLATON [Spek (2009 ▶). Acta Cryst. D65, 148–155]. Their formula mass and unit-cell characteristics were not taken into account during refinement. The structure was refined as an inversion twin [absolute structure parameter = −0.3 (4)]. PMID:24764851

  8. The 2011 Dynamics of Molecular Collisions Conference

    SciTech Connect

    Nesbitt, David J.

    2011-07-11

    Yuan T. Lee & Professor George Schatz. Professor Lee’s research has been based on the development & use of advanced chemical kinetics & molecular beams to investigate & manipulate the behavior of fundamental chemical reactions. Lee’s work has been recognized by many awards, including the Nobel Prize for Chemistry in 1986, as well as Sloan Fellow, Dreyfus Scholar, Fellowship in the American Academy of Arts & Sciences, Fellowship in the American Physical Society, Guggenheim Fellow, Member National Academy of Sciences, Member Academia Sinica, E.O. Lawrence Award, Miller Professor, Berkeley, Fairchild Distinguished Scholar, Harrison Howe Award, Peter Debye Award, & the National Medal of Science. Lee also has served as the President of the Academia Sinica in Taiwan (ROC). Professor Schatz’s research group is interested in using theory & computation to describe physical phenomena in a broad range of applications relevant to chemistry, physics, biology & engineering. Among the types of applications that we interested are: optical properties of nanoparticles & nanoparticle assemblies; using theory to model polymer properties; DNA structure, thermodynamics & dynamics; modeling self assembly & nanopatterning; & gas phase reaction dynamics. Among his many awards & distinctions have been appointment as an Alfred P. Sloan Research Fellow, Camille & Henry Dreyfus Teacher-Scholar, the Fresenius Award, Fellow of the American Physical Society, the Max Planck Research Award, Fellowship in the American Association for the Advancement of Science, & election to the International Academy of Quantum Molecular Sciences & the American Academy of Arts & Sciences. Dr Schatz is also lauded for his highly successful work as Editor for the Journal of Physical Chemistry. We requested $10,000 from DOE in support of this meeting. The money was distributed widely among the student & post doctoral fellows & some used to attract the very best scientists in the field. The organizers were committed

  9. A subarcsecond study of the hot molecular core in G023.01-00.41

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanna, A.; Cesaroni, R.; Moscadelli, L.; Zhang, Q.; Menten, K. M.; Molinari, S.; Caratti o Garatti, A.; De Buizer, J. M.

    2014-05-01

    single O9.5 ZAMS star, consistent with the estimated bolometric luminosity of G023.01-00.41. The physical properties of the CO (2-1) outflow emission, such as its momentum rate 6 × 10-3 M⊙ km s-1 yr-1 and its outflow rate 2 × 10-4 M⊙ yr-1, support our estimates of the luminosity (and mass) of the embedded young stellar object. Based on observations carried out with the Submillimeter Array. The Submillimeter Array is a joint project between the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory and the Academia Sinica Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics and is funded by the Smithsonian Institution and the Academia Sinica.Final SMA and Herschel maps are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/565/A34

  10. Linking pre- and proto-stellar objects in the intermediate-/high-mass star forming region IRAS 05345+3157

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fontani, F.; Zhang, Q.; Caselli, P.; Bourke, T. L.

    2009-05-01

    star formation process has not yet taken place there. Conclusions: The study of the gas kinematics across the source indicates a tight interaction between deuterated condensations and the sources embedded in millimeter cores. For the nature of N and S, we propose two scenarios: they can be low-mass pre-stellar condensations or “seeds” of future high-mass star(s). However, from these data it is not possible to establish how the turbulence triggered by the neghbouring cluster of protostars can influence the evolution of the condensations. Based on observations carried out with the IRAM Plateau de Bure Interferometer. IRAM is supported by INSU/CNRS (France), MPG (Germany) and IGN (Spain). The Submillimeter Array is a joint project between the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory and the Academia Sinica Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, and is funded by the Smithsonian Institution and the Academia Sinica. The fits-files of the 93 GHz continuum image and of the N{2}H+ (1-0) data-cubes are only available in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/499/233

  11. Spatial Information in local society's cultural conservation and research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jang, J.-J.; Liao, H.-M.; Fan, I.-C.

    2015-09-01

    Center for Geographic Information Science, Research Center for Humanities and Social Sciences,Academia Sinica (GIS center), Coordinate short-, medium-, and long-term operations of multidisciplinary researches focusing on related topics in the sciences and humanities. Based on the requirements of multi-disciplinary research applications, sustain collection and construction of sustaining and unifying spatial base data and knowledge and building of spatial data infrastructure. Since the 1990s, GIS center build geographic information platform: "Time and space infrastructure of Chinese civilization" (Chinese Civilizationin Time and Space, CCTS) and "Taiwan History and Culture Map" (Taiwan History and Culture in Time and Space, THCTS) . the goal of both system is constructing an integrated GIS-based application infrastructure on the spatial extent of China and Taiwan, in the timeframe of Chinese and Taiwanese history, and with the contents of Chinese and Taiwanese civilization. Base on THCTS, we began to build Cultural Resources GIS(CRGIS, http://crgis.rchss.sinica.edu.tw) in 2006, to collect temples, historic Monuments, historic buildings, old trees, wind lions god and other cultural resource in Taiwan, and provide a platform for the volunteers to make for all types of tangible, intangible cultural resources, add, edit, organize and query data via Content Management System(CMS) . CRGIS collected aggregated 13,000 temples, 4,900 churches. On this basis, draw a variety of religious beliefs map-multiple times Temple distributions, different main god distributions, church distribution. Such as Mazu maps, Multiple times temple distributions map (before 1823, 1823-1895,1895-1949,1949-2015 years) at Taijiang inner sea areas in Tainan. In Taiwan, there is a religious ritual through folk activities for a period ranging from one day to several days, passing specific geospatial range and passes through some temples or houses. Such an important folk activity somewhat similar to

  12. Terrestrial microbes in martian and chondritic meteorites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Airieau, S.; Piceno, Y.; Andersen, G.

    2007-08-01

    Good extraterrestrial analogs for microbiology are SNC meteorites as Mars analogs, and chondrites as early planet analogs. Chondrites and SNCs are used to trace processes in the early solar system and on Mars. Yet, questions about terrestrial contamination and its effects on the isotopic, chemical and mineral characteristics often arise. A wide biodiversity was found in 21 chondrites of groups CR, CV, CK, CO from ANSMET, CI and CM Falls, and 8 SNCs. Studies documented the alteration of meteorites by weathering and biology [1]-[6], and during aqueous extraction for oxygen isotopic analysis [7], visible biofilms grew in the meteorite solutions in days. To assess biological isotopic and chemical impacts, cultures were incubated 11 months and analyzed by PCR. The sequences for 2 isolates from EET 87770 and Leoville were of a good quality with long sequence reads. In EET 87770, the closest matches were in the genus Microbacterium. Soil and plant isolates were close relatives by sequence comparison. Bacillus, a common soil bacterial genus, grew in a Leoville culture. All SNCs exhibited biological activity measured independently by LAL but only 1 colony was successfully cultured from grains of the SNC Los Angeles. Isotopic analyses of samples with various amounts of microbial contamination could help quantified isotopic impact of microbes on protoplanetary chemistry in these rocks. References: [1] Gounelle, M.& Zolensky M. (2001) LPS XXXII, Abstract #999. [2] Fries, M. et al. (2005) Meteoritical Society Meeting 68, Abstract # 5201. [3] Burckle, L. H. & Delaney, J. S (1999) Meteoritics & Planet. Sci., 32, 475. [4] Whitby, C. et al. (2000) LPS XXXI, Abstract #1732. [5] Tyra M. et al., (2007) Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, 71, 782 [6] Toporski, J. & Steele A., (2007) Astrobiology, 7, 389 [7]Airieau, S. et al (2005) Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, 69, 4166.

  13. A new ground-level fallout record of uranium and plutonium isotopes for northern temperate latitudes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warneke, Thorsten; Croudace, Ian W.; Warwick, Phillip E.; Taylor, Rex N.

    2002-11-01

    Plutonium and uranium isotope ratios can be used to differentiate the sources of nuclear contamination from nuclear weapon establishments (Environ. Sci. Technol. 34 (2000) 4496; Internal Report for AWRE Aldermaston, UK (1961)), weapon fallout (Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 51 (1987) 2623; Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 63 (1983) 202; Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 22 (1974) 111; Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 64 (2000) 989), reprocessing plants, reactor or satellite accidents (Science 105 (1979) 583; Science 238 (1987) 512) and in addition they provide markers for post-1952 geochronology of environmental systems. A good record of plutonium and uranium isotope ratios of the background resulting from atmospheric nuclear testing is essential for source characterisation studies. Using recently developed mass spectrometric techniques (J. Anal. At. Spectrom. 16 (2001) 279) we present here the first complete records between 1952 and the present day of northern temperate latitude 240Pu/ 239Pu and 238U/ 235U atom ratios for atmospheric deposition. Such information was not derived directly during the period of atmospheric testing because suitable mass spectrometric capability was not available. The currently derived records are based on an annual herbage archive and a core from an Alpine glacier. These studies reveal hitherto unseen fluctuations in the 238U/ 235U atmospheric fallout record, some of which are directly related to nuclear testing. In addition, they also provide the first evidence that plutonium contamination originating from Nevada Desert atmospheric weapon tests in 1952 and 1953 extended eastwards as far as northwestern Europe. The results presented here demonstrate that we now have the capability to detect and precisely identify sources of plutonium in the environment with implications for the development of atmospheric transport models, recent geochronology and environmental studies.

  14. Digital diagnosis of medical images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinonen, Tomi; Kuismin, Raimo; Jormalainen, Raimo; Dastidar, Prasun; Frey, Harry; Eskola, Hannu

    2001-08-01

    The popularity of digital imaging devices and PACS installations has increased during the last years. Still, images are analyzed and diagnosed using conventional techniques. Our research group begun to study the requirements for digital image diagnostic methods to be applied together with PACS systems. The research was focused on various image analysis procedures (e.g., segmentation, volumetry, 3D visualization, image fusion, anatomic atlas, etc.) that could be useful in medical diagnosis. We have developed Image Analysis software (www.medimag.net) to enable several image-processing applications in medical diagnosis, such as volumetry, multimodal visualization, and 3D visualizations. We have also developed a commercial scalable image archive system (ActaServer, supports DICOM) based on component technology (www.acta.fi), and several telemedicine applications. All the software and systems operate in NT environment and are in clinical use in several hospitals. The analysis software have been applied in clinical work and utilized in numerous patient cases (500 patients). This method has been used in the diagnosis, therapy and follow-up in various diseases of the central nervous system (CNS), respiratory system (RS) and human reproductive system (HRS). In many of these diseases e.g. Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (CNS), nasal airways diseases (RS) and ovarian tumors (HRS), these methods have been used for the first time in clinical work. According to our results, digital diagnosis improves diagnostic capabilities, and together with PACS installations it will become standard tool during the next decade by enabling more accurate diagnosis and patient follow-up.

