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Sample records for actin cytoskeleton mediates

  1. The actin cytoskeleton as a sensor and mediator of apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Desouza, Melissa; Gunning, Peter W.; Stehn, Justine R.

    2012-01-01

    Apoptosis is an important biological process required for the removal of unwanted or damaged cells. Mounting evidence implicates the actin cytoskeleton as both a sensor and mediator of apoptosis. Studies also suggest that actin binding proteins (ABPs) significantly contribute to apoptosis and that actin dynamics play a key role in regulating apoptosis signaling. Changes in the organization of the actin cytoskeleton has been attributed to the process of malignant transformation and it is hypothesized that remodeling of the actin cytoskeleton may enable tumor cells to evade normal apoptotic signaling. This review aims to illuminate the role of the actin cytoskeleton in apoptosis by systematically analyzing how actin and ABPs regulate different apoptosis pathways and to also highlight the potential for developing novel compounds that target tumor-specific actin filaments. PMID:22880146

  2. Collapsin response mediator protein 4 regulates growth cone dynamics through the actin and microtubule cytoskeleton.

    PubMed

    Khazaei, Mohamad R; Girouard, Marie-Pier; Alchini, Ricardo; Ong Tone, Stephan; Shimada, Tadayuki; Bechstedt, Susanne; Cowan, Mitra; Guillet, Dominique; Wiseman, Paul W; Brouhard, Gary; Cloutier, Jean Francois; Fournier, Alyson E

    2014-10-24

    Coordinated control of the growth cone cytoskeleton underlies axon extension and guidance. Members of the collapsin response mediator protein (CRMP) family of cytosolic phosphoproteins regulate the microtubule and actin cytoskeleton, but their roles in regulating growth cone dynamics remain largely unexplored. Here, we examine how CRMP4 regulates the growth cone cytoskeleton. Hippocampal neurons from CRMP4-/- mice exhibited a selective decrease in axon extension and reduced growth cone area, whereas overexpression of CRMP4 enhanced the formation and length of growth cone filopodia. Biochemically, CRMP4 can impact both microtubule assembly and F-actin bundling in vitro. Through a structure function analysis of CRMP4, we found that the effects of CRMP4 on axon growth and growth cone morphology were dependent on microtubule assembly, whereas filopodial extension relied on actin bundling. Intriguingly, anterograde movement of EB3 comets, which track microtubule protrusion, slowed significantly in neurons derived from CRMP4-/- mice, and rescue of microtubule dynamics required CRMP4 activity toward both the actin and microtubule cytoskeleton. Together, this study identified a dual role for CRMP4 in regulating the actin and microtubule growth cone cytoskeleton. PMID:25225289

  3. TWISTED DWARF1 Mediates the Action of Auxin Transport Inhibitors on Actin Cytoskeleton Dynamics.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Jinsheng; Bailly, Aurelien; Zwiewka, Marta; Sovero, Valpuri; Di Donato, Martin; Ge, Pei; Oehri, Jacqueline; Aryal, Bibek; Hao, Pengchao; Linnert, Miriam; Burgardt, Noelia Inés; Lücke, Christian; Weiwad, Matthias; Michel, Max; Weiergräber, Oliver H; Pollmann, Stephan; Azzarello, Elisa; Mancuso, Stefano; Ferro, Noel; Fukao, Yoichiro; Hoffmann, Céline; Wedlich-Söldner, Roland; Friml, Jiří; Thomas, Clément; Geisler, Markus

    2016-04-01

    Plant growth and architecture is regulated by the polar distribution of the hormone auxin. Polarity and flexibility of this process is provided by constant cycling of auxin transporter vesicles along actin filaments, coordinated by a positive auxin-actin feedback loop. Both polar auxin transport and vesicle cycling are inhibited by synthetic auxin transport inhibitors, such as 1-N-naphthylphthalamic acid (NPA), counteracting the effect of auxin; however, underlying targets and mechanisms are unclear. Using NMR, we map the NPA binding surface on the Arabidopsis thaliana ABCB chaperone TWISTED DWARF1 (TWD1). We identify ACTIN7 as a relevant, although likely indirect, TWD1 interactor, and show TWD1-dependent regulation of actin filament organization and dynamics and that TWD1 is required for NPA-mediated actin cytoskeleton remodeling. The TWD1-ACTIN7 axis controls plasma membrane presence of efflux transporters, and as a consequence act7 and twd1 share developmental and physiological phenotypes indicative of defects in auxin transport. These can be phenocopied by NPA treatment or by chemical actin (de)stabilization. We provide evidence that TWD1 determines downstream locations of auxin efflux transporters by adjusting actin filament debundling and dynamizing processes and mediating NPA action on the latter. This function appears to be evolutionary conserved since TWD1 expression in budding yeast alters actin polarization and cell polarity and provides NPA sensitivity. PMID:27053424

  4. Dynamics of the actin cytoskeleton mediates receptor cross talk: An emerging concept in tuning receptor signaling

    PubMed Central

    Mattila, Pieta K.; Batista, Facundo D.

    2016-01-01

    Recent evidence implicates the actin cytoskeleton in the control of receptor signaling. This may be of particular importance in the context of immune receptors, such as the B cell receptor, where dysregulated signaling can result in autoimmunity and malignancy. Here, we discuss the role of the actin cytoskeleton in controlling receptor compartmentalization, dynamics, and clustering as a means to regulate receptor signaling through controlling the interactions with protein partners. We propose that the actin cytoskeleton is a point of integration for receptor cross talk through modulation of protein dynamics and clustering. We discuss the implication of this cross talk via the cytoskeleton for both ligand-induced and low-level constitutive (tonic) signaling necessary for immune cell survival. PMID:26833785

  5. Rearrangement of actin cytoskeleton mediates invasion of Lotus japonicus roots by Mesorhizobium loti.

    PubMed

    Yokota, Keisuke; Fukai, Eigo; Madsen, Lene H; Jurkiewicz, Anna; Rueda, Paloma; Radutoiu, Simona; Held, Mark; Hossain, Md Shakhawat; Szczyglowski, Krzysztof; Morieri, Giulia; Oldroyd, Giles E D; Downie, J Allan; Nielsen, Mette W; Rusek, Anna Maria; Sato, Shusei; Tabata, Satoshi; James, Euan K; Oyaizu, Hiroshi; Sandal, Niels; Stougaard, Jens

    2009-01-01

    Infection thread-dependent invasion of legume roots by rhizobia leads to internalization of bacteria into the plant cells, which is one of the salient features of root nodule symbiosis. We found that two genes, Nap1 (for Nck-associated protein 1) and Pir1 (for 121F-specific p53 inducible RNA), involved in actin rearrangements were essential for infection thread formation and colonization of Lotus japonicus roots by its natural microsymbiont, Mesorhizobium loti. nap1 and pir1 mutants developed an excess of uncolonized nodule primordia, indicating that these two genes were not essential for the initiation of nodule organogenesis per se. However, both the formation and subsequent progression of infection threads into the root cortex were significantly impaired in these mutants. We demonstrate that these infection defects were due to disturbed actin cytoskeleton organization. Short root hairs of the mutants had mostly transverse or web-like actin filaments, while bundles of actin filaments in wild-type root hairs were predominantly longitudinal. Corroborating these observations, temporal and spatial differences in actin filament organization between wild-type and mutant root hairs were also observed after Nod factor treatment, while calcium influx and spiking appeared unperturbed. Together with various effects on plant growth and seed formation, the nap1 and pir1 alleles also conferred a characteristic distorted trichome phenotype, suggesting a more general role for Nap1 and Pir1 in processes establishing cell polarity or polar growth in L. japonicus.

  6. PKC-mediated cerebral vasoconstriction: Role of myosin light chain phosphorylation versus actin cytoskeleton reorganization.

    PubMed

    El-Yazbi, Ahmed F; Abd-Elrahman, Khaled S; Moreno-Dominguez, Alejandro

    2015-06-15

    Defective protein kinase C (PKC) signaling has been suggested to contribute to abnormal vascular contraction in disease conditions including hypertension and diabetes. Our previous work on agonist and pressure-induced cerebral vasoconstriction implicated PKC as a major contributor to force production in a myosin light chain (LC20) phosphorylation-independent manner. Here, we used phorbol dibutyrate to selectively induce a PKC-dependent constriction in rat middle cerebral arteries and delineate the relative contribution of different contractile mechanisms involved. Specifically, we employed an ultra-sensitive 3-step western blotting approach to detect changes in the content of phosphoproteins that regulate myosin light chain phosphatase (MLCP) activity, thin filament activation, and actin cytoskeleton reorganization. Data indicate that PKC activation evoked a greater constriction at a similar level of LC20 phosphorylation achieved by 5-HT. PDBu-evoked constriction persisted in the presence of Gö6976, a selective inhibitor of Ca(2+)-dependent PKC, and in the absence of extracellular Ca(2+). Biochemical evidence indicates that either + or - extracellular Ca(2+), PDBu (i) inhibits MLCP activity via the phosphorylation of myosin targeting subunit of myosin phosphatase (MYPT1) and C-kinase potentiated protein phosphatase-1 inhibitor (CPI-17), (ii) increases the phosphorylation of paxillin and heat shock protein 27 (HSP27), and reduces G-actin content, and (iii) does not change the phospho-content of the thin filament proteins, calponin and caldesmon. PDBu-induced constriction was more sensitive to disruption of actin cytoskeleton compared to inhibition of cross-bridge cycling. In conclusion, this study provided evidence for the pivotal contribution of cytoskeletal actin polymerization in force generation following PKC activation in cerebral resistance arteries. PMID:25931148

  7. Fyn Mediates High Glucose-Induced Actin Cytoskeleton Reorganization of Podocytes via Promoting ROCK Activation In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Lv, Zhimei; Hu, Mengsi; Ren, Xiaoxu; Fan, Minghua; Zhen, Junhui; Chen, Liqun; Lin, Jiangong; Ding, Nannan; Wang, Qun; Wang, Rong

    2016-01-01

    Fyn, a member of the Src family of tyrosine kinases, is a key regulator in cytoskeletal remodeling in a variety of cell types. Recent studies have demonstrated that Fyn is responsible for nephrin tyrosine phosphorylation, which will result in polymerization of actin filaments and podocyte damage. Thus detailed involvement of Fyn in podocytes is to be elucidated. In this study, we investigated the potential role of Fyn/ROCK signaling and its interactions with paxillin. Our results presented that high glucose led to filamentous actin (F-actin) rearrangement in podocytes, accompanied by paxillin phosphorylation and increased cell motility, during which Fyn and ROCK were markedly activated. Gene knockdown of Fyn by siRNA showed a reversal effect on high glucose-induced podocyte damage and ROCK activation; however, inhibition of ROCK had no significant effects on Fyn phosphorylation. These observations demonstrate that in vitro Fyn mediates high glucose-induced actin cytoskeleton remodeling of podocytes via promoting ROCK activation and paxillin phosphorylation. PMID:26881253

  8. In vivo evidence for mTORC2-mediated actin cytoskeleton rearrangement in neurons

    PubMed Central

    Angliker, Nico; Rüegg, Markus A

    2013-01-01

    The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) assembles into two distinct multi-protein complexes called mTORC1 and mTORC2. While mTORC1 controls the signaling pathways important for cell growth, the physiological function of mTORC2 is only partially known. Here we comment on recent work on gene-targeted mice lacking mTORC2 in the cerebellum or the hippocampus that provided strong evidence that mTORC2 plays an important role in neuron morphology and synapse function. We discuss that this phenotype might be based on the perturbed regulation of the actin cytoskeleton and the lack of activation of several PKC isoforms. The fact that PKC isoforms and their targets have been implicated in neurological disease including spinocerebellar ataxia and that they have been shown to affect learning and memory, suggests that aberration of mTORC2 signaling might be involved in diseases of the brain. PMID:24721730

  9. Girdin-mediated interactions between cadherin and the actin cytoskeleton are required for epithelial morphogenesis in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Houssin, Elise; Tepass, Ulrich; Laprise, Patrick

    2015-05-15

    E-cadherin-mediated cell-cell adhesion is fundamental for epithelial tissue morphogenesis, physiology and repair. E-cadherin is a core transmembrane constituent of the zonula adherens (ZA), a belt-like adherens junction located at the apicolateral border in epithelial cells. The anchorage of ZA components to cortical actin filaments strengthens cell-cell cohesion and allows for junction contractility, which shapes epithelial tissues during development. Here, we report that the cytoskeletal adaptor protein Girdin physically and functionally interacts with components of the cadherin-catenin complex during Drosophila embryogenesis. Fly Girdin is broadly expressed throughout embryonic development and enriched at the ZA in epithelial tissues. Girdin associates with the cytoskeleton and co-precipitates with the cadherin-catenin complex protein α-Catenin (α-Cat). Girdin mutations strongly enhance adhesion defects associated with reduced DE-cadherin (DE-Cad) expression. Moreover, the fraction of DE-Cad molecules associated with the cytoskeleton decreases in the absence of Girdin, thereby identifying Girdin as a positive regulator of adherens junction function. Girdin mutant embryos display isolated epithelial cell cysts and rupture of the ventral midline, consistent with defects in cell-cell cohesion. In addition, loss of Girdin impairs the collective migration of epithelial cells, resulting in dorsal closure defects. We propose that Girdin stabilizes epithelial cell adhesion and promotes morphogenesis by regulating the linkage of the cadherin-catenin complex to the cytoskeleton.

  10. Actin-Cytoskeleton- and Rock-Mediated INM Are Required for Photoreceptor Regeneration in the Adult Zebrafish Retina

    PubMed Central

    Lahne, Manuela; Li, Jingling; Marton, Rebecca M.

    2015-01-01

    Loss of retinal neurons in adult zebrafish (Danio rerio) induces a robust regenerative response mediated by the reentry of the resident Müller glia into the cell cycle. Upon initiating Müller glia proliferation, their nuclei migrate along the apicobasal axis of the retina in phase with the cell cycle in a process termed interkinetic nuclear migration (INM). We examined the mechanisms governing this cellular process and explored its function in regenerating the adult zebrafish retina. Live-cell imaging revealed that the majority of Müller glia nuclei migrated to the outer nuclear layer (ONL) to divide. These Müller glia formed prominent actin filaments at the rear of nuclei that had migrated to the ONL. Inhibiting actin filament formation or Rho-associated coiled-coil kinase (Rock) activity, which is necessary for phosphorylation of myosin light chain and actin myosin-mediated contraction, disrupted INM with increased numbers of mitotic nuclei remaining in the basal inner nuclear layer, the region where Müller glia typically reside. Double knockdown of Rho-associated coiled-coil kinase 2a (Rock2a) and Rho-associated coiled-coil kinase 2b (Rock2b) similarly disrupted INM and reduced Müller glial cell cycle reentry. In contrast, Rock inhibition immediately before the onset of INM did not affect Müller glia proliferation, but subsequently reduced neuronal progenitor cell proliferation due to early cell cycle exit. Long-term, Rock inhibition increased the generation of mislocalized ganglion/amacrine cells at the expense of rod and cone photoreceptors. In summary, INM is driven by an actin-myosin-mediated process controlled by Rock2a and Rock2b activity, which is required for sufficient proliferation and regeneration of photoreceptors after light damage. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT The human retina does not replace lost or damaged neurons, ultimately causing vision impairment. In contrast, zebrafish are capable of regenerating lost neurons. Understanding the mechanisms

  11. Three's company: the fission yeast actin cytoskeleton.

    PubMed

    Kovar, David R; Sirotkin, Vladimir; Lord, Matthew

    2011-03-01

    How the actin cytoskeleton assembles into different structures to drive diverse cellular processes is a fundamental cell biological question. In addition to orchestrating the appropriate combination of regulators and actin-binding proteins, different actin-based structures must insulate themselves from one another to maintain specificity within a crowded cytoplasm. Actin specification is particularly challenging in complex eukaryotes where a multitude of protein isoforms and actin structures operate within the same cell. Fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe possesses a single actin isoform that functions in three distinct structures throughout the cell cycle. In this review we explore recent studies in fission yeast that help unravel how different actin structures operate in cells.

  12. Direct dynamin–actin interactions regulate the actin cytoskeleton

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Changkyu; Yaddanapudi, Suma; Weins, Astrid; Osborn, Teresia; Reiser, Jochen; Pollak, Martin; Hartwig, John; Sever, Sanja

    2010-01-01

    The large GTPase dynamin assembles into higher order structures that are thought to promote endocytosis. Dynamin also regulates the actin cytoskeleton through an unknown, GTPase-dependent mechanism. Here, we identify a highly conserved site in dynamin that binds directly to actin filaments and aligns them into bundles. Point mutations in the actin-binding domain cause aberrant membrane ruffling and defective actin stress fibre formation in cells. Short actin filaments promote dynamin assembly into higher order structures, which in turn efficiently release the actin-capping protein (CP) gelsolin from barbed actin ends in vitro, allowing for elongation of actin filaments. Together, our results support a model in which assembled dynamin, generated through interactions with short actin filaments, promotes actin polymerization via displacement of actin-CPs. PMID:20935625

  13. The actin cytoskeleton in endothelial cell phenotypes

    PubMed Central

    Prasain, Nutan; Stevens, Troy

    2009-01-01

    Endothelium forms a semi-permeable barrier that separates blood from the underlying tissue. Barrier function is largely determined by cell-cell and cell-matrix adhesions that define the limits of cell borders. Yet, such cell-cell and cell-matrix tethering is critically reliant upon the nature of adherence within the cell itself. Indeed, the actin cytoskeleton fulfills this essential function, to provide a strong, dynamic intracellular scaffold that organizes integral membrane proteins with the cell’s interior, and responds to environmental cues to orchestrate appropriate cell shape. The actin cytoskeleton is comprised of three distinct, but interrelated structures, including actin cross-linking of spectrin within the membrane skeleton, the cortical actin rim, and actomyosin-based stress fibers. This review addresses each of these actin-based structures, and discusses cellular signals that control the disposition of actin in different endothelial cell phenotypes. PMID:19028505

  14. Actin cytoskeleton redox proteome oxidation by cadmium

    PubMed Central

    Go, Young-Mi; Orr, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Epidemiological studies associate environmental cadmium (Cd) exposure with the risk of lung diseases. Although mechanisms are not fully elucidated, several studies demonstrate Cd effects on actin and actin-associated proteins. In a recent study of Cd at concentrations similar to environmental exposures, we found that redox-dependent inflammatory signaling by NF-κB was sensitive to the actin-disrupting agent, cytochalasin D. The goal of the present study was to use mass spectrometry-based redox proteomics to investigate Cd effects on the actin cytoskeleton proteome and related functional pathways in lung cells at low environmental concentrations. The results showed that Cd under conditions that did not alter total protein thiols or glutathione redox state caused significant oxidation of peptidyl Cys of proteins regulating actin cytoskeleton. Immunofluorescence microscopy of lung fibroblasts and pulmonary artery endothelial cells showed that low-dose Cd exposure stimulated filamentous actin formation and nuclear localization of destrin, an actin-depolymerizing factor. Taken together, the results show that redox states of peptidyl Cys in proteins associated with actin cytoskeleton pathways are selectively oxidized in lung by Cd at levels thought to occur from environmental exposure. PMID:24077948

  15. Simulated Microgravity Alters Actin Cytoskeleton and Integrin-Mediated Focal Adhesions of Cultured Human Mesenchymal Stromal Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gershovich, P. M.; Gershovic, J. G.; Buravkova, L. B.

    2008-06-01

    Cytoskeletal alterations occur in several cell types including lymphocytes, glial cells, and osteoblasts, during spaceflight and under simulated microgravity (SMG) (3, 4). One potential mechanism for cytoskeletal gravisensitivity is disruption of extracellular matrix (ECM) and integrin interactions. Focal adhesions are specialized sites of cell-matrix interaction composed of integrins and the diversity of focal adhesion-associated cytoplasmic proteins including vinculin, talin, α-actinin, and actin filaments (4, 5). Integrins produce signals essential for proper cellular function, survival and differentiation. Therefore, we investigated the effects of SMG on F-actin cytoskeleton structure, vinculin focal adhesions, expression of some integrin subtypes and cellular adhesion molecules (CAMs) in mesenchymal stem cells derived from human bone marrow (hMSCs). Simulated microgravity was produced by 3D-clinostat (Dutch Space, Netherlands). Staining of actin fibers with TRITC-phalloidin showed reorganization even after 30 minutes of simulated microgravity. The increasing of cells number with abnormal F-actin was observed after subsequent terms of 3D-clinorotation (6, 24, 48, 120 hours). Randomization of gravity vector altered dimensional structure of stress fibers and resulted in remodeling of actin fibers inside the cells. In addition, we observed vinculin redistribution inside the cells after 6 hours and prolonged terms of clinorotation. Tubulin fibers in a contrast with F-actin and vinculin didn't show any reorganization even after long 3Dclinorotation (120 hours). The expression of integrin α2 increased 1,5-6-fold in clinorotated hMSCs. Also we observed decrease in number of VCAM-1-positive cells and changes in expression of ICAM-1. Taken together, our findings indicate that SMG leads to microfilament and adhesion alterations of hMSCs most probably associated with involvement of some integrin subtypes.

  16. Force Transmission in the Actin Cytoskeleton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gardel, Margaret

    2012-02-01

    The ability of cells to sense and generate mechanical forces is essential to numerous aspects of their physiology, including adhesion, migration, division and differentiation. To a large degree, cellular tension is regulated by the transmission of myosin II-generated forces through the filamentous actin (F-actin) cytoskeleton. While transmission of myosin-generated stresses from the molecular to cellular length scale is well understood in the context of highly organized sarcomeres found in striated muscle, non-muscle and smooth muscle cells contain a wide variety of bundles and networks lacking sarcomeric organization. I will describe the in vitro and in vivo approaches we use to study force transmission in such disordered actomyosin assemblies. Our in vivo results are showing that highly organized stress fibers contribute surprisingly little to the overall extent of cellular tension as compared to disordered actomyosin meshworks. Our in vitro results are demonstrating the mechanisms of symmetry breaking in disordered actomyosin bundles that facilitate the formation of contractile bundles with well-defined ``contractile elements.'' These results provide insight into the self-organization of actomyosin cytoskeleton in non-muscle cells that regulate and maintain cellular tension.

  17. Supervillin Reorganizes the Actin Cytoskeleton and Increases Invadopodial Efficiency

    PubMed Central

    Crowley, Jessica L.; Smith, Tara C.; Fang, Zhiyou; Takizawa, Norio

    2009-01-01

    Tumor cells use actin-rich protrusions called invadopodia to degrade extracellular matrix (ECM) and invade tissues; related structures, termed podosomes, are sites of dynamic ECM interaction. We show here that supervillin (SV), a peripheral membrane protein that binds F-actin and myosin II, reorganizes the actin cytoskeleton and potentiates invadopodial function. Overexpressed SV induces redistribution of lamellipodial cortactin and lamellipodin/RAPH1/PREL1 away from the cell periphery to internal sites and concomitantly increases the numbers of F-actin punctae. Most punctae are highly dynamic and colocalize with the podosome/invadopodial proteins, cortactin, Tks5, and cdc42. Cortactin binds SV sequences in vitro and contributes to the formation of enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP)-SV induced punctae. SV localizes to the cores of Src-generated podosomes in COS-7 cells and with invadopodia in MDA-MB-231 cells. EGFP-SV overexpression increases average numbers of ECM holes per cell; RNA interference-mediated knockdown of SV decreases these numbers. Although SV knockdown alone has no effect, simultaneous down-regulation of SV and the closely related protein gelsolin reduces invasion through ECM. Together, our results show that SV is a component of podosomes and invadopodia and that SV plays a role in invadopodial function, perhaps as a mediator of cortactin localization, activation state, and/or dynamics of metalloproteinases at the ventral cell surface. PMID:19109420

  18. Dynamic reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton

    PubMed Central

    Gressin, Laurène; Théry, Manuel; Blanchoin, Laurent

    2015-01-01

    Cellular processes, including morphogenesis, polarization, and motility, rely on a variety of actin-based structures. Although the biochemical composition and filament organization of these structures are different, they often emerge from a common origin. This is possible because the actin structures are highly dynamic. Indeed, they assemble, grow, and disassemble in a time scale of a second to a minute. Therefore, the reorganization of a given actin structure can promote the formation of another. Here, we discuss such transitions and illustrate them with computer simulations. PMID:26989473

  19. Keratin 8/18 Regulation of Cell Stiffness-Extracellular Matrix Interplay through Modulation of Rho-Mediated Actin Cytoskeleton Dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Bordeleau, François; Myrand Lapierre, Marie-Eve; Sheng, Yunlong; Marceau, Normand

    2012-01-01

    Cell mechanical activity generated from the interplay between the extracellular matrix (ECM) and the actin cytoskeleton is essential for the regulation of cell adhesion, spreading and migration during normal and cancer development. Keratins are the intermediate filament (IF) proteins of epithelial cells, expressed as pairs in a lineage/differentiation manner. Hepatic epithelial cell IFs are made solely of keratins 8/18 (K8/K18), hallmarks of all simple epithelia. Notably, our recent work on these epithelial cells has revealed a key regulatory function for K8/K18 IFs in adhesion/migration, through modulation of integrin interactions with ECM, actin adaptors and signaling molecules at focal adhesions. Here, using K8-knockdown rat H4 hepatoma cells and their K8/K18-containing counterparts seeded on fibronectin-coated substrata of different rigidities, we show that the K8/K18 IF-lacking cells lose their ability to spread and exhibit an altered actin fiber organization, upon seeding on a low-rigidity substratum. We also demonstrate a concomitant reduction in local cell stiffness at focal adhesions generated by fibronectin-coated microbeads attached to the dorsal cell surface. In addition, we find that this K8/K18 IF modulation of cell stiffness and actin fiber organization occurs through RhoA-ROCK signaling. Together, the results uncover a K8/K18 IF contribution to the cell stiffness-ECM rigidity interplay through a modulation of Rho-dependent actin organization and dynamics in simple epithelial cells. PMID:22685604

  20. Acanthamoeba castellanii: identification and distribution of actin cytoskeleton.

    PubMed

    González-Robles, Arturo; Castañón, Guadalupe; Hernández-Ramírez, Verónica Ivonne; Salazar-Villatoro, Lizbeth; González-Lázaro, Mónica; Omaña-Molina, Maritza; Talamás-Rohana, Patricia; Martínez-Palomo, Adolfo

    2008-07-01

    The presence of the cytoskeleton of Acanthamoeba castellanii was observed by means of cryo-electronmicroscopy and immunofluorescence techniques. This structure is formed largely by fibers and networks of actin located mainly in cytoplasmic locomotion structures as lamellipodia and as well as in various endocytic structures. In addition, the comparison between total actin content in whole extracts among different amoebae was made. The molecular weight of actin in A. castellanii was 44 kDa, and 45 kDa for Naegleria fowleri and Entamoeba histolytica.

  1. Dynamic in vivo analysis of drug induced actin cytoskeleton degradation by digital holographic microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schnekenburger, Juergen; Bredebusch, Ilona; Langehanenberg, Patrik; Domschke, Wolfram; von Bally, Gert; Kemper, Björn

    2007-07-01

    The actin cytoskeleton mediates a variety of crucial cellular functions as migration, intracellular transport, exocytosis, endocytosis and force generation. The highly dynamic actin fibers are therefore targets for several drugs and toxins. However the study of actin interfering processes by standard microscopy techniques fails in the detailed resolution of dynamic spatial alterations required for a deeper understanding of toxic effects. Here we applied digital holographic microscopy in the online functional analysis of the actin cytoskeleton disrupting marine toxin Latrunculin B. SEM and fluorescence microscopy showed rapid Latrunculin B induced alterations in cell morphology and actin fiber degradation in pancreas tumor cells. The dynamic digital holographic in vivo analysis of the drug dependent cellular processes demonstrated differences in the actin cytoskeleton stability of highly differentiated and dedifferentiated pancreas tumor cell lines. The spatial resolution of the morphological alterations revealed unequal changes in cell morphology. While cells with a low metastatic potential showed Latrunculin B induced cell collapse within 4 h the metastatic tumor cells were increased in cell volume indicating Latrunculin B effects also on cell water content. These data demonstrate that marker free, non-destructive online analysis of cellular morphology and dynamic spatial processes in living cells by digital holography offers new insights in actin dependent cellular mechanisms. Digital holographic microscopy was shown to be a versatile tool in the screening of toxic drug effects and cancer cell biology.

  2. The Hippo pathway polarizes the actin cytoskeleton during collective migration of Drosophila border cells.

    PubMed

    Lucas, Eliana P; Khanal, Ichha; Gaspar, Pedro; Fletcher, Georgina C; Polesello, Cedric; Tapon, Nicolas; Thompson, Barry J

    2013-06-10

    Collective migration of Drosophila border cells depends on a dynamic actin cytoskeleton that is highly polarized such that it concentrates around the outer rim of the migrating cluster of cells. How the actin cytoskeleton becomes polarized in these cells to enable collective movement remains unknown. Here we show that the Hippo signaling pathway links determinants of cell polarity to polarization of the actin cytoskeleton in border cells. Upstream Hippo pathway components localize to contacts between border cells inside the cluster and signal through the Hippo and Warts kinases to polarize actin and promote border cell migration. Phosphorylation of the transcriptional coactivator Yorkie (Yki)/YAP by Warts does not mediate the function of this pathway in promoting border cell migration, but rather provides negative feedback to limit the speed of migration. Instead, Warts phosphorylates and inhibits the actin regulator Ena to activate F-actin Capping protein activity on inner membranes and thereby restricts F-actin polymerization mainly to the outer rim of the migrating cluster.

  3. The Yeast Actin Cytoskeleton: from Cellular Function to Biochemical Mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Moseley, James B.; Goode, Bruce L.

    2006-01-01

    All cells undergo rapid remodeling of their actin networks to regulate such critical processes as endocytosis, cytokinesis, cell polarity, and cell morphogenesis. These events are driven by the coordinated activities of a set of 20 to 30 highly conserved actin-associated proteins, in addition to many cell-specific actin-associated proteins and numerous upstream signaling molecules. The combined activities of these factors control with exquisite precision the spatial and temporal assembly of actin structures and ensure dynamic turnover of actin structures such that cells can rapidly alter their cytoskeletons in response to internal and external cues. One of the most exciting principles to emerge from the last decade of research on actin is that the assembly of architecturally diverse actin structures is governed by highly conserved machinery and mechanisms. With this realization, it has become apparent that pioneering efforts in budding yeast have contributed substantially to defining the universal mechanisms regulating actin dynamics in eukaryotes. In this review, we first describe the filamentous actin structures found in Saccharomyces cerevisiae (patches, cables, and rings) and their physiological functions, and then we discuss in detail the specific roles of actin-associated proteins and their biochemical mechanisms of action. PMID:16959963

  4. Interconnection between actin cytoskeleton and plant defense signaling.

    PubMed

    Janda, Martin; Matoušková, Jindřiška; Burketová, Lenka; Valentová, Olga

    2014-01-01

    Actin cytoskeleton is the fundamental structural component of eukaryotic cells. It has a role in numerous elementary cellular processes such as reproduction, development and also in response to abiotic and biotic stimuli. Remarkably, the role of actin cytoskeleton in plant response to pathogens is getting to be under magnifying glass. Based on microscopic studies, most of the data showed, that actin plays an important role in formation of physiological barrier in the site of infection. Actin dynamics is involved in the transport of antimicrobial compounds and cell wall fortifying components (e.g. callose) to the site of infection. Also the role in PTI (pathogen triggered immunity) and ETI (effector triggered immunity) was recently indicated. On the other hand much less is known about the transcriptome reprogramming upon changes in actin dynamics. Our recently published results showed that drugs inhibiting actin polymerization (latrunculin B, cytochalasin E) cause the induction of genes which are involved in salicylic acid (SA) signaling pathway. In this addendum we would like to highlight in more details current state of knowledge concerning the involvement of actin dynamics in plant defense signaling.

  5. Enhanced gravitropism of roots with a disrupted cap actin cytoskeleton

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hou, Guichuan; Mohamalawari, Deepti R.; Blancaflor, Elison B.

    2003-01-01

    The actin cytoskeleton has been proposed to be a major player in plant gravitropism. However, understanding the role of actin in this process is far from complete. To address this problem, we conducted an analysis of the effect of Latrunculin B (Lat B), a potent actin-disrupting drug, on root gravitropism using various parameters that included detailed curvature kinetics, estimation of gravitropic sensitivity, and monitoring of curvature development after extended clinorotation. Lat B treatment resulted in a promotion of root curvature after a 90 degrees reorientation in three plant species tested. More significantly, the sensitivity of maize (Zea mays) roots to gravity was enhanced after actin disruption, as determined from a comparison of presentation time of Lat B-treated versus untreated roots. A short 10-min gravistimulus followed by extended rotation on a 1-rpm clinostat resulted in extensive gravitropic responses, manifested as curvature that often exceeded 90 degrees. Application of Lat B to the cap or elongation zone of maize roots resulted in the disruption of the actin cytoskeleton, which was confined to the area of localized Lat B application. Only roots with Lat B applied to the cap displayed the strong curvature responses after extended clinorotation. Our study demonstrates that disrupting the actin cytoskeleton in the cap leads to the persistence of a signal established by a previous gravistimulus. Therefore, actin could function in root gravitropism by providing a mechanism to regulate the proliferation of a gravitropic signal originating from the cap to allow the root to attain its correct orientation or set point angle.

  6. Enhanced gravitropism of roots with a disrupted cap actin cytoskeleton.

    PubMed

    Hou, Guichuan; Mohamalawari, Deepti R; Blancaflor, Elison B

    2003-03-01

    The actin cytoskeleton has been proposed to be a major player in plant gravitropism. However, understanding the role of actin in this process is far from complete. To address this problem, we conducted an analysis of the effect of Latrunculin B (Lat B), a potent actin-disrupting drug, on root gravitropism using various parameters that included detailed curvature kinetics, estimation of gravitropic sensitivity, and monitoring of curvature development after extended clinorotation. Lat B treatment resulted in a promotion of root curvature after a 90 degrees reorientation in three plant species tested. More significantly, the sensitivity of maize (Zea mays) roots to gravity was enhanced after actin disruption, as determined from a comparison of presentation time of Lat B-treated versus untreated roots. A short 10-min gravistimulus followed by extended rotation on a 1-rpm clinostat resulted in extensive gravitropic responses, manifested as curvature that often exceeded 90 degrees. Application of Lat B to the cap or elongation zone of maize roots resulted in the disruption of the actin cytoskeleton, which was confined to the area of localized Lat B application. Only roots with Lat B applied to the cap displayed the strong curvature responses after extended clinorotation. Our study demonstrates that disrupting the actin cytoskeleton in the cap leads to the persistence of a signal established by a previous gravistimulus. Therefore, actin could function in root gravitropism by providing a mechanism to regulate the proliferation of a gravitropic signal originating from the cap to allow the root to attain its correct orientation or set point angle. PMID:12644685

  7. Targeting the actin cytoskeleton: selective antitumor action via trapping PKCɛ

    PubMed Central

    Foerster, F; Braig, S; Moser, C; Kubisch, R; Busse, J; Wagner, E; Schmoeckel, E; Mayr, D; Schmitt, S; Huettel, S; Zischka, H; Mueller, R; Vollmar, A M

    2014-01-01

    Targeting the actin cytoskeleton (CSK) of cancer cells offers a valuable strategy in cancer therapy. There are a number of natural compounds that interfere with the actin CSK, but the mode of their cytotoxic action and, moreover, their tumor-specific mechanisms are quite elusive. We used the myxobacterial compound Chondramide as a tool to first elucidate the mechanisms of cytotoxicity of actin targeting in breast cancer cells (MCF7, MDA-MB-231). Chondramide inhibits cellular actin filament dynamics shown by a fluorescence-based analysis (fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP)) and leads to apoptosis characterized by phosphatidylserine exposure, release of cytochrome C from mitochondria and finally activation of caspases. Chondramide enhances the occurrence of mitochondrial permeability transition (MPT) by affecting known MPT modulators: Hexokinase II bound to the voltage-dependent anion channel (VDAC) translocated from the outer mitochondrial membrane to the cytosol and the proapoptotic protein Bad were recruited to the mitochondria. Importantly, protein kinase C-ɛ (PKCɛ), a prosurvival kinase possessing an actin-binding site and known to regulate the hexokinase/VDAC interaction as well as Bad phosphorylation was identified as the link between actin CSK and apoptosis induction. PKCɛ, which was found overexpressed in breast cancer cells, accumulated in actin bundles induced by Chondramide and lost its activity. Our second goal was to characterize the potential tumor-specific action of actin-binding agents. As the nontumor breast epithelial cell line MCF-10A in fact shows resistance to Chondramide-induced apoptosis and notably express low level of PKCɛ, we suggest that trapping PKCɛ via Chondramide-induced actin hyperpolymerization displays tumor cell specificity. Our work provides a link between targeting the ubiquitously occurring actin CSK and selective inhibition of pro-tumorigenic PKCɛ, thus setting the stage for actin-stabilizing agents as

  8. Multiscale modeling of cell shape from the actin cytoskeleton.

    PubMed

    Rangamani, Padmini; Xiong, Granville Yuguang; Iyengar, Ravi

    2014-01-01

    The actin cytoskeleton is a dynamic structure that constantly undergoes complex reorganization events during many cellular processes. Mathematical models and simulations are powerful tools that can provide insight into the physical mechanisms underlying these processes and make predictions that can be experimentally tested. Representation of the interactions of the actin filaments with the plasma membrane and the movement of the plasma membrane for computation remains a challenge. Here, we provide an overview of the different modeling approaches used to study cytoskeletal dynamics and highlight the differential geometry approach that we have used to implement the interactions between the plasma membrane and the cytoskeleton. Using cell spreading as an example, we demonstrate how this approach is able to successfully capture in simulations, experimentally observed behavior. We provide a perspective on how the differential geometry approach can be used for other biological processes. PMID:24560144

  9. Differential sensitivity to detergents of actin cytoskeleton from nerve endings.

    PubMed

    Cubí, Roger; Matas, Lluís A; Pou, Marta; Aguilera, José; Gil, Carles

    2013-11-01

    Detergent-resistant membranes (DRM), an experimental model used to study lipid rafts, are typically extracted from cells by means of detergent treatment and subsequent ultracentrifugation in density gradients, Triton X-100 being the detergent of choice in most of the works. Since lipid rafts are membrane microdomains rich in cholesterol, depletion of this component causes solubilization of DRM with detergent. In previous works from our group, the lack of effect of cholesterol depletion on DRM solubilization with Triton X-100 was detected in isolated rat brain synaptosomes. In consequence, the aim of the present work is to explore reasons for this observation, analyzing the possible role of the actin cytoskeleton, as well as the use of an alternative detergent, Brij 98, to overcome the insensitivity to Triton X-100 of cholesterol-depleted DRM. Brij 98 yields Brij-DRM that are highly dependent on cholesterol, since marker proteins (Flotillin-1 and Thy-1), as well as actin, appear solubilized after MCD treatment. Pretreatment with Latrunculin A results in a significant increase in Flotillin-1, Thy-1 and actin solubilization by Triton X-100 after cholesterol depletion. Studies with transmission electron microscopy show that combined treatment with MCD and Latrunculin A leads to a significant increase in solubilization of DRM with Triton X-100. Thus, Triton-DRM resistance to cholesterol depletion can be explained, at least partially, thanks to the scaffolding action of the actin cytoskeleton, without discarding differential effects of Brij 98 and Triton X-100 on specific membrane components. In conclusion, the detergent of choice is important when events that depend on the actin cytoskeleton are going to be studied.

  10. Chloride channel activity of ClC-2 is modified by the actin cytoskeleton.

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, N; Ramjeesingh, M; Wong, S; Varga, A; Garami, E; Bear, C E

    2000-01-01

    The chloride channel ClC-2 has been implicated in essential physiological functions, including cell-volume regulation and fluid secretion by specific epithelial tissues. Although ClC-2 is known to be activated by hyperpolarization and hypo-osmotic shock, the molecular basis for the regulation of this channel remains unclear. Here we show in the Xenopus oocyte expression system that the chloride-channel activity of ClC-2 is enhanced after treatment with the actin-disrupting agents cytochalasin and latrunkulin. These findings suggest that the actin cytoskeleton normally exerts an inhibitory effect on ClC-2 activity. An inhibitory domain was previously defined in the N-terminus of ClC-2, so we sought to determine whether this domain might interact directly with actin in binding assays in vitro. We found that a glutathione S-transferase fusion protein containing the inhibitory domain was capable of binding actin in overlay and co-sedimentation assays. Further, the binding of actin to this relatively basic peptide (pI 8.4) might be mediated through electrostatic interactions because binding was inhibited at high concentrations of NaCl with a half-maximal decrease in signal at 180 mM NaCl. This work suggests that electrostatic interactions between the N-terminus of ClC-2 and the actin cytoskeleton might have a role in the regulation of this channel. PMID:11104687

  11. Function of actin cytoskeleton in gravisensing during spaceflight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hughes-Fulford, M.

    Since astronauts and cosmonauts have significant bone loss in microgravity, we hypothesized that there would be physiological changes in cellular bone growth in the absence of gravity. Our first experiments on STS-56 demonstrated that quiescent osteoblasts activated by sera under microgravity conditions had a significant 60% reduction in growth (p<0.001) and a paradoxical 2 fold increase in release of autocrine PGE2 when compared to ground controls. In addition, there was a significant collapse of the actin cytoskeleton and loss of focal adhesions after 4 days of growth in microgravity. Other investigators have made similar observations of cytoskeletal modifications in microgravity. Later studies in Biorack on STS-76, 81 and 84 confirmed the increased release of PGE2 and collapse of the cytoskeleton in cells grown in microgravity conditions, however flown cells under 1g conditions maintained normal actin cytoskeleton and fibronectin matrix. We do not think that the changes seen in the cytoskeleton are due to alterations in fibronectin message or protein synthesis since no differences were found between microgravity, 1g or ground conditions. The nuclear structure was noticeably different in the flown 0g cells with elongation of the nucleus after 24 hours of microgravity, this alteration in nuclear structure was not seen in the 1g flown or ground control cells. Further examination of total RNA in the cells showed no significant changes between the three gravity conditions suggesting specific not general physiological changes in microgravity. When osteoblast mRNA was analyzed, the immediate early genes, c-myc and cox-2 and the autocrine growth factor FGFb were down-regulated in microgravity. The inability of the 0g grown osteoblast to respond to sera activation suggests that there is a major alteration in anabolic signal transduction under microgravity conditions, most probably through the growth factor receptors and/or the associated kinase pathways. It is still

  12. Ornithine decarboxylase and extracellular polyamines regulate microvascular sprouting and actin cytoskeleton dynamics in endothelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Kucharzewska, Paulina; Welch, Johanna E.; Svensson, Katrin J.; Belting, Mattias

    2010-10-01

    The polyamines are essential for cancer cell proliferation during tumorigenesis. Targeted inhibition of ornithine decarboxylase (ODC), i.e. a key enzyme of polyamine biosynthesis, by {alpha}-difluoromethylornithine (DFMO) has shown anti-neoplastic activity in various experimental models. This activity has mainly been attributed to the anti-proliferative effect of DFMO in cancer cells. Here, we provide evidence that unperturbed ODC activity is a requirement for proper microvessel sprouting ex vivo as well as the migration of primary human endothelial cells. DFMO-mediated ODC inhibition was reversed by extracellular polyamine supplementation, showing that anti-angiogenic effects of DFMO were specifically related to polyamine levels. ODC inhibition was associated with an abnormal morphology of the actin cytoskeleton during cell spreading and migration. Moreover, our data suggest that de-regulated actin cytoskeleton dynamics in DFMO treated endothelial cells may be related to constitutive activation of the small GTPase CDC42, i.e. a well-known regulator of cell motility and actin cytoskeleton remodeling. These insights into the potential role of polyamines in angiogenesis should stimulate further studies testing the combined anti-tumor effect of polyamine inhibition and established anti-angiogenic therapies in vivo.

  13. The actin cytoskeleton differentially regulates platelet alpha-granule and dense-granule secretion.

    PubMed

    Flaumenhaft, Robert; Dilks, James R; Rozenvayn, Nataliya; Monahan-Earley, Rita A; Feng, Dian; Dvorak, Ann M

    2005-05-15

    Stimulation of platelets with strong agonists results in centralization of cytoplasmic organelles and secretion of granules. These observations have led to the supposition that cytoskeletal contraction facilitates granule release by promoting the interaction of granules with one another and with membranes of the open canalicular system. Yet, the influence of the actin cytoskeleton in controlling the membrane fusion events that mediate granule secretion remains largely unknown. To evaluate the role of the actin cytoskeleton in platelet granule secretion, we have assessed the effects of latrunculin A and cytochalasin E on granule secretion. Exposure of platelets to low concentrations of these reagents resulted in acceleration and augmentation of agonist-induced alpha-granule secretion with comparatively modest effects on dense granule secretion. In contrast, exposure of platelets to high concentrations of latrunculin A inhibited agonist-induced alpha-granule secretion but stimulated dense granule secretion. Incubation of permeabilized platelets with low concentrations of latrunculin A primed platelets for Ca(2+)- or guanosine triphosphate (GTP)-gamma-S-induced alpha-granule secretion. Latrunculin A-dependent alpha-granule secretion was inhibited by antibodies directed at vesicle-associated membrane protein (VAMP), demonstrating that latrunculin A supports soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptor (SNARE) protein-dependent membrane fusion. These results indicate that the actin cytoskeleton interferes with platelet exocytosis and differentially regulates alpha-granule and dense granule secretion. PMID:15671445

  14. Human Muscle LIM Protein Dimerizes along the Actin Cytoskeleton and Cross-Links Actin Filaments

    PubMed Central

    Hoffmann, Céline; Moreau, Flora; Moes, Michèle; Luthold, Carole; Dieterle, Monika; Goretti, Emeline; Neumann, Katrin; Steinmetz, André

    2014-01-01

    The muscle LIM protein (MLP) is a nucleocytoplasmic shuttling protein playing important roles in the regulation of myocyte remodeling and adaptation to hypertrophic stimuli. Missense mutations in human MLP or its ablation in transgenic mice promotes cardiomyopathy and heart failure. The exact function(s) of MLP in the cytoplasmic compartment and the underlying molecular mechanisms remain largely unknown. Here, we provide evidence that MLP autonomously binds to, stabilizes, and bundles actin filaments (AFs) independently of calcium and pH. Using total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy, we have shown how MLP cross-links actin filaments into both unipolar and mixed-polarity bundles. Quantitative analysis of the actin cytoskeleton configuration confirmed that MLP substantially promotes actin bundling in live myoblasts. In addition, bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC) assays revealed MLP self-association. Remarkably, BiFC complexes mostly localize along actin filament-rich structures, such as stress fibers and sarcomeres, supporting a functional link between MLP self-association and actin cross-linking. Finally, we have demonstrated that MLP self-associates through its N-terminal LIM domain, whereas it binds to AFs through its C-terminal LIM domain. Together our data support that MLP contributes to the maintenance of cardiomyocyte cytoarchitecture by a mechanism involving its self-association and actin filament cross-linking. PMID:24934443

  15. The Yeast Gene, MDM20, Is Necessary for Mitochondrial Inheritance and Organization of the Actin Cytoskeleton

    PubMed Central

    Hermann, Greg J.; King, Edward J.; Shaw, Janet M.

    1997-01-01

    In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the growing bud inherits a portion of the mitochondrial network from the mother cell soon after it emerges. Although this polarized transport of mitochondria is thought to require functions of the cytoskeleton, there are conflicting reports concerning the nature of the cytoskeletal element involved. Here we report the isolation of a yeast mutant, mdm20, in which both mitochondrial inheritance and actin cables (bundles of actin filaments) are disrupted. The MDM20 gene encodes a 93-kD polypeptide with no homology to other characterized proteins. Extra copies of TPM1, a gene encoding the actin filament–binding protein tropomyosin, suppress mitochondrial inheritance defects and partially restore actin cables in mdm20Δ cells. Synthetic lethality is also observed between mdm20 and tpm1 mutant strains. Overexpression of a second yeast tropomyosin, Tpm2p, rescues mutant phenotypes in the mdm20 strain to a lesser extent. Together, these results provide compelling evidence that mitochondrial inheritance in yeast is an actin-mediated process. MDM20 and TPM1 also exhibit the same pattern of genetic interactions; mutations in MDM20 are synthetically lethal with mutations in BEM2 and MYO2 but not SAC6. Although MDM20 and TPM1 are both required for the formation and/or stabilization of actin cables, mutations in these genes disrupt mitochondrial inheritance and nuclear segregation to different extents. Thus, Mdm20p and Tpm1p may act in vivo to establish molecular and functional heterogeneity of the actin cytoskeleton. PMID:9105043

  16. The actin cytoskeleton participates in the early events of autophagosome formation upon starvation induced autophagy

    PubMed Central

    Aguilera, Milton Osmar; Berón, Walter; Colombo, María Isabel

    2012-01-01

    Autophagy is a process by which cytoplasmic material is sequestered in a double-membrane vesicle destined for degradation. Nutrient deprivation stimulates the pathway and the number of autophagosomes in the cell increases in response to such stimulus. In the current report we have demonstrated that actin is necessary for starvation-mediated autophagy. When the actin cytoskeleton is depolymerized, the increase in autophagic vacuoles in response to the starvation stimulus was abolished without affecting maturation of remaining autophagosomes. In addition, actin filaments colocalized with ATG14, BECN1/Beclin1 and PtdIns3P-rich structures, and some of them have a typical omegasome shape stained with the double FYVE domain or ZFYVE1/DFCP1. In contrast, no major colocalization between actin and ULK1, ULK2, ATG5 or MAP1LC3/LC3 was observed. Taken together, our data indicate that actin has a role at very early stages of autophagosome formation linked to the PtdIns3P generation step. In addition, we have found that two members of the Rho family of proteins, RHOA and RAC1 have a regulatory function on starvation-mediated autophagy, but with opposite roles. Indeed, RHOA has an activatory role whereas Rac has an inhibitory one. We have also found that inhibition of the RHOA effector ROCK impaired the starvation-mediated autophagic response. We propose that actin participates in the initial membrane remodeling stage when cells require an enhanced rate of autophagosome formation, and this actin function would be tightly regulated by different members of the Rho family. PMID:22863730

  17. The actin cytoskeleton participates in the early events of autophagosome formation upon starvation induced autophagy.

    PubMed

    Aguilera, Milton Osmar; Berón, Walter; Colombo, María Isabel

    2012-11-01

    Autophagy is a process by which cytoplasmic material is sequestered in a double-membrane vesicle destined for degradation. Nutrient deprivation stimulates the pathway and the number of autophagosomes in the cell increases in response to such stimulus. In the current report we have demonstrated that actin is necessary for starvation-mediated autophagy. When the actin cytoskeleton is depolymerized, the increase in autophagic vacuoles in response to the starvation stimulus was abolished without affecting maturation of remaining autophagosomes. In addition, actin filaments colocalized with ATG14, BECN1/Beclin1 and PtdIns3P-rich structures, and some of them have a typical omegasome shape stained with the double FYVE domain or ZFYVE1/DFCP1. In contrast, no major colocalization between actin and ULK1, ULK2, ATG5 or MAP1LC3/LC3 was observed. Taken together, our data indicate that actin has a role at very early stages of autophagosome formation linked to the PtdIns3P generation step. In addition, we have found that two members of the Rho family of proteins, RHOA and RAC1 have a regulatory function on starvation-mediated autophagy, but with opposite roles. Indeed, RHOA has an activatory role whereas Rac has an inhibitory one. We have also found that inhibition of the RHOA effector ROCK impaired the starvation-mediated autophagic response. We propose that actin participates in the initial membrane remodeling stage when cells require an enhanced rate of autophagosome formation, and this actin function would be tightly regulated by different members of the Rho family.

  18. RhoA Regulates Peroxisome Association to Microtubules and the Actin Cytoskeleton

    PubMed Central

    Lay, Dorothee; Wiese, Sebastian; Meyer, Helmut E.; Warscheid, Bettina; Saffrich, Rainer; Peränen, Johan; Gorgas, Karin; Just, Wilhelm W.

    2010-01-01

    The current view of peroxisome inheritance provides for the formation of new peroxisomes by both budding from the endoplasmic reticulum and autonomous division. Here we investigate peroxisome-cytoskeleton interactions and show by proteomics, biochemical and immunofluorescence analyses that actin, non-muscle myosin IIA (NMM IIA), RhoA, Rho kinase II (ROCKII) and Rab8 associate with peroxisomes. Our data provide evidence that (i) RhoA in its inactive state, maintained for example by C. botulinum toxin exoenzyme C3, dissociates from peroxisomes enabling microtubule-based peroxisomal movements and (ii) dominant-active RhoA targets to peroxisomes, uncouples the organelles from microtubules and favors Rho kinase recruitment to peroxisomes. We suggest that ROCKII activates NMM IIA mediating local peroxisomal constrictions. Although our understanding of peroxisome-cytoskeleton interactions is still incomplete, a picture is emerging demonstrating alternate RhoA-dependent association of peroxisomes to the microtubular and actin cytoskeleton. Whereas association of peroxisomes to microtubules clearly serves bidirectional, long-range saltatory movements, peroxisome-acto-myosin interactions may support biogenetic functions balancing peroxisome size, shape, number, and clustering. PMID:21079737

  19. The Plasma Membrane Potential and the Organization of the Actin Cytoskeleton of Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Chifflet, Silvia; Hernández, Julio A.

    2012-01-01

    The establishment and maintenance of the polarized epithelial phenotype require a characteristic organization of the cytoskeletal components. There are many cellular effectors involved in the regulation of the cytoskeleton of epithelial cells. Recently, modifications in the plasma membrane potential (PMP) have been suggested to participate in the modulation of the cytoskeletal organization of epithelia. Here, we review evidence showing that changes in the PMP of diverse epithelial cells promote characteristic modifications in the cytoskeletal organization, with a focus on the actin cytoskeleton. The molecular paths mediating these effects may include voltage-sensitive integral membrane proteins and/or peripheral proteins sensitive to surface potentials. The voltage dependence of the cytoskeletal organization seems to have implications in several physiological processes, including epithelial wound healing and apoptosis. PMID:22315611

  20. The actin cytoskeleton may control the polar distribution of an auxin transport protein

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muday, G. K.; Hu, S.; Brady, S. R.; Davies, E. (Principal Investigator)

    2000-01-01

    The gravitropic bending of plants has long been linked to the changes in the transport of the plant hormone auxin. To understand the mechanism by which gravity alters auxin movement, it is critical to know how polar auxin transport is initially established. In shoots, polar auxin transport is basipetal (i.e., from the shoot apex toward the base). It is driven by the basal localization of the auxin efflux carrier complex. One mechanism for localizing this efflux carrier complex to the basal membrane may be through attachment to the actin cytoskeleton. The efflux carrier protein complex is believed to consist of several polypeptides, including a regulatory subunit that binds auxin transport inhibitors, such as naphthylphthalamic acid (NPA). Several lines of experimentation have been used to determine if the NPA binding protein interacts with actin filaments. The NPA binding protein has been shown to partition with the actin cytoskeleton during detergent extraction. Agents that specifically alter the polymerization state of the actin cytoskeleton change the amount of NPA binding protein and actin recovered in these cytoskeletal pellets. Actin-affinity columns were prepared with polymers of actin purified from zucchini hypocotyl tissue. NPA binding activity was eluted in a single peak from the actin filament column. Cytochalasin D, which fragments the actin cytoskeleton, was shown to reduce polar auxin transport in zucchini hypocotyls. The interaction of the NPA binding protein with the actin cytoskeleton may localize it in one plane of the plasma membrane, and thereby control the polarity of auxin transport.

  1. Aurora A kinase modulates actin cytoskeleton through phosphorylation of Cofilin: Implication in the mitotic process.

    PubMed

    Ritchey, Lisa; Chakrabarti, Ratna

    2014-11-01

    Aurora A kinase regulates early mitotic events through phosphorylation and activation of a variety of proteins. Specifically, Aur-A is involved in centrosomal separation and formation of mitotic spindles in early prophase. The effect of Aur-A on mitotic spindles is mediated by the modulation of microtubule dynamics and association with microtubule binding proteins. In this study we show that Aur-A exerts its effects on spindle organization through the regulation of the actin cytoskeleton. Aurora A phosphorylates Cofilin at multiple sites including S(3) resulting in the inactivation of its actin depolymerizing function. Aur-A interacts with Cofilin in early mitotic phases and regulates its phosphorylation status. Cofilin phosphorylation follows a dynamic pattern during the progression of prophase to metaphase. Inhibition of Aur-A activity induced a delay in the progression of prophase to metaphase. Aur-A inhibitor also disturbed the pattern of Cofilin phosphorylation, which correlated with the mitotic delay. Our results establish a novel function of Aur-A in the regulation of actin cytoskeleton reorganization, through Cofilin phosphorylation during early mitotic stages.

  2. Alteration of the Cortical Actin Cytoskeleton Deregulates Ca2+ Signaling, Monospermic Fertilization, and Sperm Entry

    PubMed Central

    Puppo, A.; Chun, Jong T.; Gragnaniello, Giovanni; Garante, Ezio; Santella, Luigia

    2008-01-01

    Background When preparing for fertilization, oocytes undergo meiotic maturation during which structural changes occur in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) that lead to a more efficient calcium response. During meiotic maturation and subsequent fertilization, the actin cytoskeleton also undergoes dramatic restructuring. We have recently observed that rearrangements of the actin cytoskeleton induced by actin-depolymerizing agents, or by actin-binding proteins, strongly modulate intracellular calcium (Ca2+) signals during the maturation process. However, the significance of the dynamic changes in F-actin within the fertilized egg has been largely unclear. Methodology/Principal Findings We have measured changes in intracellular Ca2+ signals and F-actin structures during fertilization. We also report the unexpected observation that the conventional antagonist of the InsP3 receptor, heparin, hyperpolymerizes the cortical actin cytoskeleton in postmeiotic eggs. Using heparin and other pharmacological agents that either hypo- or hyperpolymerize the cortical actin, we demonstrate that nearly all aspects of the fertilization process are profoundly affected by the dynamic restructuring of the egg cortical actin cytoskeleton. Conclusions/Significance Our findings identify important roles for subplasmalemmal actin fibers in the process of sperm-egg interaction and in the subsequent events related to fertilization: the generation of Ca2+ signals, sperm penetration, cortical granule exocytosis, and the block to polyspermy. PMID:18974786

  3. Fluorescent labelling of the actin cytoskeleton in plants using a cameloid antibody

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Certain members of the Camelidae family produce a special type of antibody with only one heavy chain. The antigen binding domains are the smallest functional fragments of these heavy-chain only antibodies and as a consequence have been termed nanobodies. Discovery of these nanobodies has allowed the development of a number of therapeutic proteins and tools. In this study a class of nanobodies fused to fluorescent proteins (chromobodies), and therefore allowing antigen-binding and visualisation by fluorescence, have been used. Such chromobodies can be expressed in living cells and used as genetically encoded immunocytochemical markers. Results Here a modified version of the commercially available Actin-Chromobody® as a novel tool for visualising actin dynamics in tobacco leaf cells was tested. The actin-chromobody binds to actin in a specific manner. Treatment with latrunculin B, a drug which disrupts the actin cytoskeleton through inhibition of polymerisation results in loss of fluorescence after less than 30 min but this can be rapidly restored by washing out latrunculin B and thereby allowing the actin filaments to repolymerise. To test the effect of the actin-chromobody on actin dynamics and compare it to one of the conventional labelling probes, Lifeact, the effect of both probes on Golgi movement was studied as the motility of Golgi bodies is largely dependent on the actin cytoskeleton. With the actin-chromobody expressed in cells, Golgi body movement was slowed down but the manner of movement rather than speed was affected less than with Lifeact. Conclusions The actin-chromobody technique presented in this study provides a novel option for in vivo labelling of the actin cytoskeleton in comparison to conventionally used probes that are based on actin binding proteins. The actin-chromobody is particularly beneficial to study actin dynamics in plant cells as it does label actin without impairing dynamic movement and polymerisation of the actin

  4. Yeast Eps15-like endocytic protein Pan1p regulates the interaction between endocytic vesicles, endosomes and the actin cytoskeleton

    PubMed Central

    Toshima, Junko Y; Furuya, Eri; Nagano, Makoto; Kanno, Chisa; Sakamoto, Yuta; Ebihara, Masashi; Siekhaus, Daria Elisabeth; Toshima, Jiro

    2016-01-01

    The actin cytoskeleton plays important roles in the formation and internalization of endocytic vesicles. In yeast, endocytic vesicles move towards early endosomes along actin cables, however, the molecular machinery regulating interaction between endocytic vesicles and actin cables is poorly understood. The Eps15-like protein Pan1p plays a key role in actin-mediated endocytosis and is negatively regulated by Ark1 and Prk1 kinases. Here we show that pan1 mutated to prevent phosphorylation at all 18 threonines, pan1-18TA, displayed almost the same endocytic defect as ark1Δ prk1Δ cells, and contained abnormal actin concentrations including several endocytic compartments. Early endosomes were highly localized in the actin concentrations and displayed movement along actin cables. The dephosphorylated form of Pan1p also caused stable associations between endocytic vesicles and actin cables, and between endocytic vesicles and endosomes. Thus Pan1 phosphorylation is part of a novel mechanism that regulates endocytic compartment interactions with each other and with actin cables. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.10276.001 PMID:26914139

  5. Citron-N is a neuronal Rho-associated protein involved in Golgi organization through actin cytoskeleton regulation.

    PubMed

    Camera, Paola; da Silva, Jorge Santos; Griffiths, Gareth; Giuffrida, Maria Gabriella; Ferrara, Luciana; Schubert, Vanessa; Imarisio, Sara; Silengo, Lorenzo; Dotti, Carlos G; Di Cunto, Ferdinando

    2003-12-01

    The actin cytoskeleton is best known for its role during cellular morphogenesis. However, other evidence suggests that actin is also crucial for the organization and dynamics of membrane organelles such as endosomes and the Golgi complex. As in morphogenesis, the Rho family of small GTPases are key mediators of organelle actin-driven events, although it is unclear how these ubiquitously distributed proteins are activated to regulate actin dynamics in an organelle-specific manner. Here we show that the brain-specific Rho-binding protein Citron-N is enriched at, and associates with, the Golgi apparatus of hippocampal neurons in culture. Suppression of the whole protein or expression of a mutant form lacking the Rho-binding activity results in dispersion of the Golgi apparatus. In contrast, high intracellular levels induce localized accumulation of RhoA and filamentous actin, protecting the Golgi from the rupture normally produced by actin depolymerization. Biochemical and functional analyses indicate that Citron-N controls actin locally by assembling together the Rho effector ROCK-II and the actin-binding, neuron-specific, protein Profilin-IIa (PIIa). Together with recent data on endosomal dynamics, our results highlight the importance of organelle-specific Rho modulators for actin-dependent organelle organization and dynamics.

  6. Live-Cell Imaging of Mitochondria and the Actin Cytoskeleton in Budding Yeast.

    PubMed

    Higuchi-Sanabria, Ryo; Swayne, Theresa C; Boldogh, Istvan R; Pon, Liza A

    2016-01-01

    Maintenance and regulation of proper mitochondrial dynamics and functions are necessary for cellular homeostasis. Numerous diseases, including neurodegeneration and muscle myopathies, and overall cellular aging are marked by declining mitochondrial function and subsequent loss of multiple other cellular functions. For these reasons, optimized protocols are needed for visualization and quantification of mitochondria and their function and fitness. In budding yeast, mitochondria are intimately associated with the actin cytoskeleton and utilize actin for their movement and inheritance. This chapter describes optimal approaches for labeling mitochondria and the actin cytoskeleton in living budding yeast cells, for imaging the labeled cells, and for analyzing the resulting images. PMID:26498778

  7. Actin cytoskeleton demonstration in Trichomonas vaginalis and in other trichomonads.

    PubMed

    Brugerolle, G; Bricheux, G; Coffe, G

    1996-01-01

    The flagellate form of Trichomonas vaginalis (T v) transforms to amoeboid cells upon adherence to converslips. They grow and their nuclei divide without undergoing cytokinesis, yielding giant cells and a monolayer of T v F-actin was demonstrated in Trichomonas vaginalis by fluorescence microscopy using phalloidin and an anti-actin mAb which labelled the cytoplasm of both the flagellate and amoeboid forms. Comparative electrophoresis and immunoblotting established that the actin band has the same 42 kDa as muscle actin, but 2-D electrophoresis resolved the actin band into four spots; the two major spots observed were superimposable with major muscle actin isoforms. Electron microscopy demonstrated an ectoplasmic microfibrillar layer along the adhesion zone of amoeboid T v adhering to coverslips. Immunogold staining, using anti-actin monoclonal antibodies demonstrated that this layer was mainly composed of actin microfilaments. A comparative immunoblotting study comprising seven trichomonad species showed that all trichomonads studied expressed actin. The mAb Sigma A-4700 specific for an epitope on the actin C-terminal sequence labelled only actin of Trichomonas vaginalis, Tetratrichomonas gallinarum. Trichomitus batrachorum and Hypotrichomonas acosta, but not the actin of Tritrichomonas foetus, Tritrichomonas augusta and Monocercomonas sp. This discrimination between a 'trichomonas branch' and a 'tritrichomonas branch' is congruent with inferred sequence phylogeny from SSu rRNA and with classical phylogeny of trichomonads. PMID:9175265

  8. Androgens Regulate T47D Cells Motility and Invasion through Actin Cytoskeleton Remodeling

    PubMed Central

    Montt-Guevara, Maria Magdalena; Shortrede, Jorge Eduardo; Giretti, Maria Silvia; Giannini, Andrea; Mannella, Paolo; Russo, Eleonora; Genazzani, Alessandro David; Simoncini, Tommaso

    2016-01-01

    The relationship between androgens and breast cancer is controversial. Androgens have complex effects on breast cancer progression and metastasis. Moreover, androgen receptor (AR) is expressed in approximately 70 to 90% of invasive breast carcinomas, which has prognostic relevance in basal-like cancers and in triple-negative breast cancers. Recent studies have associated the actin-binding proteins of the ezrin–radixin–moesin (ERM) family with metastasis in endocrine-sensitive cancers. We studied on T47D breast cancer cells whether androgens with different characteristics, such as testosterone (T), dihydrotestosterone (DHT), and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) may regulate breast cancer cell motility and invasion through the control of actin remodeling. We demonstrate that androgens promote migration and invasion in T47D via Moesin activation. We show that T and DHEA exert their actions via the AR and estrogen receptor (ER), while the non-aromatizable androgen – DHT – only recruits AR. We further report that androgen induced significant changes in actin organization with pseudopodia along with membrane ruffles formation, and this process is mediated by Moesin. Our work identifies novel mechanisms of action of androgens on breast cancer cells. Through the modulation of Moesin, androgens alter the architecture of cytoskeleton in T47D breast cancer cell and promote cell migration and invasion. These results could help to understand the biological actions of androgens on breast cancer and, eventually, to develop new strategies for breast cancer treatment. PMID:27746764

  9. Tropomyosin - master regulator of actin filament function in the cytoskeleton.

    PubMed

    Gunning, Peter W; Hardeman, Edna C; Lappalainen, Pekka; Mulvihill, Daniel P

    2015-08-15

    Tropomyosin (Tpm) isoforms are the master regulators of the functions of individual actin filaments in fungi and metazoans. Tpms are coiled-coil parallel dimers that form a head-to-tail polymer along the length of actin filaments. Yeast only has two Tpm isoforms, whereas mammals have over 40. Each cytoskeletal actin filament contains a homopolymer of Tpm homodimers, resulting in a filament of uniform Tpm composition along its length. Evidence for this 'master regulator' role is based on four core sets of observation. First, spatially and functionally distinct actin filaments contain different Tpm isoforms, and recent data suggest that members of the formin family of actin filament nucleators can specify which Tpm isoform is added to the growing actin filament. Second, Tpms regulate whole-organism physiology in terms of morphogenesis, cell proliferation, vesicle trafficking, biomechanics, glucose metabolism and organ size in an isoform-specific manner. Third, Tpms achieve these functional outputs by regulating the interaction of actin filaments with myosin motors and actin-binding proteins in an isoform-specific manner. Last, the assembly of complex structures, such as stress fibers and podosomes involves the collaboration of multiple types of actin filament specified by their Tpm composition. This allows the cell to specify actin filament function in time and space by simply specifying their Tpm isoform composition.

  10. Tropomyosin - master regulator of actin filament function in the cytoskeleton.

    PubMed

    Gunning, Peter W; Hardeman, Edna C; Lappalainen, Pekka; Mulvihill, Daniel P

    2015-08-15

    Tropomyosin (Tpm) isoforms are the master regulators of the functions of individual actin filaments in fungi and metazoans. Tpms are coiled-coil parallel dimers that form a head-to-tail polymer along the length of actin filaments. Yeast only has two Tpm isoforms, whereas mammals have over 40. Each cytoskeletal actin filament contains a homopolymer of Tpm homodimers, resulting in a filament of uniform Tpm composition along its length. Evidence for this 'master regulator' role is based on four core sets of observation. First, spatially and functionally distinct actin filaments contain different Tpm isoforms, and recent data suggest that members of the formin family of actin filament nucleators can specify which Tpm isoform is added to the growing actin filament. Second, Tpms regulate whole-organism physiology in terms of morphogenesis, cell proliferation, vesicle trafficking, biomechanics, glucose metabolism and organ size in an isoform-specific manner. Third, Tpms achieve these functional outputs by regulating the interaction of actin filaments with myosin motors and actin-binding proteins in an isoform-specific manner. Last, the assembly of complex structures, such as stress fibers and podosomes involves the collaboration of multiple types of actin filament specified by their Tpm composition. This allows the cell to specify actin filament function in time and space by simply specifying their Tpm isoform composition. PMID:26240174

  11. Alterations of the apical junctional complex and actin cytoskeleton and their role in colorectal cancer progression

    PubMed Central

    Gehren, Adriana Sartorio; Rocha, Murilo Ramos; de Souza, Waldemir Fernandes; Morgado-Díaz, José Andrés

    2015-01-01

    Colorectal cancer represents the fourth highest mortality rate among cancer types worldwide. An understanding of the molecular mechanisms that regulate their progression can prevents or reduces mortality due to this disease. Epithelial cells present an apical junctional complex connected to the actin cytoskeleton, which maintains the dynamic properties of this complex, tissue architecture and cell homeostasis. Several studies have indicated that apical junctional complex alterations and actin cytoskeleton disorganization play a critical role in epithelial cancer progression. However, few studies have examined the existence of an interrelation between these 2 components, particularly in colorectal cancer. This review discusses the recent progress toward elucidating the role of alterations of apical junctional complex constituents and of modifications of actin cytoskeleton organization and discusses how these events are interlinked to modulate cellular responses related to colorectal cancer progression toward successful metastasis. PMID:26451338

  12. Evidence for physical and functional interactions among two Saccharomyces cerevisiae SH3 domain proteins, an adenylyl cyclase-associated protein and the actin cytoskeleton.

    PubMed Central

    Lila, T; Drubin, D G

    1997-01-01

    In a variety of organisms, a number of proteins associated with the cortical actin cytoskeleton contain SH3 domains, suggesting that these domains may provide the physical basis for functional interactions among structural and regulatory proteins in the actin cytoskeleton. We present evidence that SH3 domains mediate at least two independent functions of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae actin-binding protein Abp1p in vivo. Abp1p contains a single SH3 domain that has recently been shown to bind in vitro to the adenylyl cyclase-associated protein Srv2p. Immunofluorescence analysis of Srv2p subcellular localization in strains carrying mutations in either ABP1 or SRV2 reveals that the Abp1p SH3 domain mediates the normal association of Srv2p with the cortical actin cytoskeleton. We also show that a site in Abp1p itself is specifically bound by the SH3 domain of the actin-associated protein Rvs167p. Genetic analysis provides evidence that Abp1p and Rvs167p have functions that are closely interrelated. Abp1 null mutations, like rvs167 mutations, result in defects in sporulation and reduced viability under certain suboptimal growth conditions. In addition, mutations in ABP1 and RVS167 yield similar profiles of genetic "synthetic lethal" interactions when combined with mutations in genes encoding other cytoskeletal components. Mutations which specifically disrupt the SH3 domain-mediated interaction between Abp1p and Srv2p, however, show none of the shared phenotypes of abp1 and rvs167 mutations. We conclude that the Abp1p SH3 domain mediates the association of Srv2p with the cortical actin cytoskeleton, and that Abp1p performs a distinct function that is likely to involve binding by the Rvs167p SH3 domain. Overall, work presented here illustrates how SH3 domains can integrate the activities of multiple actin cytoskeleton proteins in response to varying environmental conditions. Images PMID:9190214

  13. Actin-cytoskeleton dynamics in non-monotonic cell spreading

    PubMed Central

    Heinrich, Doris; Youssef, Simon; Schroth-Diez, Britta; Engel, Ulrike; Aydin, Daniel; Blümmel, Jacques; Spatz, Joachim P

    2008-01-01

    The spreading of motile cells on a substrate surface is accompanied by reorganization of their actin network. We show that spreading in the highly motile cells of Dictyostelium is non-monotonic, and thus differs from the passage of spreading cells through a regular series of stages. Quantification of the gain and loss of contact area revealed fluctuating forces of protrusion and retraction that dominate the interaction of Dictyostelium cells with a substrate. The molecular basis of these fluctuations is elucidated by dual-fluorescence labeling of filamentous actin together with proteins that highlight specific activities in the actin system. Front-to-tail polarity is established by the sorting out of myosin-II from regions where dense actin assemblies are accumulating. Myosin-IB identifies protruding front regions, and the Arp2/3 complex localizes to lamellipodia protruded from the fronts. Coronin is used as a sensitive indicator of actin disassembly to visualize the delicate balance of polymerization and depolymerization in spreading cells. Short-lived actin patches that co-localize with clathrin suggest that membrane internalization occurs even when the substrate-attached cell surface expands. We conclude that non-monotonic cell spreading is characterized by spatiotemporal patterns formed by motor proteins together with regulatory proteins that either promote or terminate actin polymerization on the scale of seconds. PMID:19262103

  14. Probing the role of the actin cytoskeleton during regulated exocytosis by intravital microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Milberg, Oleg; Tora, Muhibullah; Shitara, Akiko; Masedunskas, Andrius

    2015-01-01

    Summary The actin cytoskeleton plays a fundamental role in controlling several steps during regulated exocytosis. Here we describe a combination of procedures that are aimed at studying the dynamics and the mechanism of the actin cytoskeleton in the salivary glands of live rodents, a model for exocrine secretion. Our approach relies on intravital microscopy, an imaging technique that enables imaging biological events in live animals at a subcellular resolution, and it is complemented by the use of pharmacological agents and indirect immunofluorescence in the salivary tissue. PMID:24947398

  15. Actin Cytoskeleton-Based Plant Synapse as Gravitransducer in the Transition Zone of the Root Apex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baluska, Frantisek; Barlow, Peter; Volkmann, Dieter; Mancuso, Stefano

    The actin cytoskeleton was originally proposed to act as the signal transducer in the plant gravity sensory-motoric circuit. Surprisingly, however, several studies have documented that roots perfom gravisensing and gravitropism more effectively if exposed to diverse anti-F-actin drugs. Our study, using decapped maize root apices, has revealed that depolymerization of F-actin stimulates gravity perception in cells of the transition zone where root gravitropism is initiated (Mancuso et al. 2006). It has been proposed (Balǔka et al. 2005, 2009a) that s the non-growing adhesive end-poles, enriched with F-actin and myosin VIII, and active in endocytic recycling of both PIN transporters and cell wall pectins cross-linked with calcium and boron, act as the gravisensing domains, and that these impinge directly upon the root motoric responses via control of polar auxin transport. This model suggests that mechanical asymmetry at these plant synapses determines vectorial gravity-controlled auxin transport. Due to the gravity-imposed mechanical load upon the protoplast, a tensional stress is also imposed upon the plasma membrane of the physically lower synaptic cell pole. This stress is then relieved by shifting the endocytosis-exocytosis balance towards exocytosis (Balǔka et al. s 2005, 2009a,b). This `Synaptic Auxin Secretion' hypothesis does not conflict with the `Starch Statolith' hypothesis, which is based on amyloplast sedimentation. In fact, the `Synaptic Auxin Secretion' hypothesis has many elements which allow its unification with the Starch-Statolith model (Balǔka et al. 2005, 2009a,b). s References Balǔka F, Volkmann D, Menzel D (2005) Plant synapses: actin-based adhesion s domains for cell-to-cell communication. Trends Plant Sci 10: 106-111 Balǔka F, Schlicht M, s Wan Y-L, Burbach C, Volkmann D (2009a) Intracellular domains and polarity in root apices: from synaptic domains to plant neurobiology. Nova Acta Leopoldina 96: 103-122 Balǔka s F, Mancuso S

  16. Cadherin controls nectin recruitment into adherens junctions by remodeling the actin cytoskeleton

    PubMed Central

    Troyanovsky, Regina B.; Indra, Indrajyoti; Chen, Chi-Shuo; Hong, Soonjin; Troyanovsky, Sergey M.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The mechanism that coordinates activities of different adhesion receptors is poorly understood. We investigated this mechanism by focusing on the nectin-2 and E-cadherin adherens junction receptors. We found that, cadherin was not required for the basic process of nectin junction formation because nectin-2 formed junctions in cadherin-deficient A431D cells. Formation of nectin-2 junctions in these cells, however, became regulated by cadherin as soon as E-cadherin was re-expressed. E-cadherin recruited nectin-2 into adherens junctions, where both proteins formed distinct but tightly associated clusters. Live-cell imaging showed that the appearance of E-cadherin clusters often preceded that of nectin-2 clusters at sites of junction assembly. Inactivation of E-cadherin clustering by different strategies concomitantly suppressed the formation of nectin clusters. Furthermore, cadherin significantly increased the stability of nectin clusters, thereby making them resistant to the BC-12 antibody, which targets the nectin-2 adhesion interface. By testing different E-cadherin–α-catenin chimeras, we showed that the recruitment of nectin into chimera junctions is mediated by the actin-binding domain of α-catenin. Our data suggests that E-cadherin regulates assembly of nectin junctions through α-catenin-induced remodeling of the actin cytoskeleton around the cadherin clusters. PMID:25395582

  17. Axon initial segment cytoskeleton comprises a multiprotein submembranous coat containing sparse actin filaments

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Steven L.; Korobova, Farida

    2014-01-01

    The axon initial segment (AIS) of differentiated neurons regulates action potential initiation and axon–dendritic polarity. The latter function depends on actin dynamics, but actin structure and functions at the AIS remain unclear. Using platinum replica electron microscopy (PREM), we have characterized the architecture of the AIS cytoskeleton in mature and developing hippocampal neurons. The AIS cytoskeleton assembly begins with bundling of microtubules and culminates in formation of a dense, fibrillar–globular coat over microtubule bundles. Immunogold PREM revealed that the coat contains a network of known AIS proteins, including ankyrin G, spectrin βIV, neurofascin, neuronal cell adhesion molecule, voltage-gated sodium channels, and actin filaments. Contrary to existing models, we find neither polarized actin arrays, nor dense actin meshworks in the AIS. Instead, the AIS contains two populations of sparse actin filaments: short, stable filaments and slightly longer dynamic filaments. We propose that stable actin filaments play a structural role for formation of the AIS diffusion barrier, whereas dynamic actin may promote AIS coat remodeling. PMID:24711503

  18. Actin-cytoskeleton rearrangement modulates proton-induced uptake

    SciTech Connect

    Ben-Dov, Nadav; Korenstein, Rafi

    2013-04-15

    Recently it has been shown that elevating proton concentration at the cell surface stimulates the formation of membrane invaginations and vesicles accompanied by an enhanced uptake of macromolecules. While the initial induction of inward membrane curvature was rationalized in terms of proton-based increase of charge asymmetry across the membrane, the mechanisms underlying vesicle formation and its scission are still unknown. In light of the critical role of actin in vesicle formation during endocytosis, the present study addresses the involvement of cytoskeletal actin in proton-induced uptake (PIU). The uptake of dextran-FITC is used as a measure for the factual fraction of inward invaginations that undergo scission from the cell's plasma membrane. Our findings show that the rate of PIU in suspended cells is constant, whereas the rate of PIU in adherent cells is gradually increased in time, saturating at the level possessed by suspended cells. This is consistent with pH induced gradual degradation of stress-fibers in adherent cells. Wortmannin and calyculin-A are able to elevate PIU by 25% in adherent cells but not in suspended cells, while cytochalasin-D, rapamycin and latrunculin-A elevate PIU both in adherent and suspended cells. However, extensive actin depolymerization by high concentrations of latrunculin-A is able to inhibit PIU. We conclude that proton-induced membrane vesiculation is restricted by the actin structural resistance to the plasma membrane bending. Nevertheless, a certain degree of cortical actin restructuring is required for the completion of the scission process. - Highlights: ► Acidification of cells' exterior enhances uptake of macromolecules by the cells. ► Disruption of actin stress fibers leads to enhancement of proton induced uptake. ► Extensive depolymerization of cellular actin attenuates proton-induced uptake.

