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Sample records for actin myosin heavy

  1. Affinity chromatography of immobilized actin and myosin.

    PubMed Central

    Bottomley, R C; Trayer, I P

    1975-01-01

    Actin and myosin were immobilized by coupling them to agarose matrices. Both immobilized G-actin and immobilized myosin retain most of the properties of the proteins in free solution and are reliable over long periods of time. Sepharose-F-actin, under the conditions used in this study, has proved unstable and variable in its properties. Sepharose-G-actin columns were used to bind heavy meromyosin and myosin subfragment 1 specifically and reversibly. The interaction involved is sensitive to variation in ionic strength, such that myosin itself is not retained by the columns at the high salt concentration required for its complete solubilization. Myosin, rendered soluble at low ionic strength by polyalanylation, will interact successfully with the immobilized actin. The latter can distinguish between active and inactive fractions of the proteolytic and polyalanyl myosin derivatives, and was used in the preparation of these molecules. The complexes formed between the myosin derivatives and Sepharose-G-actin can be dissociated by low concentrations of ATP, ADP and pyrophosphate in both the presence and the absence of Mg2+. The G-actin columns were used to evaluate the results of chemical modifications of myosin subfragments on their interactions with actin. F-Actin in free solution is bound specifically and reversibly to columns of insolubilized myosin. Thus, with elution by either ATP or pyrophosphate, actin has been purified in one step from extracts of acetone-dried muscle powder. PMID:241335

  2. Phosphorylation and actin activation of brain myosin.

    PubMed Central

    Barylko, B; Sobieszek, A

    1983-01-01

    A method is described for obtaining brain myosin that shows significant actin activation, after phosphorylation with chicken gizzard myosin light chain kinase. Myosin with this activity could be obtained only via the initial purification of brain actomyosin. The latter complex, isolated by a method similar to that used for smooth muscle, contained actin, myosin, tropomyosin of the non-muscle type and another actin-binding protein of approximately 100,000 daltons. From the presence of a specific myosin light chain kinase and phosphatase in brain tissue it is suggested that the regulation of actin-myosin interaction operates via phosphorylation and dephosphorylation of myosin. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 3. PMID:11894951

  3. Actin Age Orchestrates Myosin-5 and Myosin-6 Runlengths

    PubMed Central

    Zimmermann, Dennis; Santos, Alicja; Kovar, David R.; Rock, Ronald S.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Unlike a static and immobile skeleton, the actin cytoskeleton is a highly dynamic network of filamentous actin (F-actin) polymers that continuously turn over. In addition to generating mechanical forces and sensing mechanical deformation, dynamic F-actin networks serve as cellular tracks for myosin motor traffic. However, much of our mechanistic understanding of processive myosins comes from in vitro studies where motility was studied on pre-assembled and artificially stabilized, static F-actin tracks. In this work, we examine the role of actin dynamics in single-molecule myosin motility using assembling F-actin and the two highly processive motors, myosin-5 and myosin-6. These two myosins have distinct functions in the cell and travel in opposite directions along actin filaments [1–3]. Myosin-5 walks towards the barbed ends of F-actin, traveling to sites of actin polymerization at the cell periphery [4]. Myosin-6 walks towards the pointed end of F-actin [5], traveling towards the cell center along older segments of the actin filament. We find that myosin-5 takes 1.3 to 1.5-fold longer runs on ADP•Pi (young) F-actin, while myosin-6 takes 1.7 to 3.6-fold longer runs along ADP (old) F-actin. These results suggest that conformational differences between ADP•Pi and ADP F-actin tailor these myosins to walk farther toward their preferred actin filament end. Taken together, these experiments define a new mechanism by which myosin traffic may sort to different F-actin networks depending on filament age. PMID:26190073

  4. [The disappearance of the dependence of actin-myosin interaction on the phosphorylation of myosin light chains in the "freezing" of the structure of heavy meromyosin by a bifunctional reagent].

    PubMed

    Borovikov, Iu S; Szczesna, D; Khoroshev, M I; Kakol, I

    1990-01-01

    Using glycerinated muscle fibers, free of myosin, tropomyosin and troponin, a study was made of the structural state of F-actin modified by N-(iodoacetyl)-N'-(1-naphthyl-5-sulfo)-ethylendiamine (1.5-IAEDANS) and by rhodaminyl--phalloin at decoration of thin filaments with a proteolytic fragment of myosin--heavy meromyosin containing phosphorylated and dephosphorylated myosin light chains. The heavy meromyosin used has three SH-groups of heavy chain SH1, SH2 and SH chi modified by bifunctional reagent N,N'-n-phenylmaleimide (SH1-SH2, SH2-SH chi). At decoration of thin filaments with heavy meromyosin, some changes in polarized fluorescence of rhodaminyl--phalloin and 1.5-IAEDANS independent of phosphorylation of myosin light chains were found. Fluorescence anisotropy of the fiber was found to depend primarily on the character of heavy chain of SH-group modification. The ability of heavy chains to change their conformations is supposed to play an important role in the mechanism of myosin system modulation of muscle contraction.

  5. Interactions of actin, myosin, and an actin-binding protein of chronic myelogenous leukemia leukocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Boxer, L A; Stossel, T P

    1976-01-01

    Actin, myosin, and a high molecular weight actin-binding protein were purified from chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) leukocytes. CML leukocyte actin resembled skeletal muscle and other cytoplasmic actins by its subunit molecular weight, by its ability to polymerize in the presence of salts, and to activate the Mg2+-ATPase activity of rabbit skeletal muscle myosin. CML leukocyte myosin was similar to other vertebrate cytoplasmic myosins in having heavy chains and two light subunits. However, its apparent heavy-chain molecular weight and Stokes radius suggested that it was variably degraded during purification. Purified CML leukocyte myosin had average specific EDTA- AND Ca2+-activated ATPase activities of 125 and 151 nmol Pi released/mg protein per min, respectively and low specific Mg2+-ATPase activity. The Mg2+-ATPase activity of CML myosin was increased 200-fold by rabbit skeletal muscle F-actin, but the specific activity relative to that of actin-activated rabbit skeletal muscle myosin was low. CML leukocyte myosin, like other vertebrate cytoplasmic myosins, formed filaments in 0.1 M KCl solutions. Reduced and denatured CML leukocyte-actin-binding protein had a single high molecular weight subunit like a recently described actin-binding protein of rabbit pulmonary macrophages which promotes the polymerization and gelation of actin. Cytoplasmic extracts of CML leukocytes prepared with ice-cold 0.34-M sucrose solutions containing Mg2+-ATP, dithiothreitol, and EDTA at pH 7.0 underwent rapid gelation when warmed to 25 degrees C. Initially, the gel could be liquified by cooling to ice-bath temperature. With time, warmed cytoplasmic extract gels shrunk ("contracted") into aggregates. The following findings indicated that CML leukocyte actin-binding protein promoted the temperature-dependent gelation of actin in the cytoplasmic extracts and that CML leukocyte myosin was involved in the contraction of the actin gels: (a) Cytoplasmic extract gels initially contained

  6. Functional adaptation between yeast actin and its cognate myosin motors.

    PubMed

    Stark, Benjamin C; Wen, Kuo-Kuang; Allingham, John S; Rubenstein, Peter A; Lord, Matthew

    2011-09-01

    We employed budding yeast and skeletal muscle actin to examine the contribution of the actin isoform to myosin motor function. While yeast and muscle actin are highly homologous, they exhibit different charge density at their N termini (a proposed myosin-binding interface). Muscle myosin-II actin-activated ATPase activity is significantly higher with muscle versus yeast actin. Whether this reflects inefficiency in the ability of yeast actin to activate myosin is not known. Here we optimized the isolation of two yeast myosins to assess actin function in a homogenous system. Yeast myosin-II (Myo1p) and myosin-V (Myo2p) accommodate the reduced N-terminal charge density of yeast actin, showing greater activity with yeast over muscle actin. Increasing the number of negative charges at the N terminus of yeast actin from two to four (as in muscle) had little effect on yeast myosin activity, while other substitutions of charged residues at the myosin interface of yeast actin reduced activity. Thus, yeast actin functions most effectively with its native myosins, which in part relies on associations mediated by its outer domain. Compared with yeast myosin-II and myosin-V, muscle myosin-II activity was very sensitive to salt. Collectively, our findings suggest differing degrees of reliance on electrostatic interactions during weak actomyosin binding in yeast versus muscle. Our study also highlights the importance of native actin isoforms when considering the function of myosins. PMID:21757693

  7. Myosin lever arm directs collective motion on cellular actin network

    PubMed Central

    Hariadi, Rizal F.; Cale, Mario; Sivaramakrishnan, Sivaraj

    2014-01-01

    The molecular motor myosin teams up to drive muscle contraction, membrane traffic, and cell division in biological cells. Myosin function in cells emerges from the interaction of multiple motors tethered to a scaffold, with surrounding actin filaments organized into 3D networks. Despite the importance of myosin function, the influence of intermotor interactions on collective motion remains poorly understood. In this study, we used precisely engineered myosin assemblies to examine emergence in collective myosin movement. We report that tethering multiple myosin VI motors, but not myosin V motors, modifies their movement trajectories on keratocyte actin networks. Single myosin V and VI dimers display similar skewed trajectories, albeit in opposite directions, when traversing the keratocyte actin network. In contrast, tethering myosin VI motors, but not myosin V motors, progressively straightens the trajectories with increasing myosin number. Trajectory shape of multimotor scaffolds positively correlates with the stiffness of the myosin lever arm. Swapping the flexible myosin VI lever arm for the relatively rigid myosin V lever increases trajectory skewness, and vice versa. A simplified model of coupled motor movement demonstrates that the differences in flexural rigidity of the two myosin lever arms is sufficient to account for the differences in observed behavior of groups of myosin V and VI motors. In accordance with this model trajectory, shapes for scaffolds containing both myosin V and VI are dominated by the myosin with a stiffer lever arm. Our findings suggest that structural features unique to each myosin type may confer selective advantages in cellular functions. PMID:24591646

  8. Myosin lever arm directs collective motion on cellular actin network.

    PubMed

    Hariadi, Rizal F; Cale, Mario; Sivaramakrishnan, Sivaraj

    2014-03-18

    The molecular motor myosin teams up to drive muscle contraction, membrane traffic, and cell division in biological cells. Myosin function in cells emerges from the interaction of multiple motors tethered to a scaffold, with surrounding actin filaments organized into 3D networks. Despite the importance of myosin function, the influence of intermotor interactions on collective motion remains poorly understood. In this study, we used precisely engineered myosin assemblies to examine emergence in collective myosin movement. We report that tethering multiple myosin VI motors, but not myosin V motors, modifies their movement trajectories on keratocyte actin networks. Single myosin V and VI dimers display similar skewed trajectories, albeit in opposite directions, when traversing the keratocyte actin network. In contrast, tethering myosin VI motors, but not myosin V motors, progressively straightens the trajectories with increasing myosin number. Trajectory shape of multimotor scaffolds positively correlates with the stiffness of the myosin lever arm. Swapping the flexible myosin VI lever arm for the relatively rigid myosin V lever increases trajectory skewness, and vice versa. A simplified model of coupled motor movement demonstrates that the differences in flexural rigidity of the two myosin lever arms is sufficient to account for the differences in observed behavior of groups of myosin V and VI motors. In accordance with this model trajectory, shapes for scaffolds containing both myosin V and VI are dominated by the myosin with a stiffer lever arm. Our findings suggest that structural features unique to each myosin type may confer selective advantages in cellular functions.

  9. Change in the actin-myosin subfragment 1 interaction during actin polymerization.

    PubMed

    Chaussepied, P; Kasprzak, A A

    1989-12-01

    To better characterize the conformational differences of G- and F-actin, we have compared the interaction between G- and F-actin with myosin subfragment 1 (S1) which had part of its F-actin binding site (residues 633-642) blocked by a complementary peptide or "antipeptide" (Chaussepied, P., and Morales, M. F. (1988) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 85, 7471-7475). Light scattering, sedimentation, and electron microscopy measurements showed that, with the antipeptide covalently attached to the S1 heavy chain, S1 was not capable of inducing G-actin polymerization in the absence of salt. Moreover, the antipeptide-carrying S1 did not change the fluorescence polarization of 5-[2-(iodoacetyl)-aminoethyl]aminonaphthalene-1-sulfonic acid (1,5-IAEDANS)-labeled G-actin or of 1,5-IAEDANS-labeled actin dimer, compared to the control S1. This result, interpreted as a lack of interaction between G-actin and antipeptide-carrying S1, was confirmed further by the following experiments: in the presence of G-actin, antipeptide.S1 heavy chain was not protected against trypsin and papain proteolysis, and G-actin could not be cross-linked to antipeptide.S1 by 1-ethyl-3[-3-(dimethylamino)propyl]carbodiimide. In contrast, similar experiments showed that antipeptide.S1 was able to interact with nascent F-actin and with F-actin. Thus, blocking the stretch 633-642 of S1 heavy chain by the antipeptide strongly inhibits G-actin-S1 interaction but only slightly alters F-actin-S1 contact. We, therefore postulate that this stretch of skeletal S1 heavy chain is essential for G-actin-S1 interaction and that the G-F transformation generates new S1 binding site(s) on the actin molecule.

  10. Distinct Functional Interactions between Actin Isoforms and Nonsarcomeric Myosins

    PubMed Central

    Müller, Mirco; Diensthuber, Ralph P.; Chizhov, Igor; Claus, Peter; Heissler, Sarah M.; Preller, Matthias; Taft, Manuel H.; Manstein, Dietmar J.

    2013-01-01

    Despite their near sequence identity, actin isoforms cannot completely replace each other in vivo and show marked differences in their tissue-specific and subcellular localization. Little is known about isoform-specific differences in their interactions with myosin motors and other actin-binding proteins. Mammalian cytoplasmic β- and γ-actin interact with nonsarcomeric conventional myosins such as the members of the nonmuscle myosin-2 family and myosin-7A. These interactions support a wide range of cellular processes including cytokinesis, maintenance of cell polarity, cell adhesion, migration, and mechano-electrical transduction. To elucidate differences in the ability of isoactins to bind and stimulate the enzymatic activity of individual myosin isoforms, we characterized the interactions of human skeletal muscle α-actin, cytoplasmic β-actin, and cytoplasmic γ-actin with human myosin-7A and nonmuscle myosins-2A, -2B and -2C1. In the case of nonmuscle myosins-2A and -2B, the interaction with either cytoplasmic actin isoform results in 4-fold greater stimulation of myosin ATPase activity than was observed in the presence of α-skeletal muscle actin. Nonmuscle myosin-2C1 is most potently activated by β-actin and myosin-7A by γ-actin. Our results indicate that β- and γ-actin isoforms contribute to the modulation of nonmuscle myosin-2 and myosin-7A activity and thereby to the spatial and temporal regulation of cytoskeletal dynamics. FRET-based analyses show efficient copolymerization abilities for the actin isoforms in vitro. Experiments with hybrid actin filaments show that the extent of actomyosin coupling efficiency can be regulated by the isoform composition of actin filaments. PMID:23923011

  11. Actin-myosin contractility is responsible for the reduced viability of dissociated human embryonic stem cells.

    PubMed

    Chen, Guokai; Hou, Zhonggang; Gulbranson, Daniel R; Thomson, James A

    2010-08-01

    Human ESCs are the pluripotent precursor of the three embryonic germ layers. Human ESCs exhibit basal-apical polarity, junctional complexes, integrin-dependent matrix adhesion, and E-cadherin-dependent cell-cell adhesion, all characteristics shared by the epiblast epithelium of the intact mammalian embryo. After disruption of epithelial structures, programmed cell death is commonly observed. If individualized human ESCs are prevented from reattaching and forming colonies, their viability is significantly reduced. Here, we show that actin-myosin contraction is a critical effector of the cell death response to human ESC dissociation. Inhibition of myosin heavy chain ATPase, downregulation of myosin heavy chain, and downregulation of myosin light chain all increase survival and cloning efficiency of individualized human ESCs. ROCK inhibition decreases phosphorylation of myosin light chain, suggesting that inhibition of actin-myosin contraction is also the mechanism through which ROCK inhibitors increase cloning efficiency of human ESCs.

  12. Actin network architecture can determine myosin motor activity.

    PubMed

    Reymann, Anne-Cécile; Boujemaa-Paterski, Rajaa; Martiel, Jean-Louis; Guérin, Christophe; Cao, Wenxiang; Chin, Harvey F; De La Cruz, Enrique M; Théry, Manuel; Blanchoin, Laurent

    2012-06-01

    The organization of actin filaments into higher-ordered structures governs eukaryotic cell shape and movement. Global actin network size and architecture are maintained in a dynamic steady state through regulated assembly and disassembly. Here, we used experimentally defined actin structures in vitro to investigate how the activity of myosin motors depends on network architecture. Direct visualization of filaments revealed myosin-induced actin network deformation. During this reorganization, myosins selectively contracted and disassembled antiparallel actin structures, while parallel actin bundles remained unaffected. The local distribution of nucleation sites and the resulting orientation of actin filaments appeared to regulate the scalability of the contraction process. This "orientation selection" mechanism for selective contraction and disassembly suggests how the dynamics of the cellular actin cytoskeleton can be spatially controlled by actomyosin contractility.

  13. How actin initiates the motor activity of Myosin.

    PubMed

    Llinas, Paola; Isabet, Tatiana; Song, Lin; Ropars, Virginie; Zong, Bin; Benisty, Hannah; Sirigu, Serena; Morris, Carl; Kikuti, Carlos; Safer, Dan; Sweeney, H Lee; Houdusse, Anne

    2015-05-26

    Fundamental to cellular processes are directional movements driven by molecular motors. A common theme for these and other molecular machines driven by ATP is that controlled release of hydrolysis products is essential for using the chemical energy efficiently. Mechanochemical transduction by myosin motors on actin is coupled to unknown structural changes that result in the sequential release of inorganic phosphate (Pi) and MgADP. We present here a myosin structure possessing an actin-binding interface and a tunnel (back door) that creates an escape route for Pi with a minimal rotation of the myosin lever arm that drives movements. We propose that this state represents the beginning of the powerstroke on actin and that Pi translocation from the nucleotide pocket triggered by actin binding initiates myosin force generation. This elucidates how actin initiates force generation and movement and may represent a strategy common to many molecular machines.

  14. Transport of ER vesicles on actin filaments in neurons by myosin V.

    PubMed

    Tabb, J S; Molyneaux, B J; Cohen, D L; Kuznetsov, S A; Langford, G M

    1998-11-01

    Axoplasmic organelles in the giant axon of the squid have been shown to move on both actin filaments and microtubules and to switch between actin filaments and microtubules during fast axonal transport. The objectives of this investigation were to identify the specific classes of axoplasmic organelles that move on actin filaments and the myosin motors involved. We developed a procedure to isolate endoplasmic reticulum (ER) from extruded axoplasm and to reconstitute its movement in vitro. The isolated ER vesicles moved on exogenous actin filaments adsorbed to coverslips in an ATP-dependent manner without the addition of soluble factors. Therefore myosin was tightly bound and not extracted during isolation. These vesicles were identified as smooth ER by use of an antibody to an ER-resident protein, ERcalcistorin/protein disulfide isomerase (EcaSt/PDI). Furthermore, an antibody to squid myosin V was used in immunogold EM studies to show that myosin V localized to these vesicles. The antibody was generated to a squid brain myosin (p196) that was classified as myosin V based on comparisons of amino acid sequences of tryptic peptides of this myosin with those of other known members of the myosin V family. Dual labeling with the squid myosin V antibody and a kinesin heavy chain antibody showed that the two motors colocalized on the same vesicles. Finally, antibody inhibition experiments were performed with two myosin V-specific antibodies to show that myosin V motor activity is required for transport of vesicles on actin filaments in axoplasm. One antibody was made to a peptide in the globular tail domain and the other to the globular head fragment of myosin V. Both antibodies inhibited vesicle transport on actin filaments by greater than 90% compared to controls. These studies provide the first direct evidence that ER vesicles are transported on actin filaments by myosin V. These data confirm the role of actin filaments in fast axonal transport and provide support for

  15. Myosin-I moves actin filaments on a phospholipid substrate: implications for membrane targeting

    PubMed Central

    1992-01-01

    Acanthamoeba myosin-I bound to substrates of nitrocellulose or planar lipid membranes on glass moved actin filaments at an average velocity of 0.2 micron/s. This movement required ATP and phosphorylation of the myosin-I heavy chain. We prepared planar lipid membranes on a glass support by passive fusion of lipid vesicles (Brian, A. A., and H. M. McConnell. 1984. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. 81:6159-6163) composed of phosphatidylcholine and containing 0-40% phosphatidylserine. The mass of lipid that bound to the glass was the same for membranes of 2 and 20% phosphatidylserine in phosphatidylcholine and was sufficient to form a single bilayer. Myosin-I moved actin filaments on planar membranes of 5-40% but not 0-2% phosphatidylserine. At the low concentrations of phosphatidylserine, actin filaments tended to detach suggesting that less myosin-I was bound. We used the cooperative activation of Acanthamoeba myosin-I ATPase by low concentrations of actin to assess the association of phospholipids with myosin-I. Under conditions where activity depends on the binding of actin to the tail of myosin-I (Albanesi, J. P., H. Fujisaki, and E. D. Korn. 1985. J. Biol. Chem. 260:11174-11179), phospholipid vesicles with 5-40% phosphatidylserine inhibited ATPase activity. The motility and ATPase results demonstrate a specific interaction of the tail of myosin-I with physiological concentrations of phosphatidylserine. This interaction is sufficient to support motility and may provide a mechanism to target myosin-I to biological membranes. PMID:1530945

  16. All-atom molecular dynamics simulations of actin-myosin interactions: a comparative study of cardiac α myosin, β myosin, and fast skeletal muscle myosin.

    PubMed

    Li, Minghui; Zheng, Wenjun

    2013-11-26

    Myosins are a superfamily of actin-binding motor proteins with significant variations in kinetic properties (such as actin binding affinity) between different isoforms. It remains unknown how such kinetic variations arise from the structural and dynamic tuning of the actin-myosin interface at the amino acid residue level. To address this key issue, we have employed molecular modeling and simulations to investigate, with atomistic details, the isoform dependence of actin-myosin interactions in the rigor state. By combining electron microscopy-based docking with homology modeling, we have constructed three all-atom models for human cardiac α and β and rabbit fast skeletal muscle myosin in complex with three actin subunits in the rigor state. Starting from these models, we have performed extensive all-atom molecular dynamics (MD) simulations (total of 100 ns per system) and then used the MD trajectories to calculate actin-myosin binding free energies with contributions from both electrostatic and nonpolar forces. Our binding calculations are in good agreement with the experimental finding of isoform-dependent differences in actin binding affinity between these myosin isoforms. Such differences are traced to changes in actin-myosin electrostatic interactions (i.e., hydrogen bonds and salt bridges) that are highly dynamic and involve several flexible actin-binding loops. By partitioning the actin-myosin binding free energy to individual myosin residues, we have also identified key myosin residues involved in the actin-myosin interactions, some of which were previously validated experimentally or implicated in cardiomyopathy mutations, and the rest make promising targets for future mutational experiments. PMID:24224850

  17. Smooth muscle actin and myosin expression in cultured airway smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Wong, J Z; Woodcock-Mitchell, J; Mitchell, J; Rippetoe, P; White, S; Absher, M; Baldor, L; Evans, J; McHugh, K M; Low, R B

    1998-05-01

    In this study, the expression of smooth muscle actin and myosin was examined in cultures of rat tracheal smooth muscle cells. Protein and mRNA analyses demonstrated that these cells express alpha- and gamma-smooth muscle actin and smooth muscle myosin and nonmuscle myosin-B heavy chains. The expression of the smooth muscle specific actin and myosin isoforms was regulated in the same direction when growth conditions were changed. Thus, at confluency in 1 or 10% serum-containing medium as well as for low-density cells (50-60% confluent) deprived of serum, the expression of the smooth muscle forms of actin and myosin was relatively high. Conversely, in rapidly proliferating cultures at low density in 10% serum, smooth muscle contractile protein expression was low. The expression of nonmuscle myosin-B mRNA and protein was more stable and was upregulated only to a small degree in growing cells. Our results provide new insight into the molecular basis of differentiation and contractile function in airway smooth muscle cells.

  18. Drebrin attenuates the interaction between actin and myosin-V.

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, Ryoki; Katoh, Kaoru; Takahashi, Ayumi; Xie, Ce; Oseki, Koushi; Watanabe, Michitoshi; Igarashi, Michihiro; Nakamura, Akio; Kohama, Kazuhiro

    2007-07-27

    Drebrin-A is an actin-binding protein localized in the dendritic spines of mature neurons, and has been suggested to affect spine morphology [K. Hayashi, T. Shirao, Change in the shape of dendritic spines caused by overexpression of drebrin in cultured cortical neurons, J. Neurosci. 19 (1999) 3918-3925]. However, no biochemical analysis of drebrin-A has yet been reported. In this study, we purified drebrin-A using a bacterial expression system, and characterized it in vitro. Drebrin-A bound to actin filaments with a stoichiometry of one drebrin molecule to 5-6 actin molecules. Furthermore, drebrin-A decreased the Mg-ATPase activity of myosin V. In vitro motility assay revealed that the attachment of F-actin to glass surface coated with myosin-V was decreased by drebrin-A, but once F-actin attached to the surface, the sliding speed of F-actin was unaffected by the presence of drebrin A. These findings suggest that drebrin-A may affect spine dynamics, vesicle transport, and other myosin-V-driven motility in neurons through attenuating the interaction between actin and myosin-V.

  19. Force-producing ADP state of myosin bound to actin

    PubMed Central

    Wulf, Sarah F.; Ropars, Virginie; Fujita-Becker, Setsuko; Oster, Marco; Hofhaus, Goetz; Trabuco, Leonardo G.; Pylypenko, Olena; Sweeney, H. Lee; Houdusse, Anne M.; Schröder, Rasmus R.

    2016-01-01

    Molecular motors produce force when they interact with their cellular tracks. For myosin motors, the primary force-generating state has MgADP tightly bound, whereas myosin is strongly bound to actin. We have generated an 8-Å cryoEM reconstruction of this state for myosin V and used molecular dynamics flexed fitting for model building. We compare this state to the subsequent state on actin (Rigor). The ADP-bound structure reveals that the actin-binding cleft is closed, even though MgADP is tightly bound. This state is accomplished by a previously unseen conformation of the β-sheet underlying the nucleotide pocket. The transition from the force-generating ADP state to Rigor requires a 9.5° rotation of the myosin lever arm, coupled to a β-sheet rearrangement. Thus, the structure reveals the detailed rearrangements underlying myosin force generation as well as the basis of strain-dependent ADP release that is essential for processive myosins, such as myosin V. PMID:26976594

  20. Allosteric regulation by cooperative conformational changes of actin filaments drives mutually exclusive binding with cofilin and myosin

    PubMed Central

    Ngo, Kien Xuan; Umeki, Nobuhisa; Kijima, Saku T.; Kodera, Noriyuki; Ueno, Hiroaki; Furutani-Umezu, Nozomi; Nakajima, Jun; Noguchi, Taro Q. P.; Nagasaki, Akira; Tokuraku, Kiyotaka; Uyeda, Taro Q. P.

    2016-01-01

    Heavy meromyosin (HMM) of myosin II and cofilin each binds to actin filaments cooperatively and forms clusters along the filaments, but it is unknown whether the two cooperative bindings are correlated and what physiological roles they have. Fluorescence microscopy demonstrated that HMM-GFP and cofilin-mCherry each bound cooperatively to different parts of actin filaments when they were added simultaneously in 0.2 μM ATP, indicating that the two cooperative bindings are mutually exclusive. In 0.1 mM ATP, the motor domain of myosin (S1) strongly inhibited the formation of cofilin clusters along actin filaments. Under this condition, most actin protomers were unoccupied by S1 at any given moment, suggesting that transiently bound S1 alters the structure of actin filaments cooperatively and/or persistently to inhibit cofilin binding. Consistently, cosedimentation experiments using copolymers of actin and actin-S1 fusion protein demonstrated that the fusion protein affects the neighboring actin protomers, reducing their affinity for cofilin. In reciprocal experiments, cofilin-actin fusion protein reduced the affinity of neighboring actin protomers for S1. Thus, allosteric regulation by cooperative conformational changes of actin filaments contributes to mutually exclusive cooperative binding of myosin II and cofilin to actin filaments, and presumably to the differential localization of both proteins in cells. PMID:27762277

  1. Bulkiness or aromatic nature of tyrosine-143 of actin is important for the weak binding between F-actin and myosin-ADP-phosphate

    SciTech Connect

    Gomibuchi, Yuki; Uyeda, Taro Q.P.; Wakabayashi, Takeyuki

    2013-11-29

    Highlights: •The effect of mutation of Tyr143 that becomes more exposed on assembly was examined. •Mutation of tyrosine-143 of Dictyostelium actin changed actin polymerizability. •The bulkiness or aromatic nature of Tyr143 is important for the weak binding. •The weak interaction between myosin and actin strengthened by Tyr143Trp mutation. -- Abstract: Actin filaments (F-actin) interact with myosin and activate its ATPase to support force generation. By comparing crystal structures of G-actin and the quasi-atomic model of F-actin based on high-resolution cryo-electron microscopy, the tyrosine-143 was found to be exposed more than 60 Å{sup 2} to the solvent in F-actin. Because tyrosine-143 flanks the hydrophobic cleft near the hydrophobic helix that binds to myosin, the mutant actins, of which the tyrosine-143 was replaced with tryptophan, phenylalanine, or isoleucine, were generated using the Dictyostelium expression system. It polymerized significantly poorly when induced by NaCl, but almost normally by KCl. In the presence of phalloidin and KCl, the extents of the polymerization of all the mutant actins were comparable to that of the wild-type actin so that the actin-activated myosin ATPase activity could be reliably compared. The affinity of skeletal heavy meromyosin to F-actin and the maximum ATPase activity (V{sub max}) were estimated by a double reciprocal plot. The Tyr143Trp-actin showed the higher affinity (smaller K{sub app}) than that of the wild-type actin, with the V{sub max} being almost unchanged. The K{sub app} and V{sub max} of the Tyr143Phe-actin were similar to those of the wild-type actin. However, the activation by Tyr143Ile-actin was much smaller than the wild-type actin and the accurate determination of K{sub app} was difficult. Comparison of the myosin ATPase activated by the various mutant actins at the same concentration of F-actin showed that the extent of activation correlates well with the solvent-accessible surface areas (ASA

  2. Tuning myosin-driven sorting on cellular actin networks

    PubMed Central

    Hariadi, Rizal F; Sommese, Ruth F; Sivaramakrishnan, Sivaraj

    2015-01-01

    Myosin V and VI are antagonistic motors that cohabit membrane vesicles in cells. A systematic study of their collective function, however, is lacking and forms the focus of this study. We functionally reconstitute a two-dimensional actin-myosin interface using myosin V and VI precisely patterned on DNA nanostructures, in combination with a model keratocyte actin meshwork. While scaffolds display solely unidirectional movement, their directional flux is modulated by both actin architecture and the structural properties of the myosin lever arm. This directional flux can be finely-tuned by the relative number of myosin V and VI motors on each scaffold. Pairing computation with experimental observations suggests that the ratio of motor stall forces is a key determinant of the observed competitive outcomes. Overall, our study demonstrates an elegant mechanism for sorting of membrane cargo using equally matched antagonistic motors, simply by modulating the relative number of engagement sites for each motor type. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.05472.001 PMID:25738229

  3. Actin filaments on myosin beds: The velocity distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourdieu, L.; Magnasco, M. O.; Winkelmann, D. A.; Libchaber, A.

    1995-12-01

    In vitro studies of actin filaments sliding on a myosin-coated surface are analyzed, filament by filament, at a sampling rate of 30 per second. For each filament, the mean arc length coordinate is computed and histograms of instantaneous velocities, along the arc length, are established. Two types of motion are observed, depending on the experimental conditions. The first one is characterized by a homogeneous flow, with well defined velocities. In this regime, specific defects are a constitutive part of the flow. It is observed at high temperature, at high myosin coverage, and with a particular mode of attachment of myosin to the surface. The second regime shows no clear velocity selection, but a broadband distribution. It is characterized by high friction and is observed at low temperature or low myosin density. (c) 1995 The American Physical Society

  4. Myosin and Tropomyosin Stabilize the Conformation of Formin-nucleated Actin Filaments*

    PubMed Central

    Ujfalusi, Zoltán; Kovács, Mihály; Nagy, Nikolett T.; Barkó, Szilvia; Hild, Gábor; Lukács, András; Nyitrai, Miklós; Bugyi, Beáta

    2012-01-01

    The conformational elasticity of the actin cytoskeleton is essential for its versatile biological functions. Increasing evidence supports that the interplay between the structural and functional properties of actin filaments is finely regulated by actin-binding proteins; however, the underlying mechanisms and biological consequences are not completely understood. Previous studies showed that the binding of formins to the barbed end induces conformational transitions in actin filaments by making them more flexible through long range allosteric interactions. These conformational changes are accompanied by altered functional properties of the filaments. To get insight into the conformational regulation of formin-nucleated actin structures, in the present work we investigated in detail how binding partners of formin-generated actin structures, myosin and tropomyosin, affect the conformation of the formin-nucleated actin filaments using fluorescence spectroscopic approaches. Time-dependent fluorescence anisotropy and temperature-dependent Förster-type resonance energy transfer measurements revealed that heavy meromyosin, similarly to tropomyosin, restores the formin-induced effects and stabilizes the conformation of actin filaments. The stabilizing effect of heavy meromyosin is cooperative. The kinetic analysis revealed that despite the qualitatively similar effects of heavy meromyosin and tropomyosin on the conformational dynamics of actin filaments the mechanisms of the conformational transition are different for the two proteins. Heavy meromyosin stabilizes the formin-nucleated actin filaments in an apparently single step reaction upon binding, whereas the stabilization by tropomyosin occurs after complex formation. These observations support the idea that actin-binding proteins are key elements of the molecular mechanisms that regulate the conformational and functional diversity of actin filaments in living cells. PMID:22753415

  5. Major nonhistone proteins of rat liver chromatin: preliminary identification of myosin, actin, tubulin, and tropomyosin.

    PubMed Central

    Douvas, A S; Harrington, C A; Bonner, J

    1975-01-01

    Two major nonhistone polypeptides from rat liver chromatin have been identified as myosin and actin. Preliminary observations indicate that three other chromatin polypeptides of molecular weights 50,000, 34,000, and 32,000 are tubulin and heavy and light tropomyosin, respectively. A sixth component of molecular weight 65,000 which has been purified and electrophoreses as a single band on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gels may be composed in part of protease-digested myosin. These six polypeptides together account for as much as 38% of the nonhistone protein mass of chromatin in this tissue. Images PMID:1060072

  6. Three-dimensional Patterns and Redistribution of Myosin II and Actin in Mitotic Dictyostelium Cells

    PubMed Central

    Neujahr, Ralph; Heizer, Christina; Albrecht, Richard; Ecke, Maria; Schwartz, Jean-Marc; Weber, Igor; Gerisch, Günther

    1997-01-01

    Myosin II is not essential for cytokinesis in cells of Dictyostelium discoideum that are anchored on a substrate (Neujahr, R., C. Heizer, and G. Gerisch. 1997. J. Cell Sci. 110:123–137), in contrast to its importance for cell division in suspension (DeLozanne, A., and J.A. Spudich. 1987. Science. 236:1086–1091; Knecht, D.A., and W.F. Loomis. 1987. Science. 236: 1081–1085.). These differences have prompted us to investigate the three-dimensional distribution of myosin II in cells dividing under one of three conditions: (a) in shaken suspension, (b) in a fluid layer on a solid substrate surface, and (c) under mechanical stress applied by compressing the cells. Under the first and second conditions outlined above, myosin II does not form patterns that suggest a contractile ring is established in the furrow. Most of the myosin II is concentrated in the regions that flank the furrow on both sides towards the poles of the dividing cell. It is only when cells are compressed that myosin II extensively accumulates in the cleavage furrow, as has been previously described (Fukui, Y., T.J. Lynch, H. Brzeska, and E.D. Korn. 1989. Nature. 341:328–331), i.e., this massive accumulation is a response to the mechanical stress. Evidence is provided that the stress-associated translocation of myosin II to the cell cortex is a result of the dephosphorylation of its heavy chains. F-actin is localized in the dividing cells in a distinctly different pattern from that of myosin II. The F-actin is shown to accumulate primarily in protrusions at the two poles that ultimately form the leading edges of the daughter cells. This distribution changes dynamically as visualized in living cells with a green fluorescent protein–actin fusion. PMID:9412473

  7. Mechanical output of myosin II motors is regulated by myosin filament size and actin network mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stam, Samantha; Alberts, Jonathan; Gardel, Margaret; Munro, Edwin

    2013-03-01

    The interactions of bipolar myosin II filaments with actin arrays are a predominate means of generating forces in numerous physiological processes including muscle contraction and cell migration. However, how the spatiotemporal regulation of these forces depends on motor mechanochemistry, bipolar filament size, and local actin mechanics is unknown. Here, we simulate myosin II motors with an agent-based model in which the motors have been benchmarked against experimental measurements. Force generation occurs in two distinct regimes characterized either by stable tension maintenance or by stochastic buildup and release; transitions between these regimes occur by changes to duty ratio and myosin filament size. The time required for building force to stall scales inversely with the stiffness of a network and the actin gliding speed of a motor. Finally, myosin motors are predicted to contract a network toward stiffer regions, which is consistent with experimental observations. Our representation of myosin motors can be used to understand how their mechanical and biochemical properties influence their observed behavior in a variety of in vitro and in vivo contexts.

  8. The association of myosin IB with actin waves in dictyostelium requires both the plasma membrane-binding site and actin-binding region in the myosin tail.

    PubMed

    Brzeska, Hanna; Pridham, Kevin; Chery, Godefroy; Titus, Margaret A; Korn, Edward D

    2014-01-01

    F-actin structures and their distribution are important determinants of the dynamic shapes and functions of eukaryotic cells. Actin waves are F-actin formations that move along the ventral cell membrane driven by actin polymerization. Dictyostelium myosin IB is associated with actin waves but its role in the wave is unknown. Myosin IB is a monomeric, non-filamentous myosin with a globular head that binds to F-actin and has motor activity, and a non-helical tail comprising a basic region, a glycine-proline-glutamine-rich region and an SH3-domain. The basic region binds to acidic phospholipids in the plasma membrane through a short basic-hydrophobic site and the Gly-Pro-Gln region binds F-actin. In the current work we found that both the basic-hydrophobic site in the basic region and the Gly-Pro-Gln region of the tail are required for the association of myosin IB with actin waves. This is the first evidence that the Gly-Pro-Gln region is required for localization of myosin IB to a specific actin structure in situ. The head is not required for myosin IB association with actin waves but binding of the head to F-actin strengthens the association of myosin IB with waves and stabilizes waves. Neither the SH3-domain nor motor activity is required for association of myosin IB with actin waves. We conclude that myosin IB contributes to anchoring actin waves to the plasma membranes by binding of the basic-hydrophobic site to acidic phospholipids in the plasma membrane and binding of the Gly-Pro-Gln region to F-actin in the wave.

  9. Reverse actin sliding triggers strong myosin binding that moves tropomyosin

    SciTech Connect

    Bekyarova, T.I.; Reedy, M.C.; Baumann, B.A.J.; Tregear, R.T.; Ward, A.; Krzic, U.; Prince, K.M.; Perz-Edwards, R.J.; Reconditi, M.; Gore, D.; Irving, T.C.; Reedy, M.K.

    2008-09-03

    Actin/myosin interactions in vertebrate striated muscles are believed to be regulated by the 'steric blocking' mechanism whereby the binding of calcium to the troponin complex allows tropomyosin (TM) to change position on actin, acting as a molecular switch that blocks or allows myosin heads to interact with actin. Movement of TM during activation is initiated by interaction of Ca{sup 2+} with troponin, then completed by further displacement by strong binding cross-bridges. We report x-ray evidence that TM in insect flight muscle (IFM) moves in a manner consistent with the steric blocking mechanism. We find that both isometric contraction, at high [Ca{sup 2+}], and stretch activation, at lower [Ca{sup 2+}], develop similarly high x-ray intensities on the IFM fourth actin layer line because of TM movement, coinciding with x-ray signals of strong-binding cross-bridge attachment to helically favored 'actin target zones.' Vanadate (Vi), a phosphate analog that inhibits active cross-bridge cycling, abolishes all active force in IFM, allowing high [Ca{sup 2+}] to elicit initial TM movement without cross-bridge attachment or other changes from relaxed structure. However, when stretched in high [Ca{sup 2+}], Vi-'paralyzed' fibers produce force substantially above passive response at pCa {approx} 9, concurrent with full conversion from resting to active x-ray pattern, including x-ray signals of cross-bridge strong-binding and TM movement. This argues that myosin heads can be recruited as strong-binding 'brakes' by backward-sliding, calcium-activated thin filaments, and are as effective in moving TM as actively force-producing cross-bridges. Such recruitment of myosin as brakes may be the major mechanism resisting extension during lengthening contractions.

  10. Maximum limit to the number of myosin II motors participating in processive sliding of actin.

    PubMed

    Rastogi, Khushboo; Puliyakodan, Mohammed Shabeel; Pandey, Vikas; Nath, Sunil; Elangovan, Ravikrishnan

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we analysed processive sliding and breakage of actin filaments at various heavy meromyosin (HMM) densities and ATP concentrations in IVMA. We observed that with addition of ATP solution, the actin filaments fragmented stochastically; we then determined mean length and velocity of surviving actin filaments post breakage. Average filament length decreased with increase in HMM density at constant ATP, and increased with increase in ATP concentration at constant HMM density. Using density of HMM molecules and length of actin, we estimated the number of HMM molecules per actin filament (N) that participate in processive sliding of actin. N is solely a function of ATP concentration: 88 ± 24 and 54 ± 22 HMM molecules (mean ± S.D.) at 2 mM and 0.1 mM ATP respectively. Processive sliding of actin filament was observed only when N lay within a minimum lower limit (Nmin) and a maximum upper limit (Nmax) to the number of HMM molecules. When N < Nmin the actin filament diffused away from the surface and processivity was lost and when N > Nmax the filament underwent breakage eventually and could not sustain processive sliding. We postulate this maximum upper limit arises due to increased number of strongly bound myosin heads. PMID:27554800

  11. Maximum limit to the number of myosin II motors participating in processive sliding of actin

    PubMed Central

    Rastogi, Khushboo; Puliyakodan, Mohammed Shabeel; Pandey, Vikas; Nath, Sunil; Elangovan, Ravikrishnan

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we analysed processive sliding and breakage of actin filaments at various heavy meromyosin (HMM) densities and ATP concentrations in IVMA. We observed that with addition of ATP solution, the actin filaments fragmented stochastically; we then determined mean length and velocity of surviving actin filaments post breakage. Average filament length decreased with increase in HMM density at constant ATP, and increased with increase in ATP concentration at constant HMM density. Using density of HMM molecules and length of actin, we estimated the number of HMM molecules per actin filament (N) that participate in processive sliding of actin. N is solely a function of ATP concentration: 88 ± 24 and 54 ± 22 HMM molecules (mean ± S.D.) at 2 mM and 0.1 mM ATP respectively. Processive sliding of actin filament was observed only when N lay within a minimum lower limit (Nmin) and a maximum upper limit (Nmax) to the number of HMM molecules. When N < Nmin the actin filament diffused away from the surface and processivity was lost and when N > Nmax the filament underwent breakage eventually and could not sustain processive sliding. We postulate this maximum upper limit arises due to increased number of strongly bound myosin heads. PMID:27554800

  12. The myosin X motor is optimized for movement on actin bundles.

    PubMed

    Ropars, Virginie; Yang, Zhaohui; Isabet, Tatiana; Blanc, Florian; Zhou, Kaifeng; Lin, Tianming; Liu, Xiaoyan; Hissier, Pascale; Samazan, Frédéric; Amigues, Béatrice; Yang, Eric D; Park, Hyokeun; Pylypenko, Olena; Cecchini, Marco; Sindelar, Charles V; Sweeney, H Lee; Houdusse, Anne

    2016-01-01

    Myosin X has features not found in other myosins. Its structure must underlie its unique ability to generate filopodia, which are essential for neuritogenesis, wound healing, cancer metastasis and some pathogenic infections. By determining high-resolution structures of key components of this motor, and characterizing the in vitro behaviour of the native dimer, we identify the features that explain the myosin X dimer behaviour. Single-molecule studies demonstrate that a native myosin X dimer moves on actin bundles with higher velocities and takes larger steps than on single actin filaments. The largest steps on actin bundles are larger than previously reported for artificially dimerized myosin X constructs or any other myosin. Our model and kinetic data explain why these large steps and high velocities can only occur on bundled filaments. Thus, myosin X functions as an antiparallel dimer in cells with a unique geometry optimized for movement on actin bundles. PMID:27580874

  13. The myosin X motor is optimized for movement on actin bundles

    PubMed Central

    Ropars, Virginie; Yang, Zhaohui; Isabet, Tatiana; Blanc, Florian; Zhou, Kaifeng; Lin, Tianming; Liu, Xiaoyan; Hissier, Pascale; Samazan, Frédéric; Amigues, Béatrice; Yang, Eric D.; Park, Hyokeun; Pylypenko, Olena; Cecchini, Marco; Sindelar, Charles V.; Sweeney, H. Lee; Houdusse, Anne

    2016-01-01

    Myosin X has features not found in other myosins. Its structure must underlie its unique ability to generate filopodia, which are essential for neuritogenesis, wound healing, cancer metastasis and some pathogenic infections. By determining high-resolution structures of key components of this motor, and characterizing the in vitro behaviour of the native dimer, we identify the features that explain the myosin X dimer behaviour. Single-molecule studies demonstrate that a native myosin X dimer moves on actin bundles with higher velocities and takes larger steps than on single actin filaments. The largest steps on actin bundles are larger than previously reported for artificially dimerized myosin X constructs or any other myosin. Our model and kinetic data explain why these large steps and high velocities can only occur on bundled filaments. Thus, myosin X functions as an antiparallel dimer in cells with a unique geometry optimized for movement on actin bundles. PMID:27580874

  14. Molecular dynamics simulation of a myosin subfragment-1 docking with an actin filament.

    PubMed

    Masuda, Tadashi

    2013-09-01

    Myosins are typical molecular motor proteins, which convert the chemical energy of ATP into mechanical work. The fundamental mechanism of this energy conversion is still unknown. To explain the experimental results observed in molecular motors, Masuda has proposed a theory called the "Driven by Detachment (DbD)" mechanism for the working principle of myosins. Based on this theory, the energy used during the power stroke of the myosins originates from the attractive force between a detached myosin head and an actin filament, and does not directly arise from the energy of ATP. According to this theory, every step in the myosin working process may be reproduced by molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, except for the ATP hydrolysis step. Therefore, MD simulations were conducted to reproduce the docking process of a myosin subfragment-1 (S1) against an actin filament. A myosin S1 directed toward the barbed end of an actin filament was placed at three different positions by shifting it away from the filament axis. After 30 ns of MD simulations, in three cases out of ten trials on average, the myosin made a close contact with two actin monomers by changing the positions and the orientation of both the myosin and the actin as predicted in previous studies. Once the docking was achieved, the distance between the myosin and the actin showed smaller fluctuations, indicating that the docking is stable over time. If the docking was not achieved, the myosin moved randomly around the initial position or moved away from the actin filament. MD simulations thus successfully reproduced the docking of a myosin S1 with an actin filament. By extending the similar MD simulations to the other steps of the myosin working process, the validity of the DbD theory may be computationally demonstrated.

  15. Effect of ATP analogues on the actin-myosin interface.

    PubMed

    Van Dijk, J; Fernandez, C; Chaussepied, P

    1998-06-01

    The interaction between skeletal myosin subfragment 1 (S1) and filamentous actin was examined at various intermediate states of the actomyosin ATPase cycle by chemical cross-linking experiments. Reaction of the actin-S1 complex with 1-ethyl-3-[3-(dimethylamino)propyl]carbodiimide and N-hydroxysuccinimide generated products with molecular masses of 165 and 175 kDa, in which S1 loops of residues 626-647 and 567-578 were cross-linked independently to the N-terminal segment of residues 1-12 of one actin monomer, and of 265 kDa, in which the two loops were bound to the N termini of two adjacent monomers. In strong-binding complexes, i.e., without nucleotide or with ADP, S1 was sequentially cross-linked to one and then to two actin monomers. In the weak-binding complexes, two types of cross-linking pattern were observed. First, during steady-state hydrolysis of ATP or ATPgammaS at 20 degreesC, the cross-linking reaction gave rise to a small amount of unknown 200 kDa product. Second, in the presence of AMPPNP, ADP.BeFx, ADP.AlF4-, or ADP.VO43- or with S1 internally cross-linked by N,N'-p-phenylenedimaleimide, only the 265 kDa product was obtained. The presence of 200 mM salt inhibited cross-linking reactions in both weak- and strong-binding states, while it dissociated only weak-binding complexes. These results indicate that, in the weak-binding state populated with the ADP.Pi analogues, skeletal S1 interacts predominantly and with an apparent equal affinity with the N termini of two adjacent actin monomers, while these ionic contacts are much less significant in stabilizing the rigor actin-S1 complexes. They also suggest that the electrostatic actin-S1 interface is not influenced by the type of ADP.Pi analogue bound to the active site.

  16. Microscopic model of the actin-myosin interaction in muscular contractions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaveau, B.; Moreau, M.; Schuman, B.

    2004-01-01

    We define and study a detailed many body model for the muscular contraction taking into account the various myosin heads. The state of the system is defined by the position of the actin and by an internal coordinate of rotation for each myosin head. We write a system of Fokker-Planck equations and calculate the average for the position, the number of attached myosin heads, and the total force exerted on the actin. We also study the correlation between these quantities, in particular between the number of attached myosin heads and the force on the actin.

  17. Unconventional myosins, actin dynamics and endocytosis: a ménage à trois?

    PubMed

    Soldati, Thierry

    2003-06-01

    Ever since the discovery of class I myosins, the first nonmuscle myosins, about 30 years ago, the history of unconventional myosins has been linked to the organization and working of actin filaments. It slowly emerged from studies of class I myosins in lower eukaryotes that they are involved in mechanisms of endocytosis. Most interestingly, a flurry of recent findings assign a more active role to class I myosins in regulating the spatial and temporal organization of actin filament nucleation and elongation. The results highlight the multiple links between class I myosins and the major actin nucleator, the Arp2/3 complex, and its newly described activators. Two additional types of unconventional myosins, myosinIX, and Dictyostelium discoideum MyoM, have recently been tied to the signaling pathways controlling actin cytoskeleton remodeling. The present review surveys the links between these three classes of molecular motors and the complex cellular processes of endocytosis and actin dynamics, and concentrates on a working model accounting for the function of class I myosins via recruitment of the machinery responsible for actin nucleation and elongation. PMID:12753645

  18. Internal dynamics of F-actin and myosin subfragment-1 studied by quasielastic neutron scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Matsuo, Tatsuhito; Arata, Toshiaki; Oda, Toshiro; Nakajima, Kenji; Ohira-Kawamura, Seiko; Kikuchi, Tatsuya; Fujiwara, Satoru

    2015-04-10

    Various biological functions related to cell motility are driven by the interaction between the partner proteins, actin and myosin. To obtain insights into how this interaction occurs, the internal dynamics of F-actin and myosin subfragment-1 (S1) were characterized by the quasielastic neutron scattering measurements on the solution samples of F-actin and S1. Contributions of the internal motions of the proteins to the scattering spectra were separated from those of the global macromolecular diffusion. Analysis of the spectra arising from the internal dynamics showed that the correlation times of the atomic motions were about two times shorter for F-actin than for S1, suggesting that F-actin fluctuates more rapidly than S1. It was also shown that the fraction of the immobile atoms is larger for S1 than for F-actin. These results suggest that F-actin actively facilitates the binding of myosin by utilizing the more frequent conformational fluctuations than those of S1. - Highlights: • We studied the internal dynamics of F-actin and myosin S1 by neutron scattering. • The correlation times of the atomic motions were smaller for F-actin than for S1. • The fraction of the immobile atoms was also smaller for F-actin than for S1. • Our results suggest that mobility of atoms in F-actin is higher than that in S1. • We propose that high flexibility of F-actin facilitates the binding of myosin.

  19. Inhibition of Acanthamoeba myosin I heavy chain kinase by Ca(2+)-calmodulin.

    PubMed

    Brzeska, H; Kulesza-Lipka, D; Korn, E D

    1992-11-25

    The actin-activated Mg(2+)-ATPase activity of Acanthamoeba myosins I depends on phosphorylation of their single heavy chains by myosin I heavy chain kinase. Kinase activity is enhanced > 50-fold by autophosphorylation at multiple sites. The rate of kinase autophosphorylation is increased approximately 20-fold by acidic phospholipids independent of the presence of Ca2+ and diglycerides. We show in this paper that Ca(2+)-calmodulin inhibits phospholipid-stimulated autophosphorylation of myosin I heavy chain kinase and hence also inhibits the catalytic activity of unphosphorylated kinase in the presence of phospholipid. Ca(2+)-calmodulin does not inhibit kinase activity in the absence of phospholipid. Micromolar Ca(2+)-calmodulin also inhibits binding of myosin I heavy chain kinase to phospholipid vesicles and purified plasma membranes. Proteolytic removal of a 7-kDa NH2-terminal segment from the 97-kDa kinase prevents binding of both calmodulin and phospholipid; therefore, we propose that they bind to the same or overlapping sites. These data provide a mechanism by which Ca2+ could inhibit the actin-activated Mg(2+)-ATPase activity of the myosin I isozymes in vivo and thus regulate myosin I-dependent motile activities. PMID:1331103

  20. Stretching Actin Filaments within Cells Enhances their Affinity for the Myosin II Motor Domain

    PubMed Central

    Uyeda, Taro Q. P.; Iwadate, Yoshiaki; Umeki, Nobuhisa; Nagasaki, Akira; Yumura, Shigehiko

    2011-01-01

    To test the hypothesis that the myosin II motor domain (S1) preferentially binds to specific subsets of actin filaments in vivo, we expressed GFP-fused S1 with mutations that enhanced its affinity for actin in Dictyostelium cells. Consistent with the hypothesis, the GFP-S1 mutants were localized along specific portions of the cell cortex. Comparison with rhodamine-phalloidin staining in fixed cells demonstrated that the GFP-S1 probes preferentially bound to actin filaments in the rear cortex and cleavage furrows, where actin filaments are stretched by interaction with endogenous myosin II filaments. The GFP-S1 probes were similarly enriched in the cortex stretched passively by traction forces in the absence of myosin II or by external forces using a microcapillary. The preferential binding of GFP-S1 mutants to stretched actin filaments did not depend on cortexillin I or PTEN, two proteins previously implicated in the recruitment of myosin II filaments to stretched cortex. These results suggested that it is the stretching of the actin filaments itself that increases their affinity for the myosin II motor domain. In contrast, the GFP-fused myosin I motor domain did not localize to stretched actin filaments, which suggests different preferences of the motor domains for different structures of actin filaments play a role in distinct intracellular localizations of myosin I and II. We propose a scheme in which the stretching of actin filaments, the preferential binding of myosin II filaments to stretched actin filaments, and myosin II-dependent contraction form a positive feedback loop that contributes to the stabilization of cell polarity and to the responsiveness of the cells to external mechanical stimuli. PMID:22022566

  1. Actin-myosin network is required for proper assembly of influenza virus particles

    SciTech Connect

    Kumakura, Michiko; Kawaguchi, Atsushi Nagata, Kyosuke

    2015-02-15

    Actin filaments are known to play a central role in cellular dynamics. After polymerization of actin, various actin-crosslinking proteins including non-muscle myosin II facilitate the formation of spatially organized actin filament networks. The actin-myosin network is highly expanded beneath plasma membrane. The genome of influenza virus (vRNA) replicates in the cell nucleus. Then, newly synthesized vRNAs are nuclear-exported to the cytoplasm as ribonucleoprotein complexes (vRNPs), followed by transport to the beneath plasma membrane where virus particles assemble. Here, we found that, by inhibiting actin-myosin network formation, the virus titer tends to be reduced and HA viral spike protein is aggregated on the plasma membrane. These results indicate that the actin-myosin network plays an important role in the virus formation. - Highlights: • Actin-myosin network is important for the influenza virus production. • HA forms aggregations at the plasma membrane in the presence of blebbistatin. • M1 is recruited to the budding site through the actin-myosin network.

  2. Myosin VI small insert isoform maintains exocytosis by tethering secretory granules to the cortical actin

    PubMed Central

    Tomatis, Vanesa M.; Papadopulos, Andreas; Malintan, Nancy T.; Martin, Sally; Wallis, Tristan; Gormal, Rachel S.; Kendrick-Jones, John; Buss, Folma

    2013-01-01

    Before undergoing neuroexocytosis, secretory granules (SGs) are mobilized and tethered to the cortical actin network by an unknown mechanism. Using an SG pull-down assay and mass spectrometry, we found that myosin VI was recruited to SGs in a Ca2+-dependent manner. Interfering with myosin VI function in PC12 cells reduced the density of SGs near the plasma membrane without affecting their biogenesis. Myosin VI knockdown selectively impaired a late phase of exocytosis, consistent with a replenishment defect. This exocytic defect was selectively rescued by expression of the myosin VI small insert (SI) isoform, which efficiently tethered SGs to the cortical actin network. These myosin VI SI–specific effects were prevented by deletion of a c-Src kinase phosphorylation DYD motif, identified in silico. Myosin VI SI thus recruits SGs to the cortical actin network, potentially via c-Src phosphorylation, thereby maintaining an active pool of SGs near the plasma membrane. PMID:23382463

  3. Actin and myosin regulate cytoplasm stiffness in plant cells: a study using optical tweezers.

    PubMed

    van der Honing, Hannie S; de Ruijter, Norbert C A; Emons, Anne Mie C; Ketelaar, Tijs

    2010-01-01

    Here, we produced cytoplasmic protrusions with optical tweezers in mature BY-2 suspension cultured cells to study the parameters involved in the movement of actin filaments during changes in cytoplasmic organization and to determine whether stiffness is an actin-related property of plant cytoplasm. Optical tweezers were used to create cytoplasmic protrusions resembling cytoplasmic strands. Simultaneously, the behavior of the actin cytoskeleton was imaged. After actin filament depolymerization, less force was needed to create cytoplasmic protrusions. During treatment with the myosin ATPase inhibitor 2,3-butanedione monoxime, more trapping force was needed to create and maintain cytoplasmic protrusions. Thus, the presence of actin filaments and, even more so, the deactivation of a 2,3-butanedione monoxime-sensitive factor, probably myosin, stiffens the cytoplasm. During 2,3-butanedione monoxime treatment, none of the tweezer-formed protrusions contained filamentous actin, showing that a 2,3-butanedione monoxime-sensitive factor, probably myosin, is responsible for the movement of actin filaments, and implying that myosin serves as a static cross-linker of actin filaments when its motor function is inhibited. The presence of actin filaments does not delay the collapse of cytoplasmic protrusions after tweezer release. Myosin-based reorganization of the existing actin cytoskeleton could be the basis for new cytoplasmic strand formation, and thus the production of an organized cytoarchitecture.

  4. Septin 9 Exhibits Polymorphic Binding to F-Actin and Inhibits Myosin and Cofilin Activity.

    PubMed

    Smith, Clayton; Dolat, Lee; Angelis, Dimitrios; Forgacs, Eva; Spiliotis, Elias T; Galkin, Vitold E

    2015-10-01

    Septins are a highly conserved family of proteins in eukaryotes that is recognized as a novel component of the cytoskeleton. Septin 9 (SEPT9) interacts directly with actin filaments and functions as an actin stress fiber cross-linking protein that promotes the maturation of nascent focal adhesions and cell migration. However, the molecular details of how SEPT9 interacts with F-actin remain unknown. Here, we use electron microscopy and image analysis to show that SEPT9 binds to F-actin in a highly polymorphic fashion. We demonstrate that the basic domain (B-domain) of the N-terminal tail of SEPT9 is responsible for actin cross-linking, while the GTP-binding domain (G-domain) does not bundle F-actin. We show that the B-domain of SEPT9 binds to three sites on F-actin, and the two of these sites overlap with the binding regions of myosin and cofilin. SEPT9 inhibits actin-dependent ATPase activity of myosin and competes with the weakly bound state of myosin for binding to F-actin. At the same time, SEPT9 significantly reduces the extent of F-actin depolymerization by cofilin. Taken together, these data suggest that SEPT9 protects actin filaments from depolymerization by cofilin and myosin and indicate a mechanism by which SEPT9 could maintain the integrity of growing and contracting actin filaments.

  5. Possible roles of actin and myosin during anaphase chromosome movements in locust spermatocytes.

    PubMed

    Fabian, Lacramioara; Forer, Arthur

    2007-01-01

    We tested whether the mechanisms of chromosome movement during anaphase in locust (Locusta migratoria L.) spermatocytes might be similar to those described for crane-fly spermatocytes. Actin and myosin have been implicated in anaphase chromosome movements in crane-fly spermatocytes, as indicated by the effects of inhibitors and by the localisations of actin and myosin in spindles. In this study, we tested whether locust spermatocyte spindles also utilise actin and myosin, and whether actin is involved in microtubule flux. Living locust spermatocytes were treated with inhibitors of actin (latrunculin B and cytochalasin D), myosin (BDM), or myosin phosphorylation (Y-27632 and ML-7). We added drugs (individually) during anaphase. Actin inhibitors alter anaphase: chromosomes either completely stop moving, slow, or sometimes accelerate. The myosin inhibitor, BDM, also alters anaphase: in most cases, the chromosomes drastically slow or stop. ML-7, an inhibitor of MLCK, causes chromosomes to stop, slow, or sometimes accelerate, similar to actin inhibitors. Y-27632, an inhibitor of Rho-kinase, drastically slows or stops anaphase chromosome movements. The effects of the drugs on anaphase movement are reversible: most of the half-bivalents resumed movement at normal speed after these drugs were washed out. Actin and myosin were present in the spindles in locations consistent with their possible involvement in force production. Microtubule flux along kinetochore fibres is an actin-dependent process, since LatB completely removes or drastically reduces the gap in microtubule acetylation at the kinetochore. These results suggest that actin and myosin are involved in anaphase chromosome movements in locust spermatocytes. PMID:17922265

  6. Heavy chain of Acanthamoeba myosine IB is a fusion of myosin-like and non-myosin-like sequences

    SciTech Connect

    Jung, G.; Korn, E.D.; Hammer, J.A. III

    1987-10-01

    Acanthamoeba castellanii myosins IA and IB demonstrate the catalytic properties of a myosin and can support analogues of contractile and motile activity in vitro, but their single, low molecular weight heavy chains, roughly globular shapes, and inabilities to self-assemble into filaments make them structurally atypical myosins. The authors present the complete amino acid sequence of the 128-kDa myosin IB heavy chain, which they deduced from the nucleotide sequence of the gene and which reveals that the polypeptide is a fusion of myosin-like and non-myosin-like sequences. Specifically, the amino-terminal approx. 76 kDa of amino acid sequence is highly similar to the globular head sequences of conventional myosins. By contrast, the remaining approx. 51 kDa of sequence shows no similarity to any portion of conventional myosin sequences, contains regions that are rich in glycine, proline, and alanine residues, and lacks the distinctive sequence characteristics of an ..cap alpha..-helical, coiled-coil structure. They conclude, therefore, that the protein is composed of a myosin globular head fused not to the typical coiled-coil rod-like myosin tail structure but rather to an unusual carboxyl-terminal domain. These results support the conclusion that filamentous myosin is not required for force generation and provide a further perspective on the structural requirements for myosin function. Finally, they find a striking conservation of intron/exon structure between this gene and a vertebrate muscle myosin gene. They discuss this observation in relation to the evolutionary origin of the myosin IB gene and the antiquity of myosin gene intron/exon structure.

  7. Differences in structural dynamics of muscle and yeast actin accompany differences in functional interactions with myosin.

    PubMed

    Prochniewicz, E; Thomas, D D

    1999-11-01

    We have used spectroscopic probes ErIA and IAEDANS attached to Cys374 to compare the structural dynamics of yeast actin filaments with that of muscle actin, to understand the structural basis of the less productive interaction of yeast actin with myosin. Time-resolved phosphorescence anisotropy (TPA) of ErIA and steady-state fluorescence of IAEDANS were measured. TPA indicated more rapid rotational motion and more restricted angular amplitude in yeast actin. The fluorescence spectrum was less intense and more red-shifted in yeast actin, suggesting more exposure of the probe to solvent. These results indicate that the two actins differ substantially in the conformational dynamics of the C-terminal region. Binding of myosin S1 induced significantly different spectroscopic changes in TPA and fluorescence of muscle and yeast actin. As a result, the spectroscopic differences between the two actins were decreased by the addition of S1. These results suggest that yeast actin is less effective at activating myosin because of larger changes required in the structure of actin upon strong myosin binding. These results provide insight into the relationship between actomyosin dynamics and function, and they provide a useful framework for structure-function analysis of mutant yeast actin.

  8. Structured Post-IQ Domain Governs Selectivity of Myosin X for Fascin-Actin Bundles*

    PubMed Central

    Nagy, Stanislav; Rock, Ronald S.

    2010-01-01

    Without guidance cues, cytoskeletal motors would traffic components to the wrong destination with disastrous consequences for the cell. Recently, we identified a motor protein, myosin X, that identifies bundled actin filaments for transport. These bundles direct myosin X to a unique destination, the tips of cellular filopodia. Because the structural and kinetic features that drive bundle selection are unknown, we employed a domain-swapping approach with the nonselective myosin V to identify the selectivity module of myosin X. We found a surprising role of the myosin X tail region (post-IQ) in supporting long runs on bundles. Moreover, the myosin X head is adapted for initiating processive runs on bundles. We found that the tail is structured and biases the orientation of the two myosin X heads because a targeted insertion that introduces flexibility in the tail abolishes selectivity. Together, these results suggest how myosin motors may manage to read cellular addresses. PMID:20538587

  9. Single turnovers of fluorescent ATP bound to bipolar myosin filament during actin filaments sliding.

    PubMed

    Maruta, Takahiro; Kobatake, Takahiro; Okubo, Hiroyuki; Chaen, Shigeru

    2013-01-01

    The nucleotide turnover rates of bipolar myosin thick filament along which actin filament slides were measured by the displacement of prebound fluorescent ATP analog 2'(3')-O-[N-[2-[(Cy3)]amindo]ethyl] carbamoyl]-adenosine 5' triphosphate (Cy3-EDA-ATP) upon flash photolysis of caged ATP. The fluorescence of the thick filament where actin filament slides decayed with two exponential processes. The slower rate constant was the same as that without actin filament. Along bipolar myosin thick filament, actin filaments slide at a fast speed towards the central bare zone (forward), but more slowly away from the bare zone (backward). The displacement rate constant of fluorescent ATP from the myosin filament where actin filament moved forward was 5.0 s(-1), whereas the rate constant where the actin filament slid backward was 1.7 s(-1). These findings suggest that the slow ADP release rate is responsible for the slow backward sliding movement.

  10. Structural dynamics of actin during active interaction with myosin: different effects of weakly and strongly bound myosin heads.

    PubMed

    Prochniewicz, Ewa; Walseth, Timothy F; Thomas, David D

    2004-08-24

    We have used optical spectroscopy (transient phosphorescence anisotropy, TPA, and fluorescence resonance energy transfer, FRET) to detect the effects of weakly bound myosin S1 on actin during the actomyosin ATPase cycle. The changes in actin were reported by (a) a phosphorescent probe (ErIA) attached to Cys 374 and (b) a FRET donor-acceptor pair, IAEDANS attached to Cys 374 and a nucleotide analogue (TNPADP) in the nucleotide-binding cleft. Strong interactions were detected in the absence of ATP, and weak interactions were detected in the presence of ATP or its slowly hydrolyzed analogue ATP-gamma-S, under conditions where a significant fraction of weakly bound acto-S1 complex was present and the rate of nucleotide hydrolysis was low enough to enable steady-state measurements. The results show that actin in the weakly bound complex with S1 assumes a new structural state in which (a) the actin filament has microsecond rotational dynamics intermediate between that of free actin and the strongly bound complex and (b) S1-induced changes are not propagated along the actin filament, in contrast to the highly cooperative changes due to the strongly bound complex. We propose that the transition on the acto-myosin interface from weak to strong binding is accompanied by transitions in the structural dynamics of actin parallel to transitions in the dynamics of interacting myosin heads.