  15. Developmental pathways and endothelial to mesenchymal transition in canine myxomatous mitral valve disease.

    PubMed

    Lu, Chi-Chien; Liu, Meng-Meng; Clinton, Michael; Culshaw, Geoff; Argyle, David J; Corcoran, Brendan M

    2015-12-01

    Epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) and the cardiovascular equivalent, endothelial to mesenchymal transition (EndoMT), contribute to a range of chronic degenerative diseases and cancer metastasis. Chronic valvulopathies exhibit some features of EndoMT and activation of developmental signalling pathways, such as osteogenesis and chondrogenesis, expression of cell differentiation markers, basement membrane damage and endothelial transformation. The aim of the present study was to investigate the potential role of developmental mechanisms in canine myxomatous mitral valve disease (MMVD) using a combination of transcriptomic array technology, RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry. There was significant differential expression for genes typically associated with valvulogenesis and EndoMT, including markers of inflammation (IL6, IL18 and TLR4), basement membrane disarray (NID1, LAMA2 and CTSS), mesenchymal and endothelial cell differentiation (MYH11 and TAGLN) and EndoMT (ACTA2, SNAI1, CTNNB1, HAS2, CDH5, and NOTCH1), with fold changes from +15.35 (ACTA2) to -5.52 (LAMA2). These changes in gene expression were confirmed using RT-PCR, except for HAS2. In silico analysis identified important gene networks and canonical pathways in MMVD that have associations with development and organogenesis, including inflammation, valve morphogenesis and EMT, as well as components of the basement membrane and extra-cellular matrix. Immunohistochemistry identified changes in the expression of hyaluronic acid synthase (Has2), Snai1, α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) and VE-cadherin (CDH5), and co-expression of Has2 with α-SMA. These research findings strongly suggest involvement of developmental signalling pathways and mechanisms, including EndoMT, in the pathogenesis of canine MMVD. PMID:26586213

  16. Membrane-bound states of alpha-lactalbumin: implications for the protein stability and conformation.

    PubMed Central

    Cawthern, K. M.; Permyakov, E.; Berliner, L. J.

    1996-01-01

    alpha-Lactalbumin (alpha-LA) associates with dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine (DMPC) or egg lecithin (EPC) liposomes. Thermal denaturation of isolated DMPC or EPC alpha-LA complexes was dependent on the metal bound state of the protein. The intrinsic fluorescence of thermally denatured DMPC-alpha-LA was sensitive to two thermal transitions: the Tc of the lipid vesicles, and the denaturation of the protein. Quenching experiments suggested that tryptophan accessibility increased upon protein-DMPC association, in contrast with earlier suggestions that the limited emission red shift upon association with the liposome was due to partial insertion of tryptophan into the apolar phase of the bilayer (Hanssens I et al., 1985, Biochim Biophys Acta 817:154-166). On the other hand, above the protein transition (70 degrees C), the spectral blue shifts and reduced accessibility to quencher suggested that tryptophan interacts significantly with the apolar phase of either DMPC and EPC. At pH 2, where the protein inserts into the bilayer rapidly, the isolated DMPC-alpha-LA complex showed a distinct fluorescence thermal transition between 40 and 60 degrees C, consistent with a partially inserted form that possesses some degree of tertiary structure and unfolds cooperatively. This result is significant in light of earlier findings of increased helicity for the acid form, i.e., molten globule state of the protein (Hanssens I et al., 1985, Biochim Biophys Acta 817:154-166). These results suggest a model where a limited expansion of conformation occurs upon association with the membrane at neutral pH and physiological temperatures, with a concomitant increase in the exposure of tryptophan to external quenchers; i.e., the current data do not support a model where an apolar, tryptophan-containing surface is covered by the lipid phase of the bilayer. PMID:8819172

  17. Crystal structure of bis-p-anizidinegossypol with an unknown solvate.

    PubMed

    Honkeldieva, Muhabbat T; Talipov, Samat A; Kunafiev, Rishad; Ibragimov, Bakhtiyar T

    2015-12-01

    The title compound, C44H44N2O8, (systematic name: 1,1',6,6'-tetra-hydroxy-5,5'-diisopropyl-8,8'-bis-{[(4-meth-oxy-phen-yl)iminium-yl]meth-yl}-3,3'-dimethyl-2,2'-bi-naphthalene-7,7'-diolate) has been obtained by the addition of p-anizidine to gossypol dissolved in di-chloro-methane. In the solid state, the title compound exists in the enamine or quinoid form. The two naphthyl moieties are inclined to one another by 72.08 (5)°. The pendant phenyl rings are inclined at 22.26 (14) and 23.86 (13)° to the corresponding naphthyl rings. In the crystal, mol-ecules are incorporated into layers through inversion-related pairs of O-H⋯O inter-actions [graph sets R 2 (2)(20) and R 2 (2)(10)] and translation-related O-H⋯O inter-actions [graph set C(15)]. The packing of these layers in the crystal structure gives rise to channels in the [011] direction, with hydro-phobic inter-actions occurring between adjacent layers. The channels are 5-7 Å wide, and the void volume of each cell is 655 Å(3), corresponding to 26.6% of the cell volume. Disordered guest mol-ecules, probably solvent and water mol-ecules, occupy these voids of the crystal; their contribution to the scattering was removed with the SQUEEZE routine [Spek (2015 ▸). Acta Cryst. C71, 9-18] of PLATON [Spek (2009 ▸). Acta Cryst. D65, 148-155]. PMID:26870395

  18. FGFR2IIIb-MAPK Activity Is Required for Epithelial Cell Fate Decision in the Lower Müllerian Duct.

    PubMed

    Terakawa, Jumpei; Rocchi, Altea; Serna, Vanida A; Bottinger, Erwin P; Graff, Jonathan M; Kurita, Takeshi

    2016-07-01

    Cell fate of lower Müllerian duct epithelium (MDE), to become uterine or vaginal epithelium, is determined by the absence or presence of ΔNp63 expression, respectively. Previously, we showed that SMAD4 and runt-related transcription factor 1 (RUNX1) were independently required for MDE to express ΔNp63. Here, we report that vaginal mesenchyme directs vaginal epithelial cell fate in MDE through paracrine activation of fibroblast growth factor (FGF) receptor-MAPK pathway. In the developing reproductive tract, FGF7 and FGF10 were enriched in vaginal mesenchyme, whereas FGF receptor 2IIIb was expressed in epithelia of both the uterus and vagina. When Fgfr2 was inactivated, vaginal MDE underwent uterine cell fate, and this differentiation defect was corrected by activation of MEK-ERK pathway. In vitro, FGF10 in combination with bone morphogenetic protein 4 and activin A (ActA) was sufficient to induce ΔNp63 in MDE, and ActA was essential for induction of RUNX1 through SMAD-independent pathways. Accordingly, inhibition of type 1 receptors for activin in neonatal mice induced uterine differentiation in vaginal epithelium by down-regulating RUNX1, whereas conditional deletion of Smad2 and Smad3 had no effect on vaginal epithelial differentiation. In conclusion, vaginal epithelial cell fate in MDE is induced by FGF7/10-MAPK, bone morphogenetic protein 4-SMAD, and ActA-RUNX1 pathway activities, and the disruption in any one of these pathways results in conversion from vaginal to uterine epithelial cell fate. PMID:27164167

  19. Prediction of the thermodynamic properties of metal-arsenate and metal-arsenite aqueous complexes to high temperatures and pressures and some geological consequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marini, Luigi; Accornero, Marina

    2007-07-01

    The standard thermodynamic properties at 25°C, 1 bar (Δ G {f/o}, Δ H {f/o}, S o, C {P/o}, V o, ω) and the coefficients of the revised Helgeson-Kirkham-Flowers equations of state were evaluated for several aqueous complexes formed by dissolved metals and either arsenate or arsenite ions. The guidelines of Shock and Helgeson (Geochim Cosmochim Acta 52:2009-2036, 1988) and Sverjensky et al. (Geochim Cosmochim Acta 61:1359-1412, 1997) were followed and corroborated with alternative approaches, whenever possible. The SUPCRT92 computer code was used to generate the log K of the destruction reactions of these metal-arsenate and metal-arsenite aqueous complexes at pressures and temperatures required by the EQ3/6 software package, version 7.2b. Apart from the AlAsO{4/o} and FeAsO{4/o} complexes, our log K at 25°C, 1 bar are in fair agreement with those of Whiting (MS Thesis, Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO, 1992). Moreover, the equilibrium constants evaluated in this study are in good to fair agreement with those determined experimentally for the Ca-dihydroarsenate and Ca-hydroarsenate complexes at 40°C (Mironov et al., Russ J Inorg Chem 40:1690, 1995) and for Fe(III)-hydroarsenate complex at 25°C (Raposo et al., J Sol Chem 35:79-94, 2006), whereas the disagreement with the log K measured for the Ca-arsenate complex at 40°C (Mironov et al., Russ J Inorg Chem 40:1690, 1995) might be due to uncertainties in this measured value. The implications of aqueous complexing between dissolved metals and arsenate/arsenite ions were investigated for seawater, high-temperature geothermal liquids and acid mine drainage and aqueous solutions deriving from mixing of acid mine waters and surface waters.

  20. Autophagy fosters myofibroblast differentiation through MTORC2 activation and downstream upregulation of CTGF.

    PubMed

    Bernard, Monique; Dieudé, Mélanie; Yang, Bing; Hamelin, Katia; Underwood, Katy; Hébert, Marie-Josée

    2014-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests that autophagy may favor fibrosis through enhanced differentiation of fibroblasts in myofibroblasts. Here, we sought to characterize the mediators and signaling pathways implicated in autophagy-induced myofibroblast differentiation. Fibroblasts, serum starved for up to 4 d, showed increased LC3-II/-I ratios and decreased SQSTM1/p62 levels. Autophagy was associated with acquisition of markers of myofibroblast differentiation including increased protein levels of ACTA2/αSMA (actin, α 2, smooth muscle, aorta), enhanced gene and protein levels of COL1A1 (collagen, type I, α 1) and COL3A1, and the formation of stress fibers. Inhibiting autophagy with 3 different class I phosphoinositide 3-kinase and class III phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PtdIns3K) inhibitors or through ATG7 silencing prevented myofibroblast differentiation. Autophagic fibroblasts showed increased expression and secretion of CTGF (connective tissue growth factor), and CTGF silencing prevented myofibroblast differentiation. Phosphorylation of the MTORC1 target RPS6KB1/p70S6K kinase was abolished in starved fibroblasts. Phosphorylation of AKT at Ser473, a MTORC2 target, was reduced after initiation of starvation but was followed by spontaneous rephosphorylation after 2 d of starvation, suggesting the reactivation of MTORC2 with sustained autophagy. Inhibiting MTORC2 activation with long-term exposure to rapamycin or by silencing RICTOR, a central component of the MTORC2 complex abolished AKT rephosphorylation. Both RICTOR silencing and rapamycin treatment prevented CTGF and ACTA2 upregulation, demonstrating the central role of MTORC2 activation in CTGF induction and myofibroblast differentiation. Finally, inhibition of autophagy with PtdIns3K inhibitors or ATG7 silencing blocked AKT rephosphorylation. Collectively, these results identify autophagy as a novel activator of MTORC2 signaling leading to CTGF induction and myofibroblast differentiation. PMID:25495560

  1. Rheological characterization of thermal, thermo-oxidative and photo-oxidative degradation of LDPE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rolón-Garrido, Víctor Hugo; Wagner, Manfred Hermann

    2015-04-01

    Rheology has been used to study thermal degradation (V. H. Rolón-Garrido et al., Rheol. Acta 50, 519-535, 2011), thermo-oxidative degradation (V. H. Rolón-Garrido et al., Rheol. Acta 50, 519-535, 2011; V. H. Rolón-Garrido et al., J. Rheol. 57, 105-129, 2013) and photo-oxidative degradation (V. H. Rolón-Garrido and M. H. Wagner, Polym. Degrad. Stab. 99, 136-145, 2014; V. H. Rolón-Garrido and M. H. Wagner, J. Rheol. 58, 199-22 2, 2014; V. H. Rolón-Garrido et al., Polym. Degrad. Stab. 111, 46-54, 2015) of low-density polyethylene (LDPE). This contribution presents the analogies and differences between these types of degradations of LDPE on the linear (by use of van-Gurp Palmen plots) and non-linear viscoelastic properties (by use of the parameters of the MSF model, fmax2 and β), as well as on the failure mode of the samples (through the maximum strain and stress achieved experimentally). In contrast to thermal and thermo-oxidative degradation, the linear viscoelastic properties of photo-oxidated samples were more affected by degradation. In the non-linear regime, for thermal and thermo-oxidative treated samples, the elongational measurements elucidated the role of chain scission and long-chain branching (LCB) formation, while for photo-oxidated LDPE even the competition between chain scission, LCB formation, and gel formation was demonstrated. The failure behavior was found to be determined by a constant maximum strain in thermo-oxidative degradation, if the LDPE has high content in branching points, or in photo-oxidative degraded LDPE, if a considerable portion of gel structure is present. Otherwise, either the maximum strain or stress measured was found to be strain-rate dependent.