  19. Cell elasticity is regulated by the tropomyosin isoform composition of the actin cytoskeleton.

    PubMed

    Jalilian, Iman; Heu, Celine; Cheng, Hong; Freittag, Hannah; Desouza, Melissa; Stehn, Justine R; Bryce, Nicole S; Whan, Renee M; Hardeman, Edna C; Fath, Thomas; Schevzov, Galina; Gunning, Peter W

    2015-01-01

    The actin cytoskeleton is the primary polymer system within cells responsible for regulating cellular stiffness. While various actin binding proteins regulate the organization and dynamics of the actin cytoskeleton, the proteins responsible for regulating the mechanical properties of cells are still not fully understood. In the present study, we have addressed the significance of the actin associated protein, tropomyosin (Tpm), in influencing the mechanical properties of cells. Tpms belong to a multi-gene family that form a co-polymer with actin filaments and differentially regulate actin filament stability, function and organization. Tpm isoform expression is highly regulated and together with the ability to sort to specific intracellular sites, result in the generation of distinct Tpm isoform-containing actin filament populations. Nanomechanical measurements conducted with an Atomic Force Microscope using indentation in Peak Force Tapping in indentation/ramping mode, demonstrated that Tpm impacts on cell stiffness and the observed effect occurred in a Tpm isoform-specific manner. Quantitative analysis of the cellular filamentous actin (F-actin) pool conducted both biochemically and with the use of a linear detection algorithm to evaluate actin structures revealed that an altered F-actin pool does not absolutely predict changes in cell stiffness. Inhibition of non-muscle myosin II revealed that intracellular tension generated by myosin II is required for the observed increase in cell stiffness. Lastly, we show that the observed increase in cell stiffness is partially recapitulated in vivo as detected in epididymal fat pads isolated from a Tpm3.1 transgenic mouse line. Together these data are consistent with a role for Tpm in regulating cell stiffness via the generation of specific populations of Tpm isoform-containing actin filaments.

  20. Constitutive endocytosis in characean internodal cells is independent of an intact actin cytoskeleton.

    PubMed

    Foissner, Ilse; Klima, Andreas

    2008-05-01

    We have investigated constitutive endocytosis in internodal cells of the characean green algae. The endocytic tracer FM1-43 accumulated in distinct plasma membrane domains that are probably enriched in sterol-like substances. Internalization of the dye was active but independent of an intact actin or microtubule cytoskeleton.

  1. PFA fixation enables artifact-free super-resolution imaging of the actin cytoskeleton and associated proteins

    PubMed Central

    Leyton-Puig, Daniela; Kedziora, Katarzyna M.; Isogai, Tadamoto; van den Broek, Bram; Jalink, Kees

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Super-resolution microscopy (SRM) allows precise localization of proteins in cellular organelles and structures, including the actin cytoskeleton. Yet sample preparation protocols for SRM are rather anecdotal and still being optimized. Thus, SRM-based imaging of the actin cytoskeleton and associated proteins often remains challenging and poorly reproducible. Here, we show that proper paraformaldehyde (PFA)-based sample preparation preserves the architecture of the actin cytoskeleton almost as faithfully as gold-standard glutaraldehyde fixation. We show that this fixation is essential for proper immuno-based localization of actin-binding and actin-regulatory proteins involved in the formation of lamellipodia and ruffles, such as mDia1, WAVE2 and clathrin heavy chain, and provide detailed guidelines for the execution of our method. In summary, proper PFA-based sample preparation increases the multi-color possibilities and the reproducibility of SRM of the actin cytoskeleton and its associated proteins. PMID:27378434

  2. Dephosphorylated synapsin I anchors synaptic vesicles to actin cytoskeleton: an analysis by videomicroscopy.

    PubMed

    Ceccaldi, P E; Grohovaz, F; Benfenati, F; Chieregatti, E; Greengard, P; Valtorta, F

    1995-03-01

    Synapsin I is a synaptic vesicle-associated protein which inhibits neurotransmitter release, an effect which is abolished upon its phosphorylation by Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaM kinase II). Based on indirect evidence, it was suggested that this effect on neurotransmitter release may be achieved by the reversible anchoring of synaptic vesicles to the actin cytoskeleton of the nerve terminal. Using video-enhanced microscopy, we have now obtained experimental evidence in support of this model: the presence of dephosphorylated synapsin I is necessary for synaptic vesicles to bind actin; synapsin I is able to promote actin polymerization and bundling of actin filaments in the presence of synaptic vesicles; the ability to cross-link synaptic vesicles and actin is specific for synapsin I and is not shared by other basic proteins; the cross-linking between synaptic vesicles and actin is specific for the membrane of synaptic vesicles and does not reflect either a non-specific binding of membranes to the highly surface active synapsin I molecule or trapping of vesicles within the thick bundles of actin filaments; the formation of the ternary complex is virtually abolished when synapsin I is phosphorylated by CaM kinase II. The data indicate that synapsin I markedly affects synaptic vesicle traffic and cytoskeleton assembly in the nerve terminal and provide a molecular basis for the ability of synapsin I to regulate the availability of synaptic vesicles for exocytosis and thereby the efficiency of neurotransmitter release. PMID:7876313

  3. Auxin transport inhibitors impair vesicle motility and actin cytoskeleton dynamics in diverse eukaryotes

    PubMed Central

    Dhonukshe, Pankaj; Grigoriev, Ilya; Fischer, Rainer; Tominaga, Motoki; Robinson, David G.; Hašek, Jiří; Paciorek, Tomasz; Petrášek, Jan; Seifertová, Daniela; Tejos, Ricardo; Meisel, Lee A.; Zažímalová, Eva; Gadella, Theodorus W. J.; Stierhof, York-Dieter; Ueda, Takashi; Oiwa, Kazuhiro; Akhmanova, Anna; Brock, Roland; Spang, Anne; Friml, Jiří

    2008-01-01

    Many aspects of plant development, including patterning and tropisms, are largely dependent on the asymmetric distribution of the plant signaling molecule auxin. Auxin transport inhibitors (ATIs), which interfere with directional auxin transport, have been essential tools in formulating this concept. However, despite the use of ATIs in plant research for many decades, the mechanism of ATI action has remained largely elusive. Using real-time live-cell microscopy, we show here that prominent ATIs such as 2,3,5-triiodobenzoic acid (TIBA) and 2-(1-pyrenoyl) benzoic acid (PBA) inhibit vesicle trafficking in plant, yeast, and mammalian cells. Effects on micropinocytosis, rab5-labeled endosomal motility at the periphery of HeLa cells and on fibroblast mobility indicate that ATIs influence actin cytoskeleton. Visualization of actin cytoskeleton dynamics in plants, yeast, and mammalian cells show that ATIs stabilize actin. Conversely, stabilizing actin by chemical or genetic means interferes with endocytosis, vesicle motility, auxin transport, and plant development, including auxin transport-dependent processes. Our results show that a class of ATIs act as actin stabilizers and advocate that actin-dependent trafficking of auxin transport components participates in the mechanism of auxin transport. These studies also provide an example of how the common eukaryotic process of actin-based vesicle motility can fulfill a plant-specific physiological role. PMID:18337510

  4. Focal adhesion kinase is required for actin polymerization and remodeling of the cytoskeleton during sperm capacitation

    PubMed Central

    Roa-Espitia, Ana L.; Hernández-Rendón, Eva R.; Baltiérrez-Hoyos, Rafael; Muñoz-Gotera, Rafaela J.; Cote-Vélez, Antonieta; Jiménez, Irma; González-Márquez, Humberto

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Several focal adhesion proteins are known to cooperate with integrins to link the extracellular matrix to the actin cytoskeleton; as a result, many intracellular signaling pathways are activated and several focal adhesion complexes are formed. However, how these proteins function in mammalian spermatozoa remains unknown. We confirm the presence of focal adhesion proteins in guinea pig spermatozoa, and we explore their role during capacitation and the acrosome reaction, and their relationship with the actin cytoskeleton. Our results suggest the presence of a focal adhesion complex formed by β1-integrin, focal adhesion kinase (FAK), paxillin, vinculin, talin, and α-actinin in the acrosomal region. Inhibition of FAK during capacitation affected the protein tyrosine phosphorylation associated with capacitation that occurs within the first few minutes of capacitation, which caused the acrosome reaction to become increasingly Ca2+ dependent and inhibited the polymerization of actin. The integration of vinculin and talin into the complex, and the activation of FAK and paxillin during capacitation, suggests that the complex assembles at this time. We identify that vinculin and α-actinin increase their interaction with F-actin while it remodels during capacitation, and that during capacitation focal adhesion complexes are structured. FAK contributes to acrosome integrity, likely by regulating the polymerization and the remodeling of the actin cytoskeleton. PMID:27402964

  5. Focal adhesion kinase is required for actin polymerization and remodeling of the cytoskeleton during sperm capacitation.

    PubMed

    Roa-Espitia, Ana L; Hernández-Rendón, Eva R; Baltiérrez-Hoyos, Rafael; Muñoz-Gotera, Rafaela J; Cote-Vélez, Antonieta; Jiménez, Irma; González-Márquez, Humberto; Hernández-González, Enrique O

    2016-01-01

    Several focal adhesion proteins are known to cooperate with integrins to link the extracellular matrix to the actin cytoskeleton; as a result, many intracellular signaling pathways are activated and several focal adhesion complexes are formed. However, how these proteins function in mammalian spermatozoa remains unknown. We confirm the presence of focal adhesion proteins in guinea pig spermatozoa, and we explore their role during capacitation and the acrosome reaction, and their relationship with the actin cytoskeleton. Our results suggest the presence of a focal adhesion complex formed by β1-integrin, focal adhesion kinase (FAK), paxillin, vinculin, talin, and α-actinin in the acrosomal region. Inhibition of FAK during capacitation affected the protein tyrosine phosphorylation associated with capacitation that occurs within the first few minutes of capacitation, which caused the acrosome reaction to become increasingly Ca(2+) dependent and inhibited the polymerization of actin. The integration of vinculin and talin into the complex, and the activation of FAK and paxillin during capacitation, suggests that the complex assembles at this time. We identify that vinculin and α-actinin increase their interaction with F-actin while it remodels during capacitation, and that during capacitation focal adhesion complexes are structured. FAK contributes to acrosome integrity, likely by regulating the polymerization and the remodeling of the actin cytoskeleton. PMID:27402964

  6. Focal adhesion kinase is required for actin polymerization and remodeling of the cytoskeleton during sperm capacitation.

    PubMed

    Roa-Espitia, Ana L; Hernández-Rendón, Eva R; Baltiérrez-Hoyos, Rafael; Muñoz-Gotera, Rafaela J; Cote-Vélez, Antonieta; Jiménez, Irma; González-Márquez, Humberto; Hernández-González, Enrique O

    2016-09-15

    Several focal adhesion proteins are known to cooperate with integrins to link the extracellular matrix to the actin cytoskeleton; as a result, many intracellular signaling pathways are activated and several focal adhesion complexes are formed. However, how these proteins function in mammalian spermatozoa remains unknown. We confirm the presence of focal adhesion proteins in guinea pig spermatozoa, and we explore their role during capacitation and the acrosome reaction, and their relationship with the actin cytoskeleton. Our results suggest the presence of a focal adhesion complex formed by β1-integrin, focal adhesion kinase (FAK), paxillin, vinculin, talin, and α-actinin in the acrosomal region. Inhibition of FAK during capacitation affected the protein tyrosine phosphorylation associated with capacitation that occurs within the first few minutes of capacitation, which caused the acrosome reaction to become increasingly Ca(2+) dependent and inhibited the polymerization of actin. The integration of vinculin and talin into the complex, and the activation of FAK and paxillin during capacitation, suggests that the complex assembles at this time. We identify that vinculin and α-actinin increase their interaction with F-actin while it remodels during capacitation, and that during capacitation focal adhesion complexes are structured. FAK contributes to acrosome integrity, likely by regulating the polymerization and the remodeling of the actin cytoskeleton.

  7. Nedd4, a human ubiquitin ligase, affects actin cytoskeleton in yeast cells.

    PubMed

    Stawiecka-Mirota, Marta; Kamińska, Joanna; Urban-Grimal, Daniele; Haines, Dale S; Zoładek, Teresa

    2008-11-01

    Human Nedd4 ubiquitin ligase is involved in protein trafficking, signal transduction and oncogenesis. Nedd4 with an inactive WW4 domain is toxic to yeast cells. We report here that actin cytoskeleton is abnormal in yeast cells expressing the NEDD4 or NEDD4w4 gene and these cells are more sensitive to Latrunculin A, an actin-depolymerizing drug. These phenotypes are less pronounced when a mutation inactivating the catalytic domain of the ligase has been introduced. In contrast, overexpression of the LAS17 gene, encoding an activator of the Arp2/3 actin nucleating complex, is detrimental to NEDD4w4-expressing cells. The level of Las17p is increased in cells overproducing Nedd4w4 and this depends partially on its catalytic domain. Expression of genes encoding Nedd4 variants, like overexpression of LAS17, suppresses the growth defect of the arp2-1 strain. Our results suggest that human Nedd4 ligase inhibits yeast cell growth by disturbing the actin cytoskeleton, in part by increasing Las17p level, and that Nedd4 ubiquitination targets may include actin cytoskeleton-associated proteins conserved in evolution. PMID:18804462

  8. Regulation of the actin cytoskeleton in cancer cell migration and invasion

    PubMed Central

    Yamaguchi, Hideki; Condeelis, John

    2014-01-01

    Malignant cancer cells utilize their intrinsic migratory ability to invade adjacent tissues and the vasculature, and ultimately to metastasize. Cell migration is the sum of multi-step processes initiated by the formation of membrane protrusions in response to migratory and chemotactic stimuli. The driving force for membrane protrusion is localized polymerization of submembrane actin filaments. Recently, several studies revealed that molecules that link migratory signals to the actin cytoskeleton are upregulated in invasive and metastatic cancer cells. In this review, we summarize recent progress on molecular mechanisms of formation of invasive protrusions used by tumor cells, such as lamellipodia and invadopodia, with regard to the functions of key regulatory proteins of the actin cytoskeleton; WASP family proteins, Arp2/3 complex, LIM-kinase, cofilin, and cortactin. PMID:16926057

  9. ARF6, PI3-kinase and host cell actin cytoskeleton in Toxoplasma gondii cell invasion

    SciTech Connect

    Vieira da Silva, Claudio; Alves da Silva, Erika; Costa Cruz, Mario; Chavrier, Philippe; Arruda Mortara, Renato

    2009-01-16

    Toxoplasma gondii infects a variety of different cell types in a range of different hosts. Host cell invasion by T. gondii occurs by active penetration of the host cell, a process previously described as independent of host actin polymerization. Also, the parasitophorous vacuole has been shown to resist fusion with endocytic and exocytic pathways of the host cell. ADP-ribosylation factor-6 (ARF6) belongs to the ARF family of small GTP-binding proteins. ARF6 regulates membrane trafficking and actin cytoskeleton rearrangements at the plasma membrane. Here, we have observed that ARF6 is recruited to the parasitophorous vacuole of tachyzoites of T. gondii RH strain and it also plays an important role in the parasite cell invasion with activation of PI3-kinase and recruitment of PIP{sub 2} and PIP{sub 3} to the parasitophorous vacuole of invading parasites. Moreover, it was verified that maintenance of host cell actin cytoskeleton integrity is important to parasite invasion.

  10. The Drosophila planar polarity gene multiple wing hairs directly regulates the actin cytoskeleton.

    PubMed

    Lu, Qiuheng; Schafer, Dorothy A; Adler, Paul N

    2015-07-15

    The evolutionarily conserved frizzled/starry night (fz/stan) pathway regulates planar cell polarity (PCP) in vertebrates and invertebrates. This pathway has been extensively studied in the Drosophila wing, where it is manifested by an array of distally pointing cuticular hairs. Using in vivo imaging we found that, early in hair growth, cells have multiple actin bundles and hairs that subsequently fuse into a single growing hair. The downstream PCP gene multiple wing hairs (mwh) plays a key role in this process and acts to antagonize the actin cytoskeleton. In mwh mutants hair initiation is not limited to a small region at the distal edge of pupal wing cells as in wild type, resulting in multiple hairs with aberrant polarity. Extra actin bundles/hairs are formed and do not completely fuse, in contrast to wild type. As development proceeded additional hairs continued to form, further increasing hair number. We identified a fragment of Mwh with in vivo rescue activity and that bound and bundled F-actin filaments and inhibited actin polymerization in in vitro actin assays. The loss of these activities can explain the mwh mutant phenotype. Our data suggest a model whereby, prior to hair initiation, proximally localized Mwh inhibits actin polymerization resulting in polarized activation of the cytoskeleton and hair formation on the distal side of wing cells. During hair growth Mwh is found in growing hairs, where we suggest it functions to promote the fusion of actin bundles and inhibit the formation of additional actin bundles that could lead to extra hairs.

  11. Yeast Rsp5 ubiquitin ligase affects the actin cytoskeleton in vivo and in vitro.

    PubMed

    Kaminska, Joanna; Spiess, Matthias; Stawiecka-Mirota, Marta; Monkaityte, Rasa; Haguenauer-Tsapis, Rosine; Urban-Grimal, Daniele; Winsor, Barbara; Zoladek, Teresa

    2011-12-01

    Yeast Rsp5 ubiquitin ligase is involved in several cellular processes, including endocytosis. Actin patches are sites of endocytosis, a process involving actin assembly and disassembly. Here we show Rsp5 localization in cortical patches and demonstrate its involvement in actin cytoskeleton organization and dynamics. We found that the Rsp5-F1-GFP2 N-terminal fragment and full length GFP-Rsp5 were recruited to peripheral patches that temporarily co-localized with Abp1-mCherry, a marker of actin patches. Actin cytoskeleton organization was defective in a strain lacking RSP5 or overexpressing RSP5, and this phenotype was accompanied by morphological abnormalities. Overexpression of RSP5 caused hypersensitivity of cells to Latrunculin A, an actin-depolymerizing drug and was toxic to cells lacking Las17, an activator of actin nucleation. Moreover, Rsp5 was required for efficient actin polymerization in a whole cell extract based in vitro system. Rsp5 interacted with Las17 and Las17-binding proteins, Lsb1 and Lsb2, in a GST-Rsp5-WW2/3 pull down assay. Rsp5 ubiquitinated Lsb1-HA and Lsb2-HA without directing them for degradation. Overexpression of RSP5 increased the cellular level of HA-Las17 in wild type and in lsb1Δ lsb2Δ strains in which the basal level of Las17 was already elevated. This increase was prevented in a strain devoid of Las17-binding protein Sla1 which is also a target of Rsp5 ubiquitination. Thus, Rsp5 together with Lsb1, Lsb2 and Sla1 regulate the level of Las17, an important activator of actin polymerization. PMID:22000681

  12. Retinoids and glucocorticoids have opposite effects on actin cytoskeleton rearrangement in hippocampal HT22 cells.

    PubMed

    Hélène, Roumes; Julie, Brossaud; Aloïs, Lemelletier; Marie-Pierre, Moisan; Véronique, Pallet; Anabelle, Redonnet; Jean-Benoît, Corcuff

    2016-02-01

    A chronic excess of glucocorticoids elicits deleterious effects in the hippocampus. Conversely, retinoic acid plays a major role in aging brain plasticity. As synaptic plasticity depends on mechanisms related to cell morphology, we investigated the involvement of retinoic acid and glucocorticoids in the remodelling of the HT22 neurons actin cytoskeleton. Cells exhibited a significantly more elongated shape with retinoic acid and a rounder shape with dexamethasone; retinoic acid reversed the effects of dexamethasone. Actin expression and abundance were unchanged by retinoic acid or dexamethasone but F-actin organization was dramatically modified. Indeed, retinoic acid and dexamethasone increased (70 ± 7% and 176 ± 5%) cortical actin while retinoic acid suppressed the effect of dexamethasone (90 ± 6%). Retinoic acid decreased (-22 ± 9%) and dexamethasone increased (134 ± 16%) actin stress fibres. Retinoic acid also suppressed the effect of dexamethasone (-21 ± 7%). Spectrin is a key protein in the actin network remodelling. Its abundance was decreased by retinoic acid and increased by dexamethasone (-21 ± 11% and 52 ± 10%). However, retinoic acid did not modify the effect of dexamethasone (48 ± 7%). Calpain activity on spectrin was increased by retinoic acid and decreased by dexamethasone (26 ± 14% and -57 ± 5%); retinoic acid mildly but significantly modified the effect of dexamethasone (-44 ± 7%). The calpain inhibitor calpeptin suppressed the effects of retinoic acid and dexamethasone on cell shape and actin stress fibres remodelling but did not modify the effects on cortical actin. Retinoic acid and dexamethasone have a dramatic but mainly opposite effect on actin cytoskeleton remodelling. These effects originate, at least partly, from calpain activity.

  13. The EH-domain-containing protein Pan1 is required for normal organization of the actin cytoskeleton in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed Central

    Tang, H Y; Cai, M

    1996-01-01

    Normal cell growth and division in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae involve dramatic and frequent changes in the organization of the actin cytoskeleton. Previous studies have suggested that the reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton in accordance with cell cycle progression is controlled, directly or indirectly, by the cyclin-dependent kinase Cdc28. Here we report that by isolating rapid-death mutants in the background of the Start-deficient cdc28-4 mutation, the essential yeast gene PAN1, previously thought to encode the yeast poly(A) nuclease, is identified as a new factor required for normal organization of the actin cytoskeleton. We show that at restrictive temperature, the pan1 mutant exhibited abnormal bud growth, failed to maintain a proper distribution of the actin cytoskeleton, was unable to reorganize actin the cytoskeleton during cell cycle, and was defective in cytokinesis. The mutant also displayed a random pattern of budding even at permissive temperature. Ectopic expression of PAN1 by the GAL promoter caused abnormal distribution of the actin cytoskeleton when a single-copy vector was used. Immunofluorescence staining revealed that the Pan1 protein colocalized with the cortical actin patches, suggesting that it may be a filamentous actin-binding protein. The Pan1 protein contains an EF-hand calcium-binding domain, a putative Src homology 3 (SH3)-binding domain, a region similar to the actin cytoskeleton assembly control protein Sla1, and two repeats of a newly identified protein motif known as the EH domain. These findings suggest that Pan1, recently recognized as not responsible for the poly(A) nuclease activity (A. B. Sachs and J. A. Deardorff, erratum, Cell 83:1059, 1995; R. Boeck, S. Tarun, Jr., M. Rieger, J. A. Deardorff, S. Muller-Auer, and A. B. Sachs, J. Biol. Chem. 271:432-438, 1996), plays an important role in the organization of the actin cytoskeleton in S. cerevisiae. PMID:8756649

  14. The WAVE Regulatory Complex Links Diverse Receptors to the Actin Cytoskeleton

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Baoyu; Chen, Zhucheng; Brinkmann, Klaus; Pak, Chi W.; Liao, Yuxing; Shi, Shuoyong; Henry, Lisa; Grishin, Nick V.; Bogdan, Sven; Rosen, Michael K.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY The WAVE regulatory complex (WRC) controls actin cytoskeletal dynamics throughout the cell by stimulating the actin nucleating activity of the Arp2/3 complex at distinct membrane sites. However, the factors that recruit the WRC to specific locations remain poorly understood. Here we have identified a large family of potential WRC ligands, consisting of ~120 diverse membrane proteins including protocadherins, ROBOs, netrin receptors, Neuroligins, GPCRs and channels. Structural, biochemical and cellular studies reveal that a novel sequence motif that defines these ligands binds to a highly conserved interaction surface of the WRC formed by the Sra and Abi subunits. Mutating this binding surface in flies resulted in defects in actin cytoskeletal organization and egg morphology during oogenesis, leading to female sterility. Our findings directly link diverse membrane proteins to the WRC and actin cytoskeleton, and have broad physiological and pathological ramifications in metazoans. PMID:24439376

  15. Noisy Oscillations in the Actin Cytoskeleton of Chemotactic Amoeba

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Negrete, Jose; Pumir, Alain; Hsu, Hsin-Fang; Westendorf, Christian; Tarantola, Marco; Beta, Carsten; Bodenschatz, Eberhard

    2016-09-01

    Biological systems with their complex biochemical networks are known to be intrinsically noisy. Here we investigate the dynamics of actin polymerization of amoeboid cells, which are close to the onset of oscillations. We show that the large phenotypic variability in the polymerization dynamics can be accurately captured by a generic nonlinear oscillator model in the presence of noise. We determine the relative role of the noise with a single dimensionless, experimentally accessible parameter, thus providing a quantitative description of the variability in a population of cells. Our approach, which rests on a generic description of a system close to a Hopf bifurcation and includes the effect of noise, can characterize the dynamics of a large class of noisy systems close to an oscillatory instability.

  16. Actin cytoskeleton rearrangements in Arabidopsis roots under stress and during gravitropic response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pozhvanov, Gregory; Medvedev, Sergei; Suslov, Dmitry; Demidchik, Vadim

    Among environmental factors, gravity vector is the only one which is constant in direction and accompanies the whole plant ontogenesis. That said, gravity vector can be considered as an essential factor for correct development of plants. Gravitropism is a plant growth response against changing its position relative to the gravity vector. It is well estableshed that gravitropism is directed by auxin redistribution across the gravistimulated organ. In addition to auxin, actin cytoskeleton was shown to be involved in gravitropism at different stages: gravity perception, signal transduction and gravitropic bending formation. However, the relationship between IAA and actin is still under discussion. In this work we studied rearrangements of actin cytoskeleton during root gravitropic response. Actin microfilaments were visualized in vivo in GFP-fABD2 transgenic Arabidopsis plants, and their angle distribution was acquired from MicroFilament Analyzer software. The curvature of actin microfilaments in root elongation zone was shown to be increased within 30-60 min of gravistimulation, the fraction of axially oriented microfilaments decreased with a concomitant increase in the fraction of oblique and transversally oriented microfilaments. In particular, the fraction of transversally oriented microfilaments (i.e. parallel to the gravity vector) increased 3-5 times. Under 10 min of sub-lethal salt stress impact, actin microfilament orientations widened from an initial axial orientation to a set of peaks at 15(°) , 45(°) and 90(°) . We conclude that the actin cytoskeleton rearrangements observed are associated with the regulation of basic mechanisms of cell extension growth by which the gravitropic bending is formed. Having common stress-related features, gravity-induced actin cytoskeleton rearrangement is slower but results in higher number of g-vector-parallel microfilaments when compared to salt stress-induced rearrangement. Also, differences in gravistimulated root

  17. Regulation of the actin cytoskeleton by the Ndel1-Tara complex is critical for cell migration

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Ji-Ho; Kwak, Yongdo; Woo, Youngsik; Park, Cana; Lee, Seol-Ae; Lee, Haeryun; Park, Sung Jin; Suh, Yeongjun; Suh, Bo Kyoung; Goo, Bon Seong; Mun, Dong Jin; Sanada, Kamon; Nguyen, Minh Dang; Park, Sang Ki

    2016-01-01

    Nuclear distribution element-like 1 (Ndel1) plays pivotal roles in diverse biological processes and is implicated in the pathogenesis of multiple neurodevelopmental disorders. Ndel1 function by regulating microtubules and intermediate filaments; however, its functional link with the actin cytoskeleton is largely unknown. Here, we show that Ndel1 interacts with TRIO-associated repeat on actin (Tara), an actin-bundling protein, to regulate cell movement. In vitro wound healing and Boyden chamber assays revealed that Ndel1- or Tara-deficient cells were defective in cell migration. Moreover, Tara overexpression induced the accumulation of Ndel1 at the cell periphery and resulted in prominent co-localization with F-actin. This redistribution of Ndel1 was abolished by deletion of the Ndel1-interacting domain of Tara, suggesting that the altered peripheral localization of Ndel1 requires a physical interaction with Tara. Furthermore, co-expression of Ndel1 and Tara in SH-SY5Y cells caused a synergistic increase in F-actin levels and filopodia formation, suggesting that Tara facilitates cell movement by sequestering Ndel1 at peripheral structures to regulate actin remodeling. Thus, we demonstrated that Ndel1 interacts with Tara to regulate cell movement. These findings reveal a novel role of the Ndel1-Tara complex in actin reorganization during cell movement. PMID:27546710

  18. Regulation of the actin cytoskeleton by the Ndel1-Tara complex is critical for cell migration.

    PubMed

    Hong, Ji-Ho; Kwak, Yongdo; Woo, Youngsik; Park, Cana; Lee, Seol-Ae; Lee, Haeryun; Park, Sung Jin; Suh, Yeongjun; Suh, Bo Kyoung; Goo, Bon Seong; Mun, Dong Jin; Sanada, Kamon; Nguyen, Minh Dang; Park, Sang Ki

    2016-01-01

    Nuclear distribution element-like 1 (Ndel1) plays pivotal roles in diverse biological processes and is implicated in the pathogenesis of multiple neurodevelopmental disorders. Ndel1 function by regulating microtubules and intermediate filaments; however, its functional link with the actin cytoskeleton is largely unknown. Here, we show that Ndel1 interacts with TRIO-associated repeat on actin (Tara), an actin-bundling protein, to regulate cell movement. In vitro wound healing and Boyden chamber assays revealed that Ndel1- or Tara-deficient cells were defective in cell migration. Moreover, Tara overexpression induced the accumulation of Ndel1 at the cell periphery and resulted in prominent co-localization with F-actin. This redistribution of Ndel1 was abolished by deletion of the Ndel1-interacting domain of Tara, suggesting that the altered peripheral localization of Ndel1 requires a physical interaction with Tara. Furthermore, co-expression of Ndel1 and Tara in SH-SY5Y cells caused a synergistic increase in F-actin levels and filopodia formation, suggesting that Tara facilitates cell movement by sequestering Ndel1 at peripheral structures to regulate actin remodeling. Thus, we demonstrated that Ndel1 interacts with Tara to regulate cell movement. These findings reveal a novel role of the Ndel1-Tara complex in actin reorganization during cell movement. PMID:27546710

  19. Effect of Spilanthes acmella hydroethanolic extract activity on tumour cell actin cytoskeleton.

    PubMed

    Pacheco Soares, Cristina; Lemos, Valeria Rosseto; da Silva, Ary Gomes; Campoy, Renan Meyer; da Silva, Carlos Augusto Priante; Menegon, Renato Farina; Rojahn, Iuri; Joaquim, Walderez Moreira

    2014-01-01

    Numerous natural products have pharmacological activity such that many biologically active compounds have led to the development of cancer chemotherapy drugs. Spilanthes acmella (Asteraceae) is widely cultivated in the State of Pará, Brazil, being employed in folk medicine for its anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antioxidant, analgesic, insecticide, and larvicidal properties. However, its cytotoxicity and influence on actin cytoskeleton organisation in tumour cell lines are practically nonexistent. We have verified the cytotoxicity of a hydroethanolic extract of the inflorescence of S. acmella, and examined its effects on the cytoskeleton of tumour cells. Decreasing concentrations of the extract (250, 500 and 1,000 µg/mL) were given to cultures of neoplastic cells (HEp-2). Cytotoxicity was assessed by the MTT test, and the influence on cytoskeleton organisation was examined by fluorescence microscopy. The IC50 of the hydroethanolic extract was 513 µg/mL, confirming the data obtained from the MTT assay that gave high cytotoxicity. The actin cytoskeleton arrangement of HEp2 cells at 500 and 1,000 µg/mL showed depolymerisation of the filaments, causing loss of morphology and consequently compromising cell adhesion. PMID:24038906

  20. Multiple CaMKII Binding Modes to the Actin Cytoskeleton Revealed by Single-Molecule Imaging.

    PubMed

    Khan, Shahid; Conte, Ianina; Carter, Tom; Bayer, K Ulrich; Molloy, Justin E

    2016-07-26

    Localization of the Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) to dendritic spine synapses is determined in part by the actin cytoskeleton. We determined binding of GFP-tagged CaMKII to tag-RFP-labeled actin cytoskeleton within live cells using total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy and single-molecule tracking. Stepwise photobleaching showed that CaMKII formed oligomeric complexes. Photoactivation experiments demonstrated that diffusion out of the evanescent field determined the track lifetimes. Latrunculin treatment triggered a coupled loss of actin stress fibers and the colocalized, long-lived CaMKII tracks. The CaMKIIα (α) isoform, which was previously thought to lack F-actin interactions, also showed binding, but this was threefold weaker than that observed for CaMKIIβ (β). The βE' splice variant bound more weakly than α, showing that binding by β depends critically on the interdomain linker. The mutations βT287D and αT286D, which mimic autophosphorylation states, also abolished F-actin binding. Autophosphorylation triggers autonomous CaMKII activity, but does not impair GluN2B binding, another important synaptic protein interaction of CaMKII. The CaMKII inhibitor tatCN21 or CaMKII mutations that inhibit GluN2B association by blocking binding of ATP (βK43R and αK42M) or Ca(2+)/calmodulin (βA303R) had no effect on the interaction with F-actin. These results provide the first rationale for the reduced synaptic spine localization of the αT286D mutant, indicating that transient F-actin binding contributes to the synaptic localization of the CaMKIIα isoform. The track lifetime distributions had a stretched exponential form consistent with a heterogeneously diffusing population. This heterogeneity suggests that CaMKII adopts different F-actin binding modes, which is most easily rationalized by multiple subunit contacts between the CaMKII dodecamer and the F-actin cytoskeleton that stabilize the initial weak (micromolar

  1. Gamma Interferon-Induced Guanylate Binding Protein 1 Is a Novel Actin Cytoskeleton Remodeling Factor

    PubMed Central

    Ostler, Nicole; Britzen-Laurent, Nathalie; Liebl, Andrea; Naschberger, Elisabeth; Lochnit, Günter; Ostler, Markus; Forster, Florian; Kunzelmann, Peter; Ince, Semra; Supper, Verena; Praefcke, Gerrit J. K.; Schubert, Dirk W.; Stockinger, Hannes; Herrmann, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Gamma interferon (IFN-γ) regulates immune defenses against viruses, intracellular pathogens, and tumors by modulating cell proliferation, migration, invasion, and vesicle trafficking processes. The large GTPase guanylate binding protein 1 (GBP-1) is among the cellular proteins that is the most abundantly induced by IFN-γ and mediates its cell biologic effects. As yet, the molecular mechanisms of action of GBP-1 remain unknown. Applying an interaction proteomics approach, we identified actin as a strong and specific binding partner of GBP-1. Furthermore, GBP-1 colocalized with actin at the subcellular level and was both necessary and sufficient for the extensive remodeling of the fibrous actin structure observed in IFN-γ-exposed cells. These effects were dependent on the oligomerization and the GTPase activity of GBP-1. Purified GBP-1 and actin bound to each other, and this interaction was sufficient to impair the formation of actin filaments in vitro, as demonstrated by atomic force microscopy, dynamic light scattering, and fluorescence-monitored polymerization. Cosedimentation and band shift analyses demonstrated that GBP-1 binds robustly to globular actin and slightly to filamentous actin. This indicated that GBP-1 may induce actin remodeling via globular actin sequestering and/or filament capping. These results establish GBP-1 as a novel member within the family of actin-remodeling proteins specifically mediating IFN-γ-dependent defense strategies. PMID:24190970

  2. Interactions with the actin cytoskeleton are required for cell wall localization of barley stripe mosaic virus TGB proteins

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The host cytoskeleton and membrane system are the main routes by which plant viruses move within or between cells. Barley stripe mosaic virus (BSMV) -induced actin filament thickening was visualized in the cytoskeleton of agroinfiltrated Nicotiana benthamiana epidermal cells expressing DsRed:Talin. ...

  3. Arabidopsis CAP regulates the actin cytoskeleton necessary for plant cell elongation and division.

    PubMed

    Barrero, Roberto A; Umeda, Masaaki; Yamamura, Saburo; Uchimiya, Hirofumi

    2002-01-01

    An Arabidopsis cDNA (AtCAP1) that encodes a predicted protein of 476 amino acids highly homologous with the yeast cyclase-associated protein (CAP) was isolated. Expression of AtCAP1 in the budding yeast CAP mutant was able to rescue defects such as abnormal cell morphology and random budding pattern. The C-terminal domain, 158 amino acids of AtCAP1 possessing in vitro actin binding activity, was needed for the regulation of cytoskeleton-related defects of yeast. Transgenic plants overexpressing AtCAP1 under the regulation of a glucocorticoid-inducible promoter showed different levels of AtCAP1 accumulation related to the extent of growth abnormalities, in particular size reduction of leaves as well as petioles. Morphological alterations in leaves were attributable to decreased cell size and cell number in both epidermal and mesophyll cells. Tobacco suspension-cultured cells (Bright Yellow 2) overexpressing AtCAP1 exhibited defects in actin filaments and were unable to undergo mitosis. Furthermore, an immunoprecipitation experiment suggested that AtCAP1 interacted with actin in vivo. Therefore, AtCAP1 may play a functional role in actin cytoskeleton networking that is essential for proper cell elongation and division. PMID:11826305

  4. Evidence for the selective association of a subpopulation of GPIIb-IIIa with the actin cytoskeletons of thrombin-activated platelets

    PubMed Central

    1993-01-01

    Activation of blood platelets triggers a series of responses leading to the formation and retraction of blood clots. Among these responses is the establishment of integrin-mediated transmembrane connections between extracellular matrix components and the actin cytoskeleton of the platelet. Here we report that a specific subpopulation of the major platelet integrin, glycoprotein IIb-IIIa (GPIIb-IIIa) (also referred to as alpha IIb beta 3 integrin), becomes incorporated into the detergent- insoluble actin cytoskeleton of platelets during the platelet activation response. The cytoskeletal association of GPIIb-IIIa is independent of platelet aggregation and fibrin sedimentation and is sensitive to cytochalasin D treatment. As determined by Western immunoblot analysis, approximately 22% of the total cellular GPIIb-IIIa becomes associated with the actin cytoskeleton upon thrombin activation in a manner that is independent of the detection of talin, alpha- actinin, or vinculin in the complex. We found that the cytoskeleton- associated GPIIb-IIIa is derived from an intracellular source since it is not available for lactoperoxidase-catalyzed radioiodination before platelet activation. Two intracellular sources of GPIIb-IIIa are present in resting platelets: GPIIb-IIIa associated with the alpha- granule secretory compartment as well as surface-inaccessible domains of the surface-connected canalicular system. Interestingly, alpha- granule secretion, which occurs in thrombin-activated platelets and results in the translocation of intracellular GPIIb-IIIa to the plasma membrane, appears to be required for the cytoskeleton incorporation of GPIIb-IIIa that we observe. Collectively, our data provide evidence that a subpopulation of GPIIb-IIIa derived from an intracellular source is selectively linked to the actin cytoskeleton of platelets upon thrombin activation in the absence of platelet aggregation. PMID:8509453

  5. SHIP-2 forms a tetrameric complex with filamin, actin, and GPIb-IX-V: localization of SHIP-2 to the activated platelet actin cytoskeleton.

    PubMed

    Dyson, Jennifer M; Munday, Adam D; Kong, Anne M; Huysmans, Richard D; Matzaris, Maria; Layton, Meredith J; Nandurkar, Harshal H; Berndt, Michael C; Mitchell, Christina A

    2003-08-01

    The platelet receptor for the von Willebrand factor (VWF) glycoprotein Ib-IX-V (GPIb-IX-V) complex mediates platelet adhesion at sites of vascular injury. The cytoplasmic tail of the GPIbalpha subunit interacts with the actin-binding protein, filamin, anchoring the receptor in the cytoskeleton. In motile cells, the second messenger phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5 trisphosphate (PtdIns(3,4,5)P3) induces submembraneous actin remodeling. The inositol polyphosphate 5-phosphatase, Src homology 2 domain-containing inositol polyphosphate 5-phosphatase-2 (SHIP-2), hydrolyzes PtdIns(3,4,5)P3 forming phosphatidylinositol 3,4 bisphosphate (PtdIns(3,4)P2) and regulates membrane ruffling via complex formation with filamin. In this study we investigate the intracellular location and association of SHIP-2 with filamin, actin, and the GPIb-IX-V complex in platelets. Immunoprecipitation of SHIP-2 from the Triton-soluble fraction of unstimulated platelets demonstrated association between SHIP-2, filamin, actin, and GPIb-IX-V. SHIP-2 associated with filamin or GPIb-IX-V was active and demonstrated PtdIns(3,4,5)P3 5-phosphatase activity. Following thrombin or VWF-induced platelet activation, detection of the SHIP-2, filamin, and receptor complex decreased in the Triton-soluble fraction, although in control studies the level of SHIP-2, filamin, or GPIb-IX-V immunoprecipitated by their respective antibodies did not change following platelet activation. In activated platelets spreading on a VWF matrix, SHIP-2 localized intensely with actin at the central actin ring and colocalized with actin and filamin at filopodia and lamellipodia. In spread platelets, GPIb-IX-V localized to the center of the platelet and showed little colocalization with filamin at the plasma membrane. These studies demonstrate a functionally active complex between SHIP-2, filamin, actin, and GPIb-IX-V that may orchestrate the localized hydrolysis of PtdIns(3,4,5)P3 and thereby regulate cortical and submembraneous actin.

  6. WIP modulates dendritic spine actin cytoskeleton by transcriptional control of lipid metabolic enzymes.

    PubMed

    Franco-Villanueva, Ana; Fernández-López, Estefanía; Gabandé-Rodríguez, Enrique; Bañón-Rodríguez, Inmaculada; Esteban, Jose Antonio; Antón, Inés M; Ledesma, María Dolores

    2014-08-15

    We identify Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein (WASP)-interacting protein (WIP) as a novel component of neuronal synapses whose absence increases dendritic spine size and filamentous actin levels in an N-WASP/Arp2/3-independent, RhoA/ROCK/profilinIIa-dependent manner. These effects depend on the reduction of membrane sphingomyelin (SM) due to transcriptional upregulation of neutral sphingomyelinase (NSM) through active RhoA; this enhances RhoA binding to the membrane, raft partitioning and activation in steady state but prevents RhoA changes in response to stimulus. Inhibition of NSM or SM addition reverses RhoA, filamentous actin and functional anomalies in synapses lacking WIP. Our findings characterize WIP as a link between membrane lipid composition and actin cytoskeleton at dendritic spines. They also contribute to explain cognitive deficits shared by individuals bearing mutations in the region assigned to the gene encoding for WIP.

  7. Live cell imaging reveals structural associations between the actin and microtubule cytoskeleton in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Sampathkumar, Arun; Lindeboom, Jelmer J; Debolt, Seth; Gutierrez, Ryan; Ehrhardt, David W; Ketelaar, Tijs; Persson, Staffan

    2011-06-01

    In eukaryotic cells, the actin and microtubule (MT) cytoskeletal networks are dynamic structures that organize intracellular processes and facilitate their rapid reorganization. In plant cells, actin filaments (AFs) and MTs are essential for cell growth and morphogenesis. However, dynamic interactions between these two essential components in live cells have not been explored. Here, we use spinning-disc confocal microscopy to dissect interaction and cooperation between cortical AFs and MTs in Arabidopsis thaliana, utilizing fluorescent reporter constructs for both components. Quantitative analyses revealed altered AF dynamics associated with the positions and orientations of cortical MTs. Reorganization and reassembly of the AF array was dependent on the MTs following drug-induced depolymerization, whereby short AFs initially appeared colocalized with MTs, and displayed motility along MTs. We also observed that light-induced reorganization of MTs occurred in concert with changes in AF behavior. Our results indicate dynamic interaction between the cortical actin and MT cytoskeletons in interphase plant cells. PMID:21693695

  8. Live Cell Imaging Reveals Structural Associations between the Actin and Microtubule Cytoskeleton in Arabidopsis [W] [OA

    PubMed Central

    Sampathkumar, Arun; Lindeboom, Jelmer J.; Debolt, Seth; Gutierrez, Ryan; Ehrhardt, David W.; Ketelaar, Tijs; Persson, Staffan

    2011-01-01

    In eukaryotic cells, the actin and microtubule (MT) cytoskeletal networks are dynamic structures that organize intracellular processes and facilitate their rapid reorganization. In plant cells, actin filaments (AFs) and MTs are essential for cell growth and morphogenesis. However, dynamic interactions between these two essential components in live cells have not been explored. Here, we use spinning-disc confocal microscopy to dissect interaction and cooperation between cortical AFs and MTs in Arabidopsis thaliana, utilizing fluorescent reporter constructs for both components. Quantitative analyses revealed altered AF dynamics associated with the positions and orientations of cortical MTs. Reorganization and reassembly of the AF array was dependent on the MTs following drug-induced depolymerization, whereby short AFs initially appeared colocalized with MTs, and displayed motility along MTs. We also observed that light-induced reorganization of MTs occurred in concert with changes in AF behavior. Our results indicate dynamic interaction between the cortical actin and MT cytoskeletons in interphase plant cells. PMID:21693695

  9. Fascin links Btl/FGFR signalling to the actin cytoskeleton during Drosophila tracheal morphogenesis.

    PubMed

    Okenve-Ramos, Pilar; Llimargas, Marta

    2014-02-01

    A key challenge in normal development and in disease is to elucidate the mechanisms of cell migration. Here we approach this question using the tracheal system of Drosophila as a model. Tracheal cell migration requires the Breathless/FGFR pathway; however, how the pathway induces migration remains poorly understood. We find that the Breathless pathway upregulates singed at the tip of tracheal branches, and that this regulation is functionally relevant. singed encodes Drosophila Fascin, which belongs to a conserved family of actin-bundling proteins involved in cancer progression and metastasis upon misregulation. We show that singed is required for filopodia stiffness and proper morphology of tracheal tip cells, defects that correlate with an abnormal actin organisation. We propose that singed-regulated filopodia and cell fronts are required for timely and guided branch migration and for terminal branching and branch fusion. We find that singed requirements rely on its actin-bundling activity controlled by phosphorylation, and that active Singed can promote tip cell features. Furthermore, we find that singed acts in concert with forked, another actin cross-linker. The absence of both cross-linkers further stresses the relevance of tip cell morphology and filopodia for tracheal development. In summary, our results on the one hand reveal a previously undescribed role for forked in the organisation of transient actin structures such as filopodia, and on the other hand identify singed as a new target of Breathless signal, establishing a link between guidance cues, the actin cytoskeleton and tracheal morphogenesis.

  10. Capping protein beta is required for actin cytoskeleton organisation and cell migration during Drosophila oogenesis.

    PubMed

    Ogienko, Anna A; Karagodin, Dmitry A; Lashina, Valentina V; Baiborodin, Sergey I; Omelina, Eugeniya S; Baricheva, Elina M

    2013-02-01

    Capping protein (CP) is a well-characterised actin-binding protein important for regulation of actin filament (AF) assembly. CP caps the barbed end of AFs, inhibiting the addition and loss of actin monomers. In Drosophila melanogaster, the gene encoding CP β-subunit is named capping protein beta (cpb; see Hopmann et al. [1996] J Cell Biol 133: 1293-305). The cpb level is reduced in the Drosophila bristle actin cytoskeleton and becomes disorganised with abnormal morphology. A reduced level of the CP protein in ovary results in disruption of oocyte determination, and disturbance of nurse cell (NC) cortical integrity and dumping. We describe novel defects appearing in cpb mutants during oogenesis, in which cpb plays an important role in border and centripetal follicle cell migration, ring canal development and cytoplasmic AF formation. The number of long cytoplasmic AFs was dramatically reduced in cpb hypomorphs and abnormal actin aggregates was seen on the inner side of NC membranes. A hypothesis to explain the formation of abnormal short-cut cytoplasmic AFs and actin aggregates in the cpb mutant NCs was proffered, along with a discussion of the reasons for 'dumpless' phenotype formation in the mutants.

  11. Extracellular Inhibitors, Repellents, and Semaphorin/Plexin/MICAL-mediated Actin Filament Disassembly

    PubMed Central

    Hung, Ruei-Jiun; Terman, Jonathan R.

    2011-01-01

    Multiple extracellular signals have been identified that regulate actin dynamics within motile cells, but how these instructive cues present on the cell surface exert their precise effects on the internal actin cytoskeleton is still poorly understood. One particularly interesting class of these cues is a group of extracellular proteins that negatively alter the movement of cells and their processes. Over the years, these types of events have been described using a variety of terms and herein we provide an overview of inhibitory/repulsive cellular phenomena and highlight the largest known protein family of repulsive extracellular cues, the Semaphorins. Specifically, the Semaphorins (Semas) utilize Plexin cell-surface receptors to dramatically collapse the actin cytoskeleton and we summarize what is known of the direct molecular and biochemical mechanisms of Sema-triggered actin filament (F-actin) disassembly. We also discuss new observations from our lab that reveal that the multi-domain oxidoreductase (Redox) enzyme MICAL, an important mediator of Sema/Plexin repulsion, is a novel F-actin disassembly factor. Our results indicate that MICAL triggers Sema/Plexin-mediated reorganization of the F-actin cytoskeleton and suggest a role for specific Redox signaling events in regulating actin dynamics. PMID:21800438

  12. Hijacking Host Cell Highways: Manipulation of the Host Actin Cytoskeleton by Obligate Intracellular Bacterial Pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Colonne, Punsiri M.; Winchell, Caylin G.; Voth, Daniel E.

    2016-01-01

    Intracellular bacterial pathogens replicate within eukaryotic cells and display unique adaptations that support key infection events including invasion, replication, immune evasion, and dissemination. From invasion to dissemination, all stages of the intracellular bacterial life cycle share the same three-dimensional cytosolic space containing the host cytoskeleton. For successful infection and replication, many pathogens hijack the cytoskeleton using effector proteins introduced into the host cytosol by specialized secretion systems. A subset of effectors contains eukaryotic-like motifs that mimic host proteins to exploit signaling and modify specific cytoskeletal components such as actin and microtubules. Cytoskeletal rearrangement promotes numerous events that are beneficial to the pathogen, including internalization of bacteria, structural support for bacteria-containing vacuoles, altered vesicular trafficking, actin-dependent bacterial movement, and pathogen dissemination. This review highlights a diverse group of obligate intracellular bacterial pathogens that manipulate the host cytoskeleton to thrive within eukaryotic cells and discusses underlying molecular mechanisms that promote these dynamic host-pathogen interactions. PMID:27713866

  13. Exploring the possible role of lysine acetylation on Entamoeba histolytica virulence: a focus on the dynamics of the actin cytoskeleton.

    PubMed

    López-Contreras, L; Hernández-Ramírez, V I; Lagunes-Guillén, A E; Montaño, Sarita; Chávez-Munguía, B; Sánchez-Ramírez, B; Talamás-Rohana, P

    2013-01-01

    Cytoskeleton remodeling can be regulated, among other mechanisms, by lysine acetylation. The role of acetylation on cytoskeletal and other proteins of Entamoeba histolytica has been poorly studied. Dynamic rearrangements of the actin cytoskeleton are crucial for amebic motility and capping formation, processes that may be effective means of evading the host immune response. Here we report the possible effect of acetylation on the actin cytoskeleton dynamics and in vivo virulence of E. histolytica. Using western blot, immunoprecipitation, microscopy assays, and in silico analysis, we show results that strongly suggest that the increase in Aspirin-induced cytoplasm proteins acetylation reduced cell movement and capping formation, likely as a consequence of alterations in the structuration of the actin cytoskeleton. Additionally, intrahepatic inoculation of Aspirin-treated trophozoites in hamsters resulted in severe impairment of the amebic virulence. Taken together, these results suggest an important role for lysine acetylation in amebic invasiveness and virulence.

  14. AMP-activated protein kinase induces actin cytoskeleton reorganization in epithelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Miranda, Lisa; Carpentier, Sarah; Platek, Anna; Hussain, Nusrat; Gueuning, Marie-Agnes; Vertommen, Didier; Ozkan, Yurda; Sid, Brice; Hue, Louis; Courtoy, Pierre J.; Rider, Mark H.; Horman, Sandrine

    2010-06-04

    AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), a known regulator of cellular and systemic energy balance, is now recognized to control cell division, cell polarity and cell migration, all of which depend on the actin cytoskeleton. Here we report the effects of A769662, a pharmacological activator of AMPK, on cytoskeletal organization and signalling in epithelial Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells. We show that AMPK activation induced shortening or radiation of stress fibers, uncoupling from paxillin and predominance of cortical F-actin. In parallel, Rho-kinase downstream targets, namely myosin regulatory light chain and cofilin, were phosphorylated. These effects resembled the morphological changes in MDCK cells exposed to hyperosmotic shock, which led to Ca{sup 2+}-dependent AMPK activation via calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase-{beta}(CaMKK{beta}), a known upstream kinase of AMPK. Indeed, hypertonicity-induced AMPK activation was markedly reduced by the STO-609 CaMKK{beta} inhibitor, as was the increase in MLC and cofilin phosphorylation. We suggest that AMPK links osmotic stress to the reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton.

  15. Dachsous1b cadherin regulates actin and microtubule cytoskeleton during early zebrafish embryogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Li-Villarreal, Nanbing; Forbes, Meredyth M.; Loza, Andrew J.; Chen, Jiakun; Ma, Taylur; Helde, Kathryn; Moens, Cecilia B.; Shin, Jimann; Sawada, Atsushi; Hindes, Anna E.; Dubrulle, Julien; Schier, Alexander F.; Longmore, Gregory D.; Marlow, Florence L.; Solnica-Krezel, Lilianna

    2015-01-01

    Dachsous (Dchs), an atypical cadherin, is an evolutionarily conserved regulator of planar cell polarity, tissue size and cell adhesion. In humans, DCHS1 mutations cause pleiotropic Van Maldergem syndrome. Here, we report that mutations in zebrafish dchs1b and dchs2 disrupt several aspects of embryogenesis, including gastrulation. Unexpectedly, maternal zygotic (MZ) dchs1b mutants show defects in the earliest developmental stage, egg activation, including abnormal cortical granule exocytosis (CGE), cytoplasmic segregation, cleavages and maternal mRNA translocation, in transcriptionally quiescent embryos. Later, MZdchs1b mutants exhibit altered dorsal organizer and mesendodermal gene expression, due to impaired dorsal determinant transport and Nodal signaling. Mechanistically, MZdchs1b phenotypes can be explained in part by defective actin or microtubule networks, which appear bundled in mutants. Accordingly, disruption of actin cytoskeleton in wild-type embryos phenocopied MZdchs1b mutant defects in cytoplasmic segregation and CGE, whereas interfering with microtubules in wild-type embryos impaired dorsal organizer and mesodermal gene expression without perceptible earlier phenotypes. Moreover, the bundled microtubule phenotype was partially rescued by expressing either full-length Dchs1b or its intracellular domain, suggesting that Dchs1b affects microtubules and some developmental processes independent of its known ligand Fat. Our results indicate novel roles for vertebrate Dchs in actin and microtubule cytoskeleton regulation in the unanticipated context of the single-celled embryo. PMID:26160902

  16. Reorganization of the cortical actin cytoskeleton during maturation division in the Tubifex egg: possible involvement of protein kinase C.

    PubMed

    Shimizu, T

    1997-08-01

    Tubifex eggs undergo a drastic reorganization of the cortical actin cytoskeleton during metaphase of the second meiosis. At the end of the first meiosis, the egg cortex displays only scattered actin filaments and tiny dots of F-actin; during the following 90 min, cortical F-actin gradually increases in amount, becomes organized into foci that are interlinked by actin bundles, and generates a geodesic dome-like organization. In this study, we have characterized this reorganization of the cortical actin cytoskeleton. In living eggs injected with rhodamine-phalloidin at the beginning of the second meiosis, cortical actin assembly (i.e., formation of actin foci and bundles) proceeds normally, but labeled F-actin is not found to be included significantly in the formed cortical actin network, suggesting that the increase in cortical F-actin is not simply ascribable to the recruitment of preexisting actin filaments. Cortical actin assembly can be induced precociously not only by calcium ionophore A23187 but also by a phorbol ester PMA, an agonist of protein kinase C (PKC). Conversely, the formation of actin foci and bundles is inhibited by PKC antagonists, although cortical F-actin increases to some extent in the presence of these inhibitors. Similar inhibition of the cortical reorganization is elicited in eggs whose intracellular free calcium level ([Ca2+]i) has been clamped low by microinjection of a calcium chelator BAPTA. The treatment of BAPTA-injected eggs with PMA results in the formation of actin foci and bundles. An experiment with eggs injected with fluo-3 shows that [Ca2+]i increases during metaphase of the second meiosis. These results suggest that the reorganization of cortical actin during metaphase of the second meiosis requires activation of PKC, which depends on increases in [Ca2+]i. PMID:9245516

  17. Actin dynamics in living mammalian cells.

    PubMed

    Ballestrem, C; Wehrle-Haller, B; Imhof, B A

    1998-06-01

    The actin cytoskeleton maintains the cellular architecture and mediates cell movements. To explore actin cytoskeletal dynamics, the enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) was fused to human &bgr ;-actin. The fusion protein was incorporated into actin fibers which became depolymerized upon cytochalasin B treatment. This functional EGFP-actin construct enabled observation of the actin cytoskeleton in living cells by time lapse fluorescence microscopy. Stable expression of the construct was obtained in mammalian cell lines of different tissue origins. In stationary cells, actin rich, ring-like structured 'actin clouds' were observed in addition to stress fibers. These ruffle-like structures were found to be involved in the reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton. In migratory cells, EGFP-actin was found in the advancing lamellipodium. Immobile actin spots developed in the lamellipodium and thin actin fibers formed parallel to the leading edge. Thus EGFP-actin expressed in living cells unveiled structures involved in the dynamics of the actin cytoskeleton.

  18. Actin Cytoskeleton Regulation of Epithelial Mesenchymal Transition in Metastatic Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Shankar, Jay; Nabi, Ivan R.

    2015-01-01

    Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is associated with loss of the cell-cell adhesion molecule E-cadherin and disruption of cell-cell junctions as well as with acquisition of migratory properties including reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton and activation of the RhoA GTPase. Here we show that depolymerization of the actin cytoskeleton of various metastatic cancer cell lines with Cytochalasin D (Cyt D) reduces cell size and F-actin levels and induces E-cadherin expression at both the protein and mRNA level. Induction of E-cadherin was dose dependent and paralleled loss of the mesenchymal markers N-cadherin and vimentin. E-cadherin levels increased 2 hours after addition of Cyt D in cells showing an E-cadherin mRNA response but only after 10-12 hours in HT-1080 fibrosarcoma and MDA-MB-231 cells in which E-cadherin mRNA level were only minimally affected by Cyt D. Cyt D treatment induced the nuclear-cytoplasmic translocation of EMT-associated SNAI 1 and SMAD1/2/3 transcription factors. In non-metastatic MCF-7 breast cancer cells, that express E-cadherin and represent a cancer cell model for EMT, actin depolymerization with Cyt D induced elevated E-cadherin while actin stabilization with Jasplakinolide reduced E-cadherin levels. Elevated E-cadherin levels due to Cyt D were associated with reduced activation of Rho A. Expression of dominant-negative Rho A mutant increased and dominant-active Rho A mutant decreased E-cadherin levels and also prevented Cyt D induction of E-cadherin. Reduced Rho A activation downstream of actin remodelling therefore induces E-cadherin and reverses EMT in cancer cells. Cyt D treatment inhibited migration and, at higher concentrations, induced cytotoxicity of both HT-1080 fibrosarcoma cells and normal Hs27 fibroblasts, but only induced mesenchymal-epithelial transition in HT-1080 cancer cells. Our studies suggest that actin remodelling is an upstream regulator of EMT in metastatic cancer cells. PMID:25756282

  19. Novel regulation of Ski protein stability and endosomal sorting by actin cytoskeleton dynamics in hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Vázquez-Victorio, Genaro; Caligaris, Cassandre; Del Valle-Espinosa, Eugenio; Sosa-Garrocho, Marcela; González-Arenas, Nelly R; Reyes-Cruz, Guadalupe; Briones-Orta, Marco A; Macías-Silva, Marina

    2015-02-13

    TGF-β-induced antimitotic signals are highly regulated during cell proliferation under normal and pathological conditions, such as liver regeneration and cancer. Up-regulation of the transcriptional cofactors Ski and SnoN during liver regeneration may favor hepatocyte proliferation by inhibiting TGF-β signals. In this study, we found a novel mechanism that regulates Ski protein stability through TGF-β and G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) signaling. Ski protein is distributed between the nucleus and cytoplasm of normal hepatocytes, and the molecular mechanisms controlling Ski protein stability involve the participation of actin cytoskeleton dynamics. Cytoplasmic Ski is partially associated with actin and localized in cholesterol-rich vesicles. Ski protein stability is decreased by TGF-β/Smads, GPCR/Rho signals, and actin polymerization, whereas GPCR/cAMP signals and actin depolymerization promote Ski protein stability. In conclusion, TGF-β and GPCR signals differentially regulate Ski protein stability and sorting in hepatocytes, and this cross-talk may occur during liver regeneration.

  20. A membrane cytoskeleton from Dictyostelium discoideum. I. Identification and partial characterization of an actin-binding activity

    PubMed Central

    1981-01-01

    Dictyostelium discoideum plasma membranes isolated by each of three procedures bind F-actin. The interactions between these membranes and actin are examined by a novel application of falling ball viscometry. Treating the membranes as multivalent actin-binding particles analogous to divalent actin-gelation factors, we observe large increases in viscosity (actin cross-linking) when membranes of depleted actin and myosin are incubated with rabbit skeletal muscle F-actin. Pre- extraction of peripheral membrane proteins with chaotropes or the inclusion of Triton X-100 during the assay does not appreciably diminish this actin cross-linking activity. Lipid vesicles, heat- denatured membranes, proteolyzed membranes, or membranes containing endogenous actin show minimal actin cross-linking activity. Heat- denatured, but not proteolyzed, membranes regain activity when assayed in the presence of Triton X-100. Thus, integral membrane proteins appear to be responsible for some or all of the actin cross-linking activity of D. discoideum membranes. In the absence of MgATP, Triton X- 100 extraction of isolated D. discoideum membranes results in a Triton- insoluble residue composed of actin, myosin, and associated membrane proteins. The inclusion of MgATP before and during Triton extraction greatly diminishes the amount of protein in the Triton-insoluble residue without appreciably altering its composition. Our results suggest the existence of a protein complex stabilized by actin and/or myosin (membrane cytoskeleton) associated with the D. discoideum plasma membrane. PMID:6894148

  1. Rab11 and Actin Cytoskeleton Participate in Giardia lamblia Encystation, Guiding the Specific Vesicles to the Cyst Wall

    PubMed Central

    Castillo-Romero, Araceli; Leon-Avila, Gloria; Wang, Ching C.; Perez Rangel, Armando; Camacho Nuez, Minerva; Garcia Tovar, Carlos; Ayala-Sumuano, Jorge Tonatiuh; Luna-Arias, Juan Pedro; Hernandez, Jose Manuel

    2010-01-01

    Background Giardia passes through two stages during its life cycle, the trophozoite and the cyst. Cyst formation involves the synthesis of cyst wall proteins (CWPs) and the transport of CWPs into encystation-specific vesicles (ESVs). Active vesicular trafficking is essential for encystation, but the molecular machinery driving vesicular trafficking remains unknown. The Rab proteins are involved in the targeting of vesicles to several intracellular compartments through their association with cytoskeletal motor proteins. Methodology and Principal Findings In this study, we found a relationship between Rab11 and the actin cytoskeleton in CWP1 transport. Confocal microscopy showed Rab11 was distributed throughout the entire trophozoite, while in cysts it was translocated to the periphery of the cell, where it colocalized with ESVs and microfilaments. Encystation was also accompanied by changes in rab11 mRNA expression. To evaluate the role of microfilaments in encystation, the cells were treated with latrunculin A. Scanning electron microscopy showed this treatment resulted in morphological damages to encysted parasites. The intensity of fluorescence-labeled Rab11 and CWP1 in ESVs and cyst walls was reduced, and rab11 and cwp1 mRNA levels were down-regulated. Furthermore, knocking down Rab11 with a hammerhead ribozyme resulted in an up to 80% down-regulation of rab11 mRNA. Although this knockdown did not appear lethal for trophozoites and did not affect cwp1 expression during the encystation, confocal images showed CWP1 was redistributed throughout the cytosol. Conclusions and Significance Our results indicate that Rab11 participates in the early and late encystation stages by regulating CWP1 localization and the actin-mediated transport of ESVs towards the periphery. In addition, alterations in the dynamics of actin affected rab11 and cwp1 expression. Our results provide new information about the molecules involved in Giardia encystation and suggest that Rab11 and

  2. Effect of cooling (4°C) and cryopreservation on cytoskeleton actin and protein tyrosine phosphorylation in buffalo spermatozoa.

    PubMed

    Naresh, Sai

    2016-02-01

    Semen cryopreservation is broadly utilized as a part of the bovine reproducing industry, a large portion of the spermatozoa does not survive and the majority of those that do survive experience various molecular and physiological changes that influence their fertilizing capacity. The main aim of this study is to determine the effect of cooling (4 °C) and cryopreservation on cytoskeleton actin, tyrosine phosphorylation and quality of buffalo spermatozoa, and to determine the similarity between in vitro capacitation and cryopreservation induced capacitation like changes. To achieve this, Western blot was used to examine the changes in actin expression and protein tyrosine phosphorylation, whereas changes in actin polymerization, localization of actin and protein tyrosine phosphorylation during capacitation and cryopreservation were evaluated by indirect immunofluorescence technique. Localization studies revealed that the actin localized to flagella and acrosome membrane regions and following, capacitation it migrated towards the acrosome region of sperm. Time dependent increase in actin polymerization and protein tyrosine phosphorylation was observed during in vitro capacitation. The cooling phase (4 °C) and cryopreservation processes resulted in the loss/damage of cytoskeleton actin. In addition, we performed the actin polymerization and protein tyrosine phosphorylation in cooled and cryopreserved buffalo spermatozoa. Interestingly, cooling and cryopreservation induces actin polymerization and protein tyrosine phosphorylation, which were similar to in vitro capacitation (cryo-capacitation). These changes showed 1.3 folds reduction in the sperm quality parameters which includes motility, viability and plasma membrane integrity. Furthermore, our findings indicate that cooling and cryopreservation damages the cytoskeleton actin and also induces capacitation like changes such as protein tyrosine phosphorylation and actin polymerization. This could be one of the

  3. Learning, AMPA receptor mobility and synaptic plasticity depend on n-cofilin-mediated actin dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Rust, Marco B; Gurniak, Christine B; Renner, Marianne; Vara, Hugo; Morando, Laura; Görlich, Andreas; Sassoè-Pognetto, Marco; Banchaabouchi, Mumna Al; Giustetto, Maurizio; Triller, Antoine; Choquet, Daniel; Witke, Walter

    2010-01-01

    Neuronal plasticity is an important process for learning, memory and complex behaviour. Rapid remodelling of the actin cytoskeleton in the postsynaptic compartment is thought to have an important function for synaptic plasticity. However, the actin-binding proteins involved and the molecular mechanisms that in vivo link actin dynamics to postsynaptic physiology are not well understood. Here, we show that the actin filament depolymerizing protein n-cofilin is controlling dendritic spine morphology and postsynaptic parameters such as late long-term potentiation and long-term depression. Loss of n-cofilin-mediated synaptic actin dynamics in the forebrain specifically leads to impairment of all types of associative learning, whereas exploratory learning is not affected. We provide evidence for a novel function of n-cofilin function in synaptic plasticity and in the control of extrasynaptic excitatory AMPA receptors diffusion. These results suggest a critical function of actin dynamics in associative learning and postsynaptic receptor availability. PMID:20407421

  4. F-actin cytoskeleton and the fate of organelles in chromaffin cells.

    PubMed

    Villanueva, José; Gimenez-Molina, Yolanda; Viniegra, Salvador; Gutiérrez, Luis M

    2016-06-01

    In addition to playing a fundamental structural role, the F-actin cytoskeleton in neuroendocrine chromaffin cells has a prominent influence on governing the molecular mechanism and regulating the secretory process. Performing such roles, the F-actin network might be essential to first transport, and later locate the cellular organelles participating in the secretory cycle. Chromaffin granules are transported from the internal cytosolic regions to the cell periphery along microtubular and F-actin structures. Once in the cortical region, they are embedded in the F-actin network where these vesicles experience restrictions in motility. Similarly, mitochondria transport is affected by both microtubule and F-actin inhibitors and suffers increasing motion restrictions when they are located in the cortical region. Therefore, the F-actin cortex is a key factor in defining the existence of two populations of cortical and perinuclear granules and mitochondria which could be distinguished by their different location and mobility. Interestingly, other important organelles for controlling intracellular calcium levels, such as the endoplasmic reticulum network, present clear differences in distribution and much lower mobility than chromaffin vesicles and mitochondria. Nevertheless, both mitochondria and the endoplasmic reticulum appear to distribute in the proximity of secretory sites to fulfill a pivotal role, forming triads with calcium channels ensuring the fine tuning of the secretory response. This review presents the contributions that provide the basis for our current view regarding the influence that F-actin has on the distribution of organelles participating in the release of catecholamines in chromaffin cells, and summarizes this knowledge in simple models. In chromaffin cells, organelles such as granules and mitochondria distribute forming cortical and perinuclear populations whereas others like the ER present homogenous distributions. In the present review we discuss

  5. Effect of dexamethasone on proliferating osteoblasts: inhibition of prostaglandin E2 synthesis, DNA synthesis, and alterations in actin cytoskeleton.

    PubMed

    Hughes-Fulford, M; Appel, R; Kumegawa, M; Schmidt, J

    1992-11-01

    Elevated levels of glucocorticoids caused by disease (Cushing's syndrome) or therapeutic treatment of asthma are known to cause osteoporosis. Space flight, an environmental condition, is known to cause a rise in endogenous cortisols accompanied by a significant loss of bone and calcium. Long-term space inhabitants have lost up to 18% of weight bearing bone during long-term flight. This study demonstrates that elevated concentrations of glucocorticoids lower the endogenous production of PGE2 and interfere with osteoblast proliferation. Osteoblasts grown with dexamethasone had significantly lower DNA synthesis and endogenous synthesis of PGE2. Addition of exogenous dmPGE2 to the dexamethasone growth-inhibited cells stimulated DNA synthesis over twofold. In synchronous control cultures, we found that endogenous prostaglandin synthesis increased in late G1, preceding S-phase DNA synthesis by several hours. The addition of exogenous dexamethasone to synchronous cultures resulted in a significant decrease in the prostaglandin synthesis followed by a significant decrease in DNA synthesis in parallel cultures. Further, dexamethasone caused the actin cytoskeleton to collapse and the cell morphology to become rounded and spindle shaped. Addition of exogenous PGE2 to the dexamethasone-treated osteoblasts caused recovery of the actin architecture and phenotype. These data support the hypothesis that the glucocorticoid-mediated decrease in prostaglandin synthesis may be a contributing factor in the reduced bone quality and trabecular bone formation seen in glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis. PMID:1426038

  6. Effects of altered gravity on the cell cycle, actin cytoskeleton and proteome in Physarum polycephalum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Jie; Zhang, Xiaoxian; Gao, Yong; Li, Shuijie; Sun, Yeqing

    Some researchers suggest that the changes of cell cycle under the effect of microgravity may be associated with many serious adverse physiological changes. In the search for underlying mechanisms and possible new countermeasures, we used the slime mold Physarum polycephalum in which all the nuclei traverse the cell cycle in natural synchrony to study the effects of altered gravity on the cell cycle, actin cytoskeleton and proteome. In parallel, the cell cycle was analyzed in Physarum incubated (1) in altered gravity for 20 h, (2) in altered gravity for 40 h, (3) in altered gravity for 80 h, and (4) in ground controls. The cell cycle, the actin cytoskeleton, and proteome in the altered gravity and ground controls were examined. The results indicated that the duration of the G2 phase was lengthened 20 min in high aspect ratio vessel (HARV) for 20 h, and prolonged 2 h in altered gravity either for 40 h or for 80 h, whereas the duration of other phases in the cell cycle was unchanged with respect to the control. The microfilaments in G2 phase had a reduced number of fibers and a unique abnormal morphology in altered gravity for 40 h, whereas the microfilaments in other phases of cell cycle were unchanged when compared to controls. Employing classical two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE), we examined the effect of the altered gravity on P. polycephalum proteins. The increase in the duration of G2 phase in altered gravity for 40 h was accompanied by changes in the 2-DE protein profiles, over controls. Out of a total of 200 protein spots investigated in G2 phase, which were reproducible in repeated experiments, 72 protein spots were visually identified as specially expressed, and 11 proteins were up-regulated by 2-fold and 28 proteins were down-regulated by 2-fold over controls. Out of a total of three low-expressed proteins in G2 phase in altered gravity for 40 h, two proteins were unknown proteins, and one protein was spherulin 3b by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry (MS

  7. Disruption of the actin cytoskeleton results in the promotion of gravitropism in inflorescence stems and hypocotyls of Arabidopsis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yamamoto, Kazuyoshi; Kiss, John Z.

    2002-01-01

    The actin cytoskeleton is hypothesized to play a major role in gravity perception and transduction mechanisms in roots of plants. To determine whether actin microfilaments (MFs) are involved in these processes in stem-like organs, we studied gravitropism in Arabidopsis inflorescence stems and hypocotyls. Localization studies using Alexa Fluor-phalloidin in conjugation with confocal microscopy demonstrated a longitudinally and transversely oriented actin MF network in endodermal cells of stems and hypocotyls. Latrunculin B (Lat-B) treatment of hypocotyls caused depolymerization of actin MFs in endodermal cells and a significant reduction of hypocotyl growth rates. Actin MFs in Lat-B-treated inflorescence stems also were disrupted, but growth rates were not affected. Despite disruption of the actin cytoskeleton in these two organs, Lat-B-treated stems and hypocotyls exhibited a promotion of gravitropic curvature in response to reorientation. In contrast, Lat-B reduced gravitropic curvature in roots but also reduced the growth rate. Thus, in contrast to prevailing hypotheses, our results suggest that actin MFs are not a necessary component of gravitropism in inflorescence stems and hypocotyls. Furthermore, this is the first study to demonstrate a prominent actin MF network in endodermal cells in the putative gravity-perceiving cells in stems.

  8. Calmodulin inhibition regulates morphological and functional changes related to the actin cytoskeleton in pure microglial cells.

    PubMed

    Szabo, Melinda; Dulka, Karolina; Gulya, Karoly

    2016-01-01

    The roles of calmodulin (CaM), a multifunctional intracellular calcium receptor protein, as concerns selected morphological and functional characteristics of pure microglial cells derived from mixed primary cultures from embryonal forebrains of rats, were investigated through use of the CaM antagonists calmidazolium (CALMID) and trifluoperazine (TFP). The intracellular localization of the CaM protein relative to phalloidin, a bicyclic heptapeptide that binds only to filamentous actin, and the ionized calcium-binding adaptor molecule 1 (Iba1), a microglia-specific actin-binding protein, was determined by immunocytochemistry, with quantitative analysis by immunoblotting. In unchallenged and untreated (control) microglia, high concentrations of CaM protein were found mainly perinuclearly in ameboid microglia, while the cell cortex had a smaller CaM content that diminished progressively deeper into the branches in the ramified microglia. The amounts and intracellular distributions of both Iba1 and CaM proteins were altered after lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge in activated microglia. CALMID and TFP exerted different, sometimes opposing, effects on many morphological, cytoskeletal and functional characteristics of the microglial cells. They affected the CaM and Iba1 protein expressions and their intracellular localizations differently, inhibited cell proliferation, viability and fluid-phase phagocytosis to different degrees both in unchallenged and in LPS-treated (immunologically challenged) cells, and differentially affected the reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton in the microglial cell cortex, influencing lamellipodia, filopodia and podosome formation. In summary, these CaM antagonists altered different aspects of filamentous actin-based cell morphology and related functions with variable efficacy, which could be important in deciphering the roles of CaM in regulating microglial functions in health and disease.

  9. Bidirectional interactions between NOX2-type NADPH oxidase and the F-actin cytoskeleton in neuronal growth cones.

    PubMed

    Munnamalai, Vidhya; Weaver, Cory J; Weisheit, Corinne E; Venkatraman, Prahatha; Agim, Zeynep Sena; Quinn, Mark T; Suter, Daniel M

    2014-08-01

    NADPH oxidases are important for neuronal function but detailed subcellular localization studies have not been performed. Here, we provide the first evidence for the presence of functional NADPH oxidase 2 (NOX2)-type complex in neuronal growth cones and its bidirectional relationship with the actin cytoskeleton. NADPH oxidase inhibition resulted in reduced F-actin content, retrograde F-actin flow, and neurite outgrowth. Stimulation of NADPH oxidase via protein kinase C activation increased levels of hydrogen peroxide in the growth cone periphery. The main enzymatic NADPH oxidase subunit NOX2/gp91(phox) localized to the growth cone plasma membrane and showed little overlap with the regulatory subunit p40(phox) . p40(phox) itself exhibited colocalization with filopodial actin bundles. Differential subcellular fractionation revealed preferential association of NOX2/gp91(phox) and p40(phox) with the membrane and the cytoskeletal fraction, respectively. When neurite growth was evoked with beads coated with the cell adhesion molecule apCAM, we observed a significant increase in colocalization of p40(phox) with NOX2/gp91(phox) at apCAM adhesion sites. Together, these findings suggest a bidirectional functional relationship between NADPH oxidase activity and the actin cytoskeleton in neuronal growth cones, which contributes to the control of neurite outgrowth. We have previously shown that reactive oxygen species (ROS) are critical for actin organization and dynamics in neuronal growth cones as well as neurite outgrowth. Here, we report that the cytosolic subunit p40(phox) of the NOX2-type NADPH oxidase complex is partially associated with F-actin in neuronal growth cones, while ROS produced by this complex regulates F-actin dynamics and neurite growth. These findings provide evidence for a bidirectional relationship between NADPH oxidase activity and the actin cytoskeleton in neuronal growth cones. PMID:24702317

  10. Actin cytoskeleton control of the comings and goings of T lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Lafouresse, F; Vasconcelos, Z; Cotta-de-Almeida, V; Dupré, L

    2013-11-01

    T lymphocytes are key players of adaptive immune responses. Upon recognition of specific peptides presented by human leukocyte antigen (HLA) molecules on antigen presenting cells (APC), these cells execute subset-related functions such as killing, help and regulation. The ontogeny, the activation and the effector functions of T lymphocytes are all steps of T-lymphocyte life cycle that rely on high motility properties. These cells travel through the organism in a succession of steps, including entry into tissues, interstitial migration, APC scanning, synapse formation and tissue exit. Such ability is possible because of a plastic motility behavior, which is highly controlled in time and space. The molecular basis for the adaptable motility behavior of T lymphocytes is only starting to be unraveled. The scope of this review is to discuss recent data pointing to the key role of regulators of actin cytoskeleton remodeling in tuning distinct aspects of T-lymphocyte motility during their entry, residency and exit from tissues.

