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Sample records for acth-stimulated cortisol production

  1. Repeatability of the ACTH stimulation test as reflected by salivary cortisol response in healthy horses.

    PubMed

    Scheidegger, M D; Gerber, V; Ramseyer, A; Schüpbach-Regula, G; Bruckmaier, R M; van der Kolk, J H

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study was to further characterize the ACTH stimulation test as reflected by salivary cortisol response and to measure the short- and long-term repeatability of it in healthy horses as a tool to assess the capacity of the adrenal cortex to secrete cortisol. Nineteen healthy horses were subjected to 3 ACTH stimulation tests. Intervals were 2 wk and 5 mo between the first and second and the second and third tests, respectively. A dose of 1-μg/kg BW synthetic ACTH was injected intravenously. Saliva samples were collected at baseline and at 30, 60, 90, 120, 150, and 180 min after administration for cortisol measurements using a competitive enzyme immunoassay. A repeated measures ANOVA was used to compare values within and among horses. Mean ± SD total increase in cortisol concentrations integrated over the entire sampling period was 34.5 ± 11.0 ng/mL. The highest measured concentration at a single time point was 9.7 ± 2.7 ng/mL and was reached after 122 ± 22 min. For the short- and long-term repeatability, intraclass correlation coefficient was 0.90 and 0.33, respectively. The 3 ACTH stimulation tests results differed significantly among (P < 0.00001) but not within (P = 0.538) individual horses. The Freiberger stallions had a higher salivary cortisol baseline concentration and a lower response to ACTH stimulation as compared with Warmblood mares and geldings. The present study confirmed that the administration of ACTH in healthy horses reliably stimulates the salivary secretion of cortisol and shows that the test is repeatable in the short- and long-term. PMID:27565229

  2. ACTH stimulation test

    MedlinePlus

    ... Groot LJ, de Kretser DM, et al, eds. Endocrinology: Adult and Pediatric . 7th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2016:chap 102. Chernecky CC, Berger BJ. ACTH stimulation test - diagnostic. In: ... . 13th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2016:chap ...

  3. ACTH stimulation test in the captive cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus).

    PubMed

    Köster, L S; Schoeman, J P; Meltzer, D G A

    2007-09-01

    Serum cortisol response was assessed in 8 captive cheetahs, of varying ages, after the intravenous administration of 500 microg of tetracosactide (Synacthen Depot, Novartis, Kempton Park) while maintained under general anaesthesia. In addition, 8 cheetahs were anaesthetised and given an equal volume of saline in order to establish baseline cortisol concentrations at similar stages of anaesthesia. A significant difference in the median cortisol concentration measured over time was found following ACTH administration in the ACTH group (P < 0.001). There was no difference between the median cortisol concentrations in the ACTH group at time-points 120, 150 and 180 min after ACTH stimulation (P = 0.867). Thus it appears appropriate to collect serum 120 to 180 min after tetracosactide administration to assess maximal stimulation of the adrenal in the cheetah. No statistically significant rise was seen in the anaesthetised control group following the injection of saline (P = 0.238).

  4. Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis and Its Association with Adrenal Insufficiency: Assessment with the Low-Dose ACTH Stimulation Test

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Gutiérrez, René; Rendon, Adrian; Barrera-Sánchez, Maximiliano; Carlos-Reyna, Kevin Erick Gabriel; Álvarez-Villalobos, Neri Alejandro; González-Saldivar, Gloria; González-González, José Gerardo

    2016-01-01

    Background. Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) is a major public health care concern that affects the life of millions of people around the world. The association of tuberculosis and adrenal insufficiency is well known; however, it is thought to be less prevalent every time. A spike in TB incidence and a lack of evidence of this association in patients with MDR-TB call for reassessment of an illness (adrenal dysfunction) that if not diagnosed could seriously jeopardize patients' health. Objective. To determine the prevalence of adrenocortical insufficiency in patients with MDR-TB using the low-dose (1 μg) ACTH stimulation test at baseline and at 6–12 months of follow-up after antituberculosis treatment and culture conversion. Methods. A total of 48 men or women, aged ≥18 years (HIV-negative patients diagnosed with pulmonary MDR-TB) were included in this prospective observational study. Blood samples for serum cortisol were taken at baseline and 30 and 60 minutes after 1 μg ACTH stimulation at our tertiary level university hospital before and after antituberculosis treatment. Results. Forty-seven percent of subjects had primary MDR-TB; 43.8% had type 2 diabetes; none were HIV-positive. We found at enrollment 2 cases (4.2%) of adrenal insufficiency taking 500 nmol/L as the standard cutoff point value and 4 cases (8.3%) alternatively, using 550 nmol/L. After antituberculosis intensive phase drug-treatment and a negative mycobacterial culture (10.2 ± 3.6 months) adrenocortical function was restored in all cases. Conclusions. In patients with MDR-TB, using the low-dose ACTH stimulation test, a low prevalence of mild adrenal insufficiency was observed. After antituberculosis treatment adrenal function was restored in all cases. Given the increasing and worrying epidemic of MDR-TB these findings have important clinical implications that may help clinicians and patients make better decisions when deciding to test for adrenocortical dysfunction or

  5. Corticosterone, cortisol, triglycerides, aspartate aminotransferase and uric acid plasma concentrations during foie gras production in male mule ducks (Anas platyrhynchos × Cairina moschata).

    PubMed

    Flament, A; Delleur, V; Poulipoulis, A; Marlier, D

    2012-01-01

    1. Corticosterone, cortisol, triglycerides, aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and uric acid (UA) plasma concentration were measured at 8 (7 days after group housing), 12 (after 7 days of force feeding) and 13 weeks of age (at slaughter after 12 days of force feeding), and 45 min after an adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) stimulation test at 8 weeks of age in 12 male mule ducks in an on-farm experiment. 2. No significant increase of corticosterone was found during the force-feeding period compared with the concentration after housing. 3. Comparison of corticosterone and cortisol values indicates that cortisol can be considered as a reliable acute stress indicator in future routine examinations. 4. Plasma concentrations of triglycerides and aspartate aminotransferase increased progressively from pre-force feeding period to slaughtering. 5. Plasma concentrations of uric acid increased from the start at 8 weeks of age to the mid-force feeding period but no difference was noticed between the mid-force feeding period and slaughtering. 6. It is concluded that acute stress induced by force-feeding is similar at the beginning and end of the commercial production of foie gras.

  6. Comparative analysis of plasma 17-hydroxyprogesterone and cortisol responses to ACTH in patients with various adrenal tumors before and after unilateral adrenalectomy.

    PubMed

    Tóth, M; Rácz, K; Adleff, V; Varga, I; Fütö, L; Jakab, C; Karlinger, K; Kiss, R; Gláz, E

    2000-05-01

    Patients with non-hyperfunctioning adrenal adenomas often have an increased plasma 17-hydroxyprogesterone response to ACTH stimulation. The effects of adrenal surgery on this abnormality have rarely been investigated. One hundred and sixty-one patients with unilateral adrenal tumors (non-hyperfunctioning adenomas, 78; cortisol-producing adenomas, 8; aldosterone-producing adenomas, 37; adrenal cysts, 12; pheochromocytomas, 26) were studied. Patients before and after adrenal surgery as well as 60 healthy subjects underwent an ACTH stimulation test using 2 mg synthetic ACTH(1-24) (Cortrosyn Depot, Organon). Basal and ACTH-stimulated plasma 17-hydroxyprogesterone and cortisol concentrations are reported. Before adrenal surgery, the basal plasma 17-hydroxyprogesterone concentrations were normal in patients with all types of tumors. However, the ACTH-stimulated plasma 17-hydroxyprogesterone levels were abnormally increased in 53% and 31% of patients with non-hyperfunctioning adenomas and aldosterone-producing adenomas, respectively. In addition, a few patients with adrenal cysts and pheochromocytomas also showed an increased ACTH-stimulated 17-hydroxyprogesterone response. After unilateral adrenalectomy, this hormonal abnormality disappeared in most, although not all patients with adrenal tumors. In patients with non-hyperfunctioning adrenal tumors, ACTH-stimulated plasma 17-hydroxyprogesterone and cortisol concentrations significantly correlated with the size of the tumors. These results firmly indicate that the tumoral mass itself may be responsible for the increased plasma 17-hydroxyprogesterone and cortisol responses after ACTH stimulation in patients with non-hyperfunctioning and hyperfunctioning adrenal adenomas. PMID:10882146

  7. Cortisol Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... is produced and secreted by the adrenal glands . Production of the hormone is regulated by the hypothalamus ... help determine its cause: Testing for Excess Cortisol Production If a person has a high blood cortisol ...

  8. Social stress modulates the cortisol response to an acute stressor in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    PubMed

    Jeffrey, J D; Gollock, M J; Gilmour, K M

    2014-01-15

    In rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) of subordinate social status, circulating cortisol concentrations were elevated under resting conditions but the plasma cortisol and glucose responses to an acute stressor (confinement in a net) were attenuated relative to those of dominant trout. An in vitro head kidney preparation, and analysis of the expression of key genes in the stress axis prior to and following confinement in a net were then used to examine the mechanisms underlying suppression of the acute cortisol stress response in trout experiencing chronic social stress. With porcine adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) as the secretagogue, ACTH-stimulated cortisol production was significantly lower for head kidney preparations from subordinate trout than for those from dominant trout. Dominant and subordinate fish did not, however, differ in the relative mRNA abundance of melanocortin-2 receptor (MC2R), steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) or cytochrome P450 side chain cleavage enzyme (P450scc) within the head kidney, although the relative mRNA abundance of these genes was significantly higher in both dominant and subordinate fish than in sham trout (trout that did not experience social interactions but were otherwise treated identically to the dominant and subordinate fish). The relative mRNA abundance of all three genes was significantly higher in trout exposed to an acute net stressor than under control conditions. Upstream of cortisol production in the stress axis, plasma ACTH concentrations were not affected by social stress, nor was the relative mRNA abundance of the binding protein for corticotropin releasing factor (CRF-BP). The relative mRNA abundance of CRF in the pre-optic area of subordinate fish was significantly higher than that of dominant or sham fish 1h after exposure to the stressor. Collectively, the results indicate that chronic social stress modulates cortisol production at the level of the interrenal cells, resulting in an attenuated

  9. Cortisol promotes endoplasmic glucose production via pyridine nucleotide redox.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zengmin; Mick, Gail J; Xie, Rongrong; Wang, Xudong; Xie, Xuemei; Li, Guimei; McCormick, Kenneth L

    2016-04-01

    Both increased adrenal and peripheral cortisol production, the latter governed by 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11β-HSD1), contribute to the maintenance of fasting blood glucose. In the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), the pyridine nucleotide redox state (NADP/NADPH) is dictated by the concentration of glucose-6-phosphate (G6P) and the coordinated activities of two enzymes, hexose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (H6PDH) and 11β-HSD1. However, luminal G6P may similarly serve as a substrate for hepatic glucose-6-phophatase (G6Pase). A tacit belief is that the G6P pool in the ER is equally accessible to both H6PDH and G6Pase. Based on our inhibition studies and kinetic analysis in isolated rat liver microsomes, these two aforesaid luminal enzymes do share the G6P pool in the ER, but not equally. Based on the kinetic modeling of G6P flux, the ER transporter for G6P (T1) preferentially delivers this substrate to G6Pase; hence, the luminal enzymes do not share G6P equally. Moreover, cortisol, acting through 11β-HSD1, begets a more reduced pyridine redox ratio. By altering this luminal redox ratio, G6P flux through H6PDH is restrained, allowing more G6P for the competing enzyme G6Pase. And, at low G6P concentrations in the ER lumen, which occur during fasting, this acute cortisol-induced redox adjustment promotes glucose production. This reproducible cortisol-driven mechanism has been heretofore unrecognized. PMID:26860459

  10. Cortisol level measurements in fingernails as a retrospective index of hormone production.

    PubMed

    Izawa, Shuhei; Miki, Keiichi; Tsuchiya, Masao; Mitani, Takeshi; Midorikawa, Toru; Fuchu, Tatsuya; Komatsu, Taiki; Togo, Fumiharu

    2015-04-01

    The cortisol level in fingernails may reflect the hormone's cumulative production over a long period, but the notions have not been fully established. In this study, we investigated the association of cortisol in fingernails with cortisol accumulation over a long period (hair cortisol) and over a relatively short period (salivary cortisol). In study 1, hair and fingernail samples were collected from 58 middle-aged and elderly men. The cortisol level in hair samples was moderately associated with the level in fingernail samples (r = 0.29, p < 0.05 and rs = 0.36, p < 0.01). In study 2, 37 workers provided 4 saliva samples over the course of one day (at awakening, 30 min after awakening, before lunch, and after work) and another set a month later. Further, the workers were asked to provide fingernail samples during a six-month period. We found that the cortisol level in saliva over the whole day (area under the curve for cortisol) was moderately associated with the cortisol level measured in fingernail samples that were collected 4 months (r = 0.43, p < 0.05 and rs = 0.50, p < 0.01) and 5 months later (r = 0.45, p < 0.05 and rs = 0.53, p < 0.01). These results indicated that the cortisol level in fingernail samples might retrospectively represent hormone production during a given period. The cortisol level in fingernail samples may be useful in the investigation of the link between psychosocial stress and health.

  11. Cushing disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... much ACTH. ACTH stimulates production and release of cortisol, a stress hormone. Too much ACTH causes the adrenal glands to make too much cortisol. Cortisol is normally released during stressful situations. It ...

  12. Maternal melatonin selectively inhibits cortisol production in the primate fetal adrenal gland

    PubMed Central

    Torres-Farfan, Claudia; Richter, Hans G; Germain, Alfredo M; Valenzuela, Guillermo J; Campino, Carmen; Rojas-García, Pedro; Forcelledo, María Luisa; Torrealba, Fernando; Serón-Ferré, María

    2004-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that in primates, maternal melatonin restrains fetal and newborn adrenal cortisol production. A functional G-protein-coupled MT1 membrane-bound melatonin receptor was detected in 90% gestation capuchin monkey fetal adrenals by (a) 2-[125I] iodomelatonin binding (Kd, 75.7 ± 6.9 pm; Bmax, 2.6 ± 0.4 fmol (mg protein)−1), (b) cDNA identification, and (c) melatonin inhibition of adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH)- and corticotrophin-releasing hormone (CRH)-stimulated cortisol but not of dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate (DHAS) production in vitro. Melatonin also inhibited ACTH-induced 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase mRNA expression. To assess the physiological relevance of these findings, we next studied the effect of chronic maternal melatonin suppression (induced by exposure to constant light during the last third of gestation) on maternal plasma oestradiol during gestation and on plasma cortisol concentration in the 4- to 6-day-old newborn. Constant light suppressed maternal melatonin without affecting maternal plasma oestradiol concentration, consistent with no effect on fetal DHAS, the precursor of maternal oestradiol. However, newborns from mothers under constant light condition had twice as much plasma cortisol as newborns from mothers maintained under a normal light–dark schedule. Newborns from mothers exposed to chronic constant light and daily melatonin replacement had normal plasma cortisol concentration. Our results support a role of maternal melatonin in fetal and neonatal primate cortisol regulation. PMID:14673186

  13. The aetiological association between the dynamics of cortisol productivity and ADHD.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Rebecca; Rijsdijk, Fruhling; Ouellet-Morin, Isabelle; Asherson, Philip; McLoughlin, Grainne; Kuntsi, Jonna

    2016-08-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has been linked to dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, indexed by salivary cortisol. The phenotypic and aetiological association of cortisol productivity with ADHD was investigated. A selected twin design using 68 male twin-pairs aged 12-15, concordant or discordant for high ADHD symptom scores, or control twin-pairs with low ADHD symptoms, based on developmentally stable parental ADHD ratings. A genetic growth curve model was applied to cortisol samples obtained across three points during a cognitive-electroencephalography assessment, to examine the aetiological overlap of ADHD affection status (high versus low ADHD symptom scores) with latent intercept and slope factors. A significant phenotypic correlation emerged between ADHD and the slope factor, with cortisol levels dropping faster for the group with high ADHD symptom scores. The analyses further suggested this overlap was mostly driven by correlated genetic effects. We identified change in cortisol activity over time as significantly associated with ADHD affection status, primarily explained by shared genetic effects, suggesting that blunted cortisol productivity can be a marker of genetic risk in ADHD. PMID:27106905

  14. Concentrations, metabolic clearance rates, production rates and plasma binding of cortisol in Antarctic phocid seals.

    PubMed

    Liggins, G C; France, J T; Schneider, R C; Knox, B S; Zapol, W M

    1993-10-01

    We have reported previously that plasma of the Weddell seal, a member of the phocid family, contains a very high concentration of cortisol. The present study was undertaken to determine whether high cortisol levels were common to seals in the Antarctic environment, or to other phocidae, and to determine the mechanism of the hypercortisolaemia. High levels of cortisol (0.82-2.38 mumol/l) were found in 4 phocidae (Weddell, crabeater, leopard and Southern elephant seals), whereas levels in a member of the otariid family (Antarctic fur seal) were similar to human values. Metabolic clearance rates (MCR) and production rates (PR) of cortisol were determined in the field in Weddell (N = 1), crabeater (N = 3) and leopard (N = 3) seals following bolus injections of [3H] cortisol. The MCR and PR did not differ between the three phocids, but whereas the MCR of 410-590 1/day was twice that of human values, the PR of 460-1180 mumol.m-2 x d-1 was up to 40-fold greater. The binding capacity of corticosteroid-binding globulin (CBG) was equal to or greater than the plasma concentrations of cortisol, resulting in relatively low concentrations of free cortisol. We conclude that hypercortisolaemia is maintained in phocid seals mainly by a high production rate--the highest (corrected for surface area) reported in any species. The relatively low cortisol levels in otariid seals studied in the same environment suggest that the high PR in phocidae is unrelated to the harsh climatic conditions, but may be part of their adaptation for diving to extreme depths.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  15. Daily cortisol production rate in man determined by stable isotope dilution/mass spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Esteban, N.V.; Loughlin, T.; Yergey, A.L.; Zawadzki, J.K.; Booth, J.D.; Winterer, J.C.; Loriaux, D.L. )

    1991-01-01

    Growth retardation as well as the development of Cushingoid features in adrenally insufficient patients treated with the currently accepted replacement dose of cortisol (33-41 mumol/day.m2; 12-15 mg/m2.day) prompted us to reevaluate the cortisol production rate (FPR) in normal subjects and patients with Cushing's syndrome, using a recently developed thermospray liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry method. The stable isotope (9,12,12-2H3)cortisol was infused continuously for 31 h at about 5% of the anticipated FPR. Blood samples were obtained at 20-min intervals for 24 h, spun, and pooled in 4-h groups. Tracer dilution in plasma was determined by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry. The method was validated with controlled infusions in 6 patients with adrenal insufficiency. Results from 12 normal volunteers revealed a FPR of 27.3 +/- 7.5 mumol/day (9.9 +/- 2.7 mg/day) or 15.7 mumol/day.m2; 5.7 mg/m2. day. A previously unreported circadian variation in FPR was observed. Patients with Cushing's syndrome demonstrated unequivocal elevation of FPR and cortisol concentration correlated during each sample period in normal volunteers, indicating that cortisol secretion, rather than metabolism, is mainly responsible for changes in plasma cortisol. Our data suggest that the FPR in normal subjects may be lower than previously believed.

  16. Post-traumatic disorder symptoms and blunted diurnal cortisol production in partners of prostate cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Kamala S; Bower, Julienne E; Williamson, Timothy J; Hoyt, Michael A; Wellisch, David; Stanton, Annette L; Irwin, Michael

    2012-08-01

    Prostate cancer (PC) is the most common cancer diagnosed in men, and research suggests that coping with this illness can cause significant distress in patients as well as their partners. This study examined the relationship of caregiving for a partner with PC with diurnal cortisol output in women between the ages of 42 and 75 years old. Participants were women whose partners had PC (n = 19) and women who were in relationships with men with no diagnosed medical illness (n = 26). Women provided saliva samples (4 times per day over 3 days) in their natural environment. The Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis-I Disorders was also conducted to assess for the presence of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and major depression. Partners of men with PC had lower daily cortisol output across the three days than controls, F(1,444.08) = 20.72, p<.001). They were also more likely to report PTSD symptoms with 68.4% of PC partners fulfilling criteria for sub-threshold PTSD as compared to 23.1% of controls (χ(2) = 11.30, p = .01). Mixed model analyses revealed that the presence of sub-threshold PTSD symptoms significantly predicted cortisol production, F(1,419.64) = 5.10, p<.01). Regardless of caregiver status, women who reported at least sub-threshold PTSD symptoms had lower cortisol production than those with no PTSD symptoms. Major depression did not explain differences in cortisol production between partners of PC patients and controls. Although these findings are preliminary, they highlight the importance of developing interventions aimed at reducing risk of psychopathology in partners of men with PC.

  17. The effect of pioglitazone on aldosterone and cortisol production in HAC15 human adrenocortical carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Pan, Zhi-qiang; Xie, Ding; Choudhary, Vivek; Seremwe, Mutsa; Tsai, Ying-Ying; Olala, Lawrence; Chen, Xunsheng; Bollag, Wendy B

    2014-08-25

    Pioglitazone belongs to the class of drugs called thiazolidinediones (TZDs), which are widely used as insulin sensitizers in the treatment of diabetes. A major side effect of TZDs is fluid retention. The steroid hormone aldosterone also promotes sodium and fluid retention; however, the effect of pioglitazone on aldosterone production is controversial. We analyzed the effect of pioglitazone alone and in combination with angiotensin II (AngII) on the late rate-limiting step of adrenocortical steroidogenesis in human adrenocortical carcinoma HAC15 cells. Treatment with pioglitazone for 24 h significantly increased the expression of CYP11B2 and enhanced AngII-induced CYP11B2 expression. Despite the observed changes in mRNA levels, pioglitazone significantly inhibited AngII-induced aldosterone production and CYP11B2 protein levels. On the other hand, pioglitazone stimulated the expression of the unfolded protein response (UPR) marker DDIT3, with this effect occurring at early times and inhibitable by the PPARγ antagonist GW9962. The levels of DDIT3 (CHOP) and phospho-eIF2α (Ser51), a UPR-induced event that inhibits protein translation, were also increased. Thus, pioglitazone promotes CYP11B2 expression but nevertheless inhibits aldosterone production in AngII-treated HAC15 cells, likely by blocking global protein translation initiation through DDIT3 and phospho-eIF2α. In contrast, pioglitazone promoted AngII-induced CYP11B1 expression and cortisol production. Since cortisol enhances lipolysis, this result suggests the possibility that PPARs, activated by products of fatty acid oxidation, stimulate cortisol secretion to promote utilization of fatty acids during fasting. In turn, the ability of pioglitazone to stimulate cortisol production could potentially underlie the effects of this drug on fluid retention. PMID:25038520

  18. The effect of pioglitazone on aldosterone and cortisol production in HAC15 human adrenocortical carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Pan, Zhi-qiang; Xie, Ding; Choudhary, Vivek; Seremwe, Mutsa; Tsai, Ying-Ying; Olala, Lawrence; Chen, Xunsheng; Bollag, Wendy B

    2014-08-25

    Pioglitazone belongs to the class of drugs called thiazolidinediones (TZDs), which are widely used as insulin sensitizers in the treatment of diabetes. A major side effect of TZDs is fluid retention. The steroid hormone aldosterone also promotes sodium and fluid retention; however, the effect of pioglitazone on aldosterone production is controversial. We analyzed the effect of pioglitazone alone and in combination with angiotensin II (AngII) on the late rate-limiting step of adrenocortical steroidogenesis in human adrenocortical carcinoma HAC15 cells. Treatment with pioglitazone for 24 h significantly increased the expression of CYP11B2 and enhanced AngII-induced CYP11B2 expression. Despite the observed changes in mRNA levels, pioglitazone significantly inhibited AngII-induced aldosterone production and CYP11B2 protein levels. On the other hand, pioglitazone stimulated the expression of the unfolded protein response (UPR) marker DDIT3, with this effect occurring at early times and inhibitable by the PPARγ antagonist GW9962. The levels of DDIT3 (CHOP) and phospho-eIF2α (Ser51), a UPR-induced event that inhibits protein translation, were also increased. Thus, pioglitazone promotes CYP11B2 expression but nevertheless inhibits aldosterone production in AngII-treated HAC15 cells, likely by blocking global protein translation initiation through DDIT3 and phospho-eIF2α. In contrast, pioglitazone promoted AngII-induced CYP11B1 expression and cortisol production. Since cortisol enhances lipolysis, this result suggests the possibility that PPARs, activated by products of fatty acid oxidation, stimulate cortisol secretion to promote utilization of fatty acids during fasting. In turn, the ability of pioglitazone to stimulate cortisol production could potentially underlie the effects of this drug on fluid retention.

  19. Influence of menarche on the relation between diurnal cortisol production and ventral striatum activity during reward anticipation

    PubMed Central

    LeMoult, Joelle; Colich, Natalie L.; Sherdell, Lindsey; Hamilton, J. Paul; Gotlib, Ian H.

    2015-01-01

    Adolescence is characterized by an increase in risk-taking and reward-seeking behaviors. In other populations, increased risk taking has been associated with tighter coupling between cortisol production and ventral striatum (VS) activation during reward anticipation; this relation has not yet been examined, however, as a function of adolescent development. This study examined the influence of pubertal development on the association between diurnal cortisol production and VS activity during reward anticipation. Pre- and post-menarcheal girls collected diurnal cortisol and completed an functional magnetic resonance imaging-based monetary incentive delay task, from which we extracted estimates of VS activity during the anticipation of reward, anticipation of loss and anticipation of non-incentive neutral trials. Post-menarcheal girls showed greater coupling between the cortisol awakening response and VS activation during anticipation of reward and loss than did their pre-menarcheal counterparts. Post-menarcheal girls did not differ from pre-menarcheal girls in their cortisol-VS coupling during anticipation of neutral trials, suggesting that puberty-related changes in cortisol-VS coupling are specific to affective stimuli. Interestingly, behavioral responses during the task indicate that post-menarcheal girls are faster to engage with affective stimuli than are pre-menarcheal girls. Thus, post-menarcheal girls exhibit neurobiological and behavioral patterns that have been associated with risk taking and that may underlie the dramatic increase in risk-taking behavior documented during adolescence. PMID:25678549

  20. Relationship between changes in mRNAs of the genes encoding steroidogenic acute regulatory protein and P450 cholesterol side chain cleavage in head kidney and plasma levels of cortisol in response to different kinds of acute stress in the rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    PubMed

    Geslin, Malika; Auperin, Benoit

    2004-01-01

    In this study, the expression of several genes involved in cortisol synthesis in head kidneys, the site of cortisol production, and in the rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) was examined in response to two different acute stressors and an acute ACTH treatment. mRNAs levels of the "steroidogenic acute regulatory" (StAR) sterol transport protein, which transports cholesterol to the inner mitochondrial membrane as well as cytochrome P450 cholesterol side chain cleavage (P450(SCC)) were determined in head kidney (containing the interrenal tissue). In one experiment, we also quantified 3-beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3B-HSD) and cytochrome P450(11beta) (11B-H) mRNAs. The presence of these four transcripts in the head kidney was confirmed by Northern blot analysis. For each stress condition, mRNA levels were quantified by quantitative or real-time RT-PCR. The results of these two methods were highly correlated. An acute stress induced by capture, short confinement (2min), and anesthesia (3min) resulted in significant elevation of plasma cortisol (30-fold higher than controls) and an increase in levels of StAR and P450(SCC) mRNAs 3h post-stress. When fish were submitted to an acute stress caused by 5min of chase with a net in a tank, plasma cortisol reached a peak within 1h, but after 3h, levels were only 5-fold higher in stressed trout than in controls and no variations in the expression of StAR, P450(SCC), 3B-HSD, and 11B-H were observed whatever the time post-stress. One hour after acute ACTH stimulation (5IU/kg), plasma cortisol level was 4-fold higher than in control trout and no changes in StAR and P450(SCC) mRNAs levels were detected. The data suggest that the high levels of cortisol after stress need an activation of genes involved in cortisol synthesis, but lower levels do not. Futhermore, under these three test conditions, we always found a strong positive correlation between mRNA levels of StAR and P450(SCC), in contrast to what has been described in

  1. Control of adrenal androgen production.

    PubMed

    Odell, W D; Parker, L N

    The major adrenal androgens are dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate (DHEAS) and androstenedione (delta 4). Studies by Cutler et al in 1978 demonstrated that these androgens are detectable in blood of all domestic and laboratory animals studied, but that only 4 species show increase in one or more with sexual maturation: rabbit, dog, chimpanzee and man. Studies by Grover and Odell in 1975 show these androgens do not bind to the androgen receptor obtained from rat prostate and thus probably are androgens only by conversion to an active androgen in vivo. Thomas and Oake in 1974 showed human skin converted DHEA to testosterone. The control of adrenal androgen secretion is in part modulated by ACTH. However, other factors or hormones must exist also, for a variety of clinical observations show dissociation in adrenal androgen versus cortisol secretion. Other substances that have been said to be controllers of adrenal androgen secretion include estrogens, prolactin, growth hormone, gonadotropins and lipotropin. None of these appear to be the usual physiological modulator, although under some circumstances each may increase androgen production. Studies from our laboratory using in vivo experiments in the castrate dog and published in 1979 indicated that crude extracts of bovine pituitary contained a substance that either modified ACTH stimulation of adrenal androgen secretion, or stimulated secretion itself - Cortisol Androgen Stimulating Hormone. Parker et al in 1983 showed a 60,000 MW glycoprotein was extractable from human pituitaries, which stimulated DHA secretion by dispersed canine adrenal cells in vitro, but did not stimulate cortisol secretion. This material contained no ACTH by radioimmunoassay. In 1982 Brubaker et al reported a substance was also present in human fetal pituitaries, which stimulated DHA secretion, but did not effect cortisol. PMID:6100259

  2. Curcumin inhibits ACTH- and angiotensin II-stimulated cortisol secretion and Ca(v)3.2 current.

    PubMed

    Enyeart, Judith A; Liu, Haiyan; Enyeart, John J

    2009-08-01

    Adrenocorticotropic hormone and angiotensin II stimulate cortisol secretion from bovine adrenal zona fasciculata cells by the activation of adenylate cyclase and phospholipase C-coupled receptors. Curcumin (1- 20 muM), a compound found in the spice turmeric, inhibited cortisol secretion stimulated by ACTH, AngII, and 8CPT-cAMP. Curcumin also suppressed ACTH-stimulated increases in mRNAs coding for steroid acute regulatory protein and CYP11a1 steroid hydroxylase. In whole cell patch clamp recordings from AZF cells, curcumin at slightly higher concentrations also inhibited Ca(v)3.2 current. These results identify curcumin as an effective inhibitor of ACTH- and AngII-stimulated cortisol secretion. The inhibition of Ca(v)3.2 current by curcumin may contribute to its suppression of secretion.

  3. Ovarian localization of 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (11βHSD): effects of ACTH stimulation and its relationship with bovine cystic ovarian disease.

    PubMed

    Amweg, A N; Salvetti, N R; Stangaferro, M L; Paredes, A H; Lara, H H; Rodríguez, F M; Ortega, H H

    2013-10-01

    Cystic ovarian disease (COD) is an important cause of infertility in cattle, and ACTH has been involved in regulatory mechanisms related to ovarian function associated with ovulation, steroidogenesis, and luteal function. Here, we examined the localization of 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11βHSD1) and 11βHSD2 proteins in the ovary of healthy cows and animals with spontaneous and ACTH-induced COD and the in vitro response of the follicular wall exposed to ACTH. After stimulation by ACTH, we documented changes in 11βHSD expression and cortisol secretion by the follicular wall of large antral and follicular cysts. Follicular cysts showed a higher constitutive expression of both enzymes, whereas ACTH induced an increase in 11βHSD1 in tertiary follicles and follicular cysts and a decrease in 11βHSD2 in follicular cysts. Moderate expression of 11βHSD1 was observed by immunohistochemistry in granulosa of control animals, with an increase (P < 0.05) from primary to secondary, tertiary, and atretic follicles. The level of immunostaining in theca interna was lower than that in granulosa. The expression of 11βHSD2 was lower in the granulosa of primary follicles than in that of secondary, tertiary, and atretic follicles and was lower in the theca interna than in the granulosa. In ACTH-induced and spontaneously occurring follicular cysts, differences from controls were observed only in the expression of 11βHSD1 in the granulosa, being higher (P < 0.05) than in tertiary follicles. These findings indicate that follicular cysts may be exposed to high local concentrations of active glucocorticoids and indicate a local role for cortisol in COD pathogenesis and in regulatory mechanisms of ovarian function.

  4. Environmental stress-induced testis differentiation: androgen as a by-product of cortisol inactivation.

    PubMed

    Fernandino, Juan I; Hattori, Ricardo S; Moreno Acosta, Omar D; Strüssmann, Carlos A; Somoza, Gustavo M

    2013-10-01

    This review deals with the gonadal masculinization induced by thermal stress in fish with focus on the action of 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (11β-HSD) as this mechanism key transducer. High temperatures have been reported to produce male-skewed sex ratios in several species with TSD (temperature-dependent sex determination), and in some of them, this process was reported to be associated with high levels of cortisol, the hormone-related stress in vertebrates, during early gonad development. In addition, in pejerrey larvae reared at high-masculinizing temperatures, 11-ketotestosterone (11-KT), the main and most potent androgen in fish, was also detected at high levels. In testicular explants, cortisol induced the synthesis of 11-KT, suggesting that its synthesis could be under the control of the stress axis at the time of gonadal fate determination. 11β-HSD is one of the enzymes shared by the glucocorticoid and androgen pathways; this enzyme converts cortisol to cortisone and also participates in the finals steps of the synthesis of the 11-oxigenated androgens. Based on these data and literature information, here we propose that the masculinization induced by thermal stress can be considered as a consequence of cortisol inactivation and the concomitant synthesis of 11-KT and discussing this as a possible mechanism of masculinization induced by different types of environmental stressors. PMID:23770022

  5. Cortisol - urine

    MedlinePlus

    ... is a steroid (glucocorticoid) hormone produced by the adrenal gland . Cortisol can also be measured using a blood ... is a glucocorticoid (steroid) hormone released from the adrenal gland in response to adrenocorticotropic hormone ( ACTH ). This is ...

  6. Hair cortisol levels as a retrospective marker of hypothalamic-pituitary axis activity throughout pregnancy: Comparison to salivary cortisol

    PubMed Central

    D’Anna-Hernandez, Kimberly L.; Ross, Randal G.; Natvig, Crystal L.; Laudenslager, Mark L.

    2011-01-01

    Maternal stress during pregnancy is associated with negative maternal/child outcomes. One potential biomarker of the maternal stress response is cortisol, a product of activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. This study evaluated cortisol levels in hair throughout pregnancy as a marker of total cortisol release. Cortisol levels in hair have been shown to be easily quantifiable and may be representative of total cortisol release more than single saliva or serum measures. Hair cortisol provides a simple way to monitor total cortisol release over an extended period of time. Hair cortisol levels were determined from each trimester (15, 26 and 36 wks gestation) and 3 months postpartum. Hair cortisol levels were compared to diurnal salivary cortisol collected over 3 days (3 times/day) at 14, 18, 23, 29, and 34 wks gestational age and 6 wks postpartum from 21 pregnant women. Both salivary and hair cortisol levels rose during pregnancy as expected. Hair cortisol and diurnal salivary cortisol area under the curve with respect to ground (AUCg) were also correlated throughout pregnancy. Levels of cortisol in hair are a valid and useful tool to measure long-term cortisol activity. Hair cortisol avoids methodological problems associated with collection other cortisol measures such as plasma, urine, or saliva and is a reliable metric of HPA activity throughout pregnancy reflecting total cortisol release over an extended period. PMID:21397617

  7. Correspondence between hair cortisol concentrations and 30-day integrated daily salivary and weekly urinary cortisol measures.

    PubMed

    Short, Sarah J; Stalder, Tobias; Marceau, Kristine; Entringer, Sonja; Moog, Nora K; Shirtcliff, Elizabeth A; Wadhwa, Pathik D; Buss, Claudia

    2016-09-01

    Characterization of cortisol production, regulation and function is of considerable interest and relevance given its ubiquitous role in virtually all aspects of physiology, health and disease risk. The quantification of cortisol concentration in hair has been proposed as a promising approach for the retrospective assessment of integrated, long-term cortisol production. However, human research is still needed to directly test and validate current assumptions about which aspects of cortisol production and regulation are reflected in hair cortisol concentrations (HCC). Here, we report findings from a validation study in a sample of 17 healthy adults (mean±SD age: 34±8.6 yrs). To determine the extent to which HCC captures cumulative cortisol production, we examined the correspondence of HCC, obtained from the first 1cm scalp-near hair segment, assumed to retrospectively reflect 1-month integrated cortisol secretion, with 30-day average salivary cortisol area-under-the curve (AUC) based on 3 samples collected per day (on awakening, +30min, at bedtime) and the average of 4 weekly 24-h urinary free cortisol (UFC) assessments. To further address which aspects of cortisol production and regulation are best reflected in the HCC measure, we also examined components of the salivary measures that represent: (1) production in response to the challenge of awakening (using the cortisol awakening response [CAR]), and (2) chronobiological regulation of cortisol production (using diurnal slope). Finally, we evaluated the test-retest stability of each cortisol measure. Results indicate that HCC was most strongly associated with the prior 30-day integrated cortisol production measure (average salivary cortisol AUC) (r=0.61, p=0.01). There were no significant associations between HCC and the 30-day summary measures using CAR or diurnal slope. The relationship between 1-month integrated 24-h UFC and HCC did not reach statistical significance (r=0.30, p=0.28). Lastly, of all cortisol

  8. Correspondence between hair cortisol concentrations and 30-day integrated daily salivary and weekly urinary cortisol measures.

    PubMed

    Short, Sarah J; Stalder, Tobias; Marceau, Kristine; Entringer, Sonja; Moog, Nora K; Shirtcliff, Elizabeth A; Wadhwa, Pathik D; Buss, Claudia

    2016-09-01

    Characterization of cortisol production, regulation and function is of considerable interest and relevance given its ubiquitous role in virtually all aspects of physiology, health and disease risk. The quantification of cortisol concentration in hair has been proposed as a promising approach for the retrospective assessment of integrated, long-term cortisol production. However, human research is still needed to directly test and validate current assumptions about which aspects of cortisol production and regulation are reflected in hair cortisol concentrations (HCC). Here, we report findings from a validation study in a sample of 17 healthy adults (mean±SD age: 34±8.6 yrs). To determine the extent to which HCC captures cumulative cortisol production, we examined the correspondence of HCC, obtained from the first 1cm scalp-near hair segment, assumed to retrospectively reflect 1-month integrated cortisol secretion, with 30-day average salivary cortisol area-under-the curve (AUC) based on 3 samples collected per day (on awakening, +30min, at bedtime) and the average of 4 weekly 24-h urinary free cortisol (UFC) assessments. To further address which aspects of cortisol production and regulation are best reflected in the HCC measure, we also examined components of the salivary measures that represent: (1) production in response to the challenge of awakening (using the cortisol awakening response [CAR]), and (2) chronobiological regulation of cortisol production (using diurnal slope). Finally, we evaluated the test-retest stability of each cortisol measure. Results indicate that HCC was most strongly associated with the prior 30-day integrated cortisol production measure (average salivary cortisol AUC) (r=0.61, p=0.01). There were no significant associations between HCC and the 30-day summary measures using CAR or diurnal slope. The relationship between 1-month integrated 24-h UFC and HCC did not reach statistical significance (r=0.30, p=0.28). Lastly, of all cortisol

  9. Agreement of immunoassay and tandem mass spectrometry in the analysis of cortisol and free t4: interpretation and implications for clinicians.

    PubMed

    Tractenberg, Rochelle E; Jonklaas, Jacqueline; Soldin, Steven J

    2010-01-01

    Objective. To quantify differences in results obtained by immunoassays (IAs) and tandem mass spectrometry (MSMS) for cortisol and free thyroxine (FT4). Design & Patients. Cortisol was measured over 60 minutes following a standard ACTH stimulation test (n = 80); FT4 was measured over time in two cohorts of pregnant (n = 57), and nonpregnant (n = 28) women. Measurements. Samples were analyzed with both IA and MSMS. Results. Results for cortisol by the two methods tended to agree, but agreement weakened over the 60-minute test and was worse for higher (more extreme) concentrations. The results for FT4 depended on the method. IA measurements tended to agree with MSMS measurements when values fell within "normal levels", but agreement was not constant across trimester in pregnant women and was poorest for the extreme (low/high) concentrations. Correlations between MSMS measurements and the difference between MSMS and IA results were strong and positive (0.411 < r < 0.823; all P < .05). Conclusions. IA and MSMS provide different measures of cortisol and FT4 at extreme levels, where clinical decision making requires the greatest precision. Agreement between the methods is inconsistent over time, is nonlinear, and varies with the analyte and concentrations. IA-based measurements may lead to erroneous clinical decisions.

  10. Agreement of Immunoassay and Tandem Mass Spectrometry in the Analysis of Cortisol and Free T4: Interpretation and Implications for Clinicians

    PubMed Central

    Tractenberg, Rochelle E.; Jonklaas, Jacqueline; Soldin, Steven J.

    2010-01-01

    Objective. To quantify differences in results obtained by immunoassays (IAs) and tandem mass spectrometry (MSMS) for cortisol and free thyroxine (FT4). Design & Patients. Cortisol was measured over 60 minutes following a standard ACTH stimulation test (n = 80); FT4 was measured over time in two cohorts of pregnant (n = 57), and nonpregnant (n = 28) women. Measurements. Samples were analyzed with both IA and MSMS. Results. Results for cortisol by the two methods tended to agree, but agreement weakened over the 60-minute test and was worse for higher (more extreme) concentrations. The results for FT4 depended on the method. IA measurements tended to agree with MSMS measurements when values fell within “normal levels”, but agreement was not constant across trimester in pregnant women and was poorest for the extreme (low/high) concentrations. Correlations between MSMS measurements and the difference between MSMS and IA results were strong and positive (0.411 < r < 0.823; all P < .05). Conclusions. IA and MSMS provide different measures of cortisol and FT4 at extreme levels, where clinical decision making requires the greatest precision. Agreement between the methods is inconsistent over time, is nonlinear, and varies with the analyte and concentrations. IA-based measurements may lead to erroneous clinical decisions. PMID:20706537

  11. p54nrb/NONO Regulates Cyclic AMP-Dependent Glucocorticoid Production by Modulating Phosphodiesterase mRNA Splicing and Degradation

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Jia Yang

    2015-01-01

    Glucocorticoid production in the adrenal cortex is activated in response to an increase in cyclic AMP (cAMP) signaling. The nuclear protein p54nrb/NONO belongs to the Drosophila behavior/human splicing (DBHS) family and has been implicated in several nuclear processes, including transcription, splicing, and RNA export. We previously identified p54nrb/NONO as a component of a protein complex that regulates the transcription of CYP17A1, a gene required for glucocorticoid production. Based on the multiple mechanisms by which p54nrb/NONO has been shown to control gene expression and the ability of the protein to be recruited to the CYP17A1 promoter, we sought to further define the molecular mechanism by which p54nrb/NONO confers optimal cortisol production. We show here that silencing p54nrb/NONO expression in H295R human adrenocortical cells decreases the ability of the cells to increase intracellular cAMP production and subsequent cortisol biosynthesis in response to adrenocorticotropin hormone (ACTH) stimulation. Interestingly, the expression of multiple phosphodiesterase (PDE) isoforms, including PDE2A, PDE3A, PDE3B, PDE4A, PDE4D, and PDE11A, was induced in p54nrb/NONO knockdown cells. Investigation of the mechanism by which silencing of p54nrb/NONO led to increased expression of select PDE isoforms revealed that p54nrb/NONO regulates the splicing of a subset of PDE isoforms. Importantly, we also identify a role for p54nrb/NONO in regulating the stability of PDE transcripts by facilitating the interaction between the exoribonuclease XRN2 and select PDE transcripts. In summary, we report that p54nrb/NONO modulates cAMP-dependent signaling, and ultimately cAMP-stimulated glucocorticoid biosynthesis by regulating the splicing and degradation of PDE transcripts. PMID:25605330

  12. Stress-induced salivary cortisol secretion during hypobaric hypoxia challenge and in vivo urinary thromboxane production in healthy male subjects.

    PubMed

    Simeoni, Simona; Biselli, Roberto; D'Amelio, Raffaele; Rocca, Bianca; Lattanzio, Stefano; Mucci, Luciana; Davì, Giovanni; Patacchioli, Francesca Romana

    2011-05-01

    Few studies have assessed the effects of stress on in vivo platelet activation. In the present study, hypobaric hypoxia induced by rapid decompression during high-altitude simulated flight in a hypobaric chamber was used to evaluate the effects of environmental stress on salivary cortisol and urinary thromboxane metabolite (TXM) excretion, a noninvasive marker of in vivo platelet function. Twenty-one male aviators (mean ± SD age = 36 ± 7 years) experiencing hypoxia by removing their oxygen mask for 4-5 min during a simulated flight to 25,000 ft (7,620 m; pO(2) = 59.17 mmHg) and a matched control group of thirteen flying instructors wearing oxygen masks during the challenge, were studied. Hypobaric hypoxia induced a transient significant increase (P < 0.001) in the aviators' salivary cortisol concentration; the overall pattern of diurnal cortisol fluctuation was maintained in both groups. Urinary TXM showed a significant ∼30% reduction (P < 0.01) after the chamber session in aviators exposed to hypobaric hypoxia, but not in controls. A significant inverse correlation was found between salivary cortisol and urinary TXM in aviators (r = - 0.64, P = 0.0015). Salivary cortisol was a significant predictor (P < 0.001) for urinary TXM concentrations in aviators. In conclusion, here we observed that an acute stress-induced salivary cortisol increase was associated with reduced urinary thromboxane biosynthesis, providing the first indirect evidence for an inhibitory effect of acute stress on in vivo platelet function. PMID:21434833

  13. Mineralocorticoid production of adrenal cortical adenomas.

    PubMed

    Gláz, E; Rácz, K; Varga, I; Kiss, R; Tóth, M; Fütö, L

    1993-04-01

    We studied in vitro and in vivo corticosteroid production as well as the presence of symptoms of an increased mineralocorticoid effect in patients with 'silent' adrenal cortical adenomas, and compared these results to those found in patients with classical mineralocorticoid excess syndromes. We found that under in vitro conditions, cells from 'silent' adrenal cortical adenomas (n = 19) produced substantial amounts of both zona glomerulosa and fasciculata steroids, although the production of steroids in these cells was lower compared to that in mineralocorticoid-producing adenoma cells (n = 26). Patients with aldosterone-producing and 'silent' adenomas had significantly increased plasma atrial natriuretic peptide levels, which remained non-suppressible after upright posture and furosemide administration. Of the 25 patients with 'silent' adenomas, 11 had low and non-stimulable plasma renin activity (PRA) before but, in most cases, not after adrenal surgery. When compared to those with normal PRA (n = 14), patients with low PRA 'silent' adenomas (n = 11) had higher blood pressure which was significantly reduced after surgery, and a mild hypokalemia before but not after surgery. Although basal plasma concentrations of aldosterone, 18-hydroxy-corticosterone, corticosterone, deoxycorticosterone, 18-hydroxy-DOC, cortisol,11-deoxycortisol and 17-hydroxy-progesterone (17-OH-P) were not increased in either groups of 'silent' adenomas, ACTH stimulation produced a hyperreactive response for all measured steroids, of which an extremely high 17-OH-P seemed to be one of the most intriguing findings. We consider that these observations in 'silent' adrenal cortical adenomas may justify surgical intervention, irrespective of the size and potential malignancy of these adenomas. PMID:8481352

  14. Behavioral and Physiological Responsivity, Sleep, and Patterns of Daily Cortisol Production in Infants with and without Colic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Barbara Prudhomme; Gunnar, Megan R.; Larson, Mary C.; Donzella, Bonny; Barr, Ronald G.

    2000-01-01

    Examined behavioral/physiological responses of 2-month-olds during physical examinations. Found that colic infants cried twice as much, cried more intensely, and were more inconsolable than control infants. Heart rate, vagal tone, and cortisol measures showed no appreciable difference. At home, colic infants displayed a blunted rhythm in cortisol…

  15. Cortisol blood test

    MedlinePlus

    Serum cortisol ... early in the morning. This is important, because cortisol level varies throughout the day. You may be ... drugs Estrogen Human-made (synthetic) glucocorticoids, such as hydrocortisone, prednisone and prednisolone Androgens

  16. Effects of an evaporative cooling system on plasma cortisol, IGF-I, and milk production in dairy cows in a tropical environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Titto, Cristiane Gonçalves; Negrão, João Alberto; Titto, Evaldo Antonio Lencioni; Canaes, Taissa de Souza; Titto, Rafael Martins; Pereira, Alfredo Manuel Franco

    2013-03-01

    Access to an evaporative cooling system can increase production in dairy cows because of improved thermal comfort. This study aimed to evaluate the impact of ambient temperature on thermoregulation, plasma cortisol, insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-I), and productive status, and to determine the efficiency of an evaporative cooling system on physiological responses under different weather patterns. A total of 28 Holstein cows were divided into two groups, one with and the other without access to a cooling system with fans and mist in the free stall. The parameters were analyzed during morning (0700 hours) and afternoon milking (1430 hours) under five different weather patterns throughout the year (fall, winter, spring, dry summer, and rainy summer). Rectal temperature (RT), body surface temperature (BS), base of tail temperature (TT), and respiratory frequency (RF) were lower in the morning ( P < 0.01). The cooling system did not affect RT, and both the groups had values below 38.56 over the year ( P = 0.11). Cortisol and IGF-I may have been influenced by the seasons, in opposite ways. Cortisol concentrations were higher in winter ( P < 0.05) and IGF-I was higher during spring-summer ( P < 0.05). The air temperature and the temperature humidity index showed positive moderate correlations to RT, BS, TT, and RF ( P < 0.001). The ambient temperature was found to have a positive correlation with the physiological variables, independent of the cooling system, but cooled animals exhibited higher milk production during spring and summer ( P < 0.01).

  17. Cortisol coregulation in fish.

    PubMed

    Fürtbauer, Ines; Heistermann, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Cortisol coregulation, which is the up- or down-regulation of partners' physiological stress responses, has been described for individuals with strong attachment bonds, e.g. parents and their children, and romantic relationship partners. Research into moderating effects on cortisol coregulation suggests stronger covariation among distressed partners. Whether cortisol coregulation is unique to humans or can also be found in other species that share universal features of the vertebrate stress response remains unexplored. Using a repeated measures approach and non-invasive waterborne hormone analysis, we test the hypothesis that dyads of three-spined stickleback fish (Gasterosteus aculeatus) coregulate their cortisol levels in shared environments. Dyadic cortisol levels were unrelated when cohabiting (home tank), but significantly covaried when sharing a more stressful (as indicated by higher cortisol levels) environment (open field). Time-lag analysis further revealed that open field cortisol levels were predicted by partner's cortisol levels prior to the shared experience. To our knowledge, this study provides the first evidence for coregulatory processes on cortisol responses in a non-human animal that lacks strong bonds and social attachment relationships, suggesting a shared evolutionary origin of cortisol coregulation in vertebrates. From an adaptive perspective, cortisol coregulation may serve to reduce risk in challenging, potentially threatening situations. PMID:27458063

  18. Cortisol coregulation in fish

    PubMed Central

    Fürtbauer, Ines; Heistermann, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Cortisol coregulation, which is the up- or down-regulation of partners’ physiological stress responses, has been described for individuals with strong attachment bonds, e.g. parents and their children, and romantic relationship partners. Research into moderating effects on cortisol coregulation suggests stronger covariation among distressed partners. Whether cortisol coregulation is unique to humans or can also be found in other species that share universal features of the vertebrate stress response remains unexplored. Using a repeated measures approach and non-invasive waterborne hormone analysis, we test the hypothesis that dyads of three-spined stickleback fish (Gasterosteus aculeatus) coregulate their cortisol levels in shared environments. Dyadic cortisol levels were unrelated when cohabiting (home tank), but significantly covaried when sharing a more stressful (as indicated by higher cortisol levels) environment (open field). Time-lag analysis further revealed that open field cortisol levels were predicted by partner’s cortisol levels prior to the shared experience. To our knowledge, this study provides the first evidence for coregulatory processes on cortisol responses in a non-human animal that lacks strong bonds and social attachment relationships, suggesting a shared evolutionary origin of cortisol coregulation in vertebrates. From an adaptive perspective, cortisol coregulation may serve to reduce risk in challenging, potentially threatening situations. PMID:27458063

  19. Estrogen Regulation of Fetal Adrenal Cortical Zone-Specific Development in the Nonhuman Primate Impacts Adrenal Production of Androgen and Cortisol and Response to ACTH in Females in Adulthood.

    PubMed

    Pepe, Gerald J; Maniu, Adina; Aberdeen, Graham; Lynch, Terrie J; Albrecht, Eugene D

    2016-05-01

    We showed that the volume of the fetal zone of the fetal adrenal gland and serum dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHAS) levels at term were increased in baboons in which estradiol levels were suppressed by treatment with aromatase inhibitor 4,4-[1,2,3-triazol-1yl-methylene] bis-benzonitrite (letrozole). The fetal zone remodels postnatally into the reticular zone and DHAS production, and serum levels decline with age. Therefore, we determined whether the trajectory of reticular zone DHAS secretion and response to ACTH were altered in offspring deprived of estrogen in utero. Female offspring were delivered to baboons untreated or treated daily throughout the second half of gestation with letrozole (estradiol reduced >95%) or letrozole plus estradiol and cortisol and DHAS determined in blood samples obtained bimonthly between 4 and 125 months and after iv bolus of ACTH. The slope/rate of decline in serum DHAS with advancing age was greater (P < .01) in letrozole-treated (-0.54 ± 0.005) than untreated (-0.32 ± 0.003) baboons and partially restored by letrozole-estradiol (-0.43 ± 0.004). Serum cortisol was similar and relatively constant in all offspring. Moreover, in letrozole-treated offspring, serum DHAS at 61-66, 67-95, and 96-125 months were lower (P < .05), and cortisol to DHAS ratio was greater (P < .05) than in untreated offspring. ACTH at high level increased cortisol and DHAS in untreated baboons and cortisol but not DHAS in letrozole-treated offspring. We propose that postnatal development of the primate adrenal cortex, including the decline in reticular zone DHAS production, response to ACTH and maintenance of cortisol to DHAS ratio with advancing age is modulated by exposure of the fetal adrenal to estradiol. PMID:26990066

  20. Obesity and cortisol.

    PubMed

    Björntorp, P; Rosmond, R

    2000-10-01

    Cortisol in obesity is a much-studied problem. Previous information indicates that cortisol secretion is elevated but that circulatory concentrations are normal or low, suggesting that peripheral disappearance rate is elevated. These studies have usually not taken into account the difference between central and peripheral types of obesity. Recent studies using saliva cortisol have indicated that the problem is complex with both high and low secretion of cortisol, perhaps depending on the status of the function of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal gland axis. A significant background factor seems to be environmental stress. The results also suggest that the pattern of cortisol secretion may be important. Other neuroendocrine pathways are also involved, including the central sympathetic nervous system, the gonadal and growth hormone axes, and the leptin system. In concert, these abnormalities seem to be responsible for the abnormal metabolism often seen in central obesity. Several associated polymorphisms of candidate genes may provide a genetic background. Cortisol conversion to inactive metabolites may be a factor increasing central signals to secretion and may add to the increased secretion of cortisol induced by centrally acting factors. Perinatal factors have been found to be involved in the pathogenesis of obesity and its complications. The mechanism involved is not known, but available information suggests that programming of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis may be responsible.

  1. The organochlorine o,p'-DDD disrupts the adrenal steroidogenic signaling pathway in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    PubMed

    Lacroix, Martin; Hontela, Alice

    2003-08-01

    The mechanisms of action of o,p'-DDD on adrenal steroidogenesis were investigated in vitro in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Acute exposures to o,p'-DDD inhibited ACTH-stimulated cortisol secretion while cell viability decreased significantly only at the highest concentration tested (200 microM o,p'-DDD). Stimulation of cortisol secretion with a cAMP analogue (dibutyryl-cAMP) was inhibited at a higher concentration than that needed to inhibit ACTH-stimulated cortisol synthesis in cells exposed to o,p'-DDD. Forskolin-stimulated cortisol secretion and cAMP production, and NaF-stimulated cAMP production were inhibited in a concentration-dependent manner by o,p'-DDD. In contrast, basal cortisol secretion was stimulated while basal cAMP production was unaffected by o,p'-DDD. Pregnenolone-stimulated cortisol secretion was enhanced by o,p'-DDD at a physiologically relevant pregnenolone concentration, while o,p'-DDD inhibited cortisol secretion when a pharmacological concentration of pregnenolone was used. Our results suggest that the cAMP generation step is a target in o,p'-DDD-mediated disruption of ACTH-stimulated adrenal steroidogenesis in rainbow trout but that other downstream targets such as steroidogenic enzymes responsible for cortisol synthesis might also be affected.

  2. Cortisol and corticosterone independence in cortisol-dominant wildlife.

    PubMed

    Koren, Lee; Whiteside, Douglas; Fahlman, Sa; Ruckstuhl, Kathreen; Kutz, Susan; Checkley, Sylvia; Dumond, Mathieu; Wynne-Edwards, Katherine

    2012-05-15

    Species have traditionally been defined as cortisol-dominant or corticosterone-dominant, depending on the glucocorticoid that is reported. To assess the degree of covariance versus independence between cortisol and corticosterone, 245 serum samples belonging to 219 individuals from 18 cortisol-dominant, non-domesticated species (6 mammalian orders) were compared by mass spectrometry. In these samples, which were elevated above baseline, concentration ranges were overlapping for cortisol and corticosterone although cortisol was dominant in every sample except one of 17 bighorn sheep with a corticosterone-biased cortisol-to-corticosterone ratio of 0.17. As expected, cortisol and corticosterone were strongly associated among species (r(2)=0.8; species with high absolute cortisol tend to have high absolute corticosterone concentrations), with wide variation in the species-average cortisol-to-corticosterone ratio (range 7.5-49) and an even wider ratio range across individuals (0.2-341). However, only 9 out of 13 species with >7 individuals showed a positive association between cortisol and corticosterone among individuals, and repeated measures of the cortisol-to-corticosterone ratio within individuals were weakly associated (CV range 3-136%). We conclude that corticosterone, although at lower concentrations, has the potential to signal independently of cortisol, and should be included in integrated endocrine models of stress responses.

  3. Orexin-A stimulates 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase expression and cortisol production in H295R human adrenocortical cells through the AKT pathway.

    PubMed

    Chang, Xiaocen; Zhao, Yuyan; Ju, Shujing; Guo, Lei

    2014-12-01

    Orexin-A is a regulatory peptide involved in the regulation of food intake, sleep-wakefulness, and it has various endocrine and metabolic functions. It orchestrates diverse central and peripheral processes through the stimulation of two G-protein coupled receptors, orexin receptor type 1 (OX1 receptor) and orexin receptor type 2 (OX2 receptor). In this study, human adrenocortical cells (NCI-H295R cells) were incubated with various concentrations of orexin-A (10-10 to 10-6 M) in vitro, and the mRNA and protein expression of OX1 receptor was determined in the cells. In addition, NCI-H295R cells treated with 10-6 M orexin-A were then treated with or without OX1 receptor specific antagonist (SB334867), AKT antagonist (PF-04691502), or a combination of both. Subsequently, cell proliferation, the cortisol content in the medium and the mRNA and protein expression expression of 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3β-HSD) were analyzed. The activity of the AKT signaling pathway was also determined in the NCI-H295R cells. We observed that the increase in the mRNA and protein expression of OX1 receptor was orexin-A concentration-dependent, with 10-6 M orexin-A exerting the most potent effect. Orexin-A enhanced cell proliferation and cortisol production, and increased the mRNA and protein expression of 3β-HSD in the NCI-H295R cells; however, these effects were partly blocked by the OX1 receptor antagonist, the AKT antagonist and the combination of both. Furthermore, orexin-A significantly increased the phosphorylation of AKT, with the levels of total AKT protein remaining unaltered. This effect was blocked in the presence of PF-04691502 (10-6 M), SB334867 (10-6 M) and the combination of both. On the whole, our data demonstrate that the effects of orexin-A on the survival and function of human adrenocortical cells are mediated through the AKT signaling pathway.

  4. Species-specific sensitivity to selenium-induced impairment of cortisol secretion in adrenocortical cells of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis)

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, L.L. Hontela, A.

    2011-06-01

    Species differences in physiological and biochemical attributes exist even among closely related species and may underlie species-specific sensitivity to toxicants. Rainbow trout (RT) are more sensitive than brook trout (BT) to the teratogenic effects of selenium (Se), but it is not known whether all tissues exhibit this pattern of vulnerability. In this study, primary cultures of RT and BT adrenocortical cells were exposed to selenite (Na{sub 2}SO{sub 3}) and selenomethionine (Se-Met) to compare cell viability and ACTH-stimulated cortisol secretion in the two fish species. Cortisol, the primary stress hormone in fish, facilitates maintenance of homeostasis when fish are exposed to stressors, including toxicants. Cell viability was not affected by Se, but selenite impaired cortisol secretion, while Se-Met did not (RT and BT EC{sub 50} > 2000 mg/L). RT cells were more sensitive (EC{sub 50} = 8.7 mg/L) to selenite than BT cells (EC{sub 50} = 90.4 mg/L). To identify the targets where Se disrupts cortisol synthesis, selenite-impaired RT and BT cells were stimulated with ACTH, dbcAMP, OH-cholesterol, and pregnenolone. Selenite acted at different steps in the cortisol biosynthesis pathway in RT and BT cells, confirming a species-specific toxicity mechanism. To test the hypothesis that oxidative stress mediates Se-induced toxicity, selenite-impaired RT cells were exposed to NAC, BSO and antioxidants (DETCA, ATA, Vit A, and Vit E). Inhibition of SOD by DETCA enhanced selenite-induced cortisol impairment, indicating that oxidative stress plays a role in Se toxicity; however, modifying GSH content of the cells did not have an effect. The results of this study, with two closely related salmonids, provided additional evidence for species-specific differences in sensitivity to Se which should be considered when setting thresholds and water quality guidelines. - Research Highlights: > We investigated species-specific sensitivity to Se in trout adrenocortical cells. > Selenite

  5. Yawning, fatigue, and cortisol: expanding the Thompson Cortisol Hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Simon B N

    2014-10-01

    Yawning and its involvement in neurological disorders has become the new scientific conundrum. Cortisol levels are known to rise during stress and fatigue; yawning may occur when we are under stress or tired. However, the link between yawning, fatigue, and cortisol has not been fully understood. Expansion of the Thompson Cortisol Hypothesis proposes that the stress hormone, cortisol, is responsible for yawning and fatigue especially in people with incomplete innervation such as multiple sclerosis. This informs our understanding of the functional importance of the brain stem region of the brain in regulating stress and fatigue.

  6. Yawning, fatigue, and cortisol: expanding the Thompson Cortisol Hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Simon B N

    2014-10-01

    Yawning and its involvement in neurological disorders has become the new scientific conundrum. Cortisol levels are known to rise during stress and fatigue; yawning may occur when we are under stress or tired. However, the link between yawning, fatigue, and cortisol has not been fully understood. Expansion of the Thompson Cortisol Hypothesis proposes that the stress hormone, cortisol, is responsible for yawning and fatigue especially in people with incomplete innervation such as multiple sclerosis. This informs our understanding of the functional importance of the brain stem region of the brain in regulating stress and fatigue. PMID:25169036

  7. Nicotine induced CpG methylation of Pax6 binding motif in StAR promoter reduces the gene expression and cortisol production

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Tingting; Chen, Man; Liu, Lian; Cheng, Huaiyan; Yan, You-E; Feng, Ying-Hong; Wang, Hui

    2011-12-15

    Steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) mediates the rate-limiting step in the synthesis of steroid hormones, essential to fetal development. We have reported that the StAR expression in fetal adrenal is inhibited in a rat model of nicotine-induced intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR). Here using primary human fetal adrenal cortex (pHFAC) cells and a human fetal adrenal cell line NCI-H295A, we show that nicotine inhibits StAR expression and cortisol production in a dose- and time-dependent manner, and prolongs the inhibitory effect on cells proliferating over 5 passages after termination of nicotine treatment. Methylation detection within the StAR promoter region uncovers a single site CpG methylation at nt -377 that is sensitive to nicotine treatment. Nicotine-induced alterations in frequency of this point methylation correlates well with the levels of StAR expression, suggesting an important role of the single site in regulating StAR expression. Further studies using bioinformatics analysis and siRNA approach reveal that the single CpG site is part of the Pax6 binding motif (CGCCTGA) in the StAR promoter. The luciferase activity assays validate that Pax6 increases StAR gene expression by binding to the glucagon G3-like motif (CGCCTGA) and methylation of this site blocks Pax6 binding and thus suppresses StAR expression. These data identify a nicotine-sensitive CpG site at the Pax6 binding motif in the StAR promoter that may play a central role in regulating StAR expression. The results suggest an epigenetic mechanism that may explain how nicotine contributes to onset of adult diseases or disorders such as metabolic syndrome via fetal programming. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nicotine-induced StAR inhibition in two human adrenal cell models. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nicotine-induced single CpG site methylation in StAR promoter. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Persistent StAR inhibition and single CpG methylation after nicotine termination

  8. Influence of external factors on hair cortisol concentrations.

    PubMed

    Salaberger, Theresa; Millard, Marlon; Makarem, Samy El; Möstl, Erich; Grünberger, Viktoria; Krametter-Frötscher, Reinhild; Wittek, Thomas; Palme, Rupert

    2016-07-01

    Measuring hair cortisol has attracted interest as a long term parameter for chronic stress evaluation. However, some studies support the hypothesis that locally produced cortisol, originating from the hair follicle or skin cells, affects concentrations in the hair. In an animal model the influence of different treatments (extensive brushing, administration of a hyperemising fluid that enhances blood circulation or a synthetic glucocorticoid) on the local cortisol production of hair was evaluated. Therefore eight sheep were sheared and the area of the skin surface of the back was quartered, with three quarters being daily subjected to a certain treatment and one quarter remaining untreated. The skin areas were sheared again after three weeks and cortisol concentrations of all wool samples were determined by immunoassay. Systemic cortisol concentrations were additionally monitored with faecal samples, indicating a significant decline in concentrations of glucocorticoid metabolites between week 1 and 2 or 3, respectively. We found no significant difference in hair cortisol concentrations between fields before treatment (p=0.310). Comparing matched fields before and after treatment, we found no significant differences in wool cortisol concentrations for fields treated with hyperemising fluid as well as for the control fields (p=0.329, p=0.097). Hairs exposed to either extensive brushing or dexamethasone fluid had significantly higher immunoreactive cortisol concentrations after three weeks of treatment (p=0.016, p=0.01). We therefore advise cautious interpretation when measuring hair cortisol concentrations as a parameter for chronic stress, because external factors may have a significant influence on the results. PMID:27167500

  9. Corticotropin-releasing hormone directly stimulates cortisol and the cortisol biosynthetic pathway in human fetal adrenal cells.

    PubMed

    Sirianni, Rosa; Rehman, Khurram S; Carr, Bruce R; Parker, C Richard; Rainey, William E

    2005-01-01

    Near term the human fetal adrenals (HFAs) initiate production of cortisol, which promotes organ maturation and acts to increase placental CRH biosynthesis. The objective of the present study was to determine whether CRH directly stimulates both cortisol production and expression of the steroidogenic enzymes in HFA-definitive zone cells. CRH stimulated the production of cortisol in a time- and dose-dependent manner, with an effective concentration of as low as 0.01 nm. In real-time RT-PCR experiments, CRH treatment increased the mRNA levels of steroidogenic acute regulatory protein and each of the enzymes needed to produce cortisol. CRH induced 3beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type II (HSD3B2) by 34-fold, 21-hydroxylase (CYP21) by 55-fold, and 11beta-hydroxylase by 41-fold. Induction of steroidogenic acute regulatory protein, cholesterol side chain cleavage (CYP11A), and 17alpha-hydroxylase (CYP17) mRNA by CRH was 6-, 4-, and 6-fold, respectively. We also demonstrated that submaximal concentrations of CRH (30 pm) and ACTH (30 pm) that are seen in fetal circulation were additive on cortisol biosynthesis and 3beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type II mRNA induction. We suggest that CRH may play an important role in the late gestational rise in cortisol secretion from the HFAs, which may serve to augment placental CRH production and therefore participate in the endocrine cascade that is involved in fetal organ maturation and potentially in the timing of human parturition.

  10. Depressive rumination alters cortisol decline in Major Depressive Disorder.

    PubMed

    LeMoult, Joelle; Joormann, Jutta

    2014-07-01

    Depressive rumination - a central characteristic of Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) - is a maladaptive emotion regulation strategy that prolongs sad mood and depressive episodes. Considerable research demonstrates the emotional and behavioral consequences of depressive rumination, yet few studies investigate its effect on neuroendocrine functioning. The current study examined the effect of an emotion regulation manipulation on the trajectory of cortisol concentrations among individuals with MDD and healthy controls (CTL). Sadness was induced via forced failure. Participants then were randomly assigned to a depressive rumination or distraction emotion regulation induction. MDDs in the rumination condition exhibited less cortisol decline compared to MDDs in the distraction condition and compared to CTLs in either condition. Findings suggest that depressive rumination alters the trajectory of cortisol secretion in MDD and may prolong cortisol production. Results thereby provide important insights into the interaction of biological and psychological factors through which distress contributes to MDD.

  11. Macromolecule absorption and cortisol secretion in newborn calves derived from in vitro produced embryos.

    PubMed

    Jacobsen, H; Sangild, P T; Schmidt, M; Holm, P; Greve, T; Callesen, H

    2002-03-15

    Earlier reports indicate that calves derived from in vitro produced (IVP) embryos are more susceptible to neonatal disease than calves produced after artificial insemination (AI) or natural mating. The aims of the present study were to investigate whether calves born after IVP embryos show an altered macromolecule absorption (immunoglobulin G (IgG) and porcine serum albumin (PSA)) compared with AI calves and whether the macromolecule absorption could be related to the degree of acidosis or to the cortisol secretion around birth. Hence, IgG and PSA absorption in control AI calves (n=7) was compared with that in two groups of IVP calves (IVP-defined: SOFaa embryo culture with polyvinyl alcohol, n=6; IVP-serum: SOFaa embryo culture with serum and co-culture, n=8). The calves were fed colostrum (40ml/kg) at 2, 6 and 12h after birth. At 24h after birth, both AI and IVP calves had achieved a level of plasma IgG sufficient to provide passive immunization (>15mg/ml). When the values were adjusted for the varying colostral IgG contents and the degree of acidosis, the IVP-defined calves had significantly lower peak plasma IgG concentrations than the AI calves at 18-24h after birth (P<0.04). However, when the macromolecule marker (PSA), was fed to all calves at 2 and 12h after birth the resulting plasma PSA levels were significantly lower in the AI calves compared with the IVP calves during the whole observation period (P<0.0001). Calves with a moderate neonatal acidosis (mean pH<7.2 during the first 30min after birth) had reduced peak plasma IgG concentration at 18-24h after birth (P<0.02) compared to calves without acidosis. The basal and ACTH-stimulated cortisol levels were lower in the newborn IVP-defined calves than in the AI calves (P<0.05) and the IVP-serum calves (P<0.002). Cortisol levels shortly after birth correlated positively with birth weight (r=0.60, P<0.0001) and with gestation length (r=0.34, P<0.04). Since, the IVP calves absorbed sufficient amounts of Ig

  12. Basal salivary cortisol secretion and susceptibility to upper respiratory infection.

    PubMed

    Janicki-Deverts, Denise; Cohen, Sheldon; Turner, Ronald B; Doyle, William J

    2016-03-01

    The immunosuppressive effects of glucocorticoids (GCs) are well-established. However, whether the net effect of GC-elicited alterations in immune function is sufficient to influence a clinically relevant outcome in healthy adults has yet to be shown. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether inter-individual differences in basal salivary cortisol production are associated with increased risk and severity of infection and subsequent illness following experimental exposure to a virus that causes the common cold. The present analyses combine archival data from three viral-challenge studies. Participants were 608 healthy adults, aged 18 to 55 years (49.2% female; 65.8% white), who each completed a three-day saliva collection protocol; was subsequently exposed to a virus that causes the common cold; and monitored for 5 days for objective signs of infection (presence of challenge virus in nasal secretions) and clinical illness (mucus weight, mucociliary clearance time). Basal cortisol production (operationalized as the calculated area-under-the-curve averaged across the 3 days) showed a graded association with infection risk, with those producing higher levels of cortisol being at greater risk. Cortisol also showed a continuous association with duration of viral shedding, an indicator of viral replication and continuing infection, such that higher cortisol concentrations predicted more days of shedding. Cortisol was not, however, related to severity of objective illness. These findings are the first to demonstrate in healthy adults an association between basal cortisol production and an objectively measured and clinically relevant infectious disease outcome.

  13. Basal salivary cortisol secretion and susceptibility to upper respiratory infection.

    PubMed

    Janicki-Deverts, Denise; Cohen, Sheldon; Turner, Ronald B; Doyle, William J

    2016-03-01

    The immunosuppressive effects of glucocorticoids (GCs) are well-established. However, whether the net effect of GC-elicited alterations in immune function is sufficient to influence a clinically relevant outcome in healthy adults has yet to be shown. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether inter-individual differences in basal salivary cortisol production are associated with increased risk and severity of infection and subsequent illness following experimental exposure to a virus that causes the common cold. The present analyses combine archival data from three viral-challenge studies. Participants were 608 healthy adults, aged 18 to 55 years (49.2% female; 65.8% white), who each completed a three-day saliva collection protocol; was subsequently exposed to a virus that causes the common cold; and monitored for 5 days for objective signs of infection (presence of challenge virus in nasal secretions) and clinical illness (mucus weight, mucociliary clearance time). Basal cortisol production (operationalized as the calculated area-under-the-curve averaged across the 3 days) showed a graded association with infection risk, with those producing higher levels of cortisol being at greater risk. Cortisol also showed a continuous association with duration of viral shedding, an indicator of viral replication and continuing infection, such that higher cortisol concentrations predicted more days of shedding. Cortisol was not, however, related to severity of objective illness. These findings are the first to demonstrate in healthy adults an association between basal cortisol production and an objectively measured and clinically relevant infectious disease outcome. PMID:26778776

  14. Use of metyrapone to treat pituitary-dependent hyperadrenocorticism in a cat with large cutaneous wounds.

    PubMed

    Daley, C A; Zerbe, C A; Schick, R O; Powers, R D

    1993-03-15

    Metyrapone, a drug that inhibits cortisol production, was used to lower plasma cortisol concentration and alleviate skin lesions caused by pituitary-dependent hyper-adrenocorticism in a cat. Plasma cortisol concentration was documented by ACTH stimulation test results. During metyrapone treatment, alopecia, thin skin, and large cutaneous wounds resolved. Metyrapone was administered orally at a dosage of 65 mg/kg of body weight, every 12 hours. Metyrapone may be used in conjunction with surgery in the management of pituitary-dependent hyperadrenocorticism in cats.

  15. Integrating cortisol and isotopic analyses of archeological hair: reconstructing individual experiences of health and stress.