  2. Cycloartane Triterpenes from the Aerial Parts of Actaea racemosa.

    PubMed

    Imai, Ayano; Lankin, David C; Nikolić, Dejan; Ahn, Soyoun; van Breemen, Richard B; Farnsworth, Norman R; McAlpine, James B; Chen, Shao-Nong; Pauli, Guido F

    2016-03-25

    Investigating the phytochemical equivalence of the aerial parts of Actaea racemosa (syn. Cimicifuga racemosa) relative to the widely used roots/rhizomes, this study provides a perspective for the potential use of renewable ("green") plant parts as a source of black cohosh botanical preparations. In addition to the characterization of Nω-methylserotonin as one representative marker of the Actaea alkaloids, nine cycloartane triterpenes were isolated and characterized, including the two new triterpene glycosides (1S,15R)-1,15,25-trihydroxy-3-O-β-d-xylopyranosyl-acta-(16S,23R,24R)-16,23;16,24-binoxoside (1) and 3-O-α-l-arabinopyranosyl-(1S,24R)-1,24,25-trihydroxy-15-oxo-acta-(16R,23R)-16,23-monoxoside (2). Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic data interpretation. The relative configuration of 1 was deduced by (1)H iterative full-spin analysis (HiFSA), making it the first example of the complete analysis of the complex (1)H NMR spectrum of a triterpene glycoside. In addition to the new compounds 1 and 2, the aerial plant parts were shown to contain the previously known binoxosides 3, 4, 6, and 7, the monoxoside 8, and the binoxols 5 and 9. Overall, the metabolome of the aerial plant parts consists of a variety of Actaea triterpenes, similar to those found in roots/rhizomes, a tendency toward C-1 and C-7 hydroxylation of the cycloartanol skeleton, a greater abundance of aglycones, and the presence of comparable amounts of Nω-methylserotonin. PMID:26760374

  3. Peptide synthesis in simulated deep sea hydrothermal environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemke, K. H.; Rosenbauer, R. J.; Bird, D. K.

    The synthesis of oligomeric biomolecules such as peptides is the key step marking the evolution from prebiotic chemistry to biochemistry[1]. While monomer synthesis has been demonstrated to proceed in high-energy impact shock, lightning, cavitation or UV-radiation^dominated environments,[2] monomer oligomerization requires lower energy yields,[3] typically found in geological settings such as deep-sea hydrothermal environments (DSHE). In particular, increasing temperatures are predicted to shift the thermodynamic equilibrium between amino acids and product peptide as well as between precursor and successor peptide toward the product oligopeptide,[4,5] however, this hypothesis has not been tested experimentally. Using hydrothermal gold cells we demonstrate the formation of short peptides from the amino acid glycine in the temperature range 160°C to 260°C and 200 bar, conditions typical of DSHE. We show that glycine and product peptides enter into equilibrium and demonstrate a lowering of the Gibbs energies of diglycine and diketopiperazine formation from glycine with increasing temperature. Our results confirm that the thermodynamic stability of the peptide bond in diglycine and diketopiperazine increases relative to the free amino acid with increasing temperature.[4] They support a high temperature origin of life and the early emergence of peptides during chemical evolution. [1] Imai, E., Honda, H., Hatori, K., Brack, A. & Matsuno, K., (1999) Science, 283, 831. [2] Chyba, C.F. and Sagan, C. (1992) Nature 355, 125. [3] Kawamura K. and Yukioka M. (2001) Thermochim. Acta, 375, 9 [4] Shock, E.L. (1992) Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, 56, 3481 [5] Amend J.P. and Helgeson H.C. (2000) Biophy. Chem., 84, 105.

  4. Expression of Virulence-Related Genes in Listeria monocytogenes Grown on Danish Hard Cheese as Affected by NaCl Content.

    PubMed

    Larsen, Nadja; Jespersen, Lene

    2015-06-01

    Expression of virulence-related genes in Listeria monocytogenes incubated on cheese was assessed by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction. The objective of the study was to investigate the impact of sodium chloride concentration in cheese on transcription of virulence genes and, thereby, virulence potential of L. monocytogenes. The expression studies were performed with L. monocytogenes strains characterized by different tolerance to salt stress. Strains ATCC(®) 51779 and DSMZ 15675 were incubated on the Danish hard-cheese type Samsoe, with low (<0.15% [wt/wt]) and high (3.6% [wt/wt]) content of NaCl. Genes differentially expressed (p<0.05) through the 48-h incubation were transcriptional regulators prfA and agrA, genes of the main virulence cluster inlA, hly, actA, involved in invasion of the epithelial cells, and genes bsh, opuC, gadC, clpP, and ami, associated with osmotic stress responses in L. monocytogenes. The more sensitive strain ATCC(®) 51779 was most responsive, showing significant upregulation of prfA, actA, hly, and bsh both at low and high NaCl. Strain DSMZ 15675 was less responsive to NaCl stress, showing reduced or consistent gene transcription at all conditions. Decreased transcription of agrA, ami, gadC, and opuC in both strains was promoted by low NaCl content. The study indicated that virulence gene expression of L. monocytogenes grown in cheese was affected by NaCl content and that effect was more significant in strains sensitive to both hypo- and hyperosmotic stresses. PMID:26067229

  5. Thermal diffusion of the lunar magma ocean and the formation of the lunar crust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, D.; Wang, S.

    2010-12-01

    The magma ocean hypothesis is consistent with several lines of evidence including planet formation, core-mantle differentiation and geochemical observations, and it is proved as an inevitable stage in the early evolution of planets. The magma ocean is assumed to be homogeneous in previous models during solidification or crystallization[1]. Based on the recent advance and our new data in experimental igneous petrology[2], we question this assumption and propose that an gabbrotic melt, from which the anorthositic lunar crust crystallized, can be produced by thermal diffusion, rather than by magma fractionation. This novel model can provide explanations for the absence of the advection in lunar magma ocean[3] and the old age of the anorthositic lunar crust[4-5]. 1. Solomatov, V., Magma Oceans and Primordial Mantle Differentiation, in Treatise on Geophysics, S. Gerald, Editor. 2007, Elsevier: Amsterdam. p. 91-119. 2. Huang, F., et al., Chemical and isotopic fractionation of wet andesite in a temperature gradient: Experiments and models suggesting a new mechanism of magma differentiation. Geochimica Et Cosmochimica Acta, 2009. 73(3): p. 729-749. 3. Turcotte, D.L. and L.H. Kellogg, Implications of isotope data for the origin of the Moon, in Origin of the Moon, W.K. Hartmann, R.J. Phillips, and G.J. Taylor, Editors. 1986, Lunar and Planet. Inst.: Houston, TX. p. 311-329. 4. Alibert, C., M.D. Norman, and M.T. McCulloch, An ancient Sm-Nd age for a ferroan noritic anorthosite clast from lunar breccia 67016. Geochimica Et Cosmochimica Acta, 1994. 58(13): p. 2921-2926. 5. Touboul, M., et al., Tungsten isotopes in ferroan anorthosites: Implications for the age of the Moon and lifetime of its magma ocean. Icarus, 2009. 199(2): p. 245-249.

  6. Inhibition of Listeria locomotion by mosquito oostatic factor, a natural oligoproline peptide uncoupler of profilin action.

    PubMed

    Southwick, F S; Purich, D L

    1995-01-01

    Mosquito oostatic factor, a naturally occurring decapeptide (YDPAPPPPPP), strikingly resembles the primary structure of oligoproline-rich regions within the protein ActA, a bacterial surface protein required for Listeria motility in host cells. When microinjected into Listeria-infected PtK2 cells, the insect oostatic factor rapidly blocks Listeria-induced actin rocket tail assembly as well as intracellular locomotion of this pathogen. At intracellular concentrations of about 90 nM, transient inhibition of rocket tail formation and bacterial locomotion occurs, followed by full recovery of tail length and motility. However, at 0.9 microM oostatic factor, both processes are permanently arrested. Introduction of oostatic factor by microinjection also causes PtK2 peripheral membrane retraction in both Listeria-infected and uninfected cells. Epifluorescence microscopy with bodipy-phallacidin reveals that cells microinjected with the insect factor lose all actin stress fibers and accumulate F-actin in regions of membrane retraction. When the insect peptide is combined with profilin as an equimolar binary solution (1 microM [final concentration] each), intracellular addition fails to inhibit Listeria rocket-tail formation, fails to block intracellular bacterial movement, and no longer causes marked membrane retraction. The ability of profilin to neutralize the inhibitory action of oostatic factor is consistent with complex formation, and this finding suggests that profilin may interact directly with ActA peptide as well as a host cell peripheral membrane component to promote actin filament assembly by locally generating ATP-actin. Dispersal of profilin from such sites by oligoproline-rich peptide inhibitors suggests that profilin is directly involved in intracellular pathogen locomotion and reorganization of actin cytoskeleton of the host cell peripheral membrane. PMID:7806356

  7. VEGF induces stress fiber formation in fibroblasts isolated from dystrophic muscle.

    PubMed

    Gutpell, Kelly M; Hoffman, Lisa M

    2015-12-01

    Treatment with vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) to reduce ischemia and enhance both endogenous muscle repair and regenerative cell therapy in Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) has been widely proposed in recent years. However, the interaction between angiogenesis and fibrosis, a hallmark feature of DMD, remains unclear. To date, it has not been determined whether VEGF exerts a pro-fibrotic effect on DMD-derived fibroblasts, which may contribute to further disease progression. Thus, the purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of exogenous VEGF on fibroblast cultures established from a murine model of DMD. Primary fibroblast cultures were established from gastrocnemius and diaphragm muscles of 10 week-old mdx/utrn+/- mice. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) was employed to assess changes in transcript expression of alpha-smooth muscle actin (Acta2), type-1 collagen (Col1a1), connective tissue growth factor (Ctgf/ccn2) and fibronectin (Fn1). Immunofluorescence and Western blot analysis was further employed to visualize changes in protein expression of alpha-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), CTGF/CCN2 and fibronectin. mRNA levels of Col1a1, Ctgf/ccn2, and FN did not increase following treatment with VEGF in fibroblasts derived from either diaphragm or gastrocnemius muscles. Acta2 expression increased significantly in diaphragm-derived fibroblasts following treatment with VEGF. Morphological assessment revealed increased stress fiber formation in VEGF-treated fibroblasts compared to the untreated control fibroblasts. The findings from this study suggest that further investigation into the effect of VEGF on fibroblast function is required prior to the utilization of the growth factor as a treatment for DMD. PMID:26219981