  11. Insulin and dexamethasone stimulation of cardiac lipoprotein lipase activity involves the actin-based cytoskeleton.

    PubMed Central

    Ewart, H S; Severson, D L

    1999-01-01

    Lipoprotein lipase (LPL) activity in cultured ventricular cardiomyocytes from adult rat hearts was stimulated by the combination of insulin (100 nM) and dexamethasone (100 nM) during an overnight (16 h) incubation. Wortmannin (100 nM), rapamycin (30 ng/ml) or PD98059 (50 microM) did not prevent this stimulation, suggesting that phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, p70 S6 kinase and the mitogen-activated protein kinase cascade are not involved in transducing the hormonal signal. In contrast, cytochalasin D (2 microM) completely abolished the stimulatory effect of insulin and dexamethasone on both heparin-releasable LPL and total cellular LPL activities. The potential role of the actin cytoskeleton in the stimulation of LPL activity by insulin and dexamethasone appears to be distal to the initial signalling events since cytochalasin D is still effective in preventing the stimulation when added 2 h after the hormones. PMID:10333493

  12. Maintenance of asymmetric cellular localization of an auxin transport protein through interaction with the actin cytoskeleton

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muday, G. K.

    2000-01-01

    In shoots, polar auxin transport is basipetal (that is, from the shoot apex toward the base) and is driven by the basal localization of the auxin efflux carrier complex. The focus of this article is to summarize the experiments that have examined how the asymmetric distribution of this protein complex is controlled and the significance of this polar distribution. Experimental evidence suggests that asymmetries in the auxin efflux carrier may be established through localized secretion of Golgi vesicles, whereas an attachment of a subunit of the efflux carrier to the actin cytoskeleton may maintain this localization. In addition, the idea that this localization of the efflux carrier may control both the polarity of auxin movement and more globally regulate developmental polarity is explored. Finally, evidence indicating that the gravity vector controls auxin transport polarity is summarized and possible mechanisms for the environmentally induced changes in auxin transport polarity are discussed.

  13. Nuanced but significant: how ethanol perturbs avian cranial neural crest cell actin cytoskeleton, migration and proliferation.

    PubMed

    Oyedele, Olusegun O; Kramer, Beverley

    2013-08-01

    Children with fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) display striking craniofacial abnormalities. These features are proposed to result from perturbations in the morphology and function of cranial neural crest cells (cNCCs), which contribute significantly to the craniofacial complex. While certain pathways by which this may occur have been suggested, precise teratogenic mechanisms remain intensely investigated, as does the question of the teratogenic dose. The present study focused on examining how avian cNCC actin cytoskeleton, migratory distance, and proliferation are affected ex vivo by exposure to ethanol concentrations that simulate maternal intoxication. Chick cNCCs were cultured in 0.2% and 0.4% v/v ethanol. Distances migrated by both ethanol-treated and control cells at 24 and 48 h were recorded. Following phalloidin immunocytochemistry, treated and control cNCCs were compared morphologically and quantitatively. Apoptosis and proliferation in control versus treated cNCCs were also studied. Chick cNCCs cultured in ethanol lost their spindle-like shapes and their ordered cytoskeleton. There was a significant stage-dependent effect on cNCC migration at 24 h (p = 0.035), which was greatest at stage 10 (HH). Ethanol treatment for 48 h revealed a significant main effect for ethanol, chiefly at the 0.4% level. There was also an interaction effect between ethanol dose and stage of development (stage 9 HH). Actin microfilament disruption was quantitatively increased by ethanol at the doses studied while cNCC proliferation was increased but not significantly. Ethanol had no effect on cNCC apoptosis. At ethanol levels likely to induce human FAS, avian cNCCs exhibit various subtle, potentially significant changes in morphology, migration, and proliferation, with possible consequences for fated structures.

  14. Effects of Plasma Membrane Cholesterol Level and Cytoskeleton F-Actin on Cell Protrusion Mechanics

    PubMed Central

    Khatibzadeh, Nima; Spector, Alexander A.; Brownell, William E.; Anvari, Bahman

    2013-01-01

    Protrusions are deformations that form at the surface of living cells during biological activities such as cell migration. Using combined optical tweezers and fluorescent microscopy, we quantified the mechanical properties of protrusions in adherent human embryonic kidney cells in response to application of an external force at the cell surface. The mechanical properties of protrusions were analyzed by obtaining the associated force-length plots during protrusion formation, and force relaxation at constant length. Protrusion mechanics were interpretable by a standard linear solid (Kelvin) model, consisting of two stiffness parameters, k0 and k1 (with k0>k1), and a viscous coefficient. While both stiffness parameters contribute to the time-dependant mechanical behavior of the protrusions, k0 and k1 in particular dominated the early and late stages of the protrusion formation and elongation process, respectively. Lowering the membrane cholesterol content by 25% increased the k0 stiffness by 74%, and shortened the protrusion length by almost half. Enhancement of membrane cholesterol content by nearly two-fold increased the protrusion length by 30%, and decreased the k0 stiffness by nearly two-and-half-fold as compared with control cells. Cytoskeleton integrity was found to make a major contribution to protrusion mechanics as evidenced by the effects of F-actin disruption on the resulting mechanical parameters. Viscoelastic behavior of protrusions was further characterized by hysteresis and force relaxation after formation. The results of this study elucidate the coordination of plasma membrane composition and cytoskeleton during protrusion formation. PMID:23451167

  15. Renal Lipotoxicity-Associated Inflammation and Insulin Resistance Affects Actin Cytoskeleton Organization in Podocytes

    PubMed Central

    Vivas, Yurena; Velasco, Ismael; Yeo, Tet-Kin; Chen, Sheldon; Medina-Gomez, Gema

    2015-01-01

    In the last few decades a change in lifestyle has led to an alarming increase in the prevalence of obesity and obesity-associated complications. Obese patients are at increased risk of developing hypertension, heart disease, insulin resistance (IR), dyslipidemia, type 2 diabetes and renal disease. The excess calories are stored as triglycerides in adipose tissue, but also may accumulate ectopically in other organs, including the kidney, which contributes to the damage through a toxic process named lipotoxicity. Recently, the evidence suggests that renal lipid accumulation leads to glomerular damage and, more specifically, produces dysfunction in podocytes, key cells that compose and maintain the glomerular filtration barrier. Our aim was to analyze the early mechanisms underlying the development of renal disease associated with the process of lipotoxicity in podocytes. Our results show that treatment of podocytes with palmitic acid produced intracellular accumulation of lipid droplets and abnormal glucose and lipid metabolism. This was accompanied by the development of inflammation, oxidative stress and endoplasmic reticulum stress and insulin resistance. We found specific rearrangements of the actin cytoskeleton and slit diaphragm proteins (Nephrin, P-Cadherin, Vimentin) associated with this insulin resistance in palmitic-treated podocytes. We conclude that lipotoxicity accelerates glomerular disease through lipid accumulation and inflammation. Moreover, saturated fatty acids specifically promote insulin resistance by disturbing the cytoarchitecture of podocytes. These data suggest that renal lipid metabolism and cytoskeleton rearrangements may serve as a target for specific therapies aimed at slowing the progression of podocyte failure during metabolic syndrome. PMID:26545114

  16. Renal Lipotoxicity-Associated Inflammation and Insulin Resistance Affects Actin Cytoskeleton Organization in Podocytes.

    PubMed

    Martínez-García, Cristina; Izquierdo-Lahuerta, Adriana; Vivas, Yurena; Velasco, Ismael; Yeo, Tet-Kin; Chen, Sheldon; Medina-Gomez, Gema

    2015-01-01

    In the last few decades a change in lifestyle has led to an alarming increase in the prevalence of obesity and obesity-associated complications. Obese patients are at increased risk of developing hypertension, heart disease, insulin resistance (IR), dyslipidemia, type 2 diabetes and renal disease. The excess calories are stored as triglycerides in adipose tissue, but also may accumulate ectopically in other organs, including the kidney, which contributes to the damage through a toxic process named lipotoxicity. Recently, the evidence suggests that renal lipid accumulation leads to glomerular damage and, more specifically, produces dysfunction in podocytes, key cells that compose and maintain the glomerular filtration barrier. Our aim was to analyze the early mechanisms underlying the development of renal disease associated with the process of lipotoxicity in podocytes. Our results show that treatment of podocytes with palmitic acid produced intracellular accumulation of lipid droplets and abnormal glucose and lipid metabolism. This was accompanied by the development of inflammation, oxidative stress and endoplasmic reticulum stress and insulin resistance. We found specific rearrangements of the actin cytoskeleton and slit diaphragm proteins (Nephrin, P-Cadherin, Vimentin) associated with this insulin resistance in palmitic-treated podocytes. We conclude that lipotoxicity accelerates glomerular disease through lipid accumulation and inflammation. Moreover, saturated fatty acids specifically promote insulin resistance by disturbing the cytoarchitecture of podocytes. These data suggest that renal lipid metabolism and cytoskeleton rearrangements may serve as a target for specific therapies aimed at slowing the progression of podocyte failure during metabolic syndrome. PMID:26545114

  17. Initial stem cell adhesion on porous silicon surface: molecular architecture of actin cytoskeleton and filopodial growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collart-Dutilleul, Pierre-Yves; Panayotov, Ivan; Secret, Emilie; Cunin, Frédérique; Gergely, Csilla; Cuisinier, Frédéric; Martin, Marta

    2014-10-01

    The way cells explore their surrounding extracellular matrix (ECM) during development and migration is mediated by lamellipodia at their leading edge, acting as an actual motor pulling the cell forward. Lamellipodia are the primary area within the cell of actin microfilaments (filopodia) formation. In this work, we report on the use of porous silicon (pSi) scaffolds to mimic the ECM of mesenchymal stem cells from the dental pulp (DPSC) and breast cancer (MCF-7) cells. Our atomic force microscopy (AFM), fluorescence microscopy, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) results show that pSi promoted the appearance of lateral filopodia protruding from the DPSC cell body and not only in the lamellipodia area. The formation of elongated lateral actin filaments suggests that pores provided the necessary anchorage points for protrusion growth. Although MCF-7 cells displayed a lower presence of organized actin network on both pSi and nonporous silicon, pSi stimulated the formation of extended cell protrusions.

  18. Effects of dexamethasone and HA1077 on actin cytoskeleton and β-catenin in cultured human trabecular meshwork cells

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Jie; Feng, Xiao-Yun; Ye, Zi-Meng; Luo, Qian; Cheng, Yi-Lian; Wu, Zheng-Zheng; Lei, Chun-Tao; Gong, Bo

    2016-01-01

    AIM To investigate the effects of dexamethasone (DEX) and 1-(5-isoquinolinesulfonyl)-homopiperazine (HA1077) on actin cytoskeleton and β-catenin in cultured human trabecular meshwork (HTM) cells. METHODS The HTM cells were separated from human eyeball and cultured in vitro. They were divided into control group, DEX (1×10−6 mol/L) group, HA1077 (3×10−5 mol/L) group, and DEX (1×10−6 mol/L) and HA1077 (3×10−5 mol/L) group. Actin cytoskeleton and β-catenin in HTM cells of the four groups were examined by immunofluorescence and Western blot analyses. RESULTS In DEX group, there were reorganization of actin cytoskeleton and formation of cross linked actin networks (CLANs), which were partially reversed in DEX and HA1077 group. DEX treatment also induced an increased expression of β-catenin, which was obviously reduced in DEX and HA1077 group. Meanwhile, the cultured HTM cells in HA1077 group had lower expression of β-catenin than that in the control group. CONCLUSION Our results show that HA1077 can reverse the changes of actin organization and expression of β-catenin induced by DEX in cultured HTM cells, suggesting that HA1077 may play an important role in increasing outflow and reducing intraocular pressure. PMID:27803851

  19. Assessment of actin cytoskeleton and nuclei in bovine blastocysts developed under different culture conditions using a novel computer program.

    PubMed

    Kuzmany, A; Havlicek, V; Brem, G; Walter, I; Besenfelder, U

    2011-02-01

    This study was performed to investigate the effects, in terms of nuclear material and actin cytoskeleton quantities (fluorescent pixel counts), of four different bovine blastocyst culturing techniques (in vitro, stepwise in vitro-to-in vivo, or purely in vivo). Cumulus oocyte complexes from abattoir-sourced ovaries were matured in vitro and allocated to four groups: IVP-group embryos developed up to blastocyst stage in vitro. Gamete intra-fallopian transfer (GIFT)-group oocytes were co-incubated with semen for 4 h before transfer to oviducts of heifers. Following in vitro fertilization, cleaved embryos (day 2 of embryo development, day 2-7 group) were transferred into oviducts on day 2. Multiple ovulation embryo transfer (MOET)-group embryos were obtained by superovulating and inseminating heifers; the heifers' genital tracts were flushed at day 7 of blastocyst development. Within each group, ten blastocysts were selected to be differentially dyed (for nuclei and actin cytoskeleton) with fluorescent stains. A novel computer program (ColorAnalyzer) provided differential pixel counts representing organelle quantities. Blastocysts developed only in vivo (MOET group) showed significantly more nuclear material than did blastocysts produced by any other technique. In terms of actin cytoskeleton quantity, blastocysts produced by IVP and by day 2-7 transfer did not differ significantly from each other. Gamete intra-fallopian transfer- and MOET-group embryos showed significantly larger quantities of actin cytoskeleton when compared with any other group and differed significantly from each other. The results of this study indicate that culturing under in vitro conditions, even with part time in vivo techniques, may adversely affect the quantity of blastocyst nuclear material and actin cytoskeleton. The software employed may be useful for culture environment evaluation/developmental competence assessment. PMID:20477985

  20. The suppressor of cytokine signaling (SOCS)-7 interacts with the actin cytoskeleton through vinexin.

    PubMed

    Martens, Nele; Wery, Maxime; Wang, Ping; Braet, Filip; Gertler, Arieh; Hooghe, Robert; Vandenhaute, Jean; Hooghe-Peters, Elisabeth L

    2004-08-01

    To understand the function of the suppressor of cytokine signaling (SOCS)-7, we have looked for proteins interacting with SOCS-7 in a stringent yeast two-hybrid screen of a human leukocyte cDNA-library. We identified the cytoskeletal molecule vinexin as a partner interacting with SOCS-7. Tests with deletion mutants of SOCS-7 demonstrated that a central region of the molecule containing several proline-rich regions, N-terminal to the SH2 domain, was responsible for the binding to vinexin. It is thus likely that one of the SH3 domains of vinexin interacts with a poly-proline region of SOCS-7. The interaction with vinexin was confirmed biochemically as vinexin-alpha was co-precipitated with SOCS-7. Confocal laser-scanning microscopy in HEK293T, MCF-7, and 3T3-L1 cells showed that part of the transfected SOCS-7-green fluorescent protein (GFP) molecules merged with vinexin and with actin. Taken together, our data indicate that SOCS-7 interacts with vinexin and the actin cytoskeleton.

  1. Global architecture of F-actin cytoskeleton regulates cell shape-dependent endothelial mechanotransduction

    PubMed Central

    Shao, Yue; Mann, Jennifer M.; Chen, Weiqiang; Fu, Jianping

    2014-01-01

    Uniaxial stretch is an important biophysical regulator of cell morphology (or shape) and functions of vascular endothelial cells (ECs). However, it is unclear whether and how cell shape can independently regulate EC mechanotransductive properties under uniaxial stretch. Herein, utilizing a novel uniaxial cell-stretching device integrated with micropost force sensors, we reported the first experimental evidence showing cell shape-dependent EC mechanotransduction via cytoskeleton (CSK) contractile forces in response to uniaxial stretch. Combining experiments and theoretical modeling from first principles, we showed that it was the global architecture of the F-actin CSK that instructed the cell shape-dependent EC mechanotransductive process. Furthermore, a cell shape-dependent nature was relayed in EC mechanotransduction via dynamic focal adhesion (FA) assembly. Our results suggested a novel mechanotransductive process in ECs wherein the global architecture of the F-actin CSK, governed by cell shape, controls mechanotransduction via CSK contractile forces and force-dependent FA assembly under uniaxial stretch. PMID:24435061

  2. Unveiling Interactions among Mitochondria, Caspase-Like Proteases, and the Actin Cytoskeleton during Plant Programmed Cell Death (PCD)

    PubMed Central

    Lord, Christina E. N.; Dauphinee, Adrian N.; Watts, Rebecca L.; Gunawardena, Arunika H. L. A. N.

    2013-01-01

    Aponogeton madagascariensis produces perforations over its leaf surface via programmed cell death (PCD). PCD begins between longitudinal and transverse veins at the center of spaces regarded as areoles, and continues outward, stopping several cells from these veins. The gradient of PCD that exists within a single areole of leaves in an early stage of development was used as a model to investigate cellular dynamics during PCD. Mitochondria have interactions with a family of proteases known as caspases, and the actin cytoskeleton during metazoan PCD; less is known regarding these interactions during plant PCD. This study employed the actin stain Alexa Fluor 488 phalloidin, the actin depolymerizer Latrunculin B (Lat B), a synthetic caspase peptide substrate and corresponding specific inhibitors, as well as the mitochondrial pore inhibitor cyclosporine A (CsA) to analyze the role of these cellular constituents during PCD. Results depicted that YVADase (caspase-1) activity is higher during the very early stages of perforation formation, followed by the bundling and subsequent breakdown of actin. Actin depolymerization using Lat B caused no change in YVADase activity. In vivo inhibition of YVADase activity prevented PCD and actin breakdown, therefore substantiating actin as a likely substrate for caspase-like proteases (CLPs). The mitochondrial pore inhibitor CsA significantly decreased YVADase activity, and prevented both PCD and actin breakdown; therefore suggesting the mitochondria as a possible trigger for CLPs during PCD in the lace plant. To our knowledge, this is the first in vivo study using either caspase-1 inhibitor (Ac-YVAD-CMK) or CsA, following which the actin cytoskeleton was examined. Overall, our findings suggest the mitochondria as a possible upstream activator of YVADase activity and implicate these proteases as potential initiators of actin breakdown during perforation formation via PCD in the lace plant. PMID:23483897

  3. Coordination of Actin- and Microtubule-Based Cytoskeletons Supports Transport of Spermatids and Residual Bodies/Phagosomes During Spermatogenesis in the Rat Testis.

    PubMed

    Tang, Elizabeth I; Lee, Will M; Cheng, C Yan

    2016-04-01

    Germ cell transport across the seminiferous epithelium during spermatogenesis requires the intricate coordination of cell junctions, signaling proteins, and both actin- and microtubule (MT)-based cytoskeletons. Although the involvement of cytoskeletons in germ cell transport has been suggested, the precise mechanism(s) remains elusive. Based on growing evidence that actin and MT interactions underlie fundamental cellular processes, such as cell motility, it is unlikely that actin- and MT-based cytoskeletons work independently to regulate germ cell transport in the testis. Using rats treated with adjudin, a potential male contraceptive that disrupts spermatid adhesion and transport in the testis, as a study model, we show herein that actin- and MT-based cytoskeletons are both necessary for transport of spermatids and residual bodies/phagosomes across the seminiferous epithelium in adult rat testes. Analysis of intratubular expression of F-actin and tubulin revealed disruption of both actin and MT networks, concomitant with misdirected spermatids and phagosomes in rats treated with adjudin. Actin regulatory proteins, epidermal growth factor receptor pathway substrate 8 and actin-related protein 3, were mislocalized and down-regulated at the actin-rich anchoring junction between germ and Sertoli cells (apical ectoplasmic specialization) after adjudin treatment. Nonreceptor tyrosine kinase p-FAK-Tyr(407), known to regulate F-actin nucleation via actin-related protein 3, was also mislocalized and down-regulated at the apical ectoplasmic specialization, corroborating the observation of actin cytoskeleton disruption. Additionally, spatiotemporal expression of MT regulatory protein end-binding protein 1, shown to be involved in MT-actin cross talk herein, was also disrupted after adjudin treatment. In summary, spermatid/phagosome transport across the epithelium during spermatogenesis requires the coordination between actin- and MT-based cytoskeletons.

  4. CLIC proteins, ezrin, radixin, moesin and the coupling of membranes to the actin cytoskeleton: a smoking gun?

    PubMed

    Jiang, Lele; Phang, Juanita M; Yu, Jiang; Harrop, Stephen J; Sokolova, Anna V; Duff, Anthony P; Wilk, Krystyna E; Alkhamici, Heba; Breit, Samuel N; Valenzuela, Stella M; Brown, Louise J; Curmi, Paul M G

    2014-02-01

    The CLIC proteins are a highly conserved family of metazoan proteins with the unusual ability to adopt both soluble and integral membrane forms. The physiological functions of CLIC proteins may include enzymatic activity in the soluble form and anion channel activity in the integral membrane form. CLIC proteins are associated with the ERM proteins: ezrin, radixin and moesin. ERM proteins act as cross-linkers between membranes and the cortical actin cytoskeleton. Both CLIC and ERM proteins are controlled by Rho family small GTPases. CLIC proteins, ERM and Rho GTPases act in a concerted manner to control active membrane processes including the maintenance of microvillar structures, phagocytosis and vesicle trafficking. All of these processes involve the interaction of membranes with the underlying cortical actin cytoskeleton. The relationships between Rho GTPases, CLIC proteins, ERM proteins and the membrane:actin cytoskeleton interface are reviewed. Speculative models are proposed involving the formation of localised multi-protein complexes on the membrane surface that assemble via multiple weak interactions. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Reciprocal influences between cell cytoskeleton and membrane channels, receptors and transporters. Guest Editor: Jean Claude Hervé.

  5. The mechanism of cytoskeleton protein β-actin and cofilin-1 of macrophages infected by Mycobacterium avium

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jianjun; Yao, Yongliang; Wu, Jianhong; Deng, Zhiyong; Gu, Tao; Tang, Xin; Cheng, Yang; Li, Guangxin

    2016-01-01

    Cytoskeleton proteins and their regulation proteins could be influenced seriously in Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection host cells leading to the apoptosis of host cells. Macrophages infected by Mycobacterium avium were detected from cell morphology and genome levels to analyze changes of the cytoskeleton of M. avium infection macrophages. Then the expression of β-actin, cofilin-1 proteins in M. avium infected macrophages were analyzed by western blotting, and the apoptosis of M. avium infection macrophages were tested by flow cytometry. Results indicated that the morphology and genomic DNA of M. avium infection macrophages were not damaged significantly. Meanwhile, β-actin gene and its proteins in M. avium infection macrophages were both decreased, but its regulatory protein cofilin-1 was expressed conversely. Furthermore, macrophages could be induced to apoptosis due to M. avium infection by cytoskeleton changes. These findings contributed us to understand that macrophages infected by M. avium could be lead to apoptosis by regulating cytoskeleton protein β-actin or its regulatory protein cofilin-1. PMID:27158391

  6. 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid promotes S-nitrosylation and oxidation of actin affecting cytoskeleton and peroxisomal dynamics.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Serrano, M; Pazmiño, D M; Sparkes, I; Rochetti, A; Hawes, C; Romero-Puertas, M C; Sandalio, L M

    2014-09-01

    2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) is a synthetic auxin used as a herbicide to control weeds in agriculture. A high concentration of 2,4-D promotes leaf epinasty and cell death. In this work, the molecular mechanisms involved in the toxicity of this herbicide are studied by analysing in Arabidopsis plants the accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nitric oxide (NO), and their effect on cytoskeleton structure and peroxisome dynamics. 2,4-D (23 mM) promotes leaf epinasty, whereas this process was prevented by EDTA, which can reduce ·OH accumulation. The analysis of ROS accumulation by confocal microscopy showed a 2,4-D-dependent increase in both H2O2 and O2·(-), whereas total NO was not affected by the treatment. The herbicide promotes disturbances on the actin cytoskeleton structure as a result of post-translational modification of actin by oxidation and S-nitrosylation, which could disturb actin polymerization, as suggested by the reduction of the F-actin/G-actin ratio. These effects were reduced by EDTA, and the reduction of ROS production in Arabidopsis mutants deficient in xanthine dehydrogenase (Atxdh) gave rise to a reduction in actin oxidation. Also, 2,4-D alters the dynamics of the peroxisome, slowing the speed and shortening the distances by which these organelles are displaced. It is concluded that 2,4-D promotes oxidative and nitrosative stress, causing disturbances in the actin cytoskeleton, thereby affecting the dynamics of peroxisomes and some other organelles such as the mitochondria, with xanthine dehydrogenase being involved in ROS production under these conditions. These structural changes in turn appear to be responsible for the leaf epinasty.

  7. Berberine induces dedifferentiation by actin cytoskeleton reorganization via phosphoinositide 3-kinase/Akt and p38 kinase pathways in rabbit articular chondrocytes

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Seon-Mi; Cho, Hongsik; Kim, Gwang-Hoon; Chung, Ki-Wha; Seo, Sung-Yum

    2016-01-01

    Osteoarthritis is a nonrheumatologic joint disease characterized by progressive degeneration of the cartilage extracellular matrix. Berberine (BBR) is an isoquinoline alkaloid used in traditional Chinese medicine, the majority of which is extracted from Huang Lian (Coptis chinensis). Although numerous studies have revealed the anticancer activity of BBR, its effects on normal cells, such as chondrocytes, and the molecular mechanisms underlying its actions remain elusive. Therefore, we examined the effects of BBR on rabbit articular chondrocytes, and the underlying molecular mechanisms, focusing on actin cytoskeletal reorganization. BBR induced dedifferentiation by inhibiting activation of phosphoinositide-3(PI3)-kinase/Akt and p38 kinase. Furthermore, inhibition of p38 kinase and PI3-kinase/Akt with SB203580 and LY294002, respectively, accelerated the BBR-induced dedifferentiation. BBR also caused actin cytoskeletal architecture reorganization and, therefore, we investigated if these effects were involved in the dedifferentiation. Disruption of the actin cytoskeleton by cytochalasin D reversed the BBR-induced dedifferentiation by activating PI3-kinase/Akt and p38 kinase. In contrast, the induction of actin filament aggregation by jasplakinolide accelerated the BBR-induced dedifferentiation via PI3-kinase/Akt inhibition and p38 kinase activation. Taken together, these data suggest that BBR strongly induces dedifferentiation, and actin cytoskeletal reorganization is a crucial requirement for this effect. Furthermore, the dedifferentiation activity of BBR appears to be mediated via PI3-kinase/Akt and p38 kinase pathways in rabbit articular chondrocytes. PMID:26851252

  8. Ena/VASP proteins cooperate with the WAVE complex to regulate the actin cytoskeleton.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xing Judy; Squarr, Anna Julia; Stephan, Raiko; Chen, Baoyu; Higgins, Theresa E; Barry, David J; Martin, Morag C; Rosen, Michael K; Bogdan, Sven; Way, Michael

    2014-09-01

    Ena/VASP proteins and the WAVE regulatory complex (WRC) regulate cell motility by virtue of their ability to independently promote actin polymerization. We demonstrate that Ena/VASP and the WRC control actin polymerization in a cooperative manner through the interaction of the Ena/VASP EVH1 domain with an extended proline rich motif in Abi. This interaction increases cell migration and enables VASP to cooperatively enhance WRC stimulation of Arp2/3 complex-mediated actin assembly in vitro in the presence of Rac. Loss of this interaction in Drosophila macrophages results in defects in lamellipodia formation, cell spreading, and redistribution of Ena to the tips of filopodia-like extensions. Rescue experiments of abi mutants also reveals a physiological requirement for the Abi:Ena interaction in photoreceptor axon targeting and oogenesis. Our data demonstrate that the activities of Ena/VASP and the WRC are intimately linked to ensure optimal control of actin polymerization during cell migration and development.

  9. Fucus as a Model System to Study the Role of Auxin Transport and the Actin Cytoskeleton in Gravity Response

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muday, Gloria K.

    2003-01-01

    The overarching goal of this proposal was to examine the mechanisms for the cellular asymmetry in auxin transport proteins. As auxin transport polarity changes in response to reorientation of algal and plant cells relative to the gravity vector, it was critical to ask how auxin transport polarity is established and how this transport polarity may change in response to gravity stimulation. The experiments conducted with this NASA grant fell into two categories. The first area of experimentation was to explore the biochemical interactions between an auxin transport protein and the actin cytoskeleton. These experiments used biochemical techniques, including actin affinity chromatography, to demonstrate that one auxin transport protein interacts with the actin cytoskeleton. The second line of experiments examined whether in the initially symmetrical single celled embryos of Fucus distichus, whether auxin regulates development and whether gravity is a cue to control the morphogenesis of these embryos and whether gravi-morphogenesis is auxin dependent. Results in these two areas are summarized separately below. As a result of this funding, in combination with results from other investigators, we have strong evidence for an important role for the actin cytoskeleton in both establishing and change auxin transport polarity. It is also clear that Fucus distichus embryos are auxin responsive and gravity controls their morphogenesis.

  10. Regulation of glutamate receptor internalization by the spine cytoskeleton is mediated by its PKA-dependent association with CPG2.

    PubMed

    Loebrich, Sven; Djukic, Biljana; Tong, Zachary J; Cottrell, Jeffrey R; Turrigiano, Gina G; Nedivi, Elly

    2013-11-19

    A key neuronal mechanism for adjusting excitatory synaptic strength is clathrin-mediated endocytosis of postsynaptic glutamate receptors (GluRs). The actin cytoskeleton is critical for clathrin-mediated endocytosis, yet we lack a mechanistic understanding of its interaction with the endocytic process and how it may be regulated. Here we show that F-actin in dendritic spines physically binds the synaptic nuclear envelope 1 gene product candidate plasticity gene 2 (CPG2) in a PKA-dependent manner, and that this association is required for synaptic GluR internalization. Mutating two PKA sites on CPG2 disrupts its cytoskeletal association, attenuating GluR endocytosis and affecting the efficacy of synaptic transmission in vivo. These results identify CPG2 as an F-actin binding partner that functionally mediates interaction of the spine cytoskeleton with postsynaptic endocytosis. Further, the regulation of CPG2/F-actin association by PKA provides a gateway for cellular control of synaptic receptor internalization through second messenger signaling pathways. Recent identification of human synaptic nuclear envelope 1 as a risk locus for bipolar disorder suggests that CPG2 could play a role in synaptic dysfunction underlying neuropsychiatric disease. PMID:24191017

  11. Regulation of glutamate receptor internalization by the spine cytoskeleton is mediated by its PKA-dependent association with CPG2

    PubMed Central

    Loebrich, Sven; Djukic, Biljana; Tong, Zachary J.; Cottrell, Jeffrey R.; Turrigiano, Gina G.; Nedivi, Elly

    2013-01-01

    A key neuronal mechanism for adjusting excitatory synaptic strength is clathrin-mediated endocytosis of postsynaptic glutamate receptors (GluRs). The actin cytoskeleton is critical for clathrin-mediated endocytosis, yet we lack a mechanistic understanding of its interaction with the endocytic process and how it may be regulated. Here we show that F-actin in dendritic spines physically binds the synaptic nuclear envelope 1 gene product candidate plasticity gene 2 (CPG2) in a PKA-dependent manner, and that this association is required for synaptic GluR internalization. Mutating two PKA sites on CPG2 disrupts its cytoskeletal association, attenuating GluR endocytosis and affecting the efficacy of synaptic transmission in vivo. These results identify CPG2 as an F-actin binding partner that functionally mediates interaction of the spine cytoskeleton with postsynaptic endocytosis. Further, the regulation of CPG2/F-actin association by PKA provides a gateway for cellular control of synaptic receptor internalization through second messenger signaling pathways. Recent identification of human synaptic nuclear envelope 1 as a risk locus for bipolar disorder suggests that CPG2 could play a role in synaptic dysfunction underlying neuropsychiatric disease. PMID:24191017

  12. Ultra-fast optical manipulation of single proteins binding to the actin cytoskeleton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capitanio, Marco; Gardini, Lucia; Pavone, Francesco Saverio

    2014-02-01

    In the last decade, forces and mechanical stresses acting on biological systems are emerging as regulatory factors essential for cell life. Emerging evidences indicate that factors such as applied forces or the rigidity of the extracellular matrix (ECM) determine the shape and function of cells and organisms1. Classically, the regulation of biological systems is described through a series of biochemical signals and enzymatic reactions, which direct the processes and cell fate. However, mechanotransduction, i.e. the conversion of mechanical forces into biochemical and biomolecular signals, is at the basis of many biological processes fundamental for the development and differentiation of cells, for their correct function and for the development of pathologies. We recently developed an in vitro system that allows the investigation of force-dependence of the interaction of proteins binding the actin cytoskeleton, at the single molecule level. Our system displays a delay of only ~10 μs between formation of the molecular bond and application of the force and is capable of detecting interactions as short as 100 μs. Our assay allows direct measurements of load-dependence of lifetimes of single molecular bonds and conformational changes of single proteins and molecular motors. We demonstrate our technique on molecular motors, using myosin II from fast skeletal muscle and on protein-DNA interaction, specifically on Lactose repressor (LacI). The apparatus is stabilized to less than 1 nm with both passive and active stabilization, allowing resolving specific binding regions along the actin filament and DNA molecule. Our technique extends single-molecule force-clamp spectroscopy to molecular complexes that have been inaccessible up to now, opening new perspectives for the investigation of the effects of forces on biological processes.

  13. Heparin regulates B6FS cell motility through a FAK/actin cytoskeleton axis

    PubMed Central

    Voudouri, Kallirroi; Nikitovic, Dragana; Berdiaki, Aikaterini; Papachristou, Dionysios J.; Tsiaoussis, John; Spandidos, Demetrios A.; Tsatsakis, Aristides M.; Tzanakakis, George N.

    2016-01-01

    Soft tissue sarcomas are rare, heterogeneous tumors of mesenchymal origin with an aggressive behavior. Heparin is a mixture of heavily sulfated, linear glycosaminoglycan (GAG) chains, which participate in the regulation of various cell biological functions. Heparin is considered to have significant anticancer capabilities, although the mechanisms involved have not been fully defined. In the present study, the effects of unfractionated heparin (UFH) and low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH) on B6FS fibrosarcoma cell motility were examined. Both preparations of heparin were shown to both enhance B6FS cell adhesion (p<0.01 and p<0.05), and migration (p<0.05), the maximal effect being evident at the concentration of 10 µg/ml. The utilization of FAK-deficient cells demonstrated that the participation of FAK was obligatory for heparin-dependent fibrosarcoma cell adhesion (p<0.05). The results of confocal microscopy indicated that heparin was taken up by the B6FS cells, and that UFH and LMWH induced F-actin polymerization. Heparitinase digestion demonstrated that the endogenous heparan sulfate (HS) chains did not affect the motility of the B6FS cells (p>0.05, not significant). In conclusion, both UFH and LMWH, through a FAK/actin cytoskeleton axis, promoted the adhesion and migration of B6FS fibrosarcoma cells. Thus, our findings indicate that the responsiveness of fibrosarcoma cells to the exogenous heparin/HS content of the cancer microenvironment may play a role in their ability to become mobile and metastasize. PMID:27572115

  14. CDK5 Is Essential for Soluble Amyloid β-Induced Degradation of GKAP and Remodeling of the Synaptic Actin Cytoskeleton

    PubMed Central

    Roselli, Francesco; Livrea, Paolo; Almeida, Osborne F. X.

    2011-01-01

    The early stages of Alzheimer's disease are marked by synaptic dysfunction and loss. This process results from the disassembly and degradation of synaptic components, in particular of scaffolding proteins that compose the post-synaptic density (PSD), namely PSD95, Homer and Shank. Here we investigated in rat frontal cortex dissociated culture the mechanisms involved in the downregulation of GKAP (SAPAP1), which links the PSD95 complex to the Shank complex and cytoskeletal structures within the PSD. We show that Aβ causes the rapid loss of GKAP from synapses through a pathway that critically requires cdk5 activity, and is set in motion by NMDAR activity and Ca2+ influx. We show that GKAP is a direct substrate of cdk5 and that its phosphorylation results in polyubiquitination and proteasomal degradation of GKAP and remodeling (collapse) of the synaptic actin cytoskeleton; the latter effect is abolished in neurons expressing GKAP mutants that are resistant to phosphorylation by cdk5. Given that cdk5 also regulates degradation of PSD95, these results underscore the central position of cdk5 in mediating Aβ-induced PSD disassembly and synapse loss. PMID:21829588

  15. New Aspects of Progesterone Interactions with the Actin Cytoskeleton and Neurosteroidogenesis in the Cerebellum and the Neuronal Growth Cone

    PubMed Central

    Wessel, Lisa; Olbrich, Laura; Brand-Saberi, Beate

    2014-01-01

    The impact of progesterone on neuronal tissues in the central (CNS) and peripheral (PNS) nervous system is of significant scientific and therapeutic interest. Glial and neuronal cells of vertebrates express steroidogenic enzymes, and are able to synthesize progesterone de novo from cholesterol. Progesterone is described to have neuroprotective, neuroreparative, anti-degenerative, and anti-apoptotic effects in the CNS and the PNS. Thus, the first clinical studies promise new therapeutic options using progesterone in the treatment of patients with traumatic brain injury. Additionally, experimental data from different animal models suggest further positive effects of progesterone on neurological diseases such as cerebral ischemia, peripheral nerve injury and amyothropic lateral sclerosis. In regard to this future clinical use of progesterone, we discuss in this review the underlying physiological principles of progesterone effects in neuronal tissues. Mechanisms leading to morphological reorganizations of neurons in the CNS and PNS affected by progesterone are addressed, with special focus on the actin cytoskeleton. Furthermore, new aspects of a progesterone-dependent regulation of neurosteroidogenesis mediated by the recently described progesterone binding protein PGRMC1 in the nervous system are discussed. PMID:25141866

  16. Bidirectional interactions between NOX2-type NADPH oxidase and the F-actin cytoskeleton in neuronal growth cones

    PubMed Central

    Munnamalai, Vidhya; Weaver, Cory J.; Weisheit, Corinne E.; Venkatraman, Prahatha; Agim, Zeynep Sena; Quinn, Mark T.; Suter, Daniel M.

    2014-01-01

    NADPH oxidases are important for neuronal function but detailed subcellular localization studies have not been performed. Here, we provide the first evidence for the presence of functional NOX2-type NADPH oxidase complex in neuronal growth cones and its bidirectional relationship with the actin cytoskeleton. NADPH oxidase inhibition resulted in reduced F-actin content, retrograde F-actin flow, and neurite outgrowth. Stimulation of NADPH oxidase via protein kinase C activation increased levels of hydrogen peroxide in the growth cone periphery. The main enzymatic NADPH oxidase subunit NOX2/gp91phox localized to the growth cone plasma membrane and showed little overlap with the regulatory subunit p40phox. p40phox itself exhibited co-localization with filopodial actin bundles. Differential subcellular fractionation revealed preferential association of NOX2/gp91phox and p40phox with the membrane and the cytoskeletal fraction, respectively. When neurite growth was evoked with beads coated with the cell adhesion molecule apCAM, we observed a significant increase in co-localization of p40phox with NOX2/gp91phox at apCAM adhesion sites. Together, these findings suggest a bidirectional functional relationship between NADPH oxidase activity and the actin cytoskeleton in neuronal growth cones, which contributes to the control of neurite outgrowth. PMID:24702317

  17. Regulation of the Postsynaptic Compartment of Excitatory Synapses by the Actin Cytoskeleton in Health and Its Disruption in Disease

    PubMed Central

    Stefen, Holly; Chaichim, Chanchanok

    2016-01-01

    Disruption of synaptic function at excitatory synapses is one of the earliest pathological changes seen in wide range of neurological diseases. The proper control of the segregation of neurotransmitter receptors at these synapses is directly correlated with the intact regulation of the postsynaptic cytoskeleton. In this review, we are discussing key factors that regulate the structure and dynamics of the actin cytoskeleton, the major cytoskeletal building block that supports the postsynaptic compartment. Special attention is given to the complex interplay of actin-associated proteins that are found in the synaptic specialization. We then discuss our current understanding of how disruption of these cytoskeletal elements may contribute to the pathological events observed in the nervous system under disease conditions with a particular focus on Alzheimer's disease pathology. PMID:27127658

  18. N-cadherin negatively regulates collective Drosophila glial migration through actin cytoskeleton remodeling.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Arun; Gupta, Tripti; Berzsenyi, Sara; Giangrande, Angela

    2015-03-01

    Cell migration is an essential and highly regulated process. During development, glia cells and neurons migrate over long distances - in most cases collectively - to reach their final destination and build the sophisticated architecture of the nervous system, the most complex tissue of the body. Collective migration is highly stereotyped and efficient, defects in the process leading to severe human diseases that include mental retardation. This dynamic process entails extensive cell communication and coordination, hence, the real challenge is to analyze it in the entire organism and at cellular resolution. We here investigate the impact of the N-cadherin adhesion molecule on collective glial migration, by using the Drosophila developing wing and cell-type specific manipulation of gene expression. We show that N-cadherin timely accumulates in glial cells and that its levels affect migration efficiency. N-cadherin works as a molecular brake in a dosage-dependent manner, by negatively controlling actin nucleation and cytoskeleton remodeling through α/β catenins. This is the first in vivo evidence for N-cadherin negatively and cell autonomously controlling collective migration.

  19. Regulation of chondrocyte differentiation by the actin cytoskeleton and adhesive interactions.

    PubMed

    Woods, Anita; Wang, Guoyan; Beier, Frank

    2007-10-01

    Chondrocyte differentiation is a multi-step process characterized by successive changes in cell morphology and gene expression. In addition to tight regulation by numerous soluble factors, these processes are controlled by adhesive events. During the early phase of the chondrocyte life cycle, cell-cell adhesion through molecules such as N-cadherin and neural cell adhesion molecule (N-CAM) is required for differentiation of mesenchymal precursor cells to chondrocytes. At later stages, for example in growth plate chondrocytes, adhesion signaling from extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins through integrins and other ECM receptors such as the discoidin domain receptor (DDR) 2 (a collagen receptor) and Annexin V is necessary for normal chondrocyte proliferation and hypertrophy. Cell-matrix interactions are also important for chondrogenesis, for example through the activity of CD44, a receptor for Hyaluronan and collagens. The roles of several signaling molecules involved in adhesive signaling, such as integrin-linked kinase (ILK) and Rho GTPases, during chondrocyte differentiation are beginning to be understood, and the actin cytoskeleton has been identified as a common target of these adhesive pathways. Complete elucidation of the pathways connecting adhesion receptors to downstream effectors and the mechanisms integrating adhesion signaling with growth factor- and hormone-induced pathways is required for a better understanding of physiological and pathological skeletal development.

  20. Daphnia response to predation threat involves heat-shock proteins and the actin and tubulin cytoskeleton.

    PubMed

    Pijanowska, Joanna; Kloc, Malgorzata

    2004-02-01

    Of all the environmental pressures that all organisms across all kingdoms must face, one of the greatest is the risk of predation. The unpredictability of predation events from the perspective of a single individual is one of the major components of a changing, unstable environment (Gliwicz and Pijanowska, 1989; Lampert, 1987). The panoply of antipredator defenses among terrestrial and aquatic organisms involves a variety of morphological, behavioral, and life-history adaptations that even if they are not life-saving, may enable organisms to complete reproduction before predation occurs. Most of these phenotypic changes are directly induced by cues associated with the biotic agent, in the case of aquatic organisms, the chemical compounds (kairomones) released by a predator into the water. Herein we show that exposure of Daphnia to invertebrate and vertebrate kairomones results in changes in motion, behavior, and life history and at the molecular level involves changes in heat-shock proteins (HSPs) level and the actin and tubulin cytoskeleton. In addition, some of these effects are transgenerational, i.e., they are passed on from the mother to her offspring. PMID:14994270

  1. Anti-Tumor Activity of Yuanhuacine by Regulating AMPK/mTOR Signaling Pathway and Actin Cytoskeleton Organization in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Kang, Ji In; Hong, Ji-Young; Lee, Hye-Jung; Bae, Song Yi; Jung, Cholomi; Park, Hyen Joo; Lee, Sang Kook

    2015-01-01

    Yuanhuacine (YC), a daphnane diterpenoid from the flowers of Daphne genkwa, exhibited a potential growth inhibitory activity against human non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells. YC also suppressed the invasion and migration of lung cancer cells. However, the precise molecular mechanisms remain to be elucidated. In the present study, we report that YC significantly activated AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) signaling pathway and suppressed mTORC2-mediated downstream signaling pathway in H1993 human NSCLC cells. AMPK plays an important role in energy metabolism and cancer biology. Therefore, activators of AMPK signaling pathways can be applicable to the treatment of cancer. YC enhanced the expression of p-AMPKα. The co-treatment of YC and compound C (an AMPK inhibitor) or metformin (an AMPK activator) also confirmed that YC increases p-AMPKα. YC also suppressed the activation of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) expression, a downstream target of AMPK. Further study revealed that YC modulates mTORC2-associated downstream signaling pathways with a decreased expressions of p-Akt, p-protein kinase C alpha (PKCα), p-ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 1 (Rac1) and filamentous actin (F-actin) that are known to activate cell growth and organize actin cytoskeleton. In addition, YC inhibited the tumor growth in H1993 cell-implanted xenograft nude mouse model. These data suggest the YC could be a potential candidate for cancer chemotherapeutic agents derived from natural products by regulating AMPK/mTORC2 signaling pathway and actin cytoskeleton organization. PMID:26656173

  2. Kinase-independent functions for Itk in TCR-induced regulation of Vav and the actin cytoskeleton.

    PubMed

    Dombroski, Derek; Houghtling, Richard A; Labno, Christine M; Precht, Patricia; Takesono, Aya; Caplen, Natasha J; Billadeau, Daniel D; Wange, Ronald L; Burkhardt, Janis K; Schwartzberg, Pamela L

    2005-02-01

    The Tec family kinase Itk is an important regulator of Ca(2+) mobilization and is required for in vivo responses to Th2-inducing agents. Recent data also implicate Itk in TCR-induced regulation of the actin cytoskeleton. We have evaluated the requirements for Itk function in TCR-induced actin polarization. Reduction of Itk expression via small interfering RNA treatment of the Jurkat human T lymphoma cell line or human peripheral blood T cells disrupted TCR-induced actin polarization, a defect that correlated with decreased recruitment of the Vav guanine nucleotide exchange factor to the site of Ag contact. Vav localization and actin polarization could be rescued by re-expression of either wild-type or kinase-inactive murine Itk but not by Itk containing mutations affecting the pleckstrin homology or Src homology 2 domains. Additionally, we find that Itk is constitutively associated with Vav. Loss of Itk expression did not alter gross patterns of Vav tyrosine phosphorylation but appeared to disrupt the interactions of Vav with SLP-76. Expression of membrane-targeted Vav, Vav-CAAX, can rescue the small interfering RNA to Itk-induced phenotype, implicating the alteration in Vav localization as directly contributing to the actin polarization defect. These data suggest a kinase-independent scaffolding function for Itk in the regulation of Vav localization and TCR-induced actin polarization.

  3. Effects of Estetrol on Migration and Invasion in T47-D Breast Cancer Cells through the Actin Cytoskeleton

    PubMed Central

    Giretti, Maria Silvia; Montt Guevara, Maria Magdalena; Cecchi, Elena; Mannella, Paolo; Palla, Giulia; Spina, Stefania; Bernacchi, Guja; Di Bello, Silvia; Genazzani, Andrea Riccardo; Genazzani, Alessandro D.; Simoncini, Tommaso

    2014-01-01

    Estetrol (E4) is a natural human estrogen present at high concentrations during pregnancy. Due to its high oral bioavailability and long plasma half-life, E4 is particularly suitable for therapeutic applications. E4 acts as a selective estrogen receptor (ER) modulator, exerting estrogenic actions on the endometrium or the central nervous system, while antagonizing the actions of estradiol in the breast. We tested the effects of E4 on its own or in the presence of 17β-estradiol (E2) on T47-D ER+ breast cancer cell migration and invasion of three-dimensional matrices. E4 administration to T47-D cells weakly stimulated migration and invasion. However, E4 decreased the extent of movement and invasion induced by E2. Breast cancer cell movement requires a remodeling of the actin cytoskeleton. During exposure to E4, a weak, concentration-dependent, re-distribution of actin fibers toward the cell membrane was observed. However, when E4 was added to E2, an inhibition of actin remodeling induced by E2 was seen. Estrogens stimulate ER+ breast cancer cell movement through the ezrin–radixin–moesin family of actin regulatory proteins, inducing actin and cell membrane remodeling. E4 was a weak inducer of moesin phosphorylation on Thr558, which accounts for its functional activation. In co-treatment with E2, E4 blocked the activation of this actin controller in a concentration-related fashion. These effects were obtained through recruitment of estrogen receptor-α. In conclusion, E4 acted as a weak estrogen on breast cancer cell cytoskeleton remodeling and movement. However, when E2 was present, E4 counteracted the stimulatory actions of E2. This contributes to the emerging hypothesis that E4 may be a naturally occurring ER modulator in the breast. PMID:24904530

  4. Effects of Estetrol on Migration and Invasion in T47-D Breast Cancer Cells through the Actin Cytoskeleton.

    PubMed

    Giretti, Maria Silvia; Montt Guevara, Maria Magdalena; Cecchi, Elena; Mannella, Paolo; Palla, Giulia; Spina, Stefania; Bernacchi, Guja; Di Bello, Silvia; Genazzani, Andrea Riccardo; Genazzani, Alessandro D; Simoncini, Tommaso

    2014-01-01

    Estetrol (E4) is a natural human estrogen present at high concentrations during pregnancy. Due to its high oral bioavailability and long plasma half-life, E4 is particularly suitable for therapeutic applications. E4 acts as a selective estrogen receptor (ER) modulator, exerting estrogenic actions on the endometrium or the central nervous system, while antagonizing the actions of estradiol in the breast. We tested the effects of E4 on its own or in the presence of 17β-estradiol (E2) on T47-D ER+ breast cancer cell migration and invasion of three-dimensional matrices. E4 administration to T47-D cells weakly stimulated migration and invasion. However, E4 decreased the extent of movement and invasion induced by E2. Breast cancer cell movement requires a remodeling of the actin cytoskeleton. During exposure to E4, a weak, concentration-dependent, re-distribution of actin fibers toward the cell membrane was observed. However, when E4 was added to E2, an inhibition of actin remodeling induced by E2 was seen. Estrogens stimulate ER+ breast cancer cell movement through the ezrin-radixin-moesin family of actin regulatory proteins, inducing actin and cell membrane remodeling. E4 was a weak inducer of moesin phosphorylation on Thr(558), which accounts for its functional activation. In co-treatment with E2, E4 blocked the activation of this actin controller in a concentration-related fashion. These effects were obtained through recruitment of estrogen receptor-α. In conclusion, E4 acted as a weak estrogen on breast cancer cell cytoskeleton remodeling and movement. However, when E2 was present, E4 counteracted the stimulatory actions of E2. This contributes to the emerging hypothesis that E4 may be a naturally occurring ER modulator in the breast. PMID:24904530

  5. Interaction between MyRIP and the actin cytoskeleton regulates Weibel–Palade body trafficking and exocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Conte, Ianina L.; Hellen, Nicola; Bierings, Ruben; Mashanov, Gregory I.; Manneville, Jean-Baptiste; Kiskin, Nikolai I.; Hannah, Matthew J.; Molloy, Justin E.; Carter, Tom

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Weibel–Palade body (WPB)–actin interactions are essential for the trafficking and secretion of von Willebrand factor; however, the molecular basis for this interaction remains poorly defined. Myosin Va (MyoVa or MYO5A) is recruited to WPBs by a Rab27A–MyRIP complex and is thought to be the prime mediator of actin binding, but direct MyRIP–actin interactions can also occur. To evaluate the specific contribution of MyRIP–actin and MyRIP–MyoVa binding in WPB trafficking and Ca2+-driven exocytosis, we used EGFP–MyRIP point mutants with disrupted MyoVa and/or actin binding and high-speed live-cell fluorescence microscopy. We now show that the ability of MyRIP to restrict WPB movement depends upon its actin-binding rather than its MyoVa-binding properties. We also show that, although the role of MyRIP in Ca2+-driven exocytosis requires both MyoVa- and actin-binding potential, it is the latter that plays a dominant role. In view of these results and together with the analysis of actin disruption or stabilisation experiments, we propose that the role of MyRIP in regulating WPB trafficking and exocytosis is mediated largely through its interaction with actin rather than with MyoVa. PMID:26675235

  6. Enhancing trabecular outflow by disrupting the actin cytoskeleton, increasing uveoscleral outflow with prostaglandins, and understanding the pathophysiology of presbyopia

    PubMed Central

    Kaufman, Paul L.

    2008-01-01

    Several major areas of work by the author and his international collaborators are reviewed. 1) The ciliary muscle in the nonhuman primate eye was disinserted at the scleral spur. Pilocarpine was then ineffective in increasing outflow facility, indicating that ciliary muscle contraction mediated the IOP-lowering effect of muscarinic cholinergics. 2) Compounds such as cytochalasins, H-7 and latrunculin A/B, which alter the actin cytoskeleton, cellular contractility and cellular adhesions in cultured trabecular meshwork cells, relaxed trabecular pathway cells and consequently the meshwork itself so as to decrease IOP and enhance trabecular outflow facility in nonhuman primates. Gene transfer approaches utilizing C3 and caldesmon over-expression by viral vectors to target specific steps in the cellular contractility/cytoskeleton/cell adhesion cascades characteristically altered trabecular meshwork cell morphology and increased outflow facility in organ-cultured anterior segments. 3) Prostaglandin F2α analogues enhanced matrix metalloproteinase production by ciliary muscle cells and scleral fibroblasts, leading to remodeling of the extracellular matrix of the ciliary muscle and sclera and consequently to increased uveoslceral outflow and decreased IOP in primates. 4) The rhesus monkey was an excellent model for human presbyopia, losing the accommodative response to cholinergic stimulation in the same timeframe relative to lifespan. No changes were found in ciliary muscle enzymes involved in acetylcholine biosynthesis or degradation or in muscarinic receptor numbers or affinity. Contractility of isolated ciliary muscle did not diminish with age, but posterior ciliary muscle attachments stiffened, suggesting a possible role in restricting muscle and consequently lens movement during accommodation. A model to reproducibly stimulate accommodation through central stimulation of the Edinger-Westphal nucleus was developed. Goniovideography and ultrasound biomicroscopic

  7. Bradykinin increases blood-tumor barrier permeability by down-regulating the expression levels of ZO-1, occludin, and claudin-5 and rearranging actin cytoskeleton.

    PubMed

    Liu, Li-Bo; Xue, Yi-Xue; Liu, Yun-Hui; Wang, Yi-Bao

    2008-04-01

    Bradykinin (BK) has been shown to open blood-tumor barrier (BTB) selectively and to increase permeability of the BTB transiently, but the mechanism is unclear. This study was performed to determine whether BK opens the BTB by affecting the tight junction (TJ)-associated proteins zonula occluden-1 (ZO-1), occludin, and caludin-5 and cytoskeleton protein filamentous actin (F-actin). In rat brain glioma model and BTB model in vitro, we find that the protein expression levels of ZO-1, occludin, and claudin-5 are attenuated by BK induction. Immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence assays show that the attenuated expression of ZO-1, occludin, and claudin-5 and F-actin is most obvious in the smaller tumor capillaries (<20 microm) after BK infusion, and there is no change in the larger tumor capillaries (>20 microm). The redistribution of ZO-1, occludin, and claudin-5 and rearrangement of F-actin in brain microvascular endothelial cells are observed at the same time. Meanwhile, Evans blue assay shows that the permeability of BTB increases after BK infusion. Transmission electron microscopy indicates that TJ is opened and that pinocytotic vesicular density is increased. Transendothelial electrical resistance (TEER) and horseradish peroxidase flux assays also reveal that TJ is opened by BK induction. In addition, radioimmunity and Western blot assay reveal a significant decrease in expression levels of cAMP and catalytic subunit of protien kinase A (PKAcs) of tumor tissue. This study demonstrates that the increase of BK-mediated BTB permeability is associated with the down-regulation of ZO-1, occludin, and claudin-5 and the rearrangement of F-actin and that cAMP/PKA signal transduction system might be involved in the modulating process.

  8. The effects of actin cytoskeleton perturbation on keratin intermediate filament formation in mesenchymal stem/stromal cells.

    PubMed

    Chang, Tzu-Hao; Huang, Hsien-Da; Ong, Wei-Kee; Fu, Yun-Ju; Lee, Oscar K; Chien, Shu; Ho, Jennifer H

    2014-04-01

    F-actin plays a crucial role in composing the three-dimensional cytoskeleton and F-actin depolymerization alters fate choice of mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSCs). Here, we investigated differential gene expression and subsequent physiological changes in response to F-actin perturbation by latrunculin B in MSCs. Nineteen genes were down-regulated and 27 genes were up-regulated in the first 15 min after F-actin depolymerization. Functional enrichment analysis revealed that five genes involved in keratin (KRT) intermediate filaments clustering in the chromosome 17q21.2 region, i.e., KRT14, KRT19, KRT34, KRT-associated protein (KRTAP) 1-5, and KRTAP2-3, were strongly up-regulated. Transcription factor prediction identified NKX2.5 as the potential transcription factor to control KRT19, KRT34, KRTAP1-5, and KRTAP2-3; and indeed, the protein level of NKX2.5 was markedly increased in the nuclear fraction within 15 min of F-actin depolymerization. The peak of keratin intermediate filament formation was 1 h after actin perturbation, and the morphological changes showed by decrease in the ratio of long-axis to short-axis diameter in MSCs was observed after 4 h. Together, F-actin depolymerization rapidly triggers keratin intermediate filament formation by turning on keratin-related genes on chromosome 17q21.2. Such findings offer new insight in lineage commitment of MSCs and further scaffold design in MSC-based tissue engineering.

  9. Impact of Marine Drugs on Cytoskeleton-Mediated Reproductive Events

    PubMed Central

    Silvestre, Francesco; Tosti, Elisabetta

    2010-01-01

    Marine organisms represent an important source of novel bioactive compounds, often showing unique modes of action. Such drugs may be useful tools to study complex processes such as reproduction; which is characterized by many crucial steps that start at gamete maturation and activation and virtually end at the first developmental stages. During these processes cytoskeletal elements such as microfilaments and microtubules play a key-role. In this review we describe: (i) the involvement of such structures in both cellular and in vitro processes; (ii) the toxins that target the cytoskeletal elements and dynamics; (iii) the main steps of reproduction and the marine drugs that interfere with these cytoskeleton-mediated processes. We show that marine drugs, acting on microfilaments and microtubules, exert a wide range of impacts on reproductive events including sperm maturation and motility, oocyte maturation, fertilization, and early embryo development. PMID:20479959

  10. Distribution of actin of the human erythrocyte membrane cytoskeleton after interaction with radiographic contrast media.

    PubMed

    Franke, R P; Scharnweber, T; Fuhrmann, R; Krüger, A; Wenzel, F; Mrowietz, C; Jung, F

    2013-01-01

    A type-dependent chemotoxic effect of radiographic contrast media on erythrocytes and endothelial cells was reported several times. While mechanisms of toxicity are still unclear the cellular reactions e.g. echinocyte formation in erythrocytes and the buckling of endothelial cells coincided with deterioration of capillary perfusion (in patients with coronary artery disease) and tissue oxygen tension (in the myocardium of pigs). Whether the shape changes in erythrocytes coincide with changes in the arrangement of actin, the core of the actin-spectrin cytoskeletal network and possible actor in membrane stresses and deformation is not known until now. To get specific informations actin was stained using two different staining methods (antibodies to β-actin staining oligomeric G-actin and polymeric F-actin and Phalloidin-Rhodamin staining polymeric F-actin only). In addition, an advanced version of confocal laser scanning microscopes was used enabling the display of the actin arrangement near substrate surfaces. Blood smears were produced after erythrocyte suspension in autologous plasma or in two different plasma/RCM mixtures. In this study an even homogenous distribution of fine grained globular actin in the normal human erythrocyte could be demonstrated. After suspension of erythrocytes in a plasma/Iodixanol mixture an increased number of membrane protrusions appeared densely filled with intensely stained actin similar to cells suspended in autologous plasma, however, there in less numbers. Suspension in Iopromide, in contrast, induced a complete reorganization of the cytoskeletal actin: the fine grained globular actin distribution disappeared and only few, long and thick actin filaments bundled and possibly polymerized appeared, instead, shown here for the first time.

  11. Actin-Binding Protein 1 Regulates B Cell Receptor-Mediated Antigen Processing and Presentation in Response to B Cell Receptor Activation1

    PubMed Central

    Onabajo, Olusegun O.; Seeley, Margaret K.; Kale, Amruta; Qualmann, Britta; Kessels, Michael; Han, Jin; Tan, Tse-Hua; Song, Wenxia

    2010-01-01

    The BCR serves as both signal transducer and Ag transporter. Binding of Ags to the BCR induces signaling cascades and Ag processing and presentation, two essential cellular events for B cell activation. BCR-initiated signaling increases BCR-mediated Ag-processing efficiency by increasing the rate and specificity of Ag transport. Previous studies showed a critical role for the actin cytoskeleton in these two processes. In this study, we found that actin-binding protein 1 (Abp1/HIP-55/SH3P7) functioned as an actin-binding adaptor protein, coupling BCR signaling and Ag-processing pathways with the actin cytoskeleton. Gene knockout of Abp1 and overexpression of the Src homology 3 domain of Abp1 inhibited BCR-mediated Ag internalization, consequently reducing the rate of Ag transport to processing compartments and the efficiency of BCR-mediated Ag processing and presentation. BCR activation induced tyrosine phosphorylation of Abp1 and translocation of both Abp1 and dynamin 2 from the cytoplasm to plasma membrane, where they colocalized with the BCR and cortical F-actin. Mutations of the two tyrosine phosphorylation sites of Abp1 and depolymerization of the actin cytoskeleton interfered with BCR-induced Abp1 recruitment to the plasma membrane. The inhibitory effect of a dynamin proline-rich domain deletion mutant on the recruitment of Abp1 to the plasma membrane, coimmunoprecipitation of dynamin with Abp1, and coprecipitation of Abp1 with GST fusion of the dyanmin proline-rich domain demonstrate the interaction of Abp1 with dynamin 2. These results demonstrate that the BCR regulates the function of Abp1 by inducing Abp1 phosphorylation and actin cytoskeleton rearrangement, and that Abp1 facilitates BCR-mediated Ag processing by simultaneously interacting with dynamin and the actin cytoskeleton. The Journal of Immunology, 2008, 180: 6685–6695. PMID:18453588

  12. Host-cell-dependent role of actin cytoskeleton during the replication of a human strain of influenza A virus.

    PubMed

    Arcangeletti, M C; De Conto, F; Ferraglia, F; Pinardi, F; Gatti, R; Orlandini, G; Covan, S; Motta, F; Rodighiero, I; Dettori, G; Chezzi, C

    2008-01-01

    This study was aimed at investigating the possible involvement of the actin cytoskeleton in the modulation of host permissiveness to A/NWS/33 human influenza virus infection in two mammalian (MDCK and LLC-MK2) cell lines in vitro. During the early stages of infection, no appreciable association between incoming NWS/33 virions and cortical actin was detectable in the permissive MDCK model by confocal microscopy, while extensive colocalization and a slower infection progression were observed in LLC-MK2 cells. In the latter model, we also demonstrated the inability of the virus to carry out multiple replication cycles, irrespective of the presence of cleaved HA subunits in the released virions. Treatment with the actin-depolymerizing agent cytochalasin D significantly increased the infection efficiency in LLC-MK2 cells, while a detrimental effect was observed in the MDCK cell line. Our data suggest a selective role of the actin network in inducing a restriction to influenza virus replication, mostly depending on its molecular organization, the host cell type and virus replication phase. PMID:18488136

  13. There is More Than One Way to Model an Elephant. Experiment-Driven Modeling of the Actin Cytoskeleton

    PubMed Central

    Ditlev, Jonathon A.; Mayer, Bruce J.; Loew, Leslie M.

    2013-01-01

    Mathematical modeling has established its value for investigating the interplay of biochemical and mechanical mechanisms underlying actin-based motility. Because of the complex nature of actin dynamics and its regulation, many of these models are phenomenological or conceptual, providing a general understanding of the physics at play. But the wealth of carefully measured kinetic data on the interactions of many of the players in actin biochemistry cries out for the creation of more detailed and accurate models that could permit investigators to dissect interdependent roles of individual molecular components. Moreover, no human mind can assimilate all of the mechanisms underlying complex protein networks; so an additional benefit of a detailed kinetic model is that the numerous binding proteins, signaling mechanisms, and biochemical reactions can be computationally organized in a fully explicit, accessible, visualizable, and reusable structure. In this review, we will focus on how comprehensive and adaptable modeling allows investigators to explain experimental observations and develop testable hypotheses on the intracellular dynamics of the actin cytoskeleton. PMID:23442903

  14. AFAP-1L1-mediated actin filaments crosslinks hinder Trypanosoma cruzi cell invasion and intracellular multiplication.

    PubMed

    de Araújo, Karine Canuto Loureiro; Teixeira, Thaise Lara; Machado, Fabrício Castro; da Silva, Aline Alves; Quintal, Amanda Pifano Neto; da Silva, Claudio Vieira

    2016-10-01

    Host actin cytoskeleton polymerization has been shown to play an important role during Trypanosoma cruzi internalization into mammalian cell. The structure and dynamics of the actin cytoskeleton in cells are regulated by a vast number of actin-binding proteins. Here we aimed to verify the impact of AFAP-1L1, during invasion and multiplication of T. cruzi. Knocking-down AFAP-1L1 increased parasite cell invasion and intracellular multiplication. Thus, we have shown that the integrity of the machinery formed by AFAP-1L1 in actin cytoskeleton polymerization is important to hinder parasite infection.

  15. Wdpcp, a PCP Protein Required for Ciliogenesis, Regulates Directional Cell Migration and Cell Polarity by Direct Modulation of the Actin Cytoskeleton

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Cheng; Chatterjee, Bishwanath; Lozito, Thomas P.; Zhang, Zhen; Francis, Richard J.; Yagi, Hisato; Swanhart, Lisa M.; Sanker, Subramaniam; Francis, Deanne; Yu, Qing; San Agustin, Jovenal T.; Puligilla, Chandrakala; Chatterjee, Tania; Tansey, Terry; Liu, Xiaoqin; Kelley, Matthew W.; Spiliotis, Elias T.; Kwiatkowski, Adam V.; Tuan, Rocky; Pazour, Gregory J.; Hukriede, Neil A.; Lo, Cecilia W.

    2013-01-01

    Planar cell polarity (PCP) regulates cell alignment required for collective cell movement during embryonic development. This requires PCP/PCP effector proteins, some of which also play essential roles in ciliogenesis, highlighting the long-standing question of the role of the cilium in PCP. Wdpcp, a PCP effector, was recently shown to regulate both ciliogenesis and collective cell movement, but the underlying mechanism is unknown. Here we show Wdpcp can regulate PCP by direct modulation of the actin cytoskeleton. These studies were made possible by recovery of a Wdpcp mutant mouse model. Wdpcp-deficient mice exhibit phenotypes reminiscent of Bardet–Biedl/Meckel–Gruber ciliopathy syndromes, including cardiac outflow tract and cochlea defects associated with PCP perturbation. We observed Wdpcp is localized to the transition zone, and in Wdpcp-deficient cells, Sept2, Nphp1, and Mks1 were lost from the transition zone, indicating Wdpcp is required for recruitment of proteins essential for ciliogenesis. Wdpcp is also found in the cytoplasm, where it is localized in the actin cytoskeleton and in focal adhesions. Wdpcp interacts with Sept2 and is colocalized with Sept2 in actin filaments, but in Wdpcp-deficient cells, Sept2 was lost from the actin cytoskeleton, suggesting Wdpcp is required for Sept2 recruitment to actin filaments. Significantly, organization of the actin filaments and focal contacts were markedly changed in Wdpcp-deficient cells. This was associated with decreased membrane ruffling, failure to establish cell polarity, and loss of directional cell migration. These results suggest the PCP defects in Wdpcp mutants are not caused by loss of cilia, but by direct disruption of the actin cytoskeleton. Consistent with this, Wdpcp mutant cochlea has normal kinocilia and yet exhibits PCP defects. Together, these findings provide the first evidence, to our knowledge, that a PCP component required for ciliogenesis can directly modulate the actin cytoskeleton to

  16. Overcoming inherent resistance to histone deacetylase inhibitors in multiple myeloma cells by targeting pathways integral to the actin cytoskeleton

    PubMed Central

    Mithraprabhu, S; Khong, T; Spencer, A

    2014-01-01

    Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi) are novel chemotherapeutics undergoing evaluation in clinical trials for the potential treatment of patients with multiple myeloma (MM). Although HDACi have demonstrable synergy when combined with proteasome inhibitors (PIs), recent evidence indicates that combination of HDACi and PI is beneficial only in a subset of patients with advanced MM, clearly indicating that other rational combinations should be explored. In this context we hypothesized that understanding the molecular signature associated with inherent resistance to HDACi would provide a basis for the identification of therapeutic combinations with improved clinical efficacy. Using human myeloma cell lines (HMCL) categorized as sensitive, intermediate or resistant to HDACi, gene expression profiling (GEP) and gene ontology enrichment analyses were performed to determine if a genetic signature associated with inherent resistance to HDACi-resistance could be identified. Correlation of GEP to increasing or decreasing sensitivity to HDACi indicated a unique 35-gene signature that was significantly enriched for two pathways – regulation of actin cytoskeleton and protein processing in endoplasmic reticulum. When HMCL and primary MM samples were treated with a combination of HDACi and agents targeting the signaling pathways integral to the actin cytoskeleton, synergistic cell death was observed in all instances, thus providing a rationale for combining these agents with HDACi for the treatment of MM to overcome resistance. This report validates a molecular approach for the identification of HDACi partner drugs and provides an experimental framework for the identification of novel therapeutic combinations for anti-MM treatment. PMID:24651437

  17. TrkB-T1 regulates the RhoA signaling and actin cytoskeleton in glioma cells

    SciTech Connect

    Ohira, Koji; Homma, Koichi J.; Hirai, Hirohisa; Nakamura, Shun; Hayashi, Motoharu . E-mail: hayashi@pri.kyoto-u.ac.jp

    2006-04-14

    Recently, the truncated TrkB receptor, T1, has been reported to be involved in the control of cell morphology via the regulation of Rho proteins, through which T1 binds Rho guanine nucleotide dissociation inhibitor (Rho GDI) 1 and dissociates it in a brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF)-dependent manner. However, it is unclear whether T1 signaling regulates the downstream of Rho signaling and the actin cytoskeleton. In this study, we investigated this question using C6 rat glioma cells, which express T1 endogenously. Rho GDI1 was dissociated from T1 in a BDNF-dependent manner, which also causes decreases in the activities of Rho-signaling molecules such as RhoA, Rho-associated kinase, p21-activated kinase, and extracellular-signal regulated kinase1/2. Moreover, BDNF treatment resulted in the disappearance of stress fibers in the cells treated with lysophosphatidic acid, an activator of RhoA, and in morphological changes in cells. Furthermore, a competitive assay with cyan fluorescent protein fusion proteins of T1-specific sequences reduced the effects of BDNF. These results suggest that T1 regulates the Rho-signaling pathways and the actin cytoskeleton.

  18. Deguelin inhibits the migration and invasion of lung cancer A549 and H460 cells via regulating actin cytoskeleton rearrangement.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Honggang; Jiao, Yan; Zhang, Zuncheng

    2015-01-01

    Deguelin, the main components from Mundulea sericea, was reported to suppress the growth of various cancer cells. However, the effect of Deguelin on tumor cell invasion and metastasis and its mechanism still unclear so far. In this study, we investigated the effects of Deguelin on the cell invasion in human lung cancer A549 and H460 cells. Our results demonstrate that Deguelin can significantly inhibited cell proliferation, cell migration and cell invasion. Moreover, Deguelin could also affected reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton and decreased filopodia and lamellipodia formation. Furthermore, deguelin-treated tumors showed decreased the tumor metastasis related genes such as CD44, MMP2 and MMP9 at protein and mRNA levels and the content of CEA, SCC, NSE, CYFAR21-1. In addition, Deguelin down-regulated protein expression of Rac1 and Rock1, which are impotent in actin cytoskeleton rearrangements and cell motility. Together, our results suggest that Deguelin inhibit tumor growth and metastasis of lung cancer cells and might be a candidate compound for curing lung cancer. PMID:26884827

  19. New EMBO members' review: actin cytoskeleton regulation through modulation of PI(4,5)P(2) rafts.

    PubMed

    Caroni, P

    2001-08-15

    The phosphoinositide lipid PI(4,5)P(2) is now established as a key cofactor in signaling to the actin cytoskeleton and in vesicle trafficking. PI(4,5)P(2) accumulates at membrane rafts and promotes local co-recruitment and activation of specific signaling components at the cell membrane. PI(4,5)P(2) rafts may thus be platforms for local regulation of morphogenetic activity at the cell membrane. Raft PI(4,5)P(2) is regulated by lipid kinases (PI5-kinases) and lipid phosphatases (e.g. synaptojanin). In addition, GAP43-like proteins have recently emerged as a group of PI(4,5)P(2) raft-modulating proteins. These locally abundant proteins accumulate at inner leaflet plasmalemmal rafts where they bind to and co-distribute with PI(4,5)P(2), and promote actin cytoskeleton accumulation and dynamics. In keeping with their proposed role as positive modulators of PI(4,5)P(2) raft function, GAP43-like proteins confer competence for regulated morphogenetic activity on cells that express them. Their function has been investigated extensively in the nervous system, where their expression promotes neurite outgrowth, anatomical plasticity and nerve regeneration. Extrinsic signals and intrinsic factors may thus converge to modulate PI(4,5)P(2) rafts, upstream of regulated activity at the cell surface.

  20. The actin cytoskeleton is a suppressor of the endogenous skewing behaviour of Arabidopsis primary roots in microgravity.

    PubMed

    Nakashima, J; Liao, F; Sparks, J A; Tang, Y; Blancaflor, E B

    2014-01-01

    Before plants can be effectively utilised as a component of enclosed life-support systems for space exploration, it is important to understand the molecular mechanisms by which they develop in microgravity. Using the Biological Research in Canisters (BRIC) hardware on board the second to the last flight of the Space Shuttle Discovery (STS-131 mission), we studied how microgravity impacts root growth in Arabidopsis thaliana. Ground-based studies showed that the actin cytoskeleton negatively regulates root gravity responses on Earth, leading us to hypothesise that actin might also be an important modulator of root growth behaviour in space. We investigated how microgravity impacted root growth of wild type (ecotype Columbia) and a mutant (act2-3) disrupted in a root-expressed vegetative actin isoform (ACTIN2). Roots of etiolated wild-type and act2-3 seedlings grown in space skewed vigorously toward the left, which was unexpected given the reduced directional cue provided by gravity. The left-handed directional root growth in space was more pronounced in act2-3 mutants than wild type. To quantify differences in root orientation of these two genotypes in space, we developed an algorithm where single root images were converted into binary images using computational edge detection methods. Binary images were processed with Fast Fourier Transformation (FFT), and histogram and entropy were used to determine spectral distribution, such that high entropy values corresponded to roots that deviated more strongly from linear orientation whereas low entropy values represented straight roots. We found that act2-3 roots had a statistically stronger skewing/coiling response than wild-type roots, but such differences were not apparent on Earth. Ultrastructural studies revealed that newly developed cell walls of space-grown act2-3 roots were more severely disrupted compared to space-grown wild type, and ground control wild-type and act2-3 roots. Collectively, our results provide

  1. The actin cytoskeleton is a suppressor of the endogenous skewing behaviour of Arabidopsis primary roots in microgravity.

    PubMed

    Nakashima, J; Liao, F; Sparks, J A; Tang, Y; Blancaflor, E B

    2014-01-01

    Before plants can be effectively utilised as a component of enclosed life-support systems for space exploration, it is important to understand the molecular mechanisms by which they develop in microgravity. Using the Biological Research in Canisters (BRIC) hardware on board the second to the last flight of the Space Shuttle Discovery (STS-131 mission), we studied how microgravity impacts root growth in Arabidopsis thaliana. Ground-based studies showed that the actin cytoskeleton negatively regulates root gravity responses on Earth, leading us to hypothesise that actin might also be an important modulator of root growth behaviour in space. We investigated how microgravity impacted root growth of wild type (ecotype Columbia) and a mutant (act2-3) disrupted in a root-expressed vegetative actin isoform (ACTIN2). Roots of etiolated wild-type and act2-3 seedlings grown in space skewed vigorously toward the left, which was unexpected given the reduced directional cue provided by gravity. The left-handed directional root growth in space was more pronounced in act2-3 mutants than wild type. To quantify differences in root orientation of these two genotypes in space, we developed an algorithm where single root images were converted into binary images using computational edge detection methods. Binary images were processed with Fast Fourier Transformation (FFT), and histogram and entropy were used to determine spectral distribution, such that high entropy values corresponded to roots that deviated more strongly from linear orientation whereas low entropy values represented straight roots. We found that act2-3 roots had a statistically stronger skewing/coiling response than wild-type roots, but such differences were not apparent on Earth. Ultrastructural studies revealed that newly developed cell walls of space-grown act2-3 roots were more severely disrupted compared to space-grown wild type, and ground control wild-type and act2-3 roots. Collectively, our results provide

  2. The Nebivolol action on vascular tone is dependent on actin cytoskeleton polymerization and Rho-A activity into ECs and SMCs.

    PubMed

    Kadi, A; de Isla, N; Moby, V; Lacolley, P; Labrude, P; Stoltz, J F; Menu, P

    2014-01-01

    Nitric oxide is implicated in the target action of Nebivolol, a selective β1 adrenoceptor blocker used in hypertension treatment. As the Nitric Oxide (NO) production and the actin cytoskeleton are linked, the aim of this work was to study the involvement of actin cytoskeleton on mechanism of action of Nebivolol in cultured endothelial cells. We studied the effect of Nebivolol (200 μM) on actin filaments remodeling and its impact on NO production and eNOS activation. Results showed that Nebivolol perturbs actin filaments polymerization, increases NO production and eNOS activity between 30 minutes and 1 h. Stabilization of actin filaments with phalloïdine (50 μM) abolishes Nebivolol effects on eNOS activation and NO production. Furthermore, Rho-kinase activity decreased during the first hour of Nebivolol treatment, then increased after 3 h, while actin filaments repolymerized, eNOS activation and NO production decreased. In SMCs, Nebivolol induced a decrease in the Rho-kinase activity from 1 h until 24 h of incubation. In conclusion, we suggest that Nebivolol induced NO production in Endothelial Cells (ECs) via complementary actions between actin cytoskeleton remodeling inducing eNOS activation and Rho-kinase implication. The effect of Nebivolol on ECs occurs during the first hour, this effect on SMCs seems to be maintained until 24 h, explaining persisted action of Nebivolol observed in vivo.

  3. Identification and Characterization of a Candidate Wolbachia pipientis Type IV Effector That Interacts with the Actin Cytoskeleton

    PubMed Central

    Sheehan, Kathy B.; Martin, MaryAnn; Lesser, Cammie F.; Isberg, Ralph R.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Many bacteria live as intracellular symbionts, causing persistent infections within insects. One extraordinarily common infection is that of Wolbachia pipientis, which infects 40% of insect species and induces reproductive effects. The bacteria are passed from generation to generation both vertically (through the oocyte) and horizontally (by environmental transmission). Maintenance of the infection within Drosophila melanogaster is sensitive to the regulation of actin, as Wolbachia inefficiently colonizes strains hemizygous for the profilin or villin genes. Therefore, we hypothesized that Wolbachia must depend on the host actin cytoskeleton. In this study, we identify and characterize a Wolbachia protein (WD0830) that is predicted to be secreted by the bacterial parasite. Expression of WD0830 in a model eukaryote (the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae) induces a growth defect associated with the appearance of aberrant, filamentous structures which colocalize with rhodamine-phalloidin-stained actin. Purified WD0830 bundles actin in vitro and cosediments with actin filaments, suggesting a direct interaction of the two proteins. We characterized the expression of WD0830 throughout Drosophila development and found it to be upregulated in third-instar larvae, peaking in early pupation, during the critical formation of adult tissues, including the reproductive system. In transgenic flies, heterologously expressed WD0830 localizes to the developing oocyte. Additionally, overexpression of WD0830 results in increased Wolbachia titers in whole flies, in stage 9 and 10 oocytes, and in embryos, compared to controls, suggesting that the protein may facilitate Wolbachia’s replication or transmission. Therefore, this candidate secreted effector may play a role in Wolbachia’s infection of and persistence within host niches. PMID:27381293

  4. Interferon-Gamma Increases Endothelial Permeability by Causing Activation of p38 MAP Kinase and Actin Cytoskeleton Alteration.