    PubMed

    Webb, Emily C; White, Christine D; Van Uum, Stan; Longstaffe, Fred J

    2015-04-01

    Archeological hair from 14 adults from the Nasca Region, Peru (c. AD1-1000) was analyzed for carbon and nitrogen isotopic compositions and cortisol levels. We investigated the relationship between isotopic compositions, which reflect diet, and cortisol, which reflects biogenic cortisol production and chronic stress. Using a case study approach, we determined that there are consistent changes in cortisol production associated with the rapid dietary change characteristic of local mobility. Moreover, changes in nitrogen- and carbon-isotope compositions, when integrated with cortisol levels, enabled inferences to be made about nitrogen metabolism and carbon routing, and elucidated the nature of potential stressors in the months before death. The isotopic and cortisol data suggested a relatively high rate of exposure to stress that is consistent with what is known about the Nasca Region social and physical environments. Of the 14 adults included in this study, six likely suffered from illness/trauma before death, and a further three experienced stress without an observable associated change in isotopic composition. Five individuals also experienced increased stress related to local mobility, inferred from co-occurring changes in cortisol production and dietary shifting. The integration of cortisol and isotopic data revealed individual characteristics of hidden frailty and risk that would not be apparent using more traditional methods of evaluating health status. This approach will provide a powerful enhancement to the understanding of stress, morbidity, and well-being developed through skeletal analysis. PMID:25470601

  16. Displacement of Cortisol From Human Heart by Acute Administration of a Mineralocorticoid Receptor Antagonist

    PubMed Central

    Iqbal, Javaid; Andrew, Ruth; Cruden, Nicholas L.; Kenyon, Christopher J.; Hughes, Katherine A.; Newby, David E.; Hadoke, Patrick W. F.; Walker, Brian R.

    2015-01-01

    Context Mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) antagonists have beneficial effects in patients with heart failure and myocardial infarction, often attributed to blocking aldosterone action in the myocardium. However, binding of aldosterone to MR requires local activity of the enzyme 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 (11β-HSD2), which inactivates cortisol to cortisone and thereby prevents receptor occupancy by cortisol. In vivo activity of 11β-HSD2 and potential occupancy of MR by cortisol in human heart have not been quantified. Objective This study aimed to measure in vivo activity of 11β-HSD2 and to establish whether cortisol binds MR in human heart. Participants and Interventions Nine patients without heart failure undergoing diagnostic coronary angiography were infused to steady state with the stable isotope tracers 9,11,12,12-[2H]4-cortisol and 1,2-[2H]2-cortisone to quantify cortisol and cortisone production. Samples were obtained from the femoral artery and coronary sinus before and for 40 minutes after bolus iv administration of an MR antagonist, potassium canrenoate. Coronary sinus blood flow was measured by venography and Doppler flow wire. Results There was no detectable production of cortisol or cortisone across the myocardium. After potassium canrenoate administration, plasma aldosterone concentrations increased substantially but aldosterone was not detectably released from the myocardium. In contrast, plasma cortisol concentrations did not change in the systemic circulation but tissue-bound cortisol was released transiently from the myocardium after potassium canrenoate administration. Conclusions Human cardiac 11β-HSD2 activity appears too low to inactivate cortisol to cortisone. Cortisol is displaced acutely from the myocardium by MR antagonists and may contribute to adverse MR activation in human heart. PMID:24423282

  17. Cortisol and GH secretory dynamics, and their interrelationships, in healthy aged women and men.

    PubMed

    Gusenoff, J A; Harman, S M; Veldhuis, J D; Jayme, J J; St Clair, C; Münzer, T; Christmas, C; O'Connor, K G; Stevens, T E; Bellantoni, M F; Pabst, K; Blackman, M R

    2001-04-01

    We studied 130 healthy aged women (n = 57) and men (n = 73), age 65-88 yr, with age-related reductions in insulin-like growth factor I and gonadal steroid levels to assess the interrelationships between cortisol and growth hormone (GH) secretion and whether these relationships differ by sex. Blood was sampled every 20 min from 8:00 PM to 8:00 AM; cortisol was measured by RIA and GH by immunoradiometric assay, followed by deconvolution analyses of hormone secretory parameters and assessment of approximate entropy (ApEn) and cross-ApEn. Cortisol mass/burst, cortisol production rate, and mean and integrated serum cortisol concentrations (P < 0.0005), and overnight basal GH secretion (P < 0.05), were elevated in women vs. men. Integrated cortisol concentrations were directly related to most measures of GH secretion in women (P < 0.01) and with mean and integrated GH concentrations in men (P < 0.05). Integrated GH concentrations were directly related to mean and integrated cortisol levels in women (P < 0.005) and men (P < 0.05), with no sex differences. There were no sex differences in cortisol or GH ApEn values; however, the cross-ApEn score was greater in women (P < 0.05), indicating reduced GH-cortisol pattern synchrony in aged women vs. men. There were no significant relationships of integrated cortisol secretion with GH ApEn, or vice versa, in either sex. Thus postmenopausal women appear to maintain elevated cortisol production in patterns that are relatively uncoupled from those of GH, whereas mean hormone outputs remain correlated.

  18. Maternal stress-associated cortisol stimulation may protect embryos from cortisol excess in zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Faught, Erin; Best, Carol; Vijayan, Mathilakath M.

    2016-01-01

    Abnormal embryo cortisol level causes developmental defects and poor survival in zebrafish (Danio rerio). However, no study has demonstrated that maternal stress leads to higher embryo cortisol content in zebrafish. We tested the hypothesis that maternal stress-associated elevation in cortisol levels increases embryo cortisol content in this asynchronous breeder. Zebrafish mothers were fed cortisol-spiked food for 5 days, to mimic maternal stress, followed by daily breeding for 10 days to monitor temporal embryo cortisol content. Cortisol treatment increased mean embryo yield, but the daily fecundity was variable among the groups. Embryo cortisol content was variable in both groups over a 10-day period. A transient elevation in cortisol levels was observed in the embryos from cortisol-fed mothers only on day 3, but not on subsequent days. We tested whether excess cortisol stimulates 11βHSD2 expression in ovarian follicles as a means to regulate embryo cortisol deposition. Cortisol treatment in vitro increased 11β HSD2 levels sevenfold, and this expression was regulated by actinomycin D and cycloheximide suggesting tight regulation of cortisol levels in the ovarian follicles. We hypothesize that cortisol-induced upregulation of 11βHSD2 activity in the ovarian follicles is a mechanism restricting excess cortisol incorporation into the eggs during maternal stress. PMID:26998341

  19. Cortisol Levels and Longitudinal Cortisol Change as Predictors of Anxiety in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schiefelbein, Virginia L.; Susman, Elizabeth J.

    2006-01-01

    Although previous research has suggested cortisol-emotion relationships, little is known regarding the effect of anxiety type on cortisol levels or relationships between anxiety and longitudinal cortisol change in adolescents. The authors examine the differential relationship of cortisol levels with generalized and social anxiety and relationships…

  20. [Night workers and plasmatic cortisol].

    PubMed

    Palermo, P; Rosati, M V; Ciarrocca, M; Nicassio, P; Piccoli, F; Cerratti, D; Anzani, M F; Tomei, G; Perugi, F; Monti, C; Palitti, T; Tomao, E; Caciari, T; Tomei, F

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the study is to evaluate whether occupational exposure to night work could cause alterations in the levels of plasmatic cortisol. The interest toward this argument arises form several studies in scientific literature referring the presence of an alteration in the synthesis and release of cortisol in workers exposed to night work. We studied a population of workers employed in night security service and monitoring service of alarm systems in different museums compared to a control group not performing shift-work and/or night work. The exposed and control subjects were compared by age, length of service, smoking habit (n. cigarettes per day), habitual consumption of alcoholic drinks (n. glass of wine/beer per day). We evaluated the levels of plasmatic cortisol on 50 workers exposed to night work, all males of whom 30 smokers and 20 non-smokers and on 50 controls of whom 30 smokers and 20 non-smokers.

  1. Cortisol administration induces sex change from ovary to testis in the protogynous Wrasse, Halichoeres trimaculatus.

    PubMed

    Nozu, Ryo; Nakamura, Masaru

    2015-01-01

    Steroid hormones have been shown to play important roles in triggering sex change. However, the upstream mechanism that regulates the secretion of sex steroid hormones controlling sex change is not yet known. Cortisol, the primary glucocorticoid in teleost fish, is known to exhibit anti-stress action and is involved in many physiological functions, including regulation of steroidogenesis. Therefore, cortisol could be one of the candidate factors involved in the onset of sex change. In this study, we investigated the role of cortisol in sex change in the three-spot wrasse, Halichoeres trimaculatus, by prolonged administration of cortisol. Our results showed that gonads of all individuals treated with cortisol (1,000 µg/g diet) for 6 weeks contained spermatogenic germ cells. One of them exhibited matured testes with an ovarian cavity, indicating sex change. Additionally, the plasma estradiol-17β level in the cortisol treatment group was significantly lower than in the control group suggesting that cortisol plays a direct and/or indirect role in the regulation of estrogen production. These data imply that cortisol might be involved in the regulation of steroidogenesis by causing a decrease in the estrogen level, leading to the onset of sex change.

  2. Elevated hair cortisol concentrations in endurance athletes.

    PubMed

    Skoluda, Nadine; Dettenborn, Lucia; Stalder, Tobias; Kirschbaum, Clemens

    2012-05-01

    Engaging in intensive aerobic exercise, specifically endurance sports, is associated with HPA axis activation indicated by elevated cortisol levels. Whether the repeated short-term elevations in cortisol levels result in higher long-term cortisol exposure of endurance athletes has been difficult to examine since traditional methods of cortisol assessments (saliva, blood, urine) reflect only relatively short time periods. Hair segment analysis provides a new method to assess cumulative cortisol secretion over prolonged time periods in a retrospective fashion. The aim of this study was to investigate cumulative cortisol secretion over several months reflecting intensive training and competitive races by examining hair cortisol levels of endurance athletes. Hair samples were obtained from 304 amateur endurance athletes (long-distance runners, triathletes, cyclists) and 70 controls. Cortisol concentrations were determined in the first to third 3-cm hair segments most proximal to the scalp. In addition, self-report measures of training volume were obtained. Endurance athletes exhibited higher cortisol levels in all three hair segments compared to controls (p<.001). Positive correlations between the cortisol concentration in the first hair segment and each indicator of training volume were found (all p<.01). These data suggest that repeated physical stress of intensive training and competitive races among endurance athletes is associated with elevated cortisol exposure over prolonged periods of time. These findings may have important implications with regard to somatic and mental health of athletes which should be investigated in future research.

  3. Identification of single nucleotide polymorphism markers associated with cortisol response to crowding in Rainbow Trout

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Understanding stress responses is essential for improving animal welfare and increasing agriculture production efficiency. Previously, we reported microsatellite markers associated with quantitative trait loci (QTL) affecting plasma cortisol response to crowding in rainbow trout. Our main objectives...

  4. Social Behavior Correlates of Cortisol Activity in Child Care: Gender Differences and Time-of-Day Effects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tout, Kathryn; de Haan, Michelle; Campbell, Elizabeth Kipp; Gunnar, Megan R.

    1998-01-01

    Examined relations between social behavior and daily patterns of a stress-sensitive hormone production in preschool children attending center-based child care. For boys, externalizing behavior was positively associated with cortisol reactivity, while internalizing behavior was negatively associated with median (typical) cortisol. Median cortisol…

  5. Clinical applications of cortisol measurements in hair.

    PubMed

    Wester, Vincent L; van Rossum, Elisabeth F C

    2015-10-01

    Cortisol measurements in blood, saliva and urine are frequently used to examine the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis in clinical practice and in research. However, cortisol levels are subject to variations due to acute stress, the diurnal rhythm and pulsatile secretion. Cortisol measurements in body fluids are not always a reflection of long-term cortisol exposure. The analysis of cortisol in scalp hair is a relatively novel method to measure cumulative cortisol exposure over months up to years. Over the past years, hair cortisol concentrations (HCC) have been examined in association with a large number of somatic and mental health conditions. HCC can be used to evaluate disturbances of the HPA axis, including Cushing's syndrome, and to evaluate hydrocortisone treatment. Using HCC, retrospective timelines of cortisol exposure can be created which can be of value in diagnosing cyclic hypercortisolism. HCC have also been shown to increase with psychological stressors, including major life events, as well as physical stressors, such as endurance exercise and shift work. Initial studies show that HCC may be increased in depression, but decreased in general anxiety disorder. In posttraumatic stress disorder, changes in HCC seem to be dependent on the type of traumatic experience and the time since traumatization. Increased hair cortisol is consistently linked to obesity, metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease. Potentially, HCC could form a future marker for cardiovascular risk stratification, as well as serve as a treatment target.

  6. Associations between psychiatric symptoms and cortisol levels in Nicaraguan young school-age children.

    PubMed

    Isaksson, Johan; Högberg, Ulf; Valladares, Eliette; Lindblad, Frank

    2016-06-30

    The regulation of the Hypothalamus-Pituitary-Adrenal axis (HPA-axis) with its end product cortisol seems to be affected in several psychiatric disorders. Although findings are not conclusive, internalizing symptoms have primarily been associated with higher diurnal cortisol levels and externalizing symptoms with lower cortisol levels. In this study on nine-year-olds in Nicaragua (n=111), we investigated associations between child psychiatric symptoms, using the Child Behavior Check List (CBCL), and saliva cortisol levels collected in the morning and afternoon, also adjusting for potential confounders. In line with previous findings, internalizing symptoms were significantly associated with higher morning, but not afternoon cortisol levels. Surprisingly, externalizing symptoms were also significantly associated with higher morning cortisol levels. Possibly, this association between externalizing symptoms and cortisol levels may be characteristic of early ages, representing a higher exposure to external stressors. The study highlights the need for prospective studies, following the development of the HPA-axis and its association with psychiatric symptoms. PMID:27138834

  7. Cortisol administration increases hippocampal activation to infant crying in males depending on childhood neglect.

    PubMed

    Bos, Peter A; Montoya, Estrella R; Terburg, David; van Honk, Jack

    2014-10-01

    Animal studies show that exposure to parental neglect alters stress regulation and can lead to neural hyposensitivity or hypersensitivity in response to cortisol, most pronounced in the hippocampus. Cortisol, the end product of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, has also been related to parenting more directly, for example, in both sexes, cortisol levels increase when listening to infants crying, possibly to activate and facilitate effective care behavior. Severe trauma is known to negatively affect the HPA-axis in humans; however, it is unknown whether normal variation in parental care in the healthy population can alter sensitivity of the hippocampus to cortisol. Here, we investigate whether variation in experienced neglect changes neural sensitivity to cortisol when humans listen to infant crying, which is an unequivocal signal relevant for care behavior. In a placebo-controlled, within-subject neuroimaging study, we administered 40 mg cortisol to 21 healthy young males without children and used a validated task for measuring neural responses to infant crying. The Dutch version of the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire was used to index participants' early exposure to abuse and neglect. The data show that cortisol markedly increased hippocampal activation toward crying infants, and this effect varied significantly with parental neglect, even in our nonclinical subject sample. Without exposure to severe trauma or neglect, reduced self-experienced quality of parental care in the normal range already substantially increased hippocampal responsivity to cortisol. Altered hippocampal sensitivity to cortisol might be a cross-species marker for the risk of developing later life psychopathology. PMID:24757127

  8. Effects of adrenocorticotropic hormone challenge and age on hair cortisol concentrations in dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    González-de-la-Vara, Marcela del Rosario; Valdez, Ricardo Arturo; Lemus-Ramirez, Vicente; Vázquez-Chagoyán, Juan Carlos; Villa-Godoy, Alejandro; Romano, Marta C

    2011-07-01

    Dairy cattle suffer stress from management and production; contemporary farming tries to improve animal welfare and reduce stress. Therefore, the assessment of long-term hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal function using non-invasive techniques is useful. The aims in this study were: to measure cortisol concentration in cow and calves hair by radioimmunoassay (RIA), to test cortisol accumulation in bovine hair after adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) challenges, and determine the influence of hair color on cortisol concentrations. Fifteen Holstein heifers were allotted to 3 groups (n = 5 each): in control group (C), just the hair was sampled; in the saline solution group (SS), IV saline solution was administered on days 0, 7, and 14; and the ACTH group was challenged 3 times with ACTH (0.15 UI per kg of body weight) on days 0, 7, and 14. Serum samples from the SS and ACTH groups were obtained 0, 60 and 90 min post-injection. Serum cortisol concentration was greater 60 and 90 min after injection with ACTH. Hair was clipped on days 0, 14, 28, and 44. Hair cortisol was methanol extracted and measured by RIA. Hair cortisol was preserved for 11 mo. Hair cortisol concentrations in the ACTH group were greater than in the saline and control groups on days 14 and 28, but not on day 44. Concentrations were greater in calves than in cows and greater in white hair than in black hair. Cortisol accumulated in bovine hair after ACTH challenges, but the concentration was affected by both age and hair color. If hair color effects are taken into account, assessing cortisol concentration in hair is a potentially useful non-invasive method for assessing stress in cattle.

  9. Cortisol administration increases hippocampal activation to infant crying in males depending on childhood neglect.

    PubMed

    Bos, Peter A; Montoya, Estrella R; Terburg, David; van Honk, Jack

    2014-10-01

    Animal studies show that exposure to parental neglect alters stress regulation and can lead to neural hyposensitivity or hypersensitivity in response to cortisol, most pronounced in the hippocampus. Cortisol, the end product of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, has also been related to parenting more directly, for example, in both sexes, cortisol levels increase when listening to infants crying, possibly to activate and facilitate effective care behavior. Severe trauma is known to negatively affect the HPA-axis in humans; however, it is unknown whether normal variation in parental care in the healthy population can alter sensitivity of the hippocampus to cortisol. Here, we investigate whether variation in experienced neglect changes neural sensitivity to cortisol when humans listen to infant crying, which is an unequivocal signal relevant for care behavior. In a placebo-controlled, within-subject neuroimaging study, we administered 40 mg cortisol to 21 healthy young males without children and used a validated task for measuring neural responses to infant crying. The Dutch version of the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire was used to index participants' early exposure to abuse and neglect. The data show that cortisol markedly increased hippocampal activation toward crying infants, and this effect varied significantly with parental neglect, even in our nonclinical subject sample. Without exposure to severe trauma or neglect, reduced self-experienced quality of parental care in the normal range already substantially increased hippocampal responsivity to cortisol. Altered hippocampal sensitivity to cortisol might be a cross-species marker for the risk of developing later life psychopathology.

  10. Effects of adrenocorticotropic hormone challenge and age on hair cortisol concentrations in dairy cattle

    PubMed Central

    del Rosario González-de-la-Vara, Marcela; Valdez, Ricardo Arturo; Lemus-Ramirez, Vicente; Vázquez-Chagoyán, Juan Carlos; Villa-Godoy, Alejandro; Romano, Marta C.

    2011-01-01

    Dairy cattle suffer stress from management and production; contemporary farming tries to improve animal welfare and reduce stress. Therefore, the assessment of long-term hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal function using non-invasive techniques is useful. The aims in this study were: to measure cortisol concentration in cow and calves hair by radioimmunoassay (RIA), to test cortisol accumulation in bovine hair after adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) challenges, and determine the influence of hair color on cortisol concentrations. Fifteen Holstein heifers were allotted to 3 groups (n = 5 each): in control group (C), just the hair was sampled; in the saline solution group (SS), IV saline solution was administered on days 0, 7, and 14; and the ACTH group was challenged 3 times with ACTH (0.15 UI per kg of body weight) on days 0, 7, and 14. Serum samples from the SS and ACTH groups were obtained 0, 60 and 90 min post-injection. Serum cortisol concentration was greater 60 and 90 min after injection with ACTH. Hair was clipped on days 0, 14, 28, and 44. Hair cortisol was methanol extracted and measured by RIA. Hair cortisol was preserved for 11 mo. Hair cortisol concentrations in the ACTH group were greater than in the saline and control groups on days 14 and 28, but not on day 44. Concentrations were greater in calves than in cows and greater in white hair than in black hair. Cortisol accumulated in bovine hair after ACTH challenges, but the concentration was affected by both age and hair color. If hair color effects are taken into account, assessing cortisol concentration in hair is a potentially useful non-invasive method for assessing stress in cattle. PMID:22210998

  11. A case of adrenal gland dependent hyperadrenocorticism with mitotane therapy in a Yorkshire terrier dog.

    PubMed

    Lee, Young-Mi; Kang, Byeong-Teck; Jung, Dong-in; Park, Chul; Kim, Ha-Jung; Kim, Ju-Won; Lim, Chae-Young; Park, Eun-Hee; Park, Hee-Myung

    2005-12-01

    Hyperadrenocorticism, a disorder characterized by excessive production of cortisol by the adrenal cortex, is well-recognized in dogs. A 10-year-old, intact male, Yorkshire terrier dog was evaluated because of corneal ulceration and generalized alopecia. Diagnosis was made based on history taking, clinical signs, physical examination, and results of routine laboratory testing (complete blood count, serum biochemical analysis, and urinalysis). In addition, adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) stimulation test and abdominal ultrasonography were also used to diagnose this case. The patient was diagnosed as adrenal gland neoplasia and medical therapy using the adrenocorticolytic agent, mitotane, was initiated. An ACTH stimulation test was performed after initial therapy. After successful induction was obtained, maintenance therapy with mitotane still continued.

  12. MATERNAL SELF-REPORTED DEPRESSIVE SYMPTOMS AND MATERNAL CORTISOL LEVELS INTERACT TO PREDICT INFANT CORTISOL LEVELS.

    PubMed

    Khoury, Jennifer E; Gonzalez, Andrea; Levitan, Robert; Masellis, Mario; Basile, Vincenzo; Atkinson, Leslie

    2016-01-01

    Three basic findings have emerged from research on maternal depressive symptoms and offspring hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal functioning: (a) Mothers' depressive symptoms are positively associated with their offsprings' cortisol stress response, (b) numerous individual and interpersonal maternal characteristics moderate this association, and (c) maternal and infant cortisol levels are highly correlated. In combination, these findings have suggested that maternal cortisol levels may moderate the relation between maternal depressive symptoms and infant cortisol responsivity; the current study assessed this hypothesis. Participants were 297 mother-infant dyads who were recruited from the community. Maternal depressive symptoms were assessed via self-report. Dyads participated in two differentially stressful infant challenges when infants were 16 and 17 months old. Mother and infant salivary cortisol was collected before and after challenges. Results indicate that maternal cortisol levels moderated associations between maternal depressive symptoms and infant cortisol levels across both challenges. Infants showed higher cortisol levels if their mothers had both higher depressive symptoms and higher cortisol levels, as compared to infants of mothers with higher depressive symptoms and lower cortisol, and to infants of mothers with lower depressive symptoms and either higher or lower cortisol levels. We discuss findings in relation to environmental and biological factors that may contribute to the intergenerational transmission of depressive symptoms. PMID:26939829

  13. MATERNAL SELF-REPORTED DEPRESSIVE SYMPTOMS AND MATERNAL CORTISOL LEVELS INTERACT TO PREDICT INFANT CORTISOL LEVELS.

    PubMed

    Khoury, Jennifer E; Gonzalez, Andrea; Levitan, Robert; Masellis, Mario; Basile, Vincenzo; Atkinson, Leslie

    2016-01-01

    Three basic findings have emerged from research on maternal depressive symptoms and offspring hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal functioning: (a) Mothers' depressive symptoms are positively associated with their offsprings' cortisol stress response, (b) numerous individual and interpersonal maternal characteristics moderate this association, and (c) maternal and infant cortisol levels are highly correlated. In combination, these findings have suggested that maternal cortisol levels may moderate the relation between maternal depressive symptoms and infant cortisol responsivity; the current study assessed this hypothesis. Participants were 297 mother-infant dyads who were recruited from the community. Maternal depressive symptoms were assessed via self-report. Dyads participated in two differentially stressful infant challenges when infants were 16 and 17 months old. Mother and infant salivary cortisol was collected before and after challenges. Results indicate that maternal cortisol levels moderated associations between maternal depressive symptoms and infant cortisol levels across both challenges. Infants showed higher cortisol levels if their mothers had both higher depressive symptoms and higher cortisol levels, as compared to infants of mothers with higher depressive symptoms and lower cortisol, and to infants of mothers with lower depressive symptoms and either higher or lower cortisol levels. We discuss findings in relation to environmental and biological factors that may contribute to the intergenerational transmission of depressive symptoms.

  14. Salivary Cortisol Lower in Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Wahbeh, Helané; Oken, Barry S.

    2013-01-01

    Altered cortisol has been demonstrated to be lower in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in most studies. This cross-sectional study evaluated salivary cortisol at waking, 30 minutes after, and bedtime in 51 combat veterans with PTSD compared to 20 veterans without PTSD. It also examined the relationship of cortisol to PTSD symptoms using two classifications: DSM-IV and the more recent four-factor classification proposed for DSM-V. The PTSD group had lower cortisol values than the control group (F(6, 69) = 3.35, p = .006). This significance did not change when adding age, body mass index, smoking, medications affecting cortisol, awakening time, sleep duration, season, depression, perceived stress, service era, combat exposure, and lifetime trauma as covariates. Post-hoc analyses revealed that the PTSD group had lower area under the curve ground and waking, 30min, and bedtime values while the cortisol awakening response and area under the curve increase were not different between groups. The four-factor avoidance PTSD symptom cluster was associated with cortisol but not the other symptom clusters. This study supports the finding that cortisol is lower in people with PTSD. PMID:23529862

  15. Cortisol levels in human follicular fluid.

    PubMed

    Fateh, M; Ben-Rafael, Z; Benadiva, C A; Mastroianni, L; Flickinger, G L

    1989-03-01

    This study shows that cortisol levels in follicular fluids in stimulated cycles were correlated with oocyte maturity and in vitro fertilizability. The levels were significantly higher than the concentrations found in spontaneous cycles. Our findings suggest that the presence of cortisol in follicular fluid may play a role in follicular development and oocyte maturation.

  16. Electrochemical Sensing of Cortisol: A Recent Update

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Aparajita; Kaushik, Ajeet; Kumar, Rajesh; Nair, Madhavan; Bhansali, Shekhar

    2014-01-01

    Psychological stress caused by everyday life style contributes to health disparities experience by individuals. It affects many biomarkers, but cortisol “a steroid hormone” is known as a potential biomarker for psychological stress detection. Abnormal levels of cortisol, is indicative of conditions such as Cushing’s syndrome Addison’s disease, adrenal insufficiencies and more recently post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Chromatographic techniques, which are traditionally used to detect cortisol, are a complex system requiring multistep extraction/purification. This limits its application for point-of-care (POC) detection of cortisol. However, electrochemical immunosensing of cortisol is a recent advancement towards POC application. This review highlights simple, low-cost, and label-free electrochemical immunosensing platforms which have been developed recently for sensitive and selective detection of cortisol in biofluids. Electrochemical detection is utilized for the detection of cortisol using Anti-Cortisol antibodies (Anti-Cab) covalently immobilized on nanostructures such as self-assembled monolayer (SAM), polymer composite, etc. for POC integration of sensors. The observed information can be used as prototype to understand behavioral changes in humans in case to case such as farmers, fire fighters, etc. Keeping the future directions and challenges in mind the focus of the BioMEMS and Microsystems Research Group at Florida International University is on development of POC devices for immunosensing, integration of these devices with microfluidics, cross validation with existing technologies, and analysis of real sample. PMID:24723204

  17. Diurnal cortisol variation and cortisol response to an MRI stressor in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Girshkin, Leah; O'Reilly, Nicole; Quidé, Yann; Teroganova, Nina; Rowland, Jesseca E; Schofield, Peter R; Green, Melissa J

    2016-05-01

    Markers of HPA axis function, including diurnal cortisol rhythm and cortisol responses to stress or pharmacological manipulation, are increasingly reported as disrupted in schizophrenia (SZ) and bipolar disorder (BD). However, there has been no direct comparison of cortisol responses to stress in SZ and BD in the same study, and associations between cortisol dysfunction and illness characteristics remain unclear. In this study we used spline embedded linear mixed models to examine cortisol levels of SZ and BD participants at waking, during the first 45min after waking (representing the cortisol awakening response; CAR), during the period of rapid cortisol decline post the awakening response, and in reaction to a stressor (MRI scan), relative to healthy controls (HC). Contrary to expectations, neither SZ nor BD showed differences in waking cortisol levels, CAR, or immediate post-CAR decline compared to HC; however, waking cortisol levels were greater in BD relative to SZ. In response to the MRI stressor, the SZ group showed a significant absence of the expected increase in cortisol responsivity to stress, which was seen in both the BD and HC groups. Clinical factors affecting the CAR differed between SZ and BD. In SZ, higher antipsychotic medication dosage was associated with a steeper incline of the CAR, while greater positive symptom severity was associated with a more blunted CAR, and greater levels of anxiety were associated with the blunted cortisol response to stress. In BD, longer illness duration was associated with a steeper incline in CAR and lower levels of waking cortisol. These results suggest that cortisol responses may normalize with medication (in SZ) and longer illness duration (in BD), in line with findings of aberrant cortisol levels in the early stages of psychotic disorders. PMID:26874562

  18. Expensive Egos: Narcissistic Males Have Higher Cortisol

    PubMed Central

    Reinhard, David A.; Konrath, Sara H.; Lopez, William D.; Cameron, Heather G.

    2012-01-01

    Background Narcissism is characterized by grandiosity, low empathy, and entitlement. There has been limited research regarding the hormonal correlates of narcissism, despite the potential health implications. This study examined the role of participant narcissism and sex on basal cortisol concentrations in an undergraduate population. Methods and Findings Participants were 106 undergraduate students (79 females, 27 males, mean age 20.1 years) from one Midwestern and one Southwestern American university. Narcissism was assessed using the Narcissistic Personality Inventory, and basal cortisol concentrations were collected from saliva samples in a laboratory setting. Regression analyses examined the effect of narcissism and sex on cortisol (log). There were no sex differences in basal cortisol, F(1,97) = .20, p = .65, and narcissism scores, F(1,97) = .00, p = .99. Stepwise linear regression models of sex and narcissism and their interaction predicting cortisol concentrations showed no main effects when including covariates, but a significant interaction, β = .27, p = .04. Narcissism was not related to cortisol in females, but significantly predicted cortisol in males. Examining the effect of unhealthy versus healthy narcissism on cortisol found that unhealthy narcissism was marginally related to cortisol in females, β = .27, p = .06, but significantly predicted higher basal cortisol in males, β = .72, p = .01, even when controlling for potential confounds. No relationship was found between sex, narcissism, or their interaction on self-reported stress. Conclusions Our findings suggest that the HPA axis is chronically activated in males with unhealthy narcissism. This constant activation of the HPA axis may have important health implications. PMID:22292062

  19. Cortisol Patterns at Home and Child Care: Afternoon Differences and Evening Recovery in Children Attending Very High Quality Full-Day Center-Based Child Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watamura, Sarah E.; Kryzer, Erin M.; Robertson, Steven S.

    2008-01-01

    Previous work has found that many young children show different patterns of production of the hormone cortisol, which is sensitive to stress and challenge, on days when they are at child care compared with days when they are at home. At home, preschool age children typically show a decreasing pattern of cortisol production across the day which is…

  20. Family income and appraisals of parental conflict as predictors of psychological adjustment and diurnal cortisol in emerging adulthood.

    PubMed

    Lucas-Thompson, Rachel G; Hostinar, Camelia E

    2013-10-01

    The goal of the current study was to provide the first investigation of whether appraisals of parental marital conflict mediate associations of family income with emerging adult psychological adjustment and diurnal cortisol production. Participants were 178 college students who provided 3 saliva samples across the day and reported their family income, adjustment (depressive symptoms, perceived daily stress, internalizing problems, and externalizing problems), and appraisals of their parents' conflict (including perceptions of frequency, intensity, resolution, stability, as well as perceived threat and self-blame for conflict). Results indicated that emerging adults from low-income families reported more-negative conflict appraisals, which in turn predicted lower levels of adjustment; there was no association between income and patterns of cortisol production across the day. However, emerging adults who felt responsible for their parents' conflict displayed cortisol levels that were lower early in the day, with a tendency toward blunted cortisol slopes across the day; those who appraised their parents' conflict less negatively displayed a more normative pattern of cortisol production. These results suggest that effects of family income on psychological adjustment are explained, in part, by appraisals of parental conflict, particularly of appraisals of conflict as threatening, whereas self-blame conflict appraisals have main effects on cortisol, and predict a dysregulated and potentially maladaptive pattern of cortisol production across the day for emerging adults. PMID:24098963

  1. Family income and appraisals of parental conflict as predictors of psychological adjustment and diurnal cortisol in emerging adulthood.

    PubMed

    Lucas-Thompson, Rachel G; Hostinar, Camelia E

    2013-10-01

    The goal of the current study was to provide the first investigation of whether appraisals of parental marital conflict mediate associations of family income with emerging adult psychological adjustment and diurnal cortisol production. Participants were 178 college students who provided 3 saliva samples across the day and reported their family income, adjustment (depressive symptoms, perceived daily stress, internalizing problems, and externalizing problems), and appraisals of their parents' conflict (including perceptions of frequency, intensity, resolution, stability, as well as perceived threat and self-blame for conflict). Results indicated that emerging adults from low-income families reported more-negative conflict appraisals, which in turn predicted lower levels of adjustment; there was no association between income and patterns of cortisol production across the day. However, emerging adults who felt responsible for their parents' conflict displayed cortisol levels that were lower early in the day, with a tendency toward blunted cortisol slopes across the day; those who appraised their parents' conflict less negatively displayed a more normative pattern of cortisol production. These results suggest that effects of family income on psychological adjustment are explained, in part, by appraisals of parental conflict, particularly of appraisals of conflict as threatening, whereas self-blame conflict appraisals have main effects on cortisol, and predict a dysregulated and potentially maladaptive pattern of cortisol production across the day for emerging adults.

  2. Cortisol in hair measured in young adults - a biomarker of major life stressors?

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Stress as a cause of illness has been firmly established. In public health and stress research a retrospective biomarker of extended stress would be an indispensible aid. The objective of this pilot study was to investigate whether concentrations of cortisol in hair correlate with perceived stress, experiences of serious life events, and perceived health in young adults. Methods Hair samples were cut from the posterior vertex area of (n = 99) university students who also answered a questionnaire covering experiences of serious life events, perceived Stress Scale and perceived health during the last three months. Cortisol was measured using a competitive radioimmunoassay in methanol extracts of hair samples frozen in liquid nitrogen and mechanically pulverised. Results Mean cortisol levels were significantly related to serious life events (p = 0.045), weakly negatively correlated to perceived stress (p = 0.025, r = -0.061) but nor affected by sex, coloured/permed hair, intake of pharmaceuticals or self-reported health. In a multiple regression model, only the indicator of serious life events had an independent (p = 0.041) explanation of increased levels of cortisol in hair. Out of four outliers with extremely high cortisol levels two could be contacted, both reported serious psychological problems. Conclusions These findings suggest that measurement of cortisol in hair could serve as a retrospective biomarker of increased cortisol production reflecting exposure to major life stressors and possibly extended psychological illness with important implications for research, clinical practice and public health. Experience of serious life events seems to be more important in raising cortisol levels in hair than perceived stress. PMID:22026917

  3. Childhood abuse is associated with increased hair cortisol levels among urban pregnant women

    PubMed Central

    Schreier, Hannah M C; Enlow, Michelle Bosquet; Ritz, Thomas; Gennings, Chris; Wright, Rosalind J

    2015-01-01

    Background Hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis activity is known to be altered following events such as childhood abuse. However, despite potential adverse consequences for the offspring of women who have experienced abuse, very little is known about altered HPA axis activity during pregnancy. Methods During pregnancy, 180 women from diverse racial/ethnic backgrounds reported on their exposure to emotional, physical and/or sexual abuse before the age of 11, and general post-traumatic stress symptoms (ie, not limited to childhood years or abuse experiences). Around delivery, they provided hair samples for the assessment of cortisol levels during pregnancy. Hair cortisol was assessed for each pregnancy trimester. The effect of childhood abuse on hair cortisol was assessed using mixed-effects analyses of covariance models allowing for within-subject correlated observations, and were first performed in the entire sample and subsequently stratified by race/ethnicity. Results Controlling for post-traumatic stress symptoms, hair cortisol levels varied by history of child abuse, F(2,166)=3.66, p=0.028. Childhood physical and/or sexual abuse was associated with greater hair cortisol levels, t(166)=2.65, p=0.009, compared with no history of abuse. Because childhood rates of abuse and hair cortisol levels varied by race/ethnicity, analyses were stratified by race/ethnicity. The associations between history of abuse and cortisol levels were only significant among black women, F(2,23)=5.37, p=0.012. Conclusions Childhood abuse, especially physical and/or sexual abuse, is associated with differences in cortisol production during pregnancy, particularly among black women. Future research should investigate how these differences impact physical and mental health outcomes among offspring of affected women. PMID:26219886

  4. Acute lymphopenia, stress, and plasma cortisol.

    PubMed Central

    Ramaekers, L H; Theunissen, P M; Went, K

    1975-01-01

    Plasma cortisol levels were determined in 51 children on admission to hospital for a variety of acute illnesses which were associated with a lymphopenia, and again when the lymphocyte count had returned to normal. The ratio cortisol level/lymphocyte count was much higher in the acute phase of the illness than later when the lymphocyte count had returned to normal. It is concluded that the lymphocyte count is a useful means of detecting an acute stress condition, and the time of return of normal plasma cortisol levels. PMID:1167069

  5. Differences between circadian and ultradian organization of cortisol and melatonin rhythms during activity and rest.

    PubMed

    Rivest, R W; Schulz, P; Lustenberger, S; Sizonenko, P C

    1989-04-01

    completely different; for plasma melatonin, the change was primarily quantitative, with an increase in total production especially at night, while for plasma cortisol, there was more of a qualitative change, with different patterns of pulsatile activity and possible splitting of the nocturnal peak. The differences in the ultradian organization of these two hormones imply that the correlation between their peaks must depend on a third factor, which is likely to be the 24-h organization of the day.

  6. Testosterone, cortisol, and human competition.

    PubMed

    Casto, Kathleen V; Edwards, David A

    2016-06-01

    Testosterone and cortisol figure prominently in the research literature having to do with human competition. In this review, we track the history of this literature, concentrating particularly on major theoretical and empirical contributions, and provide commentary on what we see as important unresolved issues. In men and women, athletic competition is typically associated with an increase in testosterone (T) and cortisol (C). Hormone changes in response to non-athletic competition are less predictable. Person (e.g., power motivation, mood, aggressiveness, social anxiety, sex, and baseline levels of T and C) and context (e.g., whether a competition is won or lost, the closeness of the competition, whether the outcome is perceived as being influenced by ability vs. chance, provocations) factors can influence hormone responses to competition. From early on, studies pointed to a positive relationship between T and dominance motivation/status striving. Recent research, however, suggests that this relationship only holds for individuals with low levels of C - this is the core idea of the dual-hormone hypothesis, and it is certain that the broadest applications of the hypothesis have not yet been realized. Individuals differ with respect to the extent to which they embrace competition, but the hormonal correlates of competitiveness remain largely unexplored. Although rapid increases in both T and C associated with competition are likely adaptive, we still know very little about the psychological benefits of these hormonal changes. Administration studies have and will continue to contribute to this inquiry. We close with a discussion of what, we think, are important methodological and mechanistic issues for future research.

  7. Testosterone, cortisol, and human competition.

    PubMed

    Casto, Kathleen V; Edwards, David A

    2016-06-01

    Testosterone and cortisol figure prominently in the research literature having to do with human competition. In this review, we track the history of this literature, concentrating particularly on major theoretical and empirical contributions, and provide commentary on what we see as important unresolved issues. In men and women, athletic competition is typically associated with an increase in testosterone (T) and cortisol (C). Hormone changes in response to non-athletic competition are less predictable. Person (e.g., power motivation, mood, aggressiveness, social anxiety, sex, and baseline levels of T and C) and context (e.g., whether a competition is won or lost, the closeness of the competition, whether the outcome is perceived as being influenced by ability vs. chance, provocations) factors can influence hormone responses to competition. From early on, studies pointed to a positive relationship between T and dominance motivation/status striving. Recent research, however, suggests that this relationship only holds for individuals with low levels of C - this is the core idea of the dual-hormone hypothesis, and it is certain that the broadest applications of the hypothesis have not yet been realized. Individuals differ with respect to the extent to which they embrace competition, but the hormonal correlates of competitiveness remain largely unexplored. Although rapid increases in both T and C associated with competition are likely adaptive, we still know very little about the psychological benefits of these hormonal changes. Administration studies have and will continue to contribute to this inquiry. We close with a discussion of what, we think, are important methodological and mechanistic issues for future research. PMID:27103058

  8. The onset of cortisol synthesis and the stress response is independent of changes in CYP11B or CYP21 mRNA levels in larval red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus).

    PubMed

    Applebaum, Scott L; Wilson, C Alexander; Holt, G Joan; Nunez, B Scott

    2010-01-15

    Although cortisol plays an important role in teleost development, the onset of cortisol production and the cortisol stress response in teleosts remain poorly understood. Here we have reported basal cortisol levels and the development of the cortisol stress response in larval red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus). We isolated partial nucleic acid sequences encoding two key corticosteroidogenic enzymes, CYP11B and CYP21 and assessed ontogenetic patterns of their mRNA levels relative to basal and stress-induced cortisol production. Basal cortisol was first detected 3 days post-hatch (DPH) and reached a maximum at 9 DPH. Cortisol did not increase in response to an acute stressor prior to 6 DPH. From 6 DPH forward, stress caused significant increases in larval cortisol content. Stress-induced cortisol levels in 6-9 DPH larvae were highest 1h post-stress. In larvae 11 DPH and older, the highest cortisol measurements occurred 0.5h post-stress. Elevated cortisol was still evident after 3h in 6 DPH larvae. From 11 DPH onward, basal cortisol levels were reestablished in larvae by 1h post-stress. CYP11B and CYP21 transcripts were detected in red drum 12h prior to hatching and in all post-hatch larvae examined. Changes in CYP11B and CYP21 mRNA levels did not occur in association with the ontogenetic appearance of cortisol, or the onset of the stress response. As larvae developed, the dynamics of the cortisol stress response matured from a low magnitude, slow recovery response, to a response similar to that observed in juvenile and adult fish. PMID:19595692

  9. Effect of cortisol and/or DHEA on THP1-derived macrophages infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Bongiovanni, Bettina; Mata-Espinosa, Dulce; D'Attilio, Luciano; Leon-Contreras, Juan Carlos; Marquez-Velasco, Ricardo; Bottasso, Oscar; Hernandez-Pando, Rogelio; Bay, María Luisa

    2015-09-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is a major health problem requiring an appropriate cell immune response to be controlled. Macrophages play a central role in the response against Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb). Given our prior studies in which adrenal steroids were found to modify the cellular immune responses from TB patients, it was sensible to analyze the immunomodulatory capability of cortisol and DHEA on macrophages infected with Mtb. The human macrophage-like THP-1 cells were infected with the H37Rv strain of Mtb and treated with Cortisol and DHEA at different doses. We monitored phagocytosis, intracellular-bacterial growth, autophagosoma formation, as well as cytokine gene expression and production. Cultures exposed to cortisol showed a decreased production of IL-1β, TNF-α, with DHEA being unable to modify the pattern of cytokine production or to reverse the cortisol inhibitory effects. Interestingly the intra-macrophagic bacterial burden was found reduced by DHEA treatment. While this effect was not related to a different cytokine pattern, in terms their production or mRNA expression, DHEA treatment did promote autophagy in Mtb-infected macrophages, irrespective of Cortisol presence. In essence, the better control of Mtb load by DHEA-treated macrophages seems to be dependent on an autophagic mechanism. The present results are relevant for two reasons as autophagy is not only important for clearance of mycobacteria but also for the prevention of tissue damage.

  10. Breastfeeding, Bed-Sharing, and Maternal Cortisol.

    PubMed

    Simon, Clarissa D; Adam, Emma K; McKinney, Chelsea O; Krohn, Julie B; Shalowitz, Madeleine U

    2016-05-01

    Prior studies have found that close mother-child sleep proximity helps increase rates of breastfeeding, and breastfeeding itself is linked to better maternal and infant health. In this study, we examine whether breastfeeding and infant bed-sharing are related to daily rhythms of the stress-responsive hormone cortisol. We found that bed-sharing was related to flatter diurnal cortisol slopes, and there was a marginal effect for breastfeeding to predict steeper cortisol slopes. Furthermore, mothers who breastfeed but do not bed-share had the steepest diurnal cortisol slopes, whereas mothers who bed-shared and did not breastfeed had the flattest slopes (P < .05). These results were significant after controlling for subjective sleep quality, perceived stress, depression, socioeconomic status, race, and maternal age. Findings from this study indicate that infant parenting choices recommended for infants (breastfeeding and separate sleep surfaces for babies) may also be associated with more optimal stress hormone profiles for mothers. PMID:26330120

  11. Zinc oxide nanostructures for electrochemical cortisol biosensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vabbina, Phani Kiran; Kaushik, Ajeet; Tracy, Kathryn; Bhansali, Shekhar; Pala, Nezih

    2014-05-01

    In this paper, we report on fabrication of a label free, highly sensitive and selective electrochemical cortisol immunosensors using one dimensional (1D) ZnO nanorods (ZnO-NRs) and two dimensional nanoflakes (ZnO-NFs) as immobilizing matrix. The synthesized ZnO nanostructures (NSs) were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), selective area diffraction (SAED) and photoluminescence spectra (PL) which showed that both ZnO-NRs and ZnO-NFs are single crystalline and oriented in [0001] direction. Anti-cortisol antibody (Anti-Cab) are used as primary capture antibodies to detect cortisol using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The charge transfer resistance increases linearly with increase in cortisol concentration and exhibits a sensitivity of 3.078 KΩ. M-1 for ZnO-NRs and 540 Ω. M -1 for ZnO-NFs. The developed ZnO-NSs based immunosensor is capable of detecting cortisol at 1 pM. The observed sensing parameters are in physiological range. The developed sensors can be integrated with microfluidic system and miniaturized potentiostat to detect cortisol at point-of-care.

  12. Mechanisms of cortisol action in fish hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Faught, Erin; Vijayan, Mathilakath M

    2016-09-01

    Here we provide an overview of the mechanistic characterization of the hepatic action of cortisol during stress in fish. Cortisol is the main circulating glucocorticoid in fish and its action is mediated through its cytosolic receptor, the glucocorticoid receptor (GR), and regulates the expression of genes involved in growth, metabolism and immune function. When taken together, the data suggests that cortisol may be playing a key role in the energy substrate re-partitioning in hepatocytes to cope with stress. The proposed model is that cortisol upregulates pathways involved in energy substrate mobilization, including gluconeogenesis, while downregulating energy demanding pathways, including growth and immune function. Recent work also points to a role for cortisol in mediating rapid action that is non-genomic and includes modulation of secondary signalling cascades; however, the physiological relevance of these studies remains to be determined. Altogether, studies carried out in hepatocytes are bringing to fore the complex nature of the cortisol signalling pathways in the organismal stress response. The mode of actions and their physiological implications for stress coping awaits further study. PMID:27445122

  13. Unstimulated cortisol secretory activity in everyday life and its relationship with fatigue and chronic fatigue syndrome: a systematic review and subset meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Powell, Daniel J H; Liossi, Christina; Moss-Morris, Rona; Schlotz, Wolff

    2013-11-01

    The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is a psychoneuroendocrine regulator of the stress response and immune system, and dysfunctions have been associated with outcomes in several physical health conditions. Its end product, cortisol, is relevant to fatigue due to its role in energy metabolism. The systematic review examined the relationship between different markers of unstimulated salivary cortisol activity in everyday life in chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) and fatigue assessed in other clinical and general populations. Search terms for the review related to salivary cortisol assessments, everyday life contexts, and fatigue. All eligible studies (n=19) were reviewed narratively in terms of associations between fatigue and assessed cortisol markers, including the cortisol awakening response (CAR), circadian profile (CP) output, and diurnal cortisol slope (DCS). Subset meta-analyses were conducted of case-control CFS studies examining group differences in three cortisol outcomes: CAR output; CAR increase; and CP output. Meta-analyses revealed an attenuation of the CAR increase within CFS compared to controls (d=-.34) but no statistically significant differences between groups for other markers. In the narrative review, total cortisol output (CAR or CP) was rarely associated with fatigue in any population; CAR increase and DCS were most relevant. Outcomes reflecting within-day change in cortisol levels (CAR increase; DCS) may be the most relevant to fatigue experience, and future research in this area should report at least one such marker. Results should be considered with caution due to heterogeneity in one meta-analysis and the small number of studies.

  14. Racial and ethnic differences in diurnal cortisol rhythms in preadolescents: the role of parental psychosocial risk and monitoring.

    PubMed

    Martin, Christina Gamache; Bruce, Jacqueline; Fisher, Philip A

    2012-05-01

    Racial/ethnic minorities experience persistent health disparities due in part to their exposure to chronic SES and psychosocial risk. The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and its hormonal end product, cortisol, are believed to mediate the associations between chronic stress and poor health. In this study, racial/ethnic differences in diurnal salivary cortisol rhythms in 179 preadolescent youths and the contributing roles of SES risk, psychosocial risk, perceived discrimination, harsh parenting, and parental monitoring were examined. The analyses revealed racial/ethnic differences in diurnal cortisol rhythms, with African Americans having significantly flatter morning-to-evening cortisol slopes than Caucasians and with Latinos having significantly lower evening cortisol levels than Caucasians. Greater psychosocial risk and less parental monitoring were associated with flatter cortisol slopes. Racial/ethnic differences on the cortisol measures persisted when controlling for SES, psychosocial risk, and parenting quality. The need to assess chronic risk across the lifespan and disentangle possible genetic from environmental contributors is discussed. PMID:22414445

  15. Summary cortisol reactivity indicators: Interrelations and meaning

    PubMed Central

    Khoury, Jennifer E.; Gonzalez, Andrea; Levitan, Robert D.; Pruessner, Jens C.; Chopra, Kevin; Basile, Vincenzo Santo; Masellis, Mario; Goodwill, Alasdair; Atkinson, Leslie

    2015-01-01

    Research on the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis has involved a proliferation of cortisol indices. We surveyed recently published HPA-related articles and identified 15 such indices. We sought to clarify their biometric properties, specifically, how they interrelate and what they mean, because such information is rarely offered in the articles themselves. In the present article, the primary samples consist of community mothers and their infants (N = 297), who participated in two challenges, the Toy Frustration Paradigm and the Strange Situation Procedure. We sought to cross-validate findings from each of these samples against the other, and also against a clinically depressed sample (N = 48) and a sample of healthy older adults (N = 51) who participated in the Trier Social Stress Test. Cortisol was collected from all participants once before and twice after the challenges. These heterogenous samples were chosen to obtain the greatest possible range in cortisol levels and stress response regulation. Using these data, we computed the 15 summary cortisol indices identified in our literature survey. We assessed inter-relations amongst indices and determined their underlying dimensions via principal component analysis (PCA). The PCAs consistently extracted two components, accounting for 79%–93% of the variance. These components represent “total cortisol production” and “change in cortisol levels.” The components were highly congruent across challenge, time, and sample. High variable loadings and explained factor variance suggest that all indices represent their underlying dimensions very well. Thus the abundance of summary cortisol indices currently represented in the literature appears superfluous. PMID:26844238

  16. Acute stress, memory, attention and cortisol.

    PubMed

    Vedhara, K; Hyde, J; Gilchrist, I D; Tytherleigh, M; Plummer, S

    2000-08-01

    An investigation was conducted to explore the relationship between acute changes in cortisol and memory and attention in the context of an acute naturalistic stressor, namely, examination stress. Sixty students (36 male, 24 female) participated in an assessment of self-reported levels of stress, salivary cortisol, short term memory, selective and divided attention and auditory verbal working memory. Assessments were conducted during a non-exam and exam period. The results revealed that the exam period was associated with an increase in perceived levels of stress, but also a significant reduction in levels of salivary cortisol, compared with the non-exam period. This reduction in cortisol was associated with enhanced short-term memory (as measured by the total number of words recalled in a free recall task), impaired attention and an impairment in the primacy effect (a hippocampal-specific index of short term memory), but no significant effects on auditory verbal working memory. It was concluded that the results support the view that cortisol can modulate cognitive processes and that the effects of corticosteroids on cognitive function are selective.

  17. A single nucleotide polymorphism in the corticotropin receptor gene is associated with a blunted cortisol response during pediatric critical illness

    PubMed Central

    Jardine, David; Emond, Mary; Meert, Kathleen L.; Harrison, Rick; Carcillo, Joseph A.; Anand, Kanwaljeet J. S.; Berger, John; Newth, Christopher J. L.; Willson, Douglas F.; Nicholson, Carol; Dean, J. Michael; Zimmerman, Jerry J.

    2016-01-01

    Objective The cortisol response during critical illness varies widely among patients. Our objective was to examine single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in candidate genes regulating cortisol synthesis, metabolism, and activity to determine if genetic differences were associated with variability in the cortisol response among critically ill children. Design This was a prospective observational study employing tag SNP methodology to examine genetic contributions to the variability of the cortisol response in critical illness. Thirty-one candidate genes and 31 ancestry markers were examined. Setting Patients were enrolled from 7 pediatric critical care units that constitute the Eunice Kennedy Shriver Collaborative Pediatric Critical Care Research Network. Subjects Critically ill children (n=92), ages 40 weeks gestation to 18 years of age were enrolled. Interventions Blood samples were obtained from all patients for serum cortisol measurements and DNA isolation. Demographic and illness severity data were collected. Measurements and Main Results SNPs were tested for association with serum free cortisol (FC) concentrations in context of higher illness severity as quantified by PRISM III score > 7. A SNP (rs1941088) in the MC2R gene was strongly associated (p =0.0005) with a low FC response to critical illness. Patients with the AA genotype were over seven times more likely to have a low FC response to critical illness than those with a GG genotype. Patients with the GA genotype exhibited an intermediate FC response to critical illness. Conclusions The A allele at rs1941088 in the MC2R gene, that encodes the ACTH (corticotropin) receptor, is associated with a low cortisol response in critically ill children. These data provide evidence for a genetic basis for a portion of the variability in cortisol production during critical illness. Independent replication of these findings will be important and could facilitate development of personalized treatment for patients with

  18. Circulating cortisol levels after exogenous cortisol administration are higher in women using hormonal contraceptives: data from two preliminary studies.

    PubMed

    Gaffey, Allison E; Wirth, Michelle M; Hoks, Roxanne M; Jahn, Allison L; Abercrombie, Heather C

    2014-07-01

    Exogenous cortisol administration has been used to test the influence of glucocorticoids on a variety of outcomes, including memory and affect. Careful control of factors known to influence cortisol and other endogenous hormone levels is central to the success of this research. While the use of hormonal birth control (HBC) is known to exert many physiological effects, including decreasing the salivary cortisol response to stress, it is unknown how HBC influences circulating cortisol levels after exogenous cortisol administration. To determine those effects, we examined the role of HBC on participants' cortisol levels after receiving synthetic cortisol (hydrocortisone) in two separate studies. In Study 1, 24 healthy women taking HBC and 26 healthy men were administered a 0.1 mg/kg body weight intravenous dose of hydrocortisone, and plasma cortisol levels were measured over 3 h. In Study 2, 61 participants (34 women; 16 were on HBC) received a 15 mg hydrocortisone pill, and salivary cortisol levels were measured over 6 h. Taken together, results from these studies suggest that HBC use is associated with a greater cortisol increase following cortisol administration. These data have important methodological implications: (1) when given a controlled dose of hydrocortisone, cortisol levels may increase more dramatically in women taking HBC versus women not on HBC or men; and (2) in studies manipulating cortisol levels, women on hormonal contraceptives should be investigated as a separate group.

  19. Effects of smoking on ACTH and cortisol secretion

    SciTech Connect

    Seyler, L.E. Jr.; Fertig, J.; Pomerleau, O.; Hunt, D.; Parker, K.

    1984-01-02

    The relationships among changes in plasma nicotine, ACTH, and cortisol secretion after smoking were investigated. Ten male subjects smoked cigarettes containing 2.87 mg nicotine and 0.48 mg nicotine. No rises in cortisol or ACTH were detected after smoking 0.48 mg nicotine cigarettes. Cortisol rises were significant in 11 of 15 instances after smoking 2.87 mg nicotine cigarattes, but ACTH rose significantly in only 5 of the 11 instances where cortisol increased. Each ACTH rise occurred in a subject who reported nausea and was observed to be pale, sweaty, and tachycardic. Peak plasma nicotine concentrations were not significantly different in sessions when cortisol rose with or without ACTH increases, but cortisol increases were significantly greater in nauseated than in non-nauseated smokers. This data suggest that smoking-induced nausea stimulates cortisol release by stimulating ACTH secretion and that cortisol secretion in non-nauseated smokers may occur through a non-ACTH mechanism.

  20. The associations between adolescent sleep, diurnal cortisol patterns and cortisol reactivity to dexamethasone suppression test.

    PubMed

    Pesonen, Anu-Katriina; Martikainen, Silja; Kajantie, Eero; Heinonen, Kati; Wehkalampi, Karoliina; Lahti, Jari; Strandberg, Timo; Räikkönen, Katri

    2014-11-01

    Information on the associations between objectively measured sleep and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis function in early adolescence is scarce. We examined associations between average sleep duration and quality (sleep efficiency and wake after sleep onset) over 8 days with actigraphs and (1) diurnal cortisol patterns and (2) cortisol reactivity to a low-dose (3 μg/kg) overnight dexamethasone suppression test (DST) in a birth cohort born in 1998 (N=265 participants, mean age 12.3 years, SD=0.5). We also explored (3) if sleep duration and quality were affected the nights after the DST exposure. Cortisol was measured during 2 days, and participants were exposed to dexamethasone in the evening of first day. In boys, short sleep duration was associated with higher cortisol upon awakening and lower cortisol awakening response (CAR; P<0.05 and P<0.01). Long sleep duration in boys associated with higher CAR (P<0.02). Lower sleep quality in boys associated with lower CAR, but fell slightly short of significance (P<0.06). In girls, no significant associations were detected. Sleep quantity and quality were not associated with responses to the DST. There were no effects of DST on sleep (P>0.15 in between-subject analyses). The average sleep patterns showed associations with diurnal cortisol patterns during early adolescence, but only in boys. Sleep was not associated with cortisol reactivity to DST and the exogenous corticosteroid exposure did not affect sleep significantly.

  1. Phosphorylation of STAT3 mediates the induction of cyclooxygenase-2 by cortisol in the human amnion at parturition.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wangsheng; Guo, Chunming; Zhu, Ping; Lu, Jiangwen; Li, Wenjiao; Liu, Chao; Xie, Huiliang; Myatt, Leslie; Chen, Zi-Jiang; Sun, Kang

    2015-10-27

    The induction of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and subsequent production of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) by cortisol in the amnion contrast with the effect of cortisol on most other tissues, but this proinflammatory effect of cortisol may be a key event in human parturition (labor). We evaluated the underlying mechanism activated by cortisol in primary human amnion fibroblasts. Exposure of the amnion fibroblasts to cortisol led to the activation of the cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP)-protein kinase A (PKA) pathway, which induced the phosphorylation of the kinase SRC and STAT3 (signal transducer and activator of transcription 3). STAT3 interacted with the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) and the transcription factor CREB-1 (cAMP response element-binding protein 1) at the promoter of the gene encoding COX-2, which promoted the production of the secreted prostaglandin PGE2. PGE2 activates the prostaglandin receptors EP2 and EP4, which stimulate cAMP-PKA signaling. Thus, cortisol reinforced the activation of cAMP-PKA signaling through an SRC-STAT3-COX-2-PGE2-mediated feedback loop. Inhibiting STAT3, SRC, or the cAMP-PKA pathway attenuated the cortisol-stimulated induction of COX-2 and PGE2 production in amnion fibroblasts. In human amnion tissue, the amount of phosphorylated STAT3 correlated positively with that of cortisol, COX-2, and PGE2, and all were more abundant in tissue obtained after active labor than in tissue obtained from cesarean surgeries in the absence of labor. These results indicated that the coordinated recruitment of STAT3, CREB-1, and GR to the promoter of the gene encoding COX-2 contributes to the feed-forward induction of COX-2 activity and prostaglandin synthesis in the amnion during parturition.

  2. Renin, cortisol, and aldosterone during transcendental meditation.

    PubMed

    Michaels, R R; Parra, J; McCann, D S; Vander, A J

    1979-02-01

    The effects of transcendental meditation (TM) on plasma renin activity (PRA) and plasma concentrations of aldosterone, cortisol, and lactate were studied by measuring these variables before, during, and after 20--30 min of meditation. Subjects, who rested quietly rather than meditating, served as controls. There were no differences in the basal values for these variables between meditators and controls, but controls, in contrast to meditators, showed a significant increase in cortisol between the first (A) and second (B) samples of the control period. PRA increased slightly (14%) but significantly (p less than 0.03) during TM, but not during quiet rest in controls. Cortisol decreased progressively (after sample B) throughout the experiment to the same degree in both groups. Aldosterone and lactate did not change. The data do not support the hypothesis that TM induces a unique state characterized by decreased sympathetic activity or release from stress, but do suggest that meditators may be less responsive to an acute stress.

  3. Children's Context Inappropriate Anger and Salivary Cortisol

    PubMed Central

    Locke, Robin L.; Davidson, Richard J.; Kalin, Ned H.; Goldsmith, H. Hill

    2009-01-01

    Some children show emotion that is not consistent with normative appraisal of the context and can therefore be defined as context inappropriate (CI). The authors used individual growth curve modeling and hierarchical multiple regression analyses to examine whether CI anger predicts differences in hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity, as manifest in salivary cortisol measures. About 23% of the 360 children (ages 6–10 years, primarily 7–8) showed at least 1 expression of CI anger in situations designed to elicit positive affect. Expression of anger across 2 positive assessments was less common (around 4%). CI anger predicted the hypothesized lower levels of cortisol beyond that attributed to context appropriate anger. Boys' CI anger predicted lower morning cortisol and flatter slopes. Results suggest that this novel approach to studying children's emotion across varying contexts can provide insight into affective style. PMID:19702392

  4. Social regulation of cortisol receptor gene expression

    PubMed Central

    Korzan, Wayne J.; Grone, Brian P.; Fernald, Russell D.

    2014-01-01

    In many social species, individuals influence the reproductive capacity of conspecifics. In a well-studied African cichlid fish species, Astatotilapia burtoni, males are either dominant (D) and reproductively competent or non-dominant (ND) and reproductively suppressed as evidenced by reduced gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH1) release, regressed gonads, lower levels of androgens and elevated levels of cortisol. Here, we asked whether androgen and cortisol levels might regulate this reproductive suppression. Astatotilapia burtoni has four glucocorticoid receptors (GR1a, GR1b, GR2 and MR), encoded by three genes, and two androgen receptors (ARα and ARβ), encoded by two genes. We previously showed that ARα and ARβ are expressed in GnRH1 neurons in the preoptic area (POA), which regulates reproduction, and that the mRNA levels of these receptors are regulated by social status. Here, we show that GR1, GR2 and MR mRNAs are also expressed in GnRH1 neurons in the POA, revealing potential mechanisms for both androgens and cortisol to influence reproductive capacity. We measured AR, MR and GR mRNA expression levels in a microdissected region of the POA containing GnRH1 neurons, comparing D and ND males. Using quantitative PCR (qPCR), we found D males had higher mRNA levels of ARα, MR, total GR1a and GR2 in the POA compared with ND males. In contrast, ND males had significantly higher levels of GR1b mRNA, a receptor subtype with a reduced transcriptional response to cortisol. Through this novel regulation of receptor type, neurons in the POA of an ND male will be less affected by the higher levels of cortisol typical of low status, suggesting GR receptor type change as a potential adaptive mechanism to mediate high cortisol levels during social suppression. PMID:25013108

  5. Child Diurnal Cortisol Rhythms, Parenting Quality, and Externalizing Behaviors in Preadolescence

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Christina Gamache; Kim, Hyoun K.; Bruce, Jacqueline; Fisher, Philip A.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined a neurobiologically–informed model of the emergence of child externalizing behaviors in an ethnically diverse community sample of 232 9–12 year old children. Replicating extensive prior research, our analyses revealed that parents’ inconsistent discipline and poor quality monitoring were predictive of child externalizing behavior. In addition, poor parental monitoring, but not inconsistent discipline, was associated with children having a significantly flatter morning–to–evening cortisol slope, which was in turn, related to higher levels of externalizing behaviors. An indirect effect of parental monitoring on externalizing behaviors, through child diurnal cortisol rhythms, was also supported. These findings highlight the role of the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis and its hormonal end product, cortisol, in the relationship between the caregiving environment and the development of externalizing behaviors. PMID:24485489

  6. Photoperiod effects on plasma cortisol levels in Gasterosteus aculeatus.

    PubMed

    Audet, C; FitzGerald, G J; Guderley, H

    1986-01-01

    No diel variations of plasma cortisol levels were found in Gasterosteus aculeatus acclimated to two different photoperiod conditions: 14L:10D and 9L:15D. However, under long photoperiods, G. aculeatus exhibited higher plasma cortisol levels than under short photoperiods, suggesting that elevated plasma cortisol levels are associated with the spring migration and/or reproductive activities. This decrease of plasma cortisol levels is particularly marked in male G. aculeatus. Under the 9L:15D photoperiod, males had lower plasma cortisol levels than females, in contrast to 14L:10D, where no significant sex differences were found. PMID:3940931

  7. Lifetime exposure to traumatic and other stressful life events and hair cortisol in a multi-racial/ethnic sample of pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Schreier, Hannah M C; Enlow, Michelle Bosquet; Ritz, Thomas; Coull, Brent A; Gennings, Chris; Wright, Robert O; Wright, Rosalind J

    2016-01-01

    We examined whether lifetime exposure to stressful and traumatic events alters hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis functioning, as indexed by hair cortisol, regardless of associated psychopathology, among pregnant women of different racial/ethnic backgrounds. 180 women provided hair samples for measurement of integrated cortisol levels throughout pregnancy and information regarding their lifetime exposure to stressful and traumatic life events. Results indicate that increased lifetime exposure to traumatic events was associated with significantly greater hair cortisol over the course of pregnancy. Similarly, greater lifetime exposure to stressful and traumatic events weighted by reported negative impact (over the previous 12 months) was associated with significantly greater hair cortisol during pregnancy. All analyses controlled for maternal age, education, body mass index (BMI), use of inhaled corticosteroids, race/ethnicity, and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depressive symptoms. Following stratification by race/ethnicity, associations between stressful and traumatic life events and hair cortisol were found among Black women only. This is the first study to consider associations between lifetime stress exposures and hair cortisol in a sociodemographically diverse sample of pregnant women. Increased exposure to stressful and traumatic events, independent of PTSD and depressive symptoms, was associated with higher cortisol production, particularly in Black women. Future research should investigate the influence of such increased cortisol exposure on developmental outcomes among offspring. PMID:26551892

  8. Lifetime exposure to traumatic and other stressful life events and hair cortisol in a multi-racial/ethnic sample of pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Schreier, Hannah M C; Enlow, Michelle Bosquet; Ritz, Thomas; Coull, Brent A; Gennings, Chris; Wright, Robert O; Wright, Rosalind J

    2016-01-01

    We examined whether lifetime exposure to stressful and traumatic events alters hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis functioning, as indexed by hair cortisol, regardless of associated psychopathology, among pregnant women of different racial/ethnic backgrounds. 180 women provided hair samples for measurement of integrated cortisol levels throughout pregnancy and information regarding their lifetime exposure to stressful and traumatic life events. Results indicate that increased lifetime exposure to traumatic events was associated with significantly greater hair cortisol over the course of pregnancy. Similarly, greater lifetime exposure to stressful and traumatic events weighted by reported negative impact (over the previous 12 months) was associated with significantly greater hair cortisol during pregnancy. All analyses controlled for maternal age, education, body mass index (BMI), use of inhaled corticosteroids, race/ethnicity, and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depressive symptoms. Following stratification by race/ethnicity, associations between stressful and traumatic life events and hair cortisol were found among Black women only. This is the first study to consider associations between lifetime stress exposures and hair cortisol in a sociodemographically diverse sample of pregnant women. Increased exposure to stressful and traumatic events, independent of PTSD and depressive symptoms, was associated with higher cortisol production, particularly in Black women. Future research should investigate the influence of such increased cortisol exposure on developmental outcomes among offspring.

  9. Nocturnal cortisol release in relation to sleep structure.

    PubMed

    Follenius, M; Brandenberger, G; Bandesapt, J J; Libert, J P; Ehrhart, J

    1992-02-01

    The relationship between the temporal organization of cortisol secretion and sleep structure is controversial. To determine whether the cortisol profile is modified by 4 hours of sleep deprivation, which shifts slow-wave sleep (SWS) episodes, 12 normal men were studied during a reference night, a sleep deprivation night and a recovery night. Plasma cortisol was measured in 10-minute blood samples. Analysis of the nocturnal cortisol profiles and the concomitant patterns of sleep stage distribution indicates that the cortisol profile is not influenced by sleep deprivation. Neither the starting time of the cortisol increase nor the mean number and amplitude of pulses was significantly different between the three nights. SWS episodes were significantly associated with declining plasma cortisol levels (p less than 0.01). This was especially revealed after sleep deprivation, as SWS episodes were particularly present during the second half of the night, a period of enhanced cortisol secretion. In 73% of cases, rapid eye movement sleep phases started when cortisol was reflecting diminished adrenocortical activity. Cortisol increases were not concomitant with a specific sleep stage but generally accompanied prolonged waking periods. These findings tend to imply that cortisol-releasing mechanisms may be involved in the regulation of sleep.

  10. Predicting first onset of depression in young girls: Interaction of diurnal cortisol and negative life events.

    PubMed

    LeMoult, Joelle; Ordaz, Sarah J; Kircanski, Katharina; Singh, Manpreet K; Gotlib, Ian H

    2015-11-01

    Interactions between biological vulnerability and environmental adversity are central to the pathophysiology of depression. Given evidence that the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis influences biological responses to environmental events, in the current longitudinal study the authors examined HPA-axis functioning, negative life events, and their interaction as predictors of the first onset of depression. At baseline, girls ages 9 to 14 years provided saliva samples to assess levels of diurnal cortisol production, quantified by total cortisol production (area under the curve with respect to ground; AUCg) and the cortisol awakening response (CAR). The authors then followed these participants until they reached age 18 in order to assess their subsequent experience of negative life events and the onset of a depressive episode. They found that the influence of negative life events on the subsequent onset of depression depended on HPA-axis functioning at baseline. Specifically, negative life events predicted the onset of depression in girls with higher levels of AUCg, but not in girls with lower levels of AUCg. In contrast, CAR did not predict the onset of depression either alone or in interaction with negative life events. These findings suggest that elevated total cortisol production in daily life potentiates susceptibility to environmental adversity and signals the need for early intervention. PMID:26595472

  11. Predicting First Onset of Depression in Young Girls: Interaction of Diurnal Cortisol and Negative Life Events

    PubMed Central

    LeMoult, Joelle; Ordaz, Sarah J.; Kircanski, Katharina; Singh, Manpreet K.; Gotlib, Ian H.