  11. Diffusion of myosin light chain kinase on actin: A mechanism to enhance myosin phosphorylation rates in smooth muscle.

    PubMed

    Hong, Feng; Brizendine, Richard K; Carter, Michael S; Alcala, Diego B; Brown, Avery E; Chattin, Amy M; Haldeman, Brian D; Walsh, Michael P; Facemyer, Kevin C; Baker, Josh E; Cremo, Christine R

    2015-10-01

    Smooth muscle myosin (SMM) light chain kinase (MLCK) phosphorylates SMM, thereby activating the ATPase activity required for muscle contraction. The abundance of active MLCK, which is tightly associated with the contractile apparatus, is low relative to that of SMM. SMM phosphorylation is rapid despite the low ratio of MLCK to SMM, raising the question of how one MLCK rapidly phosphorylates many SMM molecules. We used total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy to monitor single molecules of streptavidin-coated quantum dot-labeled MLCK interacting with purified actin, actin bundles, and stress fibers of smooth muscle cells. Surprisingly, MLCK and the N-terminal 75 residues of MLCK (N75) moved on actin bundles and stress fibers of smooth muscle cell cytoskeletons by a random one-dimensional (1-D) diffusion mechanism. Although diffusion of proteins along microtubules and oligonucleotides has been observed previously, this is the first characterization to our knowledge of a protein diffusing in a sustained manner along actin. By measuring the frequency of motion, we found that MLCK motion is permitted only if acto-myosin and MLCK-myosin interactions are weak. From these data, diffusion coefficients, and other kinetic and geometric considerations relating to the contractile apparatus, we suggest that 1-D diffusion of MLCK along actin (a) ensures that diffusion is not rate limiting for phosphorylation, (b) allows MLCK to locate to areas in which myosin is not yet phosphorylated, and (c) allows MLCK to avoid getting "stuck" on myosins that have already been phosphorylated. Diffusion of MLCK along actin filaments may be an important mechanism for enhancing the rate of SMM phosphorylation in smooth muscle.

  12. Diffusion of myosin light chain kinase on actin: A mechanism to enhance myosin phosphorylation rates in smooth muscle

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Feng; Brizendine, Richard K.; Carter, Michael S.; Alcala, Diego B.; Brown, Avery E.; Chattin, Amy M.; Haldeman, Brian D.; Walsh, Michael P.; Facemyer, Kevin C.; Baker, Josh E.

    2015-01-01

    Smooth muscle myosin (SMM) light chain kinase (MLCK) phosphorylates SMM, thereby activating the ATPase activity required for muscle contraction. The abundance of active MLCK, which is tightly associated with the contractile apparatus, is low relative to that of SMM. SMM phosphorylation is rapid despite the low ratio of MLCK to SMM, raising the question of how one MLCK rapidly phosphorylates many SMM molecules. We used total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy to monitor single molecules of streptavidin-coated quantum dot–labeled MLCK interacting with purified actin, actin bundles, and stress fibers of smooth muscle cells. Surprisingly, MLCK and the N-terminal 75 residues of MLCK (N75) moved on actin bundles and stress fibers of smooth muscle cell cytoskeletons by a random one-dimensional (1-D) diffusion mechanism. Although diffusion of proteins along microtubules and oligonucleotides has been observed previously, this is the first characterization to our knowledge of a protein diffusing in a sustained manner along actin. By measuring the frequency of motion, we found that MLCK motion is permitted only if acto–myosin and MLCK–myosin interactions are weak. From these data, diffusion coefficients, and other kinetic and geometric considerations relating to the contractile apparatus, we suggest that 1-D diffusion of MLCK along actin (a) ensures that diffusion is not rate limiting for phosphorylation, (b) allows MLCK to locate to areas in which myosin is not yet phosphorylated, and (c) allows MLCK to avoid getting “stuck” on myosins that have already been phosphorylated. Diffusion of MLCK along actin filaments may be an important mechanism for enhancing the rate of SMM phosphorylation in smooth muscle. PMID:26415568

  13. Myosin II regulates actin rearrangement-related structural synaptic plasticity during conditioned taste aversion memory extinction.

    PubMed

    Bi, Ai-Ling; Wang, Yue; Zhang, Shuang; Li, Bo-Qin; Sun, Zong-Peng; Bi, Hong-Sheng; Chen, Zhe-Yu

    2015-03-01

    Similar to memory formation, memory extinction is also a new learning process that requires synaptic plasticity. Actin rearrangement is fundamental for synaptic plasticity, however, whether actin rearrangement in the infralimbic cortex (IL) plays a role in memory extinction, as well as the mechanisms underlying it, remains unclear. Here, using a conditioned taste aversion (CTA) paradigm, we demonstrated increased synaptic density and actin rearrangement in the IL during the extinction of CTA. Targeted infusion of an actin rearrangement inhibitor, cytochalasin D, into the IL impaired memory extinction and de novo synapse formation. Notably, we also found increased myosin II phosphorylation in the IL during the extinction of CTA. Microinfusion of a specific inhibitor of the myosin II ATPase, blebbistatin (Blebb), into the IL impaired memory extinction as well as the related actin rearrangement and changes in synaptic density. Moreover, the extinction deficit and the reduction of synaptic density induced by Blebb could be rescued by the actin polymerization stabilizer jasplakinolide (Jasp), suggesting that myosin II acts via actin filament polymerization to stabilize synaptic plasticity during the extinction of CTA. Taken together, we conclude that myosin II may regulate the plasticity of actin-related synaptic structure during memory extinction. Our studies provide a molecular mechanism for understanding the plasticity of actin rearrangement-associated synaptic structure during memory extinction.

  14. Magnetic manipulation of actin orientation, polymerization, and gliding on myosin using superparamagnetic iron oxide particles.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yun; Guzik, Stephanie; Sumner, James P; Moreland, John; Koretsky, Alan P

    2011-02-11

    The actin cytoskeleton controls cell shape, motility, as well as intracellular molecular trafficking. The ability to remotely manipulate actin is therefore highly desirable as a tool to probe and manipulate biological processes at the molecular level. We demonstrate actin manipulation by labeling actin filaments with superparamagnetic iron oxide particles (IOPs) and applying a uniform magnetic field to affect actin orientation, polymerization and gliding on myosin. We show for the first time magnetic manipulation of magnetizable actin filaments at the molecular level while gliding on a bed of myosin molecules and during polymerization. A model for the magnetic alignment and guiding mechanism is proposed based on the torque from the induced molecular anisotropy due to interactions between neighboring IOPs distributed along magnetically labeled actin molecules.

  15. Molt cycle-associated changes in calcium-dependent proteinase activity that degrades actin and myosin in crustacean muscle

    SciTech Connect

    Mykles, D.L.; Skinner, D.M.

    1982-01-01

    The role of calcium-dependent proteinase (CDP) in the proecdysial atrophy of crustacean claw muscle has been investigated. During atrophy the molar ratio of actin to myosin heavy chain decreased 31%, confirming earlier ultrastructural observations that the ratio of thin:thick myofilaments declined from 9:1 to 6:1 (D.L. Mykles and D.M. Skinner, 1981, J. Ultrastruct. Res. 75, 314 to 325). The release of TCA-soluble material in muscle homogenates at neutral pH was stimulated by Ca/sup 2 +/ and completely inhibited by EGTA. The specific degradation of the major myofibrillar proteins (actin, myosin heavy and light chains, paramyosin, tropomyosin, troponin-T, and troponin-I) was demonstrated by SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Proteolytic activity was more than twofold greater in proecdysial muscle homogenates. Degradation of myofibrillar proteins was inhibited by EGTA, and the two inhibitors of crysteine proteinases, leupeptin, and antipain, but not pepstatin, an inhibitor of aspartic proteinases. Unlike CDPs from vertebrate muscle, the CDP(s) in crab claw muscle degrades actin and myosin in addition to other myofibrillar proteins.

  16. High-resolution helix orientation in actin-bound myosin determined with a bifunctional spin label.

    PubMed

    Binder, Benjamin P; Cornea, Sinziana; Thompson, Andrew R; Moen, Rebecca J; Thomas, David D

    2015-06-30

    Using electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) of a bifunctional spin label (BSL) bound stereospecifically to Dictyostelium myosin II, we determined with high resolution the orientation of individual structural elements in the catalytic domain while myosin is in complex with actin. BSL was attached to a pair of engineered cysteine side chains four residues apart on known α-helical segments, within a construct of the myosin catalytic domain that lacks other reactive cysteines. EPR spectra of BSL-myosin bound to actin in oriented muscle fibers showed sharp three-line spectra, indicating a well-defined orientation relative to the actin filament axis. Spectral analysis indicated that orientation of the spin label can be determined within <2.1° accuracy, and comparison with existing structural data in the absence of nucleotide indicates that helix orientation can also be determined with <4.2° accuracy. We used this approach to examine the crucial ADP release step in myosin's catalytic cycle and detected reversible rotations of two helices in actin-bound myosin in response to ADP binding and dissociation. One of these rotations has not been observed in myosin-only crystal structures. PMID:26056276

  17. Two-headed binding of a processive myosin to F-actin.

    PubMed

    Walker, M L; Burgess, S A; Sellers, J R; Wang, F; Hammer, J A; Trinick, J; Knight, P J

    2000-06-15

    Myosins are motor proteins in cells. They move along actin by changing shape after making stereospecific interactions with the actin subunits. As these are arranged helically, a succession of steps will follow a helical path. However, if the myosin heads are long enough to span the actin helical repeat (approximately 36 nm), linear motion is possible. Muscle myosin (myosin II) heads are about 16 nm long, which is insufficient to span the repeat. Myosin V, however, has heads of about 31 nm that could span 36 nm and thus allow single two-headed molecules to transport cargo by walking straight. Here we use electron microscopy to show that while working, myosin V spans the helical repeat. The heads are mostly 13 actin subunits apart, with values of 11 or 15 also found. Typically the structure is polar and one head is curved, the other straighter. Single particle processing reveals the polarity of the underlying actin filament, showing that the curved head is the leading one. The shape of the leading head may correspond to the beginning of the working stroke of the motor. We also observe molecules attached by one head in this conformation. PMID:10866203

  18. Myosin Va bound to phagosomes binds to F-actin and delays microtubule-dependent motility.

    PubMed

    Al-Haddad, A; Shonn, M A; Redlich, B; Blocker, A; Burkhardt, J K; Yu, H; Hammer, J A; Weiss, D G; Steffen, W; Griffiths, G; Kuznetsov, S A

    2001-09-01

    We established a light microscopy-based assay that reconstitutes the binding of phagosomes purified from mouse macrophages to preassembled F-actin in vitro. Both endogenous myosin Va from mouse macrophages and exogenous myosin Va from chicken brain stimulated the phagosome-F-actin interaction. Myosin Va association with phagosomes correlated with their ability to bind F-actin in an ATP-regulated manner and antibodies to myosin Va specifically blocked the ATP-sensitive phagosome binding to F-actin. The uptake and retrograde transport of phagosomes from the periphery to the center of cells in bone marrow macrophages was observed in both normal mice and mice homozygous for the dilute-lethal spontaneous mutation (myosin Va null). However, in dilute-lethal macrophages the accumulation of phagosomes in the perinuclear region occurred twofold faster than in normal macrophages. Motion analysis revealed saltatory phagosome movement with temporarily reversed direction in normal macrophages, whereas almost no reversals in direction were observed in dilute-lethal macrophages. These observations demonstrate that myosin Va mediates phagosome binding to F-actin, resulting in a delay in microtubule-dependent retrograde phagosome movement toward the cell center. We propose an "antagonistic/cooperative mechanism" to explain the saltatory phagosome movement toward the cell center in normal macrophages. PMID:11553713

  19. Yeast actin filaments display ATP-dependent sliding movement over surfaces coated with rabbit muscle myosin.

    PubMed Central

    Kron, S J; Drubin, D G; Botstein, D; Spudich, J A

    1992-01-01

    The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been used to study the function of components of the actin cytoskeleton in vivo, mainly because it is easy to derive and characterize mutations affecting these proteins. In contrast, biochemical studies have generally used proteins derived from higher eukaryotes. We have devised a simple procedure to prepare, in high yield, homogeneous native actin from wild-type and act1 mutant yeast. Using intensified video fluorescence microscopy, we found that actin filaments polymerized from these preparations exhibit ATP-dependent sliding movement over surfaces coated with rabbit skeletal muscle myosin. The rates of sliding movement of the wild-type and mutant yeast actins were each about half that of rabbit skeletal muscle actin under similar conditions. We conclude that over the large evolutionary distance between yeast and mammals there has been significant conservation of actin function, specifically the ability to be moved by interaction with myosin. Images PMID:1533933

  20. Myosin binding surface on actin probed by hydroxyl radical footprinting and site-directed labels.

    PubMed

    Oztug Durer, Zeynep A; Kamal, J K Amisha; Benchaar, Sabrina; Chance, Mark R; Reisler, Emil

    2011-11-25

    Actin and myosin are the two main proteins required for cell motility and muscle contraction. The structure of their strongly bound complex-rigor state-is a key for delineating the functional mechanism of actomyosin motor. Current knowledge of that complex is based on models obtained from the docking of known atomic structures of actin and myosin subfragment 1 (S1; the head and neck region of myosin) into low-resolution electron microscopy electron density maps, which precludes atomic- or side-chain-level information. Here, we use radiolytic protein footprinting for global mapping of sites across the actin molecules that are impacted directly or allosterically by myosin binding to actin filaments. Fluorescence and electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopies and cysteine actin mutants are used for independent, residue-specific probing of S1 effects on two structural elements of actin. We identify actin residue candidates involved in S1 binding and provide experimental evidence to discriminate between the regions of hydrophobic and electrostatic interactions. Focusing on the role of the DNase I binding loop (D-loop) and the W-loop residues of actin in their interactions with S1, we found that the emission properties of acrylodan and the mobility of electron paramagnetic resonance spin labels attached to cysteine mutants of these residues change strongly and in a residue-specific manner upon S1 binding, consistent with the recently proposed direct contacts of these loops with S1. As documented in this study, the direct and indirect changes on actin induced by myosin are more extensive than known until now and attest to the importance of actin dynamics to actomyosin function. PMID:21986200

  1. Electron Tomography of Cryofixed, Isometrically Contracting Insect Flight Muscle Reveals Novel Actin-Myosin Interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Shenping; Liu, Jun; Reedy, Mary C.; Tregear, Richard T.; Winkler, Hanspeter; Franzini-Armstrong, Clara; Sasaki, Hiroyuki; Lucaveche, Carmen; Goldman, Yale E.; Reedy, Michael K.; Taylor, Kenneth A.

    2010-10-22

    Isometric muscle contraction, where force is generated without muscle shortening, is a molecular traffic jam in which the number of actin-attached motors is maximized and all states of motor action are trapped with consequently high heterogeneity. This heterogeneity is a major limitation to deciphering myosin conformational changes in situ. We used multivariate data analysis to group repeat segments in electron tomograms of isometrically contracting insect flight muscle, mechanically monitored, rapidly frozen, freeze substituted, and thin sectioned. Improved resolution reveals the helical arrangement of F-actin subunits in the thin filament enabling an atomic model to be built into the thin filament density independent of the myosin. Actin-myosin attachments can now be assigned as weak or strong by their motor domain orientation relative to actin. Myosin attachments were quantified everywhere along the thin filament including troponin. Strong binding myosin attachments are found on only four F-actin subunits, the 'target zone', situated exactly midway between successive troponin complexes. They show an axial lever arm range of 77{sup o}/12.9 nm. The lever arm azimuthal range of strong binding attachments has a highly skewed, 127{sup o} range compared with X-ray crystallographic structures. Two types of weak actin attachments are described. One type, found exclusively in the target zone, appears to represent pre-working-stroke intermediates. The other, which contacts tropomyosin rather than actin, is positioned M-ward of the target zone, i.e. the position toward which thin filaments slide during shortening. We present a model for the weak to strong transition in the myosin ATPase cycle that incorporates azimuthal movements of the motor domain on actin. Stress/strain in the S2 domain may explain azimuthal lever arm changes in the strong binding attachments. The results support previous conclusions that the weak attachments preceding force generation are very

  2. Proteolytic cleavage of actin within the DNase-I-binding loop changes the conformation of F-actin and its sensitivity to myosin binding.

    PubMed

    Borovikov, Y S; Moraczewska, J; Khoroshev, M I; Strzelecka-Gołaszewska, H

    2000-03-16

    Effects of subtilisin cleavage of actin between residues 47 and 48 on the conformation of F-actin and on its changes occurring upon binding of myosin subfragment-1 (S1) were investigated by measuring polarized fluorescence from rhodamine-phalloidin- or 1, 5-IAEDANS-labeled actin filaments reconstructed from intact or subtilisin-cleaved actin in myosin-free muscle fibers (ghost fibers). In separate experiments, polarized fluorescence from 1, 5-IAEDANS-labeled S1 bound to non-labeled actin filaments in ghost fibers was measured. The measurements revealed differences between the filaments of cleaved and intact actin in the orientation of rhodamine probe on the rhodamine-phalloidin-labeled filaments, orientation and mobility of the C-terminus of actin, filament flexibility, and orientation and mobility of the myosin heads bound to F-actin. The changes in the filament flexibility and orientation of the actin-bound fluorophores produced by S1 binding to actin in the absence of ATP were substantially diminished by subtilisin cleavage of actin. The results suggest that loop 38-52 plays an important role, not only in maintaining the F-actin structure, but also in the conformational transitions in actin accompanying the strong binding of the myosin heads that may be essential for the generation of force and movement during actin-myosin interaction.

  3. Redox-sensitive residue in the actin-binding interface of myosin.

    PubMed

    Moen, Rebecca J; Cornea, Sinziana; Oseid, Daniel E; Binder, Benjamin P; Klein, Jennifer C; Thomas, David D

    2014-10-24

    We have examined the chemical and functional reversibility of oxidative modification in myosin. Redox regulation has emerged as a crucial modulator of protein function, with particular relevance to aging. We previously identified a single methionine residue in Dictyostelium discoideum (Dicty) myosin II (M394, near the myosin cardiomyopathy loop in the actin-binding interface) that is functionally sensitive to oxidation. We now show that oxidation of M394 is reversible by methionine sulfoxide reductase (Msr), restoring actin-activated ATPase activity. Sequence alignment reveals that M394 of Dicty myosin II is a cysteine residue in all human isoforms of skeletal and cardiac myosin. Using Dicty myosin II as a model for site-specific redox sensitivity of this Cys residue, the M394C mutant can be glutathionylated in vitro, resulting in reversible inhibition of actin-activated ATPase activity, with effects similar to those of methionine oxidation at this site. This work illustrates the potential for myosin to function as a redox sensor in both non-muscle and muscle cells, modulating motility/contractility in response to oxidative stress. PMID:25264102

  4. Redox-sensitive residue in the actin-binding interface of myosin

    PubMed Central

    Moen, Rebecca J.; Cornea, Sinziana; Oseid, Daniel E.; Binder, Benjamin P.; Klein, Jennifer C.; Thomas, David D.

    2014-01-01

    We have examined the chemical and functional reversibility of oxidative modification in myosin. Redox regulation has emerged as a crucial modulator of protein function, with particular relevance to aging. We previously identified a single methionine residue in Dictyostelium discoideum (Dicty) myosin II (M394, near the myosin cardiomyopathy loop in the actin-binding interface) that is functionally sensitive to oxidation. We now show that oxidation of M394 is reversible by methionine sulfoxide reductase (Msr), restoring actin-activated ATPase activity. Sequence alignment reveals that M394 of Dicty myosin II is a cysteine residue in all human isoforms of skeletal and cardiac myosin. Using Dicty myosin II as a model for site-specific redox sensitivity of this Cys residue, the M394C mutant can be glutathionylated in vitro, resulting in reversible inhibition of actin-activated ATPase activity, with effects similar to those of methionine oxidation at this site. This work illustrates the potential for myosin to function as a redox sensor in both non-muscle and muscle cells, modulating motility/contractility in response to oxidative stress. PMID:25264102

  5. Flexibility of myosin attachment to surfaces influences F-actin motion.

    PubMed Central

    Winkelmann, D A; Bourdieu, L; Ott, A; Kinose, F; Libchaber, A

    1995-01-01

    We have analyzed the dependence of actin filament sliding movement on the mode of myosin attachment to surfaces. Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) that bind to three distinct sites were used to tether myosin to nitrocellulose-coated glass. One antibody reacts with an epitope on the regulatory light chain (LC2) located at the head-rod junction. The other two react with sites in the rod domain, one in the S2 region near the S2-LMM hinge, and the other at the C terminus of the myosin rod. This method of attachment provides a means of controlling the flexibility and density of myosin on the surface. Fast skeletal muscle myosin monomers were bound to the surfaces through the specific interaction with these mAbs, and the sliding movement of fluorescently labeled actin filaments was analyzed by video microscopy. Each of these antibodies produced stable myosin-coated surfaces that supported uniform motion of actin over the course of several hours. Attachment of myosin through the anti-S2 and anti-LMM mAbs yielded significantly higher velocities (10 microns/s at 30 degrees C) than attachment through anti-LC2 (4-5 microns/s at 30 degrees C). For each antibody, we observed a characteristic value of the myosin density for the onset of F-actin motion and a second critical density for velocity saturation. The specific mode of attachment influences the velocity of actin filaments and the characteristic surface density needed to support movement. Images FIGURE 1 FIGURE 4 FIGURE 8 PMID:7544167

  6. Flexibility of myosin attachment to surfaces influences F-actin motion.

    PubMed

    Winkelmann, D A; Bourdieu, L; Ott, A; Kinose, F; Libchaber, A

    1995-06-01

    We have analyzed the dependence of actin filament sliding movement on the mode of myosin attachment to surfaces. Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) that bind to three distinct sites were used to tether myosin to nitrocellulose-coated glass. One antibody reacts with an epitope on the regulatory light chain (LC2) located at the head-rod junction. The other two react with sites in the rod domain, one in the S2 region near the S2-LMM hinge, and the other at the C terminus of the myosin rod. This method of attachment provides a means of controlling the flexibility and density of myosin on the surface. Fast skeletal muscle myosin monomers were bound to the surfaces through the specific interaction with these mAbs, and the sliding movement of fluorescently labeled actin filaments was analyzed by video microscopy. Each of these antibodies produced stable myosin-coated surfaces that supported uniform motion of actin over the course of several hours. Attachment of myosin through the anti-S2 and anti-LMM mAbs yielded significantly higher velocities (10 microns/s at 30 degrees C) than attachment through anti-LC2 (4-5 microns/s at 30 degrees C). For each antibody, we observed a characteristic value of the myosin density for the onset of F-actin motion and a second critical density for velocity saturation. The specific mode of attachment influences the velocity of actin filaments and the characteristic surface density needed to support movement.

  7. Coordinated recruitment of Spir actin nucleators and myosin V motors to Rab11 vesicle membranes

    PubMed Central

    Pylypenko, Olena; Welz, Tobias; Tittel, Janine; Kollmar, Martin; Chardon, Florian; Malherbe, Gilles; Weiss, Sabine; Michel, Carina Ida Luise; Samol-Wolf, Annette; Grasskamp, Andreas Till; Hume, Alistair; Goud, Bruno; Baron, Bruno; England, Patrick; Titus, Margaret A; Schwille, Petra; Weidemann, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    There is growing evidence for a coupling of actin assembly and myosin motor activity in cells. However, mechanisms for recruitment of actin nucleators and motors on specific membrane compartments remain unclear. Here we report how Spir actin nucleators and myosin V motors coordinate their specific membrane recruitment. The myosin V globular tail domain (MyoV-GTD) interacts directly with an evolutionarily conserved Spir sequence motif. We determined crystal structures of MyoVa-GTD bound either to the Spir-2 motif or to Rab11 and show that a Spir-2:MyoVa:Rab11 complex can form. The ternary complex architecture explains how Rab11 vesicles support coordinated F-actin nucleation and myosin force generation for vesicle transport and tethering. New insights are also provided into how myosin activation can be coupled with the generation of actin tracks. Since MyoV binds several Rab GTPases, synchronized nucleator and motor targeting could provide a common mechanism to control force generation and motility in different cellular processes. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.17523.001 PMID:27623148

  8. Coordinated recruitment of Spir actin nucleators and myosin V motors to Rab11 vesicle membranes.

    PubMed

    Pylypenko, Olena; Welz, Tobias; Tittel, Janine; Kollmar, Martin; Chardon, Florian; Malherbe, Gilles; Weiss, Sabine; Michel, Carina Ida Luise; Samol-Wolf, Annette; Grasskamp, Andreas Till; Hume, Alistair; Goud, Bruno; Baron, Bruno; England, Patrick; Titus, Margaret A; Schwille, Petra; Weidemann, Thomas; Houdusse, Anne; Kerkhoff, Eugen

    2016-01-01

    There is growing evidence for a coupling of actin assembly and myosin motor activity in cells. However, mechanisms for recruitment of actin nucleators and motors on specific membrane compartments remain unclear. Here we report how Spir actin nucleators and myosin V motors coordinate their specific membrane recruitment. The myosin V globular tail domain (MyoV-GTD) interacts directly with an evolutionarily conserved Spir sequence motif. We determined crystal structures of MyoVa-GTD bound either to the Spir-2 motif or to Rab11 and show that a Spir-2:MyoVa:Rab11 complex can form. The ternary complex architecture explains how Rab11 vesicles support coordinated F-actin nucleation and myosin force generation for vesicle transport and tethering. New insights are also provided into how myosin activation can be coupled with the generation of actin tracks. Since MyoV binds several Rab GTPases, synchronized nucleator and motor targeting could provide a common mechanism to control force generation and motility in different cellular processes. PMID:27623148

  9. Myosin VI deafness mutation prevents the initiation of processive runs on actin.

    PubMed

    Pylypenko, Olena; Song, Lin; Shima, Ai; Yang, Zhaohui; Houdusse, Anne M; Sweeney, H Lee

    2015-03-17

    Mutations in the reverse-direction myosin, myosin VI, are associated with deafness in humans and mice. A myosin VI deafness mutation, D179Y, which is in the transducer of the motor, uncoupled the release of the ATP hydrolysis product, inorganic phosphate (Pi), from dependency on actin binding and destroyed the ability of single dimeric molecules to move processively on actin filaments. We observed that processive movement is rescued if ATP is added to the mutant dimer following binding of both heads to actin in the absence of ATP, demonstrating that the mutation selectively destroys the initiation of processive runs at physiological ATP levels. A drug (omecamtiv) that accelerates the actin-activated activity of cardiac myosin was able to rescue processivity of the D179Y mutant dimers at physiological ATP concentrations by slowing the actin-independent release of Pi. Thus, it may be possible to create myosin VI-specific drugs that rescue the function of deafness-causing mutations.

  10. The Lever Arm Effects a Mechanical Asymmetry of the Myosin-V-Actin Bond

    PubMed Central

    Gebhardt, J. Christof M.; Ökten, Zeynep; Rief, Matthias

    2010-01-01

    Myosin-V is a two-headed molecular motor taking multiple ATP-dependent steps toward the plus end (forward) of actin filaments. At high mechanical loads, the motor processively steps toward the minus end (backward) even in the absence of ATP, whereas analogous forward steps cannot be induced. The detailed mechanism underlying this mechanical asymmetry is not known. We investigate the effect of force on individual single headed myosin-V constructs bound to actin in the absence of ATP. If pulled forward, the myosin-V head dissociates at forces twice as high than if pulled backward. Moreover, backward but not forward distances to the unbinding barrier are dependent on the lever arm length. This asymmetry of unbinding force distributions in a single headed myosin forms the basis of the two-headed asymmetry. Under load, the lever arm functions as a true lever in a mechanical sense. PMID:20338849

  11. Cleavage of human and mouse cytoskeletal and sarcomeric proteins by human immunodeficiency virus type 1 protease. Actin, desmin, myosin, and tropomyosin.

    PubMed Central

    Shoeman, R. L.; Sachse, C.; Höner, B.; Mothes, E.; Kaufmann, M.; Traub, P.

    1993-01-01

    HeLa cell actin was cleaved by human immunodeficiency virus type 1 protease when in its soluble, globular form (G-actin). No cleavage of the polymerized, filamentous form of actin (F-actin) was observed when examined by denaturing gel electrophoresis; however, electron microscopy revealed a low level of cleavage of F-actin. Immunoblotting of mouse skeletal and human pectoral muscle myofibrils treated in vitro with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 protease showed that myosin heavy chain, desmin, tropomyosin, and a fraction of the actin were all cleaved. Electron microscopy of these myofibrils demonstrated changes consistent with cleavage of these proteins: Z-lines were rapidly lost, the length of the A bands was shortened, and the thick filaments (myosin filaments) were often laterally frayed such that the structures disintegrated. Nonmuscle myosin heavy chains were also cleaved by this enzyme in vitro. These data demonstrate that this protease can cause alterations in muscle cell ultrastructure in vitro that may be of clinical relevance in infected individuals. Images Figure 1 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:8424456

  12. [Effect of myosin alkali light chains on myosin subfragment 1 interaction with actin in solution and in ghost muscle fiber].

    PubMed

    Levistkiĭ, D I; Borovikov, Iu S; Nikolaeva, O P; Golitsyna, N L; Poglazov, B F

    1990-09-01

    At low ionic strength (7-25 mM) Mg2(+)-ATPase of myosin subfragment 1 (S1) isoforms containing alkali light chain A1 [S1(A1)] is activated by actin 1.5-2.5 times as strongly as Mg2(+)-ATPase of S1 isoforms containing alkali light chain A2[S1(A2)]. Data from analytical ultracentrifugation suggest that at low ionic strength in the absence of ATP in solution S1(A1) displays a higher affinity for F-actin than S1(A2). Such a higher affinity of S1(A1) for F-actin was also demonstrated by experiments, in which the interaction of S1 isoforms fluorescently labeled by 1.5-IAEDANS with F-actin of ghost fibers (single glycerinated muscle fibers containing F-actin but devoid of myosin) was studied. Using polarization microfluorimetry, it was shown that the interaction of both S1 isoforms with ghost fiber F-actin induces similar changes in the parameters of polarized tryptophan fluorescence. At the same time the mobility of the fluorescent probe, 1.5-IAEDANS, specifically attached to the SH-group of Cys-374 in the C-terminal region of action is markedly decreased by S1(A1) and is only slightly affected by S1(A2). The data obtained suggest that S1(A1) and S1(A2) interact with the C-terminal region of the actin molecule in different ways, i.e. S1(A1) is attached more firmly than S1(A2). This may be due to the existence of contacts between the alkali light chain of A1 of S1(A1) and the C-terminal region of actin as well as to the absence of such contacts in the case of S1(A2).

  13. Actin and myosin inhibitors block elongation of kinetochore fibre stubs in metaphase crane-fly spermatocytes.

    PubMed

    Forer, A; Spurck, T; Pickett-Heaps, J D

    2007-01-01

    We used an ultraviolet microbeam to cut individual kinetochore spindle fibres in metaphase crane-fly spermatocytes. We then followed the growth of the "kinetochore stubs", the remnants of kinetochore fibres that remain attached to kinetochores. Kinetochore stubs elongate with constant velocity by adding tubulin subunits at the kinetochore, and thus elongation is related to tubulin flux in the kinetochore microtubules. Stub elongation was blocked by cytochalasin D and latrunculin A, actin inhibitors, and by butanedione monoxime, a myosin inhibitor. We conclude that actin and myosin are involved in generating elongation and thus in producing tubulin flux in kinetochore microtubules. We suggest that actin and myosin act in concert with a spindle matrix to propel kinetochore fibres poleward, thereby causing stub elongation and generating anaphase chromosome movement in nonirradiated cells. PMID:18094930

  14. Statistical Thermodynamics for Actin-Myosin Binding: The Crucial Importance of Hydration Effects.

    PubMed

    Oshima, Hiraku; Hayashi, Tomohiko; Kinoshita, Masahiro

    2016-06-01

    Actomyosin is an important molecular motor, and the binding of actin and myosin is an essential research target in biophysics. Nevertheless, the physical factors driving or opposing the binding are still unclear. Here, we investigate the role of water in actin-myosin binding using the most reliable statistical-mechanical method currently available for assessing biomolecules immersed in water. This method is characterized as follows: water is treated not as a dielectric continuum but as an ensemble of molecules; the polyatomic structures of proteins are taken into consideration; and the binding free energy is decomposed into physically insightful entropic and energetic components by accounting for the hydration effect to its full extent. We find that the actin-myosin binding brings large gains of electrostatic and Lennard-Jones attractive interactions. However, these gains are accompanied by even larger losses of actin-water and myosin-water electrostatic and LJ attractive interactions. Although roughly half of the energy increase due to the losses is cancelled out by the energy decrease arising from structural reorganization of the water released upon binding, the remaining energy increase is still larger than the energy decrease brought by the gains mentioned above. Hence, the net change in system energy is positive, which opposes binding. Importantly, the binding is driven by a large gain of configurational entropy of water, which surpasses the positive change in system energy and the conformational entropy loss occurring for actin and myosin. The principal physical origin of the large water-entropy gain is as follows: the actin-myosin interface is closely packed with the achievement of high shape complementarity on the atomic level, leading to a large increase in the total volume available to the translational displacement of water molecules in the system and a resultant reduction of water crowding (i.e., entropic correlations among water molecules). PMID

  15. Electric field modulation of the motility of actin filaments on myosin-functionalised surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramsey, L. C.; Aveyard, J.; van Zalinge, H.; Persson, M.; Mânsson, A.; Nicolau, D. V.

    2013-02-01

    We investigated the difference in electrically guided acto-myosin motility on two surfaces. Rabbit skeletal muscle heavy meromyosin (HMM) was absorbed onto surfaces coated with Nitrocellulose (NC) and Poly(butyl methacrylate) (PBMA). A modified in vitro motility assay with sealed chambers for the insertion of electrodes allowed an electrical field to be applied across the flow cell. On all surfaces a small increase in velocity and general guidance of the actin filaments towards the positive electrode is seen at field strengths in the range of ~3000 - 4000Vm-1. A large increase in velocity was observed at ~5000Vm-1 and a significant change in the velocity of the actin filaments present in field strengths higher than this. NC supported the highest percentage of motile filaments and at a field of 8000Vm-1 reached ~66%. PBMA however supported the least percentage of motile filaments and irregular motility was observed even at higher fields where guidance was expected to be strong. The change in velocity in the range of fields tested varied significantly on the surfaces with NC displaying a 46% increase from 0 to 8000Vm-1 whereas on PBMA this value was just 37%.

  16. Switch II mutants reveal coupling between the nucleotide- and actin-binding regions in myosin V.

    PubMed

    Trivedi, Darshan V; David, Charles; Jacobs, Donald J; Yengo, Christopher M

    2012-06-01

    Conserved active-site elements in myosins and other P-loop NTPases play critical roles in nucleotide binding and hydrolysis; however, the mechanisms of allosteric communication among these mechanoenzymes remain unresolved. In this work we introduced the E442A mutation, which abrogates a salt-bridge between switch I and switch II, and the G440A mutation, which abolishes a main-chain hydrogen bond associated with the interaction of switch II with the γ phosphate of ATP, into myosin V. We used fluorescence resonance energy transfer between mant-labeled nucleotides or IAEDANS-labeled actin and FlAsH-labeled myosin V to examine the conformation of the nucleotide- and actin-binding regions, respectively. We demonstrate that in the absence of actin, both the G440A and E442A mutants bind ATP with similar affinity and result in only minor alterations in the conformation of the nucleotide-binding pocket (NBP). In the presence of ADP and actin, both switch II mutants disrupt the formation of a closed NBP actomyosin.ADP state. The G440A mutant also prevents ATP-induced opening of the actin-binding cleft. Our results indicate that the switch II region is critical for stabilizing the closed NBP conformation in the presence of actin, and is essential for communication between the active site and actin-binding region.

  17. Myosin-10 and actin filaments are essential for mitotic spindle function

    PubMed Central

    Woolner, Sarah; O'Brien, Lori L.; Wiese, Christiane; Bement, William M.

    2008-01-01

    Mitotic spindles are microtubule-based structures responsible for chromosome partitioning during cell division. Although the roles of microtubules and microtubule-based motors in mitotic spindles are well established, whether or not actin filaments (F-actin) and F-actin–based motors (myosins) are required components of mitotic spindles has long been controversial. Based on the demonstration that myosin-10 (Myo10) is important for assembly of meiotic spindles, we assessed the role of this unconventional myosin, as well as F-actin, in mitotic spindles. We find that Myo10 localizes to mitotic spindle poles and is essential for proper spindle anchoring, normal spindle length, spindle pole integrity, and progression through metaphase. Furthermore, we show that F-actin localizes to mitotic spindles in dynamic cables that surround the spindle and extend between the spindle and the cortex. Remarkably, although proper anchoring depends on both F-actin and Myo10, the requirement for Myo10 in spindle pole integrity is F-actin independent, whereas F-actin and Myo10 actually play antagonistic roles in maintenance of spindle length. PMID:18606852

  18. Switch II Mutants Reveal Coupling between the Nucleotide- and Actin-Binding Regions in Myosin V

    PubMed Central

    Trivedi, Darshan V.; David, Charles; Jacobs, Donald J.; Yengo, Christopher M.

    2012-01-01

    Conserved active-site elements in myosins and other P-loop NTPases play critical roles in nucleotide binding and hydrolysis; however, the mechanisms of allosteric communication among these mechanoenzymes remain unresolved. In this work we introduced the E442A mutation, which abrogates a salt-bridge between switch I and switch II, and the G440A mutation, which abolishes a main-chain hydrogen bond associated with the interaction of switch II with the γ phosphate of ATP, into myosin V. We used fluorescence resonance energy transfer between mant-labeled nucleotides or IAEDANS-labeled actin and FlAsH-labeled myosin V to examine the conformation of the nucleotide- and actin-binding regions, respectively. We demonstrate that in the absence of actin, both the G440A and E442A mutants bind ATP with similar affinity and result in only minor alterations in the conformation of the nucleotide-binding pocket (NBP). In the presence of ADP and actin, both switch II mutants disrupt the formation of a closed NBP actomyosin.ADP state. The G440A mutant also prevents ATP-induced opening of the actin-binding cleft. Our results indicate that the switch II region is critical for stabilizing the closed NBP conformation in the presence of actin, and is essential for communication between the active site and actin-binding region. PMID:22713570

  19. Myosin-induced volume increase of the hyper-mobile water surrounding actin filaments.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Makoto; Kabir, Syed Rashel; Siddique, Md Shahjahan Parvez; Nazia, Umme Salma; Miyazaki, Takashi; Kodama, Takao

    2004-09-10

    Microwave dielectric spectroscopy can measure the rotational mobility of water molecules that hydrate proteins and the hydration-shell volume. Using this technique, we have recently shown that apart from typical hydrating water molecules with lowered mobility there are other water molecules around the actin filaments (F-actin) which have a much higher mobility than that of bulk water [Biophys. J. 85 (2003) 3154]. We report here that the volume of this water component (hyper-mobile water) markedly increases without significant change of the volume of the ordinary hydration shell when the myosin motor-domain (S1, myosin subfragment-1) binds to F-actin. No hyper-mobile component was found in the hydration shell of S1 itself. The present results strongly suggest that the solvent space around S1 bound to F-actin is diffusionally asymmetric, which supports our model of force generation by actomyosin proposed previously [op. cit.]. PMID:15313212

  20. Studies on the organization and localization of actin and myosin in neurons

    PubMed Central

    1979-01-01

    The organization of actin in mouse neuroblastoma and chicken dorsal root ganglion (DRG) nerve cells was investigated by means of a variety of electron microscope techniques. Microspikes of neuroblastoma cells contained bundles of 7- to 8-nm actin filaments which originated in the interior of the neurite. In the presence of high concentrations of Mg++ ion, filaments in these bundles became highly ordered to form paracrystals. Actin filaments, but not bundles, were observed in growth cones of DRG cells. Actin was localized in the cell body, neurites, and microspikes of both DRG and neuroblastoma nerve cells by fluorescein- labeled S1. Myosin was localized primarily in the neurites of chick DRG nerve cells with fluorescein-labeled anti-brain myosin antibody. This antibody also stained stress fibers in fibroblasts and myoblasts but did not stain muscle myofibrils. PMID:379013

  1. Engineering Circular Gliding of Actin Filaments Along Myosin-Patterned DNA Nanotube Rings To Study Long-Term Actin-Myosin Behaviors.

    PubMed

    Hariadi, Rizal F; Appukutty, Abhinav J; Sivaramakrishnan, Sivaraj

    2016-09-27

    Nature has evolved molecular motors that are critical in cellular processes occurring over broad time scales, ranging from seconds to years. Despite the importance of the long-term behavior of molecular machines, topics such as enzymatic lifetime are underexplored due to the lack of a suitable approach for monitoring motor activity over long time periods. Here, we developed an "O"-shaped Myosin Empowered Gliding Assay (OMEGA) that utilizes engineered micron-scale DNA nanotube rings with precise arrangements of myosin VI to trap gliding actin filaments. This circular gliding assay platform allows the same individual actin filament to glide over the same myosin ensemble (50-1000 motors per ring) multiple times. First, we systematically characterized the formation of DNA nanotubes rings with 4, 6, 8, and 10 helix circumferences. Individual actin filaments glide along the nanotube rings with high processivity for up to 12.8 revolutions or 11 min in run time. We then show actin gliding speed is robust to variation in motor number and independent of ring curvature within our sample space (ring diameter of 0.5-4 μm). As a model application of OMEGA, we then analyze motor-based mechanical influence on "stop-and-go" gliding behavior of actin filaments, revealing that the stop-to-go transition probability is dependent on motor flexibility. Our circular gliding assay may provide a closed-loop platform for monitoring long-term behavior of broad classes of molecular motors and enable characterization of motor robustness and long time scale nanomechanical processes.

  2. Single turnovers of fluorescent ATP bound to bipolar myosin filament during actin filaments sliding

    PubMed Central

    Maruta, Takahiro; Kobatake, Takahiro; Okubo, Hiroyuki; Chaen, Shigeru

    2013-01-01

    The nucleotide turnover rates of bipolar myosin thick filament along which actin filament slides were measured by the displacement of prebound fluorescent ATP analog 2′(3′)-O-[N-[2-[(Cy3)]amindo]ethyl] carbamoyl]-adenosine 5′ triphosphate (Cy3-EDA-ATP) upon flash photolysis of caged ATP. The fluorescence of the thick filament where actin filament slides decayed with two exponential processes. The slower rate constant was the same as that without actin filament. Along bipolar myosin thick filament, actin filaments slide at a fast speed towards the central bare zone (forward), but more slowly away from the bare zone (backward). The displacement rate constant of fluorescent ATP from the myosin filament where actin filament moved forward was 5.0 s−1, whereas the rate constant where the actin filament slid backward was 1.7 s−1. These findings suggest that the slow ADP release rate is responsible for the slow backward sliding movement. PMID:27493536

  3. Direct Microtubule-Binding by Myosin-10 Orients Centrosomes toward Retraction Fibers and Subcortical Actin Clouds.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Mijung; Bagonis, Maria; Danuser, Gaudenz; Pellman, David

    2015-08-10

    Positioning of centrosomes is vital for cell division and development. In metazoan cells, spindle positioning is controlled by a dynamic pool of subcortical actin that organizes in response to the position of retraction fibers. These actin "clouds" are proposed to generate pulling forces on centrosomes and mediate spindle orientation. However, the motors that pull astral microtubules toward these actin structures are not known. Here, we report that the unconventional myosin, Myo10, couples actin-dependent forces from retraction fibers and subcortical actin clouds to centrosomes. Myo10-mediated centrosome positioning requires its direct microtubule binding. Computational image analysis of large microtubule populations reveals a direct effect of Myo10 on microtubule dynamics and microtubule-cortex interactions. Myo10's role in centrosome positioning is distinct from, but overlaps with, that of dynein. Thus, Myo10 plays a key role in integrating the actin and microtubule cytoskeletons to position centrosomes and mitotic spindles.

  4. Direct Microtubule-Binding by Myosin-10 Orients Centrosomes toward Retraction Fibers and Subcortical Actin Clouds.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Mijung; Bagonis, Maria; Danuser, Gaudenz; Pellman, David

    2015-08-10

    Positioning of centrosomes is vital for cell division and development. In metazoan cells, spindle positioning is controlled by a dynamic pool of subcortical actin that organizes in response to the position of retraction fibers. These actin "clouds" are proposed to generate pulling forces on centrosomes and mediate spindle orientation. However, the motors that pull astral microtubules toward these actin structures are not known. Here, we report that the unconventional myosin, Myo10, couples actin-dependent forces from retraction fibers and subcortical actin clouds to centrosomes. Myo10-mediated centrosome positioning requires its direct microtubule binding. Computational image analysis of large microtubule populations reveals a direct effect of Myo10 on microtubule dynamics and microtubule-cortex interactions. Myo10's role in centrosome positioning is distinct from, but overlaps with, that of dynein. Thus, Myo10 plays a key role in integrating the actin and microtubule cytoskeletons to position centrosomes and mitotic spindles. PMID:26235048

  5. Enhancing the staggered fluctuations of an actin filament sliding on Chara myosin.

    PubMed

    Hatori, Kuniyuki; Okeno, Yusuke; Honda, Hajime; Shimada, Katsuhiko; Matsuno, Koichiro

    2004-06-01

    We examined both longitudinal and transversal fluctuations of displacements of an actin filament sliding upon Chara myosin molecules. Although the magnitude of transversal fluctuations remained rather independent of ATP concentration, the longitudinal ones were found to increase their magnitude as the concentration increased. In addition, the longitudinal fluctuations gradually increased as the sliding velocity of the filament increased.

  6. Microfluidic Investigation Reveals Distinct Roles for Actin Cytoskeleton and Myosin II Activity in Capillary Leukocyte Trafficking

    PubMed Central

    Gabriele, Sylvain; Benoliel, Anne-Marie; Bongrand, Pierre; Théodoly, Olivier

    2009-01-01

    Circulating leukocyte sequestration in pulmonary capillaries is arguably the initiating event of lung injury in acute respiratory distress syndrome. We present a microfluidic investigation of the roles of actin organization and myosin II activity during the different stages of leukocyte trafficking through narrow capillaries (entry, transit and shape relaxation) using specific drugs (latrunculin A, jasplakinolide, and blebbistatin). The deformation rate during entry reveals that cell stiffness depends strongly on F-actin organization and hardly on myosin II activity, supporting a microfilament role in leukocyte sequestration. In the transit stage, cell friction is influenced by stiffness, demonstrating that the actin network is not completely broken after a forced entry into a capillary. Conversely, membrane unfolding was independent of leukocyte stiffness. The surface area of sequestered leukocytes increased by up to 160% in the absence of myosin II activity, showing the major role of molecular motors in microvilli wrinkling and zipping. Finally, cell shape relaxation was largely independent of both actin organization and myosin II activity, whereas a deformed state was required for normal trafficking through capillary segments. PMID:19450501

  7. Drosophila protein kinase N (Pkn) is a negative regulator of actin-myosin activity during oogenesis.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Tânia; Prudêncio, Pedro; Martinho, Rui Gonçalo

    2014-10-15

    Nurse cell dumping is an actin-myosin based process, where 15 nurse cells of a given egg chamber contract and transfer their cytoplasmic content through the ring canals into the growing oocyte. We isolated two mutant alleles of protein kinase N (pkn) and showed that Pkn negatively-regulates activation of the actin-myosin cytoskeleton during the onset of dumping. Using live-cell imaging analysis we observed that nurse cell dumping rates sharply increase during the onset of fast dumping. Such rate increase was severely impaired in pkn mutant nurse cells due to excessive nurse cell actin-myosin activity and/or loss of tissue integrity. Our work demonstrates that the transition between slow and fast dumping is a discrete event, with at least a five to six-fold dumping rate increase. We show that Pkn negatively regulates nurse cell actin-myosin activity. This is likely to be important for directional cytoplasmic flow. We propose Pkn provides a negative feedback loop to help avoid excessive contractility after local activation of Rho GTPase.

  8. Drosophila protein kinase N (Pkn) is a negative regulator of actin-myosin activity during oogenesis.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Tânia; Prudêncio, Pedro; Martinho, Rui Gonçalo

    2014-10-15

    Nurse cell dumping is an actin-myosin based process, where 15 nurse cells of a given egg chamber contract and transfer their cytoplasmic content through the ring canals into the growing oocyte. We isolated two mutant alleles of protein kinase N (pkn) and showed that Pkn negatively-regulates activation of the actin-myosin cytoskeleton during the onset of dumping. Using live-cell imaging analysis we observed that nurse cell dumping rates sharply increase during the onset of fast dumping. Such rate increase was severely impaired in pkn mutant nurse cells due to excessive nurse cell actin-myosin activity and/or loss of tissue integrity. Our work demonstrates that the transition between slow and fast dumping is a discrete event, with at least a five to six-fold dumping rate increase. We show that Pkn negatively regulates nurse cell actin-myosin activity. This is likely to be important for directional cytoplasmic flow. We propose Pkn provides a negative feedback loop to help avoid excessive contractility after local activation of Rho GTPase. PMID:25131196

  9. Engineering myosins for long-range transport on actin filaments.

    PubMed

    Schindler, Tony D; Chen, Lu; Lebel, Paul; Nakamura, Muneaki; Bryant, Zev

    2014-01-01

    Cytoskeletal motors act as cargo transporters in cells and may be harnessed for directed transport applications in molecular detection and diagnostic devices. High processivity, the ability to take many steps along a track before dissociating, is often a desirable characteristic because it allows nanoscale motors to transport cargoes over distances on the scale of micrometres, in vivo and in vitro. Natural processive myosins are dimeric and use internal tension to coordinate the detachment cycles of the two heads. Here, we show that processivity can be enhanced in engineered myosins using two non-natural strategies designed to optimize the effectiveness of random, uncoordinated stepping: (1) the formation of three-headed and four-headed myosins and (2) the introduction of flexible elements between heads. We quantify improvements using systematic single-molecule characterization of a panel of engineered motors. To test the modularity of our approach, we design a controllably bidirectional myosin that is robustly processive in both forward and backward directions, and also produce the fastest processive cytoskeletal motor measured so far, reaching a speed of 10 µm s(-1).

  10. Engineering myosins for long-range transport on actin filaments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schindler, Tony D.; Chen, Lu; Lebel, Paul; Nakamura, Muneaki; Bryant, Zev

    2014-01-01

    Cytoskeletal motors act as cargo transporters in cells and may be harnessed for directed transport applications in molecular detection and diagnostic devices. High processivity, the ability to take many steps along a track before dissociating, is often a desirable characteristic because it allows nanoscale motors to transport cargoes over distances on the scale of micrometres, in vivo and in vitro. Natural processive myosins are dimeric and use internal tension to coordinate the detachment cycles of the two heads. Here, we show that processivity can be enhanced in engineered myosins using two non-natural strategies designed to optimize the effectiveness of random, uncoordinated stepping: (1) the formation of three-headed and four-headed myosins and (2) the introduction of flexible elements between heads. We quantify improvements using systematic single-molecule characterization of a panel of engineered motors. To test the modularity of our approach, we design a controllably bidirectional myosin that is robustly processive in both forward and backward directions, and also produce the fastest processive cytoskeletal motor measured so far, reaching a speed of 10 µm s-1.

  11. Engineering myosins for long-range transport on actin filaments.

    PubMed

    Schindler, Tony D; Chen, Lu; Lebel, Paul; Nakamura, Muneaki; Bryant, Zev

    2014-01-01

    Cytoskeletal motors act as cargo transporters in cells and may be harnessed for directed transport applications in molecular detection and diagnostic devices. High processivity, the ability to take many steps along a track before dissociating, is often a desirable characteristic because it allows nanoscale motors to transport cargoes over distances on the scale of micrometres, in vivo and in vitro. Natural processive myosins are dimeric and use internal tension to coordinate the detachment cycles of the two heads. Here, we show that processivity can be enhanced in engineered myosins using two non-natural strategies designed to optimize the effectiveness of random, uncoordinated stepping: (1) the formation of three-headed and four-headed myosins and (2) the introduction of flexible elements between heads. We quantify improvements using systematic single-molecule characterization of a panel of engineered motors. To test the modularity of our approach, we design a controllably bidirectional myosin that is robustly processive in both forward and backward directions, and also produce the fastest processive cytoskeletal motor measured so far, reaching a speed of 10 µm s(-1). PMID:24240432

  12. Coiled-Coil–Mediated Dimerization Is Not Required for Myosin VI to Stabilize Actin during Spermatid Individualization in Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Noguchi, Tatsuhiko; Frank, Deborah J.; Isaji, Mamiko

    2009-01-01

    Myosin VI is a pointed-end–directed actin motor that is thought to function as both a transporter of cargoes and an anchor, capable of binding cellular components to actin for long periods. Dimerization via a predicted coiled coil was hypothesized to regulate activity and motor properties. However, the importance of the coiled-coil sequence has not been tested in vivo. We used myosin VI's well-defined role in actin stabilization during Drosophila spermatid individualization to test the importance in vivo of the predicted coiled coil. If myosin VI functions as a dimer, a forced dimer should fully rescue myosin VI loss of function defects, including actin stabilization, actin cone movement, and cytoplasmic exclusion by the cones. Conversely, a molecule lacking the coiled coil should not rescue at all. Surprisingly, neither prediction was correct, because each rescued partially and the molecule lacking the coiled coil functioned better than the forced dimer. In extracts, no cross-linking into higher molecular weight forms indicative of dimerization was observed. In addition, a sequence required for altering nucleotide kinetics to make myosin VI dimers processive is not required for myosin VI's actin stabilization function. We conclude that myosin VI does not need to dimerize via the predicted coiled coil to stabilize actin in vivo. PMID:19005209

  13. Fission yeast tropomyosin specifies directed transport of myosin-V along actin cables

    PubMed Central

    Clayton, Joseph E.; Pollard, Luther W.; Sckolnick, Maria; Bookwalter, Carol S.; Hodges, Alex R.; Trybus, Kathleen M.; Lord, Matthew

    2014-01-01

    A hallmark of class-V myosins is their processivity—the ability to take multiple steps along actin filaments without dissociating. Our previous work suggested, however, that the fission yeast myosin-V (Myo52p) is a nonprocessive motor whose activity is enhanced by tropomyosin (Cdc8p). Here we investigate the molecular mechanism and physiological relevance of tropomyosin-mediated regulation of Myo52p transport, using a combination of in vitro and in vivo approaches. Single molecules of Myo52p, visualized by total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy, moved processively only when Cdc8p was present on actin filaments. Small ensembles of Myo52p bound to a quantum dot, mimicking the number of motors bound to physiological cargo, also required Cdc8p for continuous motion. Although a truncated form of Myo52p that lacked a cargo-binding domain failed to support function in vivo, it still underwent actin-dependent movement to polarized growth sites. This result suggests that truncated Myo52p lacking cargo, or single molecules of wild-type Myo52p with small cargoes, can undergo processive movement along actin-Cdc8p cables in vivo. Our findings outline a mechanism by which tropomyosin facilitates sorting of transport to specific actin tracks within the cell by switching on myosin processivity. PMID:24196839

  14. Loss of cargo binding in the human myosin VI deafness mutant (R1166X) leads to increased actin filament binding

    PubMed Central

    Arden, Susan D.; Tumbarello, David A.; Butt, Tariq; Kendrick-Jones, John; Buss, Folma

    2016-01-01

    Mutations in myosin VI have been associated with autosomal-recessive (DFNB37) and autosomal-dominant (DFNA22) deafness in humans. Here, we characterise an myosin VI nonsense mutation (R1166X) that was identified in a family with hereditary hearing loss in Pakistan. This mutation leads to the deletion of the C-terminal 120 amino acids of the myosin VI cargo-binding domain, which includes the WWY-binding motif for the adaptor proteins LMTK2, Tom1 as well as Dab2. Interestingly, compromising myosin VI vesicle-binding ability by expressing myosin VI with the R1166X mutation or with single point mutations in the adaptor-binding sites leads to increased F-actin binding of this myosin in vitro and in vivo. As our results highlight the importance of cargo attachment for regulating actin binding to the motor domain, we perform a detailed characterisation of adaptor protein binding and identify single amino acids within myosin VI required for binding to cargo adaptors. We not only show that the adaptor proteins can directly interact with the cargo-binding tail of myosin VI, but our in vitro studies also suggest that multiple adaptor proteins can bind simultaneously to non-overlapping sites in the myosin VI tail. In conclusion, our characterisation of the human myosin VI deafness mutant (R1166X) suggests that defects in cargo binding may leave myosin VI in a primed/activated state with an increased actin-binding ability. PMID:27474411

  15. Loss of cargo binding in the human myosin VI deafness mutant (R1166X) leads to increased actin filament binding.

    PubMed

    Arden, Susan D; Tumbarello, David A; Butt, Tariq; Kendrick-Jones, John; Buss, Folma

    2016-10-01

    Mutations in myosin VI have been associated with autosomal-recessive (DFNB37) and autosomal-dominant (DFNA22) deafness in humans. Here, we characterise an myosin VI nonsense mutation (R1166X) that was identified in a family with hereditary hearing loss in Pakistan. This mutation leads to the deletion of the C-terminal 120 amino acids of the myosin VI cargo-binding domain, which includes the WWY-binding motif for the adaptor proteins LMTK2, Tom1 as well as Dab2. Interestingly, compromising myosin VI vesicle-binding ability by expressing myosin VI with the R1166X mutation or with single point mutations in the adaptor-binding sites leads to increased F-actin binding of this myosin in vitro and in vivo As our results highlight the importance of cargo attachment for regulating actin binding to the motor domain, we perform a detailed characterisation of adaptor protein binding and identify single amino acids within myosin VI required for binding to cargo adaptors. We not only show that the adaptor proteins can directly interact with the cargo-binding tail of myosin VI, but our in vitro studies also suggest that multiple adaptor proteins can bind simultaneously to non-overlapping sites in the myosin VI tail. In conclusion, our characterisation of the human myosin VI deafness mutant (R1166X) suggests that defects in cargo binding may leave myosin VI in a primed/activated state with an increased actin-binding ability. PMID:27474411

  16. Myosin 1E coordinates actin assembly and cargo trafficking during clathrin-mediated endocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Jackie; Grassart, Alexandre; Drubin, David G.

    2012-01-01

    Myosin 1E (Myo1E) is recruited to sites of clathrin-mediated endocytosis coincident with a burst of actin assembly. The recruitment dynamics and lifetime of Myo1E are similar to those of tagged actin polymerization regulatory proteins. Like inhibition of actin assembly, depletion of Myo1E causes reduced transferrin endocytosis and a significant delay in transferrin trafficking to perinuclear compartments, demonstrating an integral role for Myo1E in these actin-mediated steps. Mistargeting of GFP-Myo1E or its src-homology 3 domain to mitochondria results in appearance of WIP, WIRE, N-WASP, and actin filaments at the mitochondria, providing evidence for Myo1E's role in actin assembly regulation. These results suggest for mammalian cells, similar to budding yeast, interdependence in the recruitment of type I myosins, WIP/WIRE, and N-WASP to endocytic sites for Arp2/3 complex activation to assemble F-actin as endocytic vesicles are being formed. PMID:22675027

  17. Selective localization of myosin-I proteins in macropinosomes and actin waves.

    PubMed

    Brzeska, Hanna; Koech, Hilary; Pridham, Kevin J; Korn, Edward D; Titus, Margaret A

    2016-02-01

    Class I myosins are widely expressed with roles in endocytosis and cell migration in a variety of cell types. Dictyostelium express multiple myosin Is, including three short-tailed (Myo1A, Myo1E, Myo1F) and three long-tailed (Myo1B, Myo1C, Myo1D). Here we report the molecular basis of the specific localizations of short-tailed Myo1A, Myo1E, and Myo1F compared to our previously determined localization of long-tailed Myo1B. Myo1A and Myo1B have common and unique localizations consistent with the various features of their tail region; specifically the BH sites in their tails are required for their association with the plasma membrane and heads are sufficient for relocalization to the front of polarized cells. Myo1A does not localize to actin waves and macropinocytic protrusions, in agreement with the absence of a tail region which is required for these localizations of Myo1B. However, in spite of the overall similarity of their domain structures, the cellular distributions of Myo1E and Myo1F are quite different from Myo1A. Myo1E and Myo1F, but not Myo1A, are associated with macropinocytic cups and actin waves. The localizations of Myo1E and Myo1F in macropinocytic structures and actin waves differ from the localization of Myo1B. Myo1B colocalizes with F-actin in the actin waves and at the tips of mature macropinocytic cups whereas Myo1E and Myo1F are in the interior of actin waves and along the entire surface of macropinocytic cups. Our results point to different mechanisms of targeting of short- and long-tailed myosin Is, and are consistent with these myosins having both shared and divergent cellular functions.

  18. [Conformational changes of actin induced by strong or weak myosin subfragment-1 binding].

    PubMed

    Dedova, I V; Avrova, S V; Vikhoreva, N N; Vikhorev, R G; Hazlett, T L; Van der Meer, W; Dos Remedios, C G; Borovikov, Iu S

    2004-01-01

    Movements of different areas of polypeptide chains within F-actin monomers induced by S1 or pPDM-S1 binding were studied by polarized fluorimetry. Thin filaments of ghost muscle were reconstructed by adding G-actin labeled with fluorescent probes attached alternatively to different sites of actin molecule. These sites were: Cys-374 labeled with 1,5-IAEDANS, TMRIA or 5-IAF; Lys-373 labeled with NBD-Cl; Lys-113 labeled with Alexa-488; Lys-61 labeled with FITC; Gln-41 labeled with DED and Cys-10 labeled with 1,5-IAEDANS, 5-IAF or fluorescein-maleimid. In addition, we used TRITC-, FITC-falloidin and e-ADP that were located, respectively, in filament groove and interdomain cleft. The data were analysed by model-dependent and model-independent methods (see appendixes). The orientation and mobility of fluorescent probes were significantly changed when actin and myosin interacted, depending on fluorophore location and binding site of actomyosin. Strong binding of S with actin leads to 1) a decrease in the orientation of oscillators of derivatives of falloidin (TRITC-falloidin, FITC-falloidin) and actin-bound nucleotide (e-ADP); 2) an increase in the orientation of dye oscillators located in the "front' surface of the small domain (where actin is viewed in the standard orientation with subdomains 1/2 and 3/4 oriented to the right and to the left, respectively); 3) a decrease in the angles of dye oscillators located on the "back" surface of subdomain-1. In contrast, a weak binding of S1 to actin induces the opposite effects in orientation of these probes. These data suggest that during the ATP hydrolysis cycle myosin heads induce a change in actin monomer (a tilt and twisting of its small domain). Presumably, these alterations in F-actin conformation play an important role in muscle contraction.

  19. Affinity for MgADP and force of unbinding from actin of myosin purified from tonic and phasic smooth muscle

    PubMed Central

    Léguillette, Renaud; Zitouni, Nedjma B.; Govindaraju, Karuthapillai; Fong, Laura M.; Lauzon, Anne-Marie

    2008-01-01

    Smooth muscle is unique in its ability to maintain force at low MgATP consumption. This property, called the latch state, is more prominent in tonic than phasic smooth muscle. Studies performed at the muscle strip level have suggested that myosin from tonic muscle has a greater affinity for MgADP and therefore remains attached to actin longer than myosin from phasic muscle, allowing for cross-bridge dephosphorylation and latch-bridge formation. An alternative hypothesis is that after dephosphorylation, myosin reattaches to actin and maintains force. We investigated these fundamental properties of smooth muscle at the molecular level. We used an in vitro motility assay to measure actin filament velocity (νmax) when propelled by myosin purified from phasic or tonic muscle at increasing [MgADP]. Myosin was 25% thiophosphorylated and 75% unphosphorylated to approximate in vivo conditions. The slope of νmax versus [MgADP] was significantly greater for tonic (−0.51 ± 0.04) than phasic muscle myosin (−0.15 ± 0.04), demonstrating the greater MgADP affinity of myosin from tonic muscle. We then used a laser trap assay to measure the unbinding force from actin of populations of unphosphorylated tonic and phasic muscle myosin. Both myosin types attached to actin, and their unbinding force (0.092 ± 0.022 pN for phasic muscle and 0.084 ± 0.017 pN for tonic muscle) was not statistically different. We conclude that the greater affinity for MgADP of tonic muscle myosin and the reattachment of dephosphorylated myosin to actin may both contribute to the latch state. PMID:18614813

  20. Interactions between actin and myosin filaments in skeletal muscle visualized in frozen-hydrated thin sections.

    PubMed

    Trus, B L; Steven, A C; McDowall, A W; Unser, M; Dubochet, J; Podolsky, R J

    1989-04-01

    For the purpose of determining net interactions between actin and myosin filaments in muscle cells, perhaps the single most informative view of the myofilament lattice is its averaged axial projection. We have studied frozen-hydrated transverse thin sections with the goal of obtaining axial projections that are not subject to the limitations of conventional thin sectioning (suspect preservation of native structure) or of equatorial x-ray diffraction analysis (lack of experimental phases). In principle, good preservation of native structure may be achieved with fast freezing, followed by low-dose electron imaging of unstained vitrified cryosections. In practice, however, cryosections undergo large-scale distortions, including irreversible compression; furthermore, phase contrast imaging results in a nonlinear relationship between the projected density of the specimen and the optical density of the micrograph. To overcome these limitations, we have devised methods of image restoration and generalized correlation averaging, and applied them to cryosections of rabbit psoas fibers in both the relaxed and rigor states. Thus visualized, myosin filaments appear thicker than actin filaments by a much smaller margin than in conventional thin sections, and particularly so for rigor muscle. This may result from a significant fraction of the myosin S1-cross-bridges averaging out in projection and thus contributing only to the baseline of projected density. Entering rigor incurs a loss of density from an annulus around the myosin filament, with a compensating accumulation of density around the actin filament. This redistribution of mass represents attachment of the fraction of cross-bridges that are visible above background. Myosin filaments in the "nonoverlap" zone appear to broaden on entering rigor, suggesting that on deprivation of ATP, cross-bridges in situ move outwards even without actin in their immediate proximity.

  1. Drosophila myosin-XX functions as an actin-binding protein to facilitate the interaction between Zyx102 and actin.

    PubMed

    Cao, Yang; White, Howard D; Li, Xiang-Dong

    2014-01-21

    The class XX myosin is a member of the diverse myosin superfamily and exists in insects and several lower invertebrates. DmMyo20, the class XX myosin in Drosophila, is encoded by dachs, which functions as a crucial downstream component of the Fat signaling pathway, influencing growth, affinity, and gene expression during development. Sequence analysis shows that DmMyo20 contains a unique N-terminal extension, the motor domain, followed by one IQ motif, and a C-terminal tail. To investigate the biochemical properties of DmMyo20, we expressed several DmMyo20 truncated constructs containing the motor domain in the baculovirus/Sf9 system. We found that the motor domain of DmMyo20 had neither ATPase activity nor the ability to bind to ATP, suggesting that DmMyo20 does not function as a molecular motor. We found that the motor domain of DmMyo20 could specifically bind to actin filaments in an ATP-independent manner and enhance the interaction between actin filaments and Zyx102, a downstream component of DmMyo20 in the Fat signaling pathway. These results suggest that DmMyo20 functions as a scaffold protein, but not as a molecular motor, in a signaling pathway controlling cell differentiation.