    PubMed

    Ng, Chin Theng; Fong, Lai Yen; Sulaiman, Mohd Roslan; Moklas, Mohamad Aris Mohd; Yong, Yoke Keong; Hakim, Muhammad Nazrul; Ahmad, Zuraini

    2015-07-01

    Interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) is known to potentiate the progression of inflammatory diseases, such as inflammatory bowel disease and atherosclerosis. IFN-γ has been found to disrupt the barrier integrity of epithelial and endothelial cell both in vivo and in vitro. However, the mechanisms of IFN-γ underlying increased endothelial cell permeability have not been extensively elucidated. We reported that IFN-γ exhibits a biphasic nature in increasing endothelial permeability. The changes observed in the first phase (4-8 h) involve cell retraction and rounding in addition to condensed peripheral F-actin without a significant change in the F-/G-actin ratio. However, cell elongation, stress fiber formation, and an increased F-/G-actin ratio were noticed in the second phase (16-24 h). Consistent with our finding from the permeability assay, IFN-γ induced the formation of intercellular gaps in both phases. A delayed phase of increased permeability was observed at 12 h, which paralleled the onset of cell elongation, stress fiber formation, and increased F-/G-actin ratio. In addition, IFN-γ stimulated p38 mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase phosphorylation over a 24 h period. Inhibition of p38 MAP kinase by SB203580 prevented increases in paracellular permeability, actin rearrangement, and increases in the F-/G-actin ratio caused by IFN-γ. Our results suggest that p38 MAP kinase is activated in response to IFN-γ and causes actin rearrangement and altered cell morphology, which in turn mediates endothelial cell hyperpermeability. The F-/G-actin ratio might be involved in the regulation of actin distribution and cell morphology rather than the increased permeability induced by IFN-γ.

  5. Fluid Shear Stress Upregulates E-Tmod41 via miR-23b-3p and Contributes to F-Actin Cytoskeleton Remodeling during Erythropoiesis

    PubMed Central

    Mu, Weiyun; Wang, Xifu; Zhang, Xiaolan; Zhu, Sida; Sun, Dagong; Ka, Weibo; Sung, Lanping Amy; Yao, Weijuan

    2015-01-01

    The membrane skeleton of mature erythrocyte is formed during erythroid differentiation. Fluid shear stress is one of the main factors that promote embryonic hematopoiesis, however, its effects on erythroid differentiation and cytoskeleton remodeling are unclear. Erythrocyte tropomodulin of 41 kDa (E-Tmod41) caps the pointed end of actin filament (F-actin) and is critical for the formation of hexagonal topology of erythrocyte membrane skeleton. Our study focused on the regulation of E-Tmod41 and its role in F-actin cytoskeleton remodeling during erythroid differentiation induced by fluid shear stress. Mouse erythroleukemia (MEL) cells and embryonic erythroblasts were subjected to fluid shear stress (5 dyn/cm2) and erythroid differentiation was induced in both cells. F-actin content and E-Tmod41 expression were significantly increased in MEL cells after shearing. E-Tmod41 overexpression resulted in a significant increase in F-actin content, while the knockdown of E-Tmod41 generated the opposite result. An E-Tmod 3’UTR targeting miRNA, miR-23b-3p, was found suppressed by shear stress. When miR-23b-3p level was overexpressed / inhibited, both E-Tmod41 protein level and F-actin content were reduced / augmented. Furthermore, among the two alternative promoters of E-Tmod, PE0 (upstream of exon 0), which mainly drives the expression of E-Tmod41, was found activated by shear stress. In conclusion, our results suggest that fluid shear stress could induce erythroid differentiation and F-actin cytoskeleton remodeling. It upregulates E-Tmod41 expression through miR-23b-3p suppression and PE0 promoter activation, which, in turn, contributes to F-actin cytoskeleton remodeling. PMID:26308647

  6. The actin cytoskeleton of chemotactic amoebae operates close to the onset of oscillations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Westendorf, Christian; Negrete, Jose, Jr.; Bae, Albert; Sandmann, Rabea; Bodenschatz, Eberhard; Beta, Carsten

    2013-03-01

    We report evidence that the actin machinery of chemotactic Dictyostelium cells operates close to an oscillatory instability. The averaged F-actin response of many cells to a short-time pulse of cAMP is reminiscent of a damped oscillation. At the single-cell level, however, the response dynamics ranged from short, strongly damped responses to slowly decaying, weakly damped oscillations. Furthermore, in a small subpopulation, we observed self-sustained oscillations in the cortical F-actin concentration. We systematically exposed a large number of cells to periodic pulse trains. The results indicate a resonance peak at periodic inputs of around 20 s. We propose a delayed feedback model that explains our experimental findings based on a time-delay in the actin regulatory network. To quantitatively test the model, we performed stimulation experiments with cells that express GFP-tagged fusion proteins of Coronin and Aip1. These served as markers of the F-actin disassembly process and thus allow us to estimate the delay time. Based on this independent estimate, our model predicts an intrinsic period of 20 s, which agrees with the resonance observed experimentally. Financial support by the Max-Planck Society and the DFG (SFB 937).

  7. Shear-induced reorganization of renal proximal tubule cell actin cytoskeleton and apical junctional complexes.

    PubMed

    Duan, Yi; Gotoh, Nanami; Yan, Qingshang; Du, Zhaopeng; Weinstein, Alan M; Wang, Tong; Weinbaum, Sheldon

    2008-08-12

    In this study, we demonstrate that fluid shear stress (FSS)-induced actin cytoskeletal reorganization and junctional formation in renal epithelial cells are nearly completely opposite the corresponding changes in vascular endothelial cells (ECs) [Thi MM et al. (2004) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 101:16483-16488]. Mouse proximal tubule cells (PTCs) were subjected to 5 h of FSS (1 dyn/cm(2)) to investigate the dynamic responses of the cytoskeletal distribution of filamentous actin (F-actin), ZO-1, E-cadherin, vinculin, and paxillin to FSS. Immunofluorescence analysis revealed that FSS caused basal stress fiber disruption, more densely distributed peripheral actin bands (DPABs), and the formation of both tight junctions (TJs) and adherens junctions (AJs). A dramatic reinforcement of vinculin staining was found at the cell borders as well as the cell interior. These responses were abrogated by the actin-disrupting drug, cytochalasin D. To interpret these results, we propose a "junctional buttressing" model for PTCs in which FSS enables the DPABs, TJs, and AJs to become more tightly connected. In contrast, in the "bumper-car" model for ECs, all junctional connections were severely disrupted by FSS. This "junctional buttressing" model explains why a FSS of only 1/10 of that used in the EC study can cause a similarly dramatic, cytoskeletal response in these tall, cuboidal epithelial cells; and why junctional buttressing between adjacent cells may benefit renal epithelium in maximizing flow-activated, brush border-dependent, transcellular salt and water reabsorption. PMID:18685100

  8. SelR reverses Mical-mediated oxidation of actin to regulate F-actin dynamics.

    PubMed

    Hung, Ruei-Jiun; Spaeth, Christopher S; Yesilyurt, Hunkar Gizem; Terman, Jonathan R

    2013-12-01

    Actin's polymerization properties are markedly altered by oxidation of its conserved Met 44 residue. Mediating this effect is a specific oxidation-reduction (redox) enzyme, Mical, that works with Semaphorin repulsive guidance cues and selectively oxidizes Met 44. We now find that this actin-regulatory process is reversible. Employing a genetic approach, we identified a specific methionine sulfoxide reductase (MsrB) enzyme SelR that opposes Mical redox activity and Semaphorin-Plexin repulsion to direct multiple actin-dependent cellular behaviours in vivo. SelR specifically catalyses the reduction of the R isomer of methionine sulfoxide (methionine-R-sulfoxide) to methionine, and we found that SelR directly reduced Mical-oxidized actin, restoring its normal polymerization properties. These results indicate that Mical oxidizes actin stereospecifically to generate actin Met-44-R-sulfoxide (actin(Met(R)O-44)), and also implicate the interconversion of specific Met/Met(R)O residues as a precise means to modulate protein function. Our results therefore uncover a specific reversible redox actin regulatory system that controls cell and developmental biology.

  9. Actin cytoskeleton as a putative target of the neem limonoid Azadirachtin A.

    PubMed

    Anuradha, Aritakula; Annadurai, Ramaswamy S; Shashidhara, L S

    2007-06-01

    Limonoids isolated from the Indian neem tree (Azadirachta indica) have been gaining global acceptance in agricultural applications and in contemporary medicine for their myriad but discrete properties. However, their mode of action is still not very well understood. We have studied the mode of action of Azadirachtin A, the major limonoid of neem seed extracts, using Drosophila melanogaster as the model system. Azadirachtin A induces moderate-to-severe phenotypes in different tissues in a dose-dependent manner. At the cellular level, Azadirachtin A induces depolymerization of Actin leading to arrest of cells and subsequently apoptosis in a caspase-independent manner. Azadirachtin A-induced phenotypes were rescued by the over-expression of Cyclin E in a tissue-dependent manner. Cyclin E, which caused global rescue of Azadirachtin A-induced phenotypes, also effected rearrangement of the actin filaments. These results suggest that probably actin is a target of Azadirachtin A activity. PMID:17517339

  10. Environmental toxicants perturb human Sertoli cell adhesive function via changes in F-actin organization mediated by actin regulatory proteins

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Xiang; Mruk, Dolores D.; Tang, Elizabeth I.; Wong, Chris K.C.; Lee, Will M.; John, Constance M.; Turek, Paul J.; Silvestrini, Bruno; Cheng, C. Yan

    2014-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION Can human Sertoli cells cultured in vitro and that have formed an epithelium be used as a model to monitor toxicant-induced junction disruption and to better understand the mechanism(s) by which toxicants disrupt cell adhesion at the Sertoli cell blood–testis barrier (BTB)? SUMMARY ANSWER Our findings illustrate that human Sertoli cells cultured in vitro serve as a reliable system to monitor the impact of environmental toxicants on the BTB function. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY Suspicions of a declining trend in semen quality and a concomitant increase in exposures to environmental toxicants over the past decades reveal the need of an in vitro system that efficiently and reliably monitors the impact of toxicants on male reproductive function. Furthermore, studies in rodents have confirmed that environmental toxicants impede Sertoli cell BTB function in vitro and in vivo. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE AND DURATION We examined the effects of two environmental toxicants: cadmium chloride (0.5–20 µM) and bisphenol A (0.4–200 µM) on human Sertoli cell function. Cultured Sertoli cells from three men were used in this study, which spanned an 18-month period. PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS Human Sertoli cells from three subjects were cultured in F12/DMEM containing 5% fetal bovine serum. Changes in protein expression were monitored by immunoblotting using specific antibodies. Immunofluorescence analyses were used to assess changes in the distribution of adhesion proteins, F-actin and actin regulatory proteins following exposure to two toxicants: cadmium chloride and bisphenol A (BPA). MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE Human Sertoli cells were sensitive to cadmium and BPA toxicity. Changes in the localization of cell adhesion proteins were mediated by an alteration of the actin-based cytoskeleton. This alteration of F-actin network in Sertoli cells as manifested by truncation and depolymerization of actin microfilaments at the Sertoli cell BTB was caused by

  11. Microfluidic Investigation Reveals Distinct Roles for Actin Cytoskeleton and Myosin II Activity in Capillary Leukocyte Trafficking

    PubMed Central

    Gabriele, Sylvain; Benoliel, Anne-Marie; Bongrand, Pierre; Théodoly, Olivier

    2009-01-01

    Circulating leukocyte sequestration in pulmonary capillaries is arguably the initiating event of lung injury in acute respiratory distress syndrome. We present a microfluidic investigation of the roles of actin organization and myosin II activity during the different stages of leukocyte trafficking through narrow capillaries (entry, transit and shape relaxation) using specific drugs (latrunculin A, jasplakinolide, and blebbistatin). The deformation rate during entry reveals that cell stiffness depends strongly on F-actin organization and hardly on myosin II activity, supporting a microfilament role in leukocyte sequestration. In the transit stage, cell friction is influenced by stiffness, demonstrating that the actin network is not completely broken after a forced entry into a capillary. Conversely, membrane unfolding was independent of leukocyte stiffness. The surface area of sequestered leukocytes increased by up to 160% in the absence of myosin II activity, showing the major role of molecular motors in microvilli wrinkling and zipping. Finally, cell shape relaxation was largely independent of both actin organization and myosin II activity, whereas a deformed state was required for normal trafficking through capillary segments. PMID:19450501

  12. The Disruption of the Cytoskeleton during Semaphorin 3A induced Growth Cone Collapse Correlates with Differences in Actin Organization and Associated Binding Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Jacquelyn A; Bridgman, Paul C

    2010-01-01

    Repulsive guidance cues induce growth cone collapse or collapse and retraction. Collapse results from disruption and loss of the actin cytoskeleton. Actin rich regions of growth cones contain binding proteins that influence filament organization, such as Arp2/3, cortactin, and fascin, but little is known about the role that these proteins play in collapse. Here we show that Semaphorin 3A (Sema 3A), which is repulsive to mouse dorsal root ganglion neurons, has unequal effects on actin binding proteins and their associated filaments. The immunofluorescence staining intensity of Arp-2 and cortactin decreases relative to total protein, while in unextracted growth cones fascin increases. Fascin and myosin IIB staining redistribute and show increased overlap. The degree of actin filament loss during collapse correlates with filament superstructures detected by rotary shadow electron microscopy. Collapse results in the loss of branched f-actin meshworks, while actin bundles are partially retained to varying degrees. Taken together with the known affects of Sema 3A on actin, this suggests a model for collapse that follows a sequence; depolymerization of actin meshworks followed by partial depolymerization of fascin associated actin bundles and their movement to the neurite to complete collapse. The relocated fascin associated actin bundles may provide the substrate for actomyosin contractions that produce retraction. PMID:19513995

  13. PMP22 Is Critical for Actin-Mediated Cellular Functions and for Establishing Lipid Rafts

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sooyeon; Amici, Stephanie; Tavori, Hagai; Zeng, Waylon M.; Freeland, Steven; Fazio, Sergio

    2014-01-01

    Haploinsufficiency of peripheral myelin protein 22 (PMP22) causes hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsies, a peripheral nerve lesion induced by minimal trauma or compression. As PMP22 is localized to cholesterol-enriched membrane domains that are closely linked with the underlying actin network, we asked whether the myelin instability associated with PMP22 deficiency could be mediated by involvement of the protein in actin-dependent cellular functions and/or lipid raft integrity. In peripheral nerves and cells from mice with PMP22 deletion, we assessed the organization of filamentous actin (F-actin), and actin-dependent cellular functions. Using in vitro models, we discovered that, in the absence of PMP22, the migration and adhesion capacity of Schwann cells and fibroblasts are similarly impaired. Furthermore, PMP22-deficient Schwann cells produce shortened myelin internodes, and display compressed axial cell length and collapsed lamellipodia. During early postnatal development, F-actin-enriched Schmidt-Lanterman incisures do not form properly in nerves from PMP22−/− mice, and the expression and localization of molecules associated with uncompacted myelin domains and lipid rafts, including flotillin-1, cholesterol, and GM1 ganglioside, are altered. In addition, we identified changes in the levels and distribution of cholesterol and ApoE when PMP22 is absent. Significantly, cholesterol supplementation of the culture medium corrects the elongation and migration deficits of PMP22−/− Schwann cells, suggesting that the observed functional impairments are directly linked with cholesterol deficiency of the plasma membrane. Our findings support a novel role for PMP22 in the linkage of the actin cytoskeleton with the plasma membrane, likely through regulating the cholesterol content of lipid rafts. PMID:25429154

  14. Ca(2+)-independent F-actin assembly and disassembly during Fc receptor- mediated phagocytosis in mouse macrophages

    PubMed Central

    1991-01-01

    Phagocytosis of IgG-coated particles by macrophages is presumed to involve the actin-based cytoskeleton since F-actin accumulates beneath forming phagosomes, and particle engulfment is blocked by cytochalasins, drugs that inhibit actin filament assembly. However, it is unknown whether Fc receptor ligation affects the rate or extent of F- actin assembly during phagocytosis of IgG-coated particles. To examine this question we have used a quantitative spectrofluorometric method to examine F-actin dynamics during a synchronous wave of phagocytosis of IgG-coated red blood cells by inflammatory mouse macrophages. We observed a biphasic rise in macrophage F-actin content during particle engulfment, with maxima at 1 and 5 min after the initiation of phagocytosis. F-actin declined to resting levels by 30 min, by which time particle engulfment was completed. These quantitative increases in macrophage F-actin were reflected in localized changes in F-actin distribution. Previous work showed that the number of IgG-coated particles engulfed by macrophages is unaffected by buffering extracellular calcium or by clamping cytosolic free calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i) to very low levels (Di Virgilio, F., B. C. Meyer, S. Greenberg, and S. C. Silverstein. 1988. J. Cell Biol. 106: 657-666). To determine whether clamping [Ca2+]i in macrophages affects the rate of particle engulfment, or the assembly or disassembly of F- actin during phagocytosis, we examined these parameters in macrophages whose [Ca2+]i had been clamped to approximately less than 3 nM with fura 2/AM and acetoxymethyl ester of EGTA. We found that the initial rate of phagocytosis, and the quantities of F-actin assembled and disassembled were similar in Ca(2+)-replete and Ca(2+)-depleted macrophages. We conclude that Fc receptor-mediated phagocytosis in mouse macrophages is accompanied by an ordered sequence of assembly and disassembly of F-actin that is insensitive to [Ca2+]i. PMID:2026648

  15. Phospholipase D is involved in myogenic differentiation through remodeling of actin cytoskeleton.

    PubMed

    Komati, Hiba; Naro, Fabio; Mebarek, Saida; De Arcangelis, Vania; Adamo, Sergio; Lagarde, Michel; Prigent, Annie-France; Némoz, Georges

    2005-03-01

    We investigated the role of phospholipase D (PLD) and its product phosphatidic acid (PA) in myogenic differentiation of cultured L6 rat skeletal myoblasts. Arginine-vasopressin (AVP), a differentiation inducer, rapidly activated PLD in a Rho-dependent way, as shown by almost total suppression of activation by C3 exotoxin pretreatment. Addition of 1-butanol, which selectively inhibits PA production by PLD, markedly decreased AVP-induced myogenesis. Conversely, myogenesis was potentiated by PLD1b isoform overexpression but not by PLD2 overexpression, establishing that PLD1 is involved in this process. The expression of the PLD isoforms was differentially regulated during differentiation. AVP stimulation of myoblasts induced the rapid formation of stress fiber-like actin structures (SFLSs). 1-Butanol selectively inhibited this response, whereas PLD1b overexpression induced SFLS formation, showing that it was PLD dependent. Endogenous PLD1 was located at the level of SFLSs, and by means of an intracellularly expressed fluorescent probe, PA was shown to be accumulated along these structures in response to AVP. In addition, AVP induced a PLD-dependent neosynthesis of phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2), which also was accumulated along actin fibers. These data support the hypothesis that PLD participates in myogenesis through PA- and PIP2-dependent actin fiber formation. PMID:15616193

  16. Human metapneumovirus Induces Reorganization of the Actin Cytoskeleton for Direct Cell-to-Cell Spread

    PubMed Central

    El Najjar, Farah; Cifuentes-Muñoz, Nicolás; Zhu, Haining; Buchholz, Ursula J.; Moncman, Carole L.; Dutch, Rebecca Ellis

    2016-01-01

    Paramyxovirus spread generally involves assembly of individual viral particles which then infect target cells. We show that infection of human bronchial airway cells with human metapneumovirus (HMPV), a recently identified paramyxovirus which causes significant respiratory disease, results in formation of intercellular extensions and extensive networks of branched cell-associated filaments. Formation of these structures is dependent on actin, but not microtubule, polymerization. Interestingly, using a co-culture assay we show that conditions which block regular infection by HMPV particles, including addition of neutralizing antibodies or removal of cell surface heparan sulfate, did not prevent viral spread from infected to new target cells. In contrast, inhibition of actin polymerization or alterations to Rho GTPase signaling pathways significantly decreased cell-to-cell spread. Furthermore, viral proteins and viral RNA were detected in intercellular extensions, suggesting direct transfer of viral genetic material to new target cells. While roles for paramyxovirus matrix and fusion proteins in membrane deformation have been previously demonstrated, we show that the HMPV phosphoprotein extensively co-localized with actin and induced formation of cellular extensions when transiently expressed, supporting a new model in which a paramyxovirus phosphoprotein is a key player in assembly and spread. Our results reveal a novel mechanism for HMPV direct cell-to-cell spread and provide insights into dissemination of respiratory viruses. PMID:27683250

  17. Phospholipase D is involved in myogenic differentiation through remodeling of actin cytoskeleton.

    PubMed

    Komati, Hiba; Naro, Fabio; Mebarek, Saida; De Arcangelis, Vania; Adamo, Sergio; Lagarde, Michel; Prigent, Annie-France; Némoz, Georges

    2005-03-01

    We investigated the role of phospholipase D (PLD) and its product phosphatidic acid (PA) in myogenic differentiation of cultured L6 rat skeletal myoblasts. Arginine-vasopressin (AVP), a differentiation inducer, rapidly activated PLD in a Rho-dependent way, as shown by almost total suppression of activation by C3 exotoxin pretreatment. Addition of 1-butanol, which selectively inhibits PA production by PLD, markedly decreased AVP-induced myogenesis. Conversely, myogenesis was potentiated by PLD1b isoform overexpression but not by PLD2 overexpression, establishing that PLD1 is involved in this process. The expression of the PLD isoforms was differentially regulated during differentiation. AVP stimulation of myoblasts induced the rapid formation of stress fiber-like actin structures (SFLSs). 1-Butanol selectively inhibited this response, whereas PLD1b overexpression induced SFLS formation, showing that it was PLD dependent. Endogenous PLD1 was located at the level of SFLSs, and by means of an intracellularly expressed fluorescent probe, PA was shown to be accumulated along these structures in response to AVP. In addition, AVP induced a PLD-dependent neosynthesis of phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2), which also was accumulated along actin fibers. These data support the hypothesis that PLD participates in myogenesis through PA- and PIP2-dependent actin fiber formation.

  18. Actin-Mediated Endocytosis Limits Intracellular Cr Accumulation and Cr Toxicity during Chromate Stress

    PubMed Central

    Holland, Sara L.; Avery, Simon V.

    2009-01-01

    Chromate toxicity is well documented, but the underlying toxic mechanism(s) has yet to be fully elucidated. Following a Cr toxicity screen against > 6000 heterozygous yeast mutants, here we show that Cr resistance requires normal function of the cortical actin cytoskeleton. Furthermore, Cr-stressed yeast cells exhibited an increased number of actin patches, the sites of endocytosis. This was coincident with a marked stimulation of endocytosis following Cr exposure. Genetic dissection of actin nucleation from endocytosis revealed that endocytosis, specifically, was required for Cr resistance. A series of further endocytosis mutants (sac6Δ, chc1Δ, end3Δ) exhibited elevated Cr sensitivity. These mutants also showed markedly elevated cellular Cr accumulation, explaining their sensitivities. In wild-type cells, an initial endocytosis-independent phase of Cr uptake was followed by an endocytosis-dependent decline in Cr accumulation. The results indicate that actin-mediated endocytosis is required to limit Cr accumulation and toxicity. It is proposed that this involves ubiquitin-dependent endocytic inactivation of a plasma membrane Cr transporter(s). We showed that such an action was not dependent on the transporters that have been characterized to date, the sulfate (and chromate) permeases Sul1p and Sul2p. PMID:19628586

  19. Xenopus laevis nucleotide binding protein 1 (xNubp1) is important for convergent extension movements and controls ciliogenesis via regulation of the actin cytoskeleton.

    PubMed

    Ioannou, Andriani; Santama, Niovi; Skourides, Paris A

    2013-08-15

    Nucleotide binding protein 1 (Nubp1) is a highly conserved phosphate loop (P-loop) ATPase involved in diverse processes including iron-sulfur protein assembly, centrosome duplication and lung development. Here, we report the cloning, expression and functional characterization of Xenopus laevis Nubp1. We show that xNubp1 is expressed maternally, displays elevated expression in neural tissues and is required for convergent extension movements and neural tube closure. In addition, xNubp1knockdown leads to defective ciliogenesis of the multi-ciliated cells of the epidermis as well as the monociliated cells of the gastrocoel roof plate. Specifically, xNubp1 is required for basal body migration, spacing and docking in multi-ciliated cells and basal body positioning and axoneme elongation in monociliated gastrocoel roof plate cells. Live imaging of the different pools of actin and basal body migration during the process of ciliated cell intercalation revealed that two independent pools of actin are present from the onset of cell intercalation; an internal network surrounding the basal bodies, anchoring them to the cell cortex and an apical pool of punctate actin which eventually matures into the characteristic apical actin network. We show that xNubp1 colocalizes with the apical actin network of multiciliated cells and that problems in basal body transport in xNubp1 morphants are associated with defects of the internal network of actin, while spacing and polarity issues are due to a failure of the apical and sub-apical actin pools to mature into a network. Effects of xNubp1 knockdown on the actin cytoskeleton are independent of RhoA localization and activation, suggesting that xNubp1 may have a direct role in the regulation of the actin cytoskeleton.

  20. Human somatic cells acquire the plasticity to generate embryoid-like metamorphosis via the actin cytoskeleton in injured tissues

    PubMed Central

    Diaz, Jairo A; Murillo, Mauricio F; Mendoza, Jhonan A; Barreto, Ana M; Poveda, Lina S; Sanchez, Lina K; Poveda, Laura C; Mora, Katherine T

    2016-01-01

    Emergent biological responses develop via unknown processes dependent on physical collision. In hypoxia, when the tissue architecture collapses but the geometric core is stable, actin cytoskeleton filament components emerge, revealing a hidden internal order that identifies how each molecule is reassembled into the original mold, using one common connection, i.e., a fractal self-similarity that guides the system from the beginning in reverse metamorphosis, with spontaneous self-assembly of past forms that mimics an embryoid phenotype. We captured this hidden collective filamentous assemblage in progress: Hypoxic deformed cells enter into intercellular collisions, generate migratory ejected filaments, and produce self-assembly of triangular chiral hexagon complexes; this dynamic geometry guides the microenvironment scaffold in which this biological process is incubated, recapitulating embryonic morphogenesis. In all injured tissues, especially in damaged skeletal (striated) muscle cells, visibly hypertrophic intercalated actin-myosin filaments are organized in zebra stripe pattern along the anterior-posterior axis in the interior of the cell, generating cephalic-caudal polarity segmentation, with a high selective level of immunopositivity for Actin, Alpha Skeletal Muscle antibody and for Neuron-Specific Enolase expression of ectodermal differentiation. The function of actin filaments in emergent responses to tissue injury is to reconstitute, reactivate and orchestrate cellular metamorphosis, involving the re-expression of fetal genes, providing evidence of the reverse flow of genetic information within a biological system. The resultant embryoid phenotype emerges as a microscopic fractal template copy of the organization of the whole body, likely allowing the modification and reprogramming of the phenotype of the tumor in which these structures develop, as well as establishing a reverse primordial microscopic mold to collectively re-form cellular building blocks to

  1. FMNL3 FH2-actin structure gives insight into formin-mediated actin nucleation and elongation

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, Morgan E; Heimsath, Ernest G; Gauvin, Timothy J; Higgs, Henry N; Kull, F Jon

    2012-12-09

    Formins are actin-assembly factors that act in a variety of actin-based processes. The conserved formin homology 2 (FH2) domain promotes filament nucleation and influences elongation through interaction with the barbed end. FMNL3 is a formin that induces assembly of filopodia but whose FH2 domain is a poor nucleator. The 3.4-Å structure of a mouse FMNL3 FH2 dimer in complex with tetramethylrhodamine-actin uncovers details of formin-regulated actin elongation. We observe distinct FH2 actin-binding regions; interactions in the knob and coiled-coil subdomains are necessary for actin binding, whereas those in the lasso-post interface are important for the stepping mechanism. Biochemical and cellular experiments test the importance of individual residues for function. This structure provides details for FH2-mediated filament elongation by processive capping and supports a model in which C-terminal non-FH2 residues of FMNL3 are required to stabilize the filament nucleus.

  2. Tissue-specific mechanical and geometrical control of cell viability and actin cytoskeleton alignment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Dong; Zheng, Wenfu; Xie, Yunyan; Gong, Peiyuan; Zhao, Fang; Yuan, Bo; Ma, Wanshun; Cui, Yan; Liu, Wenwen; Sun, Yi; Piel, Matthieu; Zhang, Wei; Jiang, Xingyu

    2014-08-01

    Different tissues have specific mechanical properties and cells of different geometries, such as elongated muscle cells and polygonal endothelial cells, which are precisely regulated during embryo development. However, the mechanisms that underlie these processes are not clear. Here, we built an in vitro model to mimic the cellular microenvironment of muscle by combining both mechanical stretch and geometrical control. We found that mechanical stretch was a key factor that determined the optimal geometry of myoblast C2C12 cells under stretch, whereas vascular endothelial cells and fibroblasts had no such dependency. We presented the first experimental evidence that can explain why myoblasts are destined to take the elongated geometry so as to survive and maintain parallel actin filaments along the stretching direction. The study is not only meaningful for the research on myogenesis but also has potential application in regenerative medicine.

  3. Cell adhesion molecules and actin cytoskeleton at immune synapses and kinapses.

    PubMed

    Dustin, Michael L

    2007-10-01

    The immunological synapse is a stable adhesive junction between a polarized immune effector cell and an antigen-bearing cell. Immunological synapses are often observed to have a striking radial symmetry in the plane of contact with a prominent central cluster of antigen receptors surrounded by concentric rings of adhesion molecules and actin-rich projections. There is a striking similarity between the radial zones of the immunological synapse and the dynamic actinomyosin modules employed by migrating cells. Breaking the symmetry of an immunological synapse generates a moving adhesive junction that can be defined as a kinapse, which facilitates signal integration by immune cells while moving over the surface of antigen-presenting cells.

  4. Tissue-specific mechanical and geometrical control of cell viability and actin cytoskeleton alignment.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dong; Zheng, Wenfu; Xie, Yunyan; Gong, Peiyuan; Zhao, Fang; Yuan, Bo; Ma, Wanshun; Cui, Yan; Liu, Wenwen; Sun, Yi; Piel, Matthieu; Zhang, Wei; Jiang, Xingyu

    2014-08-22

    Different tissues have specific mechanical properties and cells of different geometries, such as elongated muscle cells and polygonal endothelial cells, which are precisely regulated during embryo development. However, the mechanisms that underlie these processes are not clear. Here, we built an in vitro model to mimic the cellular microenvironment of muscle by combining both mechanical stretch and geometrical control. We found that mechanical stretch was a key factor that determined the optimal geometry of myoblast C2C12 cells under stretch, whereas vascular endothelial cells and fibroblasts had no such dependency. We presented the first experimental evidence that can explain why myoblasts are destined to take the elongated geometry so as to survive and maintain parallel actin filaments along the stretching direction. The study is not only meaningful for the research on myogenesis but also has potential application in regenerative medicine.

  5. SHP-2 acts via ROCK to regulate the cardiac actin cytoskeleton.

    PubMed

    Langdon, Yvette; Tandon, Panna; Paden, Erika; Duddy, Jennifer; Taylor, Joan M; Conlon, Frank L

    2012-03-01

    Noonan syndrome is one of the most common causes of human congenital heart disease and is frequently associated with missense mutations in the protein phosphatase SHP-2. Interestingly, patients with acute myelogenous leukemia (AML), acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia (JMML) and LEOPARD syndrome frequently carry a second, somatically introduced subset of missense mutations in SHP-2. To determine the cellular and molecular mechanisms by which SHP-2 regulates heart development and, thus, understand how Noonan-associated mutations affect cardiogenesis, we introduced SHP-2 encoding the most prevalent Noonan syndrome and JMML mutations into Xenopus embryos. Resulting embryos show a direct relationship between a Noonan SHP-2 mutation and its ability to cause cardiac defects in Xenopus; embryos expressing Noonan SHP-2 mutations exhibit morphologically abnormal hearts, whereas those expressing an SHP-2 JMML-associated mutation do not. Our studies indicate that the cardiac defects associated with the introduction of the Noonan-associated SHP-2 mutations are coupled with a delay or arrest of the cardiac cell cycle in M-phase and a failure of cardiomyocyte progenitors to incorporate into the developing heart. We show that these defects are a result of an underlying malformation in the formation and polarity of cardiac actin fibers and F-actin deposition. We show that these defects can be rescued in culture and in embryos through the inhibition of the Rho-associated, coiled-coil-containing protein kinase 1 (ROCK), thus demonstrating a direct relationship between SHP-2(N308D) and ROCK activation in the developing heart.

  6. The role of Saccharomyces cerevisiae type 2A phosphatase in the actin cytoskeleton and in entry into mitosis.

    PubMed Central

    Lin, F C; Arndt, K T

    1995-01-01

    We have prepared a temperature-sensitive Saccharomyces cerevisiae type 2A phosphatase (PP2A) mutant, pph21-102. At the restrictive temperature, the pph21-102 cells arrested predominantly with small or aberrant buds, and their actin cytoskeleton and chitin deposition were abnormal. The involvement of PP2A in bud growth may be due to the role of PP2A in actin distribution during the cell cycle. Moreover, after a shift to the non-permissive temperature, the pph21-102 cells were blocked in G2 and had low activity of Clb2-Cdc28 kinase. Expression of Clb2 from the S.cerevisiae ADH promoter in pph21-102 cells was able to partially bypass the G2 arrest in the first cell cycle, but was not able to stimulate passage through a second mitosis. These cells had higher total amounts of Clb2-Cdc28 kinase activity, but the Clb2-normalized specific activity was lower in the pph21-102 cells compared with wild-type cells. Unlike wild-type strains, a PP2A-deficient strain was sensitive to the loss of MIH1, which is a homolog of the Schizosaccharomyces pombe mitotic inducer cdc25+. Furthermore, the cdc28F19 mutation cured the synthetic defects of a PP2A-deficient strain containing a deletion of MIH1. These results suggest that PP2A is required during G2 for the activation of Clb-Cdc28 kinase complexes for progression into mitosis. Images PMID:7796803

  7. The organization of the actin cytoskeleton in vertical and graviresponding primary roots of maize.

    PubMed

    Blancaflor, E B; Hasenstein, K H

    1997-04-01

    To determine whether actin microfilament (MF) organization is correlated with differential elongation, primary roots of Zea mays cv Merit maintained vertically or reoriented horizontally for 15 to 120 min were stained with rhodamine phalloidin and examined with a confocal microscope. Root curvature was measured with a computer-controlled video digitizer. In vertical roots bundles of MFs in the elongation and maturation zone were oriented parallel to the longitudinal axis of cells. MFs in the vascular parenchyma cells were more abundant than in the cortex and epidermis. Epidermal and proendodermal cells in the meristematic region contained transverse cortical MFs. The organization of MFs of graviresponding roots was similar to that of vertical roots. Application of cytochalasin B or cytochalasin D resulted in extensive disruption of MFs in the cortex and epidermis, but only partially affected MFs in the stele. Despite the cytochalasin B-induced depolymerization of MFs, gravicurvature exceeded that of controls. In contrast, the auxin transport inhibitor N-1 naphthylphthalamic acid suppressed root curvature but had no observable effect on the integrity of the MFs. The data indicate that MFs may not be involved in the graviresponse of maize roots. PMID:11536803

  8. BLOC-1 Brings Together the Actin and Microtubule Cytoskeletons to Generate Recycling Endosomes.

    PubMed

    Delevoye, Cédric; Heiligenstein, Xavier; Ripoll, Léa; Gilles-Marsens, Floriane; Dennis, Megan K; Linares, Ricardo A; Derman, Laura; Gokhale, Avanti; Morel, Etienne; Faundez, Victor; Marks, Michael S; Raposo, Graça

    2016-01-11

    Recycling endosomes consist of a tubular network that emerges from vacuolar sorting endosomes and diverts cargoes toward the cell surface, the Golgi, or lysosome-related organelles. How recycling tubules are formed remains unknown. We show that recycling endosome biogenesis requires the protein complex BLOC-1. Mutations in BLOC-1 subunits underlie an inherited disorder characterized by albinism, the Hermansky-Pudlak Syndrome, and are associated with schizophrenia risk. We show here that BLOC-1 coordinates the kinesin KIF13A-dependent pulling of endosomal tubules along microtubules to the Annexin A2/actin-dependent stabilization and detachment of recycling tubules. These components cooperate to extend, stabilize and form tubular endosomal carriers that function in cargo recycling and in the biogenesis of pigment granules in melanocytic cells. By shaping recycling endosomal tubules, our data reveal that dysfunction of the BLOC-1-KIF13A-Annexin A2 molecular network underlies the pathophysiology of neurological and pigmentary disorders. PMID:26725201

  9. The organization of the actin cytoskeleton in vertical and graviresponding primary roots of maize

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blancaflor, E. B.; Hasenstein, K. H.

    1997-01-01

    To determine whether actin microfilament (MF) organization is correlated with differential elongation, primary roots of Zea mays cv Merit maintained vertically or reoriented horizontally for 15 to 120 min were stained with rhodamine phalloidin and examined with a confocal microscope. Root curvature was measured with a computer-controlled video digitizer. In vertical roots bundles of MFs in the elongation and maturation zone were oriented parallel to the longitudinal axis of cells. MFs in the vascular parenchyma cells were more abundant than in the cortex and epidermis. Epidermal and proendodermal cells in the meristematic region contained transverse cortical MFs. The organization of MFs of graviresponding roots was similar to that of vertical roots. Application of cytochalasin B or cytochalasin D resulted in extensive disruption of MFs in the cortex and epidermis, but only partially affected MFs in the stele. Despite the cytochalasin B-induced depolymerization of MFs, gravicurvature exceeded that of controls. In contrast, the auxin transport inhibitor N-1 naphthylphthalamic acid suppressed root curvature but had no observable effect on the integrity of the MFs. The data indicate that MFs may not be involved in the graviresponse of maize roots.

  10. Impact of Concanavalin-A-Mediated Cytoskeleton Disruption on Low-Density Lipoprotein Receptor-Related Protein-1 Internalization and Cell Surface Expression in Glioblastomas

    PubMed Central

    Nanni, Samuel Burke; Pratt, Jonathan; Beauchemin, David; Haidara, Khadidja; Annabi, Borhane

    2016-01-01

    The low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1 (LRP-1) is a multiligand endocytic receptor, which plays a pivotal role in controlling cytoskeleton dynamics during cancer cell migration. Its rapid endocytosis further allows efficient clearance of extracellular ligands. Concanavalin-A (ConA) is a lectin used to trigger in vitro physiological cellular processes, including cytokines secretion, nitric oxide production, and T-lymphocytes activation. Given that ConA exerts part of its effects through cytoskeleton remodeling, we questioned whether it affected LRP-1 expression, intracellular trafficking, and cell surface function in grade IV U87 glioblastoma cells. Using flow cytometry and confocal microscopy, we found that loss of the cell surface 600-kDa mature form of LRP-1 occurs upon ConA treatment. Consequently, internalization of the physiological α2-macroglobulin and the synthetic angiopep-2 ligands of LRP-1 was also decreased. Silencing of known mediators of ConA, such as the membrane type-1 matrix metalloproteinase, and the Toll-like receptors (TLR)-2 and TLR-6 was unable to rescue ConA-mediated LRP-1 expression decrease, implying that the loss of LRP-1 was independent of cell surface relayed signaling. The ConA-mediated reduction in LRP-1 expression was emulated by the actin cytoskeleton-disrupting agent cytochalasin-D, but not by the microtubule inhibitor nocodazole, and required both lysosomal- and ubiquitin-proteasome system-mediated degradation. Our study implies that actin cytoskeleton integrity is required for proper LRP-1 cell surface functions and that impaired trafficking leads to specialized compartmentation and degradation. Our data also strengthen the biomarker role of cell surface LRP-1 functions in the vectorized transport of therapeutic angiopep bioconjugates into brain cancer cells. PMID:27226736

  11. Optogenetics to target actin-mediated synaptic loss in Alzheimer's

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zahedi, Atena; DeFea, Kathryn; Ethell, Iryna

    2013-03-01

    Numerous studies in Alzheimer's Disease (AD) animal models show that overproduction of Aβ peptides and their oligomerization can distort dendrites, damage synapses, and decrease the number of dendritic spines and synapses. Aβ may trigger synapse loss by modulating activity of actin-regulating proteins, such as Rac1 and cofilin. Indeed, Aβ1-42 oligomers can activate actin severing protein cofilin through calcineurin-mediated activation of phosphatase slingshot and inhibit an opposing pathway that suppresses cofilin phosphorylation through Rac-mediated activation of LIMK1. Excessive activation of actin-severing protein cofilin triggers the formation of a non-dynamic actin bundles, called rods that are found in AD brains and cause loss of synapses. Hence, regulation of these actin-regulating proteins in dendritic spines could potentially provide useful tools for preventing the synapse/spine loss associated with earlier stages of AD neuropathology. However, lack of spatiotemporal control over their activity is a key limitation. Recently, optogenetic advancements have provided researchers with convenient light-activating proteins such as photoactivatable Rac (PARac). Here, we transfected cultured primary hippocampal neurons and human embryonic kidney (HEK) cells with a PARac/ mCherry-containing plasmid and the mCherry-positive cells were identified and imaged using an inverted fluorescence microscope. Rac1 activation was achieved by irradiation with blue light (480nm) and live changes in dendritic spine morphology were observed using mCherry (587nm). Rac activation was confirmed by immunostaining for phosphorylated form of effector proteinP21 protein-activated kinase 1 (PAK1) and reorganization of actin. Thus, our studies confirm the feasibility of using the PA-Rac construct to trigger actin re-organization in the dendritic spines.

  12. Cytoskeleton keratin regulation of FasR signaling through modulation of actin/ezrin interplay at lipid rafts in hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, Stéphane; Loranger, Anne; Lavoie, Josée N; Marceau, Normand

    2012-08-01

    FasR stimulation by Fas ligand leads to rapid formation of FasR microaggregates, which become signaling protein oligomerization transduction structures (SPOTS), through interactions with actin and ezrin, a structural step that triggers death-inducing signaling complex formation, in association with procaspase-8 activation. In some cells, designated as type I, caspase 8 directly activates effector caspases, whereas in others, known as type II, the caspase-mediated death signaling is amplified through mitochondria. Keratins are the intermediate filament (IF) proteins of epithelial cells, expressed as pairs in a lineage/differentiation manner. Hepatocyte IFs are made solely of keratins 8/18 (K8/K18), the hallmark of all simple epithelia. We have shown recently that in comparison to type II wild-type (WT) mouse hepatocytes, the absence of K8/K18 IFs in K8-null hepatocytes leads to more efficient FasR-mediated apoptosis, in link with a type II/type I-like switch in FasR-death signaling. Here, we demonstrate that the apoptotic process occurring in type I-like K8-null hepatocytes is associated with accelerated SPOTS elaboration at surface membrane, along with manifestation of FasR cap formation and internalization. In addition, the lipid raft organization is altered in K8-null hepatocytes. While lipid raft inhibition impairs SPOTS formation in both WT and K8-null hepatocytes, the absence of K8/K18 IFs in the latter sensitizes SPOTS to actin de-polymerization, and perturbs ezrin compartmentalization. Overall, the results indicate that the K8/K18 IF loss in hepatocytes alters the initial FasR activation steps through perturbation of ezrin/actin interplay and lipid raft organization, which leads to a type II/type I switch in FasR-death signaling.

  13. Structural insights into de novo actin polymerization

    PubMed Central

    Dominguez, Roberto

    2010-01-01

    Summary Many cellular functions depend on rapid and localized actin polymerization/depolymerization. Yet, the de novo polymerization of actin in cells is kinetically unfavorable because of the instability of polymerization intermediates (small actin oligomers) and the actions of actin monomer binding proteins. Cells use filament nucleation and elongation factors to initiate and sustain polymerization. Structural biology is beginning to shed light on the diverse mechanisms by which these unrelated proteins initiate polymerization, undergo regulation, and mediate the transition of monomeric actin onto actin filaments. A prominent role is played by the W domain, which in some of these proteins occurs in tandem repeats that recruit multiple actin subunits. Pro-rich regions are also abundant and mediate the binding of profilin-actin complexes, which are the main source of polymerization competent actin in cells. Filament nucleation and elongation factors frequently interact with Rho family GTPases, which relay signals from membrane receptors to regulate actin cytoskeleton remodeling. PMID:20096561

  14. The IQGAP-related protein DGAP1 interacts with Rac and is involved in the modulation of the F-actin cytoskeleton and control of cell motility.

    PubMed

    Faix, J; Clougherty, C; Konzok, A; Mintert, U; Murphy, J; Albrecht, R; Mühlbauer, B; Kuhlmann, J

    1998-10-01

    DGAP1 of Dictyostelium discoideum is a cell cortex associated 95 kDa protein that shows homology to both RasGTPase-activating proteins (RasGAPs) and RasGAP-related proteins. When tested for RasGAP activity, recombinant DGAP1 protein did not promote the GTPase activity of human H-Ras or of Dictyostelium RasG in vitro. Instead, DGAP1 bound to Dictyostelium Rac1A and human Rac1, but not to human Cdc42. DGAP1 preferentially interacted with the activated GTP-bound forms of Rac1 and Rac1A, but did not affect the GTPase activities. Since Rho-type GTPases are implicated in the formation of specific F-actin structures and in the control of cell morphology, the microfilament system of mutants that either lack or overexpress DGAP1 has been analysed. DGAP1-null mutants showed elevated levels of F-actin that was organised in large leading edges, membrane ruffles or numerous large filopods. Expression of actin fused to green fluorescent protein (GFP) was used to monitor the actin dynamics in these cells, and revealed that the F-actin cytoskeleton of DGAP1-null cells was rapidly re-arranged to form ruffles and filopods. Conversely, in DGAP1-overexpressing cells, the formation of cellular projections containing F-actin was largely suppressed. Measurement of cell migration demonstrated that DGAP1 expression is inversely correlated with the speed of cell motility. PMID:9739079

  15. The actin cytoskeleton modulates the activation of iNKT cells by segregating CD1d nanoclusters on antigen-presenting cells

    PubMed Central

    Torreno-Pina, Juan A.; Manzo, Carlo; Salio, Mariolina; Aichinger, Michael C.; Oddone, Anna; Lakadamyali, Melike; Shepherd, Dawn; Besra, Gurdyal S.; Cerundolo, Vincenzo

    2016-01-01

    Invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells recognize endogenous and exogenous lipid antigens presented in the context of CD1d molecules. The ability of iNKT cells to recognize endogenous antigens represents a distinct immune recognition strategy, which underscores the constitutive memory phenotype of iNKT cells and their activation during inflammatory conditions. However, the mechanisms regulating such “tonic” activation of iNKT cells remain unclear. Here, we show that the spatiotemporal distribution of CD1d molecules on the surface of antigen-presenting cells (APCs) modulates activation of iNKT cells. By using superresolution microscopy, we show that CD1d molecules form nanoclusters at the cell surface of APCs, and their size and density are constrained by the actin cytoskeleton. Dual-color single-particle tracking revealed that diffusing CD1d nanoclusters are actively arrested by the actin cytoskeleton, preventing their further coalescence. Formation of larger nanoclusters occurs in the absence of interactions between CD1d cytosolic tail and the actin cytoskeleton and correlates with enhanced iNKT cell activation. Importantly and consistently with iNKT cell activation during inflammatory conditions, exposure of APCs to the Toll-like receptor 7/8 agonist R848 increases nanocluster density and iNKT cell activation. Overall, these results define a previously unidentified mechanism that modulates iNKT cell autoreactivity based on the tight control by the APC cytoskeleton of the sizes and densities of endogenous antigen-loaded CD1d nanoclusters. PMID:26798067

  16. Antiamoebic Activity of Adenophyllum aurantium (L.) Strother and Its Effect on the Actin Cytoskeleton of Entamoeba histolytica.

    PubMed

    Herrera-Martínez, Mayra; Hernández-Ramírez, Verónica I; Hernández-Carlos, Beatriz; Chávez-Munguía, Bibiana; Calderón-Oropeza, Mónica A; Talamás-Rohana, Patricia

    2016-01-01

    In Mexico, the Adenophyllum aurantium (L.) Strother plant is consumed as an infusion to treat intestinal diseases such as amoebiasis, which is an endemic health problem in Mexico and other countries. However, the effect of A. aurantium on Entamoeba histolytica, the causative agent of amoebiasis, is unknown. An aerial part methanolic extract (AaMeA), a root methanolic extract (AaMeR) and a root ethyl acetate extract (AaEaR) were tested on E. histolytica trophozoites. AaMeA and AaMeR did not show antiproliferative activity; however, AaEaR exhibited an in vitro GI50 of 230 μg/ml, and it was able to inhibit the differentiation of Entamoeba invadens trophozoites into cysts. The intraperitoneal administration of AaEaR (2.5 or 5 mg) to hamsters that were infected with E. histolytica inhibited the development of amoebic liver abscesses in 48.5 or 89.0% of the animals, respectively. Adhesion to fibronectin and erythrophagocytosis were 28.7 and 37.5% inhibited by AaEaR, respectively. An ultrastructure analysis of AaEaR-treated trophozoites shows a decrease in the number of vacuoles but no apparent cell damage. Moreover, this extract affected the actin cytoskeleton structuration, and it prevented the formation of contractile rings by mechanism(s) that were independent of reactive oxygen species and RhoA activation pathways. (13)C NMR data showed that the major compounds in the AaEaR extract are thiophenes. Our results suggest that AaEaR may be effective in treatments against amoebiasis, nevertheless, detailed toxicity studies on thiophenes, contained in AaEaR, are required to avoid misuse of this vegetal species.

  17. Antiamoebic Activity of Adenophyllum aurantium (L.) Strother and Its Effect on the Actin Cytoskeleton of Entamoeba histolytica

    PubMed Central

    Herrera-Martínez, Mayra; Hernández-Ramírez, Verónica I.; Hernández-Carlos, Beatriz; Chávez-Munguía, Bibiana; Calderón-Oropeza, Mónica A.; Talamás-Rohana, Patricia

    2016-01-01

    In Mexico, the Adenophyllum aurantium (L.) Strother plant is consumed as an infusion to treat intestinal diseases such as amoebiasis, which is an endemic health problem in Mexico and other countries. However, the effect of A. aurantium on Entamoeba histolytica, the causative agent of amoebiasis, is unknown. An aerial part methanolic extract (AaMeA), a root methanolic extract (AaMeR) and a root ethyl acetate extract (AaEaR) were tested on E. histolytica trophozoites. AaMeA and AaMeR did not show antiproliferative activity; however, AaEaR exhibited an in vitro GI50 of 230 μg/ml, and it was able to inhibit the differentiation of Entamoeba invadens trophozoites into cysts. The intraperitoneal administration of AaEaR (2.5 or 5 mg) to hamsters that were infected with E. histolytica inhibited the development of amoebic liver abscesses in 48.5 or 89.0% of the animals, respectively. Adhesion to fibronectin and erythrophagocytosis were 28.7 and 37.5% inhibited by AaEaR, respectively. An ultrastructure analysis of AaEaR-treated trophozoites shows a decrease in the number of vacuoles but no apparent cell damage. Moreover, this extract affected the actin cytoskeleton structuration, and it prevented the formation of contractile rings by mechanism(s) that were independent of reactive oxygen species and RhoA activation pathways. 13C NMR data showed that the major compounds in the AaEaR extract are thiophenes. Our results suggest that AaEaR may be effective in treatments against amoebiasis, nevertheless, detailed toxicity studies on thiophenes, contained in AaEaR, are required to avoid misuse of this vegetal species. PMID:27445810

  18. Antiamoebic Activity of Adenophyllum aurantium (L.) Strother and Its Effect on the Actin Cytoskeleton of Entamoeba histolytica.

    PubMed

    Herrera-Martínez, Mayra; Hernández-Ramírez, Verónica I; Hernández-Carlos, Beatriz; Chávez-Munguía, Bibiana; Calderón-Oropeza, Mónica A; Talamás-Rohana, Patricia

    2016-01-01

    In Mexico, the Adenophyllum aurantium (L.) Strother plant is consumed as an infusion to treat intestinal diseases such as amoebiasis, which is an endemic health problem in Mexico and other countries. However, the effect of A. aurantium on Entamoeba histolytica, the causative agent of amoebiasis, is unknown. An aerial part methanolic extract (AaMeA), a root methanolic extract (AaMeR) and a root ethyl acetate extract (AaEaR) were tested on E. histolytica trophozoites. AaMeA and AaMeR did not show antiproliferative activity; however, AaEaR exhibited an in vitro GI50 of 230 μg/ml, and it was able to inhibit the differentiation of Entamoeba invadens trophozoites into cysts. The intraperitoneal administration of AaEaR (2.5 or 5 mg) to hamsters that were infected with E. histolytica inhibited the development of amoebic liver abscesses in 48.5 or 89.0% of the animals, respectively. Adhesion to fibronectin and erythrophagocytosis were 28.7 and 37.5% inhibited by AaEaR, respectively. An ultrastructure analysis of AaEaR-treated trophozoites shows a decrease in the number of vacuoles but no apparent cell damage. Moreover, this extract affected the actin cytoskeleton structuration, and it prevented the formation of contractile rings by mechanism(s) that were independent of reactive oxygen species and RhoA activation pathways. (13)C NMR data showed that the major compounds in the AaEaR extract are thiophenes. Our results suggest that AaEaR may be effective in treatments against amoebiasis, nevertheless, detailed toxicity studies on thiophenes, contained in AaEaR, are required to avoid misuse of this vegetal species. PMID:27445810

  19. Actin cytoskeleton-dependent Rab GTPase-regulated angiotensin type I receptor lysosomal degradation studied by fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hewang; Yu, Peiying; Sun, Yuansheng; Felder, Robin A.; Periasamy, Ammasi; Jose, Pedro A.

    2010-09-01

    The dynamic regulation of the cellular trafficking of human angiotensin (Ang) type 1 receptor (AT1R) is not well understood. Therefore, we investigated the cellular trafficking of AT1R-enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) (AT1R-EGFP) heterologously expressed in HEK293 cells by determining the change in donor lifetime (AT1R-EGFP) in the presence or absence of acceptor(s) using fluorescence lifetime imaging-fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) microscopy. The average lifetime of AT1R-EGFP in our donor-alone samples was ~2.33 ns. The basal state lifetime was shortened slightly in the presence of Rab5 (2.01+/-0.10 ns) or Rab7 (2.11+/-0.11 ns) labeled with Alexa 555, as the acceptor fluorophore. A 5-min Ang II treatment markedly shortened the lifetime of AT1R-EGFP in the presence of Rab5-Alexa 555 (1.78+/-0.31 ns) but was affected minimally in the presence of Rab7-Alexa 555 (2.09+/-0.37 ns). A 30-min Ang II treatment further decreased the AT1R-EGFP lifetime in the presence of both Rab5- and Rab7-Alexa 555. Latrunculin A but not nocodazole pretreatment blocked the ability of Ang II to shorten the AT1R-EGFP lifetime. The occurrence of FRET between AT1R-EGFP (donor) and LAMP1-Alexa 555 (acceptor) with Ang II stimulation was impaired by photobleaching the acceptor. These studies demonstrate that Ang II-induced AT1R lysosomal degradation through its association with LAMP1 is regulated by Rab5/7 via mechanisms that are dependent on intact actin cytoskeletons.

  20. Actin Mediates the Nanoscale Membrane Organization of the Clustered Membrane Protein Influenza Hemagglutinin

    PubMed Central

    Gudheti, Manasa V.; Curthoys, Nikki M.; Gould, Travis J.; Kim, Dahan; Gunewardene, Mudalige S.; Gabor, Kristin A.; Gosse, Julie A.; Kim, Carol H.; Zimmerberg, Joshua; Hess, Samuel T.

    2013-01-01

    The influenza viral membrane protein hemagglutinin (HA) is required at high concentrations on virion and host-cell membranes for infectivity. Because the role of actin in membrane organization is not completely understood, we quantified the relationship between HA and host-cell actin at the nanoscale. Results obtained using superresolution fluorescence photoactivation localization microscopy (FPALM) in nonpolarized cells show that HA clusters colocalize with actin-rich membrane regions (ARMRs). Individual molecular trajectories in live cells indicate restricted HA mobility in ARMRs, and actin disruption caused specific changes to HA clustering. Surprisingly, the actin-binding protein cofilin was excluded from some regions within several hundred nanometers of HA clusters, suggesting that HA clusters or adjacent proteins within the same clusters influence local actin structure. Thus, with the use of imaging, we demonstrate a dynamic relationship between glycoprotein membrane organization and the actin cytoskeleton at the nanoscale. PMID:23708358

  1. Hyperosmotic stress induces Rho/Rho kinase/LIM kinase-mediated cofilin phosphorylation in tubular cells: key role in the osmotically triggered F-actin response

    PubMed Central

    Thirone, Ana C. P.; Speight, Pam; Zulys, Matthew; Rotstein, Ori D.; Szászi, Katalin; Pedersen, Stine F.; Kapus, András

    2016-01-01

    Hyperosmotic stress induces cytoskeleton reorganization and a net increase in cellular F-actin, but the underlying mechanisms are incompletely understood. Whereas de novo F-actin polymerization likely contributes to the actin response, the role of F-actin severing is unknown. To address this problem, we investigated whether hyperosmolarity regulates cofilin, a key actin-severing protein, the activity of which is inhibited by phosphorylation. Since the small GTPases Rho and Rac are sensitive to cell volume changes and can regulate cofilin phosphorylation, we also asked whether they might link osmostress to cofilin. Here we show that hyperosmolarity induced rapid, sustained, and reversible phosphorylation of cofilin in kidney tubular (LLC-PK1 and Madin-Darby canine kidney) cells. Hyperosmolarity-provoked cofilin phosphorylation was mediated by the Rho/Rho kinase (ROCK)/LIM kinase (LIMK) but not the Rac/PAK/LIMK pathway, because 1) dominant negative (DN) Rho and DN-ROCK but not DN-Rac and DN-PAK inhibited cofilin phosphorylation; 2) constitutively active (CA) Rho and CA-ROCK but not CA-Rac and CA-PAK induced cofilin phosphorylation; 3) hyperosmolarity induced LIMK-2 phosphorylation, and 4) inhibition of ROCK by Y-27632 suppressed the hypertonicity-triggered LIMK-2 and cofilin phosphorylation. We then examined whether cofilin and its phosphorylation play a role in the hypertonicity-triggered F-actin changes. Downregulation of cofilin by small interfering RNA increased the resting F-actin level and eliminated any further rise upon hypertonic treatment. Inhibition of cofilin phosphorylation by Y-27632 prevented the hyperosmolarity-provoked F-actin increase. Taken together, cofilin is necessary for maintaining the osmotic responsiveness of the cytoskeleton in tubular cells, and the Rho/ROCK/LIMK-mediated cofilin phosphorylation is a key mechanism in the hyperosmotic stress-induced F-actin increase. PMID:19109524

  2. Why do peroxisomes associate with the cytoskeleton?

    PubMed

    Neuhaus, Alexander; Eggeling, Christian; Erdmann, Ralf; Schliebs, Wolfgang

    2016-05-01

    Attachment of peroxisomes to cytoskeleton and movement along microtubular filaments and actin cables are essential and highly regulated processes enabling metabolic efficiency, biogenesis, maintenance and inheritance of this dynamic cellular compartment. Several peroxisome-associated proteins have been identified, which mediate interaction with motor proteins, adaptor proteins or other constituents of the cytoskeleton. It appears that there is a species-specific complexity of protein-protein interactions required to control directional movement and arresting. An open question is why some proteins with a specific role in peroxisomal protein import have an additional function in the regulation of cytoskeleton binding and motility of peroxisomes.

  3. Actin cytoskeleton organization, cell surface modification and invasion rate of 5 glioblastoma cell lines differing in PTEN and p53 status

    SciTech Connect

    Djuzenova, Cholpon S.; Fiedler, Vanessa; Memmel, Simon; Katzer, Astrid; Hartmann, Susanne; Krohne, Georg; Zimmermann, Heiko; Polat, Bülent; Flentje, Michael; and others

    2015-01-15

    Glioblastoma cells exhibit highly invasive behavior whose mechanisms are not yet fully understood. The present study explores the relationship between the invasion capacity of 5 glioblastoma cell lines differing in p53 and PTEN status, expression of mTOR and several other marker proteins involved in cell invasion, actin cytoskeleton organization and cell morphology. We found that two glioblastoma lines mutated in both p53 and PTEN genes (U373-MG and SNB19) exhibited the highest invasion rates through the Matrigel or collagen matrix. In DK-MG (p53wt/PTENwt) and GaMG (p53mut/PTENwt) cells, F-actin mainly occurred in the numerous stress fibers spanning the cytoplasm, whereas U87-MG (p53wt/PTENmut), U373-MG and SNB19 (both p53mut/PTENmut) cells preferentially expressed F-actin in filopodia and lamellipodia. Scanning electron microscopy confirmed the abundant filopodia and lamellipodia in the PTEN mutated cell lines. Interestingly, the gene profiling analysis revealed two clusters of cell lines, corresponding to the most (U373-MG and SNB19, i.e. p53 and PTEN mutated cells) and less invasive phenotypes. The results of this study might shed new light on the mechanisms of glioblastoma invasion. - Highlights: • We examine 5 glioblastoma lines on the invasion capacity and actin cytoskeleton. • Glioblastoma cell lines mutated in both p53 and PTEN were the most invasive. • Less invasive cells showed much less lamellipodia, but more actin stress fibers. • A mechanism for the differences in tumor cell invasion is proposed.

  4. Noise-induced cochlear F-actin depolymerization is mediated via ROCK2/p-ERM signaling

    PubMed Central

    Han, Yu; Wang, Xianren; Chen, Jun; Sha, Su-Hua

    2015-01-01

    Our previous work has suggested that traumatic noise activates Rho-GTPase pathways in cochlear outer hair cells (OHCs), resulting in cell death and noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL). In this study, we investigated Rho effectors, Rho-associated kinases (ROCKs), and the targets of ROCKs, the ezrin-radixin-moesin (ERM) proteins, in the regulation of the cochlear actin cytoskeleton using adult CBA/J mice under conditions of noise-induced temporary threshold shift (TTS) and permanent threshold shift (PTS) hearing loss, which result in changes to the F/G-actin ratio. The levels of cochlear ROCK2 and p-ERM decreased 1 h after either TTS- or PTS-noise exposure. In contrast, ROCK2 and p-ERM in OHCs decreased only after PTS-, not after TTS-noise exposure. Treatment with lysophosphatidic acid, an activator of the Rho pathway, resulted in significant reversal of the F/G-actin ratio changes caused by noise exposure and attenuated OHC death and NIHL. Conversely, the down-regulation of ROCK2 by pretreatment with ROCK2 siRNA reduced the expression of ROCK2 and p-ERM in OHCs, exacerbated TTS to PTS, and worsened OHC loss. Additionally, pretreatment with siRNA against radixin, an ERM protein, aggravated TTS to PTS. Our results indicate that a ROCK2-mediated ERM-phosphorylation signaling cascade modulates noise-induced hair cell loss and NIHL by targeting the cytoskeleton. PMID:25683353

  5. Cofilin-mediated actin dynamics promotes actin bundle formation during Drosophila bristle development

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Jing; Wang, Heng; Guo, Xuan; Chen, Jiong

    2016-01-01

    The actin bundle is an array of linear actin filaments cross-linked by actin-bundling proteins, but its assembly and dynamics are not as well understood as those of the branched actin network. Here we used the Drosophila bristle as a model system to study actin bundle formation. We found that cofilin, a major actin disassembly factor of the branched actin network, promotes the formation and positioning of actin bundles in the developing bristles. Loss of function of cofilin or AIP1, a cofactor of cofilin, each resulted in increased F-actin levels and severe defects in actin bundle organization, with the defects from cofilin deficiency being more severe. Further analyses revealed that cofilin likely regulates actin bundle formation and positioning by the following means. First, cofilin promotes a large G-actin pool both locally and globally, likely ensuring rapid actin polymerization for bundle initiation and growth. Second, cofilin limits the size of a nonbundled actin-myosin network to regulate the positioning of actin bundles. Third, cofilin prevents incorrect assembly of branched and myosin-associated actin filament into bundles. Together these results demonstrate that the interaction between the dynamic dendritic actin network and the assembling actin bundles is critical for actin bundle formation and needs to be closely regulated. PMID:27385345

  6. Cofilin-mediated actin dynamics promotes actin bundle formation during Drosophila bristle development.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jing; Wang, Heng; Guo, Xuan; Chen, Jiong

    2016-08-15

    The actin bundle is an array of linear actin filaments cross-linked by actin-bundling proteins, but its assembly and dynamics are not as well understood as those of the branched actin network. Here we used the Drosophila bristle as a model system to study actin bundle formation. We found that cofilin, a major actin disassembly factor of the branched actin network, promotes the formation and positioning of actin bundles in the developing bristles. Loss of function of cofilin or AIP1, a cofactor of cofilin, each resulted in increased F-actin levels and severe defects in actin bundle organization, with the defects from cofilin deficiency being more severe. Further analyses revealed that cofilin likely regulates actin bundle formation and positioning by the following means. First, cofilin promotes a large G-actin pool both locally and globally, likely ensuring rapid actin polymerization for bundle initiation and growth. Second, cofilin limits the size of a nonbundled actin-myosin network to regulate the positioning of actin bundles. Third, cofilin prevents incorrect assembly of branched and myosin-associated actin filament into bundles. Together these results demonstrate that the interaction between the dynamic dendritic actin network and the assembling actin bundles is critical for actin bundle formation and needs to be closely regulated.

  7. A functional interplay between the small GTPase Rab11a and mitochondria-shaping proteins regulates mitochondrial positioning and polarization of the actin cytoskeleton downstream of Src family kinases.

    PubMed

    Landry, Marie-Claude; Champagne, Claudia; Boulanger, Marie-Chloé; Jetté, Alexandra; Fuchs, Margit; Dziengelewski, Claire; Lavoie, Josée N

    2014-01-24

    It is believed that mitochondrial dynamics is coordinated with endosomal traffic rates during cytoskeletal remodeling, but the mechanisms involved are largely unknown. The adenovirus early region 4 ORF4 protein (E4orf4) subverts signaling by Src family kinases (SFK) to perturb cellular morphology, membrane traffic, and organellar dynamics and to trigger cell death. Using E4orf4 as a model, we uncovered a functional connection between mitochondria-shaping proteins and the small GTPase Rab11a, a key regulator of polarized transport via recycling endosomes. We found that E4orf4 induced dramatic changes in the morphology of mitochondria along with their mobilization at the vicinity of a polarized actin network typifying E4orf4 action, in a manner controlled by SFK and Rab11a. Mitochondrial remodeling was associated with increased proximity between Rab11a and mitochondrial membranes, changes in fusion-fission dynamics, and mitochondrial relocalization of the fission factor dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1), which was regulated by the Rab11a effector protein FIP1/RCP. Knockdown of FIP1/RCP or inhibition of Drp1 markedly impaired mitochondrial remodeling and actin assembly, involving Rab11a-mediated mitochondrial dynamics in E4orf4-induced signaling. A similar mobilization of mitochondria near actin-rich structures was mediated by Rab11 and Drp1 in viral Src-transformed cells and contributed to the biogenesis of podosome rosettes. These findings suggest a role for Rab11a in the trafficking of Drp1 to mitochondria upon SFK activation and unravel a novel functional interplay between Rab11a and mitochondria during reshaping of the cell cytoskeleton, which would facilitate mitochondria redistribution near energy-requiring actin-rich structures.

  8. A Functional Interplay between the Small GTPase Rab11a and Mitochondria-shaping Proteins Regulates Mitochondrial Positioning and Polarization of the Actin Cytoskeleton Downstream of Src Family Kinases*

    PubMed Central

    Landry, Marie-Claude; Champagne, Claudia; Boulanger, Marie-Chloé; Jetté, Alexandra; Fuchs, Margit; Dziengelewski, Claire; Lavoie, Josée N.

    2014-01-01

    It is believed that mitochondrial dynamics is coordinated with endosomal traffic rates during cytoskeletal remodeling, but the mechanisms involved are largely unknown. The adenovirus early region 4 ORF4 protein (E4orf4) subverts signaling by Src family kinases (SFK) to perturb cellular morphology, membrane traffic, and organellar dynamics and to trigger cell death. Using E4orf4 as a model, we uncovered a functional connection between mitochondria-shaping proteins and the small GTPase Rab11a, a key regulator of polarized transport via recycling endosomes. We found that E4orf4 induced dramatic changes in the morphology of mitochondria along with their mobilization at the vicinity of a polarized actin network typifying E4orf4 action, in a manner controlled by SFK and Rab11a. Mitochondrial remodeling was associated with increased proximity between Rab11a and mitochondrial membranes, changes in fusion-fission dynamics, and mitochondrial relocalization of the fission factor dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1), which was regulated by the Rab11a effector protein FIP1/RCP. Knockdown of FIP1/RCP or inhibition of Drp1 markedly impaired mitochondrial remodeling and actin assembly, involving Rab11a-mediated mitochondrial dynamics in E4orf4-induced signaling. A similar mobilization of mitochondria near actin-rich structures was mediated by Rab11 and Drp1 in viral Src-transformed cells and contributed to the biogenesis of podosome rosettes. These findings suggest a role for Rab11a in the trafficking of Drp1 to mitochondria upon SFK activation and unravel a novel functional interplay between Rab11a and mitochondria during reshaping of the cell cytoskeleton, which would facilitate mitochondria redistribution near energy-requiring actin-rich structures. PMID:24302731

  9. Arp2/3-mediated F-actin formation controls regulated exocytosis in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Tran, Duy T.; Masedunskas, Andrius; Weigert, Roberto; Ten Hagen, Kelly G.

    2015-01-01

    The actin cytoskeleton plays crucial roles in many cellular processes, including regulated secretion. However, the mechanisms controlling F-actin dynamics in this process are largely unknown. Through 3D time-lapse imaging in a secreting organ, we show that F-actin is actively disassembled along the apical plasma membrane at the site of secretory vesicle fusion and re-assembled directionally on vesicle membranes. Moreover, we show that fusion pore formation and PIP2 redistribution precedes actin and myosin recruitment to secretory vesicle membranes. Finally, we show essential roles for the branched actin nucleators Arp2/3- and WASp in the process of secretory cargo expulsion and integration of vesicular membranes with the apical plasma membrane. Our results highlight previously unknown roles for branched actin in exocytosis and provide a genetically tractable system to image the temporal and spatial dynamics of polarized secretion in vivo. PMID:26639106

  10. Arp2/3-mediated F-actin formation controls regulated exocytosis in vivo.

    PubMed

    Tran, Duy T; Masedunskas, Andrius; Weigert, Roberto; Ten Hagen, Kelly G

    2015-01-01

    The actin cytoskeleton plays crucial roles in many cellular processes, including regulated secretion. However, the mechanisms controlling F-actin dynamics in this process are largely unknown. Through 3D time-lapse imaging in a secreting organ, we show that F-actin is actively disassembled along the apical plasma membrane at the site of secretory vesicle fusion and re-assembled directionally on vesicle membranes. Moreover, we show that fusion pore formation and PIP2 redistribution precedes actin and myosin recruitment to secretory vesicle membranes. Finally, we show essential roles for the branched actin nucleators Arp2/3- and WASp in the process of secretory cargo expulsion and integration of vesicular membranes with the apical plasma membrane. Our results highlight previously unknown roles for branched actin in exocytosis and provide a genetically tractable system to image the temporal and spatial dynamics of polarized secretion in vivo.

  11. Arp2/3-mediated F-actin formation controls regulated exocytosis in vivo.

    PubMed

    Tran, Duy T; Masedunskas, Andrius; Weigert, Roberto; Ten Hagen, Kelly G

    2015-01-01

    The actin cytoskeleton plays crucial roles in many cellular processes, including regulated secretion. However, the mechanisms controlling F-actin dynamics in this process are largely unknown. Through 3D time-lapse imaging in a secreting organ, we show that F-actin is actively disassembled along the apical plasma membrane at the site of secretory vesicle fusion and re-assembled directionally on vesicle membranes. Moreover, we show that fusion pore formation and PIP2 redistribution precedes actin and myosin recruitment to secretory vesicle membranes. Finally, we show essential roles for the branched actin nucleators Arp2/3- and WASp in the process of secretory cargo expulsion and integration of vesicular membranes with the apical plasma membrane. Our results highlight previously unknown roles for branched actin in exocytosis and provide a genetically tractable system to image the temporal and spatial dynamics of polarized secretion in vivo. PMID:26639106

  12. PLCβ3 mediates cortactin interaction with WAVE2 in MCP1-induced actin polymerization and cell migration

    PubMed Central

    Janjanam, Jagadeesh; Chandaka, Giri Kumar; Kotla, Sivareddy; Rao, Gadiparthi N.

    2015-01-01

    Monocyte chemotactic protein 1 (MCP1) stimulates vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) migration in vascular wall remodeling. However, the mechanisms underlying MCP1-induced VSMC migration have not been understood. Here we identify the signaling pathway associated with MCP1-induced human aortic smooth muscle cell (HASMC) migration. MCP1, a G protein–coupled receptor agonist, activates phosphorylation of cortactin on S405 and S418 residues in a time-dependent manner, and inhibition of its phosphorylation attenuates MCP1-induced HASMC G-actin polymerization, F-actin stress fiber formation, and migration. Cortactin phosphorylation on S405/S418 is found to be critical for its interaction with WAVE2, a member of the WASP family of cytoskeletal regulatory proteins required for cell migration. In addition, the MCP1-induced cortactin phosphorylation is dependent on PLCβ3-mediated PKCδ activation, and siRNA-mediated down-regulation of either of these molecules prevents cortactin interaction with WAVE2, affecting G-actin polymerization, F-actin stress fiber formation, and HASMC migration. Upstream, MCP1 activates CCR2 and Gαq/11 in a time-dependent manner, and down-regulation of their levels attenuates MCP1-induced PLCβ3 and PKCδ activation, cortactin phosphorylation, cortactin–WAVE2 interaction, G-actin polymerization, F-actin stress fiber formation, and HASMC migration. Together these findings demonstrate that phosphorylation of cortactin on S405 and S418 residues is required for its interaction with WAVE2 in MCP1-induced cytoskeleton remodeling, facilitating HASMC migration. PMID:26490115

  13. GhCFE1A, a dynamic linker between the ER network and actin cytoskeleton, plays an important role in cotton fibre cell initiation and elongation.

    PubMed

    Lv, Fenni; Wang, Haihai; Wang, Xinyu; Han, Libo; Ma, Yinping; Wang, Sen; Feng, Zhidi; Niu, Xiaowei; Cai, Caiping; Kong, Zhaosheng; Zhang, Tianzhen; Guo, Wangzhen

    2015-04-01

    Fibre cell initiation and elongation is critical for cotton fibre development. However, little is known about the regulation of initiation and elongation during fibre cell development. Here, the regulatory role of a novel protein GhCFE1A was uncovered. GhCFE1A is preferentially expressed at initiation and rapid elongation stages during fibre development; in addition, much higher expression of GhCFE1A was detected at the fibre initiation stage in fibreless cotton mutants than in the fibre-bearing TM-1 wild-type. Importantly, overexpression of GhCFE1A in cotton not only delayed fibre cell elongation but also significantly reduced the density of lint and fuzz fibre initials and stem trichomes. Yeast two-hybrid assay showed that GhCFE1A interacted with several actin proteins, and the interaction was further confirmed by co-sedimentation assay. Interestingly, a subcellular localization assay showed that GhCFE1A resided on the cortical endoplasmic reticulum (ER) network and co-localized with actin cables. Moreover, the density of F-actin filaments was shown to be reduced in GhCFE1A-overexpressing fibres at the rapid elongation stage compared with the wild-type control. Taken together, the results demonstrate that GhCFE1A probably functions as a dynamic linker between the actin cytoskeleton and the ER network, and plays an important role in fibre cell initiation and elongation during cotton fibre development.

  14. Recessive mutations in DOCK6, encoding the guanidine nucleotide exchange factor DOCK6, lead to abnormal actin cytoskeleton organization and Adams-Oliver syndrome.

    PubMed

    Shaheen, Ranad; Faqeih, Eissa; Sunker, Asma; Morsy, Heba; Al-Sheddi, Tarfa; Shamseldin, Hanan E; Adly, Nouran; Hashem, Mais; Alkuraya, Fowzan S

    2011-08-12

    Adams-Oliver syndrome (AOS) is defined by the combination of aplasia cutis congenita (ACC) and terminal transverse limb defects (TTLD). It is usually inherited as an autosomal-dominant trait, but autosomal-recessive inheritance has also been documented. In an individual with autosomal-recessive AOS, we combined autozygome analysis with exome sequencing to identify a homozygous truncating mutation in dedicator of cytokinesis 6 gene (DOCK6) which encodes an atypical guanidine exchange factor (GEF) known to activate two members of the Rho GTPase family: Cdc42 and Rac1. Another homozygous truncating mutation was identified upon targeted sequencing of DOCK6 in an unrelated individual with AOS. Consistent with the established role of Cdc42 and Rac1 in the organization of the actin cytoskeleton, we demonstrate a cellular phenotype typical of a defective actin cytoskeleton in patient cells. These findings, combined with a Dock6 expression profile that is consistent with an AOS phenotype as well as the very recent demonstration of dominant mutations of ARHGAP31 in AOS, establish Cdc42 and Rac1 as key molecules in the pathogenesis of AOS and suggest that other regulators of these Rho GTPase proteins might be good candidates in the quest to define the genetic spectrum of this genetically heterogeneous condition.

  15. [Actin cytoskeleton organization and spreading of bone marrow stromal cells and cartilage cells during their combined and independent cultivation on different extracellular matrix proteins].

    PubMed

    Sakhenberg, E I; Nikolaenko, N S; Pinaev, G P

    2014-01-01

    To clarify the mutual influence of bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) and cartilage cells we studied the organization of their actin cytoskeleton and cell spreading on different extracellular matrix proteins--laminin 2/4, collagen type I or fibronectin. It has been shown that the most pronounced difference in morphological characteristics of the cells such as their form, size and actin cytoskeleton organization occur in the case of interaction with fibronectin. So, after separate brief incubation of both cell types on fibronectin, the average area of BMSCs spreading was about 4 times greater than the area of the cartilage cell spreading. However, in the co-culture of these cells in a ratio of 1:1, the average jointed spreading area on fibronctin was nearly 1.5 times less than the theoretically calculated. To determine the nature of exposure of the cells to each other we have studied spreading of these cells in the media conditioned by another cell type. We have found that the area of BMSC's spreading in the medium conditioned by cartilage cells is markedly smaller than the area of spreading of the same cells in the control medium. These data suggest that the cartilage cells secrete factors that reduce BMSC's spreading.

  16. Recessive Mutations in DOCK6, Encoding the Guanidine Nucleotide Exchange Factor DOCK6, Lead to Abnormal Actin Cytoskeleton Organization and Adams-Oliver Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Shaheen, Ranad; Faqeih, Eissa; Sunker, Asma; Morsy, Heba; Al-Sheddi, Tarfa; Shamseldin, Hanan E.; Adly, Nouran; Hashem, Mais; Alkuraya., Fowzan S.