    2015-01-01

    Interactions between biological vulnerability and environmental adversity are central to the pathophysiology of depression. Given evidence that the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis influences biological responses to environmental events, in the current longitudinal study we examined HPA-axis functioning, negative life events, and their interaction as predictors of the first onset of depression. At baseline, girls ages 9 to 14 years provided saliva samples to assess levels of diurnal cortisol production, quantified by total cortisol production (area under the curve with respect to ground; AUCg) and the cortisol awakening response (CAR). We then followed these participants until they reached age 18 in order to assess their subsequent experience of negative life events and the onset of a depressive episode. We found that the influence of negative life events on the subsequent onset of depression depended on HPA-axis functioning at baseline. Specifically, negative life events predicted the onset of depression in girls with higher levels AUCg, but not in girls with lower levels of AUCg. In contrast, CAR did not predict the onset of depression either alone or in interaction with negative life events. These findings suggest that elevated total cortisol production in daily life potentiates susceptibility to environmental adversity and signals the need for early intervention. PMID:26595472

  12. The cortisol response to ACTH in pigs, heritability and influence of corticosteroid-binding globulin.

    PubMed

    Larzul, C; Terenina, E; Foury, A; Billon, Y; Louveau, I; Merlot, E; Mormede, P

    2015-12-01

    In the search for biological basis of robustness, this study aimed (i) at the determination of the heritability of the cortisol response to ACTH in juvenile pigs, using restricted maximum likelihood methodology applied to a multiple trait animal model, and (ii) at the study of the relationships between basal and stimulated cortisol levels with corticosteroid-binding globulin (CBG), IGF-I and haptoglobin, all important players in glucose metabolism and production traits. At 6 weeks of age, 298 intact male and female piglets from 30 litters (30 dams and 30 boars) were injected with 250 µg ACTH(1-24) (Synacthen). Blood was taken before ACTH injection to measure basal levels of cortisol, glucose, CBG, IGF-I and haptoglobin, and 60 min later to measure stimulated cortisol levels and glucose. Cortisol increased 2.8-fold after ACTH injection, with a high correlation between basal and stimulated levels (phenotypic correlation, r p=0.539; genetic correlation, r g=0.938). Post-ACTH cortisol levels were highly heritable (h 2=0.684) and could therefore be used for genetic selection of animals with a more reactive hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis. CBG binding capacity correlated with cortisol levels measured in basal conditions in males only. No correlation was found between CBG binding capacity and post-ACTH cortisol levels. Basal IGF-I concentration was positively correlated with BW at birth and weaning, and showed a high correlation with CBG binding capacity with a strong sexual dimorphism, the correlation being much higher in males than in females. Basal haptoglobin concentrations were negatively correlated with CBG binding capacity and IGF-I concentrations. Complex relationships were also found between circulating glucose levels and these different variables that have been shown to be related to glucose resistance in humans. These data are therefore valuable for the genetic selection of animals to explore the consequences on production and robustness traits, but

  13. The cortisol response to ACTH in pigs, heritability and influence of corticosteroid-binding globulin.

    PubMed

    Larzul, C; Terenina, E; Foury, A; Billon, Y; Louveau, I; Merlot, E; Mormede, P

    2015-12-01

    In the search for biological basis of robustness, this study aimed (i) at the determination of the heritability of the cortisol response to ACTH in juvenile pigs, using restricted maximum likelihood methodology applied to a multiple trait animal model, and (ii) at the study of the relationships between basal and stimulated cortisol levels with corticosteroid-binding globulin (CBG), IGF-I and haptoglobin, all important players in glucose metabolism and production traits. At 6 weeks of age, 298 intact male and female piglets from 30 litters (30 dams and 30 boars) were injected with 250 µg ACTH(1-24) (Synacthen). Blood was taken before ACTH injection to measure basal levels of cortisol, glucose, CBG, IGF-I and haptoglobin, and 60 min later to measure stimulated cortisol levels and glucose. Cortisol increased 2.8-fold after ACTH injection, with a high correlation between basal and stimulated levels (phenotypic correlation, r p=0.539; genetic correlation, r g=0.938). Post-ACTH cortisol levels were highly heritable (h 2=0.684) and could therefore be used for genetic selection of animals with a more reactive hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis. CBG binding capacity correlated with cortisol levels measured in basal conditions in males only. No correlation was found between CBG binding capacity and post-ACTH cortisol levels. Basal IGF-I concentration was positively correlated with BW at birth and weaning, and showed a high correlation with CBG binding capacity with a strong sexual dimorphism, the correlation being much higher in males than in females. Basal haptoglobin concentrations were negatively correlated with CBG binding capacity and IGF-I concentrations. Complex relationships were also found between circulating glucose levels and these different variables that have been shown to be related to glucose resistance in humans. These data are therefore valuable for the genetic selection of animals to explore the consequences on production and robustness traits, but

  14. Flavonoids exhibit diverse effects on CYP11B1 expression and cortisol synthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, Li-Chuan; Li, Lih-Ann

    2012-02-01

    CYP11B1 catalyzes the final step of cortisol biosynthesis. The effects of flavonoids on transcriptional expression and enzyme activity of CYP11B1 were investigated using the human adrenocortical H295R cell model. All tested nonhydroxylated flavones including 3′,4′-dimethoxyflavone, α-naphthoflavone, and β-naphthoflavone upregulated CYP11B1 expression and cortisol production, whereas apigenin and quercetin exhibited potent cytotoxicity and CYP11B1 repression at high concentrations. Nonhydroxylated flavones stimulated CYP11B1-catalyzed cortisol formation at transcriptional level. Resveratrol increased endogenous and substrate-supported cortisol production like nonhydroxylated flavones tested, but it had no effect on CYP11B1 gene expression and enzyme activity. Resveratrol appeared to alter cortisol biosynthesis at an earlier step. The Ad5 element situated in the − 121/− 106 region was required for basal and flavone-induced CYP11B1 expression. Overexpression of COUP-TFI did not improve the responsiveness of Ad5 to nonhydroxylated flavones. Although COUP-TFI overexpression increased CYP11B1 and CYP11B2 promoter activation, its effect was not mediated through the common Ad5 element. Treating cells with PD98059 (a flavone-type MEK1 inhibitor) increased CYP11B1 promoter activity, but not involving ERK signaling because phosphorylation of ERK1/2 remained unvarying throughout the course of treatment. Likewise, AhR was not responsible for the CYP11B1-modulating effects of flavonoids because inconsistency with their effects on AhR activation. 3′,4′-dimethoxyflavone and 8-Br-cAMP additively activated CYP11B1 promoter activity. H-89 reduced 3′,4′-dimethoxyflavone-induced CYP11B1 promoter activation but to a lesser extent as compared to its inhibition on cAMP-induced transactivation. Our data suggest that constant exposure to nonhydroxylated flavones raises a potential risk of high basal and cAMP-induced cortisol synthesis in consequence of increased CYP11B1

  15. Increased cortisol levels in hair of recent Ecstasy/MDMA users.

    PubMed

    Parrott, A C; Sands, H R; Jones, L; Clow, A; Evans, P; Downey, L A; Stalder, T

    2014-03-01

    Previous research has revealed an acute 8-fold increase in salivary cortisol following self-administrated Ecstasy/MDMA in dance clubbers. It is currently not known to what extent repeated usage impacts upon activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis over a more prolonged period of time. This study investigated the integrated cortisol levels in 3-month hair samples from recent Ecstasy/MDMA users and non-user controls. One hundred and one unpaid participants (53 males, 48 females; mean age 21.75 years) completed the University of East London recreational drug use questionnaire, modified to cover the past 3-months of usage. They comprised 32 light recent Ecstasy/MDMA users (1-4 times in last 3 months), 23 recent heavy MDMA users (+5 times in last 3 months), and 54 non-user controls. Volunteers provided 3 cm hair samples for cortisol analysis. Hair cortisol levels were observed to be significantly higher in recent heavy MDMA users (mean = 55.0 ± 80.1 pg/mg), compared to recent light MDMA users (19.4 ± 16.0 pg/mg; p=0.015), and to non-users (13.8 ± 6.1 pg/mg; p<0.001). Hence the regular use of Ecstasy/MDMA was associated with almost 4-fold raised hair cortisol levels, in comparison with non-user controls. The present results are consistent with the bio-energetic stress model for Ecstasy/MDMA, which predicts that repeated stimulant drug use may increase cortisol production acutely, and result in greater deposits of the hormone in hair. These data may also help explain the neurocognitive, psychiatric, and other psychobiological problems of some abstinent users. Future study design and directions for research concerning the psychoneuroendocrinological impact of MDMA are also discussed.

  16. Cortisol Responses to a Group Public Speaking Task for Adolescents: Variations by Age, Gender, and Race

    PubMed Central

    Hostinar, Camelia E.; McQuillan, Mollie T.; Mirous, Heather J.; Grant, Kathryn E.; Adam, Emma K.

    2014-01-01

    Laboratory social stress tests involving public speaking challenges are widely used for eliciting an acute stress response in older children, adolescents, and adults. Recently, a group protocol for a social stress test (the Trier Social Stress Test for Groups, TSST-G) was shown to be effective in adults and is dramatically less time-consuming and resource-intensive compared to the single-subject version of the task. The present study sought to test the feasibility and effectiveness of an adapted group public speaking task conducted with a racially diverse, urban sample of U.S. adolescents (N = 191; 52.4% female) between the ages of 11 and 18 (M = 14.4 years, SD = 1.93). Analyses revealed that this Group Public Speaking Task for Adolescents (GPST-A) provoked a significant increase in cortisol production (on average, approximately 60% above baseline) and in self-reported negative affect, while at the same time avoiding excessive stress responses that would raise ethical concerns or provoke substantial participant attrition. Approximately 63.4% of participants exhibited an increase in cortisol levels in response to the task, with 59.2% of the total sample showing a 10% or greater increase from baseline. Results also suggested that groups of 5 adolescents might be ideal for achieving more uniform cortisol responses across various serial positions for speech delivery. Basal cortisol levels increased with age and participants belonging to U.S. national minorities tended to have either lower basal cortisol or diminished cortisol reactivity compared to non-Hispanic Whites. This protocol facilitates the recruitment of larger sample sizes compared to prior research and may show great utility in answering new questions about adolescent stress reactivity and development. PMID:25218656

  17. Induction of PGF2α Synthesis by Cortisol Through GR Dependent Induction of CBR1 in Human Amnion Fibroblasts

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Chunming; Wang, Wangsheng; Liu, Chao

    2014-01-01

    Abundant evidence indicates a pivotal role of prostaglandin F2α (PGF2α) in human parturition. Both the fetal and maternal sides of the fetal membranes synthesize PGF2α. In addition to the synthesis of PGF2α from PGH2 by PGF synthase (PGFS), PGF2α can also be converted from PGE2 by carbonyl reductase 1 (CBR1). Here, we showed that there was concurrent increased production of cortisol and PGF2α in association with the elevation of CBR1 in human amnion obtained at term with labor versus term without labor. In cultured primary human amnion fibroblasts, cortisol (0.01–1μM) increased PGF2α production in a concentration-dependent manner, in parallel with elevation of CBR1 levels. Either siRNA-mediated knockdown of glucocorticoid receptor (GR) expression or GR antagonist RU486 attenuated the induction of CBR1 by cortisol. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) showed an increased enrichment of both GR and RNA polymerase II to CBR1 promoter. Knockdown of CBR1 expression with siRNA or inhibition of CBR1 activity with rutin decreased both basal and cortisol-stimulated PGF2α production in human amnion fibroblasts. In conclusion, CBR1 may play a critical role in PGF2α synthesis in human amnion fibroblasts, and cortisol promotes the conversion of PGE2 into PGF2α via GR-mediated induction of CBR1 in human amnion fibroblasts. This stimulatory effect of cortisol on CBR1 expression may partly explain the concurrent increases of cortisol and PGF2α in human amnion tissue with labor, and these findings may account for the increased production of PGF2α in the fetal membranes prior to the onset of labor. PMID:24654784

  18. Cortisol-dependent stress effects on cell distribution in healthy individuals and individuals suffering from chronic adrenal insufficiency.

    PubMed

    Geiger, Ashley M; Pitts, Kenneth P; Feldkamp, Joachim; Kirschbaum, Clemens; Wolf, Jutta M

    2015-11-01

    Chronic adrenal insufficiency (CAI) is characterized by a lack of glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid production due to destroyed adrenal cortex cells. However, elevated cortisol secretion is thought to be a central part in a well-orchestrated immune response to stress. This raises the question to what extent lack of cortisol in CAI affects stress-related changes in immune processes. To address this question, 28 CAI patients (20 females) and 18 healthy individuals (11 females) (age: 44.3 ± 8.4 years) were exposed to a psychosocial stress test (Trier Social Stress Test: TSST). Half the patients received a 0.03 mg/kg body weight injection of hydrocortisone (HC) post-TSST to mimic a healthy cortisol stress response. Catecholamines and immune cell composition were assessed in peripheral blood and free cortisol measured in saliva collected before and repeatedly after TSST. CAI patients showed norepinephrine (NE) stress responses similar to healthy participants, however, epinephrine (E) as well as cortisol levels were significantly lower. HC treatment post-TSST resulted in cortisol increases comparable to those observed in healthy participants (interaction effects--NE: F=1.05, p=.41; E: F=2.56, p=.045; cortisol: F=13.28, p<.001). Healthy individuals showed the expected pattern of stress-related early lymphocyte increase with subsequent decrease below baseline. The opposite pattern was observed in granulocytes. While exhibiting a similar initial increase, lymphocytes kept increasing over the following 2h in untreated patients. HC treatment buffered this effect (interaction effects--lymphocyte%: F=7.31, p<.001; granulocyte%: F=7.71, p<.001). Using CAI in humans as a model confirms cortisol's central involvement in post-stress lymphocyte migration from blood into immune-relevant body compartments. As such, future studies should investigate whether psychosocial stress exposure may put CAI patients at an increased health risk due to attenuated immune responses to pathogens.

  19. Relation of inflammation and liver function with the plasma cortisol response to adrenocorticotropin in early lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Trevisi, E; Bertoni, G; Lombardelli, R; Minuti, A

    2013-09-01

    cortisol-binding globulin synthetized by the liver, but other mechanisms can be involved (e.g., rate of cortisol production, secretion, and metabolic clearance). Our data provide evidence that inflammation and metabolic changes reduce the concentration of circulating plasma cortisol during an acute stress. Hence, the acute phase response in dairy cows should be taken into account to interpret the results obtained from stimulation tests of the adrenal cortex.

  20. Stronger pharmacological cortisol suppression and anticipatory cortisol stress response in transient global amnesia.

    PubMed

    Griebe, Martin; Nees, Frauke; Gerber, Benjamin; Ebert, Anne; Flor, Herta; Wolf, Oliver T; Gass, Achim; Hennerici, Michael G; Szabo, Kristina

    2015-01-01

    Transient global amnesia (TGA) is a disorder characterized by a sudden attack of severe anterograde memory disturbance that is frequently preceded by emotional or physical stress and resolves within 24 h. By using MRI following the acute episode in TGA patients, small lesions in the hippocampus have been observed. Hence, it has been hypothesized that the disorder is caused by a stress-related transient inhibition of memory formation in the hippocampus. To study the factors that may link stress and TGA, we measured the cortisol day-profile, the dexamethasone feedback inhibition and the effect of experimental exposure to stress on cortisol levels (using the socially evaluated cold pressor test and a control procedure) in 20 patients with a recent history of TGA and in 20 healthy controls. We used self-report scales of depression, anxiety and stress, and a detailed neuropsychological assessment to characterize our collective. We did not observe differences in mean cortisol levels in the cortisol day-profile between the two groups. After administration of low-dose dexamethasone, TGA patients showed significantly stronger cortisol suppression in the daytime profile compared to the control group (p = 0.027). The mean salivary cortisol level was significantly higher in the TGA group prior to and after the experimental stress exposure (p = 0.008 and 0.010 respectively), as well as prior to and after the control condition (p = 0.022 and 0.024, respectively). The TGA group had higher scores of depressive symptomatology (p = 0.021) and anxiety (p = 0.007), but the groups did not differ in the neuropsychological assessment. Our findings of a stronger pharmacological suppression and higher cortisol levels in anticipation of experimental stress in participants with a previous TGA indicate a hypersensitivity of the HPA axis. This suggests that an individual stress sensitivity might play a role in the pathophysiology of TGA. PMID:25805980

  1. Stronger pharmacological cortisol suppression and anticipatory cortisol stress response in transient global amnesia.

    PubMed

    Griebe, Martin; Nees, Frauke; Gerber, Benjamin; Ebert, Anne; Flor, Herta; Wolf, Oliver T; Gass, Achim; Hennerici, Michael G; Szabo, Kristina

    2015-01-01

    Transient global amnesia (TGA) is a disorder characterized by a sudden attack of severe anterograde memory disturbance that is frequently preceded by emotional or physical stress and resolves within 24 h. By using MRI following the acute episode in TGA patients, small lesions in the hippocampus have been observed. Hence, it has been hypothesized that the disorder is caused by a stress-related transient inhibition of memory formation in the hippocampus. To study the factors that may link stress and TGA, we measured the cortisol day-profile, the dexamethasone feedback inhibition and the effect of experimental exposure to stress on cortisol levels (using the socially evaluated cold pressor test and a control procedure) in 20 patients with a recent history of TGA and in 20 healthy controls. We used self-report scales of depression, anxiety and stress, and a detailed neuropsychological assessment to characterize our collective. We did not observe differences in mean cortisol levels in the cortisol day-profile between the two groups. After administration of low-dose dexamethasone, TGA patients showed significantly stronger cortisol suppression in the daytime profile compared to the control group (p = 0.027). The mean salivary cortisol level was significantly higher in the TGA group prior to and after the experimental stress exposure (p = 0.008 and 0.010 respectively), as well as prior to and after the control condition (p = 0.022 and 0.024, respectively). The TGA group had higher scores of depressive symptomatology (p = 0.021) and anxiety (p = 0.007), but the groups did not differ in the neuropsychological assessment. Our findings of a stronger pharmacological suppression and higher cortisol levels in anticipation of experimental stress in participants with a previous TGA indicate a hypersensitivity of the HPA axis. This suggests that an individual stress sensitivity might play a role in the pathophysiology of TGA.

  2. Cortisol elimination from plasma in premenopausal women with rheumatoid arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Rovensky, J; Imrich, R; Koska, J; Kovalancik, M; Killinger, Z; Payer, J; Vigas, M; Jezova, D

    2003-01-01

    Methods: Twelve premenopausal female patients with RA (39.8 (1.8) years) and nine healthy control women matched for age and body mass index (42 (3.3) years) were enrolled in the study. None of the patients had previously been receiving treatment with glucocorticoids. After dexamethasone suppression (2 mg by mouth) the evening before the study, 20 mg of hydrocortisone was given. Blood and saliva samples were drawn six hours after injection of hydrocortisone. Plasma and salivary cortisol were measured. Results: Dexamethasone administration suppressed plasma cortisol concentrations to an almost undetectable level in all subjects, except one with RA. In this subject, a raised concentration of plasma cortisol was verified by repeated analysis despite the fact that cortisol concentration in the saliva sample measured simultaneously was not raised. No significant difference in the disappearance curve of cortisol in plasma or in salivary cortisol levels was found between the patients with RA and the healthy controls. Conclusions: The profile of disappearance of total cortisol from plasma, and salivary cortisol levels during the elimination phase after its intravenous administration, are unchanged in premenopausal women with RA. Alterations in cortisol clearance are not likely to have a role in cortisol availability in patients with RA. PMID:12810434

  3. Hair cortisol measurement in mitotane-treated adrenocortical cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Manenschijn, L; Quinkler, M; van Rossum, E F C

    2014-04-01

    The only approved drug for the treatment of adrenocortical cancer (ACC) is mitotane. Mitotane is adrenolytic and therefore, hydrocortisone replacement therapy is necessary. Since mitotane increases cortisol binding globulin (CBG) and induces CYP3A4 activity, high doses of hydrocortisone are thought to be required. Evaluation of hydrocortisone therapy in mitotane-treated patients has been difficult since there is no good marker to evaluate hydrocortisone therapy. Measurement of cortisol in scalp hair is a novel method that offers the opportunity to measure long-term cortisol levels. Our aim was to evaluate whether hair cortisol measurements could be useful in evaluating recent hydrocortisone treatment in mitotane-treated ACC patients. Hair cortisol levels were measured in 15 mitotane-treated ACC patients on hydrocortisone substitution and 96 healthy individuals. Cortisol levels were measured in 3 cm hair segments, corresponding to a period of 3 months. Hair cortisol levels were higher in ACC patients compared to healthy individuals (p<0.0001). Seven ACC patients (47%) had hair cortisol levels above the reference range. None of the patients had hair cortisol levels below normal. In contrast to hydrocortisone doses (β=0.03, p=0.93), hair cortisol levels were associated with BMI (β=0.53, p=0.042). There was no correlation between hair cortisol levels and hydrocortisone doses (β=0.41, p=0.13). Almost half of the ACC patients had high hair cortisol levels, suggesting long-term over-substitution of hydrocortisone in some of the patients, whereas none of the patients was under-substituted. Hair cortisol measurements might be useful in long-term monitoring hydrocortisone treatment in mitotane-treated ACC patients.

  4. Cortisol and Treatment Effect in Children with Disruptive Behavior Disorders: A Preliminary Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van de Wiel, Nicolle M.H.; van Goozen, Stephanie H.M.; Matthys, Walter; Snoek, Heddeke; van Engeland, Herman

    2004-01-01

    Objective: Basal cortisol and cortisol stress responsivity are valuable biological characteristics of children with disruptive behavior disorder (DBD). In this study, the predictive value of cortisol to outcome of intervention was investigated. Method: Basal cortisol levels and cortisol levels under stress were studied in 22 children with DBD…

  5. Huggable communication medium decreases cortisol levels

    PubMed Central

    Sumioka, Hidenobu; Nakae, Aya; Kanai, Ryota; Ishiguro, Hiroshi

    2013-01-01

    Interpersonal touch is a fundamental component of social interactions because it can mitigate physical and psychological distress. To reproduce the psychological and physiological effects associated with interpersonal touch, interest is growing in introducing tactile sensations to communication devices. However, it remains unknown whether physical contact with such devices can produce objectively measurable endocrine effects like real interpersonal touching can. We directly tested this possibility by examining changes in stress hormone cortisol before and after a conversation with a huggable communication device. Participants had 15-minute conversations with a remote partner that was carried out either with a huggable human-shaped device or with a mobile phone. Our experiment revealed significant reduction in the cortisol levels for those who had conversations with the huggable device. Our approach to evaluate communication media with biological markers suggests new design directions for interpersonal communication media to improve social support systems in modern highly networked societies. PMID:24150186

  6. The use of saliva cortisol, urinary cortisol, and catecholamine measurements for a noninvasive assessment of stress responses in dogs.

    PubMed

    Beerda, B; Schilder, M B; Janssen, N S; Mol, J A

    1996-09-01

    A problem in assessing animal welfare is that collecting data in itself may be stressful to the animals. Therefore, noninvasive methods for collecting data have to be devised and tested. A first step in investigating saliva cortisol, urinary cortisol, and urinary catecholamine as noninvasive indicators of canine well-being is the validation of these hormonal measures as alternatives for those in plasma. Using a model of insulin (0.2 U/kg)-induced hypoglycemia, we report on stress-induced responses in saliva cortisol, urinary cortisol, and urinary catacholamines relative to cortisol and catecholamine responses in plasma. Hypoglycemia in six dogs induced significant (P < 0.05) increases in plasma cortisol and adrenaline but not noradrenaline. Saliva cortisol responses expressed as net area under the response curve correlated significantly with plasma cortisol responses (r > 0.92). Saliva cortisol levels measured 7 to 12% of plasma cortisol concentrations. Cortisol/creatinine rations in urine were significantly higher when voided after insulin administeration, compared to when voided after saline treatment. Insulin-induced increments in cortisol/ creatinine ratios were nonsignificant when urine samples were assayed after dichloromethane extraction. Although urinary adrenaline/creatinine (A/C) ratios were significantly correlated with maximum plasma adrenaline values after insulin administration, A/C ratios did not differ significantly between insulin and saline treatment. The present experiment provides strong support for using saliva sampling and urine collection as noninvasive methods to establish stress-induced cortisol responses. For measuring acute plasma adrenaline responses, measuring A/C ratios may not be a valid alternative.

  7. Cortisol levels in fetal scalp, maternal, and umbilical cord plasma.

    PubMed

    Sybulski, S; Goldsmith, W J; Maughan, G B

    1975-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate cortisol levels in the fetal circulation prior to delivery. Fetal scalp plasma cortisol levels during labor were significantly lower than those in maternal peripheral plasma but significantly higher than those in cord plasma at delivery. Cortisol levels in fetal scalp plasma did not correlate significantly with those in either maternal or cord plasma. The greater cortisol concentrations in fetal scalp plasma relative to those in cord plasma could have been transient increases caused by fetal adrenal response to the stress of the scalp sampling procedure. There was a significant correlation between cortisol levels in maternal and cord plasma, which may mean that a considerable part of the cortisol in the fetal circulation at delivery is of maternal origin.

  8. Dissociated neural effects of cortisol depending on threat escapability.

    PubMed

    Montoya, Estrella R; van Honk, Jack; Bos, Peter A; Terburg, David

    2015-11-01

    Evolution has provided us with a highly flexible neuroendocrine threat system which, depending on threat imminence, switches between active escape and passive freezing. Cortisol, the "stress-hormone", is thought to play an important role in both fear behaviors, but the exact mechanisms are not understood. Using pharmacological functional magnetic resonance imaging we investigated how cortisol modulates the brain's fear systems when humans are under virtual-predator attack. We show dissociated neural effects of cortisol depending on whether escape from threat is possible. During inescapable threat cortisol reduces fear-related midbrain activity, whereas in anticipation of active escape cortisol boosts activity in the frontal salience network (insula and anterior cingulate cortex), which is involved in autonomic control, visceral perception and motivated action. Our findings suggest that cortisol adjusts the human neural threat system from passive fear to active escape, which illuminates the hormone's crucial role in the adaptive flexibility of fear behaviors.

  9. Melatonin and cortisol assessment of circadian shifts in astronauts before flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitson, P. A.; Putcha, L.; Chen, Y. M.; Baker, E.

    1995-01-01

    Melatonin and cortisol were measured in saliva and urine samples to assess the effectiveness of a 7-day protocol combining bright-light exposure with sleep shifting in eliciting a 12-hr phase-shift delay in eight U.S. Space Shuttle astronauts before launch. Baseline acrophases for 15 control subjects with normal sleep-wake cycles were as follows: cortisol (saliva) at 0700 (0730 in urine); melatonin (saliva) at 0130 (6-hydroxymelatonin sulfate at 0230 in urine). Acrophases of the astronaut group fell within 2.5 hr of these values before the treatment protocols were begun. During the bright-light and sleep-shifting treatments, both absolute melatonin production and melatonin rhythmicity were diminished during the first 3 treatment days; total daily cortisol levels remained constant throughout the treatment. By the fourth to sixth day of the 7-day protocol, seven of the eight crew members showed phase delays in all four measures that fell within 2 hr of the expected 11- to 12-hr shift. Although cortisol and melatonin rhythms each corresponded with the phase shift, the rhythms in these two hormones did not correspond with each other during the transition.

  10. Daily variations in cortisol levels and binge eating disorder.

    PubMed

    Sitton, Sarah; Porn, Patricia M; Shaeffer, Stephanie

    2002-12-01

    Morning and afternoon levels of cortisol for 73 volunteers (67 women and 6 men) were compared in relation to their Binge Eating Disorder scores, Body Mass Indexes, and self-reports of mood and hunger. Cortisol level was not significantly correlated with binge eating or mood or hunger for either time period. However, it was inversely related to body mass, with lower cortisol levels associated with greater body mass. PMID:12530732

  11. Diurnal Cortisol and Survival in Epithelial Ovarian Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Schrepf, Andrew; Thaker, Premal H.; Goodheart, Michael J.; Bender, David; Slavich, George M.; Dahmoush, Laila; Penedo, Frank; DeGeest, Koen; Mendez, Luis; Lubaroff, David M.; Cole, Steven W.; Sood, Anil K.; Lutgendorf, Susan K.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) deregulation is commonly observed in cancer patients, but its clinical significance is not well understood. We prospectively examined the association between HPA activity, tumor-associated inflammation, and survival in ovarian cancer patients prior to treatment. Materials and Methods Participants were 113 women with ovarian cancer who provided salivary cortisol for three days prior to treatment for calculation of cortisol slope, variability, and night cortisol. Cox proportional hazard regression analyses were used to examine associations between cortisol and survival in models adjusting for disease stage, tumor grade, cytoreduction and age. On a subsample of 41 patients with advanced disease ascites fluid was assayed for levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and correlated with cortisol variables. Results Each cortisol measure was associated with decreased survival time, adjusting for covariates (all p<.041). A one standard deviation increase in night cortisol was associated with a 46% greater likelihood of death. Patients in the high night cortisol group survived an estimated average of 3.3 years compared to 7.3 years for those in the low night cortisol group. Elevated ascites IL-6 was associated with each cortisol measure (all r >.36, all p<.017). Discussion Abnormal cortisol rhythms assessed prior to treatment are associated with decreased survival in ovarian cancer and increased inflammation in the vicinity of the tumor. HPA abnormalities may reflect poor endogenous control of inflammation, dysregulation caused by tumor-associated inflammation, broad circadian disruption, or some combination of these factors. Nocturnal cortisol may have utility as a non-invasive measure of HPA function and/or disease severity. PMID:25647344

  12. An optimization formulation for characterization of pulsatile cortisol secretion

    PubMed Central

    Faghih, Rose T.; Dahleh, Munther A.; Brown, Emery N.

    2015-01-01

    Cortisol is released to relay information to cells to regulate metabolism and reaction to stress and inflammation. In particular, cortisol is released in the form of pulsatile signals. This low-energy method of signaling seems to be more efficient than continuous signaling. We hypothesize that there is a controller in the anterior pituitary that leads to pulsatile release of cortisol, and propose a mathematical formulation for such controller, which leads to impulse control as opposed to continuous control. We postulate that this controller is minimizing the number of secretory events that result in cortisol secretion, which is a way of minimizing the energy required for cortisol secretion; this controller maintains the blood cortisol levels within a specific circadian range while complying with the first order dynamics underlying cortisol secretion. We use an ℓ0-norm cost function for this controller, and solve a reweighed ℓ1-norm minimization algorithm for obtaining the solution to this optimization problem. We use four examples to illustrate the performance of this approach: (i) a toy problem that achieves impulse control, (ii) two examples that achieve physiologically plausible pulsatile cortisol release, (iii) an example where the number of pulses is not within the physiologically plausible range for healthy subjects while the cortisol levels are within the desired range. This novel approach results in impulse control where the impulses and the obtained blood cortisol levels have a circadian rhythm and an ultradian rhythm that are in agreement with the known physiology of cortisol secretion. The proposed formulation is a first step in developing intermittent controllers for curing cortisol deficiency. This type of bio-inspired pulse controllers can be employed for designing non-continuous controllers in brain-machine interface design for neuroscience applications. PMID:26321898

  13. Daily variations in cortisol levels and binge eating disorder.

    PubMed

    Sitton, Sarah; Porn, Patricia M; Shaeffer, Stephanie

    2002-12-01

    Morning and afternoon levels of cortisol for 73 volunteers (67 women and 6 men) were compared in relation to their Binge Eating Disorder scores, Body Mass Indexes, and self-reports of mood and hunger. Cortisol level was not significantly correlated with binge eating or mood or hunger for either time period. However, it was inversely related to body mass, with lower cortisol levels associated with greater body mass.

  14. An optimization formulation for characterization of pulsatile cortisol secretion.

    PubMed

    Faghih, Rose T; Dahleh, Munther A; Brown, Emery N

    2015-01-01

    Cortisol is released to relay information to cells to regulate metabolism and reaction to stress and inflammation. In particular, cortisol is released in the form of pulsatile signals. This low-energy method of signaling seems to be more efficient than continuous signaling. We hypothesize that there is a controller in the anterior pituitary that leads to pulsatile release of cortisol, and propose a mathematical formulation for such controller, which leads to impulse control as opposed to continuous control. We postulate that this controller is minimizing the number of secretory events that result in cortisol secretion, which is a way of minimizing the energy required for cortisol secretion; this controller maintains the blood cortisol levels within a specific circadian range while complying with the first order dynamics underlying cortisol secretion. We use an ℓ0-norm cost function for this controller, and solve a reweighed ℓ1-norm minimization algorithm for obtaining the solution to this optimization problem. We use four examples to illustrate the performance of this approach: (i) a toy problem that achieves impulse control, (ii) two examples that achieve physiologically plausible pulsatile cortisol release, (iii) an example where the number of pulses is not within the physiologically plausible range for healthy subjects while the cortisol levels are within the desired range. This novel approach results in impulse control where the impulses and the obtained blood cortisol levels have a circadian rhythm and an ultradian rhythm that are in agreement with the known physiology of cortisol secretion. The proposed formulation is a first step in developing intermittent controllers for curing cortisol deficiency. This type of bio-inspired pulse controllers can be employed for designing non-continuous controllers in brain-machine interface design for neuroscience applications. PMID:26321898

  15. Hair cortisol and cognitive performance in working age adults.

    PubMed

    McLennan, Skye N; Ihle, Andreas; Steudte-Schmiedgen, Susann; Kirschbaum, Clemens; Kliegel, Matthias

    2016-05-01

    It has been hypothesized that prolonged exposure to high cortisol levels results in cognitive impairment. However, previous research into the relationship between cortisol and cognition has produced mixed results, most likely due to difficulties achieving valid estimates of long-term cortisol exposure based on salivary or plasma cortisol assessments at a single time point. Furthermore, there has been little research on the cognitive effects of long-term cortisol exposure in working-age adults. In the present study, hair samples were collected from 246 nurses (89.8% female) aged from 21 to 62 (M=42.0, SD=11.2). Hair cortisol concentrations (HCC) in the proximal 3-cm hair segment were analyzed providing an estimate of integrated cortisol secretion over the 3 month-period prior to hair sampling. Cognition was measured using a battery of 15 neuropsychological tests, measuring core dimensions of memory, inductive reasoning, processing speed, crystalized intelligence and major aspects of executive functioning. HCC was not significantly related to any of the cognitive abilities measured, either before or after controlling for potential moderators such as age, sex, education, health, well-being, work ability and burnout. Tests for nonlinear relationships also yielded non-significant results. Thus, despite the study being well powered, long term cortisol exposure did not appear to be related to cognitive performance in this sample of working-age adults, suggesting that long term cortisol exposure may be less relevant to cognition in younger and middle-aged adults than was previously thought.

  16. Cortisol and Politics: Variance in Voting Behavior is Predicted by Baseline Cortisol Levels

    PubMed Central

    French, Jeffrey A.; Smith, Kevin B.; Alford, John R.; Guck, Adam; Birnie, Andrew K.; Hibbing, John R.

    2014-01-01

    Participation in electoral politics is affected by a host of social and demographics variables, but there is growing evidence that biological predispositions may also play a role in behavior related to political involvement. We examined the role of individual variation in hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) stress axis parameters in explaining differences in self-reported and actual participation in political activities. Self-reported political activity, religious participation, and verified voting activity in U.S. national elections were collected from 105 participants, who were subsequently exposed to a standardized (nonpolitical) psychosocial stressor. We demonstrated that lower baseline salivary cortisol in the late afternoon was significantly associated with increased actual voting frequency in six national elections, but not with self-reported non-voting political activity. Baseline cortisol predicted significant variation in voting behavior above and beyond variation accounted for by traditional demographic variables (particularly age of participant in our sample). Participation in religious activity was weakly (and negatively) associated with baseline cortisol. Our results suggest that HPA-mediated characteristics of social, cognitive, and emotional processes may exert an influence on a trait as complex as voting behavior, and that cortisol is a better predictor of actual voting behavior, as opposed to self-reported political activity. PMID:24835544

  17. Cortisol and politics: variance in voting behavior is predicted by baseline cortisol levels.

    PubMed

    French, Jeffrey A; Smith, Kevin B; Alford, John R; Guck, Adam; Birnie, Andrew K; Hibbing, John R

    2014-06-22

    Participation in electoral politics is affected by a host of social and demographics variables, but there is growing evidence that biological predispositions may also play a role in behavior related to political involvement. We examined the role of individual variation in hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) stress axis parameters in explaining differences in self-reported and actual participation in political activities. Self-reported political activity, religious participation, and verified voting activity in U.S. national elections were collected from 105 participants, who were subsequently exposed to a standardized (nonpolitical) psychosocial stressor. We demonstrated that lower baseline salivary cortisol in the late afternoon was significantly associated with increased actual voting frequency in six national elections, but not with self-reported non-voting political activity. Baseline cortisol predicted significant variation in voting behavior above and beyond variation accounted for by traditional demographic variables (particularly age of participant in our sample). Participation in religious activity was weakly (and negatively) associated with baseline cortisol. Our results suggest that HPA-mediated characteristics of social, cognitive, and emotional processes may exert an influence on a trait as complex as voting behavior, and that cortisol is a better predictor of actual voting behavior, as opposed to self-reported political activity.

  18. Cortisol metabolism in human obesity: impaired cortisone-->cortisol conversion in subjects with central adiposity.

    PubMed

    Stewart, P M; Boulton, A; Kumar, S; Clark, P M; Shackleton, C H

    1999-03-01

    For a given body mass index (BMI), mortality is higher in patients with central compared to generalized obesity. Glucocorticoids play an important role in determining body fat distribution, but circulating cortisol concentrations are reported to be normal in obese patients. Our recent studies show enhanced conversion of inactive cortisone (E) to active cortisol (F) through the expression of 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11betaHSD1) in cultured omental adipose stromal cells; the autocrine production of F may be a crucial factor in the pathogenesis of central obesity. We have now analyzed F metabolism in subjects with BMIs between 20-25 kg/m2 (group A), 25-30 kg/m2 (group B), and more than 30 kg/m2 (group C; n 12 in each group; six males and six premenopausal females; aged 23-44 yr). Glucose/insulin were measured using a 75-g oral glucose tolerance test, and each subject had total body and regional fat (scapular, waist, hip, and thigh) quantified using dual energy x-ray absorptiometry. Urinary total F metabolites (measured by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry) were increased in subjects with obesity [group A, 11,176 +/- 1,530 microg/24 h (mean +/- SE); group C, 13,661 +/- 1,444], although not significantly so (P = 0.08). There was a significant reduction in the urinary tetrahydrocortisol (THF) +/- 5alpha-THF/tetrahydrocortisone (THE) and the cortol/cortolone ratio in obesity (group A vs. C, 1.06 +/- 0.08 vs. 0.84 +/- 0.04 and 0.41 +/- 0.03 vs. 0.34 +/- 0.03, respectively; both P < 0.05). Urinary free F (UFF) excretion was similar in all three groups, as was the UFF/urinary free E (UFE) ratio. The 0900 h circulating F, E, and ACTH pre- and postovernight 1-mg dexamethasone suppression values were similar in all three groups, but a reduction in the generation of serum F from dexamethasone-suppressed values after oral cortisone acetate (25 mg) was evident in both obese groups [e.g. 546 +/- 37 nmol/L in group A vs. 412 +/- 40 in group B (P < 0.05) and 388

  19. Absence of detectable melatonin and preservation of cortisol and thyrotropin rhythms in tetraplegia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zeitzer, J. M.; Ayas, N. T.; Shea, S. A.; Brown, R.; Czeisler, C. A.

    2000-01-01

    The human circadian timing system regulates the temporal organization of several endocrine functions, including the production of melatonin (via a neural pathway that includes the spinal cord), TSH, and cortisol. In traumatic spinal cord injury, afferent and efferent circuits that influence the basal production of these hormones may be disrupted. We studied five subjects with chronic spinal cord injury (three tetraplegic and two paraplegic, all neurologically complete injuries) under stringent conditions in which the underlying circadian rhythmicity of these hormones could be examined. Melatonin production was absent in the three tetraplegic subjects with injury to their lower cervical spinal cord and was of normal amplitude and timing in the two paraplegic subjects with injury to their upper thoracic spinal cord. The amplitude and the timing of TSH and cortisol rhythms were robust in the paraplegics and in the tetraplegics. Our results indicate that neurologically complete cervical spinal injury results in the complete loss of pineal melatonin production and that neither the loss of melatonin nor the loss of spinal afferent information disrupts the rhythmicity of cortisol or TSH secretion.

  20. Serum cortisol concentrations in horses with colic.

    PubMed

    Mair, T S; Sherlock, C E; Boden, L A

    2014-09-01

    Few studies have evaluated cortisol concentrations in horses with colic. In humans with septic shock, high cortisol levels are associated with an increased risk of death. The objectives of this study were to compare the serum total cortisol concentrations (STCCs) in horses with colic to those without colic, and to assess whether the STCC relates to the pathological nature or outcome of the disease. STCCs were determined at presentation in horses with colic and in systemically healthy 'control' horses. Horses with colic were grouped based on clinical and clinico-pathological parameters at admission, treatment, lesion type and location, and outcome. Univariable and multivariable logistic regression were performed using two different outcome measures: (a) whether the horse had colic or not (yes vs. no), and (b) horse STCC (≥200 nmol/L vs. <200 nmol/L). Horses were more likely to have colic if they presented with high STCCs (≥200 nmol/L compared with <200 nmol/L). Horses with colic and with STCCs ≥200nmol/L were more likely to have moderate or severe colic signs (compared with mild colic) and heart rates >45 beats per min (compared with ≤45 beats per min). It was concluded that colic in horses is associated with elevated STCCs, and increased STCC in horses with colic appears to relate to the severity of the disease. STCCs may provide additional decision-making and prognostic information in horses with colic but further studies are required to avoid misinterpretations associated with the wide variation in STCCs.

  1. Early-life stress and recurrent psychological distress over the lifecourse predict divergent cortisol reactivity patterns in adulthood.

    PubMed

    Goldman-Mellor, Sidra; Hamer, Mark; Steptoe, Andrew

    2012-11-01

    Early-life stress (ELS) is associated with substantially increased lifetime risk for recurrent psychological problems, with evidence indicating that dysregulation of the physiological stress reactivity system may be partly responsible. However, some ELS-exposed people remain psychologically resilient. Although two distinct patterns of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA) stress reactivity have been observed in ELS-exposed samples (hyper- and hypo-reactive), the hypothesis that these patterns may be associated with long-term history of psychological problems has not been explored. We used healthy Whitehall II study subjects (n=543) who participated in the 2008 Heart Scan Study (HSS) to assess salivary cortisol responses to a cognitive stressor, ELS exposure, and other psychosocial factors. Mean age of the sample at the HSS was 63 years. HSS data were linked to nearly 20 years of participants' Whitehall data, including repeated measures of psychological distress (GHQ-28). Piecewise growth curve analyses revealed that ELS-exposed persons with a history of recurrent psychological distress in adulthood had significantly blunted cortisol reactivity compared to non-ELS-exposed participants, while ELS-exposed persons with little or no history of distress had significantly elevated baseline cortisol, prolonged responses, and greater total cortisol production. Our findings indicate that for ELS-exposed individuals, different trajectories in psychological health over their adult lifetimes predict different cortisol reactivity patterns. These findings have important implications for our understanding of ELS-related mental health risk and treatment of these disorders.

  2. Testosterone suppression of CRH-stimulated cortisol in men.

    PubMed

    Rubinow, David R; Roca, Catherine A; Schmidt, Peter J; Danaceau, Merry A; Putnam, Karen; Cizza, Giovanni; Chrousos, George; Nieman, Lynnette

    2005-10-01

    Despite observations of age-dependent sexual dimorphisms in hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity, the role of androgens in the regulation of HPA axis activity in men has not been examined. We assessed this role by performing CRH stimulation tests in 10 men (ages 18-45 years) during gonadal suppression with leuprolide acetate and during testosterone addition to leuprolide. CRH-stimulated cortisol levels as well as peak cortisol and greatest cortisol excursion were significantly lower (p<0.05, 0.005, and 0.01, respectively) during testosterone replacement compared with the induced hypogonadal condition (leuprolide plus placebo); cortisol area under the curve was lower at a trend level (p<0.1). Paradoxically, CRH-stimulated corticotropin (ACTH) was increased significantly during testosterone replacement (p<0.05). The cortisol : ACTH ratio, a measure of adrenal sensitivity, was lower during testosterone replacement (p<0.1). A mixed effects regression model showed that testosterone but not estradiol or CBG significantly contributed to the variance of cortisol. These data demonstrate that testosterone regulates CRH-stimulated HPA axis activity in men, with the divergent effects on ACTH and cortisol suggesting a peripheral (adrenal) locus for the suppressive effects on cortisol. Our results further demonstrate that the enhanced stimulated HPA axis activity previously described in young men compared with young women cannot be ascribed to an activational upregulation of the axis by testosterone.

  3. Longitudinal Associations among Child Maltreatment, Social Functioning, and Cortisol Regulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alink, Lenneke R. A.; Cicchetti, Dante; Kim, Jungmeen; Rogosch, Fred A.

    2012-01-01

    Child maltreatment increases the risk for impaired social functioning and cortisol regulation. However, the longitudinal interplay among these factors is still unclear. This study aimed to shed light on the effect of maltreatment on social functioning and cortisol regulation over time. The sample consisted of 236 children (mean age 7.64 years, SD…

  4. Assessing Salivary Cortisol in Studies of Child Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Eve B.; Granger, Douglas A.; Susman, Elizabeth J.; Gunnar, Megan R.; Laird, Brandi

    1998-01-01

    Evaluated the susceptibility of radioimmunoassays (RIA) for saliva cortisol to interference effects caused by oral stimulants (drink mix crystals) used to facilitate saliva collection in studies with children. Found that oral stimulants artificially inflated estimated cortisol concentrations, with the magnitude of the interference-effect…

  5. Reduction of Cortisol Levels and Participants' Responses Following Art Making

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaimal, Girija; Ray, Kendra; Muniz, Juan

    2016-01-01

    This quasi-experimental study investigated the impact of visual art making on the cortisol levels of 39 healthy adults. Participants provided saliva samples to assess cortisol levels before and after 45 minutes of art making. Participants also provided written responses about the experience at the end of the session. Results indicate that art…

  6. Cortisol Release in Infants in Response to Inoculation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Michael; Thomas, David

    1990-01-01

    Data provide strong evidence that studies of stress and cortisol release in infants must take into account basal level, circadian rhythm, and behavioral effects and employ appropriate statistical procedures. Participants were infants of two, four, and six months of age from whom salivary cortisol was obtained before and 15 minutes after an…

  7. Enhanced Cortisol Response to Stress in Children in Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spratt, Eve G.; Nicholas, Joyce S.; Brady, Kathleen T.; Carpenter, Laura A.; Hatcher, Charles R.; Meekins, Kirk A.; Furlanetto, Richard W.; Charles, Jane M.

    2012-01-01

    Children with Autism often show difficulties in adapting to change. Previous studies of cortisol, a neurobiologic stress hormone reflecting hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity, in children with autism have demonstrated variable results. This study measured cortisol levels in children with and without Autism: (1) at rest; (2) in a…

  8. Suppressing the Morning Rise in Cortisol Impairs Free Recall

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rimmele, Ulrike; Meier, Flurina; Lange, Tanja; Born, Jan

    2010-01-01

    Elevated glucocorticoid levels impair memory retrieval. We investigated whether retrieval under naturally elevated glucocorticoid levels, i.e., during the morning rise in cortisol can be improved by suppressing cortisol. In a crossover study 16 men retrieved emotional and neutral texts and pictures (learned 3 d earlier) 30 min after morning…

  9. Father Contributions to Cortisol Responses in Infancy and Toddlerhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mills-Koonce, W. Roger; Garrett-Peters, Patricia; Barnett, Melissa; Granger, Douglas A.; Blair, Clancy; Cox, Martha J.

    2011-01-01

    The current study is one of the first prospective examinations of longitudinal associations between observed father caregiving behaviors and child cortisol reactivity and regulation in response to emotional arousal. Observations of father and mother caregiving behaviors and child cortisol levels in response to challenges at 7 months and 24 months…

  10. Cortisol Levels and Conduct Disorder in Adolescent Mothers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Azar, Rima; Zoccolillo, Mark; Paquette, Daniel; Quiros, Elsa; Baltzer, Franziska; Tremblay, Richard E.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To examine the association between cortisol levels and conduct disorder (CD) in adolescent mothers. Past research has shown that low levels of cortisol were associated with CD, particularly with its aggressive symptoms. The authors tested the hypothesis that adolescent mothers with CD would show lower levels of salivary cortisol…

  11. Salivary cortisol levels in athletes and nonathletes: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Cevada, T; Vasques, P E; Moraes, H; Deslandes, A

    2014-12-01

    High performance athletes are constantly facing different situations involving stress. Salivary cortisol has been used as a physiological measure to verify high performance athlete and mental health, in spite of research that has shown that comparisons between cortisol levels in athletes and nonathletes are inconclusive. The purpose of this study was to review articles that investigated salivary cortisol levels at rest in high performance athletes in comparison to physically active or sedentary nonathlete individuals. PubMed, ISI Web of Knowledge, SciELO, LILACS, and Scopus databases were searched for studies on salivary cortisol in athletes and the size effect was calculated. Although 3 articles reported higher salivary cortisol levels in female athletes compared to a control group, the results showed homogeneity among baseline groups or groups in resting conditions, suggesting a lack of discriminative capacity. These results should be interpreted with caution, due to the presence of substantial methodological bias.

  12. In vitro toxicity and interactions of environmental contaminants (Arochlor 1254 and mercury) and immunomodulatory agents (lipopolysaccharide and cortisol) on thymocytes from lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, Gregory G.; Sweet, Leonard I.; Adams, Jean V.; Omann, Geneva M.; Passino-Reader, Dora R.; Meier, Peter G.

    2002-01-01

    The immunotoxicity of chemical combinations commonly encountered by the lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) immune system was the focus of this study. It was hypothesised that combinations of an environmental contaminant (mercuric chloride or Aroclor 1254) and an immunomodulatory agent (bacterial endotoxin or cortisol) might interact to produce a greater toxicity than that of the environmental contaminant alone at concentrations typically encountered in piscine blood and other tissues. Thus lake trout thymocytes were isolated and treated with mercuric chloride or Aroclor 1254 in the presence and absence of cortisol or lipopolysaccharide. Incubations were performed for 6 or 20 h at 4° C or 10° C. Lipopolysaccharide did not affect the toxicity of either contaminant. In contrast, cortisol enhanced the toxicity of both environmental contaminants. Hence, stressors that lead to increased cortisol production, but not lipopolysaccharide directly, may increase the toxicity of mercury and Aroclor 1254 to lake trout thymocytes.

  13. Husbandry of zebrafish, Danio rerio, and the cortisol stress response.

    PubMed

    Pavlidis, Michail; Digka, Nikoletta; Theodoridi, Antonia; Campo, Aurora; Barsakis, Konstantinos; Skouradakis, Gregoris; Samaras, Athanasios; Tsalafouta, Alexandra

    2013-12-01

    The effect of common husbandry conditions (crowding, social environment, water quality, handling, and background color) on the cortisol stress response in adult zebrafish, Danio rerio, was investigated to check the usefulness of zebrafish as a model organism in aquaculture research. In addition, a noninvasive methodology for assessing stress was evaluated. Zebrafish showed a fast cortisol response with high values at 30 min that returned to basal levels within 2 h of poststress. There was a significant positive correlation between trunk cortisol concentrations and the free water cortisol rate (r(2)=0.829-0.850, p<0.001), indicating that measurement of the water-borne cortisol release rate may serve as a noninvasive and reliable stress indicator at the population level. Crowding resulted in 13- to 21-fold greater mean trunk cortisol concentrations compared with controls. However, even at low stocking density (2-5 fish/L), the maintenance cost was higher than the one at higher densities (10 fish/L) due to the formation of dominance hierarchies. The background color affected trunk cortisol concentrations, with fish exposed to brighter backgrounds (green and white) showing 3- to 8-fold greater mean trunk cortisol concentrations than fish exposed to a black background or transparent aquaria. Fish exposed to high stocking densities for 2 h or 5 days had similar high mean trunk cortisol levels, indicating that exposure of fish for the period of 2 h to a specific stressor may represent a chronic situation in zebrafish. It is concluded that adult laboratory zebrafish had a preference for a transparent or black background aquarium, at a number of 10 individuals per 2 L of available water volume, to express their normal behavior and avoid increased cortisol stress reaction.

  14. Analysis of hair cortisol levels in captive chimpanzees: Effect of various methods on cortisol stability and variability.

    PubMed

    Yamanashi, Yumi; Teramoto, Migaku; Morimura, Naruki; Hirata, Satoshi; Suzuki, Juri; Hayashi, Misato; Kinoshita, Kodzue; Murayama, Miho; Idani, Gen'ichi

    2016-01-01

    Hair cortisol has been reported to be a useful measure of long-term hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activation in several species. It serves as a practical tool for long-term stress assessment, but it is important to understand the methodological factors that can affects hair cortisol assays to avoid methodological artifacts. To that end, we tested several procedures for measuring cortisol levels in hair collected from captive chimpanzees. The results showed that reproducibility was high, and we found no differences in cortisol levels among the various storage, drying, and sampling methods. However, the fineness of homogenized hair, sample weight, and extraction time affected absolute hair cortisol concentration. Although hair cortisol levels were stable over time, factors that may influence measurement results should be kept constant throughout a study.•We modified and validated a methodology involving enzyme immunoassays to reliably measure the hair cortisol levels of captive chimpanzees.•The results revealed that the fineness of homogenized hair, sample weight, and extraction time caused variations in absolute hair cortisol concentrations in chimpanzees. In contrast, storage, drying, and sampling from similar body parts did not affect the results. PMID:26870668

  15. An integrative model linking traumatization, cortisol dysregulation and posttraumatic stress disorder: Insight from recent hair cortisol findings.

    PubMed

    Steudte-Schmiedgen, Susann; Kirschbaum, Clemens; Alexander, Nina; Stalder, Tobias

    2016-10-01

    Abundant evidence suggests links between trauma exposure, altered secretion of the glucocorticoid cortisol and the development/maintenance of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), albeit with some inconsistency in findings. Further insight into the complex relations underlying this process may be derived from an increasing number of studies using hair cortisol analysis, a novel assessment strategy assumed to retrospectively capture long-term integrated cortisol secretion. Here, we evaluate the utility of hair cortisol analysis as a method in trauma/PTSD research and review current findings in this context. We compare hair cortisol data on the complex links between trauma, cortisol dysregulation and PTSD against the main findings obtained using traditional cortisol assessment methods. Finally, we integrate these data into a model which proposes that traumatization leads to dose and time-dependent changes in long-term cortisol output (initial post-traumatic increase, subsequent chronic attenuation) and that such dysregulation may partly mediate the link between traumatic load and the risk of PTSD development upon additional trauma exposure ("building block effect"). PMID:27443960

  16. Hair cortisol detection in dairy cattle by using EIA: protocol validation and correlation with faecal cortisol metabolites.

    PubMed

    Tallo-Parra, O; Manteca, X; Sabes-Alsina, M; Carbajal, A; Lopez-Bejar, M

    2015-06-01

    Hair may be a useful matrix to detect cumulative cortisol concentrations in studies of animal welfare and chronic stress. The aim of this study was to validate a protocol for cortisol detection in hair from dairy cattle by enzyme immunoassay (EIA). Seventeen adult Holstein-Friesian dairy cows were used during the milking period. Hair cortisol concentration was assessed in 25-day-old hair samples taken from the frontal region of the head, analysing black and white coloured hair separately. Concentrations of cortisol metabolites were determined in faeces collected twice a week during the same period of time. There was a high correlation between cortisol values in faeces and cortisol in white colour hair samples but such correlation was not significant with the black colour hair samples. The intra- and inter-assay coefficients of variation were 4.9% and 10.6%, respectively. The linearity showed R 2=0.98 and mean percentage error of -10.8 ± 1.55%. The extraction efficiency was 89.0 ± 23.52% and the parallelism test showed similar slopes. Cortisol detection in hair by using EIA seems to be a valid method to represent long-term circulating cortisol levels in dairy cattle.

  17. Analysis of hair cortisol levels in captive chimpanzees: Effect of various methods on cortisol stability and variability

    PubMed Central

    Yamanashi, Yumi; Teramoto, Migaku; Morimura, Naruki; Hirata, Satoshi; Suzuki, Juri; Hayashi, Misato; Kinoshita, Kodzue; Murayama, Miho; Idani, Gen’ichi

    2016-01-01

    Hair cortisol has been reported to be a useful measure of long-term hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis activation in several species. It serves as a practical tool for long-term stress assessment, but it is important to understand the methodological factors that can affects hair cortisol assays to avoid methodological artifacts. To that end, we tested several procedures for measuring cortisol levels in hair collected from captive chimpanzees. The results showed that reproducibility was high, and we found no differences in cortisol levels among the various storage, drying, and sampling methods. However, the fineness of homogenized hair, sample weight, and extraction time affected absolute hair cortisol concentration. Although hair cortisol levels were stable over time, factors that may influence measurement results should be kept constant throughout a study.•We modified and validated a methodology involving enzyme immunoassays to reliably measure the hair cortisol levels of captive chimpanzees.•The results revealed that the fineness of homogenized hair, sample weight, and extraction time caused variations in absolute hair cortisol concentrations in chimpanzees. In contrast, storage, drying, and sampling from similar body parts did not affect the results. PMID:26870668

  18. Preliminary associations between childhood neglect, MIF, and cortisol: potential pathways to long-term disease risk.

    PubMed

    Bick, Johanna; Nguyen, Victoria; Leng, Lin; Piecychna, Marta; Crowley, Michael J; Bucala, Richard; Mayes, Linda C; Grigorenko, Elena L

    2015-01-01

    The study examined Hypothalamus-Pituitary-Adrenal (HPA) axis and inflammatory signaling in 206 youth with histories of prenatal drug exposure and self-reported histories of maltreatment. Youth with histories of severe neglect showed elevated levels of cortisol, the end product of the HPA axis, in comparison to youth with lower or minimal levels of neglect. Histories of severe neglect also were associated with increased levels of Macrophage Migration Inhibitory Factor (MIF), a cytokine known to be intricately involved in HPA axis regulation. Salivary MIF levels also were positively associated with youth age and prenatal drug exposure. These MIF and cortisol alterations may signal pathophysiological disruptions in the neuro-endocrine and immune systems, which may lead to trajectories of increased disease risk among vulnerable youth. Our findings also provide preliminary support for the validity and reliability of a noninvasive salivary assessment of MIF.

  19. Preliminary Associations Between Childhood Neglect, MIF, and Cortisol: Potential Pathways to Long-Term Disease Risk

    PubMed Central

    Bick, Johanna; Nguyen, Victoria; Leng, Lin; Piecychna, Marta; Crowley, Michael J.; Bucala, Richard; Mayes, Linda C.; Grigorenko, Elena L.

    2015-01-01

    The study examined Hypothalamus Pituitary Adrenal (HPA) axis and inflammatory signaling in 206 youth with histories of prenatal drug exposure and self reported histories of maltreatment. Youth with histories of severe neglect showed elevated levels of cortisol, the end product of the HPA axis, in comparison to youth with lower or minimal levels of neglect. Histories of severe neglect also were associated with increased levels of Macrophage Migration Inhibitory Factor (MIF), a cytokine known to be intricately involved in HPA axis regulation. Salivary MIF levels also were positively associated with youth age and prenatal drug exposure. These MIF and cortisol alterations may signal pathophysiological disruptions in the neuro endocrine and immune systems, which may lead to trajectories of increased disease risk among vulnerable youth. Our findings also provide preliminary support for the validity and reliability of a noninvasive salivary assessment of MIF. PMID:25380347

  20. Conceptus elongation in ruminants: roles of progesterone, prostaglandin, interferon tau and cortisol.

    PubMed

    Brooks, Kelsey; Burns, Greg; Spencer, Thomas E

    2014-01-01

    The majority of pregnancy loss in ruminants occurs during the first three weeks after conception, particularly during the period of conceptus elongation that occurs prior to pregnancy recognition and implantation. This review integrates established and new information on the biological role of ovarian progesterone (P4), prostaglandins (PGs), interferon tau (IFNT) and cortisol in endometrial function and conceptus elongation. Progesterone is secreted by the ovarian corpus luteum (CL) and is the unequivocal hormone of pregnancy. Prostaglandins (PGs) and cortisol are produced by both the epithelial cells of the endometrium and the trophectoderm of the elongating conceptus. In contrast, IFNT is produced solely by the conceptus trophectoderm and is the maternal recognition of pregnancy signal that inhibits production of luteolytic pulses of PGF2α by the endometrium to maintain the CL and thus production of P4. Available results in sheep support the idea that the individual, interactive, and coordinated actions of P4, PGs, IFNT and cortisol regulate conceptus elongation and implantation by controlling expression of genes in the endometrium and/or trophectoderm. An increased knowledge of conceptus-endometrial interactions during early pregnancy in ruminants is necessary to understand and elucidate the causes of infertility and recurrent early pregnancy loss and provide new strategies to improve fertility and thus reproductive efficiency.

  1. Plasma cortisol levels and illness appraisal in deficit syndrome schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    White, Ross G; Lysaker, Paul; Gumley, Andrew I; McLeod, Hamish; McCleery, Muriel; O'Neill, Donnacha; MacBeth, Angus; Giurgi-Oncu, Catalina; Mulholland, Ciaran C

    2014-12-30

    Research investigating the association between negative symptoms and plasma cortisol levels in individuals with schizophrenia has produced inconsistent findings. This study investigated whether deficit syndrome schizophrenia (characterized by high levels of primary negative symptoms) is associated with comparatively high morning plasma cortisol levels, more negative appraisals about illness and higher levels of depression. Participants were 85 individuals diagnosed with schizophrenia and 85 individuals with no history of contact with psychiatric services matched for age and gender. All participants provided fasting 9.00a.m. plasma cortisol samples. There were no significant differences between the schizophrenia and control participants in plasma cortisol levels. The Proximal Deficit Syndrome method was used to identify individuals with deficit syndrome schizophrenia. Contrary to what had been hypothesized, participants with deficit syndrome schizophrenia had significantly lower plasma cortisol levels than both non-deficit syndrome participants and control participants. Participants with the deficit syndrome reported significantly less negative appraisals about illness (assessed by PBIQ) and lower levels of depression (assessed by BDI-II). Differences in cortisol levels continued to trend toward significance when levels of depression were controlled for. The patterns of illness-related appraisals and plasma cortisol levels raise the possibility that the deficit syndrome could be a form of adaptation syndrome. PMID:25262562

  2. Elevated cortisol content in dog hair with atopic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Park, Seol-Hee; Kim, Sun-A; Shin, Nam-Shik; Hwang, Cheol-Yong

    2016-05-01

    Canine atopic dermatitis (CAD) is a chronic relapsing inflammatory skin disease occurring in 10% of the canine population. Although most studies have focused on the pathophysiological mechanism involved in CAD, the detrimental impact of CAD on quality of life has received only little attention. Hair cortisol analysis is becoming a valuable tool in monitoring chronic stress. To further validate this approach in CAD, we compared the hair cortisol concentration of atopic dogs with that of healthy conditioned dogs. The extent and severity of cutaneous lesions of atopic dermatitis were assessed according to modified CADESI-03 scores. In addition, skin barrier function was evaluated by measuring transepidermal water loss (TEWL) and stratum corneum conductance. The correlation between CAD severity and hair cortisol concentration was evaluated. The level of hair cortisol evaluated by ELISA assay showed that the atopic dermatitis group had significantly increased cortisol levels compared to that of the healthy control group. A significant positive correlation was identified between hair cortisol level and the CADESI score in CAD patients. The TEWL value of the cubital flexor of the forelimb in the atopic group was significantly higher compared to the healthy controls. These findings imply that the hair cortisol analysis can be an effective and objective biomarker in assessment of long-term stress of CAD patients. PMID:27506086

  3. Violence exposure and cortisol responses in urban youth.

    PubMed

    Kliewer, Wendy

    2006-01-01

    I examined the physiological costs associated with exposure to violence in 101 African American youth (55% male; M age = 11.14 years) living in high-violence areas of a midsized southern city in the United States. Salivary cortisol was measured before and after a laboratory task (viewing and discussing a video depicting community violence) and on waking 1 morning in the week following the laboratory assessment. Overall, cortisol levels were low. Analyses controlling for age, gender, negative affect, and major life events revealed that peer victimization was associated with lower basal cortisol values obtained from home assessments. Witnessed violence predicted a cortisol awakening response (CAR) but only in girls; girls with a typical CAR had lower levels of witnessing violence than girls with an atypical pattern. Witnessed violence also was associated with lower baseline cortisol levels measured in the laboratory and with increases in cortisol from baseline to posttask for boys but not girls. Peer victimization was associated with increases in cortisol from pretask to posttask for both genders. I discuss implications for research and prevention. PMID:16712428

  4. Sources of sampling variation in saliva cortisol in dogs.

    PubMed

    Kobelt, A J; Hemsworth, P H; Barnett, J L; Butler, K L

    2003-10-01

    The main advantage of collecting saliva cortisol as opposed to plasma cortisol is that it is non-invasive and therefore it is now widely used in stress measurement studies on farm animals and dogs. Although a plasma cortisol response to handling associated with blood collection generally occurs at 3 min from the commencement of handling, there is no information in the literature on the time course of the response of salivary cortisol concentration to handling. The aims of these experiments were to (1). determine if there is a response to up to 4 min handling that affects cortisol concentration in saliva and (2). determine the main causes of variation in saliva cortisol in dogs over time. In experiment 1, saliva was collected from six Kelpies at 0 min then 2, 3 or 4 min after the commencement of restraint. There was no handling effect found in up to 4 min sampling time. In experiment 2, saliva was collected from six Labrador Retrievers five times in 2 h (14:00-16:00), three days a week for four weeks. Some of the sources of variation in saliva cortisol over time included between dog variation that varied over a period of days and variation between occasions that affected the group of dogs as a whole.

  5. Cortisol alters reward processing in the human brain.

    PubMed

    Kinner, Valerie L; Wolf, Oliver T; Merz, Christian J

    2016-08-01

    Dysfunctional reward processing is known to play a central role for the development of psychiatric disorders. Glucocorticoids that are secreted in response to stress have been shown to attenuate reward sensitivity and thereby might promote the onset of psychopathology. However, the underlying neurobiological mechanisms mediating stress hormone effects on reward processing as well as potential sex differences remain elusive. In this neuroimaging study, we administered 30mg cortisol or a placebo to 30 men and 30 women and subsequently tested them in the Monetary Incentive Delay Task. Cortisol attenuated anticipatory neural responses to a verbal and a monetary reward in the left pallidum and the right anterior parahippocampal gyrus. Furthermore, in men, activation in the amygdala, the precuneus, the anterior cingulate, and in hippocampal regions was reduced under cortisol, whereas in cortisol-treated women a signal increase was observed in these regions. Behavioral performance also indicated that reward learning in men is impaired under high cortisol concentrations, while it is augmented in women. These findings illustrate that the stress hormone cortisol substantially diminishes reward anticipation and provide first evidence that cortisol effects on the neural reward system are sensitive to sex differences, which might translate into different vulnerabilities for psychiatric disorders.

  6. Increased serum cortisol binding in chronic active hepatitis

    SciTech Connect

    Orbach, O.; Schussler, G.C.

    1989-01-01

    A high serum cortisol concentration, apparently due to increased cortisol-binding globulin (CBG), was found in a patient (index case) with chronic active hepatitis (CAH). We therefore performed further studies to determine whether increased cortisol binding is generally associated with CAH. Serum samples were obtained from 15 hospitalized patients with long-term liver function test elevations but no evidence of cirrhosis, 15 normal subjects without a history of hepatitis, four healthy pregnant women, and 10 alcoholic patients with stigmata of cirrhosis. Serum cortisol binding was measured by an adaptation of a previously described charcoal uptake method. Thyroxine-binding globulin (TBG) and sex hormone-binding globulin were determined by radioimmunoassays. Charcoal uptake of 125I cortisol from sera of normal subjects and additional patients with CAH revealed that increased serum cortisol binding by a saturable site, presumably CBG, was associated with CAH. Cortisol binding was significantly correlated with immunoassayable TBG, suggesting that in CAH, similar mechanisms may be responsible for increasing the serum concentrations of CBG and TBG.

  7. Elevated cortisol content in dog hair with atopic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Park, Seol-Hee; Kim, Sun-A; Shin, Nam-Shik; Hwang, Cheol-Yong

    2016-05-01

    Canine atopic dermatitis (CAD) is a chronic relapsing inflammatory skin disease occurring in 10% of the canine population. Although most studies have focused on the pathophysiological mechanism involved in CAD, the detrimental impact of CAD on quality of life has received only little attention. Hair cortisol analysis is becoming a valuable tool in monitoring chronic stress. To further validate this approach in CAD, we compared the hair cortisol concentration of atopic dogs with that of healthy conditioned dogs. The extent and severity of cutaneous lesions of atopic dermatitis were assessed according to modified CADESI-03 scores. In addition, skin barrier function was evaluated by measuring transepidermal water loss (TEWL) and stratum corneum conductance. The correlation between CAD severity and hair cortisol concentration was evaluated. The level of hair cortisol evaluated by ELISA assay showed that the atopic dermatitis group had significantly increased cortisol levels compared to that of the healthy control group. A significant positive correlation was identified between hair cortisol level and the CADESI score in CAD patients. The TEWL value of the cubital flexor of the forelimb in the atopic group was significantly higher compared to the healthy controls. These findings imply that the hair cortisol analysis can be an effective and objective biomarker in assessment of long-term stress of CAD patients.

  8. Effects of cortisol administration on craving in heroin addicts

    PubMed Central

    Walter, M; Bentz, D; Schicktanz, N; Milnik, A; Aerni, A; Gerhards, C; Schwegler, K; Vogel, M; Blum, J; Schmid, O; Roozendaal, B; Lang, U E; Borgwardt, S; de Quervain, D

    2015-01-01

    Heroin dependence is a severe and chronically relapsing substance use disorder with limited treatment options. Stress is known to increase craving and drug-taking behavior, but it is not known whether the stress hormone cortisol mediates these stress effects or whether cortisol may rather reduce craving, for example, by interfering with addiction memory. The aim of the present study was to determine the effects of cortisol administration on craving in heroin-dependent patients and to determine whether the effects depend on the daily dose of heroin consumption. We used a double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over study in 29 heroin-dependent patients in a stable heroin-assisted treatment setting. A single oral dose of 20 mg of cortisol or placebo was administered 105 min before the daily heroin administration. The primary outcome measure was cortisol-induced change in craving. Secondary measures included anxiety, anger and withdrawal symptoms. For the visual analog scale for craving, we found a significant interaction (P=0.0027) between study medication and heroin-dose group (that is, daily low, medium or high dose of heroin). Cortisol administration reduced craving in patients receiving a low dose of heroin (before heroin administration: P=0.0019; after heroin administration: P=0.0074), but not in patients receiving a medium or high dose of heroin. In a picture-rating task with drug-related pictures, cortisol administration did not affect the ratings for the picture-characteristic craving in all the three heroin-dose groups. Cortisol also did not significantly affect secondary outcome measures. In conclusion, a single administration of cortisol leads to reduced craving in low-dose heroin addicts. The present findings might have important clinical implications with regard to understanding stress effects and regarding treatment of addiction. PMID:26218852

  9. Hair cortisol and cognitive performance in working age adults.

    PubMed

    McLennan, Skye N; Ihle, Andreas; Steudte-Schmiedgen, Susann; Kirschbaum, Clemens; Kliegel, Matthias

    2016-05-01

    It has been hypothesized that prolonged exposure to high cortisol levels results in cognitive impairment. However, previous research into the relationship between cortisol and cognition has produced mixed results, most likely due to difficulties achieving valid estimates of long-term cortisol exposure based on salivary or plasma cortisol assessments at a single time point. Furthermore, there has been little research on the cognitive effects of long-term cortisol exposure in working-age adults. In the present study, hair samples were collected from 246 nurses (89.8% female) aged from 21 to 62 (M=42.0, SD=11.2). Hair cortisol concentrations (HCC) in the proximal 3-cm hair segment were analyzed providing an estimate of integrated cortisol secretion over the 3 month-period prior to hair sampling. Cognition was measured using a battery of 15 neuropsychological tests, measuring core dimensions of memory, inductive reasoning, processing speed, crystalized intelligence and major aspects of executive functioning. HCC was not significantly related to any of the cognitive abilities measured, either before or after controlling for potential moderators such as age, sex, education, health, well-being, work ability and burnout. Tests for nonlinear relationships also yielded non-significant results. Thus, despite the study being well powered, long term cortisol exposure did not appear to be related to cognitive performance in this sample of working-age adults, suggesting that long term cortisol exposure may be less relevant to cognition in younger and middle-aged adults than was previously thought. PMID:26881835

  10. Longitudinal Associations among Child Maltreatment, Social Functioning, and Cortisol Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Alink, Lenneke R.A.; Cicchetti, Dante; Kim, Jungmeen; Rogosch, Fred A.

    2012-01-01

    Child maltreatment increases the risk for impaired social functioning and cortisol regulation. However, the longitudinal interplay between these factors is still unclear. This study aims to shed light on the effect of maltreatment on social functioning and cortisol regulation over time. The sample consisted of 236 children (mean age 7.64 years, SD = 1.36; 125 maltreated children and 111 nonmaltreated children, 128 boys and 108 girls) who attended a week-long summer camp for two consecutive years. Saliva was collected during five days at 9:00 a.m. and 4:00 p.m.. Means of morning and afternoon cortisol, and cortisol change (difference between morning and afternoon levels, controlled for morning levels) were grouped into low, medium, and high cortisol groups. Prosocial, disruptive/aggressive, and withdrawn behaviors were assessed using information from peers and counselors. Maltreated children showed less prosocial, and more disruptive/aggressive and withdrawn behavior. Results of Structural Equation Modeling analyses indicated that there were indirect effects of maltreatment on year 2 morning cortisol via prosocial disruptive/aggressive behavior: Lower levels of prosocial behavior and higher levels of disruptive/aggressive behavior were related to lower morning cortisol levels one year later. Withdrawn behavior was related to higher afternoon cortisol values one year later. Results of this study suggest that maltreated children are more likely to experience difficulties in social functioning, which in turn is related to cortisol regulation one year later. This altered HPA-axis functioning may put children at risk for later psychopathology. PMID:21823793

  11. Cortisol in human tissues at different stages of life.

    PubMed

    Costa, A; Benedetto, C; Fabris, C; Giraudi, G F; Testori, O; Bertino, E; Marozio, L; Varvello, G; Arisio, R; Ariano, M; Emanuel, A

    1996-01-01

    Aim of the work was to measure the cortisol level in human tissues at different stages of life, by means of radioimmunoassay and by chromatography. Viable samples of 13 different tissues were obtained during surgical intervention from 30 to 70 years old patients of either sex. Mean tissue cortisol concentration was 78 +/- 35 ng/g, ranging from 20 +/- 10 ng/g in the thyroid to 124 +/- 76 ng/g in the kidney. Similar values were measured in the corresponding tissues from not decayed corpses, so that paired values could be mediated. However the pancreas, and corrupted autopsy tissues, gave nil or exceedingly high cortisol concentration values; in some cases, opposite extreme values were measured in different organs of the same body. Cortisol concentration was also measured in 11 sound different tissues of spontaneously aborted or stillbirth fetuses, between 16 and 36 weeks of gestation. Mean value was 63 +/- 27 ng/g, ranging from 30 +/- 25 ng/g in the liver to 104 +/- 52 ng/g in the lungs. Also in fetuses nil or exceedingly high cortisol values occurred in altered tissues. One hundred and fourteen samples of limbs and carcasses of 7 to 12 gestational weeks embryos, obtained from voluntary abortions, were also examined: 20% gave nil result, in the remaining mean cortisol concentration was 32 ng/g. In 33 samples of embryos' mixed viscera, RIA and chromatography gave unreliable exceedingly high values. The nil and the exceedingly high values measured in the altered autoptic tissue specimens were inconsistent with the cortisol blood level measured in the patients, as were those measured in embryonic tissues with the acknowledged blood and adrenals cortisol levels at that stage of life. Thus cortisol may be measured by RIA and by chromatography in sound tissues, while the values obtained in the pancreas, in corrupted tissues, and in embryonal viscera do not represent the hormonal milieu, but are likely artifacts due to impeachment of the diagnostic system. PMID:8884541

  12. Effects of cortisol administration on craving in heroin addicts.

    PubMed

    Walter, M; Bentz, D; Schicktanz, N; Milnik, A; Aerni, A; Gerhards, C; Schwegler, K; Vogel, M; Blum, J; Schmid, O; Roozendaal, B; Lang, U E; Borgwardt, S; de Quervain, D

    2015-01-01

    Heroin dependence is a severe and chronically relapsing substance use disorder with limited treatment options. Stress is known to increase craving and drug-taking behavior, but it is not known whether the stress hormone cortisol mediates these stress effects or whether cortisol may rather reduce craving, for example, by interfering with addiction memory. The aim of the present study was to determine the effects of cortisol administration on craving in heroin-dependent patients and to determine whether the effects depend on the daily dose of heroin consumption. We used a double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over study in 29 heroin-dependent patients in a stable heroin-assisted treatment setting. A single oral dose of 20 mg of cortisol or placebo was administered 105 min before the daily heroin administration. The primary outcome measure was cortisol-induced change in craving. Secondary measures included anxiety, anger and withdrawal symptoms. For the visual analog scale for craving, we found a significant interaction (P = 0.0027) between study medication and heroin-dose group (that is, daily low, medium or high dose of heroin). Cortisol administration reduced craving in patients receiving a low dose of heroin (before heroin administration: P = 0.0019; after heroin administration: P = 0.0074), but not in patients receiving a medium or high dose of heroin. In a picture-rating task with drug-related pictures, cortisol administration did not affect the ratings for the picture-characteristic craving in all the three heroin-dose groups. Cortisol also did not significantly affect secondary outcome measures. In conclusion, a single administration of cortisol leads to reduced craving in low-dose heroin addicts. The present findings might have important clinical implications with regard to understanding stress effects and regarding treatment of addiction.