  2. Platelet contractile proteins: separation and characterization of the actin and myosin-like components.

    PubMed

    Cove, D H; Crawford, N

    1975-01-01

    Solution of thrombosthenin, the contractile protein complex isolated from pig platelets, have been studied by analytical ultracentrifugation and zone sedimentation in sucrose density gradients. Freshly prepared thrombosthenin in 0.6 M KCl shows a prominent peak in the ultracentrifuge with S degrees 20w about 5.5 and higher molecular weight aggregates (greater than 100S) sedimenting quickly to the bottom of the cell. Short term storage of high ionic strength solutions of thrombosthenin induces actomyosin-like gel formation and these gels dissociate with ATP and Mg2+ ions into two components of S degrees 20w 8.0 and S degrees 20w50. The supernatant, after actomyosin gel removal, contains only the S degrees 20w5.5 protein. From results of Ca2+ ATPase activity measurements and SDS polyacrylamide gel electrophoretic mobilities of dissociated thrombosthenin separated into fractions in sucrose density gradients, it is concluded that the S degrees20w5.5 protein species is the myosin-like protein of thrombosthenin. The S degrees 20w8.0 protein is not fibrinogen but also has myosin-like properties and is believed to be myosin dimer. Species of higher S values seen in the presence of ATP and Mg2+ in the analytical ultracentrifuge and located in the higher density zones of the sucrose gradients all gave in SDS polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis a single band of molecular weight 46-47,000 daltons. These subunit proteins appear to be derived from a range of polymeric variants of the F-actin-like protein of the contractile complex. All these higher density F-actin-like proteins readily form superprecipitates and display syneresis when combined with rabbit skeletal muscle myosin or platelet myosin. They are also all capable of conferring upon these two myosins a Mg2+ activated ATPase activity. It is suggested that in thrombosthenin solutions a myosin monomer-dimer equilibrium state exists which can be directionally influenced by a number of factors. The coexistence in the solution

  3. Myosin motor function: the ins and outs of actin-based membrane protrusions

    PubMed Central

    Nambiar, Rajalakshmi; McConnell, Russell E.

    2011-01-01

    Cells build plasma membrane protrusions supported by parallel bundles of F-actin to enable a wide variety of biological functions, ranging from motility to host defense. Filopodia, microvilli and stereocilia are three such protrusions that have been the focus of intense biological and biophysical investigation in recent years. While it is evident that actin dynamics play a significant role in the formation of these organelles, members of the myosin superfamily have also been implicated as key players in the maintenance of protrusion architecture and function. Based on a simple analysis of the physical forces that control protrusion formation and morphology, as well as our review of available data, we propose that myosins play two general roles within these structures: (1) as cargo transporters to move critical regulatory components toward distal tips and (2) as mediators of membrane-cytoskeleton adhesion. PMID:20107861

  4. Actin and myosin function in directed vacuole movement during cell division in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    1996-01-01

    During cell division, cytoplasmic organelles are not synthesized de novo, rather they are replicated and partitioned between daughter cells. Partitioning of the vacuole in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is coordinated with the cell cycle and involves a dramatic translocation of a portion of the parental organelle from the mother cell into the bud. While the molecular mechanisms that mediate this event are unknown, the vacuole's rapid and directed movements suggest cytoskeleton involvement. To identify cytoskeletal components that function in this process, vacuole inheritance was examined in a collection of actin mutants. Six strains were identified as being defective in vacuole inheritance. Tetrad analysis verified that the defect cosegregates with the mutant actin gene. One strain with a deletion in a myosin-binding region was analyzed further. The vacuole inheritance defect in this strain appears to result from the loss of a specific actin function; the actin cytoskeleton is intact and protein targeting to the vacuole is normal. Consistent with these findings, a mutation in the actin-binding domain of Myo2p, a class V unconventional myosin, abolishes vacuole inheritance. This suggests that Myo2p serves as a molecular motor for vacuole transport along actin filaments. The location of actin and Myo2p relative to the vacuole membrane is consistent with this model. Additional studies suggest that the actin filaments used for vacuole transport are dynamic, and that profilin plays a critical role in regulating their assembly. These results present the first demonstration that specific cytoskeletal proteins function in vacuole inheritance. PMID:8978821

  5. PKC-mediated cerebral vasoconstriction: Role of myosin light chain phosphorylation versus actin cytoskeleton reorganization.

    PubMed

    El-Yazbi, Ahmed F; Abd-Elrahman, Khaled S; Moreno-Dominguez, Alejandro

    2015-06-15

    Defective protein kinase C (PKC) signaling has been suggested to contribute to abnormal vascular contraction in disease conditions including hypertension and diabetes. Our previous work on agonist and pressure-induced cerebral vasoconstriction implicated PKC as a major contributor to force production in a myosin light chain (LC20) phosphorylation-independent manner. Here, we used phorbol dibutyrate to selectively induce a PKC-dependent constriction in rat middle cerebral arteries and delineate the relative contribution of different contractile mechanisms involved. Specifically, we employed an ultra-sensitive 3-step western blotting approach to detect changes in the content of phosphoproteins that regulate myosin light chain phosphatase (MLCP) activity, thin filament activation, and actin cytoskeleton reorganization. Data indicate that PKC activation evoked a greater constriction at a similar level of LC20 phosphorylation achieved by 5-HT. PDBu-evoked constriction persisted in the presence of Gö6976, a selective inhibitor of Ca(2+)-dependent PKC, and in the absence of extracellular Ca(2+). Biochemical evidence indicates that either + or - extracellular Ca(2+), PDBu (i) inhibits MLCP activity via the phosphorylation of myosin targeting subunit of myosin phosphatase (MYPT1) and C-kinase potentiated protein phosphatase-1 inhibitor (CPI-17), (ii) increases the phosphorylation of paxillin and heat shock protein 27 (HSP27), and reduces G-actin content, and (iii) does not change the phospho-content of the thin filament proteins, calponin and caldesmon. PDBu-induced constriction was more sensitive to disruption of actin cytoskeleton compared to inhibition of cross-bridge cycling. In conclusion, this study provided evidence for the pivotal contribution of cytoskeletal actin polymerization in force generation following PKC activation in cerebral resistance arteries. PMID:25931148

  6. [The effect of Mg-ADP on the structural state of actin in the F-actin-myosin subfragment-1 complex].

    PubMed

    Borovikov, Iu S; Kirillina, V P

    1991-01-01

    Using polarized microfluorometry techniques, a study was made on the orientation and mobility of fluorescent probes 1,5-IAEDANS and rhomadin-phalloidin, located in various parts of actin, muscle fibers free of myosin, tropomyosin and troponin (ghost fibres) being used. It was found that the binding of a myosin subfragment 1 (S1) to actin induced changes in polarized fluorescence of the fibers. The analysis of these data showed that the formation of actin-S1 and actin-S1-ADP complexes in a muscle fiber resulted in a decrease in the angle between the thin filaments and the emission dipole of phalloidin-rhodamine, as well as in an increase of the mobility of this dye. In the experiments with the 1,5-IAEDANS label the angle of emission dipole increased, while the mobility of the label decreased. These changes were smaller in the presence of Mg-ADP than in its absence. It is assumed that the changes in actin monomer structure occur when a myosin head interacts with actin. These changes are expressed as those in orientation and mobility of large and small domains of actin in thin filaments. The domain orientation in actomyosin complex changes, influenced by Mg-ADP. The data obtained allow to propose the involvement of interdomain motions of some parts of actin monomer in the mechanisms of muscle contraction.

  7. A mechanical model for the motility of actin filaments on myosin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicolau, Dan V., Jr.; Fulga, Florin; Nicolau, Dan V.

    2004-03-01

    The interaction of actin filaments with myosin is crucial to cell motility, muscular contraction, cell division and other processes. The in vitro motility assay involves the motion of actin filaments on a substrate coated with myosin, and is used extensively to investigate the dynamics of the actomyosin system. Following on from previous work, we propose a new mechanical model of actin motility on myosin, wherein a filament is modeled as a chain of beads connected by harmonic springs. This imposes a limitation on the "stretching" of the filament. The rotation of one bead with respect to its neighbours is also constrained in similar way. We implemented this model and used Monte Carlo simulations to determine whether it can predict the directionality of filament motion. The principal advantages of this model over our previous one are that we have removed the empirically correct but artificial assumption that the filament moves like a "worm" i.e. the head determines the direction of movement and the rest of the filament "follows" the head as well as the inclusion of dependencies on experimental rate constants (and so also on e.g. ATP concentration) via the cross-bridge cycle.

  8. [The effect of phosphorylation of myosin light chains on the structural state of tropomyosin in thin filaments, decorated with heavy meromyosin].

    PubMed

    Vorovikov, Iu S; Szczesna, D; Kakol, I

    1989-06-01

    The structural state of tropomyosin (TM) modified by 5-(iodoacetamidoethyl)-aminonaphthalene-1-sulfonate (1.5-IAEDANS) upon F-actin decoration with myosin subfragment 1 (S1) and heavy meromyosin (HMM) in glycerinated myosin- and troponin-free muscle fibers was studied. HMM preparations contained native phosphorylated myosin light chains, while S1 preparations did not. The changes in the polarized fluorescence of 1.5-IAEDANS-TM during the F-actin interaction with S1 were independent of light chains phosphorylation and Ca2+ concentration, but were dependent on these factors during the F-actin interaction with HMM. The binding of myosin heads to F-actin is supposed to initiate conformational changes in TM which are accompanied by changes in the flexibility and molecular arrangement of TM. In the presence of light chains, the structural changes in TM depend on light chains phosphorylation and Ca2+ concentration. The conformational changes in TM seem to be responsible for the mechanisms of coupling of the myosin and tropomyosin modulation system during the actin-myosin interaction in skeletal muscles.

  9. Papaverine Prevents Vasospasm by Regulation of Myosin Light Chain Phosphorylation and Actin Polymerization in Human Saphenous Vein

    PubMed Central

    Hocking, Kyle M.; Putumbaka, Gowthami; Wise, Eric S.; Cheung-Flynn, Joyce; Brophy, Colleen M.; Komalavilas, Padmini

    2016-01-01

    Objective Papaverine is used to prevent vasospasm in human saphenous veins (HSV) during vein graft preparation prior to implantation as a bypass conduit. Papaverine is a nonspecific inhibitor of phosphodiesterases, leading to increases in both intracellular cGMP and cAMP. We hypothesized that papaverine reduces force by decreasing intracellular calcium concentrations ([Ca2+]i) and myosin light chain phosphorylation, and increasing actin depolymerization via regulation of actin regulatory protein phosphorylation. Approach and Results HSV was equilibrated in a muscle bath, pre-treated with 1 mM papaverine followed by 5 μM norepinephrine, and force along with [Ca2+]i levels were concurrently measured. Filamentous actin (F-actin) level was measured by an in vitro actin assay. Tissue was snap frozen to measure myosin light chain and actin regulatory protein phosphorylation. Pre-treatment with papaverine completely inhibited norepinephrine-induced force generation, blocked increases in [Ca2+]i and led to a decrease in the phosphorylation of myosin light chain. Papaverine pre-treatment also led to increased phosphorylation of the heat shock-related protein 20 (HSPB6) and the vasodilator stimulated phosphoprotein (VASP), as well as decreased filamentous actin (F-actin) levels suggesting depolymerization of actin. Conclusions These results suggest that papaverine-induced force inhibition of HSV involves [Ca2+]i-mediated inhibition of myosin light chain phosphorylation and actin regulatory protein phosphorylation-mediated actin depolymerization. Thus, papaverine induces sustained inhibition of contraction of HSV by the modulation of both myosin cross-bridge formation and actin cytoskeletal dynamics and is a pharmacological alternative to high pressure distention to prevent vasospasm. PMID:27136356

  10. Comparison of the variable loop regions of myosin heavy chain genes from Antarctic and temperate isopods.

    PubMed

    Holmes, J M; Whiteley, N M; Magnay, J L; El Haj, A J

    2002-03-01

    The evolutionary adaptations of functional genes to life at low temperatures are not well characterised in marine and fresh water invertebrates. Temperature has been shown to affect the functional characteristics of fish muscles, with changes in the velocity of shortening and ATPase activity being associated with myosin heavy chain (MyHC) isoform composition and the structure of the surface loop regions. Two PCR products spanning loops 1 and 2 of a MyHC gene from an Antarctic isopod (Glyptonotus antarcticus) were sequenced and compared with those of a temperate isopod (Idotea resecata), slow and fast fibres from lobster (Homarus gammarus) and a cold water amphipod (Eulimnogammarus verrucosus), revealing specific differences between the species, possibly related to fibre type and habitat temperature. The loop 2 region from G. antarcticus myosin was cloned and used for Northern analysis of total RNA from the other species. The cloned myosin cDNA hybridised specifically to a 6.6-kb transcript, in G. antarcticus muscle. In contrast, cDNA probes for lobster slow myosin and actin hybridised to muscle RNA from all species, demonstrating that a distinct MyHC isoform is expressed in the Antarctic isopod, as opposed to the temperate species. The inter- and intra-specific sequence differences in loop 2 region suggest that this may be a site for muscle adaptation to enable function at the low temperatures found in the Southern Ocean. PMID:11959017

  11. Dense granule trafficking in Toxoplasma gondii requires a unique class 27 myosin and actin filaments

    PubMed Central

    Heaslip, Aoife T.; Nelson, Shane R.; Warshaw, David M.

    2016-01-01

    The survival of Toxoplasma gondii within its host cell requires protein release from secretory vesicles, called dense granules, to maintain the parasite’s intracellular replicative niche. Despite the importance of DGs, nothing is known about the mechanisms underlying their transport. In higher eukaryotes, secretory vesicles are transported to the plasma membrane by molecular motors moving on their respective cytoskeletal tracks (i.e., microtubules and actin). Because the organization of these cytoskeletal structures differs substantially in T. gondii, the molecular motor dependence of DG trafficking is far from certain. By imaging the motions of green fluorescent protein–tagged DGs in intracellular parasites with high temporal and spatial resolution, we show through a combination of molecular genetics and chemical perturbations that directed DG transport is independent of microtubules and presumably their kinesin/dynein motors. However, directed DG transport is dependent on filamentous actin and a unique class 27 myosin, TgMyoF, which has structural similarity to myosin V, the prototypical cargo transporter. Actomyosin DG transport was unexpected, since filamentous parasite actin has yet to be visualized in vivo due in part to the prevailing model that parasite actin forms short, unstable filaments. Thus our data uncover new critical roles for these essential proteins in the lytic cycle of this devastating pathogen. PMID:27146112

  12. Dense granule trafficking in Toxoplasma gondii requires a unique class 27 myosin and actin filaments.

    PubMed

    Heaslip, Aoife T; Nelson, Shane R; Warshaw, David M

    2016-07-01

    The survival of Toxoplasma gondii within its host cell requires protein release from secretory vesicles, called dense granules, to maintain the parasite's intracellular replicative niche. Despite the importance of DGs, nothing is known about the mechanisms underlying their transport. In higher eukaryotes, secretory vesicles are transported to the plasma membrane by molecular motors moving on their respective cytoskeletal tracks (i.e., microtubules and actin). Because the organization of these cytoskeletal structures differs substantially in T. gondii, the molecular motor dependence of DG trafficking is far from certain. By imaging the motions of green fluorescent protein-tagged DGs in intracellular parasites with high temporal and spatial resolution, we show through a combination of molecular genetics and chemical perturbations that directed DG transport is independent of microtubules and presumably their kinesin/dynein motors. However, directed DG transport is dependent on filamentous actin and a unique class 27 myosin, TgMyoF, which has structural similarity to myosin V, the prototypical cargo transporter. Actomyosin DG transport was unexpected, since filamentous parasite actin has yet to be visualized in vivo due in part to the prevailing model that parasite actin forms short, unstable filaments. Thus our data uncover new critical roles for these essential proteins in the lytic cycle of this devastating pathogen. PMID:27146112

  13. Apical domain polarization localizes actin-myosin activity to drive ratchet-like apical constriction.

    PubMed

    Mason, Frank M; Tworoger, Michael; Martin, Adam C

    2013-08-01

    Apical constriction promotes epithelia folding, which changes tissue architecture. During Drosophila gastrulation, mesoderm cells exhibit repeated contractile pulses that are stabilized such that cells apically constrict like a ratchet. The transcription factor Twist is required to stabilize cell shape. However, it is unknown how Twist spatially coordinates downstream signals to prevent cell relaxation. We find that during constriction, Rho-associated kinase (Rok) is polarized to the middle of the apical domain (medioapical cortex), separate from adherens junctions. Rok recruits or stabilizes medioapical myosin II (Myo-II), which contracts dynamic medioapical actin cables. The formin Diaphanous mediates apical actin assembly to suppress medioapical E-cadherin localization and form stable connections between the medioapical contractile network and adherens junctions. Twist is not required for apical Rok recruitment, but instead polarizes Rok medioapically. Therefore, Twist establishes radial cell polarity of Rok/Myo-II and E-cadherin and promotes medioapical actin assembly in mesoderm cells to stabilize cell shape fluctuations.

  14. The rates of formation and dissociation of actin-myosin complexes. Effects of solvent, temperature, nucleotide binding and head-head interactions.

    PubMed

    Marston, S B

    1982-05-01

    The rates of formation and dissociation of actin-subfragment 1 and actin-heavy mero-myosin complexes were measured by using light-scatter and the change in fluorescence of N-iodoacetyl-N'-(5-sulpho-1-naphthyl)ethylenediamine (IAEDANS)-labelled acting as probes. Association rate measurements were made at low protein concentration, where the transients approximated to single exponentials with rate constants proportional to the concentration of reactant in excess. Dissociation rate measurements were made by displacing IAEDANS-actin from myosin with excess native actin and by a salt jump. The second-order rate constant of association for actin-subfragment 1 was 3 x 10(6) M-1 . s-1 in 60 mM-KCl at 13 degree C. It was decreased 10-fold in 500 mM-KCl and in 50% (v/v) glycol. It was decreased 6-fold when MgADP or Mg[beta gamma-imido]ATP bound to myosin. The dissociation rate constant was 0.012 s-1 in 60 mM-KCl at 13 degree C. It was increased 4-fold by 500 mM-KCl, 25-fold by 50% glycol, 8-fold by MgADP binding and 170-fold by Mg[beta gamma-imido]ATP binding. Ea for association was 70 kJ . mol-1 and for dissociation 35 kJ . mol-1. Heavy meromyosin associated at twice the rate observed for subfragment 1 and dissociated at less than one-twentieth of the rate for subfragment 1 (60 mM-KCl, 25 degree C), but when Mg[beta gamma-imido]ATP bound actin-heavy meromyosin dissociated at one-half the rate for subfragment 1. There were significant correlations between increase in the dissociation rate constant, decrease in binding constant and increase in magnitude of conformational change. The association rate constant did not correlate with any property of the actin-myosin complex.

  15. Intracellular photoactivation of caged cGMP induces myosin II and actin responses in motile cells.

    PubMed

    Pfannes, Eva K B; Anielski, Alexander; Gerhardt, Matthias; Beta, Carsten

    2013-12-01

    Cyclic GMP (cGMP) is a ubiquitous second messenger in eukaryotic cells. It is assumed to regulate the association of myosin II with the cytoskeleton of motile cells. When cells of the social amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum are exposed to chemoattractants or to increased osmotic stress, intracellular cGMP levels rise, preceding the accumulation of myosin II in the cell cortex. To directly investigate the impact of intracellular cGMP on cytoskeletal dynamics in a living cell, we released cGMP inside the cell by laser-induced photo-cleavage of a caged precursor. With this approach, we could directly show in a live cell experiment that an increase in intracellular cGMP indeed induces myosin II to accumulate in the cortex. Unexpectedly, we observed for the first time that also the amount of filamentous actin in the cell cortex increases upon a rise in the cGMP concentration, independently of cAMP receptor activation and signaling. We discuss our results in the light of recent work on the cGMP signaling pathway and suggest possible links between cGMP signaling and the actin system. PMID:24136144

  16. Continued Expression of Neonatal Myosin Heavy Chain in Adult Dystrophic Skeletal Muscle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bandman, Everett

    1985-02-01

    The expression of myosin heavy chain isoforms was examined in normal and dystrophic chicken muscle with a monoclonal antibody specific for neonatal myosin. Adult dystrophic muscle continued to contain neonatal myosin long after it disappeared from adult normal muscle. A new technique involving western blotting and peptide mapping demonstrated that the immunoreactive myosin in adult dystrophic muscle was identical to that found in neonatal normal muscle. Immunocytochemistry revealed that all fibers in the dystrophic muscle failed to repress neonatal myosin heavy chain. These studies suggest that muscular dystrophy inhibits the myosin gene switching that normally occurs during muscle maturation.

  17. A novel multitarget tracking algorithm for Myosin VI protein molecules on actin filaments in TIRFM sequences.

    PubMed

    Li, G; Sanchez, V; Nagaraj, P C S B; Khan, S; Rajpoot, N

    2015-12-01

    We propose a novel multitarget tracking framework for Myosin VI protein molecules in total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy sequences which integrates an extended Hungarian algorithm with an interacting multiple model filter. The extended Hungarian algorithm, which is a linear assignment problem based method, helps to solve measurement assignment and spot association problems commonly encountered when dealing with multiple targets, although a two-motion model interacting multiple model filter increases the tracking accuracy by modelling the nonlinear dynamics of Myosin VI protein molecules on actin filaments. The evaluation of our tracking framework is conducted on both real and synthetic total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy sequences. The results show that the framework achieves higher tracking accuracies compared to the state-of-the-art tracking methods, especially for sequences with high spot density. PMID:26259144

  18. Role of actin and myosin in the control of paracellular permeability in pig, rat and human vascular endothelium.

    PubMed Central

    Schnittler, H J; Wilke, A; Gress, T; Suttorp, N; Drenckhahn, D

    1990-01-01

    1. We have investigated the endothelial actomyosin system with particular emphasis on its possible role in actively opening a paracellular route for permeability. 2. Actin and myosin comprised 16% of total endothelial protein with a molar actin/myosin ratio of 16.2 which is close to the actin/myosin ratio of muscle (studies on freshly isolated pig pulmonary arterial endothelial cells, PAEC). 3. By immunocytochemistry at the light and electron microscope levels the bulk of actin and myosin was colocalized in close vicinity to the intercellular clefts of both micro- and macrovascular endothelial cells in situ and in vitro. 4. Calcium-ionophore-induced rise in permeability of human umbilical venous endothelial cells (HUVEC) and PAEC monolayers grown on filters in a two-chamber permeability system was caused by opening of intercellular gaps. Gap formation depended on the rise in intracellular Ca2+ and could be blocked by the calmodulin-binding drugs trifluperazine (TFP) and W7. 5. In skinned monolayers of cultured PAEC and in isolated sheets of HUVEC gap formation was shown to require ATP and occurred only when free myosin binding sites were available on endothelial actin filaments (experiments with myosin subfragment 1 modified by N-ethylmaleimide, S1-NEM). 6. These experiments suggest that actin and myosin in endothelial cells play a central role in regulating the width of the intercellular clefts, thereby controlling the paracellular pathway of vascular permeability. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 Fig. 14 Fig. 15 PMID:2100310

  19. Various Themes of Myosin Regulation.

    PubMed

    Heissler, Sarah M; Sellers, James R

    2016-05-01

    Members of the myosin superfamily are actin-based molecular motors that are indispensable for cellular homeostasis. The vast functional and structural diversity of myosins accounts for the variety and complexity of the underlying allosteric regulatory mechanisms that determine the activation or inhibition of myosin motor activity and enable precise timing and spatial aspects of myosin function at the cellular level. This review focuses on the molecular basis of posttranslational regulation of eukaryotic myosins from different classes across species by allosteric intrinsic and extrinsic effectors. First, we highlight the impact of heavy and light chain phosphorylation. Second, we outline intramolecular regulatory mechanisms such as autoinhibition and subsequent activation. Third, we discuss diverse extramolecular allosteric mechanisms ranging from actin-linked regulatory mechanisms to myosin:cargo interactions. At last, we briefly outline the allosteric regulation of myosins with synthetic compounds.

  20. An electrostatic model with weak actin-myosin attachment resolves problems with the lattice stability of skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Smith, D A; Stephenson, D G

    2011-06-01

    The stability of the filament lattice in relaxed striated muscle can be viewed as a balance of electrostatic and van der Waals forces. The simplest electrostatic model, where actin and myosin filaments are treated as charged cylinders, generates reasonable lattice spacings for skinned fibers. However, this model predicts excessive radial stiffness under osmotic pressure and cannot account for the initial pressure (∼1 kPa) required for significant compression. Good agreement with frog compression data is obtained with an extended model, in which S1 heads are weakly attached to actin when the lattice spacing is reduced below a critical value; further compression moves fixed negative charges on the heads closer to the myofilament backbone as they attach at a more acute angle to actin. The model predicts pH data in which the lattice shrinks as pH is lowered and protons bind to filaments. Electrostatic screening implies that the lattice shrinks with increasing ionic strength, but the observed expansion of the frog lattice at ionic strengths above 0.1 M with KCl might be explained if Cl(-) binds to sites on the motor domain of S1. With myosin-myosin and actin-actin interactions, the predicted lattice spacing decreases slightly with sarcomere length, with a more rapid decrease when actin-myosin filament overlap is very small. PMID:21641314

  1. Myosin II ATPase activity mediates the long-term potentiation-induced exodus of stable F-actin bound by drebrin A from dendritic spines.

    PubMed

    Mizui, Toshiyuki; Sekino, Yuko; Yamazaki, Hiroyuki; Ishizuka, Yuta; Takahashi, Hideto; Kojima, Nobuhiko; Kojima, Masami; Shirao, Tomoaki

    2014-01-01

    The neuronal actin-binding protein drebrin A forms a stable structure with F-actin in dendritic spines. NMDA receptor activation causes an exodus of F-actin bound by drebrin A (DA-actin) from dendritic spines, suggesting a pivotal role for DA-actin exodus in synaptic plasticity. We quantitatively assessed the extent of DA-actin localization to spines using the spine-dendrite ratio of drebrin A in cultured hippocampal neurons, and found that (1) chemical long-term potentiation (LTP) stimulation induces rapid DA-actin exodus and subsequent DA-actin re-entry in dendritic spines, (2) Ca(2+) influx through NMDA receptors regulates the exodus and the basal accumulation of DA-actin, and (3) the DA-actin exodus is blocked by myosin II ATPase inhibitor, but is not blocked by myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) or Rho-associated kinase (ROCK) inhibitors. These results indicate that myosin II mediates the interaction between NMDA receptor activation and DA-actin exodus in LTP induction. Furthermore, myosin II seems to be activated by a rapid actin-linked mechanism rather than slow MLC phosphorylation. Thus the myosin-II mediated DA-actin exodus might be an initial event in LTP induction, triggering actin polymerization and spine enlargement.

  2. Myosin II ATPase Activity Mediates the Long-Term Potentiation-Induced Exodus of Stable F-Actin Bound by Drebrin A from Dendritic Spines

    PubMed Central

    Mizui, Toshiyuki; Sekino, Yuko; Yamazaki, Hiroyuki; Ishizuka, Yuta; Takahashi, Hideto; Kojima, Nobuhiko; Kojima, Masami; Shirao, Tomoaki

    2014-01-01

    The neuronal actin-binding protein drebrin A forms a stable structure with F-actin in dendritic spines. NMDA receptor activation causes an exodus of F-actin bound by drebrin A (DA-actin) from dendritic spines, suggesting a pivotal role for DA-actin exodus in synaptic plasticity. We quantitatively assessed the extent of DA-actin localization to spines using the spine-dendrite ratio of drebrin A in cultured hippocampal neurons, and found that (1) chemical long-term potentiation (LTP) stimulation induces rapid DA-actin exodus and subsequent DA-actin re-entry in dendritic spines, (2) Ca2+ influx through NMDA receptors regulates the exodus and the basal accumulation of DA-actin, and (3) the DA-actin exodus is blocked by myosin II ATPase inhibitor, but is not blocked by myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) or Rho-associated kinase (ROCK) inhibitors. These results indicate that myosin II mediates the interaction between NMDA receptor activation and DA-actin exodus in LTP induction. Furthermore, myosin II seems to be activated by a rapid actin-linked mechanism rather than slow MLC phosphorylation. Thus the myosin-II mediated DA-actin exodus might be an initial event in LTP induction, triggering actin polymerization and spine enlargement. PMID:24465547

  3. Sucrose Increases the Activation Energy Barrier for Actin-Myosin Strong Binding

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, Del R.; Webb, Milad; Stewart, Travis J.; Phillips, Travis; Carter, Michael; Cremo, Christine R.; Baker, Josh E.

    2014-01-01

    To determine the mechanism by which sucrose slows in vitro actin sliding velocities, V, we used stopped flow kinetics and a single molecule binding assay, SiMBA. We observed that in the absence of ATP, sucrose (880 mM) slowed the rate of actin-myosin (A-M) strong binding by 71 ± 8% with a smaller inhibitory effect observed on spontaneous rigor dissociation (21 ± 3%). Similarly, in the presence of ATP, sucrose slowed strong binding associated with Pi release by 85 ± 9% with a smaller inhibitory effect on ATP-induced A-M dissociation, kT (39 ± 2%). Sucrose had no noticeable effect on any other step in the ATPase reaction. In SiMBA, sucrose had a relatively small effect on the diffusion coefficient for actin fragments (25 ± 2%), and with stopped flow we showed that sucrose increased the activation energy barrier for A-M strong binding by 37 ± 3%, indicating that sucrose inhibits the rate of A-M strong binding by slowing bond formation more than diffusional searching. The inhibitory effects of sucrose on the rate of A-M rigor binding (71%) are comparable in magnitude to sucrose’s effects on both V (79 ± 33% decrease) and maximal actin-activated ATPase, kcat, (81 ± 16% decrease), indicating that the rate of A-M strong bond formation significantly influences both kcat and V. PMID:24370736

  4. Reversible movement of switch 1 loop of myosin determines actin interaction

    PubMed Central

    Kintses, Bálint; Gyimesi, Máté; Pearson, David S; Geeves, Michael A; Zeng, Wei; Bagshaw, Clive R; Málnási-Csizmadia, András

    2007-01-01

    The conserved switch 1 loop of P-loop NTPases is implicated as a central element that transmits information between the nucleotide-binding pocket and the binding site of the partner proteins. Recent structural studies have identified two states of switch 1 in G-proteins and myosin, but their role in the transduction mechanism has yet to be clarified. Single tryptophan residues were introduced into the switch 1 region of myosin II motor domain and studied by rapid reaction methods. We found that in the presence of MgADP, two states of switch 1 exist in dynamic equilibrium. Actin binding shifts the equilibrium towards one of the MgADP states, whereas ATP strongly favors the other. In the light of electron cryo-microscopic and X-ray crystallographic results, these findings lead to a specific structural model in which the equilibrium constant between the two states of switch 1 is coupled to the strength of the actin–myosin interaction. This has implications for the enzymatic mechanism of G-proteins and possibly P-loop NTPases in general. PMID:17213877

  5. A single-headed fission yeast myosin V transports actin in a tropomyosin-dependent manner.

    PubMed

    Tang, Qing; Billington, Neil; Krementsova, Elena B; Bookwalter, Carol S; Lord, Matthew; Trybus, Kathleen M

    2016-07-18

    Myo51, a class V myosin in fission yeast, localizes to and assists in the assembly of the contractile ring, a conserved eukaryotic actomyosin structure that facilitates cytokinesis. Rng8 and Rng9 are binding partners that dictate the cellular localization and function of Myo51. Myo51 was expressed in insect cells in the presence or absence of Rng8/9. Surprisingly, electron microscopy of negatively stained images and hydrodynamic measurements showed that Myo51 is single headed, unlike most class V myosins. When Myo51-Rng8/9 was bound to actin-tropomyosin, two attachment sites were observed: the typical ATP-dependent motor domain attachment and a novel ATP-independent binding of the tail mediated by Rng8/9. A modified motility assay showed that this additional binding site anchors Myo51-Rng8/9 so that it can cross-link and slide actin-tropomyosin filaments relative to one another, functions that may explain the role of this motor in contractile ring assembly. PMID:27432898

  6. The Intensity Of The 2.7nm Reflection As A Constraint For Models Of Myosin Docking To Actin

    SciTech Connect

    Reconditi, Massimo; Irving, Tom C.

    2009-03-16

    Previous workers have proposed high resolution models for the docking of the myosin heads on actin on the basis of combined crystallographic and electron microscopy data (Mendelson and Morris, 1997 PNAS 94:8533; Holmes et al. 2003 Nature 425:423). We have used data from small angle X-ray fiber diffraction from living muscle to check the predictions of these models. Whole sartorius muscles from Rana pipiens were mounted in a chamber containing Ringer's solution at 10 C and at rest length at the BioCAT beamline (18 ID, Advanced Photon Source, Argonne, IL-U.S.A.). The muscles were activated by electrical stimulation and the force was recorded with a muscle lever system type 300B (Aurora Scientific). X-ray patterns were collected with 1s total exposures at rest and during isometric contraction out to 0.5 nm{sup -1} in reciprocal space, as the higher angle reflections are expected to be more sensitive to the arrangement of myosin heads on actin. We observed that during isometric contraction the meridional reflection originating from the 2.73nm repeat of the actin monomers along the actin filament increases its intensity by a factor 2.1 {+-} 0.2 relative to rest. Among the models tested, Holmes et al. fits the data when the actin filament is decorated with 30-40% the total available myosin heads, a fraction similar to that estimated with fast single fiber mechanics by Piazzesi et al. (2007, Cell 131:784). However, when the mismatch between the periodicities of actin and myosin filaments is taken into account, none of the models can reproduce the fiber diffraction data. We suggest that the fiber diffraction data should be used as a further constraint on new high resolution models for the docking of the myosin heads on actin.

  7. Actin filament organization and myosin head labelling patterns in vertebrate skeletal muscles in the rigor and weak binding states.

    PubMed

    Squire, J M; Harford, J J

    1988-08-01

    The structures of vertebrate skeletal muscles (particularly from frog and fish) in the rigor state are analysed in terms of the concept of target areas on actin filaments. Assuming that 100% of the heads are to be attached to actin in rigor, then satisfactory qualitative low-resolution modelling of observed X-ray diffraction data is obtained if the outer ends of these myosin heads can move axially (total range about 200A) and azimuthally (total range less than 60 degrees) from their original lattice sites on the myosin filament surface to attach in defined target areas on the actin filaments. On this basis, each actin target area comprises about four actin monomers along one of the two long-pitched helical strands of the actin filament (about 200 A) or an azimuthal range of actin binding sites of about 100 degrees around the thin filament axis. If myosin heads simply label in a non-specific way the nearest actin monomers to them, as could occur with non-specific transient attachment in a 'weak binding' state, then the predicted X-ray diffraction pattern would comprise layer lines at the same axial spacings (orders of 429 A) as those seen in patterns from resting muscle. It is shown that actin target areas in vertebrate skeletal muscles are probably arranged on an approximate 62 (right-handed) helix of pitch (P) of about 720 A, subunit translation P/6 and near repeat P/2. Troponin position need not be considered in defining the labelling pattern of cross-bridges on this 62 helix of target areas; the target areas appear to be defined solely by the azimuthal position of the actin binding sites. The distribution of actin filament labelling patterns could be regular in fish muscle which has a 'crystalline' A-band, but will be irregular in higher vertebrate muscles such as frog sartorius muscle.

  8. Vascular disease-causing mutation R258C in ACTA2 disrupts actin dynamics and interaction with myosin

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Hailong; Fagnant, Patricia M.; Bookwalter, Carol S.; Joel, Peteranne; Trybus, Kathleen M.

    2015-01-01

    Point mutations in vascular smooth muscle α-actin (SM α-actin), encoded by the gene ACTA2, are the most prevalent cause of familial thoracic aortic aneurysms and dissections (TAAD). Here, we provide the first molecular characterization, to our knowledge, of the effect of the R258C mutation in SM α-actin, expressed with the baculovirus system. Smooth muscles are unique in that force generation requires both interaction of stable actin filaments with myosin and polymerization of actin in the subcortical region. Both aspects of R258C function therefore need investigation. Total internal reflection fluorescence (TIRF) microscopy was used to quantify the growth of single actin filaments as a function of time. R258C filaments are less stable than WT and more susceptible to severing by cofilin. Smooth muscle tropomyosin offers little protection from cofilin cleavage, unlike its effect on WT actin. Unexpectedly, profilin binds tighter to the R258C monomer, which will increase the pool of globular actin (G-actin). In an in vitro motility assay, smooth muscle myosin moves R258C filaments more slowly than WT, and the slowing is exacerbated by smooth muscle tropomyosin. Under loaded conditions, small ensembles of myosin are unable to produce force on R258C actin-tropomyosin filaments, suggesting that tropomyosin occupies an inhibitory position on actin. Many of the observed defects cannot be explained by a direct interaction with the mutated residue, and thus the mutation allosterically affects multiple regions of the monomer. Our results align with the hypothesis that defective contractile function contributes to the pathogenesis of TAAD. PMID:26153420

  9. Myosin heavy chain 10 (MYH10) is required for centriole migration during the biogenesis of primary cilia.

    PubMed

    Hong, Hyowon; Kim, Jongshin; Kim, Joon

    2015-05-22

    The actin cytoskeleton has been implicated in the assembly of cilia, but roles of actin-dependent motor proteins in ciliogenesis remain unclear. Myosin heavy chain 10 (MYH10), one of the isoforms of non-muscle myosin II, is known to mediate centrosome reorientation during cell migration. Here we show that MYH10 is required for centriole migration to the apical plasma membrane, which occurs at the onset of ciliogenesis. Knockdown of MYH10 in RPE1 cells caused a reduction in the levels of cortical filamentous actin (F-actin) and its binding protein EZRIN. Moreover, both centriole migration and subsequent cilium assembly were defective in MYH10 depleted cells. We further found that MYH10 influences centrosomal recruitment of IFT88, which is required for the transport of building blocks to the ciliary tip. The role of MYH10 in IFT88 recruitment appears to be indirect in that there is a correlation between centriolar IFT88 levels and centriolar positions along the apical-basal axis during ciliogenesis. Our results indicate that MYH10 contributes to ciliogenesis in RPE1 cells by promoting cortical actin-dependent centriole migration.

  10. Rho/Rho-dependent kinase affects locomotion and actin-myosin II activity of Amoeba proteus.

    PubMed

    Kłopocka, W; Redowicz, M J

    2004-10-01

    The highly motile free-living unicellular organism Amoeba proteus has been widely used as a model to study cell motility. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying its unique locomotion are still scarcely known. Recently, we have shown that blocking the amoebae's endogenous Rac- and Rho-like proteins led to distinct and irreversible changes in the appearance of these large migrating cells as well as to a significant inhibition of their locomotion. In order to elucidate the mechanism of the Rho pathway, we tested the effects of blocking the endogenous Rho-dependent kinase (ROCK) by anti-ROCK antibodies and Y-27632, (+)-(R)-trans-4-(1-aminoethyl)-N-(4-pyridyl)cyclohexanecarboxamide dihydrochloride, a specific inhibitor of ROCK, on migrating amoebae and the effect of the Rho and ROCK inhibition on the actin-activated Mg-ATPase of the cytosolic fraction of the amoebae. Amoebae microinjected with anti-ROCK inhibitors remained contracted and strongly attached to the glass surface and exhibited an atypical locomotion. Despite protruding many pseudopodia that were advancing in various directions, the amoebae could not effectively move. Immunofluorescence studies showed that ROCK-like protein was dispersed throughout the cytoplasm and was also found in the regions of actin-myosin II interaction during both isotonic and isometric contraction. The Mg-ATPase activity was about two- to threefold enhanced, indicating that blocking the Rho/Rho-dependent kinase activated myosin. It is possible then that in contrast to the vertebrate cells, the inactivation of Rho/Rho-dependent kinase in amoebae leads to the activation of myosin II and to the observed hypercontracted cells which cannot exert effective locomotion. PMID:15726816

  11. The genes and mRNA coding for the heavy chains of chick embryonic skeletal myosin.

    PubMed

    Patrinou-Georgoulas, M; John, H A

    1977-10-01

    A size class of polysomes was isolated from chick embryonic leg skeletal muscle which synthesized almost exclusively a polypeptide chain with a molecular weight identical to the myosin heavy chain. The mRNA purified from these polysomes was shown to synthesize the 200,000 dalton polypeptide in the wheat germ cell-free translation system. At least 90% of the polypeptide had properties similar to the myosin heavy chain. Isoelectric focusing indicated that the myosin heavy chain synthesized in vitro contained two chains in equal amounts, as did purified embryonic leg skeletal muscle myosin. The kinetics of hybridization of the complementary DNA with an excess of the myosin heavy chain mRNA (MHC mRNA) indicated the presence of two different mRNA sequences. Reassociation of the cDNA to an excess of the DNA of the genome suggest that there is little, if any, reiteration of the myosin heavy chain genes.

  12. Activation of myosin V-based motility and F-actin-dependent network formation of endoplasmic reticulum during mitosis.

    PubMed

    Wollert, Torsten; Weiss, Dieter G; Gerdes, Hans-Hermann; Kuznetsov, Sergei A

    2002-11-25

    It is widely believed that microtubule- and F-actin-based transport of cytoplasmic organelles and membrane fusion is down-regulated during mitosis. Here we show that during the transition of Xenopus egg extracts from interphase to metaphase myosin V-driven movement of small globular vesicles along F-actin is strongly inhibited. In contrast, the movement of ER and ER network formation on F-actin is up-regulated in metaphase extracts. Our data demonstrate that myosin V-driven motility of distinct organelles is differently controlled during the cell cycle and suggest an active role of F-actin in partitioning, positioning, and membrane fusion of the ER during cell division. PMID:12438410

  13. HDAC3-dependent reversible lysine acetylation of cardiac myosin heavy chain isoforms modulates their enzymatic and motor activity.

    PubMed

    Samant, Sadhana A; Courson, David S; Sundaresan, Nagalingam R; Pillai, Vinodkumar B; Tan, Minjia; Zhao, Yingming; Shroff, Sanjeev G; Rock, Ronald S; Gupta, Mahesh P

    2011-02-18

    Reversible lysine acetylation is a widespread post-translational modification controlling the activity of proteins in different subcellular compartments. We previously demonstrated that a class II histone deacetylase (HDAC), HDAC4, and a histone acetyltransferase, PCAF, associate with cardiac sarcomeres, and a class I and II HDAC inhibitor, trichostatin A, enhances contractile activity of myofilaments. In this study, we show that a class I HDAC, HDAC3, is also present at cardiac sarcomeres. By immunohistochemical and electron microscopic analyses, we found that HDAC3 was localized to the A band of sarcomeres and was capable of deacetylating myosin heavy chain (MHC) isoforms. The motor domains of both cardiac α- and β-MHC isoforms were found to be reversibly acetylated. Biomechanical studies revealed that lysine acetylation significantly decreased the K(m) for the actin-activated ATPase activity of both α- and β-MHC isoforms. By an in vitro motility assay, we found that lysine acetylation increased the actin sliding velocity of α-myosin by 20% and β-myosin by 36%, compared to their respective non-acetylated isoforms. Moreover, myosin acetylation was found to be sensitive to cardiac stress. During induction of hypertrophy, myosin isoform acetylation increased progressively with duration of stress stimuli, independent of isoform shift, suggesting that lysine acetylation of myosin could be an early response of myofilaments to increase contractile performance of the heart. These studies provide the first evidence for localization of HDAC3 at myofilaments and uncover a novel mechanism modulating the motor activity of cardiac MHC isoforms.

  14. Myosin III-mediated cross-linking and stimulation of actin bundling activity of Espin

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Haiyang; Li, Jianchao; Raval, Manmeet H; Yao, Ningning; Deng, Xiaoying; Lu, Qing; Nie, Si; Feng, Wei; Wan, Jun; Yengo, Christopher M; Liu, Wei; Zhang, Mingjie

    2016-01-01

    Class III myosins (Myo3) and actin-bundling protein Espin play critical roles in regulating the development and maintenance of stereocilia in vertebrate hair cells, and their defects cause hereditary hearing impairments. Myo3 interacts with Espin1 through its tail homology I motif (THDI), however it is not clear how Myo3 specifically acts through Espin1 to regulate the actin bundle assembly and stabilization. Here we discover that Myo3 THDI contains a pair of repeat sequences capable of independently and strongly binding to the ankyrin repeats of Espin1, revealing an unexpected Myo3-mediated cross-linking mechanism of Espin1. The structures of Myo3 in complex with Espin1 not only elucidate the mechanism of the binding, but also reveal a Myo3-induced release of Espin1 auto-inhibition mechanism. We also provide evidence that Myo3-mediated cross-linking can further promote actin fiber bundling activity of Espin1. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.12856.001 PMID:26785147

  15. Regulation of myosin IIA and filamentous actin during insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in 3T3-L1 adipocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Stall, Richard; Ramos, Joseph; Kent Fulcher, F.; Patel, Yashomati M.

    2014-03-10

    Insulin stimulated glucose uptake requires the colocalization of myosin IIA (MyoIIA) and the insulin-responsive glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) at the plasma membrane for proper GLUT4 fusion. MyoIIA facilitates filamentous actin (F-actin) reorganization in various cell types. In adipocytes F-actin reorganization is required for insulin-stimulated glucose uptake. What is not known is whether MyoIIA interacts with F-actin to regulate insulin-induced GLUT4 fusion at the plasma membrane. To elucidate the relationship between MyoIIA and F-actin, we examined the colocalization of MyoIIA and F-actin at the plasma membrane upon insulin stimulation as well as the regulation of this interaction. Our findings demonstrated that MyoIIA and F-actin colocalized at the site of GLUT4 fusion with the plasma membrane upon insulin stimulation. Furthermore, inhibition of MyoII with blebbistatin impaired F-actin localization at the plasma membrane. Next we examined the regulatory role of calcium in MyoIIA-F-actin colocalization. Reduced calcium or calmodulin levels decreased colocalization of MyoIIA and F-actin at the plasma membrane. While calcium alone can translocate MyoIIA it did not stimulate F-actin accumulation at the plasma membrane. Taken together, we established that while MyoIIA activity is required for F-actin localization at the plasma membrane, it alone is insufficient to localize F-actin to the plasma membrane. - Highlights: • Insulin induces colocalization of MyoIIA and F-actin at the cortex in adipocytes. • MyoIIA is necessary but not sufficient to localize F-actin at the cell cortex. • MyoIIA-F-actin colocalization is regulated by calcium and calmodulin.

  16. The dynamic distribution of fluorescent analogues of actin and myosin in protrusions at the leading edge of migrating Swiss 3T3 fibroblasts

    PubMed Central

    1988-01-01

    The formation of protrusions at the leading edge of the cell is an essential step in fibroblast locomotion. Using fluorescent analogue cytochemistry, ratio imaging, multiple parameter analysis, and fluorescence photobleaching recovery, the distribution of actin and myosin was examined in the same protrusions at the leading edge of live, locomoting cells during wound-healing in vitro. We have previously defined two temporal stages of the formation of protrusions: (a) initial protrusion and (b) established protrusion (Fisher et al., 1988). Actin was slightly concentrated in initial protrusions, while myosin was either totally absent or present at extremely low levels at the base of the initial protrusions. In contrast, established protrusions contained diffuse actin and actin microspikes, as well as myosin in both diffuse and structured forms. Actin and myosin were also localized along concave transverse fibers near the base of initial and established protrusions. The dynamics of myosin penetration into a relatively stable, established protrusion was demonstrated by recording sequential images over time. Myosin was shown to be absent from an initial protrusion, but diffuse and punctate myosin was detected in the same protrusion within 1-2 min. Fluorescence photobleaching recovery indicated that myosin was 100% immobile in the region behind the leading edge containing transverse fibers, in comparison to the 21% immobile fraction detected in the perinuclear region. Possible explanations of the delayed penetration of myosin into established protrusions and the implications on the mechanism of protrusion are discussed. PMID:3204122

  17. Diphosphorylated but not monophosphorylated myosin II regulatory light chain localizes to the midzone without its heavy chain during cytokinesis.

    PubMed

    Kondo, Tomo; Isoda, Rieko; Uchimura, Takashi; Sugiyama, Mutsumi; Hamao, Kozue; Hosoya, Hiroshi

    2012-01-13

    Myosin II is activated by the monophosphorylation of its regulatory light chain (MRLC) at Ser19 (1P-MRLC). Its ATPase activity is further enhanced by MRLC diphosphorylation at Thr18/Ser19 (2P-MRLC). As these phosphorylated MRLCs are colocalized with their heavy chains at the contractile ring in dividing cells, we believe that the phosphorylated MRLC acts as a subunit of the activated myosin II during cytokinesis. However, the distinct role(s) of 1P- and 2P-MRLC during cytokinesis has not been elucidated. In this study, a monoclonal antibody (4F12) specific for 2P-MRLC was raised and used to examine the roles of 2P-MRLC in cultured mammalian cells. Our confocal microscopic observations using 4F12 revealed that 2P-MRLC localized to the contractile ring, and, unexpectedly, to the midzone also. Interestingly, 2P-MRLC did not colocalize with 1P-MRLC, myosin II heavy chain, and F-actin at the midzone. These results suggest that 2P-MRLC has a role different from that of 1P-MRLC at the midzone, and is not a subunit of myosin II. PMID:22166199

  18. The roles of the actin-myosin interaction and proteolysis in tenderization during the aging of chicken muscle.

    PubMed

    Li, S; Xu, X; Zhou, G

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the contribution of the changes in the actin-myosin interaction and proteolysis on meat tenderization during postmortem storage. Following slaughter, chicken breast muscles were removed and stored at 4°C. Changes in the actin-myosin interaction over 48 h of aging were determined by monitoring the Mg(2+)- and Ca(2+)-ATPase activities. Shear force values, pH, protein degradation, calpain activities, and myofibrillar ultrastructures were also investigated. Results showed that the initial weak actin-myosin interaction strengthened at 12 h postmortem followed by a gradual weakening, which was supported by a decrease in Mg(2+)-ATPase activities and a lengthening of the sarcomeres. According to SDS-PAGE and Western blotting analyses, the 30-kDa troponin-T fragment could not be readily detected until 12 h, whereas, at the same time, desmin had been rapidly degraded. However, there was a gradual decline in μ-calpain activity, commencing after about 6 h. Meanwhile, the largest decline in shear force was observed between 12 and 24 h postmortem. These findings suggest that weakening of the strong actin-myosin interaction formed at rigor may play a large role in meat tenderization during the early period of storage. It is proposed that weakening of the actin-myosin interaction results in lengthening of the sarcomeres, and then activated calpains are more able to reach their targeted sites, enabling proteolysis. These 2 factors may be involved in the conversion of muscle to tender meat during postmortem storage.

  19. Myosin II Motors and F-Actin Dynamics Drive the Coordinated Movement of the Centrosome and Soma during CNS Glial-Guided Neuronal Migration

    SciTech Connect

    Solecki, Dr. David; Trivedi, Dr. Niraj; Govek, Eve-Ellen; Kerekes, Ryan A; Gleason, Shaun Scott; Hatten, Mary E

    2009-01-01

    Lamination of cortical regions of the vertebrate brain depends on glial-guided neuronal migration. The conserved polarity protein Par6{alpha} localizes to the centrosome and coordinates forward movement of the centrosome and soma in migrating neurons. The cytoskeletal components that produce this unique form of cell polarity and their relationship to polarity signaling cascades are unknown. We show that F-actin and Myosin II motors are enriched in the neuronal leading process and that Myosin II activity is necessary for leading process actin dynamics. Inhibition of Myosin II decreased the speed of centrosome and somal movement, whereas Myosin II activation increased coordinated movement. Ectopic expression or silencing of Par6{alpha} inhibited Myosin II motors by decreasing Myosin light-chain phosphorylation. These findings suggest leading-process Myosin II may function to 'pull' the centrosome and soma forward during glial-guided migration by a mechanism involving the conserved polarity protein Par6{alpha}.

  20. Compliance Accelerates Relaxation in Muscle by Allowing Myosin Heads to Move Relative to Actin.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Kenneth S

    2016-02-01

    The mechanisms that limit the speed at which striated muscles relax are poorly understood. This work presents, to our knowledge, novel simulations that show that the time course of relaxation is accelerated by interfilamentary movement resulting from series compliance; force drops faster when myosin heads move relative to actin during relaxation. This insight was obtained by using cross-bridge distribution techniques to simulate the mechanical behavior of half-sarcomeres that were connected in series with springs of varying stiffness. (The springs mimic the combined effects of half-sarcomere heterogeneity and muscle's series elastic component.) Half-sarcomeres that shortened by >∼10 nm when they were activated subsequently relaxed with a biphasic profile; force initially declined slowly and approximately linearly before collapsing with a fast exponential time course. Stretches imposed during the linear phase quickened relaxation, while shortening movements prolonged the time course. These predictions are consistent with data from experiments performed by many other groups using single muscle fibers and isolated myofibrils. When half-sarcomeres were linked to stiff springs (so that they did not shorten appreciably during the simulations), force relaxed with a slow exponential time course and did not show biphasic behavior. Together, these results suggest that fast relaxation of striated muscle is an emergent property that reflects multiscale interactions within the muscle architecture. The nonlinear behavior during relaxation reflects perturbations to the dynamic coupling of regulated binding sites and cycling myosin heads that are induced by interfilamentary movement.

  1. Structural Characterization of the Binding of Myosin*ADP*Pi to Actin in Permeabilized Rabbit Psoas Muscle

    SciTech Connect

    Xu,S.; Gu, J.; Belknap, B.; White, H.; Yu, L.

    2006-01-01

    When myosin is attached to actin in a muscle cell, various structures in the filaments are formed. The two strongly bound states (A{center_dot}M{center_dot}ADP and A{center_dot}M) and the weakly bound A{center_dot}M{center_dot}ATP states are reasonably well understood. The orientation of the strongly bound myosin heads is uniform ('stereospecific' attachment), and the attached heads exhibit little spatial fluctuation. In the prehydrolysis weakly bound A{center_dot}M{center_dot}ATP state, the orientations of the attached myosin heads assume a wide range of azimuthal and axial angles, indicating considerable flexibility in the myosin head. The structure of the other weakly bound state, A{center_dot}M{center_dot}ADP{center_dot}P{sub i}, however, is poorly understood. This state is thought to be the critical pre-power-stroke state, poised to make the transition to the strongly binding, force-generating states, and hence it is of particular interest for understanding the mechanism of contraction. However, because of the low affinity between myosin and actin in the A{center_dot}M{center_dot}ADP{center_dot}P{sub i} state, the structure of this state has eluded determination both in isolated form and in muscle cells. With the knowledge recently gained in the structures of the weakly binding M{center_dot}ATP, M{center_dot}ADP{center_dot}P{sub i} states and the weakly attached A{center_dot}M{center_dot}ATP state in muscle fibers, it is now feasible to delineate the in vivo structure of the attached state of A{center_dot}M{center_dot}ADP{center_dot}P{sub i}. The series of experiments presented in this article were carried out under relaxing conditions at 25{sup o}C, where {approx}95% of the myosin heads in the skinned rabbit psoas muscle contain the hydrolysis products. The affinity for actin is enhanced by adding polyethylene glycol (PEG) or by lowering the ionic strength in the bathing solution. Solution kinetics and binding constants were determined in the presence and in

  2. Temperature-dependent developmental variation in lobster muscle myosin heavy chain isoforms.

    PubMed

    Magnay, J L; Holmes, J M; Neil, D M; El Haj, A J

    2003-10-16

    The temperature- and developmental-regulation of myosin heavy chain (MyHC) expression and primary sequence was investigated in the abdominal musculature of developing Homarus gammarus larvae acclimated to 10, 14 and 19+/-1 degrees C. MyHC loop 1 (ATP binding) and loop 2 (actin binding) regions were sequenced and compared. The deduced amino acid sequence of MyHC loop 1 showed a development-related increase in net charge from +1 to +2 between larval stages 1 and 2, which was not temperature-dependent. In post-settled stage 9 larvae, minor shifts in amino acid sequence occurred at 19 degrees C, and corresponded to a significant up-regulation of fast myosin mRNA expression. However, no temperature-specific loop 1 isoforms were detected. The deduced amino acid sequence of MyHC loop 2 was not affected by temperature, and the net charge remained +4 throughout development. These findings contrast to previous studies using the common carp, in which temperature-specific MyHC isoform genes were expressed in response to disparate thermal regimes. This raises the question as to whether arthropods do not express specific temperature isoforms but instead rely on shifts in fibre type to accommodate alterations in thermal environment. PMID:14563558

  3. The role of actin and myosin in PtK2 spindle length changes induced by laser microbeam irradiations across the spindle.

    PubMed

    Sheykhani, Rozhan; Baker, Norman; Gomez-Godinez, Veronica; Liaw, Lih-Huei; Shah, Jagesh; Berns, Michael W; Forer, Arthur

    2013-05-01

    This study investigates spindle biomechanical properties to better understand how spindles function. In this report, laser microbeam cutting across mitotic spindles resulted in movement of spindle poles toward the spindle equator. The pole on the cut side moved first, the other pole moved later, resulting in a shorter but symmetric spindle. Intervening spindle microtubules bent and buckled during the equatorial movement of the poles. Because of this and because there were no detectable microtubules within the ablation zone, other cytoskeletal elements would seem to be involved in the equatorial movement of the poles. One possibility is actin and myosin since pharmacological poisoning of the actin-myosin system altered the equatorial movements of both irradiated and unirradiated poles. Immunofluorescence microscopy confirmed that actin, myosin and monophosphorylated myosin are associated with spindle fibers and showed that some actin and monophosphorylated myosin remained in the irradiated regions. Overall, our experiments suggest that actin, myosin and microtubules interact to control spindle length. We suggest that actin and myosin, possibly in conjunction with the spindle matrix, cause the irradiated pole to move toward the equator and that cross-talk between the two half spindles causes the unirradiated pole to move toward the equator until a balanced length is obtained. PMID:23475753

  4. Adaptations in myosin heavy chain profile in chronically unloaded muscles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Talmadge, R. J.; Roy, R. R.; Bodine-Fowler, S. C.; Pierotti, D. J.; Edgerton, V. R.

    1995-01-01

    In this review, myosin heavy chain (MHC) adaptations in response to several models of decreased neuromuscular activity (i.e. electrical activation and loading of a muscle) are evaluated. In each of these "reduced-activity" models it is important to: a) quantify the changes in electrical activation of the muscle as a result of the intervention; b) quantify the forces generated by the muscle; and c) determine whether the neuromuscular junction remains normal. Most of the models, including spaceflight, hindlimb suspension, spinal cord isolation, spinal cord transection, denervation, and limb immobilization in a shortened position, result in increases in the percentage of fast MHCs (or fast MHC mRNA) in normally slow rat muscles. It also can be inferred from histochemical data that increases in fast MHCs occur with TTX application and bed rest. The only "reduced-activity" model to consistently increase slow muscle myosin mRNA, and slow fibers is limb immobilization in a stretched position; however, this model results in at least a temporary increase in tension. It appears that the most common feature of these models that might induce MHC adaptations is the modification in loading rather than a change in the neuromuscular activity.

  5. Possible interrelationship between changes in F-actin and myosin II, protein phosphorylation, and cell volume regulation in Ehrlich ascites tumor cells.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, S F; Hoffmann, E K

    2002-07-01

    Osmotic shrinkage of Ehrlich ascites tumor cells (EATC) elicited translocation of myosin II from the cytosol to the cortical region, and swelling elicits concentration of myosin II in the Golgi region. Rho kinase and p38 both appeared to be involved in shrinkage-induced myosin II reorganization. In contrast, the previously reported shrinkage-induced actin polymerization [Pedersen et al. (1999) Exp. Cell Res. 252, 63-74] was independent of Rho kinase, p38, myosin light chain kinase (MLCK), and protein kinase C (PKC), which thus do not exert their effects on the shrinkage-activated transporters via effects on F-actin. The subsequent F-actin depolymerization, however, appeared MLCK- and PKC-dependent, and the initial swelling-induced F-actin depolymerization was MLCK-dependent; both effects were apparently secondary to kinase-mediated effects on cell volume changes. NHE1 in EATC is activated both by osmotic shrinkage and by the serine/threonine phosphatase inhibitor Calyculin A (CL-A). Both stimuli caused Rho kinase-dependent myosin II relocation to the cortical cytoplasm, but in contrast to the shrinkage-induced F-actin polymerization, CL-A treatment elicited a slight F-actin depolymerization. Moreover, Rho kinase inhibition did not significantly affect NHE1 activation, neither by shrinkage nor by CL-A. Implications for the possible interrelationship between changes in F-actin and myosin II, protein phosphorylation, and cell volume regulation are discussed. PMID:12061817

  6. Ca(2+)-dependent, myosin subfragment 1-induced proximity changes between actin and the inhibitory region of troponin I.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, T; Kobayashi, M; Collins, J H

    2001-10-18

    In order to help understand the spatial rearrangements of thin filament proteins during the regulation of muscle contraction, we used fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) to measure Ca(2+)-dependent, myosin-induced changes in distances and fluorescence energy transfer efficiencies between actin and the inhibitory region of troponin I (TnI). We labeled the single Cys-117 of a mutant TnI with N-(iodoacetyl)-N'-(1-sulfo-5-naphthyl)ethylenediamine (IAEDANS) and Cys-374 of actin with 4-dimethylaminophenylazophenyl-4'-maleimide (DABmal). These fluorescent probes were used as donor and acceptor, respectively, for the FRET measurements. We reconstituted a troponin-tropomyosin (Tn-Tm) complex which contained the AEDANS-labeled mutant TnI, together with natural troponin T (TnT), troponin C (TnC) and tropomyosin (Tm) from rabbit fast skeletal muscle. Fluorescence titration of the AEDANS-labeled Tn-Tm complex with DABmal-labeled actin, in the presence and absence of Ca(2+), resulted in proportional, linear increases in energy transfer efficiency up to a 7:1 molar excess of actin over Tn-Tm. The distance between AEDANS on TnI Cys-117 and DABmal on actin Cys-374 increased from 37.9 A to 44.1 A when Ca(2+) bound to the regulatory sites of TnC. Titration of reconstituted thin filaments, containing AEDANS-labeled Tn-Tm and DABmal-labeled actin, with myosin subfragment 1 (S1) decreased the energy transfer efficiency, in both the presence and absence of Ca(2+). The maximum decrease occurred at well below stoichiometric levels of S1 binding to actin, showing a cooperative effect of S1 on the state of the thin filaments. S1:actin molar ratios of approximately 0.1 in the presence of Ca(2+), and approximately 0.3 in the absence of Ca(2+), were sufficient to cause a 50% reduction in normalized transfer efficiency. The distance between AEDANS on TnI Cys-117 and DABmal on actin Cys-374 increased by approximately 7 A in the presence of Ca(2+) and by approximately 2 A in the absence

  7. Myosin Heavy Chain Composition of the Human Hyoglossus Muscle*

    PubMed Central

    Sokoloff, Alan J.; Daugherty, Megan; Li, Haiyan

    2013-01-01

    The human tongue muscle hyoglossus (HG) muscle is active in oro-motor behaviors encompassing a wide range of tongue movement speeds. Here we test the hypothesis that the human HG is composed of “uncommon” myosin heavy chain (MHC) isoforms MHCembryonic, MHCneonatal and MHCslow tonic as has been reported for other head and neck muscles active during kinematically diverse behaviors. Following reaction of human HG with antibodies specific for MHCI, MHCIIA, MHCII, MHCembryonic, MHCextraocular, MHCneonatal and MHCslow tonic only antibodies to MHCI, MHCIIA and MHCIIA-X label more than occasional muscle fibers. These antibodies describe five phenotypes with prevalence MHCIIA>MHCI>MHCI-IIX>MHCI-IIA>MHCIIX. In MHC composition, the human HG is thus similar to human appendicular muscles, the human tongue muscle styloglossus and many human head and neck muscles but different from human masseter and extraocular muscles which contain five or more MHC isoforms. PMID:19526266

  8. EF-hand proteins and the regulation of actin-myosin interaction in the eutardigrade Hypsibius klebelsbergi (tardigrada).

    PubMed

    Prasath, Thiruketheeswaran; Greven, Hartmut; D'Haese, Jochen

    2012-06-01

    Many tardigrade species resist harsh environmental conditions by entering anhydrobiosis or cryobiosis. Desiccation as well as freeze resistance probably leads to changes of the ionic balance that includes the intracellular calcium concentration. In order to search for protein modifications affecting the calcium homoeostasis, we studied the regulatory system controlling actin-myosin interaction of the eutardigrade Hypsibius klebelsbergi and identified full-length cDNA clones for troponin C (TnC, 824 bp), calmodulin (CaM, 1,407 bp), essential myosin light chain (eMLC, 1,015 bp), and regulatory myosin light chain (rMLC, 984 bp) from a cDNA library. All four proteins belong to the EF-hand superfamily typified by a calcium coordinating helix-loop-helix motif. Further, we cloned and obtained recombinant TnC and both MLCs. CaM and TnC revealed four and two potential calcium-binding domains, respectively. Gel mobility shift assays demonstrated calcium-induced conformational transition of TnC. From both MLCs, only the rMLC showed one potential N-terminal EF-hand domain. Additionally, sequence properties suggest phosphorylation of this myosin light chain. Based on our results, we suggest a dual-regulated system at least in somatic muscles for tardigrades with a calcium-dependent tropomyosin-troponin complex bound to the actin filaments and a phosphorylation of the rMLC turning on and off both actin and myosin. Our results indicate no special modifications of the molecular structure and function of the EF-hand proteins in tardigrades. Phylogenetic trees of 131 TnCs, 96 rMLCs, and 62 eMLCs indicate affinities to Ecdysozoa, but also to some other taxa suggesting that our results reflect the complex evolution of these proteins rather than phylogenetic relationships.

  9. EF-hand proteins and the regulation of actin-myosin interaction in the eutardigrade Hypsibius klebelsbergi (tardigrada).

    PubMed

    Prasath, Thiruketheeswaran; Greven, Hartmut; D'Haese, Jochen

    2012-06-01

    Many tardigrade species resist harsh environmental conditions by entering anhydrobiosis or cryobiosis. Desiccation as well as freeze resistance probably leads to changes of the ionic balance that includes the intracellular calcium concentration. In order to search for protein modifications affecting the calcium homoeostasis, we studied the regulatory system controlling actin-myosin interaction of the eutardigrade Hypsibius klebelsbergi and identified full-length cDNA clones for troponin C (TnC, 824 bp), calmodulin (CaM, 1,407 bp), essential myosin light chain (eMLC, 1,015 bp), and regulatory myosin light chain (rMLC, 984 bp) from a cDNA library. All four proteins belong to the EF-hand superfamily typified by a calcium coordinating helix-loop-helix motif. Further, we cloned and obtained recombinant TnC and both MLCs. CaM and TnC revealed four and two potential calcium-binding domains, respectively. Gel mobility shift assays demonstrated calcium-induced conformational transition of TnC. From both MLCs, only the rMLC showed one potential N-terminal EF-hand domain. Additionally, sequence properties suggest phosphorylation of this myosin light chain. Based on our results, we suggest a dual-regulated system at least in somatic muscles for tardigrades with a calcium-dependent tropomyosin-troponin complex bound to the actin filaments and a phosphorylation of the rMLC turning on and off both actin and myosin. Our results indicate no special modifications of the molecular structure and function of the EF-hand proteins in tardigrades. Phylogenetic trees of 131 TnCs, 96 rMLCs, and 62 eMLCs indicate affinities to Ecdysozoa, but also to some other taxa suggesting that our results reflect the complex evolution of these proteins rather than phylogenetic relationships. PMID:25363580

  10. Temperature-enhanced association of proteins due to electrostatic interaction: a coarse-grained simulation of actin-myosin binding.