    2011-01-01

    Adams-Oliver syndrome (AOS) is defined by the combination of aplasia cutis congenita (ACC) and terminal transverse limb defects (TTLD). It is usually inherited as an autosomal-dominant trait, but autosomal-recessive inheritance has also been documented. In an individual with autosomal-recessive AOS, we combined autozygome analysis with exome sequencing to identify a homozygous truncating mutation in dedicator of cytokinesis 6 gene (DOCK6) which encodes an atypical guanidine exchange factor (GEF) known to activate two members of the Rho GTPase family: Cdc42 and Rac1. Another homozygous truncating mutation was identified upon targeted sequencing of DOCK6 in an unrelated individual with AOS. Consistent with the established role of Cdc42 and Rac1 in the organization of the actin cytoskeleton, we demonstrate a cellular phenotype typical of a defective actin cytoskeleton in patient cells. These findings, combined with a Dock6 expression profile that is consistent with an AOS phenotype as well as the very recent demonstration of dominant mutations of ARHGAP31 in AOS, establish Cdc42 and Rac1 as key molecules in the pathogenesis of AOS and suggest that other regulators of these Rho GTPase proteins might be good candidates in the quest to define the genetic spectrum of this genetically heterogeneous condition. PMID:21820096

  17. Regulation of cell shape, wing hair initiation and the actin cytoskeleton by Trc/Fry and Wts/Mats complexes.

    PubMed

    Fang, Xiaolan; Adler, Paul N

    2010-05-15

    The two NDR kinase family genes in Drosophila are tricornered (trc) and warts (wts). Previous studies on trc have focused on its role in the morphogenesis of extensions of epidermal cells and in dendrite branching and tiling. Studies on wts have focused on its roles as a tumor suppressor, in controlling photoreceptor type and in the maintenance of dendrites. Here we examine and compare the function of these genes in wing cells prior to their terminal differentiation. Mutations in these genes lead to changes in cell shape, cellular levels of F-actin, the timing of differentiation, and the expression of multiple wing hairs and DE-Cadherin. We showed that the effects of wts on all of these processes appear to be mediated by its regulation of the Yorkie transcription factor. We also provide evidence that trc regulates the expression of DE-cadherin and mwh. In addition, we showed that the effects on cell shape and the timing of differentiation appear to be not linked to changes in relative growth rate of cells compared to their neighbors.

  18. Regulation of cell shape, wing hair initiation and the actin cytoskeleton by Trc/Fry and Wts/Mats complexes

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Xiaolan; Adler, Paul N.

    2010-01-01

    The two NDR kinase family genes in Drosophila are tricornered (trc) and warts (wts). Previous studies on trc have focused on its role in the morphogenesis of extensions of epidermal cells and in dendrite branching and tiling. Studies on wts have focused on its roles as a tumor suppressor, in controlling photoreceptor type and in the maintenance of dendrites. Here we examine and compare the function of these genes in wing cells prior to their terminal differentiation. Mutations in these genes lead to changes in cell shape, cellular levels of F-actin, the timing of differentiation, and the expression of multiple wing hairs and DE-Cadherin. We showed that the effects of wts on all of these processes appear to be mediated by its regulation of the Yorkie transcription factor. We also provide evidence that trc regulates the expression of DE-cadherin and mwh. In addition, we showed that the effects on cell shape and the timing of differentiation appear to not be linked to changes in relative growth rate of cells compared to their neighbors. PMID:20211163

  19. SelR/MsrB Reverses Mical-mediated Oxidation of Actin to Regulate F-actin Dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Hung, Ruei-Jiun; Spaeth, Christopher S.; Yesilyurt, Hunkar Gizem; Terman, Jonathan R.

    2014-01-01

    Actin's polymerization properties are dramatically altered by oxidation of its conserved methionine (Met)-44 residue. Mediating this effect is a specific oxidation-reduction (Redox) enzyme, Mical, that works with Semaphorin repulsive guidance cues and selectively oxidizes Met-44. We now find that this actin regulatory process is reversible. Employing a genetic approach, we identified a specific methionine sulfoxide reductase enzyme SelR that opposes Mical Redox activity and Semaphorin/Plexin repulsion to direct multiple actin-dependent cellular behaviors in vivo. SelR specifically catalyzes the reduction of the R-isomer of methionine sulfoxide (methionine-R-sulfoxide) to methionine, and we found that SelR directly reduced Mical-oxidized actin, restoring its normal polymerization properties. These results indicate that Mical oxidizes actin stereo-specifically to generate actin Met-44-R-sulfoxide (actinMet(R)O-44) – and they also implicate the interconversion of specific Met/Met(R)O residues as a precise means to modulate protein function. Our results therefore uncover a specific reversible Redox actin regulatory system that controls cell and developmental biology. PMID:24212093

  20. Mutations of the Mouse ELMO Domain Containing 1 Gene (Elmod1) Link Small GTPase Signaling to Actin Cytoskeleton Dynamics in Hair Cell Stereocilia

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Kenneth R.; Longo-Guess, Chantal M.; Gagnon, Leona H.

    2012-01-01

    Stereocilia, the modified microvilli projecting from the apical surfaces of the sensory hair cells of the inner ear, are essential to the mechanoelectrical transduction process underlying hearing and balance. The actin-filled stereocilia on each hair cell are tethered together by fibrous links to form a highly patterned hair bundle. Although many structural components of hair bundles have been identified, little is known about the signaling mechanisms that regulate their development, morphology, and maintenance. Here, we describe two naturally occurring, allelic mutations that result in hearing and balance deficits in mice, named roundabout (rda) and roundabout-2J (rda2J). Positional cloning identified both as mutations of the mouse ELMO domain containing 1 gene (Elmod1), a poorly characterized gene with no previously reported mutant phenotypes. The rda mutation is a 138 kb deletion that includes exons 1–5 of Elmod1, and rda2J is an intragenic duplication of exons 3–8 of Elmod1. The deafness associated with these mutations is caused by cochlear hair cell dysfunction, as indicated by conspicuous elongations and fusions of inner hair cell stereocilia and progressive degeneration of outer hair cell stereocilia. Mammalian ELMO-family proteins are known to be involved in complexes that activate small GTPases to regulate the actin cytoskeleton during phagocytosis and cell migration. ELMOD1 and ELMOD2 recently were shown to function as GTPase-activating proteins (GAPs) for the Arf family of small G proteins. Our finding connecting ELMOD1 deficiencies with stereocilia dysmorphologies thus establishes a link between the Ras superfamily of small regulatory GTPases and the actin cytoskeleton dynamics of hair cell stereocilia. PMID:22558334

  1. AT14A mediates the cell wall-plasma membrane-cytoskeleton continuum in Arabidopsis thaliana cells.

    PubMed

    Lü, Bing; Wang, Juan; Zhang, Yu; Wang, Hongcheng; Liang, Jiansheng; Zhang, Jianhua

    2012-06-01

    AT14A has a small domain that has sequence similarities to integrins from animals. Integrins serve as a transmembrane linker between the extracellular matrix and the cytoskeleton, which play critical roles in a variety of biological processes. Because the function of AT14A is unknown, Arabidopsis thaliana AT14A, which is a transmembrane receptor for cell adhesion molecules and a middle member of the cell wall-plasma membrane-cytoskeleton continuum in plants, has been described. AT14A, co-expressed with green fluorescent protein (GFP), was found to localize mainly to the plasma membrane. The mutant Arabidopsis at14a-1 cells exhibit various phenotypes with cell shape, cell cluster size, thickness, and cellulose content of cell wall, the adhesion between cells, and the adhesion of plasma membrane to cell wall varied by plasmolysis. Using direct staining of filamentous actin and indirect immunofluorescence staining of microtubules, cortical actin filaments and microtubules arrays were significantly altered in cells, either where AT14A was absent or over-expressed. It is concluded that AT14A may be a substantial middle member of the cell wall-plasma membrane-cytoskeleton continuum and play an important role in the continuum by regulating cell wall and cortical cytoskeleton organization. PMID:22456678

  2. Actin microfilament mediates osteoblast Cbfa1 responsiveness to BMP2 under simulated microgravity.

    PubMed

    Dai, Zhongquan; Wu, Feng; Chen, Jian; Xu, Hongjie; Wang, Honghui; Guo, Feima; Tan, Yingjun; Ding, Bai; Wang, Jinfu; Wan, Yumin; Li, Yinghui

    2013-01-01

    Microgravity decreases osteoblastic activity, induces actin microfilament disruption and inhibits the responsiveness of osteoblast to cytokines, but the mechanisms remains enigmatic. The F-actin cytoskeleton has previously been implicated in manifold changes of cell shape, function and signaling observed under microgravity. Here we investigate the involvement of microfilament in mediating the effects of microgravity and BMP2 induction on Cbfa1 activity. For this purpose we constructed a fluorescent reporter cell line (OSE-MG63) of Cbfa1 activity by stably transfecting MG63 cells with a reporter consisting of six tandem copies of OSE2 and a minimal mOG2 promoter upstream of enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP). The fluorescence intensity of OSE-MG63 showed responsiveness to bone-related cytokines (IGF-I, vitamin D3 and BMP2) and presented an accordant tendency with alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity. Using OSE-MG63 reporter fluorescence, we performed a semi-quantitative analysis of Cbfa1 activity after treatment with simulated microgravity, microfilament-disrupting agent (cytochalasin B, CB), microfilament-stabilizing agent (Jasplakinolide, JAS) or any combination thereof. In parallel, ALP activity, DNA binding activity of Cbfa1 to OSE2 (ChIP), F-actin structure (immunofluorescence) and EGFP mRNA expression (RT-qPCR) were analyzed. Simulated microgravity inhibited Cbfa1 activity, affected the responsiveness of Cbfa1 to cytokine BMP2, and caused a thinning and dispersed distribution of microfilament. Under normal gravity, CB significantly attenuated BMP2 induction to Cbfa1 activity as well as DNA binding activity of Cbfa1 to OSE2. The addition of JAS reversed the inhibitory effects of microgravity on the responsiveness of Cbfa1 to BMP2. Our study demonstrates that disrupting the microfilament organization by CB or simulated microgravity attenuates the responsiveness of Cbfa1 to BMP2. A stabilization of the microfilament organization by JAS reverses this

  3. Interactions between auxin transport and the actin cytoskeleton in developmental polarity of Fucus distichus embryos in response to light and gravity.

    PubMed

    Sun, Haiguo; Basu, Swati; Brady, Shari R; Luciano, Randy L; Muday, Gloria K

    2004-05-01

    Land plants orient their growth relative to light and gravity through complex mechanisms that require auxin redistribution. Embryos of brown algae use similar environmental stimuli to orient their developmental polarity. These studies of the brown algae Fucus distichus examined whether auxin and auxin transport are also required during polarization in early embryos and to orient growth in already developed tissues. These embryos polarize with the gravity vector in the absence of a light cue. The auxin, indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), and auxin efflux inhibitors, such as naphthylphthalamic acid (NPA), reduced environmental polarization in response to gravity and light vectors. Young rhizoids are negatively phototropic, and NPA also inhibits rhizoid phototropism. The effect of IAA and NPA on gravity and photopolarization is maximal within 2.5 to 4.5 h after fertilization (AF). Over the first 6 h AF, auxin transport is relatively constant, suggesting that developmentally controlled sensitivity to auxin determines the narrow window during which NPA and IAA reduce environmental polarization. Actin patches were formed during the first hour AF and began to photolocalize within 3 h, coinciding with the time of NPA and IAA action. Treatment with NPA reduced the polar localization of actin patches but not patch formation. Latrunculin B prevented environmental polarization in a time frame that overlaps the formation of actin patches and IAA and NPA action. Latrunculin B also altered auxin transport. Together, these results indicate a role for auxin in the orientation of developmental polarity and suggest interactions between the actin cytoskeleton and auxin transport in F. distichus embryos.

  4. Orchestration of microtubules and the actin cytoskeleton in trichome cell shape determination by a plant-unique kinesin

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Juan; Han, Libo; Feng, Zhidi; Wang, Guangda; Liu, Weiwei; Ma, Yinping; Yu, Yanjun; Kong, Zhaosheng

    2015-01-01

    Microtubules (MTs) and actin filaments (F-actin) function cooperatively to regulate plant cell morphogenesis. However, the mechanisms underlying the crosstalk between these two cytoskeletal systems, particularly in cell shape control, remain largely unknown. In this study, we show that introduction of the MyTH4-FERM tandem into KCBP (kinesin-like calmodulin-binding protein) during evolution conferred novel functions. The MyTH4 domain and the FERM domain in the N-terminal tail of KCBP physically bind to MTs and F-actin, respectively. During trichome morphogenesis, KCBP distributes in a specific cortical gradient and concentrates at the branching sites and the apexes of elongating branches, which lack MTs but have cortical F-actin. Further, live-cell imaging and genetic analyses revealed that KCBP acts as a hub integrating MTs and actin filaments to assemble the required cytoskeletal configuration for the unique, polarized diffuse growth pattern during trichome cell morphogenesis. Our findings provide significant insights into the mechanisms underlying cytoskeletal regulation of cell shape determination. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.09351.001 PMID:26287478

  5. Structure of the FMNL3 FH2/actin complex provides insight into formin-mediated actin nucleation and elongation

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Morgan E.; Heimsath, Ernest G.; Gauvin, Timothy J.; Higgs, Henry N.; Kull, F. Jon

    2012-01-01

    Summary Formins are actin assembly factors that act in a variety of actin-based processes. The conserved formin homology 2 (FH2) domain promotes filament nucleation and influences elongation via interaction with the barbed end. FMNL3 is a formin that induces assembly of filopodia but whose FH2 domain is a poor nucleator. The 3.4 Å structure of an FMNL3 FH2 dimer in complex with tetramethylrhodamine-actin uncovers details of formin-regulated actin elongation. We observe distinct FH2-actin binding regions; interactions in the knob and coiled-coil subdomains are necessary for actin binding while those in the lasso/post interface are important for the stepping mechanism. Biochemical and cellular experiments test the importance of individual residues for function. This structure provides details for FH2 mediated filament elongation via processive capping and supports a model in which C-terminal non-FH2 residues of FMNL3 are required to stabilize the filament nucleus. PMID:23222643

  6. Analysis of cytoskeleton dynamics and cell migration in drosophila ovaries using GFP-actin and E-cadherin-GFP fusion molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verkhusha, Vladyslav V.; Tsukita, Shoichiro; Oda, Hiroki

    1999-06-01

    Coordination of cell migration and adhesion is essential for movement of tissues during morphogenesis. During Drosophila oogenesis so called border cells (BCs) break from an anterior epithelium of egg chamber, acquire a mesenchymal-like morphology, and migrate posteriorly between nurse cells to oocyte. The confocal microscopic observation of BCs has revealed well-developed forepart lamellipodium stained with Drosophila E-cadherin (DE-cadherin), PS2 integrin, cytoplasmic myosin and F-actin. To investigate mechanism of BC migration in vivo we have constructed a DE-cadherin-GFP and a GFP-actin fusion proteins and induced their expression BCs utilizing the UAS/GAL4 system. The DE-cadherin-GFP signal as well as immunostaining of PS2 integrin visualized a track of migrating BCs providing an evidence that adhesive molecules are pulled out and left behind on the surface of nurse cells. Our data suggest that two distinct adhesive systems, DE-cadherins and PS2 integrins simultaneously mediate the migration of BCs. Release of adhesive contacts in the tail region is a rate- limited event in BC migration. The spatial-temporal sequence of actin-based events visualized by the GFP-actin suggest a treadmilling model for actin behavior in BC lamellipodium. BC migration can be considered as simultaneous reiterating processes of lamellipodium extension and adhesive attachment, cytoskeletal contraction, and rear detachment.

  7. Rac-mediated actin remodeling and myosin II are involved in KATP channel trafficking in pancreatic β-cells

    PubMed Central

    Han, Young-Eun; Lim, Ajin; Park, Sun-Hyun; Chang, Sunghoe; Lee, Suk-Ho; Ho, Won-Kyung

    2015-01-01

    AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a metabolic sensor activated during metabolic stress and it regulates various enzymes and cellular processes to maintain metabolic homeostasis. We previously reported that activation of AMPK by glucose deprivation (GD) and leptin increases KATP currents by increasing the surface levels of KATP channel proteins in pancreatic β-cells. Here, we show that the signaling mechanisms that mediate actin cytoskeleton remodeling are closely associated with AMPK-induced KATP channel trafficking. Using F-actin staining with Alexa 633-conjugated phalloidin, we observed that dense cortical actin filaments present in INS-1 cells cultured in 11 mM glucose were disrupted by GD or leptin treatment. These changes were blocked by inhibiting AMPK using compound C or siAMPK and mimicked by activating AMPK using AICAR, indicating that cytoskeletal remodeling induced by GD or leptin was mediated by AMPK signaling. AMPK activation led to the activation of Rac GTPase and the phosphorylation of myosin regulatory light chain (MRLC). AMPK-dependent actin remodeling induced by GD or leptin was abolished by the inhibition of Rac with a Rac inhibitor (NSC23766), siRac1 or siRac2, and by inhibition of myosin II with a myosin ATPase inhibitor (blebbistatin). Immunocytochemistry, surface biotinylation and electrophysiological analyses of KATP channel activity and membrane potentials revealed that AMPK-dependent KATP channel trafficking to the plasma membrane was also inhibited by NSC23766 or blebbistatin. Taken together, these results indicate that AMPK/Rac-dependent cytoskeletal remodeling associated with myosin II motor function promotes the translocation of KATP channels to the plasma membrane in pancreatic β-cells. PMID:26471000

  8. Rab11-FIP3 is a Rab11-binding protein that regulates breast cancer cell motility by modulating the actin cytoskeleton

    PubMed Central

    Jing, Jian; Tarbutton, Elizabeth; Wilson, Gayle; Prekeris, Rytis

    2009-01-01

    Cell adhesion and motility are very dynamic processes that require the temporal and spatial coordination of many cellular structures. ADP-ribosylation factor 6 (Arf6) has emerged as master regulator of endocytic membrane traffic and cytoskeletal dynamics during cell movement. Recently, a novel Arf6-binding protein known as FIP3/arfophilin/eferin has been identified. In addition to Arf6, FIP3 also interacts with Rab11, a small monomeric GTPase that regulates endocytic membrane transport. Both Arf6 and Rab11 GTPases have been implicated in regulation of cell motility. Here we test the role of FIP3 in breast carcinoma cell motility. First, we demonstrate that FIP3 is associated with recycling endosomes that are present at the leading edge of motile cells. Second, we show that FIP3 is required for the motility of MDA-MB-231 breast carcinoma cells. Third, we demonstrate that FIP3 regulates Rac1-dependent actin cytoskeleton dynamics and modulates the formation and ruffling of lamellipodia. Finally, we demonstrate that FIP3 regulates the localization of Arf6 at the plasma membrane of MDA-MB-231 cells. Based on our data we propose that FIP3 affects cell motility by regulating Arf6 localization to the plasma membrane of the leading edge, thus regulating polarized Rac1 activation and actin dynamics. PMID:19327867

  9. Structural Characterization and Computer-aided Optimization of a Small Molecule Inhibitor of Arp2/3 Complex, a Key Regulator of the Actin Cytoskeleton

    PubMed Central

    Baggett, Andrew W.; Cournia, Zoe; Han, Min Suk; Patargias, George; Glass, Adam C.; Liu, Shih-Yuan; Nolen, Brad J.

    2012-01-01

    CK-666 (1) is a recently discovered small molecule inhibitor of the Arp2/3 complex, a key actin cytoskeleton regulator with roles in bacterial pathogenesis and motility of cancer cells. While 1 is commercially available, the crystal structure of Arp2/3 (Actin-related protein 2/3) complex with 1 bound has not been reported, making its mechanism of action uncertain. Furthermore, its relatively low potency increases its potential for off target effects in vivo, complicating interpretation of its influence in cell biological studies and precluding its use in clinical applications. Here we report the crystal structure of 1 bound to Arp2/3 complex, which reveals that 1 binds between the Arp2 and Arp3 subunits to stabilize the inactive conformation of the complex. Based on the crystal structure, we used computational docking and free energy perturbation calculations of monosubstituted derivatives of 1 to guide optimization efforts. Biochemical assays of ten newly synthesized compounds led to the identification of compound 2, which exhibits a 3 fold increase in inhibitory activity in vitro. In addition, our computational analyses unveiled a surface groove at the interface of the Arp2 and Arp3 subunits that can be exploited for additional structure-based optimization. PMID:22623398

  10. Polycystin-1 regulates actin cytoskeleton organization and directional cell migration through a novel PC1-Pacsin 2-N-Wasp complex.

    PubMed

    Yao, Gang; Su, Xuefeng; Nguyen, Vy; Roberts, Kristina; Li, Xiaogang; Takakura, Ayumi; Plomann, Markus; Zhou, Jing

    2014-05-15

    How epithelial cells form a tubule with defined length and lumen diameter remains a fundamental question in cell and developmental biology. Loss of control of tubule lumen size in multiple organs including the kidney, liver and pancreas features polycystic kidney disease (PKD). To gain insights into autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease, we performed yeast two-hybrid screens using the C-terminus of polycystin-1 (PC1) as bait. Here, we report that PC1 interacts with Pacsin 2, a cytoplasmic phosphoprotein that has been implicated in cytoskeletal organization, vesicle trafficking and more recently in cell intercalation during gastrulation. PC1 binds to a 107-residue fragment containing the α3 helix of the F-BAR domain of Pacsin 2 via a coiled-coil domain in its C-tail. PC1 and Pacsin 2 co-localize on the lamellipodia of migrating kidney epithelial cells. PC1 and Pacsin 2-deficient kidney epithelial cells migrate at a slower speed with reduced directional persistency. We further demonstrate that PC1, Pacsin 2 and N-Wasp are in the same protein complex, and both PC1 and Pacsin 2 are required for N-Wasp/Arp2/3-dependent actin remodeling. We propose that PC1 modulates actin cytoskeleton rearrangements and directional cell migration through the Pacsin 2/N-Wasp/Arp2/3 complex, which consequently contributes to the establishment and maintenance of the sophisticated tubular architecture. Disruption of this complex contributes to cyst formation in PKD. PMID:24385601

  11. Amyloid precursor-like protein 2 (APLP2) affects the actin cytoskeleton and increases pancreatic cancer growth and metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Sheinin, Yuri; Naslavsky, Naava; Pan, Zenggang; Smith, Brittney L.; Peters, Haley L.; Radhakrishnan, Prakash; McKenna, Nicole R.; Giridharan, Sai Srinivas Panapakkam; Haridas, Dhanya; Kaur, Sukhwinder; Hollingsworth, Michael A.; MacDonald, Richard G.; Meza, Jane L.; Caplan, Steve; Batra, Surinder K.; Solheim, Joyce C.

    2015-01-01

    Amyloid precursor-like protein 2 (APLP2) is aberrantly expressed in pancreatic cancer. Here we showed that APLP2 is increased in pancreatic cancer metastases, particularly in metastatic lesions found in the diaphragm and intestine. Examination of matched human primary tumor-liver metastasis pairs showed that 38.1% of the patients had positive APLP2 expression in both the primary tumor and the corresponding liver metastasis. Stable knock-down of APLP2 expression (with inducible shRNA) in pancreatic cancer cells reduced the ability of these cells to migrate and invade. Loss of APLP2 decreased cortical actin and increased intracellular actin filaments in pancreatic cancer cells. Down-regulation of APLP2 decreased the weight and metastasis of orthotopically transplanted pancreatic tumors in nude mice. PMID:25576918

  12. Actin nucleators in the nucleus: an emerging theme.

    PubMed

    Weston, Louise; Coutts, Amanda S; La Thangue, Nicholas B

    2012-08-01

    Actin is an integral component of the cytoskeleton, forming a plethora of macromolecular structures that mediate various cellular functions. The formation of such structures relies on the ability of actin monomers to associate into polymers, and this process is regulated by actin nucleation factors. These factors use monomeric actin pools at specific cellular locations, thereby permitting rapid actin filament formation when required. It has now been established that actin is also present in the nucleus, where it is implicated in chromatin remodelling and the regulation of eukaryotic gene transcription. Notably, the presence of typical actin filaments in the nucleus has not been demonstrated directly. However, studies in recent years have provided evidence for the nuclear localisation of actin nucleation factors that promote cytoplasmic actin polymerisation. Their localisation to the nucleus suggests that these proteins mediate collaboration between the cytoskeleton and the nucleus, which might be dependent on their ability to promote actin polymerisation. The nature of this cooperation remains enigmatic and it will be important to elucidate the physiological relevance of the link between cytoskeletal actin networks and nuclear events. This Commentary explores the current evidence for the nuclear roles of actin nucleation factors. Furthermore, the implication of actin-associated proteins in relaying exogenous signals to the nucleus, particularly in response to cellular stress, will be considered.

  13. Hedgehog signaling regulates E-cadherin expression for the maintenance of the actin cytoskeleton and tight junctions.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Chang; Ogle, Sally A; Schumacher, Michael A; Schilling, Neal; Tokhunts, Robert A; Orr-Asman, Melissa A; Miller, Marian L; Robbins, David J; Hollande, Frederic; Zavros, Yana

    2010-12-01

    In the stomach, strictly regulated cell adherens junctions are crucial in determining epithelial cell differentiation. Sonic Hedgehog (Shh) regulates epithelial cell differentiation in the adult stomach. We sought to identify whether Shh plays a role in regulating adherens junction protein E-cadherin as a mechanism for epithelial cell differentiation. Mouse nontumorigenic gastric epithelial (IMGE-5) cells treated with Hedgehog signaling inhibitor cyclopamine and anti-Shh 5E1 antibody or transduced with short hairpin RNA against Skinny Hedgehog (IMGE-5(Ski)) were cultured. A mouse model expressing a parietal cell-specific deletion of Shh (HKCre/Shh(KO)) was used to identify further changes in adherens and tight junctions. Inhibition of Hedgehog signaling in IMGE-5 cells caused loss of E-cadherin expression accompanied by disruption of F-actin cortical expression and relocalization of zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1). Loss of E-cadherin was also associated with increased proliferation in IMGE-5(Ski) cells and increased expression of the mucous neck cell lineage marker MUC6. Compared with membrane-expressed E-cadherin and ZO-1 protein in controls, dissociation of E-cadherin/β-catenin and ZO-1/occludin protein complexes was observed in HKCre/Shh(KO) mice. In conclusion, we demonstrate that Hedgehog signaling regulates E-cadherin expression that is required for the maintenance of F-actin cortical expression and stability of tight junction protein ZO-1.

  14. Phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate 5-kinase α and Vav1 mutual cooperation in CD28-mediated actin remodeling and signaling functions.

    PubMed

    Muscolini, Michela; Camperio, Cristina; Porciello, Nicla; Caristi, Silvana; Capuano, Cristina; Viola, Antonella; Galandrini, Ricciarda; Tuosto, Loretta

    2015-02-01

    Phosphatidylinositol 4,5-biphosphate (PIP2) is a cell membrane phosphoinositide crucial for cell signaling and activation. Indeed, PIP2 is a pivotal source for second messenger generation and controlling the activity of several proteins regulating cytoskeleton reorganization. Despite its critical role in T cell activation, the molecular mechanisms regulating PIP2 turnover remain largely unknown. In human primary CD4(+) T lymphocytes, we have recently demonstrated that CD28 costimulatory receptor is crucial for regulating PIP2 turnover by allowing the recruitment and activation of the lipid kinase phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate 5-kinase (PIP5Kα). We also identified PIP5Kα as a key modulator of CD28 costimulatory signals leading to the efficient T cell activation. In this study, we extend these data by demonstrating that PIP5Kα recruitment and activation is essential for CD28-mediated cytoskeleton rearrangement necessary for organizing a complete signaling compartment leading to downstream signaling functions. We also identified Vav1 as the linker molecule that couples the C-terminal proline-rich motif of CD28 to the recruitment and activation of PIP5Kα, which in turn cooperates with Vav1 in regulating actin polymerization and CD28 signaling functions.

  15. Tau co-organizes dynamic microtubule and actin networks

    PubMed Central

    Elie, Auréliane; Prezel, Elea; Guérin, Christophe; Denarier, Eric; Ramirez-Rios, Sacnicte; Serre, Laurence; Andrieux, Annie; Fourest-Lieuvin, Anne; Blanchoin, Laurent; Arnal, Isabelle

    2015-01-01

    The crosstalk between microtubules and actin is essential for cellular functions. However, mechanisms underlying the microtubule-actin organization by cross-linkers remain largely unexplored. Here, we report that tau, a neuronal microtubule-associated protein, binds to microtubules and actin simultaneously, promoting in vitro co-organization and coupled growth of both networks. By developing an original assay to visualize concomitant microtubule and actin assembly, we show that tau can induce guided polymerization of actin filaments along microtubule tracks and growth of single microtubules along actin filament bundles. Importantly, tau mediates microtubule-actin co-alignment without changing polymer growth properties. Mutagenesis studies further reveal that at least two of the four tau repeated motifs, primarily identified as tubulin-binding sites, are required to connect microtubules and actin. Tau thus represents a molecular linker between microtubule and actin networks, enabling a coordination of the two cytoskeletons that might be essential in various neuronal contexts. PMID:25944224

  16. Fibroblast-mediated contraction in actinically exposed and actinically protected aging skin

    SciTech Connect

    Marks, M.W.; Morykwas, M.J.; Wheatley, M.J. )

    1990-08-01

    The changes in skin morphology over time are a consequence of both chronologic aging and the accumulation of environmental exposure. Through observation, we know that actinic radiation intensifies the apparent aging of skin. We have investigated the effects of aging and actinic radiation on the ability of fibroblasts to contract collagen-fibroblast lattices. Preauricular and postauricular skin samples were obtained from eight patients aged 49 to 74 undergoing rhytidectomy. The samples were kept separate, and the fibroblasts were grown in culture. Lattices constructed with preauricular fibroblasts consistently contracted more than lattices containing postauricular fibroblasts. The difference in amount of contraction in 7 days between sites was greatest for the younger patients and decreased linearly as donor age increased (r = -0.96). This difference may be due to preauricular fibroblasts losing their ability to contract a lattice as aging skin is exposed to more actinic radiation.

  17. MicroRNA-584 and the Protein Phosphatase and Actin Regulator 1 (PHACTR1), a New Signaling Route through Which Transforming Growth Factor-β Mediates the Migration and Actin Dynamics of Breast Cancer Cells*

    PubMed Central

    Fils-Aimé, Nadège; Dai, Meiou; Guo, Jimin; El-Mousawi, Mayada; Kahramangil, Bora; Neel, Jean-Charles; Lebrun, Jean-Jacques

    2013-01-01

    TGF-β plays an important role in breast cancer progression as a prometastatic factor, notably through enhancement of cell migration. It is becoming clear that microRNAs, a new class of small regulatory molecules, also play crucial roles in mediating tumor formation and progression. We found TGF-β to down-regulate the expression of the microRNA miR-584 in breast cancer cells. Furthermore, we identified PHACTR1, an actin-binding protein, to be positively regulated by TGF-β in a miR-584-dependent manner. Moreover, we found TGF-β-mediated down-regulation of miR-584 and increased expression of PHACTR1 to be required for TGF-β-induced cell migration of breast cancer cells. Indeed, both overexpression of miR-584 and knockdown of PHACTR1 resulted in a drastic reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton and reduced TGF-β-induced cell migration. Our data highlight a novel signaling route whereby TGF-β silences the expression of miR-584, resulting in enhanced PHACTR1 expression, and further leading to actin rearrangement and breast cancer cell migration. PMID:23479725

  18. Plectin reinforces vascular integrity by mediating crosstalk between the vimentin and the actin networks

    PubMed Central

    Osmanagic-Myers, Selma; Rus, Stefanie; Wolfram, Michael; Brunner, Daniela; Goldmann, Wolfgang H.; Bonakdar, Navid; Fischer, Irmgard; Reipert, Siegfried; Zuzuarregui, Aurora; Walko, Gernot; Wiche, Gerhard

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Mutations in the cytoskeletal linker protein plectin result in multisystemic diseases affecting skin and muscle with indications of additional vascular system involvement. To study the mechanisms underlying vascular disorders, we established plectin-deficient endothelial cell and mouse models. We show that apart from perturbing the vimentin cytoskeleton of endothelial cells, plectin deficiency leads to severe distortions of adherens junctions (AJs), as well as tight junctions, accompanied by an upregulation of actin stress fibres and increased cellular contractility. Plectin-deficient endothelial cell layers were more leaky and showed reduced mechanical resilience in fluid-shear stress and mechanical stretch experiments. We suggest that the distorted AJs and upregulated actin stress fibres in plectin-deficient cells are rooted in perturbations of the vimentin cytoskeleton, as similar phenotypes could be mimicked in wild-type cells by disruption of vimentin filaments. In vivo studies in endothelium-restricted conditional plectin-knockout mice revealed significant distortions of AJs in stress-prone aortic arch regions and increased pulmonary vascular leakage. Our study opens a new perspective on cytoskeleton-controlled vascular permeability, where a plectin-organized vimentin scaffold keeps actomyosin contractility ‘in-check’ and maintains AJ homeostasis. PMID:26519478

  19. Regulation of PGE(2) and PGI(2) release from human umbilical vein endothelial cells by actin cytoskeleton

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sawyer, S. J.; Norvell, S. M.; Ponik, S. M.; Pavalko, F. M.

    2001-01-01

    Disruption of microfilaments in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) with cytochalasin D (cytD) or latrunculin A (latA) resulted in a 3.3- to 5.7-fold increase in total synthesis of prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) and a 3.4- to 6.5-fold increase in prostacyclin (PGI(2)) compared with control cells. Disruption of the microtubule network with nocodazole or colchicine increased synthesis of PGE(2) 1.7- to 1.9-fold and PGI(2) 1.9- to 2.0-fold compared with control cells. Interestingly, however, increased release of PGE(2) and PGI(2) from HUVEC into the media occurred only when microfilaments were disrupted. CytD treatment resulted in 6.7-fold more PGE(2) and 3.8-fold more PGI(2) released from HUVEC compared with control cells; latA treatment resulted in 17.7-fold more PGE(2) and 11.2-fold more PGI(2) released compared with control cells. Both increased synthesis and release of prostaglandins in response to all drug treatments were completely inhibited by NS-398, a specific inhibitor of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2). Disruption of either microfilaments using cytD or latA or of microtubules using nocodazole or colchicine resulted in a significant increase in COX-2 protein levels, suggesting that the increased synthesis of prostaglandins in response to drug treatments may result from increased activity of COX-2. These results, together with studies demonstrating a vasoprotective role for prostaglandins, suggest that the cytoskeleton plays an important role in maintenance of endothelial barrier function by regulating prostaglandin synthesis and release from HUVEC.

  20. Methyl-β-Cyclodextrin Impairs the Monocyte-Adhering Ability of Endothelial Cells by Down-Regulating Adhesion Molecules and Caveolae and Reorganizing the Actin Cytoskeleton.

    PubMed

    Ao, Meiying; Wu, Li; Zhou, Xing; Chen, Yong

    2016-01-01

    Due to its powerful ability to deplete cholesterol from the plasma membrane of cells, methyl-β-cyclodextrin (MβCD) has been widely used as a putative research tool in cell biology. Recently, recruiting MβCD as an effective drug (e.g., antitumor drugs) has been developed. However, it remains unclear whether MβCD, when it enters the blood circulation as a drug, influences the functions of the endothelium, e.g., the adhesion of leukocytes to the endothelium. In this study, we found that MβCD can impair the adhesion of monocytes to the monolayer of endothelial cells by lowering the cell-surface adhesive force and expression of adhesion molecules and caveolae-related molecules on/in endothelial cells, and reorganizing the actin cytoskeleton of endothelial cells. The data imply that MβCD, when recruited as a drug, potentially helps to inhibit inflammation or initiation/progression of atherosclerosis since its important early step is the adhesion of circulating leukocytes (e.g., monocytes) to the endothelium. PMID:27251506

  1. Mutations in the Saccharomyces Cerevisiae Type 2a Protein Phosphatase Catalytic Subunit Reveal Roles in Cell Wall Integrity, Actin Cytoskeleton Organization and Mitosis

    PubMed Central

    Evans, DRH.; Stark, MJR.

    1997-01-01

    Temperature-sensitive mutations were generated in the Saccharomyces cerevisiae PPH22 gene that, together with its homologue PPH21, encode the catalytic subunit of type 2A protein phosphatase (PP2A). At the restrictive temperature (37°), cells dependent solely on pph22(ts) alleles for PP2A function displayed a rapid arrest of proliferation. Ts(-) pph22 mutant cells underwent lysis at 37°, showing an accompanying viability loss that was suppressed by inclusion of 1 M sorbitol in the growth medium. Ts(-) pph22 mutant cells also displayed defects in bud morphogenesis and polarization of the cortical actin cytoskeleton at 37°. PP2A is therefore required for maintenance of cell integrity and polarized growth. On transfer from 24° to 37°, Ts(-) pph22 mutant cells accumulated a 2N DNA content indicating a cell cycle block before completion of mitosis. However, during prolonged incubation at 37°, many Ts(-) pph22 mutant cells progressed through an aberrant nuclear division and accumulated multiple nuclei. Ts(-) pph22 mutant cells also accumulated aberrant microtubule structures at 37°, while under semi-permissive conditions they were sensitive to the microtubule-destabilizing agent benomyl, suggesting that PP2A is required for normal microtubule function. Remarkably, the multiple defects of Ts(-) pph22 mutant cells were suppressed by a viable allele (SSD1-v1) of the polymorphic SSD1 gene. PMID:9071579

  2. Frutalin, a galactose-binding lectin, induces chemotaxis and rearrangement of actin cytoskeleton in human neutrophils: involvement of tyrosine kinase and phosphoinositide 3-kinase.

    PubMed

    Brando-Lima, Aline C; Saldanha-Gama, Roberta F; Henriques, Maria das Graças M O; Monteiro-Moreira, Ana C O; Moreira, Renato A; Barja-Fidalgo, Christina

    2005-10-15

    Several lectin-like molecules have been shown as potent activators of leukocytes. Galactose-binding lectins are of special interest since they could interact with several endogenous molecules involved in the innate and specific immune responses. The effects of Frutalin (FTL), an alpha-D-galactose (Gal)-binding plant lectin, on the modulation of neutrophil (PMN) functions were investigated. FTL induced a dose-dependent PMN migration in mice pleural cavity. Moreover, FTL was also a potent direct chemotactic for human PMN, in vitro, and triggered oxidative burst in these cells. These effects were accompanied by a rearrangement of the actin cytoskeleton dynamic, activation of tyrosine kinase (TK) pathways, increase in focal adhesion kinase (FAK) phosphorylation, and its subsequent association to phosphoinositide3-kinase (PI3K). All those effects were inhibited in the presence of Gal, suggesting specific carbohydrate recognition for FTL effects. The activations of TK and PI3K pathways are essential events for FTL-induced chemotaxis, since inhibitors of these pathways, genistein and LY294002, inhibited neutrophil migration in vitro. The data indicate that sugar-protein interactions between a soluble lectin and galacto-components on neutrophil surface trigger the TK pathway, inducing FAK and PI3K activation, interfering with cell motility and oxidative response.

  3. Plasma membrane calcium pump activity is affected by the membrane protein concentration. Evidence for the involvement of the actin cytoskeleton

    PubMed Central

    Vanagas, Laura; Rossi, Rolando C.; Caride, Ariel J.; Filoteo, Adelaida G.; Strehler, Emanuel E.; Rossi, Juan Pablo F.C.

    2007-01-01

    Plasma membrane calcium pumps (PMCAs) are integral membrane proteins that actively expel Ca2+ from the cell. Specific Ca2+-ATPase activity of erythrocyte membranes increased steeply up to 1.5–5 times when the membrane protein concentration decreased from 50 μg/ml to 1 μg/ml. The activation by dilution was also observed for ATP-dependent Ca2+ uptake into vesicles from Sf9 over-expressing the PMCA 4b isoform, confirming that it is a property of the PMCA. Dilution of the protein did not modify the activation by ATP, Ca2+ or Ca2+-calmodulin. Treatment with non-ionic detergents did not abolish the dilution effect, suggesting that it was not due to resealing of the membrane vesicles. Pre-incubation of erythrocyte membranes with Cytochalasin D under conditions that promote actin polymerization abolished the dilution effect. Highly-purified, micellar PMCA showed no dilution effect and was not affected by Cytochalasin D. Taken together, these results suggest that the concentration-dependent behavior of the PMCA activity was due to interactions with cytoskeletal proteins. The dilution effect was also observed with different PMCA isoforms, indicating that this is a general phenomenon for all PMCAs. PMID:17481573

  4. Lifetime of major histocompatibility complex class-I membrane clusters is controlled by the actin cytoskeleton.

    PubMed

    Lavi, Yael; Gov, Nir; Edidin, Michael; Gheber, Levi A

    2012-04-01

    Lateral heterogeneity of cell membranes has been demonstrated in numerous studies showing anomalous diffusion of membrane proteins; it has been explained by models and experiments suggesting dynamic barriers to free diffusion, that temporarily confine membrane proteins into microscopic patches. This picture, however, comes short of explaining a steady-state patchy distribution of proteins, in face of the transient opening of the barriers. In our previous work we directly imaged persistent clusters of MHC-I, a type I transmembrane protein, and proposed a model of a dynamic equilibrium between proteins newly delivered to the cell surface by vesicle traffic, temporary confinement by dynamic barriers to lateral diffusion, and dispersion of the clusters by diffusion over the dynamic barriers. Our model predicted that the clusters are dynamic, appearing when an exocytic vesicle fuses with the plasma membrane and dispersing with a typical lifetime that depends on lateral diffusion and the dynamics of barriers. In a subsequent work, we showed this to be the case. Here we test another prediction of the model, and show that changing the stability of actin barriers to lateral diffusion changes cluster lifetimes. We also develop a model for the distribution of cluster lifetimes, consistent with the function of barriers to lateral diffusion in maintaining MHC-I clusters.

  5. Bistability in the Rac1, PAK, and RhoA Signaling Network Drives Actin Cytoskeleton Dynamics and Cell Motility Switches

    PubMed Central

    Byrne, Kate M.; Monsefi, Naser; Dawson, John C.; Degasperi, Andrea; Bukowski-Wills, Jimi-Carlo; Volinsky, Natalia; Dobrzyński, Maciej; Birtwistle, Marc R.; Tsyganov, Mikhail A.; Kiyatkin, Anatoly; Kida, Katarzyna; Finch, Andrew J.; Carragher, Neil O.; Kolch, Walter; Nguyen, Lan K.; von Kriegsheim, Alex; Kholodenko, Boris N.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Dynamic interactions between RhoA and Rac1, members of the Rho small GTPase family, play a vital role in the control of cell migration. Using predictive mathematical modeling, mass spectrometry-based quantitation of network components, and experimental validation in MDA-MB-231 mesenchymal breast cancer cells, we show that a network containing Rac1, RhoA, and PAK family kinases can produce bistable, switch-like responses to a graded PAK inhibition. Using a small chemical inhibitor of PAK, we demonstrate that cellular RhoA and Rac1 activation levels respond in a history-dependent, bistable manner to PAK inhibition. Consequently, we show that downstream signaling, actin dynamics, and cell migration also behave in a bistable fashion, displaying switches and hysteresis in response to PAK inhibition. Our results demonstrate that PAK is a critical component in the Rac1-RhoA inhibitory crosstalk that governs bistable GTPase activity, cell morphology, and cell migration switches. PMID:27136688

  6. Identification of a new actin binding surface on vinculin that mediates mechanical cell and focal adhesion properties

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Peter M.; Tolbert, Caitlin E.; Shen, Kai; Kota, Pradeep; Palmer, Sean M.; Plevock, Karen M.; Orlova, Albina; Galkin, Vitold E.; Burridge, Keith; Egelman, Edward H.; Dokholyan, Nikolay V.; Superfine, Richard; Campbell, Sharon L.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Vinculin, a cytoskeletal scaffold protein essential for embryogenesis and cardiovascular function, localizes to focal adhesions and adherens junctions, connecting cell surface receptors to the actin cytoskeleton. While vinculin interacts with many adhesion proteins, its interaction with filamentous actin regulates cell morphology, motility, and mechanotransduction. Disruption of this interaction lowers cell traction forces and enhances actin flow rates. Although a model for the vinculin:actin complex exists, we recently identified actin-binding deficient mutants of vinculin outside sites predicted to bind actin, and developed an alternative model to better define this novel actin-binding surface, using negative-stain EM, discrete molecular dynamics, and mutagenesis. Actin-binding deficient vinculin variants expressed in vinculin knockout fibroblasts fail to rescue cell-spreading defects and reduce cellular response to external force. These findings highlight the importance of this new actin-binding surface and provide the molecular basis for elucidating additional roles of this interaction, including actin-induced conformational changes which promote actin bundling. PMID:24685146

  7. Formin-mediated actin polymerization promotes Salmonella invasion.

    PubMed

    Truong, Dorothy; Brabant, Danielle; Bashkurov, Mikhail; Wan, Leo C K; Braun, Virginie; Heo, Won Do; Meyer, Tobias; Pelletier, Laurence; Copeland, John; Brumell, John H

    2013-12-01

    Salmonella invade host cells using Type 3 secreted effectors, which modulate host cellular targets to promote actin rearrangements at the cell surface that drive bacterial uptake. The Arp2/3 complex contributes to Salmonella invasion but is not essential, indicating other actin regulatory factors are involved. Here, we show a novel role for FHOD1, a formin family member, in Salmonella invasion. FHOD1 and Arp2/3 occupy distinct microdomains at the invasion site and control distinct aspects of membrane protrusion formation. FHOD1 is phosphorylated during infection and this modification is required for promoting bacterial uptake by host cells. ROCK II, but not ROCK I, is recruited to the invasion site and is required for FHOD1 phosphorylation and for Salmonella invasion. Together, our studies revealan important phospho-dependent FHOD1 actin polymerization pathway in Salmonella invasion.

  8. Myosin 1E coordinates actin assembly and cargo trafficking during clathrin-mediated endocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Jackie; Grassart, Alexandre; Drubin, David G.

    2012-01-01

    Myosin 1E (Myo1E) is recruited to sites of clathrin-mediated endocytosis coincident with a burst of actin assembly. The recruitment dynamics and lifetime of Myo1E are similar to those of tagged actin polymerization regulatory proteins. Like inhibition of actin assembly, depletion of Myo1E causes reduced transferrin endocytosis and a significant delay in transferrin trafficking to perinuclear compartments, demonstrating an integral role for Myo1E in these actin-mediated steps. Mistargeting of GFP-Myo1E or its src-homology 3 domain to mitochondria results in appearance of WIP, WIRE, N-WASP, and actin filaments at the mitochondria, providing evidence for Myo1E's role in actin assembly regulation. These results suggest for mammalian cells, similar to budding yeast, interdependence in the recruitment of type I myosins, WIP/WIRE, and N-WASP to endocytic sites for Arp2/3 complex activation to assemble F-actin as endocytic vesicles are being formed. PMID:22675027

  9. Molecular mechanisms underlying the force-dependent regulation of actin-to-ECM linkage at the focal adhesions.

    PubMed

    Hirata, Hiroaki; Sokabe, Masahiro; Lim, Chwee Teck

    2014-01-01

    The linkage of the actin cytoskeleton to extracellular matrices (ECMs) at focal adhesions provides a physical path for cells to exert traction forces on substrates during cellular processes such as migration and morphogenesis. Mechanical strength of the actin-to-ECM linkage increases in response to forces loaded at this linkage. This is achieved by local accumulations of actin filaments, as well as linker proteins connecting actins to integrins, at force-bearing adhesion sites, which leads to an increase in the number of molecular bonds between the actin cytoskeleton- and ECM-bound integrins. Zyxin-dependent actin polymerization and filamin-mediated actin bundling are seemingly involved in the force-dependent actin accumulation. Each actin-integrin link is primarily mediated by the linker protein talin, which is strengthened by another linker protein vinculin connecting the actin filaments to talin in a force-dependent manner. This eliminates slippage between the actin cytoskeleton and talin (clutch mechanism), thus playing a crucial role in creating cell membrane protrusions mediated by actin polymerization. Finally, each integrin-ECM bond is also strengthened when a force is loaded on it, which ensures force transmission at focal adhesions, contributing to stable cell-substrate adhesion in cell migration. PMID:25081617

  10. Integrating focal adhesion dynamics, cytoskeleton remodeling, and actin motor activity for predicting cell migration on 3D curved surfaces of the extracellular matrix.

    PubMed

    Kim, Min-Cheol; Kim, Choong; Wood, Levi; Neal, Devin; Kamm, Roger D; Asada, H Harry

    2012-11-01

    An integrative cell migration model incorporating focal adhesion (FA) dynamics, cytoskeleton and nucleus remodeling and actin motor activity is developed for predicting cell migration behaviors on 3-dimensional curved surfaces, such as cylindrical lumens in the 3-D extracellular matrix (ECM). The work is motivated by 3-D microfluidic migration experiments suggesting that the migration speed and direction may vary depending on the cross sectional shape of the lumen along which the cell migrates. In this paper, the mechanical structure of the cell is modeled as double elastic membranes of cell and nucleus. The two elastic membranes are connected by stress fibers, which are extended from focal adhesions on the cell surface to the nuclear membrane. The cell deforms and gains traction as transmembrane integrins distributed over the outer cell membrane bind to ligands on the ECM, form focal adhesions, and activate stress fibers. Probabilities at which integrin ligand-receptor bonds are formed as well as ruptures are affected by the surface geometry, resulting in diverse migration behaviors that depend on the curvature of the surface. Monte Carlo simulations of the integrative model reveal that (a) the cell migration speed is dependent on the cross sectional area of the lumen with a maximum speed at a particular diameter or width, (b) as the lumen diameter increases, the cell tends to spread and migrate around the circumference of the lumen, while it moves in the longitudinal direction as the lumen diameter narrows, (c) once the cell moves in one direction, it tends to stay migrating in the same direction despite the stochastic nature of migration. The relationship between the cell migration speed and the lumen width agrees with microfluidic experimental data for cancer cell migration.

  11. Molecular mechanism of Ena/VASP-mediated actin-filament elongation.

    PubMed

    Breitsprecher, Dennis; Kiesewetter, Antje K; Linkner, Joern; Vinzenz, Marlene; Stradal, Theresia E B; Small, John Victor; Curth, Ute; Dickinson, Richard B; Faix, Jan

    2011-02-01

    Ena/VASP proteins are implicated in a variety of fundamental cellular processes including axon guidance and cell migration. In vitro, they enhance elongation of actin filaments, but at rates differing in nearly an order of magnitude according to species, raising questions about the molecular determinants of rate control. Chimeras from fast and slow elongating VASP proteins were generated and their ability to promote actin polymerization and to bind G-actin was assessed. By in vitro TIRF microscopy as well as thermodynamic and kinetic analyses, we show that the velocity of VASP-mediated filament elongation depends on G-actin recruitment by the WASP homology 2 motif. Comparison of the experimentally observed elongation rates with a quantitative mathematical model moreover revealed that Ena/VASP-mediated filament elongation displays a saturation dependence on the actin monomer concentration, implying that Ena/VASP proteins, independent of species, are fully saturated with actin in vivo and generally act as potent filament elongators. Moreover, our data showed that spontaneous addition of monomers does not occur during processive VASP-mediated filament elongation on surfaces, suggesting that most filament formation in cells is actively controlled.

  12. CPG2 Recruits Endophilin B2 to the Cytoskeleton for Activity-Dependent Endocytosis of Synaptic Glutamate Receptors.

    PubMed

    Loebrich, Sven; Benoit, Marc Robert; Konopka, Jaclyn Aleksandra; Cottrell, Jeffrey Richard; Gibson, Joanne; Nedivi, Elly

    2016-02-01

    Internalization of glutamate receptors at the postsynaptic membrane via clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME) is a key mechanism for regulating synaptic strength. A role for the F-actin cytoskeleton in CME is well established, and recently, PKA-dependent association of candidate plasticity gene 2 (CPG2) with the spine-cytoskeleton has been shown to mediate synaptic glutamate receptor internalization. Yet, how the endocytic machinery is physically coupled to the actin cytoskeleton to facilitate glutamate receptor internalization has not been demonstrated. Moreover, there has been no distinction of endocytic-machinery components that are specific to activity-dependent versus constitutive glutamate receptor internalization. Here, we show that CPG2, through a direct physical interaction, recruits endophilin B2 (EndoB2) to F-actin, thus anchoring the endocytic machinery to the spine cytoskeleton and facilitating glutamate receptor internalization. Regulation of CPG2 binding to the actin cytoskeleton by protein kinase A directly impacts recruitment of EndoB2 and clathrin. Specific disruption of EndoB2 or the CPG2-EndoB2 interaction impairs activity-dependent, but not constitutive, internalization of both NMDA- and AMPA-type glutamate receptors. These results demonstrate that, through direct interactions with F-actin and EndoB2, CPG2 physically bridges the spine cytoskeleton and the endocytic machinery, and this tripartite association is critical specifically for activity-dependent CME of synaptic glutamate receptors. PMID:26776730

  13. Fine-Tuning of the Actin Cytoskeleton and Cell Adhesion During Drosophila Development by the Unconventional Guanine Nucleotide Exchange Factors Myoblast City and Sponge.

    PubMed

    Biersmith, Bridget; Wang, Zong-Heng; Geisbrecht, Erika R

    2015-06-01

    The evolutionarily conserved Dock proteins function as unconventional guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs). Upon binding to engulfment and cell motility (ELMO) proteins, Dock-ELMO complexes activate the Rho family of small GTPases to mediate a diverse array of biological processes, including cell motility, apoptotic cell clearance, and axon guidance. Overlapping expression patterns and functional redundancy among the 11 vertebrate Dock family members, which are subdivided into four families (Dock A, B, C, and D), complicate genetic analysis. In both vertebrate and invertebrate systems, the actin dynamics regulator, Rac, is the target GTPase of the Dock-A subfamily. However, it remains unclear whether Rac or Rap1 are the in vivo downstream GTPases of the Dock-B subfamily. Drosophila melanogaster is an excellent genetic model organism for understanding Dock protein function as its genome encodes one ortholog per subfamily: Myoblast city (Mbc; Dock A) and Sponge (Spg; Dock B). Here we show that the roles of Spg and Mbc are not redundant in the Drosophila somatic muscle or the dorsal vessel. Moreover, we confirm the in vivo role of Mbc upstream of Rac and provide evidence that Spg functions in concert with Rap1, possibly to regulate aspects of cell adhesion. Together these data show that Mbc and Spg can have different downstream GTPase targets. Our findings predict that the ability to regulate downstream GTPases is dependent on cellular context and allows for the fine-tuning of actin cytoskeletal or cell adhesion events in biological processes that undergo cell morphogenesis.

  14. The Cytoskeleton and Force Response Mechanisms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, Philip Goodwin

    2003-01-01

    The long term aim of this project was to define the mechanisms by which cells sense and respond to the physical forces experienced at 1g and missing in microgravity. Identification and characterization of the elements of the cells force response mechanism could provide pathways and molecules to serve as targets for pharmacological intervention to mitigate the pathologic effects of microgravity. Mechanical forces experienced by the organism can be transmitted to cells through molecules that allow cells to bind to the extracellular matrix and through other types of molecules which bind cells to each other. These molecules are coupled in large complexes of proteins to structural elements such as the actin cytoskeleton that give the cell the ability to sense, resist and respond to force. Application of small forces to tissue culture cells causes local elevation of intracellular calcium through stretch activated ion channels, increased tyrosine phosphorylation and a restructuring of the actin cytoskeleton. Using collagen coated iron oxide beads and strong magnets, we can apply different levels of force to cells in culture. We have found that force application causes the cells to polymerize actin at the site of mechanical deformation and unexpectedly, to depolymerize actin across the rest of the cell. Observations of GFP- actin expressing cells demonstrate that actin accumulates at the site of deformation within the first five minutes of force application and is maintained for many tens of minutes after force is removed. Consistent with the reinforcement of the cytoskeletal structures underlying the integrin-bead interaction, force also alters the motion of bound magnetic beads. This effect is seen following the removal of the magnetic field, and is only partially ablated by actin disruption with cytochalsin B. While actin is polymerizing locally at the site of force application, force also stimulates a global reduction in actin filament content within the cells. We have

  15. MLN64 Is Involved in Actin-mediated Dynamics of Late Endocytic OrganellesD⃞V⃞

    PubMed Central

    Hölttä-Vuori, Maarit; Alpy, Fabien; Tanhuanpää, Kimmo; Jokitalo, Eija; Mutka, Aino-Liisa; Ikonen, Elina

    2005-01-01

    MLN64 is a late endosomal cholesterol-binding membrane protein of an unknown function. Here, we show that MLN64 depletion results in the dispersion of late endocytic organelles to the cell periphery similarly as upon pharmacological actin disruption. The dispersed organelles in MLN64 knockdown cells exhibited decreased association with actin and the Arp2/3 complex subunit p34-Arc. MLN64 depletion was accompanied by impaired fusion of late endocytic organelles and delayed cargo degradation. MLN64 overexpression increased the number of actin and p34-Arc-positive patches on late endosomes, enhanced the fusion of late endocytic organelles in an actin-dependent manner, and stimulated the deposition of sterol in late endosomes harboring the protein. Overexpression of wild-type MLN64 was capable of rescuing the endosome dispersion in MLN64-depleted cells, whereas mutants of MLN64 defective in cholesterol binding were not, suggesting a functional connection between MLN64-mediated sterol transfer and actin-dependent late endosome dynamics. We propose that local sterol enrichment by MLN64 in the late endosomal membranes facilitates their association with actin, thereby governing actin-dependent fusion and degradative activity of late endocytic organelles. PMID:15930133

  16. Role of lipid raft components and actin cytoskeleton in fibronectin-binding, surface expression, and de novo synthesis of integrin subunits in PGE2- or 8-Br-cAMP-stimulated mastocytoma P-815 cells.

    PubMed

    Okada, Yasuyo; Nishikawa, Jyun-ichi; Semma, Masanori; Ichikawa, Atsushi

    2014-04-01

    Integrins are heterodimeric adhesion receptors essential for adhesion of non-adherent cells to extracellular ligands such as extracellular matrix components. The affinity of integrins for ligands is regulated through a process termed integrin activation and de novo synthesis. Integrin activation is regulated by lipid raft components and the actin structure. However, there is little information on the relationship between integrin activation and its de novo synthesis. Cancerous mouse mast cells, mastocytoma P-815 cells (P-815 cells) are known to bind to fibronectin through de novo synthesis of integrin subtypes by prostaglandin (PG) E2 stimulation. The purpose of this study was to clarify the relationship between lipid raft components and the actin cytoskeleton, and PGE2-induced P-815 cells adhesion to fibronectin and the increase in surface expression and mRNA and protein levels of αvβ3 and αIIbβ3 integrins. Cholesterol inhibitor 6-O-α-maltosyl-β cyclodextrin, glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored proteins inhibitor phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C and actin inhibitor cytochalasin D inhibited PGE2-induced cell adhesion to fibronectin, but did not regulate the surface expression and mRNA and protein levels of αv and αIIb, and β3 integrin subunits. In addition, inhibitor of integrin modulate protein CD47 had no effect on PGE2- and 8-Br-cAMP-induced cell adhesion. These results suggest that lipid raft components and the actin cytoskeleton are directly involved in increasing of adhesion activity of integrin αIIb, αv and β3 subunits to fibronectin but not in stimulating of de novo synthesis of them in PGE2-stimulated P-815 cells. The modulation of lipid rafts and the actin structure is essential for P-815 cells adhesion to fibronectin.

  17. Pdlim7 Regulates Arf6-Dependent Actin Dynamics and Is Required for Platelet-Mediated Thrombosis in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Kaylie P.; Krcmery, Jennifer; Simon, Hans-Georg

    2016-01-01

    Upon vessel injury, platelets become activated and rapidly reorganize their actin cytoskeleton to adhere to the site of endothelial damage, triggering the formation of a fibrin-rich plug to prevent further blood loss. Inactivation of Pdlim7 provides the new perspective that regulation of actin cytoskeletal changes in platelets is dependent on the encoded PDZ-LIM protein. Loss-of-function of Pdlim7 triggers hypercoagulopathy and causes significant perinatal lethality in mice. Our in vivo and in vitro studies reveal that Pdlim7 is dynamically distributed along actin fibers, and lack of Pdlim7 leads to a marked inability to rearrange the actin cytoskeleton. Specifically, the absence of Pdlim7 prevents platelets from bundling actin fibers into a concentric ring that defines the round spread shape of activated platelets. Similarly, in mouse embryonic fibroblasts, loss of Pdlim7 abolishes the formation of stress fibers needed to adopt the typical elongated fibroblast shape. In addition to revealing a fundamental cell biological role in actin cytoskeletal organization, we also demonstrate a function of Pdlim7 in regulating the cycling between the GTP/GDP-bound states of Arf6. The small GTPase Arf6 is an essential factor required for actin dynamics, cytoskeletal rearrangements, and platelet activation. Consistent with our findings of significantly elevated initial F-actin ratios and subsequent morphological aberrations, loss of Pdlim7 causes a shift in balance towards an increased Arf6-GTP level in resting platelets. These findings identify a new Pdlim7-Arf6 axis controlling actin dynamics and implicate Pdlim7 as a primary endogenous regulator of platelet-dependent hemostasis. PMID:27792740

  18. Cytoskeleton in Mast Cell Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Dráber, Pavel; Sulimenko, Vadym; Dráberová, Eduarda

    2012-01-01

    Mast cell activation mediated by the high affinity receptor for IgE (FcεRI) is a key event in allergic response and inflammation. Other receptors on mast cells, as c-Kit for stem cell factor and G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) synergistically enhance the FcεRI-mediated release of inflammatory mediators. Activation of various signaling pathways in mast cells results in changes in cell morphology, adhesion to substrate, exocytosis, and migration. Reorganization of cytoskeleton is pivotal in all these processes. Cytoskeletal proteins also play an important role in initial stages of FcεRI and other surface receptors induced triggering. Highly dynamic microtubules formed by αβ-tubulin dimers as well as microfilaments build up from polymerized actin are affected in activated cells by kinases/phosphatases, Rho GTPases and changes in concentration of cytosolic Ca2+. Also important are nucleation proteins; the γ-tubulin complexes in case of microtubules or Arp 2/3 complex with its nucleation promoting factors and formins in case of microfilaments. The dynamic nature of microtubules and microfilaments in activated cells depends on many associated/regulatory proteins. Changes in rigidity of activated mast cells reflect changes in intermediate filaments build up from vimentin. This review offers a critical appraisal of current knowledge on the role of cytoskeleton in mast cells signaling. PMID:22654883

  19. CRMPs colocalize and interact with cytoskeleton in hippocampal neurons

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yuhao; Zhao, Bo; Ji, Zhisheng; Zhang, Guowei; Zhang, Jifeng; Li, Sumei; Guo, Guoqing; Lin, Hongsheng

    2015-01-01

    CRMP family proteins (CRMPs) are widely expressed in the developing neurons, mediating a variety of fundamental functions such as growth cone guidance, neuronal polarity and axon elongation. However, whether all the CRMP proteins interact with cytoskeleton remains unknown. In this study, we found that in cultured hippocampal neurons, CRMPs mainly colocalized with tubulin and actin network in neurites. In growth cones, CRMPs colocalized with tubulinmainly in the central (C-) domain and transition zone (T-zone), less in the peripheral (P-) domain and colocalized with actin in all the C-domain, T-zone and P-domain. The correlation efficiency of CRMPs between actin was significantly higher than that between tubulin, especially in growth cones. We successfully constructed GST-CRMPs plasmids, expressed and purified the GST-CRMP proteins. By GST-pulldown assay, all the CRMP family proteins were found to beinteracted with cytoskeleton proteins. Taken together, we revealed that CRMPs were colocalized with cytoskeleton in hippocampal neurons, especially in growth cones. CRMPs can interact with both tubulin and actin, thus mediating neuronal development. PMID:26885211

  20. Cellular prion protein: A co-receptor mediating neuronal cofilin-actin rod formation induced by β-amyloid and proinflammatory cytokines

    PubMed Central

    Walsh, Keifer P; Kuhn, Thomas B; Bamburg, James R

    2014-01-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that proteins exhibiting “prion-like” behavior cause distinct neurodegenerative diseases, including inherited, sporadic and acquired types. The conversion of cellular prion protein (PrPC) to its infectious protease resistant counterpart (PrPRes) is the essential feature of prion diseases. However, PrPC also performs important functions in transmembrane signaling, especially in neurodegenerative processes. Beta-amyloid (Aβ) synaptotoxicity and cognitive dysfunction in mouse models of Alzheimer disease are mediated by a PrPC-dependent pathway. Here we review how this pathway converges with proinflammatory cytokine signaling to activate membrane NADPH oxidase (NOX) and generate reactive oxygen species (ROS) leading to dynamic remodeling of the actin cytoskeleton. The NOX signaling pathway may also be integrated with those of other transmembrane receptors clustered in PrPC-enriched membrane domains. Such a signal convergence along the PrPC-NOX axis could explain the relevance of PrPC in a broad spectrum of neurodegenerative disorders, including neuroinflammatory-mediated alterations in synaptic function following traumatic brain injury. PrPC overexpression alone activates NOX and generates a local increase in ROS that initiates cofilin activation and formation of cofilin-saturated actin bundles (rods). Rods sequester cofilin from synaptic regions where it is required for plasticity associated with learning and memory. Rods can also interrupt vesicular transport by occluding the neurite within which they form. Through either or both mechanisms, rods may directly mediate the synaptic dysfunction that accompanies various neurodegenerative disorders. PMID:25426519

  1. Identification and Characterization of a Small Molecule Inhibitor of Formin-Mediated Actin Assembly

    PubMed Central

    Rizvi, Syed A.; Neidt, Erin M.; Cui, Jiayue; Feiger, Zach; Skau, Colleen T.; Gardel, Margaret L.; Kozmin, Sergey A.; Kovar, David R.

    2009-01-01

    SUMMARY Formins stimulate actin filament assembly for fundamental cellular processes including division, adhesion, establishing polarity and motility. A formin inhibitor would be useful because most cells express multiple formins whose functions are not known, and because metastatic tumor formation depends upon the deregulation of formin-dependent processes. We identified a general small molecule inhibitor of formin homology 2 domains (SMIFH2) by screening compounds for the ability to prevent formin-mediated actin assembly in vitro. SMIFH2 targets formins from evolutionarily diverse organisms including yeast, nematode worm and mice, with a half-maximal inhibitor concentration of ~5 to 15 μM. SMIFH2 prevents both formin nucleation and processive barbed-end elongation, and decreases formin’s affinity for the barbed end. Furthermore, low micromolar concentrations of SMIFH2 disrupt formin-dependent, but not Arp2/3 complex-dependent, actin cytoskeletal structures in fission yeast and mammalian NIH 3T3 fibroblasts. PMID:19942139

  2. Blue-light-induced reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton and the avoidance response of chloroplasts in epidermal cells of Vallisneria gigantea.

    PubMed

    Sakurai, Nami; Domoto, Kikuko; Takagi, Shingo

    2005-04-01

    In leaf epidermal cells of the aquatic angiosperm Vallisneria gigantea Graebner, high-intensity blue light induces the actin-dependent avoidance response of chloroplasts. By semi-quantitative motion analysis and phalloidin staining, time courses of the blue-light-induced changes in the mode of movement of individual chloroplasts and in the configuration of actin filaments were examined in the presence and absence of a flavoprotein inhibitor, diphenylene iodonium. In dark-adapted cells, short, thick actin bundles seemed to surround each chloroplast, which was kept motionless in the outer periclinal cytoplasm of the cells. After 10 min of irradiation with high-intensity blue light, a rapid, unidirectional movement of chloroplasts was induced, concomitant with the appearance of aggregated, straight actin bundles stretched over the outer periclinal cytoplasm. Diphenylene iodonium inhibited the avoidance response of chloroplasts, apparently by delaying a change in the mode of chloroplast movement from random sway to unidirectional migration, by suppressing the appearance of aggregated, straight actin bundles. In partially irradiated individual cells, redistribution of chloroplasts and reorganization of actin filaments occurred only in the areas exposed to blue light. From the results, we propose that the short, thick actin bundles in the vicinity of chloroplasts function to anchor the chloroplasts in dark-adapted cells, and that the aggregated, straight actin bundles organized under blue-light irradiation provide tracks for unidirectional movement of chloroplasts. PMID:15843965

  3. Adaptive rheology and ordering of cell cytoskeleton govern matrix rigidity sensing

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Mukund; Sarangi, Bibhu Ranjan; Deschamps, Joran; Nematbakhsh, Yasaman; Callan-Jones, Andrew; Margadant, Felix; Mège, René-Marc; Lim, Chwee Teck; Voituriez, Raphaël; Ladoux, Benoît

    2015-01-01

    Matrix rigidity sensing regulates a large variety of cellular processes and has important implications for tissue development and disease. However, how cells probe matrix rigidity, and hence respond to it, remains unclear. Here, we show that rigidity sensing and adaptation emerge naturally from actin cytoskeleton remodeling. Our in vitro experiments and theoretical modeling demonstrate a bi-phasic rheology of the actin cytoskeleton, which transitions from fluid on soft substrates to solid on stiffer ones. Furthermore, we find that increasing substrate stiffness correlates with the emergence of an orientational order in actin stress fibers, which exhibit an isotropic to nematic transition that we characterize quantitatively in the framework of active matter theory. These findings imply mechanisms mediated by a large-scale reinforcement of actin structures under stress, which could be the mechanical drivers of substrate stiffness dependent cell shape changes and cell polarity. PMID:26109233

  4. Adaptive rheology and ordering of cell cytoskeleton govern matrix rigidity sensing.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Mukund; Sarangi, Bibhu Ranjan; Deschamps, Joran; Nematbakhsh, Yasaman; Callan-Jones, Andrew; Margadant, Felix; Mège, René-Marc; Lim, Chwee Teck; Voituriez, Raphaël; Ladoux, Benoît

    2015-01-01

    Matrix rigidity sensing regulates a large variety of cellular processes and has important implications for tissue development and disease. However, how cells probe matrix rigidity, and hence respond to it, remains unclear. Here, we show that rigidity sensing and adaptation emerge naturally from actin cytoskeleton remodelling. Our in vitro experiments and theoretical modelling demonstrate a biphasic rheology of the actin cytoskeleton, which transitions from fluid on soft substrates to solid on stiffer ones. Furthermore, we find that increasing substrate stiffness correlates with the emergence of an orientational order in actin stress fibres, which exhibit an isotropic to nematic transition that we characterize quantitatively in the framework of active matter theory. These findings imply mechanisms mediated by a large-scale reinforcement of actin structures under stress, which could be the mechanical drivers of substrate stiffness-dependent cell shape changes and cell polarity. PMID:26109233

  5. Adaptive rheology and ordering of cell cytoskeleton govern matrix rigidity sensing.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Mukund; Sarangi, Bibhu Ranjan; Deschamps, Joran; Nematbakhsh, Yasaman; Callan-Jones, Andrew; Margadant, Felix; Mège, René-Marc; Lim, Chwee Teck; Voituriez, Raphaël; Ladoux, Benoît

    2015-06-25

    Matrix rigidity sensing regulates a large variety of cellular processes and has important implications for tissue development and disease. However, how cells probe matrix rigidity, and hence respond to it, remains unclear. Here, we show that rigidity sensing and adaptation emerge naturally from actin cytoskeleton remodelling. Our in vitro experiments and theoretical modelling demonstrate a biphasic rheology of the actin cytoskeleton, which transitions from fluid on soft substrates to solid on stiffer ones. Furthermore, we find that increasing substrate stiffness correlates with the emergence of an orientational order in actin stress fibres, which exhibit an isotropic to nematic transition that we characterize quantitatively in the framework of active matter theory. These findings imply mechanisms mediated by a large-scale reinforcement of actin structures under stress, which could be the mechanical drivers of substrate stiffness-dependent cell shape changes and cell polarity.

  6. Adaptive rheology and ordering of cell cytoskeleton govern matrix rigidity sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Mukund; Sarangi, Bibhu Ranjan; Deschamps, Joran; Nematbakhsh, Yasaman; Callan-Jones, Andrew; Margadant, Felix; Mège, René-Marc; Lim, Chwee Teck; Voituriez, Raphaël; Ladoux, Benoît

    2015-06-01

    Matrix rigidity sensing regulates a large variety of cellular processes and has important implications for tissue development and disease. However, how cells probe matrix rigidity, and hence respond to it, remains unclear. Here, we show that rigidity sensing and adaptation emerge naturally from actin cytoskeleton remodelling. Our in vitro experiments and theoretical modelling demonstrate a biphasic rheology of the actin cytoskeleton, which transitions from fluid on soft substrates to solid on stiffer ones. Furthermore, we find that increasing substrate stiffness correlates with the emergence of an orientational order in actin stress fibres, which exhibit an isotropic to nematic transition that we characterize quantitatively in the framework of active matter theory. These findings imply mechanisms mediated by a large-scale reinforcement of actin structures under stress, which could be the mechanical drivers of substrate stiffness-dependent cell shape changes and cell polarity.

  7. Mechanisms of leiomodin 2-mediated regulation of actin filament in muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiaorui; Ni, Fengyun; Kondrashkina, Elena; Ma, Jianpeng; Wang, Qinghua

    2015-10-13

    Leiomodin (Lmod) is a class of potent tandem-G-actin-binding nucleators in muscle cells. Lmod mutations, deletion, or instability are linked to lethal nemaline myopathy. However, the lack of high-resolution structures of Lmod nucleators in action severely hampered our understanding of their essential cellular functions. Here we report the crystal structure of the actin-Lmod2162-495 nucleus. The structure contains two actin subunits connected by one Lmod2162-495 molecule in a non-filament-like conformation. Complementary functional studies suggest that the binding of Lmod2 stimulates ATP hydrolysis and accelerates actin nucleation and polymerization. The high level of conservation among Lmod proteins in sequence and functions suggests that the mechanistic insights of human Lmod2 uncovered here may aid in a molecular understanding of other Lmod proteins. Furthermore, our structural and mechanistic studies unraveled a previously unrecognized level of regulation in mammalian signal transduction mediated by certain tandem-G-actin-binding nucleators. PMID:26417072

  8. Cryptococcus neoformans is internalized by receptor-mediated or 'triggered' phagocytosis, dependent on actin recruitment.

    PubMed

    Guerra, Caroline Rezende; Seabra, Sergio Henrique; de Souza, Wanderley; Rozental, Sonia

    2014-01-01

    Cryptococcosis by the encapsulated yeast Cryptococcus neoformans affects mostly immunocompromised individuals and is a frequent neurological complication in AIDS patients. Recent studies support the idea that intracellular survival of Cryptococcus yeast cells is important for the pathogenesis of cryptococcosis. However, the initial steps of Cryptococcus internalization by host cells remain poorly understood. Here, we investigate the mechanism of Cryptococcus neoformans phagocytosis by peritoneal macrophages using confocal and electron microscopy techniques, as well as flow cytometry quantification, evaluating the importance of fungal capsule production and of host cell cytoskeletal elements for fungal phagocytosis. Electron microscopy analyses revealed that capsular and acapsular strains of C. neoformans are internalized by macrophages via both 'zipper' (receptor-mediated) and 'trigger' (membrane ruffle-dependent) phagocytosis mechanisms. Actin filaments surrounded phagosomes of capsular and acapsular yeasts, and the actin depolymerizing drugs cytochalasin D and latrunculin B inhibited yeast internalization and actin recruitment to the phagosome area. In contrast, nocodazole and paclitaxel, inhibitors of microtubule dynamics decreased internalization but did not prevent actin recruitment to the site of phagocytosis. Our results show that different uptake mechanisms, dependent on both actin and tubulin dynamics occur during yeast internalization by macrophages, and that capsule production does not affect the mode of Cryptococcus uptake by host cells. PMID:24586631

  9. Reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton via transcriptional regulation of cytoskeletal/focal adhesion genes by myocardin-related transcription factors (MRTFs/MAL/MKLs)

    SciTech Connect

    Morita, Tsuyoshi; Mayanagi, Taira; Sobue, Kenji

    2007-10-01

    RhoA is a crucial regulator of stress fiber and focal adhesion formation through the activation of actin nucleation and polymerization. It also regulates the nuclear translocation of myocardin-related transcription factor-A and -B (MRTF-A/B, MAL or MKL 1/2), which are co-activators of serum response factor (SRF). In dominant-negative MRTF-A (DN-MRTF-A)-expressing NIH 3T3 cell lines, the expressions of several cytoskeletal/focal adhesion genes were down-regulated, and the formation of stress fiber and focal adhesion was severely diminished. MRTF-A/B-knockdown cells also exhibited such cytoskeletal defects. In reporter assays, both RhoA and MRTF-A enhanced promoter activities of these genes in a CArG-box-dependent manner, and DN-MRTF-A inhibited the RhoA-mediated activation of these promoters. In dominant-negative RhoA (RhoA-N19)-expressing NIH 3T3 cell lines, the nuclear translocation of MRTF-A/B was predominantly prevented, resulting in the reduced expression of cytoskeletal/focal adhesion proteins. Further, constitutive-active MRTF-A/B increased the expression of endogenous cytoskeletal/focal adhesion proteins, and thereby rescued the defective phenotype of stress fibers and focal adhesions in RhoA-N19 expressing cells. These results indicate that MRTF-A/B act as pivotal mediators of stress fiber and focal adhesion formation via the transcriptional regulation of a subset of cytoskeletal/focal adhesion genes.

  10. Complete disintegration of the microtubular cytoskeleton precedes its auxin-mediated reconstruction in postmitotic maize root cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baluska, F.; Barlow, P. W.; Volkmann, D.

    1996-01-01

    The inhibitory action of 0.1 microM auxin (IAA) on maize root growth was closely associated with a rapid and complete disintegration of the microtubular (MT) cytoskeleton, as visualized by indirect immunofluorescence of tubulin, throughout the growth region. After 30 min of this treatment, only fluorescent spots were present in root cells, accumulating either around nuclei or along cell walls. Six h later, in addition to some background fluorescence, dense but partially oriented oblique or longitudinal arrays of cortical MTs (CMTs) were found in most growing cells of the root apex. After 24 h of treatment, maize roots had adapted to the auxin, as inferred from the slowly recovering elongation rate and from the reassembly of a dense and well-ordered MT cytoskeleton which showed only slight deviations from that of the control root cells. Taxol pretreatment (100 microM, 24 h) prevented not only the rapid auxin-mediated disintegration of the MT cytoskeleton but also a reorientation of the CMT arrays, from transversal to longitudinal. The only tissue to show MTs in their cells throughout the auxin treatment was the epidermis. Significant resistance of transverse CMT arrays in these cells towards auxin was confirmed using a higher auxin concentration (100 microM, 24 h). The latter auxin dose also revealed inter-tissue-specific responses to auxin: outer cortical cell files reoriented their CMTs from the transversal to longitudinal orientation, whereas inner cortical cell files lost their MTs. This high auxin-mediated response, associated with the swelling of root apices, was abolished with the pretreatment of maize root with taxol.

  11. Mechanotransduction through Cytoskeleton

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ingber, Donald

    2002-01-01

    The goal of this project was to characterize the molecular mechanism by which cells recognize and respond to physical forces in their local environment. The project was based on the working hypothesis that cells sense mechanical stresses, such as those due to gravity, through their cell surface adhesion receptors (e.g., integrins) and that they respond as a result of structural arrangements with their internal cytoskeleton (CSK) which are orchestrated through use of tensegrity architecture. In this project, we carried out studies to define the architectural and molecular basis of cellular mechanotransduction. Our major goal was to define the molecular pathway that mediates mechanical force transfer between integrins and the CSK and to determine how mechanical deformation of integrin-CSK linkages is transduced into a biochemical response. Elucidation of the mechanism by which cells sense mechanical stresses through integrins and translate them into a biochemical response should help us to understand the molecular basis of the cellular response to gravity as well as many other forms of mechanosensation and tissue regulation. The specific aims of this proposal were: 1. To define the molecular basis of mechanical coupling between integrins, vinculin, and the actin CSK; 2. To develop a computer simulation of how mechanical stresses alter CSK structure and test this model in living cells; 3. To determine how mechanical deformation of integrin-CSK linkages is transduced into a biochemical response.

  12. Role of actin in auxin transport and transduction of gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, S.; Basu, S.; Brady, S.; Muday, G.