  8. Change in diet and oral hygiene over an 8-week period: effects on oral health and oral biofilm.

    PubMed

    Al-Ahmad, Ali; Roth, Dominik; Wolkewitz, Martin; Wiedmann-Al-Ahmad, Margit; Follo, Marie; Ratka-Krüger, Petra; Deimling, Daniela; Hellwig, Elmar; Hannig, Christian

    2010-08-01

    The aim of the study was to monitor changes in oral health and oral biofilm composition in vivo during an experiment simulating prehistoric lifestyle and diet and poor oral hygiene. Thirteen subjects lived for a period of 8 weeks under Neolithic conditions. The following clinical parameters were recorded before and after the project: gingival and plaque index (Löe and Silness, Acta Odontol Scand 21:533, 1963; Silness and Löe, Acta Odontol Scand 22:121-135, 1964), probing pocket depth, and bleeding upon probing. In addition, supragingival plaque samples were collected both before and after the project and were analysed quantitatively using multiplex fluorescence in situ hybridization and confocal laser scanning microscopy. The following plaque bacteria were evaluated: Streptococcus spp., Veillonella spp., Fusobacterium nucleatum, and Actinomyces naeslundii. The plaque index increased significantly from 1.12 up to 1.55 over the 8-week period (gingival index before, 0.46; after, 0.93; p < 0.05). A strong correlation of both indices was recorded before (r = 0.77) and after (r = 0.83) participation in the study. Each of the children in the study showed a progression of carious lesions and/or new areas of demineralisation. The probing pocket depth and bleeding upon probing were not affected. All subjects yielded an intra-individual shift in biofilm composition. The proportion of F. nucleatum decreased across all subjects. The proportion of Veillonella spp. increased among the children. Poor oral hygiene and change of diet lead to an increase in oral plaque and gingival inflammation. The inter-individual comparison indicated a shift in bacterial composition. PMID:19626350

  9. Cyclosporine up-regulates Krüppel-like factor-4 (KLF4) in vascular smooth muscle cells and drives phenotypic modulation in vivo.

    PubMed

    Garvey, Sean M; Sinden, Daniel S; Schoppee Bortz, Pamela D; Wamhoff, Brian R

    2010-04-01

    Cyclosporine A (CSA, calcineurin inhibitor) has been shown to block both vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) proliferation in cell culture and vessel neointimal formation following injury in vivo. The purpose of this study was to determine molecular and pathological effects of CSA on VSMCs. Using real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, Western blot analysis, and immunofluorescence microscopy, we show that CSA up-regulated the expression of Krüppel-like factor-4 (KLF4) in VSMCs. KLF4 plays a key role in regulating VSMC phenotypic modulation. KLF4 antagonizes proliferation, facilitates migration, and down-regulates VSMC differentiation marker gene expression. We show that the VSMC differentiation marker genes smooth muscle alpha-actin (ACTA2), transgelin (TAGLN), smoothelin (SMTN), and myocardin (MYOCD) are all down-regulated by CSA in VSMC monoculture, whereas cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor-1A (CDKN1A) and matrix metalloproteinase-3 (MMP3) are up-regulated. CSA did not affect the abundance of the VSMC microRNA (MIR) markers MIR143 and MIR145. Administration of CSA to rat carotid artery in vivo resulted in acute and transient suppression of ACTA2, TAGLN, SMTN, MYOCD, and smooth muscle myosin heavy chain (MYH11) mRNA levels. The tumor suppressor genes KLF4, p53, and CDKN1A, however, were up-regulated, as well as MMP3, MMP9, and collagen-VIII. CSA-treated arteries showed remarkable remodeling, including breakdown of the internal elastic lamina and reorientation of VSMCs, as well as increased KLF4 immunostaining in VSMCs and endothelial cells. Altogether, these data show that cyclosporin up-regulates KLF4 expression and promotes phenotypic modulation of VSMCs. PMID:20089806

  10. Determination of elemental impurities and U and O isotopic compositions with a view to identify the geographical and industrial origins of uranium ore concentrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salaun, A.; Hubert, A.; Pointurier, F.; Aupiais, J.; Pili, E.; Richon, P.; Fauré, A.; Diallo, S.

    2012-12-01

    First events of illicit trafficking of nuclear and radiological materials occurred 50 years ago. Nuclear forensics expertise are aiming at determining the use of seized material, its industrial history and provenance (geographical area, place of production or processing), at assisting in the identification and dismantling of illicit trafficking networks. This information is also valuable in the context of inspections of declared facilities to verify the consistency of operator's declaration. Several characteristics can be used to determine the origin of uranium ore concentrates such as trace elemental impurity patterns (Keegan et al., 2008 ; Varga et al., 2010a, 2010b) or uranium, oxygen and lead isotopic compositions (Tamborini et al., 2002a, 2002b ; Wallenius et al., 2006; Varga et al., 2009). We developed analytical procedures for measuring the isotopic compositions of uranium (234U/238U and 235U/238U) and oxygen (18O/16O) and levels of elemental impurities (e.g. REE, Th) from very small amounts of uranium ore concentrates (or yellow cakes). Micrometer particles and few milligrams of material are used for oxygen isotope measurements and REE determination, respectively. Reference materials were analyzed by mass spectrometry (TIMS, SF-ICP-MS and SIMS) to validate testing protocols. Finally, materials of unknown origin were analyzed to highlight significant differences and determine whether these differences allow identifying the origin of these ore concentrates. References: Keegan, E., et al. (2008). Applied Geochemistry 23, 765-777. Tamborini, G., et al. (2002a). Analytical Chemistry 74, 6098-6101. Tamborini, G., et al. (2002b). Microchimica Acta 139, 185-188. Varga, Z., et al. (2009). Analytical Chemistry 81, 8327-8334. Varga, Z., et al. (2010a). Talanta 80, 1744-1749. Varga, Z., et al. (2010b). Radiochimica Acta 98, 771-778 Wallenius, M., et al. (2006). Forensic Science International 156, 55-62.

  11. Influence of thermal maturity on the hydrogen isotope content of extractable hydrocarbons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radke, J.; Bechtel, A.; Püttmann, W.; Gleixner, G.

    2003-04-01

    Based on hydrogen isotope analysis of hydrocarbons from recent sediments it is suggested that compound specific hydrogen isotope ratios are a new proxy to reconstruct the palaeoclimate (Sauer et al., 2001). However, it remains unclear if transformation of carbon bound hydrogen with environmental water during maturation or thermal methanogenesis might influence the observed values. Short-term experiments excluded exchange reactions of deuterium from alkanes (Schimmelmann et al., 1999), however, thermally stressed kerogens are enriched in deuterium (Schoell, 1984). Therefore, we investigated the influence of maturity on the deltaD-values of alkanes and acyclic isoprenoids. In the Kupferschiefer horizon from the Polish Zechstein Basin thermal maturity of organic matter is correlated to burial depth yielding a natural long-term exchange experiment. The deltaD-values of extracted hydrocarbons linearly correlated with thermal maturity. These results enable the correction of deltaD values from biomarkers with known maturity and therefore expanding palaeoclimatic reconstructions using deltaD values to the geological past. References: SAUER, P.E., EGLINTON, T.I., HAYES, J.M., SCHIMMELMANN, A. &SESSIONS, A.L. (2001) Compound specific D/H ratios of lipid biomarkers from sediments as a proxy for environmental and climatic conditions. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 65(2), 213-222. SCHIMMELMANN, A., LEWAN, M.D. &WINTSCH, R.P. (1999) D/H isotope ratios of kerogen, bitumen, oil, and water in hydrous pyrolysis of source rocks containing kerogen types I, II, IIS, and III. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 63(22), 3751-3766. SCHOELL, M. (1984) Wasserstoff- und Kohlenstoffisotope in organischen Substanzen, Erdölen und Erdgasen. Schweitzerbart'sche Verlagsbuchhandlung, Stuttgart. Reihe D (67), 161pp.

  12. A critical evaluation of the proposal that serum apolipoproteins are the major constituents of the human erythrocyte membrane.

    PubMed

    Carey, C; Wang, C S; Alaupovic, P

    1975-08-01

    1. The EDTA and Triton X-100 extracts of human erythrocyte ghosts gave no precipitin lines in double diffusion analyses with antibodies to either lipoprotein A, lipoprotein B, lipoprotein C, lipoprotein D, Lp(a) lipoprotein or arginine-rich apolipoprotein of normal human serum (for nomenclature for serum lipoprotein families and apolipoptoteins, see Alaupovic, P., Kostner, G., Lee, D. M., McConathy, W.J. and Magnani, HN. (1972) Expo. Annu. Biochem. Med. 31, 145-160 and Alaupovic, P., Lee, D.M. and McConathy, W.J., (1972) Biochim. Biophys. Acta 260, 689-707.) These membrane preparations also reacted negatively with commercially available antisera to alpha- and beta-lipoproteins. 2. The normal serum very low density, low density and high density lipoproteins formed no precipitin lines with antibodies to either intact or EDTA-extracted ghosts. 3. The serum apolipoproteins and their constitutive polypeptides (A-I, A-II, B, C-I, C-II, C-III, D and arginine-rich apolipoprotein) reacted negatively with antibodies to intact or EDTA-extracted ghosts. The EDTA and Triton X-100 extracts of erythrocyte ghosts gave no reaction with monospecific antibodies to serum apolipoproteins and their constitutive polypeptides. 4. Ghosts dissolved 2% sodium dodecyl sulfate gave positive immunoprecipitin lines with antisera to alpha- and beta-lipoproteins. However, the sodium dodecyl sulfate solution in concentrations greater than 0.1% also formed precipitin lines with antisera to the same lipoproteins. 5. These results do not support the suggestion (Langdon, R.G. (1974) Biochim. Biophys. Acta 342, 213-228) that serum apolipoptoteins are integral protein constituents of human erythrocyte ghosts. The immunoprecipitin lines observed in the latter study might have been due to the presence of trace amounts of serum lipoproteins loosely attached to the cellular surfaces or, more probably, resulted from nonspecific interactions between the proteins and the sodium dodecyl sulfate used as the

  13. Autophagy fosters myofibroblast differentiation through MTORC2 activation and downstream upregulation of CTGF

    PubMed Central

    Bernard, Monique; Dieudé, Mélanie; Yang, Bing; Hamelin, Katia; Underwood, Katy; Hébert, Marie-Josée

    2015-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests that autophagy may favor fibrosis through enhanced differentiation of fibroblasts in myofibroblasts. Here, we sought to characterize the mediators and signaling pathways implicated in autophagy-induced myofibroblast differentiation. Fibroblasts, serum starved for up to 4 d, showed increased LC3-II/-I ratios and decreased SQSTM1/p62 levels. Autophagy was associated with acquisition of markers of myofibroblast differentiation including increased protein levels of ACTA2/αSMA (actin, α 2, smooth muscle, aorta), enhanced gene and protein levels of COL1A1 (collagen, type I, α 1) and COL3A1, and the formation of stress fibers. Inhibiting autophagy with 3 different class I phosphoinositide 3-kinase and class III phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PtdIns3K) inhibitors or through ATG7 silencing prevented myofibroblast differentiation. Autophagic fibroblasts showed increased expression and secretion of CTGF (connective tissue growth factor), and CTGF silencing prevented myofibroblast differentiation. Phosphorylation of the MTORC1 target RPS6KB1/p70S6K kinase was abolished in starved fibroblasts. Phosphorylation of AKT at Ser473, a MTORC2 target, was reduced after initiation of starvation but was followed by spontaneous rephosphorylation after 2 d of starvation, suggesting the reactivation of MTORC2 with sustained autophagy. Inhibiting MTORC2 activation with long-term exposure to rapamycin or by silencing RICTOR, a central component of the MTORC2 complex abolished AKT rephosphorylation. Both RICTOR silencing and rapamycin treatment prevented CTGF and ACTA2 upregulation, demonstrating the central role of MTORC2 activation in CTGF induction and myofibroblast differentiation. Finally, inhibition of autophagy with PtdIns3K inhibitors or ATG7 silencing blocked AKT rephosphorylation. Collectively, these results identify autophagy as a novel activator of MTORC2 signaling leading to CTGF induction and myofibroblast differentiation. PMID:25495560

  14. Caveolin-1 Deficiency Induces Spontaneous Endothelial-to-Mesenchymal Transition in Murine Pulmonary Endothelial Cells in Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhaodong; Wermuth, Peter J.; Benn, Bryan S.; Lisanti, Michael P.; Jimenez, Sergio A.