    PubMed

    Okazaki, Kei-ichi; Sato, Takato; Takano, Mitsunori

    2012-05-30

    Association of protein molecules constitutes the basis for the interaction network in a cell. Despite its fundamental importance, the thermodynamic aspect of protein-protein binding, particularly the issues relating to the entropy change upon binding, remains elusive. The binding of actin and myosin, which are vital proteins in motility, is a typical example, in which two different binding mechanisms have been argued: the binding affinity increases with increasing temperature and with decreasing salt-concentration, indicating the entropy-driven binding and the enthalpy-driven binding, respectively. How can these thermodynamically different binding mechanisms coexist? To address this question, which is of general importance in understanding protein-protein bindings, we conducted an in silico titration of the actin-myosin system by molecular dynamics simulation using a residue-level coarse-grained model, with particular focus on the role of the electrostatic interaction. We found a good agreement between in silico and in vitro experiments on the salt-concentration dependence and the temperature dependence of the binding affinity. We then figured out how the two binding mechanisms can coexist: the enthalpy (due to electrostatic interaction between actin and myosin) provides the basal binding affinity, and the entropy (due to the orientational disorder of water molecules) enhances it at higher temperatures. In addition, we analyzed the actin-myosin complex structures observed during the simulation and obtained a variety of weak-binding complex structures, among which were found an unusual binding mode suggested by an earlier experiment and precursor structures of the strong-binding complex proposed by electron microscopy. These results collectively indicate the potential capability of a residue-level coarse-grained model to simulate the association-dissociation dynamics (particularly for transient weak-bindings) exhibited by larger and more complicated systems, as in a

  11. Rac-mediated actin remodeling and myosin II are involved in KATP channel trafficking in pancreatic β-cells

    PubMed Central

    Han, Young-Eun; Lim, Ajin; Park, Sun-Hyun; Chang, Sunghoe; Lee, Suk-Ho; Ho, Won-Kyung

    2015-01-01

    AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a metabolic sensor activated during metabolic stress and it regulates various enzymes and cellular processes to maintain metabolic homeostasis. We previously reported that activation of AMPK by glucose deprivation (GD) and leptin increases KATP currents by increasing the surface levels of KATP channel proteins in pancreatic β-cells. Here, we show that the signaling mechanisms that mediate actin cytoskeleton remodeling are closely associated with AMPK-induced KATP channel trafficking. Using F-actin staining with Alexa 633-conjugated phalloidin, we observed that dense cortical actin filaments present in INS-1 cells cultured in 11 mM glucose were disrupted by GD or leptin treatment. These changes were blocked by inhibiting AMPK using compound C or siAMPK and mimicked by activating AMPK using AICAR, indicating that cytoskeletal remodeling induced by GD or leptin was mediated by AMPK signaling. AMPK activation led to the activation of Rac GTPase and the phosphorylation of myosin regulatory light chain (MRLC). AMPK-dependent actin remodeling induced by GD or leptin was abolished by the inhibition of Rac with a Rac inhibitor (NSC23766), siRac1 or siRac2, and by inhibition of myosin II with a myosin ATPase inhibitor (blebbistatin). Immunocytochemistry, surface biotinylation and electrophysiological analyses of KATP channel activity and membrane potentials revealed that AMPK-dependent KATP channel trafficking to the plasma membrane was also inhibited by NSC23766 or blebbistatin. Taken together, these results indicate that AMPK/Rac-dependent cytoskeletal remodeling associated with myosin II motor function promotes the translocation of KATP channels to the plasma membrane in pancreatic β-cells. PMID:26471000

  12. Myosins 1 and 6, myosin light chain kinase, actin and microtubules cooperate during antibody-mediated internalisation and trafficking of membrane-expressed viral antigens in feline infectious peritonitis virus infected monocytes.

    PubMed

    Dewerchin, Hannah L; Desmarets, Lowiese M; Noppe, Ytse; Nauwynck, Hans J

    2014-02-12

    Monocytes infected with feline infectious peritonitis virus, a coronavirus, express viral proteins in their plasma membranes. Upon binding of antibodies, these proteins are quickly internalised through a new clathrin- and caveolae-independent internalisation pathway. By doing so, the infected monocytes can escape antibody-dependent cell lysis. In the present study, we investigated which kinases and cytoskeletal proteins are of importance during internalisation and subsequent intracellular transport. The experiments showed that myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) and myosin 1 are crucial for the initiation of the internalisation. With co-localisation stainings, it was found that MLCK and myosin 1 co-localise with antigens even before internalisation started. Myosin 6 co-localised with the internalising complexes during passage through the cortical actin, were it might play a role in moving or disintegrating actin filaments, to overcome the actin barrier. One minute after internalisation started, vesicles had passed the cortical actin, co-localised with microtubules and association with myosin 6 was lost. The vesicles were further transported over the microtubules and accumulated at the microtubule organising centre after 10 to 30 min. Intracellular trafficking over microtubules was mediated by MLCK, myosin 1 and a small actin tail. Since inhibiting MLCK with ML-7 was so efficient in blocking the internalisation pathway, this target can be used for the development of a new treatment for FIPV.

  13. Myosin Va facilitates the distribution of secretory granules in the F-actin rich cortex of PC12 cells.

    PubMed

    Rudolf, Rüdiger; Kögel, Tanja; Kuznetsov, Sergei A; Salm, Thorsten; Schlicker, Oliver; Hellwig, Andrea; Hammer, John A; Gerdes, Hans-Hermann

    2003-04-01

    Neuroendocrine secretory granules, the storage organelles for neuropeptides and hormones, are formed at the trans-Golgi network, stored inside the cell and exocytosed upon stimulation. Previously, we have reported that newly formed secretory granules of PC12 cells are transported in a microtubule-dependent manner from the trans-Golgi network to the F-actin-rich cell cortex, where they undergo short directed movements and exhibit a homogeneous distribution. Here we provide morphological and biochemical evidence that myosin Va is associated with secretory granules. Expression of a dominant-negative tail domain of myosin Va in PC12 cells led to an extensive clustering of secretory granules close to the cell periphery, a loss of their cortical restriction and a strong reduction in their motility in the actin cortex. Based on this data we propose a model that implies a dual transport system for secretory granules: after microtubule-dependent delivery to the cell periphery, secretory granules exhibit a myosin Va-dependent transport leading to their restriction and even dispersal in the F-actin-rich cortex of PC12 cells. PMID:12615975

  14. Quantitative determination of type I myosin heavy chain in bovine muscle with anti myosin monoclonal antibodies.

    PubMed

    Picard, B; Leger, J; Robelin, J

    1994-01-01

    Bovine type I muscle fibers were characterized by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) with a monoclonal antibody specific for slow myosin heavy chains (MHC 1). Two bovine muscles, the Masseter and Cutaneus trunci, were analyzed by different complementary techniques: electrophoresis, immunoblotting and immunohistiology. The results showed that the two muscles have extreme characteristics. The Masseter contains only slow MHC and the Cutaneus trunci is composed solely of rapid MHC (MHC 2a and 2b). A standard for this ELISA was obtained by mixing the two muscles and was used as a reference in the determination of the percentage of MHC 1 in a given muscle. In this study, the Longissimus thoracis of 27 Charolais cattle were examined. The different conditions under which assays were carried out were described and the accuracy of the measurement was calculated. In view of the results, ELISA was chosen for the analysis of muscle fiber types in large numbers of animal specimens. This technique could be used in several research projects to study the muscle characteristics that determine beef quality. PMID:22061628

  15. Myosin heavy chain-like localizes at cell contact sites during Drosophila myoblast fusion and interacts in vitro with Rolling pebbles 7

    SciTech Connect

    Bonn, Bettina R.; Rudolf, Anja; Hornbruch-Freitag, Christina; Daum, Gabor; Kuckwa, Jessica; Kastl, Lena; Buttgereit, Detlev; Renkawitz-Pohl, Renate

    2013-02-15

    Besides representing the sarcomeric thick filaments, myosins are involved in many cellular transport and motility processes. Myosin heavy chains are grouped into 18 classes. Here we show that in Drosophila, the unconventional group XVIII myosin heavy chain-like (Mhcl) is transcribed in the mesoderm of embryos, most prominently in founder cells (FCs). An ectopically expressed GFP-tagged Mhcl localizes in the growing muscle at cell–cell contacts towards the attached fusion competent myoblast (FCM). We further show that Mhcl interacts in vitro with the essential fusion protein Rolling pebbles 7 (Rols7), which is part of a protein complex established at cell contact sites (Fusion-restricted Myogenic-Adhesive Structure or FuRMAS). Here, branched F-actin is likely needed to widen the fusion pore and to integrate the myoblast into the growing muscle. We show that the localization of Mhcl is dependent on the presence of Rols7, and we postulate that Mhcl acts at the FuRMAS as an actin motor protein. We further show that Mhcl deficient embryos develop a wild-type musculature. We thus propose that Mhcl functions redundantly to other myosin heavy chains in myoblasts. Lastly, we found that the protein is detectable adjacent to the sarcomeric Z-discs, suggesting an additional function in mature muscles. - Highlights: ► The class XVIII myosin encoding gene Mhcl is transcribed in the mesoderm. ► Mhcl localization at contact sites of fusing myoblasts depends on Rols7. ► Mhcl interacts in vitro with Rols7 which is essential for myogenesis. ► Functional redundancy with other myosins is likely as mutants show no muscle defects. ► Mhcl localizes adjacent to Z-discs of sarcomeres and might support muscle integrity.

  16. CARBONYLATION OF MYOSIN HEAVY CHAINS IN RAT HEARTS DURING DIABETES

    PubMed Central

    Shao, Chun-Hong; Rozanski, George J.; Nagai, Ryoji; Stockdale, Frank E.; Patel, Kaushik P.; Wang, Mu; Singh, Jaipaul; Mayhan, William G.; Bidasee, Keshore R.

    2010-01-01

    Cardiac inotropy progressively declines during diabetes mellitus. To date, the molecular mechanisms underlying this defect remain incompletely characterized. This study tests the hypothesis that ventricular myosin heavy chains (MHC) undergo carbonylation by reactive carbonyl species (RCS) during diabetes and these modifications contribute to the inotropic decline. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were injected with streptozotocin (STZ). Fourteen days later animals were divided into two groups: one group was treated with the RCS blocker aminoguanidine for six weeks, while the other group received no treatment. After eight weeks of diabetes, cardiac ejection fraction, fractional shortening, left ventricular pressure development (+dP/dt) and myocyte shortening were decreased by 9%, 16%, 34% and 18%, respectively. Ca2+- and Mg2+-actomyosin ATPase activities and peak actomyosin syneresis were also reduced by 35%, 28%, and 72%. MHC-α to MHC-β ratio was 12:88. Mass spectrometry and Western blots revealed the presence of carbonyl adducts on MHC-α and MHC-β. Aminoguandine treatment did not alter MHC composition, but it blunted formation of carbonyl adducts and decreases in actomyosin Ca2+-sensitive ATPase activity, syneresis, myocyte shortening, cardiac ejection fraction, fractional shortening and +dP/dt induced by diabetes. From these new data it can be concluded that in addition to isozyme switching, modification of MHC by RCS also contributes to the inotropic decline seen during diabetes. PMID:20359464

  17. Carbonylation of myosin heavy chains in rat heart during diabetes.

    PubMed

    Shao, Chun-Hong; Rozanski, George J; Nagai, Ryoji; Stockdale, Frank E; Patel, Kaushik P; Wang, Mu; Singh, Jaipaul; Mayhan, William G; Bidasee, Keshore R

    2010-07-15

    Cardiac inotropy progressively declines during diabetes mellitus. To date, the molecular mechanisms underlying this defect remain incompletely characterized. This study tests the hypothesis that ventricular myosin heavy chains (MHC) undergo carbonylation by reactive carbonyl species (RCS) during diabetes and these modifications contribute to the inotropic decline. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were injected with streptozotocin (STZ). Fourteen days later the animals were divided into two groups: one group was treated with the RCS blocker aminoguanidine for 6 weeks, while the other group received no treatment. After 8 weeks of diabetes, cardiac ejection fraction, fractional shortening, left ventricular pressure development (+dP/dt) and myocyte shortening were decreased by 9%, 16%, 34% and 18%, respectively. Ca(2+)- and Mg(2+)-actomyosin ATPase activities and peak actomyosin syneresis were also reduced by 35%, 28%, and 72%. MHC-alpha to MHC-beta ratio was 12:88. Mass spectrometry and Western blots revealed the presence of carbonyl adducts on MHC-alpha and MHC-beta. Aminoguanidine treatment did not alter MHC composition, but it blunted formation of carbonyl adducts and decreases in actomyosin Ca(2+)-sensitive ATPase activity, syneresis, myocyte shortening, cardiac ejection fraction, fractional shortening and +dP/dt induced by diabetes. From these new data it can be concluded that in addition to isozyme switching, modification of MHC by RCS also contributes to the inotropic decline seen during diabetes.

  18. Improving human skeletal muscle myosin heavy chain fiber typing efficiency.

    PubMed

    Murach, Kevin A; Bagley, James R; McLeland, Kathryn A; Arevalo, Jose A; Ciccone, Anthony B; Malyszek, Kylie K; Wen, Yuan; Galpin, Andrew J

    2016-04-01

    Single muscle fiber sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel-electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) is a sensitive technique for determining skeletal muscle myosin heavy chain (MHC) composition of human biopsy samples. However, the number of fibers suitable to represent fiber type distribution via this method is undefined. Muscle biopsies were obtained from the vastus lateralis (VL) of nine resistance-trained males (25 ± 1 year, height = 179 ± 5 cm, mass = 82 ± 8 kg). Single fiber MHC composition was determined via SDS-PAGE. VL fiber type distribution [percent MHC I, I/IIa, IIa, IIa/IIx, and total "hybrids" (i.e. I/IIa + IIa/IIx)] was evaluated according to number of fibers analyzed per person (25 vs. 125). VL fiber type distribution did not differ according to number of fibers analyzed (P > 0.05). VL biopsy fiber type distribution of nine subjects is represented by analyzing 25 fibers per person. These data may help minimize cost, personnel-time, and materials associated with this technique, thereby improving fiber typing efficiency in humans. PMID:26842420

  19. Myosin Heavy Chain Composition of the Human Genioglossus Muscle

    PubMed Central

    Daugherty, Megan; Luo, Qingwei; Sokoloff, Alan J.

    2013-01-01

    Background The human tongue muscle genioglossus (GG) is active in speech, swallowing, respiration and oral transport, behaviors encompassing a wide range of tongue shapes and movement speeds. Studies demonstrate substantial diversity in patterns of human GG motor unit activation but whether this is accompanied by complex expression of muscle contractile proteins is not known. Purpose We tested for conventional myosin heavy chain MHCI, MHCIIA, MHCIIX, developmental MHCembryonic and MHCneonatal and unconventional MHCαcardiac, MHCextraocular and MHCslow tonic in antero-superior (GG-A) and posterior (GG-P) adult human GG. Method SDS-PAGE, Western blot and immunohistochemistry were used to describe MHC composition of GG-A and GG-P and the prevalence of muscle fiber MHC phenotypes in GG-A. Results: By SDS-PAGE, only conventional MHC are present with ranking from most to least prevalent MHCIIA>MHCI>MHCIIX in GG-A and MHCI>MHCIIA>MHCIIX in GG-P. By immunohistochemistry many muscle fibers contain MHCI, MHCIIA and MHCIIX but few contain developmental or unconventional MHC. GG-A is composed of five phenotypes (MHCIIA>MHCI-IIX>MHCI>MHCI-IIA>MHCIIX). Phenotypes MHCI, MHCIIA and MHCI-IIX account for 96% of muscle fibers. Conclusions Despite activation of GG during kinematically diverse behaviors and complex patterns of GG motor unit activity, the human GG is composed of conventional MHC isoforms and three primary MHC phenotypes. PMID:22337492

  20. [Tropomyosin and myosin subfragment 1 induce in thin muscle fiber filaments differing conformational changes in the C-terminal portion of the polypeptide chain of actin].

    PubMed

    Borovikov, Iu S; Dobrowolski, Z; Dabrowska, R

    1988-08-01

    Muscle fibres, free of myosin, troponin and tropomyosin, containing thin filaments reconstructed from G-actin and modified by fluorescent label 1,5-IAEDANS were used for polarized microfluorimetric studies of the effect of tropomyosin (TM) from smooth muscles, and of subfragment 1 (S1) from skeletal muscles on the structural state of F-actin. TM and S1 were shown to initiate different changes in polarized fluorescence of 1,5-IAEDANS of F-actin: TM increases, whereas S1 decreases fluorescent anisotropy. It was suggested that the structural state of F-actin may differ in the C-terminal of polypeptide chain of actin.

  1. Myosin-10 produces its power-stroke in two phases and moves processively along a single actin filament under low load

    PubMed Central

    Takagi, Yasuharu; Farrow, Rachel E.; Billington, Neil; Nagy, Attila; Batters, Christopher; Yang, Yi; Sellers, James R.; Molloy, Justin E.

    2014-01-01

    Myosin-10 is an actin-based molecular motor that participates in essential intracellular processes such as filopodia formation/extension, phagocytosis, cell migration, and mitotic spindle maintenance. To study this motor protein’s mechano-chemical properties, we used a recombinant, truncated form of myosin-10 consisting of the first 936 amino acids, followed by a GCN4 leucine zipper motif, to force dimerization. Negative-stain electron microscopy reveals that the majority of molecules are dimeric with a head-to-head contour distance of ∼50 nm. In vitro motility assays show that myosin-10 moves actin filaments smoothly with a velocity of ∼310 nm/s. Steady-state and transient kinetic analysis of the ATPase cycle shows that the ADP release rate (∼13 s−1) is similar to the maximum ATPase activity (∼12–14 s−1) and therefore contributes to rate limitation of the enzymatic cycle. Single molecule optical tweezers experiments show that under intermediate load (∼0.5 pN), myosin-10 interacts intermittently with actin and produces a power stroke of ∼17 nm, composed of an initial 15-nm and subsequent 2-nm movement. At low optical trap loads, we observed staircase-like processive movements of myosin-10 interacting with the actin filament, consisting of up to six ∼35-nm steps per binding interaction. We discuss the implications of this load-dependent processivity of myosin-10 as a filopodial transport motor. PMID:24753602

  2. Cortical F-actin, the exocytic mode, and neuropeptide release in mouse chromaffin cells is regulated by myristoylated alanine-rich C-kinase substrate and myosin II.

    PubMed

    Doreian, Bryan W; Fulop, Tiberiu G; Meklemburg, Robert L; Smith, Corey B

    2009-07-01

    Adrenal medullary chromaffin cells are innervated by the sympathetic splanchnic nerve and translate graded sympathetic firing into a differential hormonal exocytosis. Basal sympathetic firing elicits a transient kiss-and-run mode of exocytosis and modest catecholamine release, whereas elevated firing under the sympathetic stress response results in full granule collapse to release catecholamine and peptide transmitters into the circulation. Previous studies have shown that rearrangement of the cell actin cortex regulates the mode of exocytosis. An intact cortex favors kiss-and-run exocytosis, whereas disrupting the cortex favors the full granule collapse mode. Here, we investigate the specific roles of two actin-associated proteins, myosin II and myristoylated alanine-rich C-kinase substrate (MARCKS) in this process. Our data demonstrate that MARCKS phosphorylation under elevated cell firing is required for cortical actin disruption but is not sufficient to elicit peptide transmitter exocytosis. Our data also demonstrate that myosin II is phospho-activated under high stimulation conditions. Inhibiting myosin II activity prevented disruption of the actin cortex, full granule collapse, and peptide transmitter release. These results suggest that phosphorylation of both MARCKS and myosin II lead to disruption of the actin cortex. However, myosin II, but not MARCKS, is required for the activity-dependent exocytosis of the peptide transmitters.

  3. Phospholipase C and myosin light chain kinase inhibition define a common step in actin regulation during cytokinesis

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Raymond; Fabian, Lacramioara; Forer, Arthur; Brill, Julie A

    2007-01-01

    Background Phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2) is required for successful completion of cytokinesis. In addition, both PIP2 and phosphoinositide-specific phospholipase C (PLC) have been localized to the cleavage furrow of dividing mammalian cells. PLC hydrolyzes PIP2 to yield diacylglycerol (DAG) and inositol trisphosphate (IP3), which in turn induces calcium (Ca2+) release from the ER. Several studies suggest PIP2 must be hydrolyzed continuously for continued cleavage furrow ingression. The majority of these studies employ the N-substituted maleimide U73122 as an inhibitor of PLC. However, the specificity of U73122 is unclear, as its active group closely resembles the non-specific alkylating agent N-ethylmaleimide (NEM). In addition, the pathway by which PIP2 regulates cytokinesis remains to be elucidated. Results Here we compared the effects of U73122 and the structurally unrelated PLC inhibitor ET-18-OCH3 (edelfosine) on cytokinesis in crane-fly and Drosophila spermatocytes. Our data show that the effects of U73122 are indeed via PLC because U73122 and ET-18-OCH3 produced similar effects on cell morphology and actin cytoskeleton organization that were distinct from those caused by NEM. Furthermore, treatment with the myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) inhibitor ML-7 caused cleavage furrow regression and loss of both F-actin and phosphorylated myosin regulatory light chain from the contractile ring in a manner similar to treatment with U73122 and ET-18-OCH3. Conclusion We have used multiple inhibitors to examine the roles of PLC and MLCK, a predicted downstream target of PLC regulation, in cytokinesis. Our results are consistent with a model in which PIP2 hydrolysis acts via Ca2+ to activate myosin via MLCK and thereby control actin dynamics during constriction of the contractile ring. PMID:17509155

  4. Histone Deacetylase 3 (HDAC3)-dependent Reversible Lysine Acetylation of Cardiac Myosin Heavy Chain Isoforms Modulates Their Enzymatic and Motor Activity.

    PubMed

    Samant, Sadhana A; Pillai, Vinodkumar B; Sundaresan, Nagalingam R; Shroff, Sanjeev G; Gupta, Mahesh P

    2015-06-19

    Reversible lysine acetylation is a widespread post-translational modification controlling the activity of proteins in different subcellular compartments. We previously demonstrated that a class II histone deacetylase (HDAC), HDAC4, and a histone acetyltransferase, p300/CREB-binding protein-associated factor, associate with cardiac sarcomeres and that a class I and II HDAC inhibitor, trichostatin A, enhances contractile activity of myofilaments. In this study we show that a class I HDAC, HDAC3, is also present at cardiac sarcomeres. By immunohistochemical and electron microscopic analyses, we found that HDAC3 was localized to A-band of sarcomeres and capable of deacetylating myosin heavy chain (MHC) isoforms. The motor domains of both cardiac α- and β-MHC isoforms were found to be reversibly acetylated. Biomechanical studies revealed that lysine acetylation significantly decreased the Km for the actin-activated ATPase activity of MHC isoforms. By in vitro motility assay, we found that lysine acetylation increased the actin-sliding velocity of α-myosin by 20% and β-myosin by 36% compared with their respective non-acetylated isoforms. Moreover, myosin acetylation was found to be sensitive to cardiac stress. During induction of hypertrophy, myosin isoform acetylation increased progressively with duration of stress stimuli independently of isoform shift, suggesting that lysine acetylation of myosin could be an early response of myofilaments to increase contractile performance of the heart. These studies provide the first evidence for localization of HDAC3 at myofilaments and uncover a novel mechanism modulating the motor activity of cardiac MHC isoforms.

  5. Shared Gene Structures and Clusters of Mutually Exclusive Spliced Exons within the Metazoan Muscle Myosin Heavy Chain Genes

    PubMed Central

    Kollmar, Martin; Hatje, Klas

    2014-01-01

    Multicellular animals possess two to three different types of muscle tissues. Striated muscles have considerable ultrastructural similarity and contain a core set of proteins including the muscle myosin heavy chain (Mhc) protein. The ATPase activity of this myosin motor protein largely dictates muscle performance at the molecular level. Two different solutions to adjusting myosin properties to different muscle subtypes have been identified so far: Vertebrates and nematodes contain many independent differentially expressed Mhc genes while arthropods have single Mhc genes with clusters of mutually exclusive spliced exons (MXEs). The availability of hundreds of metazoan genomes now allowed us to study whether the ancient bilateria already contained MXEs, how MXE complexity subsequently evolved, and whether additional scenarios to control contractile properties in different muscles could be proposed, By reconstructing the Mhc genes from 116 metazoans we showed that all intron positions within the motor domain coding regions are conserved in all bilateria analysed. The last common ancestor of the bilateria already contained a cluster of MXEs coding for part of the loop-2 actin-binding sequence. Subsequently the protostomes and later the arthropods gained many further clusters while MXEs got completely lost independently in several branches (vertebrates and nematodes) and species (for example the annelid Helobdella robusta and the salmon louse Lepeophtheirus salmonis). Several bilateria have been found to encode multiple Mhc genes that might all or in part contain clusters of MXEs. Notable examples are a cluster of six tandemly arrayed Mhc genes, of which two contain MXEs, in the owl limpet Lottia gigantea and four Mhc genes with three encoding MXEs in the predatory mite Metaseiulus occidentalis. Our analysis showed that similar solutions to provide different myosin isoforms (multiple genes or clusters of MXEs or both) have independently been developed several times

  6. [C-terminal sites of caldesmon drive ATP hydrolysis cycle by shifting actomyosin itermediates from strong to weak binding of myosin and actin].

    PubMed

    Pronina, O E; Copeland, O; Marston, S; Borovikov, Iu S

    2006-01-01

    Polarized fluorimetry technique and ghost muscle fibers containing tropomyosin were used to study effects of caldesmon (CaD) and recombinant peptides CaDH1 (residues 506-793), CaDH2 (residues 683-767), CaDH12 (residues 506-708) and 658C (residues 658-793) on the orientation and mobility of fluorescent label 1.5-IAEDANS specifically bound to Cys-707 of myosin subfragment-1 (S1) in the absence of nucleotide, and in the presence of MgADP, MgAMP-PNP, MgATPgammaS or MgATP. It was shown that at modelling different intermediates of actomyosin ATPase, the orientation and mobility of dye dipoles changed discretely, suggesting a multi-step changing of the myosin head structural state in ATP hydrolysis cycle. The maximum difference in orientation and mobility of the oscillator (4 degrees and 30%, respectively) was observed between actomyosin in the presence of MgATP, and actomyosin in the presence of MgADP. Caldesmon actin-binding sites C and B' inhibit formation of actomyosin strong binding states, while site B activates it. It is suggested that actin-myosin interaction in ATP hydrolysis cycle initiates nucleotide-dependent rotation of myosin motor domain, or that of its site for dye binding as well as the change in myosin head mobility. Caldesmon drives ATP hydrolysis cycle by shifting the equilibrium between strong and weak forms of actin-myosin binding.

  7. Golgi-derived vesicles from developing epithelial cells bind actin filaments and possess myosin-I as a cytoplasmically oriented peripheral membrane protein

    PubMed Central

    1993-01-01

    In the intestinal brush border, the mechanoenzyme myosin-I links the microvillus core actin filaments with the plasma membrane. Previous immunolocalization shows that myosin-I is associated with vesicles in mature enterocytes (Drenckhahn, D., and R. Dermietzel. 1988. J. Cell Biol. 107:1037-1048) suggesting a potential role mediating vesicle motility. We now report that myosin-I is associated with Golgi-derived vesicles isolated from cells that are rapidly assembling brush borders in intestinal crypts. Crypt cells were isolated in hyperosmotic buffer, homogenized, and fractionated using differential- and equilibrium- density centrifugation. Fractions containing 50-100-nm vesicles, a similar size to those observed in situ, were identified by EM and were shown to contain myosin-I as demonstrated by immunoblotting and immunolabel negative staining. Galactosyltransferase, a marker enzyme for trans-Golgi membranes was present in these fractions, as was alkaline phosphatase, which is an apical membrane targeted enzyme. Galactosyltransferase was also present in vesicles immuno-purified with antibodies to myosin-I. Villin, a marker for potential contamination from fragmented microvilli, was absent. Myosin-I was found to reside on the vesicle "outer" or cytoplasmic surface for it was accessible to exogenous proteases and intact vesicles could be immunolabeled with myosin-I antibodies in solution. The bound myosin-I could be extracted from the vesicles using NaCl, KI and Na2CO3, suggesting that it is a vesicle peripheral membrane protein. These vesicles were shown to bundle actin filaments in an ATP-dependent manner. These results are consistent with a role for myosin-I as an apically targeted motor for vesicle translocation in epithelial cells. PMID:8416982

  8. The tail domain of myosin M catalyses nucleotide exchange on Rac1 GTPases and can induce actin-driven surface protrusions.

    PubMed

    Geissler, H; Ullmann, R; Soldati, T

    2000-05-01

    Members of the myosin superfamily play crucial roles in cellular processes including management of the cortical cytoskeleton, organelle transport and signal transduction. GTPases of the Rho family act as key control elements in the reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton in response to growth factors, and other functions such as membrane trafficking, transcriptional regulation, growth control and development. Here, we describe a novel unconventional myosin from Dictyostelium discoideum, MyoM. Primary sequence analysis revealed that it has the appearance of a natural chimera between a myosin motor domain and a guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) domain for Rho GTPases. The functionality of both domains was established. Binding of the motor domain to F-actin was ATP-dependent and potentially regulated by phosphorylation. The GEF domain displayed selective activity on Rac1-related GTPases. Overexpression, rather than absence of MyoM, affected the cell morphology and viability. Particularly in response to hypo-osmotic stress, cells overexpressing the MyoM tail domain extended massive actin-driven protrusions. The GEF was enriched at the tip of growing protuberances, probably through its pleckstrin homology domain. MyoM is the first unconventional myosin containing an active Rac-GEF domain, suggesting a role at the interface of Rac-mediated signal transduction and remodeling of the actin cytoskeleton. PMID:11208126

  9. Regulation of the filament structure and assembly of Acanthamoeba myosin II by phosphorylation of serines in the heavy-chain nonhelical tailpiece.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiong; Hong, Myoung-Soon; Shu, Shi; Yu, Shuhua; Korn, Edward D

    2013-01-01

    Acanthamoeba myosin II (AMII) has two heavy chains ending in a 27-residue nonhelical tailpiece and two pairs of light chains. In a companion article, we show that five, and only five, serine residues can be phosphorylated both in vitro and in vivo: Ser639 in surface loop 2 of the motor domain and serines 1489, 1494, 1499, and 1504 in the nonhelical tailpiece of the heavy chains. In that paper, we show that phosphorylation of Ser639 down-regulates the actin-activated MgATPase activity of AMII and that phosphorylation of the serines in the nonhelical tailpiece has no effect on enzymatic activity. Here we show that bipolar tetrameric, hexameric, and octameric minifilaments of AMII with the nonhelical tailpiece serines either phosphorylated or mutated to glutamate have longer bare zones and more tightly clustered heads than minifilaments of unphosphorylated AMII, irrespective of the phosphorylation state of Ser639. Although antiparallel dimers of phosphorylated and unphosphorylated myosins are indistinguishable, phosphorylation inhibits dimerization and filament assembly. Therefore, the different structures of tetramers, hexamers, and octamers of phosphorylated and unphosphorylated AMII must be caused by differences in the longitudinal stagger of phosphorylated and unphosphorylated bipolar dimers and tetramers. Thus, although the actin-activated MgATPase activity of AMII is regulated by phosphorylation of Ser639 in loop 2 of the motor domain, the structure of AMII minifilaments is regulated by phosphorylation of one or more of four serines in the nonhelical tailpiece of the heavy chain. PMID:23248285

  10. Myosin, Transgelin, and Myosin Light Chain Kinase

    PubMed Central

    Léguillette, Renaud; Laviolette, Michel; Bergeron, Celine; Zitouni, Nedjma; Kogut, Paul; Solway, Julian; Kachmar, Linda; Hamid, Qutayba; Lauzon, Anne-Marie

    2009-01-01

    Rationale: Airway smooth muscle (SM) of patients with asthma exhibits a greater velocity of shortening (Vmax) than that of normal subjects, and this is thought to contribute to airway hyperresponsiveness. A greater Vmax can result from increased myosin activation. This has been reported in sensitized human airway SM and in models of asthma. A faster Vmax can also result from the expression of specific contractile proteins that promote faster cross-bridge cycling. This possibility has never been addressed in asthma. Objectives: We tested the hypothesis that the expression of genes coding for SM contractile proteins is altered in asthmatic airways and contributes to their increased Vmax. Methods: We quantified the expression of several genes that code for SM contractile proteins in mild allergic asthmatic and control human airway endobronchial biopsies. The function of these contractile proteins was tested using the in vitro motility assay. Measurements and Main Results: We observed an increased expression of the fast myosin heavy chain isoform, transgelin, and myosin light chain kinase in patients with asthma. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated the expression of these genes at the protein level. To address the functional significance of this overexpression, we purified tracheal myosin from the hyperresponsive Fisher rats, which also overexpress the fast myosin heavy chain isoform as compared with the normoresponsive Lewis rats, and found a faster rate of actin filament propulsion. Conversely, transgelin did not alter the rate of actin filament propulsion. Conclusions: Selective overexpression of airway smooth muscle genes in asthmatic airways leads to increased Vmax, thus contributing to the airway hyperresponsiveness observed in asthma. PMID:19011151

  11. Modeling of the motion of the actin filament on the myosin motility assays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, Yuan; Shelley, Mike

    2007-11-01

    In motility assays, cytoskeletal actin filaments (actin filaments) glide over a surface coated with motor proteins, and the different modes of motion provide a simple measure of the force exerted by the motor proteins (Bourdieu, 1995). Motivated by these experiments, we consider the actin filament as a slender, elastic filament immersed in Stokesian flow, driven by a tangential forcing that mimics the force by the motor proteins. We find qualitative agreement on several points between our analysis and simulations and experimental observations. Furthermore, we study the correlation between filament transport and the characteristics of motion with the spatial pattern of motor protein density.

  12. Direct photoaffinity labeling by nucleotides of the apparent catalytic site on the heavy chains of smooth muscle and Acanthamoeba myosins

    SciTech Connect

    Maruta, H.; Korn, E.D.

    1981-01-10

    The heavy chains of Acanthamoeba myosins, IA, IB and II, turkey gizzard myosin, and rabbit skeletal muscle myosin subfragment-1 were specifically labeled by radioactive ATP, ADP, and UTP, each of which is a substrate or product of myosin ATPase activity, when irradiated with uv light at 0/sup 0/C. With UTP, as much as 0.45 mol/mol of Acanthamoeba myosin IA heavy chain and 1 mol/mol of turkey gizzard myosin heavy chain was incorporated. Evidence that the ligands were associated with the catalytic site included the observations that reaction occurred only with nucleotides that are substrates or products of the ATPase activity; that the reaction was blocked by pyrophosphate which is an inhibitor of the ATPase activity; that ATP was bound as ADP; and that label was probably restricted to a single peptide following limited subtilisin proteolysis of labeled Acanthamoeba myosin IA heavy chain and extensive cleavage with CNBr and trypsin of labeled turkey gizzard myosin heavy chain.

  13. Myosin localization during meiosis I of crane-fly spermatocytes gives indications about its role in division.

    PubMed

    Silverman-Gavrila, Rosalind V; Forer, Arthur

    2003-06-01

    We showed previously that in crane-fly spermatocytes myosin is required for tubulin flux [Silverman-Gavrila and Forer, 2000a: J Cell Sci 113:597-609], and for normal anaphase chromosome movement and contractile ring contraction [Silverman-Gavrila and Forer, 2001: Cell Motil Cytoskeleton 50:180-197]. Neither the identity nor the distribution of myosin(s) were known. In the present work, we used immunofluorescence and confocal microscopy to study myosin during meiosis-I of crane-fly spermatocytes compared to tubulin, actin, and skeletor, a spindle matrix protein, in order to further understand how myosin might function during cell division. Antibodies to myosin II regulatory light chain and myosin II heavy chain gave similar staining patterns, both dependent on stage: myosin is associated with nuclei, asters, centrosomes, chromosomes, spindle microtubules, midbody microtubules, and contractile rings. Myosin and actin colocalization along kinetochore fibers from prometaphase to anaphase are consistent with suggestions that acto-myosin forces in these stages propel kinetochore fibres poleward and trigger tubulin flux in kinetochore fibres, contributing in this way to poleward chromosome movement. Myosin and actin colocalization at the cell equator in cytokinesis, similar to studies in other cells [e.g., Fujiwara and Pollard, 1978: J Cell Biol 77:182-195], supports a role of actin-myosin interactions in contractile ring function. Myosin and skeletor colocalization in prometaphase spindles is consistent with a role of these proteins in spindle formation. After microtubules or actin were disrupted, myosin remained in spindles and contractile rings, suggesting that the presence of myosin in these structures does not require the continued presence of microtubules or actin. BDM (2,3 butanedione, 2 monoxime) treatment that inhibits chromosome movement and cytokinesis also altered myosin distributions in anaphase spindles and contractile rings, consistent with the

  14. The association of peroxisomes with the developing cell plate in dividing onion root cells depends on actin microfilaments and myosin.

    PubMed

    Collings, David A; Harper, John D I; Vaughn, Kevin C

    2003-12-01

    We have investigated changes in the distribution of peroxisomes through the cell cycle in onion ( Allium cepa L.) root meristem cells with immunofluorescence and electron microscopy, and in leek ( Allium porrum L.) epidermal cells with immunofluorescence and peroxisomal-targeted green fluorescent protein. During interphase and mitosis, peroxisomes distribute randomly throughout the cytoplasm, but beginning late in anaphase, they accumulate at the division plane. Initially, peroxisomes occur within the microtubule phragmoplast in two zones on either side of the developing cell plate. However, as the phragmoplast expands outwards to form an annulus, peroxisomes redistribute into a ring immediately inside the location of the microtubules. Peroxisome aggregation depends on actin microfilaments and myosin. Peroxisomes first accumulate in the division plane prior to the formation of the microtubule phragmoplast, and throughout cytokinesis, always co-localise with microfilaments. Microfilament-disrupting drugs (cytochalasin and latrunculin), and a putative inhibitor of myosin (2,3-butanedione monoxime), inhibit aggregation. We propose that aggregated peroxisomes function in the formation of the cell plate, either by regulating hydrogen peroxide production within the developing cell plate, or by their involvement in recycling of excess membranes from secretory vesicles via the beta-oxidation pathway. Differences in aggregation, a phenomenon which occurs in onion, some other monocots and to a lesser extent in tobacco BY-2 suspension cells, but which is not obvious in the roots of Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh., may reflect differences within the primary cell walls of these plants.

  15. Interaction of myosin LYS-553 with the C-terminus and DNase I-binding loop of actin examined by fluorescence resonance energy transfer.

    PubMed

    Yengo, C M; Chrin, L R; Berger, C L

    2000-09-01

    Fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) experiments were carried out in the absence of nucleotide (rigor) or in the presence of MgADP between fluorescent donor probes (IAEDANS (5((((2-iodoacetyl)amino)ethyl)amino)-naphthalene-1-sulfonic acid) at Cys-374 or DANSYL (5-dimethylamino naphthalene-1-(N-(5-aminopentyl))sulfonamide) at Gln-41 of actin and acceptor molecules (FHS (6-[fluorescein-5(and 6)-carboxamido] hexanoic acid succinimidyl ester) at Lys-553 of skeletal muscle myosin subfragment 1. The critical Förster distance (R(0)) was determined to be 44 and 38 A for the IAEDANS-FHS and DANSYL-FHS donor-acceptor pairs, respectively. The efficiency of energy transfer between the acceptor molecules at Lys-553 of myosin and donor probes at Cys-374 or Gln-41 of actin was calculated to be 0.78 +/- 0.01 or 0.94 +/- 0.01, respectively, corresponding to distances of 35.6 +/- 0.4 A and 24.0 +/- 1.6 A, respectively. MgADP had no significant effect on the distances observed in rigor. Thus, rearrangements in the acto-myosin interface are likely to occur elsewhere than in the lower 50-kDa subdomain of myosin as its affinity for actin is weakened by MgADP binding.

  16. Myosin heavy chain expression in rabbit masseter muscle during postnatal development.

    PubMed Central

    Bredman, J J; Weijs, W A; Korfage, H A; Brugman, P; Moorman, A F

    1992-01-01

    The expression of isoforms of myosin heavy chain (MHC) during postnatal development was studied in the masseter muscle of the rabbit. Evidence is presented that in addition to adult fast and slow myosin, the rabbit masseter contains neonatal and 'cardiac' alpha-MHC. During postnatal growth myosin transitions take place from neonatal and fast (IIA, IIA/IIB--referring to a fibre containing both IIA and IIB MHCs) MHC to adult 'cardiac' alpha-MHC and I/alpha-MHC. Since there is a temporary population of fibres containing IIA/alpha-MHC during the first 4 wk of development with a peak in the 3rd to 4th wk, the transition from IIA-MHC to alpha-MHC may occur in these IIA/alpha-MHC-containing fibres. The appearance of 'cardiac' alpha-MHC coincides with the timing of weaning, suggesting that the changes in MHC content, that probably result in a transition to a lower speed of contraction, have functional significance related to weaning. The finding of neonatal MHC in adult rabbits indicates that the masseter develops at a rate and in a way that is distinct from most other skeletal muscles. A spatiotemporal variation in expression of myosin isozymes within the masseter was observed, with many fibres containing more than one myosin type, indicating developmentally regulated spatial differences in function. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 7 PMID:1387129

  17. F-actin-myosin II inhibitors affect chromaffin granule plasma membrane distance and fusion kinetics by retraction of the cytoskeletal cortex.

    PubMed

    Villanueva, José; Torres, Vanesa; Torregrosa-Hetland, Cristina J; Garcia-Martinez, Virginia; López-Font, Inmaculada; Viniegra, Salvador; Gutiérrez, Luis M

    2012-10-01

    Chromaffin cell catecholamines are released when specialized secretory vesicles undergo exocytotic membrane fusion. Evidence indicates that vesicle supply and fusion are controlled by the activity of the cortical F-actin-myosin II network. To study in detail cell cortex and vesicle interactions, we use fluorescent labeling with GFP-lifeact and acidotropic dyes in confocal and evanescent wave microscopy. These techniques provide structural details and dynamic images of chromaffin granules caged in a complex cortical structure. Both the movement of cortical structures and granule motion appear to be linked, and this motion can be restricted by the myosin II-specific inhibitor, blebbistatin, and the F-actin stabilizer, jasplakinolide. These treatments also affect the position of the vesicles in relation to the plasma membrane, increasing the distance between them and the fusion sites. Consequently, we observed slower single vesicle fusion kinetics in treated cells after neutralization of acridine orange-loaded granules during exocytosis. Increasing the distance between the granules and the fusion sites appears to be linked to the retraction of the F-actin cytoskeleton when treated with jasplakinolide. Thus, F-actin-myosin II inhibitors appear to slow granule fusion kinetics by altering the position of vesicles after relaxation of the cortical network.

  18. Muscular tissues of the squid Doryteuthis pealeii express identical myosin heavy chain isoforms: an alternative mechanism for tuning contractile speed.

    PubMed

    Shaffer, Justin F; Kier, William M

    2012-01-15

    The speed of muscle contraction is largely controlled at the sarcomere level by the ATPase activity of the motor protein myosin. Differences in amino acid sequence in catalytically important regions of myosin yield different myosin isoforms with varying ATPase activities and resulting differences in cross-bridge cycling rates and interfilamentary sliding velocities. Modulation of whole-muscle performance by changes in myosin isoform ATPase activity is regarded as a universal mechanism to tune contractile properties, especially in vertebrate muscles. Invertebrates such as squid, however, may exhibit an alternative mechanism to tune contractile properties that is based on differences in muscle ultrastructure, including variable myofilament and sarcomere lengths. To determine definitively whether contractile properties of squid muscles are regulated via different myosin isoforms (i.e. different ATPase activities), the nucleotide and amino acid sequences of the myosin heavy chain from the squid Doryteuthis pealeii were determined from the mantle, arm, tentacle, fin and funnel retractor musculature. We identified three myosin heavy chain isoforms in squid muscular tissues, with differences arising at surface loop 1 and the carboxy terminus. All three isoforms were detected in all five tissues studied. These results suggest that the muscular tissues of D. pealeii express identical myosin isoforms, and it is likely that differences in muscle ultrastructure, not myosin ATPase activity, represent the most important mechanism for tuning contractile speeds.

  19. Abnormal movement of tropomyosin and response of myosin heads and actin during the ATPase cycle caused by the Arg167His, Arg167Gly and Lys168Glu mutations in TPM1 gene.

    PubMed

    Borovikov, Yurii S; Rysev, Nikita A; Chernev, Aleksey A; Avrova, Stanislava V; Karpicheva, Olga E; Borys, Danuta; Śliwińska, Małgorzata; Moraczewska, Joanna

    2016-09-15

    Amino acid substitutions: Arg167His, Arg167Gly and Lys168Glu, located in a consensus actin-binding site of the striated muscle tropomyosin Tpm1.1 (TM), were used to investigate mechanisms of the thin filament regulation. The azimuthal movement of TM strands on the actin filament and the responses of the myosin heads and actin subunits during the ATPase cycle were studied using fluorescence polarization of muscle fibres. The recombinant wild-type and mutant TMs labelled with 5-IAF, 1,5-IAEDANS-labelled S1and FITC-phalloidin F-actin were incorporated into the ghost muscle fibres to acquire information on the orientation of the probes relative to the fibre axis. The substitutions Arg167Gly and Lys168Glu shifted TM strands into the actin filament centre, whereas Arg167His moved TM towards the periphery of the filament. In the presence of Arg167Gly-TM and Lys168Glu-TM the fraction of actin monomers that were switched on and the number of the myosin heads strongly bound to F-actin were abnormally high even under conditions close to relaxation. In contrast, Arg167His-TM decreased the fraction of switched on actin and reduced the formation of strongly bound myosin heads throughout the ATPase cycle. We concluded that the altered TM-actin contacts destabilized the thin filament and affected the actin-myosin interactions.

  20. Abnormal movement of tropomyosin and response of myosin heads and actin during the ATPase cycle caused by the Arg167His, Arg167Gly and Lys168Glu mutations in TPM1 gene.

    PubMed

    Borovikov, Yurii S; Rysev, Nikita A; Chernev, Aleksey A; Avrova, Stanislava V; Karpicheva, Olga E; Borys, Danuta; Śliwińska, Małgorzata; Moraczewska, Joanna

    2016-09-15

    Amino acid substitutions: Arg167His, Arg167Gly and Lys168Glu, located in a consensus actin-binding site of the striated muscle tropomyosin Tpm1.1 (TM), were used to investigate mechanisms of the thin filament regulation. The azimuthal movement of TM strands on the actin filament and the responses of the myosin heads and actin subunits during the ATPase cycle were studied using fluorescence polarization of muscle fibres. The recombinant wild-type and mutant TMs labelled with 5-IAF, 1,5-IAEDANS-labelled S1and FITC-phalloidin F-actin were incorporated into the ghost muscle fibres to acquire information on the orientation of the probes relative to the fibre axis. The substitutions Arg167Gly and Lys168Glu shifted TM strands into the actin filament centre, whereas Arg167His moved TM towards the periphery of the filament. In the presence of Arg167Gly-TM and Lys168Glu-TM the fraction of actin monomers that were switched on and the number of the myosin heads strongly bound to F-actin were abnormally high even under conditions close to relaxation. In contrast, Arg167His-TM decreased the fraction of switched on actin and reduced the formation of strongly bound myosin heads throughout the ATPase cycle. We concluded that the altered TM-actin contacts destabilized the thin filament and affected the actin-myosin interactions. PMID:27480605

  1. Three distinct actin-attached structural states of myosin in muscle fibers.

    PubMed

    Mello, Ryan N; Thomas, David D

    2012-03-01

    We have used thiol cross-linking and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) to resolve structural transitions of myosin's light chain domain (LCD) and catalytic domain (CD) that are associated with force generation. Spin labels were incorporated into the LCD of muscle fibers by exchanging spin-labeled regulatory light chain for endogenous regulatory light chain, with full retention of function. To trap myosin in a structural state analogous to the elusive posthydrolysis ternary complex A.M'.D.P, we used pPDM to cross-link SH1 (Cys(707)) to SH2 (Cys(697)) on the CD. LCD orientation and dynamics were measured in three biochemical states: relaxation (A.M.T), SH1-SH2 cross-linked (A.M'.D.P analog), and rigor (A.M.D). EPR showed that the LCD of cross-linked fibers has an orientational distribution intermediate between relaxation and rigor, and saturation transfer EPR revealed slow rotational dynamics indistinguishable from that of rigor. Similar results were obtained for the CD using a bifunctional spin label to cross-link SH1-SH2, but the CD was more disordered than the LCD. We conclude that SH1-SH2 cross-linking traps a state in which both the CD and LCD are intermediate between relaxation (highly disordered and microsecond dynamics) and rigor (highly ordered and rigid), supporting the hypothesis that the cross-linked state is an A.M'D.P analog on the force generation pathway. PMID:22404931

  2. Detection of nucleotide- and F-actin-induced movements in the switch II helix of the skeletal myosin using its differential oxidative cleavage mediated by an iron-EDTA complex disulfide-linked to the strong actin binding site.

    PubMed

    Bertrand, R; Capony, J P; Derancourt, J; Kassab, R

    1999-09-14

    We have synthesized the mixed disulfide, S-(2-nitro-5-thiobenzoic acid) cysteaminyl-EDTA, using a rapid procedure and water-soluble chemistry. Its disulfide-thiol exchange reaction with rabbit myosin subfragment-1 (S-1), analyzed by spectrophotometry, ATPase assays, and peptide mapping, led to the incorporation of the cysteaminyl-EDTA group into only Cys 540 on the heavy chain and into the unique cysteine on the alkali light chains. The former thiol, residing in the strong actin binding site, reacted at a much faster rate with a concomitant 3-fold decrease in the V(max) for acto-S-1 ATPase but without change in the essential enzymatic functions of S-1. Upon chelation of Fe(3+) ions to the Cys 540-bound EDTA and incubation of the S-1 derivative-Fe complex with ascorbic acid at pH 7.5, the 95 kDa heavy chain underwent a conformation-dependent, single-cut oxidative fragmentation within 5-15 A of Cys 540. Three pairs of fragments were formed which, after specific fluorescent labeling and SDS-PAGE, could be positioned along the heavy chain sequence as 68 kDa-26 kDa, 62 kDa-32 kDa, and 54 kDa-40 kDa. Densitometric measurements revealed that the yield of the 54 kDa-40 kDa pair of bands, but not that for the two other pairs, was very sensitive to S-1 binding to nucleotides or phosphate analogues as well as to F-actin. In binary complexes, all the former ligands specifically lowered the yield to 40% of S-1 alone, roughly in the following order: ADP = AMP-PNP > ATP = ADP.AlF(4) > ADP.BeF(x)() > PP(i). By contrast, rigor binding to F-actin increased the yield to 130%. In the ternary acto-S-1-ADP complex, the yield was again reduced to 80%, and it fell to 25% in acto-S-1-ADP.AlF(4), the putative transition state analogue complex of the acto-S-1 ATPase. These different quantitative changes reflect distinct ligand-induced conformations of the secondary structure element whose scission generates the 54 kDa-40 kDa species. According to the S-1 crystal structure, this element could

  3. Nemaline myopathy-related skeletal muscle α-actin (ACTA1) mutation, Asp286Gly, prevents proper strong myosin binding and triggers muscle weakness.

    PubMed

    Ochala, Julien; Ravenscroft, Gianina; Laing, Nigel G; Nowak, Kristen J

    2012-01-01

    Many mutations in the skeletal muscle α-actin gene (ACTA1) lead to muscle weakness and nemaline myopathy. Despite increasing clinical and scientific interest, the molecular and cellular pathogenesis of weakness remains unclear. Therefore, in the present study, we aimed at unraveling these mechanisms using muscles from a transgenic mouse model of nemaline myopathy expressing the ACTA1 Asp286Gly mutation. We recorded and analyzed the mechanics of membrane-permeabilized single muscle fibers. We also performed molecular energy state computations in the presence or absence of Asp286Gly. Results demonstrated that during contraction, the Asp286Gly acts as a "poison-protein" and according to the computational analysis it modifies the actin-actin interface. This phenomenon is likely to prevent proper myosin cross-bridge binding, limiting the fraction of actomyosin interactions in the strong binding state. At the cell level, this decreases the force-generating capacity, and, overall, induces muscle weakness. To counterbalance such negative events, future potential therapeutic strategies may focus on the inappropriate actin-actin interface or myosin binding. PMID:23029319

  4. An invertebrate smooth muscle with striated muscle myosin filaments

    PubMed Central

    Sulbarán, Guidenn; Alamo, Lorenzo; Pinto, Antonio; Márquez, Gustavo; Méndez, Franklin; Padrón, Raúl; Craig, Roger

    2015-01-01

    Muscle tissues are classically divided into two major types, depending on the presence or absence of striations. In striated muscles, the actin filaments are anchored at Z-lines and the myosin and actin filaments are in register, whereas in smooth muscles, the actin filaments are attached to dense bodies and the myosin and actin filaments are out of register. The structure of the filaments in smooth muscles is also different from that in striated muscles. Here we have studied the structure of myosin filaments from the smooth muscles of the human parasite Schistosoma mansoni. We find, surprisingly, that they are indistinguishable from those in an arthropod striated muscle. This structural similarity is supported by sequence comparison between the schistosome myosin II heavy chain and known striated muscle myosins. In contrast, the actin filaments of schistosomes are similar to those of smooth muscles, lacking troponin-dependent regulation. We conclude that schistosome muscles are hybrids, containing striated muscle-like myosin filaments and smooth muscle-like actin filaments in a smooth muscle architecture. This surprising finding has broad significance for understanding how muscles are built and how they evolved, and challenges the paradigm that smooth and striated muscles always have distinctly different components. PMID:26443857

  5. Characteristics of light chains of Chara myosin revealed by immunological investigation.

    PubMed

    Kakei, Toshihito; Sumiyoshi, Hiroki; Higashi-Fujime, Sugie

    2012-01-01

    Chara myosin is plant myosin responsible for cytoplasmic streaming and moves actin filaments at 60 µm/s, which is the fastest of all myosins examined. The neck of the myosin molecule has usually mechanical and regulatory roles. The neck of Chara myosin is supposed to bind six light chains, but, at present, we have no knowledge about them. We found Ca⁺⁺-calmodulin activated Chara myosin motility and its actin-activated ATPase, and actually bound with the Chara myosin heavy chain, indicating calmodulin might be one of candidates for Chara myosin light chains. Antibody against essential light chain from Physarum myosin, and antibodies against Chara calmodulin and chicken myosin light chain from lens membranes reacted with 20 kDa and 18 kDa polypeptides of Chara myosin preparation, respectively. Correspondingly, column purified Chara myosin had light chains of 20 kDa, and 18 kDa with the molar ratio of 0.7 and 2.5 to the heavy chain, respectively.

  6. Changes in Mg2+ ion concentration and heavy chain phosphorylation regulate the motor activity of a class I myosin.

    PubMed

    Fujita-Becker, Setsuko; Dürrwang, Ulrike; Erent, Muriel; Clark, Richard J; Geeves, Michael A; Manstein, Dietmar J

    2005-02-18

    Class I myosins are single-headed motor proteins implicated in various motile processes including organelle translocation, ion channel gating, and cytoskeleton reorganization. Dictyostelium discoideum myosin-ID belongs to subclass 1alpha, whose members are thought to be tuned for rapid sliding. The direct analysis of myosin-ID motor activity is made possible by the production of single polypeptide constructs carrying an artificial lever arm. Using these constructs, we show that the motor activity of myosin-ID is activated 80-fold by phosphorylation at the TEDS site. TEDS site phosphorylation acts by stabilizing the actomyosin complex and increasing the coupling between actin binding and the release of hydrolysis products. A surprising effect of Mg(2+) ions on in vitro motility was discovered. Changes in the level of free Mg(2+) ions within the physiological range are shown to modulate motor activity by inhibiting ADP release. Our results indicate that higher concentrations of free Mg(2+) ions stabilize the tension-bearing actin myosin ADP state and shift the system from the production of rapid movement toward the generation of tension.

  7. [Effect of hypothyreosis on actin subdomain-1 movement induced by myosin subfragment 1-binding in fast and slow rat skeletal muscles].

    PubMed

    Kirillina, V P; Jakubiec-Puka, A; Borovikov, Iu S

    2009-01-01

    Orientation and mobility of fluorescent probe N-((iodoacetyl)-(1-naphtyl-5-sulpho-ethylenediamine)(1.5-IAEDANS)) specifically bound to Cys-374 of actin in ghost muscle fibers isolated from fast and slow rat muscles were studied by polarized fluorimetry in the absence and presence of myosin subfragment-1 (S1) in intact rats and in the animals with gradual (during 2-5 weeks) reduction of thyroid hormones synthesis (hypothyreosis development). S1 binding to F-actin of ghost muscle fibers was shown to induce changes in orientation of the dipoles of the fluorescent probe 1.5-IAEDANS and in the relative amount of the randomly oriented fluorophores that indicated changes in actin subdomain-1 orientation and mobility resulting from the formation of its strong binding with S1. This effect is markedly inhibited by hypothyreosis development. The maximal effect of hypothyreosis is observed after 34 days of disease development. It is suggested that the change of thyroid status in the muscle inhibits the ability of F-actin to form strong binding with myosin which is essential for force generation.

  8. UNC-45/CRO1/She4p (UCS) protein forms elongated dimer and joins two myosin heads near their actin binding region

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Hang; Blobel, Günter

    2010-01-01

    UNC-45/CRO1/She4p (UCS) proteins have variously been proposed to affect the folding, stability, and ATPase activity of myosins. They are the only proteins known to interact directly with the motor domain. To gain more insight into UCS function, we determined the atomic structure of the yeast UCS protein, She4p, at 2.9 Å resolution. We found that 16 helical repeats are organized into an L-shaped superhelix with an amphipathic N-terminal helix dangling off the short arm of the L-shaped molecule. In the crystal, She4p forms a 193-Å-long, zigzag-shaped dimer through three distinct and evolutionary conserved interfaces. We have identified She4p’s C-terminal region as a ligand for a 27-residue-long epitope on the myosin motor domain. Remarkably, this region consists of two adjacent, but distinct, binding epitopes localized at the nucleotide-responsive cleft between the nucleotide- and actin-filament-binding sites. One epitope is situated inside the cleft, the other outside the cleft. After ATP hydrolysis and Pi ejection, the cleft narrows at its base from 20 to 12 Å thereby occluding the inside the cleft epitope, while leaving the adjacent, outside the cleft binding epitope accessible to UCS binding. Hence, one cycle of higher and lower binding affinity would accompany one ATP hydrolysis cycle and a single step in the walk on an actin filament rope. We propose that a UCS dimer links two myosins at their motor domains and thereby functions as one of the determinants for step size of myosin on actin filaments. PMID:21115842

  9. Secretory vesicle transport velocity in living cells depends on the myosin-V lever arm length.

    PubMed

    Schott, Daniel H; Collins, Ruth N; Bretscher, Anthony

    2002-01-01

    Myosins are molecular motors that exert force against actin filaments. One widely conserved myosin class, the myosin-Vs, recruits organelles to polarized sites in animal and fungal cells. However, it has been unclear whether myosin-Vs actively transport organelles, and whether the recently challenged lever arm model developed for muscle myosin applies to myosin-Vs. Here we demonstrate in living, intact yeast that secretory vesicles move rapidly toward their site of exocytosis. The maximal speed varies linearly over a wide range of lever arm lengths genetically engineered into the myosin-V heavy chain encoded by the MYO2 gene. Thus, secretory vesicle polarization is achieved through active transport by a myosin-V, and the motor mechanism is consistent with the lever arm model.

  10. Separation of cardiac myosin heavy chains by gradient SDS-PAGE.

    PubMed

    Esser, K A; Boluyt, M O; White, T P

    1988-09-01

    Separation of alpha- and beta-myosin heavy chains (MHCs) in cardiac ventricles of rats by gradient sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) was accomplished and compared with the separation of myosin isozymes obtained with pyrophosphate gels. Whole muscle homogenates were electrophoresed on a 4-9% linear gradient SDS polyacrylamide gel for 3-4 h. MHC bands were identified by the migration distance relative to a MHC standard and immunoblot results with a monoclonal antibody to MHC. The MHC bands were further identified as alpha and beta based on the electrophoretic mobility of ventricular homogenates from hypothyroid and hyperthyroid rats and ventricular and slow soleus skeletal muscle homogenates from control rats. The beta-MHC migrated faster than alpha-MHC, and laser densitometry revealed separate peaks when both MHCs were present. With homogenates containing MHC ranging from 0 to 100% alpha, the separation of MHCs with gradient SDS-PAGE correlated highly (r = 0.97) with separation of myosin isozymes by pyrophosphate gel electrophoresis. The SDS-PAGE technique reported herein is a quick, valid, and direct method for the identification and quantification of ventricular MHCs.

  11. Effect of nucleotides and actin on the orientation of the light chain-binding domain in myosin subfragment 1.

    PubMed

    Smyczynski, C; Kasprzak, A A

    1997-10-28

    The X-ray structure of myosin head (S1) reveals the presence of a long alpha-helical structure that supports both the essential and the regulatory light chains. It has been proposed that small structural changes in the catalytic domain of S1 are amplified by swinging the long alpha-helix (the "lever arm") to produce approximately 11 nm steps. To probe the spatial position of the putative lever in various S1 states, we have measured, by fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET), the effect of nucleotides and actin on the distances between Cys-177 of the essential light chain A1 (which is attached to the alpha-helix) and three loci in the catalytic domain. Cys-177 (donor) was labeled with 1,5-IAEDANS. The trinitrophenylated ADP analog (TNP-ADP, acceptor) was used to measure the distance to the active site. Lys-553 at the actin-binding site, labeled with a fluorescein derivative, and Lys-83 modified with trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid served as two other acceptors. FRET measurements were performed for S1 alone, for its complexes with MgADP and MgATP, for the analogs of the transition state of the ATPase reaction, S1.ADP.BeFx, S1.ADP.AlF4, and S1.ADP.VO4, and for acto-S1 in the absence and in the presence of ADP. When the transition state and acto-S1 complexes were formed, the change in the Cys-177 --> Lys-83 distance was <1.1 A, for the distance Cys-177 --> Lys-553, the change was +/-2.5 A. These distance changes correspond to rotations by <10 degrees and approximately 25 degrees, respectively. For the Cys-177 --> TNP-ADP the interprobe separation decreased by approximately 6 A in the presence of BeFx and AlF4- but only 1.9 A in the presence of vanadate; we do not interpret the 6 A change as resulting from the lever rotation. Using the coordinates of the acto-S1 complex, we have computed the expected changes in these distances resulting from rotation of the lever. These changes were much greater than the ones observed. The above results are inconsistent with models

  12. Titin in insect spermatocyte spindle fibers associates with microtubules, actin, myosin and the matrix proteins skeletor, megator and chromator.

    PubMed

    Fabian, Lacramioara; Xia, Xuequin; Venkitaramani, Deepa V; Johansen, Kristen M; Johansen, Jørgen; Andrew, Deborah J; Forer, Arthur

    2007-07-01

    Titin, the giant elastic protein found in muscles, is present in spindles of crane-fly and locust spermatocytes as determined by immunofluorescence staining using three antibodies, each raised against a different, spatially separated fragment of Drosophila titin (D-titin). All three antibodies stained the Z-lines and other regions in insect myofibrils. In western blots of insect muscle extract the antibodies reacted with high molecular mass proteins, ranging between rat nebulin (600-900 kDa) and rat titin (3000-4000 kDa). Mass spectrometry of the high molecular mass band from the Coomassie-Blue-stained gel of insect muscle proteins indicates that the protein the antibodies bind to is titin. The pattern of staining in insect spermatocytes was slightly different in the two species, but in general all three anti-D-titin antibodies stained the same components: the chromosomes, prophase and telophase nuclear membranes, the spindle in general, along kinetochore and non-kinetochore microtubules, along apparent connections between partner half-bivalents during anaphase, and various cytoplasmic components, including the contractile ring. That the same cellular components are stained in close proximity by the three different antibodies, each against a different region of D-titin, is strong evidence that the three antibodies identify a titin-like protein in insect spindles, which we identified by mass spectrometry analysis as being titin. The spindle matrix proteins skeletor, megator and chromator are present in many of the same structures, in positions very close to (or the same as) D-titin. Myosin and actin also are present in spindles in close proximity to D-titin. The varying spatial arrangements of these proteins during the course of division suggest that they interact to form a spindle matrix with elastic properties provided by a titin-like protein. PMID:17591688

  13. A Millennial Myosin Census

    PubMed Central

    Berg, Jonathan S.; Powell, Bradford C.; Cheney, Richard E.

    2001-01-01

    The past decade has seen a remarkable explosion in our knowledge of the size and diversity of the myosin superfamily. Since these actin-based motors are candidates to provide the molecular basis for many cellular movements, it is essential that motility researchers be aware of the complete set of myosins in a given organism. The availability of cDNA and/or draft genomic sequences from humans, Drosophila melanogaster, Caenorhabditis elegans, Arabidopsis thaliana, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Schizosaccharomyces pombe, and Dictyostelium discoideum has allowed us to tentatively define and compare the sets of myosin genes in these organisms. This analysis has also led to the identification of several putative myosin genes that may be of general interest. In humans, for example, we find a total of 40 known or predicted myosin genes including two new myosins-I, three new class II (conventional) myosins, a second member of the class III/ninaC myosins, a gene similar to the class XV deafness myosin, and a novel myosin sharing at most 33% identity with other members of the superfamily. These myosins are in addition to the recently discovered class XVI myosin with N-terminal ankyrin repeats and two human genes with similarity to the class XVIII PDZ-myosin from mouse. We briefly describe these newly recognized myosins and extend our previous phylogenetic analysis of the myosin superfamily to include a comparison of the complete or nearly complete inventories of myosin genes from several experimentally important organisms. PMID:11294886

  14. Rho GTPases and the Downstream Effectors Actin-related Protein 2/3 (Arp2/3) Complex and Myosin II Induce Membrane Fusion at Self-contacts*

    PubMed Central

    Sumida, Grant M.; Yamada, Soichiro

    2015-01-01

    Actin regulation is required for membrane activities that drive cell adhesion and migration. The Rho GTPase family plays critical roles in actin and membrane dynamics; however, the roles of the Rho GTPase family are not limited to cell adhesion and migration. Using micron-sized obstacles to induce the formation of self-contacts in epithelial cells, we previously showed that self-adhesion is distinct from cell-to-cell adhesion in that self-contacts are eliminated by membrane fusion. In the current study, we identified Rho GTPases, RhoA, Rac1, and Cdc42, as potential upstream regulators of membrane fusion. The RhoA downstream effector myosin II is required for fusion as the expression of mutant myosin light chain reduced membrane fusion. Furthermore, an inhibitor of the Arp2/3 complex, a downstream effector of Rac1 and Cdc42, also reduced self-contact-induced membrane fusion. At self-contacts, while the concentration of E-cadherin diminished, the intensity of GFP-tagged Arp3 rapidly fluctuated then decreased and stabilized after membrane fusion. Taken together, these data suggest that the Arp2/3 complex-mediated actin polymerization brings two opposing membranes into close apposition by possibly excluding E-cadherin from contact sites, thus promoting membrane fusion at self-contacts. PMID:25527498

  15. Four things to know about myosin light chains as reporters for non-muscle myosin-2 dynamics in live cells.

    PubMed

    Heissler, Sarah M; Sellers, James R

    2015-02-01

    The interplay between non-muscle myosins-2 and filamentous actin results in cytoplasmic contractility which is essential for eukaryotic life. Concomitantly, there is tremendous interest in elucidating the physiological function and temporal localization of non-muscle myosin-2 in cells. A commonly used method to study the function and localization of non-muscle myosin-2 is to overexpress a fluorescent protein (FP)-tagged version of the regulatory light chain (RLC) which binds to the myosin-2 heavy chain by mass action. Caveats about this approach include findings from recent studies indicating that the RLC does not bind exclusively to the non-muscle myosin-2 heavy chain. Rather, it can also associate with the myosin heavy chains of several other classes as well as other targets than myosin. In addition, the presence of the FP moiety may compromise myosin's enzymatic and mechanical performance. This and other factors to be discussed in this commentary raise questions about the possible complications in using FP-RLC as a marker for the dynamic localization and regulatory aspects of non-muscle myosin-2 motor functions in cell biological experiments.