  13. Prolonged Cortisol Reactivity to Stress and White Matter in Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Nugent, Katie L.; Chiappelli, Joshua; Sampath, Hemalatha; Rowland, Laura M.; Thangavelu, Kavita; Davis, Beshaun; Du, Xiaoming; Muellerklein, Florian; Daughters, Stacey; Kochunov, Peter; Hong, L. Elliot

    2015-01-01

    Objective While acute hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis response to stress is often adaptive, prolonged responses may have detrimental effects. Many components of white matter structures are sensitive to prolonged cortisol exposure. We aimed to identify a behavioral laboratory assay for which cortisol response related to brain pathophysiology in schizophrenia. We hypothesized that an abnormally prolonged cortisol response to stress may be linked to abnormal white matter integrity in patients with schizophrenia. Methods Acute and prolonged salivary cortisol response was measured outside the scanner at pre-test and then at 0, 20, and 40 minutes after a psychological stress task in patients with schizophrenia (n=45) and controls (n=53). Tract-averaged white matter was measured by 64-direction diffusion tensor imaging in a subset of patients (n=30) and controls (n=33). Results Patients who did not tolerate and quit the psychological stress task had greater acute (t=2.52, p=0.016; t=3.51, p=0.001 at zero and 20 minutes) and prolonged (t=3.62, p=0.001 at 40 minutes) cortisol reactivity compared with patients who finished the task. Abnormally prolonged cortisol reactivity in patients was significantly associated with reduced white matter integrity (r=−0.468, p=0.009). Regardless of task completion status, acute cortisol response was not related to the white matter measures in patients or controls. Conclusions This paradigm was successful at identifying a subset of patients whose cortisol response was associated with brain pathophysiology. Abnormal cortisol response may adversely affect white matter integrity, partly explaining this pathology observed in schizophrenia. Prolonged stress responses may be targeted for intervention to test for protective effects against white matter damages. PMID:26186431

  14. Work duration does not affect cortisol output in experienced firefighters performing live burn drills.

    PubMed

    Rosalky, Deena S; Hostler, David; Webb, Heather E

    2017-01-01

    Work duration may affect firefighters' stress responses. Forty-two firefighters (38 males) performed either 2 (SWD) or 3 (LWD) bouts of simulated fire suppression activity. Salivary cortisol, self-reported fear and anxiety, and perceptual thermal responses were measured. Cortisol was evaluated using area-under-the-curve calculations (Pruessner et al., 2003). Affective responses between the two conditions were compared using T-tests. Pearson product moment correlations were used to analyze the relationships between affect and change in thermal load perception. Cortisol decreased across the protocol in both groups, and no difference was found in cortisol or affect between the groups. Cortisol decreased (F4,36 = 3.43, p < 0.05) in the SWD group from a mean concentration of 40.93 ± 11.41 nmol/L to 25.07 ± 9.88 nmol/L at the end of the protocol. In the LWD group, the mean cortisol concentration decreased from 42.89 ± 11.83 to 25.07 ± 8.82 at the end of the protocol (F5,50 = 14.77, p < 0.01). Anxiety increased in the LWD (F4,72 = 5.11, p = 0.001) but not the SWD group. Fear increased in the SWD (F3,48 = 14.15, p < 0.001) and LWD group (F4,60 = 4.47, p < 0.01). The present findings suggests a moderate fear load with firefighting, which appears not to be associated with duration of work bout. Examination of more varied work bout lengths may reveal an association between anxiety and work duration. However, the work bout durations investigated in the current study comprise the range of what is practical from an occupational standpoint and the physiological capabilities of the firefighters.

  15. The diurnal patterns of cortisol and dehydroepiandrosterone in relation to intense aerobic exercise in recreationally trained soccer players.

    PubMed

    Labsy, Z; Prieur, F; Le Panse, B; Do, M C; Gagey, O; Lasne, F; Collomp, K

    2013-03-01

    Diurnal patterns of cortisol and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) secretion, the two main peripheral secretory products of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal neuroendocrine stress axis, have been well characterized in rest conditions but not in relation to physical exercise. The purpose of this investigation was therefore to determine the effects of an intense 90-min aerobic exercise on the waking diurnal cortisol and DHEA cycles on three separate days [without exercise, with morning exercise (10:00-11:30 h), and with afternoon exercise (14:00-15:30 h)] in nine recreationally trained soccer players. Saliva samples were collected at awakening, 30 min after awakening, and then every 2 h from 08:00 to 22:00 h. A burst of secretory activity was found for cortisol (p < 0.01) but not for DHEA after awakening. Overall, diurnal decline for both adrenal steroids was observed on resting and exercise days under all conditions. However, there was a significant increase in salivary cortisol concentrations on the morning-exercise and afternoon-exercise days at, respectively, 12:00 h (p < 0.05) and 16:00 h (p < 0.01), versus the other trials. This acute response to exercise was not evident for DHEA. The results of this investigation indicate that 90 min of intense aerobic exercise does not affect the circadian pattern of salivary adrenal steroids in recreationally trained athletes over a 16-h waking period, despite a transitory increase in post-exercise cortisol concentration. Further studies are necessary to determine whether these results are applicable to elite athletes or patients with cortisol or DHEA deficiency.

  16. Rate of uptake of endogenous cortisol by the left ventricle of the anaesthetized dog during ventilation with ambient air and during hypoxia

    PubMed Central

    Kolanowski, J.; Lammerant, J.

    1973-01-01

    1. The rate of uptake of endogenous cortisol by the left ventricle was determined in eight dogs as the product of the left ventricular myocardial plasma flow and the coronary arteriovenous difference in plasma cortisol concentration. The arteriovenous difference in hormone concentration in resting skeletal muscle (M. gracilis) was also measured. The values given are means ± S.E. 2. During ventilation with ambient air (arterial PO2: 85 ± 2 mm Hg), the rate of cortisol uptake by the left ventricle averaged 382 ± 92 ng/100 g.min. The arteriovenous difference in hormone concentration in the vessels of the M. gracilis was more than twice that in the coronary vessels. Assuming a value of 3-4 ml./100 g.min for the blood flow in this muscle, the corresponding rate of cortisol uptake would be in the range of 25-33 ng/100 g.min. 3. During hypoxia (arterial PO2: 35 ± 1 mm Hg), the rate of cortisol uptake by the left ventricle was not significant, averaging 26 ± 113 ng/100 g.min. By contrast, the skeletal muscle still extracted significant amounts of cortisol from the plasma. It is inferred that the suppression of a significant uptake of the hormone by the left ventricle was related, at least in part, to the changes in the mechanical and associated metabolic activity of the heart muscle elicited by the lowering of the arterial PO2. 4. Hypoxia depressed the net uptake of cortisol by the left ventricle rather than the uptake mechanism itself. Indeed, bi-directional movements of cortisol between the plasma and the heart muscle, with rates of release up to 1150 ng/100 g.min, were observed. PMID:4754871

  17. Development of a formula for estimating plasma free cortisol concentration from a measured total cortisol concentration when elastase-cleaved and intact corticosteroid binding globulin coexist.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Phuong T T; Lewis, John G; Sneyd, James; Lee, Rita S F; Torpy, David J; Shorten, Paul R

    2014-05-01

    Cortisol bound to corticosteroid binding globulin (CBG) contributes up to 90% of the total cortisol concentration in circulation. Therefore, changes in the binding kinetics of cortisol to CBG can potentially impact on the concentration of free cortisol, the only form that is responsible for the physiological function of the hormone. When CBG is cleaved into elastase-cleaved CBG (eCBG) by the activity of neutrophil elastase, its affinity for cortisol is reduced. Therefore, when eCBG coexists with intact CBG (iCBG) in plasma, the calculation of free cortisol concentration based on the formulae that considers only one CBG pool with the same affinity for cortisol may be inappropriate. In this study, we developed in vivo and in vitro models of cortisol partitioning which considers two CBG pools, iCBG and eCBG, with different affinities for cortisol, and deduce a new formula for calculating plasma free cortisol concentration. The formula provides better estimates of free cortisol concentration than previously used formulae when measurements of the concentrations of the two CBG forms are available. The model can also be used to estimate the affinity of CBG and albumin for cortisol in different clinical groups. We found no significant difference in the estimated affinity of CBG and albumin for cortisol in normal, sepsis and septic shock groups, although free cortisol was higher in sepsis and septic shock groups. The in vivo model also demonstrated that the concentration of interstitial free cortisol is increased locally at a site of inflammation where iCBG is cleaved to form eCBG by the activity of elastase released by neutrophils. This supports the argument that the cleavage of iCBG at sites of inflammation leads to more lower-affinity eCBG and may be a mechanism that permits the local concentration of free cortisol to increase at these sites, while allowing basal free cortisol concentrations at other sites to remain unaffected.

  18. Prenatal Cocaine Exposure and Infant Cortisol Reactivity

    PubMed Central

    Eiden, Rina D.; Veira, Yvette; Granger, Douglas A.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the effects of prenatal cocaine exposure on infant hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity and reactivity at 7 months of infant age. Participants were 168 caregiver-infant dyads (87 cocaine exposed, 81 not cocaine exposed; 47% boys). Maternal behavior, caregiving instability, and infant growth and behavior were assessed, and children's saliva was sampled before, during, and after standardized procedures designed to elicit emotional arousal. Results revealed cocaine-exposed infants had a high amplitude trajectory of cortisol reactivity compared to non-cocaine-exposed infants. Infant gender and caregiving instability moderated this association. The findings support a dual hazard vulnerability model and have implications for evolutionary-developmental theories of individual differences in biological sensitivity to context. PMID:19467009

  19. Hormones in the seminal plasma. Cortisol.

    PubMed

    Abbaticchio, G; Giorgino, R; Urago, M; Gattuccio, F; Orlando, G; Jannì, A

    1981-09-01

    The data from previous studies on the seminal concentrations of proteic hormones result in the hypothesis that there exists a selective filter for these hormones, which is between the systemic circulation and the male genital canal. Previous data regarding sexual steroids are insufficient to verify if such a filter system also operates in the case of hormones of minor molecular weight. It would appear that the study of cortisol, a non-sexual steroid, will be more useful. The concentrations of this hormone in the peripheric blood (176 +/- 59, mean +/- ds, ng/ml) prove to be much greater than in the seminal plasma (20 +/- 9.6). No significant differences are found between normozoospermic and oligo-azoospermic subjects, either in the blood (173 +/- 184 +/- 53), or in the seminal plasma (21 +/- 12 versus 20 +/- 8). These data would seem to support the hypothesis under discussion.

  20. Development of an LC-MS/MS method for the determination of endogenous cortisol in hair using (13)C3-labeled cortisol as surrogate analyte.

    PubMed

    Binz, Tina M; Braun, Ueli; Baumgartner, Markus R; Kraemer, Thomas

    2016-10-15

    Hair cortisol levels are increasingly applied as a measure for stress in humans and mammals. Cortisol is an endogenous compound and is always present within the hair matrix. Therefore, "cortisol-free hair matrix" is a critical point for any analytical method to accurately quantify especially low cortisol levels. The aim of this project was to modify current methods used for hair cortisol analysis to more accurately determine low endogenous cortisol concentrations in hair. For that purpose, (13)C3-labeled cortisol, which is not naturally present in hair (above 13C natural abundance levels), was used for calibration and comparative validation applying cortisol versus (13)C3-labeled cortisol. Cortisol was extracted from 20mg hair (standard sample amount) applying an optimized single step extraction protocol. An LC-MS/MS method was developed for the quantitative analysis of cortisol using either cortisol or (13)C3-cortisol as calibrators and D7-cortisone as internal standard (IS). The two methods (cortisol/(13)C3-labeled cortisol) were validated in a concentration range up to 500pg/mg and showed good linearity for both analytes (cortisol: R(2)=0.9995; (13)C3-cortisol R(2)=0.9992). Slight differences were observed for limit of detection (LOD) (0.2pg/mg/0.1pg/mg) and limit of quantification (LOQ) (1pg/mg/0.5pg/mg). Precision was good with a maximum deviation of 8.8% and 10% for cortisol and (13)C3-cortisol respectively. Accuracy and matrix effects were good for both analytes except for the quality control (QC) low cortisol. QC low (2.5pg/mg) showed matrix effects (126.5%, RSD 35.5%) and accuracy showed a deviation of 26% when using cortisol to spike. These effects are likely to be caused by the unknown amount of endogenous cortisol in the different hair samples used to determine validation parameters like matrix effect, LOQ and accuracy. No matrix effects were observed for the high QC (400pg/mg) samples. Recovery was good with 92.7%/87.3% (RSD 9.9%/6.2%) for QC low and

  1. Maternal Cortisol Mediates Hypothalamus-Pituitary-Interrenal Axis Development in Zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Nesan, Dinushan; Vijayan, Mathilakath M.

    2016-01-01

    In zebrafish (Danio rerio), de novo synthesis of cortisol in response to stressor exposure commences only after hatch. Maternally deposited cortisol is present during embryogenesis, but a role for this steroid in early development is unclear. We tested the hypothesis that maternal cortisol is essential for the proper development of hypothalamus-pituitary-interrenal (HPI) axis activity and the onset of the stressor-induced cortisol response in larval zebrafish. In this study, zygotic cortisol content was manipulated by microinjecting antibody to sequester this steroid, thereby making it unavailable during embryogenesis. This was compared with embryos containing excess cortisol by microinjection of exogenous steroid. The resulting larval phenotypes revealed distinct treatment effects, including deformed mesoderm structures when maternal cortisol was unavailable and cardiac edema after excess cortisol. Maternal cortisol unavailability heightened the cortisol stress response in post-hatch larvae, whereas excess cortisol abolished the stressor-mediated cortisol elevation. This contrasting hormonal response corresponded with altered expression of key HPI axis genes, including crf, 11B hydroxylase, pomca, and star, which were upregulated in response to reduced cortisol availability and downregulated when embryos had excess cortisol. These findings for the first time underscore a critical role for maternally deposited cortisol in programming HPI axis development and function in zebrafish. PMID:26940285

  2. Exogenous cortisol causes a shift from deliberative to intuitive thinking.

    PubMed

    Margittai, Zsofia; Nave, Gideon; Strombach, Tina; van Wingerden, Marijn; Schwabe, Lars; Kalenscher, Tobias

    2016-02-01

    People often rely on intuitive judgments at the expense of deliberate reasoning, but what determines the dominance of intuition over deliberation is not well understood. Here, we employed a psychopharmacological approach to unravel the role of two major endocrine stress mediators, cortisol and noradrenaline, in cognitive reasoning. Healthy participants received placebo, cortisol (hydrocortisone) and/or yohimbine, a drug that increases noradrenergic stimulation, before performing the cognitive reflection test (CRT). We found that cortisol impaired performance in the CRT by biasing responses toward intuitive, but incorrect answers. Elevated stimulation of the noradrenergic system, however, had no effect. We interpret our results in the context of the dual systems theory of judgment and decision making. We propose that cortisol causes a shift from deliberate, reflective cognition toward automatic, reflexive information processing. PMID:26658173

  3. The Cortisol Awakening Response and Resilience in Elite Swimmers.

    PubMed

    Meggs, J; Golby, J; Mallett, C J; Gucciardi, D F; Polman, R C J

    2016-02-01

    The sports environment is stress-eliciting in that it encapsulates perceived uncontrollability, unpredictability and requires ego-involvement. The HPA axis has been shown (indicated by cortisol release) to respond to anticipated sports competition up to a week prior to the event. Research also alludes to the importance of individual differences, such as optimism and trait perfectionism, in moderating the impact of cortisol upon performance. In total, 41 (male n=27) national (n=38) and international (n=3) swimmers were recruited from northeast England and Australia. Swimmers completed a measure of resilience and also provided buccal saliva swabs, from which total cortisol release prior to and during the event was calculated. Findings revealed that resilience significantly predicted performance and the influence of AUC (cortisol release) upon performance was moderated by resilience. These findings suggest that resilience can influence athletic performance either directly or indirectly, through appraisal (i. e., interpretation of the stressor to be facilitative and non-threatening).

  4. Intimate partner violence and diurnal cortisol patterns in couples

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyoun K.; Tiberio, Stacey S.; Capaldi, Deborah M.; Shortt, Joann Wu; Squires, Erica C.; Snodgrass, J. Josh

    2014-01-01

    Summary This study examined whether physical intimate partner violence (IPV) victimization was associated with diurnal patterns of salivary cortisol in a community sample of 122 couples in their 30s from predominantly lower socioeconomic status backgrounds. Findings indicate that women with higher levels of victimization exhibited flatter patterns of diurnal cortisol characterized by both higher midday levels and more attenuated decreases in cortisol levels across the day, compared to women with lower levels of victimization. However, men's victimization was not associated with their diurnal cortisol levels. This study advances our understanding of the association between physical IPV victimization and dysregulated hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis functioning in women, which is likely to have further implications for their subsequent mental and physical health. PMID:25286224

  5. Recurrent activating mutation in PRKACA in cortisol-producing adrenal tumors.

    PubMed

    Goh, Gerald; Scholl, Ute I; Healy, James M; Choi, Murim; Prasad, Manju L; Nelson-Williams, Carol; Kunstman, John W; Kuntsman, John W; Korah, Reju; Suttorp, Anna-Carinna; Dietrich, Dimo; Haase, Matthias; Willenberg, Holger S; Stålberg, Peter; Hellman, Per; Akerström, Göran; Björklund, Peyman; Carling, Tobias; Lifton, Richard P

    2014-06-01

    Adrenal tumors autonomously producing cortisol cause Cushing's syndrome. We performed exome sequencing of 25 tumor-normal pairs and identified 2 subgroups. Eight tumors (including three carcinomas) had many somatic copy number variants (CNVs) with frequent deletion of CDC42 and CDKN2A, amplification of 5q31.2 and protein-altering mutations in TP53 and RB1. Seventeen tumors (all adenomas) had no somatic CNVs or TP53 or RB1 mutations. Six of these had known gain-of-function mutations in CTNNB1 (β-catenin) or GNAS (Gαs). Six others had somatic mutations in PRKACA (protein kinase A (PKA) catalytic subunit) resulting in a p.Leu206Arg substitution. Further sequencing identified this mutation in 13 of 63 tumors (35% of adenomas with overt Cushing's syndrome). PRKACA, GNAS and CTNNB1 mutations were mutually exclusive. Leu206 directly interacts with the regulatory subunit of PKA, PRKAR1A. Leu206Arg PRKACA loses PRKAR1A binding, increasing the phosphorylation of downstream targets. PKA activity induces cortisol production and cell proliferation, providing a mechanism for tumor development. These findings define distinct mechanisms underlying adrenal cortisol-producing tumors. PMID:24747643

  6. A review of the serotonin transporter and prenatal cortisol in the development of autism spectrum disorders

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) during early childhood has a profound effect not only on young children but on their families. Aside from the physical and behavioural issues that need to be dealt with, there are significant emotional and financial costs associated with living with someone diagnosed with ASD. Understanding how autism occurs will assist in preparing families to deal with ASD, if not preventing or lessening its occurrence. Serotonin plays a vital role in the development of the brain during the prenatal and postnatal periods, yet very little is known about the serotonergic systems that affect children with ASD. This review seeks to provide an understanding of the biochemistry and physiological actions of serotonin and its termination of action through the serotonin reuptake transporter (SERT). Epidemiological studies investigating prenatal conditions that can increase the risk of ASD describe a number of factors which elevate plasma cortisol levels causing such symptoms during pregnancy such as hypertension, gestational diabetes and depression. Because cortisol plays an important role in driving dysregulation of serotonergic signalling through elevating SERT production in the developing brain, it is also necessary to investigate the physiological functions of cortisol, its action during gestation and metabolic syndromes. PMID:24103554

  7. Effect of marginal ascorbic acid deficiency on saliva level of cortisol in the guinea pig.

    PubMed

    Enwonwu, C O; Sawiris, P; Chanaud, N

    1995-08-01

    Male guinea pigs subjected to prolonged marginal ascorbic acid deficiency developed moon facies and oedema, features of functional adrenal hypercorticism. Compared with age- and sex-matched controls fed an adequate diet for a similar period, ascorbate deficiency had no effect on submandibular gland weight but elicited a significant (p < 0.005) reduction in stimulated whole-saliva flow rate. Plasma cortisol concentration (nmol/L) was significantly increased (p < 0.005) in the deficient animals (998.21 +/- 57.19 compared to 254.66 +/- 15.62 for the controls). Associated with marked hypercortisolaemia in the deficient animals was a significant (p < 0.01) but less prominent increase in the whole-saliva cortisol level, resulting in a mean saliva/plasma cortisol ratio of 46% for this group compared to 72% for the controls. Increased corticosteroid levels suppress immunological and inflammatory responses, particularly neutrophil function, impair production of some cytokines, inhibit collagen synthesis, and impair wound healing and bone matrix formation. Numerous conditions such as ageing, stress, smoking, ionizing radiation, ingestion of drugs, protein malnutrition, diabetes, and several other pathological states, which are among the risk factors for xerostomia and periodontal/oral mucosal lesions, promote tissue depletion of ascorbate. This study suggests that increased salivary and blood levels of glucocorticoids in these conditions may be important in reducing the ability of the host to mount an effective immune response to oral pathogens. PMID:7487575

  8. Identification of single-nucleotide polymorphism markers associated with cortisol response to crowding in rainbow trout.

    PubMed

    Liu, Sixin; Vallejo, Roger L; Gao, Guangtu; Palti, Yniv; Weber, Gregory M; Hernandez, Alvaro; Rexroad, Caird E

    2015-06-01

    Understanding stress responses is essential for improving animal welfare and increasing agriculture production efficiency. Previously, we reported microsatellite markers associated with quantitative trait loci (QTL) affecting plasma cortisol response to crowding in rainbow trout. In this study, our main objectives were to identify single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers associated with cortisol response to crowding in rainbow trout using both GWAS (genome-wide association studies) and QTL mapping methods and to employ rapidly expanding genomic resources for rainbow trout toward the identification of candidate genes affecting this trait. A three-generation F2 mapping family (2008052) was genotyped using RAD-seq (restriction-site-associated DNA sequencing) to identify 4874 informative SNPs. GWAS identified 26 SNPs associated with cortisol response to crowding whereas QTL mapping revealed two significant QTL on chromosomes Omy8 and Omy12, respectively. Positional candidate genes were identified using marker sequences to search the draft genome assembly of rainbow trout. One of the genes in the QTL interval on Omy12 is a putative serine/threonine protein kinase gene that was differentially expressed in the liver in response to handling and confinement stress in our previous study. A homologue of this gene was differentially expressed in zebrafish embryos exposed to diclofenac, a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) and an environmental toxicant. NSAIDs have been shown to affect the cortisol response in rainbow trout; therefore, this gene is a good candidate based on its physical position and expression. However, the reference genome resources currently available for rainbow trout require continued improvement as demonstrated by the unmapped SNPs and the putative assembly errors detected in this study.

  9. Interacting influence of potassium and polychlorinated biphenyl on cortisol and aldosterone biosynthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Li, L.-A. . E-mail: lihann@nhri.org.tw; Lin, Tsu-Chun Emma

    2007-05-01

    Giving human adrenocortical H295R cells 14 mM KCl for 24 h significantly induced not only aldosterone biosynthesis but also cortisol biosynthesis. Pre-treating the cells with polychlorinated biphenyl 126 (PCB126) further increased potassium-induced aldosterone and cortisol productions in a dose-dependent manner, but all examined concentrations of PCB126 had little effect on the yields of precursor steroids progesterone and 17-OH-progesterone. Subsequent examinations revealed that CYP11B1 and CYP11B2 genes, responsible for the respective final steps of the cortisol and aldosterone biosynthetic pathways, exhibited increased responsiveness to PCB126 under high potassium. While 10{sup -5} M PCB126 was needed to induce a significant increase in the basal mRNA abundance of either gene, PCB126 could enhance potassium-induced mRNA expression of CYP11B1 at 10{sup -7} M and CYP11B2 at 10{sup -9} M. Actually, potassium and PCB126 synergistically upregulated mRNA expression of both genes. Potassium raised the transcriptional rates of CYP11B1 and CYP11B2 probably through a conserved Ad5 cis-element, whereas PCB126 appeared to regulate these two genes at the post-transcriptional level. Positive potassium-PCB126 synergism was also detected in CYP11B2 enzyme activity estimated by aldosterone/progesterone ratio. In contrast, potassium and PCB126 increased CYP11B1 enzyme activity or cortisol/17-OH-progesterone ratio additively. Moreover, potassium improved the time effect of PCB126 on gene expression and enzyme activity of CYP11B2, but not the PCB126 time response of CYP11B1. These data demonstrated that potassium differentially enhanced the potency of PCB126 to induce CYP11B1- and CYP11B2-mediated steroidogenesis.

  10. Ambulatory assessed implicit affect is associated with salivary cortisol

    PubMed Central

    Mossink, Joram C. L.; Verkuil, Bart; Burger, Andreas M.; Tollenaar, Marieke S.; Brosschot, Jos F.

    2015-01-01

    One of the presumed pathways linking negative emotions to adverse somatic health is an overactive HPA-axis, usually indicated by elevated cortisol levels. Traditionally, research has focused on consciously reported negative emotions. Yet, given that the majority of information processing occurs without conscious awareness, stress physiology might also be influenced by affective processes that people are not aware of. In a 24-h ambulatory study we examined whether cortisol levels were associated with two implicit measures. Implicit affect was assessed using the Implicit Positive and Negative Affect Test, and implicit negative memory bias was assessed with the word fragment completion tasks. In 55 healthy participants, we measured subjective stress levels, worries, implicit, and explicit affect each hour during waking hours. Also, saliva samples were collected at three fixed times during the day, as well as upon waking and 30 min thereafter (cortisol awakening response). Multilevel analyses of the daytime cortisol levels revealed that the presence of an implicit negative memory bias was associated with increased cortisol levels. Additionally, implicit PA and, unexpectedly, implicit NA were negatively associated with cortisol levels. Finally, participants demonstrating higher levels of implicit sadness during the first measurement day, had a stronger cortisol rise upon awakening at the next day. Contrary to previous research, no associations between explicit affect and cortisol were apparent. The current study was the first to examine the concurrent relation between implicit measures and stress physiology in daily life. The results suggest that the traditional focus on consciously reported feelings and emotions is limited, and that implicit measures can add to our understanding of how stress and emotions contribute to daily physiological activity and, in the long term, health problems. PMID:25713550

  11. Cortisol concentrations in follicular fluid of 'low responder' patients.

    PubMed

    Bider, D; Shine, S; Tur-Kaspa, I; Levron, J; Dor, J

    1998-01-01

    The study was undertaken to examine any differences existing in total cortisol concentrations in the follicular fluid (FF) of pre-ruptured follicles between 'low responder' patients (group 1, n = 20) and 'good responder' patients (group 2, n = 15). The groups were defined according to how many oocytes had been retrieved during the previous in-vitro fertilization procedure (group 1: three or fewer; group 2: more than three) and total oestradiol concentration at previous in-vitro fertilization (IVF) (group 1: < or = 500 pg/ml; group 2: > 500 pg/ml). All patients were aged 36-43 years (group 1 mean +/- SD: 38.2 +/- 4.7; group 2: 32.1 +/- 3.8 years) and were diagnosed with tubal or unexplained infertility. The total FF cortisol concentrations obtained in conjunction with an IVF procedure were assayed and related to oocyte fertilization. Follicular fluid was analysed for total cortisol content. Only follicles between 19 and 20 mm diameter were analysed in both groups. After aspiration of blood-free FF, total cortisol concentrations were measured by radioimmunoassay, designed for the quantitative measurement of cortisol, and related to oocyte fertilization. Total cortisol concentration in FF from fertilized oocytes was 9.7 +/- 0.6 microg/ml (mean +/- SD) in group 1 compared to 9.2 +/- 4.4 microg/ml in group 2 (not statistically significant). Total cortisol concentrations were not associated with oocyte fertilization and no difference between the groups was found in total cortisol concentrations in the FF of unfertilized oocytes or empty follicles.

  12. Hair cortisol and cognitive performance in healthy older people.

    PubMed

    Pulopulos, Matias M; Hidalgo, Vanesa; Almela, Mercedes; Puig-Perez, Sara; Villada, Carolina; Salvador, Alicia

    2014-06-01

    Worse cognitive performance in older people has been associated with hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis dysregulation (in particular, higher cortisol levels). Analysis of hair cortisol concentrations (HCC) is a novel method to measure long-term cortisol exposure, and its relationship with cognition in healthy older people has not yet been studied. We investigated whether HCC (measured in hair scalp) and diurnal salivary cortisol levels (awakening, 30min after awakening, and evening, across two days) were related to cognitive performance (assessed with the Trail-making Test A and B, Digit Span Forward and Backward, word list-RAVLT and Stories subtest of the Rivermead) in 57 healthy older people (mean age=64.75 years, SD=4.17). Results showed that lower HCC were consistently related to worse working memory, learning, short-term verbal memory (RAVLT first trial and immediate recall) and long-term verbal memory. In contrast, higher mean levels and higher diurnal area under the curve of diurnal salivary cortisol were related to worse attention and short-term verbal memory (immediate story recall), respectively. Interestingly, a higher ratio of mean levels of diurnal salivary cortisol over HCC were related to worse performance on working memory and short-term verbal memory, suggesting that those individuals with lower long-term cortisol exposure might be more vulnerable to the negative effect of HPA-axis dysregulation on these cognitive processes. Our findings suggest that both low long-term cortisol exposure and a possible dysregulation of the diurnal rhythm of the HPA-axis may account, at least in part, for the inter-individual variability in cognitive performance in healthy older people.

  13. Cortisol, insulin and leptin during space flight and bed rest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stein, T. P.; Schluter, M. D.; Leskiw, M. J.

    1999-01-01

    Most ground based models for studying muscle atrophy and bone loss show reasonable fidelity to the space flight situation. However there are some differences. Investigation of the reasons for these differences can provide useful information about humans during space flight and aid in the refinement of ground based models. This report discusses three such differences, the relationships between: (i) cortisol and the protein loss, (ii) cortisol and ACTH and (iii) leptin, insulin and food intake.

  14. Estimation of cerebrospinal fluid cortisol level in tuberculous meningitis

    PubMed Central

    Mahale, Rohan R.; Mehta, Anish; Uchil, Sudhir

    2015-01-01

    Background: Central nervous system (CNS) involvement in tuberculosis is around 5–10%. Of the various manifestations of CNS tuberculosis, meningitis is the most common (70–80%). Delay in diagnosis and treatment results in significant morbidity and mortality. Objective: To study the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) cortisol levels in tubercular meningitis and compare the levels with controls. Methods: Cross-sectional, prospective, observational, hospital-based study done in 20 patients of tubercular meningitis, 20 patients of aseptic meningitis (AM) and 25 control subjects without any preexisting neurological disorders who have undergone lumbar puncture for spinal anesthesia. Results: Cortisol was detected in all 40 CSF samples of patients (100%). Mean CSF cortisol level was 8.82, 3.47 and 1.05 in tubercular meningitis, AM and controls, respectively. Mean CSF cortisol level in tubercular meningitis was significantly higher as compared to AM and controls (P < 0.0001). Conclusion: Cortisol level estimation in CSF is one of the rapid, relatively inexpensive diagnostic markers in early identification of tubercular meningitis along with CSF findings of elevated proteins, hypoglycorrhachia and lymphocytic pleocytosis. This aids in earlier institution of appropriate treatment and thereby decreasing morbidity and mortality. This is the first study on the estimation of CSF cortisol level in tuberculous meningitis. PMID:26752900

  15. Utility of cerebrospinal fluid cortisol level in acute bacterial meningitis

    PubMed Central

    Mehta, Anish; Mahale, Rohan R.; Sudhir, Uchil; Javali, Mahendra; Srinivasa, Rangasetty

    2015-01-01

    Background: Meningitis remains a serious clinical problem in developing as well as developed countries. Delay in diagnosis and treatment results in significant morbidity and mortality. The role and levels of intrathecal endogenous cortisol is not known. Objective: To study the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) cortisol levels and to evaluate its role as a diagnostic and therapeutic marker in acute bacterial meningitis. Materials and Methods: Thirty patients with acute bacterial meningitis with no prior treatment were evaluated. Cortisol levels were compared with 20 patients with aseptic (viral) meningitis and 25 control subjects. Results: Mean CSF cortisol level was 13.85, 3.47, and 1.05 in bacterial meningitis, aseptic meningitis, and controls, respectively. Mean CSF cortisol level in bacterial meningitis was significantly higher as compared to controls (P < 0.001). There was significant difference in CSFcortisol levels in bacterial and aseptic meningitis (P < 0.001). Conclusions: Cortisol levels in CSF are highly elevated in patients with acute bacterial meningitis. This suggests that intrathecalcortisol may serve as a valuable, rapid, relatively inexpensive diagnostic marker in discriminatingbetween bacterial and aseptic meningitis. This helps in earlier institution of appropriate treatment and thereby decreasing morbidity and mortality. PMID:26019421

  16. Interactions between spontaneous and provoked cortisol secretory episodes in man.

    PubMed

    Brandenberger, G; Follénius, M; Muzet, A

    1984-09-01

    This study describes the interactions between cortisol peaks due to spontaneous episodic release and peaks provoked by external stimuli. Successive and equidistant transitory rises of similar amplitude and duration were produced either by muscular exercise (30 min, 75% VO2max) or by injecting ACTH1-24 (Synacthen: 250 ng) before and after the midday meal-related peak. ACTH1-24 was also injected during sleep before the nocturnal sequence of the major secretory episodes. In all instances, cortisol levels had reverted to basal levels when the second stimulus was applied. ACTH-induced cortisol peaks depressed the subsequent meal-related peaks, the exercise-induced peaks, and the spontaneous secretory episodes at the end of the night, and thus had a strong depressor capacity. When exercise was the prior stimulus, the subsequent meal-related peaks were depressed, but the response to later exercise was not affected. Meal-related peaks and the spontaneous diurnal or nocturnal peaks did not depress the subsequent secretory episodes. These quantitatively comparable cortisol episodes were preceded by ACTH rises whose amplitude and duration were not identical: spontaneous and meal-related ACTH peaks were smaller than the provoked one; exercise-induced ACTH peaks were of longer duration than those after ACTH1-24 injection. The different depressor capacities of similar sized cortisol episodes and the lack of proportionality between spontaneous and provoked ACTH and cortisol peaks suggest that there are separate adrenocortical activation channels, which depend on the origin of the stimulation.

  17. Modeling the Salivary Cortisol Profile in Population Research

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez, Brisa N.; Wu, Meihua; Raghunathan, Trivellore E.; Diez-Roux, Ana V.

    2012-01-01

    In many studies, it has been hypothesized that stress and its biologic consequences may contribute to disparities in rates of cardiovascular disease. However, understanding of the most appropriate statistical methods to analyze biologic markers of stress, such as salivary cortisol, remains limited. The authors explore the utility of various statistical methods in modeling daily cortisol profiles in population-based studies. They demonstrate that the proposed methods allow additional insight into the cortisol profile compared with commonly used summaries of the profiles based on raw data. For instance, one can gain insights regarding the shape of the population average curve, characterize the types of individual-level departures from the average curve, and better understand the relation between covariates and attained cortisol levels or slopes at various points of the day, in addition to drawing inferences regarding common features of the cortisol profile, such as the cortisol awakening response and the area under the curve. The authors compare the inference and interpretations drawn from these methods and use data collected as part of the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis to illustrate them. PMID:23100245

  18. Testosterone, cortisol and anxiety in elite field hockey players.

    PubMed

    Aguilar, Raúl; Jiménez, Manuel; Alvero-Cruz, José R

    2013-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the change in the levels of testosterone and cortisol after victory and defeat in male field hockey players during an important tournament. In the beginning of the game series, the players were ranked very closely to achieve (for the first time) the championship rising to The Honor Division-A, the highest status national category. The first game resulted in a 7-4 victory, the second game resulted in a 6-1 victory, and the third game resulted in a 1-2 defeat. As expected, there were changes in testosterone levels after the competition, dropping in the game which ended in defeat, and rising slightly in the two games which ended in victory; there were also changes in cortisol levels, rising in the game which ended in defeat, and showing no variations in the games which ended in victory; correlational analyses congruently showed that defeat led to rises in cortisol whereas victory led to rises in testosterone; anticipatory somatic anxiety was related to cortisol levels prior to games, and physical exertion during competition was related to the change in testosterone levels (suggesting an inhibitory effect) but not to the change in cortisol levels. Hence, this pattern of hormonal responses to a real-life dominance challenge complied with Mazur's (1985) [16] biosocial model of status and dominance motivation, by showing that testosterone and cortisol are linked to victory and defeat in a theoretically predictable fashion.

  19. MDMA, cortisol, and heightened stress in recreational ecstasy users.

    PubMed

    Parrott, Andrew C; Montgomery, Cathy; Wetherell, Mark A; Downey, Luke A; Stough, Con; Scholey, Andrew B

    2014-09-01

    Stress develops when an organism requires additional metabolic resources to cope with demanding situations. This review will debate how recreational 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, 'ecstasy') can increase some aspects of acute and chronic stress in humans. Laboratory studies on the acute effects of MDMA on cortisol release and neurohormone levels in drug-free regular ecstasy/MDMA users have been reviewed, and the role of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis in chronic changes in anxiety, stress, and cognitive coping is debated. In the laboratory, acute ecstasy/MDMA use can increase cortisol levels by 100-200%, whereas ecstasy/MDMA-using dance clubbers experience an 800% increase in cortisol levels, because of the combined effects of the stimulant drug and dancing. Three-month hair samples of abstinent users revealed cortisol levels 400% higher than those in controls. Chronic users show heightened cortisol release in stressful environments and deficits in complex neurocognitive tasks. Event-related evoked response potential studies show altered patterns of brain activation, suggestive of increased mental effort, during basic information processing. Chronic mood deficits include more daily stress and higher depression in susceptible individuals. We conclude that ecstasy/MDMA increases cortisol levels acutely and subchronically and that changes in the HPA axis may explain why recreational ecstasy/MDMA users show various aspects of neuropsychobiological stress.

  20. Father contributions to cortisol responses in infancy and toddlerhood.

    PubMed

    Mills-Koonce, W Roger; Garrett-Peters, Patricia; Barnett, Melissa; Granger, Douglas A; Blair, Clancy; Cox, Martha J

    2011-03-01

    The current study is one of the first prospective examinations of longitudinal associations between observed father caregiving behaviors and child cortisol reactivity and regulation in response to emotional arousal. Observations of father and mother caregiving behaviors and child cortisol levels in response to challenges at 7 months and 24 months of child age were collected. Analyses were based on a subsample of children from the Family Life Project who lived with both their biological mothers and fathers and for whom there was at least partial cortisol data (7 months: n = 717; 24 months: n = 579). At the challenge conducted at 7 months of child age, 49.0% of the sample were girls; racial composition of the sample was 25.8% African American and 74.2% European American. At the challenge conducted at 24 months of child age 49.9% of the sample were girls; racial composition was 24.7% African American and 75.3% European American. We conducted analyses across assessment points simultaneously using mixed linear modeling for repeated measures data to test for differential effects of fathering across infancy and toddlerhood. Concurrent measures of father negativity were positively associated with greater increases in child cortisol levels in response to emotion challenge at 7 months (p = .01) and with higher overall levels of cortisol at 24 months (p < .001). However, there was no evidence that father caregiving during infancy independently predicted later cortisol activity during toddlerhood. PMID:21142362

  1. Sleep disturbances are correlated with decreased morning awakening salivary cortisol.

    PubMed

    Backhaus, Jutta; Junghanns, Klaus; Hohagen, Fritz

    2004-10-01

    Morning and evening salivary cortisol levels were correlated with sleep parameters in 14 patients with primary insomnia and 15 healthy controls. Salivary cortisol was sampled immediately after awakening (T1), 15 min later (T2), and immediately before going to bed (T3) for 1 week at home. In parallel with this, subjects estimated parameters of sleep in a daily sleep log. Patients and controls were all non-smokers who did not differ regarding morning awakening time or bedtime. Cortisol after awakening was significantly decreased in primary insomnia. Salivary cortisol at the time of awakening correlated negatively with the subjective estimation of sleep quality, i.e. a low salivary cortisol level directly after awakening correlated with a higher frequency of nightly awakenings (r = -0.50), a diminished sleep quality (r = -0.34) and a decreased feeling of recovery after awakening (r = -0.35; all p < 0.05). Furthermore, awakening cortisol was negatively correlated with the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (r = -0.43) and with a questionnaire on sleep-related cognitions with the subscales rumination in bed (r = -0.56 ) and focusing on sleep-related thoughts (r = -0.46; all p < 0.05).

  2. The Association between Prenatal Exposure to Cigarettes and Cortisol Reactivity in 7-Month-Old Infants

    PubMed Central

    Schuetze, Pamela; Lopez, Francisco; Granger, Douglas A.; Eiden, Rina D.

    2008-01-01

    We examined the association between prenatal exposure to cigarettes and adrenocortical responses to stress in 7-month old infants. Cortisol levels were assessed twice prior to and twice following affect-eliciting procedures in 111 (59 exposed and 52 nonexposed) infants. Cortisol reactivity was defined as the difference between the peak poststressor cortical level and the pretask cortisol level. Higher values indicated higher cortisol reactivity. Exposed infants had higher peak cortisol reactivity than non exposed infants. There were no differences in pretask cortisol levels. Maternal hostility mediated the association between cigarette exposure and peak cortisol reactivity. Furthermore, infant gender moderated this association such that exposed boys had significantly higher peak cortisol reactivity than nonexposed infants or exposed girls. These findings provide additional evidence that prenatal cigarette exposure is associated with dysregulation during infancy and that early adverse, non-social experiences may have relatively long-lasting effects on cortisol reactivity in infants. PMID:18690653

  3. Concerns Regarding Hair Cortisol as a Biomarker of Chronic Stress in Exercise and Sport Science

    PubMed Central

    Gerber, Markus; Brand, Serge; Lindwall, Magnus; Elliot, Catherine; Kalak, Nadeem; Herrmann, Christian; Pühse, Uwe; Jonsdottir, Ingibjörg H.

    2012-01-01

    Hair cortisol has the potential to fill the methodological void of long-term cortisol assessment while becoming a widely accepted measure in biopsychology. This review critically examines the applicability and relevance of hair cortisol measurement specifically within the field of exercise and sport science. Current measures of the HPA axis only cover a brief time period, whereas hair cortisol is a unique, non-invasive means to capture long- term cortisol secretion. Studies have shown that individuals who have elevated cortisol secretion (e.g. due to diseases associated with a disturbed activation of the HPA axis or exposure to stressful life events) reveal increased hair cortisol. By contrast, only weak correlations exist between hair cortisol and perceived stress, and the direction of the relationship between hair cortisol levels and mental disorders is unclear. Acute exercise, however, results in increased levels of cortisol that eventually is reflected in higher levels of cortisol in hair samples and studies have shown that exercise intensity is related to hair cortisol level. Thus, elevated hair cortisol levels found among regular exercisers are not necessarily pathological. Thus, one should practice caution when associating athletes’ elevated hair cortisol with poor mental health or disease. Hair cortisol analysis can contribute to a more complete understanding of how long-term cortisol elevation mediates stress-related effects on the health and performance of recreational exercisers and elite athletes. Nevertheless, it is crucial for exercise and sport scientists to consider whether their research questions can be adequately addressed, given that regular intense exercise results in substantially augmented hair cortisol levels. Key points Hair cortisol is a unique, non-invasive and painless means to capture long-term cortisol secretion. Individuals expected to have elevated cortisol secretion (e.g. due to trauma) have increased hair cortisol. Preliminary

  4. Correlation between maternal and infant cortisol varies by breastfeeding status

    PubMed Central

    Benjamin Neelon, Sara E.; Stroo, Marissa; Mayhew, Meghan; Maselko, Joanna; Hoyo, Cathrine

    2015-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to examine associations of mother and infant salivary cortisol, measured three times over the course of a day, and assess whether these varied by breastfeeding status. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study of 54 mothers and their infants aged 4–11 months. Mothers collected their own saliva and that of their infants upon awakening, 30 min after waking and at bedtime. Breastfeeding status was reported by mothers and cortisol level was measured in saliva in μg/dl using standard techniques. We used generalized linear models to evaluate relationships between maternal and infant cortisol levels, and assessed whether the relationship differed by breastfeeding status: formula only compared to partial and full breastfeeding, adjusting for infant sex, race, age, maternal education, and family income. Results Thirty-four infants received formula only and 20 were either partially or fully breastfed. Breastfeeding was associated with higher household income, higher maternal education, and white race. Cortisol levels were higher among breastfed infants at all three time points. After adjustment, maternal cortisol levels were related with infant cortisol at bedtime only (regression estimate 0.06; 95% CI: 0.10, 1.1; p = 0.02). The adjusted association between bedtime maternal and infant cortisol was stronger among breastfeeding dyads than among formula-feeding dyads (regression estimate 1.0; 95% CI: 0.1, 2.0; p = 0.04 vs. 0.6; CI: −0.1,1.3; p = 0.10). In addition, we assessed the influence of maternal education and household income in our adjusted model; income strengthened the observed association, whereas maternal education did not change the estimate. Conclusions Breastfeeding mothers and infants had significant correlations for cortisol at bedtime, while formula-feeding dyads did not. These data suggest that several factors may contribute to cortisol synchrony observed in mother/infant dyads, including the transfer of

  5. Use of plasma metanephrine to aid adrenal venous sampling in combined aldosterone and cortisol over-secretion

    PubMed Central

    Goupil, Rémi; Wolley, Martin; Ungerer, Jacobus; McWhinney, Brett; Mukai, Kuniaki; Naruse, Mitsuhide; Gordon, Richard D

    2015-01-01

    Summary In patients with primary aldosteronism (PA) undergoing adrenal venous sampling (AVS), cortisol levels are measured to assess lateralization of aldosterone overproduction. Concomitant adrenal autonomous cortisol and aldosterone secretion therefore have the potential to confound AVS results. We describe a case where metanephrine was measured during AVS to successfully circumvent this problem. A 55-year-old hypertensive male had raised plasma aldosterone/renin ratios and PA confirmed by fludrocortisone suppression testing. Failure of plasma cortisol to suppress overnight following dexamethasone and persistently suppressed corticotrophin were consistent with adrenal hypercortisolism. On AVS, comparison of adrenal and peripheral A/F ratios (left 5.7 vs peripheral 1.0; right 1.7 vs peripheral 1.1) suggested bilateral aldosterone production, with the left gland dominant but without contralateral suppression. However, using aldosterone/metanephrine ratios (left 9.7 vs peripheral 2.4; right 1.3 vs peripheral 2.5), aldosterone production lateralized to the left with good contralateral suppression. The patient underwent left laparoscopic adrenalectomy with peri-operative glucocorticoid supplementation to prevent adrenal insufficiency. Pathological examination revealed adrenal cortical adenomas producing both cortisol and aldosterone within a background of aldosterone-producing cell clusters. Hypertension improved and cured of PA and hypercortisolism were confirmed by negative post-operative fludrocortisone suppression and overnight 1 mg dexamethasone suppression testing. Routine dexamethasone suppression testing in patients with PA permits detection of concurrent hypercortisolism which can confound AVS results and cause unilateral PA to be misdiagnosed as bilateral with patients thereby denied potentially curative surgical treatment. In such patients, measurement of plasma metanephrine during AVS may overcome this issue. Learning points Simultaneous autonomous

  6. Cortisol directly impacts Flavobacterium columnare in vitro growth characteristics.

    PubMed

    Declercq, Annelies Maria; Aerts, Johan; Ampe, Bart; Haesebrouck, Freddy; De Saeger, Sarah; Decostere, Annemie

    2016-01-01

    Teleost fish faced with stressful stimuli launch an endocrine stress response through activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-interrenal axis to release glucocorticoids, in particular cortisol, into the blood. For the majority of bacterial fish pathogens, stress is considered a key factor in disease outbreaks. Based upon studies in mammals, there is considerable evidence to suggest that, besides impairing the immune system, cortisol can have a direct effect on bacterial cells. Hitherto, this intriguing field of microbial endocrinology has remained largely unexplored in aquatic diseases. The present study investigated in vitro the impact of cortisol on phenotypic traits of the fresh water fish pathogen Flavobacterium columnare. Colonies obtained from the highly virulent (HV) isolates resulted in significantly larger and more spreading colonies compared to those from the low virulent (LV) isolates. High cortisol doses added displayed a direct effect on the bacterial cells and induced a significant decrease in colony size. An additional intriguing finding was the inverse relationship between cortisol concentrations added to the broth and the spreading character of colonies retrieved, with higher cortisol doses resulting in less rhizoid to rough and even smooth colony formation (the latter only in the LV trout isolate), suggesting a dose-response effect. The loss of the rhizoid appearance of the F. columnare colonies upon administration of cortisol, and hence the loss of motility, might indicate a phenotypic change to the biofilm state. These findings form the basis for further research on the impact of glucocorticoids on other virulence factors and biofilm formation of F. columnare. PMID:27530746

  7. Cortisol levels and suicidal behavior: A meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, Daryl B; Ferguson, Eamonn; Green, Jessica A; O'Carroll, Ronan E; O'Connor, Rory C

    2016-01-01

    Suicide is a major cause of death worldwide, responsible for 1.5% of all mortality. The causes of suicidal behavior are not fully understood. Dysregulated hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity, as measured by cortisol levels, is one potential risk factor. This meta-analytic review aimed (i) to estimate the strength and variability of the association between naturally fluctuating cortisol levels and suicidal behavior and (ii) to identify moderators of this relationship. A systematic literature search identified 27 studies (N=2226; 779 suicide attempters and 1447 non-attempters) that met the study eligibility criteria from a total of 417 unique records initially examined. Estimates of effect sizes (r) obtained from these studies were analysed using Comprehensive Meta-Analysis. In these analyses, we compared participants identified as having a past history of suicide attempt(s) to those with no such history. Study quality, mean age of sample and percentage of male participants were examined as potential moderators. Overall, there was no significant effect of suicide group on cortisol. However, significant associations between cortisol and suicide attempts were observed as a function of age. In studies where the mean age of the sample was below 40 years the association was positive (i.e., higher cortisol was associated with suicide attempts; r=.234, p<.001), and where the mean age was 40 or above the association was negative (i.e., lower cortisol was associated with suicide attempts; r=-.129, p<.001). These findings confirm that HPA axis activity, as indicated by age-dependent variations in cortisol levels, is associated with suicidal behavior. The challenge for theory and clinical practice is to explain the complete reversal of the association with age and to identify its clinical implications.

  8. The cortisol and androgen pathways cross talk in high temperature-induced masculinization: the 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase as a key enzyme.

    PubMed

    Fernandino, Juan Ignacio; Hattori, Ricardo Shohei; Kishii, Ai; Strüssmann, Carlos Augusto; Somoza, Gustavo Manuel

    2012-12-01

    In many ectotherm species the gonadal fate is modulated by temperature early in life [temperature-dependent sex determination (TSD)] but the transducer mechanism between temperature and gonadal differentiation is still elusive. We have recently shown that cortisol, the glucocorticoid stress-related hormone in vertebrates, is involved in the TSD process of pejerrey, Odontesthes bonariensis. Particularly, all larvae exposed to a male-producing temperature (MPT, 29 C) after hatching showed increased whole-body cortisol and 11-ketotestosterone (11-KT; the main bioactive androgen in fish) levels and developed as males. Moreover, cortisol administration at an intermediate, mixed sex-producing temperature (MixPT, 24 C) caused increases in 11-KT and in the frequency of males, suggesting a relation between this glucocorticoid and androgens during the masculinization process. In order to clarify the link between stress and masculinization, the expression of hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (hsd)11b2, glucocorticoid receptors gr1 and gr2, and androgen receptors ar1 and ar2 was analyzed by quantitative real time PCR and in situ hybridization in larvae reared at MPT, MixPT, and female-producing temperature (FPT, 17 C) during the sex determination period. We also analyzed the effects of cortisol treatment in larvae reared at MixPT and in adult testicular explants incubated in vitro. MPT and cortisol treatment produced significant increases in hsd11b2 mRNA expression. Also, gonadal explants incubated in the presence of cortisol showed increases of 11-KT levels in the medium. Taken together these results suggest that cortisol promotes 11-KT production during high temperature-induced masculinization by modulation of hsd11b2 expression and thus drives the morphogenesis of the testes.

  9. The DeStress for Success Program: effects of a stress education program on cortisol levels and depressive symptomatology in adolescents making the transition to high school.

    PubMed

    Lupien, S J; Ouellet-Morin, I; Trépanier, L; Juster, R P; Marin, M F; Francois, N; Sindi, S; Wan, N; Findlay, H; Durand, N; Cooper, L; Schramek, T; Andrews, J; Corbo, V; Dedovic, K; Lai, B; Plusquellec, P

    2013-09-26

    Various studies have shown that increased activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis can predict the onset of adolescent depressive symptomatology. We have previously shown that adolescents making the transition to high school present a significant increase in cortisol levels, the main product of HPA axis activation. In the present study, we evaluated whether a school-based education program developed according to the current state of knowledge on stress in psychoneuroendocrinology decreases cortisol levels and/or depressive symptoms in adolescents making the transition to high school. Participants were 504 Year 7 high school students from two private schools in the Montreal area. Adolescents of one school were exposed to the DeStress for Success Program while adolescents from the other school served as controls. Salivary cortisol levels and depressive symptomatology were measured before, immediately after as well as 3 months after exposure to the program. Measures of negative mood were obtained at baseline in order to determine whether adolescents starting high school with specific negative moods were differentially responsive to the program. The results show that only adolescents starting high school with high levels of anger responded to the intervention with a significant decrease in cortisol levels. Moreover, we found that adolescents who took part in the intervention and showed decreasing cortisol levels following the intervention (responders) were 2.45 times less at risk to suffer from clinical and subclinical depressive states three months post-intervention in comparison to adolescents who showed increasing cortisol levels following the intervention (nonresponders). This study provides the first evidence that a school-based program on stress is effective at decreasing cortisol levels and depressive symptomatology in adolescents making the transition to high school and it helps explain which adolescents are sensitive to the program and what

  10. Concerns regarding hair cortisol as a biomarker of chronic stress in exercise and sport science.

    PubMed

    Gerber, Markus; Brand, Serge; Lindwall, Magnus; Elliot, Catherine; Kalak, Nadeem; Herrmann, Christian; Pühse, Uwe; Jonsdottir, Ingibjörg H

    2012-12-01

    Hair cortisol has the potential to fill the methodological void of long-term cortisol assessment while becoming a widely accepted measure in biopsychology. This review critically examines the applicability and relevance of hair cortisol measurement specifically within the field of exercise and sport science. Current measures of the HPA axis only cover a brief time period, whereas hair cortisol is a unique, non-invasive means to capture long- term cortisol secretion. Studies have shown that individuals who have elevated cortisol secretion (e.g. due to diseases associated with a disturbed activation of the HPA axis or exposure to stressful life events) reveal increased hair cortisol. By contrast, only weak correlations exist between hair cortisol and perceived stress, and the direction of the relationship between hair cortisol levels and mental disorders is unclear. Acute exercise, however, results in increased levels of cortisol that eventually is reflected in higher levels of cortisol in hair samples and studies have shown that exercise intensity is related to hair cortisol level. Thus, elevated hair cortisol levels found among regular exercisers are not necessarily pathological. Thus, one should practice caution when associating athletes' elevated hair cortisol with poor mental health or disease. Hair cortisol analysis can contribute to a more complete understanding of how long-term cortisol elevation mediates stress-related effects on the health and performance of recreational exercisers and elite athletes. Nevertheless, it is crucial for exercise and sport scientists to consider whether their research questions can be adequately addressed, given that regular intense exercise results in substantially augmented hair cortisol levels.

  11. Development of the cortisol circadian rhythm in the light of stress early in life.

    PubMed

    Simons, Sterre S H; Beijers, Roseriet; Cillessen, Antonius H N; de Weerth, Carolina

    2015-12-01

    The secretion of the stress hormone cortisol follows a diurnal circadian rhythm. There are indications that this rhythm is affected by stress early in life. This paper addresses the development of the cortisol circadian rhythm between 1 and 6 years of age, and the role of maternal stress and anxiety early in the child's life on this (developing) rhythm. Participants were 193 healthy mother-child dyads from a community sample. Self-reported maternal stress and anxiety and physiological stress (saliva cortisol), were assessed prenatally (gestational week 37). Postnatally, self-reported maternal stress and anxiety were measured at 3, 6, 12, 30, and 72 months. Saliva cortisol samples from the children were collected on two days (four times each day) at 12, 30, and 72 months of age. The total amount of cortisol during the day and the cortisol decline over the day were determined to indicate children's cortisol circadian rhythm. Multilevel analyses showed that the total amount of cortisol decreased between 1 and 6 years. Furthermore, more maternal pregnancy-specific stress was related to higher total amounts of cortisol in the child. Higher levels of early postnatal maternal anxiety were associated with flatter cortisol declines in children. Higher levels of early postnatal maternal daily hassles were associated with steeper child cortisol declines over the day. These results indicated developmental change in children's cortisol secretion from 1 to 6 years and associations between maternal stress and anxiety early in children's lives and children's cortisol circadian rhythm in early childhood.

  12. Basal or stress-induced cortisol and asthma development: the TRAILS study.

    PubMed

    Vink, Nienke M; Boezen, H Marike; Postma, Dirkje S; Rosmalen, Judith G M

    2013-04-01

    We examined the association between: 1) cortisol levels and asthma or asthma development; 2) cortisol levels upon stress and asthma. In addition, we performed a post hoc meta-analysis on results from the literature. Cortisol, cortisol upon stress, asthma (doctor diagnosis of asthma and/or symptoms and/or treatment in the past 12 months) and asthma development (asthma at a specific survey while not having asthma at the previous survey(s)) were assessed in the TRAILS study (n=2230, mean age at survey 1 11 years, survey 2 14 years and survey 3 16 years). Logistic regression models were used to study associations between: 1) cortisol (cortisol awakening response, area under the curve (AUC) with respect to the ground (AUCg) or with respect to the increase (AUCi), and evening cortisol) and asthma or asthma development; 2) cortisol upon stress (AUCg or AUCi) and asthma. The meta-analyses included nine case-control articles on basal cortisol in asthma. No significant association was found between: 1) cortisol and asthma (age 11 years) or asthma development (age 14 or 16 years); 2) cortisol upon stress and asthma (age 16 years). The meta-analysis found lower morning and evening cortisol levels in asthmatics compared to non-asthmatics; however, the summary estimates were not significant. We found no evidence supporting a role for cortisol in asthma and asthma development.

  13. Effects of season, age, sex, and housing on salivary cortisol concentrations in horses.

    PubMed

    Aurich, J; Wulf, M; Ille, N; Erber, R; von Lewinski, M; Palme, R; Aurich, C

    2015-07-01

    Analysis of salivary cortisol is increasingly used to assess stress responses in horses. Because spontaneous or experimentally induced increases in cortisol concentrations are often relatively small for stress studies, proper controls are needed. This requires an understanding of the factors affecting salivary cortisol over longer times. In this study, we have analyzed salivary cortisol concentration for 6 mo in horses (n = 94) differing in age, sex, reproductive state, and housing. Salivary cortisol followed a diurnal rhythm with the highest concentrations in the morning and a decrease throughout the day (P < 0.001). This rhythm was disrupted in individual groups on individual days; however, alterations remained within the range of diurnal changes. Comparison between months showed highest cortisol concentrations in December (P < 0.001). Cortisol concentrations increased in breeding stallions during the breeding season (P < 0.001). No differences in salivary cortisol concentrations between nonpregnant mares with and without a corpus luteum existed. In stallions, mean daily salivary cortisol and plasma testosterone concentrations were weakly correlated (r = 0.251, P < 0.01). No differences in salivary cortisol between female and male young horses and no consistent differences between horses of different age existed. Group housing and individual stabling did not affect salivary cortisol. In conclusion, salivary cortisol concentrations in horses follow a diurnal rhythm and are increased in active breeding sires. Time of the day and reproductive state of the horses are thus important for experiments that include analysis of cortisol in saliva.

  14. Hair Analysis Provides a Historical Record of Cortisol Levels in Cushing’s Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Thomson, S.; Koren, G.; Fraser, L.-A.; Rieder, M.; Friedman, T. C.; Van Uum, S. H. M.

    2010-01-01

    The severity of Cushing’s Syndrome (CS) depends on the duration and extent of the exposure to excess glucocorticoids. Current measurements of cortisol in serum, saliva and urine reflect systemic cortisol levels at the time of sample collection, but cannot assess past cortisol levels. Hair cortisol levels may be increased in patients with CS, and, as hair grows about 1 cm/month, measurement of hair cortisol may provide historical information on the development of hypercortisolism. We attempted to measure cortisol in hair in relation to clinical course in six female patients with CS and in 32 healthy volunteers in 1 cm hair sections. Hair cortisol content was measured using a commercially available salivary cortisol immune assay with a protocol modified for use with hair. Hair cortisol levels were higher in patients with CS than in controls, the medians (ranges) were 679 (279–2500) and 116 (26–204) ng/g respectively (P <0.001). Segmental hair analysis provided information for up to 18 months before time of sampling. Hair cortisol concentrations appeared to vary in accordance with the clinical course. Based on these data, we suggest that hair cortisol measurement is a novel method for assessing dynamic systemic cortisol exposure and provides unique historical information on variation in cortisol, and that more research is required to fully understand the utility and limits of this technique. PMID:19609841

  15. GH and cortisol responses following an acute session of respiratory muscle endurance training in severely obese patients.

    PubMed

    Sartorio, A; Agosti, F; Patrizi, A; Gattico, A; Tringali, G; Giunta, M; Muller, E E; Rigamonti, A E

    2013-03-01

    It is well established that obese patients are hypo-responsive to classical GH-releasing stimuli, including aerobic exercise. Recently, we have demonstrated that whole body vibration was able to markedly stimulate GH secretion in obese patients, thus suggesting that this refractoriness is not absolute but dependent on the GH-releasing stimulus. Furthermore, we have shown the ability of a respiratory muscle endurance training (RMET) to stimulate GH and cortisol secretion in healthy subjects. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of RMET on GH and cortisol responses in severely obese patients. Eight severely obese patients (4 M/4 F, mean age±SEM: 22.8±1.6 years, body mass index, BMI: 39.9±1.1 kg/m2) underwent an incremental progressive RMET protocol of 11 daily sessions, obtained through the use of a specifically designed respiratory device (Spiro Tiger®). The 12th session of RMET (15 min duration: 1 min at a respiration rate of 28 acts/min, 5 min at 32 acts/min, 5 min at 34 acts/min, 4 min at 36 acts/min) was associated with blood samplings for determination of GH, cortisol, and lactate (LA) levels. An age- and sex-matched normal-weighted control group (n=7, 4 M/3 F, age: 26.1±3.1 years, BMI: 22.4±0.6 kg/m2) was also recruited. In both normal-weighted subjects and obese patients, GH secretion significantly increased after a 15-min RMET session. Although serum GH levels at 30 min were higher in normal-weighted subjects than in obese patients, there was no statistically significant difference in either GH peaks or net GH areas under the curve between the 2 groups. RMET significantly increased serum cortisol levels in normal-weighted subjects, but was associated to a progressive cortisol decline in obese patients. RMET stimulated LA production, with no significant differences in normal-weighted subjects and in obese patients. A 15-min RMET session was capable to induce a GH response in severely obese patients, which was comparable to that

  16. Salivary Alpha Amylase-Cortisol Asymmetry in Maltreated Youth

    PubMed Central

    Gordis, Elana B.; Granger, Douglas A.; Susman, Elizabeth J.; Trickett, Penelope K.

    2008-01-01

    Background Maltreatment represents a major stressor in the lives of many youth. Given the known effects of stress exposure on subsequent biological stress response systems, researchers have been interested in the effects of maltreatment on the functioning of these systems. Experimental studies reveal that previous exposure to stress affects the symmetry between components of the physiological stress response to subsequent stress. The present study examined asymmetry between salivary alpha amylase (sAA), a sympathetic indicator, and cortisol reactivity to a social stressor among maltreated and comparison youth age 9 to 14 years. Consistent with earlier studies suggesting that stress leads to asymmetry between hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and sympathetic nervous system activity, we expected that maltreated youth would exhibit greater sAA-cortisol asymmetry than would comparison youth. Methods Forty-seven maltreated and 37 comparison youth visited the lab and engaged in a social stress protocol. We collected 2 saliva samples before the stressor and 4 after, at 0 minutes post stress and every 10 minutes for 30 minutes. Results Maltreatment status moderated the relation between sAA and cortisol activity in response to the stressor. Comparison youth showed significant links between the sAA and cortisol responses; maltreated youth had no significant associations between responses in the two biomarkers. Conclusion The data were consistent with sAA-cortisol asymmetry among maltreated youth. Further research should seek to replicate this finding and investigate its implication for developmental trajectories. PMID:17945232

  17. Cortisol disrupts the neural correlates of extinction recall.

    PubMed

    Kinner, Valerie L; Merz, Christian J; Lissek, Silke; Wolf, Oliver T

    2016-06-01

    The renewal effect describes the recovery of extinguished responses that may occur after a change in context and indicates that extinction memory retrieval is sometimes prone to failure. Stress hormones have been implicated to modulate extinction processes, with mostly impairing effects on extinction retrieval. However, the neurobiological mechanisms mediating stress effects on extinction memory remain elusive. In this functional magnetic resonance imaging study, we investigated the effects of cortisol administration on the neural correlates of extinction memory retrieval in a predictive learning task. In this task, participants were required to predict whether certain food stimuli were associated with stomach trouble when presented in two different contexts. A two-day renewal paradigm was applied in which an association was acquired in context A and subsequently extinguished in context B. On the following day, participants received either cortisol or placebo 40min before extinction memory retrieval was tested in both contexts. Behaviorally, cortisol impaired the retrieval of extinguished associations when presented in the extinction context. On the neural level, this effect was characterized by a reduced context differentiation for the extinguished stimulus in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex, but only in men. In the placebo group, ventromedial prefrontal cortex was functionally connected to the left cerebellum, the anterior cingulate and the right anterior parahippocampal gyrus to express extinction memory. This functional crosstalk was reduced under cortisol. These findings illustrate that the stress hormone cortisol disrupts ventromedial prefrontal cortex functioning and its communication with other brain regions implicated in extinction memory. PMID:26973167

  18. Trait and state perseverative cognition and the cortisol awakening response.

    PubMed

    Zoccola, Peggy M; Dickerson, Sally S; Yim, Ilona S

    2011-05-01

    Perseverative cognition (i.e., rumination, worry) may amplify or maintain cortisol stress responses. The present study examined the effects of trait and state perseverative cognition (PC) on the cortisol awakening response (CAR). We hypothesized that trait PC and state (prior day's) PC would be associated with greater CARs. Undergraduates scoring high (N=77) and low (N=42) on trait PC were included. Participants reported worries about upcoming events and ruminations on past events that occurred throughout the day as a measure of state PC. The next morning, saliva samples were collected 0, 30, 45, and 60min after awakening to assess the CAR. Area under the curve (AUC) and 30-min increase (30-min Inc) were calculated to capture the salivary cortisol total output and increase relative to baseline in the hour after awakening. There was no effect of trait PC on the CAR. In contrast, reports of worrying and/or ruminating the night before predicted greater increases in cortisol concentration and total cortisol output compared to those who neither ruminated nor worried the night before. These effects were not accounted for by depressed mood, anxiety, sleep, or recent stressors. Findings suggest differential effects of trait and state PC on the CAR and highlight the importance of using proximal measures in examining individual differences in the CAR.

  19. Plasma-cortisol levels in experimental heatstroke in dogs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Assia, Ehud; Epstein, Yoram; Magazanik, Avraham; Shapiro, Yair; Sohar, Ezra

    1989-06-01

    The effect of external heat-load, exercise and dehydration on dynamic changes in plasma cortisol during the development of heatstroke was investigated. Thirty-three unanesthetized dogs were tested under two sets of climatic conditions: comfort conditions and hot-dry climatic conditions, half of them while exercising. Half of the dogs in each group were rehydrated. None of the dogs that were investigated at room temperature suffered heatstroke. Of the dogs exposed to high ambient temperature, all of the exercising, as well as five out of six non-hydrated dogs and one rehydrated non-exercising dog suffered heatstroke. Significant dehydration (6% 7% of body weight), occurred only under hgh ambient temperature. Plasma cortisol levels of all dogs that suffered heatstroke rose conspicuously for at least 5 h and returned to normal levels 24 h later. Cortisol levels of dogs who did not experience heatstroke remained within the normal range. Cortisol levels correlated with the severity of the stress leading to heatstroke. High and rising levels of cortisol, several hours after body temperature returns to normal, may support the diagnosis of heatstroke.

  20. The effect of treatment with whole bee venom on cage activity and plasma cortisol levels in the arthritic dog.

    PubMed

    Vick, J A; Warren, G B; Brooks, R B

    1976-03-01

    A series of 24 mixed-breed dogs were used to study the physiological effects of whole bee venom on canine arthritic-like conditions. 16 were randomly selected normal dogs and 8 were suspect arthritic animals confirmed by X-ray examination and special physical examination. The control dogs were divided into groups I and II and the arthritic groups III and IV. Groups I and III received injections of sterile saline while groups II and IV were given 1 mg whole bee venom subcutaneously on days 30, 37, 50, and 60. Plasma cortisol levels were measured weekly and cage activity recorded daily using a K and R Pedometer. Following bee venom injection plasma cortisol levels increased in both groups II and IV from a control of 5Μg/100 ml to 15Μg/100 ml 15 days after therapy. During this period of time the 4 arthritic dogs in group IV increased daily cage activity from 4 mile/day to 10 mile/day. Groups I, II, and III showed no increase or decrease in cage activity. No injections were given between day 60 and day 90. At 90, 97, 110 and 120 days, groups I and III were given bee venom and groups II and IV sterile saline. As before, bee venom increased plasma cortisol levels in both venom-treated groups and the daily cage activity in group III. At 120 days all injections were discontinued. Plasma cortisol levels returned to normal within 30 days, yet daily cage activity in both groups III and IV remained significantly above control (8 to 11 mile/day). Results indicate that whole bee venom stimulates the production of cortisol and the daily cage activity in dogs exhibiting arthritic-like conditions. No significant side effects were noted in any of the dogs treated with bee venom. PMID:24194426

  1. Ontogeny of the cortisol stress response in channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cortisol is a glucocorticoid hormone which is an endocrine signaling molecule in all vertebrates and acts through intracellular glucocorticoid receptors (GR). Cortisol affects many biological functions including immunity, stress, growth, ion homeostasis, and reproduction. The objective of this stu...

  2. Leukocyte subsets and cortisol serum levels in patients with migraine without aura and chronic tension-type headache.

    PubMed

    Leone, M; Biffi, M; Leoni, F; Bussone, G

    1994-04-01

    Leukocyte subsets, serum cortisol and immunoglobulin production were investigated in a group of 12 migraine without aura patients, 12 chronic tension-type headache patients and compared with findings in 12 healthy controls. Chronic tension-type headache patients had statistically significant increased levels of B-lymphocytes (CD19+ cells) (p < 0.05), while migraine sufferers had a similarly significant decrease in CD8+ T-lymphocytes (p < 0.05). Migraine patients also had an increased percentage of B-lymphocytes although this failed to reach statistical significance. Immunoglobulin production and cortisol serum levels did not differ in the two headache groups. We conclude that the observed abnormalities in tension-type headache and migraine are unlikely to be a consequence of pain or of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis dysfunction.

  3. Circulating angiogenic cell function is inhibited by cortisol in vitro and associated with psychological stress and cortisol in vivo.

    PubMed

    Aschbacher, Kirstin; Derakhshandeh, Ronak; Flores, Abdiel J; Narayan, Shilpa; Mendes, Wendy Berry; Springer, Matthew L

    2016-05-01

    Psychological stress and glucocorticoids are associated with heightened cardiovascular disease risk. We investigated whether stress or cortisol would be associated with reduced circulating angiogenic cell (CAC) function, an index of impaired vascular repair. We hypothesized that minority-race individuals who experience threat in interracial interactions would exhibit reduced CAC function, and that this link might be explained by cortisol. To test this experimentally, we recruited 106 African American participants for a laboratory interracial interaction task, in which they received socially evaluative feedback from Caucasian confederates. On a separate day, a subset of 32 participants (mean age=26years, 47% female) enrolled in a separate biological substudy and provided blood samples for CAC isolation and salivary samples to quantify the morning peak in cortisol (the cortisol awakening response, CAR). CAC function was quantified using cell culture assays of migration to vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and secretion of VEGF into the culture medium. Heightened threat in response to an interracial interaction and trait anxiety in vivo were both associated with poorer CAC migratory function in vitro. Further, threat and poorer sustained attention during the interracial interaction were associated with a higher CAR, which in turn, was related to lower CAC sensitivity to glucocorticoids. In vitro, higher doses of cortisol impaired CAC migratory function and VEGF protein secretion. The glucocorticoid receptor antagonist RU486 reversed this functional impairment. These data identify a novel, neuroendocrine pathway by which psychological stress may reduce CAC function, with potential implications for cardiovascular health.

  4. Circulating angiogenic cell function is inhibited by cortisol in vitro and associated with psychological stress and cortisol in vivo.

    PubMed

    Aschbacher, Kirstin; Derakhshandeh, Ronak; Flores, Abdiel J; Narayan, Shilpa; Mendes, Wendy Berry; Springer, Matthew L

    2016-05-01

    Psychological stress and glucocorticoids are associated with heightened cardiovascular disease risk. We investigated whether stress or cortisol would be associated with reduced circulating angiogenic cell (CAC) function, an index of impaired vascular repair. We hypothesized that minority-race individuals who experience threat in interracial interactions would exhibit reduced CAC function, and that this link might be explained by cortisol. To test this experimentally, we recruited 106 African American participants for a laboratory interracial interaction task, in which they received socially evaluative feedback from Caucasian confederates. On a separate day, a subset of 32 participants (mean age=26years, 47% female) enrolled in a separate biological substudy and provided blood samples for CAC isolation and salivary samples to quantify the morning peak in cortisol (the cortisol awakening response, CAR). CAC function was quantified using cell culture assays of migration to vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and secretion of VEGF into the culture medium. Heightened threat in response to an interracial interaction and trait anxiety in vivo were both associated with poorer CAC migratory function in vitro. Further, threat and poorer sustained attention during the interracial interaction were associated with a higher CAR, which in turn, was related to lower CAC sensitivity to glucocorticoids. In vitro, higher doses of cortisol impaired CAC migratory function and VEGF protein secretion. The glucocorticoid receptor antagonist RU486 reversed this functional impairment. These data identify a novel, neuroendocrine pathway by which psychological stress may reduce CAC function, with potential implications for cardiovascular health. PMID:26925833

  5. Memory performance is related to the cortisol awakening response in older people, but not to the diurnal cortisol slope.

    PubMed

    Hidalgo, Vanesa; Almela, Mercedes; Pulopulos, Matias M; Salvador, Alicia

    2016-09-01

    There are large individual differences in age-related cognitive decline. Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA-axis) functioning has been suggested as one of the mechanisms underlying these differences. This study aimed to investigate the relationships between the diurnal cortisol cycle, measured as the cortisol awakening response (CAR), and the diurnal cortisol slope (DCS) and the memory performance of healthy older people. To do so, we assessed the verbal, visual, and working memory performance of 64 participants (32 men) from 57 to 76 years old who also provided 14 saliva samples on two consecutive weekdays to determine their diurnal cortisol cycle. The CAR was linearly and negatively associated with verbal (significantly) and visual (marginally) memory domains, but not with working memory. Sex did not moderate these relationships. Furthermore, no associations were found between the DCS and any of the three memory domains assessed. Our results indicate that the two components of the diurnal cortisol cycle have different relationships with memory performance, with the CAR being more relevant than DCS in understanding the link from HPA-axis activity and regulation to different types of memory. These results suggest that the CAR is related to memory domains dependent on hippocampal functioning (i.e., declarative memory), but not to those that are more dependent on prefrontal cortex functioning (i.e., working memory).

  6. The cortisol response to social stress in social anxiety disorder.

    PubMed

    Vaccarino, Oriana; Levitan, Robert; Ravindran, Arun

    2015-04-01

    This study evaluated the cortisol stress response (CSR) following the Trier Social Stress Test in Social Anxiety Disorder (SAD) and control participants, to determine whether individual differences in CSR associate more with SAD diagnosis or dimensional characteristics [i.e. childhood trauma (CT)]. Twenty-one participants (11 with SAD) had full data available for both CT-scores and cortisol area-under-the-curve (AUC). Linear regression produced significant results: predicting AUCG with study group, emotional abuse (EA) scores and their interaction (F=3.14, df=5,15; p=.039); of note, the study group by EA interaction was significant at p=.015, driven by a strong positive association between EA and cortisol AUCG in the control group, and a negative association between these variables in the SAD group (standardized-beta=1.56, t=2.75, p=.015). This suggests that EA in SAD patients is associated with altered CSR, highlighting need to measure dimensional characteristics.