    2014-01-01

    It was previously demonstrated that transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) induces endothelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EndoMT) in murine lung endothelial cells (ECs) in vitro. Owing to the important role of caveolin-1 (CAV1) in TGF-β receptor internalization and TGF-β signaling, the participation of CAV1 in the induction of EndoMT in murine lung ECs was investigated. Pulmonary ECs were isolated from wild-type and Cav1 knockout mice using immunomagnetic methods with sequential anti-CD31 and anti-CD102 antibody selection followed by in vitro culture and treatment with TGF-β1. EndoMT was assessed by semiquantitative RT-PCR for Acta2, Col1a1, Snai1, and Snai2; by immunofluorescence for α-smooth muscle actin; and by Western blot analysis for α-smooth muscle actin, SNAIL1, SNAIL2, and the α2 chain of type I collagen. The same studies were performed in Cav1−/− pulmonary ECs after restoration of functional CAV1 domains using a cell-permeable CAV1 scaffolding domain peptide. Pulmonary ECs from Cav1 knockout mice displayed high levels of spontaneous Acta2, Col1A, Snai1, and Snai2 expression, which increased after TGF-β treatment. Spontaneous and TGF-β1–stimulated EndoMT were abrogated by the restoration of functional CAV1 domains using a cell-permeable peptide. The findings suggest that CAV1 regulation of EndoMT may play a role in the development of fibroproliferative vasculopathies. PMID:23195429

  15. Bio-mimetic surface engineering of plasmid-loaded nanoparticles for active intracellular trafficking by actin comet-tail motility.

    PubMed

    Ng, Chee Ping; Goodman, Thomas T; Park, In-Kyu; Pun, Suzie H

    2009-02-01

    Intracellular transport after endosomal escape presents one of the major barriers for efficient non-viral gene delivery because plasmid DNA and synthetic nanoparticulate carriers suffer from significantly restricted diffusion in the cytoplasm. We postulate that forces generated by actin polymerization, a mechanism used by several bacterial pathogens such as Listeria monocytogenes, can be harnessed to propel nanoparticles within the cytoplasm and thereby overcome diffusional limitations associated with gene transport in the cell cytoplasm. In this work, we synthesized and characterized plasmid DNA-containing nanoparticles modified with ActA protein, the single protein in L. monocytogenes responsible for activating actin polymerization and initiating actin comet-tail propulsion. The motility of the ActA-modified nanoparticles was assessed in Xenopus laevis cytoplasmic extract supplemented with fluorescently labeled actin. Nanoparticle motility was monitored using multi-color, time-lapse fluorescence microscopy for the formation of actin comet tails attached to the fluorescently labeled vehicle. We observed particle motility with velocities approximately 0.06 microm/s with anionic-charged plasmid carriers formed from either poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) or 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DOPC) liposomes, but interestingly not with cationic particles assembled by encapsulation of plasmid with either polyethylenimine (PEI) or 1,2-dioleoyl-3-trimethylammonium-propane/1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine (DOTAP/DOPE) lipids. Control particles coated with albumin instead of ActA also showed no motility. Taken together, we have demonstrated the feasibility of translating the comet-tail propulsion mechanism to synthetic drug carriers as a potential approach to overcome intracellular transport barriers, and also have identified appropriate gene delivery systems that can be employed for this mechanism. PMID:19046764

  16. Dendritic cells are early cellular targets of Listeria monocytogenes after intestinal delivery and are involved in bacterial spread in the host.

    PubMed

    Pron, B; Boumaila, C; Jaubert, F; Berche, P; Milon, G; Geissmann, F; Gaillard, J L

    2001-05-01

    We studied the sequence of cellular events leading to the dissemination of Listeria monocytogenes from the gut to draining mesenteric lymph nodes (MLNs) by confocal microscopy of immunostained tissue sections from a rat ligated ileal loop system. OX-62-positive cells beneath the epithelial lining of Peyer's patches (PPs) were the first Listeria targets identified after intestinal inoculation. These cells had other features typical of dendritic cells (DCs): they were large, pleiomorphic and major histocompatibility complex class II(hi). Listeria were detected by microscopy in draining MLNs as early as 6 h after inoculation. Some 80-90% of bacteria were located in the deep paracortical regions, and 100% of the bacteria were present in OX-62-positive cells. Most infected cells contained more than five bacteria each, suggesting that they had arrived already loaded with bacteria. At later stages, the bacteria in these areas were mostly present in ED1-positive mononuclear phagocytes. These cells were also infected by an actA mutant defective in cell-to-cell spreading. This suggests that Listeria are transported by DCs from PPs to the deep paracortical regions of draining MLNs and are then transmitted to other cell populations by mechanisms independent of ActA. Another pathway of dissemination to MLNs was identified, probably involving free Listeria and leading to the infection of ED3-positive mononuclear phagocytes in the subcapsular sinus and adjacent paracortical areas. This study provides evidence that DCs are major cellular targets of L. monocytogenes in PPs and that DCs may be involved in the early dissemination of this pathogen. DCs were not sites of active bacterial replication, making these cells ideal vectors of infection. PMID:11298655

  17. Methods of calibration in the direct analysis of solid samples by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berglund, M.; Baxter, D. C.

    1992-12-01

    One of the major problems involved in the direct analysis of solid samples by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS) lies in the calibration step because non-spectral interference effects are often pronounced. Three standardization techniques have been described and used in solid sampling-ETAAS: (i) standard additions method; (ii) calibration relative to a certified reference material; and (iii) calibration curve technique. However, an adequate statistical evaluation of the uncertainty in the analyte concentration in the solid sample is most frequently neglected, and reported errors may be seriously underestimated. This can be attributed directly to the complexity of the statistical expressions required to accurately account for errors in each of the calibration techniques mentioned above, and the general lack of relevant reference literature. The object of this work has been to develop a computer package which will perform the necessary statistical analyses of solid sampling-ETAAS data; the result is the program "SOLIDS" described here in the form of an electronic publication in Spectrochimica Acta Electronica, the electronic section of Spectrochimica Acta Part B. The program could also be useful in other analytical fields where similar calibration methods are used. The hard copy text, outlining the calibration models and their associated errors, is accompanied by a diskette containing the program, some data files, and a manual. Use of the program is exemplified in the text, with some of the data files discussed included on the diskette which, together with the manual, should enable the reader to become familiarized with the operation of the program, and the results generated.

  18. Twenty-first century brain banking: at the crossroads.

    PubMed

    Graeber, Manuel B

    2008-05-01

    Brain banks form an increasingly important resource for research. In view of declining autopsy rates, brain banks are also gaining importance for medical diagnostics, quality control and teaching. In the case of neurodegenerative diseases, brain banks have become drivers of discovery and are yielding invaluable taxonomic references for neuropathologists. This article provides comments on two recent landmark papers in the field (Bell JE et al. Acta Neuropathol 2008. doi:10.1007/s00401-008-0358-8; Vonsattel JP et al. Acta Neuropathol 2008. doi:10.1007/s00401-007-0311-9). Professionalisation of brain banking standards, ethical principles safeguarding the running of a brain bank and a proposed code of conduct for brain bank staff are outlined and discussed. Special emphasis is placed on the need to enable sustainability of the human brain tissue resource in the face of increased financial pressures on medical institutions and raised public expectations towards ethical human brain banking in a globalised economic environment. It is proposed that brain banks undergo rigorous international audit as a prerequisite for their registration with the relevant national neuropathological society. This promises to be an important safeguard so that proper standards can be assured when tissue is handed out to commercial companies. Honesty, accountability and complete transparency are mandatory to allow long-lasting success of the brain banking operation by guaranteeing that the best possible use is made of the tissue. Preferred access by private tissue users must be avoided and money must never be allowed to buy access to a brain bank. Since brain banks operate internationally, any mistake made may be felt around the globe and could endanger the public's willingness to donate brains for research. The much-needed increase in the number of control brain donations will only be achievable if broad-based support from the general public can be won and maintained. PMID:18347804

  19. Redetermination of Zn2Mo3O8

    PubMed Central

    Cuny, Jerome; Gougeon, Patrick; Gall, Philippe

    2009-01-01

    The crystal structure of dizinc trimolybdenum(IV) octa­oxide, Zn2Mo3O8, has been redetermined from single-crystal X-ray data. The structure has been reported previously based on neutron powder diffraction data [Hibble et al. (1999 ▶). Acta Cryst. B55, 683-697] and single-crystal data [McCarroll et al. (1957 ▶). J. Am. Chem. Soc. 79, 5410–5414; Ansell & Katz (1966 ▶) Acta Cryst. 21, 482–485]. The results of the current redetermination show an improvement in the precision of the structural and geometric parameters with all atoms refined with anisotropic displacement parameters. The crystal structure consists of distorted hexa­gonal-close-packed oxygen layers with stacking sequence abac along [001] and is held together by alternating zinc and molybdenum layers. The Zn atoms occupy both tetra­hedral and octa­hedral inter­stices with a ratio of 1:1. The Mo atoms occupy octa­hedral sites and form strongly bonded triangular clusters involving three MoO6 octa­hedra that are each shared along two edges, forming a Mo3O13 unit. All atoms lie on special positions. The Zn atoms are in 2b Wyckoff positions with 3m. site symmetry, the Mo atoms are in 6c Wyckoff positions with . m. site symmetry and the O atoms are in 2a, 2b and 6c Wyckoff positions with 3m. and . m. site symmetries, respectively. PMID:21582645

  20. Crystallization of Chicken Egg White Lysozyme from Sulfate Salts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Forsythe, Elizabeth; Pusey, Marc