  16. Immunocytochemistry of the acellular slime mold Physarum polycephalum. III. Distribution of myosin and the actin-modulating protein (fragmin) in sandwiched plasmodia.

    PubMed

    Osborn, M; Weber, K; Naib-Majani, W; Hinssen, H; Stockem, W; Wohlfarth-Bottermann, K E

    1983-01-01

    The acellular slime mold Physarum forms very thin plasmodia when sandwiched between two agar sheets. After extraction with glycerol-containing buffers, suitable objects for immunofluorescence microscopy are obtained, and an analysis of the cytoskeletal and contractile system of Physarum becomes possible. Plasmodia were stained with antibodies against myosin and fragmin, a protein factor involved in actin filament length regulation. The microanatomy and topography of cellular structures containing these proteins were investigated at the light and electron microscopic levels. The patterns obtained with the two antibodies are closely related to those obtained with actin antibody [25]. In both cases the complex system of cytoplasmic fibrils is stained selectively. The fibrils form a more or less regular network in the advancing front zone with the fibrils being interconnected by focal nodes. In the posterior region of the plasmodium, where endoplasmic pathways and protoplasmic veins are differentiated, larger fibrils are detected, running obliquely or longitudinally to the veins. With both antibodies the fluorescent pattern of the fibrils is continuous without indications of periodic interruptions or striations, which would be expected in the case of sarcomere-like subunits. With anti-myosin unstained patches are frequently seen at or close to the nodes of the fibrillar network in the anterior region. The small lobopodia, which are rich in actin, are apparently not stained by the myosin antibody, a result similar to the situation in "ruffling edges¿ of cultured vertebrate cells. Electron microscopic investigations of antibody-labeled fibrils in embedded and sectioned plasmodia allow the identification of antibody molecules at specific sites along the fibrils with a different distribution pattern for each of the two antibodies. PMID:6339244

  17. Difference in hydration structures between F-actin and myosin subfragment-1 detected by small-angle X-ray and neutron scattering.

    PubMed

    Matsuo, Tatsuhito; Arata, Toshiaki; Oda, Toshiro; Fujiwara, Satoru

    2013-01-01

    Hydration structures around F-actin and myosin subfragment-1 (S1), which play central roles as counterparts in muscle contraction, were investigated by small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) and small-angle neutron scattering (SANS). The radius of gyration of chymotryptic S1 was evaluated to be 41.3±1.1 Å for SAXS, 40.1±3.0 Å for SANS in H2O, and 37.8±0.8 Å for SANS in D2O, respectively. The values of the cross-sectional radius of gyration of F-actin were 25.4±0.03 Å for SAXS, 23.4±2.4 Å for SANS in H2O, and 22.6 ± 0.6 Å for SANS in D2O, respectively. These differences arise from different contributions of the hydration shell to the scattering curves. Analysis by model calculations showed that the hydration shell of S1 has the average density 10-15% higher than bulk water, being the typical hydration shell. On the other hand, the hydration shell of F-actin has the average density more than 19% higher than bulk water, indicating that F-actin has a denser, unusual hydration structure. The results indicate a difference in the hydration structures around F-actin and S1. The unusual hydration structure around F-actin may have the structural property of so-called "hyper-mobile water" around F-actin.

  18. New insights into myosin evolution and classification.

    PubMed

    Foth, Bernardo J; Goedecke, Marc C; Soldati, Dominique

    2006-03-01

    Myosins are eukaryotic actin-dependent molecular motors important for a broad range of functions like muscle contraction, vision, hearing, cell motility, and host cell invasion of apicomplexan parasites. Myosin heavy chains consist of distinct head, neck, and tail domains and have previously been categorized into 18 different classes based on phylogenetic analysis of their conserved heads. Here we describe a comprehensive phylogenetic examination of many previously unclassified myosins, with particular emphasis on sequences from apicomplexan and other chromalveolate protists including the model organism Toxoplasma, the malaria parasite Plasmodium, and the ciliate Tetrahymena. Using different phylogenetic inference methods and taking protein domain architectures, specific amino acid polymorphisms, and organismal distribution into account, we demonstrate a hitherto unrecognized common origin for ciliate and apicomplexan class XIV myosins. Our data also suggest common origins for some apicomplexan myosins and class VI, for classes II and XVIII, for classes XII and XV, and for some microsporidian myosins and class V, thereby reconciling evolutionary history and myosin structure in several cases and corroborating the common coevolution of myosin head, neck, and tail domains. Six novel myosin classes are established to accommodate sequences from chordate metazoans (class XIX), insects (class XX), kinetoplastids (class XXI), and apicomplexans and diatom algae (classes XXII, XXIII, and XXIV). These myosin (sub)classes include sequences with protein domains (FYVE, WW, UBA, ATS1-like, and WD40) previously unknown to be associated with myosin motors. Regarding the apicomplexan "myosome," we significantly update class XIV classification, propose a systematic naming convention, and discuss possible functions in these parasites.

  19. Retrograde Flow and Myosin II Activity within the Leading Cell Edge Deliver F-Actin to the Lamella to Seed the Formation of Graded Polarity Actomyosin II Filament Bundles in Migrating Fibroblasts

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Tom W.; Vaughan, Andrew N.

    2008-01-01

    In migrating fibroblasts actomyosin II bundles are graded polarity (GP) bundles, a distinct organization to stress fibers. GP bundles are important for powering cell migration, yet have an unknown mechanism of formation. Electron microscopy and the fate of photobleached marks show actin filaments undergoing retrograde flow in filopodia, and the lamellipodium are structurally and dynamically linked with stationary GP bundles within the lamella. An individual filopodium initially protrudes, but then becomes separated from the tip of the lamellipodium and seeds the formation of a new GP bundle within the lamella. In individual live cells expressing both GFP-myosin II and RFP-actin, myosin II puncta localize to the base of an individual filopodium an average 28 s before the filopodium seeds the formation of a new GP bundle. Associated myosin II is stationary with respect to the substratum in new GP bundles. Inhibition of myosin II motor activity in live cells blocks appearance of new GP bundles in the lamella, without inhibition of cell protrusion in the same timescale. We conclude retrograde F-actin flow and myosin II activity within the leading cell edge delivers F-actin to the lamella to seed the formation of new GP bundles. PMID:18799629

  20. Polymerization of Actin from Maize Pollen.

    PubMed Central

    Yen, L. F.; Liu, X.; Cai, S.

    1995-01-01

    Here we describe the in vitro polymerization of actin from maize (Zea mays) pollen. The purified actin from maize pollen reported in our previous paper (X. Liu, L.F. Yen [1992] Plant Physiol 99: 1151-1155) is biologically active. In the presence of ATP, KCl, and MgCl2 the purified pollen actin polymerized into filaments. During polymerization the spectra of absorbance at 232 nm increased gradually. Polymerization of pollen actin was evidently accompanied by an increase in viscosity of the pollen actin solution. Also, the specific viscosity of pollen F-actin increased in a concentration-dependent manner. The ultraviolet difference spectrum of pollen actin is very similar to that of rabbit muscle actin. The activity of myosin ATPase from rabbit muscle was activated 7-fold by the polymerized pollen actin (F-actin). The actin filaments were visualized under the electron microscope as doubly wound strands of 7 nm diameter. If cytochalasin B was added before staining, no actin filaments were observed. When actin filaments were treated with rabbit heavy meromyosin, the actin filaments were decorated with an arrowhead structure. These results imply that there is much similarity between pollen and muscle actin. PMID:12228343

  1. Chronic hypoxia and VEGF differentially modulate abundance and organization of myosin heavy chain isoforms in fetal and adult ovine arteries.

    PubMed

    Hubbell, Margaret C; Semotiuk, Andrew J; Thorpe, Richard B; Adeoye, Olayemi O; Butler, Stacy M; Williams, James M; Khorram, Omid; Pearce, William J

    2012-11-15

    Chronic hypoxia increases vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and thereby promotes angiogenesis. The present study explores the hypothesis that hypoxic increases in VEGF also remodel artery wall structure and contractility through phenotypic transformation of smooth muscle. Pregnant and nonpregnant ewes were maintained at sea level (normoxia) or 3,820 m (hypoxia) for the final 110 days of gestation. Common carotid arteries harvested from term fetal lambs and nonpregnant adults were denuded of endothelium and studied in vitro. Stretch-dependent contractile stresses were 32 and 77% of normoxic values in hypoxic fetal and adult arteries. Hypoxic hypocontractility was coupled with increased abundance of nonmuscle myosin heavy chain (NM-MHC) in fetal (+37%) and adult (+119%) arteries. Conversely, hypoxia decreased smooth muscle MHC (SM-MHC) abundance by 40% in fetal arteries but increased it 123% in adult arteries. Hypoxia decreased colocalization of NM-MHC with smooth muscle α-actin (SM-αA) in fetal arteries and decreased colocalization of SM-MHC with SM-αA in adult arteries. Organ culture with physiological concentrations (3 ng/ml) of VEGF-A(165) similarly depressed stretch-dependent stresses to 37 and 49% of control fetal and adult values. The VEGF receptor antagonist vatalanib ablated VEGF's effects in adult but not fetal arteries, suggesting age-dependent VEGF receptor signaling. VEGF replicated hypoxic decreases in colocalization of NM-MHC with SM-αA in fetal arteries and decreases in colocalization of SM-MHC with SM-αA in adult arteries. These results suggest that hypoxic increases in VEGF not only promote angiogenesis but may also help mediate hypoxic arterial remodeling through age-dependent changes in smooth muscle phenotype and contractility. PMID:22992677

  2. Chronic hypoxia and VEGF differentially modulate abundance and organization of myosin heavy chain isoforms in fetal and adult ovine arteries.

    PubMed

    Hubbell, Margaret C; Semotiuk, Andrew J; Thorpe, Richard B; Adeoye, Olayemi O; Butler, Stacy M; Williams, James M; Khorram, Omid; Pearce, William J

    2012-11-15

    Chronic hypoxia increases vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and thereby promotes angiogenesis. The present study explores the hypothesis that hypoxic increases in VEGF also remodel artery wall structure and contractility through phenotypic transformation of smooth muscle. Pregnant and nonpregnant ewes were maintained at sea level (normoxia) or 3,820 m (hypoxia) for the final 110 days of gestation. Common carotid arteries harvested from term fetal lambs and nonpregnant adults were denuded of endothelium and studied in vitro. Stretch-dependent contractile stresses were 32 and 77% of normoxic values in hypoxic fetal and adult arteries. Hypoxic hypocontractility was coupled with increased abundance of nonmuscle myosin heavy chain (NM-MHC) in fetal (+37%) and adult (+119%) arteries. Conversely, hypoxia decreased smooth muscle MHC (SM-MHC) abundance by 40% in fetal arteries but increased it 123% in adult arteries. Hypoxia decreased colocalization of NM-MHC with smooth muscle α-actin (SM-αA) in fetal arteries and decreased colocalization of SM-MHC with SM-αA in adult arteries. Organ culture with physiological concentrations (3 ng/ml) of VEGF-A(165) similarly depressed stretch-dependent stresses to 37 and 49% of control fetal and adult values. The VEGF receptor antagonist vatalanib ablated VEGF's effects in adult but not fetal arteries, suggesting age-dependent VEGF receptor signaling. VEGF replicated hypoxic decreases in colocalization of NM-MHC with SM-αA in fetal arteries and decreases in colocalization of SM-MHC with SM-αA in adult arteries. These results suggest that hypoxic increases in VEGF not only promote angiogenesis but may also help mediate hypoxic arterial remodeling through age-dependent changes in smooth muscle phenotype and contractility.

  3. The effect of the dilated cardiomyopathy-causing Glu40Lys TPM1 mutation on actin-myosin interactions during the ATPase cycle.

    PubMed

    Borovikov, Yurii S; Avrova, Stanislava V; Karpicheva, Olga E; Robinson, Paul; Redwood, Charles S

    2011-08-01

    Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM), characterized by cardiac dilatation and contractile dysfunction, is a major cause of heart failure. DCM can result from mutations in the gene encoding cardiac α-tropomyosin (TM). In order to understand how the dilated cardiomyopathy-causing Glu40Lys mutation in TM affects actomyosin interactions, thin filaments have been reconstituted in muscle ghost fibers by incorporation of labeled Cys707 of myosin subfragment-1 and Cys374 of actin with fluorescent probe 1.5-IAEDANS and α-tropomyosin (wild-type or Glu40Lys mutant). For the first time, the effect of these α-tropomyosins on the mobility and rotation of subdomain-1 of actin and the SH1 helix of myosin subfragment-1 during the ATP hydrolysis cycle have been demonstrated directly by polarized fluorimetry. The Glu40Lys mutant TM inhibited these movements at the transition from AM(∗∗)·ADP·Pi to AM state, indicating a decrease of the proportion of the strong-binding sub-states in the actomyosin population. These structural changes are likely to underlie the contractile deficit observed in human dilated cardiomyopathy.

  4. Myosin heavy chain composition in the rat diaphragm - Effect of age and exercise training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gosselin, Luc E.; Betlach, Michael; Vailas, Arthur C.; Greaser, Marion L.; Thomas, D. P.

    1992-01-01

    The effects of aging and exercise training on the myosin heavy chain (MHC) composition were determined in both the costal and crural diaphragm regions of female Fischer 344 rats. Treadmill running at 75 percent maximal oxygen consumption resulted in similar increases in plantaris muscle citrate synthase activity in both young (5 mo) and old (23mo) trained animals (P less than 0.05). It was found that the ratio of fast to slow MHC was significantly higher (P less than 0.005) in the crural compared with costal diaphragm region in both age groups. A significant age-related increase in persentage of slow MHC was observed in both diaphragm regions. The relative proportion of slow MHC in either costal or crural region was not changed by exercise training.

  5. Enhanced protein electrophoresis technique for separating human skeletal muscle myosin heavy chain isoforms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bamman, M. M.; Clarke, M. S.; Talmadge, R. J.; Feeback, D. L.

    1999-01-01

    Talmadge and Roy (J. Appl. Physiol. 1993, 75, 2337-2340) previously established a sodium dodecyl sulfate - polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) protocol for separating all four rat skeletal muscle myosin heavy chain (MHC) isoforms (MHC I, IIa, IIx, IIb); however, when applied to human muscle, the type II MHC isoforms (Ila, IIx) are not clearly distinguished. In this brief paper we describe a modification of the SDS-PAGE protocol which yields distinct and consistent separation of all three adult human MHC isoforms (MHC I, IIa, IIx) in a minigel system. MHC specificity of each band was confirmed by Western blot using three monoclonal IgG antibodies (mAbs) immunoreactive against MHCI (mAb MHCs, Novacastra Laboratories), MHCI+IIa (mAb BF-35), and MHCIIa+IIx (mAb SC-71). Results provide a valuable SDS-PAGE minigel technique for separating MHC isoforms in human muscle without the difficult task of casting gradient gels.

  6. Protective Effects of Clenbuterol against Dexamethasone-Induced Masseter Muscle Atrophy and Myosin Heavy Chain Transition

    PubMed Central

    Umeki, Daisuke; Ohnuki, Yoshiki; Mototani, Yasumasa; Shiozawa, Kouichi; Suita, Kenji; Fujita, Takayuki; Nakamura, Yoshiki; Saeki, Yasutake; Okumura, Satoshi

    2015-01-01

    Background Glucocorticoid has a direct catabolic effect on skeletal muscle, leading to muscle atrophy, but no effective pharmacotherapy is available. We reported that clenbuterol (CB) induced masseter muscle hypertrophy and slow-to-fast myosin heavy chain (MHC) isoform transition through direct muscle β2-adrenergic receptor stimulation. Thus, we hypothesized that CB would antagonize glucocorticoid (dexamethasone; DEX)-induced muscle atrophy and fast-to-slow MHC isoform transition. Methodology We examined the effect of CB on DEX-induced masseter muscle atrophy by measuring masseter muscle weight, fiber diameter, cross-sectional area, and myosin heavy chain (MHC) composition. To elucidate the mechanisms involved, we used immunoblotting to study the effects of CB on muscle hypertrophic signaling (insulin growth factor 1 (IGF1) expression, Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway, and calcineurin pathway) and atrophic signaling (Akt/Forkhead box-O (FOXO) pathway and myostatin expression) in masseter muscle of rats treated with DEX and/or CB. Results and Conclusion Masseter muscle weight in the DEX-treated group was significantly lower than that in the Control group, as expected, but co-treatment with CB suppressed the DEX-induced masseter muscle atrophy, concomitantly with inhibition of fast-to-slow MHC isoforms transition. Activation of the Akt/mTOR pathway in masseter muscle of the DEX-treated group was significantly inhibited compared to that of the Control group, and CB suppressed this inhibition. DEX also suppressed expression of IGF1 (positive regulator of muscle growth), and CB attenuated this inhibition. Myostatin protein expression was unchanged. CB had no effect on activation of the Akt/FOXO pathway. These results indicate that CB antagonizes DEX-induced muscle atrophy and fast-to-slow MHC isoform transition via modulation of Akt/mTOR activity and IGF1 expression. CB might be a useful pharmacological agent for treatment of glucocorticoid

  7. Dilated Cardiomyopathy Mutation (R134W) in Mouse Cardiac Troponin T Induces Greater Contractile Deficits against α-Myosin Heavy Chain than against β-Myosin Heavy Chain

    PubMed Central

    Gollapudi, Sampath K.; Chandra, Murali

    2016-01-01

    Many studies have demonstrated that depressed myofilament Ca2+ sensitivity is common to dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) in humans. However, it remains unclear whether a single determinant—such as myofilament Ca2+ sensitivity—is sufficient to characterize all cases of DCM because the severity of disease varies widely with a given mutation. Because dynamic features dominate in the heart muscle, alterations in dynamic contractile parameters may offer better insight on the molecular mechanisms that underlie disparate effects of DCM mutations on cardiac phenotypes. Dynamic features are dominated by myofilament cooperativity that stem from different sources. One such source is the strong tropomyosin binding region in troponin T (TnT), which is known to modulate crossbridge (XB) recruitment dynamics in a myosin heavy chain (MHC)-dependent manner. Therefore, we hypothesized that the effects of DCM-linked mutations in TnT on contractile dynamics would be differently modulated by α- and β-MHC. After reconstitution with the mouse TnT equivalent (TnTR134W) of the human DCM mutation (R131W), we measured dynamic contractile parameters in detergent-skinned cardiac muscle fiber bundles from normal (α-MHC) and transgenic mice (β-MHC). TnTR134W significantly attenuated the rate constants of tension redevelopment, XB recruitment dynamics, XB distortion dynamics, and the magnitude of length-mediated XB recruitment only in α-MHC fiber bundles. TnTR134W decreased myofilament Ca2+ sensitivity to a greater extent in α-MHC (0.14 pCa units) than in β-MHC fiber bundles (0.08 pCa units). Thus, our data demonstrate that TnTR134W induces a more severe DCM-like contractile phenotype against α-MHC than against β-MHC background. PMID:27757084

  8. Effects of limited tryptic cleavage on the physical and enzymatic properties of myosin II from Acanthamoeba castellanii.

    PubMed

    Kuznicki, J; Atkinson, M A; Korn, E D

    1984-07-25

    Limited digestion of Acanthamoeba myosin II by trypsin selectively cleaved the 185,000-Da heavy chains into a 73,000-Da peptide containing the catalytic and actin-binding sites and a 112,000-Da peptide containing the regulatory phosphorylatable sites. The light chains were unaffected. The proteolytic products remained associated and formed bipolar filaments that were very similar in appearance to filaments of native myosin by negative staining electron microscopy. Filaments of trypsin-cleaved, dephosphorylated myosin, however, had a smaller sedimentation coefficient than filaments of native dephosphorylated myosin. Trypsin-cleaved dephosphorylated myosin retained complete Ca2+-ATPase activity but had no actin-activated ATPase activity under conditions that are optimal for native, dephosphorylated myosin (pH 7.0, 4 mM MgCl2, 30 degrees C or pH 6.4, 1 mM MgCl2, 30 degrees C). Trypsin-cleaved dephosphorylated myosin had higher actin-activated ATPase activity at pH 6.0 and 1 mM MgCl2 than undigested dephosphorylated myosin which is appreciably inhibited under these conditions. Trypsin-cleaved, dephosphorylated myosin inhibited the actin-activated ATPase activity of native, dephosphorylated myosin when both were present in the same co-polymers, when enzymatic activity was assayed at pH 7.0, 4 mM MgCl2, and 30 degrees C, but this inhibition was overcome by raising the MgCl2 to 6 mM. These results provide additional evidence that regulation of acanthamoeba myosin II occurs at the filament level and that, under most conditions of assay, the heavy chains must be intact and the regulatory serines unphosphorylated for actin-activated ATPase activity to be maximally expressed. PMID:6235225

  9. Myosin-Induced Movement of αα, αβ, and ββ Smooth Muscle Tropomyosin on Actin Observed by Multisite FRET

    PubMed Central

    Bacchiocchi, Corrado; Graceffa, Philip; Lehrer, Sherwin S.

    2004-01-01

    The interaction of the αα, ββ, and αβ smooth muscle tropomyosin (Tm) isoforms with F-actin was systematically studied in the absence and in the presence of myosin subfragment 1 (S1) using multifrequency phase/modulation Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET). A Gaussian double distance distribution model was adopted to fit FRET data between a 5-(2-iodoacetyl-amino-ethyl-amino)naphthalene-1-sulfonic acid donor at either Cys-36 of the β-chain or Cys-190 of the α-chain and a 4-dimethylaminophenylazophenyl 4′-maleimide acceptor at Cys-374 of F-actin. Experimental data were obtained for singly and doubly labeled αβ Tm (donor only at α, only at β, or both) and for doubly labeled αα or ββ Tm. Data for singly labeled αβTm were combined in a global analysis with doubly labeled αβTm. In all doubly labeled isoforms, upon S1 binding, one donor-acceptor “apparent” distance increased slightly by 0.5–2 Å, whereas the other decreased by 6–9 Å. These changes are consistent with a uniform “rolling” motion of Tm over the F-actin surface. The analysis indicates that Tm occupies relatively well-defined positions, with some flexibility, in both the predominantly closed (−S1) and open (+S1) thin-filament states. The results for the αβTm heterodimer indicate that the local twofold symmetry of αα or ββ Tm is effectively broken in αβTm bound to F-actin, which implies a difference between the α- and β-chains in terms of their interaction with F-actin. PMID:15041668

  10. Trifluoperazine inhibits the MgATPase activity and in vitro motility of conventional and unconventional myosins.

    PubMed

    Sellers, James R; Wang, Fei; Chantler, Peter D

    2003-01-01

    Trifluoperazine, a calmodulin antagonist, has recently been shown to inhibit the MgATPase activity of scallop myosin in the absence of light chain dissociation (Patel et al. (2000) J Biol Chem 275: 4880-4888). To investigate the generality of this observation and the mechanism by which it occurs, we have examined the ability of trifluoperazine to inhibit the enzymatic properties of other conventional and unconventional myosins. We show that trifluoperazine can inhibit the actin-activated MgATPase activity of rabbit skeletal muscle myosin II heavy meromyosin (HMM), phosphorylated turkey gizzard smooth muscle myosin II HMM, phosphorylated human nonmuscle myosin IIA HMM and myosin V subfragment-1 (S1). In all cases half maximal inhibition occurred at 50-75 microM trifluoperazine while light chains (myosin II) or calmodulin (myosin V) remained associated with the heavy chains. In vitro motility of all myosins tested was completely inhibited by trifluoperazine. Chymotryptic digestion of baculovirus-expressed myosin V HMM possessing only two calmodulin binding sites yielded a minimal motor fragment with no bound calmodulin. The MgATPase of this fragment was inhibited by trifluoperazine over the same range of concentrations as the S1 fragment of myosin.

  11. Skeletal and cardiac α-actin isoforms differently modulate myosin cross-bridge formation and myofibre force production.

    PubMed

    Ochala, Julien; Iwamoto, Hiroyuki; Ravenscroft, Gianina; Laing, Nigel G; Nowak, Kristen J

    2013-11-01

    Multiple congenital myopathies, including nemaline myopathy, can arise due to mutations in the ACTA1 gene encoding skeletal muscle α-actin. The main characteristics of ACTA1 null mutations (absence of skeletal muscle α-actin) are generalized skeletal muscle weakness and premature death. A mouse model (ACTC(Co)/KO) mimicking these conditions has successfully been rescued by transgenic over-expression of cardiac α-actin in skeletal muscles using the ACTC gene. Nevertheless, myofibres from ACTC(Co)/KO animals generate less force than normal myofibres (-20 to 25%). To understand the underlying mechanisms, here we have undertaken a detailed functional study of myofibres from ACTC(Co)/KO rodents. Mechanical and X-ray diffraction pattern analyses of single membrane-permeabilized myofibres showed, upon maximal Ca(2+) activation and under rigor conditions, lower stiffness and disrupted actin-layer line reflections in ACTC(Co)/KO when compared with age-matched wild-types. These results demonstrate that in ACTC(Co)/KO myofibres, the presence of cardiac α-actin instead of skeletal muscle α-actin alters actin conformational changes upon activation. This later finely modulates the strain of individual actomyosin interactions and overall lowers myofibre force production. Taken together, the present findings provide novel primordial information about actin isoforms, their functional differences and have to be considered when designing gene therapies for ACTA1-based congenital myopathies. PMID:23784376

  12. Protein Kinase A-Mediated Phosphorylation of cMyBP-C Increases Proximity of Myosin Heads to Actin in Resting Myocardium

    SciTech Connect

    Colson, Brett A; Bekyarova, Tanya; Locher, Matthew R; Fitzsimons, Daniel P; Irving, Thomas C; Moss, Richard L

    2008-09-16

    Protein kinase A-mediated (PKA) phosphorylation of cardiac myosin binding protein C (cMyBP-C) accelerates the kinetics of cross-bridge cycling and may relieve the tether-like constraint of myosin heads imposed by cMyBP-C. We favor a mechanism in which cMyBP-C modulates cross-bridge cycling kinetics by regulating the proximity and interaction of myosin and actin. To test this idea, we used synchrotron low-angle x-ray diffraction to measure interthick filament lattice spacing and the equatorial intensity ratio, I{sub 11}/I{sub 10}, in skinned trabeculae isolated from wild-type and cMyBP-C null (cMyBP-C{sup -/-}) mice. In wild-type myocardium, PKA treatment appeared to result in radial or azimuthal displacement of cross-bridges away from the thick filaments as indicated by an increase (approximately 50%) in I{sub 11}/I{sub 10} (0.22{+-}0.03 versus 0.33{+-}0.03). Conversely, PKA treatment did not affect cross-bridge disposition in mice lacking cMyBP-C, because there was no difference in I{sub 11}/I{sub 10} between untreated and PKA-treated cMyBP-C{sup -/-} myocardium (0.40{+-}0.06 versus 0.42{+-}0.05). Although lattice spacing did not change after treatment in wild-type (45.68{+-}0.84 nm versus 45.64{+-}0.64 nm), treatment of cMyBP-C{sup -/-} myocardium increased lattice spacing (46.80{+-}0.92 nm versus 49.61{+-}0.59 nm). This result is consistent with the idea that the myofilament lattice expands after PKA phosphorylation of cardiac troponin I, and when present, cMyBP-C, may stabilize the lattice. These data support our hypothesis that tethering of cross-bridges by cMyBP-C is relieved by phosphorylation of PKA sites in cMyBP-C, thereby increasing the proximity of cross-bridges to actin and increasing the probability of interaction with actin on contraction.

  13. Immobilization of the Type XIV Myosin Complex in Toxoplasma gondii

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Terezina M.; Rajfur, Zenon; Jacobson, Ken

    2007-01-01

    The substrate-dependent movement of apicomplexan parasites such as Toxoplasma gondii and Plasmodium sp. is driven by the interaction of a type XIV myosin with F-actin. A complex containing the myosin-A heavy chain, a myosin light chain, and the accessory protein GAP45 is attached to the membranes of the inner membrane complex (IMC) through its tight interaction with the integral membrane glycoprotein GAP50. For the interaction of this complex with F-actin to result in net parasite movement, it is necessary that the myosin be immobilized with respect to the parasite and the actin with respect to the substrate the parasite is moving on. We report here that the myosin motor complex of Toxoplasma is firmly immobilized in the plane of the IMC. This does not seem to be accomplished by direct interactions with cytoskeletal elements. Immobilization of the motor complex, however, does seem to require cholesterol. Both the motor complex and the cholesterol are found in detergent-resistant membrane domains that encompass a large fraction of the inner membrane complex surface. The observation that the myosin XIV motor complex of Toxoplasma is immobilized within this cholesterol-rich membrane likely extends to closely related pathogens such as Plasmodium and possibly to other eukaryotes. PMID:17538016

  14. Sliding velocity of isolated rabbit cardiac myosin correlates with isozyme distribution.

    PubMed

    Yamashita, H; Sugiura, S; Serizawa, T; Sugimoto, T; Iizuka, M; Katayama, E; Shimmen, T

    1992-08-01

    To investigate the relationship between the mechanical and biochemical properties of cardiac myosin, the sliding velocity of isolated cardiac myosin obtained from both euthyroid and hyperthyroid rabbits on actin cables was measured with an in vitro motility assay system. Ten rabbits (T) were treated with L-thyroxine to induce hyperthyroidism, and eight nontreated animals (N) were used as controls. Myosin was purified from the left ventricles of anesthetized animals. Myosin isozyme content was analyzed by the pyrophosphate gel electrophoresis method, and myosin adenosinetriphosphatase (ATPase) activity was determined on the same sample. Long well-organized actin cables of green algae, Nitellopsis, were used in the in vitro motility assay. Small latex beads were coated with purified cardiac myosin and introduced onto the Nitellopsis actin cables. Active unidirectional movement of the beads on the actin cables was observed under a photomicroscope, and the velocity was measured. The velocity was dependent on ATP concentrations, and the optimal pH for bead movement was approximately 7.0-7.5. The mean velocity was higher in T than in N (0.66 +/- 0.12 vs. 0.32 +/- 0.09 micron/s, P less than 0.01). Both Ca(2+)-activated ATPase activity and the percentage of alpha-myosin heavy chain were also higher in T than in N (0.691 +/- 0.072 vs. 0.335 +/- 0.072 microM Pi.mg-1.min-1, P less than 0.01, and 79 +/- 12 vs. 26 +/- 7%, P less than 0.01, respectively). The velocity of myosin closely correlated with both Ca(+2)-activated myosin ATPase activity (r = 0.87, P less than 0.01) and the percentage of alpha-myosin heavy chain (r = 0.87, P less than 0.01).

  15. Spatial relationship between the nucleotide-binding site, Lys-61 and Cys-374 in actin and a conformational change induced by myosin subfragment-1 binding.

    PubMed

    Miki, M; dos Remedios, C G; Barden, J A

    1987-10-15

    The spatial relationship between Lys-61, the nucleotide binding site and Cys-374 was studied. Lys-61 was labelled with fluorescein-5-isothiocyanate as a resonance energy acceptor, the nucleotide-binding site was labelled with the fluorescent ATP analogues epsilon ATP or formycin-A 5'-triphosphate (FTP) and Cys-374 was labelled with 5-(2-[(iodoacetyl)amino]ethyl)aminonaphthalene-1-sulfonic acid (1,5-IAEDANS) as a resonance energy donor. The distances between the nucleotide binding site and Lys-61 or between Lys-61 and Cys-374 were calculated to be 3.5 +/- 0.3 nm and 4.60 +/- 0.03 nm, respectively. (The assumption has been made in calculating these distances that the energy donor and acceptor rotate rapidly relative to the fluorescence lifetime.) On the other hand, when doubly-labelled actin with 1,5-IAEDANS at Cys-374 and FITC at Lys-61 was polymerized in the presence of a twofold molar excess of phalloidin [Miki, M. (1987) Eur. J. Biochem. 164, 229-235], the fluorescence of 1,5-IAEDANS bound to actin was quenched significantly. This could be attributed to inter-monomer energy transfer. The inter-monomer distance between FITC attached to Lys-61 in a monomer and 1,5-IAEDANS attached to Cys-374 in its nearest-neighbour monomer in an F-actin filament was calculated to be 3.34 +/- 0.06 nm, assuming that the likely change in the intra-monomer distance does not change during polymerization by more than 0.4 nm. One possible spatial relationship between Lys-61, Cys-374 and the nucleotide binding site in an F-actin filament is proposed. The effect of myosin subfragment-1 (S1) binding on the energy transfer efficiency was studied. The fluorescence intensity of AEDANS-FITC-actin decreased by 30% upon interaction with S1. The fluorescence intensity of AEDANS-FITC-actin polymer in the presence of phalloidin increased by 21% upon interaction with S1. The addition of ATP led to the fluorescence intensity returning to the initial level. Assuming that the change of fluorescence

  16. Myosin heavy chain composition in normal and atrophic equine laryngeal muscle.

    PubMed

    Adreani, C M; Li, Z B; Lehar, M; Southwood, L L; Habecker, P L; Flint, P W; Parente, E J

    2006-11-01

    The myosin heavy chain (MHC) composition of a given muscle determines the contractile properties and, therefore, the fiber type distribution of the muscle. MHC isoform expression in the laryngeal muscle is modulated by neural input and function, and it represents the cellular level changes that occur with denervation and reinnervation of skeletal muscle. The objective of this study was to evaluate the pattern of MHC isoform expression in laryngeal muscle harvested from normal cadavers and cadavers with naturally occurring left laryngeal hemiplegia secondary to recurrent laryngeal neuropathy. Left and right thyroarytenoideus (TA) and cricoarytenoideus dorsalis (CAD) were obtained from 7 horses affected with left-sided intrinsic laryngeal muscle atrophy and from 2 normal horses. Frozen sections were evaluated histologically for degree of atrophy and fiber type composition. MHC isoform expression was determined by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) of muscle protein. Histologic atrophy was seen in all atrophic muscles and some right-sided muscles of 3 affected horses, as well as the left TA of 1 normal horse. Fiber type grouping or loss of type I muscle fibers was observed in the left-sided laryngeal muscles in all but 1 affected horse, as well as in the right muscles of 2 affected horses, and the left TA of 1 normal horse. SDS-PAGE showed 2 bands corresponding to the type I and type IIB myosin isoforms in the CAD and TA of the 2 normal horses. Affected horses demonstrated a trend toward increased expression of the type IIB isoform and decreased expression of the type I isoform in atrophic muscles. This study confirmed the presence of histologic abnormalities in grossly normal equine laryngeal muscle, and it demonstrated an increased expression of type IIB MHC with a concurrent decreased expression of type I MHC in affected muscles. Evaluation of muscle fiber changes at the cellular level under denervated and reinnervated conditions

  17. Shifts in the myosin heavy chain isozymes in the mouse heart result in increased energy efficiency

    PubMed Central

    Hoyer, Kirsten; Krenz, Maike; Robbins, Jeffrey; Ingwall, Joanne S.

    2007-01-01

    Cardiac-specific transgenesis in the mouse is widely used to study the basic biology and chemistry of the heart and to model human cardiovascular disease. A fundamental difference between mouse and human hearts is the background motor protein: mouse hearts contain predominantly the αα-myosin heavy chain (MyHC) isozyme while human hearts contain predominantly the ββ-MyHC isozyme. Although the intrinsic differences in mechanical and enzymatic properties of the αα- and ββ-MyHC molecules are well known, the consequences of isozyme shifts on energetic of the intact beating heart remain unknown. Therefore, we compared the free energy of ATP hydrolysis (|ΔG~ATP|) determined by 31P NMR spectroscopy in isolated perfused littermate mouse hearts containing the same amount of myosin comprised of either >95% αα-MyHC or ~83% ββ-MyHC. |ΔG~ATP| was ~2 kJ mol−1 higher in the ββ-MyHC hearts at all workloads. Furthermore, upon inotropic challenge, hearts containing predominantly ββ-MyHC hearts increased developed pressure more than αα-MyHC hearts whereas heart rate increased more in αα-MyHC hearts. Thus, hearts containing predominantly the ββ-MyHC isozyme are more energy efficient than αα-MyHC hearts. We suggest that these fundamental differences in the motor protein energy efficiency at the whole heart level should be considered when interpreting results using mouse-based cardiovascular modeling of normal and diseased human heart. PMID:17054980

  18. Myosin VI: a multifunctional motor.

    PubMed

    Lister, I; Roberts, R; Schmitz, S; Walker, M; Trinick, J; Veigel, C; Buss, F; Kendrick-Jones, J

    2004-11-01

    Myosin VI moves towards the minus end of actin filaments unlike all the other myosins so far studied, suggesting that it has unique properties and functions. Myosin VI is present in clathrin-coated pits and vesicles, in membrane ruffles and in the Golgi complex, indicating that it has a wide variety of functions in the cell. To investigate the cellular roles of myosin VI, we have identified a variety of myosin VI-binding partners and characterized their interactions. As an alternative approach, we have studied the in vitro properties of intact myosin VI. Previous studies assumed that myosin VI existed as a dimer but our biochemical characterization and electron microscopy studies reveal that myosin VI is a monomer. Using an optical tweezers force transducer, we showed that monomeric myosin VI is a non-processive motor with a large working stroke of 18 nm. Potential roles for myosin VI in cells are discussed. PMID:15493988

  19. Blebbistatin and blebbistatin-inactivated myosin II inhibit myosin II-independent processes in Dictyostelium

    PubMed Central

    Shu, Shi; Liu, Xiong; Korn, Edward D.

    2005-01-01

    Blebbistatin, a cell-permeable inhibitor of class-II myosins, was developed to provide a tool for studying the biologic roles of myosin II. Consistent with this use, we find that blebbistatin inhibits three myosin II-dependent processes in Dictyostelium (growth in suspension culture, capping of Con A receptors, and development to fruiting bodies) and does not inhibit growth on plates, which does not require myosin II. As expected, macropinocytosis (myosin I-dependent), contractile vacuole activity (myosin V-dependent), and phagocytosis (myosin VII-dependent), none of which requires myosin II, are not inhibited by blebbistatin in myosin II-null cells, but, unexpectedly, blebbistatin does inhibit macropinocytosis and phagocytosis by cells expressing myosin II. Expression of catalytically inactive myosin II in myosin II-null cells also inhibits macropinocytosis and phagocytosis. Both blebbistatin-inhibited myosin II and catalytically inactive myosin II form cytoplasmic aggregates, which may be why they inhibit myosin II-independent processes, but neither affects the distribution of actin filaments in vegetative cells or actin and myosin distribution in dividing or polarized cells. Blebbistatin also inhibits cell streaming and plaque expansion in myosin II-null cells. Our results are consistent with myosin II being the only Dictyostelium myosin that is inhibited by blebbistatin but also show that blebbistatin-inactivated myosin II inhibits some myosin II-independent processes and that blebbistatin inhibits other activities in the absence of myosin II. PMID:15671182

  20. Some distinctive features of zebrafish myogenesis based on unexpected distributions of the muscle cytoskeletal proteins actin, myosin, desmin, alpha-actinin, troponin and titin.

    PubMed

    Costa, Manoel L; Escaleira, Roberta C; Rodrigues, Viviane B; Manasfi, Muhamed; Mermelstein, Claudia S

    2002-08-01

    The current myofibrillogenesis model is based mostly on in vitro cell cultures and on avian and mammalian embryos in situ. We followed the expression of actin, myosin, desmin, alpha-actinin, titin, and troponin using immunofluorescence microscopy of zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos. We could see young mononucleated myoblasts with sharp striations. The striations were positive for all the sarcomeric proteins. Desmin distribution during muscle maturation changes from dispersed aggregates to a perinuclear concentration to striated afterwards. We could not observe desmin-positive, myofibrillar-proteins-negative cells, and we could not find any non-striated distribution of sarcomeric proteins, such as stress fiber-like structures. Some steps, like fusion before striation, seem to be different in the zebrafish when compared with the previously described myogenesis sequences.

  1. Myosin Head Configuration in Relaxed Insect Flight Muscle: X-Ray Modeled Resting Cross-Bridges in a Pre-Powerstroke State Are Poised for Actin Binding

    PubMed Central

    AL-Khayat, Hind A.; Hudson, Liam; Reedy, Michael K.; Irving, Thomas C.; Squire, John M.

    2003-01-01

    Low-angle x-ray diffraction patterns from relaxed insect flight muscle recorded on the BioCAT beamline at the Argonne APS have been modeled to 6.5 nm resolution (R-factor 9.7%, 65 reflections) using the known myosin head atomic coordinates, a hinge between the motor (catalytic) domain and the light chain-binding (neck) region (lever arm), together with a simulated annealing procedure. The best head conformation angles around the hinge gave a head shape that was close to that typical of relaxed M•ADP•Pi heads, a head shape never before demonstrated in intact muscle. The best packing constrained the eight heads per crown within a compact crown shelf projecting at ∼90° to the filament axis. The two heads of each myosin molecule assume nonequivalent positions, one head projecting outward while the other curves round the thick filament surface to nose against the proximal neck of the projecting head of the neighboring molecule. The projecting heads immediately suggest a possible cross-bridge cycle. The relaxed projecting head, oriented almost as needed for actin attachment, will attach, then release Pi followed by ADP, as the lever arm with a purely axial change in tilt drives ∼10 nm of actin filament sliding on the way to the nucleotide-free limit of its working stroke. The overall arrangement appears well designed to support precision cycling for the myogenic oscillatory mode of contraction with its enhanced stretch-activation response used in flight by insects equipped with asynchronous fibrillar flight muscles. PMID:12885653

  2. Influence of Mg2+ and Ca2+ bound to 1,5-IAEDANS-labeled phosphorylated and dephosphorylated heavy meromyosin complexed with F-actin on polarized fluorescence of the fluorophore.

    PubMed

    Borovikov YuS; Wrotek, M; Aksenova, N B; Lebedeva, N N; Kakol, I

    1987-11-01

    Dephosphorylated and phosphorylated heavy meromyosin, fluorescently labeled with 1,5-IAEDANS attached at the SH1 group, was introduced into myosin-free ghost fibres and the polarized fluorescence of the bound label was measured. The results depended on whether the divalent cation binding sites on heavy meromyosin were saturated with Mg2+ or Ca2+. The calculated angles of absorption and emission dipoles and the amount of random fluorophores were significantly changed, indicating that the random mobility and orientation of the fluorophores of phosphorylated and dephosphorylated heavy meromyosin heads complexed with F-actin in the ghost fibre depend on saturation of heavy meromyosin with Ca2+ or Mg2+. The presence of bound Ca2+ has an opposite effect on the polarized fluorescence of phosphorylated and dephosphorylated 1,5-IAEDANS-heavy meromyosin.

  3. Phosphorylation of lymphocyte myosin catalyzed in vitro and in intact cells

    PubMed Central

    1982-01-01

    Myosin has been isolated from guinea pig B-lymphocytic leukemia cells (L2C). The myosin has been enzymatically phosphorylated and dephosphorylated in vitro using both heterologous and lymphocyte- derived enzymes. Both the heavy chain and 20,000-dalton light chain of lymphocyte myosin are phosphorylated in vitro. Phosphorylation of myosin enhances actin-activated ATPase activity. Phosphorylation of myosin in murine lymphocytes was analyzed by use of a novel technique for rapid immunoprecipitation of myosin from cell extracts. Both the heavy chain and 20,000-dalton light chain of myosin are phosphorylated in intact cells. Addition of antibody reactive with cell-surface immunoglobulin to lymphocyte populations enriched for B cells stimulates locomotion of these cells and also increases the quantity of 32P isolated in association with the 20,000-dalton light chain of lymphocyte myosin, when 32Pi was present in the medium. In addition, an unidentified, phosphorylated polypeptides with a molecular mass of 22,000 daltons is co-isolated with myosin from cells by rapid immunoprecipitation. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that phosphorylation of myosin may contribute to regulation of movements performed by lymphocytes which are related to their participation in immunologic reactions. PMID:6212588

  4. Interferon-γ Causes Cardiac Myocyte Atrophy via Selective Degradation of Myosin Heavy Chain in a Model of Chronic Myocarditis

    PubMed Central

    Cosper, Pippa F.; Harvey, Pamela A.; Leinwand, Leslie A.

    2013-01-01

    Interferon-γ (IFN-γ), a proinflammatory cytokine, has been implicated in the pathogenesis of a number of forms of heart disease including myocarditis and congestive heart failure. In fact, overexpression of IFN-γ in mice causes dilated cardiomyopathy. However, the direct effects of IFN-γ on cardiac myocytes and the mechanism by which it causes cardiac dysfunction have not been described. Here, we present the molecular pathology of IFN-γ exposure and its effect on myofibrillar proteins in isolated neonatal rat ventricular myocytes. Treatment with IFN-γ caused cardiac myocyte atrophy attributable to a specific decrease in myosin heavy chain protein. This selective degradation of myosin heavy chain was not accompanied by a decrease in total protein synthesis or by an increase in total protein degradation. IFN-γ increased both proteasome and immunoproteasome activity in cardiac myocytes and their inhibition blocked myosin heavy chain loss and myocyte atrophy, whereas inhibition of the lysosome or autophagosome did not. Collectively, these results provide a mechanism by which IFN-γ causes cardiac pathology in the setting of chronic inflammatory diseases. PMID:23058369

  5. Time course of myosin heavy chain transitions in neonatal rats: importance of innervation and thyroid state

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, G. R.; McCue, S. A.; Zeng, M.; Baldwin, K. M.

    1999-01-01

    During the postnatal period, rat limb muscles adapt to weight bearing via the replacement of embryonic (Emb) and neonatal (Neo) myosin heavy chains (MHCs) by the adult isoforms. Our aim was to characterize this transition in terms of the six MHC isoforms expressed in skeletal muscle and to determine the importance of innervation and thyroid hormone status on the attainment of the adult MHC phenotype. Neonatal rats were made hypothyroid via propylthiouracil (PTU) injection. In normal and PTU subgroups, leg muscles were unilaterally denervated at 15 days of age. The MHC profiles of plantaris (PLN) and soleus (Sol) muscles were determined at 7, 14, 23, and 30 days postpartum. At day 7, the Sol MHC profile was 55% type I, 30% Emb, and 10% Neo; in the PLN, the pattern was 60% Neo and 25% Emb. By day 30 the Sol and PLN had essentially attained an adult MHC profile in the controls. PTU augmented slow MHC expression in the Sol, whereas in the PLN it markedly repressed IIb MHC by retaining neonatal MHC expression. Denervation blunted the upregulation of IIb in the PLN and of Type I in the Sol and shifted the pattern to greater expression of IIa and IIx MHCs in both muscles. In contrast to previous observations, these findings collectively suggest that both an intact thyroid and innervation state are obligatory for the attainment of the adult MHC phenotype, particularly in fast-twitch muscles.

  6. Interaction of thyroid state and denervation on skeletal myosin heavy chain expression

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haddad, F.; Arnold, C.; Zeng, M.; Baldwin, K.

    1997-01-01

    The goal of this study was to examine the effects of altered thyroid state and denervation (Den) on skeletal myosin heavy chain (MHC) expression in the plantaris and soleus muscles. Rats were subjected to unilateral denervation (Den) and randomly assigned to one of three groups: (1) euthyroid; (2) hyperthyroid; (3) and hypothyroid. Denervation caused severe muscle atrophy and muscle-type specific MHC transformation. Denervation transformed the soleus to a faster muscle, and its effects required the presence of circulating thyroid hormone. In contrast, denervation transformed the plantaris to a slower muscle independently of thyroid state. Furthermore, thyroid hormone effects did not depend upon innervation status in the soleus, while they required the presence of the nerve in the plantaris. Collectively, these findings suggest that both thyroid hormone and intact nerve (a) differentially affect MHC transformations in fast and slow muscle; and (b) are important factors in regulating the optimal expression of both type I and IIB MHC genes. This research suggests that for patients with nerve damage and/or paralysis, both muscle mass and biochemical properties can also be affected by the thyroid state.

  7. Nonmuscle myosin heavy chain IIA mediates Epstein–Barr virus infection of nasopharyngeal epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Xiong, Dan; Du, Yong; Wang, Hong-Bo; Zhao, Bo; Zhang, Hua; Li, Yan; Hu, Li-Juan; Cao, Jing-Yan; Zhong, Qian; Liu, Wan-Li; Li, Man-Zhi; Zhu, Xiao-Feng; Tsao, Sai Wah; Hutt-Fletcher, Lindsey M.; Song, Erwei; Zeng, Yi-Xin; Kieff, Elliott; Zeng, Mu-Sheng

    2015-01-01

    EBV causes B lymphomas and undifferentiated nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). Although the mechanisms by which EBV infects B lymphocytes have been extensively studied, investigation of the mechanisms by which EBV infects nasopharyngeal epithelial cells (NPECs) has only recently been enabled by the successful growth of B lymphoma Mo-MLV insertion region 1 homolog (BMI1)-immortalized NPECs in vitro and the discovery that neuropilin 1 expression positively affects EBV glycoprotein B (gB)-mediated infection and tyrosine kinase activations in enhancing EBV infection of BMI1-immortalized NPECs. We have now found that even though EBV infected NPECs grown as a monolayer at extremely low efficiency (<3%), close to 30% of NPECs grown as sphere-like cells (SLCs) were infected by EBV. We also identified nonmuscle myosin heavy chain IIA (NMHC-IIA) as another NPEC protein important for efficient EBV infection. EBV gH/gL specifically interacted with NMHC-IIA both in vitro and in vivo. NMHC-IIA densely aggregated on the surface of NPEC SLCs and colocalized with EBV. EBV infection of NPEC SLCs was significantly reduced by NMHC-IIA siRNA knock-down. NMHC-IIA antisera also efficiently blocked EBV infection. These data indicate that NMHC-IIA is an important factor for EBV NPEC infection. PMID:26290577

  8. Myosin heavy chain composition of tiger (Panthera tigris) and cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) hindlimb muscles.

    PubMed

    Hyatt, Jon-Philippe K; Roy, Roland R; Rugg, Stuart; Talmadge, Robert J

    2010-01-01

    Felids have a wide range of locomotor activity patterns and maximal running speeds, including the very fast cheetah (Acinonyx jubatas), the roaming tiger (Panthera tigris), and the relatively sedentary domestic cat (Felis catus). As previous studies have suggested a relationship between the amount and type of activity and the myosin heavy chain (MHC) isoform composition of a muscle, we assessed the MHC isoform composition of selected hindlimb muscles from these three felid species with differing activity regimens. Using gel electrophoresis, western blotting, histochemistry, and immunohistochemistry with MHC isoform-specific antibodies, we compared the MHC composition in the tibialis anterior, medial gastrocnemius (MG), plantaris (Plt), and soleus muscles of the tiger, cheetah, and domestic cat. The soleus muscle was absent in the cheetah. At least one slow (type I) and three fast (types IIa, IIx, and IIb) MHC isoforms were present in the muscles of each felid. The tiger had a high combined percentage of the characteristically slower isoforms (MHCs I and IIa) in the MG (62%) and the Plt (86%), whereas these percentages were relatively low in the MG (44%) and Plt (55%) of the cheetah. In general, the MHC isoform characteristics of the hindlimb muscles matched the daily activity patterns of these felids: the tiger has daily demands for covering long distances, whereas the cheetah has requirements for speed and power.

  9. Age dependence of myosin heavy chain transitions induced by creatine depletion in rat skeletal muscle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, Gregory R.; Baldwin, Kenneth M.

    1995-01-01

    This study was designed to test the hypothesis that myosin heavy chain (MHC) plasticity resulting from creatine depletion is an age-dependent process. At weaning (age 28 days), rat pups were placed on either standard rat chow (normal diet juvenile group) or the same chow supplemented with 1% wt/wt of the creatine analogue beta-guanidinopropionic acid (creatine depletion juvenile (CDJ) group). Two groups of adult rats (age approximately 8 wk) were placed on the same diet regimens (normal diet adult and creatine depletion adult (CDA) groups). After 40 days (CDJ and normal diet juvenile groups) and 60 days (CDA and normal diet adult groups), animals were killed and several skeletal muscles were removed for analysis of creatine content or MHC ditribution. In the CDJ group, creatine depletion (78%) was accompanied by significant shifts toward expression of slower MHC isoforms in two slow and three fast skeletal muscles. In contrast, creatine depletion in adult animals did not result in similar shifts toward slow MHC isoform expression in either muscle type. The results of this study indicate that there is a differential effect of creatine depletion on MHC tranitions that appears to be age dependent. These results strongly suggest that investigators contemplating experimental designs involving the use of the creatine analogue beta-guanidinopropionic acid should consider the age of the animals to be used.

  10. Characterization of diverse forms of myosin heavy chain expressed in adult human skeletal muscle.

    PubMed Central

    Saez, L; Leinwand, L A

    1986-01-01

    In an attempt to define myosin heavy chain (MHC) gene organization and expression in adult human skeletal muscle, we have isolated and characterized genomic sequences corresponding to different human sarcomeric MHC genes (1). In this report, we present the complete DNA sequence of two different adult human skeletal muscle MHC cDNA clones, one of which encodes the entire light meromyosin (LMM) segment of MHC and represents the longest described MHC cDNA sequence. Additionally, both clones provide new sequence data from a 228 amino acid segment of the MHC tail for which no protein or DNA sequence has been previously available. One clone encodes a "fast" form of skeletal muscle MHC while the other clone most closely resembles a MHC form described in rat cardiac ventricles. We show that the 3' untranslated region of skeletal MHC cDNAs are homologous from widely separated species as are cardiac MHC cDNAs. However, there is no homology between the 3' untranslated region of cardiac and skeletal muscle MHCs. Isotype-specific preservation of MHC 3' untranslated sequences during evolution suggests a functional role for these regions. Images PMID:2421254

  11. Structural organization of the human cardiac [alpha]-myosin heavy chain gene (MYH6)

    SciTech Connect

    Epp, T.A.; Dixon, I.M.C.; Wang, H.Y.; Sole, M.J.; Liew, C.C. )

    1993-12-01

    The human myocardium expresses two cardiac myosin heavy chain (MyHC) isoforms, [alpha] and [beta], that exist in tandem array on chromosome 14q12. The authors have previously sequenced the entire human cardiac [beta]-MyHC gene and now report the complete nucleotide sequence of the human cardiac [alpha]-MyHC, encompassing 26,159 bp as well as the entire 4484-bp 5'-flanking intergenic region. The gene (MYH6) consists of 39 exons, 37 of which contain coding information. The 5'-untranslated region is split into 3 exons, with the third exon containing the AUG translocation initiation codon. With the exception of the 13th intron of the human cardiac [beta]-MyHC, which is not present within the [alpha]-isogene, all exon/intron boundaries are conserved. Conspicuous sequence motifs contained within the [alpha]-MyHC gene include four Alu repeats, a single (GT)[sub n] element, and a homopurine-homopyrimidine tract containing 23 GAA repeating units followed by 10 GAG repeating units. Comparison of the encoded amino acid sequence with a previously reported human [alpha]-MyHC cDNA sequence reveals several potential polymorphisms. 29 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  12. Effects of inactivity on myosin heavy chain composition and size of rat soleus fibers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grossman, E. J.; Roy, R. R.; Talmadge, R. J.; Zhong, H.; Edgerton, V. R.

    1998-01-01

    Myosin heavy chain (MHC) and fiber size properties of the adult rat soleus were determined after 4-60 days of complete inactivity, i.e., lumbar spinal cord isolation. Soleus atrophy was rapid and progressive, i.e., 25% and 64% decrease in weight and 33% and 75% decrease in fiber size after 4 and 60 days of inactivity, respectively. Changes in MHC occurred at a slower rate than the atrophic response. After 15 days there was de novo expression of type IIx MHC (approximately 10%). By 60 days, type IIx MHC accounted for 33% of the total MHC content, and 7% of the fibers contained only type IIx MHC. The relative amount of type I MHC was reduced from 93% in control to 49% after 60 days of inactivity. Therefore, the effects of 60 days of inactivity suggest that during this time period at least 75% of fiber size and approximately 40% of type I MHC composition of the adult rat soleus can be attributed to activation-related events.

  13. Single-fiber myosin heavy chain polymorphism during postnatal development: modulation by hypothyroidism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    di Maso, N. A.; Caiozzo, V. J.; Baldwin, K. M.

    2000-01-01

    The primary objective of this study was to follow the developmental time course of myosin heavy chain (MHC) isoform transitions in single fibers of the rodent plantaris muscle. Hypothyroidism was used in conjunction with single-fiber analyses to better describe a possible linkage between the neonatal and fast type IIB MHC isoforms during development. In contrast to the general concept that developmental MHC isoform transitions give rise to muscle fibers that express only a single MHC isoform, the single-fiber analyses revealed a very high degree of MHC polymorphism throughout postnatal development. In the adult state, MHC polymorphism was so pervasive that the rodent plantaris muscles contained approximately 12-15 different pools of fibers (i.e., fiber types). The degree of polymorphism observed at the single-fiber level made it difficult to determine specific developmental schemes analogous to those observed previously for the rodent soleus muscle. However, hypothyroidism was useful in that it confirmed a possible link between the developmental regulation of the neonatal and fast type IIB MHC isoforms.

  14. Nonmuscle myosin heavy chain IIA mediates Epstein-Barr virus infection of nasopharyngeal epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Dan; Du, Yong; Wang, Hong-Bo; Zhao, Bo; Zhang, Hua; Li, Yan; Hu, Li-Juan; Cao, Jing-Yan; Zhong, Qian; Liu, Wan-Li; Li, Man-Zhi; Zhu, Xiao-Feng; Tsao, Sai Wah; Hutt-Fletcher, Lindsey M; Song, Erwei; Zeng, Yi-Xin; Kieff, Elliott; Zeng, Mu-Sheng

    2015-09-01

    EBV causes B lymphomas and undifferentiated nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). Although the mechanisms by which EBV infects B lymphocytes have been extensively studied, investigation of the mechanisms by which EBV infects nasopharyngeal epithelial cells (NPECs) has only recently been enabled by the successful growth of B lymphoma Mo-MLV insertion region 1 homolog (BMI1)-immortalized NPECs in vitro and the discovery that neuropilin 1 expression positively affects EBV glycoprotein B (gB)-mediated infection and tyrosine kinase activations in enhancing EBV infection of BMI1-immortalized NPECs. We have now found that even though EBV infected NPECs grown as a monolayer at extremely low efficiency (<3%), close to 30% of NPECs grown as sphere-like cells (SLCs) were infected by EBV. We also identified nonmuscle myosin heavy chain IIA (NMHC-IIA) as another NPEC protein important for efficient EBV infection. EBV gH/gL specifically interacted with NMHC-IIA both in vitro and in vivo. NMHC-IIA densely aggregated on the surface of NPEC SLCs and colocalized with EBV. EBV infection of NPEC SLCs was significantly reduced by NMHC-IIA siRNA knock-down. NMHC-IIA antisera also efficiently blocked EBV infection. These data indicate that NMHC-IIA is an important factor for EBV NPEC infection. PMID:26290577

  15. Myosin heavy chain-2b transcripts and isoform are expressed in human laryngeal muscles.

    PubMed

    Smerdu, Vika; Cvetko, Erika

    2013-01-01

    Three fast myosin heavy chain (MyHC) isoforms, i.e. MyHC-2a, -2x and -2b, are expressed in skeletal muscles of smaller mammals. In contrast, only MyHC-2a and -2x have been revealed in humans so far. The expression of MyHC isoforms is known to be wider in the functionally more specialized laryngeal muscles. Though mRNA transcripts of the MyHC-2b gene were found to be expressed in certain human skeletal and laryngeal muscles, the corresponding isoform has not been demonstrated in these muscles. To our knowledge, we are the first to demonstrate not only the expression of MyHC-2b transcripts using an in situ hybridization technique but also the corresponding protein, i.e. the MyHC-2b isoform, in some human laryngeal muscles by immunohistochemistry but not by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Using a set of antibodies specific to MyHC isoforms, we demonstrated that MyHC-2b was always co-expressed with the major MyHC isoforms, not only with the fast ones (MyHC-2a and -2x) but with the slow isoform (MyHC-1) as well.

  16. Muscle fiber type characterization and myosin heavy chain (MyHC) isoform expression in Mediterranean buffaloes.

    PubMed

    Francisco, C L; Jorge, A M; Dal-Pai-Silva, M; Carani, F R; Cabeço, L C; Silva, S R

    2011-07-01

    This study aimed to evaluate myosin heavy chain (MyHC) isoform expression and muscle fiber types of Longissimus dorsi (LD) and Semitendinosus (ST) in Mediterranean buffaloes and possible fibers muscles modulation according to different slaughter weights. The presence of MyHC IIb isoforms was not found. Only three isoforms of MyHC (IIa, IIx/d and I) were observed and their percentages did not vary significantly among slaughter weights. The confirmation of the presence of hybrid muscles fibers (IIA/X) in LD and ST muscles necessitated classifying the fiber types into fast and slow according to their contractile activity, by m-ATPase assay. For both muscles, the muscle fiber frequency was higher for fast than for slow fibers in all weight groups. There was a difference (P<0.05) in the frequency of LD and ST muscle fiber types according to slaughter weights, which demonstrate that the slaughter weight influences the profile of muscle fibers from buffaloes. PMID:21371827

  17. Missense mutation of the {beta}-cardiac myosin heavy-chain gene in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy

    SciTech Connect

    Arai, Shoichi; Matsuoka, Rumiko; Hirayama, Kenji; Sakurai, Hisanao

    1995-09-11

    Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy occurs as an autosomal dominant familial disorder or as a sporadic disease without familial involvement. We describe a missense mutation of the {beta}-cardiac myosin heavy chain (MHC) gene, a G to T transversion (741 Gly{r_arrow}Trp) identified by direct sequencing of exon 20 in four individuals affected with familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Three individuals with sporadic hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, whose parents are clinically and genetically unaffected, had sequence variations of exon 34 of the {alpha}-cardiac MHC gene (a C to T transversion, 1658 Asp{r_arrow}Asp, resulting in FokI site polymorphism), of intron 33 of the {alpha}-cardiac MHC gene (a G to A and an A to T transversion), and also of intron 14 of the {beta}-cardiac MHC gene (a C to T transversion in a patient with Noonan syndrome). Including our case, 30 missense mutations of the {beta}-cardiac MHC gene in 49 families have been reported thus far worldwide. Almost all are located in the region of the gene coding for the globular head of the molecule, and only one mutation was found in both Caucasian and Japanese families. Missense mutations of the {Beta}-cardiac MHC gene in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy may therefore differ according to race. 29 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  18. Absence of Developmental and Unconventional Myosin Heavy Chain in Human Suprahyoid Muscles

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Qingwei; Douglas, Megan; Burkholder, Thomas; Sokoloff, Alan J.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Contradictory reports of the myosin heavy chain (MHC) composition of adult human suprahyoid muscles leave unresolved the extent to which these muscles express developmental and unconventional MHC. Methods By immunohistochemistry, separation SDS-PAGE-Coomassie, separation SDS-PAGE-Western blot, and mRNA PCR, we tested for conventional MHCI, MHCIIA, MHCIIX, developmental MHC embryonic and MHC neonatal, and unconventional MHC alpha-cardiac, MHC extraocular, and MHC slow tonic in adult human anterior digastric (AD), geniohyoid (GH) and mylohyoid (MH) muscles. Results By separation SDS-PAGE-Coomassie and Western blot only conventional MHC are present. By immunohistochemistry all muscle fibers are positive for MHCI, MHCIIA, or MHCIIX, and fewer than 4 fibers/mm2 are positive for developmental or unconventional MHC. By PCR, mRNA of MHCI and MHCIIA dominate, with sporadically detectable MHC alpha-cardiac and without detectable mRNA of other developmental and unconventional MHC. Discussion We conclude that human suprahyoid muscles AD, GH and MH are composed almost exclusively of conventional MHC isoforms. PMID:23835800

  19. Cooperativity of thiol-modified myosin filaments. ATPase and motility assays of myosin function.

    PubMed Central

    Root, D D; Reisler, E

    1992-01-01

    The effects of chemical modifications of myosin's reactive cysteines on actomyosin adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase) activities and sliding velocities in the in vitro motility assays were examined in this work. The three types of modifications studied were 4-[N-[(iodoacetoxy)ethyl]-N-methylamino]-7-nitrobenz-2-oxa-1,3- diazole labeling of SH2 (based on Ajtai and Burghart. 1989. Biochemistry. 28:2204-2210.), phenylmaleimide labeling of SH1, and phenylmaleimide labeling of myosin in myofibrils under rigor conditions. Each type of modified myosin inhibited the sliding of actin in motility assays. The sliding velocities of actin over copolymers of modified and unmodified myosins in the motility assay were slowest with rigor-modified myosin and most rapid with SH2-labeled myosin. The actin-activated ATPase activities of similarly copolymerized myosins were lowest with SH2-labeled myosin and highest with rigor-modified myosin. The actin-activated ATPase activities of myosin subfragment-1 obtained from these modified myosins decreased in the same linear manner with the fraction of modified heads. These results are interpreted using a model in which the sliding of actin filaments over myosin filaments decreases the probability of myosin activation by actin. The sliding velocity of actin over monomeric rigor-modified myosin exceeded that over the filamentous form, which suggests for this myosin that filament structure is important for the inhibition of actin sliding in motility assays. The fact that all cysteine modifications examined inhibited the actomyosin ATPase activities and sliding velocities of actin over myosin poses questions concerning the information about the activated crossbridge obtained from probes attached to SH1 or SH2 on myosin. PMID:1420910

  20. RNA-dependent association with myosin IIA promotes F-actin-guided trafficking of the ELAV-like protein HuR to polysomes

    PubMed Central

    Doller, Anke; Schulz, Sebastian; Pfeilschifter, Josef; Eberhardt, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    The role of the mRNA-binding protein human antigen R (HuR) in stabilization and translation of AU-rich elements (ARE) containing mRNAs is well established. However, the trafficking of HuR and bound mRNA cargo, which comprises a fundamental requirement for the aforementioned HuR functions is only poorly understood. By administering different cytoskeletal inhibitors, we found that the protein kinase Cδ (PKCδ)-triggered accumulation of cytoplasmic HuR by Angiotensin II (AngII) is an actin-myosin driven process functionally relevant for stabilization of ARE-bearing mRNAs. Furthermore, we show that the AngII-induced recruitment of HuR and its bound mRNA from ribonucleoprotein particles to free and cytoskeleton bound polysomes strongly depended on an intact actomyosin cytoskeleton. In addition, HuR allocation to free and cytoskeletal bound polysomes is highly sensitive toward RNase and PPtase and structurally depends on serine 318 (S318) located within the C-terminal RNA recognition motif (RRM3). Conversely, the trafficking of the phosphomimetic HuRS318D, mimicking HuR phosphorylation at S318 by the PKCδ remained PPtase resistant. Co-immunoprecipitation experiments with truncated HuR proteins revealed that the stimulus-induced association of HuR with myosin IIA is strictly RNA dependent and mediated via the RRM3. Our data implicate a microfilament dependent transport of HuR, which is relevant for stimulus-induced targeting of ARE-bearing mRNAs from translational inactive ribonucleoprotein particles to polysomes. PMID:23921630

  1. Regulation of Melanosome Movement in the Cell Cycle by Reversible Association with Myosin V

    PubMed Central

    Rogers, Stephen L.; Karcher, Ryan L.; Roland, Joseph T.; Minin, Alexander A.; Steffen, Walter; Gelfand, Vladimir I.