  7. Cortisol levels in central adrenal insufficiency: light and shade.

    PubMed

    De Sanctis, Vincenzo; Soliman, Ashraf; Yassin, Mohamed; Garofalo, Piernicola

    2015-03-01

    Evaluating children or adolescents with central adrenal insufficiency (CAI) is a difficult task in clinical practice, especially in subjects with hypothalamic-pituitary diseases and partial ACTH deficiency, or in those with recent pituitary surgery or brain irradiation when the adrenal cortex may still be responsive to stress. In 2008, a meta-analysis reported a three-step approach for evaluating patients at risk for CAI with no acute illness. In particular, the authors recommended the evaluation of morning cortisol, a low dose ACTH test (LDST) and the "gold standard" insulin tolerance test or metyrapone test if the low LDCT was not diagnostic. Cortisol and ACTH secretion exhibit significant fluctuation throughout the day. The reference ranges supplied by labs are so wide that they only flag up extremely low cortisol levels. Interpreting the results correctly can be difficult for a physician without an experience in adrenal dysfunctions. The lack of uniformity in these cut-off levels could in part be attributed to differences in study populations, variability of dynainic tests, the use of different serum cortisol assays and dissimilar cut-off peak serum cortisol response indicative of a normal axis response and the difference in the clinical context in which the studies were done. Therefore, Laboratories have to advertise the need to establish reference values for given populations, both for basal or stimulated hormone levels. Failure to apply this rule may elicit false-positive and more critically, false-negative results. LDST (1 pg synthetic ACTH as iv bolus with measurement of serum cortisol) has been proposed as a sensitive test for the diagnosis of CAl. However, the advantage of LDST compared with the high dose test may be offset by the technical difficulties inherent to dilution of 250 pg ampoules. Clinical judgment remains imperative especially regarding the use of glucocorticoid supplementation during extreme stress. PMID:25962205

  8. Diurnal cortisol rhythms among Latino immigrants in Oregon, USA.

    PubMed

    Squires, Erica C; McClure, Heather H; Martinez, Charles R; Eddy, J Mark; Jiménez, Roberto A; Isiordia, Laura E; Snodgrass, J Josh

    2012-01-01

    One of the most commonly used stress biomarkers is cortisol, a glucocorticoid hormone released by the adrenal glands that is central to the physiological stress response. Free cortisol can be measured in saliva and has been the biomarker of choice in stress studies measuring the function of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. Chronic psychosocial stress can lead to dysregulation of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis function and results in an abnormal diurnal cortisol profile. Little is known about objectively measured stress and health in Latino populations in the United States, yet this is likely an important factor in understanding health disparities that exist between Latinos and whites. The present study was designed to measure cortisol profiles among Latino immigrant farmworkers in Oregon (USA), and to compare quantitative and qualitative measures of stress in this population. Our results indicate that there were no sex differences in average cortisol AUCg (area under the curve with respect to the ground) over two days (AvgAUCg; males = 1.38, females = 1.60; P = 0.415). AUCg1 (Day 1 AUCg) and AvgAUCg were significantly negatively associated with age in men (P<0.05). AUCg1 was negatively associated with weight (P<0.05), waist circumference (P<0.01) and waist-to-stature ratio (P<0.05) in women, which is opposite of the expected relationship between cortisol and waist-to-stature ratio, possibly indicating hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis dysregulation. Among men, more time in the United States and immigration to the United States at older ages predicted greater AvgAUCg. Among women, higher lifestyle incongruity was significantly related to greater AvgAUCg. Although preliminary, these results suggest that chronic psychosocial stress plays an important role in health risk in this population.

  9. Physical activity moderates stressor-induced rumination on cortisol reactivity

    PubMed Central

    Puterman, Eli; O’Donovan, Aoife; Adler, Nancy E.; Tomiyama, A. Janet; Kemeny, Margaret; Wolkowitz, Owen M.; Epel, Elissa

    2011-01-01

    Objective Physically active individuals have lower rates of morbidity and mortality, and recent evidence indicates that physical activity may be particularly beneficial to those experiencing chronic stress. The tendency to ruminate increases and prolongs physiological stress responses, including hypothalamic-pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis responses as indexed by cortisol reactivity to stressful experiences. We examined the association between ruminating in response to a laboratory stressor task and HPA axis reactivity and recovery, and whether a physically active lifestyle moderates the associations between rumination and cortisol output trajectories. Methods Forty-six post-menopausal women underwent the Trier Social Stress Test while salivary cortisol was repeatedly measured. Twenty-five minutes after the end of the stressor, participants reported level of rumination in response to the stress. Results Findings indicate that physical activity moderated the initial rate (B = −.10, SE = .04, p < .05) and curvature (B = −.03, SE = .01, p = .06) of the relationship between rumination and log-transformed cortisol trajectory. Among sedentary participants, those who responded to the stressor with higher levels of rumination had a more rapid initial increase in cortisol (0.26 vs 0.21, p < .001), a later peak (56 vs. 39 minutes), and a delayed recovery (curvature −0.07 vs. −0.08, p < .001) compared to those with lower levels of rumination. In active participants, cortisol trajectories were equivalent, regardless of level of rumination. Conclusions In sum, individuals who maintain a physically active lifestyle may be protected against the effects of rumination on HPA axis reactivity to and recovery from acute stress. PMID:21873586

  10. Cortisol Awakening Response and Walking Speed in Older People

    PubMed Central

    Pulopulos, Matias M.; Puig-Perez, Sara; Hidalgo, Vanesa; Villada, Carolina; Salvador, Alicia

    2016-01-01

    In older people, less diurnal variability in cortisol levels has been consistently related to worse physical performance, especially to slower walking speed (WS). The cortisol awakening response (CAR) is a discrete component of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis that has been related to several health problems, such as cardiovascular disease and/or worse performance on executive function and memory. The relationship between the CAR and physical performance in older people is poorly understood. In this study, in 86 older people (mean age = 64.42, SD = 3.93), we investigated the relationship between the CAR and WS, a commonly used measure of physical performance in the older population that has also been related to health problems, such as cardiovascular disease and executive function performance in older people. Additionally, we studied whether the relationship between the CAR and WS was independent from cortisol levels on awakening and several possible confounders. Results showed that a CAR of reduced magnitude (measured with 3 samples each day, for two consecutive days, and calculated as the area under the curve with respect to the increase), but not cortisol levels on awakening, was related to slower WS. In addition, this relationship was independent from cortisol levels on awakening. It is possible that a CAR of reduced magnitude would contribute to less diurnal cortisol variability, affecting physical performance. Additionally, it is possible that a CAR of reduced magnitude affects WS through a possible negative effect on executive function, or that the association between the CAR and WS is due to the fact that both are related to similar health problems and to changes in cognitive performance in older people. PMID:27191847

  11. Cortisol release in response to UVB exposure in Xiphophorus fish.

    PubMed

    Contreras, Adam J; Boswell, Mikki; Downs, Kevin P; Pasquali, Amanda; Walter, Ronald B

    2014-06-01

    Xiphophorus fishes are comprised of 26 known species. Interspecies hybridization between select species has been utilized to produce experimental models to study melanoma development. Xiphophorus melanoma induction protocols utilize ultraviolet light (UVB) to induce DNA damage and associated downstream tumorigenesis. However, the impact of induced stress caused by the UVB treatment of the experimental animals undergoing tumor induction protocols has not been assessed. Stress is an adaptive physiological response to excessive or unpredictable environmental stimuli. The stress response in fishes may be measured by an assay of cortisol released into the water. Here, we present results from investigations of stress response during an experimental treatment and UVB exposure in Xiphophorus maculatus Jp 163 B, Xiphophorus couchianus, and F1 interspecies hybrids produced from the mating X. maculatus Jp 163 B×X. couchianus. Overall, cortisol release rates for males and females after UVB exposure showed no statistical differences. At lower UVB doses (8 and 16kJ/m(2)), X. couchianus exhibited 2 fold higher levels of DNA damage then either X. maculatus or the F1 hybrid. However, based on the cortisol release rates, none of the fish types tested induced a primary stress response at the UVB lower doses (8 and 16kJ/m(2)). In contrast, at a very high UVB dose (32kJ/m(2)) both X. maculatus and the F1 hybrid showed a 5 fold increase in the cortisol release rate. To determine the effect of pigmentation on UVB induced stress, wild type and albino Xiphophorus hellerii were exposed to UVB (32kJ/m(2)). Albino X. hellerii exhibited 3.7 fold increase in the cortisol release while wild type X. hellerii did not exhibit a significant cortisol response to UVB. Overall, the data suggest the rather low UVB doses often employed in tumor induction protocols do not induce a primary stress response in Xiphophorus fishes.

  12. Cortisol Reactivity is Positively Related to Executive Function in Preschool Children Attending Head Start

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blair, Clancy; Granger, Douglas; Razza, Rachel Peters

    2005-01-01

    This study examined relations among cortisol reactivity and measures of cognitive function and social behavior in 4- to 5-year-old children (N=169) attending Head Start. Saliva samples for the assay of cortisol were collected at the beginning, middle, and end of an approximately 45-min testing session. Moderate increase in cortisol followed by…

  13. Cortisol Reactivity and Regulation Associated with Shame Responding in Early Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mills, Rosemary S. L.; Imm, Gorette P.; Walling, Bobbi R.; Weiler, Hope A.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to characterize cortisol response and regulation associated with shame responding in early childhood and to examine how general the relation between shame and cortisol is. It was predicted that children responding to task failure with shame would show a larger and more prolonged cortisol response than other children.…

  14. Whole-body cortisol response of zebrafish to acute net handling stress

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ramsay, J.M.; Feist, G.W.; Varga, Z.M.; Westerfield, M.; Kent, M.L.; Schreck, C.B.

    2009-01-01

    Zebrafish, Danio rerio, are frequently handled during husbandry and experimental procedures in the laboratory, yet little is known about the physiological responses to such stressors. We measured the whole-body cortisol levels of adult zebrafish subjected to net stress and air exposure at intervals over a 24 h period; cortisol recovered to near control levels by about 1 h post-net-stress (PNS). We then measured cortisol at frequent intervals over a 1 h period. Cortisol levels were more than 2-fold higher in net stressed fish at 3 min PNS and continued to increase peaking at 15 min PNS, when cortisol levels were 6-fold greater than the control cortisol. Mean cortisol declined from 15 to 60 min PNS, and at 60 min, net-stressed cortisol was similar to control cortisol. Because the age of fish differed between studies, we examined resting cortisol levels of fish of different ages (3, 7, 13, and 19 months). The resting cortisol values among tanks with the same age fish differed significantly but there was no clear effect of age. Our study is the first to report the response and recovery of cortisol after net handling for laboratory-reared zebrafish. ?? 2009 Elsevier B.V.

  15. Exposure to Maternal Distress in Childhood and Cortisol Activity in Young Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahrer, Nicole E.; Luecken, Linda J.; Wolchik, Sharlene A.; Tein, Jenn-Yun; Sandler, Irwin N.

    2014-01-01

    Dysregulated cortisol is a risk factor for poor health outcomes. Children of distressed mothers exhibit dysregulated cortisol, yet it is unclear whether maternal distress predicts cortisol activity in later developmental stages. This longitudinal study examined the prospective relation between maternal distress during late childhood (9-12 years)…

  16. Acute modulation of cytokine gene expression in bovine PBMCs by endogenous cortisol

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cortisol suppresses many aspects of immune function. However, recent publications suggest acute cortisol exposure may actually enhance immune function (Dhabhar, Neuroimmunomod 2009;16:300). The objective of this study was to determine the influence of acute increases in endogenous cortisol on expres...

  17. Children's Cortisol Patterns and the Quality of the Early Learning Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sajaniemi, Nina; Suhonen, Eira; Kontu, Elina; Rantanen, Pekka; Lindholm, Harri; Hyttinen, Sirpa; Hirvonen, Ari

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of early educational quality on children's cortisol levels. It was hypothesised that the environmental stressors might load children's immature stress regulative systems thus affecting their diurnal cortisol levels. The study sample consisted of 146 preschool-aged children. Cortisol was measured…

  18. Effects of basal and acute cortisol on cognitive flexibility in an emotional task switching paradigm in men.

    PubMed

    Dierolf, Angelika Margarete; Arlt, Lea Esther; Roelofs, Karin; Kölsch, Monika; Hülsemann, Mareike Johanna; Schächinger, Hartmut; Naumann, Ewald

    2016-05-01

    The stress hormone cortisol is assumed to influence cognitive functions. While cortisol-induced alterations of declarative memory in particular are well-investigated, considerably less is known about its influence on executive functions. Moreover, most research has been focused on slow effects, and rapid non-genomic effects have not been studied. The present study sought to investigate the impact of acute cortisol administration as well as basal cortisol levels on cognitive flexibility, a core executive function, within the non-genomic time frame. Thirty-eight healthy male participants were randomly assigned to intravenously receive either cortisol or a placebo before performing a task switching paradigm with happy and angry faces as stimuli. Cortisol levels were measured at six points during the experiment. Additionally, before the experiment, basal cortisol measures for the cortisol awakening response were collected on three consecutive weekdays immediately following awakening and 30, 45, and 60min after. First and foremost, results showed a pronounced impact of acute and basal cortisol on reaction time switch costs, particularly for angry faces. In the placebo group, low basal cortisol was associated with minimal switch costs, whereas high basal cortisol was related to maximal switch costs. In contrast, after cortisol injection, basal cortisol levels showed no impact. These results show that cognitive flexibility-enhancing effects of acute cortisol administration are only seen in men with high basal cortisol levels. This result supports the context dependency of cortisol administration and shows the relevance of taking basal cortisol levels into account. PMID:26944609

  19. Gene expression in Atlantic salmon skin in response to infection with the parasitic copepod Lepeophtheirus salmonis, cortisol implant, and their combination

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The salmon louse is an ectoparasitic copepod that causes major economic losses in the aquaculture industry of Atlantic salmon. This host displays a high level of susceptibility to lice which can be accounted for by several factors including stress. In addition, the parasite itself acts as a potent stressor of the host, and outcomes of infection can depend on biotic and abiotic factors that stimulate production of cortisol. Consequently, examination of responses to infection with this parasite, in addition to stress hormone regulation in Atlantic salmon, is vital for better understanding of the host pathogen interaction. Results Atlantic salmon post smolts were organised into four experimental groups: lice + cortisol, lice + placebo, no lice + cortisol, no lice + placebo. Infection levels were equal in both treatments upon termination of the experiment. Gene expression changes in skin were assessed with 21 k oligonucleotide microarray and qPCR at the chalimus stage 18 days post infection at 9°C. The transcriptomic effects of hormone treatment were significantly greater than lice-infection induced changes. Cortisol stimulated expression of genes involved in metabolism of steroids and amino acids, chaperones, responses to oxidative stress and eicosanoid metabolism and suppressed genes related to antigen presentation, B and T cells, antiviral and inflammatory responses. Cortisol and lice equally down-regulated a large panel of motor proteins that can be important for wound contraction. Cortisol also suppressed multiple genes involved in wound healing, parts of which were activated by the parasite. Down-regulation of collagens and other structural proteins was in parallel with the induction of proteinases that degrade extracellular matrix (MMP9 and MMP13). Cortisol reduced expression of genes encoding proteins involved in formation of various tissue structures, regulators of cell differentiation and growth factors. Conclusions These results suggest that

  20. Relationship between cortisol and acute phase protein concentrations in female rabbits.

    PubMed

    Argente, María-José; García, María de la Luz; Birlanga, Virginia; Muelas, Raquel

    2014-10-01

    Rabbit meat production in Europe is usually based on a semi-intensive system, in which lactation and gestation overlap. The demands of lactation and pregnancy are likely to be relatively stressful for female rabbits and may compromise the immune system and reproductive performance. The present study was designed to characterise circulating levels of cortisol, haptoglobin (Hp), C-reactive protein (CRP), and serum amyloid A (SAA) in non-lactating and lactating female rabbits at first and second mating, and to determine whether any relationship exists between these biomarkers and litter size. Serum cortisol concentrations were at their greatest (mean ± SEM = 39.5 ± 3.9 nmol/L) in animals at the end of lactation. However, after weaning, cortisol concentrations were not significantly different compared to nulliparous females (19.9 ± 3.6 vs. 16.3 ± 2.2 nmol/L, respectively). The highest concentrations of circulating Hp (0.14 ± 0.01 g/L) were seen in early lactating primiparous females, and lower in nulliparous females and in rabbits after weaning. In contrast, nulliparous female rabbits showed the highest plasma CRP values (13.1 ± 1.1 mg/L). No significant differences were found for SAA. Nulliparous females had smaller litter sizes than early lactating and non-lactating primiparous female rabbits. CRP and SAA showed a positive correlation (r = +0.24, P = 0.011) and were negatively related to litter size (r = -0.23, P = 0.017 and P = 0.032, respectively). Cortisol and Hp were not related to CRP, SAA, nor to litter size. These results suggest a closer association between the mechanisms that regulate release of CRP and SAA, compared to those that regulate Hp production. Thus, lactation is associated with changes in several stress biomarkers. CRP and SAA might be more useful for evaluating animal welfare and for predicting subsequent reproductive performance of female rabbits.

  1. Hematological effects of high dose of cortisol on the carp (Cyprinus carpio L.): cortisol effect on the carp blood.

    PubMed

    Wojtaszek, J; Dziewulska-Szwajkowska, D; Lozińska-Gabska, M; Adamowicz, A; Dzugaj, A

    2002-02-01

    The level of circulating cortisol and peripheral blood parameters were determined in carp age 2 years (K(2)) 24, 72, and 216 h after a single intraperitoneal injection of a high dose (200 mg x kg(-1) body wt) of hydrocortisone. The most striking effect of cortisol was manifest as a significant change in the percentage composition of leukocytes, whose number per unit volume of blood remained relatively constant. A profound lymphopenia and eosinopenia were compensated for in the general balance by an increased number of circulating promyelocytes and myelocytes as well as metamyelocytes and mature polymorphonuclear neutrophilic granulocytes. The results and their possible reasons are discussed on the background of literature data.

  2. Corticosteroid-binding globulin, cortisol, free cortisol, and sex hormone-binding globulin responses following oral glucose challenge in spinal cord-injured and able-bodied men.

    PubMed

    Lewis, J G; Jones, L M; Legge, M; Elder, P A

    2010-11-01

    Circulating cortisol, corticosteroid-binding globulin, and sex hormone-binding globulin were measured retrospectively in plasma samples following the oral glucose tolerance test in 20 spinal cord-injured men and 20 able-bodied controls. Plasma-free cortisol responses attenuated more rapidly in the able-bodied men, compared to spinal cord-injured subjects, due to significant rise in circulating corticosteroid-binding globulin whereas changes in total plasma cortisol were similar in both groups. The changes in plasma-free cortisol in both groups paralleled changes in insulin and glucose and show that spinal cord-injured men had heightened exposure to free cortisol during this dynamic test. This raises the possibility that the mechanism of abdominal obesity and the propensity towards insulin resistance in spinal cord-injured men could be subtly mediated by perturbations in free cortisol. There were no significant changes in plasma sex hormone-binding globulin in either group.

  3. A modified and cost-effective method for hair cortisol analysis.

    PubMed

    Xiang, Lianbin; Sunesara, Imran; Rehm, Kristina E; Marshall, Gailen D

    2016-01-01

    Hair cortisol may hold potential as a biomarker for assessment of chronic psychological stress. We report a modified and cost-effective method to prepare hair samples for cortisol assay. Hair samples were ground using an inexpensive ball grinder - ULTRA-TURRAX tube drive. Cortisol was extracted from the powder under various defined conditions. The data showed that the optimal conditions for this method include cortisol extraction at room temperature and evaporation using a stream of room air. These findings should allow more widespread research using economical technology to validate the utility of hair cortisol as a biomarker for assessing chronic stress status. PMID:26767335

  4. Corticosteroid-binding globulin: modulating mechanisms of bioavailability of cortisol and its clinical implications.

    PubMed

    Bae, Yoon Ju; Kratzsch, Juergen

    2015-10-01

    Corticosteroid-binding globulin (CBG) is the principal transport protein of glucocorticoids. Approximately 80-90% of serum cortisol binds to CBG with high affinity and only about 5% of cortisol remain unbound and is considered biologically active. CBG seems to modulate and influence the bioavailability of cortisol to local tissues. In this review, we will discuss physicochemical properties of CBG and structure of CBG in the mechanisms of binding and release of cortisol. This review describes several factors affecting CBG functions, such as genetic factors or temperature. Furthermore, clinical implications of CBG abnormalities and the measurement of CBG and its use for assessment of free cortisol levels are described in this review.

  5. A modified and cost-effective method for hair cortisol analysis.

    PubMed

    Xiang, Lianbin; Sunesara, Imran; Rehm, Kristina E; Marshall, Gailen D

    2016-01-01

    Hair cortisol may hold potential as a biomarker for assessment of chronic psychological stress. We report a modified and cost-effective method to prepare hair samples for cortisol assay. Hair samples were ground using an inexpensive ball grinder - ULTRA-TURRAX tube drive. Cortisol was extracted from the powder under various defined conditions. The data showed that the optimal conditions for this method include cortisol extraction at room temperature and evaporation using a stream of room air. These findings should allow more widespread research using economical technology to validate the utility of hair cortisol as a biomarker for assessing chronic stress status.

  6. StressPhone: smartphone based platform for measurement of cortisol for stress detection (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jain, Aadhar; Rey, Elizabeth; Lee, Seoho; O'Dell, Dakota; Erickson, David

    2016-03-01

    Anxiety disorders are estimated to be the most common mental illness in US affecting around 40 million people and related job stress is estimated to cost US industry up to $300 billion due to lower productivity and absenteeism. A personal diagnostic device which could help identify stressed individuals would therefore be a huge boost for workforce productivity. We are therefore developing a point of care diagnostic device that can be integrated with smartphones or tablets for the measurement of cortisol - a stress related salivary biomarker, which is known to be strongly involved in body's fight-or-flight response to a stressor (physical or mental). The device is based around a competitive lateral flow assay whose results can then be read and quantified through an accessory compatible with the smartphone. In this presentation, we report the development and results of such an assay and the integrated device. We then present the results of a study relating the diurnal patterns of cortisol levels and the alertness of an individual based on the circadian rhythm and sleep patterns of the individual. We hope to use the insight provided by combining the information provided by levels of stress related to chemical biomarkers of the individual with the physical biomarkers to lead to a better informed and optimized activity schedule for maximized work output.

  7. Development of a specific radioimmunoassay for cortisol 17-butyrate

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, G.N.; Lee, Y.F.; Bu'Lock, D.E.; August, P.; Anderson, D.C.

    1983-07-01

    We describe the development and validation of an assay for cortisol 17-butyrate in blood in which there is no significant cross reaction with endogenous corticosteroids at levels encountered normally in man. Preliminary data on blood levels of the drug in absorption studies are presented.

  8. Reduction of Cortisol Levels and Participants' Responses Following Art Making

    PubMed Central

    Kaimal, Girija; Ray, Kendra; Muniz, Juan

    2016-01-01

    Abstract This quasi-experimental study investigated the impact of visual art making on the cortisol levels of 39 healthy adults. Participants provided saliva samples to assess cortisol levels before and after 45 minutes of art making. Participants also provided written responses about the experience at the end of the session. Results indicate that art making resulted in statistically significant lowering of cortisol levels. Participants' written responses indicated that they found the art-making session to be relaxing, enjoyable, helpful for learning about new aspects of self, freeing from constraints, an evolving process of initial struggle to later resolution, and about flow/losing themselves in the work. They also reflected that the session evoked a desire to make art in the future. There were weak associations between changes in cortisol level and age, time of day, and participant responses related to learning about one's self and references to an evolving process in art making. There were no significant differences in outcomes based on prior experiences with art making, media choice, or gender. PMID:27695158

  9. Cortisol modifies extinction learning of recently acquired fear in men.

    PubMed

    Merz, Christian Josef; Hermann, Andrea; Stark, Rudolf; Wolf, Oliver Tobias

    2014-09-01

    Exposure therapy builds on the mechanism of fear extinction leading to decreased fear responses. How the stress hormone cortisol affects brain regions involved in fear extinction in humans is unknown. For this reason, we tested 32 men randomly assigned to receive either 30 mg hydrocortisone or placebo 45 min before fear extinction. In fear acquisition, a picture of a geometrical figure was either partially paired (conditioned stimulus; CS+) or not paired (CS-) with an electrical stimulation (unconditioned stimulus; UCS). In fear extinction, each CS was presented again, but no UCS occurred. Cortisol increased conditioned skin conductance responses in early and late extinction. In early extinction, higher activation towards the CS- than to the CS+ was found in the amygdala, hippocampus and posterior parahippocampal gyrus. This pattern might be associated with the establishment of a new memory trace. In late extinction, the placebo compared with the cortisol group displayed enhanced CS+/CS- differentiation in the amygdala, medial frontal cortex and nucleus accumbens. A change from early deactivation to late activation of the extinction circuit as seen in the placebo group seems to be needed to enhance extinction and to reduce fear. Cortisol appears to interfere with this process thereby impairing extinction of recently acquired conditioned fear. PMID:23945999

  10. Free cortisol awakening responses are influenced by awakening time.

    PubMed

    Federenko, Ilona; Wüst, Stefan; Hellhammer, Dirk H; Dechoux, Ralph; Kumsta, Robert; Kirschbaum, Clemens

    2004-02-01

    Psychobiological investigations on the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis depend on markers that adequately describe the activity of this system. There is evidence that the free cortisol response to awakening, proposed as a marker for the HPA axis, can be influenced by time of awakening. To further investigate this possible confounder, 24 shift working nurses and 31 female students on a regular sleep-wake cycle collected saliva samples 0, 30, 45 and 60 minutes after awakening. Nurses were investigated on the first and second day of their early (awakening: 04:00-05:30 h), late (awakening: 06:00-09:00 h), and night shift (awakening: 11:00-14:00 h), respectively. Students were studied after taking a short nap on two consecutive weekdays (awakening: 18:45-20:30 h). Mean cortisol levels after awakening increased significantly under all three shift conditions (p<0.01), but decreased in the student sample (p<.05). Within the three shift conditions, cortisol responses following waking in the early shift were more pronounced than in late (p<.01) and night shift (p<.05). The present study shows that in a sample with a large range of awakening times, an impact of this variable on the cortisol awakening response can be observed. The data furthermore strongly suggest that waking up per se is insufficient for adrenocortical stimulation. PMID:14604599

  11. Reduction of Cortisol Levels and Participants' Responses Following Art Making

    PubMed Central

    Kaimal, Girija; Ray, Kendra; Muniz, Juan

    2016-01-01

    Abstract This quasi-experimental study investigated the impact of visual art making on the cortisol levels of 39 healthy adults. Participants provided saliva samples to assess cortisol levels before and after 45 minutes of art making. Participants also provided written responses about the experience at the end of the session. Results indicate that art making resulted in statistically significant lowering of cortisol levels. Participants' written responses indicated that they found the art-making session to be relaxing, enjoyable, helpful for learning about new aspects of self, freeing from constraints, an evolving process of initial struggle to later resolution, and about flow/losing themselves in the work. They also reflected that the session evoked a desire to make art in the future. There were weak associations between changes in cortisol level and age, time of day, and participant responses related to learning about one's self and references to an evolving process in art making. There were no significant differences in outcomes based on prior experiences with art making, media choice, or gender.

  12. A new device for collecting saliva for cortisol determination.

    PubMed

    de Weerth, Carolina; Jansen, Jarno; Vos, Mariska H; Maitimu, Inge; Lentjes, Eef G W M

    2007-01-01

    Saliva for measurement of cortisol is generally sampled by swabbing the mouth with a cotton roll, but this method has drawbacks. In the present study, we evaluated the use of an eye sponge as an oral collection device for saliva cortisol. The eye sponge was compared with commercial cotton rolls, and tested for use in infants as well as adults. Our results show that the eye sponge has adequate cortisol recoveries, even after samples have been kept at 4-8 degrees C for up to a week. In adults, volumes of 200-250 microl are obtained without problem; although smaller volumes are obtained in young infants, they are sufficient for assays requiring only 50-100 microl of saliva. In conclusion, the eye sponge is a valid and adequate collection device for saliva cortisol. Additional advantages as compared to cotton rolls are: more comfortable sampling, tastelessness, no need to manipulate the absorbing material, and the ease with which the untrained eye can determine that enough saliva has been collected.

  13. Endogenous cortisol levels influence exposure therapy in spider phobia.

    PubMed

    Lass-Hennemann, Johanna; Michael, Tanja

    2014-09-01

    Previous research in patients with phobia showed that the administration of glucocorticoids reduces fear in phobic situations and enhances exposure therapy. Glucocorticoids underlie a daily cycle with a peak in the morning and low levels during the evening and night. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether exposure is more effective when conducted in the morning when endogenous cortisol levels are high. Sixty patients meeting DSM IV criteria for specific phobia (animal type) were randomly assigned to one-session exposure treatment either at 08.00 a.m. (high cortisol group) or at 06.00 p.m. (low cortisol group). Participants returned for a posttreatment assessment one week after therapy and a follow-up assessment three months after therapy. Both groups showed good outcome, but patients treated in the morning exhibited significantly less fear of spiders in the behavioral approach test (BAT) and a trend for lower scores on the Fear of Spiders Questionnaire (FSQ) than patients treated in the evening. This effect was present at posttreatment and follow-up. Our findings indicate that exposure therapy is more effective in the morning than in the evening. We suggest that this may be due to higher endogenous cortisol levels in the morning group that enhance extinction memory.

  14. Salivary cortisol, salivary alpha amylase, and the dental anxiety scale.

    PubMed

    Sadi, Hana; Finkelman, Matthew; Rosenberg, Morton

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the correlation between dental anxiety, salivary cortisol, and salivary alpha amylase (sAA) levels. Furthermore, the aim was to look into individual differences such as age, race, gender, any existing pain, or traumatic dental experience and their effect on dental anxiety. This study followed a cross-sectional design and included a convenience sample of 46. Every patient was asked to complete the Dental Anxiety Scale (DAS) and a basic demographic/dental history questionnaire. A saliva sample, utilizing the method of passive drooling, was then collected in 2-mL cryovials. Samples were analyzed for salivary cortisol and sAA levels by Salimetrics. Significant associations were observed between DAS scores and presence of pain and history of traumatic dental experience. However, no significant correlations were observed between DAS, cortisol, and sAA levels. Our study reconfirms that dental anxiety is associated with presence of pain and a history of traumatic dental experience. On the other hand, our study was the first to our knowledge to test the correlation between the DAS and sAA; nevertheless, our results failed to show any significant correlation between dental anxiety, cortisol, and sAA levels.

  15. Decreased Cortisol and Pain in Breast Cancer: Biofield Therapy Potential

    PubMed Central

    Running, Alice

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer death among women of all races. Pain is a common symptom associated with cancer; 75–90% of cancer patients experience pain during their illness and up to 50% of that pain is undertreated. Unrelieved pain leads to increased levels of the stress hormone cortisol. The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of bioenergy on fecal cortisol levels for mice injected with murine mammary carcinoma 4T1 in two separate pilot studies. Using a multiple experimental group design, six to eight week old female BALB/c mice were injected with tumor and randomly assigned, in groups of 10, to daily treatment, every other day treatment, and no treatment groups. Five days after tumor cell injection, bioenergy interventions were begun for a period of ten consecutive days. Fecal samples were collected for each study and ELISA analysis was conducted at the end of both studies. For both studies, cortisol levels were decreased in the every other day treatment groups but remained high in the no treatment groups. Future studies utilizing bioenergy therapies on cortisol levels in a murine breast cancer model can begin to describe pain outcomes and therapeutic dose. PMID:26170887

  16. Decreased Cortisol and Pain in Breast Cancer: Biofield Therapy Potential.

    PubMed

    Running, Alice

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer death among women of all races. Pain is a common symptom associated with cancer; 75-90% of cancer patients experience pain during their illness and up to 50% of that pain is undertreated. Unrelieved pain leads to increased levels of the stress hormone cortisol. The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of bioenergy on fecal cortisol levels for mice injected with murine mammary carcinoma 4T1 in two separate pilot studies. Using a multiple experimental group design, six to eight week old female BALB/c mice were injected with tumor and randomly assigned, in groups of 10, to daily treatment, every other day treatment, and no treatment groups. Five days after tumor cell injection, bioenergy interventions were begun for a period of ten consecutive days. Fecal samples were collected for each study and ELISA analysis was conducted at the end of both studies. For both studies, cortisol levels were decreased in the every other day treatment groups but remained high in the no treatment groups. Future studies utilizing bioenergy therapies on cortisol levels in a murine breast cancer model can begin to describe pain outcomes and therapeutic dose.

  17. Intimate Partner Violence Exposure, Salivary Cortisol, and Childhood Asthma

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bair-Merritt, Megan H.; Johnson, Sara B.; Okelo, Sande; Page, Gayle

    2012-01-01

    Parents were given supplies to collect 3 child salivary cortisol samples (awakening, 30-min after awakening, bedtime) at home on a typical day, and return them via mail. Medical records also were abstracted. Results: Fifty-three percent (n = 29) returned child salivary samples. Families who returned samples typically returned them within 2 weeks,…

  18. Cortisol Levels and Children's Orientation in Day Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reunamo, Jyrki; Sajaniemi, Nina; Suhonen, Eira; Kontu, Elina

    2012-01-01

    Children's stress in day care is related to the stressful qualities of the environment and to children's orientations in that environment. The study involved 55 children in five day centres in Finland. Baseline saliva samples for measuring cortisol (stress) levels were collected five times during the day. Children were interviewed to measure their…

  19. Evaluation of hair cortisol in beef cattle of divergent temperaments

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this research project was to evaluate the relationships among hair and serum cortisol concentrations and cattle disposition. Spring born (n = 101) crossbred beef heifers (7 to 8 mo. of age) were evaluated for temperament preweaning and at weaning by pen score (PS; 1 = calm and 5 = e...

  20. Colloidal gold probe based rapid immunochromatographic strip assay for cortisol.

    PubMed

    Nara, Seema; Tripathi, Vinay; Singh, Harpal; Shrivastav, Tulsidas G

    2010-12-01

    A rapid and semi-quantitative immunochromatographic strip (ICS) test for cortisol analysis in serum was developed. The test strip was based on a competitive assay format. Colloidal gold nanoparticles were synthesized and coupled with cortisol-3-carboxymethyloxime-adipic acid dihydrazide-bovine serum albumin (F-3-CMO-ADH-BSA) antigen to directly compete with cortisol in human serum samples. F-3-CMO-ADH-BSA-gold label and uncoupled colloidal gold nanoparticles were appropriately characterized using UV-vis spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy. Anticortisol antibody raised against F-3-CMO-BSA immunogen in New Zealand white rabbits was coated on the NC membrane as test line. Anti-BSA antibody was used as control line. The lower detection limit of the ICS test was 30 ngmL(-1) with visual detection and was completed in 10 min. About 30 human serum samples were also analyzed by the developed strip test and their range of cortisol concentration was established. The developed ICS test is rapid, economic and user friendly. PMID:21056716

  1. Shiftwork and Diurnal Salivary Cortisol Patterns Among Police Officers

    PubMed Central

    Charles, Luenda E.; Fekedulegn, Desta; Burchfiel, Cecil M.; Hartley, Tara A.; Andrew, Michael E.; Violanti, John M.; Miller, Diane B.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate associations between shiftwork and diurnal salivary cortisol among 319 police officers (77.7% men) Methods Information on shiftwork was obtained from the City of Buffalo, NY electronic payroll records. Saliva was collected using Salivettes at seven time points and analyzed for free cortisol concentrations (nmol/L) using a chemiluminescence immunoassay. Mean slopes and areas under the curve were compared across shift schedule using analysis of variance (ANOVA)/analysis of covariance (ANCOVA). Results Officers working primarily on the night shift had a significantly shallower slope. Mean slope (nmol/L/minutes) of the cortisol curve varied significantly across shifts (day: −0.00332 ± 0.00017, afternoon: −0.00313 ± 0.00018, night: −0.00257 ± 0.0002); adjusted P = 0.023. Conclusions Our results suggest that night shiftwork is a work-place factor that may alter the response of the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis to the circadian cues responsible for the pattern of the diurnal cortisol curve. PMID:27129020

  2. A stochastic differential equation model of diurnal cortisol patterns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, E. N.; Meehan, P. M.; Dempster, A. P.

    2001-01-01

    Circadian modulation of episodic bursts is recognized as the normal physiological pattern of diurnal variation in plasma cortisol levels. The primary physiological factors underlying these diurnal patterns are the ultradian timing of secretory events, circadian modulation of the amplitude of secretory events, infusion of the hormone from the adrenal gland into the plasma, and clearance of the hormone from the plasma by the liver. Each measured plasma cortisol level has an error arising from the cortisol immunoassay. We demonstrate that all of these three physiological principles can be succinctly summarized in a single stochastic differential equation plus measurement error model and show that physiologically consistent ranges of the model parameters can be determined from published reports. We summarize the model parameters in terms of the multivariate Gaussian probability density and establish the plausibility of the model with a series of simulation studies. Our framework makes possible a sensitivity analysis in which all model parameters are allowed to vary simultaneously. The model offers an approach for simultaneously representing cortisol's ultradian, circadian, and kinetic properties. Our modeling paradigm provides a framework for simulation studies and data analysis that should be readily adaptable to the analysis of other endocrine hormone systems.

  3. A stochastic differential equation model of diurnal cortisol patterns.

    PubMed

    Brown, E N; Meehan, P M; Dempster, A P

    2001-03-01

    Circadian modulation of episodic bursts is recognized as the normal physiological pattern of diurnal variation in plasma cortisol levels. The primary physiological factors underlying these diurnal patterns are the ultradian timing of secretory events, circadian modulation of the amplitude of secretory events, infusion of the hormone from the adrenal gland into the plasma, and clearance of the hormone from the plasma by the liver. Each measured plasma cortisol level has an error arising from the cortisol immunoassay. We demonstrate that all of these three physiological principles can be succinctly summarized in a single stochastic differential equation plus measurement error model and show that physiologically consistent ranges of the model parameters can be determined from published reports. We summarize the model parameters in terms of the multivariate Gaussian probability density and establish the plausibility of the model with a series of simulation studies. Our framework makes possible a sensitivity analysis in which all model parameters are allowed to vary simultaneously. The model offers an approach for simultaneously representing cortisol's ultradian, circadian, and kinetic properties. Our modeling paradigm provides a framework for simulation studies and data analysis that should be readily adaptable to the analysis of other endocrine hormone systems. PMID:11171600

  4. Renin, aldosterone, electrolyte, and cortisol responses to hypoxic decompression.

    PubMed

    Sutton, J R; Viol, G W; Gray, G W; McFadden, M; Keane, P M

    1977-09-01

    Responses of plasma renin activity, plasma aldosterone, plasma cortisol, and plasma electrolyte concentration and urinary electrolyte and aldosterone excretion were studied in four men during hypoxic decompression to a stimulated altitude of 4,760 m in a pressure chamber. Three of the four subjects developed significant acute mountain sickness. Plasma sodium and potassium concentrations were unchanged. No significant change in plasma renin activity was observed, but values tended to fall. Plasma aldosterone concentration was depressed while plasma cortisol was elevated and diurnal variation lost. Urinary sodium excretion was unchanged, but urinary potassium and aldosterone excretion were decreased. The decrease in plasma and urinary aldosterone and urinary potassium in the absence of change in plasma renin activity or plasma potassium is of uncertain origin. It is unlikely to be due to a decrease in adrenocorticotropin secretion since plasma cortisol rose during the same time. None of the changes could be causally implicated in the development of acute mountain sickness although the increase in plasma cortisol was greatest in the most ill. PMID:914712

  5. Intervening to Enhance Cortisol Regulation Among Children At Risk for Neglect: Results of a Randomized Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Bernard, Kristin; Dozier, Mary; Bick, Johanna; Gordon, M. Kathleen

    2015-01-01

    The hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is particularly sensitive to conditions of maltreatment. In particular, neglected children have shown a flatter slope with lower wake-up values relative to non-neglected children. An intervention, Attachment and Biobehavioral Catch-up (ABC), was developed to enhance biological and behavioral regulation in young children at risk for neglect. The effectiveness of the intervention was assessed in a randomized clinical trial for children with involvement with Child Protective Services. Following the interventions, children receiving the ABC intervention (n = 49) showed more typical cortisol production, with higher wake-up cortisol values and a steeper diurnal slope than children receiving the control intervention (n = 51). These results suggest that the ABC intervention is effective in enhancing biological regulation. PMID:25156798

  6. The Cortisol Paradox of Trauma-Related Disorders: Lower Phasic Responses but Higher Tonic Levels of Cortisol Are Associated with Sexual Abuse in Childhood

    PubMed Central

    Schalinski, Inga; Elbert, Thomas; Steudte-Schmiedgen, Susann; Kirschbaum, Clemens

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Inconsistent findings exist for the activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis in patients with stress related disorders. Recent studies point towards early life stress as a potential modulator. Methods We investigated the impact of childhood sexual abuse on phasic (saliva cortisol reactivity) and tonic (hair cortisol) regulation. Furthermore, we assessed predictors on cortisol accumulation in hair. Women (N = 43) with stress-related disorders underwent a standardized assessment of idiographic adverse and traumatic experiences and psychopathology, while measuring salivary cortisol and, heart rate and blood pressure. Results Comparing women with and without childhood sexual abuse revealed lower rates of responders and distinct levels of salivary cortisol to the interview in conjunction with a lower heart rate for the abused group. Childhood adversities, traumatic experiences, and depression contributed to higher hair cortisol levels. Conclusions Our finding of lower response rate and distinct salivary cortisol pattern in individuals with childhood sexual abuse compared to individuals without early sexual abuse supports the role of environmental programming for the HPA axis. Both, childhood adversities and traumatic stress emerge as crucial factors for long-term cortisol secretion. Lower or suppressed phasic cortisol responses to trauma-related stimuli may therefore be associated with higher tonic values. Thus, early exposure to adversities may result in a biological distinct phenotype in adult patients with stress-related disorders. PMID:26317554

  7. Examining the relationships between egg cortisol and oxidative stress in developing wild sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka).

    PubMed

    Taylor, Jessica J; Sopinka, Natalie M; Wilson, Samantha M; Hinch, Scott G; Patterson, David A; Cooke, Steven J; Willmore, William G

    2016-10-01

    Maternally-derived hormones in oocytes, such as glucocorticoids (GCs), play a crucial role in embryo development in oviparous taxa. In fishes, maternal stressor exposure increases circulating and egg cortisol levels, the primary GC in fishes, as well as induces oxidative stress. Elevated egg cortisol levels modify offspring traits but whether maternal oxidative stress correlates with circulating and egg cortisol levels, and whether maternal/egg cortisol levels correlate with offspring oxidative stress have yet to be determined. The objective of this study was to examine the relationships among maternal and egg cortisol, and maternal and offspring oxidative stress to provide insight into the potential intergenerational effects of stressor exposure in sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka). Antioxidant concentration and oxidative stress were measured in maternal tissues (plasma, brain, heart and liver) as well as offspring developmental stages (pre-fertilization, 24h post-fertilization, eyed, and hatch), and were compared to both naturally-occurring and experimentally-elevated (via cortisol egg bath) levels of cortisol in eggs. Oxygen radical absorptive capacity of tissues from maternal sockeye salmon was measured spectrophotometrically and was not correlated with maternal or egg cortisol concentrations. Also, naturally-occurring and experimentally-elevated cortisol levels in eggs (to mimic maternal stress) did not affect oxidative stress or antioxidant capacity of the offspring. We conclude that the metrics of maternal stress examined in sockeye salmon (i.e., maternal/egg cortisol, maternal oxidative stress) are independent of each other, and that egg cortisol content does not influence offspring oxidative stress.

  8. Cortisol, contingency learning, and memory in preterm and full-term infants.

    PubMed

    Haley, David W; Weinberg, Joanne; Grunau, Ruth E

    2006-01-01

    Cortisol plays an important role in learning and memory. An inverted-U shaped function has been proposed to account for the positive and negative effects of cortisol on cognitive performance and memory in adults, such that too little or too much impair but moderate amounts facilitate performance. Whether such relationships between cortisol and mental function apply to early infancy, when cortisol secretion, learning, and memory undergo rapid developmental changes, is unknown. We compared relationships between learning/memory and cortisol in preterm and full-term infants and examined whether a greater risk for adrenal insufficiency associated with prematurity produces differential cortisol-memory relationships. Learning in three-month old (corrected for gestational age) preterm and full-term infants was evaluated using a conjugate reinforcement mobile task. Memory was tested by repeating the same task 24h later. Salivary cortisol samples were collected before and 20 min after the presentation of the mobile. We found that preterm infants had lower cortisol levels and smaller cortisol responses than full-term infants. This is consistent with relative adrenal insufficiency reported in the neonatal period. Infants who showed increased cortisol levels from 0 to 20 min on Day 1 had significantly better memory, regardless of prematurity, than infants who showed decreased cortisol levels.

  9. Effects of Cortisol on Reconsolidation of Reactivated Fear Memories.

    PubMed

    Drexler, Shira Meir; Merz, Christian J; Hamacher-Dang, Tanja C; Tegenthoff, Martin; Wolf, Oliver T

    2015-12-01

    The return of conditioned fear after successful extinction (eg, following exposure therapy) is a significant problem in the treatment of anxiety disorders and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Targeting the reconsolidation of fear memories may allow a more lasting effect as it intervenes with the original memory trace. Indeed, several pharmacological agents and behavioral interventions have been shown to alter (enhance, impair, or otherwise update) the reconsolidation of reactivated memories of different types. Cortisol is a stress hormone and a potent modulator of learning and memory, yet its effects on fear memory reconsolidation are unclear. To investigate whether cortisol intervenes with the reconsolidation of fear memories in healthy males and how specific this effect might be, we built a 3-day reconsolidation design with skin conductance response (SCR) as a measure of conditioned fear: Fear acquisition on day 1; reactivation/no-reactivation of one conditioned stimulus and pharmacological intervention on day 2; extinction learning followed by reinstatement and reinstatement test on day 3. The groups differed only in the experimental manipulation on day 2: Reactivation+Cortisol Group, Reactivation+Placebo Group, or No-reactivation+Cortisol Group. Our results revealed an enhancing effect of cortisol on reconsolidation of the reactivated memory. The effect was highly specific, strengthening only the memory of the reactivated conditioned stimulus and not the non-reactivated one. Our findings are in line with previous findings showing an enhancing effect of behavioral stress on the reconsolidation of other types of memories. These results have implications for the understanding and treatment of anxiety disorders and PTSD. PMID:26058664

  10. Mercury and cortisol in Western Hudson Bay polar bear hair.

    PubMed

    Bechshoft, T; Derocher, A E; Richardson, E; Mislan, P; Lunn, N J; Sonne, C; Dietz, R; Janz, D M; St Louis, V L

    2015-08-01

    Non-invasive methods of assessing animal health and life history are becoming increasingly popular in wildlife research; hair samples from polar bears (Ursus maritimus), are being used to study an ever broader range of anthropogenic and endocrine compounds. A number of contaminants are known to disrupt endocrine function in polar bears. However, the relationship between mercury and cortisol remains unknown, although mercury is an endocrine disruptor in other species. Here, we examine the relationship between concentrations of cortisol and total mercury (THg) analyzed in guard hair from 378 polar bears (184 females, 194 males) sampled in Western Hudson Bay, 2004-2012. The difference in mean cortisol concentration between female (0.8 ± 0.6 pg/mg) and male (0.7 ± 0.5 pg/mg) polar bears bordered on significance (p = 0.054). However, mean mercury concentration was significantly greater (p = 0.009) in females (4.7 ± 1.4 μg/g) than males (4.3 ± 1.2 μg/g). Hair cortisol in males was significantly influenced by mercury, age, and fatness, as well as interactions between mercury and year, mercury and fatness, and year and fatness (all: p < 0.03) (multiple regression analysis, whole model: r(2) = 0.14, F(7,185) = 4.43, p = 0.0001). Fatness was the only significant variable in the multiple regression analysis for females (r(2) = 0.06, F(1,182) = 13.0, p = 0.0004). In conclusion, a significant, but complex, relationship was found between mercury and cortisol concentrations in hair from male, but not female, polar bears. PMID:26044932

  11. Mercury and cortisol in Western Hudson Bay polar bear hair.

    PubMed

    Bechshoft, T; Derocher, A E; Richardson, E; Mislan, P; Lunn, N J; Sonne, C; Dietz, R; Janz, D M; St Louis, V L

    2015-08-01

    Non-invasive methods of assessing animal health and life history are becoming increasingly popular in wildlife research; hair samples from polar bears (Ursus maritimus), are being used to study an ever broader range of anthropogenic and endocrine compounds. A number of contaminants are known to disrupt endocrine function in polar bears. However, the relationship between mercury and cortisol remains unknown, although mercury is an endocrine disruptor in other species. Here, we examine the relationship between concentrations of cortisol and total mercury (THg) analyzed in guard hair from 378 polar bears (184 females, 194 males) sampled in Western Hudson Bay, 2004-2012. The difference in mean cortisol concentration between female (0.8 ± 0.6 pg/mg) and male (0.7 ± 0.5 pg/mg) polar bears bordered on significance (p = 0.054). However, mean mercury concentration was significantly greater (p = 0.009) in females (4.7 ± 1.4 μg/g) than males (4.3 ± 1.2 μg/g). Hair cortisol in males was significantly influenced by mercury, age, and fatness, as well as interactions between mercury and year, mercury and fatness, and year and fatness (all: p < 0.03) (multiple regression analysis, whole model: r(2) = 0.14, F(7,185) = 4.43, p = 0.0001). Fatness was the only significant variable in the multiple regression analysis for females (r(2) = 0.06, F(1,182) = 13.0, p = 0.0004). In conclusion, a significant, but complex, relationship was found between mercury and cortisol concentrations in hair from male, but not female, polar bears.

  12. Effects of Cortisol on Reconsolidation of Reactivated Fear Memories.

    PubMed

    Drexler, Shira Meir; Merz, Christian J; Hamacher-Dang, Tanja C; Tegenthoff, Martin; Wolf, Oliver T

    2015-12-01

    The return of conditioned fear after successful extinction (eg, following exposure therapy) is a significant problem in the treatment of anxiety disorders and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Targeting the reconsolidation of fear memories may allow a more lasting effect as it intervenes with the original memory trace. Indeed, several pharmacological agents and behavioral interventions have been shown to alter (enhance, impair, or otherwise update) the reconsolidation of reactivated memories of different types. Cortisol is a stress hormone and a potent modulator of learning and memory, yet its effects on fear memory reconsolidation are unclear. To investigate whether cortisol intervenes with the reconsolidation of fear memories in healthy males and how specific this effect might be, we built a 3-day reconsolidation design with skin conductance response (SCR) as a measure of conditioned fear: Fear acquisition on day 1; reactivation/no-reactivation of one conditioned stimulus and pharmacological intervention on day 2; extinction learning followed by reinstatement and reinstatement test on day 3. The groups differed only in the experimental manipulation on day 2: Reactivation+Cortisol Group, Reactivation+Placebo Group, or No-reactivation+Cortisol Group. Our results revealed an enhancing effect of cortisol on reconsolidation of the reactivated memory. The effect was highly specific, strengthening only the memory of the reactivated conditioned stimulus and not the non-reactivated one. Our findings are in line with previous findings showing an enhancing effect of behavioral stress on the reconsolidation of other types of memories. These results have implications for the understanding and treatment of anxiety disorders and PTSD.

  13. Prolactin and cortisol levels in women with endometriosis.

    PubMed

    Lima, A P; Moura, M D; Rosa e Silva, A A M

    2006-08-01

    Endometriosis is a progressive estrogen-dependent disease affecting women during their reproductive years. The objective of the present study was to investigate whether endometriosis is associated with stress parameters. We determined cortisol and prolactin levels in serum, peritoneal and follicular fluid from infertile women with endometriosis and fertile women without the disease. The extent of the disease was staged according to the revised American Fertility Society classification (1997). Serum and peritoneal fluid were collected from 49 women aged 19 to 39 years undergoing laparoscopy. Eighteen women had stage I-II endometriosis and 10 had stage III-IV. Controls were 21 women undergoing laparoscopy for tubal sterilization. Follicular fluid was obtained from 39 women aged 25-39 years undergoing in vitro fertilization (21 infertile women with endometriosis and 18 infertile women without endometriosis). Serum prolactin levels were significantly higher in infertile women with stage III-IV endometriosis (28.9 +/- 2.1 ng/mL) than in healthy controls (13.2 +/- 2.1 ng/mL). Serum cortisol levels were significantly higher in infertile women with stage III-IV endometriosis (20.1 +/- 1.3 ng/mL) than in controls (10.5 +/- 1.4 ng/mL). Cortisol and prolactin levels in follicular fluid and peritoneal fluid did not differ significantly between groups. The high levels of cortisol and prolactin in the serum from women with endometriosis might contribute to the subfertility frequently associated with the disease. Moreover, since higher levels of cortisol and prolactin are often associated with stress, it is probable that stress might contribute to the development of endometriosis and its progression to advanced stages of the disease.

  14. Periparturient cortisol, acute phase cytokine, and acute phase protein profiles of gilts housed in groups or stalls during gestation.

    PubMed

    Sorrells, A D; Eicher, S D; Harris, M J; Pajor, E A; Richert, B T

    2007-07-01

    Use of gestation stalls in pork production remains a controversial topic in animal welfare. Immune status and measures are frequently used to assess stress levels and thus well-being of confined animals. The important welfare issue of close confinement among gestating gilts was tested by quantifying cortisol, acute phase cytokine, and acute phase protein pro-files before and after farrowing of gilts housed in 2 systems. Landrace x Yorkshire crossbred gilts housed in groups of 4 (group, n = 8) in pens (3.9 x 2.4 m with 4 individual feeding spaces, 9.36 m(2) total or 2.34 m(2)/gilt) were compared with gilts housed in standard industry stalls (stall, n = 16; 2.2 x 0.6 m, 1.32 m(2)/gilt). Floors were fully slatted, and a substrate was not provided for either system. Cortisol was determined from saliva on d 105 of gestation, 1 h after moving the gilts into farrowing stalls (d 111), and 24 h and 7 d after farrowing. Cortisol was greater (P = 0.04) for group gilts compared with stall gilts 1 h after moving them into farrowing stalls and 24 h after farrowing. Cortisol concentrations decreased (P = 0.001) over time. Leukocyte mRNA expression of IL-1, IL-1 receptor antagonist, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha was determined by quantitative, reverse transcription PCR on d 35, 63, and 91 of gestation and 72 h after farrowing. Cytokine mRNA expression of peripheral blood mononuclear cells did not differ between housing systems for IL-1, its receptor antagonist, or for tumor necrosis factor-alpha. Acute phase proteins, including fibrinogen, haptoglobin, and alpha(1)-acid glycoprotein were determined for plasma samples taken at d 35, 63, and 91 of gestation and 72 h and 14 d after farrowing. In contrast to cortisol, plasma fibrinogen concentrations increased (P < 0.005) over time. Haptoglobin did not differ between treatments (P > 0.10). Stall gilts tended to have greater (P = 0.07) plasma alpha(1)-acid glycoprotein concentrations than group animals at d 35 of gestation and d 14

  15. Cortisol and 3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine: Neurohormonal Aspects of Bioenergetic Stress in Ecstasy Users

    PubMed Central

    Parrott, A.C.

    2009-01-01

    Aims 3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) can affect both neurotransmitter and neurohormonal activity. This review will debate the role of the metabolic activation hormone cortisol for the psychobiological effects of ecstasy/MDMA. Methods The empirical literature on cortisol release following acute MDMA administration and cortisol functioning in drug-free recreational ecstasy/MDMA users will be reviewed. This will be followed by an overview of cortisol as a bioenergetic stress neurohormone, and a debate on how it could be modulating the acute and chronic psychobiological effects of MDMA. Results Cortisol release is increased by stimulatory factors, including physical activity, thermal stress and stimulant drugs. In laboratory studies MDMA leads to an acute cortisol increase of around 150% in sedentary humans. In MDMA-using dance clubbers, the cortisol levels are increased by around 800%, possibly due to the combined factors of stimulant drug, physical exertion and psychosocial stimulation. Regular ecstasy/MDMA users also demonstrate changes in baseline cortisol levels and cortisol reactivity, with compromised hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal activity. Nonpharmacological research has shown how cortisol is important for psychological aspects such as memory, cognition, sleep, impulsivity, depression and neuronal damage. These same functions are often impaired in recreational ecstasy/MDMA users, and cortisol may be an important modulatory co-factor. Conclusions The energizing hormone cortisol is involved in the psychobiology of MDMA, probably via its effects on energy metabolism. Acute cortisol release may potentiate the stimulating effects of MDMA in dance clubbers. Chronically, cortisol may contribute to the variance in functional and structural consequences of repeated ecstasy usage. PMID:19893332

  16. Sweat-inducing physiological challenges do not result in acute changes in hair cortisol concentrations.

    PubMed

    Grass, Juliane; Kirschbaum, Clemens; Miller, Robert; Gao, Wei; Steudte-Schmiedgen, Susann; Stalder, Tobias

    2015-03-01

    Hair cortisol concentrations (HCC) are assumed to provide a stable, integrative marker of long-term systemic cortisol secretion. However, contrary to this assumption, some recent observations have raised the possibility that HCC may be subject to acute influences, potentially related to cortisol incorporation from sweat. Here, we provide a first detailed in vivo investigation of this possibility comprising two independent experimental studies: study I (N=42) used a treadmill challenge to induce sweating together with systemic cortisol reactivity while in study II (N=52) a sauna bathing challenge induced sweating without systemic cortisol changes. In both studies, repeated assessments of HCC, salivary cortisol, cortisol in sweat and individuals' sweating rate (single assessment) were conducted on the experimental day and at a next-day follow-up. Results across the two studies consistently revealed that HCC were not altered by the acute interventions. Further, HCC were found to be unrelated to acute salivary cortisol reactivity, sweat cortisol levels, sweating rate or the time of examination. In line with previous data, cortisol levels in sweat were strongly related to total salivary cortisol output across the examined periods. The present results oppose recent case report data by showing that single sweat-inducing interventions do not result in acute changes in HCC. Our data also tentatively speak against the notion that cortisol in sweat may be a dominant source of HCC. Further, our findings also indicate that HCC are not subject to diurnal variation. This research provides further support for hair cortisol analysis as a marker of integrated long-term systemic cortisol secretion.

  17. What cortisol can tell us about the costs of sociality and reproduction among free-ranging rhesus macaque females on Cayo Santiago.

    PubMed

    Maestripieri, Dario; Georgiev, Alexander V

    2016-01-01

    Research with the rhesus macaque population on Cayo Santiago can provide a unique perspective on the costs of sociality and reproduction in primates. Because the Cayo macaques live in unusually large groups and in a predator-free environment, in which their artificial food source lacks seasonal variation in abundance or quality, these monkeys constitute a semi-experimental study of the costs and benefits of group living. Here we review several long- and short-term studies that have focused on female life history and stress physiology. Long-term demographic data have shown that rhesus macaque females of middle- and low-ranking matrilines have lower adult survival probabilities than females of high-ranking matrilines. Costs of reproductive effort are also evident: adult females were more likely to die during the birth than during the mating season and they experienced higher cortisol levels when lactating. Lower-ranking females, in particular, experienced greater relative increase in cortisol production during lactation, in comparison to middle- and high-ranking females. Older high-ranking females had lower plasma cortisol levels than younger ones but cortisol levels were similarly high among young and old middle- and low-ranking females. Higher plasma cortisol levels and/or fecal glucocorticoid concentrations are associated with higher plasma concentrations of some proinflammatory cytokines. High cortisol, in turn, may be associated with chronic inflammation, and perhaps also with immunosuppression. In sum, the studies reviewed here provide multiple lines of evidence that sociality and reproductive effort impose measurable costs on female rhesus macaques. In line with socio-ecological theory, female dominance rank consistently emerges as an important modulator of variation in female life histories and physiology. The Cayo Santiago macaques are therefore a valuable model for elucidating the mechanisms by which within-group competition and reproduction impact health

  18. Cortisol-Metabolizing Enzymes in Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Blumenfeld, Zeev; Kaidar, Gabi; Zuckerman-Levin, Nehama; Dumin, Elena; Knopf, Carlos; Hochberg, Ze’ev

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The aim of this study was to assess the activity of cortisol-metabolizing enzymes in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), using a fully quantitative gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GCMS) method. DESIGN We investigated the glucocorticoid degradation pathways that include 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (11β-HSD) type 1, 5α-reductase (5α-R) and 5β-reductase (5β-R), 3α-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, and 20α- and 20β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (20α-HSD and 20β-HSD, respectively) in young nonobese women with PCOS, using a fully quantitative GCMS method. SETTING This study was conducted in a tertiary referral hospital in Israel. PATIENTS This study group consisted of 13 young women, aged 20.1 ± 2.8 years (mean ± SD), with the body mass index (BMI) of 22.6 ± 3.7 kg/m2, diagnosed with PCOS according to the Rotterdam criteria. The control group consisted of 14 healthy young women matched for weight, height, and BMI. INTERVENTIONS Urine samples were analyzed using GCMS. We measured urinary steroid metabolites that represent the products and substrates of the study enzymes and calculated the product/substrate ratios to represent enzyme activity. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES The calculation of enzymatic activity, based on glucocorticoid degradation metabolites, was done by GCMS in PCOS vs. controls. RESULTS All glucocorticoid degradation metabolites were higher in the PCOS group than in controls. Of the adrenal enzymes, the activities of 21-hydroxylase and 17α-hydroxylase were reduced, whereas the activity of 17,20-lyase was enhanced in PCOS. Of the degradation enzymes, the activity of 11β-HSD type 1 was reduced in women with PCOS only when calculated from cortoles and cortolones ratios. The activities of 5α-R/5β-R were increased only when calculating the 11-hydroxy metabolites of androgens. The activity of 20α-HSD was elevated in the patients with PCOS and its relation with the substrate levels was lost. CONCLUSIONS We confirm PCOS

  19. Interplay between plasma oxidative status, cortisol and coping styles in wild alpine marmots, Marmota marmota.

    PubMed

    Costantini, David; Ferrari, Caterina; Pasquaretta, Cristian; Cavallone, Elena; Carere, Claudio; von Hardenberg, Achaz; Réale, Denis

    2012-01-15

    Variation in how individuals cope behaviourally and physiologically with stressors is widespread and can have a significant impact on life-history traits and fitness. Individual coping styles are characterised by differential behavioural and adrenocortical reactivity to various challenges. As stress hormones can affect the production of reactive chemical species and the antioxidant status, individuals with different coping styles may differ also in oxidative status. Field studies on wild mammalian populations are few in number and none so far has simultaneously tested the relationship between coping style, adrenocortical reactivity and oxidative status in the same individuals. We measured individual variation in coping styles along a proactive-reactive continuum together with variation in baseline and stress-induced plasma oxidative damage, plasma non-enzymatic antioxidant capacity and cortisol in wild alpine marmots, Marmota marmota. Confirmatory path analysis revealed that different coping styles are accompanied by different baseline and stress-induced plasma oxidative statuses. Our findings also highlight the potential role of cortisol as a mediator of such differences.

  20. Changes in cortisol level in saliva following relaxation-activation autoregulative intervention.

    PubMed

    Machac, M; Machacová, H; Stárka, L; Hampl, R

    1987-09-01

    The relaxation-activation autoregulative method (RAM) is a psychoregulative procedure characterized by typical autonomic patterns of relaxation and activation phases (blood pressure, electric skin resistance, heart beat, EEG, etc.). They are used as feedback information in the training of autoregulative abilities. RAM has a multidimensional (non-specific) tuning effect which is manifested by changes in the psychophysiological state (emotional tuning, physiological functioning and performance). It has a therapeutical effect on disorders with a psychic pathogenic component, e.g., essential hypertension. The increased production of adrenaline following the application of RAM was found in previous experiments.--The present experiment with a sample of six persons well mastering RAM has shown that the cortisol level following this psychoregulative intervention also rises significantly and that this rise has been recorded over three days, i.e., over the whole period of saliva sampling. It may be said that RAM has a non-specific, ergotropic (activating) subsequent effect and that this effect has the character of stress, more accurately eustress. Autogenic training, on the other hand, reduces the cortisol level.

  1. High levels of plasma cortisol and impaired hypoosmoregulation in a mutant medaka deficient in P450c17I.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Hideya; Sato, Tadashi; Ikeuchi, Toshitaka; Saito, Kazuhiro; Sakaizumi, Mitsuru; Sakamoto, Tatsuya

    2016-07-15

    scl is a spontaneous medaka mutant deficient in P450c17I, which is required for production of sex steroids, but not of cortisol, the major role of which is osmoregulation in teleost fish. The scl mutant provides a new model to study the functions of these hormones. We first found that fish homozygous for this mutation have plasma cortisol constitutively at a high physiological level (1000 nM). Since we previously showed that this level reversed the seawater-type differentiation of the medaka gastrointestinal tract, hypoosmoregulation of the scl mutant was analyzed. Muscle water contents in freshwater were normal in scl homozygotes, but the contents were lower than those of the wild type (WT) after seawater transfer. There were no differences in gill mRNA levels of corticosteroid receptors or ion transporters between scl homozygotes and WT. In the intestine, expression of glucocorticoid receptors and Na(+)/K(+)/2Cl(-) cotransporter were induced in WT during seawater acclimation, but not in scl homozygotes. The high plasma cortisol may prevent hypoosmoregulation by inhibition of increased intestinal water absorption, essentially by the Na(+)/K(+)/2Cl(-) cotransporter, in seawater. PMID:27107936

  2. Within-Person Coupling of Changes in Cortisol, Testosterone, and DHEA Across the Day in Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Marceau, Kristine; Ruttle, Paula L.; Shirtcliff, Elizabeth A.; Hastings, Paul D.; Klimes-Dougan, Bonnie; Zahn-Waxler, Carolyn

    2014-01-01

    We comprehensively examined within-person and between-person associations between cortisol and DHEA and cortisol and testosterone across the day. Data are from a sample of 213 adolescents aged 11–16 (M = 13.7, SD = 1.5 years) from the Northeastern US who were oversampled for psychopathology symptoms. Six repeated measures of hormone levels across 3 days were used to test three specific questions of cortisol-DHEA and cortisol-testosterone associations within individuals (coupling) across the day, and one question of cortisol-DHEA and cortisol-testosterone diurnal slopes were associated between adolescents. Results consistently revealed positive cortisol-DHEA and cortisol-testosterone coupling across the day, often more pronounced in girls relative to boys. Cortisol and DHEA slopes were positively associated, whereas cortisol and testosterone were negatively associated between-adolescents. Findings suggest multiple mechanisms and highlight the multifaceted nature of associations of hormone changes during adolescence and importance of considering both axes for between- and within-person aspects of neuroendocrine development. PMID:24166536

  3. Modulatory mechanisms of cortisol effects on emotional learning and memory: novel perspectives.

    PubMed

    van Ast, Vanessa A; Cornelisse, Sandra; Marin, Marie-France; Ackermann, Sandra; Garfinkel, Sarah N; Abercrombie, Heather C

    2013-09-01

    It has long been known that cortisol affects learning and memory processes. Despite a wealth of research dedicated to cortisol effects on learning and memory, the strength or even directionality of the effects often vary. A number of the factors that alter cortisol's effects on learning and memory are well-known. For instance, effects of cortisol can be modulated by emotional arousal and the memory phase under study. Despite great advances in understanding factors that explain variability in cortisol's effects, additional modulators of cortisol effects on memory exist that are less widely acknowledged in current basic experimental research. The goal of the current review is to disseminate knowledge regarding less well-known modulators of cortisol effects on learning and memory. Since several models for the etiology of anxiety, such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), incorporate stress and the concomitant release of cortisol as important vulnerability factors, enhanced understanding of mechanisms by which cortisol exerts beneficial as opposed to detrimental effects on memory is very important. Further elucidation of the factors that modulate (or alter) cortisol's effects on memory will allow reconciliation of seemingly inconsistent findings in the basic and clinical literatures. The present review is based on a symposium as part of the 42nd International Society of Psychoneuroendocrinology Conference, New York, USA, that highlighted some of those modulators and their underlying mechanisms.

  4. Disentangling the effects of genetic, prenatal and parenting influences on children's cortisol variability.

    PubMed

    Marceau, Kristine; Ram, Nilam; Neiderhiser, Jenae M; Laurent, Heidemarie K; Shaw, Daniel S; Fisher, Phil; Natsuaki, Misaki N; Leve, Leslie D

    2013-11-01

    Developmental plasticity models hypothesize the role of genetic and prenatal environmental influences on the development of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and highlight that genes and the prenatal environment may moderate early postnatal environmental influences on HPA functioning. This article examines the interplay of genetic, prenatal and parenting influences across the first 4.5 years of life on a novel index of children's cortisol variability. Repeated measures data were obtained from 134 adoption-linked families, adopted children and both their adoptive parents and birth mothers, who participated in a longitudinal, prospective US domestic adoption study. Genetic and prenatal influences moderated associations between inconsistency in overreactive parenting from child age 9 months to 4.5 years and children's cortisol variability at 4.5 years differently for mothers and fathers. Among children whose birth mothers had high morning cortisol, adoptive fathers' inconsistent overreactive parenting predicted higher cortisol variability, whereas among children with low birth mother morning cortisol adoptive fathers' inconsistent overreactive parenting predicted lower cortisol variability. Among children who experienced high levels of prenatal risk, adoptive mothers' inconsistent overreactive parenting predicted lower cortisol variability and adoptive fathers' inconsistent overreactive parenting predicted higher cortisol variability, whereas among children who experienced low levels of prenatal risk there were no associations between inconsistent overreactive parenting and children's cortisol variability. Findings supported developmental plasticity models and uncovered novel developmental, gene × environment and prenatal × environment influences on children's cortisol functioning.

  5. Within-person coupling of changes in cortisol, testosterone, and DHEA across the day in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Marceau, Kristine; Ruttle, Paula L; Shirtcliff, Elizabeth A; Hastings, Paul D; Klimes-Dougan, Bonnie; Zahn-Waxler, Carolyn

    2015-09-01

    We comprehensively examined within-person and between-person associations between cortisol and DHEA and cortisol and testosterone across the day. Data are from a sample of 213 adolescents aged 11-16 (M = 13.7, SD = 1.5 years) from the Northeastern US who were oversampled for psychopathology symptoms. Six repeated measures of hormone levels across 3 days were used to test three specific questions of cortisol-DHEA and cortisol-testosterone associations within individuals (coupling) across the day, and one question of cortisol-DHEA and cortisol-testosterone diurnal slopes were associated between adolescents. Results consistently revealed positive cortisol-DHEA and cortisol-testosterone coupling across the day, often more pronounced in girls relative to boys. Cortisol and DHEA slopes were positively associated, whereas cortisol and testosterone were negatively associated between-adolescents. Findings suggest multiple mechanisms and highlight the multifaceted nature of associations of hormone changes during adolescence and importance of considering both axes for between- and within-person aspects of neuroendocrine development.

  6. Cortisol levels and the severity and outcomes of acute stroke: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Barugh, Amanda Jayne; Gray, Paul; Shenkin, Susan Deborah; MacLullich, Alasdair Maurice Joseph; Mead, Gillian Elizabeth

    2014-03-01

    Studies in non-stroke patients have shown an association between dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and morbidity and mortality. We conducted a systematic review to evaluate cortisol levels in acute stroke and their associations with outcome. We searched MEDLINE and EMBASE for articles up to April 2013 and PsychINFO for articles up to July 2013, using the keywords "cortisol" and "stroke" and associated terms or synonyms. We included studies published in peer-reviewed journals that recruited 10 or more participants and measured cortisol at least once in the first year following stroke. Data were extracted regarding cortisol levels, including changes over time and their relationship to stroke severity, and outcome. Of 11,240 abstracts, 101 full texts were obtained and 48 fulfilled our inclusion criteria. Cortisol levels were high in the first week after stroke in the majority of studies (26 studies, n = 1,340). Higher cortisol was associated with dependency (8/11 studies, n = 822), delirium (5/6 studies, n = 269) depression (3/5 studies n = 117) and mortality (8/10 studies, n = 856). Five studies adjusted for stroke severity; one found an association between higher cortisol and dependency, and three found an association between higher cortisol and mortality. Cortisol levels are high for at least 7 days after stroke. Elevated cortisol after stroke is associated with dependency, morbidity, and mortality; however, there is insufficient evidence to conclude that these relationships are independent of stroke severity.

  7. Low Impact of Urinary Cortisol in the Assessment of Hydrocortisone Replacement Therapy.

    PubMed

    Haas, C S; Rahvar, A-H; Danneberg, S; Lehnert, H; Moenig, H; Harbeck, B

    2016-09-01

    Hydrocortisone replacement therapy is a cornerstone in the treatment of adrenal insufficiency (AI). While urinary cortisol has been used as a diagnostic tool for AI, it remains unclear whether it is a useful parameter to monitor hydrocortisone replacement therapy. Aim of this study was to evaluate possible differences in cortisol metabolism between adrenal insufficient patients and healthy subjects and to assess the value of urinary cortisol in AI management. In a case-control study, urinary cortisol excretion was determined in 14 patients with primary and secondary AI receiving hydrocortisone infusions from midnight to 8:00 AM. Results were correlated with serum cortisol levels and compared to urinary values obtained from 53 healthy volunteers. Urinary cortisol excretion in healthy subjects was 14.0±7.8 μg/8 h (range: 0.24-35.4), levels did not differ between 3 groups aged 20-34 years, 35-49 years, and ≥50 years. Patients with AI receiving hydrocortisone infusions demonstrated significantly higher rates of urinary cortisol excretion (51.6±37.8 μg/8 h; range 17.1-120.0, p<0.001); the values correlated with serum cortisol levels (r(2)=0.98). Of interest, patients with secondary AI showed significantly higher serum cortisol levels after hydrocortisone infusion than those with primary AI, conceivably due to residual adrenal function. In conclusion, we showed that: (i) there is a wide inter-individual variability in urinary cortisol excretion rates; (ii) cortisol metabolism in adrenal insufficient patients differs when compared to controls; (iii) there is a strong correlation between urinary and serum cortisol levels; and (iv) urinary cortisol levels despite their variability may help to discriminate between secondary and primary adrenal insufficiency.

  8. Cortisol levels and very early pregnancy loss in humans

    PubMed Central

    Nepomnaschy, Pablo A.; Welch, Kathleen B.; McConnell, Daniel S.; Low, Bobbi S.; Strassmann, Beverly I.; England, Barry G.