    Transport of the plant hormone auxin is polar and the direction of the hormone movement appears to be controlled by asymmetric distribution of auxin transport protein complexes. Changes in the direction of auxin transport are believed to drive asymmetric growth in response to changes in the gravity vector. To test the possibility that asymmetric distribution of the auxin transport protein complex is mediated by attachment to the actin cytoskeleton, a variety of experimental approaches have been used. The most direct demonstration of the role of the actin cytoskeleton in localization of the protein complex is the ability of one protein in this complex to bind to affinity columns containing actin filaments. Additionally, treatments of plant tissues with drugs that fragment the actin c toskeleton reducey polar transport. In order to explore this actin interaction and the affect of gravity on auxin transport and developmental polarity, embryos of the brown alga, Fucus have been examined. Fucus zygotes are initially symmetrical, but develop asymmetry in response to environmental gradients, with light gradients being the best- characterized signal. Gravity will polarize these embryos and gravity-induced polarity is randomized by clinorotation. Auxin transport also appears necessary for environmental controls of polarity, since auxin efflux inhibitors perturb both photo- and gravity-polarization at a very discrete temporal window within six hours after fertilization. The actin cytoskeleton has previously been shown to reorganize after fertilization of Fucus embryos leading to formation of an actin patch at the site of polar outgrowth. These actin patches still form in Fucus embryos treated with auxin efflux inhibitors, yet the position of these patches is randomized. Together, these results suggest that there are connections between the actin cytoskeleton, auxin transport, and gravity oriented growth and development. (Supported by NASA Grant: NAG2-1203)

  13. The AGC Ser/Thr kinase Aga1 is essential for appressorium formation and maintenance of the actin cytoskeleton in the smut fungus Ustilago maydis.

    PubMed

    Berndt, Patrick; Lanver, Daniel; Kahmann, Regine

    2010-12-01

    On the plant surface the dimorphic fungus Ustilago maydis switches from budding to hyphal growth and differentiates appressoria. To get more insight into these highly regulated processes we report on the role of a conserved Ser/Thr kinase of the AGC kinase family, Aga1. U. maydis Aga1 could functionally replace Ypk1p in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. aga1 deletion mutants were affected in growth, cell wall integrity, mating as well as the ability to form appressoria and showed defects in actin organization and actin-dependent endocytosis. With respect to appressorium formation and endocytosis, the aga1 deletion phenotype could be mimicked by inhibiting the formation of actin filaments with Latrunculin A. These data suggest a critical role of Aga1 in F-actin organization during the morphological changes accompanying the development of appressoria.

  14. A focal adhesion factor directly linking intracellularly motile Listeria monocytogenes and Listeria ivanovii to the actin-based cytoskeleton of mammalian cells.

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, T; Ebel, F; Domann, E; Niebuhr, K; Gerstel, B; Pistor, S; Temm-Grove, C J; Jockusch, B M; Reinhard, M; Walter, U

    1995-04-01

    The surface-bound ActA polypeptide of the intracellular bacterial pathogen Listeria monocytogenes is the sole listerial factor needed for recruitment of host actin filaments by intracellularly motile bacteria. Here we report that following Listeria infection the host vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein (VASP), a microfilament- and focal adhesion-associated substrate of both the cAMP- and cGMP-dependent protein kinases, accumulates on the surface of intracytoplasmic bacteria prior to the detection of F-actin 'clouds'. VASP remains associated with the surface of highly motile bacteria, where it is polarly located, juxtaposed between one extremity of the bacterial surface and the front of the actin comet tail. Since actin filament polymerization occurs only at the very front of the tail, VASP exhibits properties of a host protein required to promote actin polymerization. Purified VASP binds directly to the ActA polypeptide in vitro. A ligand-overlay blot using purified radiolabelled VASP enabled us to identify the ActA homologue of the related intracellular motile pathogen, Listeria ivanovii, as a protein with a molecular mass of approximately 150 kDa. VASP also associates with actin filaments recruited by another intracellularly motile bacterial pathogen, Shigella flexneri. Hence, by the simple expedient of expressing surface-bound attractor molecules, bacterial pathogens effectively harness cytoskeletal components to achieve intracellular movement.

  15. The cytoskeleton and gravitropism in higher plants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blancaflor, Elison B.

    2002-01-01

    The cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying the gravitropic response of plants have continued to elude plant biologists despite more than a century of research. Lately there has been increased attention on the role of the cytoskeleton in plant gravitropism, but several controversies and major gaps in our understanding of cytoskeletal involvement in gravitropism remain. A major question in the study of plant gravitropism is how the cytoskeleton mediates early sensing and signal transduction events in plants. Much has been made of the actin cytoskeleton as the cellular structure that sedimenting amyloplasts impinge upon to trigger the downstream signaling events leading to the bending response. There is also strong molecular and biochemical evidence that the transport of auxin, an important player in gravitropism, is regulated by actin. Organizational changes in microtubules during the growth response phase of gravitropism have also been well documented, but the significance of such reorientations in controlling differential cellular growth is unclear. Studies employing pharmacological approaches to dissect cytoskeletal involvement in gravitropism have led to conflicting results and therefore need to be interpreted with caution. Despite the current controversies, the revolutionary advances in molecular, biochemical, and cell biological techniques have opened up several possibilities for further research into this difficult area. The myriad proteins associated with the plant cytoskeleton that are being rapidly characterized provide a rich assortment of candidate regulators that could be targets of the gravity signal transduction chain. Cytoskeletal and ion imaging in real time combined with mutant analysis promises to provide a fresh start into this controversial area of research.

  16. Myosin III-mediated cross-linking and stimulation of actin bundling activity of Espin

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Haiyang; Li, Jianchao; Raval, Manmeet H; Yao, Ningning; Deng, Xiaoying; Lu, Qing; Nie, Si; Feng, Wei; Wan, Jun; Yengo, Christopher M; Liu, Wei; Zhang, Mingjie

    2016-01-01

    Class III myosins (Myo3) and actin-bundling protein Espin play critical roles in regulating the development and maintenance of stereocilia in vertebrate hair cells, and their defects cause hereditary hearing impairments. Myo3 interacts with Espin1 through its tail homology I motif (THDI), however it is not clear how Myo3 specifically acts through Espin1 to regulate the actin bundle assembly and stabilization. Here we discover that Myo3 THDI contains a pair of repeat sequences capable of independently and strongly binding to the ankyrin repeats of Espin1, revealing an unexpected Myo3-mediated cross-linking mechanism of Espin1. The structures of Myo3 in complex with Espin1 not only elucidate the mechanism of the binding, but also reveal a Myo3-induced release of Espin1 auto-inhibition mechanism. We also provide evidence that Myo3-mediated cross-linking can further promote actin fiber bundling activity of Espin1. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.12856.001 PMID:26785147

  17. Cingulin and actin mediate midbody-dependent apical lumen formation during polarization of epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Mangan, Anthony J.; Sietsema, Daniel V.; Li, Dongying; Moore, Jeffrey K.; Citi, Sandra; Prekeris, Rytis

    2016-01-01

    Coordinated polarization of epithelial cells is a key step during morphogenesis that leads to the formation of an apical lumen. Rab11 and its interacting protein FIP5 are necessary for the targeting of apical endosomes to the midbody and apical membrane initiation site (AMIS) during lumenogenesis. However, the machinery that mediates AMIS establishment and FIP5-endosome targeting remains unknown. Here we identify a FIP5-interacting protein, Cingulin, which localizes to the AMIS and functions as a tether mediating FIP5-endosome targeting. We analysed the machinery mediating AMIS recruitment to the midbody and determined that both branched actin and microtubules are required for establishing the site of the nascent lumen. We demonstrate that the Rac1-WAVE/Scar complex mediates Cingulin recruitment to the AMIS by inducing branched actin formation, and that Cingulin directly binds to microtubule C-terminal tails through electrostatic interactions. We propose a new mechanism for apical endosome targeting and AMIS formation around the midbody during epithelial lumenogenesis. PMID:27484926

  18. Farnesyltransferase inhibition causes morphological reversion of ras-transformed cells by a complex mechanism that involves regulation of the actin cytoskeleton.

    PubMed Central

    Prendergast, G C; Davide, J P; deSolms, S J; Giuliani, E A; Graham, S L; Gibbs, J B; Oliff, A; Kohl, N E

    1994-01-01

    A potent and specific small molecule inhibitor of farnesyl-protein transferase, L-739,749, caused rapid morphological reversion and growth inhibition of ras-transformed fibroblasts (Rat1/ras cells). Morphological reversion occurred within 18 h of L-739,749 addition. The reverted phenotype was stable for several days in the absence of inhibitor before the transformed phenotype reappeared. Cell enlargement and actin stress fiber formation accompanied treatment of both Rat1/ras and normal Rat1 cells. Significantly, inhibition of Ras processing did not correlate with the initiation or maintenance of the reverted phenotype. While a single treatment with L-739,749 was sufficient to morphologically revert Rat1/ras cells, repetitive inhibitor treatment was required to significantly reduce cell growth rate. Thus, the effects of L-739,749 on transformed cell morphology and cytoskeletal actin organization could be separated from effects on cell growth, depending on whether exposure to a farnesyl-protein transferase inhibitor was transient or repetitive. In contrast, L-739,749 had no effect on the growth, morphology, or actin organization of v-raf-transformed cells. Taken together, the results suggest that the mechanism of morphological reversion is complex and may involve farnesylated proteins that control the organization of cytoskeletal actin. Images PMID:8196657

  19. Actin Mechanics and Fragmentation*

    PubMed Central

    De La Cruz, Enrique M.; Gardel, Margaret L.

    2015-01-01

    Cell physiological processes require the regulation and coordination of both mechanical and dynamical properties of the actin cytoskeleton. Here we review recent advances in understanding the mechanical properties and stability of actin filaments and how these properties are manifested at larger (network) length scales. We discuss how forces can influence local biochemical interactions, resulting in the formation of mechanically sensitive dynamic steady states. Understanding the regulation of such force-activated chemistries and dynamic steady states reflects an important challenge for future work that will provide valuable insights as to how the actin cytoskeleton engenders mechanoresponsiveness of living cells. PMID:25957404

  20. Amplification of actin polymerization forces

    PubMed Central

    Dmitrieff, Serge; Nédélec, François

    2016-01-01

    The actin cytoskeleton drives many essential processes in vivo, using molecular motors and actin assembly as force generators. We discuss here the propagation of forces caused by actin polymerization, highlighting simple configurations where the force developed by the network can exceed the sum of the polymerization forces from all filaments. PMID:27002174

  1. Agonist Activation of F-Actin-Mediated Eosinophil Shape Change and Mediator Release Is Dependent on Rac2

    PubMed Central

    Lacy, Paige; Willetts, Lian; Kim, John D.; Lo, Andrea N.; Lam, Bon; MacLean, Emily I.; Moqbel, Redwan; Rothenberg, Marc E.; Zimmermann, Nives

    2011-01-01

    Background Tissue recruitment and activation of eosinophils contribute to allergic symptoms by causing airway hyperresponsiveness and inflammation. Shape changes and mediator release in eosinophils may be regulated by mammalian Rho-related guanosine triphosphatases. Of these, Rac2 is essential for F-actin formation as a central process underlying cell motility, exocytosis, and respiratory burst in neutrophils, while the role of Rac2 in eosinophils is unknown. We set out to determine the role of Rac2 in eosinophil mediator release and F-actin-dependent shape change in response to chemotactic stimuli. Methods Rac2-deficient eosinophils from CD2-IL-5 transgenic mice crossed with rac2 gene knockout animals were examined for their ability to release superoxide through respiratory burst or eosinophil peroxidase by degranulation. Eosinophil shape change and actin polymerization were also assessed by flow cytometry and confocal microscopy following stimulation with eotaxin-2 or platelet-activating factor. Results Eosinophils from wild-type mice displayed inducible superoxide release, but at a small fraction (4–5%) of human eosinophils. Rac2-deficient eosinophils showed significantly less superoxide release (p < 0.05, 26% less than wild type). Eosinophils lacking Rac2 had diminished degranulation (p < 0.05, 62% less eosinophil peroxidase) and shape changes in response to eotaxin-2 or platelet-activating factor (with 68 and 49% less F-actin formation, respectively; p < 0.02) compared with wild-type cells. Conclusion These results demonstrate that Rac2 is an important regulator of eosinophil function by contributing to superoxide production, granule protein release, and eosinophil shape change. Our findings suggest that Rho guanosine triphosphatases are key regulators of cellular inflammation in allergy and asthma. PMID:21576984

  2. Ethanol interferes with thrombin mediated changes in the morphology and cytoskeleton of human vascular endothelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Pratt, K.J.; Rubin, R.; Hoek, J.; Williams, S.K. )

    1991-03-15

    The effect of physiological concentrations of ethanol (EtOH) on the response of human vascular endothelial cells (EC) to thrombin was examined Treatment of EC with EtOH concentrations of 20-85mM for 2-10 min. produced no significant changes in the morphology of 3- and 4-day monolayers established on fibronectin coated polystyrene. When examined immunofluorescently no significantly changes in the microfilament or microtubule structures were seen. Exposure of EC monolayers to 0.5 and 1 U/ml of thrombin for 1-60 minutes causes a concentration and time dependent monolayer retraction, evidenced by a general decrease in cell size, increase in visible gaps in the monolayer and redistribution of the microtubule and microfilament networks. Pretreatment of EC monolayers with EtOH for 3-5 minutes prior to addition of thrombin prevents the changes seen with thrombin alone. Immunofluorescent examination of the microfilament and microtubule structures suggests than EtOH may act in part via the microtubule network, which appears to be disorganized/disrupted when the EC are exposed to EtOH and then thrombin. Colchicine studies show that EC which have been pretreated with EtOH respond to colchicine differently then cells which have not previously seen EtOH. These data suggest that EtOH may alter EC monolayer responsiveness either by indirect changes which are reflected in cytoskeletal disorganization or possibly by direct influence on the cytoskeleton.

  3. Uptake of Rabies Virus into Epithelial Cells by Clathrin-Mediated Endocytosis Depends upon Actin

    PubMed Central

    Piccinotti, Silvia

    2013-01-01

    Rabies virus (RABV) causes a fatal zoonotic encephalitis. Disease symptoms require replication and spread of the virus within neuronal cells; however, in infected animals as well as in cell culture the virus replicates in a broad range of cell types. Here we use a single-cycle RABV and a recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus (rVSV) in which the glycoprotein (G) was replaced with that of RABV (rVSV RABV G) to examine RABV uptake into the African green monkey kidney cell line BS-C-1. Combining biochemical studies and real-time spinning-disk confocal fluorescence microscopy, we show that the predominant entry pathway of RABV particles into BS-C-1 cells is clathrin dependent. Viral particles enter cells in pits with elongated structures and incomplete clathrin coats which depend upon actin to complete the internalization process. By measuring the time of internalization and the abundance of the clathrin adaptor protein AP2, we further show that the pits that internalize RABV particles are similar to those that internalize VSV particles. Pharmacological perturbations of dynamin or of actin polymerization inhibit productive infection, linking our observations on particle uptake with viral infectivity. This work extends to RABV particles the finding that clathrin-mediated endocytosis of rhabdoviruses proceeds through incompletely coated pits which depend upon actin. PMID:23966407

  4. Protein Kinases Possibly Mediate Hypergravity-Induced Changes in F-Actin Expression by Endothelial Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Love, Felisha D.; Melhado, Caroline D.; Bosah, Francis N.; Harris-Hooker, Sandra A.; Sanford, Gary L.

    1998-01-01

    Basic cellular functions such as electrolyte concentration, cell growth rate, glucose utilization, bone formation, response to growth stimulation, and exocytosis are modified in microgravity. These studies indicate that microgravity affects a number of physiological systems and included in this are cell signaling mechanisms. Rijken and coworkers performed growth factor studies that showed PKC signaling and actin microfilament organization appears to be sensitive to microgravity, suggesting that the inhibition of signal transduction by microgravity may be related to alterations in actin microfilament organization. However, similar studies have not been done for vascular cells. Vascular endothelial cells play critical roles in providing nutrients to organ and tissues and in wound repair. The major deterrent to ground-based microgravity studies is that it is impossible to achieved true microgravity for longer than a few minutes on earth. Hence, it has not been possible to conduct prolonged microgravity studies except for two models that simulate certain aspects of microgravity. However, hypergravity is quite easily achieved. Several researchers have shown that hypergravity will increase the proliferation of several different cell lines while decreasing cell motility and slowing liver regeneration following partial hepatectomy, These studies indicate the hypergravity also alters the behavior of most cells. Several investigators have shown that hypergravity affects the activation of several protein kinases (PKs) in cells. In this study, we investigated whether hypergravity alters the expression of f-actin by bovine aortic endothelial cells (BAECs) and the role of PK's (calmodulin 11 dependent, PKA and PKC) as mediators of these effects.

  5. Establishment of HIV-1 latency in resting CD4+ T cells depends on chemokine-induced changes in the actin cytoskeleton.

    PubMed

    Cameron, Paul U; Saleh, Suha; Sallmann, Georgina; Solomon, Ajantha; Wightman, Fiona; Evans, Vanessa A; Boucher, Genevieve; Haddad, Elias K; Sekaly, Rafick-Pierre; Harman, Andrew N; Anderson, Jenny L; Jones, Kate L; Mak, Johnson; Cunningham, Anthony L; Jaworowski, Anthony; Lewin, Sharon R

    2010-09-28

    Eradication of HIV-1 with highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) is not possible due to the persistence of long-lived, latently infected resting memory CD4(+) T cells. We now show that HIV-1 latency can be established in resting CD4(+) T cells infected with HIV-1 after exposure to ligands for CCR7 (CCL19), CXCR3 (CXCL9 and CXCL10), and CCR6 (CCL20) but not in unactivated CD4(+) T cells. The mechanism did not involve cell activation or significant changes in gene expression, but was associated with rapid dephosphorylation of cofilin and changes in filamentous actin. Incubation with chemokine before infection led to efficient HIV-1 nuclear localization and integration and this was inhibited by the actin stabilizer jasplakinolide. We propose a unique pathway for establishment of latency by direct HIV-1 infection of resting CD4(+) T cells during normal chemokine-directed recirculation of CD4(+) T cells between blood and tissue.

  6. Cytoskeletal social networking in the growth cone: How +TIPs mediate microtubule-actin cross-linking to drive axon outgrowth and guidance.

    PubMed

    Cammarata, Garrett M; Bearce, Elizabeth A; Lowery, Laura Anne

    2016-09-01

    The growth cone is a unique structure capable of guiding axons to their proper destinations. Within the growth cone, extracellular guidance cues are interpreted and then transduced into physical changes in the actin filament (F-actin) and microtubule cytoskeletons, providing direction and movement. While both cytoskeletal networks individually possess important growth cone-specific functions, recent data over the past several years point towards a more cooperative role between the two systems. Facilitating this interaction between F-actin and microtubules, microtubule plus-end tracking proteins (+TIPs) have been shown to link the two cytoskeletons together. Evidence suggests that many +TIPs can couple microtubules to F-actin dynamics, supporting both microtubule advance and retraction in the growth cone periphery. In addition, growing in vitro and in vivo data support a secondary role for +TIPs in which they may participate as F-actin nucleators, thus directly influencing F-actin dynamics and organization. This review focuses on how +TIPs may link F-actin and microtubules together in the growth cone, and how these interactions may influence axon guidance. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Myosin II ATPase activity mediates the long-term potentiation-induced exodus of stable F-actin bound by drebrin A from dendritic spines.

    PubMed

    Mizui, Toshiyuki; Sekino, Yuko; Yamazaki, Hiroyuki; Ishizuka, Yuta; Takahashi, Hideto; Kojima, Nobuhiko; Kojima, Masami; Shirao, Tomoaki

    2014-01-01

    The neuronal actin-binding protein drebrin A forms a stable structure with F-actin in dendritic spines. NMDA receptor activation causes an exodus of F-actin bound by drebrin A (DA-actin) from dendritic spines, suggesting a pivotal role for DA-actin exodus in synaptic plasticity. We quantitatively assessed the extent of DA-actin localization to spines using the spine-dendrite ratio of drebrin A in cultured hippocampal neurons, and found that (1) chemical long-term potentiation (LTP) stimulation induces rapid DA-actin exodus and subsequent DA-actin re-entry in dendritic spines, (2) Ca(2+) influx through NMDA receptors regulates the exodus and the basal accumulation of DA-actin, and (3) the DA-actin exodus is blocked by myosin II ATPase inhibitor, but is not blocked by myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) or Rho-associated kinase (ROCK) inhibitors. These results indicate that myosin II mediates the interaction between NMDA receptor activation and DA-actin exodus in LTP induction. Furthermore, myosin II seems to be activated by a rapid actin-linked mechanism rather than slow MLC phosphorylation. Thus the myosin-II mediated DA-actin exodus might be an initial event in LTP induction, triggering actin polymerization and spine enlargement.

  8. Myosin II ATPase Activity Mediates the Long-Term Potentiation-Induced Exodus of Stable F-Actin Bound by Drebrin A from Dendritic Spines

    PubMed Central

    Mizui, Toshiyuki; Sekino, Yuko; Yamazaki, Hiroyuki; Ishizuka, Yuta; Takahashi, Hideto; Kojima, Nobuhiko; Kojima, Masami; Shirao, Tomoaki

    2014-01-01

    The neuronal actin-binding protein drebrin A forms a stable structure with F-actin in dendritic spines. NMDA receptor activation causes an exodus of F-actin bound by drebrin A (DA-actin) from dendritic spines, suggesting a pivotal role for DA-actin exodus in synaptic plasticity. We quantitatively assessed the extent of DA-actin localization to spines using the spine-dendrite ratio of drebrin A in cultured hippocampal neurons, and found that (1) chemical long-term potentiation (LTP) stimulation induces rapid DA-actin exodus and subsequent DA-actin re-entry in dendritic spines, (2) Ca2+ influx through NMDA receptors regulates the exodus and the basal accumulation of DA-actin, and (3) the DA-actin exodus is blocked by myosin II ATPase inhibitor, but is not blocked by myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) or Rho-associated kinase (ROCK) inhibitors. These results indicate that myosin II mediates the interaction between NMDA receptor activation and DA-actin exodus in LTP induction. Furthermore, myosin II seems to be activated by a rapid actin-linked mechanism rather than slow MLC phosphorylation. Thus the myosin-II mediated DA-actin exodus might be an initial event in LTP induction, triggering actin polymerization and spine enlargement. PMID:24465547

  9. Proteomic analysis of secretagogue-stimulated neutrophils implicates a role for actin and actin-interacting proteins in Rac2-mediated granule exocytosis

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Neutrophils are abundant leukocytes that play a primary role in defence against pathogens. Neutrophils enter sites of infection where they eliminate pathogens via phagocytosis and the release of antimicrobial mediators via degranulation. Rho GTPases, particularly Rac2, play a key role in neutrophil degranulation. The purpose of this study was to identify Rac2-dependent changes in protein abundance in stimulated neutrophils. Methods We performed a proteomic analysis on secretagogue-stimulated bone marrow neutrophils that were isolated from wild-type and Rac2-/- mice. Protein abundance was analyzed by 2-dimensional SDS-PAGE of fluorescently labelled samples which allowed the detection ~3500 proteins. Results We identified 22 proteins that showed significant changes in abundance after secretagogue-stimulation of wild-type neutrophils, which did not occur in neutrophils isolated from Rac2-/- mice. As expected, the abundance of several granule proteins was reduced in wild-type cells; this did not occur in Rac2-/- neutrophils which confirms the requirement for Rac2 in degranulation. We also found changes in abundance of many actin remodelling proteins including coronin-1A, β-actin and the F-actin capping protein, (CapZ-β). Coronin-1A showed elevated levels of several isoforms after stimulation of neutrophils from wild-type, but not from Rac2-/- mice. These isoforms were immunoreactive with anti-phospho-threonine antibodies, suggesting that neutrophil stimulation triggers a Rac2-dependent kinase cascade that results in the phosphorylation of coronin-1A. Conclusion The control of Rac2-mediated degranulation in neutrophils likely functions through actin remodelling via activation of several actin-binding proteins. We found coronin-1A to be a novel downstream effector protein of this pathway that is threonine phosphorylated in response to secretagogue stimulation. PMID:22081935

  10. The cytoskeleton and neurite initiation

    PubMed Central

    Flynn, Kevin C

    2013-01-01

    Neurons begin their life as simple spheres, but can ultimately assume an elaborate morphology with numerous, highly arborized dendrites, and long axons. This is achieved via an astounding developmental progression which is dependent upon regulated assembly and dynamics of the cellular cytoskeleton. As neurites emerge out of the soma, neurons break their spherical symmetry and begin to acquire the morphological features that define their structure and function. Neurons regulate their cytoskeleton to achieve changes in cell shape, velocity, and direction as they migrate, extend neurites, and polarize. Of particular importance, the organization and dynamics of actin and microtubules directs the migration and morphogenesis of neurons. This review focuses on the regulation of intrinsic properties of the actin and microtubule cytoskeletons and how specific cytoskeletal structures and dynamics are associated with the earliest phase of neuronal morphogenesis—neuritogenesis. PMID:24002528

  11. Direct Microtubule-Binding by Myosin-10 Orients Centrosomes toward Retraction Fibers and Subcortical Actin Clouds.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Mijung; Bagonis, Maria; Danuser, Gaudenz; Pellman, David

    2015-08-10

    Positioning of centrosomes is vital for cell division and development. In metazoan cells, spindle positioning is controlled by a dynamic pool of subcortical actin that organizes in response to the position of retraction fibers. These actin "clouds" are proposed to generate pulling forces on centrosomes and mediate spindle orientation. However, the motors that pull astral microtubules toward these actin structures are not known. Here, we report that the unconventional myosin, Myo10, couples actin-dependent forces from retraction fibers and subcortical actin clouds to centrosomes. Myo10-mediated centrosome positioning requires its direct microtubule binding. Computational image analysis of large microtubule populations reveals a direct effect of Myo10 on microtubule dynamics and microtubule-cortex interactions. Myo10's role in centrosome positioning is distinct from, but overlaps with, that of dynein. Thus, Myo10 plays a key role in integrating the actin and microtubule cytoskeletons to position centrosomes and mitotic spindles.

  12. Direct Microtubule-Binding by Myosin-10 Orients Centrosomes toward Retraction Fibers and Subcortical Actin Clouds.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Mijung; Bagonis, Maria; Danuser, Gaudenz; Pellman, David

    2015-08-10

    Positioning of centrosomes is vital for cell division and development. In metazoan cells, spindle positioning is controlled by a dynamic pool of subcortical actin that organizes in response to the position of retraction fibers. These actin "clouds" are proposed to generate pulling forces on centrosomes and mediate spindle orientation. However, the motors that pull astral microtubules toward these actin structures are not known. Here, we report that the unconventional myosin, Myo10, couples actin-dependent forces from retraction fibers and subcortical actin clouds to centrosomes. Myo10-mediated centrosome positioning requires its direct microtubule binding. Computational image analysis of large microtubule populations reveals a direct effect of Myo10 on microtubule dynamics and microtubule-cortex interactions. Myo10's role in centrosome positioning is distinct from, but overlaps with, that of dynein. Thus, Myo10 plays a key role in integrating the actin and microtubule cytoskeletons to position centrosomes and mitotic spindles. PMID:26235048

  13. The role of the cytoskeleton in the gravisensing and graviresponse mechanisms of plant roots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blancaflor, E.; Hou, G.; Mohamalawari, D.

    The cytoskeleton has been proposed to be a major player in the process of gravitropism. A major approach to determine the role of the cytoskeleton in gravitropism has been to use cytoskeletal disrupting drugs. Several investigators have reported that actin or microtubule inhibitors do not prevent root gravitropism therefore they concluded that the cytoskeleton is not involved in this process. However, some recent studies indicate that actin inhibitors promote gravitropism in both roots and shoots. To further investigate the significance of these observations, we studied the effect of various cytoskeletal inhibitors on roots grown on a clinostat in an effort to analyze other p rameters used to assay for gravisensitivity (e.g.a presentation time). Latrunculin B (LB) an actin-disrupting drug enhanced the gravisensitivity of a variety of roots as evident from the comparison of presentation times in LB-treated versus untreated roots . The microtubule inhibitor oryzalin did not have any significant effect on gravitropic sensitivity. Interestingly, roots treated with LB consistently showed hyper-gravitropic responses. Roots gravistimulated for 5-10 min and then rotated on a clinostat displayed extensive curvature. Application of LB specifically to the cap or elongation zone (EZ) of maize roots caused the disruption of the actin cytoskeleton, and such disruption was confined to regions of localized LB application. Only roots with disrupted actin in the cap displayed enhanced gravitropic sensitivity further emphasizing the importance of the root cap actin cytoskeleton in mediating gravitropism. The myosin inhibitor 2,3-butanedione monoxime (BDM) did not alter the sensitivity of roots to gravity suggesting that the hypergravitropic responses resulting from the disruption of actin filaments may not involve myosin motors. The increased sensitivity of roots to gravity after disruption of actin filaments suggests that an intact actin cytoskeleton in the cap is involved in

  14. Cytoskeleton and plant organogenesis.

    PubMed Central

    Kost, Benedikt; Bao, Yi-Qun; Chua, Nam-Hai

    2002-01-01

    The functions of microtubules and actin filaments during various processes that are essential for the growth, reproduction and survival of single plant cells have been well characterized. A large number of plant structural cytoskeletal or cytoskeleton-associated proteins, as well as genes encoding such proteins, have been identified. Although many of these genes and proteins have been partially characterized with respect to their functions, a coherent picture of how they interact to execute cytoskeletal functions in plant cells has yet to emerge. Cytoskeleton-controlled cellular processes are expected to play crucial roles during plant cell differentiation and organogenesis, but what exactly these roles are has only been investigated in a limited number of studies in the whole plant context. The intent of this review is to discuss the results of these studies in the light of what is known about the cellular functions of the plant cytoskeleton, and about the proteins and genes that are required for them. Directions are outlined for future work to advance our understanding of how the cytoskeleton contributes to plant organogenesis and development. PMID:12079673

  15. Regulation of actin catch-slip bonds with a RhoA-formin module

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Cho-yin; Lou, Jizhong; Wen, Kuo-Kuang; McKane, Melissa; Eskin, Suzanne G.; Rubenstein, Peter A.; Chien, Shu; Ono, Shoichiro; Zhu, Cheng; McIntire, Larry V.

    2016-01-01

    The dynamic turnover of the actin cytoskeleton is regulated cooperatively by force and biochemical signaling. We previously demonstrated that actin depolymerization under force is governed by catch-slip bonds mediated by force-induced K113:E195 salt-bridges. Yet, the biochemical regulation as well as the functional significance of actin catch bonds has not been elucidated. Using AFM force-clamp experiments, we show that formin controlled by RhoA switches the actin catch-slip bonds to slip-only bonds. SMD simulations reveal that the force does not induce the K113:E195 interaction when formin binds to actin K118 and E117 residues located at the helical segment extending to K113. Actin catch-slip bonds are suppressed by single residue replacements K113E and E195K that interrupt the force-induced K113:E195 interaction; and this suppression is rescued by a K113E/E195K double mutant (E/K) restoring the interaction in the opposite orientation. These results support the biological significance of actin catch bonds, as they corroborate reported observations that RhoA and formin switch force-induced actin cytoskeleton alignment and that either K113E or E195K induces yeast cell growth defects rescued by E/K. Our study demonstrates how the mechano-regulation of actin dynamics is modulated by biochemical signaling molecules, and suggests that actin catch bonds may be important in cell functions. PMID:27731359

  16. Regulation of actin catch-slip bonds with a RhoA-formin module

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Cho-Yin; Lou, Jizhong; Wen, Kuo-Kuang; McKane, Melissa; Eskin, Suzanne G.; Rubenstein, Peter A.; Chien, Shu; Ono, Shoichiro; Zhu, Cheng; McIntire, Larry V.

    2016-10-01

    The dynamic turnover of the actin cytoskeleton is regulated cooperatively by force and biochemical signaling. We previously demonstrated that actin depolymerization under force is governed by catch-slip bonds mediated by force-induced K113:E195 salt-bridges. Yet, the biochemical regulation as well as the functional significance of actin catch bonds has not been elucidated. Using AFM force-clamp experiments, we show that formin controlled by RhoA switches the actin catch-slip bonds to slip-only bonds. SMD simulations reveal that the force does not induce the K113:E195 interaction when formin binds to actin K118 and E117 residues located at the helical segment extending to K113. Actin catch-slip bonds are suppressed by single residue replacements K113E and E195K that interrupt the force-induced K113:E195 interaction; and this suppression is rescued by a K113E/E195K double mutant (E/K) restoring the interaction in the opposite orientation. These results support the biological significance of actin catch bonds, as they corroborate reported observations that RhoA and formin switch force-induced actin cytoskeleton alignment and that either K113E or E195K induces yeast cell growth defects rescued by E/K. Our study demonstrates how the mechano-regulation of actin dynamics is modulated by biochemical signaling molecules, and suggests that actin catch bonds may be important in cell functions.

  17. Actin Grips: Circular Actin-Rich Cytoskeletal Structures that Mediate the Wrapping of Polymeric Microfibers by Endothelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Desiree; Park, DoYoung; Anghelina, Mirela; Pecot, Thierry; Machiraju, Raghu; Xue, Ruipeng; Lannutti, John; Thomas, Jessica; Cole, Sara; Moldovan, Leni; Moldovan, Nicanor I.

    2015-01-01

    Interaction of endothelial-lineage cells with three-dimensional substrates was much less studied than that with flat culture surfaces. We investigated the in vitro attachment of both mature endothelial cells (ECs) and of less differentiated EC colony-forming cells to poly-e-capro-lactone (PCL) fibers with diameters in 5–20 μm range (‘scaffold microfibers’, SMFs). We found that notwithstanding the poor intrinsic adhesiveness to PCL, both cell types completely wrapped the SMFs after long-term cultivation, thus attaining a cylindrical morphology. In this system, both EC types grew vigorously for more than a week and became increasingly more differentiated, as shown by multiplexed gene expression. Three-dimensional reconstructions from multiphoton confocal microscopy images using custom software showed that the filamentous (F) actin bundles took a conspicuous ring-like organization around the SMFs. Unlike the classical F-actin-containing stress fibers, these rings were not associated with either focal adhesions or intermediate filaments. We also demonstrated that plasma membrane boundaries adjacent to these circular cytoskeletal structures were tightly yet dynamically apposed to the SMFs, for which reason we suggest to call them ‘actin grips’. In conclusion, we describe a particular form of F-actin assembly with relevance for cytoskeletal organization in response to biomaterials, for endothelial-specific cell behavior in vitro and in vivo, and for tissue engineering. PMID:25818446

  18. Visualization of Actin Cytoskeletal Dynamics in Fixed and Live Drosophila Egg Chambers.

    PubMed

    Groen, Christopher M; Tootle, Tina L

    2015-01-01

    Visualization of actin cytoskeletal dynamics is critical for understanding the spatial and temporal regulation of actin remodeling. Drosophila oogenesis provides an excellent model system for visualizing the actin cytoskeleton. Here, we present methods for imaging the actin cytoskeleton in Drosophila egg chambers in both fixed samples by phalloidin staining and in live egg chambers using transgenic actin labeling tools.

  19. Imaging Cytoskeleton Components by Electron Microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Svitkina, Tatyana

    2016-01-01

    The cytoskeleton is a complex of detergent-insoluble components of the cytoplasm playing critical roles in cell motility, shape generation, and mechanical properties of a cell. Fibrillar polymers—actin filaments, microtubules, and intermediate filaments—are major constituents of the cytoskeleton, which constantly change their organization during cellular activities. The actin cytoskeleton is especially polymorphic, as actin filaments can form multiple higher order assemblies performing different functions. Structural information about cytoskeleton organization is critical for understanding its functions and mechanisms underlying various forms of cellular activity. Because of the nanometer-scale thickness of cytoskeletal fibers, electron microscopy (EM) is a key tool to determine the structure of the cytoskeleton. This article describes application of rotary shadowing (or metal replica) EM for visualization of the cytoskeleton. The procedure is applicable to thin cultured cells growing on glass coverslips and consists of detergent extraction of cells to expose their cytoskeleton, chemical fixation to provide stability, ethanol dehydration and critical point drying to preserve three-dimensionality, rotary shadowing with platinum to create contrast, and carbon coating to stabilize replicas. This technique provides easily interpretable three-dimensional images, in which individual cytoskeletal fibers are clearly resolved, and individual proteins can be identified by immunogold labeling. More importantly, replica EM is easily compatible with live cell imaging, so that one can correlate the dynamics of a cell or its components, e.g., expressed fluorescent proteins, with high resolution structural organization of the cytoskeleton in the same cell. PMID:26498781

  20. Imaging Cytoskeleton Components by Electron Microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Svitkina, Tatyana

    2010-01-01

    Summary The cytoskeleton is a complex of detergent-insoluble components of the cytoplasm playing critical roles in cell motility, shape generation, and mechanical properties of a cell. Fibrillar polymers-actin filaments, microtubules, and intermediate filaments- are major constituents of the cytoskeleton, which constantly change their organization during cellular activities. The actin cytoskeleton is especially polymorphic, as actin filaments can form multiple higher order assemblies performing different functions. Structural information about cytoskeleton organization is critical for understanding its functions and mechanisms underlying various forms of cellular activity. Because of the nanometer-scale thickness of cytoskeletal fibers, electron microscopy (EM) is a key tool to determine the structure of the cytoskeleton. This article describes application of rotary shadowing (or metal replica) EM for visualization of the cytoskeleton. The procedure is applicable to thin cultured cells growing on glass coverslips and consists of detergent extraction of cells to expose their cytoskeleton, chemical fixation to provide stability, ethanol dehydration and critical point drying to preserve three-dimensionality, rotary shadowing with platinum to create contrast, and carbon coating to stabilize replicas. This technique provides easily interpretable three-dimensional images, in which individual cytoskeletal fibers are clearly resolved, and individual proteins can be identified by immunogold labeling. More importantly, replica EM is easily compatible with live cell imaging, so that one can correlate the dynamics of a cell or its components, e.g., expressed fluorescent proteins, with high resolution structural organization of the cytoskeleton in the same cell. PMID:19768431

  1. Technical advance: identification of plant actin-binding proteins by F-actin affinity chromatography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hu, S.; Brady, S. R.; Kovar, D. R.; Staiger, C. J.; Clark, G. B.; Roux, S. J.; Muday, G. K.

    2000-01-01

    Proteins that interact with the actin cytoskeleton often modulate the dynamics or organization of the cytoskeleton or use the cytoskeleton to control their localization. In plants, very few actin-binding proteins have been identified and most are thought to modulate cytoskeleton function. To identify actin-binding proteins that are unique to plants, the development of new biochemical procedures will be critical. Affinity columns using actin monomers (globular actin, G-actin) or actin filaments (filamentous actin, F-actin) have been used to identify actin-binding proteins from a wide variety of organisms. Monomeric actin from zucchini (Cucurbita pepo L.) hypocotyl tissue was purified to electrophoretic homogeneity and shown to be native and competent for polymerization to actin filaments. G-actin, F-actin and bovine serum albumin affinity columns were prepared and used to separate samples enriched in either soluble or membrane-associated actin-binding proteins. Extracts of soluble actin-binding proteins yield distinct patterns when eluted from the G-actin and F-actin columns, respectively, leading to the identification of a putative F-actin-binding protein of approximately 40 kDa. When plasma membrane-associated proteins were applied to these columns, two abundant polypeptides eluted selectively from the F-actin column and cross-reacted with antiserum against pea annexins. Additionally, a protein that binds auxin transport inhibitors, the naphthylphthalamic acid binding protein, which has been previously suggested to associate with the actin cytoskeleton, was eluted in a single peak from the F-actin column. These experiments provide a new approach that may help to identify novel actin-binding proteins from plants.

  2. BteA Secreted from the Bordetella bronchiseptica Type III Secetion System Induces Necrosis through an Actin Cytoskeleton Signaling Pathway and Inhibits Phagocytosis by Macrophages.

    PubMed

    Kuwae, Asaomi; Momose, Fumitaka; Nagamatsu, Kanna; Suyama, Yasuharu; Abe, Akio

    2016-01-01

    BteA is one of the effectors secreted from the Bordetella bronchiseptica type III secretion system. It has been reported that BteA induces necrosis in mammalian cells; however, the roles of BteA during the infection process are largely unknown. In order to investigate the BteA functions, morphological changes of the cells infected with the wild-type B. bronchiseptica were examined by time-lapse microscopy. L2 cells, a rat lung epithelial cell line, spread at 1.6 hours after B. bronchiseptica infection. Membrane ruffles were observed at peripheral parts of infected cells during the cell spreading. BteA-dependent cytotoxicity and cell detachment were inhibited by addition of cytochalasin D, an actin polymerization inhibitor. Domain analyses of BteA suggested that two separate amino acid regions, 200-312 and 400-658, were required for the necrosis induction. In order to examine the intra/intermolecular interactions of BteA, the amino- and the carboxyl-terminal moieties were purified as recombinant proteins from Escherichia coli. The amino-terminal moiety of BteA appeared to interact with the carboxyl-terminal moiety in the pull-down assay in vitro. When we measured the amounts of bacteria phagocytosed by J774A.1, a macrophage-like cell line, the phagocytosed amounts of B. bronchiseptica strains that deliver BteA into the host cell cytoplasm were significantly lower than those of strains that lost the ability to translocate BteA into the host cell cytoplasm. These results suggest that B. bronchiseptica induce necrosis by exploiting the actin polymerization signaling pathway and inhibit macrophage phagocytosis.

  3. BteA Secreted from the Bordetella bronchiseptica Type III Secetion System Induces Necrosis through an Actin Cytoskeleton Signaling Pathway and Inhibits Phagocytosis by Macrophages.

    PubMed

    Kuwae, Asaomi; Momose, Fumitaka; Nagamatsu, Kanna; Suyama, Yasuharu; Abe, Akio

    2016-01-01

    BteA is one of the effectors secreted from the Bordetella bronchiseptica type III secretion system. It has been reported that BteA induces necrosis in mammalian cells; however, the roles of BteA during the infection process are largely unknown. In order to investigate the BteA functions, morphological changes of the cells infected with the wild-type B. bronchiseptica were examined by time-lapse microscopy. L2 cells, a rat lung epithelial cell line, spread at 1.6 hours after B. bronchiseptica infection. Membrane ruffles were observed at peripheral parts of infected cells during the cell spreading. BteA-dependent cytotoxicity and cell detachment were inhibited by addition of cytochalasin D, an actin polymerization inhibitor. Domain analyses of BteA suggested that two separate amino acid regions, 200-312 and 400-658, were required for the necrosis induction. In order to examine the intra/intermolecular interactions of BteA, the amino- and the carboxyl-terminal moieties were purified as recombinant proteins from Escherichia coli. The amino-terminal moiety of BteA appeared to interact with the carboxyl-terminal moiety in the pull-down assay in vitro. When we measured the amounts of bacteria phagocytosed by J774A.1, a macrophage-like cell line, the phagocytosed amounts of B. bronchiseptica strains that deliver BteA into the host cell cytoplasm were significantly lower than those of strains that lost the ability to translocate BteA into the host cell cytoplasm. These results suggest that B. bronchiseptica induce necrosis by exploiting the actin polymerization signaling pathway and inhibit macrophage phagocytosis. PMID:26828590

  4. Computer-Based Identification of a Novel LIMK1/2 Inhibitor that Synergizes with Salirasib to Destabilize the Actin Cytoskeleton

    PubMed Central

    Elad-Sfadia, Galit; Haklai, Roni; Carmeli, Shmuel; Kloog, Yoel; Wolfson, Haim J.

    2012-01-01

    Neurofibromin regulates cell motility via three distinct GTPase pathways acting through two different domains, the Ras GTPase-activating protein-related domain (GRD) and the pre-GRD domain. First, the GRD domain inhibits Ras-dependent changes in cell motility through the mitogen activated protein cascade. Second, it also regulates Rho-dependent (Ras-independent) changes by activating LIM kinase 2 (LIMK2), an enzyme that phosphorylates and inactivates cofilin (an actin-depolymerizing factor). Third, the pre-GRD domain acts through the Rac1 GTPase, that activate the P21 activated kinase 1 (PAK1)-LIMK1-cofilin pathway. We employed molecular modeling to identify a novel inhibitor of LIMK1/2. The active sites of an ephrin-A receptor (EphA3) and LIMK2 showed marked similarity (60%). On testing a known inhibitor of EphA3, we found that it fits to the LIMK1/2-ATP binding site and to the latter's substrate-binding pockets. We identified a similar compound, T56-LIMKi, and found that it inhibits LIMK1/2 kinase activities. It blocked the phosphorylation of cofilin which led to actin severance and inhibition of tumor cell migration, tumor cell growth, and anchorage-independent colony formation in soft agar. Because modulation of LIMK by neurofibromin is not affected by the Ras inhibitor Salirasib, we examined the combined effect of Salirasib and T56-LIMKi each of which can affect cell motility by a distinct pathway. We found that their combined action on cell proliferation and stress-fiber formation in neurofibromin-deficient cells was synergistic. We suggest that this drug combination may be developed for treatment of neurofibromatosis and cancer. PMID:22776759

  5. BteA Secreted from the Bordetella bronchiseptica Type III Secetion System Induces Necrosis through an Actin Cytoskeleton Signaling Pathway and Inhibits Phagocytosis by Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Kuwae, Asaomi; Momose, Fumitaka; Nagamatsu, Kanna; Suyama, Yasuharu; Abe, Akio

    2016-01-01

    BteA is one of the effectors secreted from the Bordetella bronchiseptica type III secretion system. It has been reported that BteA induces necrosis in mammalian cells; however, the roles of BteA during the infection process are largely unknown. In order to investigate the BteA functions, morphological changes of the cells infected with the wild-type B. bronchiseptica were examined by time-lapse microscopy. L2 cells, a rat lung epithelial cell line, spread at 1.6 hours after B. bronchiseptica infection. Membrane ruffles were observed at peripheral parts of infected cells during the cell spreading. BteA-dependent cytotoxicity and cell detachment were inhibited by addition of cytochalasin D, an actin polymerization inhibitor. Domain analyses of BteA suggested that two separate amino acid regions, 200–312 and 400–658, were required for the necrosis induction. In order to examine the intra/intermolecular interactions of BteA, the amino- and the carboxyl-terminal moieties were purified as recombinant proteins from Escherichia coli. The amino-terminal moiety of BteA appeared to interact with the carboxyl-terminal moiety in the pull-down assay in vitro. When we measured the amounts of bacteria phagocytosed by J774A.1, a macrophage-like cell line, the phagocytosed amounts of B. bronchiseptica strains that deliver BteA into the host cell cytoplasm were significantly lower than those of strains that lost the ability to translocate BteA into the host cell cytoplasm. These results suggest that B. bronchiseptica induce necrosis by exploiting the actin polymerization signaling pathway and inhibit macrophage phagocytosis. PMID:26828590

  6. Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification Targeting Actin DNA of Trichomonas vaginalis.

    PubMed

    Goo, Youn-Kyoung; Shin, Won-Sik; Yang, Hye-Won; Joo, So-Young; Song, Su-Min; Ryu, Jae-Sook; Kong, Hyun-Hee; Lee, Won-Ki; Chung, Dong-Il; Hong, Yeonchul

    2016-06-01

    Trichomoniasis caused by Trichomonas vaginalis is a common sexually transmitted disease. Its association with several health problems, including preterm birth, pelvic inflammatory disease, cervical cancer, and transmission of human immunodeficiency virus, emphasizes the importance of improved access to early and accurate detection of T. vaginalis. In this study, a rapid and efficient loop-mediated isothermal amplification-based method for the detection of T. vaginalis was developed and validated, using vaginal swab specimens from subjects suspected to have trichomoniasis. The LAMP assay targeting the actin gene was highly sensitive with detection limits of 1 trichomonad and 1 pg of T. vaginalis DNA per reaction, and specifically amplified the target gene only from T. vaginalis. Validation of this assay showed that it had the highest sensitivity and better agreement with PCR (used as the gold standard) compared to microscopy and multiplex PCR. This study showed that the LAMP assay, targeting the actin gene, could be used to diagnose early infections of T. vaginalis. Thus, we have provided an alternative molecular diagnostic tool and a point-of-care test that may help to prevent trichomoniasis transmission and associated complications. PMID:27417089

  7. Mechanisms of leiomodin 2-mediated regulation of actin filament in muscle cells

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xiaorui; Ni, Fengyun; Kondrashkina, Elena; Ma, Jianpeng; Wang, Qinghua

    2015-01-01

    Leiomodin (Lmod) is a class of potent tandem-G-actin–binding nucleators in muscle cells. Lmod mutations, deletion, or instability are linked to lethal nemaline myopathy. However, the lack of high-resolution structures of Lmod nucleators in action severely hampered our understanding of their essential cellular functions. Here we report the crystal structure of the actin–Lmod2162–495 nucleus. The structure contains two actin subunits connected by one Lmod2162–495 molecule in a non–filament-like conformation. Complementary functional studies suggest that the binding of Lmod2 stimulates ATP hydrolysis and accelerates actin nucleation and polymerization. The high level of conservation among Lmod proteins in sequence and functions suggests that the mechanistic insights of human Lmod2 uncovered here may aid in a molecular understanding of other Lmod proteins. Furthermore, our structural and mechanistic studies unraveled a previously unrecognized level of regulation in mammalian signal transduction mediated by certain tandem-G-actin–binding nucleators. PMID:26417072

  8. Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification Targeting Actin DNA of Trichomonas vaginalis.

    PubMed

    Goo, Youn-Kyoung; Shin, Won-Sik; Yang, Hye-Won; Joo, So-Young; Song, Su-Min; Ryu, Jae-Sook; Kong, Hyun-Hee; Lee, Won-Ki; Chung, Dong-Il; Hong, Yeonchul

    2016-06-01

    Trichomoniasis caused by Trichomonas vaginalis is a common sexually transmitted disease. Its association with several health problems, including preterm birth, pelvic inflammatory disease, cervical cancer, and transmission of human immunodeficiency virus, emphasizes the importance of improved access to early and accurate detection of T. vaginalis. In this study, a rapid and efficient loop-mediated isothermal amplification-based method for the detection of T. vaginalis was developed and validated, using vaginal swab specimens from subjects suspected to have trichomoniasis. The LAMP assay targeting the actin gene was highly sensitive with detection limits of 1 trichomonad and 1 pg of T. vaginalis DNA per reaction, and specifically amplified the target gene only from T. vaginalis. Validation of this assay showed that it had the highest sensitivity and better agreement with PCR (used as the gold standard) compared to microscopy and multiplex PCR. This study showed that the LAMP assay, targeting the actin gene, could be used to diagnose early infections of T. vaginalis. Thus, we have provided an alternative molecular diagnostic tool and a point-of-care test that may help to prevent trichomoniasis transmission and associated complications.

  9. Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification Targeting Actin DNA of Trichomonas vaginalis

    PubMed Central

    Goo, Youn-Kyoung; Shin, Won-Sik; Yang, Hye-Won; Joo, So-Young; Song, Su-Min; Ryu, Jae-Sook; Kong, Hyun-Hee; Lee, Won-Ki; Chung, Dong-Il; Hong, Yeonchul

    2016-01-01

    Trichomoniasis caused by Trichomonas vaginalis is a common sexually transmitted disease. Its association with several health problems, including preterm birth, pelvic inflammatory disease, cervical cancer, and transmission of human immunodeficiency virus, emphasizes the importance of improved access to early and accurate detection of T. vaginalis. In this study, a rapid and efficient loop-mediated isothermal amplification-based method for the detection of T. vaginalis was developed and validated, using vaginal swab specimens from subjects suspected to have trichomoniasis. The LAMP assay targeting the actin gene was highly sensitive with detection limits of 1 trichomonad and 1 pg of T. vaginalis DNA per reaction, and specifically amplified the target gene only from T. vaginalis. Validation of this assay showed that it had the highest sensitivity and better agreement with PCR (used as the gold standard) compared to microscopy and multiplex PCR. This study showed that the LAMP assay, targeting the actin gene, could be used to diagnose early infections of T. vaginalis. Thus, we have provided an alternative molecular diagnostic tool and a point-of-care test that may help to prevent trichomoniasis transmission and associated complications. PMID:27417089

  10. Oxidant-induced apoptosis is mediated by oxidation of the actin-regulatory protein cofilin

    PubMed Central

    Klamt, Fábio; Zdanov, Stéphanie; Levine, Rodney L.; Pariser, Ashley; Zhang, Yaqin; Zhang, Baolin; Yu, Li-Rong; Veenstra, Timothy D.; Shacter, Emily

    2012-01-01

    Physiological oxidants that are generated by activated phagocytes comprise the main source of oxidative stress during inflammation1,2. Oxidants such as taurine chloramine (TnCl) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) can damage proteins and induce apoptosis, but the role of specific protein oxidation in this process has not been defined. We found that the actin-binding protein cofilin is a key target of oxidation. When oxidation of this single regulatory protein is prevented, oxidant-induced apoptosis is inhibited. Oxidation of cofilin causes it to lose its affinity for actin and to translocate to the mitochondria, where it induces swelling and cytochrome c release by mediating opening of the permeability transition pore (PTP). This occurs independently of Bax activation and requires both oxidation of cofilin Cys residues and dephosphorylation at Ser 3. Knockdown of endogenous cofilin using targeted siRNA inhibits oxidant-induced apoptosis, which is restored by re-expression of wild-type cofilin but not by cofilin containing Cys to Ala mutations. Exposure of cofilin to TnCl results in intramolecular disulphide bonding and oxidation of Met residues to Met sulphoxide, but only Cys oxidation causes cofilin to induce mitochondrial damage. PMID:19734890

  11. Neuroligin 1 regulates spines and synaptic plasticity via LIMK1/cofilin-mediated actin reorganization

    PubMed Central

    Liu, An; Zhou, Zikai; Dang, Rui; Zhu, Yuehua; Qi, Junxia; He, Guiqin; Leung, Celeste; Pak, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Neuroligin (NLG) 1 is important for synapse development and function, but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. It is known that at least some aspects of NLG1 function are independent of the presynaptic neurexin, suggesting that the C-terminal domain (CTD) of NLG1 may be sufficient for synaptic regulation. In addition, NLG1 is subjected to activity-dependent proteolytic cleavage, generating a cytosolic CTD fragment, but the significance of this process remains unknown. In this study, we show that the CTD of NLG1 is sufficient to (a) enhance spine and synapse number, (b) modulate synaptic plasticity, and (c) exert these effects via its interaction with spine-associated Rap guanosine triphosphatase–activating protein and subsequent activation of LIM-domain protein kinase 1/cofilin–mediated actin reorganization. Our results provide a novel postsynaptic mechanism by which NLG1 regulates synapse development and function. PMID:26880202

  12. Neuroligin 1 regulates spines and synaptic plasticity via LIMK1/cofilin-mediated actin reorganization.

    PubMed

    Liu, An; Zhou, Zikai; Dang, Rui; Zhu, Yuehua; Qi, Junxia; He, Guiqin; Leung, Celeste; Pak, Daniel; Jia, Zhengping; Xie, Wei

    2016-02-15

    Neuroligin (NLG) 1 is important for synapse development and function, but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. It is known that at least some aspects of NLG1 function are independent of the presynaptic neurexin, suggesting that the C-terminal domain (CTD) of NLG1 may be sufficient for synaptic regulation. In addition, NLG1 is subjected to activity-dependent proteolytic cleavage, generating a cytosolic CTD fragment, but the significance of this process remains unknown. In this study, we show that the CTD of NLG1 is sufficient to (a) enhance spine and synapse number, (b) modulate synaptic plasticity, and (c) exert these effects via its interaction with spine-associated Rap guanosine triphosphatase-activating protein and subsequent activation of LIM-domain protein kinase 1/cofilin-mediated actin reorganization. Our results provide a novel postsynaptic mechanism by which NLG1 regulates synapse development and function. PMID:26880202

  13. L1-dependent neuritogenesis involves ankyrinB that mediates L1-CAM coupling with retrograde actin flow.

    PubMed

    Nishimura, Kazunari; Yoshihara, Fumie; Tojima, Takuro; Ooashi, Noriko; Yoon, Woohyun; Mikoshiba, Katsuhiko; Bennett, Vann; Kamiguchi, Hiroyuki

    2003-12-01

    The cell adhesion molecule L1 (L1-CAM) plays critical roles in neurite growth. Its cytoplasmic domain (L1CD) binds to ankyrins that associate with the spectrin-actin network. This paper demonstrates that L1-CAM interactions with ankyrinB (but not with ankyrinG) are involved in the initial formation of neurites. In the membranous protrusions surrounding the soma before neuritogenesis, filamentous actin (F-actin) and ankyrinB continuously move toward the soma (retrograde flow). Bead-tracking experiments show that ankyrinB mediates L1-CAM coupling with retrograde F-actin flow in these perisomatic structures. Ligation of the L1-CAM ectodomain by an immobile substrate induces L1CD-ankyrinB binding and the formation of stationary ankyrinB clusters. Neurite initiation preferentially occurs at the site of these clusters. In contrast, ankyrinB is involved neither in L1-CAM coupling with F-actin flow in growth cones nor in L1-based neurite elongation. Our results indicate that ankyrinB promotes neurite initiation by acting as a component of the clutch module that transmits traction force generated by F-actin flow to the extracellular substrate via L1-CAM.

  14. Exo70 Stimulates the Arp2/3 Complex-mediated Actin Branching for Lamellipodia Formation and Cell Migration

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jianglan; Zhao, Yuting; Sun, Yujie; He, Bing; Yang, Changsong; Svitkina, Tatyana; Goldman, Yale E.; Guo, Wei

    2012-01-01

    Summary Directional cell migration requires the coordination of actin assembly and membrane remodeling. The exocyst is an octameric protein complex essential for exocytosis and plasma membrane remodeling [1,2]. A component of the exocyst, Exo70, directly interacts with the Arp2/3 complex, a core nucleating factor for the generation of branched actin networks for cell morphogenesis and migration [3-9]. Using in vitro actin polymerization assay and time-lapse TIRF microscopy, we found Exo70 functions as a kinetic activator of the Arp2/3 complex that promotes actin filament nucleation and branching. We further found that the effect of Exo70 on actin is mediated by promoting the interaction of Arp2/3 complex with WAVE2, a member of the N-WASP/WAVE family of nucleation promoting factors (NPFs). At the cellular level, the stimulatory effect of Exo70 on Arp2/3 is required for lamellipodia formation and maintaining directional persistence of cell migration. Our findings provide a novel mechanism for regulating actin polymerization and branching for effective membrane protrusion during cell morphogenesis and migration. PMID:22748316

  15. Barley MLO Modulates Actin-Dependent and Actin-Independent Antifungal Defense Pathways at the Cell Periphery1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Miklis, Marco; Consonni, Chiara; Bhat, Riyaz A.; Lipka, Volker; Schulze-Lefert, Paul; Panstruga, Ralph

    2007-01-01

    Cell polarization is a crucial process during plant development, as well as in plant-microbe interactions, and is frequently associated with extensive cytoskeletal rearrangements. In interactions of plants with inappropriate fungal pathogens (so-called non-host interactions), the actin cytoskeleton is thought to contribute to the establishment of effective barriers at the cell periphery against fungal ingress. Here, we impeded actin cytoskeleton function in various types of disease resistance using pharmacological inhibitors and genetic interference via ectopic expression of an actin-depolymerizing factor-encoding gene, ADF. We demonstrate that barley (Hordeum vulgare) epidermal cells require actin cytoskeleton function for basal defense to the appropriate powdery mildew pathogen Blumeria graminis f. sp. hordei and for mlo-mediated resistance at the cell wall, but not for several tested race-specific immune responses. Analysis of non-host resistance to two tested inappropriate powdery mildews, Erysiphe pisi and B. graminis f. sp. tritici, revealed the existence of actin-dependent and actin-independent resistance pathways acting at the cell periphery. These pathways act synergistically and appear to be under negative control by the plasma membrane-resident MLO protein. PMID:17449647

  16. Tip-localized actin polymerization and remodeling, reflected by the localization of ADF, profilin and villin, are fundamental for gravity-sensing and polar growth in characean rhizoids.

    PubMed

    Braun, Markus; Hauslage, Jens; Czogalla, Aleksander; Limbach, Christoph

    2004-07-01

    Polar organization and gravity-oriented, polarized growth of characean rhizoids are dependent on the actin cytoskeleton. In this report, we demonstrate that the prominent center of the Spitzenkörper serves as the apical actin polymerization site in the extending tip. After cytochalasin D-induced disruption of the actin cytoskeleton, the regeneration of actin microfilaments (MFs) starts with the reappearance of a flat, brightly fluorescing actin array in the outermost tip. The actin array rounds up, produces actin MFs that radiate in all directions and is then relocated into its original central position in the center of the Spitzenkörper. The emerging actin MFs rearrange and cross-link to form the delicate, subapical meshwork, which then controls the statolith positioning, re-establishes the tip-high calcium gradient and mediates the reorganization of the Spitzenkörper with its central ER aggregate and the accumulation of secretory vesicles. Tip growth and gravitropic sensing, which includes control of statolith positioning and gravity-induced sedimentation, are not resumed until the original polar actin organization is completely restored. Immunolocalization of the actin-binding proteins, actin-depolymerizing factor (ADF) and profilin, which both accumulate in the center of the Spitzenkörper, indicates high actin turnover and gives additional support for the actin-polymerizing function of this central, apical area. Association of villin immunofluorescence with two populations of thick undulating actin cables with uniform polarity underlying rotational cytoplasmic streaming in the basal region suggests that villin is the major actin-bundling protein in rhizoids. Our results provide evidence that the precise coordination of apical actin polymerization and dynamic remodeling of actin MFs by actin-binding proteins play a fundamental role in cell polarization, gravity sensing and gravity-oriented polarized growth of characean rhizoids.

  17. Rapid depletion of mutant eukaryotic initiation factor 5A at restrictive temperature reveals connections to actin cytoskeleton and cell cycle progression.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Ishita; Gross, Stephane R; Kinzy, Terri Goss; Chen, Kuang Yu

    2006-03-01

    Eukaryotic initiation factor 5A (eIF5A) is the only protein in nature that contains hypusine, an unusual amino acid derived from the modification of lysine by spermidine. Two genes, TIF51A and TIF51B, encode eIF5A in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In an effort to understand the structure-function relationship of eIF5A, we have generated yeast mutants by introducing plasmid-borne tif51A into a double null strain where both TIF51A and TIF51B have been disrupted. One of the mutants, tsL102A strain (tif51A L102A tif51aDelta tif51bDelta) exhibits a strong temperature-sensitive growth phenotype. At the restrictive temperature, tsL102A strain also exhibits a cell shape change, a lack of volume change in response to temperature increase and becomes more sensitive to ethanol, a hallmark of defects in the PKC/WSC cell wall integrity pathway. In addition, a striking change in actin dynamics and a complete cell cycle arrest at G1 phase occur in tsL102A cells at restrictive temperature. The temperature-sensitivity of tsL102A strain is due to a rapid loss of mutant eIF5A with the half-life reduced from 6 h at permissive temperature to 20 min at restrictive temperature. Phenylmethyl sulfonylfluoride (PMSF), an irreversible inhibitor of serine protease, inhibited the degradation of mutant eIF5A and suppressed the temperature-sensitive growth arrest. Sorbitol, an osmotic stabilizer that complement defects in PKC/WSC pathways, stabilizes the mutant eIF5A and suppresses all the observed temperature-sensitive phenotypes. PMID:16408210

  18. Micropatterned Azopolymer Surfaces Modulate Cell Mechanics and Cytoskeleton Structure.

    PubMed

    Rianna, Carmela; Ventre, Maurizio; Cavalli, Silvia; Radmacher, Manfred; Netti, Paolo A

    2015-09-30

    Physical and chemical characteristics of materials are important regulators of cell behavior. In particular, cell elasticity is a fundamental parameter that reflects the state of a cell. Surface topography finely modulates cell fate and function via adhesion mediated signaling and cytoskeleton generated forces. However, how topographies alter cell mechanics is still unclear. In this work we have analyzed the mechanical properties of peripheral and nuclear regions of NIH-3T3 cells on azopolymer substrates with different topographic patterns. Micrometer scale patterns in the form of parallel ridges or square lattices of surface elevations were encoded on light responsive azopolymer films by means of contactless optical methods. Cell mechanics was investigated by atomic force microscopy (AFM). Cells and consequently the cell cytoskeleton were oriented along the linear patterns affecting cytoskeletal structures, e.g., formation of actin stress fibers. Our data demonstrate that topographic substrate patterns are recognized by cells and mechanical information is transferred by the cytoskeleton. Furthermore, cytoskeleton generated forces deform the nucleus, changing its morphology that appears to be related to different mechanical properties in the nuclear region.

  19. Staurosporine augments EGF-mediated EMT in PMC42-LA cells through actin depolymerisation, focal contact size reduction and Snail1 induction – A model for cross-modulation

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background A feature of epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) relevant to tumour dissemination is the reorganization of actin cytoskeleton/focal contacts, influencing cellular ECM adherence and motility. This is coupled with the transcriptional repression of E-cadherin, often mediated by Snail1, Snail2 and Zeb1/δEF1. These genes, overexpressed in breast carcinomas, are known targets of growth factor-initiated pathways, however it is less clear how alterations in ECM attachment cross-modulate to regulate these pathways. EGF induces EMT in the breast cancer cell line PMC42-LA and the kinase inhibitor staurosporine (ST) induces EMT in embryonic neural epithelial cells, with F-actin de-bundling and disruption of cell-cell adhesion, via inhibition of aPKC. Methods PMC42-LA cells were treated for 72 h with 10 ng/ml EGF, 40 nM ST, or both, and assessed for expression of E-cadherin repressor genes (Snail1, Snail2, Zeb1/δEF1) and EMT-related genes by QRT-PCR, multiplex tandem PCR (MT-PCR) and immunofluorescence +/- cycloheximide. Actin and focal contacts (paxillin) were visualized by confocal microscopy. A public database of human breast cancers was assessed for expression of Snail1 and Snail2 in relation to outcome. Results When PMC42-LA were treated with EGF, Snail2 was the principal E-cadherin repressor induced. With ST or ST+EGF this shifted to Snail1, with more extreme EMT and Zeb1/δEF1 induction seen with ST+EGF. ST reduced stress fibres and focal contact size rapidly and independently of gene transcription. Gene expression analysis by MT-PCR indicated that ST repressed many genes which were induced by EGF (EGFR, CAV1, CTGF, CYR61, CD44, S100A4) and induced genes which alter the actin cytoskeleton (NLF1, NLF2, EPHB4). Examination of the public database of breast cancers revealed tumours exhibiting higher Snail1 expression have an increased risk of disease-recurrence. This was not seen for Snail2, and Zeb1/δEF1 showed a reverse correlation with lower

  20. Fluid shear-induced mechanical signaling in MC3T3-E1 osteoblasts requires cytoskeleton-integrin interactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pavalko, F. M.; Chen, N. X.; Turner, C. H.; Burr, D. B.; Atkinson, S.; Hsieh, Y. F.; Qiu, J.; Duncan, R. L.

    1998-01-01

    Mechanical stimulation of bone induces new bone formation in vivo and increases the metabolic activity and gene expression of osteoblasts in culture. We investigated the role of the actin cytoskeleton and actin-membrane interactions in the transmission of mechanical signals leading to altered gene expression in cultured MC3T3-E1 osteoblasts. Application of fluid shear to osteoblasts caused reorganization of actin filaments into contractile stress fibers and involved recruitment of beta1-integrins and alpha-actinin to focal adhesions. Fluid shear also increased expression of two proteins linked to mechanotransduction in vivo, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and the early response gene product c-fos. Inhibition of actin stress fiber development by treatment of cells with cytochalasin D, by expression of a dominant negative form of the small GTPase Rho, or by microinjection into cells of a proteolytic fragment of alpha-actinin that inhibits alpha-actinin-mediated anchoring of actin filaments to integrins at the plasma membrane each blocked fluid-shear-induced gene expression in osteoblasts. We conclude that fluid shear-induced mechanical signaling in osteoblasts leads to increased expression of COX-2 and c-Fos through a mechanism that involves reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton. Thus Rho-mediated stress fiber formation and the alpha-actinin-dependent anchorage of stress fibers to integrins in focal adhesions may promote fluid shear-induced metabolic changes in bone cells.

  1. Rickettsia Sca2 is a bacterial formin-like mediator of actin-based motility

    PubMed Central

    Haglund, Cat M.; Choe, Julie E.; Skau, Colleen T.; Kovar, David R.; Welch, Matthew D.

    2011-01-01

    Diverse intracellular pathogens subvert the host actin polymerization machinery to drive movement within and between cells during infection. Rickettsia in the spotted fever group (SFG) are Gram-negative, obligate intracellular bacterial pathogens that undergo actin-based motility and assemble distinctive ‘comet tails’ that consist of long, unbranched actin filaments1,2. Despite this distinct organization, it was proposed that actin in Rickettsia comet tails is nucleated by the host Arp2/3 complex and the bacterial protein RickA, which assemble branched actin networks3,4. However, a second bacterial gene, sca2, was recently implicated in actin tail formation by R. rickettsii5. Here, we demonstrate that Sca2 is a bacterial actin-assembly factor that functionally mimics eukaryotic formin proteins. Sca2 nucleates unbranched actin filaments, processively associates with growing barbed ends, requires profilin for efficient elongation, and inhibits the activity of capping protein, all properties shared with formins. Sca2 localizes to the Rickettsia surface and is sufficient to promote the assembly of actin filaments in cytoplasmic extract. These results suggest that Sca2 mimics formins to determine the unique organization of actin filaments in Rickettsia tails and drive bacterial motility, independently of host nucleators. PMID:20972427

  2. The Gas2 family protein Pigs is a microtubule +TIP that affects cytoskeleton organisation

    PubMed Central

    Girdler, Gemma C.; Applewhite, Derek A.; Perry, Wick M. G.; Rogers, Stephen L.; Röper, Katja

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Coordination between different cytoskeletal systems is crucial for many cell biological functions, including cell migration and mitosis, and also plays an important role during tissue morphogenesis. Proteins of the class of cytoskeletal crosslinkers, or cytolinkers, have the ability to interact with more than one cytoskeletal system at a time and are prime candidates to mediate any coordination. One such class comprises the Gas2-like proteins, combining a conserved calponin-homology-type actin-binding domain and a Gas2 domain predicted to bind microtubules (MTs). This domain combination is also found in spectraplakins, huge cytolinkers that play important roles in many tissues in both invertebrates and vertebrates. Here, we dissect the ability of the single Drosophila Gas2-like protein Pigs to interact with both actin and MT cytoskeletons, both in vitro and in vivo, and illustrate complex regulatory interactions that determine the localisation of Pigs to and its effects on the cytoskeleton. PMID:26585311

  3. The Gas2 family protein Pigs is a microtubule +TIP that affects cytoskeleton organisation.

    PubMed

    Girdler, Gemma C; Applewhite, Derek A; Perry, Wick M G; Rogers, Stephen L; Röper, Katja

    2016-01-01

    Coordination between different cytoskeletal systems is crucial for many cell biological functions, including cell migration and mitosis, and also plays an important role during tissue morphogenesis. Proteins of the class of cytoskeletal crosslinkers, or cytolinkers, have the ability to interact with more than one cytoskeletal system at a time and are prime candidates to mediate any coordination. One such class comprises the Gas2-like proteins, combining a conserved calponin-homology-type actin-binding domain and a Gas2 domain predicted to bind microtubules (MTs). This domain combination is also found in spectraplakins, huge cytolinkers that play important roles in many tissues in both invertebrates and vertebrates. Here, we dissect the ability of the single Drosophila Gas2-like protein Pigs to interact with both actin and MT cytoskeletons, both in vitro and in vivo, and illustrate complex regulatory interactions that determine the localisation of Pigs to and its effects on the cytoskeleton.

  4. Rnd proteins: multifunctional regulators of the cytoskeleton and cell cycle progression.

    PubMed

    Riou, Philippe; Villalonga, Priam; Ridley, Anne J

    2010-11-01

    Rnd3/RhoE has two distinct functions, regulating the actin cytoskeleton and cell proliferation. This might explain why its expression is often altered in cancer and by multiple stimuli during development and disease. Rnd3 together with its relatives Rnd1 and Rnd2 are atypical members of the Rho GTPase family in that they do not hydrolyse GTP. Rnd3 and Rnd1 both antagonise RhoA/ROCK-mediated actomyosin contractility, thereby regulating cell migration, smooth muscle contractility and neurite extension. In addition, Rnd3 has been shown to have a separate role in inhibiting cell cycle progression by reducing translation of cell cycle regulators, including cyclin D1 and Myc. We propose that Rnd3 could act as a tumour suppressor to limit proliferation, but when mutations bypass this activity of Rnd3, it can promote cancer invasion through its effects in the actin cytoskeleton.

  5. Cryptococcus neoformans Is Internalized by Receptor-Mediated or ‘Triggered’ Phagocytosis, Dependent on Actin Recruitment

    PubMed Central

    Guerra, Caroline Rezende; Seabra, Sergio Henrique; de Souza, Wanderley; Rozental, Sonia

    2014-01-01

    Cryptococcosis by the encapsulated yeast Cryptococcus neoformans affects mostly immunocompromised individuals and is a frequent neurological complication in AIDS patients. Recent studies support the idea that intracellular survival of Cryptococcus yeast cells is important for the pathogenesis of cryptococcosis. However, the initial steps of Cryptococcus internalization by host cells remain poorly understood. Here, we investigate the mechanism of Cryptococcus neoformans phagocytosis by peritoneal macrophages using confocal and electron microscopy techniques, as well as flow cytometry quantification, evaluating the importance of fungal capsule production and of host cell cytoskeletal elements for fungal phagocytosis. Electron microscopy analyses revealed that capsular and acapsular strains of C. neoformans are internalized by macrophages via both ‘zipper’ (receptor-mediated) and ‘trigger’ (membrane ruffle-dependent) phagocytosis mechanisms. Actin filaments surrounded phagosomes of capsular and acapsular yeasts, and the actin depolymerizing drugs cytochalasin D and latrunculin B inhibited yeast internalization and actin recruitment to the phagosome area. In contrast, nocodazole and paclitaxel, inhibitors of microtubule dynamics decreased internalization but did not prevent actin recruitment to the site of phagocytosis. Our results show that different uptake mechanisms, dependent on both actin and tubulin dynamics occur during yeast internalization by macrophages, and that capsule production does not affect the mode of Cryptococcus uptake by host cells. PMID:24586631

  6. Effect of phosphorylation of phosphatidylinositol on myelin basic protein-mediated binding of actin filaments to lipid bilayers in vitro.

    PubMed

    Boggs, Joan M; Rangaraj, Godha; Dicko, Awa

    2012-09-01

    Myelin basic protein (MBP) binds to negatively charged lipids on the cytosolic surface of oligodendrocytes and is believed to be responsible for adhesion of these surfaces in the multilayered myelin sheath. It can also assemble actin filaments and tether them to lipid bilayers through electrostatic interactions. Here we investigate the effect of increased negative charge of the lipid bilayer due to phosphorylation of phosphatidylinositol (PI) on MBP-mediated binding of actin to the lipid bilayer, by substituting phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate or phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate for PI in phosphatidylcholine/phosphatidylglycerol lipid vesicles. Phosphorylation of PI caused dissociation of the MBP/actin complex from the lipid vesicles due to repulsion of the negatively charged complex from the negatively charged membrane surface. An effect of phosphorylation could be detected even if the inositol lipid was only 2mol% of the total lipid. Calcium-calmodulin dissociated actin from the MBP-lipid vesicles and phosphorylation of PI increased the amount dissociated. These results show that changes to the lipid composition of myelin, which could occur during signaling or other physiological events, could regulate the ability of MBP to act as a scaffolding protein and bind actin filaments to the lipid bilayer.

  7. Nuclear actin modulates cell motility via transcriptional regulation of adhesive and cytoskeletal genes

    PubMed Central

    Sharili, Amir S.; Kenny, Fiona N.; Vartiainen, Maria K.; Connelly, John T.

    2016-01-01

    The actin cytoskeleton is a classic biomechanical mediator of cell migration. While it is known that actin also shuttles in and out of the nucleus, its functions within this compartment remain poorly understood. In this study, we investigated how nuclear actin regulates keratinocyte gene expression and cell behavior. Gene expression profiling of normal HaCaT keratinocytes compared to HaCaTs over-expressing wild-type β-actin or β-actin tagged with a nuclear localization sequence (NLS-actin), identified multiple adhesive and cytoskeletal genes, such as MYL9, ITGB1, and VCL, which were significantly down-regulated in keratinocytes with high levels of nuclear actin. In addition, genes associated with transcriptional regulation and apoptosis were up-regulated in cells over expressing NLS-actin. Functionally, accumulation of actin in the nucleus altered cytoskeletal and focal adhesion organization and inhibited cell motility. Exclusion of endogenous actin from the nucleus by knocking down Importin 9 reversed this phenotype and enhanced cell migration. Based on these findings, we conclude that the level of actin in the nucleus is a transcriptional regulator for tuning keratinocyte migration. PMID:27650314

  8. Nuclear actin modulates cell motility via transcriptional regulation of adhesive and cytoskeletal genes.

    PubMed

    Sharili, Amir S; Kenny, Fiona N; Vartiainen, Maria K; Connelly, John T

    2016-01-01

    The actin cytoskeleton is a classic biomechanical mediator of cell migration. While it is known that actin also shuttles in and out of the nucleus, its functions within this compartment remain poorly understood. In this study, we investigated how nuclear actin regulates keratinocyte gene expression and cell behavior. Gene expression profiling of normal HaCaT keratinocytes compared to HaCaTs over-expressing wild-type β-actin or β-actin tagged with a nuclear localization sequence (NLS-actin), identified multiple adhesive and cytoskeletal genes, such as MYL9, ITGB1, and VCL, which were significantly down-regulated in keratinocytes with high levels of nuclear actin. In addition, genes associated with transcriptional regulation and apoptosis were up-regulated in cells over expressing NLS-actin. Functionally, accumulation of actin in the nucleus altered cytoskeletal and focal adhesion organization and inhibited cell motility. Exclusion of endogenous actin from the nucleus by knocking down Importin 9 reversed this phenotype and enhanced cell migration. Based on these findings, we conclude that the level of actin in the nucleus is a transcriptional regulator for tuning keratinocyte migration. PMID:27650314

  9. Cell-cycle regulation of formin-mediated actin cable assembly.

    PubMed

    Miao, Yansong; Wong, Catherine C L; Mennella, Vito; Michelot, Alphée; Agard, David A; Holt, Liam J; Yates, John R; Drubin, David G

    2013-11-19

    Assembly of appropriately oriented actin cables nucleated by formin proteins is necessary for many biological processes in diverse eukaryotes. However, compared with knowledge of how nucleation of dendritic actin filament arrays by the actin-related protein-2/3 complex is regulated, the in vivo regulatory mechanisms for actin cable formation are less clear. To gain insights into mechanisms for regulating actin cable assembly, we reconstituted the assembly process in vitro by introducing microspheres functionalized with the C terminus of the budding yeast formin Bni1 into extracts prepared from yeast cells at different cell-cycle stages. EM studies showed that unbranched actin filament bundles were reconstituted successfully in the yeast extracts. Only extracts enriched in the mitotic cyclin Clb2 were competent for actin cable assembly, and cyclin-dependent kinase 1 activity was indispensible. Cyclin-dependent kinase 1 activity also was found to regulate cable assembly in vivo. Here we present evidence that formin cell-cycle regulation is conserved in vertebrates. The use of the cable-reconstitution system to test roles for the key actin-binding proteins tropomyosin, capping protein, and cofilin provided important insights into assembly regulation. Furthermore, using mass spectrometry, we identified components of the actin cables formed in yeast extracts, providing the basis for comprehensive understanding of cable assembly and regulation.

  10. Balancing spatially regulated β-actin translation and dynamin-mediated endocytosis is required to assemble functional epithelial monolayers.