    1999-01-01

    Previously, we have shown that melanosomes of Xenopus laevis melanophores are transported along both microtubules and actin filaments in a coordinated manner, and that myosin V is bound to purified melanosomes (Rogers, S., and V.I. Gelfand. 1998. Curr. Biol. 8:161–164). In the present study, we have demonstrated that myosin V is the actin-based motor responsible for melanosome transport. To examine whether myosin V was regulated in a cell cycle-dependent manner, purified melanosomes were treated with interphase- or metaphase-arrested Xenopus egg extracts and assayed for in vitro motility along Nitella actin filaments. Motility of organelles treated with mitotic extract was found to decrease dramatically, as compared with untreated or interphase extract-treated melanosomes. This mitotic inhibition of motility correlated with the dissociation of myosin V from melanosomes, but the activity of soluble motor remained unaffected. Furthermore, we find that myosin V heavy chain is highly phosphorylated in metaphase extracts versus interphase extracts. We conclude that organelle transport by myosin V is controlled by a cell cycle-regulated association of this motor to organelles, and that this binding is likely regulated by phosphorylation of myosin V during mitosis. PMID:10491390

  2. Transposable element insertions respecify alternative exon splicing in three Drosophila myosin heavy chain mutants.

    PubMed Central

    Davis, M B; Dietz, J; Standiford, D M; Emerson, C P

    1998-01-01

    Insertions of transposable elements into the myosin heavy chain (Mhc) locus disrupt the regulation of alternative pre-mRNA splicing for multi-alternative exons in the Mhc2, Mhc3, and Mhc4 mutants in Drosophila. Sequence and expression analyses show that each inserted element introduces a strong polyadenylation signal that defines novel terminal exons, which are then differentially recognized by the alternative splicing apparatus. Mhc2 and Mhc4 have insertion elements located within intron 7c and exon 9a, respectively, and each expresses a single truncated transcript that contains an aberrant terminal exon defined by the poly(A) signal of the inserted element and the 3' acceptor of the upstream common exon. In Mhc3, a poly(A) signal inserted into Mhc intron 7d defines terminal exons using either the upstream 3' acceptor of common exon 6 or the 7d acceptor, leading to the expression of 4.1- and 1.7-kb transcripts, respectively. Acceptor selection is regulated in Mhc3 transcripts, where the 3' acceptor of common Mhc exon 6 is preferentially selected in larvae, whereas the alternative exon 7d acceptor is favored in adults. These results reflect the adult-specific use of exon 7d and suggest that the normal exon 7 alternative splicing mechanism continues to influence the selection of exon 7d in Mhc3 transcripts. Overall, transposable element-induced disruptions in alternative processing demonstrate a role for the nonconsensus 3' acceptors in Mhc exons 7 and 9 alternative splicing regulation. PMID:9799262

  3. Effect of Fetal Hypothyroidism on Cardiac Myosin Heavy Chain Expression in Male Rats

    PubMed Central

    Yousefzadeh, Nasibeh; Jeddi, Sajad; Alipour, Mohammad Reza

    2016-01-01

    Background: Thyroid hormone deficiency during fetal life could affect the cardiac function in later life. The mechanism underlying this action in fetal hypothyroidism (FH) in rats has not been elucidated thus far. Objective: The aim of this study is to evaluation the effect of FH on cardiac function in male rats and to determine the contribution of α-myosin heavy chain (MHC) and β-MHC isoforms. Methods: Six pregnant female rats were randomly divided into two groups: The hypothyroid group received water containing 6-propyl-2-thiouracil during gestation and the controls consumed tap water. The offspring of the rats were tested in adulthood. Hearts from the FH and control rats were isolated and perfused with langendroff setup for measuring hemodynamic parameters; also, the heart mRNA expressions of α- MHC and β-MHC were measured by qPCR. Results: Baseline LVDP (74.0 ± 3.1 vs. 92.5 ± 3.2 mmHg, p < 0.05) and heart rate (217 ± 11 vs. 273 ± 6 beat/min, p < 0.05) were lower in the FH rats than controls. Also, these results showed the same significance in ±dp/dt. In the FH rats, β-MHC expression was higher (201%) and α- MHC expression was lower (47%) than control. Conclusion: Thyroid hormone deficiency during fetal life could attenuate normal cardiac functions in adult rats, an effect at least in part due to the increased expression of β-MHC to α- MHC ratio in the heart. PMID:27411095

  4. Myosin heavy chain expression in rodent skeletal muscle: effects of exposure to zero gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haddad, F.; Herrick, R. E.; Adams, G. R.; Baldwin, K. M.

    1993-01-01

    This study ascertained the effects of 9 days of zero gravity on the relative (percentage of total) and calculated absolute (mg/muscle) content of isomyosin expressed in both antigravity and locomotor skeletal muscle of ground control (CON) and flight-exposed (FL) rats. Results showed that although there were no differences in body weight between FL and CON animals, a significant reduction in muscle mass occurred in the vastus intermedius (VI) (P < 0.05) but not in the vastus lateralis (VL) or the tibialis anterior. Both total muscle protein and myofibril protein content were not different between the muscle regions examined in the FL and CON groups. In the VI, there were trends for reductions in the relative content of type I and IIa myosin heavy chains (MHCs) that were offset by increases in the relative content of both type IIb and possibly type IIx MHC protein (P > 0.05). mRNA levels were consistent with this pattern (P < 0.05). The same pattern held true for the red region of the VL as examined at both the protein and mRNA level (P < 0.05). When the atrophy process was examined, there were net reductions in the absolute content of both type I and IIa MHCs that were offset by calculated increases in type IIb MHC in both VI and red VL. Collectively, these findings suggest that there are both absolute and relative changes occurring in MHC expression in the "red" regions of antigravity skeletal muscle during exposure to zero gravity that could affect muscle function.

  5. Muscle fiber type specific induction of slow myosin heavy chain 2 gene expression by electrical stimulation

    SciTech Connect

    Crew, Jennifer R.; Falzari, Kanakeshwari; DiMario, Joseph X.

    2010-04-01

    Vertebrate skeletal muscle fiber types are defined by a broad array of differentially expressed contractile and metabolic protein genes. The mechanisms that establish and maintain these different fiber types vary throughout development and with changing functional demand. Chicken skeletal muscle fibers can be generally categorized as fast and fast/slow based on expression of the slow myosin heavy chain 2 (MyHC2) gene in fast/slow muscle fibers. To investigate the cellular and molecular mechanisms that control fiber type formation in secondary or fetal muscle fibers, myoblasts from the fast pectoralis major (PM) and fast/slow medial adductor (MA) muscles were isolated, allowed to differentiate in vitro, and electrically stimulated. MA muscle fibers were induced to express the slow MyHC2 gene by electrical stimulation, whereas PM muscle fibers did not express the slow MyHC2 gene under identical stimulation conditions. However, PM muscle fibers did express the slow MyHC2 gene when electrical stimulation was combined with inhibition of inositol triphosphate receptor (IP3R) activity. Electrical stimulation was sufficient to increase nuclear localization of expressed nuclear-factor-of-activated-T-cells (NFAT), NFAT-mediated transcription, and slow MyHC2 promoter activity in MA muscle fibers. In contrast, both electrical stimulation and inhibitors of IP3R activity were required for these effects in PM muscle fibers. Electrical stimulation also increased levels of peroxisome-proliferator-activated receptor-{gamma} co-activator-1 (PGC-1{alpha}) protein in PM and MA muscle fibers. These results indicate that MA muscle fibers can be induced by electrical stimulation to express the slow MyHC2 gene and that fast PM muscle fibers are refractory to stimulation-induced slow MyHC2 gene expression due to fast PM muscle fiber specific cellular mechanisms involving IP3R activity.

  6. Force-velocity properties of human skeletal muscle fibres: myosin heavy chain isoform and temperature dependence.

    PubMed Central

    Bottinelli, R; Canepari, M; Pellegrino, M A; Reggiani, C

    1996-01-01

    1. A large population (n = 151) of human skinned skeletal muscle fibres has been studied. Force-velocity curves of sixty-seven fibres were obtained by load-clamp manoeuvres at 12 degrees C. In each fibre maximum shortening velocity (Vmax), maximum power output (Wmax), optimal velocity (velocity at which Wmax is developed, Vopt), optimal force (force at which Wmax is developed, Popt), specific tension (Po/CSA, isometric tension/cross-sectional area) were assessed. Unloaded shortening velocity (Vo) was also determined at 12 degrees C in a different group (n = 57) of fibres by slack-test procedure. 2. All fibres used for mechanical experiments were characterized on the basis of the myosin heavy chain (MHC) isoform composition by sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS)-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and divided into five types: type I (or slow), types IIA and IIB (or fast), and types I-IIA and IIA-IIB (or mixed types). 3. Vmax, Wmax, Vopt, Popt, Vopt/Vmax ratio, Po/CSA and Vo were found to depend on MHC isoform composition. All parameters were significantly lower in type I than in the fast (type IIA and IIB) fibres. Among fast fibres, Vmax, Wmax, Vopt and Vo were significantly lower in type IIA and than in IIB fibres, whereas Popt, Po/CSA and Vopt/Vmax were similar. 4. The temperature dependence of Vo and Po/CSA was assessed in a group of twenty-one fibres in the range 12-22 degrees C. In a set of six fibres temperature dependence of Vmax was also studied. The Q10 (5.88) and activation energy E (125 kJ mol-1) values for maximum shortening velocity calculated from Arrhenius plots pointed to a very high temperature sensitivity. Po/CSA was very temperature dependent in the 12-17 degrees C range, but less dependent between 17 and 22 degrees C. Images Figure 1 Figure 3 Figure 6 PMID:8887767

  7. Myosin heavy chain 15 is associated with bovine pulmonary arterial pressure.

    PubMed

    Neary, Marianne T; Neary, Joseph M; Lund, Gretchen K; Holt, Timothy N; Garry, Franklyn B; Mohun, Timothy J; Breckenridge, Ross A

    2014-09-01

    Bovine pulmonary hypertension, brisket disease, causes significant morbidity and mortality at elevations above 2,000 m. Mean pulmonary arterial pressure (mPAP) is moderately heritable, with inheritance estimated to lie within a few major genes. Invasive mPAP measurement is currently the only tool available to identify cattle at risk of hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension. A genetic test could allow selection of cattle suitable for high altitude without the need for invasive testing. In this study we evaluated three candidate genes (myosin heavy chain 15 [MYH15], NADH dehydrogenase flavoprotein 2, and FK binding protein 1A) for association with mPAP in 166 yearling Angus bulls grazing at 2,182 m. The T allele (rs29016420) of MYH15 was linked to lower mPAP in a dominant manner (CC 47.2 ± 1.6 mmHg [mean ± standard error of the mean]; CT/TT 42.8 ± 0.7 mmHg; P = 0.02). The proportions of cattle with MYH15 CC, CT, and TT genotypes were 55%, 41%, and 4%, respectively. Given the high frequency of the deleterious allele, it is likely that the relative contribution of MYH15 polymorphisms to pulmonary hypertension is small, supporting previous predictions that the disease is polygenic. We evaluated allelic frequency of MYH15 in the Himalayan yak (Bos grunniens), a closely related species adapted to high altitude, and found 100% prevalence of T allele homozygosity. In summary, we identified a polymorphism in MYH15 significantly associated with mPAP. This finding may aid selection of cattle suitable for high altitude and contribute to understanding human hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension.

  8. Myosin heavy-chain isoforms in the flight and leg muscles of hummingbirds and zebra finches.

    PubMed

    Velten, Brandy P; Welch, Kenneth C

    2014-06-01

    Myosin heavy chain (MHC) isoform complement is intimately related to a muscle's contractile properties, yet relatively little is known about avian MHC isoforms or how they may vary with fiber type and/or the contractile properties of a muscle. The rapid shortening of muscles necessary to power flight at the high wingbeat frequencies of ruby-throated hummingbirds and zebra finches (25-60 Hz), along with the varied morphology and use of the hummingbird hindlimb, provides a unique opportunity to understand how contractile and morphological properties of avian muscle may be reflected in MHC expression. Isoforms of the hummingbird and zebra finch flight and hindlimb muscles were electrophoretically separated and compared with those of other avian species representing different contractile properties and fiber types. The flight muscles of the study species operate at drastically different contraction rates and are composed of different histochemically defined fiber types, yet each exhibited the same, single MHC isoform corresponding to the chicken adult fast isoform. Thus, despite quantitative differences in the contractile demands of flight muscles across species, this isoform appears necessary for meeting the performance demands of avian powered flight. Variation in flight muscle contractile performance across species may be due to differences in the structural composition of this conserved isoform and/or variation within other mechanically linked proteins. The leg muscles were more varied in their MHC isoform composition across both muscles and species. The disparity in hindlimb MHC expression between hummingbirds and the other species highlights previously observed differences in fiber type composition and thrust production during take-off.

  9. Myosin heavy chain isoform transitions in canine skeletal muscles during postnatal growth

    PubMed Central

    Štrbenc, Malan; Smerdu, Vika; Pogačnik, Azra; Fazarinc, Gregor

    2006-01-01

    To gain a better understanding of the normal characteristics of developing canine muscles, myosin heavy chain (MHC) isoform expression was analysed in the axial and limb skeletal muscles of 18 young dogs whose ages ranged from the late prenatal stage to 6 months. We compared the results of immunohistochemistry using ten monoclonal antibodies, specific to different MHC isoforms, and enzyme-histochemical reactions, which demonstrate the activity of myofibrillar ATPase, succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) and α-glycerophosphate dehydrogenase (α-GPDH). In the skeletal muscles of fetuses and neonatal dogs the developmental isoforms MHC-emb and MHC-neo were prevalent. In all muscles the primary fibres, located centrally in each muscle fascicle, strongly expressed the slow isoform MHC-I. The adult fast isoform MHC-IIa was first noted in some of the secondary fibres on fetal day 55. During the first 10 days after birth, the expression of MHC-emb declined, as did that of MHC-neo during the second and third weeks. Correspondingly, the expression of MHC-IIa, and later, of MHC-I increased in the secondary fibres. Between the sixth week and second month the expression of MHC-IIx became prominent. The slow rhomboideus muscle exhibited an early expression of the slow isoform in the secondary fibres. Our results indicate that the timing of muscle maturation depends on its activity immediately following birth. The fastest developing muscle was the diaphragm, followed by the fast muscles. A pronounced changeover from developmental to adult isoforms was noted at 4–6 weeks of age, which coincides with the increased physical activity of puppies. PMID:16879596

  10. Myosin heavy chain and physiological adaptation of the rat diaphragm in elastase-induced emphysema

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Dong Kwan; Zhu, Jianliang; Kozyak, Benjamin W; Burkman, James M; Rubinstein, Neal A; Lankford, Edward B; Stedman, Hansell H; Nguyen, Taitan; Levine, Sanford; Shrager, Joseph B

    2003-01-01

    Background Several physiological adaptations occur in the respiratory muscles in rodent models of elastase-induced emphysema. Although the contractile properties of the diaphragm are altered in a way that suggests expression of slower isoforms of myosin heavy chain (MHC), it has been difficult to demonstrate a shift in MHCs in an animal model that corresponds to the shift toward slower MHCs seen in human emphysema. Methods We sought to identify MHC and corresponding physiological changes in the diaphragms of rats with elastase-induced emphysema. Nine rats with emphysema and 11 control rats were studied 10 months after instillation with elastase. MHC isoform composition was determined by both reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and immunocytochemistry by using specific probes able to identify all known adult isoforms. Physiological adaptation was studied on diaphragm strips stimulated in vitro. Results In addition to confirming that emphysematous diaphragm has a decreased fatigability, we identified a significantly longer time-to-peak-tension (63.9 ± 2.7 ms versus 53.9 ± 2.4 ms). At both the RNA (RT-PCR) and protein (immunocytochemistry) levels, we found a significant decrease in the fastest, MHC isoform (IIb) in emphysema. Conclusion This is the first demonstration of MHC shifts and corresponding physiological changes in the diaphragm in an animal model of emphysema. It is established that rodent emphysema, like human emphysema, does result in a physiologically significant shift toward slower diaphragmatic MHC isoforms. In the rat, this occurs at the faster end of the MHC spectrum than in humans. PMID:12617755

  11. Expression of myosin heavy-chain mRNA in cultured myoblasts induced by centrifugal force.

    PubMed

    Kurokawa, Katsuhide; Sakiyama, Koji; Abe, Shinichi; Hiroki, Emi; Naito, Kaoru; Nakajima, Kazunori; Takeda, Tomotaka; Inoue, Takashi; Ide, Yoshinobu; Ishigami, Keiichi

    2008-11-01

    Ballistic muscle training leads to hypertrophy of fast type fibers and training for endurance induces that of slow type fibers. Numerous studies have been conducted on electrical, extending and magnetic stimulation of cells, but the effect of centrifugal force on cells remains to be investigated. In this study, we investigated the effect of stimulating cultured myoblasts with centrifugal force at different speeds on cell proliferation and myosin heavy-chain (MyHC) mRNA expression in muscle fiber. Stimulation of myoblasts was carried out at 2 different speeds for 20 min using the Himac CT6D, a desk centrifuge, and cells were observed at 1, 3 and 5 days later. Number of cells 1 and 5 days after centrifugal stimulation was significantly larger in the 62.5 x g and 4,170 x g stimulation groups than in the control group. Expression of MyHC-2b mRNA 1 day after centrifugal stimulation was significantly higher in the 2 stimulation groups than in the control group. Almost no expression of MyHC-2a was observed in any group at 1 and 3 days after centrifugal stimulation. However, 5 days after stimulation, MyHC-2a was strongly expressed in the 2 stimulation groups in comparison to the control group. Three days after centrifugal stimulation, expression of MyHC-1 was significantly higher in the 2 stimulation groups than in the control group. The results of this study clarified the effect of different centrifugal stimulation speeds on muscle fiber characteristics, and suggest that centrifugal stimulation of myoblasts enhances cell proliferation.

  12. Absence of the functional Myosin heavy chain 2b isoform in equine skeletal muscles.

    PubMed

    Chikuni, Koichi; Muroya, Susumu; Nakajima, Ikuyo

    2004-05-01

    Nucleotide sequences which included the full coding region for three types of myosin heavy chain (MyHC) isoforms were determined from equine skeletal muscles. The deduced amino acid sequences were 1937, 1938, and 1935 residues for the MyHC-2a, -2x, and -slow, respectively. No MyHC-2b isoform was amplified from the equine muscle cDNA except for one pseudogene fragment. One nucleotide was inserted in the coding region of the equine pseudogene product, a minute amount of which was expressed in the skeletal muscle. The 596 bp sequence of the equine MyHC pseudogene was categorized into the MyHC-2b genes on the phylogenetic tree of the mammalian MyHC genes. These results suggest that an ancestral MyHC-2b gene had lost its function and changed to a pseudogene during the course of horse history. The MyHC genes in some ungulates were analyzed through the PCR amplifications using the MyHC isoform-specific primers to confirm the presence of the MyHC-2b and -2x genes. The exon coding the 3' untranslated region of the MyHC-2x was successfully amplified from the all ungulates examined; however, that of the MyHC-2b gene was amplified only from horses, pigs and lesser mouse deer. The PCR analyses from rhinoceros, sika deer, moose, giraffes, water buffalo, bovine, Japanese serow and sheep genes implied the absence of the MyHC-2b-specific sequence in their genomes. These results suggest that the MyHC-2b gene independently lost its function in some ungulate species.

  13. Analysis of myosin heavy chain mRNA expression by RT-PCR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, C.; Haddad, F.; Qin, A. X.; Baldwin, K. M.

    1997-01-01

    An assay was developed for rapid and sensitive analysis of myosin heavy chain (MHC) mRNA expression in rodent skeletal muscle. Only 2 microg of total RNA were necessary for the simultaneous analysis of relative mRNA expression of six different MHC genes. We designed synthetic DNA fragments as internal standards, which contained the relevant primer sequences for the adult MHC mRNAs type I, IIa, IIx, IIb as well as the embryonic and neonatal MHC mRNAs. A known amount of the synthetic fragment was added to each polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and yielded a product of different size than the amplified MHC mRNA fragment. The ratio of amplified MHC fragment to synthetic fragment allowed us to calculate percentages of the gene expression of the different MHC genes in a given muscle sample. Comparison with the traditional Northern blot analysis demonstrated that our reverse transcriptase-PCR-based assay was reliable, fast, and quantitative over a wide range of relative MHC mRNA expression in a spectrum of adult and neonatal rat skeletal muscles. Furthermore, the high sensitivity of the assay made it very useful when only small quantities of tissue were available. Statistical analysis of the signals for each MHC isoform across the analyzed samples showed a highly significant correlation between the PCR and the Northern signals as Pearson correlation coefficients ranged between 0.77 and 0.96 (P < 0.005). This assay has potential use in analyzing small muscle samples such as biopsies and samples from pre- and/or neonatal stages of development.

  14. Metal cation controls myosin and actomyosin kinetics

    PubMed Central

    Tkachev, Yaroslav V; Ge, Jinghua; Negrashov, Igor V; Nesmelov, Yuri E

    2013-01-01

    We have perturbed myosin nucleotide binding site with magnesium-, manganese-, or calcium-nucleotide complexes, using metal cation as a probe to examine the pathways of myosin ATPase in the presence of actin. We have used transient time-resolved FRET, myosin intrinsic fluorescence, fluorescence of pyrene labeled actin, combined with the steady state myosin ATPase activity measurements of previously characterized D.discoideum myosin construct A639C:K498C. We found that actin activation of myosin ATPase does not depend on metal cation, regardless of the cation-specific kinetics of nucleotide binding and dissociation. The rate limiting step of myosin ATPase depends on the metal cation. The rate of the recovery stroke and the reverse recovery stroke is directly proportional to the ionic radius of the cation. The rate of nucleotide release from myosin and actomyosin, and ATP binding to actomyosin depends on the cation coordination number. PMID:24115140

  15. Myosin XI-I is Mechanically and Enzymatically Unique Among Class-XI Myosins in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Haraguchi, Takeshi; Tominaga, Motoki; Nakano, Akihiko; Yamamoto, Keiichi; Ito, Kohji

    2016-08-01

    Arabidopsis possesses 13 genes encoding class-XI myosins. Among these, myosin XI-I is phylogenetically distant. To examine the molecular properties of Arabidopsis thaliana myosin XI-I (At myosin XI-I), we performed in vitro mechanical and enzymatic analyses using recombinant constructs of At myosin XI-I. Unlike other biochemically studied class-XI myosins, At myosin XI-I showed extremely low actin-activated ATPase activity (Vmax = 3.7 Pi s(-1) head(-1)). The actin-sliding velocity of At myosin XI-I was 0.25 µm s(-1), >10 times lower than those of other class-XI myosins. The ADP dissociation rate from acto-At myosin XI-I was 17 s(-1), accounting for the low actin-sliding velocity. In contrast, the apparent affinity for actin in the presence of ATP, estimated from Kapp (0.61 µM) of actin-activated ATPase, was extremely high. The equilibrium dissociation constant for actin was very low in both the presence and absence of ATP, indicating a high affinity for actin. To examine At myosin XI-I motility in vivo, green fluorescent protein-fused full-length At myosin XI-I was expressed in cultured Arabidopsis cells. At myosin XI-I localized not only on the nuclear envelope but also on small dots moving slowly (0.23 µm s(-1)) along actin filaments. Our results show that the properties of At myosin XI-I differ from those of other Arabidopsis class-XI myosins. The data suggest that At myosin XI-I does not function as a driving force for cytoplasmic streaming but regulates the organelle velocity, supports processive organelle movement or acts as a tension generator.

  16. Myosin XI-I is Mechanically and Enzymatically Unique Among Class-XI Myosins in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Haraguchi, Takeshi; Tominaga, Motoki; Nakano, Akihiko; Yamamoto, Keiichi; Ito, Kohji

    2016-08-01

    Arabidopsis possesses 13 genes encoding class-XI myosins. Among these, myosin XI-I is phylogenetically distant. To examine the molecular properties of Arabidopsis thaliana myosin XI-I (At myosin XI-I), we performed in vitro mechanical and enzymatic analyses using recombinant constructs of At myosin XI-I. Unlike other biochemically studied class-XI myosins, At myosin XI-I showed extremely low actin-activated ATPase activity (Vmax = 3.7 Pi s(-1) head(-1)). The actin-sliding velocity of At myosin XI-I was 0.25 µm s(-1), >10 times lower than those of other class-XI myosins. The ADP dissociation rate from acto-At myosin XI-I was 17 s(-1), accounting for the low actin-sliding velocity. In contrast, the apparent affinity for actin in the presence of ATP, estimated from Kapp (0.61 µM) of actin-activated ATPase, was extremely high. The equilibrium dissociation constant for actin was very low in both the presence and absence of ATP, indicating a high affinity for actin. To examine At myosin XI-I motility in vivo, green fluorescent protein-fused full-length At myosin XI-I was expressed in cultured Arabidopsis cells. At myosin XI-I localized not only on the nuclear envelope but also on small dots moving slowly (0.23 µm s(-1)) along actin filaments. Our results show that the properties of At myosin XI-I differ from those of other Arabidopsis class-XI myosins. The data suggest that At myosin XI-I does not function as a driving force for cytoplasmic streaming but regulates the organelle velocity, supports processive organelle movement or acts as a tension generator. PMID:27273580

  17. Myosin V motor proteins

    PubMed Central

    Vale, Ronald D.

    2003-01-01

    Mammalian myosin V motors transport cargo processively along actin filaments. Recent biophysical and structural studies have led to a detailed understanding of the mechanism of myosin V, making it perhaps the best understood cytoskeletal motor. In addition to describing the mechanism, this review will illustrate how “dynamic” single molecule measurements can synergize with “static” protein structural studies to produce amazingly clear information on the workings of a nanometer-scale machine. PMID:14610051

  18. Equilibrium muscle cross-bridge behavior. Theoretical considerations. II. Model describing the behavior of strongly-binding cross-bridges when both heads of myosin bind to the actin filament.

    PubMed Central

    Schoenberg, M

    1991-01-01

    A model has been developed for characterizing the interaction between strongly-binding myosin cross-bridges and actin in muscle fibers under equilibrium conditions where both heads of the myosin cross-bridge bind to actin. The model, that of Anderson and Schoenberg (1987. Biophys. J. 52:1077-1082) is quite similar to that of Schoenberg (1985. Biophys. J. 48:467-475), except that explicit account is taken of the fact that each crossbridge has two heads which can bind to actin. The key assumption that allows this model to explain a large body of data unexplained by the Schoenberg (1985) model is that the two crossbridge heads are not totally independent of one another after attachment. After the first head attaches, the second head is then free to attach only to an actin site distal to the first head. This means that when the more distally attached head subsequently detaches and reattaches (as the heads continually do), it will not reattach in a position of lesser strain and reduce the force it supports, but instead will remain attached in its strained position until the proximally attached head also detaches. This model gives an explanation for two important and otherwise unexplained observations made previously: it explains why at ionic strengths in the range of 50-120 mM, (a) the rate constant of force decay after a small stretch is a sigmoidal function of nucleotide analogue concentration, and (b) why in the presence of analogues or in rigor the rate constant of force decay after a small stretch is significantly slower than the rate constant for myosin subfragment-1 detachment from actin in solution. PMID:1932554

  19. The fungal type II myosin in Penicillium marneffei, MyoB, is essential for chitin deposition at nascent septation sites but not actin localization.

    PubMed

    Cánovas, David; Boyce, Kylie J; Andrianopoulos, Alex

    2011-03-01

    Cytokinesis is essential for proliferative growth but also plays equally important roles during morphogenesis and development. The human pathogen Penicillium marneffei is capable of dimorphic switching in response to temperature, growing in a multicellular filamentous hyphal form at 25°C and in a unicellular yeast form at 37°C. P. marneffei also undergoes asexual development at 25°C to produce multicellular differentiated conidiophores. Thus, P. marneffei exhibits cell division with and without cytokinesis and division by budding and fission, depending on the cell type. The type II myosin gene, myoB, from P. marneffei plays important roles in the morphogenesis of these cell types. Deletion of myoB leads to chitin deposition defects at sites of cell division without perturbing actin localization. In addition to aberrant hyphal cells, distinct conidiophore cell types are lacking due to malformed septa and nuclear division defects. At 37°C, deletion of myoB prevents uninucleate yeast cell formation, instead producing long filaments resembling hyphae at 25°C. The ΔmyoB cells also often lyse due to defects in cell wall biogenesis. Thus, MyoB is essential for correct morphogenesis of all cell types regardless of division mode (budding or fission) and defines differences between the different types of growth. PMID:21131434

  20. Cloning of the cDNA encoding a myosin heavy chain B isoform of Xenopus nonmuscle myosin with an insert in the head region.

    PubMed

    Bhatia-Dey, N; Adelstein, R S; Dawid, I B

    1993-04-01

    The complete amino acid sequence of Xenopus laevis nonmuscle myosin heavy chain B (MHC-B) has been deduced from overlapping cDNA clones isolated from an XTC cell library. RNA blots of various developmental stages, adult tissues, and XTC cells detect a single transcript of 7.5 kb which is expressed at similar levels throughout development. MHC-B mRNA was detected in XTC cells, heart, lung, spleen, and brain, at lower levels in ovary, testis, pancreas, stomach, liver, and eye, but not in kidney and skeletal muscle. Protein expression in adult tissues, as detected by immunoblot analysis, correlates well with mRNA expression. In chickens and humans, a fraction of the mRNA encoding the MHC-B isoform was found previously to contain a 10-amino acid insert at amino acid 211 near the ATP-binding site. As reported elsewhere, in the chicken this insert-bearing isoform is nervous system-specific. The Xenopus sequence shows a 16-amino acid insertion at the same position; 7 of 16 residues are identical to those in the chicken and human insertion, and these identical residues include a consensus target sequence for cyclin-p34cdc2 kinase. In contrast to chicken, all frog tissues and embryonic stages tested contained the insert-bearing form, and no evidence for a non-insert-bearing MHC-B isoform was found in Xenopus.

  1. Effects of different activity and inactivity paradigms on myosin heavy chain gene expression in striated muscle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baldwin, K. M.; Haddad, F.

    2001-01-01

    The goal of this mini-review is to summarize findings concerning the role that different models of muscular activity and inactivity play in altering gene expression of the myosin heavy chain (MHC) family of motor proteins in mammalian cardiac and skeletal muscle. This was done in the context of examining parallel findings concerning the role that thyroid hormone (T(3), 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine) plays in MHC expression. Findings show that both cardiac and skeletal muscles of experimental animals are initially undifferentiated at birth and then undergo a marked level of growth and differentiation in attaining the adult MHC phenotype in a T(3)/activity level-dependent fashion. Cardiac MHC expression in small mammals is highly sensitive to thyroid deficiency, diabetes, energy deprivation, and hypertension; each of these interventions induces upregulation of the beta-MHC isoform, which functions to economize circulatory function in the face of altered energy demand. In skeletal muscle, hyperthyroidism, as well as interventions that unload or reduce the weight-bearing activity of the muscle, causes slow to fast MHC conversions. Fast to slow conversions, however, are seen under hypothyroidism or when the muscles either become chronically overloaded or subjected to intermittent loading as occurs during resistance training and endurance exercise. The regulation of MHC gene expression by T(3) or mechanical stimuli appears to be strongly regulated by transcriptional events, based on recent findings on transgenic models and animals transfected with promoter-reporter constructs. However, the mechanisms by which T(3) and mechanical stimuli exert their control on transcriptional processes appear to be different. Additional findings show that individual skeletal muscle fibers have the genetic machinery to express simultaneously all of the adult MHCs, e.g., slow type I and fast IIa, IIx, and IIb, in unique combinations under certain experimental conditions. This degree of

  2. Cucurbitacin I elicits the formation of actin/phospho-myosin II co-aggregates by stimulation of the RhoA/ROCK pathway and inhibition of LIM-kinase.

    PubMed

    Sari-Hassoun, Meryem; Clement, Marie-Jeanne; Hamdi, Imane; Bollot, Guillaume; Bauvais, Cyril; Joshi, Vandana; Toma, Flavio; Burgo, Andrea; Cailleret, Michel; Rosales-Hernández, Martha Cecilia; Macias Pérez, Martha Edith; Chabane-Sari, Daoudi; Curmi, Patrick A

    2016-02-15

    Cucurbitacins are cytotoxic triterpenoid sterols isolated from plants. One of their earliest cellular effect is the aggregation of actin associated with blockage of cell migration and division that eventually lead to apoptosis. We unravel here that cucurbitacin I actually induces the co-aggregation of actin with phospho-myosin II. This co-aggregation most probably results from the stimulation of the Rho/ROCK pathway and the direct inhibition of the LIMKinase. We further provide data that suggest that the formation of these co-aggregates is independent of a putative pro-oxidant status of cucurbitacin I. The results help to understand the impact of cucurbitacins on signal transduction and actin dynamics and open novel perspectives to use it as drug candidates for cancer research. PMID:26707799

  3. The heavy chain has its day

    PubMed Central

    Dulyaninova, Natalya G; Bresnick, Anne R

    2013-01-01

    Nonmuscle myosin-II is an actin-based motor that converts chemical energy into force and movement, and thus functions as a key regulator of the eukaryotic cytoskeleton. Although it is established that phosphorylation on the regulatory light chain increases the actin-activated MgATPase activity of the motor and promotes myosin-II filament assembly, studies have begun to characterize alternative mechanisms that regulate filament assembly and disassembly. These investigations have revealed that all three nonmuscle myosin-II isoforms are subject to additional regulatory controls, which impact diverse cellular processes. In this review, we discuss current knowledge on mechanisms that regulate the oligomerization state of nonmuscle myosin-II filaments by targeting the myosin heavy chain. PMID:24002531

  4. Myosin II phosphorylation and the dynamics of stress fibers in serum-deprived and stimulated fibroblasts.

    PubMed Central

    Giuliano, K A; Kolega, J; DeBiasio, R L; Taylor, D L

    1992-01-01

    The actin-based cytomatrix generates stress fibers containing a host of proteins including actin and myosin II and whose dynamics are easily observable in living cells. We developed a dual-radioisotope-based assay of myosin II phosphorylation and applied it to serum-deprived fibroblasts treated with agents that modified the dynamic distribution of stress fibers and/or altered the phosphorylation state of myosin II. Serum-stimulation induced an immediate and sustained increase in the level of myosin II heavy chain (MHC) and 20-kDa light chain (LC20) phosphorylation over the same time course that it caused stress fiber contraction. Cytochalasin D, shown to cause stress fiber fragmentation and contraction, had little effect on myosin II phosphorylation. Okadaic acid, a protein phosphatase inhibitor, induced a delayed but massive cell shortening preceded by a large increase in MHC and LC20 phosphorylation. Staurosporine, a kinase inhibitor known to effect dissolution but not contraction of stress fibers, immediately caused an increase in MHC and LC20 phosphorylation followed within minutes by the dephosphorylation of LC20 to a level below that of untreated cells. We therefore propose that the contractility of the actin-based cytomatrix is regulated by both modulating the activity of molecular motors such as myosin II and by altering the gel structure in such a manner as to either resist or yield to the tension applied by the motors. Images PMID:1421576

  5. High fat/low carbohydrate diet attenuates left ventricular hypertrophy and prevents myosin heavy chain isoform switching induced by chronic hypertenstion

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A switch in the expression of myosin heavy chain isoform (MHC) alpha to beta is observed with left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) and heart failure. This switch is associated with a defect in myocardial energy production and contractile dysfunction. Similar MHC isoform profile is observed in the fe...

  6. Familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Microsatellite haplotyping and identification of a hot spot for mutations in the beta-myosin heavy chain gene.

    PubMed Central

    Dausse, E; Komajda, M; Fetler, L; Dubourg, O; Dufour, C; Carrier, L; Wisnewsky, C; Bercovici, J; Hengstenberg, C; al-Mahdawi, S

    1993-01-01

    Familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (FHC) is a clinically and genetically heterogeneous disease. The first identified disease gene, located on chromosome 14q11-q12, encodes the beta-myosin heavy chain. We have performed linkage analysis of two French FHC pedigrees, 720 and 730, with two microsatellite markers located in the beta-myosin heavy chain gene (MYO I and MYO II) and with four highly informative markers, recently mapped to chromosome 14q11-q12. Significant linkage was found with MYO I and MYO II in pedigree 720, but results were not conclusive for pedigree 730. Haplotype analysis of the six markers allowed identification of affected individuals and of some unaffected subjects carrying the disease gene. Two novel missense mutations were identified in exon 13 by direct sequencing, 403Arg-->Leu and 403Arg-->Trp in families 720 and 730, respectively. The 403Arg-->Leu mutation was associated with incomplete penetrance, a high incidence of sudden deaths and severe cardiac events, whereas the consequences of the 403Arg-->Trp mutation appeared less severe. Haplotyping of polymorphic markers in close linkage to the beta-myosin heavy chain gene can, thus, provide rapid analysis of non informative pedigrees and rapid detection of carrier status. Our results also indicate that codon 403 of the beta-myosin heavy chain gene is a hot spot for mutations causing FHC. Images PMID:8254035

  7. Non-muscle myosin II takes centre stage in cell adhesion and migration

    PubMed Central

    Vicente-Manzanares, Miguel; Ma, Xuefei; Adelstein, Robert S.; Horwitz, Alan Rick

    2010-01-01

    Non-muscle myosin II (NM II) is an actin-binding protein that has actin cross-linking and contractile properties and is regulated by the phosphorylation of its light and heavy chains. The three mammalian NM II isoforms have both overlapping and unique properties. Owing to its position downstream of convergent signalling pathways, NM II is central in the control of cell adhesion, cell migration and tissue architecture. Recent insight into the role of NM II in these processes has been gained from loss-of-function and mutant approaches, methods that quantitatively measure actin and adhesion dynamics and the discovery of NM II mutations that cause monogenic diseases. PMID:19851336

  8. Myosin Heavy Chain Gene Expression in Developing Neonatal Skeletal Muscle: Involvement of the Nerve, Gravity, and Thyroid State

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baldwin, K. M.; Adams, G.; Haddad, F.; Zeng, M.; Qin, A.; Qin, L.; McCue, S.; Bodell, P.

    1999-01-01

    The myosin heavy chain (MHC) gene family encodes at least six MHC proteins (herein designated as neonatal, embryonic, slow type I (beta), and fast IIa, IIx, and IIb) that are expressed in skeletal muscle in a muscle-specific and developmentally-regulated fashion. At birth, both antigravity (e.g. soleus) and locomotor (e.g., plantaris) skeletal muscles are undifferentiated relative to the adult MHC phenotype such that the neonatal and embryonic MHC isoforms account for 80 - 90% of the MHC pool in a fast locomotor muscle; whereas, the embryonic and slow, type I isoforms account for approx. 90% of the pool in a typical antigravity muscle. The goal of this study was to investigate the role of an intact nerve, gravity and thyroid hormone (T3), as well as certain interactions of these interventions, on MHC gene expression in developing neonatal skeletal muscles of rodents.

  9. Cardiac and skeletal myopathy in beta myosin heavy-chain simian virus 40 tsA58 transgenic mice.

    PubMed Central

    De Leon, J R; Federoff, H J; Dickson, D W; Vikstrom, K L; Fishman, G I

    1994-01-01

    The mechanisms regulating cardiac muscle differentiation and development are incompletely understood. To examine the relationships between cardiocyte proliferation and differentiation, we tested the ability of a fragment from the rat beta myosin heavy-chain (MHC beta) gene to correctly target expression of a thermolabile simian virus 40 large tumor antigen allele (tsA58) in the developing mouse. Transgene expression in the heart was observed as early as 10 days postconception and was developmentally regulated in parallel with the endogenous MHC beta gene. Expression was also detected in developing skeletal muscle, although at low levels. Despite the temperature sensitivity of the mutant large tumor antigen protein, a subset of transgenic mice in several lineages developed marked cardiac and skeletal myopathies. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:8290557

  10. Tyrosine phosphorylation/dephosphorylation of myosin II essential light chains of Entamoeba histolytica trophozoites regulates their motility.

    PubMed

    Bonilla-Moreno, Raúl; Pérez-Yépez, Eloy-Andrés; Villegas-Sepúlveda, Nicolás; Morales, Fernando O; Meza, Isaura

    2016-08-01

    Entamoeba histolytica trophozoites dwell in the human intestine as comensals although under still unclear circumstances become invasive and destroy the host tissues. For these activities, trophozoites relay on remarkable motility provided by the cytoskeleton organization. Amebic actin and some of its actin-associated proteins are well known, while components of the myosin II molecule, although predicted from the E. histolytica genome, need biochemical and functional characterization. Recently, an amebic essential light myosin II chain, named EhMLCI, was identified and reported to be phosphorylated in tyrosines. The phosphorylated form of the protein was associated with the soluble assembly incompetent conformation of the heavy myosin chains, while the non-phosphorylated protein was identified with filamentous heavy chains, organized in an assembly competent conformation. It was postulated that EhMLCI tyrosine phosphorylation could act as a negative regulator of myosin II activity by its phosphorylation/dephosphorylation cycles. To test this hypothesis, we constructed an expression vector containing an EhMLCI DNA sequence where two tyrosine residues, with strong probability of phosphorylation and fall within the single EF-hand domain that interacts with the N-terminus of myosin II heavy chains, were replaced by phenylalanines. Transfected trophozoites, expressing the mutant MutEhMLCI protein cannot process it, thereby not incorporated into the phosphorylation/dephosphorylation cycles required for myosin II activity, results in motility defective trophozoites. PMID:27318258

  11. Tyrosine phosphorylation/dephosphorylation of myosin II essential light chains of Entamoeba histolytica trophozoites regulates their motility.

    PubMed

    Bonilla-Moreno, Raúl; Pérez-Yépez, Eloy-Andrés; Villegas-Sepúlveda, Nicolás; Morales, Fernando O; Meza, Isaura

    2016-08-01

    Entamoeba histolytica trophozoites dwell in the human intestine as comensals although under still unclear circumstances become invasive and destroy the host tissues. For these activities, trophozoites relay on remarkable motility provided by the cytoskeleton organization. Amebic actin and some of its actin-associated proteins are well known, while components of the myosin II molecule, although predicted from the E. histolytica genome, need biochemical and functional characterization. Recently, an amebic essential light myosin II chain, named EhMLCI, was identified and reported to be phosphorylated in tyrosines. The phosphorylated form of the protein was associated with the soluble assembly incompetent conformation of the heavy myosin chains, while the non-phosphorylated protein was identified with filamentous heavy chains, organized in an assembly competent conformation. It was postulated that EhMLCI tyrosine phosphorylation could act as a negative regulator of myosin II activity by its phosphorylation/dephosphorylation cycles. To test this hypothesis, we constructed an expression vector containing an EhMLCI DNA sequence where two tyrosine residues, with strong probability of phosphorylation and fall within the single EF-hand domain that interacts with the N-terminus of myosin II heavy chains, were replaced by phenylalanines. Transfected trophozoites, expressing the mutant MutEhMLCI protein cannot process it, thereby not incorporated into the phosphorylation/dephosphorylation cycles required for myosin II activity, results in motility defective trophozoites.

  12. Multiple mechanisms for accumulation of myosin II filaments at the equator during cytokinesis.

    PubMed

    Yumura, Shigehiko; Ueda, Masahiro; Sako, Yasushi; Kitanishi-Yumura, Toshiko; Yanagida, Toshio

    2008-12-01

    Total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy revealed how individual bipolar myosin II filaments accumulate at the equatorial region in dividing Dictyostelium cells. Direct observation of individual filaments in live cells provided us with much convincing information. Myosin II filaments accumulated at the equatorial region by at least two independent mechanisms: (i) cortical flow, which is driven by myosin II motor activities and (ii) de novo association to the equatorial cortex. These two mechanisms were mutually redundant. At the same time, myosin II filaments underwent rapid turnover, repeating their association and dissociation with the actin cortex. Examination of the lifetime of mutant myosin filaments in the cortex revealed that the turnover mainly depended on heavy chain phosphorylation and that myosin motor activity accelerated the turnover. Double mutant myosin II deficient in both motor and phosphorylation still accumulated at the equatorial region, although they displayed no cortical flow and considerably slow turnover. Under this condition, the filaments stayed for a significantly longer time at the equatorial region than at the polar regions, indicating that there are still other mechanisms for myosin II accumulation such as binding partners or stabilizing activity of filaments in the equatorial cortex.

  13. Crystal structure of the rigor-like human non-muscle myosin-2 motor domain.

    PubMed

    Münnich, Stefan; Pathan-Chhatbar, Salma; Manstein, Dietmar J

    2014-12-20

    We determined the crystal structure of the motor domain of human non-muscle myosin 2B (NM-2B) in a nucleotide-free state and at a resolution of 2.8 Å. The structure shows the motor domain with an open active site and the large cleft that divides the 50 kDa domain in a closed state. Compared to other rigor-like myosin motor domain structures, our structure shows subtle but significant conformational changes in regions important for actin binding and mechanochemical coupling. Moreover, our crystal structure helps to rationalize the impact of myosin, heavy chain 9 (MYH9)-related disease mutations Arg709Cys and Arg709His on the kinetic and functional properties of NM-2B and of the closely related non-muscle myosin 2A (NM-2A). PMID:25451231

  14. The role of myosin 1c and myosin 1b in surfactant exocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Kittelberger, Nadine; Breunig, Markus; Martin, René; Knölker, Hans-Joachim; Miklavc, Pika

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Actin and actin-associated proteins have a pivotal effect on regulated exocytosis in secretory cells and influence pre-fusion as well as post-fusion stages of exocytosis. Actin polymerization on secretory granules during the post-fusion phase (formation of an actin coat) is especially important in cells with large secretory vesicles or poorly soluble secretions. Alveolar type II (ATII) cells secrete hydrophobic lipo-protein surfactant, which does not easily diffuse from fused vesicles. Previous work showed that compression of actin coat is necessary for surfactant extrusion. Here, we investigate the role of class 1 myosins as possible linkers between actin and membranes during exocytosis. Live-cell microscopy showed translocation of fluorescently labeled myosin 1b and myosin 1c to the secretory vesicle membrane after fusion. Myosin 1c translocation was dependent on its pleckstrin homology domain. Expression of myosin 1b and myosin 1c constructs influenced vesicle compression rate, whereas only the inhibition of myosin 1c reduced exocytosis. These findings suggest that class 1 myosins participate in several stages of ATII cell exocytosis and link actin coats to the secretory vesicle membrane to influence vesicle compression. PMID:26940917

  15. Effects of exercise and creatine on myosin heavy chain isoform composition in patients with Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease.

    PubMed

    Smith, Cheryl A; Chetlin, Robert D; Gutmann, Laurie; Yeater, Rachel A; Alway, Stephen E

    2006-11-01

    It is not known whether myosin heavy chain (MHC) content changes in response to exercise training or creatine supplementation in subjects with Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMT). Based on previous data, we hypothesized that resistance exercise and creatine would increase the percentage of type I MHC composition in the vastus lateralis muscle and that myosin isoform changes would correlate with improved chair rise-time in CMT subjects. To test this hypothesis, 18 CMT subjects were randomly assigned to either a placebo or creatine group. All subjects performed a 12-week, home-based, moderate-intensity resistance training program. Chair rise-time was measured before and after the training program. Muscle biopsies were obtained from the vastus lateralis before and after the 12-week program. Gel electrophoresis showed a significant decrease (approximately 30%) in MHC type I in CMT subjects given creatine supplementation when compared with placebo. There was a nonsignificant increase in both MHC type IIa (approximately 23%) and MHC type IIx (approximately 7%) in CMT subjects given creatine. Reduced MHC type I content and increased MHC type IIa content correlated with faster chair rise-times (i.e., improved muscle performance). The training-induced change in MHC IIa content was inversely correlated with chair rise-time in CMT subjects given creatine. When the two subject groups were combined, there was a linear, negative relationship between the change in MHC type IIa content and chair rise-time after training and a positive relationship between the training-induced change in MHC type I content and chair rise-time. These data suggest that improved function (chair rise-time) was associated with a lower level of MHC type I and increased MHC type IIa composition. Furthermore, the data are consistent with the hypothesis that creatine supplementation alters MHC composition in CMT patients undergoing resistance training and that MHC changes associated with creatine

  16. Nonmuscle Myosin IIA Regulates Platelet Contractile Forces Through Rho Kinase and Myosin Light-Chain Kinase.

    PubMed

    Feghhi, Shirin; Tooley, Wes W; Sniadecki, Nathan J

    2016-10-01

    Platelet contractile forces play a major role in clot retraction and help to hold hemostatic clots against the vessel wall. Platelet forces are produced by its cytoskeleton, which is composed of actin and nonmuscle myosin filaments. In this work, we studied the role of Rho kinase, myosin light-chain kinase, and myosin in the generation of contractile forces by using pharmacological inhibitors and arrays of flexible microposts to measure platelet forces. When platelets were seeded onto microposts, they formed aggregates on the tips of the microposts. Forces produced by the platelets in the aggregates were measured by quantifying the deflection of the microposts, which bent in proportion to the force of the platelets. Platelets were treated with small molecule inhibitors of myosin activity: Y-27632 to inhibit the Rho kinase (ROCK), ML-7 to inhibit myosin light-chain kinase (MLCK), and blebbistatin to inhibit myosin ATPase activity. ROCK inhibition reduced platelet forces, demonstrating the importance of the assembly of actin and myosin phosphorylation in generating contractile forces. Similarly, MLCK inhibition caused weaker platelet forces, which verifies that myosin phosphorylation is needed for force generation in platelets. Platelets treated with blebbistatin also had weaker forces, which indicates that myosin's ATPase activity is necessary for platelet forces. Our studies demonstrate that myosin ATPase activity and the regulation of actin-myosin assembly by ROCK and MLCK are needed for the generation of platelet forces. Our findings illustrate and explain the importance of myosin for clot compaction in hemostasis and thrombosis. PMID:27548633

  17. Actin in Herpesvirus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Kari L.; Baines, Joel D.

    2011-01-01

    Actin is important for a variety of cellular processes, including uptake of extracellular material and intracellular transport. Several emerging lines of evidence indicate that herpesviruses exploit actin and actin-associated myosin motors for viral entry, intranuclear transport of capsids, and virion egress. The goal of this review is to explore these processes and to highlight potential future directions for this area of research. PMID:21994736

  18. A Xenopus nonmuscle myosin heavy chain isoform is phosphorylated by cyclin-p34cdc2 kinase during meiosis.

    PubMed

    Kelley, C A; Oberman, F; Yisraeli, J K; Adelstein, R S

    1995-01-20

    There are two vertebrate nonmuscle myosin heavy chain (MHC) genes that encode two separate isoforms of the heavy chain, MHC-A and MHC-B. Recent work has identified additional, alternatively spliced isoforms of MHC-B cDNA with inserted sequences of 30 nucleotides (chicken and human) or 48 nucleotides (Xenopus) at a site corresponding to the ATP binding region in the MHC protein (Takahashi, M., Kawamoto, S., and Adelstein, R.S. (1992) J. Biol. Chem. 267, 17864-17871) and Bhatia-Dey, N., Adelstein, R.S., and Dawid, I.B. (1993) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 90, 2856-2859). The deduced amino acid sequence of these inserts contains a consensus sequence for phosphorylation by cyclin-p34cdc2 (cdc2) kinase. In cultured Xenopus XTC cells, we have identified two inserted MHC-B isoforms and a non-inserted MHC-A isoform by immunoblotting of cell extracts. When myosin was immunoprecipitated from XTC cells and phosphorylated in vitro with cdc2 kinase, the kinase catalyzed the phosphorylation of both inserted MHC-B isoforms but not MHC-A. Isoelectric focusing of tryptic peptides generated from MHC-B phosphorylated with cdc2 kinase revealed one major phosphopeptide that was purified by reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatography and sequenced. The phosphorylated residue was Ser-214, the cdc2 kinase consensus site within the insert near the ATP binding region. The same site was phosphorylated in intact XTC cells during log phase of growth and in cell-free lysates of Xenopus eggs stabilized in second meiotic metaphase but not interphase. Moreover, Ser-214 phosphorylation was detected during maturation of Xenopus oocytes when the cdc2 kinase-containing maturation-promoting factor was activated, but not in G2 interphase-arrested oocytes. These results demonstrate that MHC-B phosphorylation is tightly regulated by cdc2 kinase during meiotic cell cycles. Furthermore, MHC-A and MHC-B isoforms are differentially phosphorylated at these stages, suggesting that they may serve

  19. The Cdk5 activator P39 specifically links muskelin to myosin II and regulates stress fiber formation and actin organization in lens.

    PubMed

    Tripathi, Brajendra K; Lowy, Douglas R; Zelenka, Peggy S

    2015-01-01

    Cyclin dependent kinase 5 (Cdk5), a proline-directed serine/threonine kinase, requires p39 for its enzymatic activity, and is implicated in cytoskeletal organization and contraction in numerous cell types. The C-terminus of p39 binds muskelin, a multi-domain scaffolding protein known to affect cytoskeletal organization, but the mechanisms by which muskelin affects cytoskeletal organization remain unclear. The present study sought to determine whether p39 might serve as an adaptor protein that links muskelin to stress fibers and to investigate the possible biological relevance of such an interaction. Double immunoprecipitation showed that muskelin, p39, and myosin II are components of a single intracellular complex, and suppressing p39 abrogated the interaction between muskelin and the myosin subunits, demonstrating that p39 is required to link muskelin to myosin II. Muskelin is colocalized with myosin regulatory light chain (MRLC) and on stress fibers. The suppression of muskelin reduced Rho-GTP, MRLC phosphorylation, disrupted stress fiber organization, and promoted cell migration, all of which closely mimic the effect of Cdk5 inhibition. Moreover, suppressing muskelin and inhibiting Cdk5 together have no additional effect, indicating that muskelin plays an important role in Cdk5-dependent signaling. p39 is necessary and sufficient for Cdk5-dependent regulation of MRLC phosphorylation, as suppression of p39, but not p35, reduces MRLC phosphorylation. Together, these results demonstrate that p39 specifically links muskelin to myosin II and consequently, to stress fibers and reveal a novel role for muskelin in regulating myosin phosphorylation and cytoskeletal organization. PMID:25128817

  20. The Cdk5 activator P39 specifically links muskelin to myosin II and regulates stress fiber formation and actin organization in lens.

    PubMed

    Tripathi, Brajendra K; Lowy, Douglas R; Zelenka, Peggy S

    2015-01-01

    Cyclin dependent kinase 5 (Cdk5), a proline-directed serine/threonine kinase, requires p39 for its enzymatic activity, and is implicated in cytoskeletal organization and contraction in numerous cell types. The C-terminus of p39 binds muskelin, a multi-domain scaffolding protein known to affect cytoskeletal organization, but the mechanisms by which muskelin affects cytoskeletal organization remain unclear. The present study sought to determine whether p39 might serve as an adaptor protein that links muskelin to stress fibers and to investigate the possible biological relevance of such an interaction. Double immunoprecipitation showed that muskelin, p39, and myosin II are components of a single intracellular complex, and suppressing p39 abrogated the interaction between muskelin and the myosin subunits, demonstrating that p39 is required to link muskelin to myosin II. Muskelin is colocalized with myosin regulatory light chain (MRLC) and on stress fibers. The suppression of muskelin reduced Rho-GTP, MRLC phosphorylation, disrupted stress fiber organization, and promoted cell migration, all of which closely mimic the effect of Cdk5 inhibition. Moreover, suppressing muskelin and inhibiting Cdk5 together have no additional effect, indicating that muskelin plays an important role in Cdk5-dependent signaling. p39 is necessary and sufficient for Cdk5-dependent regulation of MRLC phosphorylation, as suppression of p39, but not p35, reduces MRLC phosphorylation. Together, these results demonstrate that p39 specifically links muskelin to myosin II and consequently, to stress fibers and reveal a novel role for muskelin in regulating myosin phosphorylation and cytoskeletal organization.

  1. Amino acid sequence of the amino-terminal 24 kDa fragment of the heavy chain of chicken gizzard myosin.

    PubMed

    Maita, T; Onishi, H; Yajima, E; Matsuda, G

    1987-07-01

    Chicken gizzard myosin was modified with N-iodoacetyl-N'-(5-sulfo-1-naphthyl)-ethylenediamine (IAEDANS) in the presence of ATP and in 0.15 M KCl, where the myosin assumed 10S conformation. From the tryptic digest of the modified myosin, a fluorescent fragment (24 kilodaltons) was isolated by gel filtration on a Sephadex G-100 column followed by chromatography on a CM 52 column. The amino acid sequence of the fragment was analyzed by conventional methods, and was: (S,Z)K-P-L-S-D-D-E-K-F-L-F-V-D-K-N-F-V-N-N-P-L-A-Q-A-D-W-S-A-K-K- L-V-W-V-P-S-E-K-H-G-F-E-A-A-S-I-K-E-E-K-G-D-E-V-T-V-E-L-Q-E-N-G-K-K- V-T-L-S-K-D-D-I-Q-K-M-N-P-P-K-F-S-K-V-E-D-M-A-E-L-T-C-L-N-E-A-S-V-L- H-N-L-R-E-R-Y-F-S-G-L-I-Y-T-Y-S-G-L-F-C-V-V-I-N-P-Y-K-Q-L-P-I-Y-S-E-K-I- I-D-M-Y-K-G-K-K-R-H-E-M-P-P-H-I-Y-A-I-A-D-T-A-Y-R-S-M-L-Q-D-R-E-D-Q- S-I-L-C-T-G-E-S-G-A-G-K-T-E-N-T-K-K-V-I-Q-Y-L-A-V-V-A-S-S-H-K-G-K. The amino-terminus was blocked, and the fragment was assigned as an amino-terminal part of the heavy chain of gizzard myosin. Position 127 was occupied by epsilon-N-trimethyllysine. Trp-130 of rabbit skeletal myosin heavy chain, which was reported to cross-link to an azide derivative of ATP by Okamoto and Yount (Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S. 82, 1575-1579 (1985], was replaced by glutamine in gizzard myosin. Cys-93 of the fragment is the amino acid residue whose reaction with IAEDANS alters the ATPase activity of gizzard myosin (Onishi, H. (1985) J. Biochem. 98, 81-86).

  2. The neck region of the myosin motor domain acts as a lever arm to generate movement.

    PubMed Central

    Uyeda, T Q; Abramson, P D; Spudich, J A

    1996-01-01

    The myosin head consists of a globular catalytic domain that binds actin and hydrolyzes ATP and a neck domain that consists of essential and regulatory light chains bound to a long alpha-helical portion of the heavy chain. The swinging neck-level model assumes that a swinging motion of the neck relative to the catalytic domain is the origin of movement. This model predicts that the step size, and consequently the sliding velocity, are linearly related to the length of the neck. We have tested this point by characterizing a series of mutant Dictyostelium myosins that have different neck lengths. The 2xELCBS mutant has an extra binding site for essential light chain. The delta RLCBS mutant myosin has an internal deletion that removes the regulatory light chain binding site. The delta BLCBS mutant lacks both light chain binding sites. Wild-type myosin and these mutant myosins were subjected to the sliding filament in vitro motility assay. As expected, mutants with shorter necks move slower than wild-type myosin in vitro. Most significantly, a mutant with a longer neck moves faster than the wild type, and the sliding velocities of these myosins are linearly related to the neck length, as predicted by the swinging neck-lever model. A simple extrapolation to zero speed predicts that the fulcrum point is in the vicinity of the SH1-SH2 region in the catalytic domain. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 PMID:8633089

  3. The importance of subfragment 2 and C-terminus of myosin heavy chain for thick filament assembly in skeletal muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Ojima, Koichi; Oe, Mika; Nakajima, Ikuyo; Shibata, Masahiro; Muroya, Susumu; Chikuni, Koichi; Hattori, Akihito; Nishimura, Takanori

    2015-04-01

    In skeletal muscle cells, myofibrillar proteins are highly organized into sarcomeres in which thick filaments interdigitate with thin filaments to generate contractile force. The size of thick filaments, which consist mainly of myosin molecules, is strictly controlled. However, little is known about the mechanisms by which myosin molecules assemble into thick filaments. Here, we assessed the ability of each domain of myosin heavy chain (Myh) to form thick filaments. We showed that exogenously expressed subfragment 2 (S2) + light meromyosin (LMM) of Myh was efficiently incorporated into thick filaments in muscle cells, although neither solely expressed S2 nor LMM targeted to thick filaments properly. In nonmuscle COS7 cells, S2+LMM formed more enlarged filaments/speckles than LMM. These results suggest that Myh filament formation is induced by S2 accompanying LMM. We further examined the effects of Myh C-terminus on thick filament assembly. C-terminal deletion mutants were incorporated not into entire thick filaments but rather into restricted regions of thick filaments. Our findings suggest that the elongation of myosin filaments to form thick filaments is regulated by S2 as well as C-terminus of LMM.

  4. Cold exposure increases slow-type myosin heavy chain 1 (MyHC1) composition of soleus muscle in rats.

    PubMed

    Mizunoya, Wataru; Iwamoto, Yohei; Sato, Yusuke; Tatsumi, Ryuichi; Ikeuchi, Yoshihide

    2014-03-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effects of cold exposure on rat skeletal muscle fiber type, according to myosin heavy chain (MyHC) isoform and metabolism-related factors. Male Wistar rats (7 weeks old) were housed individually at 4 ± 2°C as a cold-exposed group or at room temperature (22 ± 2°C) as a control group for 4 weeks. We found that cold exposure significantly increased the slow-type MyHC1 content in the soleus muscle (a typical slow-type fiber), while the intermediate-type MyHC2A content was significantly decreased. In contrast to soleus, MyHC composition of extensor digitorum longus (EDL, a typical fast-type fiber) and gastrocnemius (a mix of slow-type and fast-type fibers) muscle did not change from cold exposure. Cold exposure increased mRNA expression of mitochondrial uncoupling protein 3 (UCP3) in both the soleus and EDL. Cold exposure also increased mRNA expression of myoglobin, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1α (PGC1α) and forkhead box O1 (FOXO1) in the soleus. Upregulation of UCP3 and PGC1α proteins were observed with Western blotting in the gastrocnemius. Thus, cold exposure increased metabolism-related factors in all muscle types that were tested, but MyHC isoforms changed only in the soleus.

  5. Fiber size, type, and myosin heavy chain content in rhesus hindlimb muscles after 2 weeks at 2 G

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tavakol, Morteza; Roy, Roland R.; Kim, Jung A.; Zhong, Hui; Hodgson, John A.; Hoban-Higgins, Tana M.; Fuller, Charles A.; Edgerton, V. Reggie

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Fiber atrophy and an increase in the percentage of fast fibers have been observed in Rhesus leg muscles after spaceflight. Hypothesis: Hypergravity will result in muscle fiber hypertrophy and an increase in the percentage of slow fibers. METHODS: Open muscle biopsies were obtained from Rhesus soleus, medial gastrocnemius (MG), and tibialis anterior (TA) muscles before and after 14 d of centrifugation (2 G) and in time-matched controls. Cage activity levels were measured by telemetry. RESULTS: Based on monoclonal antibody binding for myosin heavy chains (MHC), the fastest region of soleus contained a higher proportion of type I+II (27 vs. 13%) and had a tendency for a lower proportion of type I (38 vs. 61%, p = 0.10) fibers after than before centrifugation. There was a higher proportion of type I+II fibers in post- vs. pre-2 G (10 vs. 0.6%) MG biopsies. Fiber type distribution and MHC composition were unaffected in the TA. Overall, mean fiber sizes were unaffected by centrifugation. Average cage activity levels were 36% lower during than before 2 G. CONCLUSIONS: Our hypothesis was rejected. The changes in the proportion of fibers expressing type I MHC are the reverse of that expected with chronic loading of extensors and, paradoxically, are similar to changes observed with chronic unloading, such as occurs during spaceflight, in this primate model. The data are consistent with the observed decrease in total daily activity levels.

  6. Dlc1 interaction with non-muscle myosin heavy chain II-A (Myh9) and Rac1 activation

    PubMed Central

    Sabbir, Mohammad G.; Dillon, Rachelle; Mowat, Michael R. A.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The Deleted in liver cancer 1 (Dlc1) gene codes for a Rho GTPase-activating protein that also acts as a tumour suppressor gene. Several studies have consistently found that overexpression leads to excessive cell elongation, cytoskeleton changes and subsequent cell death. However, none of these studies have been able to satisfactorily explain the Dlc1-induced cell morphological phenotypes and the function of the different Dlc1 isoforms. Therefore, we have studied the interacting proteins associated with the three major Dlc1 transcriptional isoforms using a mass spectrometric approach in Dlc1 overexpressing cells. We have found and validated novel interacting partners in constitutive Dlc1-expressing cells. Our study has shown that Dlc1 interacts with non-muscle myosin heavy chain II-A (Myh9), plectin and spectrin proteins in different multiprotein complexes. Overexpression of Dlc1 led to increased phosphorylation of Myh9 protein and activation of Rac1 GTPase. These data support a role for Dlc1 in induced cell elongation morphology and provide some molecular targets for further analysis of this phenotype. PMID:26977077

  7. Imaging of myocardial infarction in dogs and humans using monoclonal antibodies specific for human myosin heavy chains

    SciTech Connect

    Leger, J.; Chevalier, J.; Larue, C.; Gautier, P.; Planchenault, J.; Aumaitre, E.; Messner, P.; Puech, P.; Saccavini, J.C.; Pau, B. )

    1991-08-01

    The use of three different monoclonal antibodies specific for human ventricular myosin heavy chains in the visualization of the location and extent of necrosis in dogs with experimental acute myocardial infarction and in humans is described. Using a classic immunohistochemical method or ex vivo analysis of heart slices in dogs with acute myocardial infarction subjected to intravenous injection of unlabeled antimyosin antibodies or antimyosin antibodies labeled with indium-111, it was observed that all antibody fragments specifically reached the targeted necrotic zone less than 2 h after antibody injection and remained bound for up to 24 h. In a limited but significant number of cases (5 of the 12 humans and 11 of 43 dogs), it was possible to image the necrotic zone in vivo as early as 2 to 4 h after antibody injection. In other cases, individual blood clearance variations retarded or even prevented in vivo necrosis detection. Higher antimyosin fixation values were obtained in the necrotic zones in dogs with a rapid blood clearance relative to that of the other dogs. It is concluded that antimyosin antibodies always reached necrotic areas within 2 h. If blood clearance was rapid, in vivo imaging of the necrotic area was possible 2 to 6 h after necrosis, even in humans. In some cases, however, uncontrolled individual variations in the timing required for sufficient blood clearance hampered this rapid in vivo detection of myocardial necrosis.

  8. Effects of diet consistency on the myosin heavy chain mRNAs of rat masseter muscle during postnatal development.

    PubMed

    Saito, T; Ohnuki, Y; Yamane, A; Saeki, Y

    2002-02-01

    To study the effects of diet consistency on the fiber phenotypes of rat masseter (1-70 days of age), the mRNAs of myosin heavy chain isoforms (MHC embryonic, neonatal, I, IIa, IId/x and IIb) were measured in total RNA preparations from masseters of hard-diet group (HDG) and soft-diet group (SDG) by competitive reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). With respect to the time course of the transition of each MHC mRNA expressed as a percentage relative to the maximum mean, the soft diet facilitated early (9 days after weaning) expression of IId/x and IIb isoforms, and also a decline in the expression of neonatal and IIa isoforms. The expression of neonatal, IIa and IId/x isoforms at 70 days of age was significantly (P<0.05, P<0.01, P<0.01, respectively) lower in SDG than in HDG, indicating a higher relative composition of the IIb isoform in the SDG. Embryonic MHC mRNA had disappeared by 14 days of age (i.e. before weaning at 19 days). No MHC I mRNA was observed in any masseter studied. These results suggest that in the rat a soft diet facilitates an even more MHC IIb-rich phenotype in the masseter muscle than a hard diet.

  9. Differential sensitivity of myosin-heavy-chain-typed fibers to distinct aggregates of nerve-mediated activation.

    PubMed

    Dunn, S E; Michel, R N

    1999-02-01

    We studied the regulatory effects of nerve-mediated activity on the early expression of embryonic and adult myosin heavy chains (MHC) within inactive though still innervated rat plantaris and soleus muscle fibers. To this end, we stimulated motor nerves that were quiescent following treatment with tetrodotoxin (TTX) with paradigms designed to partition the influence of neural activation frequency and assessed the selective expression and accumulation of MHCs within muscle fibers using an array of specific antibodies. We show rapid de novo expression of IIx MHC within select soleus fibers in response to high-frequency activation for more than 0.01% of daily time. High-frequency aggregates were also the most effective in preventing the TTX-induced reexpression of embryonic MHCs within specific fibers. Only configurations that included high-frequency trains for more than 0.01% of daily time or combined with 10 Hz stimulation preserved the size of select fibers, used as a measure of the net cellular content of MHC. The effectiveness of this preservation varied according to the muscle type and MHC expressed, and, in a subset of fibers, was influenced by contractile loading status. Our results demonstrate that distinct subsets of MHC-typed fibers are differentially sensitive to the neural activation cues mediating the cellular expression of these proteins.