    1998-01-01

    It has been "known" that chicken egg white lysozyme does not crystallize from sulfate, particularly ammonium sulfate, salts, but instead gives amorphous precipitates. This has been the basis of several studies using lysozyme comparing macromolecule crystal nucleation and amorphous precipitation. Recently Ries-Kautt et al (Acta Cryst D50, (1994) 366) have shown that purified isoionic CEWL could be crystallized from low concentrations of sulfate at basic pH, and we subsequently showed that in fact CEWL could be purified in both the tetragonal and orthorhombic forms using ammonium sulfate over the pH range 4.0 to 7.8 (Acta Cryst D53, (1997) 795). We have now extended these observations to include a range of common sulfate salts, specifically sodium, potassium, rubidium, magnesium, and manganese sulfates. In all cases but the manganese sulfates both the familiar tetragonal and orthorhombic forms were obtained, with unit cell dimensions close to those known for the "classic" sodium chloride crystallized forms. Manganese sulfate has only yielded orthorhombic crystals to date. All crystallizations were carried out using low (typically less than or equal to 6 M) salt and high (greater than approximately 90 mg/ml) protein concentrations. As with ammonium sulfate, the tetragonal - orthorhombic phase shift appears to be a function of both the temperature and the protein concentration, with higher temperatures and concentrations favoring the orthorhombic and lower the tetragonal form. The phase change range is somewhat reduced for the sulfate salts, depending upon conditions being typically between approximately 15 - 20 C. Both the magnesium and manganese sulfates gave crystals at salt concentrations over 0.6 M as well, with magnesium sulfate giving a very slowly nucleating and growing hexagonal form. A triclinic crystal form, characterized by aggressively small crystals (typically 0.1 mm in size) has been occasionally obtained from ammonium sulfate. Finally, preliminary spot

  1. Identification of oxidized protein hydrolase of human erythrocytes as acylpeptide hydrolase.

    PubMed

    Fujino, T; Watanabe, K; Beppu, M; Kikugawa, K; Yasuda, H

    2000-03-16

    Partial amino acid sequence of 80 kDa oxidized protein hydrolase (OPH), a serine protease present in human erythrocyte cytosol (Fujino et al., J. Biochem. 124 (1998) 1077-1085) that is adherent to oxidized erythrocyte membranes and preferentially degrades oxidatively damaged proteins (Beppu et al., Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1196 (1994) 81-87; Fujino et al., Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1374 (1998) 47-55) was determined. The N-terminal amino acid of diisopropyl fluorophosphate (DFP)-labeled OPH was suggested to be masked. Six peptide fragments of OPH obtained by digestion of DFP-labeled OPH with lysyl endopeptidase were isolated by use of reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography, and the sequence of more than eight amino acids from the N-terminal position of each peptide was determined. Results of homology search of amino acid sequence of each peptide strongly suggested that the protein was identical with human liver acylpeptide hydrolase (ACPH). OPH showed ACPH activity when N-acetyl-L-alanine p-nitroanilide and N-acetylmethionyl L-alanine were used as substrates. Glutathione S-transferase (GST)-tagged recombinant ACPH (rACPH) was prepared by use of baculovirus expression system as a 107-kDa protein from cDNA of human erythroleukemic cell line K-562. rACPH reacted with anti-OPH antiserum from rabbit. rACPH showed OPH activity when hydrogen peroxide-oxidized or glycated bovine serum albumin was used as substrates. As well as the enzyme activities of OPH, those of rACPH were inhibited by DFP. The results clearly demonstrate that ACPH, whose physiological function has not yet been well characterized, can play an important role as OPH in destroying oxidatively damaged proteins in living cells. PMID:10719179

  2. Detection limits of about 350 prominent lines of 65 elements observed in 50 and 27 MHz inductively coupled plasmas (ICP): effects of source characteristics, noise and spectral bandwidth-"Standard" values for the 50 MHz ICP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boumans, P. W. J. M.; Vrakking, J. J. A. M.

    This paper links up with a previous publication by the same authors [ Spectrochim. Acta41B, 1235 (1986)] dealing with the measurement of the effective line profiles of about 350 prominent lines at high spectral resolution and the determination of the physical widths of these lines. In the present work the line widths are used for a breakdown of the detection limits obtained with these lines using different ICPs and different spectrometers. This breakdown takes into account the separate effects of source characteristics, noise, and spectral bandwidth. The availability of the numerical values of the physical widths of a large number of lines permitted a more rigorous approach than in a previous work [ Spectrochim. Acta40B, 1437 (1985)]. The present approach was applied to detection limits obtained in this work with a 50 MHz ICP at high spectral resolution and to results reported by W INGEet al. [ Appl. Spectrosc.33, 206 (1979)] and WOHLERS [ ICP Information Newslett.10, 601 (1985)]for 27 MHz ICPs. The 50 MHz ICP was shown to have an advantage in source signal-to-background ratio (SBR) with respect to either of the two 27 MHz ICPs. This SBR advantage was a factor of 3-15 with respect to the "Winge ICP" and a factor of 2-6 with respect to the "Wohlers ICP". The approach was also used to convert detection limits measured in the 50 MHz ICP at high resolution into values for 15 pm spectral bandwidth and a relative standard deviation of the background signal equal to 1%. These values are recommended as standards of performance for the conventional argon ICP. The paper comprises a tabulation of the complete results for the 350 prominent lines and includes four sets of detection limits for these lines.

  3. Hubba: hub objects analyzer--a framework of interactome hubs identification for network biology.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chung-Yen; Chin, Chia-Hao; Wu, Hsin-Hung; Chen, Shu-Hwa; Ho, Chin-Wen; Ko, Ming-Tat

    2008-07-01

    One major task in the post-genome era is to reconstruct proteomic and genomic interacting networks using high-throughput experiment data. To identify essential nodes/hubs in these interactomes is a way to decipher the critical keys inside biochemical pathways or complex networks. These essential nodes/hubs may serve as potential drug-targets for developing novel therapy of human diseases, such as cancer or infectious disease caused by emerging pathogens. Hub Objects Analyzer (Hubba) is a web-based service for exploring important nodes in an interactome network generated from specific small- or large-scale experimental methods based on graph theory. Two characteristic analysis algorithms, Maximum Neighborhood Component (MNC) and Density of Maximum Neighborhood Component (DMNC) are developed for exploring and identifying hubs/essential nodes from interactome networks. Users can submit their own interaction data in PSI format (Proteomics Standards Initiative, version 2.5 and 1.0), tab format and tab with weight values. User will get an email notification of the calculation complete in minutes or hours, depending on the size of submitted dataset. Hubba result includes a rank given by a composite index, a manifest graph of network to show the relationship amid these hubs, and links for retrieving output files. This proposed method (DMNC || MNC) can be applied to discover some unrecognized hubs from previous dataset. For example, most of the Hubba high-ranked hubs (80% in top 10 hub list, and >70% in top 40 hub list) from the yeast protein interactome data (Y2H experiment) are reported as essential proteins. Since the analysis methods of Hubba are based on topology, it can also be used on other kinds of networks to explore the essential nodes, like networks in yeast, rat, mouse and human. The website of Hubba is freely available at http://hub.iis.sinica.edu.tw/Hubba. PMID:18503085

  4. The effective Q values inferred from the high-frequency decay parameter for the sediments in Taipei basin, Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Ming-Wey; Wen, Kuo-Liang; Chang, Chi-Ling; Liu, Sheu-Yien

    2016-04-01

    In this study, the high-frequency decay parameter κ, proposed by Anderson and Hough (1984), are measured from the seismograms recorded by stations, which installed in the Taipei basin. The spectral amplitudes decay exponentially with frequency, f, which can be formulated as A(f)=A_0e‑πκf, for f > fe, where A(f) is the spectral amplitude, and A0 depends on the earthquake source and epicenter distance, and the value of κ is independent of frequency, unit in second. The time windows applied to seismograms are suggested to be shear waves that are transformed to spectra by the technique of Fourier transform. The seismograms from the downhole array in Taipei Basin by Academia Sinica since 1992, provide a good opportunity to estimate the attenuation factor of the sedimentary strata over the Tertiary base rock beneath the Taipei basin (Wang et al., 2004). The seismograms of 23 earthquakes with magnitude ranges of 5.1-7.1 over the period of 2003-2010 at 9 downhole array stations are taken into calculation of the κ values for the shear waves. The results show that the κ values vary with depth and are in the range of 0.009-0.095 sec. The averaged Δκ values from observations range +/- 0.02 seconds respective to Δκ values at surface of each of station. The effective Q values for the sedimentary layers are inferred from the varied Δκ at each downhole stations following the evaluation method of 1-D analytical transfer function (Safak, 1995).

  5. Mitochondrial Genome and Nuclear Markers Provide New Insight into the Evolutionary History of Macaques.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Juan; Yu, Jianqiu; Li, Jing; Li, Peng; Fan, Zhenxin; Niu, Lili; Deng, Jiabo; Yue, Bisong; Li, Jing

    2016-01-01

    The evolutionary history of macaques, genus Macaca, has been under debate due to the short times of divergence. In this study, maternal, paternal, and biparental genetic systems were applied to infer phylogenetic relationships among macaques and to trace ancient hybridization events in their evolutionary history. Using a PCR display method, 17 newly phylogenetically informative Alu insertions were identified from M. assamensis. We combined presence/absence analysis of 84 Alu elements with mitochondrial genomes as well as nuclear sequences (five autosomal genes, two Y chromosomal genes, and one X chromosomal fragment) to reconstruct a robust macaque phylogeny. Topologies generated from different inherited markers were similar supporting six well defined species groups and a close relationship of M. assamensis and M. thibetana, but differed in the placing of M. arctoides. Both Alu elements and nuclear genes supported that M. arctoides was close to the sinica group, whereas the mitochondrial data clustered it into the fascicularis/mulatta lineage. Our results reveal that a sex-biased hybridization most likely occurred in the evolutionary history of M. arctoides, and suggest an introgressive pattern of male-mediated gene flow from the ancestors of M. arctoides to the M. mulatta population followed by nuclear swamping. According to the estimation of divergence dates, the hybridization occurred around 0.88~1.77 mya (nuclear data) or 1.38~2.56 mya (mitochondrial data). In general, our study indicates that a combination of various molecular markers could help explain complicated evolutionary relationships. Our results have provided new insights into the evolutionary history of macaques and emphasize that hybridization might play an important role in macaque evolution. PMID:27135608

  6. Mechanisms of herb-induced nephrotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Allard, T; Wenner, T; Greten, H J; Efferth, T

    2013-01-01

    Herbal therapies gained much popularity among the general public, but compared to therapies approved by official authorities, toxicological studies are frequently not available for them. Hence, there may be inherent risks and the kidneys may be especially vulnerable to toxic effects. Herbs may induce nephrotoxicity by induction of apoptosis. High oxalate contents in Star fruit (Averrhoa carambola L.) may induce acute nephropathy. Triptolide from Thunder God Vine (Triperygium wilfordii Hook) is a diterpenoid epoxide with induces reactive oxygen species and nephrotubular apoptosis. Cranberry juice is discussed as promoter of kidney stone formation (nephrolithiasis). Abuse of guaifenesin from Roughbark (Guaicum officinale L.) increases stone formation. Aristolochia acids from Aristolochia fangchi Y.C.Wu ex L.D. Chow & S.M. Hwang causes the well-known aristolochic acid nephropathy and carcinogenesis by DNA adduct formation. Carboxyatractyloside from Impila (Callilepsis laureola DC.) inhibits mitochondrial ATP synthesis. Acute allergic interstitial nephritis was diagnosed after intake of Peruvian Cat's claw (Uncaria tomentosa Willd. DC.). Whether or not Willow Bark (Salix alba L.) induces analgesic nephropathwy is a matter of discussion. Other herbal therapies are considered to affect the rennin-angiotensisn-aldosterone (RAA) system Ephedra sinica Stapf with its ingredient ephedrine. Devil's Claw (Harpagophytum procumbens DC. Ex Meisn.) and licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra L.) may inhibit major renal transport processes needed for filtration, secretion, and absorption. Strategies to minimize nephrotoxicity include (1) quality control and standardization of herbal products, (2) research on the molecular modes of action to better understand pathophysiological mechanisms of herbal products as well as (3) clinical trials to demonstrate efficacy and safety. PMID:23597204

  7. Earthquake Properties in Georgia and Armenia of the Caucasus Constrained by Regional Waveform Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, H.; Tseng, T.; Jian, P.; Mumladze, T.; Chung, S.; Huang, B.; Javakishvili, Z.; Chen, W.