    2006-01-01

    Maternal stress is commonly cited as an important risk factor for spontaneous abortion. For humans, however, there is little physiological evidence linking miscarriage to stress. This lack of evidence may be attributable to a paucity of research on maternal stress during the earliest gestational stages. Most human studies have focused on “clinical” pregnancy (>6 weeks after the last menstrual period). The majority of miscarriages, however, occur earlier, within the first 3 weeks after conception (≈5 weeks after the last menstrual period). Studies focused on clinical pregnancy thus miss the most critical period for pregnancy continuance. We examined the association between miscarriage and levels of maternal urinary cortisol during the first 3 weeks after conception. Pregnancies characterized by increased maternal cortisol during this period (within participant analyses) were more likely to result in spontaneous abortion (P < 0.05). This evidence links increased levels in this stress marker with a higher risk of early pregnancy loss in humans. PMID:16495411

  9. Hair cortisol, stress exposure, and mental health in humans: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Staufenbiel, Sabine M; Penninx, Brenda W J H; Spijker, Anne T; Elzinga, Bernet M; van Rossum, Elisabeth F C

    2013-08-01

    The deleterious effects of chronic stress on health and its contribution to the development of mental illness attract broad attention worldwide. An important development in the last few years has been the employment of hair cortisol analysis with its unique possibility to assess the long-term systematic levels of cortisol retrospectively. This review makes a first attempt to systematically synthesize the body of published research on hair cortisol, chronic stress, and mental health. The results of hair cortisol studies are contrasted and integrated with literature on acutely circulating cortisol as measured in bodily fluids, thereby combining cortisol baseline concentration and cortisol reactivity in an attempt to understand the cortisol dynamics in the development and/or maintenance of mental illnesses. The studies on hair cortisol and chronic stress show increased hair cortisol levels in a wide range of contexts/situations (e.g. endurance athletes, shift work, unemployment, chronic pain, stress in neonates, major life events). With respect to mental illnesses, the results differed between diagnoses. In major depression, the hair cortisol concentrations appear to be increased, whereas for bipolar disorder, cortisol concentrations were only increased in patients with a late age-of-onset. In patients with anxiety (generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder), hair cortisol levels were reported to be decreased. The same holds true for patients with posttraumatic stress disorder, in whom - after an initial increase in cortisol release - the cortisol output decreases below baseline. The effect sizes are calculated when descriptive statistics are provided, to enable preliminary comparisons across the different laboratories. For exposure to chronic stressors, the effect sizes on hair cortisol levels were medium to large, whereas for psychopathology, the effect sizes were small to medium. This is a first implication that the dysregulation of the hypothalamic

  10. Predictors of hair cortisol concentrations in older adults.

    PubMed

    Feller, Silke; Vigl, Matthaeus; Bergmann, Manuela M; Boeing, Heiner; Kirschbaum, Clemens; Stalder, Tobias

    2014-01-01

    People at older ages are at increased risk for developing stress-related diseases associated with chronically elevated cortisol secretion. However, the main factors contributing to such endocrine alterations in this age group are still largely unknown. This cross-sectional study examined patterns of long-term integrated cortisol secretion, as assessed in hair, in a sample of 654 participants in middle and old adulthood (mean age: 65.8 years; range: 47-82 years) from the German cohort of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study in Potsdam. Hair cortisol concentrations (HCC) were determined from the first scalp-near 3 cm hair segment and several sociodemographic, lifestyle, anthropometric, disease-related, and psychological parameters were assessed. In simple linear regressions, HCC were found to increase with participants' age and to be higher in men compared to women. HCC also showed positive associations with waist-to-hip ratio, waist circumference, smoking, prevalent type 2 diabetes mellitus, mental health, daytime sleeping, and being unemployed or retired--as well as a negative association with diastolic blood pressure. After full mutual adjustment, only age and smoking remained independent predictors of HCC. The association between prevalent type 2 diabetes mellitus and HCC was attenuated but still persisted independently in women. Similar, a positive relationship between HCC and alcohol consumption was found in women. The current results confirm previous evidence of positive associations of HCC with age, sex, alcohol consumption, and type 2 diabetes mellitus and add new knowledge on factors--such as smoking--that may contribute to elevated cortisol levels in people at older ages.

  11. Effect of weaning age on cortisol release in piglets.

    PubMed

    Li, L A; Yang, J J; Li, Y; Lv, L; Xie, J J; Du, G M; Jin, T M; Qin, S Y; Jiao, X L

    2016-01-01

    The effect of weaning age on the adrenal cortex, which plays a vital role in the stress response, is currently unknown. Therefore, plasma adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and cortisol levels, weights and relative weights of adrenal glands, and steroidogenesis-related protein and enzyme expression levels in piglets weaned on different days were determined. Piglets weaned at 35 days had significantly lower ACTH levels than those weaned at 14 or 21 days, and cortisol levels of piglets weaned at 21, 28, and 35 days were significantly lower than those of piglets weaned on day 14. Adrenal gland weights of piglets weaned at 28 and 35 days and relative adrenal gland weights of piglets weaned at 35 days were significantly lower than those of piglets weaned at 14 days. However, no significant difference was detected in the expression of melanocortin-type 2 receptor mRNA, which is associated with weaning age. Steroidogenic acute-regulatory (StAR) mRNA and cholesterol side-chain cleavage cytochrome P450 mRNA expression levels in piglets weaned at 28 and 35 days were significantly lower than in those weaned at 14 or 21 days, and P450 11β mRNA expression levels in piglets weaned at 28 and 35 days were significantly lower than in those weaned at 14 days. Therefore, early-weaned piglets exhibited increased adrenal gland weights and StAR and steroidogenic enzyme expression, all of which contributed to high cortisol levels. The high plasma ACTH and cortisol levels in early-weaned piglets indicate that these animals would be greatly affected by stress. PMID:27173313

  12. Estradiol and cortisol interactions in youth externalizing psychopathology.

    PubMed

    Tackett, Jennifer L; Reardon, Kathleen W; Herzhoff, Kathrin; Page-Gould, Elizabeth; Harden, K Paige; Josephs, Robert A

    2015-05-01

    Growing evidence has indicated that gonadal and stress hormones interact to shape socially dominant behavior and externalizing psychopathology; however, such work to date has focused exclusively on the testosterone-cortisol interaction, despite expectations that estradiol should be associated with similar behavioral outcomes to testosterone. Here, we present the first empirical test of the hypothesis that adolescent males and females (N=105, ages 13-18) with high estradiol and low cortisol concentrations are at highest risk for externalizing problems, but - replicating previous work - only among adolescents high on pathological personality traits. Parents reported on youth psychopathology and personality, and hormone concentrations were measured via passive drool. Results confirmed the hypothesis: high estradiol was associated with more externalizing behaviors, but only when cortisol was low and personality traits of disagreeableness and emotional instability were high. Further, these associations held when controlling for testosterone concentrations. These findings provide the first empirical evidence of a hypothalamic pituitary adrenal (HPA)×hypothalamic pituitary gonadal (HPG) axis interaction that extends the "dual hormone" hypothesis beyond testosterone.

  13. Heart rate and salivary cortisol concentrations in foals at birth.

    PubMed

    Nagel, C; Erber, R; Ille, N; Wulf, M; Aurich, J; Möstl, E; Aurich, C

    2015-02-01

    Heart rate (HR), HR variability (HRV) and salivary cortisol concentrations were determined in foals (n = 13) during the perinatal phase and until 5 months of age. In the fetus, HR decreased from 77 ± 3 beats/min at 120 min before birth to 60 ± 1 beats/min at 5 min before birth (P <0.01). Within 30 min of birth, HR increased to 160 ± 9 beats/min (P <0.01). Salivary cortisol concentrations immediately after birth were 11.9 ± 3.6 ng/mL and within 2 h increased to a maximum of 52.5 ± 12.3 ng/mL (P <0.01). In conclusion, increases in HR and salivary cortisol concentrations in foals are not induced during parturition, but occur immediately after birth.

  14. [Measurement of salivary cortisol with four commercial kits].

    PubMed

    Nahoul, K; Patricot, M C; Bressot, N; Penes, M C; Revol, A

    1996-01-01

    Salivary cortisol was determined with four commercially available immunoassays: one enzyme-immunoassay (Cortisol Biotrol), two fluoro-immunoassays (TDX, Abbott; Stratus, Baxter) and one radioimmunoassay (Coat-A-Count, Behring). In order to improve the sensitivity of these immunoassays, it was necessary to increase sample volumes. Thus an extraction step had to be included in the procedure. It was performed with either methylene chloride or Bond Elut. However, the Coat-A-Count kit may be applied directly on salivary aliquots. The results obtained were compared to those yielded by the reference technique which includes a chromatographic step on Sephadex LH 20. According to the present data (n = 20) no kit appears to be adequate for salivary cortisol measurement at any level, at least in the conditions applied in this study. However, the introduction of a chromatographic step in the procedure improved greatly the specificity. Nevertheless, the best results were obtained with the Coat-A-Count kit. Indeed, they were generally similar to those of the reference technique, but some discrepancies were observed at low levels. PMID:8763630

  15. Successful hunting increases testosterone and cortisol in a subsistence population

    PubMed Central

    Trumble, Benjamin C.; Smith, Eric A.; O'Connor, Kathleen A.; Kaplan, Hillard S.; Gurven, Michael D.

    2014-01-01

    Controversy over the adaptive significance of male hunting in subsistence societies hinges on the relative importance of familial provisioning and mate-quality signalling. This paper examines the proximate and ultimate motivations of hunting behaviour from a neuroendocrine perspective, using salivary testosterone and cortisol data collected before, during and after hunting focal follows from 31 Tsimane hunters aged 18–82 years. Despite circadian declines in hormone levels, testosterone and cortisol of Tsimane hunters increased at the time of a kill, and remained high as successful hunters returned home. Previous studies of hormonal changes during competitions find that high-stakes and success in the presence of relevant audiences result in increased neuroendocrine arousal. If men hunt primarily to provision their families, then an additional audience would not be expected to impact testosterone or cortisol, nor would the size of the animal killed. However, if signalling male quality by ‘showing off’ was a larger relative driver of men's hunting behaviour, one would expect greater hormonal response in cases where men returned with large sharable kills, especially in the presence of community members. Consistent with provisioning models of male hunting motivation, neither kill size nor encountering an audience of villagers while returning from hunting was associated with hormonal changes for successful hunters. PMID:24335989

  16. Cortisol modulates men's affiliative responses to acute social stress.

    PubMed

    Berger, Justus; Heinrichs, Markus; von Dawans, Bernadette; Way, Baldwin M; Chen, Frances S

    2016-01-01

    The dominant characterization of the physiological and behavioral human stress reaction is the fight-or-flight response. On the other hand, it has been suggested that social affiliation during stressful times ("tend-and-befriend") also represents a common adaptive response to stress, particularly for women. In the current study, we investigate the extent to which men may also show affiliative responses following acute stress. In addition, we examine a potential neuroendocrine modulator of the hypothesized affiliative response. Eighty male students (forty dyads) were recruited to undergo either the Trier Social Stress Test for Groups (TSST-G) or a non-stressful control situation. Subsequently, participants completed a dyadic interaction task and were then asked to report their feelings of psychological closeness to their interaction partner. Although participants assigned to the stress condition did not differ overall on psychological closeness from participants assigned to the control condition, participants with high cortisol responses to the stressor showed significantly higher ratings of psychological closeness to their interaction partner than participants with low cortisol responses. Our findings suggest that men may form closer temporary bonds following stressful situations that are accompanied by a significant cortisol response. We suggest that the traditional characterization of the male stress response in terms of "fight-or-flight" may be incomplete, and that social affiliation may in fact represent a common, adaptive response to stress in men.

  17. Estradiol and cortisol interactions in youth externalizing psychopathology.

    PubMed

    Tackett, Jennifer L; Reardon, Kathleen W; Herzhoff, Kathrin; Page-Gould, Elizabeth; Harden, K Paige; Josephs, Robert A

    2015-05-01

    Growing evidence has indicated that gonadal and stress hormones interact to shape socially dominant behavior and externalizing psychopathology; however, such work to date has focused exclusively on the testosterone-cortisol interaction, despite expectations that estradiol should be associated with similar behavioral outcomes to testosterone. Here, we present the first empirical test of the hypothesis that adolescent males and females (N=105, ages 13-18) with high estradiol and low cortisol concentrations are at highest risk for externalizing problems, but - replicating previous work - only among adolescents high on pathological personality traits. Parents reported on youth psychopathology and personality, and hormone concentrations were measured via passive drool. Results confirmed the hypothesis: high estradiol was associated with more externalizing behaviors, but only when cortisol was low and personality traits of disagreeableness and emotional instability were high. Further, these associations held when controlling for testosterone concentrations. These findings provide the first empirical evidence of a hypothalamic pituitary adrenal (HPA)×hypothalamic pituitary gonadal (HPG) axis interaction that extends the "dual hormone" hypothesis beyond testosterone. PMID:25765756

  18. Hair Cortisol Analysis: A Promising Biomarker of HPA Activation in Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Wright, Kathy D; Hickman, Ronald; Laudenslager, Mark L

    2015-06-01

    Prolonged stress is a potentially harmful and often undetected risk factor for chronic illness in older adults. Cortisol, one indicator of the body's hormonal responses to stress, is regulated by the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and is commonly measured in saliva, urine, or blood samples. Cortisol possesses a diurnal pattern and thus collection timing is critical. Hair cortisol is a proxy measure to the total retrospective activity of the HPA axis over the preceding months, much like hemoglobin A1c is a proxy measure of glucose control over the past 3 months. The aim of this review is to examine a novel biomarker, hair cortisol, as a practical measure of long-term retrospective cortisol activity associated with chronic stress in older adults. Hair cortisol analysis advances the science of aging by better characterizing chronic stress as a risk factor for chronic illness progression and as a biomarker of the effectiveness of stress reduction interventions.

  19. Genetic and Environmental Influences on Cortisol Regulation Across Days and Contexts in Middle-Aged Men

    PubMed Central

    York, Timothy P.; Eaves, Lindon J.; Mendoza, Sally P.; Hauger, Richard L.; Hellhammer, Dirk H.; Jacobson, Kristen C.; Levine, Seymour; Lupien, Sonia J.; Lyons, Michael J.; Prom-Wormley, Elizabeth; Xian, Hong; Kremen, William S.

    2010-01-01

    Cortisol is an indicator of hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis responsivity to stress, but few twin studies have examined the heritability of cortisol concentrations in adults across the diurnal cycle and in different contexts. Saliva samples were provided by 783 middle-aged male twins on one laboratory and two home days as part of the Vietnam Era Twin Study of Aging. Significant cortisol heritability estimates were found for laboratory measures only: awakening (.56); 30 min after awakening (.48); 1000 h (.42); mean output across the day (.43); and mean cortisol awakening response (.64). Twin correlations at home were low. In the laboratory, they were unchanged for fraternal twins, but increased for identical twins. Greater measurement error at home did not appear to account for home-laboratory differences. The results suggest that genetic factors influence cortisol responses to specific environmental stressors. Thus, cortisol levels are correlated in identical twins only when they undergo similar experiences. PMID:20238238

  20. Solitude and cortisol: associations with state and trait affect in daily life.

    PubMed

    Matias, Gabriela P; Nicolson, Nancy A; Freire, Teresa

    2011-03-01

    The social context can impact psychological and physiological functioning. Being alone, in particular, is experienced as more negative on average than being with others, in both normative and pathological populations. This study investigates whether daily solitude is associated with changes in cortisol and, if so, whether momentary and trait affect can explain this relationship. Forty-four female college students used the Experience Sampling Method during a week, completing questionnaires and collecting saliva 8 times daily. Effects of current solitude, affect, and trait affectivity on cortisol were tested with multilevel regression. Cortisol levels were significantly higher when individuals were alone. Although momentary affective states changed during solitude and were also associated with cortisol, they did not fully explain the effects of solitude on cortisol. Trait affectivity moderated the association between solitude and cortisol. Findings may help clarify how daily experience may heighten risk of depression or other negative health outcomes in vulnerable individuals.

  1. Relationship Status and Relationship Instability, but Not Dominance, Predict Individual Differences in Baseline Cortisol Levels

    PubMed Central

    Maestripieri, Dario; Klimczuk, Amanda C. E.; Seneczko, Marianne; Traficonte, Daniel M.; Wilson, M. Claire

    2013-01-01

    We investigated variation in baseline cortisol levels in relation to relationship status (single or in a relationship), relationship characteristics (length, stability, presence or absence of clear dominance), or individual attributes (dominant or subordinate status, relative physical attractiveness, relationship worries). Study participants were 77 men and 75 women aged between 18 and 38 years. Individuals in romantic relationships had lower cortisol levels than singles. Individuals of African ethnicity, however, showed the opposite pattern. Individuals who perceived their relationship to be highly unstable had higher cortisol levels. Aside from African-Americans, married individuals reported the lowest relationship instability and the lowest cortisol levels, followed by individuals in long-term relationships, and by individuals in short-term relationships. The presence or absence of clear dominance in the relationship, dominance status, or relationship worries did not affect cortisol levels. Therefore relationship status and relationship instability were better predictors of variation in cortisol (presumably through stress-related mechanisms) than individual attributes. PMID:24358324

  2. Towards a biopsychological understanding of costly punishment: the role of basal cortisol.

    PubMed

    Pfattheicher, Stefan; Keller, Johannes

    2014-01-01

    Recent findings have documented a negative relation of basal endogenous cortisol and aggression after a provocation (i.e., reactive aggression) in humans. We build on these findings and investigated the relation of endogenous cortisol and reactive aggression in a social dilemma situation, that is, costly punishment of individuals who did not appropriately contribute to a common group project. Specifically, we predicted that basal cortisol is negatively related to costly punishment of uncooperative individuals. In the present study, basal cortisol was assessed prior to a public goods game with the option to punish other group members. In line with previous research on reactive aggression and basal cortisol, we found that basal cortisol was indeed negatively related to costly punishment. The findings are important for understanding costly punishment because this tendency has been documented as a possible basis for the evolution of cooperation.

  3. Towards a biopsychological understanding of costly punishment: the role of basal cortisol.

    PubMed

    Pfattheicher, Stefan; Keller, Johannes

    2014-01-01

    Recent findings have documented a negative relation of basal endogenous cortisol and aggression after a provocation (i.e., reactive aggression) in humans. We build on these findings and investigated the relation of endogenous cortisol and reactive aggression in a social dilemma situation, that is, costly punishment of individuals who did not appropriately contribute to a common group project. Specifically, we predicted that basal cortisol is negatively related to costly punishment of uncooperative individuals. In the present study, basal cortisol was assessed prior to a public goods game with the option to punish other group members. In line with previous research on reactive aggression and basal cortisol, we found that basal cortisol was indeed negatively related to costly punishment. The findings are important for understanding costly punishment because this tendency has been documented as a possible basis for the evolution of cooperation. PMID:24416441

  4. Exposure of ova to cortisol pre-fertilisation affects subsequent behaviour and physiology of brown trout.

    PubMed

    Sloman, Katherine A

    2010-08-01

    Even before fertilisation, exposure of ova to high levels of stress corticosteroids can have significant effects on offspring in a variety of animals. In fish, high levels of cortisol in ovarian fluid can elicit morphological changes and reduce offspring survival. Whether there are other more subtle effects, including behavioural effects, of exposure to cortisol pre-fertilisation in fish is unclear. Here I demonstrate that a brief (3h) exposure of brown trout eggs to a physiologically relevant ( approximately 500 microg l(-)(1)) concentration of cortisol pre-fertilisation resulted in changes to developing offspring. Embryos exposed to cortisol pre-fertilisation displayed elevated oxygen consumption and ammonia excretion rates during development. After hatch, in contrast to the effects of cortisol exposure in juvenile fish, fish exposed to cortisol as eggs were more aggressive than control individuals and responded differently within a maze system. Thus, a transient exposure to corticosteroids in unfertilised eggs results in both physiological and behavioural alterations in fish.

  5. Cortisol variation in humans affects memory for emotionally laden and neutral information.

    PubMed

    Abercrombie, Heather C; Kalin, Ned H; Thurow, Marchell E; Rosenkranz, Melissa A; Davidson, Richard J

    2003-06-01

    In a test of the effects of cortisol on emotional memory, 90 men were orally administered placebo or 20 or 40 mg cortisol and presented with emotionally arousing and neutral stimuli. On memory tests administered within 1 hr of stimulus presentation, cortisol elevations caused a reduction in the number of errors committed on free-recall tasks. Two evenings later, when cortisol levels were no longer manipulated, inverted-U quadratic trends were found for recognition memory tasks, reflecting memory facilitation in the 20-mg group for both negative and neutral information. Results suggest that the effects of cortisol on memory do not differ substantially for emotional and neutral information. The study provides evidence of beneficial effects of acute cortisol elevations on explicit memory in humans.

  6. Preliminary evidence of salivary cortisol predicting performance in a controlled setting.

    PubMed

    Lautenbach, Franziska; Laborde, Sylvain; Achtzehn, Silvia; Raab, Markus

    2014-04-01

    The aims of this study were to examine the influence of salivary cortisol on tennis serve performance in a controlled setting and to investigate if cortisol predicts unique variance in performance beyond a subjective anxiety measure (i.e., Competitive State Anxiety Inventory-2 [CSAI-2]). Twenty-three tennis players performed two series of second tennis serves separated by an anxiety induction (i.e., arithmetic task). Cortisol was assessed six times during the experiment. Results show that cortisol response and a drop in serving performance are positively correlated (r=.68, p<.001). Cortisol also explains unique variance in performance (i.e., 19%) beyond CSAI-2 measures. Thus, considering cortisol measurements seems warranted in future research aimed at understanding performance.

  7. Cortisol influences the antipredator behavior induced by chemical alarm cues in the Frillfin goby.

    PubMed

    Barreto, Rodrigo Egydio; Barbosa-Júnior, Augusto; Urbinati, Elisabeth Criscuolo; Hoffmann, Anette

    2014-04-01

    We evaluated the effect of increased plasma cortisol levels on fish antipredator behavior induced by conspecific chemical alarm cues. The experimental model for the study was the Frillfin goby Bathygobius soporator. We first confirmed that the alarm substance induces typical defensive antipredator responses in Frillfin gobies and described their alarm substance cells (epidermal 'club' cells). Second, we confirmed that intraperitoneal cortisol implants increase plasma cortisol levels in this species. We then demonstrated that exogenous cortisol administration and subsequent exposure to an alarm substance decreased swimming activity to a greater extent than the activity prompted by either stimulus alone. In addition, cortisol did not abolish the sheltering response to the alarm chemical cue even though it decreased activity. As predators use prey movements to guide their first contact with the prey, a factor that decreases swimming activity clearly increases the probability of survival. Consequently, this observation indicates that cortisol helps improve the antipredator response in fish.

  8. Childhood parental divorce and cortisol in young adulthood: evidence for mediation by family income.

    PubMed

    Kraft, Amy J; Luecken, Linda J

    2009-10-01

    Childhood parental divorce has been linked with negative physical and psychological health in adulthood, potentially due to alterations in adrenocortical activity resulting from chronic stress. The current study evaluated cortisol in 94 young adults (mean age 19.9) from families characterized by parental divorce (n=43) or intact parental marriages (n=51). Salivary cortisol was assessed prior to and at 3 time points after a challenging speech task. Participants from divorced families had significantly lower cortisol across the experimental period than those from intact families, even after controlling for family conflict and current depression and anxiety. Lower family income was also associated with lower cortisol, and partially mediated the relationship between parental divorce and cortisol. Findings suggest that childhood parental divorce is associated with attenuated cortisol in young adulthood, which may be explained by lower income in divorced families.

  9. Towards a Biopsychological Understanding of Costly Punishment: The Role of Basal Cortisol

    PubMed Central

    Pfattheicher, Stefan; Keller, Johannes

    2014-01-01

    Recent findings have documented a negative relation of basal endogenous cortisol and aggression after a provocation (i.e., reactive aggression) in humans. We build on these findings and investigated the relation of endogenous cortisol and reactive aggression in a social dilemma situation, that is, costly punishment of individuals who did not appropriately contribute to a common group project. Specifically, we predicted that basal cortisol is negatively related to costly punishment of uncooperative individuals. In the present study, basal cortisol was assessed prior to a public goods game with the option to punish other group members. In line with previous research on reactive aggression and basal cortisol, we found that basal cortisol was indeed negatively related to costly punishment. The findings are important for understanding costly punishment because this tendency has been documented as a possible basis for the evolution of cooperation. PMID:24416441

  10. Intracellular Molecular Differences in Aldosterone- Compared to Cortisol-Secreting Adrenal Cortical Adenomas.

    PubMed

    Seidel, Eric; Scholl, Ute I

    2016-01-01

    The adrenal cortex is a major site of steroid hormone production. Two hormones are of particular importance: aldosterone, which is produced in the zona glomerulosa in response to volume depletion and hyperkalemia, and cortisol, which is produced in the zona fasciculata in response to stress. In both cases, acute stimulation leads to increased hormone production, and chronic stimulation causes hyperplasia of the respective zone. Aldosterone- and cortisol-producing adenomas (APAs and CPAs) are benign tumors of the adrenal cortex that cause excess hormone production, leading to primary aldosteronism and Cushing's syndrome, respectively. About 40% of the APAs carry somatic heterozygous gain-of-function mutations in the K(+) channel KCNJ5. These mutations lead to sodium permeability, depolarization, activation of voltage-gated Ca(2+) channels, and Ca(2+) influx. Mutations in the Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase subunit ATP1A1 and the plasma membrane Ca(2+)-ATPase ATP2B3 similarly cause Na(+) or H(+) permeability and depolarization, whereas mutations in the Ca(2+) channel CACNA1D directly lead to increased calcium influx. One in three CPAs carries a recurrent gain-of-function mutation (L206R) in the PRKACA gene, encoding the catalytic subunit of PKA. This mutation causes constitutive PKA activity by abolishing the binding of the inhibitory regulatory subunit to the catalytic subunit. These mutations activate pathways that are relatively specific to the respective cell type (glomerulosa versus fasciculata), and there is little overlap in mutation spectrum between APAs and CPAs, but co-secretion of both hormones can occur. Mutations in CTNNB1 (beta-catenin) and GNAS (Gsα) are exceptions, as they can cause both APAs and CPAs through pathways that are incompletely understood. PMID:27445978

  11. Intracellular Molecular Differences in Aldosterone- Compared to Cortisol-Secreting Adrenal Cortical Adenomas.

    PubMed

    Seidel, Eric; Scholl, Ute I

    2016-01-01

    The adrenal cortex is a major site of steroid hormone production. Two hormones are of particular importance: aldosterone, which is produced in the zona glomerulosa in response to volume depletion and hyperkalemia, and cortisol, which is produced in the zona fasciculata in response to stress. In both cases, acute stimulation leads to increased hormone production, and chronic stimulation causes hyperplasia of the respective zone. Aldosterone- and cortisol-producing adenomas (APAs and CPAs) are benign tumors of the adrenal cortex that cause excess hormone production, leading to primary aldosteronism and Cushing's syndrome, respectively. About 40% of the APAs carry somatic heterozygous gain-of-function mutations in the K(+) channel KCNJ5. These mutations lead to sodium permeability, depolarization, activation of voltage-gated Ca(2+) channels, and Ca(2+) influx. Mutations in the Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase subunit ATP1A1 and the plasma membrane Ca(2+)-ATPase ATP2B3 similarly cause Na(+) or H(+) permeability and depolarization, whereas mutations in the Ca(2+) channel CACNA1D directly lead to increased calcium influx. One in three CPAs carries a recurrent gain-of-function mutation (L206R) in the PRKACA gene, encoding the catalytic subunit of PKA. This mutation causes constitutive PKA activity by abolishing the binding of the inhibitory regulatory subunit to the catalytic subunit. These mutations activate pathways that are relatively specific to the respective cell type (glomerulosa versus fasciculata), and there is little overlap in mutation spectrum between APAs and CPAs, but co-secretion of both hormones can occur. Mutations in CTNNB1 (beta-catenin) and GNAS (Gsα) are exceptions, as they can cause both APAs and CPAs through pathways that are incompletely understood.

  12. Intracellular Molecular Differences in Aldosterone- Compared to Cortisol-Secreting Adrenal Cortical Adenomas

    PubMed Central

    Seidel, Eric; Scholl, Ute I.

    2016-01-01

    The adrenal cortex is a major site of steroid hormone production. Two hormones are of particular importance: aldosterone, which is produced in the zona glomerulosa in response to volume depletion and hyperkalemia, and cortisol, which is produced in the zona fasciculata in response to stress. In both cases, acute stimulation leads to increased hormone production, and chronic stimulation causes hyperplasia of the respective zone. Aldosterone- and cortisol-producing adenomas (APAs and CPAs) are benign tumors of the adrenal cortex that cause excess hormone production, leading to primary aldosteronism and Cushing’s syndrome, respectively. About 40% of the APAs carry somatic heterozygous gain-of-function mutations in the K+ channel KCNJ5. These mutations lead to sodium permeability, depolarization, activation of voltage-gated Ca2+ channels, and Ca2+ influx. Mutations in the Na+/K+-ATPase subunit ATP1A1 and the plasma membrane Ca2+-ATPase ATP2B3 similarly cause Na+ or H+ permeability and depolarization, whereas mutations in the Ca2+ channel CACNA1D directly lead to increased calcium influx. One in three CPAs carries a recurrent gain-of-function mutation (L206R) in the PRKACA gene, encoding the catalytic subunit of PKA. This mutation causes constitutive PKA activity by abolishing the binding of the inhibitory regulatory subunit to the catalytic subunit. These mutations activate pathways that are relatively specific to the respective cell type (glomerulosa versus fasciculata), and there is little overlap in mutation spectrum between APAs and CPAs, but co-secretion of both hormones can occur. Mutations in CTNNB1 (beta-catenin) and GNAS (Gsα) are exceptions, as they can cause both APAs and CPAs through pathways that are incompletely understood. PMID:27445978

  13. Cortisol, Interleukins and S100B in Delirium in the Elderly

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Munster, Barbara C.; Bisschop, Peter H.; Zwinderman, Aeilko H.; Korevaar, Johanna C.; Endert, Erik; Wiersinga, W. Joost; van Oosten, Hannah E.; Goslings, J. Carel; de Rooij, Sophia E. J. A.

    2010-01-01

    In independent studies delirium was associated with higher levels of cortisol, interleukin(IL)s, and S100B. The aim of this study was to simultaneously compare cortisol, IL-6, IL-8, and S100B levels in patients aged 65 years and older admitted for hip fracture surgery with and without delirium. Cortisol, IL-6, IL-8, and S100B were assayed in…

  14. Increased maternal nighttime cortisol concentrations in late gestation alter glucose and insulin in the neonatal lamb

    PubMed Central

    Antolic, Andrew; Feng, Xiaodi; Wood, Charles E; Richards, Elaine M; Keller-Wood, Maureen

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies in our laboratory have shown that a modest chronic increase in maternal cortisol concentrations impairs maternal glucose metabolism and increases the incidence of perinatal stillbirth. The dramatic outcomes prevented our ability to study the effects of maternal hypercortisolemia on neonatal growth, glucose metabolism, and hypothalamo–pituitary–adrenal axis response. Therefore, we developed a model in which pregnant ewes are infused for 12 h/day at 0.5 mg·kg–1·day–1 from day 115 of gestation until delivery (˜145), elevating nighttime plasma cortisol concentrations. This pattern of elevation of cortisol mimics that in patients with elevated evening cortisol concentrations, as in Cushing’s syndrome or chronic depression. Plasma cortisol, glucose, insulin, and electrolytes were measured during pregnancy and postpartum in control and cortisol-infused ewes and their postnatal lambs for the first 14 days after delivery. Neonatal growth and plasma ACTH, aldosterone, renin activity, and electrolytes, and organ weights at 14 days of age were also measured. Infusion of cortisol increased maternal plasma cortisol during pregnancy but not postpartum, and did not alter neonatal ACTH or cortisol. Although maternal glucose and insulin concentrations were not changed by the maternal infusion of cortisol, neonatal plasma glucose was increased and plasma insulin was decreased compared to those in the control group. Neonatal ponderal index and kidney weight were reduced, left ventricular wall thickness was increased, and plasma sodium and creatinine were increased after maternal cortisol infusion. These results suggest that excess maternal cortisol concentrations in late gestation alter growth, glucose and insulin regulation, and organ maturation in the neonate. PMID:26371232

  15. Elevated maternal cortisol leads to relative maternal hyperglycemia and increased stillbirth in ovine pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Xiaodi; Wood, Charles E.; Richards, Elaine; Anthony, Russell V.; Dahl, Geoffrey E.; Tao, Sha

    2014-01-01

    In normal pregnancy, cortisol increases; however, further pathological increases in cortisol are associated with maternal and fetal morbidities. These experiments were designed to test the hypothesis that increased maternal cortisol would increase maternal glucose concentrations, suppress fetal growth, and impair neonatal glucose homeostasis. Ewes were infused with cortisol (1 mg·kg−1·day−1) from day 115 of gestation to term; maternal glucose, insulin, ovine placental lactogen, estrone, progesterone, nonesterified free fatty acids (NEFA), β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB), and electrolytes were measured. Infusion of cortisol increased maternal glucose concentration and slowed the glucose disappearance after injection of glucose; maternal infusion of cortisol also increased the incidence of fetal death at or near parturition. The design of the study was altered to terminate the study prior to delivery, and post hoc analysis of the data was performed to test the hypothesis that maternal metabolic factors predict the fetal outcome. In cortisol-infused ewes that had stillborn lambs, plasma insulin was increased relative to control ewes or cortisol-infused ewes with live lambs. Maternal cortisol infusion did not alter maternal food intake or plasma NEFA, BHB, estrone, progesterone or placental lactogen concentrations, and it did not alter fetal body weight, ponderal index, or fetal organ weights. Our study suggests that the adverse effect of elevated maternal cortisol on pregnancy outcome may be related to the effects of cortisol on maternal glucose homeostasis, and that chronic maternal stress or adrenal hypersecretion of cortisol may create fetal pathophysiology paralleling some aspects of maternal gestational diabetes. PMID:24920731

  16. Cortisol's effects on hippocampal activation in depressed patients are related to alterations in memory formation.

    PubMed

    Abercrombie, Heather C; Jahn, Allison L; Davidson, Richard J; Kern, Simone; Kirschbaum, Clemens; Halverson, Jerry

    2011-01-01

    Many investigators have hypothesized that brain response to cortisol is altered in depression. However, neural activation in response to exogenously manipulated cortisol elevations has not yet been directly examined in depressed humans. Animal research shows that glucocorticoids have robust effects on hippocampal function, and can either enhance or suppress neuroplastic events in the hippocampus depending on a number of factors. We hypothesized that depressed individuals would show 1) altered hippocampal response to exogenous administration of cortisol, and 2) altered effects of cortisol on learning. In a repeated-measures design, 19 unmedicated depressed and 41 healthy individuals completed two fMRI scans. Fifteen mg oral hydrocortisone (i.e., cortisol) or placebo (order randomized and double-blind) was administered 1 h prior to encoding of emotional and neutral words during fMRI scans. Data analysis examined the effects of cortisol administration on 1) brain activation during encoding, and 2) subsequent free recall for words. Cortisol affected subsequent recall performance in depressed but not healthy individuals. We found alterations in hippocampal response to cortisol in depressed women, but not in depressed men (who showed altered response to cortisol in other regions, including subgenual prefrontal cortex). In both depressed men and women, cortisol's effects on hippocampal function were positively correlated with its effects on recall performance assessed days later. Our data provide evidence that in depressed compared to healthy women, cortisol's effects on hippocampal function are altered. Our data also show that in both depressed men and women, cortisol's effects on emotional memory formation and hippocampal function are related.

  17. Longitudinal Patterns of Cortisol Regulation Differ in Maltreated and Nonmaltreated Children

    PubMed Central

    Doom, Jenalee R.; Cicchetti, Dante; Rogosch, Fred A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Child maltreatment is associated with dysregulation of stress-mediating systems and an increased risk of mental and physical health problems. Specifically, disruptions in hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis regulation have been reported in maltreated children. The current study investigates whether increased cortisol variability is responsible for inconsistent patterns in the literature. Method This study modeled cortisol activity over 20 weeks in 187 maltreated and 154 nonmaltreated children (M = 8.4 years, SD = 1.8 years) in order to capture week-to-week cortisol patterns. Maltreatment was assessed through coding of Department of Human Services records. Children attended an after school program one day per week for 20 weeks where saliva was collected at the same time each day and subsequently assayed for cortisol. Results Multiple-group growth curves indicated that maltreated and nonmaltreated children differ in longitudinal cortisol patterns. Maltreated children showed higher variance in the initial cortisol levels and slope over time compared to nonmaltreated children, indicating greater between-person variability in the maltreated group. Maltreated children with higher cortisol at the first assessment showed cortisol suppression over time, indicating potential HPA blunting after chronic high cortisol levels. The severity, timing, and number of subtypes of maltreatment predicted individuals’ cortisol variability, and both maltreatment status and greater cortisol variability predicted more behavior problems. Conclusion Interventions for maltreated children may benefit from pre- and post-intervention HPA assessments to determine a component of treatment efficacy. As maltreatment dimensions predicted differential cortisol regulation, assessment of maltreatment experiences is necessary to understand alterations in behavior and HPA regulation post-intervention. PMID:25440310

  18. Salivary cortisol day curves in Addison's disease in patients on hydrocortisone replacement.

    PubMed

    Ross, I L; Levitt, N S; Van der Walt, J S; Schatz, D A; Johannsson, G; Haarburger, D H; Pillay, T S

    2013-01-01

    Using salivary cortisol (SC) measurements, cortisol exposure in Addison's disease patients on hydrocortisone replacement was determined and compared with healthy controls. Cortisol pharmacokinetics was assessed in 31 patients with Addison's disease on replacement hydrocortisone doses (median daily dose 20 mg; range 5-50 mg) and 30 healthy control subjects. Saliva samples (n=16) were collected between 08:00 and 00:00 h in 1 day, using a passive drool technique. Cortisol exposure was evaluated by noncompartmental approach. In the patients, cortisol exposure was significantly higher than in controls: median inter-quartile range (IQR) peak cortisol (C(max)) 174.5 (59.3-837.0) vs. 6.50 (4.7-19.3) nmol/l, p=0.0001; area under the curve (AUC) 390.1 (177.1-928.9) vs. 21.4 (14.6-28.4) minutes*nmol/l, p=0.0001, trough cortisol level (C(min)) 0.49 (0.49-0.96) vs. 0.49 (0.49-0.49) nmol/l, p=0.02, occurring at 480.0 (0.1-660.0) vs. 405.0 (180.0-570.0) min, p=0.56. First peak cortisol was 174.5 (53.0-754.7) vs. 6.27 (3.90-8.47) nmol/l, p=0.0001 and second peak cortisol 18.90 (5.22-76.9) vs. 3.12 (1.76-4.79) nmol/l, p=0.0001. The time to first peak cortisol differed between the 2 groups, 30 (30-75) vs. 0.1 (0.1-30) minutes; p=0.0001. At doses studied, hydrocortisone replacement therapy results in cortisol pharmacokinetics being markedly different from endogenous cortisol profiles in healthy control subjects. Addison's disease patients had significantly higher SC levels compared to healthy control subjects.

  19. Can the neural–cortisol association be moderated by experience-induced changes in awareness?

    PubMed Central

    Lau, Way K. W.; Leung, Mei-Kei; Chan, Chetwyn C. H.; Wong, Samuel S. Y.; Lee, Tatia M. C.

    2015-01-01

    Cortisol homeostasis is important for cognitive and affective functions that depend on cortisol-sensitive brain regions including the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex. Recent studies have shown that training induces changes in the brain. We report the findings of a longitudinal study that verified the moderation effect of experience-induced changes in awareness on the neural–cortisol association in cortisol-sensitive brain regions. These findings provide the first piece of evidence that planned behavioral experience can moderate the neural–cortisol association. A range of changes in awareness was achieved in a sample of 21 Chinese participants, divided into two groups: Awareness-based compassion meditation (ABCM) (n = 10) and relaxation (n = 11). We observed that changes in awareness were significant moderators of hippocampal–cortisol changes. Furthermore, a significant negative association between changes in plasma cortisol level and the resting-state synchrony of the right hippocampal and insular-frontal-operculum regions was observed. These novel findings shed light on the inter-relationships between changes in hippocampal–cortisol levels and changes in awareness and preliminarily identify the neural underpinnings of interventions for cortisol-related abnormal functioning for further study. PMID:26577539

  20. The association between cortisol and the BOLD response in male adolescents undergoing fMRI.

    PubMed

    Keulers, Esther H H; Stiers, Peter; Nicolson, Nancy A; Jolles, Jelle

    2015-02-19

    MRI participation has been shown to induce subjective and neuroendocrine stress reactions. A recent aging study showed that cortisol levels during fMRI have an age-dependent effect on cognitive performance and brain functioning. The present study examined whether this age-specific influence of cortisol on behavioral and brain activation levels also applies to adolescence. Salivary cortisol as well as subjective experienced anxiety were assessed during the practice session, at home, and before, during and after the fMRI session in young versus old male adolescents. Cortisol levels were enhanced pre-imaging relative to during and post-imaging in both age groups, suggesting anticipatory stress and anxiety. Overall, a negative correlation was found between cortisol output during the fMRI experiment and brain activation magnitude during performance of a gambling task. In young but not in old adolescents, higher cortisol output was related to stronger deactivation of clusters in the anterior and posterior cingulate cortex. In old but not in young adolescents, a negative correlation was found between cortisol and activation in the inferior parietal and in the superior frontal cortex. In sum, cortisol increased the deactivation of several brain areas, although the location of the affected areas in the brain was age-dependent. The present findings suggest that cortisol output during fMRI should be considered as confounder and integrated in analyzing developmental changes in brain activation during adolescence.

  1. Long-term storage of salivary cortisol samples at room temperature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Yu-Ming; Cintron, Nitza M.; Whitson, Peggy A.

    1992-01-01

    Collection of saliva samples for the measurement of cortisol during space flights provides a simple technique for studying changes in adrenal function due microgravity. In the present work, several methods for preserving saliva cortisol at room temperature were investigated using radioimmunoassays for determining cortisol in saliva samples collected on a saliva-collection device called Salivettes. It was found that a pretreatment of Salivettes with citric acid resulted in preserving more than 85 percent of the salivary cortisol for as long as six weeks. The results correlated well with those for a sample stored in a freezer on an untreated Salivette.

  2. Saliva collection by using filter paper for measuring cortisol levels in dogs.

    PubMed

    Oyama, D; Hyodo, M; Doi, H; Kurachi, T; Takata, M; Koyama, S; Satoh, T; Watanabe, G

    2014-01-01

    Four experiments were conducted to evaluate the accuracy and reliability of noninvasive evaluation of cortisol in saliva of dogs. In experiment 1, we measured the cortisol concentration in the filter paper on which 250-μL cortisol solutions had been quantitatively pipetted and in filter papers dipped in cortisol solution. In experiment 2, we collected the blood and saliva of dogs 3 times at 30-min intervals and compared the cortisol concentrations to examine whether the dynamics of cortisol in the blood and saliva are similar. The results of experiments 1 and 2 showed that the cortisol concentration can be quantitatively measured with this method and that the dynamics of cortisol concentration in the plasma and saliva collected by using filter paper are not different (P = 0.14 for experiment 1 and P = 0.51 for experiment 2). In experiment 3, to investigate the factors related to inducing stress in dogs by using the filter-paper method of collecting saliva, we compared the cortisol concentrations at 0 and 30 min after collecting the saliva of pet dogs. The dog owners completed a survey on their dogs, providing basic information and reporting the collection of their dog's saliva. We found that the cortisol concentrations increased significantly in dogs whose owners spent >2 min collecting saliva (P = 0.005), suggesting that prompt collection of saliva is necessary for accurate assessment of cortisol without induction of a stress response. In addition, the cortisol concentrations increased significantly in dogs whose teeth were not regularly brushed (P = 0.04), suggesting that regular teeth brushing mitigates the effect of the collection process on cortisol concentrations in the saliva, with minimal stress to the dogs. In experiment 4, we measured cortisol concentrations in pet dogs accustomed to having their teeth brushed by their owners, before and after interaction with their owners, to assess whether brushing induces stress in dogs. We detected that the

  3. Paradoxical diurnal cortisol changes in neonates suggesting preservation of foetal adrenal rhythms

    PubMed Central

    Kinoshita, Masahiro; Iwata, Sachiko; Okamura, Hisayoshi; Saikusa, Mamoru; Hara, Naoko; Urata, Chihoko; Araki, Yuko; Iwata, Osuke

    2016-01-01

    Studies suggested the presence of foetal adrenal rhythms of cortisol, which are entrained in antiphase to maternal rhythms. In contrast, neonates are thought to have no adrenal rhythm until 2–3 months after birth. To test the hypothesis that a foetal-type adrenal rhythm is preserved after birth, saliva samples were collected from 65 preterm/term infants during hospital stay (30–40 weeks corrected age) at 10:00 and 19:00 h. Cortisol levels were assessed for their diurnal difference and dependence on antenatal/postnatal clinical variables. Cortisol levels were lower during periods 15–28 days and >28 days than ≤5 days of life. Lower cortisol was associated with pregnancy-induced hypertension (PIH), gestational age <28 weeks, and mechanical ventilation after birth. Higher cortisol was associated with vaginal delivery and non-invasive ventilation support at saliva collection. PIH and non-invasive mechanical ventilation at saliva collection were associated with cortisol levels even after adjustment for postnatal age. Cortisol levels were higher in the evening than in the morning, which was unassociated with gestational and postnatal age. Higher cortisol levels in the evening suggest the preservation of a foetal-type diurnal rhythm. Cortisol levels are associated with intrinsic and extrinsic variables, such as PIH, delivery mode, gestational age, and respiratory conditions. PMID:27752095

  4. Salivary cortisol determination in patients from the Basque Country with recurrent aphthous stomatitis. A pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-Conde-Llamosas, Rafael; López-Vicente, José; Uribarri-Etxebarria, Agurne; Aguirre-Urizar, José M.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: Stress and anxiety are controversial factors involved in the complex pathogenesis of Recurrent Aphthous Stomatitis (RAS). The determination of salivary cortisol is a useful, simple and safe test to detect states of high stress or anxiety. The aim of this study is to check for changes in salivary cortisol levels in patients with RAS during periods of active disease. Study design: A measurement of cortisol employing Enzyme-Linked Immuno Sorbent Assay (ELISA) was carried out in samples of unstimulated saliva from 20 patients with active lesions of RAS and 10 healthy individuals used as controls. Results: Increased levels of salivary cortisol were detected in 3 cases, all of them within the group of patients with RAS. In none of the control group patients the level of salivary cortisol was increased. The mean level of salivary cortisol was 0.64 mg / dl (range 0.2 to 1.62) for patients with RAS and 0.57 mg / dl (range 0.25 to 1.09) for controls. Conclusion: Salivary cortisol levels are not statistically higher in patients with active lesions of RAS. Key words:Recurrent aphthous stomatitis, cortisol, oral ulcers, canker sores, salivary cortisol. PMID:23385495

  5. Saliva collection by using filter paper for measuring cortisol levels in dogs.

    PubMed

    Oyama, D; Hyodo, M; Doi, H; Kurachi, T; Takata, M; Koyama, S; Satoh, T; Watanabe, G

    2014-01-01

    Four experiments were conducted to evaluate the accuracy and reliability of noninvasive evaluation of cortisol in saliva of dogs. In experiment 1, we measured the cortisol concentration in the filter paper on which 250-μL cortisol solutions had been quantitatively pipetted and in filter papers dipped in cortisol solution. In experiment 2, we collected the blood and saliva of dogs 3 times at 30-min intervals and compared the cortisol concentrations to examine whether the dynamics of cortisol in the blood and saliva are similar. The results of experiments 1 and 2 showed that the cortisol concentration can be quantitatively measured with this method and that the dynamics of cortisol concentration in the plasma and saliva collected by using filter paper are not different (P = 0.14 for experiment 1 and P = 0.51 for experiment 2). In experiment 3, to investigate the factors related to inducing stress in dogs by using the filter-paper method of collecting saliva, we compared the cortisol concentrations at 0 and 30 min after collecting the saliva of pet dogs. The dog owners completed a survey on their dogs, providing basic information and reporting the collection of their dog's saliva. We found that the cortisol concentrations increased significantly in dogs whose owners spent >2 min collecting saliva (P = 0.005), suggesting that prompt collection of saliva is necessary for accurate assessment of cortisol without induction of a stress response. In addition, the cortisol concentrations increased significantly in dogs whose teeth were not regularly brushed (P = 0.04), suggesting that regular teeth brushing mitigates the effect of the collection process on cortisol concentrations in the saliva, with minimal stress to the dogs. In experiment 4, we measured cortisol concentrations in pet dogs accustomed to having their teeth brushed by their owners, before and after interaction with their owners, to assess whether brushing induces stress in dogs. We detected that the

  6. Can the neural-cortisol association be moderated by experience-induced changes in awareness?

    PubMed

    Lau, Way K W; Leung, Mei-Kei; Chan, Chetwyn C H; Wong, Samuel S Y; Lee, Tatia M C

    2015-11-18

    Cortisol homeostasis is important for cognitive and affective functions that depend on cortisol-sensitive brain regions including the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex. Recent studies have shown that training induces changes in the brain. We report the findings of a longitudinal study that verified the moderation effect of experience-induced changes in awareness on the neural-cortisol association in cortisol-sensitive brain regions. These findings provide the first piece of evidence that planned behavioral experience can moderate the neural-cortisol association. A range of changes in awareness was achieved in a sample of 21 Chinese participants, divided into two groups: Awareness-based compassion meditation (ABCM) (n = 10) and relaxation (n = 11). We observed that changes in awareness were significant moderators of hippocampal-cortisol changes. Furthermore, a significant negative association between changes in plasma cortisol level and the resting-state synchrony of the right hippocampal and insular-frontal-operculum regions was observed. These novel findings shed light on the inter-relationships between changes in hippocampal-cortisol levels and changes in awareness and preliminarily identify the neural underpinnings of interventions for cortisol-related abnormal functioning for further study.

  7. Cyclic changes in cortisol across the estrous cycle in parous and nulliparous Asian elephants.

    PubMed

    Fanson, Kerry V; Keeley, Tamara; Fanson, Benjamin G

    2014-01-01

    In the context of reproduction, glucocorticoids (GCs) are generally considered to have negative effects. However, in well-studied model species, GCs fluctuate predictability across the estrous cycles, and short-term increases promote healthy ovarian function. Reproductive challenges have plagued captive elephant populations, which are not currently self-sustaining. Efforts to understand reproductive dysfunction in elephants have focused on the suppressive effects of cortisol, but the potential permissive or stimulatory effects of cortisol are unknown. In this study, we provide a detailed examination of cortisol patterns across the estrous cycle in Asian elephants (Elephas maximus). Time series analysis was used to analyze cortisol and progesterone data for a total of 73 cycles from eight females. We also compared cortisol profiles between females that successfully conceived and females that failed to conceive despite repeated mating attempts. Our results revealed that cortisol fluctuates predictably across the estrous cycle, with a peak during the second half of the follicular phase followed by low levels throughout the luteal phase. Furthermore, this pattern was significantly altered in nulliparous females; cortisol concentrations did not decline during the luteal phase to the same extent as in parous females. This study highlights the complexity of cortisol signaling and suggests future directions for understanding the role of cortisol in reproductive dysfunction. PMID:24623735

  8. Bi nanowire-based thermal biosensor for the detection of salivary cortisol using the Thomson effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Seunghyun; Hyun Lee, Jung; Kim, MinGin; Kim, Jeongmin; Song, Min-Jung; Jung, Hyo-Il; Lee, Wooyoung

    2013-09-01

    We present a study of a thermal biosensor based on bismuth nanowire that is fabricated for the detection of the human stress hormone cortisol using the Thomson effect. The Bi nanowire was grown using the On-Film Formation of Nanowires (OFF-ON) method. The thermal device was fabricated using photolithography, and the sensing area was modified with immobilized anti-cortisol antibodies conjugated with protein G for the detection of cortisol. The voltages were measured with two probe tips during surface modification to investigate the biochemical reactions in the fabricated thermal biosensor. The Bi nanowire-based thermal biosensor exhibited low detection limit and good selectivity for the detection of cortisol.

  9. Associations between maternal prenatal cortisol concentrations and child outcomes: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Zijlmans, Maartje A C; Riksen-Walraven, J Marianne; de Weerth, Carolina

    2015-06-01

    A frequently proposed mechanism underlying the link between maternal prenatal stress/anxiety and child outcomes is heightened concentrations of maternal cortisol. In this systematic review, empirical findings on associations between maternal prenatal cortisol concentrations and child outcomes (physical/health, cognitive/motor, psychological/behavioral, and cortisol) are summarized. The number of empirical studies that find significant associations between maternal prenatal cortisol and child outcomes is small, but the majority of the studies that do find associations show that maternal cortisol is related to altered child outcomes (e.g. more physical/health problems, lower cognitive/motor development, more psychological/behavioral problems, and higher child cortisol concentrations). Inspection of the studies reveals possible critical gestational periods for maternal cortisol to affect different child outcomes. The heterogeneity in study designs and cortisol assessment methods makes drawing strong conclusions premature. However, the fact that most studies did not find significant associations suggests that maternal cortisol may not to be the sole or even main underlying mechanism in the relation between maternal prenatal stress/anxiety and child outcomes. Limitations of the reviewed studies are discussed, and directions for future research and reporting strategies are provided.

  10. Temporal patterns, heterogeneity, and stability of diurnal cortisol rhythms in children with autism spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Tomarken, Andrew J; Han, Gloria T; Corbett, Blythe A

    2015-12-01

    The current study used a multifaceted approach to assess whether children with ASD have a distinctive diurnal rhythm of cortisol that differentiates them from typically developing (TD) peers and whether sub-groups of ASD children can be identified with unique diurnal profiles. Salivary cortisol was sampled at four time points during the day (waking, 30-min post-waking, afternoon, and evening) across three days in a sample of 36 children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and 27 typically developing (TD) peers. Between-group comparisons on both mean levels and featural components of diurnal cortisol indicated elevated evening cortisol and a dampened linear decline across the day in the ASD group. No differences were evident on the cortisol awakening response (CAR). Group-based trajectory modeling indicated that a subgroup (25%) of ASD children demonstrated an attenuated linear decline while the cortisol trajectory of the second subgroup was indistinguishable from that of the TD group. Intraclass correlations indicated that, when aggregated across days, cortisol measures were generally stable over the interval assessed. There were few significant relations between cortisol measures or sub-groups and measures of stress, temperament, and symptoms. Results encourage follow-up studies to investigate the functional significance, heterogeneity and longer-term stability of diurnal cortisol profiles in children with ASD.

  11. Cortisol covariation within parents of young children: Moderation by relationship aggression.

    PubMed

    Saxbe, Darby E; Adam, Emma K; Schetter, Christine Dunkel; Guardino, Christine M; Simon, Clarissa; McKinney, Chelsea O; Shalowitz, Madeleine U

    2015-12-01

    Covariation in diurnal cortisol has been observed in several studies of cohabiting couples. In two such studies (Liu et al., 2013; Saxbe and Repetti, 2010), relationship distress was associated with stronger within-couple correlations, suggesting that couples' physiological linkage with each other may indicate problematic dyadic functioning. Although intimate partner aggression has been associated with dysregulation in women's diurnal cortisol, it has not yet been tested as a moderator of within-couple covariation. This study reports on a diverse sample of 122 parents who sampled salivary cortisol on matched days for two years following the birth of an infant. Partners showed strong positive cortisol covariation. In couples with higher levels of partner-perpetrated aggression reported by women at one year postpartum, both women and men had a flatter diurnal decrease in cortisol and stronger correlations with partners' cortisol sampled at the same timepoints. In other words, relationship aggression was linked both with indices of suboptimal cortisol rhythms in both members of the couples and with stronger within-couple covariation coefficients. These results persisted when relationship satisfaction and demographic covariates were included in the model. During some of the sampling days, some women were pregnant with a subsequent child, but pregnancy did not significantly moderate cortisol levels or within-couple covariation. The findings suggest that couples experiencing relationship aggression have both suboptimal neuroendocrine profiles and stronger covariation. Cortisol covariation is an understudied phenomenon with potential implications for couples' relationship functioning and physical health.

  12. 21 CFR 862.1205 - Cortisol (hydrocortisone and hydroxycorticosterone) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems § 862.1205 Cortisol (hydrocortisone and hydroxycorticosterone) test...

  13. 21 CFR 862.1205 - Cortisol (hydrocortisone and hydroxycorticosterone) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems § 862.1205 Cortisol (hydrocortisone and hydroxycorticosterone) test...

  14. 21 CFR 862.1205 - Cortisol (hydrocortisone and hydroxycorticosterone) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems § 862.1205 Cortisol (hydrocortisone and hydroxycorticosterone) test...

  15. 21 CFR 862.1205 - Cortisol (hydrocortisone and hydroxycorticosterone) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems § 862.1205 Cortisol (hydrocortisone and hydroxycorticosterone) test...

  16. 21 CFR 862.1205 - Cortisol (hydrocortisone and hydroxycorticosterone) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems § 862.1205 Cortisol (hydrocortisone and hydroxycorticosterone) test...

  17. The effect of cortisol on emotional responses depends on order of cortisol and placebo administration in a within-subject design.

    PubMed

    Wirth, Michelle M; Scherer, Sean M; Hoks, Roxanne M; Abercrombie, Heather C

    2011-08-01

    Cortisol does not exhibit a straightforward relationship with mood states; administration of glucocorticoids to human subjects has produced mixed effects on mood and emotional processing. In this study, participants (N=46) received intravenous hydrocortisone (synthetic cortisol; 0.1mg/kg body weight) and placebo in randomized order over two sessions 48h apart. Following the infusion, participants rated neutral and unpleasant pictures. In Session 1, participants reported elevated negative affect (NA) following the picture-rating task, regardless of treatment. In Session 2, however, only participants who received cortisol (and thus who had received placebo in Session 1) reported elevated NA. Arousal ratings for unpleasant pictures followed a similar pattern. These findings suggest that the effects of cortisol on emotion vary based on situational factors, such as drug administration order or familiarity with the tasks and setting. Such factors can influence cortisol's effects on emotion in two ways: (A) cortisol may only potentiate NA and arousal ratings in the absence of other, overwhelming influences on affect, such as the novelty of the setting and tasks in Session 1; and (B) cortisol in Session 1 may facilitate learning processes (e.g., habituation to the stimuli and setting; extinction of aversive responses) such that emotional responses to the pictures are lessened in Session 2. This interpretation is compatible with a body of literature on the effects of glucocorticoids on learning and memory processes.

  18. Measuring water-borne cortisol in Poecilia latipinna:is the process stressful, can stress be minimized and is cortisol correlated with sex steroid release rates?

    PubMed

    Gabor, C R; Contreras, A

    2012-09-01

    The stress of water-borne hormone collection process was examined in sailfin mollies Poecilia latipinna. Baseline release rates of the stress hormone cortisol were measured and minimum confinement time for water sampling was evaluated for a standard 60 min v. a 30 min protocol. A 30 min hormone collection period reflects release rates over 60 min. Potential stress response to confinement in the beaker for the water-borne collection process was tested over 4 days. There was no evidence of stress due to the collection methods, as cortisol release rates did not differ significantly across four sequential days of handling for P. latipinna. Males and females did not differ significantly in baseline cortisol release rates. Baseline cortisol release rates from fish immediately after being collected in the field were also not significantly different than those in the 4 day confinement experiment. After exposure to a novel environment, however, P. latipinna mounted a stress response. Stress may also affect sex steroids and behaviour but cortisol release rates were not significantly correlated with sex steroids [11-ketotestosterone (KT), testosterone, or oestradiol], or mating attempts. The correlation between water-borne release rates and plasma steroid levels was validated for both cortisol and KT. Finally, normalizing cortisol release rates using standard length in lieu of mass is viable and accurate. Water-borne hormone assays are a valuable tool for investigating questions concerning the role of hormones in mediating stress responses and reproductive behaviours in P. latipinna and other livebearing fishes.

  19. Effects of supplemental fish oil on resting metabolic rate, body composition, and salivary cortisol in healthy adults

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background To determine the effects of supplemental fish oil (FO) on resting metabolic rate (RMR), body composition, and cortisol production in healthy adults. Methods A total of 44 men and women (34 ± 13y, mean+SD) participated in the study. All testing was performed first thing in the morning following an overnight fast. Baseline measurements of RMR were measured using indirect calorimetry using a facemask, and body composition was measured using air displacement plethysmography. Saliva was collected via passive drool and analyzed for cortisol concentration using ELISA. Following baseline testing, subjects were randomly assigned in a double blind manner to one of two groups: 4 g/d of Safflower Oil (SO); or 4 g/d of FO supplying 1,600 mg/d eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and 800 mg/d docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). All tests were repeated following 6 wk of treatment. Pre to post differences were analyzed using a treatment X time repeated measures ANOVA, and correlations were analyzed using Pearson's r. Results Compared to the SO group, there was a significant increase in fat free mass following treatment with FO (FO = +0.5 ± 0.5 kg, SO = -0.1 ± 1.2 kg, p = 0.03), a significant reduction in fat mass (FO = -0.5 ± 1.3 kg, SO = +0.2 ± 1.2 kg, p = 0.04), and a tendency for a decrease in body fat percentage (FO = -0.4 ± 1.3% body fat, SO = +0. 3 ± 1.5% body fat, p = 0.08). No significant differences were observed for body mass (FO = 0.0 ± 0.9 kg, SO = +0.2 ± 0.8 kg), RMR (FO = +17 ± 260 kcal, SO = -62 ± 184 kcal) or respiratory exchange ratio (FO = -0.02 ± 0.09, SO = +0.02 ± 0.05). There was a tendency for salivary cortisol to decrease in the FO group (FO = -0.064 ± 0.142 μg/dL, SO = +0.016 ± 0.272 μg/dL, p = 0.11). There was a significant correlation in the FO group between change in cortisol and change in fat free mass (r = -0.504, p = 0.02) and fat mass (r = 0.661, p = 0.001). Conclusion 6 wk of supplementation with FO significantly increased lean mass and

  20. The effects of season, daylight saving and time of sunrise on serum cortisol in a large population.

    PubMed

    Hadlow, Narelle C; Brown, Suzanne; Wardrop, Robert; Henley, David

    2014-03-01

    Cortisol is critical for maintenance of health and homeostasis and factors affecting cortisol levels are of clinical importance. There is conflicting information about the effects of season on morning cortisol and little information on the effects of sunlight on population cortisol assessment. The aim of this study was to assess whether changes in median serum cortisol occurred in a population in conjunction with changing seasons, daylight saving time (DST) or time of sunrise. We analysed serum cortisol results (n = 27,569) from a single large laboratory over a 13-year period. Subjects with confounding medications or medical conditions were excluded and data analysed in 15-minute intervals. We assessed the influence of traditional seasons, seasons determined by equinox/solstice, DST and time of sunrise on median cortisol. The median time of cortisol collection did not vary significantly between seasons. Using traditional seasons, median cortisol was lowest in summer (386 nmol/L) and spring (384 nmol/L) with higher cortisol in autumn (406 nmol/L) and winter (414 nmol/L). Median cortisol was lowest in the summer solstice quarter with significant comparative increases in the spring equinox quarter (3.1%), the autumn equinox quarter (4.5%) and the winter solstice quarter (8.6%). When cortisol was modelled against time, with adjustment for actual sunrise time on day of collection, for each hour delay in sunrise there was a 4.8% increase in median cortisol (95% CI: 3.9-5.7%). In modelling to explain the variation in cortisol over the morning, sunrise time was better than season in explaining seasonal effects. A subtle cyclic pattern in median cortisol also occurred throughout the months of the year. A 3-year trial of DST allowed comparison of cortisol in DST and non DST periods, when clock time differed by one hour. There was modest evidence of a difference in acrophase between DST and non DST cortisol (p = 0.038), with DST peak cortisol estimated to

  1. Examining the relationships between egg cortisol and oxidative stress in developing wild sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka).

    PubMed

    Taylor, Jessica J; Sopinka, Natalie M; Wilson, Samantha M; Hinch, Scott G; Patterson, David A; Cooke, Steven J; Willmore, William G

    2016-10-01

    Maternally-derived hormones in oocytes, such as glucocorticoids (GCs), play a crucial role in embryo development in oviparous taxa. In fishes, maternal stressor exposure increases circulating and egg cortisol levels, the primary GC in fishes, as well as induces oxidative stress. Elevated egg cortisol levels modify offspring traits but whether maternal oxidative stress correlates with circulating and egg cortisol levels, and whether maternal/egg cortisol levels correlate with offspring oxidative stress have yet to be determined. The objective of this study was to examine the relationships among maternal and egg cortisol, and maternal and offspring oxidative stress to provide insight into the potential intergenerational effects of stressor exposure in sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka). Antioxidant concentration and oxidative stress were measured in maternal tissues (plasma, brain, heart and liver) as well as offspring developmental stages (pre-fertilization, 24h post-fertilization, eyed, and hatch), and were compared to both naturally-occurring and experimentally-elevated (via cortisol egg bath) levels of cortisol in eggs. Oxygen radical absorptive capacity of tissues from maternal sockeye salmon was measured spectrophotometrically and was not correlated with maternal or egg cortisol concentrations. Also, naturally-occurring and experimentally-elevated cortisol levels in eggs (to mimic maternal stress) did not affect oxidative stress or antioxidant capacity of the offspring. We conclude that the metrics of maternal stress examined in sockeye salmon (i.e., maternal/egg cortisol, maternal oxidative stress) are independent of each other, and that egg cortisol content does not influence offspring oxidative stress. PMID:27316822

  2. Impact of Adiposity and Fat Distribution on the Dynamics of Adrenocorticotropin and Cortisol Rhythms.

    PubMed

    Roelfsema, Ferdinand; Pereira, Alberto M; Veldhuis, Johannes D

    2014-12-01

    Obesity impacts many hormonal systems, including pituitary hormones, as well as insulin and leptin. In this review we discuss articles which investigate the influence of obesity on the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. Different techniques have been used to assess the function of the HPA-axis in obesity, including measuring fasting and/or late evening levels of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and (free) cortisol in plasma and saliva, studying feedback with dexamethasone or cortisol, and evaluating responsiveness of the system to corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) and arginine vasopressin (AVP) or ACTH 1-29. In addition, more elaborate studies investigated 24-h secretion patterns, analyzed with deconvolution techniques to quantitate pulsatile secretion rates of cortisol and less often ACTH. Other investigators used timed infusions of labeled cortisol for the estimation of the 24-h secretion rate, clearance rate and distribution volume. Many studies relied on the 24-h urinary excretion of free cortisol, but for quantitation of the 24-h secretion, measurement of all cortisol-derived metabolites is required. Several studies have applied modern liquid chromatography-tandem-mass spectrometry techniques to measure these metabolites. The picture emerging from all these studies is that, first, ACTH secretion is amplified, likely via enhanced forward drive; and, second, serum cortisol levels are normal or even low, associated with a normal 24-h cortisol secretion per liter distribution volume determined by deconvolution, but enhanced when based on the increased total distribution volume associated with obesity. Increased cortisol secretion was also established by isotope dilution studies and reports based on the measurement of all urinary cortisol metabolites. The responsiveness of the adrenal gland to ACTH is diminished. The studies do not address quantitative aspects of cortisol-cortisone metabolism on individual organs, including liver, central and

  3. Depression history as a moderator of relations between cortisol and shame responses to social-evaluative threat in young adults

    PubMed Central

    Hellman, Natalie; Morris, Matthew C.; Rao, Uma; Garber, Judy

    2015-01-01

    Changes in cortisol and shame are commonly elicited by psychosocial stressors involving social-evaluative threat. According to social self preservation theory, this coordinated psychobiological response is adaptive. Individuals with a history of depression, however, may exhibit diminished cortisol reactivity to acute stressors, which could interfere with coordinated cortisol and shame responses. The present study examined temporal relations between cortisol and shame responses to a psychosocial stress task in young adults who varied in their history of depression (56 remitted-depressed, 46 never-depressed). Lagged effects multilevel models revealed that depression history moderated relations between cortisol levels and shame ratings 25 to 55 minutes later. The pattern of these interactions was similar: whereas higher cortisol levels predicted increases in shame in never-depressed individuals, cortisol levels were unrelated to shame responses in remitted-depressed individuals. Findings suggest a dissociation between cortisol and shame responses to stress in individuals with a history of depression. PMID:26048679

  4. Telomere length and cortisol reactivity in children of depressed mothers.

    PubMed

    Gotlib, I H; LeMoult, J; Colich, N L; Foland-Ross, L C; Hallmayer, J; Joormann, J; Lin, J; Wolkowitz, O M

    2015-05-01

    A growing body of research demonstrates that individuals diagnosed with major depressive disorder (MDD) are characterized by shortened telomere length, which has been posited to underlie the association between depression and increased instances of medical illness. The temporal nature of the relation between MDD and shortened telomere length, however, is not clear. Importantly, both MDD and telomere length have been associated independently with high levels of stress, implicating dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and anomalous levels of cortisol secretion in this relation. Despite these associations, no study has assessed telomere length or its relation with HPA-axis activity in individuals at risk for depression, before the onset of disorder. In the present study, we assessed cortisol levels in response to a laboratory stressor and telomere length in 97 healthy young daughters of mothers either with recurrent episodes of depression (i.e., daughters at familial risk for depression) or with no history of psychopathology. We found that daughters of depressed mothers had shorter telomeres than did daughters of never-depressed mothers and, further, that shorter telomeres were associated with greater cortisol reactivity to stress. This study is the first to demonstrate that children at familial risk of developing MDD are characterized by accelerated biological aging, operationalized as shortened telomere length, before they had experienced an onset of depression; this may predispose them to develop not only MDD but also other age-related medical illnesses. It is critical, therefore, that we attempt to identify and distinguish genetic and environmental mechanisms that contribute to telomere shortening.

  5. Hyperreninaemic hypoaldosteronism in a dog.

    PubMed

    Lobetti, R G

    1998-03-01

    A 9-year-old male German shepherd dog was evaluated for clinical and clinico-pathological changes that were suggestive of Addison's disease. On further investigation the basal plasma cortisol concentration was high, a normal cortisol response to ACTH stimulation occurred, plasma renin activity was elevated and low serum aldosterone concentration was present. A diagnosis of hyperreninaemic hypoaldosteronism was made. Replacement fludrocortisone resulted in complete normalisation of the electrolyte and fluid imbalances. Hyperreninaemic hypoaldosteronism has never been reported in the dog.

  6. Developmental histories of perceived racial discrimination and diurnal cortisol profiles in adulthood: A 20-year prospective study.

    PubMed

    Adam, Emma K; Heissel, Jennifer A; Zeiders, Katharine H; Richeson, Jennifer A; Ross, Emily C; Ehrlich, Katherine B; Levy, Dorainne J; Kemeny, Margaret; Brodish, Amanda B; Malanchuk, Oksana; Peck, Stephen C; Fuller-Rowell, Thomas E; Eccles, Jacquelynne S

    2015-12-01

    Perceived racial discrimination (PRD) has been associated with altered diurnal cortisol rhythms in past cross-sectional research. We investigate whether developmental histories of PRD, assessed prospectively, are associated with adult diurnal cortisol profiles. One-hundred and twelve (N=50 Black, N=62 White) adults from the Maryland Adolescent Development in Context Study provided saliva samples in adulthood (at approximately age 32 years) at waking, 30min after waking, and at bedtime for 7 days. Diurnal cortisol measures were calculated, including waking cortisol levels, diurnal cortisol slopes, the cortisol awakening response (CAR), and average daily cortisol (AUC). These cortisol outcomes were predicted from measures of PRD obtained over a 20-year period beginning when individuals were in 7th grade (approximately age 12). Greater average PRD measured across the 20-year period predicted flatter adult diurnal cortisol slopes for both Black and White adults, and a lower CAR. Greater average PRD also predicted lower waking cortisol for Black, but not White adults. PRD experiences in adolescence accounted for many of these effects. When adolescent and young adult PRD are entered together predicting cortisol outcomes, PRD experiences in adolescence (but not young adulthood) significantly predicted flatter diurnal cortisol slopes for both Black and White adults. Adolescent, but not young adult PRD, also significantly predicted lower waking and lower average cortisol for Black adults. Young adult PRD was, however, a stronger predictor of the CAR, predicting a marginally lower CAR for Whites, and a significantly larger CAR for Blacks. Effects were robust to controlling for covariates including health behaviors, depression, income and parent education levels. PRD experiences interacted with parent education and income to predict aspects of the diurnal cortisol rhythm. Although these results suggest PRD influences on cortisol for both Blacks and Whites, the key findings

  7. Prolonged secretion of cortisol as a possible mechanism underlying stress and depressive behaviour.

    PubMed

    Qin, Dong-Dong; Rizak, Joshua; Feng, Xiao-Li; Yang, Shang-Chuan; Lü, Long-Bao; Pan, Lei; Yin, Yong; Hu, Xin-Tian

    2016-01-01

    Stress is associated with the onset of depressive episodes, and cortisol hypersecretion is considered a biological risk factor of depression. However, the possible mechanisms underlying stress, cortisol and depressive behaviours are inconsistent in the literature. This study examined the interrelationships among stress, cortisol and observed depressive behaviours in female rhesus macaques for the first time and explored the possible mechanism underlying stress and depressive behaviour. Female monkeys were video-recorded, and the frequencies of life events and the duration of huddling were analysed to measure stress and depressive behaviour. Hair samples were used to measure chronic cortisol levels, and the interactions between stress and cortisol in the development of depressive behaviour were further evaluated. Significant correlations were found between stress and depressive behaviour measures and between cortisol levels and depressive behaviour. Stress was positively correlated with cortisol levels, and these two factors interacted with each other to predict the monkeys' depressive behaviours. This finding extends the current understanding of stress/cortisol interactions in depression, especially pertaining to females. PMID:27443987

  8. Longer-term increased cortisol levels in young people with mental health problems.

    PubMed

    Heinze, Kareen; Lin, Ashleigh; Reniers, Renate L E P; Wood, Stephen J

    2016-02-28

    Disturbance of hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis activity is commonly reported in a range of mental disorders in blood, saliva and urine samples. This study aimed to look at longer-term cortisol levels and their association with clinical symptoms. Hair strands of 30 young people (16-25 years) presenting with mental health problems (Mage±SD=21±2.4, 26 females) and 28 healthy controls (HC, Mage±SD=20±2.9, 26 females) were analyzed for cortisol concentrations, representing the past 6 months prior to hair sampling. Clinical participants completed an assessment on psychiatric symptoms, functioning and lifestyle factors. All participants completed the Perceived Stress Scale. Hair cortisol concentrations representing the past 3 (but not 3-6) months were significantly increased in clinical participants compared to HC. Perceived stress in the past month was significantly higher in clinical participants compared to HC, but not significantly correlated with hair cortisol. Hair cortisol levels were not significantly associated with any other measures. Hair segment analyses revealed longer-term increased levels of cortisol in the past 3 months in early mental health problems. Further insight into the role of cortisol on the pathogenesis of mental illnesses requires longitudinal studies relating cortisol to psychopathology and progression of illness. PMID:26749569

  9. Gender Specific Effect of Psychological Stress and Cortisol Reactivity on Adolescent Risk Taking

    PubMed Central

    Daughters, Stacey B.; Gorka, Stephanie M.; Matusiewicz, Alexis; Anderson, Katelyn

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate how psychological stress, gender and cortisol response to stress relate to risk behavior among 132 14–18 year old adolescents. Participants completed a laboratory based risk task prior to and immediately after a computerized psychological stress task, and salivary cortisol was collected from pre-stress to 60 minutes following initial stress exposure. Results indicate that adolescent boys (n = 59) and girls (n = 73) demonstrate different patterns of risk taking (RT) in response to stress, such that boys evidenced an increase in RT following stress exposure, whereas girls evidenced a decrease in RT. In addition, a gender by cortisol interaction demonstrated that for boys, both a smaller total cortisol output (AUCg) and peak cortisol response to stress (PC) was associated with greater stress-induced RT. Both cortisol measures were unrelated to stress-induced RT among girls. Taken together, data suggest that among boys, a blunted cortisol response to stress underlies an increase in risk taking in the context of psychological stress. Further research with an additional behavioral stress task is needed prior to drawing conclusions regarding the relation between female gender, cortisol response to stress, and risk taking in the context of psychological stress. PMID:23338478

  10. Social correlates of variation in urinary cortisol in wild male bonobos (Pan paniscus).

    PubMed

    Surbeck, Martin; Deschner, Tobias; Weltring, Anja; Hohmann, Gottfried

    2012-06-01

    Cortisol excretion in males of group living species is often associated with social rank and competition for oestrous females. Rank-related patterns of cortisol levels can be used to study mechanisms of rank maintenance and costs associated with mate competition. Bonobos (Pan paniscus) are interesting because males form a linear dominance hierarchy but are not dominant over females and therefore aggressive male-male competition over access to females alone is not considered to be a successful reproductive strategy. In this study on social correlates of urinary cortisol in wild male bonobos, we investigated the relationship between cortisol levels and several aspects of mate competition, including male rank, aggression rates, and association time with oestrous females. We found that cortisol levels correlated positively with dominance rank when oestrous females were present, but not when they were absent. This result is consistent with the idea that aggressive behaviour plays a minor role in maintenance of high rank. While aggression received from males and females explained within-individual variation in cortisol levels, it was the time spent in association with oestrous females that best explained between-individual variation in male cortisol levels. The observed increase in male cortisol may be associated with spatial proximity to oestrous females and could result from anticipated aggression from other group members, reduced feeding time in the males, or a combination of both.