    PubMed

    Cruz, Lissette A; Vedula, Pavan; Gutierrez, Natasha; Shah, Neel; Rodriguez, Steven; Ayee, Brian; Davis, Justin; Rodriguez, Alexis J

    2015-12-01

    Regulating adherens junction complex assembly/disassembly is critical to maintaining epithelial homeostasis in healthy epithelial tissues. Consequently, adherens junction structure and function is often perturbed in clinically advanced tumors of epithelial origin. Some of the most studied factors driving adherens junction complex perturbation in epithelial cancers are transcriptional and epigenetic down-regulation of E-cadherin expression. However, numerous reports demonstrate that post-translational regulatory mechanisms such as endocytosis also regulate early phases of epithelial-mesenchymal transition and metastatic progression. In already assembled healthy epithelia, E-cadherin endocytosis recycles cadherin-catenin complexes to regulate the number of mature adherens junctions found at cell-cell contact sites. However, following de novo epithelial cell-cell contact, endocytosis negatively regulates adherens junction assembly by removing E-cadherin from the cell surface. By contrast, following de novo epithelial cell-cell contact, spatially localized β-actin translation drives cytoskeletal remodeling and consequently E-cadherin clustering at cell-cell contact sites and therefore positively regulates adherens junction assembly. In this report we demonstrate that dynamin-mediated endocytosis and β-actin translation-dependent cadherin-catenin complex anchoring oppose each other following epithelial cell-cell contact. Consequently, the final extent of adherens junction assembly depends on which of these processes is dominant following epithelial cell-cell contact. We expressed β-actin transcripts impaired in their ability to properly localize monomer synthesis (Δ3'UTR) in MDCK cells to perturb actin filament remodeling and anchoring, and demonstrate the resulting defect in adherens junction structure and function is rescued by inhibiting dynamin mediated endocytosis. Therefore, we demonstrate balancing spatially regulated β-actin translation and dynamin-mediated

  11. Yeast Actin-Related Protein ARP6 Negatively Regulates Agrobacterium-Mediated Transformation of Yeast Cell

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Yumei; Chen, Zikai; Zhu, Detu; Tu, Haitao; Pan, Shen Quan

    2015-01-01

    The yeasts, including Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Pichia pastoris, are single-cell eukaryotic organisms that can serve as models for human genetic diseases and hosts for large scale production of recombinant proteins in current biopharmaceutical industry. Thus, efficient genetic engineering tools for yeasts are of great research and economic values. Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation (AMT) can transfer T-DNA into yeast cells as a method for genetic engineering. However, how the T-DNA is transferred into the yeast cells is not well established yet. Here our genetic screening of yeast knockout mutants identified a yeast actin-related protein ARP6 as a negative regulator of AMT. ARP6 is a critical member of the SWR1 chromatin remodeling complex (SWR-C); knocking out some other components of the complex also increased the transformation efficiency, suggesting that ARP6 might regulate AMT via SWR-C. Moreover, knockout of ARP6 led to disruption of microtubule integrity, higher uptake and degradation of virulence proteins, and increased DNA stability inside the cells, all of which resulted in enhanced transformation efficiency. Our findings have identified molecular and cellular mechanisms regulating AMT and a potential target for enhancing the transformation efficiency in yeast cells. PMID:26425545

  12. Yeast Actin-Related Protein ARP6 Negatively Regulates Agrobacterium-Mediated Transformation of Yeast Cell.

    PubMed

    Luo, Yumei; Chen, Zikai; Zhu, Detu; Tu, Haitao; Pan, Shen Quan

    2015-01-01

    The yeasts, including Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Pichia pastoris, are single-cell eukaryotic organisms that can serve as models for human genetic diseases and hosts for large scale production of recombinant proteins in current biopharmaceutical industry. Thus, efficient genetic engineering tools for yeasts are of great research and economic values. Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation (AMT) can transfer T-DNA into yeast cells as a method for genetic engineering. However, how the T-DNA is transferred into the yeast cells is not well established yet. Here our genetic screening of yeast knockout mutants identified a yeast actin-related protein ARP6 as a negative regulator of AMT. ARP6 is a critical member of the SWR1 chromatin remodeling complex (SWR-C); knocking out some other components of the complex also increased the transformation efficiency, suggesting that ARP6 might regulate AMT via SWR-C. Moreover, knockout of ARP6 led to disruption of microtubule integrity, higher uptake and degradation of virulence proteins, and increased DNA stability inside the cells, all of which resulted in enhanced transformation efficiency. Our findings have identified molecular and cellular mechanisms regulating AMT and a potential target for enhancing the transformation efficiency in yeast cells. PMID:26425545

  13. Yeast Actin-Related Protein ARP6 Negatively Regulates Agrobacterium-Mediated Transformation of Yeast Cell.

    PubMed

    Luo, Yumei; Chen, Zikai; Zhu, Detu; Tu, Haitao; Pan, Shen Quan

    2015-01-01

    The yeasts, including Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Pichia pastoris, are single-cell eukaryotic organisms that can serve as models for human genetic diseases and hosts for large scale production of recombinant proteins in current biopharmaceutical industry. Thus, efficient genetic engineering tools for yeasts are of great research and economic values. Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation (AMT) can transfer T-DNA into yeast cells as a method for genetic engineering. However, how the T-DNA is transferred into the yeast cells is not well established yet. Here our genetic screening of yeast knockout mutants identified a yeast actin-related protein ARP6 as a negative regulator of AMT. ARP6 is a critical member of the SWR1 chromatin remodeling complex (SWR-C); knocking out some other components of the complex also increased the transformation efficiency, suggesting that ARP6 might regulate AMT via SWR-C. Moreover, knockout of ARP6 led to disruption of microtubule integrity, higher uptake and degradation of virulence proteins, and increased DNA stability inside the cells, all of which resulted in enhanced transformation efficiency. Our findings have identified molecular and cellular mechanisms regulating AMT and a potential target for enhancing the transformation efficiency in yeast cells.

  14. Formin-mediated actin polymerization cooperates with Mushroom body defect (Mud)–Dynein during Frizzled–Dishevelled spindle orientation

    PubMed Central

    Johnston, Christopher A.; Manning, Laurina; Lu, Michelle S.; Golub, Ognjen; Doe, Chris Q.; Prehoda, Kenneth E.

    2013-01-01

    Summary To position the mitotic spindle, cytoskeletal components must be coordinated to generate cortical forces on astral microtubules. Although the dynein motor is common to many spindle orientation systems, ‘accessory pathways’ are often also required. In this work, we identified an accessory spindle orientation pathway in Drosophila that functions with Dynein during planar cell polarity, downstream of the Frizzled (Fz) effector Dishevelled (Dsh). Dsh contains a PDZ ligand and a Dynein-recruiting DEP domain that are both required for spindle orientation. The Dsh PDZ ligand recruits Canoe/Afadin and ultimately leads to Rho GTPase signaling mediated through RhoGEF2. The formin Diaphanous (Dia) functions as the Rho effector in this pathway, inducing F-actin enrichment at sites of cortical Dsh. Chimeric protein experiments show that the Dia–actin accessory pathway can be replaced by an independent kinesin (Khc73) accessory pathway for Dsh-mediated spindle orientation. Our results define two ‘modular’ spindle orientation pathways and show an essential role for actin regulation in Dsh-mediated spindle orientation. PMID:23868974

  15. Formin-mediated actin polymerization cooperates with Mushroom body defect (Mud)-Dynein during Frizzled-Dishevelled spindle orientation.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Christopher A; Manning, Laurina; Lu, Michelle S; Golub, Ognjen; Doe, Chris Q; Prehoda, Kenneth E

    2013-10-01

    To position the mitotic spindle, cytoskeletal components must be coordinated to generate cortical forces on astral microtubules. Although the dynein motor is common to many spindle orientation systems, 'accessory pathways' are often also required. In this work, we identified an accessory spindle orientation pathway in Drosophila that functions with Dynein during planar cell polarity, downstream of the Frizzled (Fz) effector Dishevelled (Dsh). Dsh contains a PDZ ligand and a Dynein-recruiting DEP domain that are both required for spindle orientation. The Dsh PDZ ligand recruits Canoe/Afadin and ultimately leads to Rho GTPase signaling mediated through RhoGEF2. The formin Diaphanous (Dia) functions as the Rho effector in this pathway, inducing F-actin enrichment at sites of cortical Dsh. Chimeric protein experiments show that the Dia-actin accessory pathway can be replaced by an independent kinesin (Khc73) accessory pathway for Dsh-mediated spindle orientation. Our results define two 'modular' spindle orientation pathways and show an essential role for actin regulation in Dsh-mediated spindle orientation.

  16. MAPKAPK-2-mediated LIM-kinase activation is critical for VEGF-induced actin remodeling and cell migration

    PubMed Central

    Kobayashi, Miho; Nishita, Michiru; Mishima, Toshiaki; Ohashi, Kazumasa; Mizuno, Kensaku

    2006-01-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A) induces actin reorganization and migration of endothelial cells through a p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway. LIM-kinase 1 (LIMK1) induces actin remodeling by phosphorylating and inactivating cofilin, an actin-depolymerizing factor. In this study, we demonstrate that activation of LIMK1 by MAPKAPK-2 (MK2; a downstream kinase of p38 MAPK) represents a novel signaling pathway in VEGF-A-induced cell migration. VEGF-A induced LIMK1 activation and cofilin phosphorylation, and this was inhibited by the p38 MAPK inhibitor SB203580. Although p38 phosphorylated LIMK1 at Ser-310, it failed to activate LIMK1 directly; however, MK2 activated LIMK1 by phosphorylation at Ser-323. Expression of a Ser-323-non-phosphorylatable mutant of LIMK1 suppressed VEGF-A-induced stress fiber formation and cell migration; however, expression of a Ser-323-phosphorylation-mimic mutant enhanced these processes. Knockdown of MK2 by siRNA suppressed VEGF-A-induced LIMK1 activation, stress fiber formation, and cell migration. Expression of kinase-dead LIMK1 suppressed VEGF-A-induced tubule formation. These findings suggest that MK2-mediated LIMK1 phosphorylation/activation plays an essential role in VEGF-A-induced actin reorganization, migration, and tubule formation of endothelial cells. PMID:16456544

  17. Inhibition of tobacco mosaic virus movement by expression of an actin-binding protein.

    PubMed

    Hofmann, Christina; Niehl, Annette; Sambade, Adrian; Steinmetz, André; Heinlein, Manfred

    2009-04-01

    The tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) movement protein (MP) required for the cell-to-cell spread of viral RNA interacts with the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) as well as with the cytoskeleton during infection. Whereas associations of MP with ER and microtubules have been intensely investigated, research on the role of actin has been rather scarce. We demonstrate that Nicotiana benthamiana plants transgenic for the actin-binding domain 2 of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) fimbrin (AtFIM1) fused to green fluorescent protein (ABD2:GFP) exhibit a dynamic ABD2:GFP-labeled actin cytoskeleton and myosin-dependent Golgi trafficking. These plants also support the movement of TMV. In contrast, both myosin-dependent Golgi trafficking and TMV movement are dominantly inhibited when ABD2:GFP is expressed transiently. Inhibition is mediated through binding of ABD2:GFP to actin filaments, since TMV movement is restored upon disruption of the ABD2:GFP-labeled actin network with latrunculin B. Latrunculin B shows no significant effect on the spread of TMV infection in either wild-type plants or ABD2:GFP transgenic plants under our treatment conditions. We did not observe any binding of MP along the length of actin filaments. Collectively, these observations demonstrate that TMV movement does not require an intact actomyosin system. Nevertheless, actin-binding proteins appear to have the potential to exert control over TMV movement through the inhibition of myosin-associated protein trafficking along the ER membrane.

  18. The centrosome is an actin-organizing center

    PubMed Central

    Farina, Francesca; Gaillard, Jérémie; Guérin, Christophe; Couté, Yohann; Sillibourne, James; Blanchoin, Laurent; Théry, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    Microtubules and actin filaments are the two main cytoskeleton networks supporting intracellular architecture and cell polarity. The centrosome nucleates and anchors microtubules and is therefore considered to be the main microtubule-organizing center. However, recurring, yet unexplained, observations have pointed towards a connection between the centrosome and actin filaments. Here we have used isolated centrosomes to demonstrate that the centrosome can directly promote actin filament assembly. A cloud of centrosome-associated actin filaments could be identified in living cells as well. Actin-filament nucleation at the centrosome was mediated by the nucleation promoting factor WASH in combination with the Arp2/3 complex. Pericentriolar material 1 (PCM1) appeared to modulate the centrosomal actin network by regulating Arp2/3 complex and WASH recruitment to the centrosome. Hence our results reveal an additional facet of the centrosome as an intracellular organizer and provide mechanistic insights into how the centrosome can function as an actin filament-organizing center. PMID:26655833

  19. Actin filament organization of foot processes in vertebrate glomerular podocytes.

    PubMed

    Ichimura, Koichiro; Kurihara, Hidetake; Sakai, Tatsuo

    2007-09-01

    We investigated the actin filament organization and immunolocalization of actin-binding proteins (alpha-actinin and cortactin) in the podocyte foot processes of eight vertebrate species (lamprey, carp, newt, frog, gecko, turtle, quail, and rat). Three types of actin cytoskeleton were found in these foot processes. (1) A cortical actin network with cortactin filling the space between the plasma membrane and the other actin cytoskeletons described below was found in all of the species examined here. The data indicated that the cortical actin network was the minimal essential actin cytoskeleton for the formation and maintenance of the foot processes in vertebrate podocytes. (2) An actin bundle with alpha-actinin existing along the longitudinal axis of foot process above the level of slit diaphragms was only observed in quail and rat. (3) An actin fascicle consisting of much fewer numbers of actin filaments than that of the actin bundle was observed in the species other than quail and rat, but at various frequencies. These findings suggest that the actin bundle is an additional actin cytoskeleton reflecting a functional state peculiar to quail and rat glomeruli. Considering the higher intraglomerular pressure and the extremely thin filtration barrier in birds and mammals, the foot processes probably mainly protect the thinner filtration barrier from the higher internal pressure occurring in quail and rat glomeruli. Therefore, we consider that the actin bundle plays a crucial role in the mechanical protection of the filtration barrier. Moreover, the actin fascicle may be a potential precursor of the actin bundle.

  20. Shielding of the Geomagnetic Field Alters Actin Assembly and Inhibits Cell Motility in Human Neuroblastoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Mo, Wei-Chuan; Zhang, Zi-Jian; Wang, Dong-Liang; Liu, Ying; Bartlett, Perry F.; He, Rong-Qiao

    2016-01-01

    Accumulating evidence has shown that absence of the geomagnetic field (GMF), the so-called hypomagnetic field (HMF) environment, alters the biological functions in seemingly non-magnetosensitive cells and organisms, which indicates that the GMF could be sensed by non-iron-rich and non-photo-sensing cells. The underlying mechanisms of the HMF effects on those cells are closely related to their GMF sensation but remain poorly understood so far. Previously, we found that the HMF represses expressions of genes associated with cell migration and cytoskeleton assembly in human neuroblastoma cells (SH-SY5Y cell line). Here, we measured the HMF-induced changes on cell morphology, adhesion, motility and actin cytoskeleton in SH-SY5Y cells. The HMF inhibited cell adhesion and migration accompanied with a reduction in cellular F-actin amount. Moreover, following exposure to the HMF, the number of cell processes was reduced and cells were smaller in size and more round in shape. Furthermore, disordered kinetics of actin assembly in vitro were observed during exposure to the HMF, as evidenced by the presence of granule and meshed products. These results indicate that elimination of the GMF affects assembly of the motility-related actin cytoskeleton, and suggest that F-actin is a target of HMF exposure and probably a mediator of GMF sensation. PMID:27029216

  1. Wound closure in the lamellipodia of single cells: mediation by actin polymerization in the absence of an actomyosin purse string.

    PubMed

    Henson, John H; Nazarian, Ronniel; Schulberg, Katrina L; Trabosh, Valerie A; Kolnik, Sarah E; Burns, Andrew R; McPartland, Kenneth J

    2002-03-01

    The actomyosin purse string is an evolutionarily conserved contractile structure that is involved in cytokinesis, morphogenesis, and wound healing. Recent studies suggested that an actomyosin purse string is crucial for the closure of wounds in single cells. In the present study, morphological and pharmacological methods were used to investigate the role of this structure in the closure of wounds in the peripheral cytoplasm of sea urchin coelomocytes. These discoidal shaped cells underwent a dramatic form of actin-based centripetal/retrograde flow and occasionally opened and closed spontaneous wounds in their lamellipodia. Fluorescent phalloidin staining indicated that a well defined fringe of actin filaments assembles from the margin of these holes, and drug studies with cytochalasin D and latrunculin A indicated that actin polymerization is required for wound closure. Additional evidence that actin polymerization is involved in wound closure was provided by the localization of components of the Arp2/3 complex to the wound margin. Significantly, myosin II immunolocalization demonstrated that it is not associated with wound margins despite being present in the perinuclear region. Pharmacological evidence for the lack of myosin II involvement in wound closure comes from experiments in which a microneedle was used to produce wounds in cells in which actomyosin contraction was inhibited by treatment with kinase inhibitors. Wounds produced in kinase inhibitor-treated cells closed in a manner similar to that seen with control cells. Taken together, our results suggest that an actomyosin purse string mechanism is not responsible for the closure of lamellar wounds in coelomocytes. We hypothesize that the wounds heal by means of a combination of the force produced by actin polymerization alone and centripetal flow. Interestingly, these cells did assemble an actomyosin structure around the margin of phagosome-like membrane invaginations, indicating that myosin is not simply

  2. A pathogenic bacterium triggers epithelial signals to form a functional bacterial receptor that mediates actin pseudopod formation.

    PubMed Central

    Rosenshine, I; Ruschkowski, S; Stein, M; Reinscheid, D J; Mills, S D; Finlay, B B

    1996-01-01

    Enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC) belongs to a group of bacterial pathogens that induce actin accumulation beneath adherent bacteria. We found that EPEC adherence to epithelial cells mediates the formation of fingerlike pseudopods (up to 10 microm) beneath bacteria. These actin-rich structures also contain tyrosine phosphorylated host proteins concentrated at the pseudopod tip beneath adherent EPEC. Intimate bacterial adherence (and pseudopod formation) occurred only after prior bacterial induction of tyrosine phosphorylation of an epithelial membrane protein, Hp90, which then associates directly with an EPEC adhesin, intimin. These interactions lead to cytoskeletal nucleation and pseudopod formation. This is the first example of a bacterial pathogen that triggers signals in epithelial cells which activates receptor binding activity to a specific bacterial ligand and subsequent cytoskeletal rearrangement. Images PMID:8654358

  3. A growing family: the expanding universe of the bacterial cytoskeleton.

    PubMed

    Ingerson-Mahar, Michael; Gitai, Zemer

    2012-01-01

    Cytoskeletal proteins are important mediators of cellular organization in both eukaryotes and bacteria. In the past, cytoskeletal studies have largely focused on three major cytoskeletal families, namely the eukaryotic actin, tubulin, and intermediate filament (IF) proteins and their bacterial homologs MreB, FtsZ, and crescentin. However, mounting evidence suggests that these proteins represent only the tip of the iceberg, as the cellular cytoskeletal network is far more complex. In bacteria, each of MreB, FtsZ, and crescentin represents only one member of large families of diverse homologs. There are also newly identified bacterial cytoskeletal proteins with no eukaryotic homologs, such as WACA proteins and bactofilins. Furthermore, there are universally conserved proteins, such as the metabolic enzyme CtpS, that assemble into filamentous structures that can be repurposed for structural cytoskeletal functions. Recent studies have also identified an increasing number of eukaryotic cytoskeletal proteins that are unrelated to actin, tubulin, and IFs, such that expanding our understanding of cytoskeletal proteins is advancing the understanding of the cell biology of all organisms. Here, we summarize the recent explosion in the identification of new members of the bacterial cytoskeleton and describe a hypothesis for the evolution of the cytoskeleton from self-assembling enzymes.

  4. KCC2 regulates actin dynamics in dendritic spines via interaction with β-PIX.

    PubMed

    Llano, Olaya; Smirnov, Sergey; Soni, Shetal; Golubtsov, Andrey; Guillemin, Isabelle; Hotulainen, Pirta; Medina, Igor; Nothwang, Hans Gerd; Rivera, Claudio; Ludwig, Anastasia

    2015-06-01

    Chloride extrusion in mature neurons is largely mediated by the neuron-specific potassium-chloride cotransporter KCC2. In addition, independently of its chloride transport function, KCC2 regulates the development and morphology of dendritic spines through structural interactions with the actin cytoskeleton. The mechanism of this effect remains largely unknown. In this paper, we show a novel pathway for KCC2-mediated regulation of the actin cytoskeleton in neurons. We found that KCC2, through interaction with the b isoform of Rac/Cdc42 guanine nucleotide exchange factor β-PIX, regulates the activity of Rac1 GTPase and the phosphorylation of one of the major actin-regulating proteins, cofilin-1. KCC2-deficient neurons had abnormally high levels of phosphorylated cofilin-1. Consistently, dendritic spines of these neurons exhibited a large pool of stable actin, resulting in reduced spine motility and diminished density of functional synapses. In conclusion, we describe a novel signaling pathway that couples KCC2 to the cytoskeleton and regulates the formation of glutamatergic synapses. PMID:26056138

  5. KCC2 regulates actin dynamics in dendritic spines via interaction with β-PIX

    PubMed Central

    Llano, Olaya; Smirnov, Sergey; Soni, Shetal; Golubtsov, Andrey; Guillemin, Isabelle; Hotulainen, Pirta; Medina, Igor; Nothwang, Hans Gerd

    2015-01-01

    Chloride extrusion in mature neurons is largely mediated by the neuron-specific potassium-chloride cotransporter KCC2. In addition, independently of its chloride transport function, KCC2 regulates the development and morphology of dendritic spines through structural interactions with the actin cytoskeleton. The mechanism of this effect remains largely unknown. In this paper, we show a novel pathway for KCC2-mediated regulation of the actin cytoskeleton in neurons. We found that KCC2, through interaction with the b isoform of Rac/Cdc42 guanine nucleotide exchange factor β-PIX, regulates the activity of Rac1 GTPase and the phosphorylation of one of the major actin-regulating proteins, cofilin-1. KCC2-deficient neurons had abnormally high levels of phosphorylated cofilin-1. Consistently, dendritic spines of these neurons exhibited a large pool of stable actin, resulting in reduced spine motility and diminished density of functional synapses. In conclusion, we describe a novel signaling pathway that couples KCC2 to the cytoskeleton and regulates the formation of glutamatergic synapses. PMID:26056138

  6. Bacterial Actins? An Evolutionary Perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doolittle, Russell F.; York, Amanda L.

    2003-01-01

    According to the conventional wisdom, the existence of a cytoskeleton in eukaryotes and its absence in prokaryotes constitute a fundamental divide between the two domains of life. An integral part of the dogma is that a cytoskeleton enabled an early eukaryote to feed upon prokaryotes, a consequence of which was the occasional endosymbiosis and the eventual evolution of organelles. Two recent papers present compelling evidence that actin, one of the principal components of a cytoskeleton, has a homolog in Bacteria that behaves in many ways like eukaryotic actin. Sequence comparisons reveml that eukaryotic actin and the bacterial homolog (mreB protein), unlike many other proteins common to eukaryotes and Bacteria, have very different and more highly extended evolutionary histories.

  7. Cytoskeleton and Cytoskeleton-Bound RNA Visualization in Frog and Insect Oocytes.

    PubMed

    Kloc, Malgorzata; Bilinski, Szczepan; Kubiak, Jacek Z

    2016-01-01

    The majority of oocyte functions involves and depends on the cytoskeletal elements, which include microtubules and actin and cytokeratin filaments. Various structures and molecules are temporarily or permanently bound to the cytoskeletal elements and their functions rely on cytoskeleton integrity and its timely assembly. Thus the accurate visualization of cytoskeleton is often crucial for studies and analyses of oocyte structure and functions. Here we describe several reliable methods for microtubule and/or microfilaments preservation and visualization in Xenopus oocyte extracts, and in situ in live and fixed insect and frog (Xenopus) oocytes. In addition, we describe visualization of cytoskeleton-bound RNAs using molecular beacons in live Xenopus oocytes. PMID:27557581

  8. Cytoskeleton and Cytoskeleton-Bound RNA Visualization in Frog and Insect Oocytes.

    PubMed

    Kloc, Malgorzata; Bilinski, Szczepan; Kubiak, Jacek Z

    2016-01-01

    The majority of oocyte functions involves and depends on the cytoskeletal elements, which include microtubules and actin and cytokeratin filaments. Various structures and molecules are temporarily or permanently bound to the cytoskeletal elements and their functions rely on cytoskeleton integrity and its timely assembly. Thus the accurate visualization of cytoskeleton is often crucial for studies and analyses of oocyte structure and functions. Here we describe several reliable methods for microtubule and/or microfilaments preservation and visualization in Xenopus oocyte extracts, and in situ in live and fixed insect and frog (Xenopus) oocytes. In addition, we describe visualization of cytoskeleton-bound RNAs using molecular beacons in live Xenopus oocytes.

  9. Subcortical cytoskeleton periodicity throughout the nervous system.

    PubMed

    D'Este, Elisa; Kamin, Dirk; Velte, Caroline; Göttfert, Fabian; Simons, Mikael; Hell, Stefan W

    2016-01-01

    Superresolution fluorescence microscopy recently revealed a ~190 nm periodic cytoskeleton lattice consisting of actin, spectrin, and other proteins underneath the membrane of cultured hippocampal neurons. Whether the periodic cytoskeleton lattice is a structural feature of all neurons and how it is modified when axons are ensheathed by myelin forming glial cells is not known. Here, STED nanoscopy is used to demonstrate that this structure is a commonplace of virtually all neuron types in vitro. To check how the subcortical meshwork is modified during myelination, we studied sciatic nerve fibers from adult mice. Periodicity of both actin and spectrin was uncovered at the internodes, indicating no substantial differences between unmyelinated and myelinated axons. Remarkably, the actin/spectrin pattern was also detected in glial cells such as cultured oligodendrocyte precursor cells. Altogether our work shows that the periodic subcortical cytoskeletal meshwork is a fundamental characteristic of cells in the nervous system and is not a distinctive feature of neurons, as previously thought. PMID:26947559

  10. Subcortical cytoskeleton periodicity throughout the nervous system.

    PubMed

    D'Este, Elisa; Kamin, Dirk; Velte, Caroline; Göttfert, Fabian; Simons, Mikael; Hell, Stefan W

    2016-03-07

    Superresolution fluorescence microscopy recently revealed a ~190 nm periodic cytoskeleton lattice consisting of actin, spectrin, and other proteins underneath the membrane of cultured hippocampal neurons. Whether the periodic cytoskeleton lattice is a structural feature of all neurons and how it is modified when axons are ensheathed by myelin forming glial cells is not known. Here, STED nanoscopy is used to demonstrate that this structure is a commonplace of virtually all neuron types in vitro. To check how the subcortical meshwork is modified during myelination, we studied sciatic nerve fibers from adult mice. Periodicity of both actin and spectrin was uncovered at the internodes, indicating no substantial differences between unmyelinated and myelinated axons. Remarkably, the actin/spectrin pattern was also detected in glial cells such as cultured oligodendrocyte precursor cells. Altogether our work shows that the periodic subcortical cytoskeletal meshwork is a fundamental characteristic of cells in the nervous system and is not a distinctive feature of neurons, as previously thought.

  11. CRMP4 and CRMP2 Interact to Coordinate Cytoskeleton Dynamics, Regulating Growth Cone Development and Axon Elongation.

    PubMed

    Tan, Minghui; Cha, Caihui; Ye, Yongheng; Zhang, Jifeng; Li, Sumei; Wu, Fengming; Gong, Sitang; Guo, Guoqing

    2015-01-01

    Cytoskeleton dynamics are critical phenomena that underpin many fundamental cellular processes. Collapsin response mediator proteins (CRMPs) are highly expressed in the developing nervous system, mediating growth cone guidance, neuronal polarity, and axonal elongation. However, whether and how CRMPs associate with microtubules and actin coordinated cytoskeletal dynamics remain unknown. In this study, we demonstrated that CRMP2 and CRMP4 interacted with tubulin and actin in vitro and colocalized with the cytoskeleton in the transition-zone in developing growth cones. CRMP2 and CRMP4 also interacted with one another coordinately to promote growth cone development and axonal elongation. Genetic silencing of CRMP2 enhanced, whereas overexpression of CRMP2 suppressed, the inhibitory effects of CRMP4 knockdown on axonal development. In addition, knockdown of CRMP2 or overexpression of truncated CRMP2 reversed the promoting effect of CRMP4. With the overexpression of truncated CRMP2 or CRMP4 lacking the cytoskeleton interaction domain, the promoting effect of CRMP was suppressed. These data suggest a model in which CRMP2 and CRMP4 form complexes to bridge microtubules and actin and thus work cooperatively to regulate growth cone development and axonal elongation.

  12. Actin dynamics in papilla cells of Brassica rapa during self- and cross-pollination.

    PubMed

    Iwano, Megumi; Shiba, Hiroshi; Matoba, Kyoko; Miwa, Teruhiko; Funato, Miyuki; Entani, Tetsuyuki; Nakayama, Pulla; Shimosato, Hiroko; Takaoka, Akio; Isogai, Akira; Takayama, Seiji

    2007-05-01

    The self-incompatibility system of the plant species Brassica is controlled by the S-locus, which contains S-RECEPTOR KINASE (SRK) and S-LOCUS PROTEIN11 (SP11). SP11 binding to SRK induces SRK autophosphorylation and initiates a signaling cascade leading to the rejection of self pollen. However, the mechanism controlling hydration and germination arrest during self-pollination is unclear. In this study, we examined the role of actin, a key cytoskeletal component regulating the transport system for hydration and germination in the papilla cell during pollination. Using rhodamine-phalloidin staining, we showed that cross-pollination induced actin polymerization, whereas self-pollination induced actin reorganization and likely depolymerization. By monitoring transiently expressed green fluorescent protein fused to the actin-binding domain of mouse talin, we observed the concentration of actin bundles at the cross-pollen attachment site and actin reorganization and likely depolymerization at the self-pollen attachment site; the results correspond to those obtained by rhodamine-phalloidin staining. We further showed that the coat of self pollen is sufficient to mediate this response. The actin-depolymerizing drug cytochalasin D significantly inhibited pollen hydration and germination during cross-pollination, further emphasizing a role for actin in these processes. Additionally, three-dimensional electron microscopic tomography revealed the close association of the actin cytoskeleton with an apical vacuole network. Self-pollination disrupted the vacuole network, whereas cross-pollination led to vacuolar rearrangements toward the site of pollen attachment. Taken together, our data suggest that self- and cross-pollination differentially affect the dynamics of the actin cytoskeleton, leading to changes in vacuolar structure associated with hydration and germination.

  13. A mitochondria-anchored isoform of the actin-nucleating spire protein regulates mitochondrial division.

    PubMed

    Manor, Uri; Bartholomew, Sadie; Golani, Gonen; Christenson, Eric; Kozlov, Michael; Higgs, Henry; Spudich, James; Lippincott-Schwartz, Jennifer

    2015-08-25

    Mitochondrial division, essential for survival in mammals, is enhanced by an inter-organellar process involving ER tubules encircling and constricting mitochondria. The force for constriction is thought to involve actin polymerization by the ER-anchored isoform of the formin protein inverted formin 2 (INF2). Unknown is the mechanism triggering INF2-mediated actin polymerization at ER-mitochondria intersections. We show that a novel isoform of the formin-binding, actin-nucleating protein Spire, Spire1C, localizes to mitochondria and directly links mitochondria to the actin cytoskeleton and the ER. Spire1C binds INF2 and promotes actin assembly on mitochondrial surfaces. Disrupting either Spire1C actin- or formin-binding activities reduces mitochondrial constriction and division. We propose Spire1C cooperates with INF2 to regulate actin assembly at ER-mitochondrial contacts. Simulations support this model's feasibility and demonstrate polymerizing actin filaments can induce mitochondrial constriction. Thus, Spire1C is optimally positioned to serve as a molecular hub that links mitochondria to actin and the ER for regulation of mitochondrial division.

  14. Interaction between microtubules and the Drosophila formin Cappuccino and its effect on actin assembly.

    PubMed

    Roth-Johnson, Elizabeth A; Vizcarra, Christina L; Bois, Justin S; Quinlan, Margot E

    2014-02-14

    Formin family actin nucleators are potential coordinators of the actin and microtubule cytoskeletons, as they can both nucleate actin filaments and bind microtubules in vitro. To gain a more detailed mechanistic understanding of formin-microtubule interactions and formin-mediated actin-microtubule cross-talk, we studied microtubule binding by Cappuccino (Capu), a formin involved in regulating actin and microtubule organization during Drosophila oogenesis. We found that two distinct domains within Capu, FH2 and tail, work together to promote high-affinity microtubule binding. The tail domain appears to bind microtubules through nonspecific charge-based interactions. In contrast, distinct residues within the FH2 domain are important for microtubule binding. We also report the first visualization of a formin polymerizing actin filaments in the presence of microtubules. Interestingly, microtubules are potent inhibitors of the actin nucleation activity of Capu but appear to have little effect on Capu once it is bound to the barbed end of an elongating filament. Because Capu does not simultaneously bind microtubules and assemble actin filaments in vitro, its actin assembly and microtubule binding activities likely require spatial and/or temporal regulation within the Drosophila oocyte.

  15. A mitochondria-anchored isoform of the actin-nucleating spire protein regulates mitochondrial division

    PubMed Central

    Manor, Uri; Bartholomew, Sadie; Golani, Gonen; Christenson, Eric; Kozlov, Michael; Higgs, Henry; Spudich, James; Lippincott-Schwartz, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    Mitochondrial division, essential for survival in mammals, is enhanced by an inter-organellar process involving ER tubules encircling and constricting mitochondria. The force for constriction is thought to involve actin polymerization by the ER-anchored isoform of the formin protein inverted formin 2 (INF2). Unknown is the mechanism triggering INF2-mediated actin polymerization at ER-mitochondria intersections. We show that a novel isoform of the formin-binding, actin-nucleating protein Spire, Spire1C, localizes to mitochondria and directly links mitochondria to the actin cytoskeleton and the ER. Spire1C binds INF2 and promotes actin assembly on mitochondrial surfaces. Disrupting either Spire1C actin- or formin-binding activities reduces mitochondrial constriction and division. We propose Spire1C cooperates with INF2 to regulate actin assembly at ER-mitochondrial contacts. Simulations support this model's feasibility and demonstrate polymerizing actin filaments can induce mitochondrial constriction. Thus, Spire1C is optimally positioned to serve as a molecular hub that links mitochondria to actin and the ER for regulation of mitochondrial division. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.08828.001 PMID:26305500

  16. Cytoplasmic intermediate filaments mediate actin-driven positioning of the nucleus.

    PubMed

    Dupin, Isabelle; Sakamoto, Yasuhisa; Etienne-Manneville, Sandrine

    2011-03-15

    The localization of the nucleus is precisely regulated, and defects in nuclear positioning are observed in diseases such as lissencephaly, cerebellar ataxia and dysplasia. We show here that cytoplasmic intermediate filaments are essential players in actin-dependent positioning of the nucleus. The actin retrograde flow is relayed by a flow of intermediate filaments that accumulate asymmetrically around the nuclear envelope. Perturbations of the intermediate filament network alter positioning of the nucleus in both migrating and immobile astrocytes. This function of intermediate filaments might be crucial for regulating cell motility, in particular in tumor cells expressing high levels of cytoplasmic intermediate filaments.

  17. N-WASP coordinates the delivery and F-actin-mediated capture of MT1-MMP at invasive pseudopods.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xinzi; Zech, Tobias; McDonald, Laura; Gonzalez, Esther Garcia; Li, Ang; Macpherson, Iain; Schwarz, Juliane P; Spence, Heather; Futó, Kinga; Timpson, Paul; Nixon, Colin; Ma, Yafeng; Anton, Ines M; Visegrády, Balázs; Insall, Robert H; Oien, Karin; Blyth, Karen; Norman, Jim C; Machesky, Laura M

    2012-10-29

    Metastasizing tumor cells use matrix metalloproteases, such as the transmembrane collagenase MT1-MMP, together with actin-based protrusions, to break through extracellular matrix barriers and migrate in dense matrix. Here we show that the actin nucleation-promoting protein N-WASP (Neural Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein) is up-regulated in breast cancer, and has a pivotal role in mediating the assembly of elongated pseudopodia that are instrumental in matrix degradation. Although a role for N-WASP in invadopodia was known, we now show how N-WASP regulates invasive protrusion in 3D matrices. In actively invading cells, N-WASP promoted trafficking of MT1-MMP into invasive pseudopodia, primarily from late endosomes, from which it was delivered to the plasma membrane. Upon MT1-MMP's arrival at the plasma membrane in pseudopodia, N-WASP stabilized MT1-MMP via direct tethering of its cytoplasmic tail to F-actin. Thus, N-WASP is crucial for extension of invasive pseudopods into which MT1-MMP traffics and for providing the correct cytoskeletal framework to couple matrix remodeling with protrusive invasion. PMID:23091069

  18. CHUP1 mediates actin-based light-induced chloroplast avoidance movement in the moss Physcomitrella patens.

    PubMed

    Usami, Hiroka; Maeda, Takuma; Fujii, Yusuke; Oikawa, Kazusato; Takahashi, Fumio; Kagawa, Takatoshi; Wada, Masamitsu; Kasahara, Masahiro

    2012-12-01

    Chloroplasts change their intracellular distribution in response to light intensity. CHUP1 (CHLOROPLAST UNUSUAL POSITIONING1) is indispensable for this response in Arabidopsis thaliana. However, involvement of CHUP1 in light-induced chloroplast movement is unknown in other plants. In this study, CHUP1 orthologues were isolated from a moss, Physcomitrella patens, and a fern, Adiantum capillus-veneris, by cDNA library screening and PCR cloning based on the P. patens genome sequence. Functional motifs found in CHUP1 of A. thaliana were conserved among the CHUP1 orthologues. In addition to the putative functional regions, the C-terminal regions (approximately 250 amino acids), which are unique in CHUP1s, were highly conserved. Green fluorescent protein (GFP) fusions of P. patens CHUP1s (PpCHUP1A, PpCHUP1B and PpCHUP1C) were transiently expressed in protoplast cells. All GFP fusions were localized on the chloroplasts. Light-induced chloroplast avoidance movement of chup1 disruptants of P. patens was examined in the presence of cytoskeletal inhibitors because of the utilization of both microtubules and actin filaments for the movement in P. patens. When actin filaments were disrupted by cytochalasin B, the wild type (WT) and all chup1 disruptants showed chloroplast avoidance movement. However, when microtubules were disrupted by Oryzalin, chloroplasts in ∆chup1A and ∆chup1A/B rarely moved and stayed in the strong light-irradiated area. On the other hand, WT, ∆chup1B and ∆chup1C showed chloroplast avoidance movement. These results suggest that PpCHUP1A predominantly mediates the actin-based light-induced chloroplast avoidance movement. This study reveals that CHUP1 functions on the chloroplasts and is involved in the actin-based light-induced chloroplast avoidance movement in P. patens.

  19. Cytoskeletal proteins in cortical development and disease: actin associated proteins in periventricular heterotopia

    PubMed Central

    Lian, Gewei; Sheen, Volney L.

    2015-01-01

    The actin cytoskeleton regulates many important cellular processes in the brain, including cell division and proliferation, migration, and cytokinesis and differentiation. These developmental processes can be regulated through actin dependent vesicle and organelle movement, cell signaling, and the establishment and maintenance of cell junctions and cell shape. Many of these processes are mediated by extensive and intimate interactions of actin with cellular membranes and proteins. Disruption in the actin cytoskeleton in the brain gives rise to periventricular heterotopia (PH), a malformation of cortical development, characterized by abnormal neurons clustered deep in the brain along the lateral ventricles. This disorder can give rise to seizures, dyslexia and psychiatric disturbances. Anatomically, PH is characterized by a smaller brain (impaired proliferation), heterotopia (impaired initial migration) and disruption along the neuroependymal lining (impaired cell-cell adhesion). Genes causal for PH have also been implicated in actin-dependent processes. The current review provides mechanistic insight into actin cytoskeletal regulation of cortical development in the context of this malformation of cortical development. PMID:25883548

  20. Quantitative analyses of the plant cytoskeleton reveal underlying organizational principles

    PubMed Central

    Breuer, David; Ivakov, Alexander; Sampathkumar, Arun; Hollandt, Florian; Persson, Staffan; Nikoloski, Zoran

    2014-01-01

    The actin and microtubule (MT) cytoskeletons are vital structures for cell growth and development across all species. While individual molecular mechanisms underpinning actin and MT dynamics have been intensively studied, principles that govern the cytoskeleton organization remain largely unexplored. Here, we captured biologically relevant characteristics of the plant cytoskeleton through a network-driven imaging-based approach allowing us to quantitatively assess dynamic features of the cytoskeleton. By introducing suitable null models, we demonstrate that the plant cytoskeletal networks exhibit properties required for efficient transport, namely, short average path lengths and high robustness. We further show that these advantageous features are maintained during temporal cytoskeletal rearrangements. Interestingly, man-made transportation networks exhibit similar properties, suggesting general laws of network organization supporting diverse transport processes. The proposed network-driven analysis can be readily used to identify organizational principles of cytoskeletons in other organisms. PMID:24920110

  1. Quantitative analyses of the plant cytoskeleton reveal underlying organizational principles.

    PubMed

    Breuer, David; Ivakov, Alexander; Sampathkumar, Arun; Hollandt, Florian; Persson, Staffan; Nikoloski, Zoran

    2014-08-01

    The actin and microtubule (MT) cytoskeletons are vital structures for cell growth and development across all species. While individual molecular mechanisms underpinning actin and MT dynamics have been intensively studied, principles that govern the cytoskeleton organization remain largely unexplored. Here, we captured biologically relevant characteristics of the plant cytoskeleton through a network-driven imaging-based approach allowing us to quantitatively assess dynamic features of the cytoskeleton. By introducing suitable null models, we demonstrate that the plant cytoskeletal networks exhibit properties required for efficient transport, namely, short average path lengths and high robustness. We further show that these advantageous features are maintained during temporal cytoskeletal rearrangements. Interestingly, man-made transportation networks exhibit similar properties, suggesting general laws of network organization supporting diverse transport processes. The proposed network-driven analysis can be readily used to identify organizational principles of cytoskeletons in other organisms. PMID:24920110

  2. Quantitative analyses of the plant cytoskeleton reveal underlying organizational principles.

    PubMed

    Breuer, David; Ivakov, Alexander; Sampathkumar, Arun; Hollandt, Florian; Persson, Staffan; Nikoloski, Zoran

    2014-08-01

    The actin and microtubule (MT) cytoskeletons are vital structures for cell growth and development across all species. While individual molecular mechanisms underpinning actin and MT dynamics have been intensively studied, principles that govern the cytoskeleton organization remain largely unexplored. Here, we captured biologically relevant characteristics of the plant cytoskeleton through a network-driven imaging-based approach allowing us to quantitatively assess dynamic features of the cytoskeleton. By introducing suitable null models, we demonstrate that the plant cytoskeletal networks exhibit properties required for efficient transport, namely, short average path lengths and high robustness. We further show that these advantageous features are maintained during temporal cytoskeletal rearrangements. Interestingly, man-made transportation networks exhibit similar properties, suggesting general laws of network organization supporting diverse transport processes. The proposed network-driven analysis can be readily used to identify organizational principles of cytoskeletons in other organisms.

  3. Regulators of Actin Dynamics in Gastrointestinal Tract Tumors.

    PubMed

    Steinestel, Konrad; Wardelmann, Eva; Hartmann, Wolfgang; Grünewald, Inga

    2015-01-01

    Reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton underlies cell migration in a wide variety of physiological and pathological processes, such as embryonic development, wound healing, and tumor cell invasion. It has been shown that actin assembly and disassembly are precisely regulated by intracellular signaling cascades that respond to changes in the cell microenvironment, ligand binding to surface receptors, or oncogenic transformation of the cell. Actin-nucleating and actin-depolymerizing (ANFs/ADFs) and nucleation-promoting factors (NPFs) regulate cytoskeletal dynamics at the leading edge of migrating cells, thereby modulating cell shape; these proteins facilitate cellular movement and mediate degradation of the surrounding extracellular matrix by secretion of lytic proteases, thus eliminating barriers for tumor cell invasion. Accordingly, expression and activity of these actin-binding proteins have been linked to enhanced metastasis and poor prognosis in a variety of malignancies. In this review, we will summarize what is known about expression patterns and the functional role of actin regulators in gastrointestinal tumors and evaluate first pharmacological approaches to prevent invasion and metastatic dissemination of malignant cells. PMID:26345720

  4. Regulators of Actin Dynamics in Gastrointestinal Tract Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Steinestel, Konrad; Wardelmann, Eva; Hartmann, Wolfgang; Grünewald, Inga

    2015-01-01

    Reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton underlies cell migration in a wide variety of physiological and pathological processes, such as embryonic development, wound healing, and tumor cell invasion. It has been shown that actin assembly and disassembly are precisely regulated by intracellular signaling cascades that respond to changes in the cell microenvironment, ligand binding to surface receptors, or oncogenic transformation of the cell. Actin-nucleating and actin-depolymerizing (ANFs/ADFs) and nucleation-promoting factors (NPFs) regulate cytoskeletal dynamics at the leading edge of migrating cells, thereby modulating cell shape; these proteins facilitate cellular movement and mediate degradation of the surrounding extracellular matrix by secretion of lytic proteases, thus eliminating barriers for tumor cell invasion. Accordingly, expression and activity of these actin-binding proteins have been linked to enhanced metastasis and poor prognosis in a variety of malignancies. In this review, we will summarize what is known about expression patterns and the functional role of actin regulators in gastrointestinal tumors and evaluate first pharmacological approaches to prevent invasion and metastatic dissemination of malignant cells. PMID:26345720

  5. Phosphorylation of actin-depolymerizing factor/cofilin by LIM-kinase mediates amyloid beta-induced degeneration: a potential mechanism of neuronal dystrophy in Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Heredia, Lorena; Helguera, Pablo; de Olmos, Soledad; Kedikian, Gabriela; Solá Vigo, Francisco; LaFerla, Frank; Staufenbiel, Matthias; de Olmos, José; Busciglio, Jorge; Cáceres, Alfredo; Lorenzo, Alfredo

    2006-06-14

    Deposition of fibrillar amyloid beta (fAbeta) plays a critical role in Alzheimer's disease (AD). We have shown recently that fAbeta-induced dystrophy requires the activation of focal adhesion proteins and the formation of aberrant focal adhesion structures, suggesting the activation of a mechanism of maladaptative plasticity in AD. Focal adhesions are actin-based structures that provide a structural link between the extracellular matrix and the cytoskeleton. To gain additional insight in the molecular mechanism of neuronal degeneration in AD, here we explored the involvement of LIM kinase 1 (LIMK1), actin-depolymerizing factor (ADF), and cofilin in Abeta-induced dystrophy. ADF/cofilin are actin-binding proteins that play a central role in actin filament dynamics, and LIMK1 is the kinase that phosphorylates and thereby inhibits ADF/cofilin. Our data indicate that treatment of hippocampal neurons with fAbeta increases the level of Ser3-phosphorylated ADF/cofilin and Thr508-phosphorylated LIMK1 (P-LIMK1), accompanied by a dramatic remodeling of actin filaments, neuritic dystrophy, and neuronal cell death. A synthetic peptide, S3 peptide, which acts as a specific competitor for ADF/cofilin phosphorylation by LIMK1, inhibited fAbeta-induced ADF/cofilin phosphorylation, preventing actin filament remodeling and neuronal degeneration, indicating the involvement of LIMK1 in Abeta-induced neuronal degeneration in vitro. Immunofluorescence analysis of AD brain showed a significant increase in the number of P-LIMK1-positive neurons in areas affected with AD pathology. P-LIMK1-positive neurons also showed early signs of AD pathology, such as intracellular Abeta and pretangle phosphorylated tau. Thus, LIMK1 activation may play a key role in AD pathology. PMID:16775141

  6. Interaction between Flavivirus and Cytoskeleton during Virus Replication

    PubMed Central

    Foo, Kar Yue; Chee, Hui-Yee

    2015-01-01

    Flaviviruses are potentially human pathogens that cause major epidemics worldwide. Flavivirus interacts with host cell factors to form a favourable virus replication site. Cell cytoskeletons have been observed to have close contact with flaviviruses, which expands the understanding of cytoskeleton functions during virus replication, although many detailed mechanisms are still unclear. The interactions between the virus and host cytoskeletons such as actin filaments, microtubules, and intermediate filaments have provided insight into molecular alterations during the virus infection, such as viral entry, in-cell transport, scaffold assembly, and egress. This review article focuses on the utilization of cytoskeleton by Flavivirus and the respective functions during virus replication. PMID:26347881

  7. Cytoskeleton Molecular Motors: Structures and Their Functions in Neuron

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Qingpin; Hu, Xiaohui; Wei, Zhiyi; Tam, Kin Yip

    2016-01-01

    Cells make use of molecular motors to transport small molecules, macromolecules and cellular organelles to target region to execute biological functions, which is utmost important for polarized cells, such as neurons. In particular, cytoskeleton motors play fundamental roles in neuron polarization, extension, shape and neurotransmission. Cytoskeleton motors comprise of myosin, kinesin and cytoplasmic dynein. F-actin filaments act as myosin track, while kinesin and cytoplasmic dynein move on microtubules. Cytoskeleton motors work together to build a highly polarized and regulated system in neuronal cells via different molecular mechanisms and functional regulations. This review discusses the structures and working mechanisms of the cytoskeleton motors in neurons. PMID:27570482

  8. Dynamin at actin tails.

    PubMed

    Lee, Eunkyung; De Camilli, Pietro

    2002-01-01

    Dynamin, the product of the shibire gene of Drosophila, is a GTPase critically required for endocytosis. Some studies have suggested a functional link between dynamin and the actin cytoskeleton. This link is of special interest, because there is evidence implicating actin dynamics in endocytosis. Here we show that endogenous dynamin 2, as well as green fluorescence protein fusion proteins of both dynamin 1 and 2, is present in actin comets generated by Listeria or by type I PIP kinase (PIPK) overexpression. In PIPK-induced tails, dynamin is further enriched at the interface between the tails and the moving organelles. Dynamin mutants harboring mutations in the GTPase domain inhibited nucleation of actin tails induced by PIPK and moderately reduced their speed. Although dynamin localization to the tails required its proline-rich domain, expression of a dynamin mutant lacking this domain also diminished tail formation. In addition, this mutant disrupted a membrane-associated actin scaffold (podosome rosette) previously shown to include dynamin. These findings suggest that dynamin is part of a protein network that controls nucleation of actin from membranes. At endocytic sites, dynamin may couple the fission reaction to the polymerization of an actin pool that functions in the separation of the endocytic vesicles from the plasma membrane. PMID:11782545

  9. Arf6 coordinates actin assembly through the WAVE complex, a mechanism usurped by Salmonella to invade host cells

    PubMed Central

    Humphreys, Daniel; Davidson, Anthony C.; Hume, Peter J.; Makin, Laura E.; Koronakis, Vassilis

    2013-01-01

    ADP ribosylation factor (Arf) 6 anchors to the plasma membrane, where it coordinates membrane trafficking and cytoskeleton remodelling, but how it assembles actin filaments is unknown. By reconstituting membrane-associated actin assembly mediated by the WASP family veroprolin homolog (WAVE) regulatory complex (WRC), we recapitulated an Arf6-driven actin polymerization pathway. We show that Arf6 is divergent from other Arf members, as it was incapable of directly recruiting WRC. We demonstrate that Arf6 triggers actin assembly at the membrane indirectly by recruiting the Arf guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) ARNO that activates Arf1 to enable WRC-dependent actin assembly. The pathogen Salmonella usurped Arf6 for host cell invasion by recruiting its canonical GEFs EFA6 and BRAG2. Arf6 and its GEFs facilitated membrane ruffling and pathogen invasion via ARNO, and triggered actin assembly by generating an Arf1–WRC signaling hub at the membrane in vitro and in cells. This study reconstitutes Arf6-dependent actin assembly to reveal a mechanism by which related Arf GTPases orchestrate distinct steps in the WRC cytoskeleton remodelling pathway. PMID:24085844

  10. Direct binding of F actin to the cytoplasmic domain of the alpha 2 integrin chain in vitro

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kieffer, J. D.; Plopper, G.; Ingber, D. E.; Hartwig, J. H.; Kupper, T. S.

    1995-01-01

    The transmembrane integrins have been shown to interact with the cytoskeleton via noncovalent binding between cytoplasmic domains (CDs) of integrin beta chains and various actin binding proteins within the focal adhesion complex. Direct or indirect integrin alpha chain CD binding to the actin cytoskeleton has not been reported. We show here that actin, as an abundant constituent of focal adhesion complex proteins isolated from fibroblasts, binds strongly and specifically to alpha 2 CD, but not to alpha 1 CD peptide. Similar specific binding to alpha 2 CD peptide was seen for highly purified F actin, free of putative actin-binding proteins. The bound complex of actin and peptide was visualized directly by coprecipitation, and actin binding was abrogated by removal of a five amino acid sequence from the alpha 2 CD peptide. Our findings may explain the earlier observation that, while integrins alpha 2 beta 1 and alpha 1 beta 1 both bind to collagen, only alpha 2 beta 1 can mediate contraction of extracellular collagen matrices.

  11. Arf6 coordinates actin assembly through the WAVE complex, a mechanism usurped by Salmonella to invade host cells.

    PubMed

    Humphreys, Daniel; Davidson, Anthony C; Hume, Peter J; Makin, Laura E; Koronakis, Vassilis

    2013-10-15

    ADP ribosylation factor (Arf) 6 anchors to the plasma membrane, where it coordinates membrane trafficking and cytoskeleton remodelling, but how it assembles actin filaments is unknown. By reconstituting membrane-associated actin assembly mediated by the WASP family veroprolin homolog (WAVE) regulatory complex (WRC), we recapitulated an Arf6-driven actin polymerization pathway. We show that Arf6 is divergent from other Arf members, as it was incapable of directly recruiting WRC. We demonstrate that Arf6 triggers actin assembly at the membrane indirectly by recruiting the Arf guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) ARNO that activates Arf1 to enable WRC-dependent actin assembly. The pathogen Salmonella usurped Arf6 for host cell invasion by recruiting its canonical GEFs EFA6 and BRAG2. Arf6 and its GEFs facilitated membrane ruffling and pathogen invasion via ARNO, and triggered actin assembly by generating an Arf1-WRC signaling hub at the membrane in vitro and in cells. This study reconstitutes Arf6-dependent actin assembly to reveal a mechanism by which related Arf GTPases orchestrate distinct steps in the WRC cytoskeleton remodelling pathway.

  12. The rpg4-mediated resistance to wheat stem rust (Puccinia graminis) in barley (Hordeum vulgare) requires Rpg5, a second NBS-LRR gene, and an actin depolymerization factor.

    PubMed

    Wang, X; Richards, J; Gross, T; Druka, A; Kleinhofs, A; Steffenson, B; Acevedo, M; Brueggeman, R

    2013-04-01

    The rpg4 gene confers recessive resistance to several races of wheat stem rust (Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici) and Rpg5 provides dominant resistance against isolates of the rye stem rust (P. graminis f. sp. secalis) in barley. The rpg4 and Rpg5 genes are tightly linked on chromosome 5H, and positional cloning using high-resolution populations clearly separated the genes, unambiguously identifying Rpg5; however, the identity of rpg4 remained unclear. High-resolution genotyping of critical recombinants at the rpg4/Rpg5 locus, designated here as rpg4-mediated resistance locus (RMRL) delimited two distinct yet tightly linked loci required for resistance, designated as RMRL1 and RMRL2. Utilizing virus-induced gene silencing, each gene at RMRL1, i.e., HvRga1 (a nucleotide-binding site leucine-rich repeat [NBS-LRR] domain gene), Rpg5 (an NBS-LRR-protein kinase domain gene), and HvAdf3 (an actin depolymerizing factor-like gene), was individually silenced followed by inoculation with P. graminis f. sp. tritici race QCCJ. Silencing each gene changed the reaction type from incompatible to compatible, indicating that all three genes are required for rpg4-mediated resistance. This stem rust resistance mechanism in barley follows the emerging theme of unrelated pairs of genetically linked NBS-LRR genes required for specific pathogen recognition and resistance. It also appears that actin cytoskeleton dynamics may play an important role in determining resistance against several races of stem rust in barley.

  13. CLIC4 regulates apical exocytosis and renal tube luminogenesis through retromer- and actin-mediated endocytic trafficking

    PubMed Central

    Chou, Szu-Yi; Hsu, Kuo-Shun; Otsu, Wataru; Hsu, Ya-Chu; Luo, Yun-Cin; Yeh, Celine; Shehab, Syed S.; Chen, Jie; Shieh, Vincent; He, Guo-an; Marean, Michael B.; Felsen, Diane; Ding, Aihao; Poppas, Dix P.; Chuang, Jen-Zen; Sung, Ching-Hwa

    2016-01-01

    Chloride intracellular channel 4 (CLIC4) is a mammalian homologue of EXC-4 whose mutation is associated with cystic excretory canals in nematodes. Here we show that CLIC4-null mouse embryos exhibit impaired renal tubulogenesis. In both developing and developed kidneys, CLIC4 is specifically enriched in the proximal tubule epithelial cells, in which CLIC4 is important for luminal delivery, microvillus morphogenesis, and endolysosomal biogenesis. Adult CLIC4-null proximal tubules display aberrant dilation. In MDCK 3D cultures, CLIC4 is expressed on early endosome, recycling endosome and apical transport carriers before reaching its steady-state apical membrane localization in mature lumen. CLIC4 suppression causes impaired apical vesicle coalescence and central lumen formation, a phenotype that can be rescued by Rab8 and Cdc42. Furthermore, we show that retromer- and branched actin-mediated trafficking on early endosome regulates apical delivery during early luminogenesis. CLIC4 selectively modulates retromer-mediated apical transport by negatively regulating the formation of branched actin on early endosomes. PMID:26786190

  14. RhoA activation and actin reorganization involved in endothelial CAM-mediated endocytosis of anti-PECAM carriers: critical role for tyrosine 686 in the cytoplasmic tail of PECAM-1.

    PubMed

    Garnacho, Carmen; Shuvaev, Vladimir; Thomas, Anu; McKenna, Lindsay; Sun, Jing; Koval, Michael; Albelda, Steven; Muzykantov, Vladimir; Muro, Silvia

    2008-03-15

    Platelet-endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 (PECAM-1), a transmembrane glycoprotein involved in leukocyte transmigration, represents a good target for endothelial drug delivery (eg, using antibody-directed nanocarriers, anti-PECAM/NCs). Although endothelial cells do not internalize PECAM antibodies, PECAM-1 engagement by multivalent anti-PECAM conjugates and nanocarriers causes endocytosis via a nonclassic CAM-mediated pathway. We found that endothelial uptake of multivalent anti-PECAM complexes is associated with PECAM-1 phosphorylation. Using model REN cells expressing a series of PECAM-1 deletion and point mutants, we found that the PECAM-1 cytoplasmic domain and, more precisely, PECAM-1 tyrosine 686, is critical in mediating RhoA activation and recruitment of EGFP-RhoA to anti-PECAM/NC binding sites at the plasmalemma, actin polymerization into phalloidin-positive stress fibers, and finally CAM endocytosis of anti-PECAM/NCs. Endothelial targeting and endocytosis of anti-PECAM/NCs were markedly efficient and did not compromise endothelial barrier function in vitro (determined by immunostaining of VE-cadherin and (125)I-albumin transport across endothelial monolayers) or in vivo (determined by electron microscopy imaging of pulmonary capillaries and (125)I-albumin transport from the blood into the lung tissue after intravenous injection of anti-PECAM/NCs in mice). These results reveal PECAM-1 signaling and interactions with the cytoskeleton, which are required for CAM-endocytosis, and may provide safe intra-endothelial drug delivery by anti-PECAM/NCs. PMID:18182571

  15. MicroRNAs as key regulators of GTPase-mediated apical actin reorganization in multiciliated epithelia

    PubMed Central

    Mercey, Olivier; Kodjabachian, Laurent; Barbry, Pascal; Marcet, Brice

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Multiciliated cells (MCCs), which are present in specialized vertebrate tissues such as mucociliary epithelia, project hundreds of motile cilia from their apical membrane. Coordinated ciliary beating in MCCs contributes to fluid propulsion in several biological processes. In a previous work, we demonstrated that microRNAs of the miR-34/449 family act as new conserved regulators of MCC differentiation by specifically repressing cell cycle genes and the Notch pathway. Recently, we have shown that miR-34/449 also modulate small GTPase pathways to promote, in a later stage of differentiation, the assembly of the apical actin network, a prerequisite for proper anchoring of centrioles-derived neo-synthesized basal bodies. We characterized several miR-34/449 targets related to small GTPase pathways including R-Ras, which represents a key and conserved regulator during MCC differentiation. Direct RRAS repression by miR-34/449 is necessary for apical actin meshwork assembly, notably by allowing the apical relocalization of the actin binding protein Filamin-A near basal bodies. Our studies establish miR-34/449 as central players that orchestrate several steps of MCC differentiation program by regulating distinct signaling pathways. PMID:27144998

  16. Vinculin Interacts with the Chlamydia Effector TarP Via a Tripartite Vinculin Binding Domain to Mediate Actin Recruitment and Assembly at the Plasma Membrane

    PubMed Central

    Thwaites, Tristan R.; Pedrosa, Antonio T.; Peacock, Thomas P.; Carabeo, Rey A.

    2015-01-01

    The mammalian protein vinculin is often a target of bacterial pathogens to subvert locally host cell actin dynamics. In Chlamydia infection, vinculin has been implicated in RNA interference screens, but the molecular basis for vinculin requirement has not been characterized. In this report, we show that vinculin was involved in the actin recruitment and F-actin assembly at the plasma membrane to facilitate invasion. Vinculin was recruited to the plasma membrane via its interaction with a specific tripartite motif within TarP that resembles the vinculin-binding domain (VBD) found in the Shigella invasion factor IpaA. The TarP-mediated plasma membrane recruitment of vinculin resulted in the localized recruitment of actin. In vitro pulldown assays for protein-protein interaction and imaging-based evaluation of recruitment to the plasma membrane demonstrated the essential role of the vinculin-binding site 1 (VBS1), and the dispensability of VBS2 and VBS3. As further support for the functionality of VBD-vinculin interaction, VBD-mediated actin recruitment required vinculin. Interestingly, while both vinculin and the focal adhesion kinase (FAK) colocalized at the sites of adhesion, the recruitment of one was independent of the other; and the actin recruitment function of the VBD/vinculin signaling axis was independent of the LD/FAK pathway. PMID:26649283

  17. p140Cap regulates memory and synaptic plasticity through Src-mediated and citron-N-mediated actin reorganization.

    PubMed

    Repetto, Daniele; Camera, Paola; Melani, Riccardo; Morello, Noemi; Russo, Isabella; Calcagno, Eleonora; Tomasoni, Romana; Bianchi, Federico; Berto, Gaia; Giustetto, Maurizio; Berardi, Nicoletta; Pizzorusso, Tommaso; Matteoli, Michela; Di Stefano, Paola; Missler, Markus; Turco, Emilia; Di Cunto, Ferdinando; Defilippi, Paola

    2014-01-22

    A major challenge in the neuroscience field is the identification of molecules and pathways that control synaptic plasticity and memory. Dendritic spines play a pivotal role in these processes, as the major sites of excitatory synapses in neuronal communication. Previous studies have shown that the scaffold protein p140Cap localizes into dendritic spines and that its knockdown negatively modulates spine shape in culture. However, so far, there is no information on its in vivo relevance. By using a knock-out mouse model, we here demonstrate that p140Cap is a key element for both learning and synaptic plasticity. Indeed, p140Cap(-/-) mice are impaired in object recognition test, as well as in LTP and in LTD measurements. The in vivo effects of p140Cap loss are presumably attenuated by noncell-autonomous events, since primary neurons obtained from p140Cap(-/-) mice show a strong reduction in number of mushroom spines and abnormal organization of synapse-associated F-actin. These phenotypes are most likely caused by a local reduction of the inhibitory control of RhoA and of cortactin toward the actin-depolymerizing factor cofilin. These events can be controlled by p140Cap through its capability to directly inhibit the activation of Src kinase and by its binding to the scaffold protein Citron-N. Altogether, our results provide new insight into how protein associated with dynamic microtubules may regulate spine actin organization through interaction with postsynaptic density components. PMID:24453341

  18. The pathogen-actin connection: A platform for defense signaling in plants

    SciTech Connect

    Day, B; Henty, Jessica L; Porter, K J; Staiger, Chris J

    2011-09-08

    The cytoskeleton, a dynamic network of cytoplasmic polymers, plays a central role in numerous fundamental processes, such as development, reproduction, and cellular responses to biotic and abiotic stimuli. As a platform for innate immune responses in mammalian cells, the actin cytoskeleton is a central component in the organization and activation of host defenses, including signaling and cellular repair. In plants, our understanding of the genetic and biochemical responses in both pathogen and host that are required for virulence and resistance has grown enormously. Additional advances in live-cell imaging of cytoskeletal dynamics have markedly altered our view of actin turnover in plants. In this review, we outline current knowledge of host resistance following pathogen perception, both in terms of the genetic interactions that mediate defense signaling, as well as the biochemical and cellular processes that are required for defense signaling.

  19. Actin Automata with Memory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alonso-Sanz, Ramón; Adamatzky, Andy

    Actin is a globular protein which forms long polar filaments in eukaryotic. The actin filaments play the roles of cytoskeleton, motility units, information processing and learning. We model actin filament as a double chain of finite state machines, nodes, which take states “0” and “1”. The states are abstractions of absence and presence of a subthreshold charge on actin units corresponding to the nodes. All nodes update their state in parallel to discrete time. A node updates its current state depending on states of two closest neighbors in the node chain and two closest neighbors in the complementary chain. Previous models of actin automata consider momentary state transitions of nodes. We enrich the actin automata model by assuming that states of nodes depend not only on the current states of neighboring node but also on their past states. Thus, we assess the effect of memory of past states on the dynamics of acting automata. We demonstrate in computational experiments that memory slows down propagation of perturbations, decrease entropy of space-time patterns generated, transforms traveling localizations to stationary oscillators, and stationary oscillations to still patterns.

  20. Actinic Keratosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... rashes clinical tools newsletter | contact Share | Actinic Keratosis (Solar Keratosis) Information for adults A A A Actinic ... the touch. Overview Actinic keratoses, also known as solar keratoses, are small rough or scaly areas of ...

  1. Scaffold-free tissue engineering: organization of the tissue cytoskeleton and its effects on tissue shape.

    PubMed

    Czajka, Caitlin A; Mehesz, Agnes Nagy; Trusk, Thomas C; Yost, Michael J; Drake, Christopher J

    2014-05-01

    Work described herein characterizes tissues formed using scaffold-free, non-adherent systems and investigates their utility in modular approaches to tissue engineering. Immunofluorescence analysis revealed that all tissues formed using scaffold-free, non-adherent systems organize tissue cortical cytoskeletons that appear to be under tension. Tension in these tissues was also evident when modules (spheroids) were used to generate larger tissues. Real-time analysis of spheroid fusion in unconstrained systems illustrated modular motion that is compatible with alterations in tensions, due to the process of disassembly/reassembly of the cortical cytoskeletons required for module fusion. Additionally, tissues generated from modules placed within constrained linear molds, which restrict modular motion, deformed upon release from molds. That tissue deformation is due in full or in part to imbalanced cortical actin cytoskeleton tensions resulting from the constraints imposed by mold systems is suggested from our finding that treatment of forming tissues with Y-27632, a selective inhibitor of ROCK phosphorylation, reduced tissue deformation. Our studies suggest that the deformation of scaffold-free tissues due to tensions mediated via the tissue cortical cytoskeleton represents a major and underappreciated challenge to modular tissue engineering.

  2. Broadening the Spectrum of Actin-Based Protrusive Activity Mediated by Arp2/3 Complex-Facilitated Polymerization: Motility of Cytoplasmic Ridges and Tubular Projections

    PubMed Central

    Henson, John H.; Gianakas, Anastasia D.; Henson, Lauren H.; Lakin, Christina L.; Voss, Meagen K.; Bewersdorf, Joerg; Oldenbourg, Rudolf; Morris, Robert L.

    2014-01-01

    Arp2/3 complex-facilitated actin polymerization plays an essential role in a variety of cellular functions including motility, adherence, endocytosis and trafficking. In the present study we employ the sea urchin coelomocyte experimental model system to test the hypotheses that Arp2/3 complex-nucleated actin assembly mediates the motility of two unusual cellular protrusions; the cytoplasmic ridges present during coelomocyte spreading, and inducible, tubular-shaped, and neurite-like projections. Our investigations couple pharmacological manipulation employing inhibitors of actin polymerization and the Arp2/3 complex with a wide array of imaging methods including digitally enhanced phase contrast, DIC and polarization light microscopy of live cells; conventional, confocal and super-resolution light microscopy of fluorescently labeled cells; and scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Taken together, the results of this study indicate that Arp2/3 complex-facilitated actin polymerization underlies the motility of coelomocyte cytoplasmic ridges and tubular projections, that these processes are related to each other, and that they have been preliminarily identified in other cell types. The results also highlight the broad spectrum of actin-based protrusive activities dependent on the Arp2/3 complex and provide additional insights into the pervasive nature of this ubiquitous actin nucleator. Furthermore we provide the first evidence of a possible mechanistic difference between the impacts of the small molecule drugs BDM and CK666 on the Arp2/3 complex. PMID:25111797

  3. Actin and myosin function in directed vacuole movement during cell division in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    1996-01-01

    During cell division, cytoplasmic organelles are not synthesized de novo, rather they are replicated and partitioned between daughter cells. Partitioning of the vacuole in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is coordinated with the cell cycle and involves a dramatic translocation of a portion of the parental organelle from the mother cell into the bud. While the molecular mechanisms that mediate this event are unknown, the vacuole's rapid and directed movements suggest cytoskeleton involvement. To identify cytoskeletal components that function in this process, vacuole inheritance was examined in a collection of actin mutants. Six strains were identified as being defective in vacuole inheritance. Tetrad analysis verified that the defect cosegregates with the mutant actin gene. One strain with a deletion in a myosin-binding region was analyzed further. The vacuole inheritance defect in this strain appears to result from the loss of a specific actin function; the actin cytoskeleton is intact and protein targeting to the vacuole is normal. Consistent with these findings, a mutation in the actin-binding domain of Myo2p, a class V unconventional myosin, abolishes vacuole inheritance. This suggests that Myo2p serves as a molecular motor for vacuole transport along actin filaments. The location of actin and Myo2p relative to the vacuole membrane is consistent with this model. Additional studies suggest that the actin filaments used for vacuole transport are dynamic, and that profilin plays a critical role in regulating their assembly. These results present the first demonstration that specific cytoskeletal proteins function in vacuole inheritance. PMID:8978821

  4. Postsynaptic actin regulates active zone spacing and glutamate receptor apposition at the Drosophila neuromuscular junction.

    PubMed

    Blunk, Aline D; Akbergenova, Yulia; Cho, Richard W; Lee, Jihye; Walldorf, Uwe; Xu, Ke; Zhong, Guisheng; Zhuang, Xiaowei; Littleton, J Troy

    2014-07-01

    Synaptic communication requires precise alignment of presynaptic active zones with postsynaptic receptors to enable rapid and efficient neurotransmitter release. How transsynaptic signaling between connected partners organizes this synaptic apparatus is poorly understood. To further define the mechanisms that mediate synapse assembly, we carried out a chemical mutagenesis screen in Drosophila to identify mutants defective in the alignment of active zones with postsynaptic glutamate receptor fields at the larval neuromuscular junction. From this screen we identified a mutation in Actin 57B that disrupted synaptic morphology and presynaptic active zone organization. Actin 57B, one of six actin genes in Drosophila, is expressed within the postsynaptic bodywall musculature. The isolated allele, act(E84K), harbors a point mutation in a highly conserved glutamate residue in subdomain 1 that binds members of the Calponin Homology protein family, including spectrin. Homozygous act(E84K) mutants show impaired alignment and spacing of presynaptic active zones, as well as defects in apposition of active zones to postsynaptic glutamate receptor fields. act(E84K) mutants have disrupted postsynaptic actin networks surrounding presynaptic boutons, with the formation of aberrant actin swirls previously observed following disruption of postsynaptic spectrin. Consistent with a disruption of the postsynaptic actin cytoskeleton, spectrin, adducin and the PSD-95 homolog Discs-Large are all mislocalized in act(E84K) mutants. Genetic interactions between act(E84K) and neurexin mutants suggest that the postsynaptic actin cytoskeleton may function together with the Neurexin-Neuroligin transsynaptic signaling complex to mediate normal synapse development and presynaptic active zone organization.

  5. Immunological Responses and Actin Dynamics in Macrophages Are Controlled by N-Cofilin but Are Independent from ADF

    PubMed Central

    Jönsson, Friederike; Gurniak, Christine B.; Fleischer, Bernhard; Kirfel, Gregor; Witke, Walter

    2012-01-01

    Dynamic changes in the actin cytoskeleton are essential for immune cell function and a number of immune deficiencies have been linked to mutations, which disturb the actin cytoskeleton. In macrophages and dendritic cells, actin remodelling is critical for motility, phagocytosis and antigen presentation, however the actin binding proteins, which control antigen presentation have been poorly characterized. Here we dissect the specific roles of the family of ADF/cofilin F-actin depolymerizing factors in macrophages and in local immune responses. Macrophage migration, cell polarization and antigen presentation to T-cells require n-cofilin mediated F-actin remodelling. Using a conditional mouse model, we show that n-cofilin also controls MHC class II-dependent antigen presentation. Other cellular processes such as phagocytosis and antigen processing were found to be independent of n-cofilin. Our data identify n-cofilin as a novel regulator of antigen presentation, while ADF on the other hand is dispensable for macrophage motility and antigen presentation. PMID:22558315

  6. GPCR-mediated PLCβγ/PKCβ/PKD signaling pathway regulates the cofilin phosphatase slingshot 2 in neutrophil chemotaxis

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Xuehua; Gera, Nidhi; Li, Hongyan; Yun, Michelle; Zhang, Liyong; Wang, Youhong; Wang, Q. Jane; Jin, Tian

    2015-01-01

    Chemotaxis requires precisely coordinated polymerization and depolymerization of the actin cytoskeleton at leading fronts of migrating cells. However, GPCR activation-controlled F-actin depolymerization remains largely elusive. Here, we reveal a novel signaling pathway, including Gαi, PLC, PKCβ, protein kinase D (PKD), and SSH2, in control of cofilin phosphorylation and actin cytoskeletal reorganization, which is essential for neutrophil chemotaxis. We show that PKD is essential for neutrophil chemotaxis and that GPCR-mediated PKD activation depends on PLC/PKC signaling. More importantly, we discover that GPCR activation recruits/activates PLCγ2 in a PI3K-dependent manner. We further verify that PKCβ specifically interacts with PKD1 and is required for chemotaxis. Finally, we identify slingshot 2 (SSH2), a phosphatase of cofilin (actin depolymerization factor), as a target of PKD1 that regulates cofilin phosphorylation and remodeling of the actin cytoskeleton during neutrophil chemotaxis. PMID:25568344

  7. The kinesin-like proteins, KAC1/2, regulate actin dynamics underlying chloroplast light-avoidance in Physcomitrella patens.

    PubMed

    Shen, Zhiyuan; Liu, Yen-Chen; Bibeau, Jeffrey P; Lemoi, Kyle P; Tüzel, Erkan; Vidali, Luis

    2015-01-01

    In plants, light determines chloroplast position; these organelles show avoidance and accumulation responses in high and low fluence-rate light, respectively. Chloroplast motility in response to light is driven by cytoskeletal elements. The actin cytoskeleton mediates chloroplast photorelocation responses in Arabidopsis thaliana. In contrast, in the moss Physcomitrella patens, both, actin filaments and microtubules can transport chloroplasts. Because of the surprising evidence that two kinesin-like proteins (called KACs) are important for actin-dependent chloroplast photorelocation in vascular plants, we wanted to determine the cytoskeletal system responsible for the function of these proteins in moss. We performed gene-specific silencing using RNA interference in P. patens. We confirmed existing reports using gene knockouts, that PpKAC1 and PpKAC2 are required for chloroplast dispersion under uniform white light conditions, and that the two proteins are functionally equivalent. To address the specific cytoskeletal elements responsible for motility, this loss-of-function approach was combined with cytoskeleton-targeted drug studies. We found that, in P. patens, these KACs mediate the chloroplast light-avoidance response in an actin filament-dependent, rather than a microtubule-dependent manner. Using correlation-decay analysis of cytoskeletal dynamics, we found that PpKAC stabilizes cortical actin filaments, but has no effect on microtubule dynamics.

  8. Assembly Kinetics Determine the Architecture of α-actinin Crosslinked F-actin Networks

    PubMed Central

    Falzone, Tobias T.; Lenz, Martin; Kovar, David R.; Gardel, Margaret L.

    2013-01-01

    The actin cytoskeleton is organized into diverse meshworks and bundles that support many aspects of cell physiology. Understanding the self-assembly of these actin-based structures is essential for developing predictive models of cytoskeletal organization. Here we show that the competing kinetics of bundle formation with the onset of dynamic arrest arising from filament entanglements and cross-linking determine the architecture of reconstituted actin networks formed with α-actinin cross-links. Cross-link mediated bundle formation only occurs in dilute solutions of highly mobile actin filaments. As actin polymerization proceeds, filament mobility and bundle formation are arrested concomitantly. By controlling the onset of dynamic arrest, perturbations to actin assembly kinetics dramatically alter the architecture of biochemically identical samples. Thus, the morphology of reconstituted F-actin networks is a kinetically determined structure similar to those formed by physical gels and glasses. These results establish mechanisms controlling the structure and mechanics in diverse semi-flexible biopolymer networks. PMID:22643888

  9. Intranuclear Actin Regulates Osteogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Sen, Buer; Xie, Zhihui; Uzer, Gunes; Thompson, William R.; Styner, Maya; Wu, Xin; Rubin, Janet

    2016-01-01

    Depolymerization of the actin cytoskeleton induces nuclear trafficking of regulatory proteins and global effects on gene transcription. We here show that in mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), cytochalasin D treatment causes rapid cofilin-/importin-9-dependent transfer of G-actin into the nucleus. The continued presence of intranuclear actin, which forms rod-like structures that stain with phalloidin, is associated with induction of robust expression of the osteogenic genes osterix and osteocalcin in a Runx2-dependent manner, and leads to acquisition of osteogenic phenotype. Adipogenic differentiation also occurs, but to a lesser degree. Intranuclear actin leads to nuclear export of Yes-associated protein (YAP); maintenance of nuclear YAP inhibits Runx2 initiation of osteogenesis. Injection of cytochalasin into the tibial marrow space of live mice results in abundant bone formation within the space of 1 week. In sum, increased intranuclear actin forces MSC into osteogenic lineage through controlling Runx2 activity; this process may be useful for clinical objectives of forming bone. PMID:26140478

  10. The molybdenum cofactor biosynthesis complex interacts with actin filaments via molybdenum insertase Cnx1 as anchor protein in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Kaufholdt, David; Baillie, Christin-Kirsty; Bikker, Rolf; Burkart, Valentin; Dudek, Christian-Alexander; von Pein, Linn; Rothkegel, Martin; Mendel, Ralf R; Hänsch, Robert

    2016-03-01

    The pterin based molybdenum cofactor (Moco) plays an essential role in almost all organisms. Its biosynthesis is catalysed by six enzymes in a conserved four step reaction pathway. The last three steps are located in the cytoplasm, where a multimeric protein complex is formed to protect the intermediates from degradation. Bimolecular fluorescence complementation was used to test for cytoskeleton association of the Moco biosynthesis enzymes with actin filaments and microtubules using known cytoskeleton associated proteins, thus permitting non-invasive in vivo studies. Coding sequences of binding proteins were cloned via the GATEWAY system. No Moco biosynthesis enzyme showed any interaction with microtubules. However, alone the two domain protein Cnx1 exhibited interaction with actin filaments mediated by both domains with the Cnx1G domain displaying a stronger interaction. Cnx6 showed actin association only if unlabelled Cnx1 was co-expressed in comparable amounts. So Cnx1 is likely to be the anchor protein for the whole biosynthesis complex on actin filaments. A stabilization of the whole Moco biosynthesis complex on the cytoskeleton might be crucial. In addition a micro-compartmentation might either allow a localisation near the mitochondrial ATM3 exporter providing the first Moco intermediate or near one of the three molybdate transporters enabling efficient molybdate incorporation.