  10. Synergistic ablation does not affect atrophy or altered myosin heavy chain expression in the non-weight bearing soleus muscle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Linderman, J. K.; Talmadge, R. J.; Gosselink, K. L.; Tri, P. N.; Roy, R. R.; Grindeland, R. E.

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether the soleus muscle undergoes atrophy and alterations in myosin heavy chain (MHC) composition during non-weight bearing in the absence of synergists. Thirty-two female rats were randomly assigned to four groups: control (C), synergistic ablation (ABL) of the gastrocnemius and plantaris muscles to overload the soleus muscle, hindlimb suspension (HLS), or a combination of synergistic ablation and hindlimb suspension (HLS-ABL). After 28 days of hindlimb suspension, soleus atrophy was more pronounced in HLS (58%) than in HLS-ABL (43%) rats. Compared to C rats, non-weight bearing decreased mixed and myofibrillar protein contents and Type I MHC 49%, 45%, and 7%, respectively, in HLS animals. In addition, de novo expression of fast Type IIx and Type IIb MHC (5% and 2%, respectively) was observed in HLS animals. Similarly, when compared to C rats, mixed and myofibrillar protein contents and Type I MHC decreased 43%, 46%, and 4%, respectively, in HLS-ABL animals. Also, de novo expression of Type IIx (4%) and IIb (1%) MHC was observed. Collectively, these data indicate that the loss of muscle protein and Type I MHC, and the de novo expression of Type IIx and Type IIb MHC in the rat soleus occur independently of the presence of synergists during non-weight bearing. Furthermore, these results confirm the contention that soleus mass and MHC expression are highly sensitive to alterations in mechanical load.

  11. The inv(16) fusion protein associates with corepressors via a smooth muscle myosin heavy-chain domain.

    PubMed

    Durst, Kristie L; Lutterbach, Bart; Kummalue, Tanawan; Friedman, Alan D; Hiebert, Scott W

    2003-01-01

    Inversion(16) is one of the most frequent chromosomal translocations found in acute myeloid leukemia (AML), occurring in over 8% of AML cases. This translocation results in a protein product that fuses the first 165 amino acids of core binding factor beta to the coiled-coil region of a smooth muscle myosin heavy chain (CBFbeta/SMMHC). CBFbeta interacts with AML1 to form a heterodimer that binds DNA; this interaction increases the affinity of AML1 for DNA. The CBFbeta/SMMHC fusion protein cooperates with AML1 to repress the transcription of AML1-regulated genes. We show that CBFbeta/SMMHC contains a repression domain in the C-terminal 163 amino acids of the SMMHC region that is required for inv(16)-mediated transcriptional repression. This minimal repression domain is sufficient for the association of CBFbeta/SMMHC with the mSin3A corepressor. In addition, the inv(16) fusion protein specifically associates with histone deacetylase 8 (HDAC8). inv(16)-mediated repression is sensitive to HDAC inhibitors. We propose a model whereby the inv(16) fusion protein associates with AML1 to convert AML1 into a constitutive transcriptional repressor. PMID:12509458

  12. The minor myosin heavy chain, mhcA, of Caenorhabditis elegans is necessary for the initiation of thick filament assembly.

    PubMed Central

    Waterston, R H

    1989-01-01

    Caenorhabditis elegans body wall muscle has two distinct myosin heavy chain isoforms, mhcA and mhcB. Mutations eliminating the major isoform, mhcB, have previously been shown to yield paralyzed, viable animals. In this paper we show that the minor isoform, mhcA, is essential for viability. We have utilized the known physical map position of the gene encoding mhcA to obtain two recessive lethal mutations that virtually eliminate accumulation of mhcA. The mutations are allelic, and the interactions of these alleles with mutations affecting other thick filament components are consistent with the hypothesis that the new mutations lie in the structural gene for mhcA. The homozygous mutant animals move very little and morphological analysis shows that thick filament assembly is severely impaired. Together with the location of mhcA in the center of the thick filament (Miller et al., 1983), the results suggest that mhcA has a unique role in initiating filament assembly. The homozygous mutations have an unexpected effect on morphogenesis that indicates an interaction between the muscle cells and the hypodermis during development. The resultant phenotype may be useful in the search for additional essential muscle genes. Images PMID:2583106

  13. Molecular engineering of myosin.

    PubMed Central

    Manstein, Dietmar J

    2004-01-01

    Protein engineering and design provide excellent tools to investigate the principles by which particular structural features relate to the mechanisms that underlie the biological function of a protein. In addition to studies aimed at dissecting the communication pathways within enzymes, recent advances in protein engineering approaches make it possible to generate enzymes with increased catalytic efficiency and specifically altered or newly introduced functions. Here, two approaches using state-of-the-art protein design and engineering are described in detail to demonstrate how key features of the myosin motor can be changed in a specific and predictable manner. First, it is shown how replacement of an actin-binding surface loop with synthetic sequences, whose flexibility and charge density is varied, can be employed to manipulate the actin affinity, the catalytic activity and the efficiency of coupling between actin- and nucleotide-binding sites of myosin motor constructs. Then the use of pre-existing molecular building blocks, which are derived from unrelated proteins, is described for manipulating the velocity and even the direction of movement of recombinant myosins. PMID:15647166

  14. Ankyrin domain of myosin 16 influences motor function and decreases protein phosphatase catalytic activity.

    PubMed

    Kengyel, András; Bécsi, Bálint; Kónya, Zoltán; Sellers, James R; Erdődi, Ferenc; Nyitrai, Miklós

    2015-05-01

    The unconventional myosin 16 (Myo16), which may have a role in regulation of cell cycle and cell proliferation, can be found in both the nucleus and the cytoplasm. It has a unique, eight ankyrin repeat containing pre-motor domain, the so-called ankyrin domain (My16Ank). Ankyrin repeats are present in several other proteins, e.g., in the regulatory subunit (MYPT1) of the myosin phosphatase holoenzyme, which binds to the protein phosphatase-1 catalytic subunit (PP1c). My16Ank shows sequence similarity to MYPT1. In this work, the interactions of recombinant and isolated My16Ank were examined in vitro. To test the effects of My16Ank on myosin motor function, we used skeletal muscle myosin or nonmuscle myosin 2B. The results showed that My16Ank bound to skeletal muscle myosin (K D ≈ 2.4 µM) and the actin-activated ATPase activity of heavy meromyosin (HMM) was increased in the presence of My16Ank, suggesting that the ankyrin domain can modulate myosin motor activity. My16Ank showed no direct interaction with either globular or filamentous actin. We found, using a surface plasmon resonance-based binding technique, that My16Ank bound to PP1cα (K D ≈ 540 nM) and also to PP1cδ (K D ≈ 600 nM) and decreased its phosphatase activity towards the phosphorylated myosin regulatory light chain. Our results suggest that one function of the ankyrin domain is probably to regulate the function of Myo16. It may influence the motor activity, and in complex with the PP1c isoforms, it can play an important role in the targeted dephosphorylation of certain, as yet unidentified, intracellular proteins.

  15. The fraction of strongly bound cross-bridges is increased in mice that carry the myopathy-linked myosin heavy chain mutation MYH4L342Q

    PubMed Central

    Lindqvist, Johan; Iwamoto, Hiroyuki; Blanco, Gonzalo; Ochala, Julien

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Myosinopathies have emerged as a new group of diseases and are caused by mutations in genes encoding myosin heavy chain (MyHC) isoforms. One major hallmark of these diseases is skeletal muscle weakness or paralysis, but the underlying molecular mechanisms remain unclear. Here, we have undertaken a detailed functional study of muscle fibers from Myh4arl mice, which carry a mutation that provokes an L342Q change within the catalytic domain of the type IIb skeletal muscle myosin protein MYH4. Because homozygous animals develop rapid muscle-structure disruption and lower-limb paralysis, they must be killed by postnatal day 13, so all experiments were performed using skeletal muscles from adult heterozygous animals (Myh4arl/+). Myh4arl/+ mice contain MYH4L342Q expressed at 7% of the levels of the wild-type (WT) protein, and are overtly and histologically normal. However, mechanical and X-ray diffraction pattern analyses of single membrane-permeabilized fibers revealed, upon maximal Ca2+ activation, higher stiffness as well as altered meridional and equatorial reflections in Myh4arl/+ mice when compared with age-matched WT animals. Under rigor conditions, by contrast, no difference was observed between Myh4arl/+ and WT mice. Altogether, these findings prove that, in adult MYH4L342Q heterozygous mice, the transition from weak to strong myosin cross-bridge binding is facilitated, increasing the number of strongly attached myosin heads, thus enhancing force production. These changes are predictably exacerbated in the type IIb fibers of homozygous mice, in which the embryonic myosin isoform is fully replaced by MYH4L342Q, leading to a hypercontraction, muscle-structure disruption and lower-limb paralysis. Overall, these findings provide important insights into the molecular pathogenesis of skeletal myosinopathies. PMID:23335206

  16. Quantification of Myosin Heavy Chain RNA in Human Laryngeal Muscles: Differential Expression in the Vertical and Horizontal Posterior Cricoarytenoid and Thyroarytenoid

    PubMed Central

    Horton, Michael J.; Rosen, Clark; Close, John M.; Sciote, James J.

    2013-01-01

    Background Human laryngeal muscles are composed of fibers that express type I, IIA, and IIX myosin heavy chains (MyHC), but the presence and quantity of atypical myosins such as perinatal, extraocular, IIB, and α (cardiac) remain in question. These characteristics have been determined by biochemical or immunohistologic tissue sampling but with no complementary evidence of gene expression at the molecular level. The distribution of myosin, the main motor protein, in relation to structure-function relationships in this specialized muscle group will be important for understanding laryngeal function in both health and disease. Objectives We determined the quantity of MyHC genes expressed in human posterior cricoarytenoid (PCA) and thyroarytenoid (TA) muscle using real-time quantitative reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction in a large number of samples taken from laryngectomy subjects. The PCA muscle was divided into vertical (V) and horizontal (H) portions for analysis. Results and Conclusions No extraocular or IIB myosin gene message is present in PCA or TA, but IIB is expressed in human extraocular muscle. Low but detectable amounts of perinatal and α gene message are present in both of the intrinsic laryngeal muscles. In H-and V-PCA, MyHC gene amounts were β greater than IIA greater than IIX, but amounts of fast myosin RNA were greater in V-PCA. In TA, the order was β greater than IIX greater than IIA. The profiles of RNA determined here indicate that, in humans, neither PCA nor TA intrinsic laryngeal muscles express unique very fast-contracting MyHCs but instead may rely on differential synthesis and use of β, IIA, and IIX isoforms to perform their specialized contractile functions. PMID:18091331

  17. Stable high capacity, F-actin affinity column

    SciTech Connect

    Luna, E.J.; Wang, Y.L.; Voss, E.W. Jr.; Branton, D.; Taylor, D.L.

    1982-11-10

    A high capacity F-actin affinity matrix is constructed by binding fluorescyl-actin to rabbit anti-fluorescein IgG that is covalently bound to Sepharose 4B. When stabilized with phalloidin, the actin remains associated with the Sepharose beads during repeated washes, activates the ATPase activity of myosin subfragment 1, and specifically binds /sup 125/I-heavy meromyosin and /sup 125/I-tropomyosin. The associations between the F-actin-binding proteins are monitored both by affinity chromatography and by a rapid, low speed sedimentation assay. Anti-fluorescein IgG-Sepharose should be generally useful as a matrix for the immobilization of proteins containing accessible, covalently bound fluorescein groups.

  18. Unique sequences and predicted functions of myosins in Tetrahymena thermophila.

    PubMed

    Sugita, Maki; Iwataki, Yoshinori; Nakano, Kentaro; Numata, Osamu

    2011-07-01

    Myosins are eukaryotic actin-dependent molecular motors that play important roles in many cellular events. The function of each myosin is determined by a variety of functional domains in its tail region. In some major model organisms, the functions and properties of myosins have been investigated based on their amino acid sequences. However, in protists, myosins have been little studied beyond the level of genome sequences. We therefore investigated the mRNA expression levels and amino acid sequences of 13 myosin genes in the ciliate Tetrahymena thermophila. This study is an overview of myosins in T. thermophila, which has no typical myosins, such as class I, II, or V myosins. We showed that all 13 myosins were expressed in vegetative cells. Furthermore, these myosins could be divided into 3 subclasses based on four functional domains in their tail regions. Subclass 1 comprised of 8 myosins has both MyTH4 and FERM domains, and has a potential to function in vesicle transport or anchoring between membrane and actin filaments. Subclass 2 comprised of 4 myosins has RCC1 (regulator of chromosome condensation 1) domains, which are found only in some protists, and may have unconventional features. Subclass 3 is comprised of one myosin, which has a long coiled-coil domain like class II myosin. In addition, phylogenetic analysis on the basis of motor domains showed that T. thermophila myosins are separated into two clusters: one consists of subclasses 1 and 2, and the other consists of subclass 3.

  19. Insights into the Chemomechanical Coupling of the Myosin Motor from Simulation of Its ATP Hydrolysis Mechanism

    SciTech Connect

    Schwarzl, S.M.; Smith, Jeremy C; Fischer, S.

    2006-03-01

    The molecular motor myosin converts chemical energy from ATP hydrolysis into mechanical work, thus driving a variety of essential motility processes. Although myosin function has been studied extensively, the catalytic mechanism of ATP hydrolysis and its chemomechanical coupling to the motor cycle are not completely understood. Here, the catalysis mechanism in myosin II is examined using quantum mechanical/molecular mechanical reaction path calculations. The resulting reaction pathways, found in the catalytically competent closed/closed conformation of the Switch-1/Switch-2 loops of myosin, are all associative with a pentavalent bipyramidal oxyphosphorane transition state but can vary in the activation mechanism of the attacking water molecule and in the way the hydrogens are transferred between the heavy atoms. The coordination bond between the Mg2+ metal cofactor and Ser237 in the Switch-1 loop is broken in the product state, thereby facilitating the opening of the Switch-1 loop after hydrolysis is completed, which is required for subsequent strong rebinding to actin. This reveals a key element of the chemomechanical coupling that underlies the motor cycle, namely, the modulation of actin unbinding or binding in response to the ATP or ADP{circle_dot}Pi state of nucleotide-bound myosin.

  20. A Toxoplasma gondii class XIV myosin, expressed in Sf9 cells with a parasite co-chaperone, requires two light chains for fast motility.

    PubMed

    Bookwalter, Carol S; Kelsen, Anne; Leung, Jacqueline M; Ward, Gary E; Trybus, Kathleen M

    2014-10-31

    Many diverse myosin classes can be expressed using the baculovirus/Sf9 insect cell expression system, whereas others have been recalcitrant. We hypothesized that most myosins utilize Sf9 cell chaperones, but others require an organism-specific co-chaperone. TgMyoA, a class XIVa myosin from the parasite Toxoplasma gondii, is required for the parasite to efficiently move and invade host cells. The T. gondii genome contains one UCS family myosin co-chaperone (TgUNC). TgMyoA expressed in Sf9 cells was soluble and functional only if the heavy and light chain(s) were co-expressed with TgUNC. The tetratricopeptide repeat domain of TgUNC was not essential to obtain functional myosin, implying that there are other mechanisms to recruit Hsp90. Purified TgMyoA heavy chain complexed with its regulatory light chain (TgMLC1) moved actin in a motility assay at a speed of ∼1.5 μm/s. When a putative essential light chain (TgELC1) was also bound, TgMyoA moved actin at more than twice that speed (∼3.4 μm/s). This result implies that two light chains bind to and stabilize the lever arm, the domain that amplifies small motions at the active site into the larger motions that propel actin at fast speeds. Our results show that the TgMyoA domain structure is more similar to other myosins than previously appreciated and provide a molecular explanation for how it moves actin at fast speeds. The ability to express milligram quantities of a class XIV myosin in a heterologous system paves the way for detailed structure-function analysis of TgMyoA and identification of small molecule inhibitors.

  1. Actin Rings of Power.

    PubMed

    Schwayer, Cornelia; Sikora, Mateusz; Slováková, Jana; Kardos, Roland; Heisenberg, Carl-Philipp

    2016-06-20

    Circular or ring-like actin structures play important roles in various developmental and physiological processes. Commonly, these rings are composed of actin filaments and myosin motors (actomyosin) that, upon activation, trigger ring constriction. Actomyosin ring constriction, in turn, has been implicated in key cellular processes ranging from cytokinesis to wound closure. Non-constricting actin ring-like structures also form at cell-cell contacts, where they exert a stabilizing function. Here, we review recent studies on the formation and function of actin ring-like structures in various morphogenetic processes, shedding light on how those different rings have been adapted to fulfill their specific roles. PMID:27326928

  2. Coexistence of mitochondrial DNA and β myosin heavy chain mutations in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy with late congestive heart failure

    PubMed Central

    Arbustini, E; Fasani, R; Morbini, P; Diegoli, M; Grasso, M; Dal, B; Marangoni, E; Banfi, P; Banchieri, N; Bellini, O; Comi, G; Narula, J; Campana, C; Gavazzi, A; Danesino, C; Vigano, M

    1998-01-01

    Objective—To investigate the possible coexistence of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutations in patients with β myosin heavy chain (βMHC) linked hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) who develop congestive heart failure.
Design—Molecular analysis of βMHC and mtDNA gene defects in patients with HCM.
Setting—Cardiovascular molecular diagnostic and heart transplantation reference centre in north Italy.
Patients—Four patients with HCM who underwent heart transplantation for end stage heart failure, and after pedigree analysis of 60 relatives, eight additional affected patients and 27 unaffected relatives. A total of 111 unrelated healthy adult volunteers served as controls. Disease controls included an additional 27 patients with HCM and 102 with dilated cardiomyopathy.
Intervention—Molecular analysis of DNA from myocardial and skeletal muscle tissue and from peripheral blood specimens.
Main outcome measures—Screening for mutations in βMHC (exons 3-23) and mtDNA tRNA (n = 22) genes with denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis or single strand conformational polymorphism followed by automated DNA sequencing.
Results—One proband (kindred A) (plus seven affected relatives) had arginine 249 glutamine (Arg249Gln) βMHC and heteroplasmic mtDNA tRNAIle A4300G mutations. Another unrelated patient (kindred B) with sporadic HCM had identical mutations. The remaining two patients (kindred C), a mother and son, had a novel βMHC mutation (lysine 450 glutamic acid) (Lys450Glu) and a heteroplasmic missense (T9957C, phenylalanine (Phe)->leucine (Leu)) mtDNA mutation in subunit III of the cytochrome C oxidase gene. The amount of mutant mtDNA was higher in the myocardium than in skeletal muscle or peripheral blood and in affected patients than in asymptomatic relatives. Mutations were absent in the controls. Pathological and biochemical characteristics of patients with mutations Arg249Gln plus A4300G (kindreds A and B) were identical, but different from

  3. Interspecific sequence comparison of the muscle-myosin heavy-chain genes from Drosophila hydei and Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Miedema, K; Harhangi, H; Mentzel, S; Wilbrink, M; Akhmanova, A; Hooiveld, M; Bindels, P; Hennig, W

    1994-10-01

    The muscle-myosin heavy-chain (mMHC) gene of Drosophila hydei has been sequenced completely (size 23.3 kb). The sequence comparison with the D. melanogaster mMHC gene revealed that the exon-intron pattern is identical. The protein coding regions show a high degree of conservation (97%). The alternatively spliced exons (3a-b, 7a-d, 9a-c, 11a-e, and 15a-b) display more variations in the number of nonsynonymous and synonymous substitutions than the common exons (2, 4, 5, 6, 8, 10, 12, 13, 14, 16, 17, and 19). The base composition at synonymous sites of fourfold degenerate codons (third position) is not biased in the alternative exons. In the common exons there exists a bias for C and against A. These findings imply that the alternative exons of the Drosophila mMHC gene evolve at a different, in several cases higher, rate than the common ones. The 5' splice junctions and 5' and 3' untranslated regions show a high level of similarity, indicating a functional constraint on these sequences. The intron regions vary considerably in length within one species, but the corresponding introns are very similar in length between the two species and all contain stretches of sequence similarity. A particular example is the first intron, which contains multiple regions of similarity. In the conserved regions of intron 12 (head-tail border) sequences were found which have the potential to direct another smaller mMHC transcript.

  4. Coordinated expression of myosin heavy chains, metabolic enzymes, and morphological features of porcine skeletal muscle fiber types.

    PubMed

    Quiroz-Rothe, Eugenio; Rivero, José-Luis L

    2004-09-01

    Combined methodologies of electrophoresis, immunoblots, immunohistochemistry, histochemistry, and photometric image analysis were applied to characterize porcine skeletal muscle fibers according to their myosin heavy chain (MyHC) composition, and to determine on a fiber-to-fiber basis the correlation between contractile [MyHC (s), myofibrillar ATPase (mATPase), and sarco(endo)plasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPase (SERCA) isoforms], metabolic [succinate dehydrogenase (SDH), and glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GPDH) activities, glycogen, and phospholamban (PLB) contents], and morphological [cross-sectional area (CSA), capillary, and nuclear densities] features of individual myofibers. An accurate delineation of MyHC-based fiber types was obtained with the immunohistochemical method developed. This protocol showed a high sensitivity and objectivity to delineate hybrid fibers with overwhelming dominance of one MyHC isoform. The phenotypic differences in contractile, metabolic, and morphological properties seen between fiber types were related with MyHC content. Slow fibers had the lowest mATPase activity (related to shortening velocity), the highest SDH activity (oxidative capacity), the lowest GPDH activity (glycolytic metabolism), and glycogen content, the smallest CSA, the greatest capillary, and nuclear densities, and expressed slow SERCA isoform and PLB, but not the fast SERCA isoform. The reverse pattern was true for pure IIB fibers, whereas type IIA and IIX fibers had intermediate properties. Hybrid fibers had mean values intermediate in-between their respective pure phenotypes. Discrimination of myofibers according to their MyHC content was possible on the basis of their contractile and non-contractile profiles. These intrafiber interrelationships suggest that myofibers of control pigs exhibit a high degree of co-ordination in their physiological, biochemical, and anatomical features. This study may well be a useful baseline for future work on the pig meat

  5. Effects of creatine supplementation during resistance training on myosin heavy chain (MHC) expression in rat skeletal muscle fibers.

    PubMed

    Aguiar, Andreo F; Aguiar, Danilo H; Felisberto, Alan D S; Carani, Fernanda R; Milanezi, Rachel C; Padovani, Carlos R; Dal-Pai-Silva, Maeli

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to utilize a rodent model to test the hypothesis that creatine (Cr) supplementation during resistance training would influence the pattern of slow-twitch muscle myosin heavy chain (MHC) isoforms expression. Male Wistar rats (2-3 months old, 250-300 g) were divided into 4 groups: Nontrained without creatine supplementation (CO), nontrained with creatine supplementation (CR), trained without creatine supplementation (TR), and trained with creatine supplementation (TRCR). TR and TRCR groups were submitted to a resistance training program for 5 weeks (5 days/week) for morphological and biochemical analysis of the soleus muscle. Weightlifting exercise involved jump sessions into water, carrying progressive overload equivalent to percentage of body weight. CR and TRCR groups were given creatine at 0.5 g/kg(-1)/d(-1). Both Cr supplementation and resistance training alone or associated did not result in significant alterations (p > 0.05) in body weight gain, food intake, and muscle weight in the CR, TR and TRCR groups compared to the CO group. Also compared to the CO group, the CR group showed a significant (p < 0.02) increase in MHCI content and a reduction in MHCII; inversely, the TR group increased the MHCII content and reduced MHCI (p < 0.02). When combined, both creatine and resistance training did not promote significant (p > 0.05) changes in MHC content of the TRCR group compared to the CO group. The data show that Cr supplementation provides a potential action to abolish the exercise-induced MHC isoform transitions from slow to fast in slow-twitch muscle. Thus, Cr supplementation might be a suitable strategy to maintaining a slow phenotype in slow muscle during resistance training, which may be favorable to maintenance of muscle oxidative capacity of endurance athletes.

  6. Identification of myosin heavy chain I, IIa and IIx in canine skeletal muscles by an electrophoretic and immunoblotting study.

    PubMed

    Smerdu, V; Strbenc, M; Meznaric-Petrusa, M; Fazarinc, G

    2005-01-01

    To determine which myosin heavy chain (MHC) isoforms are expressed in canine skeletal muscles, different muscle samples of five mixed-breed dogs were analysed by sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). The separated MHC isoforms were identified by immunoblotting technique using a set of specific monoclonal antibodies. To compare the results of the electrophoretic and immunoblotting study, the pattern of MHC isoform expression and histochemical profiles of canine fibres were additionally demonstrated on serial muscle sections by immunohistochemistry and myofibrillar adenosine triphosphatase (mATPase) histochemistry. Not more than three MHC isoforms were demonstrated by SDS-PAGE in the analysed canine muscles. By the immunoblotting technique, the fastest migrating MHC band was identified as slow or MHC-I, the intermediate one as MHC-IIx and the slowest migrating band as MHC-IIa isoform. Since none of the three MHC bands and none of the analysed fibres were recognized by the antibody specific to MHC-IIb of rats, we concluded that MHC-IIb is not expressed in large skeletal muscles of dogs. Similarly, only three major fibre types, i.e. I, IIA and IIX, were revealed according to the pattern of MHC immunohistochemistry and mATPase reaction. Type IIA fibres were more alkali- and acid-stable than type IIX fibres after mATPase histochemistry; hence, the latter corresponded to type IIDog fibres. However, beside the three major fibre types, scarce hybrid fibres co-expressing two MHC isoforms (I/IIA and IIA/IIX) were demonstrated by immunohistochemistry.

  7. Dynamic nature of fibre-type specific expression of myosin heavy chain transcripts in 14 different human skeletal muscles.

    PubMed

    Smerdu, V; Erzen, I

    2001-01-01

    The main goal of this study was to find out, whether the appearance of fibres without evident myosin heavy chain (MyHC) transcript expression (negative fibres) implies the existence of additional MyHC transcripts in human muscle fibres. Fourteen different skeletal muscles were analysed also to verify how MyHC transcript expression matches histochemical phenotypes of fibres. For this purpose, the expression of beta-slow, 2a and 2x MyHC transcripts, demonstrated by in situ hybridisation technique, was analysed within type I, IIC, IIA, IIAX and IIX fibres, determined according to the activity of myofibrillar ATPase. Additionally, MyHC isoform expression was immunohistochemically demonstrated and metabolic profiles of negative fibres were estimated. From a total of 4444 muscle fibres analysed, only 0.8% of fibres were negative, among them type I prevailed, the remainder were type IIA and IIX fibres. The majority of fibres expressed only beta, 2a and 2x MyHC transcripts and they mostly matched type I, IIA and IIX fibres respectively, but two minor hybrid fibre groups (beta/2a and 2ax) exhibited variable histochemical phenotype. The infrequency, the prevailing oxidative-glycolytic metabolic profile of negative type I fibres and frequent co-appearance with transitional type IIC fibres imply that the negative fibres rather result from fibre type transition than express an additional slow or even 2b MyHC transcripts. The appearance of hybrid and mismatched fibres additionally indicates that fibre type transition occurs also in presumably normal skeletal muscles, what enables the muscles to tune even with minimal changes in mechanical demands.

  8. Determination of the critical residues responsible for cardiac myosin binding protein C's interactions.

    PubMed

    Bhuiyan, Md Shenuarin; Gulick, James; Osinska, Hanna; Gupta, Manish; Robbins, Jeffrey

    2012-12-01

    Despite early demonstrations of myosin binding protein C's (MyBP-C) interaction with actin, different investigators have reached different conclusions regarding the relevant and necessary domains mediating this binding. Establishing the detailed structure-function relationships is needed to fully understand cMyBP-C's ability to impact on myofilament contraction as mutations in different domains are causative for familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. We defined cMyBP-C's N-terminal structural domains that are necessary or sufficient to mediate interactions with actin and/or the head region of the myosin heavy chain (S2-MyHC). Using a combination of genetics and functional assays, we defined the actin binding site(s) present in cMyBP-C. We confirmed that cMyBP-C's C1 and m domains productively interact with actin, while S2-MyHC interactions are restricted to the m domain. Using residue-specific mutagenesis, we identified the critical actin binding residues and distinguished them from the residues that were critical for S2-MyHC binding. To validate the structural and functional significance of these residues, we silenced the endogenous cMyBP-C in neonatal rat cardiomyocytes (NRC) using cMyBP-C siRNA, and replaced the endogenous cMyBP-C with normal or actin binding-ablated cMyBP-C. Replacement with actin binding-ablated cMyBP-C showed that the mutated protein did not incorporate into the sarcomere normally. Residues responsible for actin and S2-MyHC binding are partially present in overlapping domains but are unique. Expression of an actin binding-deficient cMyBP-C resulted in abnormal cytosolic distribution of the protein, indicating that interaction with actin is essential for the formation and/or maintenance of normal cMyBP-C sarcomeric distribution.

  9. Regulatory and Catalytic Domain Dynamics of Smooth Muscle Myosin Filaments†

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hui-Chun; Song, Likai; Salzameda, Bridget; Cremo, Christine R.; Fajer, Piotr G.

    2016-01-01

    Domain dynamics of the chicken gizzard smooth muscle myosin catalytic domain (heavy chain Cys-717) and regulatory domain (regulatory light chain Cys-108) were determined in the absence of nucleotides using saturation-transfer electron paramagnetic resonance. In unphosphorylated synthetic filaments, the effective rotational correlation times, τr, were 24 ± 6 μs and 441 ± 79 μs for the catalytic and regulatory domains, respectively. The corresponding amplitudes of motion were 42 ± 4° and 24 ± 9° as determined from steady-state phosphorescence anisotropy. These results suggest that the two domains have independent mobility due to a hinge between the two domains. Although a similar hinge was observed for skeletal myosin (Adhikari and Fajer (1997) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 94, 9643–9647. Brown et al. (2001) Biochemistry 40, 8283–8291), the latter displayed higher regulatory domain mobility, τr = 40 ± 3 μs, suggesting a smooth muscle specific mechanism of constraining regulatory domain dynamics. In the myosin monomers the correlation times for both domains were the same (~4 μs) for both smooth and skeletal myosin, suggesting that the motional difference between the two isoforms in the filaments was not due to intrinsic variation of hinge stiffness. Heavy chain/regulatory light chain chimeras of smooth and skeletal myosin pinpointed the origin of the restriction to the heavy chain and established correlation between the regulatory domain dynamics with the ability of myosin to switch off but not to switch on the ATPase and the actin sliding velocity. Phosphorylation of smooth muscle myosin filaments caused a small increase in the amplitude of motion of the regulatory domain (from 24 ± 4° to 36 ± 7°) but did not significantly affect the rotational correlation time of the regulatory domain (441 to 408 μs) or the catalytic domain (24 to 17 μs). These data are not consistent with a stable interaction between the two catalytic domains in

  10. C-terminal fragment of amebin promotes actin filament bundling, inhibits acto-myosin ATPase activity and is essential for amoeba migration.

    PubMed

    Jóźwiak, Jolanta; Rzhepetskyy, Yuriy; Sobczak, Magdalena; Kocik, Elżbieta; Skórzewski, Radosław; Kłopocka, Wanda; Rędowicz, Maria Jolanta

    2011-02-01

    Amebin [formerly termed as ApABP-FI; Sobczak et al. (2007) Biochem. Cell Biol. 85] is encoded in Amoeba proteus by two transcripts, 2672-nt and 1125-nt. A product of the shorter transcript (termed as C-amebin), comprising C-terminal 375 amino-acid-residue fragment of amebin, has been expressed and purified as the recombinant GST-fusion protein. GST-C-amebin bound both to monomeric and filamentous actin. The binding was Ca(2+)-independent and promoted filament bundling, as revealed with the transmission electron microscopy. GST-C-amebin significantly decreased MgATPase activity of rabbit skeletal muscle acto-S1. Removal with endoproteinase ArgC of a positively charged C-terminal region of GST-amebin containing KLASMWEQ sequence abolished actin-binding and bundling as well as the ATPase-inhibitory effect of C-amebin, indicating that this protein region was involved in the interaction with actin. Microinjection of amoebae with antibody against C-terminus of amebin significantly affected amoebae morphology, disturbed cell polarization and transport of cytoplasmic granules as well as blocked migration. These data indicate that amebin may be one of key regulators of the actin-cytoskeleton dynamics and actin-dependent motility in A. proteus.

  11. SH1 (cysteine 717) of smooth muscle myosin: its role in motor function.

    PubMed

    Kojima, S; Fujiwara, K; Onishi, H

    1999-09-01

    To determine if a thiol group called SH1 has an important role in myosin's motor function, we made a mutant heavy meromyosin (HMM) without the thiol group and analyzed its properties. In chicken gizzard myosin, SH1 is located on the cysteine residue at position 717. By using genetic engineering techniques, this cysteine was substituted with threonine in chicken gizzard HMM, and that mutant HMM and unmutated HMM were expressed in biochemical quantities using a baculovirus system. The basal EDTA-, Ca(2+)-, and Mg(2+)-ATPase activities of the mutant were similar to those of HMM whose SH1 was modified by N-iodoacetyl-N'-(5-sulfo-1-naphthyl)ethylenediamine (IAEDANS). However, while the chemically modified HMM lost the function of the light chain phosphorylation-dependent regulation of the actin-activated ATPase activity, the mutant HMM exhibited the normal light chain-regulated actin-activated ATPase activity. Using an in vitro motility assay system, we found that the IAEDANS-modified HMM was unable to propel actin filaments but that the mutant HMM was able to move actin filaments in a manner indistinguishable from filament sliding generated by unmutated HMM. These results indicate that SH1 itself is not essential for the motor function of myosin and suggest that various effects observed with HMM modified by thiol reagents such as IAEDANS are caused by the bulkiness of the attached probes, which interferes with the swinging motion generated during ATP hydrolysis.

  12. Supervillin binding to myosin II and synergism with anillin are required for cytokinesis.

    PubMed

    Smith, Tara C; Fridy, Peter C; Li, Yinyin; Basil, Shruti; Arjun, Sneha; Friesen, Ryan M; Leszyk, John; Chait, Brian T; Rout, Michael P; Luna, Elizabeth J

    2013-12-01

    Cytokinesis, the process by which cytoplasm is apportioned between dividing daughter cells, requires coordination of myosin II function, membrane trafficking, and central spindle organization. Most known regulators act during late cytokinesis; a few, including the myosin II-binding proteins anillin and supervillin, act earlier. Anillin's role in scaffolding the membrane cortex with the central spindle is well established, but the mechanism of supervillin action is relatively uncharacterized. We show here that two regions within supervillin affect cell division: residues 831-1281, which bind central spindle proteins, and residues 1-170, which bind the myosin II heavy chain (MHC) and the long form of myosin light-chain kinase. MHC binding is required to rescue supervillin deficiency, and mutagenesis of this site creates a dominant-negative phenotype. Supervillin concentrates activated and total myosin II at the furrow, and simultaneous knockdown of supervillin and anillin additively increases cell division failure. Knockdown of either protein causes mislocalization of the other, and endogenous anillin increases upon supervillin knockdown. Proteomic identification of interaction partners recovered using a high-affinity green fluorescent protein nanobody suggests that supervillin and anillin regulate the myosin II and actin cortical cytoskeletons through separate pathways. We conclude that supervillin and anillin play complementary roles during vertebrate cytokinesis. PMID:24088567

  13. Actin Immobilization on Chitin for Purifying Myosin II: A Laboratory Exercise That Integrates Concepts of Molecular Cell Biology and Protein Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Souza, Marcelle Gomes; Grossi, Andre Luiz; Pereira, Elisangela Lima Bastos; da Cruz, Carolina Oliveira; Mendes, Fernanda Machado; Cameron, Luiz Claudio; Paiva, Carmen Lucia Antao

    2008-01-01

    This article presents our experience on teaching biochemical sciences through an innovative approach that integrates concepts of molecular cell biology and protein chemistry. This original laboratory exercise is based on the preparation of an affinity chromatography column containing F-actin molecules immobilized on chitin particles for purifying…

  14. Responses of Myosin Heavy Chain Phenotypes and Gene Expressions in Neck Muscle to Micro- an Hyper-Gravity in Mice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohira, Tomotaka; Ohira, Takashi; Kawano, F.; Shibaguchi, T.; Okabe, H.; Ohno, Y.; Nakai, N.; Ochiai, T.; Goto, K.; Ohira, Y.

    2013-02-01

    Neck muscles are known to play important roles in the maintenance of head posture against gravity. However, it is not known how the properties of neck muscle are influenced by gravity. Therefore, the current study was performed to investigate the responses of neck muscle (rhomboideus capitis) in mice to inhibition of gravity and/or increase to 2-G for 3 months to test the hypothesis that the properties of neck muscles are regulated in response to the level of mechanical load applied by the gravitational load. Three male wild type C57BL/10J mice (8 weeks old) were launched by space shuttle Discovery (STS-128) and housed in Japanese Experimental Module “KIBO” on the International Space Station in mouse drawer system (MDS) project, which was organized by Italian Space Agency. Only 1 mouse returned to the Earth alive after 3 months by space shuttle Atlantis (STS-129). Neck muscles were sampled from both sides within 3 hours after landing. Cage and laboratory control experiments were also performed on the ground. Further, 3-month ground-based control experiments were performed with 6 groups, i.e. pre-experiment, 3-month hindlimb suspension, 2-G exposure by using animal centrifuge, and vivarium control (n=5 each group). Five mice were allowed to recover from hindlimb suspension (including 5 cage control) for 3 months in the cage. Neck muscles were sampled bilaterally before and after 3-month suspension and 2-G exposure, and at the end of 3-month ambulation recovery. Spaceflight-associated shift of myosin heavy chain phenotype from type I to II and atrophy of type I fibers were observed. In response to spaceflight, 17 genes were up-regulated and 13 genes were down-regulated vs. those in the laboratory control. Expression of 6 genes were up-regulated and that of 88 genes were down-regulated by 3-month exposure to 2-G vs. the age-matched cage control. In response to chronic hindlimb suspension, 4 and 20 genes were up- or down-regulated. Further, 98 genes responded

  15. Association between myosin heavy chain protein isoforms and intramuscular anabolic signaling following resistance exercise in trained men.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, Adam M; Hoffman, Jay R; Townsend, Jeremy R; Jajtner, Adam R; Wells, Adam J; Beyer, Kyle S; Willoughby, Darryn S; Oliveira, Leonardo P; Fukuda, David H; Fragala, Maren S; Stout, Jeffrey R

    2015-01-01

    Resistance exercise stimulates an increase in muscle protein synthesis regulated by intracellular anabolic signaling molecules in a mammalian/mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR)-dependent pathway. The purpose of this study was to investigate acute anabolic signaling responses in experienced, resistance-trained men, and to examine the association between myosin heavy chain (MHC) isoform composition and the magnitude of anabolic signaling. Eight resistance-trained men (24.9 ± 4.3 years; 91.2 ± 12.4 kg; 176.7 ± 8.0 cm; 13.3 ± 3.9 body fat %) performed a whole body, high-volume resistance exercise protocol (REX) and a control protocol (CTL) in a balanced, randomized order. Participants were provided a standardized breakfast, recovery drink, and meal during each protocol. Fine needle muscle biopsies were completed at baseline (BL), 2 h (2H) and 6 h post-exercise (6H). BL biopsies were analyzed for MHC isoform composition. Phosphorylation of proteins specific to the Akt/mTOR signaling pathway and MHC mRNA expression was quantified. Phosphorylation of p70S6k was significantly greater in REX compared to CTL at 2H (P = 0.04). MHC mRNA expression and other targets in the Akt/mTOR pathway were not significantly influenced by REX. The percentage of type IIX isoform was inversely correlated (P < 0.05) with type I and type IIA MHC mRNA expression (r = -0.69 to -0.93). Maximal strength was also observed to be inversely correlated (P < 0.05) with Type I and Type IIA MHC mRNA expression (r = -0.75 to -0.77) and p70S6k phosphorylation (r = -0.75). Results indicate that activation of p70S6k occurs within 2-h following REX in experienced, resistance-trained men. Further, results also suggest that highly trained, stronger individuals have an attenuated acute anabolic response. PMID:25626869

  16. Association between myosin heavy chain protein isoforms and intramuscular anabolic signaling following resistance exercise in trained men

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez, Adam M.; Hoffman, Jay R.; Townsend, Jeremy R.; Jajtner, Adam R.; Wells, Adam J.; Beyer, Kyle S.; Willoughby, Darryn S.; Oliveira, Leonardo P.; Fukuda, David H.; Fragala, Maren S.; Stout, Jeffrey R.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Resistance exercise stimulates an increase in muscle protein synthesis regulated by intracellular anabolic signaling molecules in a mammalian/mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR)‐dependent pathway. The purpose of this study was to investigate acute anabolic signaling responses in experienced, resistance‐trained men, and to examine the association between myosin heavy chain (MHC) isoform composition and the magnitude of anabolic signaling. Eight resistance‐trained men (24.9 ± 4.3 years; 91.2 ± 12.4 kg; 176.7 ± 8.0 cm; 13.3 ± 3.9 body fat %) performed a whole body, high‐volume resistance exercise protocol (REX) and a control protocol (CTL) in a balanced, randomized order. Participants were provided a standardized breakfast, recovery drink, and meal during each protocol. Fine needle muscle biopsies were completed at baseline (BL), 2 h (2H) and 6 h post‐exercise (6H). BL biopsies were analyzed for MHC isoform composition. Phosphorylation of proteins specific to the Akt/mTOR signaling pathway and MHC mRNA expression was quantified. Phosphorylation of p70S6k was significantly greater in REX compared to CTL at 2H (P = 0.04). MHC mRNA expression and other targets in the Akt/mTOR pathway were not significantly influenced by REX. The percentage of type IIX isoform was inversely correlated (P < 0.05) with type I and type IIA MHC mRNA expression (r = −0.69 to −0.93). Maximal strength was also observed to be inversely correlated (P < 0.05) with Type I and Type IIA MHC mRNA expression (r = −0.75 to −0.77) and p70S6k phosphorylation (r = −0.75). Results indicate that activation of p70S6k occurs within 2‐h following REX in experienced, resistance‐trained men. Further, results also suggest that highly trained, stronger individuals have an attenuated acute anabolic response. PMID:25626869

  17. Single Muscle Immobilization Decreases Single-Fibre Myosin Heavy Chain Polymorphism: Possible Involvement of p38 and JNK MAP Kinases

    PubMed Central

    Derbré, Frédéric; Droguet, Mickaël; Léon, Karelle; Troadec, Samuel; Pennec, Jean-Pierre; Giroux-Metges, Marie-Agnès; Rannou, Fabrice

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Muscle contractile phenotype is affected during immobilization. Myosin heavy chain (MHC) isoforms are the major determinant of the muscle contractile phenotype. We therefore sought to evaluate the effects of muscle immobilization on both the MHC composition at single-fibre level and the mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK), a family of intracellular signaling pathways involved in the stress-induced muscle plasticity. Methods The distal tendon of female Wistar rat Peroneus Longus (PL) was cut and fixed to the adjacent bone at neutral muscle length. Four weeks after the surgery, immobilized and contralateral PL were dissociated and the isolated fibres were sampled to determine MHC composition. Protein kinase 38 (p38), extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK1/2), and c-Jun- NH2-terminal kinase (JNK) phosphorylations were measured in 6- and 15-day immobilized and contralateral PL. Results MHC distribution in immobilized PL was as follows: I = 0%, IIa = 11.8 ± 2.8%, IIx = 53.0 ± 6.1%, IIb = 35.3 ± 7.3% and I = 6.1 ± 3.9%, IIa = 22.1 ± 3.4%, IIx = 46.6 ± 4.5%, IIb = 25.2 ± 6.6% in contralateral muscle. The MHC composition in immobilized muscle is consistent with a faster contractile phenotype according to the Hill’s model of the force-velocity relationship. Immobilized and contralateral muscles displayed a polymorphism index of 31.1% (95% CI 26.1–36.0) and 39.3% (95% CI 37.0–41.5), respectively. Significant increases in p38 and JNK phosphorylation were observed following 6 and 15 days of immobilization. Conclusions Single muscle immobilization at neutral length induces a shift of MHC composition toward a faster contractile phenotype and decreases the polymorphic profile of single fibres. Activation of p38 and JNK could be a potential mechanism involved in these contractile phenotype modifications during muscle immobilization. PMID:27383612

  18. Expression of the myosin heavy chain genes in the tail muscle of thyroid hormone-induced metamorphosing Rana catesbeiana tadpoles.

    PubMed

    Hu, H; Merrifield, P; Atkinson, B G

    1999-01-01

    In tadpoles of the North American bullfrog, Rana catesbeiana, spontaneous and thyroid hormone (T3)-induced metamorphosis is characterized by regression of the tail, which is preceded by a decrease in total protein synthesis in tail tissues. We have demonstrated that thyroid hormone treatment of a tadpole does not affect the synthesis of all proteins equally in the tadpole tail muscle. For example, the synthesis of myosin heavy chains (MHCs) is depressed within 1 day and decreases to 45% of control values after 5 days of T3 treatment, whereas the decreased synthesis of soluble muscle proteins is transient and returns to above control levels by day 5. To determine whether the hormone-induced decrease in MHC synthesis is the result of changes in the transcription of translation of MHC mRNAs, we isolated cDNAs complementary to five different MHC mRNAs from a tail muscle cDNA library and used them to examine the levels of each MHC mRNA in the tail muscle of T3-treated tadpoles. mRNAs that recognize the cDNAs for these five different MHCs are all expressed in the tadpole tail and limb muscles, as well as in the adult leg muscles. MHC mRNAs unique to tadpole tail were not detected. Interestingly, the relative amounts of mRNA for four of the five MHCs increase in tail muscle after T3 treatment of the tadpole, suggesting that repression of MHC gene expression at the protein level does not result from a decrease in the amount of MHC mRNAs. Rather, these results support the contention that the decreased synthesis of MHCs in the tail muscle of T3-treated tadpoles is caused by this hormone, either directly or indirectly, depressing the translation of the MHC mRNAs in this tissue. These results, coupled with the observation that the synthesis of soluble muscle proteins is depressed only in a transient fashion, suggest that T3 may be initiating the expression of a gene(s) that encodes a protein(s) responsible for inhibiting the translation of the MHCs and, perhaps, other

  19. Association between myosin heavy chain protein isoforms and intramuscular anabolic signaling following resistance exercise in trained men.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, Adam M; Hoffman, Jay R; Townsend, Jeremy R; Jajtner, Adam R; Wells, Adam J; Beyer, Kyle S; Willoughby, Darryn S; Oliveira, Leonardo P; Fukuda, David H; Fragala, Maren S; Stout, Jeffrey R

    2015-01-01

    Resistance exercise stimulates an increase in muscle protein synthesis regulated by intracellular anabolic signaling molecules in a mammalian/mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR)-dependent pathway. The purpose of this study was to investigate acute anabolic signaling responses in experienced, resistance-trained men, and to examine the association between myosin heavy chain (MHC) isoform composition and the magnitude of anabolic signaling. Eight resistance-trained men (24.9 ± 4.3 years; 91.2 ± 12.4 kg; 176.7 ± 8.0 cm; 13.3 ± 3.9 body fat %) performed a whole body, high-volume resistance exercise protocol (REX) and a control protocol (CTL) in a balanced, randomized order. Participants were provided a standardized breakfast, recovery drink, and meal during each protocol. Fine needle muscle biopsies were completed at baseline (BL), 2 h (2H) and 6 h post-exercise (6H). BL biopsies were analyzed for MHC isoform composition. Phosphorylation of proteins specific to the Akt/mTOR signaling pathway and MHC mRNA expression was quantified. Phosphorylation of p70S6k was significantly greater in REX compared to CTL at 2H (P = 0.04). MHC mRNA expression and other targets in the Akt/mTOR pathway were not significantly influenced by REX. The percentage of type IIX isoform was inversely correlated (P < 0.05) with type I and type IIA MHC mRNA expression (r = -0.69 to -0.93). Maximal strength was also observed to be inversely correlated (P < 0.05) with Type I and Type IIA MHC mRNA expression (r = -0.75 to -0.77) and p70S6k phosphorylation (r = -0.75). Results indicate that activation of p70S6k occurs within 2-h following REX in experienced, resistance-trained men. Further, results also suggest that highly trained, stronger individuals have an attenuated acute anabolic response.

  20. Expression profiles of myostatin, myogenin, and Myosin heavy chain in skeletal muscles of two rabbit breeds differing in growth rate.

    PubMed

    Kuang, Liangde; Xie, Xiaohong; Zhang, Xiangyu; Lei, Min; Li, Congyan; Ren, Yongjun; Zheng, Jie; Guo, Zhiqiang; Zhang, Cuixia; Yang, Chao; Zheng, Yucai

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to compare mRNA levels of myostatin (MSTN), myogenin (MyoG), and fiber type compositions in terms of myosin heavy chain (MyHC) in skeletal muscles of two rabbit breeds with different body sizes and growth rates. Longissimus dorsi and biceps femoris muscles of 16 Californian rabbits (CW) and 16 Germany great line of ZIKA rabbits (GZ) were collected at the ages of 35d and 84d (slaughter age). The results showed that the live weights of GZ rabbits of 35d and 84d old were approximately 36% and 26% greater than those of CW rabbits, respectively. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis revealed that at the age of 84d GZ rabbits contained significantly lower MSTN mRNA level and higher MyoG mRNA level in both longissimus dorsi and biceps femoris muscles than CW rabbits, and mRNA levels of MSTN and MyoG exhibited opposite changes from the age of 35d to 84d, suggesting that GZ rabbits were subjected to less growth inhibition from MSTN at slaughter age, which occurred most possibly in skeletal muscles. Four types of fiber were identified by real-time PCR in rabbit muscles, with MyHC-1 and MyHC-2D, MyHC-2B were the major types in biceps femoris and longissimus dorsi muscles, respectively. At the age of 84d, GZ rabbits contained greater proportion of MyHC-1 and decreased proportion of MyHC-2D and decreased lactate dehydrogenase activity in biceps femoris than CW rabbits, and the results were exactly opposite in longissimus dorsi, suggesting that GZ rabbits show higher oxidative capacity in biceps femoris muscle than CW rabbits. In conclusion, the trends of mRNA levels of MSTN and fiber types in GZ rabbits' skeletal muscles might be consistent with the putative fast growth characteristic of GZ rabbits compared to CW rabbits.

  1. Revisiting Myosin Families Through Large-scale Sequence Searches Leads to the Discovery of New Myosins

    PubMed Central

    Pasha, Shaik Naseer; Meenakshi, Iyer; Sowdhamini, Ramanathan

    2016-01-01

    Myosins are actin-based motor proteins involved in many cellular movements. It is interesting to study the evolutionary patterns and the functional attributes of various types of myosins. Computational search algorithms were performed to identify putative myosin members by phylogenetic analysis, sequence motifs, and coexisting domains. This study is aimed at understanding the distribution and the likely biological functions of myosins encoded in various taxa and available eukaryotic genomes. We report here a phylogenetic analysis of around 4,064 myosin motor domains, built entirely from complete or near-complete myosin repertoires incorporating many unclassified, uncharacterized sequences and new myosin classes, with emphasis on myosins from Fungi, Haptophyta, and other Stramenopiles, Alveolates, and Rhizaria (SAR). The identification of large classes of myosins in Oomycetes, Cellular slime molds, Choanoflagellates, Pelagophytes, Eustigmatophyceae, Fonticula, Eucoccidiorida, and Apicomplexans with novel myosin motif variants that are conserved and thus presumably functional extends our knowledge of this important family of motor proteins. This work provides insights into the distribution and probable function of myosins including newly identified myosin classes.

  2. Flagellar localization of a novel isoform of myosin, myosin XXI, in Leishmania.

    PubMed

    Katta, Santharam S; Sahasrabuddhe, Amogh A; Gupta, Chhitar M

    2009-04-01

    Leishmania major genome analysis revealed the presence of putative genes corresponding to two myosins, which have been designated to class IB and a novel class, class XXI, specifically present in kinetoplastids. To characterize these myosin homologs in Leishmania, we have cloned and over-expressed the full-length myosin XXI gene and variable region of myosin IB gene in bacteria, purified the corresponding proteins, and then used the affinity purified anti-sera to analyze the expression and intracellular distribution of these proteins. Whereas myosin XXI was expressed in both the promastigote and amastigote stages, no expression of myosin IB could be detected in any of the two stages of these parasites. Further, myosin XXI expression was more predominant in the promastigote stage where it was preferentially localized in the proximal region of the flagellum. The observed flagellar localization was not dependent on the myosin head region or actin but was exclusively determined by the myosin tail region, as judged by over-expressing GFP conjugates of full-length myosin XXI, its head domain and its tail domain separately in Leishmania. Furthermore, immunofluorescence and immuno-gold electron microscopy analyses revealed that this protein was partly associated with paraflagellar rod proteins but not with tubulins in the flagellar axoneme. Our results, for the first time, report the expression and detailed analysis of cellular localization of a novel class of myosin, myosin XXI in trypanosomatids. PMID:19121339

  3. Revisiting Myosin Families Through Large-scale Sequence Searches Leads to the Discovery of New Myosins

    PubMed Central

    Pasha, Shaik Naseer; Meenakshi, Iyer; Sowdhamini, Ramanathan

    2016-01-01

    Myosins are actin-based motor proteins involved in many cellular movements. It is interesting to study the evolutionary patterns and the functional attributes of various types of myosins. Computational search algorithms were performed to identify putative myosin members by phylogenetic analysis, sequence motifs, and coexisting domains. This study is aimed at understanding the distribution and the likely biological functions of myosins encoded in various taxa and available eukaryotic genomes. We report here a phylogenetic analysis of around 4,064 myosin motor domains, built entirely from complete or near-complete myosin repertoires incorporating many unclassified, uncharacterized sequences and new myosin classes, with emphasis on myosins from Fungi, Haptophyta, and other Stramenopiles, Alveolates, and Rhizaria (SAR). The identification of large classes of myosins in Oomycetes, Cellular slime molds, Choanoflagellates, Pelagophytes, Eustigmatophyceae, Fonticula, Eucoccidiorida, and Apicomplexans with novel myosin motif variants that are conserved and thus presumably functional extends our knowledge of this important family of motor proteins. This work provides insights into the distribution and probable function of myosins including newly identified myosin classes. PMID:27597808

  4. Revisiting Myosin Families Through Large-scale Sequence Searches Leads to the Discovery of New Myosins.

    PubMed

    Pasha, Shaik Naseer; Meenakshi, Iyer; Sowdhamini, Ramanathan

    2016-01-01

    Myosins are actin-based motor proteins involved in many cellular movements. It is interesting to study the evolutionary patterns and the functional attributes of various types of myosins. Computational search algorithms were performed to identify putative myosin members by phylogenetic analysis, sequence motifs, and coexisting domains. This study is aimed at understanding the distribution and the likely biological functions of myosins encoded in various taxa and available eukaryotic genomes. We report here a phylogenetic analysis of around 4,064 myosin motor domains, built entirely from complete or near-complete myosin repertoires incorporating many unclassified, uncharacterized sequences and new myosin classes, with emphasis on myosins from Fungi, Haptophyta, and other Stramenopiles, Alveolates, and Rhizaria (SAR). The identification of large classes of myosins in Oomycetes, Cellular slime molds, Choanoflagellates, Pelagophytes, Eustigmatophyceae, Fonticula, Eucoccidiorida, and Apicomplexans with novel myosin motif variants that are conserved and thus presumably functional extends our knowledge of this important family of motor proteins. This work provides insights into the distribution and probable function of myosins including newly identified myosin classes. PMID:27597808

  5. Vinculin potentiates E-cadherin mechanosensing and is recruited to actin-anchored sites within adherens junctions in a myosin II–dependent manner

    PubMed Central

    le Duc, Quint; Shi, Quanming; Blonk, Iris; Sonnenberg, Arnoud

    2010-01-01

    Cell surface receptors integrate chemical and mechanical cues to regulate a wide range of biological processes. Integrin complexes are the mechanotransducers between the extracellular matrix and the actomyosin cytoskeleton. By analogy, cadherin complexes may function as mechanosensors at cell–cell junctions, but this capacity of cadherins has not been directly demonstrated. Furthermore, the molecular composition of the link between E-cadherin and actin, which is needed to sustain such a function, is unresolved. In this study, we describe nanomechanical measurements demonstrating that E-cadherin complexes are functional mechanosensors that transmit force between F-actin and E-cadherin. Imaging experiments reveal that intercellular forces coincide with vinculin accumulation at actin-anchored cadherin adhesions, and nanomechanical measurements show that vinculin potentiates the E-cadherin mechanosensory response. These investigations directly demonstrate the mechanosensory capacity of the E-cadherin complex and identify a novel function for vinculin at cell–cell junctions. These findings have implications for barrier function, morphogenesis, cell migration, and invasion and may extend to all soft tissues in which classical cadherins regulate cell–cell adhesion. PMID:20584916

  6. Characterization of Amoeba proteus myosin VI immunoanalog.

    PubMed

    Dominik, Magdalena; Kłopocka, Wanda; Pomorski, Paweł; Kocik, Elzbieta; Redowicz, Maria Jolanta

    2005-07-01

    Amoeba proteus, the highly motile free-living unicellular organism, has been widely used as a model to study cell motility. However, molecular mechanisms underlying its unique locomotion and intracellular actin-based-only trafficking remain poorly understood. A search for myosin motors responsible for vesicular transport in these giant cells resulted in detection of 130-kDa protein interacting with several polyclonal antibodies against different tail regions of human and chicken myosin VI. This protein was binding to actin in the ATP-dependent manner, and immunoprecipitated with anti-myosin VI antibodies. In order to characterize its possible functions in vivo, its cellular distribution and colocalization with actin filaments and dynamin II during migration and pinocytosis were examined. In migrating amoebae, myosin VI immunoanalog localized to vesicular structures, particularly within the perinuclear and sub-plasma membrane areas, and colocalized with dynamin II immunoanalog and actin filaments. The colocalization was even more evident in pinocytotic cells as proteins concentrated within pinocytotic pseudopodia. Moreover, dynamin II and myosin VI immunoanalogs cosedimented with actin filaments, and were found on the same isolated vesicles. Blocking endogenous myosin VI immunoanalog with anti-myosin VI antibodies inhibited the rate of pseudopodia protrusion (about 19% decrease) and uroidal retraction (about 28% decrease) but did not affect cell morphology and the manner of cell migration. Treatment with anti-human dynamin II antibodies led to changes in directionality of amebae migration and affected the rate of only uroidal translocation (about 30% inhibition). These results indicate that myosin VI immunoanalog is expressed in protist Amoeba proteus and may be involved in vesicle translocation and cell locomotion.

  7. Myosin VI: cellular functions and motor properties.

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Rhys; Lister, Ida; Schmitz, Stephan; Walker, Matthew; Veigel, Claudia; Trinick, John; Buss, Folma; Kendrick-Jones, John

    2004-01-01

    Myosin VI has been localized in membrane ruffles at the leading edge of cells, at the trans-Golgi network compartment of the Golgi complex and in clathrin-coated pits or vesicles, indicating that it functions in a wide variety of intracellular processes. Myosin VI moves along actin filaments towards their minus end, which is the opposite direction to all of the other myosins so far studied (to our knowledge), and is therefore thought to have unique properties and functions. To investigate the cellular roles of myosin VI, we identified various myosin VI binding partners and are currently characterizing their interactions within the cell. As an alternative approach, we have expressed and purified full-length myosin VI and studied its in vitro properties. Previous studies assumed that myosin VI was a dimer, but our biochemical, biophysical and electron microscopic studies reveal that myosin VI can exist as a stable monomer. We observed, using an optical tweezers force transducer, that monomeric myosin VI is a non-processive motor which, despite a relatively short lever arm, generates a large working stroke of 18 nm. Whether monomer and/or dimer forms of myosin VI exist in cells and their possible functions will be discussed. PMID:15647169

  8. Myosin VI: cellular functions and motor properties.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Rhys; Lister, Ida; Schmitz, Stephan; Walker, Matthew; Veigel, Claudia; Trinick, John; Buss, Folma; Kendrick-Jones, John

    2004-12-29

    Myosin VI has been localized in membrane ruffles at the leading edge of cells, at the trans-Golgi network compartment of the Golgi complex and in clathrin-coated pits or vesicles, indicating that it functions in a wide variety of intracellular processes. Myosin VI moves along actin filaments towards their minus end, which is the opposite direction to all of the other myosins so far studied (to our knowledge), and is therefore thought to have unique properties and functions. To investigate the cellular roles of myosin VI, we identified various myosin VI binding partners and are currently characterizing their interactions within the cell. As an alternative approach, we have expressed and purified full-length myosin VI and studied its in vitro properties. Previous studies assumed that myosin VI was a dimer, but our biochemical, biophysical and electron microscopic studies reveal that myosin VI can exist as a stable monomer. We observed, using an optical tweezers force transducer, that monomeric myosin VI is a non-processive motor which, despite a relatively short lever arm, generates a large working stroke of 18 nm. Whether monomer and/or dimer forms of myosin VI exist in cells and their possible functions will be discussed. PMID:15647169

  9. Analysis of the myosins encoded in the recently completed Arabidopsis thaliana genome sequence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reddy, A. S.; Day, I. S.

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Three types of molecular motors play an important role in the organization, dynamics and transport processes associated with the cytoskeleton. The myosin family of molecular motors move cargo on actin filaments, whereas kinesin and dynein motors move cargo along microtubules. These motors have been highly characterized in non-plant systems and information is becoming available about plant motors. The actin cytoskeleton in plants has been shown to be involved in processes such as transportation, signaling, cell division, cytoplasmic streaming and morphogenesis. The role of myosin in these processes has been established in a few cases but many questions remain to be answered about the number, types and roles of myosins in plants. RESULTS: Using the motor domain of an Arabidopsis myosin we identified 17 myosin sequences in the Arabidopsis genome. Phylogenetic analysis of the Arabidopsis myosins with non-plant and plant myosins revealed that all the Arabidopsis myosins and other plant myosins fall into two groups - class VIII and class XI. These groups contain exclusively plant or algal myosins with no animal or fungal myosins. Exon/intron data suggest that the myosins are highly conserved and that some may be a result of gene duplication. CONCLUSIONS: Plant myosins are unlike myosins from any other organisms except algae. As a percentage of the total gene number, the number of myosins is small overall in Arabidopsis compared with the other sequenced eukaryotic genomes. There are, however, a large number of class XI myosins. The function of each myosin has yet to be determined.

  10. Cofilin-mediated actin dynamics promotes actin bundle formation during Drosophila bristle development

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Jing; Wang, Heng; Guo, Xuan; Chen, Jiong

    2016-01-01

    The actin bundle is an array of linear actin filaments cross-linked by actin-bundling proteins, but its assembly and dynamics are not as well understood as those of the branched actin network. Here we used the Drosophila bristle as a model system to study actin bundle formation. We found that cofilin, a major actin disassembly factor of the branched actin network, promotes the formation and positioning of actin bundles in the developing bristles. Loss of function of cofilin or AIP1, a cofactor of cofilin, each resulted in increased F-actin levels and severe defects in actin bundle organization, with the defects from cofilin deficiency being more severe. Further analyses revealed that cofilin likely regulates actin bundle formation and positioning by the following means. First, cofilin promotes a large G-actin pool both locally and globally, likely ensuring rapid actin polymerization for bundle initiation and growth. Second, cofilin limits the size of a nonbundled actin-myosin network to regulate the positioning of actin bundles. Third, cofilin prevents incorrect assembly of branched and myosin-associated actin filament into bundles. Together these results demonstrate that the interaction between the dynamic dendritic actin network and the assembling actin bundles is critical for actin bundle formation and needs to be closely regulated. PMID:27385345

  11. Cofilin-mediated actin dynamics promotes actin bundle formation during Drosophila bristle development.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jing; Wang, Heng; Guo, Xuan; Chen, Jiong

    2016-08-15

    The actin bundle is an array of linear actin filaments cross-linked by actin-bundling proteins, but its assembly and dynamics are not as well understood as those of the branched actin network. Here we used the Drosophila bristle as a model system to study actin bundle formation. We found that cofilin, a major actin disassembly factor of the branched actin network, promotes the formation and positioning of actin bundles in the developing bristles. Loss of function of cofilin or AIP1, a cofactor of cofilin, each resulted in increased F-actin levels and severe defects in actin bundle organization, with the defects from cofilin deficiency being more severe. Further analyses revealed that cofilin likely regulates actin bundle formation and positioning by the following means. First, cofilin promotes a large G-actin pool both locally and globally, likely ensuring rapid actin polymerization for bundle initiation and growth. Second, cofilin limits the size of a nonbundled actin-myosin network to regulate the positioning of actin bundles. Third, cofilin prevents incorrect assembly of branched and myosin-associated actin filament into bundles. Together these results demonstrate that the interaction between the dynamic dendritic actin network and the assembling actin bundles is critical for actin bundle formation and needs to be closely regulated.

  12. Arabidopsis myosin XI: a motor rules the tracks.

    PubMed

    Cai, Chao; Henty-Ridilla, Jessica L; Szymanski, Daniel B; Staiger, Christopher J

    2014-11-01

    Plant cell expansion relies on intracellular trafficking of vesicles and macromolecules, which requires myosin motors and a dynamic actin network. Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) myosin XI powers the motility of diverse cellular organelles, including endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi, endomembrane vesicles, peroxisomes, and mitochondria. Several recent studies show that there are changes in actin organization and dynamics in myosin xi mutants, indicating that motors influence the molecular tracks they use for transport. However, the mechanism by which actin organization and dynamics are regulated by myosin XI awaits further detailed investigation. Here, using high spatiotemporal imaging of living cells, we quantitatively assessed the architecture and dynamic behavior of cortical actin arrays in a mutant with three Myosin XI (XI-1, XI-2, and XI-K) genes knocked out (xi3KO). In addition to apparent reduction of organ and cell size, the mutant showed less dense and more bundled actin filament arrays in epidermal cells. Furthermore, the overall actin dynamicity was significantly inhibited in the xi3KO mutant. Because cytoskeletal remodeling is contributed mainly by filament assembly/disassembly and translocation/buckling, we also examined the dynamic behavior of individual actin filaments. We found that the xi3KO mutant had significantly decreased actin turnover, with a 2-fold reduction in filament severing frequency. Moreover, quantitative analysis of filament shape change over time revealed that myosin XI generates the force for buckling and straightening of both single actin filaments and actin bundles. Thus, our data provide genetic evidence that three Arabidopsis class XI myosins contribute to actin remodeling by stimulating turnover and generating the force for filament shape change. PMID:25237128

  13. Measurements of Myosin-II Motor Activity During Cytokinesis in Fission Yeast.

    PubMed

    Tang, Qing; Pollard, Luther W; Lord, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    Fission yeast myosin-II (Myo2p) represents the critical actin-based motor protein that drives actomyosin ring assembly and constriction during cytokinesis. We detail three different methods to measure Myo2p motor function. Actin-activated ATPases provide a readout of actomyosin ATPase motor activity in a bulk assay; actin filament motility assays reveal the speed and efficiency of myosin-driven actin filament gliding (when motors are anchored); myosin-bead motility assays reveal the speed and efficiency of myosin ensembles traveling along actin filaments (when actin is anchored). Collectively, these methods allow us to combine the standard in vivo approaches common to fission yeast with in vitro biochemical methods to learn more about the mechanistic action of myosin-II during cytokinesis.