    2012-12-01

    Caucasus mountain belts mark the northern terminus of the continental collision between Arabia and Eurasia. The plate convergence is predominantly in north-south direction at a rate of approximately 10-20 mm/yr across the Iranian Plateau and Caucasus region. The collision also causes the Anatolian block to extrude laterally. In the Caucasus region, earthquakes are usually in lower magnitudes (M<4). However, a few historical events are found with magnitude approaching 7 since the nineteenth century. Over the past 40 years, three large earthquakes occurred: the 1970 Dagestan (Ms= 6.5) and the 1991 Racha-Dzhava (Ms = 7.0) Georgian earthquakes in the foothill of the Greater Caucasus and the 1988 Spitak Armenian earthquake (Ms = 6.9) near the Lesser Caucasus. Due to limited stations in this area, focal mechanisms are estimated using global waveform data for primarily large earthquakes. In contrary, small earthquakes are less studied and poorly constrained. In this study, we use regional waveforms to constrain the focal mechanisms and depths of the earthquakes in the major seismic zones in the Greater Caucasus and Lesser Caucasus. Through international collaboration since 2008, we collect the data from broadband stations deployed by Institute of Earth Sciences, Academia Sinica of Taiwan, permanent stations of Global Seismographic Network and the Georgian local broadband stations for superior coverage. We examine earthquakes with magnitude above 3.5 in the study region. Preliminary results of the analyzed focal mechanism for small earthquakes are generally consistent with the large events constrained by earlier studies and the corresponding faults. We will improve the solutions with suitable parameters through systematic tests and including more available stations. With well determined focal mechanisms, we aim to better understand the stress distribution, the relation with fault system nearby and the detail tectonic structure in the Caucasus.

  8. Causes, Features, and Outcomes of Drug-Induced Liver Injury in 69 Children from China

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Yun; Li, Yong-gang; Wang, Jia-bo; Liu, Shu-hong; Wang, Li-fu; Zhao, Yan-ling; Bai, Yun-feng; Wang, Zhong-xia; Li, Jian-yu; Xiao, Xiao-he

    2015-01-01

    Background/Aims Drug-induced liver injury (DILI) is a frequent cause of pediatric liver disease; however, the data on DILI are remarkably limited. Methods All 69 children hospitalized with DILI between January 2009 and December 2011 were retrospectively studied. Results A total of 37.7% of the children had medical histories of respiratory infection. The clinical injury patterns were as follows: hepatocellular 89.9%, cholestatic 2.9%, and mixed 7.2%. Liver biopsies from 55 children most frequently demonstrated chronic (47.3%) and acute (27.3%) hepatitis. Hypersensitivity features, namely, fever (31.9%), rash (21.7%), and eosinophilia (1.4%), were found. Twenty-four children (34.8%) developed chronic DILI. Antibiotics (26.1%) were the most common Western medicines (WMs) causing DILI, and the major implicated herbs were Ephedra sinica and Polygonum multiflorum. Compared with WM, the children whose injuries were caused by Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) showed a higher level of total bilirubin (1.4 mg/dL vs 16.6 mg/dL, p=0.004) and a longer prothrombin time (11.8 seconds vs 17.3 seconds, p=0.012), but they exhibited less chronic DILI (2/15 vs 18/39, p=0.031). Conclusions Most cases of DILI in children are caused by antibiotics or CHM used to treat respiratory infection and present with hepatocellular injury. Compared with WM, CHM is more likely to cause severe liver injury, but liver injury caused by CHM is curable. PMID:25717050

  9. ePIANNO: ePIgenomics ANNOtation tool.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chia-Hsin; Ho, Bing-Ching; Chen, Chun-Ling; Chang, Ya-Hsuan; Hsu, Yi-Chiung; Li, Yu-Cheng; Yuan, Shin-Sheng; Huang, Yi-Huan; Chang, Chi-Sheng; Li, Ker-Chau; Chen, Hsuan-Yu

    2016-01-01

    Recently, with the development of next generation sequencing (NGS), the combination of chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) and NGS, namely ChIP-seq, has become a powerful technique to capture potential genomic binding sites of regulatory factors, histone modifications and chromatin accessible regions. For most researchers, additional information including genomic variations on the TF binding site, allele frequency of variation between different populations, variation associated disease, and other neighbour TF binding sites are essential to generate a proper hypothesis or a meaningful conclusion. Many ChIP-seq datasets had been deposited on the public domain to help researchers make new discoveries. However, researches are often intimidated by the complexity of data structure and largeness of data volume. Such information would be more useful if they could be combined or downloaded with ChIP-seq data. To meet such demands, we built a webtool: ePIgenomic ANNOtation tool (ePIANNO, http://epianno.stat.sinica.edu.tw/index.html). ePIANNO is a web server that combines SNP information of populations (1000 Genomes Project) and gene-disease association information of GWAS (NHGRI) with ChIP-seq (hmChIP, ENCODE, and ROADMAP epigenomics) data. ePIANNO has a user-friendly website interface allowing researchers to explore, navigate, and extract data quickly. We use two examples to demonstrate how users could use functions of ePIANNO webserver to explore useful information about TF related genomic variants. Users could use our query functions to search target regions, transcription factors, or annotations. ePIANNO may help users to generate hypothesis or explore potential biological functions for their studies. PMID:26859295

  10. SMA Imaging of Massive Star Formation in NGC6334I and I(N)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hunter, T. R.; Megeath, S. T.; Beuther, H.; Zhang, Q.; Brogan, C. L.; Menten, K. M.; Thorwirth, S.

    We present high-resolution observations (1.3" x 2.3") of the massive star-formation regions NGC 6334 I and I(N) in the 230 GHz band (1.3 millimeters). Data were obtained with the Submillimeter Array (SMA) interferometer, a joint venture of the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory (SAO) and the Academica Sinica Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics. Various pieces of past evidence, including a molecular line survey by Thorwirth et al. (2003), have suggested that these two fields exist in different evolutionary stages, with field I(N) being younger. Our new observations help to explore this hypothesis. In both fields, we have resolved the strong continuum emission into multiple sources. Most of the continuum arises from dust grains. In source I, there are four major components, the third brightest of which coincides with the compact HII region. In source I(N), we have resolved at least seven sources. One of the fainter ones is associated with a weak 3.5 cm source while the others have no centimeter continuum counterpart. In addition to the millimeter continuum emission, we have detected and imaged a number of molecular lines that trace the outflow activity and the location of dense gas in both fields. So far, our results suggest that both fields contain protostellar clusters, each with at least one line-rich core and a number of other (perhaps younger) cores that exhibit no known compact phenomena at centimeter wavelengths. These observations demonstrate the power and promise of high-resolution submillimeter observations.

  11. The Greenland Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grimes, Paul; Blundell, Raymond

    2012-09-01

    In the spring of 2010, the Academia Sinica Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, and the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, acquired the ALMA North America prototype antenna - a state-of-the-art 12-m diameter dish designed for submillimeter astronomy. Together with the MIT-Haystack Observatory and the National Radio Astronomy Observatory, the plan is to retrofit this antenna for cold-weather operation and equip it with a suite of instruments designed for a variety of scientific experiments and observations. The primary scientific goal is to image the shadow of the Super-Massive Black Hole in M87 in order to test Einstein’s theory of relativity under extreme gravity. This requires the highest angular resolution, which can only be achieved by linking this antenna with others already in place to form a telescope almost the size of the Earth. We are therefore developing plans to install this antenna at the peak of the Greenland ice-sheet. This location will produce an equivalent North-South separation of almost 9,000 km when linked to the ALMA telescope in Northern Chile, and an East-West separation of about 6,000 km when linked to SAO and ASIAA’s Submillimeter Array on Mauna Kea, Hawaii, and will provide an angular resolution almost 1000 times higher than that of the most powerful optical telescopes. Given the quality of the atmosphere at the proposed telescope location, we also plan to make observations in the atmospheric windows at 1.3 and 1.5 THz. We will present plans to retrofit the telescope for cold-weather operation, and discuss potential instrumentation and projected time-line.

  12. Non-adiabatic dynamics of reactions of O(1D) with Xe, CO, NO2, and CO2 from crossed atomic and molecular beam experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boering, Kristie

    2015-03-01

    Reactions of the first excited state of atomic oxygen, O(1D), with small molecules such as CO, NO2, and CO2 continue to be of interest in aeronomy and atmospheric chemistry, thus providing additional motivation to understand the dynamics of these reactions and how well they are predicted by theory. In collaboration with Prof. Jim Lin of the Institute of Atomic and Molecular Sciences, Academia Sinica, Taiwan, we have studied the dynamics of quenching and non-quenching reactions between O(1D) and various small molecules using a universal crossed atomic and molecular beam apparatus. New experimental results for the dynamics of quenching of O(1D) by Xe and CO will be presented and compared with previous results for NO2 (K.A. Mar, A.L. Van Wyngarden, C.-W. Liang, Y.T. Lee, J.J. Lin, K.A. Boering, J. Chem. Phys., 137, 044302, doi: 10.1063/1.4736567, 2012) and CO2 (M.J. Perri, A.L. Van Wyngarden, K.A. Boering, J.J. Lin, and Y.T. Lee, J. Chem. Phys., 119(16), 8213-8216, 2003; M.J. Perri, A.L. Van Wyngarden, J.J. Lin, Y.T. Lee, and K.A. Boering, J. Phys. Chem. A, 108(39), 7995-8001, doi: 10.1021/jp0485845, 2004). Among the most intriguing of the new results are for quenching of O(1D) by Xe, for which marked oscillations in the differential cross sections were observed for the O(3P) and Xe products. The shape and relative phase of the oscillatory structure depended strongly on collision energy. This behavior is likely due to the quantum nature of the collision dynamics, caused by interferences among multiple curve crossing pathways accessible during electronic quenching, known as Stueckelberg oscillations.

  13. iMet-Q: A User-Friendly Tool for Label-Free Metabolomics Quantitation Using Dynamic Peak-Width Determination.