  11. Effect of giving birth on the cortisol level in a bonobo groups' (Pan paniscus) saliva.

    PubMed

    Behringer, Verena; Clauss, Wolfgang; Hachenburger, Katja; Kuchar, Alexandra; Möstl, Erich; Selzer, Dieter

    2009-04-01

    This study documents the cortisol levels in the saliva of a bonobo group, especially that of a bonobo female which had given birth for the first time. During a long study in Zoological Garden Frankfurt, Germany, a bonobo baby was born on 3 August 2007. Due to the fission-fusion keeping system employed, the bonobos were divided into two groups on this day. Their behavior was observed regularly and saliva was also collected. The bonobos had been trained to chew cotton wool and to give back the samples. The cortisol response was tested twice a day before birth and three times on the day of parturition. Before birth, no observable indication behavior was seen, but an increase in the cortisol concentration of the expectant mother was found. Parturition occurred at 8 pm. The next morning, the group with the newborn was visibly more active, which correlated with the fact that their cortisol levels were increased in the morning in comparison to the second group. During the day, cortisol decreased in both groups, only it was higher throughout the day in the new mother. In the evening, the two groups showed nearly the same cortisol levels. These data indicate that there is indeed a relation between observable behavior and the cortisol level in bonobo saliva. Therefore, the cortisol level can be regarded as a suitable indicator for verifying behavioral events.

  12. Decrease in serum cortisol during yoga exercise is correlated with alpha wave activation.

    PubMed

    Kamei, T; Toriumi, Y; Kimura, H; Ohno, S; Kumano, H; Kimura, K

    2000-06-01

    We examined changes in brain waves and blood levels of serum cortisol during yoga exercise in 7 yoga instructors and found that alpha waves increased and serum cortisol decreased. These two measures were negatively correlated (r = -.83). Comparison with a control group of nonpractitioners is desirable.

  13. Comparison of the transplacental pharmacokinetics of cortisol and triamcinolone acetonide in the rhesus monkey

    SciTech Connect

    Slikker, W. Jr.; Althaus, Z.R.; Rowland, J.M.; Hill, D.E.; Hendrickx, A.G.

    1982-11-01

    The late gestational age rhesus monkey was used to study the transplacental pharmacokinetics of radiolabeled triamcinolone acetonide (TAC) and cortisol. Tritiated-TAC and (/sup 14/C)cortisol were administered simultaneously via the maternal radial vein were administered simultaneously via the maternal radial vein and blood samples were serially drawn from catheters implanted in both the maternal femoral artery and fetal umbilical vein and artery. High-performance liquid chromatography of the processed blood samples revealed that from 93 to 100% of the /sup 3/H in the fetal circulation was parent TAC, whereas only 14 to 49% of the /sup 14/C was cortisol during the 40-min period after dose administration. Fetal tissue samples taken at 3 hr after dose administration showed that 75 to 96% of the /sup 3/H present was TAC, whereas no cortisol was observed. TAC demonstrated dose-independent kinetics. Samples collected from the umbilical vein of the in situ placenta after fetectomy revealed that cortisol was extensively converted to cortisone by the placenta, whereas TAC was refractory to placental metabolism. This placental conversion of cortisol to cortisone and the further metabolism and conjugation of cortisol by the fetoplacental unit resulted in a fetal to maternal plasma cortisol ratio of 0.2. In contrast, the lack of placental or fetoplacental metabolism of TAC resulted in a fetal to maternal plasma TAC ratio of 0.6.

  14. Anxious Attachment Style and Salivary Cortisol Dysregulation in Healthy Female Children and Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oskis, Andrea; Loveday, Catherine; Hucklebridge, Frank; Thorn, Lisa; Clow, Angela

    2011-01-01

    Background: Attachment style has been linked with basal cortisol secretion in healthy adult women. We investigated whether dysregulation in basal cortisol secretion may be evident in younger healthy females. Methods: Sixty healthy females aged 9-18 years (mean 14.16, SD [plus or minus] 2.63 years) participated in the Attachment Style Interview…

  15. Cortisol fluctuations relate to interictal epileptiform discharges in stress sensitive epilepsy.

    PubMed

    van Campen, Jolien S; Hompe, E Lorraine; Jansen, Floor E; Velis, Demetrios N; Otte, Willem M; van de Berg, Fia; Braun, Kees P J; Visser, Gerhard H; Sander, Josemir W; Joels, Marian; Zijlmans, Maeike

    2016-06-01

    People with epilepsy often report seizures precipitated by stress. This is believed to be due to effects of stress hormones, such as cortisol, on neuronal excitability. Cortisol, regardless of stress, is released in hourly pulses, whose effect on epileptic activity is unknown. We tested the relation between cortisol levels and the incidence of epileptiform abnormalities in the electroencephalogram of people with focal epilepsy. Morning cortisol levels were measured in saliva samples obtained every 15 min. Interictal epileptiform discharges were determined in the same time periods. We investigated the relationship between cortisol levels and the epileptiform discharges distinguishing persons with from those without stress-precipitated seizures (linear mixed model), and analysed the contribution of individual, epilepsy and recording characteristics with multivariable analysis. Twenty-nine recordings were performed in 21 individuals. Cortisol was positively related to incidence of epileptiform discharges (β = 0.26, P = 0.002) in people reporting stress-sensitive seizures, but not those who did not report stress sensitivity (β = -0.07, P = 0.64). The relationship between cortisol and epileptiform discharges was positively associated only with stress sensitivity of seizures (β = 0.31, P = 0.005). The relationship between cortisol levels and incidence of interictal epileptiform discharges in people with stress-sensitive seizures suggests that stress hormones influence disease activity in epilepsy, also under basal conditions. PMID:27036410

  16. Cortisol acutely reduces selective attention for erotic words in healthy young men.

    PubMed

    Putman, Peter; Berling, Sylvia

    2011-10-01

    Psychological stress prompts activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis resulting in increased release of cortisol. Long-term HPA aberrations have been observed for stress-related affective disorders but research into acute effects of cortisol on affect-regulation has only recently begun. Previous studies reported that exogenous cortisol acutely attenuated automatic attentional processing of task-irrelevant threatening information. This has been taken to suggest that cortisol may have acute anxiolytic properties, possibly through facilitating inhibition of threatening information. However, the role of cortisol in attentional inhibition of non-threatening arousing stimuli remained unclear. Therefore acute effects of 40 mg cortisol on performance of a masked and unmasked emotional Stroop task (EST) were assessed. Results for only the unmasked task demonstrated EST interference (interpreted as increased automatic attention) for erotic stimuli which was abolished by cortisol administration. This implies that effects of cortisol may not be restricted to attenuation of specifically anxiogenic information processing, as previously suggested. PMID:21497444

  17. Induction of ambicoloration by exogenous cortisol during metamorphosis of spotted halibut Verasper variegatus.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Toshiyuki; Donai, Hayato; Okauchi, Masanori; Tagawa, Masatomo; Araki, Kazuo

    2011-12-01

    Cortisol, the main glucocorticoid in fish, increases during flatfish metamorphosis and peaks before the surge of thyroxine. A large body of evidence indicates the essential role of thyroxine in flatfish metamorphosis, whereas information on cortisol is limited. We administered cortisol to spotted halibut Verasper variegatus larvae in order to examine the effect on pigmentation during metamorphosis. Administration of 10 μg cortisol per mL of water from before the onset of metamorphosis (stage E) to metamorphic climax (stage G) induced the development of adult type pigment cells on the blind side of the metamorphosed juveniles and increased the occurrence of ambicolored juveniles. When 10 μg/mL cortisol was administered during stage D, stages E-F, stage G or stage H, only the administration during stages E-F induced the development of adult type pigment cells on the blind side. In addition, the expression of the gene dopachrome tautomerase (dct), a marker of melanoblasts, was enhanced at Stage E by cortisol administration. These results clearly indicated, for the first time, the enhancement of pigmentation by exogenous high-dose cortisol. Since endogenous cortisol is secreted in response to various kinds of stress in rearing conditions, these results indicate a possible influence of stress conditions in the occurrence of ambicoloration in flatfish.

  18. Cortisol and testosterone increase financial risk taking and may destabilize markets.

    PubMed

    Cueva, Carlos; Roberts, R Edward; Spencer, Tom; Rani, Nisha; Tempest, Michelle; Tobler, Philippe N; Herbert, Joe; Rustichini, Aldo

    2015-01-01

    It is widely known that financial markets can become dangerously unstable, yet it is unclear why. Recent research has highlighted the possibility that endogenous hormones, in particular testosterone and cortisol, may critically influence traders' financial decision making. Here we show that cortisol, a hormone that modulates the response to physical or psychological stress, predicts instability in financial markets. Specifically, we recorded salivary levels of cortisol and testosterone in people participating in an experimental asset market (N = 142) and found that individual and aggregate levels of endogenous cortisol predict subsequent risk-taking and price instability. We then administered either cortisol (single oral dose of 100 mg hydrocortisone, N = 34) or testosterone (three doses of 10 g transdermal 1% testosterone gel over 48 hours, N = 41) to young males before they played an asset trading game. We found that both cortisol and testosterone shifted investment towards riskier assets. Cortisol appears to affect risk preferences directly, whereas testosterone operates by inducing increased optimism about future price changes. Our results suggest that changes in both cortisol and testosterone could play a destabilizing role in financial markets through increased risk taking behaviour, acting via different behavioural pathways. PMID:26135946

  19. Urinary Cortisol Circadian Rhythm in a Group of High-Functioning Children with Autism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richdale, Amanda L.; Prior, Margot R.

    1992-01-01

    This study found no evidence for abnormal temporal placement of the basal urinary cortisol circadian rhythm in a group of 18 high-functioning children (ages 4-14) with autism. There was a tendency toward cortisol hypersecretion during the day, predominantly in autistic children who were integrated into the normal school system. (Author/JDD)

  20. Time-of-Day Effects in Arousal: Disrupted Diurnal Cortisol Profiles in Children with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Imeraj, Lindita; Antrop, Inge; Roeyers, Herbert; Swanson, James; Deschepper, Ellen; Bal, Sarah; Deboutte, Dirk

    2012-01-01

    Background: Fluctuations in attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms related to regulatory deficits in arousal states are themselves characterized by circadian rhythms. Although cortisol is an important circadian arousal-related marker, studies focusing on across-the-day cortisol variations in ADHD are scarce. There is no study…

  1. Redtail and red colobus monkeys show intersite urinary cortisol concentration variation in Kibale National Park, Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Aronsen, Gary P.; Beuerlein, Melanie M.; Watts, David P.; Bribiescas, Richard G.

    2015-01-01

    Non-invasive measurement of urinary cortisol is a proven method of evaluating the impact of environmental stressors on wild primates. Variation in cortisol concentrations can reflect physiological stress, and prolonged elevation of circulating cortisol can significantly affect individual and population-level health. In a previous study, we found that urinary cortisol concentrations in grey-cheeked mangabeys (Lophocebus albigena) were higher at a highly disturbed site (Mainaro) in Kibale National Park, Uganda compared with a minimally disturbed site (Ngogo) in the same habitat. Here, we expand on this research, reporting on cortisol concentrations in two other cercopithecid monkeys (Cercopithecus ascanius and Piliocolobus rufomitratus) at the same two sites. We hypothesized that C. ascanius would show no difference between sites, given its preference for secondary forests, while P. rufomitratus would have higher cortisol concentrations at the disturbed site. Contrary to expectations, both species exhibited significantly higher cortisol concentrations at Ngogo (minimally disturbed) compared with Mainaro (disturbed). We suggest that these results may be caused by inter- or intragroup social dynamics, intersite differences in predation rate, fruit/food availability and chemistry, or a combination of these factors. These initial evaluations of urinary cortisol concentrations provide testable hypotheses on habitat disturbance and Kibale primate ecophysiology. PMID:27293691

  2. Associations among Daily Stressors and Salivary Cortisol: Findings from the National Study of Daily Experiences

    PubMed Central

    Stawski, Robert S.; Cichy, Kelly E.; Piazza, Jennifer R.; Almeida, David M.

    2013-01-01

    While much research has focused on linking stressful experiences to emotional and biological reactions in laboratory settings, there is an emerging interest in extending these examinations to field studies of daily life. The current study examined day-to-day associations among naturally-occurring daily stressors and salivary cortisol in a national sample of adults from the second wave of the National Study of Daily Experiences (NSDE). A sample of 1,694 adults (Age=57, Range=33–84; 44% male) completed telephone interviews detailing their stressors and emotions on eight consecutive evenings. Participants also provided saliva samples upon waking, 30 minutes post-waking, before lunch and before bed, on four consecutive interview days resulting in 5,995 days of interview/cortisol data. Analyses revealed three main findings. First, cortisol AUC was significantly higher on stressor days compared to stressor-free days, particularly for arguments and overloads at home, suggesting that daily stressors are associated with increased cortisol output, but that not all daily stressors have such an influence. Second, individuals reporting a greater frequency of stressor days also exhibited a steeper diurnal cortisol slope. Finally, daily stressor-cortisol associations were unaltered after adjustment for daily negative affect and physical symptoms. Our discussion focuses on the influence of naturally-occurring daily stressors on daily cortisol and the role of daily diary approaches for studying healthy cortisol responses to psychosocial stressors outside of traditional laboratory settings. PMID:23856186

  3. Longer-term increased cortisol levels in young people with mental health problems

    PubMed Central

    Heinze, Kareen; Lin, Ashleigh; Reniers, Renate L.E.P.; Wood, Stephen J.

    2016-01-01

    Disturbance of hypothalamus–pituitary–adrenal axis activity is commonly reported in a range of mental disorders in blood, saliva and urine samples. This study aimed to look at longer-term cortisol levels and their association with clinical symptoms. Hair strands of 30 young people (16–25 years) presenting with mental health problems (Mage±SD=21±2.4, 26 females) and 28 healthy controls (HC, Mage±SD=20±2.9, 26 females) were analyzed for cortisol concentrations, representing the past 6 months prior to hair sampling. Clinical participants completed an assessment on psychiatric symptoms, functioning and lifestyle factors. All participants completed the Perceived Stress Scale. Hair cortisol concentrations representing the past 3 (but not 3–6) months were significantly increased in clinical participants compared to HC. Perceived stress in the past month was significantly higher in clinical participants compared to HC, but not significantly correlated with hair cortisol. Hair cortisol levels were not significantly associated with any other measures. Hair segment analyses revealed longer-term increased levels of cortisol in the past 3 months in early mental health problems. Further insight into the role of cortisol on the pathogenesis of mental illnesses requires longitudinal studies relating cortisol to psychopathology and progression of illness. PMID:26749569

  4. Morningness/Eveningness, Morning-to-Afternoon Cortisol Ratio, and Antisocial Behavior Problems During Puberty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Susman, Elizabeth J.; Dockray, Samantha; Schiefelbein, Virginia L.; Herwehe, Suellen; Heaton, Jodi A.; Dorn, Lorah D.

    2007-01-01

    The relationship between morningness/eveningness (M/E) and morning-to-afternoon cortisol ratio, pubertal timing, and antisocial behavior was examined in 111 girls and boys ages 8 to 13 years. Cortisol levels showed a significant increase after awakening and declined thereafter (p less than .05). Eveningness was related to a composite measure of…

  5. Social dynamics and the cortisol response to immobilization stress of the African wild dog, Lycaon pictus.

    PubMed

    de Villiers, M S; van Jaarsveld, A S; Meltzer, D G; Richardson, P R

    1997-02-01

    The aims of the study were to characterize the cortisol response to immobilization stress in African wild dogs (Lycaon pictus) and to investigate the relationship between stress and sociality in these pack-living canids. Ad lib. observations were made on a captive pack of 19 wild dogs. Individuals were classified as either dominant or subordinate. Cardinal and ordinal dominance indices were also calculated for pack members, as were three other behavioral indices. Active and passive dominance styles were distinguished. Serial blood samples were drawn from animals after chemical immobilization and again after ACTH challenge. The relationship among rank, plasma cortisol concentration, and behavioral style was investigated. When data were combined over the entire study period, there was no obvious relationship between rank and cortisol concentrations or cortisol responsiveness to immobilization stress. Instead, younger animals had higher cortisol concentrations than older ones. Age cohorts were also clearly separated on the basis of behavioral profiles. For males, these distinctions among age classes were especially apparent during the second part of the study period, when subadults occupied dominant positions in the hierarchy. Adult males maintained relatively low cortisol concentrations, despite being involved in and losing a high proportion of dominance interactions. Age-related differences in cortisol profiles of dominant individuals may be explained by differences in the style of dominance employed, with younger males using proportionately more active dominance (threats used to elicit submission). The separation of age classes according to rank, behavioral styles, and cortisol concentrations may reflect improved social skillfulness with age.

  6. Are Breastfed Infants more Resilient?-Feeding Method and Cortisol in Infants

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Yang; Rao, Sanmati D.; Phillips, Terry M.; Umbach, David M.; Bernbaum, Judy C.; Archer, Janet I.; Rogan, Walter J.

    2009-01-01

    The effect of feeding method on stress hormone levels in infants is unknown. We studied infants from birth to one year, and found salivary cortisol 40% higher in breastfed infants compared with formula-fed infants. The higher cortisol levels among breastfed children may be involved in the analgesic effect of breastfeeding. PMID:19874763

  7. Prolonged secretion of cortisol as a possible mechanism underlying stress and depressive behaviour

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Dong-dong; Rizak, Joshua; Feng, Xiao-li; Yang, Shang-chuan; Lü, Long-bao; Pan, Lei; Yin, Yong; Hu, Xin-tian

    2016-01-01

    Stress is associated with the onset of depressive episodes, and cortisol hypersecretion is considered a biological risk factor of depression. However, the possible mechanisms underlying stress, cortisol and depressive behaviours are inconsistent in the literature. This study examined the interrelationships among stress, cortisol and observed depressive behaviours in female rhesus macaques for the first time and explored the possible mechanism underlying stress and depressive behaviour. Female monkeys were video-recorded, and the frequencies of life events and the duration of huddling were analysed to measure stress and depressive behaviour. Hair samples were used to measure chronic cortisol levels, and the interactions between stress and cortisol in the development of depressive behaviour were further evaluated. Significant correlations were found between stress and depressive behaviour measures and between cortisol levels and depressive behaviour. Stress was positively correlated with cortisol levels, and these two factors interacted with each other to predict the monkeys’ depressive behaviours. This finding extends the current understanding of stress/cortisol interactions in depression, especially pertaining to females. PMID:27443987

  8. Gender specific effect of psychological stress and cortisol reactivity on adolescent risk taking.

    PubMed

    Daughters, Stacey B; Gorka, Stephanie M; Matusiewicz, Alexis; Anderson, Katelyn

    2013-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate how psychological stress, gender and cortisol response to stress relate to risk behavior among 132 14-18 year old adolescents. Participants completed a laboratory based risk task prior to and immediately after a computerized psychological stress task, and salivary cortisol was collected from pre-stress to 60 min following initial stress exposure. Results indicate that adolescent boys (n = 59) and girls (n = 73) demonstrate different patterns of risk taking (RT) in response to stress, such that boys evidenced an increase in RT following stress exposure, whereas girls evidenced a decrease in RT. In addition, a gender by cortisol interaction demonstrated that for boys, both a smaller total cortisol output (AUCg) and peak cortisol response to stress (PC) was associated with greater stress-induced RT. Both cortisol measures were unrelated to stress-induced RT among girls. Taken together, data suggest that among boys, a blunted cortisol response to stress underlies an increase in risk taking in the context of psychological stress. Further research with an additional behavioral stress task is needed prior to drawing conclusions regarding the relation between female gender, cortisol response to stress, and risk taking in the context of psychological stress. PMID:23338478

  9. Cortisol Reactivity and Performance Abilities in Social Situations in Adults with Williams Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lense, Miriam D.; Dykens, Elisabeth M.

    2013-01-01

    Williams syndrome (WS) is a neurodevelopmental disorder associated with hypersociability and anxiety. However, little is known about how these salient aspects of the phenotype are related or their underlying physiology. We examined cortisol reactivity in WS because cortisol is responsive to psychosocial stress. Compared to typically developing…

  10. Planned Missing Data Designs for Spline Growth Models in Salivary Cortisol Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hogue, Candace M.; Pornprasertmanit, Sunthud; Fry, Mary D.; Rhemtulla, Mijke; Little, Todd D.

    2013-01-01

    Salivary cortisol is often used as an index of physiological and psychological stress in exercise science and psychoneuroendocrine research. A primary concern when designing research studies examining cortisol stems from the high cost of analysis. Planned missing data designs involve intentionally omitting a random subset of observations from data…

  11. Understanding Relations among Early Family Environment, Cortisol Response, and Child Aggression via a Prevention Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Neal, Colleen R.; Brotman, Laurie Miller; Huang, Keng-Yen; Gouley, Kathleen Kiely; Kamboukos, Dimitra; Calzada, Esther J.; Pine, Daniel S.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined relations among family environment, cortisol response, and behavior in the context of a randomized controlled trial with 92 children (M = 48 months) at risk for antisocial behavior. Previously, researchers reported an intervention effect on cortisol response in anticipation of a social challenge. The current study examined…

  12. Elevated Trajectories of Externalizing Problems Are Associated with Lower Awakening Cortisol Levels in Midadolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haltigan, John D.; Roisman, Glenn I.; Susman, Elizabeth J.; Barnett-Walker, Kortnee; Monahan, Kathryn C.

    2011-01-01

    A growing body of research suggesting a negative association between basal levels of cortisol and persistent antisocial behavior has emerged. The present study examined relations between awakening cortisol levels and antisocial trajectories from ages 5 to 15 years among individuals in the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development…

  13. Longer-term increased cortisol levels in young people with mental health problems.

    PubMed

    Heinze, Kareen; Lin, Ashleigh; Reniers, Renate L E P; Wood, Stephen J

    2016-02-28

    Disturbance of hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis activity is commonly reported in a range of mental disorders in blood, saliva and urine samples. This study aimed to look at longer-term cortisol levels and their association with clinical symptoms. Hair strands of 30 young people (16-25 years) presenting with mental health problems (Mage±SD=21±2.4, 26 females) and 28 healthy controls (HC, Mage±SD=20±2.9, 26 females) were analyzed for cortisol concentrations, representing the past 6 months prior to hair sampling. Clinical participants completed an assessment on psychiatric symptoms, functioning and lifestyle factors. All participants completed the Perceived Stress Scale. Hair cortisol concentrations representing the past 3 (but not 3-6) months were significantly increased in clinical participants compared to HC. Perceived stress in the past month was significantly higher in clinical participants compared to HC, but not significantly correlated with hair cortisol. Hair cortisol levels were not significantly associated with any other measures. Hair segment analyses revealed longer-term increased levels of cortisol in the past 3 months in early mental health problems. Further insight into the role of cortisol on the pathogenesis of mental illnesses requires longitudinal studies relating cortisol to psychopathology and progression of illness.

  14. Peer Victimization, Depressive Symptoms, and High Salivary Cortisol Predict Poorer Memory in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaillancourt, Tracy; Duku, Eric; Becker, Suzanna; Schmidt, Louis A.; Nicol, Jeffrey; Muir, Cameron; MacMillan, Harriet

    2011-01-01

    The predictive relations of peer victimization, depressive symptoms, and salivary cortisol on memory in 168 children aged 12 at Time 1 (T1) were examined using a longitudinal design in which data were collected on four occasions over a 2-year period. Results indicated that: (1) peer victimization, depressive symptoms, and evening cortisol were…

  15. Child Care Quality and Children's Cortisol in Basque Country and the Netherlands

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vermeer, Harriet J.; Groeneveld, Marleen G.; Larrea, Inaki; van IJzendoorn, Marinus H.; Barandiaran, Alexander; Linting, Marielle

    2010-01-01

    A cross-country comparison of children's cortisol levels at child care was performed in relation to their cortisol levels at home and the quality and quantity of child care they received. Participants were toddlers visiting child care centers in Spanish Basque Country (N = 60) and the Netherlands (N = 25) with substantial variation in structural…

  16. Cortisol and testosterone increase financial risk taking and may destabilize markets.

    PubMed

    Cueva, Carlos; Roberts, R Edward; Spencer, Tom; Rani, Nisha; Tempest, Michelle; Tobler, Philippe N; Herbert, Joe; Rustichini, Aldo

    2015-07-02

    It is widely known that financial markets can become dangerously unstable, yet it is unclear why. Recent research has highlighted the possibility that endogenous hormones, in particular testosterone and cortisol, may critically influence traders' financial decision making. Here we show that cortisol, a hormone that modulates the response to physical or psychological stress, predicts instability in financial markets. Specifically, we recorded salivary levels of cortisol and testosterone in people participating in an experimental asset market (N = 142) and found that individual and aggregate levels of endogenous cortisol predict subsequent risk-taking and price instability. We then administered either cortisol (single oral dose of 100 mg hydrocortisone, N = 34) or testosterone (three doses of 10 g transdermal 1% testosterone gel over 48 hours, N = 41) to young males before they played an asset trading game. We found that both cortisol and testosterone shifted investment towards riskier assets. Cortisol appears to affect risk preferences directly, whereas testosterone operates by inducing increased optimism about future price changes. Our results suggest that changes in both cortisol and testosterone could play a destabilizing role in financial markets through increased risk taking behaviour, acting via different behavioural pathways.

  17. Cortisol and testosterone increase financial risk taking and may destabilize markets

    PubMed Central

    Cueva, Carlos; Roberts, R. Edward; Spencer, Tom; Rani, Nisha; Tempest, Michelle; Tobler, Philippe N.; Herbert, Joe; Rustichini, Aldo

    2015-01-01

    It is widely known that financial markets can become dangerously unstable, yet it is unclear why. Recent research has highlighted the possibility that endogenous hormones, in particular testosterone and cortisol, may critically influence traders’ financial decision making. Here we show that cortisol, a hormone that modulates the response to physical or psychological stress, predicts instability in financial markets. Specifically, we recorded salivary levels of cortisol and testosterone in people participating in an experimental asset market (N = 142) and found that individual and aggregate levels of endogenous cortisol predict subsequent risk-taking and price instability. We then administered either cortisol (single oral dose of 100 mg hydrocortisone, N = 34) or testosterone (three doses of 10 g transdermal 1% testosterone gel over 48 hours, N = 41) to young males before they played an asset trading game. We found that both cortisol and testosterone shifted investment towards riskier assets. Cortisol appears to affect risk preferences directly, whereas testosterone operates by inducing increased optimism about future price changes. Our results suggest that changes in both cortisol and testosterone could play a destabilizing role in financial markets through increased risk taking behaviour, acting via different behavioural pathways. PMID:26135946

  18. Impaired Memory Retrieval Correlates with Individual Differences in Cortisol Response but Not Autonomic Response

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tranel, Daniel; Adolphs, Ralph; Buchanan, Tony W.

    2006-01-01

    Stress can enhance or impair memory performance. Both cortisol release and sympathetic nervous system responses have been implicated in these differential effects. Here we investigated how memory retrieval might be affected by stress-induced cortisol release, independently of sympathetic nervous system stress responses. Thirty-two healthy…

  19. Spot determinations of urinary cortisol for the screening of Cushing's syndrome.

    PubMed

    Fujita, H; Hata, K; Ogata, E; Kojima, I

    1991-08-01

    The usefulness of spot determination of urinary cortisol in the screening of Cushing's syndrome was evaluated by measuring the cortisol concentration in randomly sampled urine in 68 normal subjects and in 9 patients with Cushing's syndrome. The urinary cortisol concentration in the morning was significantly higher in patients with Cushing's syndrome but some overlap existed between normal subjects and patients with Cushing's syndrome. In contrast, there was a clear discrimination between two groups when urinary cortisol was measured in the late evening: urinary cortisol was lower than 75 micrograms per gram creatinine (microgram/gCr) in normal subjects but higher than 150 micrograms/gCr in patients with Cushing's syndrome. When 1 mg dexamethasone was administered at 2300 h in the evening, spot urinary cortisol the next morning was less than 80 micrograms/gCr in normal subjects while it was above 100 micrograms/gCr in patients with Cushing's syndrome. Dexamethasone-induced suppression of urinary cortisol in normal subjects lasted until late in the afternoon, which allows sampling of urine at any time in the morning and possibly in the afternoon. These results suggest the usefulness of spot determination of urinary cortisol in the screening of Cushings' syndrome.

  20. Body fat distribution and cortisol metabolism in healthy men: enhanced 5beta-reductase and lower cortisol/cortisone metabolite ratios in men with fatty liver.

    PubMed

    Westerbacka, Jukka; Yki-Järvinen, Hannele; Vehkavaara, Satu; Häkkinen, Anna-Maija; Andrew, Ruth; Wake, Deborah J; Seckl, Jonathan R; Walker, Brian R

    2003-10-01

    In Cushing's syndrome, cortisol causes fat accumulation in specific sites most likely to be associated with insulin resistance, notably in omental adipose and also perhaps in the liver. In idiopathic obesity, cortisol-metabolizing enzymes may play a key role in determining body fat distribution. Increased regeneration of cortisol from cortisone within adipose by 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (HSD) type 1 (11HSD1) has been proposed to cause visceral fat accumulation, whereas decreased hepatic 11HSD1 may protect the liver from glucocorticoid excess. Increased inactivation of cortisol by 5alpha- and 5beta-reductases in the liver may drive compensatory activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, hence increasing adrenal androgens and 'android' central obesity. This study aimed to examine relationships between these enzymes and detailed measurements of body fat distribution. Twenty-five healthy men (age, 22-57 yr; body mass index, 20.6-35.6 kg/m(2)) were recruited from occupational health services. Body composition was assessed by anthropometric measurements, bioimpedance, and cross-sectional abdominal magnetic resonance imaging scans. Liver fat content was assessed by magnetic resonance imaging spectroscopy. Insulin sensitivity was measured in a euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp. Cortisol metabolites were measured in a 24-h urine sample by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. In vivo hepatic 11HSD1 activity was measured by generation of plasma cortisol after an oral dose of cortisone. In vitro 11HSD1 activity and mRNA were measured in 18 subjects who consented to provide abdominal sc adipose biopsies. Indices of obesity (body mass index, whole-body percentage fat, waist/hip ratio) were associated with higher urinary excretion of 5alpha- and 5beta-reduced cortisol metabolites (for percentage fat, P < 0.05 and P < 0.01, respectively) and increased adipose 11HSD1 activity (P < 0.05). Liver fat accumulation was associated with a selective increase in

  1. Genetic Moderation of Cortisol Secretion in Holocaust Survivors: A Pilot Study on the Role of ADRA2B

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fridman, Ayala; van IJzendoorn, Marinus H.; Sagi-Schwartz, Abraham; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J.

    2012-01-01

    In the current study we tested whether "ADRA2B" moderates stress regulation of Holocaust survivors as indexed by their diurnal cortisol secretion and cortisol reactivity to a stressor. Salivary cortisol levels of 54 female Holocaust survivors and participants in the comparison group were assessed during a routine day and in response to a…

  2. 76 FR 21712 - Notice of Intent To Grant a Partially Exclusive Patent License; PopTest Cortisol LLC

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-18

    ... Department of the Navy Notice of Intent To Grant a Partially Exclusive Patent License; PopTest Cortisol LLC... notice of its intent to grant to PopTest Cortisol LLC, a revocable, nonassignable, partially exclusive... biomarkers including cortisol by fluorescence polarization''; and U.S. Patent Application Serial No....

  3. Stress and reward: long term cortisol exposure predicts the strength of sexual preference.

    PubMed

    Chumbley, J R; Hulme, O; Köchli, H; Russell, E; Van Uum, S; A Pizzagalli, D; Fehr, E

    2014-05-28

    Healthy individuals tend to consume available rewards like food and sex. This tendency is attenuated or amplified in most stress-related psychiatric conditions, so we asked if it depends on endogenous levels of the 'canonical stress hormone' cortisol. We unobtrusively quantified how hard healthy heterosexual men would work to consume erotic images of women versus men and also measured their exposure to endogenous cortisol in the prior two months. We used linear models to predict the strength of sexual preference from cortisol level, after accounting for other potential explanations. Heterosexual preference declines with self-reported anhedonia but increases with long term exposure to endogenous cortisol. These results suggest that cortisol may affect reward-related behavior in healthy adults.

  4. Hormones: commentary. Riding the physiological roller coaster: adaptive significance of cortisol stress reactivity to social contexts.

    PubMed

    Shirtcliff, Elizabeth A; Peres, Jeremy C; Dismukes, Andrew R; Lee, Yoojin; Phan, Jenny M

    2014-02-01

    The authors conjecture that to understand normal stress regulation, including cortisol stress reactivity, it is important to understand why these biomarkers are released and what they function to accomplish within the individual. This perspective holds that high (or rising) cortisol has advantages and disadvantages that must be understood within a context to understand how individual differences unfold. This perspective is juxtaposed with a popular vantage point of this stress hormone or of stress exposure that emphasizes the deleterious consequences or problems of this hormone. While the costs and benefits of cortisol are emphasized for normal stress regulation, this dynamic context-dependent purpose of stress hormones should extend to the development of psychopathology as well. This functional and dynamic view of cortisol is helpful for interpreting why Tackett and colleagues (2014) appear to observe advantageous cortisol recovery from stress in individuals with elevated personality disorder symptoms. PMID:24344886

  5. Cognitive-behavioral intervention effects on mood and cortisol during exercise training.

    PubMed

    Perna, F M; Antoni, M H; Kumar, M; Cruess, D G; Schneiderman, N

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to assess the effect of a time limited cognitive-behavioral stress management program (CBSM) on mood state and serum cortisol among men and women rowers (N = 34) undergoing a period of heavy exercise training. After controlling for life-event stress (LES), CBSM was hypothesized to reduce negative mood state and cortisol among rowers during a period of heavy training; mood and cortisol changes over the intervention period were hypothesized to be positively correlated. LES was positively associated with negative affect at study entry. After covariance for LES, rowing athletes randomly assigned to the CBSM group experienced significant reductions in depressed mood, fatigue, and cortisol when compared to those randomized to a control group. Decreases in negative affect and fatigue were also significantly associated with cortisol decrease. These results suggest that CBSM may exert a positive effect on athletes' adaptation to heavy exercise training.

  6. A time to be stressed? Time perspectives and cortisol dynamics among healthy adults

    PubMed Central

    Olivera-Figueroa, Lening A.; Juster, Robert-Paul; Morin-Major, Julie Katia; Marin, Marie-France; Lupien, Sonia J.

    2015-01-01

    Perceptions of past, present, and future events may be related to stress pathophysiology. We assessed whether Time Perspective (TP) is associated with cortisol dynamics among healthy adults (N = 61, Ages = 18–35, M = 22.9, SD = 4.1) exposed to the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST). TP was measured according to two profiles: maladaptive Deviation from Balanced TP (DBTP) and adaptive Deviation from Negative TP (DNTP). Eight salivary cortisol samples were analyzed using area under the curve with respect to ground (AUCg) and to increase (AUCi). Statistic analyses involved partial correlations controlling for depressive symptoms. Results for both sexes showed that higher DBTP scores were associated with lower cortisol AUCg scores, while higher DNTP scores were associated with higher cortisol AUCg scores. These novel findings suggest that maladaptive TP profiles influence hypocortisolism, whereas adaptive TP profiles influence hypercortisolism. Thus, TP profiles may impact conditions characterized by altered cortisol concentrations. PMID:26362588

  7. Elevated repetitive behaviors are associated with lower diurnal salivary cortisol levels in autism spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Gabriels, Robin L; Agnew, John A; Pan, Zhaoxing; Holt, Katherine D; Reynolds, Ann; Laudenslager, Mark L

    2013-05-01

    Previously, we reported a subgroup of children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) had consistently high rates of repetitive behaviors (RBs) with abnormal sensory sensitivity. Given evidence of lower cortisol levels in response to stress and associated sensory sensitivity in the ASD population, this pilot study evaluates whether the presence of RBs reflects an underlying pathophysiology related to cortisol regulation. Diurnal salivary cortisol from 21 children with ASD and high versus low occurrence RBs were collected at four time points over three consecutive days. Although a typical decline in salivary cortisol was observed, participants in the high RB group showed 36% lower diurnal salivary cortisol than the low RB group. Age, IQ, RB type, and sleep quality were unrelated to observed differences. These findings suggest that RBs may serve to mitigate distress or that the glucocorticoid system has been down regulated in association with prolonged distress in this sample population.

  8. Circadian secretion of cortisol and melatonin in cluster headache during active cluster periods and remission.

    PubMed Central

    Waldenlind, E; Gustafsson, S A; Ekbom, K; Wetterberg, L

    1987-01-01

    The cyclic nature of cluster headache warranted a study of the 24-hour rhythms of serum cortisol and melatonin. They were both altered during cluster periods as compared with periods of remission and healthy controls. The 24-hour mean and maximal cortisol levels were higher and the timing of the cortisol minimum was delayed as compared to the same patients in remission. Although there was no relation between the cortisol and melatonin levels and headaches, the rise of cortisol following many attacks might in part represent an adaptive response to pain. The nocturnal melatonin maximum was lower during cluster periods than in remission. This finding, and the dysautonomic signs during attacks, may reflect a change of the vegetative tone in a hyposympathetic direction. Images PMID:3572435

  9. Cortisol Reactivity to Social Stress as a Mediator of Early Adversity on Risk and Adaptive Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Conradt, Elisabeth; Abar, Beau; Lester, Barry M.; LaGasse, Linda L.; Shankaran, Seetha; Bada, Henrietta; Bauer, Charles R.; Whitaker, Toni M.; Hammond, Jane A.

    2014-01-01

    Children chronically exposed to stress early in life are at increased risk for maladaptive outcomes, though the physiological mechanisms driving these effects are unknown. Cortisol reactivity was tested as a mediator of the relation between prenatal substance exposure and/or early adversity on adaptive and maladaptive outcomes. Data were drawn from a prospective longitudinal study of prenatal substance exposure (N = 860). Cortisol reactivity was assessed at age 11. Among African-Americans, prenatal substance exposure exerted an indirect effect through early adversity and cortisol reactivity to predict externalizing behavior, delinquency, and a positive student-teacher relationship at age 11. Decreased cortisol reactivity was related to maladaptive outcomes, and increased cortisol reactivity predicted better executive functioning and a more positive student-teacher relationship. PMID:25376131

  10. Effects of sleep deprivation on serum cortisol level and mental health in servicemen.

    PubMed

    Song, Hong-Tao; Sun, Xin-Yang; Yang, Ting-Shu; Zhang, Li-Yi; Yang, Jia-Lin; Bai, Jing

    2015-06-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of sleep deprivation on serum cortisol level and mental health and explore the correlations between them in servicemen. A total of 149 out of the 207 Chinese servicemen were randomly selected to go through 24hour sleep deprivation, leaving the rest (58) as the control group, before and after which their blood samples were drawn for cortisol measurement. Following the procedure, all the participants were administered the Military Personnel Mental Disorder Prediction Scale, taking the military norm as baseline. The results revealed that the post-deprivation serum cortisol level was positively correlated with the factor score of mania in the sleep deprivation group (rSp=0.415, p<0.001). Sleep deprivation could significantly increase serum cortisol level and may affect mental health in servicemen. The increase of serum cortisol level is significantly related to mania disorder during sleep deprivation.

  11. Splitting hair for cortisol? Associations of socio-economic status, ethnicity, hair color, gender and other child characteristics with hair cortisol and cortisone.

    PubMed

    Rippe, Ralph C A; Noppe, Gerard; Windhorst, Dafna A; Tiemeier, Henning; van Rossum, Elisabeth F C; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Verhulst, Frank C; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J; van IJzendoorn, Marinus H; van den Akker, Erica L T

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to examine associations of SES and ethnicity with hair cortisol and cortisone and to identify potential child and family characteristics that can assist in choosing covariates and potential confounders for analyses involving hair cortisol and cortisone concentrations. Hair samples were collected in 2484 6-year-old children from the Generation R Study, a prospective cohort in Rotterdam, the Netherlands. Measurements for cortisol and cortisone were used as the outcome in regression analyses. Predictors were SES, ethnicity, hair color and child characteristics such as birthweight, gestational age at birth, BMI, disease, allergy, and medication use. Lower family income, more children to be supported by this income, higher BMI and darker hair color were associated with higher hair cortisol and cortisone levels. Boys also showed higher levels. Ethnicity (Dutch and North European descent) was related to lower levels. High amounts of sun in the month of hair collection was related to higher levels of cortisone only. More recent hair washing was related to lower levels of cortisol and cortisone. Gestational age at birth, birth weight, age, medication use, hair washing frequency, educational level of the mother, marital status of the mother, disease and allergy were not associated with cortisol or cortisone levels. Our results serve as a starting point for choosing covariates and confounders in studies of substantive predictors or outcomes. Gender, BMI, income, the number of persons in a household, ethnicity, hair color and recency of hair washing are strongly suggested to take into account. PMID:26773401

  12. Splitting hair for cortisol? Associations of socio-economic status, ethnicity, hair color, gender and other child characteristics with hair cortisol and cortisone.

    PubMed

    Rippe, Ralph C A; Noppe, Gerard; Windhorst, Dafna A; Tiemeier, Henning; van Rossum, Elisabeth F C; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Verhulst, Frank C; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J; van IJzendoorn, Marinus H; van den Akker, Erica L T

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to examine associations of SES and ethnicity with hair cortisol and cortisone and to identify potential child and family characteristics that can assist in choosing covariates and potential confounders for analyses involving hair cortisol and cortisone concentrations. Hair samples were collected in 2484 6-year-old children from the Generation R Study, a prospective cohort in Rotterdam, the Netherlands. Measurements for cortisol and cortisone were used as the outcome in regression analyses. Predictors were SES, ethnicity, hair color and child characteristics such as birthweight, gestational age at birth, BMI, disease, allergy, and medication use. Lower family income, more children to be supported by this income, higher BMI and darker hair color were associated with higher hair cortisol and cortisone levels. Boys also showed higher levels. Ethnicity (Dutch and North European descent) was related to lower levels. High amounts of sun in the month of hair collection was related to higher levels of cortisone only. More recent hair washing was related to lower levels of cortisol and cortisone. Gestational age at birth, birth weight, age, medication use, hair washing frequency, educational level of the mother, marital status of the mother, disease and allergy were not associated with cortisol or cortisone levels. Our results serve as a starting point for choosing covariates and confounders in studies of substantive predictors or outcomes. Gender, BMI, income, the number of persons in a household, ethnicity, hair color and recency of hair washing are strongly suggested to take into account.

  13. The effect of cortisol on emotional responses depends on order of cortisol and placebo administration in a within-subjects design

    PubMed Central

    Wirth, Michelle M.; Scherer, Sean M.; Hoks, Roxanne M.; Abercrombie, Heather C.

    2010-01-01

    Cortisol does not exhibit a straightforward relationship with mood states; administration of glucocorticoids to human subjects has produced mixed effects on mood and emotional processing. In this study, participants (N=46) received intravenous hydrocortisone (synthetic cortisol; 0.1 mg/kg body weight) and placebo in randomized order over two sessions 48 hours apart. Following the infusion, participants rated neutral and unpleasant pictures. In Session 1, participants reported elevated negative affect (NA) following the picture-rating task, regardless of treatment. In Session 2, however, only participants who received cortisol (and thus who had received placebo in Session 1) reported elevated NA. Arousal ratings for unpleasant pictures followed a similar pattern. These findings suggest that the effects of cortisol on emotion vary based on situational factors, such as drug administration order or familiarity with the tasks and setting. Such factors can influence cortisol’s effects on emotion in two ways: A) cortisol may only potentiate NA and arousal ratings in the absence of other, overwhelming influences on affect, such as the novelty of the setting and tasks in Session 1; and B) cortisol in Session 1 may facilitate learning processes (e.g. habituation to the stimuli and setting; extinction of aversive responses) such that emotional responses to the pictures are lessened in Session 2. This interpretation is compatible with a body of literature on the effects of glucocorticoids on learning and memory processes. PMID:21232874

  14. A Realtime and Continuous Assessment of Cortisol in ISF Using Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Arya, Sunil K.; Chornokur, Ganna; Bhansali, Shekhar

    2011-01-01

    This study describes the functioning of a novel sensor to measure cortisol concentration in the interstitial fluid (ISF) of a human subject. ISF is extracted by means of vacuum pressure from micropores created on the stratum corneum layer of the skin. The pores are produced by focusing a near infrared laser on a layer of black dye material attached to the skin. The pores are viable for approximately three days after skin poration. Cortisol measurements are based on electrochemical impedance (EIS) technique. Gold microelectrode arrays functionalized with Dithiobis (succinimidyl propionate) self-assembled monolayer (SAM) have been used to fabricate an ultrasensitive, disposable, electrochemical cortisol immunosensor. The biosensor was successfully used for in-vitro measurement of cortisol in ISF. Tests in a laboratory setup show that the sensor exhibits a linear response to cortisol concentrations in the range 1 pm to 100 nM. A small pilot clinical study showed that in-vitro immunosensor readings, when compared with commercial evaluation using enzyme-linked immunoassay (ELISA) method, correlated well with cortisol levels in saliva and ISF. Further, circadian rhythm could be established between the subject's ISF and the saliva samples collected over 24 hours time-period. Cortisol levels in ISF were found reliably higher than in saliva. This Research establishes the feasibility of using impedance based biosensor architecture for a disposable, wearable cortisol detector. The projected commercial in-vivo real-time cortisol sensor device, besides being minimally invasive, will allow continuous ISF harvesting and cortisol monitoring over 24 hours even when the subject is asleep. Forthcoming, this sensor could be interfaced to a wireless health monitoring system that could transfer sensor data over existing wide-area networks such as the internet and a cellular phone network to enable real-time remote monitoring of subjects. PMID:22163154

  15. The Association between Midnight Salivary Cortisol and Metabolic Syndrome in Korean Adults

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Yun-Mi; Lee, Eun Jung; Kim, Dong Lim; Kim, Suk Kyeong

    2012-01-01

    Background The common characteristics of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and Cushing's syndrome suggest that excess cortisol may be involved in the pathogenesis of MetS. Salivary cortisol measurements are simple and can be surrogates for plasma free cortisol, which is the most biologically active form. We evaluated the association between levels of midnight salivary cortisol and MetS in Korean adults. Methods A total of 46 subjects, aged 20 to 70 years, who visited the Health Care Center at Konkuk University Hospital from August 2008 to August 2009 were enrolled. We compared the levels of midnight salivary cortisol in subjects with MetS with those in subjects without MetS. We analyzed the associations between midnight salivary cortisol levels and components of MetS. Results Midnight salivary cortisol levels were higher in the MetS group (70±42.4 ng/dL, n=12) than that in the group without MetS (48.1±36.8 ng/dL, n=34) (P=0.001). Positive correlations were observed between midnight salivary cortisol levels and waist circumference, fasting blood glucose, and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance. The risk for MetS was significantly higher in subjects with midnight salivary cortisol levels ≥100 ng/dL than in those with levels <50 ng/dL (odds ratio, 5.9; 95% confidence interval, 2.35 to 36.4). Conclusion The results showed a positive correlation between midnight salivary cortisol levels and MetS, suggesting that hypercortisolism may be related to MetS. PMID:22737665

  16. Dynamics and correlation of serum cortisol and corticosterone under different physiological or stressful conditions in mice.

    PubMed

    Gong, Shuai; Miao, Yi-Long; Jiao, Guang-Zhong; Sun, Ming-Ju; Li, Hong; Lin, Juan; Luo, Ming-Jiu; Tan, Jing-He

    2015-01-01

    Although plasma corticosterone is considered the main glucocorticoid involved in regulation of stress responses in rodents, the presence of plasma cortisol and whether its level can be used as an indicator for rodent activation of stress remain to be determined. In this study, effects of estrous cycle stage, circadian rhythm, and acute and chronic (repeated or unpredictable) stressors of various severities on dynamics and correlation of serum cortisol and corticosterone were examined in mice. A strong (r = 0.6-0.85) correlation between serum cortisol and corticosterone was observed throughout the estrous cycle, all day long, and during acute or repeated restraints, chronic unpredictable stress and acute forced swimming or heat stress. Both hormones increased to the highest level on day 1 of repeated-restraint or unpredictable stresses, but after that, whereas the concentration of cortisol did not change, that of corticosterone showed different dynamics. Thus, whereas corticosterone declined dramatically during repeated restraints, it remained at the high level during unpredictable stress. During forced swimming or heat stress, whereas cortisol increased to the highest level within 3 min., corticosterone did not reach maximum until 40 min. of stress. Analysis with HPLC and HPLC-MS further confirmed the presence of cortisol in mouse serum. Taken together, results (i) confirmed the presence of cortisol in mouse serum and (ii) suggested that mouse serum cortisol and corticosterone are closely correlated in dynamics under different physiological or stressful conditions, but, whereas corticosterone was a more adaptation-related biomarker than cortisol during chronic stress, cortisol was a quicker responder than corticosterone during severe acute stress.

  17. Dynamics and Correlation of Serum Cortisol and Corticosterone under Different Physiological or Stressful Conditions in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Shuai; Miao, Yi-Long; Jiao, Guang-Zhong; Sun, Ming-Ju; Li, Hong; Lin, Juan; Luo, Ming-Jiu; Tan, Jing-He

    2015-01-01

    Although plasma corticosterone is considered the main glucocorticoid involved in regulation of stress responses in rodents, the presence of plasma cortisol and whether its level can be used as an indicator for rodent activation of stress remain to be determined. In this study, effects of estrous cycle stage, circadian rhythm, and acute and chronic (repeated or unpredictable) stressors of various severities on dynamics and correlation of serum cortisol and corticosterone were examined in mice. A strong (r = 0.6–0.85) correlation between serum cortisol and corticosterone was observed throughout the estrous cycle, all day long, and during acute or repeated restraints, chronic unpredictable stress and acute forced swimming or heat stress. Both hormones increased to the highest level on day 1 of repeated-restraint or unpredictable stresses, but after that, whereas the concentration of cortisol did not change, that of corticosterone showed different dynamics. Thus, whereas corticosterone declined dramatically during repeated restraints, it remained at the high level during unpredictable stress. During forced swimming or heat stress, whereas cortisol increased to the highest level within 3 min., corticosterone did not reach maximum until 40 min. of stress. Analysis with HPLC and HPLC-MS further confirmed the presence of cortisol in mouse serum. Taken together, results (i) confirmed the presence of cortisol in mouse serum and (ii) suggested that mouse serum cortisol and corticosterone are closely correlated in dynamics under different physiological or stressful conditions, but, whereas corticosterone was a more adaptation-related biomarker than cortisol during chronic stress, cortisol was a quicker responder than corticosterone during severe acute stress. PMID:25699675

  18. POSTTRAUMATIC STRESS DISORDER, SMOKING, AND CORTISOL IN A COMMUNITY SAMPLE OF PREGNANT WOMEN

    PubMed Central

    Lopez, William D; Seng, Julia S

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in the United States is higher among pregnant women than women generally. PTSD is related to adverse birth outcomes via physiological and behavioral alterations, such as smoking. We utilize salivary cortisol measures to examine how traumatic stress, smoking and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis interact. Pregnant women (n =395) gave cortisol specimens as part of a cohort study of PTSD and pregnancy at three health systems in the Midwestern United States. Women were divided into three groups: nonsmokers, quitters (who stopped smoking during pregnancy), and pregnancy smokers. Mean cortisol values at three points, sociodemographics, trauma history, and PTSD were compared across groups. We assessed the association of smoking group and PTSD with late afternoon cortisol levels. Smokers, quitters, and nonsmokers differed on demographic risk factors and PTSD symptom load. Late afternoon and bedtime cortisol measures were significantly positively correlated with smoking in pregnancy, with smokers with PTSD presenting the highest cortisol levels. Regression analysis showed that smoking in pregnancy was associated with higher late afternoon cortisol in an additive manner with PTSD symptoms. Smoking appears to have a different relationship with cortisol level for those with and without PTSD. This is the first study to show additive effects of smoking and PTSD on cortisol levels in pregnant women. Since high cortisol, smoking, and PTSD have been shown to adversely affect perinatal outcomes, and since those continuing to smoke in pregnancy had the highest PTSD symptom load, PTSD-specific smoking cessation programs in maternity settings are warranted. PMID:24926909

  19. The association between affective psychopathic traits, time incarcerated, and cortisol response to psychosocial stress.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Megan M; Mikolajewski, Amy; Shirtcliff, Elizabeth A; Eckel, Lisa A; Taylor, Jeanette

    2015-06-01

    Previous research has demonstrated that psychopathic personality traits are significantly predictive of blunted cortisol reactivity to a performance-based stressor task (Trier Social Stress Test; TSST) in college students. However, the relationship between cortisol reactivity and psychopathy has not been explored in high risk samples such as incarcerated populations. Further, the role of imprisonment in relation to cortisol stress reactivity has not been previously explored, but could have practical and conceptual consequences in regard to rehabilitation and biological sensitivity to context, respectively. The current study tested the hypotheses that both psychopathic personality traits and amount of time incarcerated are related to cortisol blunting in response to stress among incarcerated young adults. A sample of 49 young adult male offenders was recruited to complete the TSST. Salivary hormone samples were taken just prior to and 20 min post-stressor, and participants were interviewed with the Psychopathy Checklist-Youth Version. Variables quantifying the amount of time at the present facility prior to the date of testing and number of commitments in juvenile facilities were also collected. Correlational analyses indicated that only number of incarcerations was related to blunted cortisol. Hierarchical Linear Modeling revealed that time incarcerated and number of commitments were related to a blunted cortisol response among responders and declining cortisol reactivity among nonresponders, respectively. Controlling for time incarcerated, psychopathic traits were significantly related to cortisol decline in response to the stressor among nonresponders, but were not related to blunted cortisol among responders. Results of this project highlight the potential biological effects of prolonged and repeated incarcerations, and extend our understanding about the relationship between psychopathic traits and cortisol reactivity in an incarcerated sample. PMID:25921588

  20. Effects of Acute Cortisol Administration on Perceptual Priming of Trauma-Related Material

    PubMed Central

    Streb, Markus; Pfaltz, Monique; Michael, Tanja

    2014-01-01

    Intrusive memories are a hallmark symptom of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). They reflect excessive and uncontrolled retrieval of the traumatic memory. Acute elevations of cortisol are known to impair the retrieval of already stored memory information. Thus, continuous cortisol administration might help in reducing intrusive memories in PTSD. Strong perceptual priming for neutral stimuli associated with a “traumatic” context has been shown to be one important learning mechanism that leads to intrusive memories. However, the memory modulating effects of cortisol have only been shown for explicit declarative memory processes. Thus, in our double blind, placebo controlled study we aimed to investigate whether cortisol influences perceptual priming of neutral stimuli that appeared in a “traumatic” context. Two groups of healthy volunteers (N = 160) watched either neutral or “traumatic” picture stories on a computer screen. Neutral objects were presented in between the pictures. Memory for these neutral objects was tested after 24 hours with a perceptual priming task and an explicit memory task. Prior to memory testing half of the participants in each group received 25 mg of cortisol, the other half received placebo. In the placebo group participants in the “traumatic” stories condition showed more perceptual priming for the neutral objects than participants in the neutral stories condition, indicating a strong perceptual priming effect for neutral stimuli presented in a “traumatic” context. In the cortisol group this effect was not present: Participants in the neutral stories and participants in the “traumatic” stories condition in the cortisol group showed comparable priming effects for the neutral objects. Our findings show that cortisol inhibits perceptual priming for neutral stimuli that appeared in a “traumatic” context. These findings indicate that cortisol influences PTSD-relevant memory processes and thus further support

  1. Neural Correlates of the Cortisol Awakening Response in Humans.

    PubMed

    Boehringer, Andreas; Tost, Heike; Haddad, Leila; Lederbogen, Florian; Wüst, Stefan; Schwarz, Emanuel; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas

    2015-08-01

    The cortisol rise after awakening (cortisol awakening response, CAR) is a core biomarker of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis regulation related to psychosocial stress and stress-related psychiatric disorders. However, the neural regulation of the CAR has not been examined in humans. Here, we studied neural regulation related to the CAR in a sample of 25 healthy human participants using an established psychosocial stress paradigm together with multimodal functional and structural (voxel-based morphometry) magnetic resonance imaging. Across subjects, a smaller CAR was associated with reduced grey matter volume and increased stress-related brain activity in the perigenual ACC, a region which inhibits HPA axis activity during stress that is implicated in risk mechanisms and pathophysiology of stress-related mental diseases. Moreover, functional connectivity between the perigenual ACC and the hypothalamus, the primary controller of HPA axis activity, was associated with the CAR. Our findings provide support for a role of the perigenual ACC in regulating the CAR in humans and may aid future research on the pathophysiology of stress-related illnesses, such as depression, and environmental risk for illnesses such as schizophrenia. PMID:25781268

  2. Sex steroid modulation of cortisol secretion in sheep.

    PubMed

    van Lier, E; Carriquiry, M; Meikle, A

    2014-06-01

    There is strong evidence that the gonads modulate the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. To investigate these sex differences at the adrenal glands of sheep we compared the cortisol response to ACTH (experiment 1) and measured the relative expression of oestrogen receptor alpha (ERS1), androgen receptor (AR), melanocortin 2 receptor (MC2R) and steroid acute regulatory protein (STAR) mRNA in adrenal glands (experiment 2) of gonadectomised rams and ewes either with or without sex steroid replacement. In experiment 1 six castrated adult rams and four ovariectomised adult ewes were used in two ACTH trials. On each trial blood samples were taken every 15 min for 4 h through an indwelling jugular catheter and each animal received 0.5 mg of an ACTH analogue i.v., immediately after the sample at 1 h from the beginning of the trial. Four days after the first trial the males received 100 mg of Testosterone Cyclopentilpropionate (TC) i.m. and the females received 2.5 mg of Oestradiol Benzoate (EB) i.m. At 72 h after TC or EB administration the second trial was performed. In experiment 2 the adrenal glands were obtained from gonadectomised adult rams (n=8) and adult ewes (n=8). Four rams received 100 mg of TC i.m. and four females received 0.5 mg of EB i.m. Blood samples were taken at 0, 12, 24, 48 and 72 h relative to steroid replacement and the animals were thereafter slaughtered. Cortisol, testosterone and 17β-oestradiol were determined by radioimmunoanalysis. The transcripts of ERS1, AR, MC2R and STAR were determined by real-time reverse transcription PCR in adrenal tissue. Cortisol secretion was higher in female sheep than in male sheep, and higher in EB-treated than non-treated ewes. No difference in cortisol secretion was observed between TC-treated and non-treated rams. Gonadectomised rams treated with TC presented greater AR mRNA and MC2R mRNA expression than males without the steroid replacement. Gonadectomised ewes treated with EB tended to present lower AR m

  3. Diurnal salivary cortisol, glycemia and insulin resistance: The multi-ethnic study of atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Joseph, Joshua J; Wang, Xu; Spanakis, Elias; Seeman, Teresa; Wand, Gary; Needham, Belinda; Golden, Sherita Hill

    2015-12-01

    Hypercortisolism is associated with insulin resistance (IR) and diabetes mellitus (DM); however, to our knowledge prior studies have not examined the association of diurnal cortisol curve features with measures of glycemia or IR in a population-based setting. Using log-transformed salivary cortisol data on 850 ethnically diverse men and women from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis, we investigated the cross-sectional association of cortisol curve features with (1) glycemia in those with and without DM and (2) IR, in non-diabetic subjects. The log-transformed salivary cortisol curve features included wake-up cortisol, cortisol awakening response (CAR), early decline slope (30min to 2h post-awakening), late decline slope (2h post-awakening to bedtime), overall decline slope (0min to bedtime, excluding 30min cortisol), bedtime cortisol and total area under the curve (AUC). Overall, following multivariable adjustment, among those with diabetes mellitus (DM), early decline slope, overall decline slope, bedtime cortisol, and AUC were significantly and positively associated with a 5.4% (95% CI: 1.3, 9.7), 54.7% (95% CI: 12.4, 112.9), 4.0% (95% CI: 1.6,6.4), and 6.8% (95% CI: 3.3,10.4) higher HbA1c per 1 unit increase in log cortisol feature, respectively. Cortisol curve features were not associated with HbA1c among non-diabetic participants; however, wake-up cortisol and AUC were associated with a 8.2% lower (95% CI: -13.3,-2.7) and 7.9% lower (95% CI: -14.6, -0.6) log HOMA-IR, respectively. This was attenuated by adjustment for waist circumference. Among participants with DM, cortisol curve parameters suggestive of higher hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity and dysfunction were associated with higher HbA1c. In non-diabetic participants, greater HPA activity was paradoxically associated with lower insulin resistance.

  4. DHEA modulates the effect of cortisol on RACK1 expression via interference with the splicing of the glucocorticoid receptor

    PubMed Central

    Pinto, Antonella; Malacrida, Beatrice; Oieni, Jacopo; Serafini, Melania Maria; Davin, Annalisa; Galbiati, Valentina; Corsini, Emanuela; Racchi, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) is thought to be an anti-glucocorticoid hormone known to be fully functional in young people but deficient in aged humans. Our previous data suggest that DHEA not only counteracts the effect of cortisol on RACK1 expression, a protein required both for the correct functioning of immune cells and for PKC-dependent pathway activation, but also modulates the inhibitory effect of cortisol on LPS-induced cytokine production. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of DHEA on the splicing mechanism of the human glucocorticoid receptor (GR). Experimental Approach The THP1 monocytic cell line was used as a cellular model. Cytokine production was measured by specific elisa. Western blot and real-time RT-PCR were used, where appropriate, to determine the effect of DHEA on GRs, serine/arginine-rich proteins (SRp), and RACK1 protein and mRNA. Small-interfering RNA was used to down-regulate GRβ. Key Results DHEA induced a dose-related up-regulation of GRβ and GRβ knockdown completely prevented DHEA-induced RACK1 expression and modulation of cytokine release. Moreover, we showed that DHEA influenced the expression of some components of the SRps found within the spliceosome, the main regulators of the alternative splicing of the GR gene. Conclusions and Implications These data contribute to our understanding of the mechanism of action of DHEA and its effect on the immune system and as an anti-glucocorticoid agent. PMID:25626076

  5. The effect of age and teat order on alpha1-acid glycoprotein, neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio, cortisol, and average daily gain in commercial growing pigs.

    PubMed

    Stull, C L; Kachulis, C J; Farley, J L; Koenig, G J

    1999-01-01

    The objectives of the study were to evaluate age and teat order on a performance trait, average daily gain, and on physiological stress indicators, alpha1-acid glycoprotein (AGP), neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (N:L), and cortisol in commercial growing pigs from weaning to market age. Pigs (n = 129) from five commercial California farms were weighed and blood-sampled at 28-d intervals from 28 to 168 d of age. Laboratory assays were performed from blood samples to quantify cortisol, AGP, and N:L. Age and facility effects (P<.001), but not teat order effects (P>.05), were found for all three physiological traits and ADG. Pigs that routinely suckled from teats 1, 4, or 6 (numbered from anterior to posterior on the upper teat bank) had similar (P>.05) ADG and BW throughout the production cycle. No correlation (P> .05) was found between cortisol, AGP, and N:L. The use of these physiological and production traits as stress and health indices of growing pigs in commercial facilities has limitations in comparing data between facilities or different ages of pigs. PMID:10064029

  6. Is gill cortisol concentration a good acute stress indicator in fish? A study in rainbow trout and zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Gesto, Manuel; Hernández, Juan; López-Patiño, Marcos A; Soengas, José L; Míguez, Jesús M

    2015-10-01

    Cortisol is the main biomarker of physiological stress in fish. It is usually measured in plasma, which requires blood collection. Though cortisol is produced in the anterior kidney, it can diffuse easily through cell membranes due to its lipophilic nature. Taking advantage of that, some non-invasive techniques have been developed to measure cortisol directly in the water from fish-holding tanks, in skin mucus or in scales. In this study, we explored the possibility to analyze fish cortisol from gill filaments as a reliable acute stress marker. Our results show that gill cortisol levels correlate well with plasma cortisol levels in both rainbow trout and zebrafish exposed or not to an acute stress protocol. Measuring cortisol in gill filaments increases the available possibilities for stress assessment in fish. Although this approach should yet be tested for its use with other stressors, it has several advantages: In relatively large fish (i.e. above 30 g) gill cortisol levels could be measured in vivo. Sampling of gill biopsies is very fast and easy, and the procedure does not induce stress if properly performed, making it an ideal option for in vivo stress assessment. In small fish, the use of gill tissue to measure cortisol has important technical advantages with respect to the current methods using whole-body homogenates. Gill homogenates could be used directly for ELISA cortisol analysis, avoiding the need of tedious and expensive cortisol extraction protocols, and, since no organic solvent is required, contributing for a more environmentally friendly analysis.

  7. Quantifying Pituitary-Adrenal Dynamics and Deconvolution of Concurrent Cortisol and Adrenocorticotropic Hormone Data by Compressed Sensing

    PubMed Central

    Faghih, Rose T.; Dahleh, Munther A.; Adler, Gail K.; Klerman, Elizabeth B.; Brown, Emery N.

    2015-01-01

    Pulsatile release of cortisol from the adrenal glands is governed by pulsatile release of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) from the anterior pituitary. In return, cortisol has a negative feedback effect on ACTH release. Simultaneous recording of ACTH and cortisol is not typical, and determining the number, timing, and amplitudes of pulsatile events from simultaneously recorded data is challenging because of several factors: (I) stimulator ACTH pulse activity, (II) kinematics of ACTH and cortisol, (III) the sampling interval, and (IV) the measurement error. We model ACTH and cortisol secretion simultaneously using a linear differential equations model with Gaussian errors and sparse pulsatile events as inputs to the model. We propose a novel framework for recovering pulses and parameters underlying the interactions between ACTH and cortisol. We recover the timing and amplitudes of pulses using compressed sensing, and employ generalized cross validation for determining the number of pulses. We analyze serum ACTH and cortisol levels sampled at 10-minute intervals over 24 hours from 10 healthy women. We recover physiologically plausible timing and amplitudes for these pulses and model the feedback effect of cortisol. We recover 15 to 18 pulses over 24 hours, which is highly consistent with the results of another cortisol data analysis approach. Modeling the interactions between ACTH and cortisol allows for accurate quantification of pulsatile events, and normal and pathological states. This could lay the basis for a more physiologically-based approach for administering cortisol therapeutically. The proposed approach can be adapted to deconvolve other pairs of hormones with similar interactions. PMID:25935025

  8. Cumulative effects of early poverty on cortisol in young children: moderation by autonomic nervous system activity.

    PubMed

    Blair, Clancy; Berry, Daniel; Mills-Koonce, Roger; Granger, Douglas

    2013-11-01

    The relation of the cumulative experience of poverty in infancy and early childhood to child cortisol at age 48 months was examined in a prospective longitudinal sample of children and families (N=1292) in predominantly low-income and rural communities in two distinct regions of the United States. Families were seen in the home for data collection and cumulative experience of poverty was indexed by parent reported income-to-need ratio and household chaos measures collected between child ages 2 months and 48 months. For the analysis presented here, three saliva samples were also collected over an approximate 90 min interval at child age 48 months and were assayed for cortisol. ECG data were also collected during a resting period and during the administration of a mildly challenging battery of cognitive tasks. Mixed model analysis indicated that child cortisol at 48 months decreased significantly over the sampling time period and that cumulative time in poverty (number of years income-to-need less than or equal to 1) and cumulative household chaos were significantly related to a flatter trajectory for cortisol change and to an overall higher level of cortisol, respectively. Findings also indicated that respiratory sinus arrhythmia derived from the ECG data moderated the association between household chaos and child cortisol and that increase in respiratory sinus arrhythmia during the cognitive task was associated with an overall lower level of cortisol at 48 months.

  9. Role of cortisol in mood and memory in patients with intractable temporal lobe epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Frazier, T.; Chapin, J.S.; Hamrahian, A.H.; Diehl, B.; Alexopoulos, A.; Unnwongse, K.; Naugle, R.I.; Kubu, C.S.; Tesar, G.E.; Najm, I.M.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This study prospectively examined the relationships among late night salivary cortisol (NSC) levels and depressive symptoms, memory performance, and hippocampal volumes in patients with medically intractable temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) and the potential mediating effects of cortisol in the relationships between these variables. Methods: Participants included 24 adults with well-characterized medically refractory TLE (right = 11; left = 12; bitemporal = 1). All patients provided saliva samples and completed measures of mood, anxiety, and memory (objective and subjective). MRI-based volumetric analyses of the hippocampi were also conducted. Results: As hypothesized, cortisol was found to be negatively related to several memory measures such that patients with higher cortisol levels demonstrated lower memory performance. However, unexpectedly, cortisol was not related to current symptoms of depression or anxiety, subjective memory ratings, or hippocampal volumes. Consistent with previous findings in the literature, a number of other relationships among the study variables were observed (objective memory and hippocampal volume; subjective memory and mood/anxiety). Results of mediator analyses suggested that cortisol does not mediate the relationship between depression and memory dysfunction or the relationship between depression and hippocampal atrophy. Conclusions: While cortisol may play a role in memory performance in patients with TLE, it does not fully explain the relationship between depression and mesial temporal dysfunction, likely reflecting the complex and multifactorial relationships among these variables. Results confirm the relationship between memory performance and structural brain integrity and provide further support for a role of depression in subjective memory complaints. PMID:22442430

  10. Salivary Cortisol Reactivity in Preterm Infants in Neonatal Intensive Care: An Integrative Review.

    PubMed

    Mörelius, Evalotte; He, Hong-Gu; Shorey, Shefaly

    2016-03-01

    Recently, more and more researchers have been using salivary cortisol reactivity to evaluate stress in preterm infants in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). The aim of this integrative literature review was to summarize the evidence of interventions leading to a change in salivary cortisol from the baseline in preterm infants in the NICU. The electronic databases of PubMed, CINAHL, Web of Science, and Scopus were searched for relevant studies. The inclusion criteria were studies with preterm infants exposed to an intervention evaluated by salivary cortisol reactivity before discharge from the NICU, which were published in English. In total, 16 studies were included. Eye-screening examination and heel lance provoked an increase in the salivary cortisol level. Music, prone position, and co-bedding among twins decreased the salivary cortisol level. Several studies reported a low rate of successful saliva sampling or did not use control groups. Future studies need to focus on non-painful interventions in order to learn more about salivary cortisol regulation in preterm infants. Moreover, these studies should use study designs comprising homogenous gestational and postnatal age groups, control groups, and reliable analysis methods that are able to detect cortisol in small amounts of saliva. PMID:26999185

  11. DRD2 and SLC6A3 moderate impact of maternal depressive symptoms on infant cortisol.

    PubMed

    Ludmer, Jaclyn A; Levitan, Robert; Gonzalez, Andrea; Kennedy, James; Villani, Vanessa; Masellis, Mario; Basile, Vincenzo S; Atkinson, Leslie

    2015-12-01

    Both maternal depressive symptoms and infants' dopamine-related genetic characteristics have been linked to infants' hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) functioning. This study investigated the interactive influence of maternal depressive symptoms and infant DRD2 and SLC6A3 genotypes on infant cortisol reactivity; whether this interaction reflects diathesis-stress or differential susceptibility; and whether this interaction influences the flexibility of the infant cortisol response across challenges known to exert differential effects on infant cortisol reactivity. A community sample of 314 mother-infant dyads participated in toy frustration (age 16 months) and maternal separation (age 17 months) challenges, and salivary cortisol was collected at baseline, +20, and +40min. Maternal depressive symptoms were assessed with the Beck Depression Inventory-II at infant age 16 months. Infant buccal cells were collected at both time points for genotyping. DRD2 and SLC6A3 genotypes moderated the relation between maternal depressive symptomatology and infant cortisol reactivity in a diathesis-stress manner in the context of toy frustration, and in a differential susceptibility manner in the context of maternal separation. Higher levels of maternal depressive symptoms predicted reduced cortisol flexibility across challenges for infants with at least one A1 allele of DRD2 and infants with the 10/10 genotype of SLC6A3. Results suggest that maternal depressive symptomatology is related to infants' cortisol reactivity and to the flexibility of that reactivity across psychosocial challenges, but this relation is dependent on the infant's genetic characteristics.