  11. α-catenin, vinculin, and F-actin in strengthening E-cadherin cell–cell adhesions and mechanosensing

    PubMed Central

    Dufour, Sylvie; Mège, René-Marc; Thiery, Jean Paul

    2013-01-01

    Classical cadherins play a crucial role in establishing intercellular adhesion, regulating cortical tension, and maintaining mechanical coupling between cells. The mechanosensitive regulation of intercellular adhesion strengthening depends on the recruitment of adhesion complexes at adhesion sites and their anchoring to the actin cytoskeleton. Thus, the molecular mechanisms coupling cadherin-associated complexes to the actin cytoskeleton are actively being studied, with a particular focus on α-catenin and vinculin. We have recently addressed the role of these proteins by analyzing the consequences of their depletion and the expression of α-catenin mutants in the formation and strengthening of cadherin-mediated adhesions. We have used the dual pipette assay to measure the forces required to separate cell doublets formed in suspension. In this commentary, we briefly summarize the current knowledge on the role of α-catenin and vinculin in cadherin-actin cytoskeletal interactions. These data shed light on the tension-dependent contribution of α-catenin and vinculin in a mechanoresponsive complex that promotes the connection between cadherin and the actin cytoskeleton and their requirement in the development of adhesion strengthening. PMID:23739176

  12. Mesenchymal stromal cells reverse hypoxia-mediated suppression of α-smooth muscle actin expression in human dermal fibroblasts

    SciTech Connect

    Faulknor, Renea A.; Olekson, Melissa A.; Nativ, Nir I.; Ghodbane, Mehdi; Gray, Andrea J.; Berthiaume, François

    2015-02-27

    During wound healing, fibroblasts deposit extracellular matrix that guides angiogenesis and supports the migration and proliferation of cells that eventually form the scar. They also promote wound closure via differentiation into α-smooth muscle actin (SMA)-expressing myofibroblasts, which cause wound contraction. Low oxygen tension typical of chronic nonhealing wounds inhibits fibroblast collagen production and differentiation. It has been suggested that hypoxic mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) secrete factors that promote wound healing in animal models; however, it is unclear whether these factors are equally effective on the target cells in a hypoxic wound environment. Here we investigated the impact of MSC-derived soluble factors on the function of fibroblasts cultured in hypoxic fibroblast-populated collagen lattices (FPCLs). Hypoxia alone significantly decreased FPCL contraction and α-SMA expression. MSC-conditioned medium restored hypoxic FPCL contraction and α-SMA expression to levels similar to normoxic FPCLs. (SB431542), an inhibitor of transforming growth factor-β{sub 1} (TGF-β{sub 1})-mediated signaling, blocked most of the MSC effect on FPCL contraction, while exogenous TGF-β{sub 1} at levels similar to that secreted by MSCs reproduced the MSC effect. These results suggest that TGF-β{sub 1} is a major paracrine signal secreted by MSCs that can restore fibroblast functions relevant to the wound healing process and that are impaired in hypoxia. - Highlights: • Fibroblasts were cultured in collagen lattices (FPCLs) as model contracting wounds. • Hypoxia decreased FPCL contraction and fibroblast α-smooth muscle actin expression. • Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) restored function of hypoxic fibroblasts. • MSCs regulate fibroblast function mainly via secreted transforming growth factor-β{sub 1}.

  13. Membrane tension and cytoskeleton organization in cell motility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sens, Pierre; Plastino, Julie

    2015-07-01

    Cell membrane shape changes are important for many aspects of normal biological function, such as tissue development, wound healing and cell division and motility. Various disease states are associated with deregulation of how cells move and change shape, including notably tumor initiation and cancer cell metastasis. Cell motility is powered, in large part, by the controlled assembly and disassembly of the actin cytoskeleton. Much of this dynamic happens in close proximity to the plasma membrane due to the fact that actin assembly factors are membrane-bound, and thus actin filaments are generally oriented such that their growth occurs against or near the membrane. For a long time, the membrane was viewed as a relatively passive scaffold for signaling. However, results from the last five years show that this is not the whole picture, and that the dynamics of the actin cytoskeleton are intimately linked to the mechanics of the cell membrane. In this review, we summarize recent findings concerning the role of plasma membrane mechanics in cell cytoskeleton dynamics and architecture, showing that the cell membrane is not just an envelope or a barrier for actin assembly, but is a master regulator controlling cytoskeleton dynamics and cell polarity.

  14. Laser-mediated Photodynamic Therapy: An Alternative Treatment for Actinic Keratosis?

    PubMed

    Kessels, Janneke P H M; Nelemans, Patty J; Mosterd, Klara; Kelleners-Smeets, Nicole W J; Krekels, Gertruud A M; Ostertag, Judith U

    2016-03-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) with light emitting diode (LED) illumination is a frequently used treatment modality for actinic keratosis (AK) with excellent cosmetic outcome. A major disadvantage, however, is the high pain score. Pulsed dye laser (PDL) illumination has been suggested, but the long-term efficacy of this treatment is unknown. In this split-face study we prospectively treated 61 patients with AK, with both LED-PDT and PDL-PDT. The mean change in the number of lesions between the end of follow-up and start of therapy was -4.25 (95% confidence interval (95% CI) -5.07; -3.43) for LED-PDT and -3.88 (95% CI -4,76; -2.99) for PDL-PDT, with a non-significant difference (p = 0.258) of -0.46 (95% CI -1.28; 0.35). The percentage decrease from baseline in the total number of AK was 55.8% and 47.8%, respectively, at 12-month follow-up. Visual analogue scale pain score was lower after PDL (mean 2.64) compared with LED illumination (mean 6.47). These findings indicate that PDL-PDT is an effective alternative illumination source fo. PMID:26551377

  15. Cell Cytoskeleton and Tether Extraction

    PubMed Central

    Pontes, B.; Viana, N.B.; Salgado, L.T.; Farina, M.; Neto, V. Moura; Nussenzveig, H.M.

    2011-01-01

    We perform a detailed investigation of the force × deformation curve in tether extraction from 3T3 cells by optical tweezers. Contrary to conventional wisdom about tethers extracted from cells, we find that actin filaments are present within them, so that a revised theory of tether pulling from cells is called for. We also measure steady and maximum tether force values significantly higher than previously published ones for 3T3 cells. Possible explanations for these differences are investigated. Further experimental support of the theory of force barriers for membrane tube extension is obtained. The potential of studies on tether pulling force × deformation for retrieving information on membrane-cytoskeleton interaction is emphasized. PMID:21723813

  16. Dock mediates Scar- and WASp-dependent actin polymerization through interaction with cell adhesion molecules in founder cells and fusion-competent myoblasts

    PubMed Central

    Kaipa, Balasankara Reddy; Shao, Huanjie; Schäfer, Gritt; Trinkewitz, Tatjana; Groth, Verena; Liu, Jianqi; Beck, Lothar; Bogdan, Sven; Abmayr, Susan M.; Önel, Susanne-Filiz

    2013-01-01

    Summary The formation of the larval body wall musculature of Drosophila depends on the asymmetric fusion of two myoblast types, founder cells (FCs) and fusion-competent myoblasts (FCMs). Recent studies have established an essential function of Arp2/3-based actin polymerization during myoblast fusion, formation of a dense actin focus at the site of fusion in FCMs, and a thin sheath of actin in FCs and/or growing muscles. The formation of these actin structures depends on recognition and adhesion of myoblasts that is mediated by cell surface receptors of the immunoglobulin superfamily. However, the connection of the cell surface receptors with Arp2/3-based actin polymerization is poorly understood. To date only the SH2-SH3 adaptor protein Crk has been suggested to link cell adhesion with Arp2/3-based actin polymerization in FCMs. Here, we propose that the SH2-SH3 adaptor protein Dock, like Crk, links cell adhesion with actin polymerization. We show that Dock is expressed in FCs and FCMs and colocalizes with the cell adhesion proteins Sns and Duf at cell–cell contact points. Biochemical data in this study indicate that different domains of Dock are involved in binding the cell adhesion molecules Duf, Rst, Sns and Hbs. We emphasize the importance of these interactions by quantifying the enhanced myoblast fusion defects in duf dock, sns dock and hbs dock double mutants. Additionally, we show that Dock interacts biochemically and genetically with Drosophila Scar, Vrp1 and WASp. Based on these data, we propose that Dock links cell adhesion in FCs and FCMs with either Scar– or Vrp1–WASp-dependent Arp2/3 activation. PMID:22992459

  17. Dock mediates Scar- and WASp-dependent actin polymerization through interaction with cell adhesion molecules in founder cells and fusion-competent myoblasts.

    PubMed

    Kaipa, Balasankara Reddy; Shao, Huanjie; Schäfer, Gritt; Trinkewitz, Tatjana; Groth, Verena; Liu, Jianqi; Beck, Lothar; Bogdan, Sven; Abmayr, Susan M; Önel, Susanne-Filiz

    2013-01-01

    The formation of the larval body wall musculature of Drosophila depends on the asymmetric fusion of two myoblast types, founder cells (FCs) and fusion-competent myoblasts (FCMs). Recent studies have established an essential function of Arp2/3-based actin polymerization during myoblast fusion, formation of a dense actin focus at the site of fusion in FCMs, and a thin sheath of actin in FCs and/or growing muscles. The formation of these actin structures depends on recognition and adhesion of myoblasts that is mediated by cell surface receptors of the immunoglobulin superfamily. However, the connection of the cell surface receptors with Arp2/3-based actin polymerization is poorly understood. To date only the SH2-SH3 adaptor protein Crk has been suggested to link cell adhesion with Arp2/3-based actin polymerization in FCMs. Here, we propose that the SH2-SH3 adaptor protein Dock, like Crk, links cell adhesion with actin polymerization. We show that Dock is expressed in FCs and FCMs and colocalizes with the cell adhesion proteins Sns and Duf at cell-cell contact points. Biochemical data in this study indicate that different domains of Dock are involved in binding the cell adhesion molecules Duf, Rst, Sns and Hbs. We emphasize the importance of these interactions by quantifying the enhanced myoblast fusion defects in duf dock, sns dock and hbs dock double mutants. Additionally, we show that Dock interacts biochemically and genetically with Drosophila Scar, Vrp1 and WASp. Based on these data, we propose that Dock links cell adhesion in FCs and FCMs with either Scar- or Vrp1-WASp-dependent Arp2/3 activation.

  18. Sensor potency of the moonlighting enzyme-decorated cytoskeleton: the cytoskeleton as a metabolic sensor

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background There is extensive evidence for the interaction of metabolic enzymes with the eukaryotic cytoskeleton. The significance of these interactions is far from clear. Presentation of the hypothesis In the cytoskeletal integrative sensor hypothesis presented here, the cytoskeleton senses and integrates the general metabolic activity of the cell. This activity depends on the binding to the cytoskeleton of enzymes and, depending on the nature of the enzyme, this binding may occur if the enzyme is either active or inactive but not both. This enzyme-binding is further proposed to stabilize microtubules and microfilaments and to alter rates of GTP and ATP hydrolysis and their levels. Testing the hypothesis Evidence consistent with the cytoskeletal integrative sensor hypothesis is presented in the case of glycolysis. Several testable predictions are made. There should be a relationship between post-translational modifications of tubulin and of actin and their interaction with metabolic enzymes. Different conditions of cytoskeletal dynamics and enzyme-cytoskeleton binding should reveal significant differences in local and perhaps global levels and ratios of ATP and GTP. The different functions of moonlighting enzymes should depend on cytoskeletal binding. Implications of the hypothesis The physical and chemical effects arising from metabolic sensing by the cytoskeleton would have major consequences on cell shape, dynamics and cell cycle progression. The hypothesis provides a framework that helps the significance of the enzyme-decorated cytoskeleton be determined. PMID:23398642

  19. Quantifying actin wave modulation on periodic topography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guven, Can; Driscoll, Meghan; Sun, Xiaoyu; Parker, Joshua; Fourkas, John; Carlsson, Anders; Losert, Wolfgang

    2014-03-01

    Actin is the essential builder of the cell cytoskeleton, whose dynamics are responsible for generating the necessary forces for the formation of protrusions. By exposing amoeboid cells to periodic topographical cues, we show that actin can be directionally guided via inducing preferential polymerization waves. To quantify the dynamics of these actin waves and their interaction with the substrate, we modify a technique from computer vision called ``optical flow.'' We obtain vectors that represent the apparent actin flow and cluster these vectors to obtain patches of newly polymerized actin, which represent actin waves. Using this technique, we compare experimental results, including speed distribution of waves and distance from the wave centroid to the closest ridge, with actin polymerization simulations. We hypothesize the modulation of the activity of nucleation promotion factors on ridges (elevated regions of the surface) as a potential mechanism for the wave-substrate coupling. Funded by NIH grant R01GM085574.

  20. Molecular cloning of the tomato Hairless gene implicates actin dynamics in trichome-mediated defense and mechanical properties of stem tissue

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Jin-Ho; Campos, Marcelo L.; Zemelis-Durfee, Starla; Al-Haddad, Jameel M.; Jones, A. Daniel; Telewski, Frank W.; Brandizzi, Federica; Howe, Gregg A.

    2016-01-01

    Trichomes are epidermal structures that provide a first line of defense against arthropod herbivores. The recessive hairless (hl) mutation in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) causes severe distortion of trichomes on all aerial tissues, impairs the accumulation of sesquiterpene and polyphenolic compounds in glandular trichomes, and compromises resistance to the specialist herbivore Manduca sexta. Here, we demonstrate that the tomato Hl gene encodes a subunit (SRA1) of the highly conserved WAVE regulatory complex that controls nucleation of actin filaments in a wide range of eukaryotic cells. The tomato SRA1 gene spans a 42-kb region containing both Solyc11g013280 and Solyc11g013290. The hl mutation corresponds to a complex 3-kb deletion that removes the last exon of the gene. Expression of a wild-type SRA1 cDNA in the hl mutant background restored normal trichome development, accumulation of glandular trichome-derived metabolites, and resistance to insect herbivory. These findings establish a role for SRA1 in the development of tomato trichomes and also implicate the actin-cytoskeleton network in cytosolic control of specialized metabolism for plant defense. We also show that the brittleness of hl mutant stems is associated with altered mechanical and cell morphological properties of stem tissue, and demonstrate that this defect is directly linked to the mutation in SRA1. PMID:27481446

  1. Actin-binding proteins: the long road to understanding the dynamic landscape of cellular actin networks.

    PubMed

    Lappalainen, Pekka

    2016-08-15

    The actin cytoskeleton supports a vast number of cellular processes in nonmuscle cells. It is well established that the organization and dynamics of the actin cytoskeleton are controlled by a large array of actin-binding proteins. However, it was only 40 years ago that the first nonmuscle actin-binding protein, filamin, was identified and characterized. Filamin was shown to bind and cross-link actin filaments into higher-order structures and contribute to phagocytosis in macrophages. Subsequently many other nonmuscle actin-binding proteins were identified and characterized. These proteins regulate almost all steps of the actin filament assembly and disassembly cycles, as well as the arrangement of actin filaments into diverse three-dimensional structures. Although the individual biochemical activities of most actin-regulatory proteins are relatively well understood, knowledge of how these proteins function together in a common cytoplasm to control actin dynamics and architecture is only beginning to emerge. Furthermore, understanding how signaling pathways and mechanical cues control the activities of various actin-binding proteins in different cellular, developmental, and pathological processes will keep researchers busy for decades. PMID:27528696

  2. Multiple roles of the cytoskeleton in autophagy.

    PubMed

    Monastyrska, Iryna; Rieter, Ester; Klionsky, Daniel J; Reggiori, Fulvio

    2009-08-01

    Autophagy is involved in a wide range of physiological processes including cellular remodeling during development, immuno-protection against heterologous invaders and elimination of aberrant or obsolete cellular structures. This conserved degradation pathway also plays a key role in maintaining intracellular nutritional homeostasis and during starvation, for example, it is involved in the recycling of unnecessary cellular components to compensate for the limitation of nutrients. Autophagy is characterized by specific membrane rearrangements that culminate with the formation of large cytosolic double-membrane vesicles called autophagosomes. Autophagosomes sequester cytoplasmic material that is destined for degradation. Once completed, these vesicles dock and fuse with endosomes and/or lysosomes to deliver their contents into the hydrolytically active lumen of the latter organelle where, together with their cargoes, they are broken down into their basic components. Specific structures destined for degradation via autophagy are in many cases selectively targeted and sequestered into autophagosomes. A number of factors required for autophagy have been identified, but numerous questions about the molecular mechanism of this pathway remain unanswered. For instance, it is unclear how membranes are recruited and assembled into autophagosomes. In addition, once completed, these vesicles are transported to cellular locations where endosomes and lysosomes are concentrated. The mechanism employed for this directed movement is not well understood. The cellular cytoskeleton is a large, highly dynamic cellular scaffold that has a crucial role in multiple processes, several of which involve membrane rearrangements and vesicle-mediated events. Relatively little is known about the roles of the cytoskeleton network in autophagy. Nevertheless, some recent studies have revealed the importance of cytoskeletal elements such as actin microfilaments and microtubules in specific aspects of

  3. Computational spatiotemporal analysis identifies WAVE2 and Cofilin as joint regulators of costimulation-mediated T cell actin dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Roybal, Kole T.; Buck, Taráz E.; Ruan, Xiongtao; Cho, Baek Hwan; Clark, Danielle J.; Ambler, Rachel; Tunbridge, Helen M.; Zhang, Jianwei; Verkade, Paul; Wülfing, Christoph; Murphy, Robert F.

    2016-01-01

    Fluorescence microscopy is one of the most important tools in cell biology research and it provides spatial and temporal information to investigate regulatory systems inside cells. This technique can generate data in the form of signal intensities at thousands of positions resolved inside individual live cells; however, given extensive cell-to-cell variation, methods do not currently exist to assemble these data into three- or four-dimensional maps of protein concentration that can be compared across different cells and conditions. Here, we have developed one such method and applied it to investigate actin dynamics in T cell activation. Antigen recognition in T cells by the T cell receptor (TCR) is amplified by engagement of the costimulatory receptor CD28 and we have determined how CD28 modulates actin dynamics. We imaged actin and eight core actin regulators under conditions where CD28 in the context of a strong TCR signal was engaged or blocked to yield over a thousand movies. Our computational analysis identified diminished recruitment of the activator of actin nucleation WAVE2 and the actin severing protein cofilin to F-actin as the dominant difference upon costimulation blockade. Reconstitution of WAVE2 and cofilin activity restored the defect in actin signaling dynamics upon costimulation blockade. Thus we have developed and validated an approach to quantify protein distributions in time and space for analysis of complex regulatory systems. PMID:27095595

  4. The polarity protein Inturned links NPHP4 to Daam1 to control the subapical actin network in multiciliated cells

    PubMed Central

    Yasunaga, Takayuki; Hoff, Sylvia; Schell, Christoph; Helmstädter, Martin; Kretz, Oliver; Kuechlin, Sebastian; Yakulov, Toma A.; Engel, Christina; Müller, Barbara; Bensch, Robert; Ronneberger, Olaf; Huber, Tobias B.; Lienkamp, Soeren S.

    2015-01-01

    Motile cilia polarization requires intracellular anchorage to the cytoskeleton; however, the molecular machinery that supports this process remains elusive. We report that Inturned plays a central role in coordinating the interaction between cilia-associated proteins and actin-nucleation factors. We observed that knockdown of nphp4 in multiciliated cells of the Xenopus laevis epidermis compromised ciliogenesis and directional fluid flow. Depletion of nphp4 disrupted the subapical actin layer. Comparison to the structural defects caused by inturned depletion revealed striking similarities. Furthermore, coimmunoprecipitation assays demonstrated that the two proteins interact with each other and that Inturned mediates the formation of ternary protein complexes between NPHP4 and DAAM1. Knockdown of daam1, but not formin-2, resulted in similar disruption of the subapical actin web, whereas nphp4 depletion prevented the association of Inturned with the basal bodies. Thus, Inturned appears to function as an adaptor protein that couples cilia-associated molecules to actin-modifying proteins to rearrange the local actin cytoskeleton. PMID:26644512

  5. The polarity protein Inturned links NPHP4 to Daam1 to control the subapical actin network in multiciliated cells.

    PubMed

    Yasunaga, Takayuki; Hoff, Sylvia; Schell, Christoph; Helmstädter, Martin; Kretz, Oliver; Kuechlin, Sebastian; Yakulov, Toma A; Engel, Christina; Müller, Barbara; Bensch, Robert; Ronneberger, Olaf; Huber, Tobias B; Lienkamp, Soeren S; Walz, Gerd

    2015-12-01

    Motile cilia polarization requires intracellular anchorage to the cytoskeleton; however, the molecular machinery that supports this process remains elusive. We report that Inturned plays a central role in coordinating the interaction between cilia-associated proteins and actin-nucleation factors. We observed that knockdown of nphp4 in multiciliated cells of the Xenopus laevis epidermis compromised ciliogenesis and directional fluid flow. Depletion of nphp4 disrupted the subapical actin layer. Comparison to the structural defects caused by inturned depletion revealed striking similarities. Furthermore, coimmunoprecipitation assays demonstrated that the two proteins interact with each other and that Inturned mediates the formation of ternary protein complexes between NPHP4 and DAAM1. Knockdown of daam1, but not formin-2, resulted in similar disruption of the subapical actin web, whereas nphp4 depletion prevented the association of Inturned with the basal bodies. Thus, Inturned appears to function as an adaptor protein that couples cilia-associated molecules to actin-modifying proteins to rearrange the local actin cytoskeleton.

  6. [Cytoskeletal actin and its associated proteins. Some examples in Protista].

    PubMed

    Guillén, N; Carlier, M F; Brugerolle, G; Tardieux, I; Ausseil, J

    1998-06-01

    Many processes, cell motility being an example, require cells to remodel the actin cytoskeleton in response to both intracellular and extracellular signals. Reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton involves the rapid disassembly and reassembly of actin filaments, a phenomenon regulated by the action of particular actin-binding proteins. In recent years, an interest in studying actin regulation in unicellular organisms has arisen. Parasitic protozoan are among these organisms and studies of the cytoskeleton functions of these protozoan are relevant related to either cell biology or pathogenicity. To discuss recent data in this field, a symposium concerning "Actin and actin-binding proteins in protists" was held on May 8-11 in Paris, France, during the XXXV meeting of the French Society of Protistology. As a brief summary of the symposium we report here findings concerning the in vitro actin dynamic assembly, as well as the characterization of several actin-binding proteins from the parasitic protozoan Entamoeba histolytica, Trichomonas vaginalis and Plasmodium knowlesi. In addition, localization of actin in non-pathogen protists such as Prorocentrum micans and Crypthecodinium cohnii is also presented. The data show that some actin-binding proteins facilitate organization of filaments into higher order structures as pseudopods, while others have regulatory functions, indicating very particular roles for actin-binding proteins. One of the proteins discussed during the symposium, the actin depolymerizing factor ADF, was shown to enhance the treadmilling rate of actin filaments. In vitro, ADF binds to the ADP-bound forms of G-actin and F-actin, thereby participating in and changing the rate of actin assembly. Biochemical approaches allowed the identification of a protein complex formed by HSP/C70-cap32-34 which might also be involved in depolymerization of F-actin in P. knowlesi. Molecular and cellular approaches were used to identify proteins such as ABP-120 and myosin

  7. Nck adaptors, besides promoting N-WASP mediated actin-nucleation activity at pedestals, influence the cellular levels of enteropathogenic Escherichia coli Tir effector.

    PubMed

    Nieto-Pelegrin, Elvira; Kenny, Brendan; Martinez-Quiles, Narcisa

    2014-01-01

    Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) binding to human intestinal cells triggers the formation of disease-associated actin rich structures called pedestals. The latter process requires the delivery, via a Type 3 secretion system, of the translocated Intimin receptor (Tir) protein into the host plasma membrane where binding of a host kinase-modified form to the bacterial surface protein Intimin triggers pedestal formation. Tir-Intimin interaction recruits the Nck adaptor to a Tir tyrosine phosphorylated residue where it activates neural Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein (N-WASP); initiating the major pathway to actin polymerization mediated by the actin-related protein (Arp) 2/3 complex. Previous studies with Nck-deficient mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) identified a key role for Nck in pedestal formation, presumed to reflect a lack of N-WASP activation. Here, we show the defect relates to reduced amounts of Tir within Nck-deficient cells. Indeed, Tir delivery and, thus, pedestal formation defects were much greater for MEFs than HeLa (human epithelial) cells. Crucially, the levels of two other effectors (EspB/EspF) within Nck-deficient MEFs were not reduced unlike that of Map (Mitochondrial associated protein) which, like Tir, requires CesT chaperone function for efficient delivery. Interestingly, drugs blocking various host protein degradation pathways failed to increase Tir cellular levels unlike an inhibitor of deacetylase activity (Trichostatin A; TSA). Treatments with TSA resulted in significant recovery of Tir levels, potentiation of actin polymerization and improvement in bacterial attachment to cells. Our findings have important implications for the current model of Tir-mediated actin polymerization and opens new lines of research in this area. PMID:25482634

  8. Genetic deletion of ABP-120 alters the three-dimensional organization of actin filaments in Dictyostelium pseudopods

    PubMed Central

    1995-01-01

    This study extends the observations on the defects in pseudopod formation of ABP-120+ and ABP-120- cells by a detailed morphological and biochemical analysis of the actin based cytoskeleton. Both ABP-120+ and ABP-120- cells polymerize the same amount of F-actin in response to stimulation with cAMP. However, unlike ABP-120+ cells, ABP-120- cells do not incorporate actin into the Triton X-100-insoluble cytoskeleton at 30-50 s, the time when ABP-120 is incorporated into the cytoskeleton and when pseudopods are extended after cAMP stimulation in wild-type cells. By confocal and electron microscopy, pseudopods extended by ABP- 120- cells are not as large or thick as those produced by ABP-120+ cells and in the electron microscope, an altered filament network is found in pseudopods of ABP-120- cells when compared to pseudopods of ABP-120+ cells. The actin filaments found in areas of pseudopods in ABP- 120+ cells either before or after stimulation were long, straight, and arranged into space filling orthogonal networks. Protrusions of ABP-120- cells are less three-dimensional, denser, and filled with multiple foci of aggregated filaments consistent with collapse of the filament network due to the absence of ABP-120-mediated cross-linking activity. The different organization of actin filaments may account for the diminished size of protrusions observed in living and fixed ABP-120- cells compared to ABP-120+ cells and is consistent with the role of ABP- 120 in regulating pseudopod extension through its cross-linking of actin filaments. PMID:7876307

  9. Hop proanthocyanidins induce apoptosis, protein carbonylation, and cytoskeleton disorganization in human colorectal adenocarcinoma cells via reactive oxygen species

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Woon-Gye; Miranda, Cristobal L.; Stevens, Jan F.; Maier, Claudia S.

    2009-01-01

    Proanthocyanidins (PCs) have been shown to suppress the growth of diverse human cancer cells and are considered as promising additions to the arsenal of chemopreventive phytochemicals. An oligomeric mixture of PCs from hops (Humulus lupulus) significantly decreased cell viability of human colon cancer HT-29 cells in a dose-dependent manner. Hop PCs, at 50 or 100 μg/ml, exhibited apoptosis-inducing properties as shown by the increase in caspase-3 activity. Increased levels of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) was accompanied by an augmented accumulation of protein carbonyls. Mass spectrometry-based proteomic analysis in combination with 2-alkenal-specific immunochemical detection identified β-actin and protein disulfide isomerase as major putative targets of acrolein adduction. Incubation of HT-29 cells with hop PCs resulted in morphological changes that indicated disruption of the actin cytoskeleton. PC-mediated hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) formation in the cell culture media was also quantified; but, the measured H2O2 levels would not explain the observed changes in the oxidative modifications of actin. These findings suggest new modes of action for proanthocyandins as antitumorgenic agents in human colon cancer cells, namely, promotion of protein oxidative modifications and cytoskeleton derangement. PMID:19271284

  10. The Role of Cytoskeleton in root gravisensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perbal, G.; Lefranc, A.; Jeune, B.; Driss-Ecole, D.

    It is well known that the perception time (minimal duration of a repeated stimulation to induce a response) is less than 1s. This implies that the statoliths must be very close to the cell structure that transmits the physical effect of gravistimulation to the mechanoreceptor. The actin network which is in contact with the statoliths could play this role. It has been shown recently that the actin filaments should be oriented at an angle of 130° with respect to the longitudinal wall, which could explain that a stimulation at 120-135° is more efficient than at 90° (this is called the deviation from the sine rule which states that graviresponsiveness should be greater at 90°). However, there are also arguments against the putative role of the actin filaments in the transduction of gravistimulus: several experiments have shown that a treatment by cytochalasin or latrunculin which perturbs the polymerisation of the actin filaments, does not prevent a gravitropic response. In the model that we propose, mechanoreceptors are connected together by elements of the cytoskeleton lining the longitudinal wall of the statocytes and they are also attached to the actin network. The statoliths could activate the mechanoreceptors by exerting tensions in this network or by exerting a pressure on the elements which are parallel to the longitudinal wall.

  11. Phagocytosis: receptors, signal integration, and the cytoskeleton.

    PubMed

    Freeman, Spencer A; Grinstein, Sergio

    2014-11-01

    Phagocytosis is a remarkably complex and versatile process: it contributes to innate immunity through the ingestion and elimination of pathogens, while also being central to tissue homeostasis and remodeling by clearing effete cells. The ability of phagocytes to perform such diverse functions rests, in large part, on their vast repertoire of receptors. In this review, we address the various receptor types, their mobility in the plane of the membrane, and two modes of receptor crosstalk: priming and synergy. A major section is devoted to the actin cytoskeleton, which not only governs receptor mobility and clustering but also is instrumental in particle engulfment. Four stages of the actin remodeling process are identified and discussed: (i) the 'resting' stage that precedes receptor engagement, (ii) the disruption of the cortical actin prior to formation of the phagocytic cup, (iii) the actin polymerization that propels pseudopod extension, and (iv) the termination of polymerization and removal of preassembled actin that are required for focal delivery of endomembranes and phagosomal sealing. These topics are viewed in the larger context of the differentiation and polarization of the phagocytic cells.

  12. Perturbation of Host Cell Cytoskeleton by Cranberry Proanthocyanidins and Their Effect on Enteric Infections

    PubMed Central

    Harmidy, Kevin; Tufenkji, Nathalie; Gruenheid, Samantha

    2011-01-01

    Cranberry-derived compounds, including a fraction known as proanthocyanidins (PACs) exhibit anti-microbial, anti-infective, and anti-adhesive properties against a number of disease-causing organisms. In this study, the effect of cranberry proanthocyanidins (CPACs) on the infection of epithelial cells by two enteric bacterial pathogens, enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) and Salmonella Typhimurium was investigated. Immunofluorescence data showed that actin pedestal formation, required for infection by enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC), was disrupted in the presence of CPACs. In addition, invasion of HeLa cells by Salmonella Typhimurium was significantly reduced, as verified by gentamicin protection assay and immunofluorescence. CPACs had no effect on bacterial growth, nor any detectable effect on the production of bacterial effector proteins of the type III secretion system. Furthermore, CPACs did not affect the viability of host cells. Interestingly, we found that CPACs had a potent and dose-dependent effect on the host cell cytoskeleton that was evident even in uninfected cells. CPACs inhibited the phagocytosis of inert particles by a macrophage cell line, providing further evidence that actin-mediated host cell functions are disrupted in the presence of cranberry CPACs. Thus, although CPAC treatment inhibited Salmonella invasion and EPEC pedestal formation, our results suggest that this is likely primarily because of the perturbation of the host cell cytoskeleton by CPACs rather than an effect on bacterial virulence itself. These findings have significant implications for the interpretation of experiments on the effects of CPACs on bacteria-host cell interactions. PMID:22076143

  13. Leveraging the membrane-cytoskeleton interface with myosin-1

    PubMed Central

    McConnell, Russell E.; Tyska, Matthew J.

    2010-01-01

    Class 1 myosins are small motor proteins with the ability to simultaneously bind to actin filaments and cellular membranes. Given their ability to generate mechanical force, and their high prevalence in many cell types, these molecules are well positioned to carry out a number of important biological functions at the interface of membrane and the actin cytoskeleton. Indeed, recent studies implicate these motors in endocytosis, exocytosis, release of extracellular vesicles, and the regulation of tension between membrane and the cytoskeleton. Many class 1 myosins also exhibit a load-dependent mechano-chemical cycle that enables them to maintain tension for long periods of time without hydrolyzing ATP. These properties put myosins-1 in a unique position to regulate dynamic membrane-cytoskeleton interactions and respond to physical forces during these events. PMID:20471271

  14. Subcortical cytoskeleton periodicity throughout the nervous system

    PubMed Central

    D’Este, Elisa; Kamin, Dirk; Velte, Caroline; Göttfert, Fabian; Simons, Mikael; Hell, Stefan W.

    2016-01-01

    Superresolution fluorescence microscopy recently revealed a ~190 nm periodic cytoskeleton lattice consisting of actin, spectrin, and other proteins underneath the membrane of cultured hippocampal neurons. Whether the periodic cytoskeleton lattice is a structural feature of all neurons and how it is modified when axons are ensheathed by myelin forming glial cells is not known. Here, STED nanoscopy is used to demonstrate that this structure is a commonplace of virtually all neuron types in vitro. To check how the subcortical meshwork is modified during myelination, we studied sciatic nerve fibers from adult mice. Periodicity of both actin and spectrin was uncovered at the internodes, indicating no substantial differences between unmyelinated and myelinated axons. Remarkably, the actin/spectrin pattern was also detected in glial cells such as cultured oligodendrocyte precursor cells. Altogether our work shows that the periodic subcortical cytoskeletal meshwork is a fundamental characteristic of cells in the nervous system and is not a distinctive feature of neurons, as previously thought. PMID:26947559

  15. Coiled-Coil–Mediated Dimerization Is Not Required for Myosin VI to Stabilize Actin during Spermatid Individualization in Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Noguchi, Tatsuhiko; Frank, Deborah J.; Isaji, Mamiko

    2009-01-01

    Myosin VI is a pointed-end–directed actin motor that is thought to function as both a transporter of cargoes and an anchor, capable of binding cellular components to actin for long periods. Dimerization via a predicted coiled coil was hypothesized to regulate activity and motor properties. However, the importance of the coiled-coil sequence has not been tested in vivo. We used myosin VI's well-defined role in actin stabilization during Drosophila spermatid individualization to test the importance in vivo of the predicted coiled coil. If myosin VI functions as a dimer, a forced dimer should fully rescue myosin VI loss of function defects, including actin stabilization, actin cone movement, and cytoplasmic exclusion by the cones. Conversely, a molecule lacking the coiled coil should not rescue at all. Surprisingly, neither prediction was correct, because each rescued partially and the molecule lacking the coiled coil functioned better than the forced dimer. In extracts, no cross-linking into higher molecular weight forms indicative of dimerization was observed. In addition, a sequence required for altering nucleotide kinetics to make myosin VI dimers processive is not required for myosin VI's actin stabilization function. We conclude that myosin VI does not need to dimerize via the predicted coiled coil to stabilize actin in vivo. PMID:19005209

  16. The NAV2 homolog Sickie regulates F-actin-mediated axonal growth in Drosophila mushroom body neurons via the non-canonical Rac-Cofilin pathway.

    PubMed

    Abe, Takashi; Yamazaki, Daisuke; Murakami, Satoshi; Hiroi, Makoto; Nitta, Yohei; Maeyama, Yuko; Tabata, Tetsuya

    2014-12-01

    The Rac-Cofilin pathway is essential for cytoskeletal remodeling to control axonal development. Rac signals through the canonical Rac-Pak-LIMK pathway to suppress Cofilin-dependent axonal growth and through a Pak-independent non-canonical pathway to promote outgrowth. Whether this non-canonical pathway converges to promote Cofilin-dependent F-actin reorganization in axonal growth remains elusive. We demonstrate that Sickie, a homolog of the human microtubule-associated protein neuron navigator 2, cell-autonomously regulates axonal growth of Drosophila mushroom body (MB) neurons via the non-canonical pathway. Sickie was prominently expressed in the newborn F-actin-rich axons of MB neurons. A sickie mutant exhibited axonal growth defects, and its phenotypes were rescued by exogenous expression of Sickie. We observed phenotypic similarities and genetic interactions among sickie and Rac-Cofilin signaling components. Using the MARCM technique, distinct F-actin and phospho-Cofilin patterns were detected in developing axons mutant for sickie and Rac-Cofilin signaling regulators. The upregulation of Cofilin function alleviated the axonal defect of the sickie mutant. Epistasis analyses revealed that Sickie suppresses the LIMK overexpression phenotype and is required for Pak-independent Rac1 and Slingshot phosphatase to counteract LIMK. We propose that Sickie regulates F-actin-mediated axonal growth via the non-canonical Rac-Cofilin pathway in a Slingshot-dependent manner.

  17. Spontaneous Cdc42 Polarization Independent of GDI-Mediated Extraction and Actin-Based Trafficking

    PubMed Central

    Bendezú, Felipe O.; Vincenzetti, Vincent; Vavylonis, Dimitrios; Wyss, Romain; Vogel, Horst; Martin, Sophie G.

    2015-01-01

    The small Rho-family GTPase Cdc42 is critical for cell polarization and polarizes spontaneously in absence of upstream spatial cues. Spontaneous polarization is thought to require dynamic Cdc42 recycling through Guanine nucleotide Dissociation Inhibitor (GDI)-mediated membrane extraction and vesicle trafficking. Here, we describe a functional fluorescent Cdc42 allele in fission yeast, which demonstrates Cdc42 dynamics and polarization independent of these pathways. Furthermore, an engineered Cdc42 allele targeted to the membrane independently of these recycling pathways by an amphipathic helix is viable and polarizes spontaneously to multiple sites in fission and budding yeasts. We show that Cdc42 is highly mobile at the membrane and accumulates at sites of activity, where it displays slower mobility. By contrast, a near-immobile transmembrane domain-containing Cdc42 allele supports viability and polarized activity, but does not accumulate at sites of activity. We propose that Cdc42 activation, enhanced by positive feedback, leads to its local accumulation by capture of fast-diffusing inactive molecules. PMID:25837586

  18. Human MCF10A Mammary Epithelial Cells Undergo Apoptosis following Actin Depolymerization That Is Independent of Attachment and Rescued by Bcl-2

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Stuart S.; Leder, Philip

    2001-01-01

    Many tumor cells are impaired in adhesion-regulated apoptosis, which contributes to their metastatic potential. However, suppression of this apoptotic pathway in untransformed cells is not mediated only by adhesion to the extracellular matrix but also through the resulting ability to spread and adopt a distinct morphology. Since cell spreading is dependent on the integrity of the actin microfilament cytoskeleton, we sought to determine if actin depolymerization was sufficient to induce apoptosis, even in the presence of continuous attachment. For this study, we used a human mammary epithelial cell line (MCF10A), which is immortalized but remains adhesion dependent for survival. Treatment of MCF10A cells with latrunculin-A (LA), an inhibitor of actin polymerization, rapidly led to disruption of the actin cytoskeleton and caused cell rounding but preserved attachment. Initiation of apoptosis in LA-treated MCF10A cells was detected by mitochondrial localization of the Bax apoptotic protein, which was prevented by overexpression of Bcl-2. DNA fragmentation and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) cleavage in LA-treated MCF10A cells indicated progression to the execution phase of apoptosis. The MDA-MB-453 cell line, which was derived from a metastatic human mammary tumor, was resistant to PARP cleavage and loss of viability in response to actin depolymerization. Stable overexpression of Bcl-2 in the untransformed MCF10A cells was able to recapitulate the resistance to apoptosis found in the tumor cell line. We demonstrate that inhibition of actin polymerization is sufficient to stimulate apoptosis in attached MCF10A cells, and we present a novel role for Bcl-2 in cell death induced by direct disruption of the actin cytoskeleton. PMID:11533241

  19. Human MCF10A mammary epithelial cells undergo apoptosis following actin depolymerization that is independent of attachment and rescued by Bcl-2.

    PubMed

    Martin, S S; Leder, P

    2001-10-01

    Many tumor cells are impaired in adhesion-regulated apoptosis, which contributes to their metastatic potential. However, suppression of this apoptotic pathway in untransformed cells is not mediated only by adhesion to the extracellular matrix but also through the resulting ability to spread and adopt a distinct morphology. Since cell spreading is dependent on the integrity of the actin microfilament cytoskeleton, we sought to determine if actin depolymerization was sufficient to induce apoptosis, even in the presence of continuous attachment. For this study, we used a human mammary epithelial cell line (MCF10A), which is immortalized but remains adhesion dependent for survival. Treatment of MCF10A cells with latrunculin-A (LA), an inhibitor of actin polymerization, rapidly led to disruption of the actin cytoskeleton and caused cell rounding but preserved attachment. Initiation of apoptosis in LA-treated MCF10A cells was detected by mitochondrial localization of the Bax apoptotic protein, which was prevented by overexpression of Bcl-2. DNA fragmentation and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) cleavage in LA-treated MCF10A cells indicated progression to the execution phase of apoptosis. The MDA-MB-453 cell line, which was derived from a metastatic human mammary tumor, was resistant to PARP cleavage and loss of viability in response to actin depolymerization. Stable overexpression of Bcl-2 in the untransformed MCF10A cells was able to recapitulate the resistance to apoptosis found in the tumor cell line. We demonstrate that inhibition of actin polymerization is sufficient to stimulate apoptosis in attached MCF10A cells, and we present a novel role for Bcl-2 in cell death induced by direct disruption of the actin cytoskeleton.

  20. The tail domain of myosin M catalyses nucleotide exchange on Rac1 GTPases and can induce actin-driven surface protrusions.

    PubMed

    Geissler, H; Ullmann, R; Soldati, T

    2000-05-01

    Members of the myosin superfamily play crucial roles in cellular processes including management of the cortical cytoskeleton, organelle transport and signal transduction. GTPases of the Rho family act as key control elements in the reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton in response to growth factors, and other functions such as membrane trafficking, transcriptional regulation, growth control and development. Here, we describe a novel unconventional myosin from Dictyostelium discoideum, MyoM. Primary sequence analysis revealed that it has the appearance of a natural chimera between a myosin motor domain and a guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) domain for Rho GTPases. The functionality of both domains was established. Binding of the motor domain to F-actin was ATP-dependent and potentially regulated by phosphorylation. The GEF domain displayed selective activity on Rac1-related GTPases. Overexpression, rather than absence of MyoM, affected the cell morphology and viability. Particularly in response to hypo-osmotic stress, cells overexpressing the MyoM tail domain extended massive actin-driven protrusions. The GEF was enriched at the tip of growing protuberances, probably through its pleckstrin homology domain. MyoM is the first unconventional myosin containing an active Rac-GEF domain, suggesting a role at the interface of Rac-mediated signal transduction and remodeling of the actin cytoskeleton. PMID:11208126

  1. Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase mediates Hypergravity-Induced Changes in F-Actin Expression by Endothelial Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Love, Felisha D.; Melhado, Caroline; Bosah, Francis; Harris-Hooker, Sandra A.; Sanford, Gary L.

    1997-01-01

    A number of basic cellular functions, e.g., electrolyte concentration cell growth rate, glucose utilization, bone formation, response to growth stimulation and exocytosis are modified by microgravity or during spaceflight. Studies with intact animal during spaceflights have found lipid accumulations within the lumen of the vasculature and degeneration of the vascular wall. Capillary alterations with extensive endothelial invaginations were also seen. Hemodynamic studies have shown that there is a redistribution of blood from the lower extremities to the upper part of the body; this will alter vascular permeability, resulting in leakage into surrounding tissues. These studies indicate that changes in gravity will affect a number of physiological systems, including the vasculature. However, few studies have addressed the effect of microgravity on vascular cell function and metabolism. A major problem with ground based studies is that achieving a true microgravity hand, environment for prolonged period is not possible. On the other increasing gravity (i.e., hypergravity) is easily achieved. Several researchers have shown that hypergravity will increase the proliferation of several different cell limes (e.g., chick embryo fibroblasts) while decreasing cell motility and slowing liver regeneration following partial hepatectomy. These studies suggest that hypergravity will alter the behavior of most cells. Several investigators have shown that hypergravity affects the expression of the early response genes (c-fos and c-myc) and the activation of several protein kinases (PK's) in cells (10,11). In this study we investigated whether hypergravity alters the expression of f-actin by aortic endothelial cells, and the possible role of protein kinases (calmodulin(II)-dependent and PKA) as mediators of these effects.

  2. Microtubule-Actin Cross-Linking Factor 1: Domains, Interaction Partners, and Tissue-Specific Functions.

    PubMed

    Goryunov, Dmitry; Liem, Ronald K H

    2016-01-01

    The cytoskeleton of most eukaryotic cells is composed of three principal filamentous components: actin filaments, microtubules (MTs), and intermediate filaments. It is a highly dynamic system that plays crucial roles in a wide range of cellular processes, including migration, adhesion, cytokinesis, morphogenesis, intracellular traffic and signaling, and structural flexibility. Among the large number of cytoskeleton-associated proteins characterized to date, microtubule-actin cross-linking factor 1 (MACF1) is arguably the most versatile integrator and modulator of cytoskeleton-related processes. MACF1 belongs to the plakin family of proteins, and within it, to the spectraplakin subfamily. These proteins are characterized by the ability to bridge MT and actin cytoskeletal networks in a dynamic fashion, which underlies their involvement in the regulation of cell migration, axonal extension, and vesicular traffic. Studying MACF1 functions has provided insights not only into the regulation of the cytoskeleton but also into molecular mechanisms of both normal cellular physiology and cellular pathology. Multiple MACF1 isoforms exist, composed of a large variety of alternatively spliced domains. Each of these domains mediates a specific set of interactions and functions. These functions are manifested in tissue and cell-specific phenotypes observed in conditional MACF1 knockout mice. The conditional models described to date reveal critical roles of MACF1 in mammalian skin, nervous system, heart muscle, and intestinal epithelia. Complete elimination of MACF1 is early embryonic lethal, indicating an essential role for MACF1 in early development. Further studies of MACF1 domains and their interactions will likely reveal multiple new roles of this protein in various tissues.

  3. Mechanical and structural assessment of cortical and deep cytoskeleton reveals substrate-dependent alveolar macrophage remodeling.

    PubMed

    Féréol, S; Fodil, R; Laurent, V M; Planus, E; Louis, B; Pelle, G; Isabey, D

    2008-01-01

    The sensitivity of alveolar macrophages to substrate properties has been described in a recent paper (Féréol et al., Cell Motil. Cytoskel. 63 (2006), 321-340). It is presently re-analyzed in terms of F-actin structure (assessed from 3D-reconstructions in fixed cells) and mechanical properties (assessed by Magnetic Twisting Cytometry experiments in living cells) of cortical and deep cytoskeleton structures for rigid plastic (Young Modulus: 3 MPa) or glass (70 MPa) substrates and a soft (approximately 0.1 kPa) confluent monolayer of alveolar epithelial cells. The cortical cytoskeleton component (lowest F-actin density) is represented by the rapid and softer viscoelastic compartment while the deep cytoskeleton component (intermediate F-actin density) is represented by the slow and stiffer compartment. Stiffness of both cortical and deep cytoskeleton is significantly decreased when soft confluent monolayer of alveolar epithelial cells replace the rigid plastic substrate while F-actin reconstructions reveal a consistent actin cytoskeleton remodeling observable on both cytoskeleton components.

  4. Function of the cytoskeleton in gravisensing during spaceflight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hughes-Fulford, M.

    2003-10-01

    Since astronauts and cosmonauts have significant bone loss in microgravity we hypothesized that there would be physiological changes in cellular bone growth and cytoskeleton in the absence of gravity. Investigators from around the world have studied a multitude of bone cells in microgravity including Ros 17/2.8, Mc3T3-E1, MG-63, hFOB and primary chicken calvaria. Changes in cytoskeleton and extracellular matrix (ECM) have been noted in many of these studies. Investigators have noted changes in shape of cells exposed to as little as 20 seconds of microgravity in parabolic flight. Our laboratory reported that quiescent osteoblasts activated by sera under microgravity conditions had a significant 60% reduction in growth (p<0.001) but a paradoxical 2-folf increase in release of the osteoblast autocrine factor PGE 2 when compared to ground controls. In addition, a collapse of the osteoblast actin cytoskeleton and loss of focal adhesions has been noted after 4 days in microgravity. Later studies in Biorack on STS-76, 81 and 84 confirmed the increased release of PGE 2 and collapse of the actin cytoskeleton in cells grown in microgravity conditions, however flown cells under 1g conditions maintained normal actin cytoskeleton and fibronectin matrix. The changes seen in the cytoskeleton are probably not due to alterations in fibronectin message or protein synthesis since no differences have been noted in microgravity. Multiple investigators have observed actin and microtubule cytoskeletal modifications in microgravity, suggesting a common root cause for the change in cell architecture. The inability of the Og grown osteoblast to respond to sera activation suggests that there is a major alteration in anabolic signal transduction under microgravity conditions, most probably through the growth factor receptors and/or the associated kinase pathways that are connected to the cytoskeleton. Cell cycle is dependent on the cytoskeleton. Alterations in cytoskeletal structure can block

  5. A new F-actin structure in fungi: actin ring formation around the cell nucleus of Cryptococcus neoformans.

    PubMed

    Kopecká, Marie; Kawamoto, Susumu; Yamaguchi, Masashi

    2013-04-01

    The F-actin cytoskeleton of Cryptococcus neoformans is known to comprise actin cables, cortical patches and cytokinetic ring. Here, we describe a new F-actin structure in fungi, a perinuclear F-actin collar ring around the cell nucleus, by fluorescent microscopic imaging of rhodamine phalloidin-stained F-actin. Perinuclear F-actin rings form in Cryptococcus neoformans treated with the microtubule inhibitor Nocodazole or with the drug solvent dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) or grown in yeast extract peptone dextrose (YEPD) medium, but they are absent in cells treated with Latrunculin A. Perinuclear F-actin rings may function as 'funicular cabin' for the cell nucleus, and actin cables as intracellular 'funicular' suspending nucleus in the central position in the cell and moving nucleus along the polarity axis along actin cables.

  6. The cytoskeletons of isolated, neuronal growth cones.

    PubMed

    Gordon-Weeks, P R

    1987-06-01

    We have examined by electron microscopy the cytoskeletons of growth cones isolated from neonatal rat forebrain by the method of Gordon-Weeks and Lockerbie [Gordon-Weeks and Lockerbie (1984) Neuroscience 13, 119-136]. When fixed in suspension with conventional fixatives, isolated growth cones contain a central region filled with a branching system of smooth endoplasmic reticulum and a cortical region immediately beneath the plasma membrane that is relatively free of organelles and is composed of an amorphous granular cytoplasm. The filopodia of isolated growth cones are also devoid of organelles and contain a cytoplasm that is similar in appearance to that in the cortical region. No microtubules or neurofilaments have been found in these growth cones. When isolated growth cones were prepared for electron microscopy by a method which preserves actin filaments [Boyles, Anderson and Hutcherson (1985) J. Histochem. Cytochem. 33, 1116-1128], microfilaments were found throughout the cortical cytoplasm. In the filopodia, the microfilaments were bundled together and oriented longitudinally. Filopodial microfilament bundles often extended into the body of the growth cone and could traverse it completely. Inclusion of Triton X-100 (1% v/v) in the fixative solubilized the membranes and soluble cytoplasmic proteins of growth cones, allowing an unobscured view of the microfilament cytoskeleton including the core bundle of microfilaments in filopodia. Suspended within the cytoskeleton were the coats of coated vesicles. These were particularly numerous at the broad bases of filopodia. Microfilaments bound heavy meromyosin and were cytochalasin B (2.0 X 10(-7) M) sensitive. Individual microfilaments branched and within filopodia they were extensively cross-linked by thin (7 nm) filaments. Microtubules and neurofilaments were not seen in these cytoskeletons despite the fact that the fixative contained a Ca2+ chelator. When growth cones were preincubated in taxol (14 microM) their

  7. The pros and cons of common actin labeling tools for visualizing actin dynamics during Drosophila oogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Spracklen, Andrew J.; Fagan, Tiffany N.; Lovander, Kaylee E.; Tootle, Tina L.

    2015-01-01

    Dynamic remodeling of the actin cytoskeleton is required for both development and tissue homeostasis. While fixed image analysis has provided significant insight into such events, a complete understanding of cytoskeletal dynamics requires live imaging. Numerous tools for the live imaging of actin have been generated by fusing the actin-binding domain from an actin-interacting protein to a fluorescent protein. Here we comparatively assess the utility of three such tools – Utrophin, Lifeact, and F-tractin – for characterizing the actin remodeling events occurring within the germline-derived nurse cells during Drosophila mid-oogenesis or follicle development. Specifically, we used the UAS/GAL4 system to express these tools at different levels and in different cells, and analyzed these tools for effects on fertility, alterations in the actin cytoskeleton, and ability to label filamentous actin (F-actin) structures by both fixed and live imaging. While both Utrophin and Lifeact robustly label F-actin structures within the Drosophila germline, when strongly expressed they cause sterility and severe actin defects including cortical actin breakdown resulting in multi-nucleate nurse cells, early F-actin filament and aggregate formation during stage 9 (S9), and disorganized parallel actin filament bundles during stage 10B (S10B). However, by using a weaker germline GAL4 driver in combination with a higher temperature, Utrophin can label F-actin with minimal defects. Additionally, strong Utrophin expression within the germline causes F-actin formation in the nurse cell nuclei and germinal vesicle during mid-oogenesis. Similarly, Lifeact expression results in nuclear F-actin only within the germinal vesicle. F-tractin expresses at a lower level than the other two labeling tools, but labels cytoplasmic F-actin structures well without causing sterility or striking actin defects. Together these studies reveal how critical it is to evaluate the utility of each actin labeling

  8. The pros and cons of common actin labeling tools for visualizing actin dynamics during Drosophila oogenesis.

    PubMed

    Spracklen, Andrew J; Fagan, Tiffany N; Lovander, Kaylee E; Tootle, Tina L

    2014-09-15

    Dynamic remodeling of the actin cytoskeleton is required for both development and tissue homeostasis. While fixed image analysis has provided significant insight into such events, a complete understanding of cytoskeletal dynamics requires live imaging. Numerous tools for the live imaging of actin have been generated by fusing the actin-binding domain from an actin-interacting protein to a fluorescent protein. Here we comparatively assess the utility of three such tools--Utrophin, Lifeact, and F-tractin--for characterizing the actin remodeling events occurring within the germline-derived nurse cells during Drosophila mid-oogenesis or follicle development. Specifically, we used the UAS/GAL4 system to express these tools at different levels and in different cells, and analyzed these tools for effects on fertility, alterations in the actin cytoskeleton, and ability to label filamentous actin (F-actin) structures by both fixed and live imaging. While both Utrophin and Lifeact robustly label F-actin structures within the Drosophila germline, when strongly expressed they cause sterility and severe actin defects including cortical actin breakdown resulting in multi-nucleate nurse cells, early F-actin filament and aggregate formation during stage 9 (S9), and disorganized parallel actin filament bundles during stage 10B (S10B). However, by using a weaker germline GAL4 driver in combination with a higher temperature, Utrophin can label F-actin with minimal defects. Additionally, strong Utrophin expression within the germline causes F-actin formation in the nurse cell nuclei and germinal vesicle during mid-oogenesis. Similarly, Lifeact expression results in nuclear F-actin only within the germinal vesicle. F-tractin expresses at a lower level than the other two labeling tools, but labels cytoplasmic F-actin structures well without causing sterility or striking actin defects. Together these studies reveal how critical it is to evaluate the utility of each actin labeling tool

  9. Identification of sucrose synthase as an actin-binding protein

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winter, H.; Huber, J. L.; Huber, S. C.; Davies, E. (Principal Investigator)

    1998-01-01

    Several lines of evidence indicate that sucrose synthase (SuSy) binds both G- and F-actin: (i) presence of SuSy in the Triton X-100-insoluble fraction of microsomal membranes (i.e. crude cytoskeleton fraction); (ii) co-immunoprecipitation of actin with anti-SuSy monoclonal antibodies; (iii) association of SuSy with in situ phalloidin-stabilized F-actin filaments; and (iv) direct binding to F-actin, polymerized in vitro. Aldolase, well known to interact with F-actin, interfered with binding of SuSy, suggesting that a common or overlapping binding site may be involved. We postulate that some of the soluble SuSy in the cytosol may be associated with the actin cytoskeleton in vivo.

  10. F-actin waves, actin cortex disassembly and focal exocytosis driven by actin-phosphoinositide positive feedback.

    PubMed

    Masters, Thomas A; Sheetz, Michael P; Gauthier, Nils C

    2016-04-01

    Actin polymerization is controlled by the phosphoinositide composition of the plasma membrane. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the spatiotemporal regulation of actin network organization over extended length scales are still unclear. To observe phosphoinositide-dependent cytoskeletal dynamics we combined the model system of frustrated phagocytosis, total internal reflection microscopy and manipulation of the buffer tonicity. We found that macrophages interacting with IgG-coated glass substrates formed circular F-actin waves on their ventral surface enclosing a region of plasma membrane devoid of cortical actin. Plasma membrane free of actin cortex was strongly depleted of PI(4,5)P2 , but enriched in PI(3,4)P2 and displayed a fivefold increase in exocytosis. Wave formation could be promoted by application of a hypotonic shock. The actin waves were characteristic of a bistable wavefront at the boundary between the regions of membrane containing and lacking cortical actin. Phosphoinositide modifiers and RhoGTPase activities dramatically redistributed with respect to the wavefronts, which often exhibited spatial oscillations. Perturbation of either lipid or actin cytoskeleton-related pathways led to rapid loss of both the polarized lipid distribution and the wavefront. As waves travelled over the plasma membrane, wavefront actin was seen to rapidly polymerize and depolymerize at pre-existing clusters of FcγRIIA, coincident with rapid changes in lipid composition. Thus the potential of receptors to support rapid F-actin polymerization appears to depend acutely on the local concentrations of multiple lipid species. We propose that interdependence through positive feedback from the cytoskeleton to lipid modifiers leads to coordinated local cortex remodeling, focal exocytosis, and organizes extended actin networks. PMID:26915738

  11. F-actin waves, actin cortex disassembly and focal exocytosis driven by actin-phosphoinositide positive feedback.

    PubMed

    Masters, Thomas A; Sheetz, Michael P; Gauthier, Nils C

    2016-04-01

    Actin polymerization is controlled by the phosphoinositide composition of the plasma membrane. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the spatiotemporal regulation of actin network organization over extended length scales are still unclear. To observe phosphoinositide-dependent cytoskeletal dynamics we combined the model system of frustrated phagocytosis, total internal reflection microscopy and manipulation of the buffer tonicity. We found that macrophages interacting with IgG-coated glass substrates formed circular F-actin waves on their ventral surface enclosing a region of plasma membrane devoid of cortical actin. Plasma membrane free of actin cortex was strongly depleted of PI(4,5)P2 , but enriched in PI(3,4)P2 and displayed a fivefold increase in exocytosis. Wave formation could be promoted by application of a hypotonic shock. The actin waves were characteristic of a bistable wavefront at the boundary between the regions of membrane containing and lacking cortical actin. Phosphoinositide modifiers and RhoGTPase activities dramatically redistributed with respect to the wavefronts, which often exhibited spatial oscillations. Perturbation of either lipid or actin cytoskeleton-related pathways led to rapid loss of both the polarized lipid distribution and the wavefront. As waves travelled over the plasma membrane, wavefront actin was seen to rapidly polymerize and depolymerize at pre-existing clusters of FcγRIIA, coincident with rapid changes in lipid composition. Thus the potential of receptors to support rapid F-actin polymerization appears to depend acutely on the local concentrations of multiple lipid species. We propose that interdependence through positive feedback from the cytoskeleton to lipid modifiers leads to coordinated local cortex remodeling, focal exocytosis, and organizes extended actin networks.

  12. MICAL, the Flavoenzyme Participating in Cytoskeleton Dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Vanoni, Maria A.; Vitali, Teresa; Zucchini, Daniela

    2013-01-01

    MICAL (from the Molecule Interacting with CasL) indicates a family of recently discovered cytosolic, multidomain proteins, which uniquely couple an N-terminal FAD-containing monooxygenase-like domain to typical calponine homology, LIM and coiled-coil protein-interaction modules. Genetic and cell biology approaches have demonstrated an essential role of the catalytic activity of the monooxygenase-like domain in transducing the signal initiated by semaphorins interaction with their plexin receptors, which results in local actin cytoskeleton disassembly as part of fundamental processes that include differentiation, migration and cell-cell contacts in neuronal and non-neuronal cell types. This review focuses on the structure-function relations of the MICAL monooxygenase-like domain as they are emerging from the available in vitro studies on mouse, human and Drosophila MICAL forms that demonstrated a NADPH-dependent actin depolymerizing activity of MICAL. With Drosophila MICAL forms, actin depolymerization was demonstrated to be associated to conversion of Met44 to methionine sulfone through a postulated hydroxylating reaction. Arguments supporting the concept that MICAL effect on F-actin may be reversible will be discussed. PMID:23535333

  13. MICAL, the flavoenzyme participating in cytoskeleton dynamics.

    PubMed

    Vanoni, Maria A; Vitali, Teresa; Zucchini, Daniela

    2013-03-27

    MICAL (from the Molecule Interacting with CasL) indicates a family of recently discovered cytosolic, multidomain proteins, which uniquely couple an N-terminal FAD-containing monooxygenase-like domain to typical calponine homology, LIM and coiled-coil protein-interaction modules. Genetic and cell biology approaches have demonstrated an essential role of the catalytic activity of the monooxygenase-like domain in transducing the signal initiated by semaphorins interaction with their plexin receptors, which results in local actin cytoskeleton disassembly as part of fundamental processes that include differentiation, migration and cell-cell contacts in neuronal and non-neuronal cell types. This review focuses on the structure-function relations of the MICAL monooxygenase-like domain as they are emerging from the available in vitro studies on mouse, human and Drosophila MICAL forms that demonstrated a NADPH-dependent actin depolymerizing activity of MICAL. With Drosophila MICAL forms, actin depolymerization was demonstrated to be associated to conversion of Met44 to methionine sulfone through a postulated hydroxylating reaction. Arguments supporting the concept that MICAL effect on F-actin may be reversible will be discussed.

  14. Actinic keratosis

    MedlinePlus

    Solar keratosis; Sun-induced skin changes - keratosis; Keratosis - actinic (solar) ... Actinic keratosis is caused by exposure to sunlight. You are more likely to develop it if you: Have fair skin, blue or green eyes, or blond or red hair Had a ...

  15. Compartmentalisation of cAMP-dependent signalling in blood platelets: The role of lipid rafts and actin polymerisation.

    PubMed

    Raslan, Zaher; Naseem, Khalid M

    2015-01-01

    Prostacyclin (PGI2) inhibits blood platelets through the activation of membrane adenylyl cyclases (ACs) and cyclic adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate (cAMP)-mediated signalling. However, the molecular mechanism controlling cAMP signalling in blood platelet remains unclear, and in particular how individual isoforms of AC and protein kinase A (PKA) are coordinated to target distinct substrates in order to modulate platelet activation. In this study, we demonstrate that lipid rafts and the actin cytoskeleton may play a key role in regulating platelet responses to cAMP downstream of PGI2. Disruption of lipid rafts with methyl-beta-cyclodextrin (MβCD) increased platelet sensitivity to PGI2 and forskolin, a direct AC cyclase activator, resulting in greater inhibition of collagen-stimulated platelet aggregation. In contrast, platelet inhibition by the direct activator of PKA, 8-CPT-6-Phe-cAMP was unaffected by MβCD treatment. Consistent with the functional data, lipid raft disruption increased PGI2-stimulated cAMP formation and proximal PKA-mediated signalling events. Platelet inhibition, cAMP formation and phosphorylation of PKA substrates in response to PGI2 were also increased in the presence of cytochalasin D, indicating a role for actin cytoskeleton in signalling in response to PGI2. A potential role for lipid rafts in cAMP signalling is strengthened by our finding that a pool of ACV/VI and PKA was partitioned into lipid rafts. Our data demonstrate partial compartmentalisation of cAMP signalling machinery in platelets, where lipid rafts and the actin cytoskeleton regulate the inhibitory effects induced by PGI2. The increased platelet sensitivity to cAMP-elevating agents signalling upon raft and cytoskeleton disruption suggests that these compartments act to restrain basal cAMP signalling.

  16. Rapid polymerization of Entamoeba histolytica actin induced by interaction with target cells.

    PubMed

    Bailey, G B; Day, D B; Gasque, J W

    1985-08-01

    Within 5 s of challenge of Entamoeba histolytica trophozoites with red blood cells (RBC), attachment and deformation of target cells occurred at multiple sites on the amoeba surface. Many trophozoite-target interfaces were outlined with a ring of polymerized amoeba actin, revealed by rhodamine-phalloidin staining of glutaraldehyde-fixed and Triton-X 100-extracted cells. The beginnings of phagocytic pseudopods rimmed many targets. The phagocytic membrane and underlying actin network grew uniformly about a target cell, which became dramatically elongated and constricted, sometimes severed, as it entered the amoeba. Total engulfment of RBC targets occurred within 10 s. By methanol extraction and spectrofluorimetric measurement of bound rhodamine-phalloidin we were able to quantitate polymerized actin in amoebae. Interaction with target cells was accompanied by a net increase of up to twofold in the average polymerized actin content of trophozoites. This reached a maximum during the period of most active phagocytosis (4 min after challenge at 25 degrees C), and declined as phagocytic activity diminished (8-16 min). Challenge with latex beads of similar size and number, which E. histolytica phagocytized more slowly than RBC, induced neither a detectable increase in polymerized actin content nor appearance of polymerized actin at the contact interface. RBC inhibited phagocytosis of latex beads, but the reverse did not occur. The results demonstrate a rapid, recognition-specific stimulation of reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton of E. histolytica induced by binding to target cells. Vigorous phagocytic activity is frequently an immediate consequence of cell-cell contact, which emphasizes the importance of this process in the contact-mediated attack mechanism of this pathogen. The quantitative assay of polymerized actin may be useful in further studies of this mechanism. PMID:2862217

  17. Oscillatory increases in alkalinity anticipate growth and may regulate actin dynamics in pollen tubes of lily.

    PubMed

    Lovy-Wheeler, Alenka; Kunkel, Joseph G; Allwood, Ellen G; Hussey, Patrick J; Hepler, Peter K

    2006-09-01

    Lily (Lilium formosanum or Lilium longiflorum) pollen tubes, microinjected with a low concentration of the pH-sensitive dye bis-carboxyethyl carboxyfluorescein dextran, show oscillating pH changes in their apical domain relative to growth. An increase in pH in the apex precedes the fastest growth velocities, whereas a decline follows growth, suggesting a possible relationship between alkalinity and cell extension. A target for pH may be the actin cytoskeleton, because the apical cortical actin fringe resides in the same region as the alkaline band in lily pollen tubes and elongation requires actin polymerization. A pH-sensitive actin binding protein, actin-depolymerizing factor (ADF), together with actin-interacting protein (AIP) localize to the cortical actin fringe region. Modifying intracellular pH leads to reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton, especially in the apical domain. Acidification causes actin filament destabilization and inhibits growth by 80%. Upon complete growth inhibition, the actin fringe is the first actin cytoskeleton component to disappear. We propose that during normal growth, the pH increase in the alkaline band stimulates the fragmenting activity of ADF/AIP, which in turn generates more sites for actin polymerization. Increased actin polymerization supports faster growth rates and a proton influx, which inactivates ADF/AIP, decreases actin polymerization, and retards growth. As pH stabilizes and increases, the activity of ADF/AIP again increases, repeating the cycle of events. PMID:16920777

  18. The architecture of actin filaments and the ultrastructural location of actin-binding protein in the periphery of lung macrophages.

    PubMed

    Hartwig, J H; Shevlin, P

    1986-09-01

    A highly branched filament network is the principal structure in the periphery of detergent-extracted cytoskeletons of macrophages that have been spread on a surface and either freeze or critical point dried, and then rotary shadowed with platinum-carbon. This array of filaments completely fills lamellae extended from the cell and bifurcates to form 0.2-0.5 micron thick layers on the top and bottom of the cell body. Reaction of the macrophage cytoskeletons with anti-actin IgG and with anti-IgG bound to colloidal gold produces dense staining of these filaments, and incubation with myosin subfragment 1 uniformly decorates these filaments, identifying them as actin. 45% of the total cellular actin and approximately 70% of actin-binding protein remains in the detergent-insoluble cell residue. The soluble actin is not filamentous as determined by sedimentation analysis, the DNAase I inhibition assay, and electron microscopy, indicating that the cytoskeleton is not fragmented by detergent extraction. The spacing between the ramifications of the actin network is 94 +/- 47 nm and 118 +/- 72 nm in cytoskeletons prepared for electron microscopy by freeze drying and critical point drying, respectively. Free filament ends are rare, except for a few which project upward from the body of the network or which extend down to the substrate. Filaments of the network intersect predominantly at right angles to form either T-shaped and X-shaped overlaps having striking perpendicularity or else Y-shaped intersections composed of filaments intersecting at 120-130 degrees angles. The actin filament concentration in the lamellae is high, with an average value of 12.5 mg/ml. The concentration was much more uniform in freeze-dried preparations than in critical point-dried specimens, indicating that there is less collapse associated with the freezing technique. The orthogonal actin network of the macrophage cortical cytoplasm resembles actin gels made with actin-binding protein. Reaction of

  19. FMRP regulates actin filament organization via the armadillo protein p0071

    PubMed Central

    Nolze, Alexander; Schneider, Jacqueline; Keil, René; Lederer, Marcell; Hüttelmaier, Stefan; Kessels, Michael M.; Qualmann, Britta; Hatzfeld, Mechthild

    2013-01-01

    Loss of fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP) causes synaptic dysfunction and intellectual disability. FMRP is an RNA-binding protein that controls the translation or turnover of a subset of mRNAs. Identifying these target transcripts is an important step toward understanding the pathology of the disease. Here, we show that FMRP regulates actin organization and neurite outgrowth via the armadillo protein p0071. In mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) lacking FMRP (Fmr1−), the actin cytoskeleton was markedly reorganized with reduced stress fibers and F-actin/G-actin ratios compared to fibroblasts re-expressing the protein. FMRP interfered with the translation of the p0071 mRNA in a 3′-UTR-dependent manner. Accordingly, FMRP-depleted cells revealed elevated levels of p0071 protein. The knockdown of p0071 in Fmr1− fibroblasts restored stress fibers and an elongated cell shape, thus rescuing the Fmr1− phenotype, whereas overexpression of p0071 in Fmr1+ cells mimicked the Fmr1− phenotype. Moreover, p0071 and FMRP regulated neurite outgrowth and branching in a diametrically opposed way in agreement with the negative regulation of p0071 by FMRP. These results identify p0071 as an important and novel FMRP target and strongly suggest that impaired actin cytoskeletal functions mediated by an excess of p0071 are key aspects underlying the fragile X syndrome. PMID:24062571

  20. Dynamin-Actin Cross Talk Contributes to Phagosome Formation and Closure.

    PubMed

    Marie-Anaïs, Florence; Mazzolini, Julie; Herit, Floriane; Niedergang, Florence

    2016-05-01

    Phagocytosis is a mechanism used by macrophages to internalize and eliminate microorganisms or cellular debris. It relies on profound rearrangements of the actin cytoskeleton that is the driving force allowing plasma membrane extension around the particle. The closure step of phagocytosis, however, remains poorly defined. We used a dedicated experimental setup with Total Internal Reflection Fluorescence Microscopy (TIRFM) to monitor phagosome formation and closure in three dimensions in living cells. We show that dynamin-2, which mediates the scission of endocytic vesicles, was recruited early and concomitantly with actin during phagosome formation. Dynamin-2 accumulated at the site of phagosome closure in living macrophages. Inhibition of its activity with dominant negative mutants or drugs demonstrated that dynamin-2 is implicated in actin dynamics and pseudopod extension. Depolymerization of actin led to impaired dynamin-2 recruitment or activity. Finally, we show that dynamin-2 plays a critical role in the effective scission of the phagosome from the plasma membrane. Thus, we establish that a cross talk between actin and dynamin takes place for phagosome formation and closure before dynamin functions for scission. PMID:26847957

  1. Pathogens and polymers: Microbe–host interactions illuminate the cytoskeleton

    PubMed Central

    Haglund, Cat M.

    2011-01-01

    Intracellular pathogens subvert the host cell cytoskeleton to promote their own survival, replication, and dissemination. Study of these microbes has led to many discoveries about host cell biology, including the identification of cytoskeletal proteins, regulatory pathways, and mechanisms of cytoskeletal function. Actin is a common target of bacterial pathogens, but recent work also highlights the use of microtubules, cytoskeletal motors, intermediate filaments, and septins. The study of pathogen interactions with the cytoskeleton has illuminated key cellular processes such as phagocytosis, macropinocytosis, membrane trafficking, motility, autophagy, and signal transduction. PMID:21969466

  2. The mechanosensor of mesenchymal stem cells: mechanosensitive channel or cytoskeleton?

    PubMed

    Xiao, E; Chen, Chider; Zhang, Yi

    2016-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are multipotent adult stem cells. MSCs and their potential for use in regenerative medicine have been investigated extensively. Recently, the mechanisms by which MSCs detect mechanical stimuli have been described in detail. As in other cell types, both mechanosensitive channels, such as transient receptor potential melastatin 7 (TRPM7), and the cytoskeleton, including actin and actomyosin, have been implicated in mechanosensation in MSCs. This review will focus on discussing the precise role of TRPM7 and the cytoskeleton in mechanosensation in MSCs. PMID:27651019

  3. CNS myelin wrapping is driven by actin disassembly.

    PubMed

    Zuchero, J Bradley; Fu, Meng-Meng; Sloan, Steven A; Ibrahim, Adiljan; Olson, Andrew; Zaremba, Anita; Dugas, Jason C; Wienbar, Sophia; Caprariello, Andrew V; Kantor, Christopher; Leonoudakis, Dmitri; Leonoudakus, Dmitri; Lariosa-Willingham, Karen; Kronenberg, Golo; Gertz, Karen; Soderling, Scott H; Miller, Robert H; Barres, Ben A

    2015-07-27

    Myelin is essential in vertebrates for the rapid propagation of action potentials, but the molecular mechanisms driving its formation remain largely unknown. Here we show that the initial stage of process extension and axon ensheathment by oligodendrocytes requires dynamic actin filament assembly by the Arp2/3 complex. Unexpectedly, subsequent myelin wrapping coincides with the upregulation of actin disassembly proteins and rapid disassembly of the oligodendrocyte actin cytoskeleton and does not require Arp2/3. Inducing loss of actin filaments drives oligodendrocyte membrane spreading and myelin wrapping in vivo, and the actin disassembly factor gelsolin is required for normal wrapping. We show that myelin basic protein, a protein essential for CNS myelin wrapping whose role has been unclear, is required for actin disassembly, and its loss phenocopies loss of actin disassembly proteins. Together, these findings provide insight into the molecular mechanism of myelin wrapping and identify it as an actin-independent form of mammalian cell motility.

  4. Actin network architecture can determine myosin motor activity.

    PubMed

    Reymann, Anne-Cécile; Boujemaa-Paterski, Rajaa; Martiel, Jean-Louis; Guérin, Christophe; Cao, Wenxiang; Chin, Harvey F; De La Cruz, Enrique M; Théry, Manuel; Blanchoin, Laurent

    2012-06-01

    The organization of actin filaments into higher-ordered structures governs eukaryotic cell shape and movement. Global actin network size and architecture are maintained in a dynamic steady state through regulated assembly and disassembly. Here, we used experimentally defined actin structures in vitro to investigate how the activity of myosin motors depends on network architecture. Direct visualization of filaments revealed myosin-induced actin network deformation. During this reorganization, myosins selectively contracted and disassembled antiparallel actin structures, while parallel actin bundles remained unaffected. The local distribution of nucleation sites and the resulting orientation of actin filaments appeared to regulate the scalability of the contraction process. This "orientation selection" mechanism for selective contraction and disassembly suggests how the dynamics of the cellular actin cytoskeleton can be spatially controlled by actomyosin contractility.

  5. Bundling actin filaments from membranes: some novel players

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Clément

    2012-01-01

    Progress in live-cell imaging of the cytoskeleton has significantly extended our knowledge about the organization and dynamics of actin filaments near the plasma membrane of plant cells. Noticeably, two populations of filamentous structures can be distinguished. On the one hand, fine actin filaments which exhibit an extremely dynamic behavior basically characterized by fast polymerization and prolific severing events, a process referred to as actin stochastic dynamics. On the other hand, thick actin bundles which are composed of several filaments and which are comparatively more stable although they constantly remodel as well. There is evidence that the actin cytoskeleton plays critical roles in trafficking and signaling at both the cell cortex and organelle periphery but the exact contribution of actin bundles remains unclear. A common view is that actin bundles provide the long-distance tracks used by myosin motors to deliver their cargo to growing regions and accordingly play a particularly important role in cell polarization. However, several studies support that actin bundles are more than simple passive highways and display multiple and dynamic roles in the regulation of many processes, such as cell elongation, polar auxin transport, stomatal and chloroplast movement, and defense against pathogens. The list of identified plant actin-bundling proteins is ever expanding, supporting that plant cells shape structurally and functionally different actin bundles. Here I review the most recently characterized actin-bundling proteins, with a particular focus on those potentially relevant to membrane trafficking and/or signaling. PMID:22936939

  6. Novel Coronin7 interactions with Cdc42 and N-WASP regulate actin organization and Golgi morphology

    PubMed Central

    Bhattacharya, Kurchi; Swaminathan, Karthic; Peche, Vivek S.; Clemen, Christoph S.; Knyphausen, Philipp; Lammers, Michael; Noegel, Angelika A.; Rastetter, Raphael H.

    2016-01-01

    The contribution of the actin cytoskeleton to the unique architecture of the Golgi complex is manifold. An important player in this process is Coronin7 (CRN7), a Golgi-resident protein that stabilizes F-actin assembly at the trans-Golgi network (TGN) thereby facilitating anterograde trafficking. Here, we establish that CRN7-mediated association of F-actin with the Golgi apparatus is distinctly modulated via the small Rho GTPase Cdc42 and N-WASP. We identify N-WASP as a novel interaction partner of CRN7 and demonstrate that CRN7 restricts spurious F-actin reorganizations by repressing N-WASP ‘hyperactivity’ upon constitutive Cdc42 activation. Loss of CRN7 leads to increased cellular F-actin content and causes a concomitant disruption of the Golgi structure. CRN7 harbours a Cdc42- and Rac-interactive binding (CRIB) motif in its tandem β-propellers and binds selectively to GDP-bound Cdc42N17 mutant. We speculate that CRN7 can act as a cofactor for active Cdc42 generation. Mutation of CRIB motif residues that abrogate Cdc42 binding to CRN7 also fail to rescue the cellular defects in fibroblasts derived from CRN7 KO mice. Cdc42N17 overexpression partially rescued the KO phenotypes whereas N-WASP overexpression failed to do so. We conclude that CRN7 spatiotemporally influences F-actin organization and Golgi integrity in a Cdc42- and N-WASP-dependent manner. PMID:27143109

  7. Proteomic Analysis of the Action of the Mycobacterium ulcerans Toxin Mycolactone: Targeting Host Cells Cytoskeleton and Collagen

    PubMed Central

    Gama, José B.; Ohlmeier, Steffen; Martins, Teresa G.; Fraga, Alexandra G.; Sampaio-Marques, Belém; Carvalho, Maria A.; Proença, Fernanda; Silva, Manuel T.; Pedrosa, Jorge; Ludovico, Paula

    2014-01-01

    Buruli ulcer (BU) is a neglected tropical disease caused by Mycobacterium ulcerans. The tissue damage characteristic of BU lesions is known to be driven by the secretion