    PubMed

    Chang, Hui-Yin; Chen, Ching-Tai; Lih, T Mamie; Lynn, Ke-Shiuan; Juo, Chiun-Gung; Hsu, Wen-Lian; Sung, Ting-Yi

    2016-01-01

    Efficient and accurate quantitation of metabolites from LC-MS data has become an important topic. Here we present an automated tool, called iMet-Q (intelligent Metabolomic Quantitation), for label-free metabolomics quantitation from high-throughput MS1 data. By performing peak detection and peak alignment, iMet-Q provides a summary of quantitation results and reports ion abundance at both replicate level and sample level. Furthermore, it gives the charge states and isotope ratios of detected metabolite peaks to facilitate metabolite identification. An in-house standard mixture and a public Arabidopsis metabolome data set were analyzed by iMet-Q. Three public quantitation tools, including XCMS, MetAlign, and MZmine 2, were used for performance comparison. From the mixture data set, seven standard metabolites were detected by the four quantitation tools, for which iMet-Q had a smaller quantitation error of 12% in both profile and centroid data sets. Our tool also correctly determined the charge states of seven standard metabolites. By searching the mass values for those standard metabolites against Human Metabolome Database, we obtained a total of 183 metabolite candidates. With the isotope ratios calculated by iMet-Q, 49% (89 out of 183) metabolite candidates were filtered out. From the public Arabidopsis data set reported with two internal standards and 167 elucidated metabolites, iMet-Q detected all of the peaks corresponding to the internal standards and 167 metabolites. Meanwhile, our tool had small abundance variation (≤ 0.19) when quantifying the two internal standards and had higher abundance correlation (≥ 0.92) when quantifying the 167 metabolites. iMet-Q provides user-friendly interfaces and is publicly available for download at http://ms.iis.sinica.edu.tw/comics/Software_iMet-Q.html. PMID:26784691

  14. Origin and Genetic Diversity of Diploid Parthenogenetic Artemia in Eurasia

    PubMed Central

    Maccari, Marta; Amat, Francisco; Gómez, Africa

    2013-01-01

    There is wide interest in understanding how genetic diversity is generated and maintained in parthenogenetic lineages, as it will help clarify the debate of the evolution and maintenance of sexual reproduction. There are three mechanisms that can be responsible for the generation of genetic diversity of parthenogenetic lineages: contagious parthenogenesis, repeated hybridization and microorganism infections (e.g. Wolbachia). Brine shrimps of the genus Artemia (Crustacea, Branchiopoda, Anostraca) are a good model system to investigate evolutionary transitions between reproductive systems as they include sexual species and lineages of obligate parthenogenetic populations of different ploidy level, which often co-occur. Diploid parthenogenetic lineages produce occasional fully functional rare males, interspecific hybridization is known to occur, but the mechanisms of origin of asexual lineages are not completely understood. Here we sequenced and analysed fragments of one mitochondrial and two nuclear genes from an extensive set of populations of diploid parthenogenetic Artemia and sexual species from Central and East Asia to investigate the evolutionary origin of diploid parthenogenetic Artemia, and geographic origin of the parental taxa. Our results indicate that there are at least two, possibly three independent and recent maternal origins of parthenogenetic lineages, related to A. urmiana and Artemia sp. from Kazakhstan, but that the nuclear genes are very closely related in all the sexual species and parthenogegetic lineages except for A. sinica, who presumable took no part on the origin of diploid parthenogenetic strains. Our data cannot rule out either hybridization between any of the very closely related Asiatic sexual species or rare events of contagious parthenogenesis via rare males as the contributing mechanisms to the generation of genetic diversity in diploid parthenogenetic Artemia lineages. PMID:24376692

  15. Multiple-interval mapping for quantitative trait loci controlling endosperm traits.

    PubMed Central

    Kao, Chen-Hung

    2004-01-01

    . The triploid MIM FORTRAN program for mapping endosperm traits is available on the worldwide web (http://www.stat.sinica.edu.tw/chkao/). PMID:15342535

  16. ‘It's springtime for science’: renewing China–UK scientific relations in the 1970s

    PubMed Central

    Agar, Jon

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines how links between the People's Republic of China and the UK were rebuilt in the 1970s. It not only fills a gap in the historiography but also makes three particular arguments. The first is that there were two intersecting institutional paths along which the rebuilding of links were followed: a foreign policy path, in which the most important body was the Foreign and Commonwealth Office, and an academy-level path in which relations between the Royal Society and the Chinese Academy of Sciences (also known in the early years as the Academia Sinica) were crucial. Especially under conditions in which access and travel to China were extremely restricted, the Royal Society acted as a ‘gatekeeper’, rationing visits to a select few researchers. The second argument is that science was a strategic pathfinder or diplomatic ‘avant garde’. The maintenance of scientific links, even during the most difficult periods of this history when they were all but severed, meant that a path was kept open to ‘further communication and exchange between peoples—and governments’, as Kathlin Smith has found in the broadly similar case of relations between China and the USA. In particular, scientific relations formed an important bridge in the negotiation and eventual agreement of the first treaty signed between the UK and communist China in 1978. It was no coincidence that this highest-level political agreement was accompanied by a parallel accord between the scientific academies. Third, I argue that, nevertheless, even this treaty was not entirely new, and that the model for the China–UK treaty was existing agreements on technology exchanges made with Eastern European countries. PMID:24686564

  17. Orchidstra: an integrated orchid functional genomics database.

    PubMed

    Su, Chun-lin; Chao, Ya-Ting; Yen, Shao-Hua; Chen, Chun-Yi; Chen, Wan-Chieh; Chang, Yao-Chien Alex; Shih, Ming-Che

    2013-02-01

    A specialized orchid database, named Orchidstra (URL: http://orchidstra.abrc.sinica.edu.tw), has been constructed to collect, annotate and share genomic information for orchid functional genomics studies. The Orchidaceae is a large family of Angiosperms that exhibits extraordinary biodiversity in terms of both the number of species and their distribution worldwide. Orchids exhibit many unique biological features; however, investigation of these traits is currently constrained due to the limited availability of genomic information. Transcriptome information for five orchid species and one commercial hybrid has been included in the Orchidstra database. Altogether, these comprise >380,000 non-redundant orchid transcript sequences, of which >110,000 are protein-coding genes. Sequences from the transcriptome shotgun assembly (TSA) were obtained either from output reads from next-generation sequencing technologies assembled into contigs, or from conventional cDNA library approaches. An annotation pipeline using Gene Ontology, KEGG and Pfam was built to assign gene descriptions and functional annotation to protein-coding genes. Deep sequencing of small RNA was also performed for Phalaenopsis aphrodite to search for microRNAs (miRNAs), extending the information archived for this species to miRNA annotation, precursors and putative target genes. The P. aphrodite transcriptome information was further used to design probes for an oligonucleotide microarray, and expression profiling analysis was carried out. The intensities of hybridized probes derived from microarray assays of various tissues were incorporated into the database as part of the functional evidence. In the future, the content of the Orchidstra database will be expanded with transcriptome data and genomic information from more orchid species. PMID:23324169

  18. The Complete Mitochondrial Genome Sequence of Bactericera cockerelli and Comparison with Three Other Psylloidea Species

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Fengnian; Cen, Yijing; Wallis, Christopher M.; Trumble, John T.; Prager, Sean; Yokomi, Ray; Zheng, Zheng; Deng, Xiaoling; Chen, Jianchi; Liang, Guangwen

    2016-01-01

    Potato psyllid (Bactericera cockerelli) is an important pest of potato, tomato and pepper. Not only could a toxin secreted by nymphs results in serious phytotoxemia in some host plants, but also over the past few years B. cockerelli was shown to transmit “Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum”, the putative bacterial pathogen of potato zebra chip (ZC) disease, to potato and tomato. ZC has caused devastating losses to potato production in the western U.S., Mexico, and elsewhere. New knowledge of the genetic diversity of the B. cockerelli is needed to develop improved strategies to manage pest populations. Mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) sequencing provides important knowledge about insect evolution and diversity in and among populations. This report provides the first complete B. cockerelli mitogenome sequence as determined by next generation sequencing technology (Illumina MiSeq). The circular B. cockerelli mitogenome had a size of 15,220 bp with 13 protein-coding gene (PCGs), 2 ribosomal RNA genes (rRNAs), 22 transfer RNA genes (tRNAs), and a non-coding region of 975 bp. The overall gene order of the B. cockerelli mitogenome is identical to three other published Psylloidea mitogenomes: one species from the Triozidae, Paratrioza sinica; and two species from the Psyllidae, Cacopsylla coccinea and Pachypsylla venusta. This suggests all of these species share a common ancestral mitogenome. However, sequence analyses revealed differences between and among the insect families, in particular a unique region that can be folded into three stem-loop secondary structures present only within the B. cockerelli mitogenome. A phylogenetic tree based on the 13 PCGs matched an existing taxonomy scheme that was based on morphological characteristics. The available complete mitogenome sequence makes it accessible to all genes for future population diversity evaluation of B. cockerelli. PMID:27227976

  19. De Novo Assembly of the Whole Transcriptome of the Wild Embryo, Preleptocephalus, Leptocephalus, and Glass Eel of Anguilla japonica and Deciphering the Digestive and Absorptive Capacities during Early Development

    PubMed Central

    Cha, Yuh-Ru; Tsukamoto, Katsumi; Lin, Chung-Yen; Han, Yu-San

    2015-01-01

    Natural stocks of Japanese eel (Anguilla japonica) have decreased drastically because of overfishing, habitat destruction, and changes in the ocean environment over the past few decades. However, to date, artificial mass production of glass eels is far from reality because of the lack of appropriate feed for the eel larvae. In this study, wild glass eel, leptocephali, preleptocephali, and embryos were collected to conduct RNA-seq. Approximately 279 million reads were generated and assembled into 224,043 transcripts. The transcript levels of genes coding for digestive enzymes and nutrient transporters were investigated to estimate the capacities for nutrient digestion and absorption during early development. The results showed that the transcript levels of protein digestion enzymes were higher than those of carbohydrate and lipid digestion enzymes in the preleptocephali and leptocephali, and the transcript levels of amino acid transporters were also higher than those of glucose and fructose transporters and the cholesterol transporter. In addition, the transcript levels of glucose and fructose transporters were significantly raising in the leptocephali. Moreover, the transcript levels of protein, carbohydrate, and lipid digestion enzymes were balanced in the glass eel, but the transcript levels of amino acid transporters were higher than those of glucose and cholesterol transporters. These findings implied that preleptocephali and leptocephali prefer high-protein food, and the nutritional requirements of monosaccharides and lipids for the eel larvae vary with growth. An online database (http://molas.iis.sinica.edu.tw/jpeel/) that will provide the sequences and the annotated results of assembled transcripts was established for the eel research community. PMID:26406914

  20. Mitochondrial Genome and Nuclear Markers Provide New Insight into the Evolutionary History of Macaques

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Juan; Yu, Jianqiu; Li, Jing; Li, Peng; Fan, Zhenxin; Niu, Lili; Deng, Jiabo; Yue, Bisong; Li, Jing

    2016-01-01

    The evolutionary history of macaques, genus Macaca, has been under debate due to the short times of divergence. In this study, maternal, paternal, and biparental genetic systems were applied to infer phylogenetic relationships among macaques and to trace ancient hybridization events in their evolutionary history. Using a PCR display method, 17 newly phylogenetically informative Alu insertions were identified from M. assamensis. We combined presence/absence analysis of 84 Alu elements with mitochondrial genomes as well as nuclear sequences (five autosomal genes, two Y chromosomal genes, and one X chromosomal fragment) to reconstruct a robust macaque phylogeny. Topologies generated from different inherited markers were similar supporting six well defined species groups and a close relationship of M. assamensis and M. thibetana, but differed in the placing of M. arctoides. Both Alu elements and nuclear genes supported that M. arctoides was close to the sinica group, whereas the mitochondrial data clustered it into the fascicularis/mulatta lineage. Our results reveal that a sex-biased hybridization most likely occurred in the evolutionary history of M. arctoides, and suggest an introgressive pattern of male-mediated gene flow from the ancestors of M. arctoides to the M. mulatta population followed by nuclear swamping. According to the estimation of divergence dates, the hybridization occurred around 0.88~1.77 mya (nuclear data) or 1.38~2.56 mya (mitochondrial data). In general, our study indicates that a combination of various molecular markers could help explain complicated evolutionary relationships. Our results have provided new insights into the evolutionary history of macaques and emphasize that hybridization might play an important role in macaque evolution. PMID:27135608