  12. Hair cortisol varies with season and lifestyle and relates to human interactions in German shepherd dogs.

    PubMed

    Roth, Lina S V; Faresjö, Åshild; Theodorsson, Elvar; Jensen, Per

    2016-01-01

    It is challenging to measure long-term endocrine stress responses in animals. We investigated whether cortisol extracted from dog hair reflected the levels of activity and stress long-term, during weeks and months. Hair samples from in total 59 German shepherds were analysed. Samples for measuring cortisol concentrations were collected at three occasions and we complemented the data with individual scores from the Canine Behavioural Assessment and Research Questionnaire (C-BARQ). Generalised linear mixed model (GLMM) results showed that hair cortisol varied with season and lifestyle: competition dogs had higher levels than companion, and professional working dogs, and levels were higher in January than in May and September. In addition, a positive correlation was found between the cortisol levels and the C-BARQ score for stranger-directed aggression (r = 0.31, P = 0.036). Interestingly, the factor "playing often with the dog" (r = -0.34, P = 0.019) and "reward with a treat/toy when the dog behaves correctly" (r = -0.37, P = 0.010) correlated negatively with cortisol levels, suggesting that positive human interactions reduce stress. In conclusion, hair cortisol is a promising method for revealing the activity of the HPA-axis over a longer period of time, and human interactions influence the cortisol level in dogs. PMID:26791276

  13. The Association between Hair Cortisol and Self-Reported Symptoms of Depression in Pregnant Women.

    PubMed

    Wikenius, Ellen; Moe, Vibeke; Kjellevold, Marian; Smith, Lars; Lyle, Robert; Waagbø, Rune; Page, Christian Magnus; Myhre, Anne Margrethe

    2016-01-01

    Depression has been linked to an imbalance in cortisol. Until recently, cortisol has been studied by measuring concentrations at single time points in blood or saliva samples. Cortisol concentrations vary with circadian rhythm and experiences, from time point to time point. The measurement of hair cortisol concentration (HCC) is a new method of accessing mean, long-term cortisol concentrations. Recent studies show positive associations between depression and HCC, and prenatal maternal cortisol is thought to influence the developing fetus. We therefore examined the association between HCC and self-reported symptoms of depression in second trimester pregnant women. Participants were 181 women, recruited between September 2011 and October 2013 to the Little-in-Norway (LiN)-study. These women answered the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Rating Scale (EPDS) on self-reported symptoms of depression, and one cm maternal scalp hair was collected and analyzed for cortisol concentrations. Multiple regression analyses did not show depressive symptoms as a predictor for HCC in our selection of pregnant women, while gestational age was significantly related. In conclusion, our study indicated that symptoms of depression during pregnancy did not predict HCC, but further studies of clinically depressed, pregnant women using gestational age as an adjustment variable are warranted. PMID:27584584

  14. Concurrent Training Decreases Cortisol but Not Zinc Concentrations: Effects of Distinct Exercise Protocols

    PubMed Central

    Rosa, Guilherme; Fortes, Marcos de Sá Rego; de Mello, Danielli B.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. To investigate the effects of distinct concurrent training (CT) protocols on zinc and cortisol concentrations and test the correlation between these blood variables. Methods. Samples of serum zinc and cortisol were assessed from 10 male subjects (27.1 ± 4.8 years old; BMI 25.38 ± 0.09) before and immediately after each study session: control (CS = no exercises), concurrent training 1 (CT1 = indoor cycling + strength training), and concurrent training 2 (CT2 = strength training + indoor cycle) with five days of interval between each. Results. There were no significant changes in zinc concentrations after the CS (Δ% = 8.45; p = 0.07), CT1 (Δ% = 4.77; p = 0.49), and CT2 (Δ% = −2.90; p = 0.12) sessions. Cortisol levels showed significant decrease after CS (Δ% = −6.02; p = 0.00), CT1 (Δ% = −26.32; p = 0.02), and CT2 (Δ% = −33.57; p = 0.05) sessions. There was a significant correlation between the variables only at CS (zinc post versus cortisol pre: r = 0.82 and cortisol post: r = 0.82). Conclusions. CT decreases cortisol concentrations regardless of the sequence performed. No changes were found in zinc concentrations after the study sessions. The reduction in serum cortisol concentrations appear to occur by a mechanism independent of the zinc status. PMID:27127684

  15. Salivary Cortisol Reactivity in Preterm Infants in Neonatal Intensive Care: An Integrative Review

    PubMed Central

    Mörelius, Evalotte; He, Hong-Gu; Shorey, Shefaly

    2016-01-01

    Recently, more and more researchers have been using salivary cortisol reactivity to evaluate stress in preterm infants in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). The aim of this integrative literature review was to summarize the evidence of interventions leading to a change in salivary cortisol from the baseline in preterm infants in the NICU. The electronic databases of PubMed, CINAHL, Web of Science, and Scopus were searched for relevant studies. The inclusion criteria were studies with preterm infants exposed to an intervention evaluated by salivary cortisol reactivity before discharge from the NICU, which were published in English. In total, 16 studies were included. Eye-screening examination and heel lance provoked an increase in the salivary cortisol level. Music, prone position, and co-bedding among twins decreased the salivary cortisol level. Several studies reported a low rate of successful saliva sampling or did not use control groups. Future studies need to focus on non-painful interventions in order to learn more about salivary cortisol regulation in preterm infants. Moreover, these studies should use study designs comprising homogenous gestational and postnatal age groups, control groups, and reliable analysis methods that are able to detect cortisol in small amounts of saliva. PMID:26999185

  16. Lowering cortisol and CVD risk in postmenopausal women: a pilot study using the Transcendental Meditation program.

    PubMed

    Walton, Kenneth G; Fields, Jeremy Z; Levitsky, Debra K; Harris, Dwight A; Pugh, Nirmal D; Schneider, Robert H

    2004-12-01

    Unlike younger women, the risk of cardiovascular disease in older women matches or exceeds that of men. Excessive cortisol may play a role in this increased risk. Here we explore the possibility that the Transcendental Meditation (TM) program may reduce the cortisol response to a metabolic stressor as a way of reducing disease risk in older women. Data from 16 women who were long-term practitioners of transcendental meditation (mean = 23 y) were compared with data from 14 control women matched for age (mean = 75 y, range = 65-92 y). Data on demographics, disease symptoms, and psychological variables were collected, and cortisol response to a metabolic stressor (75 g of glucose, orally) was examined in saliva and urine. Pre-glucose levels of salivary cortisol were identical for the two groups. Post-glucose cortisol rose faster in the controls and was significantly higher than that in the TM women (P < 1 3 10(-4)). Urinary excretion of cortisol during this period was 3 times higher in controls than in the TM women (2.4 +/- 0.17 and 0.83 +/- 0.10 microg/h, respectively; P = 2 x 10(-4)). In addition, the number of months practicing transcendental meditation was inversely correlated with CVD risk factors. Lower cortisol response to metabolic challenge may reflect improved endocrine regulation relevant to the disease-preventing effects of transcendental meditation in older women.

  17. Cortisol suppression and hearing thresholds in tinnitus after low-dose dexamethasone challenge

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Tinnitus is a frequent, debilitating hearing disorder associated with severe emotional and psychological suffering. Although a link between stress and tinnitus has been widely recognized, the empirical evidence is scant. Our aims were to test for dysregulation of the stress-related hypothalamus-pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis in tinnitus and to examine ear sensitivity variations with cortisol manipulation. Methods Twenty-one tinnitus participants and 21 controls comparable in age, education, and overall health status but without tinnitus underwent basal cortisol assessments on three non-consecutive days and took 0.5 mg of dexamethasone (DEX) at 23:00 on the first day. Cortisol levels were measured hourly the next morning. Detection and discomfort hearing thresholds were measured before and after dexamethasone suppression test. Results Both groups displayed similar basal cortisol levels, but tinnitus participants showed stronger and longer-lasting cortisol suppression after DEX administration. Suppression was unrelated to hearing loss. Discomfort threshold was lower after cortisol suppression in tinnitus ears. Conclusions Our findings suggest heightened glucocorticoid sensitivity in tinnitus in terms of an abnormally strong glucocorticoid receptor (GR)-mediated HPA-axis feedback (despite a normal mineralocorticoid receptor (MR)-mediated tone) and lower tolerance for sound loudness with suppressed cortisol levels. Long-term stress exposure and its deleterious effects therefore constitute an important predisposing factor for, or a significant pathological consequence of, this debilitating hearing disorder. PMID:22449242

  18. Changes in salivary and plasma cortisol levels in Purebred Arabian horses during race training session.

    PubMed

    Kędzierski, Witold; Cywińska, Anna; Strzelec, Katarzyna; Kowalik, Sylwester

    2014-03-01

    Physical activity and stress both cause an increase in cortisol release ratio. The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of saliva samples for the determination of cortisol concentrations indicating the work-load level in horses during race training. Twelve Purebred Arabian horses aged 3-5 years were studied during the routine training session. After the warm-up, the horses galloped on the 800 m sand track at a speed of 12.8 m/s. Three saliva samples, and three blood samples were collected from each horse. Both types of samples were taken at rest, immediately after return from the track and after 30 min restitution. The concentrations of blood lactic acid (LA), and cortisol in saliva and plasma samples were measured and analyzed. Blood LA, plasma and salivary cortisol levels increased significantly after exercise (P < 0.05). Salivary cortisol concentration determined 30 min after the exercise correlated significantly with plasma cortisol level obtained immediately after exercise (P < 0.05) as well as measured 30 min after the end of exercise (P < 0.05). The determination of cortisol concentration in saliva samples taken from racehorses 30 min after the end of exercise can be recommended to use in field conditions to estimate the work-load in racehorses.

  19. Hair as a meaningful measure of baseline cortisol levels over time in dogs.

    PubMed

    Bryan, Heather M; Adams, Amanda G; Invik, Rosemary M; Wynne-Edwards, Katherine E; Smits, Judit E G

    2013-03-01

    Cortisol measurements of hair are becoming a valuable tool in monitoring chronic stress. To further validate this approach in domestic dogs, we compared the variability of cortisol immunoreactivity in hair with that in saliva and feces of dogs housed under constant social and physical conditions. Fecal (n = 268), and hair (n = 21) samples were collected over 3 mo from 7 dogs housed in a kennel and kept for training veterinary students in minimally invasive procedures. Salivary samples (n = 181) were collected 3 times daily twice weekly during the last month of the study. Hair and salivary samples were analyzed by enzyme immunoassay and feces by radioimmunoassay. HPLC coupled with tandem mass spectrometry was used to confirm the presence of cortisol in 3 hair samples. Variability of cortisol was compared across sample types by using repeated-measures ANOVA followed by paired t tests. Within dogs, cortisol immunoreactivity was less variable in hair than in saliva or feces. Averaged over time, the variability of fecal samples approached that of hair when feces were collected at least 4 times monthly. As predicted, the stable social and environmental condition of the dogs maintained repeatability over time and supported the hypothesis that data from hair samples reflect baseline cortisol levels. These findings indicate that determining cortisol immunoreactivity in hair is a more practical approach than is using samples of saliva or feces in monitoring the effects of long-term stressors such as social or physical environments and disease progression. PMID:23562104

  20. The Association between Hair Cortisol and Self-Reported Symptoms of Depression in Pregnant Women

    PubMed Central

    Wikenius, Ellen; Moe, Vibeke; Kjellevold, Marian; Smith, Lars; Lyle, Robert; Waagbø, Rune; Page, Christian Magnus; Myhre, Anne Margrethe

    2016-01-01

    Depression has been linked to an imbalance in cortisol. Until recently, cortisol has been studied by measuring concentrations at single time points in blood or saliva samples. Cortisol concentrations vary with circadian rhythm and experiences, from time point to time point. The measurement of hair cortisol concentration (HCC) is a new method of accessing mean, long-term cortisol concentrations. Recent studies show positive associations between depression and HCC, and prenatal maternal cortisol is thought to influence the developing fetus. We therefore examined the association between HCC and self-reported symptoms of depression in second trimester pregnant women. Participants were 181 women, recruited between September 2011 and October 2013 to the Little-in-Norway (LiN)-study. These women answered the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Rating Scale (EPDS) on self-reported symptoms of depression, and one cm maternal scalp hair was collected and analyzed for cortisol concentrations. Multiple regression analyses did not show depressive symptoms as a predictor for HCC in our selection of pregnant women, while gestational age was significantly related. In conclusion, our study indicated that symptoms of depression during pregnancy did not predict HCC, but further studies of clinically depressed, pregnant women using gestational age as an adjustment variable are warranted. PMID:27584584

  1. Stress, Cortisol, and Externalizing Behavior in Adolescent Males: An Examination in the Context of Multisystemic Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Brennan, Patricia A.; Cunningham, Phillippe B.; Foster, Sharon L.; Whitmore, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Stress and hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis dysregulation have been associated with externalizing behavior in adolescence, but few studies have examined these factors in a treatment context. This study investigated the relationship between stress, cortisol, and externalizing behavior among 120 adolescent males (mean age=15) receiving Multisystemic Therapy (MST). To examine the differential relationship of cortisol with various types of stressors, self-report measures assessed lifetime stress, current episodic stress, and daily hassles. Morning and afternoon cortisol samples were collected to examine whether the relationship between stress and treatment outcome depended on the youth’s biological stress levels. Regression analyses indicated that awakening cortisol levels moderated the relationship between daily hassles and externalizing behaviors at post-treatment. More specifically, higher levels of daily hassles predicted worse outcomes only among adolescents with high levels of morning cortisol. In addition, lifetime stressors and afternoon measures of cortisol interacted to predict changes in caretaker reports of externalizing problems and youth arrests following treatment; lifetime stressors were positively associated with externalizing behavior when adolescents had low levels of afternoon cortisol. Implications for theory and future directions for evidence-based treatment are discussed. PMID:22350278

  2. Amniotic fluid cortisol and alpha-fetoprotein in normal and aneuploid pregnancies.

    PubMed

    Drugan, A; Subramanian, M G; Johnson, M P; Evans, M I

    1988-01-01

    Cortisol and alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) levels were measured in amniotic fluid (AF) samples at 15-20 weeks of gestation from 125 normal pregnancies and 29 pregnancies affected by aneuploidy. The normal pregnancy group was further subdivided into 'low' AF-AFP (less than 0.6 MOM, n = 60) and 'normal' AF-AFP (0.6 less than AFP less than 1.4 MOM, n = 65). A significant, inverse, linear correlation was found between cortisol and AF-AFP for both normal AFP and low AFP groups (r = -0.26, and r = -0.4, respectively, p less than 0.05). Gestational age was significantly correlated with both cortisol and AFP levels in the normal pregnancy groups. No difference was found when cortisol levels were compared between the low and normal AFP groups. The correlation between cortisol and AFP in aneuploid pregnancies was not significant (p = 0.37). The strong association between cortisol or AFP and gestational age in normal pregnancy (p less than 0.00001) was lost in trisomic gestation. We conclude that higher cortisol levels do not seem to be the cause of low AFP in normal or aneuploid pregnancies. PMID:2483963

  3. Changes in salivary and plasma cortisol levels in Purebred Arabian horses during race training session.

    PubMed

    Kędzierski, Witold; Cywińska, Anna; Strzelec, Katarzyna; Kowalik, Sylwester

    2014-03-01

    Physical activity and stress both cause an increase in cortisol release ratio. The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of saliva samples for the determination of cortisol concentrations indicating the work-load level in horses during race training. Twelve Purebred Arabian horses aged 3-5 years were studied during the routine training session. After the warm-up, the horses galloped on the 800 m sand track at a speed of 12.8 m/s. Three saliva samples, and three blood samples were collected from each horse. Both types of samples were taken at rest, immediately after return from the track and after 30 min restitution. The concentrations of blood lactic acid (LA), and cortisol in saliva and plasma samples were measured and analyzed. Blood LA, plasma and salivary cortisol levels increased significantly after exercise (P < 0.05). Salivary cortisol concentration determined 30 min after the exercise correlated significantly with plasma cortisol level obtained immediately after exercise (P < 0.05) as well as measured 30 min after the end of exercise (P < 0.05). The determination of cortisol concentration in saliva samples taken from racehorses 30 min after the end of exercise can be recommended to use in field conditions to estimate the work-load in racehorses. PMID:24261657

  4. Stress-linked cortisol concentrations in hair: what we know and what we need to know

    PubMed Central

    Sharpley, Christopher F.; McFarlane, James R.; Slominski, Andrzej

    2012-01-01

    Cortisol has major impacts upon a range of physiological homeostatic mechanisms and plays an important role in stress, anxiety and depression. Although traditionally described as being solely synthesised via the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, recent animal and human studies indicate that cortisol may also be synthesised via a functionally-equivalent ‘peripheral’ HPA-like process within the skin, principally within hair follicles, melanocytes, epidermal melanocytes and dermal fibroblasts. Current data indicate that basal levels of cortisol within hair vary across body regions, show diurnal variation effects, respond to the onset and cessation of environmental stressors, and may demonstrate some degree of localisation in those responses. There are conflicting data regarding the presence of variability in cortisol concentrations across the length of the hair shaft, thus challenging the suggestion that hair cortisol may be used as a historical biomarker of stress and questioning the primary origin of cortisol in hair. The need to comprehensively ‘map’ the hair cortisol response for age, gender, diurnal rhythm and responsivity to stressor type is discussed, plus the major issue of if, and how, the peripheral and central HPA systems communicate. PMID:22150070

  5. Preterm Delivery as A Predictor of Diurnal Cortisol Profiles in Adulthood: Evidence from Cebu, Philippines

    PubMed Central

    Lee, James; Fried, Ruby; Thayer, Zaneta; Kuzawa, Christopher W.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Fetal exposure to elevated maternal cortisol can permanently modify hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis function, and thereby have long-term health impacts. Maternal cortisol steadily increases throughout normal pregnancy, but is abnormally high in preterm deliveries (< 37 weeks). Prematurity remains a widespread public health problem, yet little is known about its potential long-term effects on adult HPA function. Here we test the hypothesis that diurnal cortisol profiles measured in young adulthood will vary based upon an individual's preterm status. Methods Diurnal salivary cortisol profiles, a marker of HPA-axis function, were measured in 1,403 young adults (ages 21-23 years) participating in the Cebu Longitudinal Health and Nutrition Survey, located in Metropolitan Cebu City, Philippines. Results Males who had been born preterm exhibited lower morning cortisol and non-significantly elevated evening cortisol, resulting in a more adverse, flatter rate of decline across the day. In contrast, there were no significant differences by preterm status in cortisol measured at any time of day in females. Conclusions These findings point to potential long-term effects of having been born preterm on adult HPA-axis function, and add to evidence from this and other populations for sex differences in the biological and health impacts of prenatal stress exposure. PMID:24898414

  6. Testosterone and cortisol release among Spanish soccer fans watching the 2010 World Cup final.

    PubMed

    van der Meij, Leander; Almela, Mercedes; Hidalgo, Vanesa; Villada, Carolina; Ijzerman, Hans; van Lange, Paul A M; Salvador, Alicia

    2012-01-01

    This field study investigated the release of testosterone and cortisol of a vicarious winning experience in Spanish fans watching the finals between Spain and the Netherlands in the 2010 FIFA World Cup Soccer. Spanish fans (n = 50) watched the match with friends or family in a public place or at home and also participated in a control condition. Consistent with hypotheses, results revealed that testosterone and cortisol levels were higher when watching the match than on a control day. However, neither testosterone nor cortisol levels increased after the victory of the Spanish team. Moreover, the increase in testosterone secretion was not related to participants' sex, age or soccer fandom, but the increase in total cortisol secretion during the match was higher among men than among women and among fans that were younger. Also, increases in cortisol secretion were greater to the degree that people were a stronger fan of soccer. Level of fandom further appeared to account for the sex effect, but not for the age effect. Generally, the testosterone data from this study are in line with the challenge hypothesis, as testosterone levels of watchers increased to prepare their organism to defend or enhance their social status. The cortisol data from this study are in line with social self-preservation theory, as higher cortisol secretion among young and greater soccer fans suggests that especially they perceived that a negative outcome of the match would threaten their own social esteem. PMID:22529940

  7. Testosterone and Cortisol Release among Spanish Soccer Fans Watching the 2010 World Cup Final

    PubMed Central

    van der Meij, Leander; Almela, Mercedes; Hidalgo, Vanesa; Villada, Carolina; IJzerman, Hans; van Lange, Paul A. M.; Salvador, Alicia

    2012-01-01

    This field study investigated the release of testosterone and cortisol of a vicarious winning experience in Spanish fans watching the finals between Spain and the Netherlands in the 2010 FIFA World Cup Soccer. Spanish fans (n = 50) watched the match with friends or family in a public place or at home and also participated in a control condition. Consistent with hypotheses, results revealed that testosterone and cortisol levels were higher when watching the match than on a control day. However, neither testosterone nor cortisol levels increased after the victory of the Spanish team. Moreover, the increase in testosterone secretion was not related to participants' sex, age or soccer fandom, but the increase in total cortisol secretion during the match was higher among men than among women and among fans that were younger. Also, increases in cortisol secretion were greater to the degree that people were a stronger fan of soccer. Level of fandom further appeared to account for the sex effect, but not for the age effect. Generally, the testosterone data from this study are in line with the challenge hypothesis, as testosterone levels of watchers increased to prepare their organism to defend or enhance their social status. The cortisol data from this study are in line with social self-preservation theory, as higher cortisol secretion among young and greater soccer fans suggests that especially they perceived that a negative outcome of the match would threaten their own social esteem. PMID:22529940

  8. Hair cortisol varies with season and lifestyle and relates to human interactions in German shepherd dogs

    PubMed Central

    Roth, Lina S. V.; Faresjö, Åshild; Theodorsson, Elvar; Jensen, Per

    2016-01-01

    It is challenging to measure long-term endocrine stress responses in animals. We investigated whether cortisol extracted from dog hair reflected the levels of activity and stress long-term, during weeks and months. Hair samples from in total 59 German shepherds were analysed. Samples for measuring cortisol concentrations were collected at three occasions and we complemented the data with individual scores from the Canine Behavioural Assessment and Research Questionnaire (C-BARQ). Generalised linear mixed model (GLMM) results showed that hair cortisol varied with season and lifestyle: competition dogs had higher levels than companion, and professional working dogs, and levels were higher in January than in May and September. In addition, a positive correlation was found between the cortisol levels and the C-BARQ score for stranger-directed aggression (r = 0.31, P = 0.036). Interestingly, the factor “playing often with the dog” (r = −0.34, P = 0.019) and “reward with a treat/toy when the dog behaves correctly” (r = −0.37, P = 0.010) correlated negatively with cortisol levels, suggesting that positive human interactions reduce stress. In conclusion, hair cortisol is a promising method for revealing the activity of the HPA-axis over a longer period of time, and human interactions influence the cortisol level in dogs. PMID:26791276

  9. Crowding increases salivary cortisol but not self-directed behavior in captive baboons.

    PubMed

    Pearson, Brandon L; Reeder, DeeAnn M; Judge, Peter G

    2015-04-01

    Reduced space can lead to crowding in social animals. Crowding increases the risk of agonistic interactions that, in turn, may require additional physiological defensive coping mechanisms affecting health. To determine the stress induced from increased social density in a group of nineteen baboons living in an indoor/outdoor enclosure, saliva cortisol levels and rates of anxiety-related behavior were analyzed across two unique crowding episodes. Initially, mean salivary cortisol levels when animals were restricted to their indoor quarters were compared to those when they also had access to their larger outdoor enclosure. Then, mean cortisol levels were compared before, during, and after two distinct crowding periods of long and short duration. Crowding resulted in significantly elevated cortisol during crowding periods compared to non-crowded periods. Cortisol levels returned to baseline following two crowding episodes contrasting in their length and ambient climate conditions. These cortisol elevations indicate greater metabolic costs of maintaining homeostasis under social stress resulting from reduced space. Self-directed behavior, conversely, was not reliably elevated during crowding. Results suggest that the potential for negative social interactions, and/or the uncertainty associated with social threat can cause physiological stress responses detected by salivary cortisol. Self-directed behavioral measures of stress may constitute inadequate indicators of social stress in colony-housed monkeys or represent subjective emotional arousal unrelated to hypothalamic-pituitary adrenal axis activation.

  10. Cortisol response to acute stress in asthma: Moderation by depressive mood.

    PubMed

    Trueba, Ana F; Simon, Erica; Auchus, Richard J; Ritz, Thomas

    2016-05-15

    Both individuals with asthma and depression show signs of a dysregulated hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis. However, little is known about the cortisol response to stress in the context of co-occurring asthma and depressive mood. Thirty-nine individuals with asthma and 41 healthy controls underwent a combined speech and mental arithmetic stressor. During the course of the laboratory session, salivary cortisol was collected 5 times, with 1 sample at 0min before the stressor and 4 samples at 0, 15, 30 and 45min after the stressor. Depressive mood in the past week was assessed with the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale at the beginning of the session. Depressive symptoms moderated cortisol response to the acute stressor, but only among asthmatic patients. Higher depressive mood was associated with a significant increase in cortisol, whereas low depressive mood was associated with no cortisol response. In healthy participants, depressive mood had no substantial effect on cortisol response to the stressor. These findings suggest that depressive mood and chronic inflammatory diseases such as asthma can interact to augment cortisol response to stress.

  11. Stressful politics: voters' cortisol responses to the outcome of the 2008 United States Presidential election.

    PubMed

    Stanton, Steven J; Labar, Kevin S; Saini, Ekjyot K; Kuhn, Cynthia M; Beehner, Jacinta C

    2010-06-01

    Social subordination can be biologically stressful; when mammals lose dominance contests they have acute increases in the stress hormone cortisol. However, human studies of the effect of dominance contest outcomes on cortisol changes have had inconsistent results. Moreover, human studies have been limited to face-to-face competitions and have heretofore never examined cortisol responses to shifts in political dominance hierarchies. The present study investigated voters' cortisol responses to the outcome of the 2008 United States Presidential election. 183 participants at two research sites (Michigan and North Carolina) provided saliva samples at several time points before and after the announcement of the winner on Election Night. Radioimmunoassay was used to measure levels of cortisol in the saliva samples. In North Carolina, John McCain voters (losers) had increases in post-outcome cortisol levels, whereas Barack Obama voters (winners) had stable post-outcome cortisol levels. The present research provides novel evidence that societal shifts in political dominance can impact biological stress responses in voters whose political party becomes socio-politically subordinate. PMID:19962831

  12. Physiological differences between burnout patients and healthy controls: blood pressure, heart rate, and cortisol responses

    PubMed Central

    De Vente, W; Olff, M; Van Amsterdam, J G C; Kamphuis, J; Emmelkamp, P

    2003-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate differences between burnout patients and healthy controls regarding basal physiological values and physiological stress responses. Measures of the sympathetic-adrenergic-medullary (SAM) axis and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis were examined. Methods: SAM axis and HPA axis activity was compared between 22 burnout patients and 23 healthy controls. SAM axis activity was measured by means of heart rate (HR) and blood pressure (BP). HPA axis activity was investigated by means of salivary cortisol levels. Resting levels of HR, BP, and cortisol were determined as well as reactivity and recovery of these measures during a laboratory session involving mental arithmetic and speech tasks. In addition, morning levels of cortisol were determined. Results: Burnout patients showed higher resting HR than healthy controls. BP resting values did not differ between burnout patients and healthy controls, nor did cardiovascular reactivity and recovery measurements during the laboratory session. Basal cortisol levels and cortisol reactivity and recovery measures were similar for burnout patients and healthy controls. However, burnout patients showed elevated cortisol levels during the first hour after awakening in comparison to healthy controls. Conclusions: The findings provided limited proof that SAM axis and HPA axis are disturbed among burnout patients. Elevated HR and elevated early morning cortisol levels may be indicative of sustained activation. PMID:12782748

  13. Salivary Cortisol Reactivity in Preterm Infants in Neonatal Intensive Care: An Integrative Review.

    PubMed

    Mörelius, Evalotte; He, Hong-Gu; Shorey, Shefaly

    2016-03-18

    Recently, more and more researchers have been using salivary cortisol reactivity to evaluate stress in preterm infants in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). The aim of this integrative literature review was to summarize the evidence of interventions leading to a change in salivary cortisol from the baseline in preterm infants in the NICU. The electronic databases of PubMed, CINAHL, Web of Science, and Scopus were searched for relevant studies. The inclusion criteria were studies with preterm infants exposed to an intervention evaluated by salivary cortisol reactivity before discharge from the NICU, which were published in English. In total, 16 studies were included. Eye-screening examination and heel lance provoked an increase in the salivary cortisol level. Music, prone position, and co-bedding among twins decreased the salivary cortisol level. Several studies reported a low rate of successful saliva sampling or did not use control groups. Future studies need to focus on non-painful interventions in order to learn more about salivary cortisol regulation in preterm infants. Moreover, these studies should use study designs comprising homogenous gestational and postnatal age groups, control groups, and reliable analysis methods that are able to detect cortisol in small amounts of saliva.

  14. Is there an association between fibromyalgia and below-normal levels of urinary cortisol?

    PubMed Central

    Izquierdo–Álvarez, Silvia; Bocos–Terraz, Julia Pilar; Bancalero–Flores, Jose Luis; Pavón–Romero, Lenin; Serrano–Ostariz, Enrique; de Miquel, Cayetano Alegre

    2008-01-01

    Background Adynamia in fibromyalgia (FM) may be an expression of a functional deficit of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and be associated with below-normal levels of urinary cortisol. Our aim was to demonstrate that urinary cortisol was lower in patients with FM than in healthy subjects. Findings We measured urinary cortisol levels for a sample of 47 women aged 29 to 64 years (mean age 53 years), diagnosed with FM 2–3 years previously, and compared the results with those for a control sample of 58 healthy women of a similar age. Samples of 24-hour urine were appropriately collected and levels of urinary cortisol were measured using the fluorescence polarization immunoassay method. The mean cortisol value for the women with FM was 65.40 ± 27.10 μg/L, significantly lower than the mean cortisol level for the control group, at 90.83 ± 38.17 μg/L (p < 0.001). Conclusion Our study confirms that women with FM have significantly lower urinary cortisol levels than healthy women. PMID:19102778

  15. Thermoneutral water immersion and hyperbaric oxygen do not alter cortisol regulation.

    PubMed

    Conaty, Betsy J; Shykoff, Barbara E; Florian, John P

    2015-01-01

    Research documenting changes in cortisol concentration following hyperbaric exposures has been contradictory, possibly due to the inclusion of many confounding factors. Therefore, the aim of this study was to document short- and long-term cortisol responses following repeated water immersions arid/or exposure to raised partial pressure of oxygen under controlled conditions. Thirty-two Navy divers (31 ± 7 [19-44] years; mean ± SD) were exposed to one of three resting thermoneutral experimental conditions at a pressure of 1.35 atmospheres absolute (atm abs) for six hours on five consecutive days: (1) breathing air while immersed (air; n = 10); (2) breathing 100% oxygen in a hyperbaric chamber (dry; n = 12); or (3) breathing 100% oxygen while immersed (oxygen; n = 10). Divers were at rest for all conditions. Serum cortisol concentrations were measured one hour before and after each dive. The change in cortisol (ug/dL) after diving was similar for air (3.63 ± 5.56), dry (4.91 ± 3.68) and oxygen (3.50 ± 3.48) phases (p > 0.05). There were no differences in preor post-dive cortisol concentrations across dive days for any of the experimental conditions. This study provides evidence that repeated long-duration, thermoneutral immersions and/or hyperbaric oxygen exposures at 1.35 atm abs, under ideal conditions per se do not abnormally alter cortisol concentrations. Observed changes are likely the result of the natural circadian rhythm of cortisol.

  16. Plasma concentrations of cortisol in cows with hypocalcaemia in relation to their responses to treatment with calcium.

    PubMed

    Waage, S; Sjaastad, O V; Blom, A K

    1984-03-01

    The mean plasma concentration of cortisol at the time of the first treatment for hypocalcaemia at calving was significantly higher in 17 cows which did not recover, than in 53 cows which recovered. Healthy periparturient cows had significantly lower cortisol levels than cows with hypocalcaemia. There was a negative correlation between plasma cortisol and plasma calcium at the time of the first treatment. After adjustment for differences in plasma calcium there was no significant difference between cortisol concentrations in healthy cows and paretic cows which recovered. Plasma cortisol was positively correlated with both packed cell volume (PCV) and serum creatine kinase (CK). At first treatment cows which did not recover had higher levels of PCV and serum CK than cows which recovered, and the difference between the mean plasma cortisol concentrations of these two groups was related to differences in plasma calcium, PCV and serum CK. Plasma cortisol concentrations remained high in cases of protracted paresis.

  17. Familial Longevity Is Marked by Lower Diurnal Salivary Cortisol Levels: The Leiden Longevity Study

    PubMed Central

    Noordam, Raymond; Oei, Nicole Y. L.; Maier, Andrea B.; Pijl, Hanno; Slagboom, P. Eline; Westendorp, Rudi G. J.; van der Grond, Jeroen; de Craen, Anton J. M.; van Heemst, Diana

    2012-01-01

    Background Reported findings are inconsistent whether hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) signaling becomes hyperactive with increasing age, resulting in increasing levels of cortisol. Our previous research strongly suggests that offspring from long-lived families are biologically younger. In this study we assessed whether these offspring have a lower HPA axis activity, as measured by lower levels of cortisol and higher cortisol feedback sensitivity. Methods Salivary cortisol levels were measured at four time points within the first hour upon awakening and at two time points in the evening in a cohort comprising 149 offspring and 154 partners from the Leiden Longevity Study. A dexamethasone suppression test was performed as a measure of cortisol feedback sensitivity. Age, gender and body mass index, smoking and disease history (type 2 diabetes and hypertension) were considered as possible confounding factors. Results Salivary cortisol secretion was lower in offspring compared to partners in the morning (Area Under the Curve = 15.6 versus 17.1 nmol/L, respectively; p = 0.048) and in the evening (Area Under the Curve = 3.32 versus 3.82 nmol/L, respectively; p = 0.024). Salivary cortisol levels were not different after dexamethasone (0.5 mg) suppression between offspring and partners (4.82 versus 5.26 nmol/L, respectively; p = 0.28). Conclusion Offspring of nonagenarian siblings are marked by a lower HPA axis activity (reflected by lower diurnal salivary cortisol levels), but not by a difference in cortisol feedback sensitivity. Further in-depth studies aimed at characterizing the HPA axis in offspring and partners are needed. PMID:22348049

  18. Cortisol secretion after adrenocorticotrophin (ACTH) and Dexamethasone tests in healthy female and male dogs

    PubMed Central

    Pessina, Paula; Fernández-Foren, Andrea; Cueto, Enrique; Delucchi, Luis; Castillo, Victor; Meikle, Ana

    2009-01-01

    Background For the conclusive diagnosis of Cushing's Syndrome, a stimulating ACTH test or a low suppressive Dexamethasone test is used. Reports in other species than the dog indicate that plasma cortisol concentration after ACTH administration is affected by gender. We investigated the effect of gender on the cortisol response to ACTH and Dexamethasone tests in dogs. Methods Seven healthy adult Cocker Spaniels (4 females and 3 males) were assigned to a two by two factorial design: 4 dogs (2 females and 2 males) received IV Dexamethasone 0.01 mg/kg, while the other 3 dogs received an IV saline solution (control group). Two weeks later the treatments were reversed. After one month, ACTH was given IV (250 μg/animal) to 4 dogs (2 female and 2 males) while the rest was treated with saline solution (control group). Cortisol concentrations were determined by a direct solid-phase radioimmunoassay and cholesterol and triglycerides by commercial kits. Results and Discussion No effect of treatment was observed in metabolite concentrations, but females presented higher cholesterol concentrations. ACTH-treated dogs showed an increase in cortisol levels in the first hour after sampling until 3 hours post injection. Cortisol concentrations in Dexamethasone-treated dogs decreased one hour post injection and remained low for 3 hours, thereafter cortisol concentrations increased. The increase in cortisol levels from one to two hours post ACTH injection was significantly higher in females than males. In Dexamethasone-treated males cortisol levels decreased one hour post injection up to 3 hours; in females the decrease was more pronounced and prolonged, up to 5 hours post injection. Conclusion We have demonstrated that cortisol response to ACTH and Dexamethasone treatment in dogs differs according to sex. PMID:19686591

  19. Fecal cortisol metabolite analysis for noninvasive monitoring of adrenocortical function in the cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus).

    PubMed

    Terio, K A; Citino, S B; Brown, J L

    1999-12-01

    A radioimmunoassay was validated for quantifying excreted cortisol metabolites in cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) feces. High-performance liquid chromatography analysis indicated that immunoreactivity was associated with a water-soluble metabolite in fecal extracts from males and females. None of the immunoreactivity corresponded with free cortisol or corticosterone but rather was associated with a more polar, unidentified metabolite. To determine the biologic relevance of excreted immunoreactive cortisol metabolites, cheetahs were exposed to a variety of situations anticipated to increase cortisol secretion. First, to assess acute changes in adrenal activity, adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH; 400 IU i.m.) was administered to two adult males and two adult females. Pre-ACTH baseline serum cortisol and fecal cortisol metabolite concentrations varied among individuals. Serum cortisol concentrations were elevated above baseline within 10 min of ACTH injection, followed by corresponding increases in fecal cortisol metabolite concentrations (690-4,194% above baseline) 48 hr later in three of four cheetahs. In the fourth cheetah, a smaller increase (334% above baseline) in fecal cortisol metabolite excretion was observed 96 hr after ACTH injection. Seven cheetah females also were subjected to a variety of potentially stressful manipulations, including immobilization, translocation, and introduction to a male to assess the ability of this technique to detect physiologic changes in adrenal activity. Increased fecal corticoid metabolite excretion was observed 24-72 hr after exposure to these exogenous stressors. Results indicate that adrenocortical activity can be monitored noninvasively in the cheetah through analysis of these metabolites. This technique could be valuable for evaluating, and thus optimizing, environmental and management conditions and for investigating the role of stress in disease pathogenesis and the usually poor reproductive performance of this species in

  20. Sex hormones adjust "sex-specific" reactive and diurnal cortisol profiles.

    PubMed

    Juster, Robert-Paul; Raymond, Catherine; Desrochers, Alexandra Bisson; Bourdon, Olivier; Durand, Nadia; Wan, Nathalie; Pruessner, Jens C; Lupien, Sonia J

    2016-01-01

    Sex differences in stress hormone functions are presumed to depend on sex hormones. And yet, surprisingly few psychoneuroendocrine studies actually assess within-sex variations of testosterone, estradiol, and progesterone when investigating sex-specific activities of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. In this methodological study of 204 healthy adults (60 men), we assessed whether cortisol profiles would differ between the sexes when unadjusted or adjusted for basal sex hormones among both sexes. Reactive cortisol was sampled using 6 saliva samples measured every 10-min as part of the Trier Social Stress Test that generally activates cortisol among men more than women. Diurnal cortisol was sampled over two days at (1) awakening, (2) 30-min thereafter, (3) 1400 h, (4) 1600 h, and (5) bedtime. Sex hormones were collected at baseline before the psychosocial stressor and on two occasions during diurnal cortisol assessment. Repeated-measures analysis of covariance controlled for key covariates in analyses unadjusted or adjusted for sex hormones. Results revealed that men had higher reactive cortisol than women in unadjusted analysis, but this sex difference was attenuated when adjusting for sex hormones. While diurnal cortisol showed no sex differences in unadjusted models, adjusting for sex hormones revealed that women have higher morning cortisol. Correlations using area under the curve formulae revealed intriguing sex-specific associations with progesterone in men and testosterone in women that we propose have implications for social and affective neuroscience. In summary, our results reveal that adjusting for sex hormones alters "sex-specific" reactive and diurnal cortisol profiles.

  1. Effects of grapefruit juice on cortisol metabolism in healthy male Chinese subjects.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Ya-Jie; Hu, Miao; Tomlinson, Brian

    2014-12-01

    Grapefruit juice (GFJ) inhibits intestinal CYP3A4 activity and it has been suggested that GFJ may also inhibit renal 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 2 (11β-HSD2), which converts cortisol to cortisone. This study examined the effect of GFJ on the urinary excretion of cortisol, cortisone and 6β-hydroxycortisol (6β-OHC) and their ratios to asses these effects. Healthy male Chinese subjects took single doses of GFJ (200, 400, and 600 mL, respectively) at weekly intervals. Urine was collected over 24 h the day before and following GFJ intake. Subsequently, volunteers drank 400 mL GFJ for 7 days and urine was collected from 0 to 4 h daily. GFJ had dose-dependent effects on increasing cortisol excretion (P <0.05) and the ratio of cortisol to cortisone (P <0.005) and reducing 6β-OHC excretion (P <0.05) and the ratio of 6β-OHC to cortisol (P <0.005). There was no significant effect on cortisone excretion. Maximal effects were observed within 4 h after GFJ ingestion. Repeated doses had persistent but no cumulative effects. GFJ significantly reduced the ratio of 6β-OHC to cortisol. It increased the ratio of cortisol to cortisone and this appeared largely due to increased cortisol excretion related to impaired CYP3A4-mediated cortisol metabolism although a true inhibitory effect on 11β-HSD2 in the kidney cannot be excluded.

  2. The influence of a magnesium-rich marine extract on behaviour, salivary cortisol levels and skin lesions in growing pigs.

    PubMed

    O'Driscoll, K; O'Gorman, D M; Taylor, S; Boyle, L A

    2013-06-01

    Growing pigs can display undesirable behaviours, reflecting or causing poor welfare. Addition of magnesium (Mg) to the diet could reduce these, as Mg supplementation has been associated with improved coping ability in response to stress. This study examined the effect of supplementation with a Mg-rich marine extract-based product (Supplement) on the behaviour, skin and tail lesion scores and salivary cortisol concentrations of growing pigs. At weaning (28 days), 448 piglets were assigned to either Control or Supplement (0.05%) diets in single-sex groups of 14. Four weeks later (c. 17 kg), pigs were blocked according to weight and back test scores. Seven piglets from each pen were mixed with seven from another pen of the same sex and dietary treatment to yield the following groups: control male, Supplement male, control female and Supplement female (n = 4 of each). This marked the start of the 9-week experimental period. Instances of the following behaviours were recorded in each pen for 8 × 2 min periods 1 day/week: aggression (fight, head-knock and bite); harmful (tail-in-mouth, ear-chewing and belly-nosing); and sexual/mounting behaviour. Four focal pigs were selected from each pen, and their behaviour was continuously recorded for 2 × 5 min periods on the same day. Saliva was collected once per week at 1000 h by allowing pigs to chew on a cotton bud for c. 1 min. Salivary cortisol was analysed in duplicate by an enzyme immunoassay. Skin and tail lesions were scored according to severity 1 day/week. There were fewer aggressive incidents in Supplement pens (P < 0.01), and mounting behaviour (performed only by males) was almost three times lower in Supplement than in control pens (P < 0.01). However, there was no effect of Supplement on the incidence of each of the harmful behaviours. Behaviour of the focal pigs showed no treatment effect on the duration or incidence of aggressive behaviour. However, Supplement pigs spent less time performing harmful behaviours

  3. Effects of major depression, aging and gender upon calculated diurnal free plasma cortisol concentrations: a re-evaluation study.

    PubMed

    Deuschle, M; Weber, B; Colla, M; Depner, M; Heuser, I

    1998-12-01

    Depression, aging and female gender are associated with increased diurnal concentrations of total plasma cortisol. For the physical effects of hypercortisolemia, however, it is generally assumed that free rather than total plasma cortisol concentrations are of importance. Herein, we report a mathematical approach to determine free plasma cortisol concentrations on the basis of total cortisol, corticosteroid binding-globulin (CBG) and albumin plasma concentrations. This approach was used to re-evaluate two sets of data in order to estimate the effect of depression as well as the effect of aging and gender upon free plasma cortisol concentrations. Comparing male depressed patients with healthy controls, we found 24-hour free cortisol minima (MIN: 4.1 +/- 1.8 vs. 1.6 +/- 1.1 nmol/l, p < 0.0001), mean (MEAN: 25.5 +/- 6.7 vs. 10.4 +/- 2.7 nmol/l, p < 0.0001) and maximal (MAX: 85.3 +/- 23.3 vs. 45.2 +/- 15. 8 nmol/l, p < 0.0001) concentrations to be significantly increased in depressed patients. In general, the impact of depression upon total plasma cortisol were not only maintained, but stronger regarding free plasma cortisol. Also, age was associated with free plasma cortisol MIN (F1,30= 10.8, p < 0.003) and free plasma cortisol MEAN (F1,30 = 8.9, p < 0.006). All effects of age upon total plasma cortisol were generally also found in free plasma cortisol, though with less impact. No effect of gender upon any of the given free plasma cortisol outcome variables was found. Taken together, our re-evaluation clearly shows not only depression but also aging to be associated with increases in free plasma cortisol concentrations. This finding is in line with the observation that in both conditions medical problems triggered and/or maintained by glucocorticoids (e.g. osteoporosis) are frequently seen.

  4. Validation and use of hair cortisol as a measure of chronic stress in eastern chipmunks (Tamias striatus)

    PubMed Central

    Mastromonaco, Gabriela F.; Gunn, Kelsey; McCurdy-Adams, H.; Edwards, D. B.; Schulte-Hostedde, Albrecht I.

    2014-01-01

    Stress levels of individuals are documented using glucocorticoid concentrations (including cortisol) in blood, saliva, urine or faeces, which provide information about stress hormones during a short period of time (minutes to days). In mammals, use of hair cortisol analysis allows for the assessment of prolonged stress over weeks and months and provides information on chronic stress levels without bias associated with handling. Here, we validate hair cortisol analysis in wild rodents using exogenous adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH challenge) and apply the technique to evaluate stress in eastern chipmunks inhabiting logged and natural sites. Chipmunks were subjected to a mark–recapture study and injected weekly with ACTH (Synacthen Depot) or saline, with hair being collected at the conclusion of the challenge. Subsequently, faecal and hair samples were collected from chipmunks occupying logged and natural sites to assess the utility of hair cortisol in comparison with faecal cortisol metabolites. Following extraction, cortisol concentrations were quantified in hair and faecal extracts by enzyme immunoassay. Hair cortisol concentrations were significantly elevated in samples from ACTH-injected chipmunks compared with saline-injected control animals (five times higher). Chipmunks inhabiting logged sites had increased faecal cortisol metabolite concentrations compared with those in natural sites, but no differences were observed in hair cortisol concentrations. Faecal cortisol metabolite levels were positively correlated with hair cortisol levels in chipmunks. Hair cortisol levels reflect changes in circulating cortisol levels and can be used to evaluate the adrenal stress response, and thus stress, in natural populations. Nonetheless, because of the differences in the temporal scale of stress that hair and faeces represent, we caution the use of hair cortisol for detecting differences in physiological stress when comparing individuals within populations and

  5. Molecular dynamics of solid cortisol studied by NMR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrew, E. R.

    Polycrystalline cortisol (hydrocortisone; 11β,17α,21-trihydroxy-4-preg- nene-3,20-dione; C21H30O5) has been investigated by continuous and pulse proton NMR methods between 78 and 400 K at Larmor frequencies of 7, 25 and 60 MHz. A reduced value of second moment was found above 90 K and is ascribed to reorientation of two methyl groups. A single asymmetric minimum was found in the temperature dependence of the spin-lattice relaxation times and this also is attributed to reorientation of two methyl groups. The asymmetry suggests an asymmetric distribution of correlation times of the motion. Using the Cole-Davidson distribution, the best computer fit yields the following parameters characterizing the motion: Ea = 11ṡ8 ± 0ṡ1 kJ mol-1, τ0 = 4ṡ6 ± 0ṡ4) x 10-13s, distribution parameter δ = 0ṡ62.

  6. Creatine supplementation, sleep deprivation, cortisol, melatonin and behavior.

    PubMed

    McMorris, T; Harris, R C; Howard, A N; Langridge, G; Hall, B; Corbett, J; Dicks, M; Hodgson, C

    2007-01-30

    The effect of creatine supplementation and sleep deprivation, with intermittent moderate-intensity exercise, on cognitive and psychomotor performance, mood state, effort and salivary concentrations of cortisol and melatonin were examined. Subjects were divided into a creatine supplementation group and a placebo group. They took 5 g of creatine monohydrate or a placebo, dependent on their group, four times a day for 7 days immediately prior to the experiment. They undertook tests examining central executive functioning, short-term memory, choice reaction time, balance, mood state and effort at baseline and following 18-, 24- and 36-h sleep deprivation, with moderate intermittent exercise. Saliva samples were taken prior to each set of tests. A group x time analysis of covariance, with baseline performance the covariate, showed that the creatine group performed significantly (p < 0.05) better than the placebo group on the central executive task but only at 36 h. The creatine group demonstrated a significant (p < 0.01) linear improvement in performance of the central executive task throughout the experiment, while the placebo group showed no significant effects. There were no significant differences between the groups for any of the other variables. A significant (p < 0.001) main effect of time was found for the balance test with a linear improvement being registered. Cortisol concentrations on Day 1 were significantly (p < 0.01) higher than on Day 2. Mood significantly (p < 0.001) deteriorated up to 24 h with no change from 24 to 36 h. Effort at baseline was significantly (p < 0.01) lower than in the other conditions. It was concluded that, during sleep deprivation with moderate-intensity exercise, creatine supplementation only affects performance of complex central executive tasks.

  7. Chemical communication of predation risk in zebrafish does not depend on cortisol increase

    PubMed Central

    Barcellos, Leonardo J. G.; Koakoski, Gessi; da Rosa, João G. S.; Ferreira, Daiane; Barreto, Rodrigo E.; Giaquinto, Percília C.; Volpato, Gilson L.

    2014-01-01

    We investigated chemical cues among groups of zebrafish (Danio rerio) when communicating information about the risk of predation. We found that visual cues of the predator (tiger Oscar, Astronotus ocellatus) did not increase whole-body cortisol levels in groups of zebrafish but that water conditioned by these (donor) zebrafish stressed (target) conspecifics, thereby increasing whole-body cortisol. This finding was confirmed when these zebrafish groups were in different aquaria and communicated exclusively via water transfer. This result indicates that the stress induced in the target zebrafish does not depend on an increase in whole-body cortisol levels in the donor zebrafish. Because cortisol participation is rejected in this predation-risk communication, other chemicals from the stress systems should be investigated. PMID:24861706

  8. Examining the association between adult attachment style and cortisol responses to acute stress.

    PubMed

    Kidd, Tara; Hamer, Mark; Steptoe, Andrew

    2011-07-01

    The quality of social relationships may contribute to variations in biological stress responses, thereby affecting health risk. The association between an important indicator of social relationships, adult attachment style, and cortisol has been relatively unexplored. The present study examined adult romantic attachment style and cortisol responses to acute laboratory stress. Salivary cortisol was measured in response to two behavioural tasks, a colour/word interference task and mirror tracing task, in 498 healthy men and women from the Heart Scan study, a subsample of the Whitehall II cohort. Participants were classified as secure, fearful, preoccupied or dismissive on the basis of responses to the Relationship Questionnaire. Cortisol output was lowest in the fearful group, followed by the preoccupied group, with both secure and dismissive groups having higher levels. The results from this study tentatively support the proposition that attachment style is a factor in determining the manifestation of HPA dysregulation. PMID:21106296

  9. Elevation of plasma cortisol during the spawning migration of landlocked kokanee salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka kennerlyi).

    PubMed

    Carruth, L L; Dores, R M; Maldonado, T A; Norris, D O; Ruth, T; Jones, R E

    2000-09-01

    Kokanee salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka kennerlyi ), a landlocked subspecies of sockeye salmon, exhibited hypothalamic-pituitary interrenal (HPI, adrenal homologue) axis activation and an increase in plasma cortisol concentration up to 639 +/- 55.9 ng/ml in association with upstream migration in the upper Colorado River even though they were not exposed to a change in salinity and lengthy migration. Kokanee salmon were collected at various stages of migration and concomitant sexual maturation. The pattern of cortisol elevation in kokanee is similar to that in ocean-run sockeye salmon (O. nerka nerka). The presence of plasma cortisol elevation in an upstream migrating, landlocked Pacific salmon suggests that stressors previously considered to cause the cortisol increase, such as long-distance migration and changes in salinity, may not be primary causes of the HPI axis activation.

  10. On psychobiology in psychoanalysis - salivary cortisol and secretory IgA as psychoanalytic process parameters

    PubMed Central

    Euler, Sebastian; Schimpf, Heinrich; Hennig, Jürgen; Brosig, Burkhard

    2005-01-01

    This study investigates the psychobiological impact of psychoanalysis in its four-hour setting. During a period of five weeks, 20 subsequent hours of psychoanalysis were evaluated, involving two patients and their analysts. Before and after each session, saliva samples were taken and analysed for cortisol (sCortisol) and secretory immunoglobuline A (sIgA). Four time-series (n=80 observations) resulted and were evaluated by "Pooled Time Series Analysis" (PTSA) for significant level changes and setting-mediated rhythms. Over all sessions, sCortisol levels were reduced and sIgA secretion augmented parallel to the analytic work. In one analytic dyad a significant rhythm within the four-hour setting was observed with an increase of sCortisol in sessions 2 and 3 of the week. Psychoanalysis may, therefore, have some psychobiological impact on patients and analysts alike and may modulate immunological and endocrinological processes. PMID:19742067

  11. [Binding of cortisol, fluocortolone and difluocortolone to human plasma proteins (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Fellier, H; Gleispach, H; Esterbauer, H

    1977-10-01

    The binding properties of [3H]cortisol, [3H]fluocortolone and [3H]difluocortolone by human plasma, human albumin, human- beta- and gamma-globulins have been studied by equilibrium dialysis. Cortisol, in physiological concentrations (0,4 micromol/l), is 98% bound in human plasma at 25 degrees C, fluocortolone 96% and diflucortolone 85%. Uncer physiological conditions cortisol is mainly bound to the corticosteroid binding globulin (transcortin). 2/3 of fluocortolone is bound to transcortin and 1/3 to albumin and globulins, whereas difluocortolone is mainly bound to albumin and to globulins but not to transcortin. The binding affinities of beta- and gamma-globulins are -ery low for the corticoids investigated, but they are higher for fluocortolone and difluocortolone than for cortisol. PMID:925615

  12. Emotional Reactivity and Parenting Sensitivity Interact to Predict Cortisol Output in Toddlers

    PubMed Central

    Blair, Clancy; Ursache, Alexandra; Mills-Koonce, Roger; Stifter, Cynthia; Voegtline, Kristin; Granger, Douglas A.

    2015-01-01

    Cortisol output in response to emotion induction procedures was examined at child age 24 months in a prospective longitudinal sample of 1,292 children and families in predominantly low-income and non-urban communities in two regions of high poverty in the US. Multilevel analysis indicated that observed emotional reactivity to a mask presentation but not a toy removal procedure interacted with sensitive parenting to predict cortisol levels in children. For children experiencing high levels of sensitive parenting, cortisol output was high among children exhibiting high emotional reactivity and low among children exhibiting low emotional reactivity. For children experiencing low levels of sensitive parenting, cortisol output was unrelated to emotional reactivity. PMID:26192038

  13. Emotional reactivity and parenting sensitivity interact to predict cortisol output in toddlers.

    PubMed

    Blair, Clancy; Ursache, Alexandra; Mills-Koonce, Roger; Stifter, Cynthia; Voegtline, Kristin; Granger, Douglas A

    2015-09-01

    Cortisol output in response to emotion induction procedures was examined at child age 24 months in a prospective longitudinal sample of 1,292 children and families in predominantly low-income and nonurban communities in two regions of high poverty in the United States. Multilevel analysis indicated that observed emotional reactivity to a mask presentation but not a toy removal procedure interacted with sensitive parenting to predict cortisol levels in children. For children experiencing high levels of sensitive parenting, cortisol output was high among children exhibiting high emotional reactivity and low among children exhibiting low emotional reactivity. For children experiencing low levels of sensitive parenting, cortisol output was unrelated to emotional reactivity. PMID:26192038

  14. On psychobiology in psychoanalysis - salivary cortisol and secretory IgA as psychoanalytic process parameters.

    PubMed

    Euler, Sebastian; Schimpf, Heinrich; Hennig, Jürgen; Brosig, Burkhard

    2005-01-01

    This study investigates the psychobiological impact of psychoanalysis in its four-hour setting. During a period of five weeks, 20 subsequent hours of psychoanalysis were evaluated, involving two patients and their analysts. Before and after each session, saliva samples were taken and analysed for cortisol (sCortisol) and secretory immunoglobuline A (sIgA). Four time-series (n=80 observations) resulted and were evaluated by "Pooled Time Series Analysis" (PTSA) for significant level changes and setting-mediated rhythms. Over all sessions, sCortisol levels were reduced and sIgA secretion augmented parallel to the analytic work. In one analytic dyad a significant rhythm within the four-hour setting was observed with an increase of sCortisol in sessions 2 and 3 of the week. Psychoanalysis may, therefore, have some psychobiological impact on patients and analysts alike and may modulate immunological and endocrinological processes.

  15. Effects of ciprofloxacin on testosterone and cortisol concentrations in healthy males.

    PubMed Central

    Waite, N M; Edwards, D J; Arnott, W S; Warbasse, L H

    1989-01-01

    Several inhibitors of oxidative drug metabolism inhibit the synthesis of endogenous compounds such as testosterone and cortisol. Since ciprofloxacin is a potent inhibitor of the metabolism of a number of drugs, we studied its effect on serum testosterone and cortisol concentrations in eight healthy male subjects. Blood samples were collected over a 12-h period under baseline conditions and following the first and final doses of ciprofloxacin (500 mg orally every 12 h for 4 days). No significant differences in concentrations or area under the concentration-time curve were found when baseline values were compared with those observed for either testosterone or cortisol after ciprofloxacin administration. These results suggest that ciprofloxacin is unlikely to have either antiandrogenic side effects or clinical utility in lowering testosterone or cortisol concentration. PMID:2610498

  16. Cortisol Secretion and Change in Sleep Problems in Early Childhood: Moderation by Maternal Overcontrol

    PubMed Central

    Kiel, Elizabeth J.; Hummel, Alexandra C.; Luebbe, Aaron M.

    2015-01-01

    Childhood sleep problems are prevalent and relate to a wide range of negative psychological outcomes. However, it remains unclear how biological processes, such as HPA activity, may predict sleep problems over time in childhood in the context of certain parenting environments. Fifty-one mothers and their 18–20 month-old toddlers participated in a short-term longitudinal study assessing how shared variance among morning levels, diurnal change, and nocturnal change in toddlers’ cortisol secretion predicted change in sleep problems in the context of maternal overprotection and critical control. A composite characterized by low variability in, and, to a lesser extent, high morning values of cortisol, predicted increasing sleep problems from age 2 to age 3 when mothers reported high critical control. Results suggest value in assessing shared variance among different indices of cortisol secretion patterns and the interaction between cortisol and the environment in predicting sleep problems in early childhood. PMID:25766262

  17. Heart rate variability and cortisol responses during attentional and working memory tasks in naval cadets.

    PubMed

    Johnsen, Bjørn Helge; Hansen, Anita L; Murison, Robert; Eid, Jarle; Thayer, Julian F

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the paper was to study the relationship between heart rate variability (HRV) and cortisol release during cognitive challenging tasks. Forty-nine male naval cadets from the Royal Norwegian Naval Academy were administered computerised versions of attentional and working memory tests. The results from this study support the hypothesis of a negative correlation between HRV and cortisol secretion during cognitive tasks. Confirmation of the hypothesis with the low HRV group scoring higher on cortisol only during performance of cognitive tasks and recovery was also found. Furthermore, a replication of the previous findings of a negative association between cortisol levels and performance were supported when using uncorrected comparisons. None of the correlations survived Bonferonin corrections. The findings are discussed in relation to factors increasing HRV, thus improving tolerance to cognitive stress in onboard environments.

  18. Effects of elevated circulating cortisol levels on hydromineral status and gill tight junction protein abundance in the stenohaline goldfish.

    PubMed

    Chasiotis, Helen; Kelly, Scott P

    2012-01-15

    A role for cortisol in the regulation of hydromineral balance and gill tight junction (TJ) protein transcript abundance in the stenohaline freshwater goldfish was investigated. Intraperitoneal cortisol implants (50, 100, 200, 400 μg cortisol/g body weight) were used to dose-dependently elevate circulating cortisol levels over a 4 day period. Elevated cortisol did not significantly alter serum osmolality, serum Na(+) or muscle water content, however serum glucose and gill Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase activity were significantly increased and serum Cl(-) levels were significantly reduced when compared to control groups. Transcript levels for glucocorticoid receptor 1 (GR1) and mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) in the gill remained unchanged by cortisol treatment, however glucocorticoid receptor 2 (GR2) mRNA abundance was significantly down-regulated. Conversely, cortisol treatment significantly increased transcript and protein abundance of the TJ protein occludin in goldfish gill tissue, as well as mRNA abundance for claudin e, 7 and 8d. Goldfish tissue expression profiles demonstrated that transcripts encoding for these claudins are particularly abundant in the gill. Overall, results suggest a 'tightened' gill epithelium in response to elevated cortisol levels in goldfish. However, negative autoregulation of gill GR2 transcript suggests a lessened capacity to respond to cortisol and thus a potentially 'dampened' corticosteroid-mediated effect in the gill. Reduced systemic Cl(-) levels also suggest that sustained cortisol elevation in goldfish may have a detrimental effect on other ionoregulatory tissues.

  19. Seasonal variation in coat characteristics, tick loads, cortisol levels, some physiological parameters and temperature humidity index on Nguni cows raised in low- and high-input farms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katiyatiya, C. L. F.; Muchenje, V.; Mushunje, A.

    2014-08-01

    Seasonal variations in hair length, tick loads, cortisol levels, haematological parameters (HP) and temperature humidity index (THI) in Nguni cows of different colours raised in two low-input farms, and a commercial stud was determined. The sites were chosen based on their production systems, climatic characteristics and geographical locations. Zazulwana and Komga are low-input, humid-coastal areas, while Honeydale is a high-input, dry-inland Nguni stud farm. A total of 103 cows, grouped according to parity, location and coat colour, were used in the study. The effects of location, coat colour, hair length and season were used to determine tick loads on different body parts, cortisol levels and HP in blood from Nguni cows. Highest tick loads were recorded under the tail and the lowest on the head of each of the animals (P < 0.05). Zazulwana cows recorded the highest tick loads under the tails of all the cows used in the study from the three farms (P < 0.05). High tick loads were recorded for cows with long hairs. Hair lengths were longest during the winter season in the coastal areas of Zazulwana and Honeydale (P < 0.05). White and brown-white patched cows had significantly longer (P < 0.05) hair strands than those having a combination of red, black and white colour. Cortisol and THI were significantly lower (P < 0.05) in summer season. Red blood cells, haematoglobin, haematocrit, mean cell volumes, white blood cells, neutrophils, lymphocytes, eosinophils and basophils were significantly different (P < 0.05) as some associated with age across all seasons and correlated to THI. It was concluded that the location, coat colour and season had effects on hair length, cortisol levels, THI, HP and tick loads on different body parts and heat stress in Nguni cows.

  20. Seasonal variation in coat characteristics, tick loads, cortisol levels, some physiological parameters and temperature humidity index on Nguni cows raised in low- and high-input farms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katiyatiya, C. L. F.; Muchenje, V.; Mushunje, A.

    2015-06-01

    Seasonal variations in hair length, tick loads, cortisol levels, haematological parameters (HP) and temperature humidity index (THI) in Nguni cows of different colours raised in two low-input farms, and a commercial stud was determined. The sites were chosen based on their production systems, climatic characteristics and geographical locations. Zazulwana and Komga are low-input, humid-coastal areas, while Honeydale is a high-input, dry-inland Nguni stud farm. A total of 103 cows, grouped according to parity, location and coat colour, were used in the study. The effects of location, coat colour, hair length and season were used to determine tick loads on different body parts, cortisol levels and HP in blood from Nguni cows. Highest tick loads were recorded under the tail and the lowest on the head of each of the animals ( P < 0.05). Zazulwana cows recorded the highest tick loads under the tails of all the cows used in the study from the three farms ( P < 0.05). High tick loads were recorded for cows with long hairs. Hair lengths were longest during the winter season in the coastal areas of Zazulwana and Honeydale ( P < 0.05). White and brown-white patched cows had significantly longer ( P < 0.05) hair strands than those having a combination of red, black and white colour. Cortisol and THI were significantly lower ( P < 0.05) in summer season. Red blood cells, haematoglobin, haematocrit, mean cell volumes, white blood cells, neutrophils, lymphocytes, eosinophils and basophils were significantly different ( P < 0.05) as some associated with age across all seasons and correlated to THI. It was concluded that the location, coat colour and season had effects on hair length, cortisol levels, THI, HP and tick loads on different body parts and heat stress in Nguni cows.

  1. Blow collection as a non-invasive method for measuring cortisol in the beluga (Delphinapterus leucas).

    PubMed

    Thompson, Laura A; Spoon, Tracey R; Goertz, Caroline E C; Hobbs, Roderick C; Romano, Tracy A

    2014-01-01

    Non-invasive sampling techniques are increasingly being used to monitor glucocorticoids, such as cortisol, as indicators of stressor load and fitness in zoo and wildlife conservation, research and medicine. For cetaceans, exhaled breath condensate (blow) provides a unique sampling matrix for such purposes. The purpose of this work was to develop an appropriate collection methodology and validate the use of a commercially available EIA for measuring cortisol in blow samples collected from belugas (Delphinapterus leucas). Nitex membrane stretched over a petri dish provided the optimal method for collecting blow. A commercially available cortisol EIA for measuring human cortisol (detection limit 35 pg ml-1) was adapted and validated for beluga cortisol using tests of parallelism, accuracy and recovery. Blow samples were collected from aquarium belugas during monthly health checks and during out of water examination, as well as from wild belugas. Two aquarium belugas showed increased blow cortisol between baseline samples and 30 minutes out of water (Baseline, 0.21 and 0.04 µg dl-1; 30 minutes, 0.95 and 0.14 µg dl-1). Six wild belugas also showed increases in blow cortisol between pre and post 1.5 hour examination (Pre 0.03, 0.23, 0.13, 0.19, 0.13, 0.04 µg dl-1, Post 0.60, 0.31, 0.36, 0.24, 0.14, 0.16 µg dl-1). Though this methodology needs further investigation, this study suggests that blow sampling is a good candidate for non-invasive monitoring of cortisol in belugas. It can be collected from both wild and aquarium animals efficiently for the purposes of health monitoring and research, and may ultimately be useful in obtaining data on wild populations, including endangered species, which are difficult to handle directly.

  2. Green space and stress: evidence from cortisol measures in deprived urban communities.

    PubMed

    Roe, Jenny J; Thompson, Catharine Ward; Aspinall, Peter A; Brewer, Mark J; Duff, Elizabeth I; Miller, David; Mitchell, Richard; Clow, Angela

    2013-09-01

    Contact with green space in the environment has been associated with mental health benefits, but the mechanism underpinning this association is not clear. This study extends an earlier exploratory study showing that more green space in deprived urban neighbourhoods in Scotland is linked to lower levels of perceived stress and improved physiological stress as measured by diurnal patterns of cortisol secretion. Salivary cortisol concentrations were measured at 3, 6 and 9 h post awakening over two consecutive weekdays, together with measures of perceived stress. Participants (n = 106) were men and women not in work aged between 35-55 years, resident in socially disadvantaged districts from the same Scottish, UK, urban context as the earlier study. Results from linear regression analyses showed a significant and negative relationship between higher green space levels and stress levels, indicating living in areas with a higher percentage of green space is associated with lower stress, confirming the earlier study findings. This study further extends the findings by showing significant gender differences in stress patterns by levels of green space, with women in lower green space areas showing higher levels of stress. A significant interaction effect between gender and percentage green space on mean cortisol concentrations showed a positive effect of higher green space in relation to cortisol measures in women, but not in men. Higher levels of neighbourhood green space were associated with healthier mean cortisol levels in women whilst also attenuating higher cortisol levels in men. We conclude that higher levels of green space in residential neighbourhoods, for this deprived urban population of middle-aged men and women not in work, are linked with lower perceived stress and a steeper (healthier) diurnal cortisol decline. However, overall patterns and levels of cortisol secretion in men and women were differentially related to neighbourhood green space and warrant

  3. Cortisol Response to Stress in Adults with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Palomar, Gloria; Ferrer, Roser; Real, Alberto; Nogueira, Mariana; Corrales, Montserrat; Casas, Miguel; Ramos-Quiroga, Josep Antoni

    2015-01-01

    Background: Differences in the cortisol response have been reported between children exhibiting the inattentive and hyperactive/impulsive subtypes of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. However, there is no such information about adults. The aim of the present study was to determine the possible differences between the combined and inattentive subtypes in the cortisol response to stress. Methods: Ninety-six adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, 38 inattentive and 58 combined, without any medical or psychiatric comorbidities and 25 healthy controls were included. The Trier Social Stress Test was used to assess physiological stress responses. Clinical data and subjective stress levels, including the Perceived Stress Scale, were also recorded. Results: No significant differences in the cortisol response to the Trier Social Stress Test were found between patients and controls. However, albeit there were no basal differences, lower cortisol levels at 15 (P=.015), 30 (P=.015), and 45 minutes (P=.045) were observed in the combined compared with the inattentive subtype after the stress induction; these differences disappeared 60 minutes after the stress. In contrast, the subjective stress responses showed significant differences between attention deficit hyperactivity disorder patients and controls (P<.001), but no differences were seen between attention deficit hyperactivity disorder subtypes. In turn, subjective stress measures, such as the Perceived Stress Scale, positively correlated with the whole cortisol stress response (P<.027). Conclusions: Both the combined and inattentive attention deficit hyperactivity disorder adults exhibited a normal cortisol response to stress when challenged. Nevertheless, the inattentive patients displayed a higher level of cortisol after stress compared with the combined patients. Despite the differences in the cortisol response, adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder reported high levels of subjective

  4. Sex differences in the functional connectivity of the amygdalae in association with cortisol.

    PubMed

    Kogler, Lydia; Müller, Veronika I; Seidel, Eva-Maria; Boubela, Roland; Kalcher, Klaudius; Moser, Ewald; Habel, Ute; Gur, Ruben C; Eickhoff, Simon B; Derntl, Birgit

    2016-07-01

    Human amygdalae are involved in various behavioral functions such as affective and stress processing. For these behavioral functions, as well as for psychophysiological arousal including cortisol release, sex differences are reported. Here, we assessed cortisol levels and resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC) of left and right amygdalae in 81 healthy participants (42 women) to investigate potential modulation of amygdala rsFC by sex and cortisol concentration. Our analyses revealed that rsFC of the left amygdala significantly differed between women and men: Women showed stronger rsFC than men between the left amygdala and left middle temporal gyrus, inferior frontal gyrus, postcentral gyrus and hippocampus, regions involved in face processing, inner-speech, fear and pain processing. No stronger connections were detected for men and no sex difference emerged for right amygdala rsFC. Also, an interaction of sex and cortisol appeared: In women, cortisol was negatively associated with rsFC of the amygdalae with striatal regions, mid-orbital frontal gyrus, anterior cingulate gyrus, middle and superior frontal gyri, supplementary motor area and the parietal-occipital sulcus. Contrarily in men, positive associations of cortisol with rsFC of the left amygdala and these structures were observed. Functional decoding analyses revealed an association of the amygdalae and these regions with emotion, reward and memory processing, as well as action execution. Our results suggest that functional connectivity of the amygdalae as well as the regulatory effect of cortisol on brain networks differs between women and men. These sex-differences and the mediating and sex-dependent effect of cortisol on brain communication systems should be taken into account in affective and stress-related neuroimaging research. Thus, more studies including both sexes are required. PMID:27039701

  5. Disentangling psychobiological mechanisms underlying internalizing and externalizing behaviors in youth: longitudinal and concurrent associations with cortisol.

    PubMed

    Ruttle, Paula L; Shirtcliff, Elizabeth A; Serbin, Lisa A; Fisher, Dahlia Ben-Dat; Stack, Dale M; Schwartzman, Alex E

    2011-01-01

    Research examining cortisol dysregulation is seemingly contradictory with studies showing that both internalizing and externalizing behaviors are related to high and low cortisol. One extant theory to explain divergent findings in the stress literature is that both hypo- and hyper-arousal of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis may be present depending on time since onset of the stressor. This theory may extend to the onset of internalizing and externalizing behaviors. Data from 96 youth participating in a longitudinal project were used to examine this possibility. Composite measures of internalizing and externalizing behaviors at both childhood and early adolescence were formed using mother and teacher reports. Multiple salivary cortisol samples were also collected over two consecutive days during early adolescence. Problematic behaviors were associated with cortisol and the direction of the association was dependent on amount of time passed since onset of the behaviors. When examined concurrently in adolescence, youth with more internalizing behaviors had higher morning cortisol; however, when examined longitudinally, youth with more internalizing behaviors in childhood had lower morning cortisol levels as adolescents. Youth with more externalizing behaviors in childhood had flattened diurnal cortisol rhythms as adolescents, and this finding persisted when examined in adolescence. Cortisol dysregulation was greatest in children with the most severe behavior problems. Findings support the theoretical model of blunting of the HPA axis over time. While the HPA axis may show hyper-arousal when youth first display behaviors, long-term exposure may lead to a hypo-arousal of the HPA axis which culminates in a dysregulated diurnal rhythm.

  6. Hair Cortisol Predicts Object Permanence Performance in Infant Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatta)

    PubMed Central

    Dettmer, Amanda M.; Novak, Matthew F.S.X.; Novak, Melinda A.; Meyer, Jerrold S.; Suomi, Stephen J.

    2009-01-01

    Although high circulating levels of glucocorticoids are associated with impaired cognitive performance in adults, less is known about this relationship in infancy. Furthermore, because studies have relied on acute cortisol measures in blood plasma or saliva, interpretation of the results may be difficult as acute measures may in part reflect emotional responses to testing procedures. In this study we examined whether hair cortisol, an integrated measure of HPA axis functioning, predicted performance of nursery-reared (NR) infant rhesus monkeys (N=32) on Piagetian object permanence tasks. Testing of NR infants began at 19.8±2.2 (mean±SE) days of age and continued for the next several months. Hair cortisol concentrations from the 32 NR monkeys were compared to those of 20 mother-peer-reared (MPR) infants. Hair was shaved at day 14, allowed to re-grow, and obtained again at month 6, thus representing integrated cortisol over a 5.5-month period of time. NR and MPR infants did not differ in month 6 hair cortisol values (t(50)=0.02, p=0.98). Linear regression revealed that hair cortisol predicted object permanence performance in the NR infants. Infants with higher hair cortisol reached criterion at later ages on the well (p<0.01), screen (p<0.05), and A-not-B (p<0.05) tasks and required more test sessions to complete the well (p<0.01) and screen tasks (p<0.05). These data are the first to implicate hair cortisol as a reliable predictor of early cognitive performance in infant macaque monkeys. PMID:19771550

  7. Blow Collection as a Non-Invasive Method for Measuring Cortisol in the Beluga (Delphinapterus leucas)

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Laura A.; Spoon, Tracey R.; Goertz, Caroline E. C.; Hobbs, Roderick C.; Romano, Tracy A.

    2014-01-01

    Non-invasive sampling techniques are increasingly being used to monitor glucocorticoids, such as cortisol, as indicators of stressor load and fitness in zoo and wildlife conservation, research and medicine. For cetaceans, exhaled breath condensate (blow) provides a unique sampling matrix for such purposes. The purpose of this work was to develop an appropriate collection methodology and validate the use of a commercially available EIA for measuring cortisol in blow samples collected from belugas (Delphinapterus leucas). Nitex membrane stretched over a petri dish provided the optimal method for collecting blow. A commercially available cortisol EIA for measuring human cortisol (detection limit 35 pg ml−1) was adapted and validated for beluga cortisol using tests of parallelism, accuracy and recovery. Blow samples were collected from aquarium belugas during monthly health checks and during out of water examination, as well as from wild belugas. Two aquarium belugas showed increased blow cortisol between baseline samples and 30 minutes out of water (Baseline, 0.21 and 0.04 µg dl−1; 30 minutes, 0.95 and 0.14 µg dl−1). Six wild belugas also showed increases in blow cortisol between pre and post 1.5 hour examination (Pre 0.03, 0.23, 0.13, 0.19, 0.13, 0.04 µg dl−1, Post 0.60, 0.31, 0.36, 0.24, 0.14, 0.16 µg dl−1). Though this methodology needs further investigation, this study suggests that blow sampling is a good candidate for non-invasive monitoring of cortisol in belugas. It can be collected from both wild and aquarium animals efficiently for the purposes of health monitoring and research, and may ultimately be useful in obtaining data on wild populations, including endangered species, which are difficult to handle directly. PMID:25464121

  8. Night Shift Work and Levels of 6-Sulfatoxymelatonin and Cortisol in Men

    PubMed Central

    Mirick, Dana K.; Bhatti, Parveen; Chen, Chu; Nordt, Frank; Stanczyk, Frank Z.; Davis, Scott

    2016-01-01

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