  14. Actin puts the squeeze on Drosophila glue secretion.

    PubMed

    Merrifield, Christien J

    2016-02-01

    An actin filament coat promotes cargo expulsion from large exocytosing vesicles, but the mechanisms of coat formation and force generation have been poorly characterized. Elegant imaging studies of the Drosophila melanogaster salivary gland now reveal how actin and myosin are recruited, and show that myosin II forms a contractile 'cage' that facilitates exocytosis.

  15. Does 2,3-butanedione monoxime inhibit nonmuscle myosin?

    PubMed

    Forer, Arthur; Fabian, Lacramioara

    2005-04-01

    BDM (2,3-butanedione monoxime) has been used extensively to inhibit nonmuscle myosin. However, recent articles raise the question of what BDM actually does, because of experiments in which BDM did not affect the actin-activated ATPase of nonmuscle myosins. We describe results that indicate that BDM indeed inhibits motility due to nonmuscle myosins: in many different cells BDM has the same effects as anti-actin agents and/or as other anti-myosin agents, and BDM slows or stops the sliding between actin filaments and myosin in vitro. We discuss how the two sets of apparently contradictory results might be resolved, and we suggest possible experiments that might clarify the contradictory interpretations. PMID:15868207

  16. Transient and Transgenic Analysis of the Zebrafish Ventricular Myosin Heavy Chain (vmhc) Promoter: An Inhibitory Mechanism of Ventricle-Specific Gene Expression

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ruilin; Xu, Xiaolei

    2009-01-01

    The zebrafish ventricular myosin heavy chain (vmhc) gene exhibits restricted expression in the ventricle. However, the molecular mechanism underlying this chamber-specific expression is unclear. Here, we exploited both transient and transgenic technologies to dissect the zebrafish vmhc promoter. We demonstrated that a combination of two transient assays in this animal model quickly identified chamber-specific cis-elements, isolating a 2.2 kb fragment upstream from the vmhc gene that can drive ventricle-specific expression. Furthermore, deletion analysis identified multiple cis-elements that exhibited cardiac-specific expression. To achieve chamber specificity, a distal element was required to coordinate with and suppress a proximal enhancer element. Finally, we discovered that Nkx2.5-binding sites (NKE) were essential for this repressive function. In summary, our study of the zebrafish vmhc promoter suggests that ventricle-specific expression is achieved through an inhibitory mechanism that suppresses expression in the atrium. PMID:19322764

  17. A mechanochemical model for myosin VI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tehver, Riina; Jack, Amanda; Lowe, Ian

    Myosin VI is a motor protein that transports cellular cargo along actin filaments. This transport takes place as a result of a coordinated mechano-chemical cycle that is controlled by external variables including imposed force and nucleotide concentrations. We present a model that captures the different dynamic pathways that myosin VI can take in response to these variables. The results of our model for experimentally observable quantities, such as the motor velocity or run length, agree with available experimental data, and we can also make predictions beyond the tested regimes. Using the model, we study how myosin VI reacts to its environment and test its operational efficiency.

  18. Myosin II Activity Softens Cells in Suspension.

    PubMed

    Chan, Chii J; Ekpenyong, Andrew E; Golfier, Stefan; Li, Wenhong; Chalut, Kevin J; Otto, Oliver; Elgeti, Jens; Guck, Jochen; Lautenschläger, Franziska

    2015-04-21

    The cellular cytoskeleton is crucial for many cellular functions such as cell motility and wound healing, as well as other processes that require shape change or force generation. Actin is one cytoskeleton component that regulates cell mechanics. Important properties driving this regulation include the amount of actin, its level of cross-linking, and its coordination with the activity of specific molecular motors like myosin. While studies investigating the contribution of myosin activity to cell mechanics have been performed on cells attached to a substrate, we investigated mechanical properties of cells in suspension. To do this, we used multiple probes for cell mechanics including a microfluidic optical stretcher, a microfluidic microcirculation mimetic, and real-time deformability cytometry. We found that nonadherent blood cells, cells arrested in mitosis, and naturally adherent cells brought into suspension, stiffen and become more solidlike upon myosin inhibition across multiple timescales (milliseconds to minutes). Our results hold across several pharmacological and genetic perturbations targeting myosin. Our findings suggest that myosin II activity contributes to increased whole-cell compliance and fluidity. This finding is contrary to what has been reported for cells attached to a substrate, which stiffen via active myosin driven prestress. Our results establish the importance of myosin II as an active component in modulating suspended cell mechanics, with a functional role distinctly different from that for substrate-adhered cells. PMID:25902426

  19. Myosin II Activity Softens Cells in Suspension

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Chii J.; Ekpenyong, Andrew E.; Golfier, Stefan; Li, Wenhong; Chalut, Kevin J.; Otto, Oliver; Elgeti, Jens; Guck, Jochen; Lautenschläger, Franziska

    2015-01-01

    The cellular cytoskeleton is crucial for many cellular functions such as cell motility and wound healing, as well as other processes that require shape change or force generation. Actin is one cytoskeleton component that regulates cell mechanics. Important properties driving this regulation include the amount of actin, its level of cross-linking, and its coordination with the activity of specific molecular motors like myosin. While studies investigating the contribution of myosin activity to cell mechanics have been performed on cells attached to a substrate, we investigated mechanical properties of cells in suspension. To do this, we used multiple probes for cell mechanics including a microfluidic optical stretcher, a microfluidic microcirculation mimetic, and real-time deformability cytometry. We found that nonadherent blood cells, cells arrested in mitosis, and naturally adherent cells brought into suspension, stiffen and become more solidlike upon myosin inhibition across multiple timescales (milliseconds to minutes). Our results hold across several pharmacological and genetic perturbations targeting myosin. Our findings suggest that myosin II activity contributes to increased whole-cell compliance and fluidity. This finding is contrary to what has been reported for cells attached to a substrate, which stiffen via active myosin driven prestress. Our results establish the importance of myosin II as an active component in modulating suspended cell mechanics, with a functional role distinctly different from that for substrate-adhered cells. PMID:25902426

  20. Myosin II Activity Softens Cells in Suspension.

    PubMed

    Chan, Chii J; Ekpenyong, Andrew E; Golfier, Stefan; Li, Wenhong; Chalut, Kevin J; Otto, Oliver; Elgeti, Jens; Guck, Jochen; Lautenschläger, Franziska

    2015-04-21

    The cellular cytoskeleton is crucial for many cellular functions such as cell motility and wound healing, as well as other processes that require shape change or force generation. Actin is one cytoskeleton component that regulates cell mechanics. Important properties driving this regulation include the amount of actin, its level of cross-linking, and its coordination with the activity of specific molecular motors like myosin. While studies investigating the contribution of myosin activity to cell mechanics have been performed on cells attached to a substrate, we investigated mechanical properties of cells in suspension. To do this, we used multiple probes for cell mechanics including a microfluidic optical stretcher, a microfluidic microcirculation mimetic, and real-time deformability cytometry. We found that nonadherent blood cells, cells arrested in mitosis, and naturally adherent cells brought into suspension, stiffen and become more solidlike upon myosin inhibition across multiple timescales (milliseconds to minutes). Our results hold across several pharmacological and genetic perturbations targeting myosin. Our findings suggest that myosin II activity contributes to increased whole-cell compliance and fluidity. This finding is contrary to what has been reported for cells attached to a substrate, which stiffen via active myosin driven prestress. Our results establish the importance of myosin II as an active component in modulating suspended cell mechanics, with a functional role distinctly different from that for substrate-adhered cells.

  1. Temporal embryonic transcription of chicken fast skeletal myosin heavy chain isoforms in the single comb white leghorn

    PubMed Central

    Griffin, J.; St-Pierre, N.; Lilburn, M. S.; Wick, M.

    2016-01-01

    There are numerous factors that can significantly influence embryonic development in poultry and thus make simple days of incubation (chronological age) a less than perfect metric for studying embryonic physiology. The developmental fast skeletal muscle myosin (MyHC), the predominant protein in the Pectoralis major (PM), is temporally expressed as a cadre of highly specific developmental isoforms. In the study described herein, a novel molecular technology (NanoString) was used to characterize the myosin isoform transcriptional patterns in the PM of Single Comb White Leghorn (SCWL) embryos. NanoString technology is based on quantitative analysis of the transcriptome through digital detection and quantification of target mRNA transcripts. Total RNA was isolated and gene transcription quantified using NanoString in embryonic muscle samples collected daily from 6 through 19 days of incubation. Data were analyzed using the LOESS smoothing function at a 95% confidence level. The temporal transcription of MyHC isoforms obtained in this study was consistent with the literature at higher specificity and resolution, thus validating NanoString for use in gene transcription analyses. The results support a hypothesis that the transcription patterns of the embryonic MyHC isoforms may be used as molecular clocks to further investigate the developmental relationships underlying embryonic fast skeletal muscle growth and development. PMID:26908894

  2. Myosin II Motor Activity in the Lateral Amygdala Is Required for Fear Memory Consolidation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gavin, Cristin F.; Rubio, Maria D.; Young, Erica; Miller, Courtney; Rumbaugh, Gavin

    2012-01-01

    Learning induces dynamic changes to the actin cytoskeleton that are required to support memory formation. However, the molecular mechanisms that mediate filamentous actin (F-actin) dynamics during learning and memory are poorly understood. Myosin II motors are highly expressed in actin-rich growth structures including dendritic spines, and we have…

  3. Myosin phosphatase is inactivated by caspase-3 cleavage and phosphorylation of myosin phosphatase targeting subunit 1 during apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Iwasaki, Takahiro; Katayama, Takeshi; Kohama, Kazuhiro; Endo, Yaeta; Sawasaki, Tatsuya

    2013-03-01

    In nonapoptotic cells, the phosphorylation level of myosin II is constantly maintained by myosin kinases and myosin phosphatase. During apoptosis, caspase-3-activated Rho-associated protein kinase I triggers hyperphosphorylation of myosin II, leading to membrane blebbing. Although inhibition of myosin phosphatase could also contribute to myosin II phosphorylation, little is known about the regulation of myosin phosphatase in apoptosis. In this study, we have demonstrated that, in apoptotic cells, the myosin-binding domain of myosin phosphatase targeting subunit 1 (MYPT1) is cleaved by caspase-3 at Asp-884, and the cleaved MYPT1 is strongly phosphorylated at Thr-696 and Thr-853, phosphorylation of which is known to inhibit myosin II binding. Expression of the caspase-3 cleaved form of MYPT1 that lacked the C-terminal end in HeLa cells caused the dissociation of MYPT1 from actin stress fibers. The dephosphorylation activity of myosin phosphatase immunoprecipitated from the apoptotic cells was lower than that from the nonapoptotic control cells. These results suggest that down-regulation of MYPT1 may play a role in promoting hyperphosphorylation of myosin II by inhibiting the dephosphorylation of myosin II during apoptosis.

  4. Myosins in protists.

    PubMed

    Gavin, R H

    2001-01-01

    This review focuses on selected papers that illustrate an historical perspective and the current knowledge of myosin structure and function in protists. The review contains a general description of myosin structure, a phylogenetic tree of the myosin classes, and descriptions of myosin isoforms identified in protists. Each myosin is discussed within the context of the taxonomic group of the organism in which the myosin has been identified. Domain structure, cellular location, function, and regulation are described for each myosin.

  5. Myosin light chain kinase steady-state kinetics: comparison of smooth muscle myosin II and nonmuscle myosin IIB as substrates

    PubMed Central

    Alcala, Diego B.; Haldeman, Brian D.; Brizendine, Richard K.; Krenc, Agata K.; Baker, Josh E.; Rock, Ronald S.; Cremo, Christine R.

    2016-01-01

    Myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) phosphorylates S19 of the myosin regulatory light chain (RLC), which is required to activate myosin's ATPase activity and contraction. Smooth muscles are known to display plasticity in response to factors such as inflammation, developmental stage, or stress, which lead to differential expression of nonmuscle and smooth muscle isoforms. Here, we compare steady-state kinetics parameters for phosphorylation of different MLCK substrates: (1) nonmuscle RLC, (2) smooth muscle RLC, and heavy meromyosin subfragments of (3) nonmuscle myosin IIB, and (4) smooth muscle myosin II. We show that MLCK has a ~2-fold higher kcat for both smooth muscle myosin II substrates compared with nonmuscle myosin IIB substrates, whereas Km values were very similar. Myosin light chain kinase has a 1.6-fold and 1.5-fold higher specificity (kcat/Km) for smooth versus nonmuscle-free RLC and heavy meromyosin, respectively, suggesting that differences in specificity are dictated by RLC sequences. Of the 10 non-identical RLC residues, we ruled out 7 as possible underlying causes of different MLCK kinetics. The remaining 3 residues were found to be surface exposed in the N-terminal half of the RLC, consistent with their importance in substrate recognition. These data are consistent with prior deletion/chimera studies and significantly add to understanding of MLCK myosin interactions. PMID:27528075

  6. Computational model of polarized actin cables and cytokinetic actin ring formation in budding yeast

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Haosu; Bidone, Tamara C.

    2015-01-01

    The budding yeast actin cables and contractile ring are important for polarized growth and division, revealing basic aspects of cytoskeletal function. To study these formin-nucleated structures, we built a 3D computational model with actin filaments represented as beads connected by springs. Polymerization by formins at the bud tip and bud neck, crosslinking, severing, and myosin pulling, are included. Parameter values were estimated from prior experiments. The model generates actin cable structures and dynamics similar to those of wild type and formin deletion mutant cells. Simulations with increased polymerization rate result in long, wavy cables. Simulated pulling by type V myosin stretches actin cables. Increasing the affinity of actin filaments for the bud neck together with reduced myosin V pulling promotes the formation of a bundle of antiparallel filaments at the bud neck, which we suggest as a model for the assembly of actin filaments to the contractile ring. PMID:26538307

  7. Actin Depolymerization Drives Actomyosin Ring Contraction during Budding Yeast Cytokinesis

    PubMed Central

    Pinto, Inês Mendes; Rubinstein, Boris; Kucharavy, Andrei; Unruh, Jay R.; Li, Rong

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY Actin filaments and myosin-II are evolutionarily conserved force generating components of the contractile ring during cytokinesis. Here we show that in budding yeast actin filament depolymerization plays a major role in actomyosin ring constriction. Cofilin mutation or chemically stabilizing actin filaments attenuates actomyosin ring constriction. Deletion of myosin-II motor domain or the myosin regulatory light chain reduced the contraction rate and also the rate of actin depolymerization in the ring. We constructed a quantitative microscopic model of actomyosin ring constriction via filament sliding driven by both actin depolymerization and myosin-II motor activity. Model simulations based on experimental measurements supports the notion that actin depolymerization is the predominant mechanism for ring constriction. The model predicts invariability of total contraction time irrespective of the initial ring size as originally reported for C elegans embryonic cells. This prediction was validated in yeast cells of different sizes due to having different ploidies. PMID:22698284

  8. Cross-linking of myosin subfragment 1 and heavy meromyosin by use of vanadate and a bis(adenosine 5'-triphosphate) analogue.

    PubMed

    Munson, K B; Smerdon, M J; Yount, R G

    1986-11-18

    The synthesis of a divalent ATP analogue [3,3'-dithiobis[3'(2')-O-[6-(propionylamino)hexanoyl]adenosine 5'-triphosphate] (bis22ATP)] is described in which two molecules of ATP are linked via esterification of their 3'(2')-hydroxyls to the linear dicarboxylic acid 3,3'-dithiobis[N-(5-carboxypentyl)-propionamide] [[HO2C(CH2)5NHC(O)(CH2)2S-]2]. This linkage introduces 22 atoms (a maximum of approximately 2.8 nm) between the ribose oxygens of two ATP molecules. Myosin subfragment 1 (SF1) or heavy meromyosin (HMM) readily cleave bis22ATP to bis22ADP. Upon subsequent addition of excess vanadate ion, both enzymes are rapidly inactivated by formation of a stable vanadate-bis22ADP complex at the active site. By adjustment of the reaction conditions, dimers of SF1 or HMM, both cross-linked with bis22ADP-vanadate, could be prepared. Dimers of SF1 could be separated from monomers by sucrose gradient centrifugation but not by gel filtration. These observations imply that the average Stokes radius of the dimer approximates that of the monomer, a result predicted only for monomers linked approximately side by side. Conversely, dimers of HMM were separated from HMM monomers by gel filtration, reflecting an increase in their Stokes radii. This increase, however, prevented resolution of HMM dimers from monomers by sucrose gradient centrifugation. These results and the molecular dimensions of bis22ATP suggest that the 3'-(2')-hydroxyl of ATP is no more than 1.3 nm from the surface of myosin and suggest further in the simplest interpretation that the active site is most likely located near the middle of the heads of myosin. Analytical sedimentation velocity experiments were performed in order to compare the sedimentation coefficient (s0(20),w) of the SF1 dimer formed by cross-linking to values predicted from ellipsoidal models of the dimer. The observed s0(20),w of the dimer was much closer to the range predicted for a side-to-side arrangement of SF1 monomers than the range predicted

  9. Amino acid sequence of the 203-residue fragment of the heavy chain of chicken gizzard myosin containing the SH1-type cysteine residue.

    PubMed

    Onishi, H; Maita, T; Miyanishi, T; Watanabe, S; Matsuda, G

    1986-12-01

    A fluorescent fragment of Mr = 23,800 was obtained by the papain digestion of N-iodoacetyl-N'-(5-sulfo-1-naphthyl)ethylene diamine (abbreviated as IAEDANS)-modified chicken gizzard myosin. The fragment was isolated by gel filtration on a Sephadex G-100 column in the presence of 5 M guanidine-HCl followed by anion exchange chromatography on a QAE Sephadex A-50 column. This fragment contained 203 amino acid residues which could be assigned as a COOH-terminal part of the S-1 heavy chain based on the homology with the known sequence of rabbit skeletal myosin fragment. The amino acid sequence was K-G-M-F-R-T-V- G-Q-L-Y-K-E-Q-L-T-K-L-M-T-T-L-R-N-T-N-P-N-F-V-R-C-I-I-P-N-H-E-K-R-A- G-K-L-D-A-H-L-V-L-E-Q-L-R-C-N-G-V-L-E-G-I-R-I-C-R-Q-G-F-P-N-R-I-V-F-Q- E-F-R-Q-R-Y-E-I-L-A-A-N-A-I-P-K-G-F-M-D-G-K-Q-A-C-I-L-M -I-K-A-L-E-L- D-P-N-L-Y-R-I-G-Q-S-K-I-F-F-R-T-G-V-L-A-H-L-E-E-E-R-D-L-K- I-T-D-V-I-I-A- F-Q-A-Q-C-R-G-Y-L-A-R-K-A-F-A-K-R-Q-Q-Q-L-T-A-M-K-V-I-Q-R-N-C-A -A-Y-L-K-L-R-N-W-Q-W-W-R-L-F-T-K-V-K-P-L-L-Q-V-T-R. The cysteine residue which was modified with IAEDANS was of the SH1 type (Cys-65). Pro-197 was suggested to be the NH2-terminal boundary of the alpha-helical coiled-coil rod sequence of gizzard myosin, based on the homology with the nematode sequence reported by MacLachlan and Karn (Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S. 80, 4253-4257 (1983)). Three different COOH-terminal peptides (Val-Lys-Pro-Leu-Leu-Gln-Val-Thr-Arg, Val-Lys-Pro-Leu-Leu-Gln, and Val-Lys-Pro-Leu-Leu) were isolated from the tryptic digest of this fragment.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)

  10. Tropomyosin-Mediated Regulation of Cytoplasmic Myosins.

    PubMed

    Manstein, Dietmar J; Mulvihill, Daniel P

    2016-08-01

    The ability of the actin-based cytoskeleton to rapidly reorganize is critical for maintaining cell organization and viability. The plethora of activities in which actin polymers participate require different biophysical properties, which can vary significantly between the different events that often occur simultaneously at separate cellular locations. In order to modify the biophysical properties of an actin polymer for a particular function, the cell contains diverse actin-binding proteins that modulate the growth, regulation and molecular interactions of actin-based structures according to functional requirements. In metazoan and yeast cells, tropomyosin is a key regulator of actin-based structures. Cells have the capacity to produce multiple tropomyosin isoforms, each capable of specifically associating as copolymers with actin at distinct cellular locations to fine-tune the functional properties of discrete actin structures. Here, we present a unifying theory in which tropomyosin isoforms critically define the surface landscape of copolymers with cytoplasmic β- or γ-actin. Decoration of filamentous actin with different tropomyosin isoforms determines the identity and modulates the activity of the interacting myosin motor proteins. Conversely, changes in the nucleotide state of actin and posttranslational modifications affect the composition, morphology, subcellular localization and allosteric coupling of the associated actin-based superstructures. PMID:27060364

  11. Kinetic mechanism of the fastest motor protein, Chara myosin.

    PubMed

    Ito, Kohji; Ikebe, Mitsuo; Kashiyama, Taku; Mogami, Toshifumi; Kon, Takahide; Yamamoto, Keiichi

    2007-07-01

    Chara corallina class XI myosin is by far the fastest molecular motor. To investigate the molecular mechanism of this fast movement, we performed a kinetic analysis of a recombinant motor domain of Chara myosin. We estimated the time spent in the strongly bound state with actin by measuring rate constants of ADP dissociation from actin.motor domain complex and ATP-induced dissociation of the motor domain from actin. The rate constant of ADP dissociation from acto-motor domain was >2800 s(-1), and the rate constant of ATP-induced dissociation of the motor domain from actin at physiological ATP concentration was 2200 s(-1). From these data, the time spent in the strongly bound state with actin was estimated to be <0.82 ms. This value is the shortest among known values for various myosins and yields the duty ratio of <0.3 with a V(max) value of the actin-activated ATPase activity of 390 s(-1). The addition of the long neck domain of myosin Va to the Chara motor domain largely increased the velocity of the motility without increasing the ATP hydrolysis cycle rate, consistent with the swinging lever model. In addition, this study reveals some striking kinetic features of Chara myosin that are suited for the fast movement: a dramatic acceleration of ADP release by actin (1000-fold) and extremely fast ATP binding rate.

  12. Cell and molecular biology of the fastest myosins.

    PubMed

    Higashi-Fujime, Sugie; Nakamura, Akio

    2009-01-01

    Chara myosin is a class XI plant myosin in green algae Chara corallina and responsible for fast cytoplasmic streaming. The Chara myosin exhibits the fastest sliding movement of F-actin at 60 mum/s as observed so far, 10-fold of the shortening speed of muscle. It has some distinct properties differing from those of muscle myosin. Although knowledge about Chara myosin is very limited at present, we have tried to elucidate functional bases of its characteristics by comparing with those of other myosins. In particular, we have built the putative atomic model of Chara myosin by using the homology-based modeling system and databases. Based on the putative structure of Chara myosin obtained, we have analyzed the relationship between structure and function of Chara myosin to understand its distinct properties from various aspects by referring to the accumulated knowledge on mechanochemical and structural properties of other classes of myosin, particularly animal and fungal myosin V. We will also discuss the functional significance of Chara myosin in a living cell.

  13. Calyculin A, an enhancer of myosin, speeds up anaphase chromosome movement

    PubMed Central

    Fabian, Lacramioara; Troscianczuk, Joanna; Forer, Arthur

    2007-01-01

    Actin and myosin inhibitors often blocked anaphase movements in insect spermatocytes in previous experiments. Here we treat cells with an enhancer of myosin, Calyculin A, which inhibits myosin-light-chain phosphatase from dephosphorylating myosin; myosin thus is hyperactivated. Calyculin A causes anaphase crane-fly spermatocyte chromosomes to accelerate poleward; after they reach the poles they often move back toward the equator. When added during metaphase, chromosomes at anaphase move faster than normal. Calyculin A causes prometaphase chromosomes to move rapidly up and back along the spindle axis, and to rotate. Immunofluorescence staining with an antibody against phosphorylated myosin regulatory light chain (p-squash) indicated increased phosphorylation of cleavage furrow myosin compared to control cells, indicating that calyculin A indeed increased myosin phosphorylation. To test whether the Calyculin A effects are due to myosin phosphatase or to type 2 phosphatases, we treated cells with okadaic acid, which inhibits protein phosphatase 2A at concentrations similar to Calyculin A but requires much higher concentrations to inhibit myosin phosphatase. Okadaic acid had no effect on chromosome movement. Backward movements did not require myosin or actin since they were not affected by 2,3-butanedione monoxime or LatruculinB. Calyculin A affects the distribution and organization of spindle microtubules, spindle actin, cortical actin and putative spindle matrix proteins skeletor and titin, as visualized using immunofluorescence. We discuss how accelerated and backwards movements might arise. PMID:17381845

  14. Calyculin A, an enhancer of myosin, speeds up anaphase chromosome movement.

    PubMed

    Fabian, Lacramioara; Troscianczuk, Joanna; Forer, Arthur

    2007-01-01

    Actin and myosin inhibitors often blocked anaphase movements in insect spermatocytes in previous experiments. Here we treat cells with an enhancer of myosin, Calyculin A, which inhibits myosin-light-chain phosphatase from dephosphorylating myosin; myosin thus is hyperactivated. Calyculin A causes anaphase crane-fly spermatocyte chromosomes to accelerate poleward; after they reach the poles they often move back toward the equator. When added during metaphase, chromosomes at anaphase move faster than normal. Calyculin A causes prometaphase chromosomes to move rapidly up and back along the spindle axis, and to rotate. Immunofluorescence staining with an antibody against phosphorylated myosin regulatory light chain (p-squash) indicated increased phosphorylation of cleavage furrow myosin compared to control cells, indicating that calyculin A indeed increased myosin phosphorylation. To test whether the Calyculin A effects are due to myosin phosphatase or to type 2 phosphatases, we treated cells with okadaic acid, which inhibits protein phosphatase 2A at concentrations similar to Calyculin A but requires much higher concentrations to inhibit myosin phosphatase. Okadaic acid had no effect on chromosome movement. Backward movements did not require myosin or actin since they were not affected by 2,3-butanedione monoxime or LatruculinB. Calyculin A affects the distribution and organization of spindle microtubules, spindle actin, cortical actin and putative spindle matrix proteins skeletor and titin, as visualized using immunofluorescence. We discuss how accelerated and backwards movements might arise. PMID:17381845

  15. Kinetic Adaptations of Myosins for Their Diverse Cellular Functions.

    PubMed

    Heissler, Sarah M; Sellers, James R

    2016-08-01

    Members of the myosin superfamily are involved in all aspects of eukaryotic life. Their function ranges from the transport of organelles and cargos to the generation of membrane tension, and the contraction of muscle. The diversity of physiological functions is remarkable, given that all enzymatically active myosins follow a conserved mechanoenzymatic cycle in which the hydrolysis of ATP to ADP and inorganic phosphate is coupled to either actin-based transport or tethering of actin to defined cellular compartments. Kinetic capacities and limitations of a myosin are determined by the extent to which actin can accelerate the hydrolysis of ATP and the release of the hydrolysis products and are indispensably linked to its physiological tasks. This review focuses on kinetic competencies that - together with structural adaptations - result in myosins with unique mechanoenzymatic properties targeted to their diverse cellular functions.

  16. Myosin‑II heavy chain and formin mediate the targeting of myosin essential light chain to the division site before and during cytokinesis

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Zhonghui; Okada, Satoshi; Cai, Guoping; Zhou, Bing; Bi, Erfei

    2015-01-01

    MLC1 is a haploinsufficient gene encoding the essential light chain for Myo1, the sole myosin‑II heavy chain in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Mlc1 defines an essential hub that coordinates actomyosin ring function, membrane trafficking, and septum formation during cytokinesis by binding to IQGAP, myosin‑II, and myosin‑V. However, the mechanism of how Mlc1 is targeted to the division site during the cell cycle remains unsolved. By constructing a GFP‑tagged MLC1 under its own promoter control and using quantitative live‑cell imaging coupled with yeast mutants, we found that septin ring and actin filaments mediate the targeting of Mlc1 to the division site before and during cytokinesis, respectively. Both mechanisms contribute to and are collectively required for the accumulation of Mlc1 at the division site during cytokinesis. We also found that Myo1 plays a major role in the septin‑dependent Mlc1 localization before cytokinesis, whereas the formin Bni1 plays a major role in the actin filament–dependent Mlc1 localization during cytokinesis. Such a two‑tiered mechanism for Mlc1 localization is presumably required for the ordered assembly and robustness of cytokinesis machinery and is likely conserved across species. PMID:25631819

  17. Conformational changes of myosin by gamma irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Ju.-Woon; Yook, Hong.-Sun; Lee, Kyong.-Haeng; Kim, Jae.-Hun; Kim, Woo.-Jung; Byun, Myung.-Woo

    2000-05-01

    Conformational and decompositional changes of bovine skeletal muscle myosin caused by gamma irradiation were studied for understanding the effects of irradiation treatment on myofibrillar proteins. Myosin solution and beef cuts were irradiated 0, 1, 3, 5 and 10 kGy. Competitive indirect enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (Ci-ELISA) showed that subunits of myosin were structurally modified with different patterns. Binding abilities of anti-myosin whole molecule and anti heavy meromyosin S-1 IgG, which were produced from rabbits, with irradiated myosin decreased in the same tendency depending upon the dose. Anti-light meromyosin IgG appeared to have the highest binding ability at 3 kGy. Irradiated beef cuts (≥5 kGy) could be identified by Ci-ELISA. Myosin solution became increasingly turbid with increasing dose. Hydrophobicity of myosin solution also increased by irradiation. Electrophoretic patterns showed that the myosin heavy chain disappeared and new bands were generated at higher molecular weight ranges.

  18. Immunolabelling, histochemistry and in situ hybridisation in human skeletal muscle fibres to detect myosin heavy chain expression at the protein and mRNA level

    PubMed Central

    SERRANO, A. L.; PÉREZ, MARGARITA; LUCÍA, A.; CHICHARRO, J. L.; QUIROZ-ROTHE, E.; RIVERO, J. L. L.

    2001-01-01

    The distribution of muscle fibres classified on the basis of their content of different myosin heavy chain (MHC) isoforms was analysed in vastus lateralis muscle biopsies of 15 young men (with an average age of 22 y) by correlating immunohistochemistry with specific anti-MHC monoclonal antibodies, myofibrillar ATPase (mATPase) histochemistry and in situ hybridisation with probes specific for MHC β-slow, MHC-IIA and MHC-IIX. The characterisation of a large number of individual fibres was compared and correlated on a fibre-to-fibre basis. The panel of monoclonal antibodies used in the study allowed classification of human skeletal muscle fibres into 5 categories according to the MHC isoform they express at the protein level, types I, I+IIA, IIA, IIAX and IIX. Hybrid fibres coexpressing two isoforms represented a considerable proportion of the fibre composition (about 14%) and were clearly underestimated by mATPase histochemistry. For a very high percentage of fibres there was a precise correspondence between the MHC protein isoforms and mRNA transcripts. The integrated methods used demonstrate a high degree of precision of the immunohistochemical procedure used for the identification and quantification of human skeletal muscle fibre types. The monoclonal antibody S5-8H2 is particularly useful for identifying hybrid IIAX fibres. This protocol offers new prospects for muscle fibre classification in human experimental studies. PMID:11554510

  19. Molecular cloning and mRNA expression analysis of myosin heavy chain (MyHC) from fast skeletal muscle of grass carp, Ctenopharyngodon idella

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, Wuying; Fu, Guihong; Bing, Shiyu; Meng, Tao; Zhou, Ruixue; Cheng, Jia; Zhao, Falan; Zhang, Hongfang; Zhang, Jianshe

    2010-03-01

    The myosin heavy chain (MyHC) is one of the major structural and contracting proteins of muscle. We have isolated the cDNA clone encoding MyHC of the grass carp, Ctenopharyngodon idella. The sequence comprises 5 934 bp, including a 5 814 bp open reading frame encoding an amino acid sequence of 1 937 residues. The deduced amino acid sequence showed 69% homology to rabbit fast skeletal MyHC and 73%-76% homology to the MyHCs from the mandarin fish, walleye pollack, white croaker, chum salmon, and carp. The putative sequences of subfragment-1 and the light meromyosin region showed 61.4%-80% homology to the corresponding regions of other fish MyHCs. The tissue-specific and developmental stage-specific expressions of the MyHC gene were analyzed by quantitative real-time PCR. The MyHC gene showed the highest expression in the muscles compared with the kidney, spleen and intestine. Developmentally, there was a gradual increase in MyHC mRNA expression from the neural formation stage to the tail bud stage. The highest expression was detected in hatching larva. Our work on the MyHC gene from the grass carp has provided useful information for fish molecular biology and fish genomics.

  20. In vivo regulation of the beta-myosin heavy chain gene in soleus muscle of suspended and weight-bearing rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giger, J. M.; Haddad, F.; Qin, A. X.; Baldwin, K. M.

    2000-01-01

    In the weight-bearing hindlimb soleus muscle of the rat, approximately 90% of muscle fibers express the beta-myosin heavy chain (beta-MHC) isoform protein. Hindlimb suspension (HS) causes the MHC isoform population to shift from beta toward the fast MHC isoforms. Our aim was to establish a model to test the hypothesis that this shift in expression is transcriptionally regulated through specific cis elements of the beta-MHC promoter. With the use of a direct gene transfer approach, we determined the activity of different length beta-MHC promoter fragments, linked to a firefly luciferase reporter gene, in soleus muscle of control and HS rats. In weight-bearing rats, the relative luciferase activity of the longest beta-promoter fragment (-3500 bp) was threefold higher than the shorter promoter constructs, which suggests that an enhancer sequence is present in the upstream promoter region. After 1 wk of HS, the reporter activities of the -3500-, -914-, and -408-bp promoter constructs were significantly reduced ( approximately 40%), compared with the control muscles. However, using the -215-bp construct, no differences in promoter activity were observed between HS and control muscles, which indicates that the response to HS in the rodent appears to be regulated within the -408 and -215 bp of the promoter.

  1. Association of a single nucleotide polymorphism in the 5' upstream region of the porcine myosin heavy chain 4 gene with meat quality traits in pigs

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Eun‐Seok; Lee, Kyung‐Tai; Kim, Jun‐Mo; Lee, Si‐Woo; Jeon, Hyeon‐Jeong; Lee, Seung‐Hwan; Hong, Ki‐Chang

    2015-01-01

    Abstract We identified a potential molecular marker associated with meat quality traits in the myosin heavy chain 4, MYH4 gene of Landrace pigs. Sequencing revealed a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP; g.‐1398G>T) in the 5' upstream region of MYH4. It was significantly associated with the number of type IIa muscle fibers and water‐holding capacity based on filter‐paper fluid uptake. The GG genotype groups had a greater number of type IIa fibers and a larger area composed of type IIa fibers than the other genotype group (P = 0.004 and P = 0.061, respectively). Expression level of MYH4 gene in the genotype TT or GT was higher than in genotype of GG (P < 0.0001). The T allele may enhance expression level of MYH4 gene and then the portion of IIb type fiber in the muscle be increased by the T allelle. Therefore, we suggest that the g.‐1398G>T in the 5' upstream region of the porcine MYH4 may be used as a molecular marker for meat quality traits, although its functional effect is not defined yet. PMID:26271027

  2. Muscle-Specific Myosin Heavy Chain Shifts in Response to a Long-Term High Fat/High Sugar Diet and Resveratrol Treatment in Nonhuman Primates

    PubMed Central

    Hyatt, Jon-Philippe K.; Nguyen, Lisa; Hall, Allison E.; Huber, Ashley M.; Kocan, Jessica C.; Mattison, Julie A.; de Cabo, Rafael; LaRocque, Jeannine R.; Talmadge, Robert J.

    2016-01-01

    Shifts in myosin heavy chain (MHC) expression within skeletal muscle can be induced by a host of stimuli including, but not limited to, physical activity, alterations in neural activity, aging, and diet or obesity. Here, we hypothesized that both age and a long-term (2 year) high fat/high sugar diet (HFS) would induce a slow to fast MHC shift within the plantaris, soleus, and extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscles from rhesus monkeys. Furthermore, we tested whether supplementation with resveratrol, a naturally occurring compound that has been attributed with augmenting aerobic potential through mitochondrial proliferation, would counteract any diet-induced MHC changes by promoting a fast to slow isoform switch. In general, we found that MHC isoforms were not altered by aging during mid-life. The HFS diet had the largest impact within the soleus muscle where the greatest slow to fast isoform shifts were observed in both mRNA and protein indicators. As expected, long-term resveratrol treatment counteracted, or blunted, these diet-induced shifts within the soleus muscle. The plantaris muscle also demonstrated a fast-to-slow phenotypic response to resveratrol treatment. In conclusion, diet or resveratrol treatment impacts skeletal muscle phenotype in a muscle-specific manner and resveratrol supplementation may be one approach for promoting the fatigue-resistant MHC (type I) isoform especially if its expression is blunted as a result of a long-term high fat/sugar diet. PMID:26973542

  3. Structure of the Dictyostelium Myosin-II Heavy Chain Kinase A (MHCK-A) α-kinase domain apoenzyme reveals a novel autoinhibited conformation

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Qilu; Yang, Yidai; van Staalduinen, Laura; Crawley, Scott William; Liu, Linda; Brennan, Stephanie; Côté, Graham P.; Jia, Zongchao

    2016-01-01

    The α-kinases are a family of a typical protein kinases present in organisms ranging from protozoa to mammals. Here we report an autoinhibited conformation for the α-kinase domain of Dictyostelium myosin-II heavy chain kinase A (MHCK-A) in which nucleotide binding to the catalytic cleft, located at the interface between an N-terminal and C-terminal lobe, is sterically blocked by the side chain of a conserved arginine residue (Arg592). Previous α-kinase structures have shown that an invariant catalytic aspartic acid residue (Asp766) is phosphorylated. Unexpectedly, in the autoinhibited conformation the phosphoryl group is transferred to the adjacent Asp663, creating an interaction network that stabilizes the autoinhibited state. The results suggest that Asp766 phosphorylation may play both catalytic and regulatory roles. The autoinhibited structure also provides the first view of a phosphothreonine residue docked into the phospho-specific allosteric binding site (Pi-pocket) in the C-lobe of the α-kinase domain. PMID:27211275

  4. Ca2+ sensitivity of regulated cardiac thin filament sliding does not depend on myosin isoform

    PubMed Central

    Schoffstall, Brenda; Brunet, Nicolas M; Williams, Shanedah; Miller, Victor F; Barnes, Alyson T; Wang, Fang; Compton, Lisa A; McFadden, Lori A; Taylor, Dianne W; Seavy, Margaret; Dhanarajan, Rani; Chase, P Bryant

    2006-01-01

    Myosin heavy chain (MHC) isoforms in vertebrate striated muscles are distinguished functionally by differences in chemomechanical kinetics. These kinetic differences may influence the cross-bridge-dependent co-operativity of thin filament Ca2+ activation. To determine whether Ca2+ sensitivity of unloaded thin filament sliding depends upon MHC isoform kinetics, we performed in vitro motility assays with rabbit skeletal heavy meromyosin (rsHMM) or porcine cardiac myosin (pcMyosin). Regulated thin filaments were reconstituted with recombinant human cardiac troponin (rhcTn) and α-tropomyosin (rhcTm) expressed in Escherichia coli. All three subunits of rhcTn were coexpressed as a functional complex using a novel construct with a glutathione S-transferase (GST) affinity tag at the N-terminus of human cardiac troponin T (hcTnT) and an intervening tobacco etch virus (TEV) protease site that allows purification of rhcTn without denaturation, and removal of the GST tag without proteolysis of rhcTn subunits. Use of this highly purified rhcTn in our motility studies resulted in a clear definition of the regulated motility profile for both fast and slow MHC isoforms. Maximum sliding speed (pCa 5) of regulated thin filaments was roughly fivefold faster with rsHMM compared with pcMyosin, although speed was increased by 1.6- to 1.9-fold for regulated over unregulated actin with both MHC isoforms. The Ca2+ sensitivity of regulated thin filament sliding speed was unaffected by MHC isoform. Our motility results suggest that the cellular changes in isoform expression that result in regulation of myosin kinetics can occur independently of changes that influence thin filament Ca2+ sensitivity. PMID:17008370

  5. Modulation of acto-myosin contractility in skeletal muscle myoblasts uncouples growth arrest from differentiation.

    PubMed

    Dhawan, Jyotsna; Helfman, David M

    2004-08-01

    Cell-substratum interactions trigger key signaling pathways that modulate growth control and tissue-specific gene expression. We have previously shown that abolishing adhesive interactions by suspension culture results in G(0) arrest of myoblasts. We report that blocking intracellular transmission of adhesion-dependent signals in adherent cells mimics the absence of adhesive contacts. We investigated the effects of pharmacological inhibitors of acto-myosin contractility on growth and differentiation of C2C12 myogenic cells. ML7 (5-iodonaphthalene-1-sulfonyl homopiperazine) and BDM (2,3, butanedione monoxime) are specific inhibitors of myosin light chain kinase, and myosin heavy chain ATPase, respectively. ML7 and BDM affected cell shape by reducing focal adhesions and stress fibers. Both inhibitors rapidly blocked DNA synthesis in a dose-dependent, reversible fashion. Furthermore, both ML7 and BDM suppressed expression of MyoD and myogenin, induced p27(kip1) but not p21(cip1), and inhibited differentiation. Thus, as with suspension-arrest, inhibition of acto-myosin contractility in adherent cells led to arrest uncoupled from differentiation. Over-expression of inhibitors of the small GTPase RhoA (dominant negative RhoA and C3 transferase) mimicked the effects of myosin inhibitors. By contrast, wild-type RhoA induced arrest, maintained MyoD and activated myogenin and p21 expression. The Rho effector kinase ROCK did not appear to mediate Rho's effects on MyoD. Thus, ROCK and MLCK play different roles in the myogenic program. Signals regulated by MLCK are critical, since inhibition of MLCK suppressed MyoD expression but inhibition of ROCK did not. Inhibition of contractility suppressed MyoD but did not reduce actin polymer levels. However, actin depolymerization with latrunculin B inhibited MyoD expression. Taken together, our observations indicate that actin polymer status and contractility regulate MyoD expression. We suggest that in myoblasts, the Rho pathway and

  6. Mechanical coordination in motor ensembles revealed using engineered artificial myosin filaments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hariadi, R. F.; Sommese, R. F.; Adhikari, A. S.; Taylor, R. E.; Sutton, S.; Spudich, J. A.; Sivaramakrishnan, S.

    2015-08-01

    The sarcomere of muscle is composed of tens of thousands of myosin motors that self-assemble into thick filaments and interact with surrounding actin-based thin filaments in a dense, near-crystalline hexagonal lattice. Together, these actin-myosin interactions enable large-scale movement and force generation, two primary attributes of muscle. Research on isolated fibres has provided considerable insight into the collective properties of muscle, but how actin-myosin interactions are coordinated in an ensemble remains poorly understood. Here, we show that artificial myosin filaments, engineered using a DNA nanotube scaffold, provide precise control over motor number, type and spacing. Using both dimeric myosin V- and myosin VI-labelled nanotubes, we find that neither myosin density nor spacing has a significant effect on the gliding speed of actin filaments. This observation supports a simple model of myosin ensembles as energy reservoirs that buffer individual stochastic events to bring about smooth, continuous motion. Furthermore, gliding speed increases with cross-bridge compliance, but is limited by Brownian effects. As a first step to reconstituting muscle motility, we demonstrate human β-cardiac myosin-driven gliding of actin filaments on DNA nanotubes.

  7. Mechanical coordination in motor ensembles revealed using engineered artificial myosin filaments.

    PubMed

    Hariadi, R F; Sommese, R F; Adhikari, A S; Taylor, R E; Sutton, S; Spudich, J A; Sivaramakrishnan, S

    2015-08-01

    The sarcomere of muscle is composed of tens of thousands of myosin motors that self-assemble into thick filaments and interact with surrounding actin-based thin filaments in a dense, near-crystalline hexagonal lattice. Together, these actin-myosin interactions enable large-scale movement and force generation, two primary attributes of muscle. Research on isolated fibres has provided considerable insight into the collective properties of muscle, but how actin-myosin interactions are coordinated in an ensemble remains poorly understood. Here, we show that artificial myosin filaments, engineered using a DNA nanotube scaffold, provide precise control over motor number, type and spacing. Using both dimeric myosin V- and myosin VI-labelled nanotubes, we find that neither myosin density nor spacing has a significant effect on the gliding speed of actin filaments. This observation supports a simple model of myosin ensembles as energy reservoirs that buffer individual stochastic events to bring about smooth, continuous motion. Furthermore, gliding speed increases with cross-bridge compliance, but is limited by Brownian effects. As a first step to reconstituting muscle motility, we demonstrate human β-cardiac myosin-driven gliding of actin filaments on DNA nanotubes. PMID:26149240

  8. Mutations in smooth muscle alpha-actin (ACTA2) lead to thoracic aortic aneurysms and dissections.

    PubMed

    Guo, Dong-Chuan; Pannu, Hariyadarshi; Tran-Fadulu, Van; Papke, Christina L; Yu, Robert K; Avidan, Nili; Bourgeois, Scott; Estrera, Anthony L; Safi, Hazim J; Sparks, Elizabeth; Amor, David; Ades, Lesley; McConnell, Vivienne; Willoughby, Colin E; Abuelo, Dianne; Willing, Marcia; Lewis, Richard A; Kim, Dong H; Scherer, Steve; Tung, Poyee P; Ahn, Chul; Buja, L Maximilian; Raman, C S; Shete, Sanjay S; Milewicz, Dianna M

    2007-12-01

    The major function of vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs) is contraction to regulate blood pressure and flow. SMC contractile force requires cyclic interactions between SMC alpha-actin (encoded by ACTA2) and the beta-myosin heavy chain (encoded by MYH11). Here we show that missense mutations in ACTA2 are responsible for 14% of inherited ascending thoracic aortic aneurysms and dissections (TAAD). Structural analyses and immunofluorescence of actin filaments in SMCs derived from individuals heterozygous for ACTA2 mutations illustrate that these mutations interfere with actin filament assembly and are predicted to decrease SMC contraction. Aortic tissues from affected individuals showed aortic medial degeneration, focal areas of medial SMC hyperplasia and disarray, and stenotic arteries in the vasa vasorum due to medial SMC proliferation. These data, along with the previously reported MYH11 mutations causing familial TAAD, indicate the importance of SMC contraction in maintaining the structural integrity of the ascending aorta.

  9. Chara myosin and the energy of cytoplasmic streaming.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Keiichi; Shimada, Kiyo; Ito, Khoji; Hamada, Saeko; Ishijima, Akio; Tsuchiya, Takayoshi; Tazawa, Masashi

    2006-10-01

    Recently, it was found that myosin generating very fast cytoplasmic streaming in Chara corallina has very high ATPase activity. To estimate the energy consumed by this myosin, its concentration in the internodal cells of C. corallina was determined by quantitative immunoblot. It was found that the concentration of Chara myosin was considerably high (200 nM) and the amount of ATP consumed by this myosin would exceed that supplied by dark respiration if all myosin molecules were fully activated by the interaction with actin. These results and model calculations suggested that the energy required to generate cytoplasmic streaming is very small and only one-hundredth of the existing myosin is enough to maintain the force for the streaming in the Chara cell.

  10. Myosin regulatory light chain phosphorylation enhances cardiac β-myosin in vitro motility under load.

    PubMed

    Karabina, Anastasia; Kazmierczak, Katarzyna; Szczesna-Cordary, Danuta; Moore, Jeffrey R

    2015-08-15

    Familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is characterized by left ventricular hypertrophy and myofibrillar disarray, and often results in sudden cardiac death. Two HCM mutations, N47K and R58Q, are located in the myosin regulatory light chain (RLC). The RLC mechanically stabilizes the myosin lever arm, which is crucial to myosin's ability to transmit contractile force. The N47K and R58Q mutations have previously been shown to reduce actin filament velocity under load, stemming from a more compliant lever arm (Greenberg, 2010). In contrast, RLC phosphorylation was shown to impart stiffness to the myosin lever arm (Greenberg, 2009). We hypothesized that phosphorylation of the mutant HCM-RLC may mitigate distinct mutation-induced structural and functional abnormalities. In vitro motility assays were utilized to investigate the effects of RLC phosphorylation on the HCM-RLC mutant phenotype in the presence of an α-actinin frictional load. Porcine cardiac β-myosin was depleted of its native RLC and reconstituted with mutant or wild-type human RLC in phosphorylated or non-phosphorylated form. Consistent with previous findings, in the presence of load, myosin bearing the HCM mutations reduced actin sliding velocity compared to WT resulting in 31-41% reductions in force production. Myosin containing phosphorylated RLC (WT or mutant) increased sliding velocity and also restored mutant myosin force production to near WT unphosphorylated values. These results point to RLC phosphorylation as a general mechanism to increase force production of the individual myosin motor and as a potential target to ameliorate the HCM-induced phenotype at the molecular level. PMID:26116789

  11. EPR and fluorescence depolarization studies on bovine cardiac myosin.

    PubMed

    Stone, D B; Mendelson, R A; Botts, J; Cheung, P H

    1981-09-01

    To test for possible differences in local conformation and S1 flexibility, bovine cardiac and rabbit skeletal myosins were labeled with a fluorophore (1,5-IAEDANS) and a spin label having iodoacetamide reactivity. The marked activation of the Ca2+-ATPase (6- to 8-fold) and inhibition of the K+ (EDTA)-ATPase (80-90%) by both labels indicated specific labeling of the fast-reacting thiols (SH1) of both myosins. Fluorescence depolarization studies of 1,5-IAEDANS-labeled cardiac myosin indicated that, like skeletal myosin, the SI moieties of cardiac myosin exhibit considerable segmental flexibility with respect to the rod portion of the molecule. This indicates that segmental flexibility may be a property of all myosins. Cardiac and skeletal myosins immobilized spin labels to approximately the same extent, indicating a similarity in steric restraints around the SH1 thiol of the two myosins. The magnitude of the changes in spin label mobility accompanying binding of MgADP and hydrolysis of MgATP was reduced in cardiac myosin relative to skeletal myosin. This suggests that the lower catalytic center activity of cardiac myosin is associated with more restricted conformational changes accompanying formation of M.ADP and M.ADP.Pi. From measurements of spin label mobility, the affinity of cardiac and skeletal myosin for ADP were similar: Kd (ADP) = 7 microM, n = 1.6. The EPR spectrum of spin labels attached to cardiac and skeletal myosin showed similar saturation effects upon actin binding indicating immobilization of myosin heads occurs with both proteins.

  12. Myosin VI: an innovative motor that challenged the swinging lever arm hypothesis

    PubMed Central

    Spudich, James A.; Sivaramakrishnan, Sivaraj

    2010-01-01

    The swinging crossbridge hypothesis states that energy from ATP hydrolysis is transduced to mechanical movement of the myosin head while bound to actin. The light chain-binding region of myosin is thought to act as a lever arm that amplifies movements near the catalytic site. This model has been challenged by findings that myosin VI takes larger steps along actin filaments than early interpretations of its structure seem to allow. We now know that myosin VI does indeed operate by an unusual ~ 180° lever arm swing and achieves its large step size using special structural features in its tail domain. PMID:20094053

  13. Electron microscopic evidence for the myosin head lever arm mechanism in hydrated myosin filaments using the gas environmental chamber

    SciTech Connect

    Minoda, Hiroki; Okabe, Tatsuhiro; Inayoshi, Yuhri; Miyakawa, Takuya; Miyauchi, Yumiko; Tanokura, Masaru; Katayama, Eisaku; Wakabayashi, Takeyuki; Akimoto, Tsuyoshi; Sugi, Haruo

    2011-02-25

    Research highlights: {yields} We succeeded in recording structural changes of hydrated myosin cross-bridges. {yields} We succeeded in position-marking the cross-bridges with site-directed antibodies. {yields} We recorded cross-bridge movement at different regions in individual cross-bridge. {yields} The movement was smallest at the cross-bridge-subfragment two boundary. {yields} The results provide evidence for the cross-bridge lever arm mechanism. -- Abstract: Muscle contraction results from an attachment-detachment cycle between the myosin heads extending from myosin filaments and the sites on actin filaments. The myosin head first attaches to actin together with the products of ATP hydrolysis, performs a power stroke associated with release of hydrolysis products, and detaches from actin upon binding with new ATP. The detached myosin head then hydrolyses ATP, and performs a recovery stroke to restore its initial position. The strokes have been suggested to result from rotation of the lever arm domain around the converter domain, while the catalytic domain remains rigid. To ascertain the validity of the lever arm hypothesis in muscle, we recorded ATP-induced movement at different regions within individual myosin heads in hydrated myosin filaments, using the gas environmental chamber attached to the electron microscope. The myosin head were position-marked with gold particles using three different site-directed antibodies. The amplitude of ATP-induced movement at the actin binding site in the catalytic domain was similar to that at the boundary between the catalytic and converter domains, but was definitely larger than that at the regulatory light chain in the lever arm domain. These results are consistent with the myosin head lever arm mechanism in muscle contraction if some assumptions are made.

  14. Calcineurin-NFAT Signaling and Neurotrophins Control Transformation of Myosin Heavy Chain Isoforms in Rat Soleus Muscle in Response to Aerobic Treadmill Training

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Wenfeng; Chen, Gan; Li, Fanling; Tang, Changfa; Yin, Dazhong

    2014-01-01

    This study elucidated the role of CaN-NFAT signaling and neurotrophins on the transformation of myosin heavy chain isoforms in the rat soleus muscle fiber following aerobic exercise training. To do so, we examined the content and distribution of myosin heavy chain (MyHC) isoforms in the rat soleus muscle fiber, the activity of CaN and expression of NFATc1 in these fibers, and changes in the expression of nerve growth factor (NGF), brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and neutrophin-3 (NT-3) in the soleus and striatum following high-and medium-intensity aerobic treadmill training. Specific pathogen-free 2 month old male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were randomly divided into three groups: Control group (Con, n = 8), moderate-intensity aerobic exercise group (M-Ex, n = 8) and high-intensity aerobic exercise group (H-Ex, n = 8). We used ATPase staining to identify the muscle fiber type I and II, SDS-PAGE to separate and analyze the isoforms MyHCI, MyHCIIA, MyHCIIB and MyHCIIx, and performed western blots to determine the expression of NFATc1, NGF, BDNF and NT-3. CaN activity was measured using a colorimetric assay. In the soleus muscle, 8 weeks of moderate-intensity exercise can induce transformation of MyHC IIA and MyHC IIB to MyHC IIX and MyHC I (p < 0.01), while high-intensity treadmill exercise can induce transform MyHC IIx to MyHC IIB, MyHC IIA and MyHC I (p < 0.01). In comparison to the control group, CaN activity and NFATcl protein level were significantly increased in both the M-Ex and H-Ex groups (p < 0.05, p < 0.01), with a more pronounced upregulation in the M-Ex group (p < 0.05). Eight weeks of moderate- and high-intensity aerobic exercise induced the expression of NGF, BDNF and NT-3 in the soleus muscle and the striatum (p < 0.01), with the most significant increase in the H-Ex group (p < 0.01). In the rat soleus muscle, (1) CaN–NFATcl signaling contributes to the conversion of MyHC I isoform in response to moderate-intensity exercise; (2) Neurotrophins

  15. Mouse Myosin-19 Is a Plus-end-directed, High-duty Ratio Molecular Motor*

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Zekuan; Ma, Xiao-Nan; Zhang, Hai-Man; Ji, Huan-Hong; Ding, Hao; Zhang, Jie; Luo, Dan; Sun, Yujie; Li, Xiang-dong

    2014-01-01

    Class XIX myosin (Myo19) is a vertebrate-specific unconventional myosin, responsible for the transport of mitochondria. To characterize biochemical properties of Myo19, we prepared recombinant mouse Myo19-truncated constructs containing the motor domain and the IQ motifs using the baculovirus/Sf9 expression system. We identified regulatory light chain (RLC) of smooth muscle/non-muscle myosin-2 as the light chain of Myo19. The actin-activated ATPase activity and the actin-gliding velocity of Myo19-truncated constructs were about one-third and one-sixth as those of myosin-5a, respectively. The apparent affinity of Myo19 to actin was about the same as that of myosin-5a. The RLCs bound to Myo19 could be phosphorylated by myosin light chain kinase, but this phosphorylation had little effect on the actin-activated ATPase activity and the actin-gliding activity of Myo19-truncated constructs. Using dual fluorescence-labeled actin filaments, we determined that Myo19 is a plus-end-directed molecular motor. We found that, similar to that of the high-duty ratio myosin, such as myosin-5a, ADP release rate was comparable with the maximal actin-activated ATPase activity of Myo19, indicating that ADP release is a rate-limiting step for the ATPase cycle of acto-Myo19. ADP strongly inhibited the actin-activated ATPase activity and actin-gliding activity of Myo19-truncated constructs. Based on the above results, we concluded that Myo19 is a high-duty ratio molecular motor moving to the plus-end of the actin filament. PMID:24825904

  16. Effective myotube formation in human adipose tissue-derived stem cells expressing dystrophin and myosin heavy chain by cellular fusion with mouse C2C12 myoblasts

    SciTech Connect

    Eom, Young Woo; Lee, Jong Eun; Yang, Mal Sook; Jang, In Keun; Kim, Hyo Eun; Lee, Doo Hoon; Kim, Young Jin; Park, Won Jin; Kong, Jee Hyun; Shim, Kwang Yong; Lee, Jong In; Kim, Hyun Soo

    2011-04-29

    Highlights: {yields} hASCs were differentiated into skeletal muscle cells by treatment with 5-azacytidine, FGF-2, and the supernatant of cultured hASCs. {yields} Dystrophin and MyHC were expressed in late differentiation step by treatment with the supernatant of cultured hASCs. {yields} hASCs expressing dystrophin and MyHC contributed to myotube formation during co-culture with mouse myoblast C2C12 cells. -- Abstract: Stem cell therapy for muscular dystrophies requires stem cells that are able to participate in the formation of new muscle fibers. However, the differentiation steps that are the most critical for this process are not clear. We investigated the myogenic phases of human adipose tissue-derived stem cells (hASCs) step by step and the capability of myotube formation according to the differentiation phase by cellular fusion with mouse myoblast C2C12 cells. In hASCs treated with 5-azacytidine and fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) for 1 day, the early differentiation step to express MyoD and myogenin was induced by FGF-2 treatment for 6 days. Dystrophin and myosin heavy chain (MyHC) expression was induced by hASC conditioned medium in the late differentiation step. Myotubes were observed only in hASCs undergoing the late differentiation step by cellular fusion with C2C12 cells. In contrast, hASCs that were normal or in the early stage were not involved in myotube formation. Our results indicate that stem cells expressing dystrophin and MyHC are more suitable for myotube formation by co-culture with myoblasts than normal or early differentiated stem cells expressing MyoD and myogenin.

  17. 5'-flanking sequences of zebrafish fast myosin heavy chain genes regulate unique expression in the anterior, medial subsection and posterior tail somites of the skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Asaduzzaman, M; Shakur Ahammad, A K; Asakawa, S; Kinoshita, S; Watabe, S

    2016-01-01

    In zebrafish, fast muscle-specific myosin heavy chain genes have their unique expression patterns in a well-defined and restricted region of the skeletal muscle. However, the transcriptional regulatory mechanisms involved have remained unclear. Here, we examined the regulation of spatio-temporal expression patterns of myhz1 (myhz1.1, myhz1.2 and myhz1.3) and myhz2 during their development by using transient gene and stable transgenic techniques. Embryos microinjected with different length 5'-flanking sequences of myhz1 conjugated with the enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) gene showed EGFP expression in the anterior and medial subsections of somites, but not in the tail somite region. In contrast, embryos microinjected with different length 5'-flanking sequences of myhz2 showed EGFP expression exclusively at the posterior tail somite domain. Promoter deletion analyses demonstrated that reduced EGFP fluorescence typically is correlated with smaller 5'-flanking sequences. The immunohistochemical observation revealed that zebrafish larvae provided with the transient gene and those from stable transgenic lines consistently expressed EGFP in the fast muscle fibers. r-VISTA plot identified one common conserved region of about 140°bp among myhz1.1, myhz1.2 and myhz1.3. Deletion of this conserved region from the 5'-flanking sequence of each myhz1 markedly reduced EGFP expression in its unique spatial somite region. Deletion mutation analysis demonstrated that myhz2 expression in the tail somite region might be mediated by Tbx (family of transcription factors having a common DNA-binding sequence known as T-box) binding elements. In summary, 5'-flanking sequences of myhz1 and myhz2 regulate their unique expression patterns in a well-defined and restricted somite region of the skeletal muscle in zebrafish.

  18. Role of cyclic AMP sensor Epac1 in masseter muscle hypertrophy and myosin heavy chain transition induced by β2-adrenoceptor stimulation.

    PubMed

    Ohnuki, Yoshiki; Umeki, Daisuke; Mototani, Yasumasa; Jin, Huiling; Cai, Wenqian; Shiozawa, Kouichi; Suita, Kenji; Saeki, Yasutake; Fujita, Takayuki; Ishikawa, Yoshihiro; Okumura, Satoshi

    2014-12-15

    The predominant isoform of β-adrenoceptor (β-AR) in skeletal muscle is β2-AR and that in the cardiac muscle is β1-AR. We have reported that Epac1 (exchange protein directly activated by cAMP 1), a new protein kinase A-independent cAMP sensor, does not affect cardiac hypertrophy in response to pressure overload or chronic isoproterenol (isoprenaline) infusion. However, the role of Epac1 in skeletal muscle hypertrophy remains poorly understood. We thus examined the effect of disruption of Epac1, the major Epac isoform in skeletal muscle, on masseter muscle hypertrophy induced by chronic β2-AR stimulation with clenbuterol (CB) in Epac1-null mice (Epac1KO). The masseter muscle weight/tibial length ratio was similar in wild-type (WT) and Epac1KO at baseline and was significantly increased in WT after CB infusion, but this increase was suppressed in Epac1KO. CB treatment significantly increased the proportion of myosin heavy chain (MHC) IIb at the expense of that of MHC IId/x in both WT and Epac1KO, indicating that Epac1 did not mediate the CB-induced MHC isoform transition towards the faster isoform. The mechanism of suppression of CB-mediated hypertrophy in Epac1KO is considered to involve decreased activation of Akt signalling. In addition, CB-induced histone deacetylase 4 (HDAC4) phosphorylation on serine 246 mediated by calmodulin kinase II (CaMKII), which plays a role in skeletal muscle hypertrophy, was suppressed in Epac1KO. Our findings suggest that Epac1 plays a role in β2-AR-mediated masseter muscle hypertrophy, probably through activation of both Akt signalling and CaMKII/HDAC4 signalling. PMID:25344550

  19. Myosin heavy chain and parvalbumin expression in swimming and feeding muscles of centrarchid fishes: the molecular basis of the scaling of contractile properties.

    PubMed

    Campion, L A; Choi, S; Mistry, H L; Coughlin, D J

    2012-10-01

    In centrarchid fishes, such as bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus, Rafinesque) and largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides, Lacepède), the contractile properties of feeding and swimming muscles show different scaling patterns. While the maximum shortening velocity (V(max)) and rate of relaxation from tetanus of swimming or myotomal muscle slow with growth, the feeding muscle shows distinctive scaling patterns. Cranial epaxial muscle, which is used to elevate the head during feeding strikes, retains fast contractile properties across a range of fish sizes in both species. In bass, the sternohyoideous muscle, which depresses the floor of the mouth during feeding strikes, shows faster contractile properties with growth. The objective of this study was to determine the molecular basis of these different scaling patterns. We examined the expression of two muscle proteins, myosin heavy chain (MyHC) and parvalbumin (PV), that affect contractile properties. We hypothesized that the relative contribution of slow and fast MyHC isoforms will modulate V(max) in these fishes, while the presence of PV in muscle will enhance rates of muscle relaxation. Myotomal muscle displays an increase in sMyHC expression with growth, in agreement with its physiological properties. Feeding muscles such as epaxial and sternohyoideus show no change or a decrease in sMyHC expression with growth, again as predicted from contractile properties. PV expression in myotomal muscle decreases with growth in both species, as has been seen in other fishes. The feeding muscles again show no change or an increase in PV expression with growth, contributing to faster contractile properties in these fishes. Both MyHC and PV appear to play important roles in modulating muscle contractile properties of swimming and feeding muscles in centrarchid fishes. PMID:22705556

  20. Differential muscular myosin heavy chain expression of the pectoral and pelvic girdles during early growth in the king penguin (Aptenodytes patagonicus) chick.

    PubMed

    Erbrech, Aude; Robin, Jean-Patrice; Guérin, Nathalie; Groscolas, René; Gilbert, Caroline; Martrette, Jean-Marc

    2011-06-01

    Continuous growth, associated with a steady parental food supply, is a general pattern in offspring development. So that young chicks can acquire their locomotor independence, this period is usually marked by a fast maturation of muscles, during which different myosin heavy chain (MyHC) isoforms are expressed. However, parental food provisioning may fluctuate seasonally, and offspring therefore face a challenge to ensure the necessary maturation of their tissues when energy is limited. To address this trade-off we investigated muscle maturation in both the pectoral and pelvic girdles of king penguin chicks. This species has an exceptionally long rearing period (1 year), which is prolonged when parental food provisioning is drastically reduced during the sub-Antarctic winter. Approximately 1 month post hatching, chicks acquire a functional pedestrian locomotion, which uses pelvic muscles, whereas swimming, which uses the pectoral muscles, only occurs 1 year later. We therefore tested the hypothesis that the MyHC content of the leg muscles reaches a mature state before those of the pectoral muscles. We found that leg muscle MyHC composition changed with the progressive acquisition of pedestrian locomotion, whereas pectoral muscle fibres reached their mature MyHC profile as early as hatching. Contrary to our predictions, the acquisition of the adult profile in pectoral muscles could be related to an early maturation of the contractile muscular proteins, presumably associated with early thermoregulatory capacities of chicks, necessary for survival in their cold environment. This differential maturation appears to reconcile both the locomotor and environmental constraints of king penguin chicks during growth. PMID:21562169

  1. Effects of pseudo-phosphorylated rat cardiac troponin T are differently modulated by α- and β-myosin heavy chain isoforms.

    PubMed

    Michael, John Jeshurun; Gollapudi, Sampath K; Chandra, Murali

    2014-01-01

    Interplay between the protein kinase C (PKC)-mediated phosphorylation of troponin T (TnT)- and myosin heavy chain (MHC)-mediated effects on thin filaments takes on a new significance because: (1) there is significant interaction between the TnT- and MHC-mediated effects on cardiac thin filaments; (2) although the phosphorylation of TnT by PKC isoforms is common to both human and rodent hearts, human hearts predominantly express β-MHC while rodent hearts predominantly express α-MHC. Therefore, we tested how α- and β-MHC isoforms differently affected the functional effects of phosphorylated TnT. Contractile measurements were made on cardiac muscle fibers from normal rats (α-MHC) and propylthiouracil-treated rats (β-MHC), reconstituted with the recombinant phosphomimetic-TnT (T204E; threonine 204 replaced by glutamate). Ca2+ -activated maximal tension decreased differently in α-MHC + T204E (~68%) and β-MHC + T204E (~35%). However, myofilament Ca2+ sensitivity decreased similarly in α-MHC + T204E and β-MHC + T204E, demonstrating that a decrease in Ca2+ sensitivity alone cannot explain the greater attenuation of tension in α-MHC + T204E. Interestingly, dynamic contractile parameters (rates of tension redevelopment, crossbridge (XB) recruitment dynamics, XB distortion dynamics, and XB detachment kinetics) decreased only in α-MHC + T204E. Thus, the transition of thin filaments from the blocked- to closed-state was attenuated in α-MHC + T204E and β-MHC + T204E, but the closed- to open-state transition was attenuated only in α-MHC + T204E. Our study demonstrates that the effects of phosphorylated TnT and MHC isoforms interact to bring about different functional states of cardiac thin filaments. PMID:25301196

  2. Association Analysis of Myosin Heavy-chain Genes mRNA Transcription with the Corresponding Proteins Expression of Longissimus Muscle in Growing Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Men, X. M.; Deng, B.; Tao, X.; Qi, K. K.; Xu, Z. W.

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this work was to investigate the correlations between MyHC mRNA transcription and their corresponding protein expressions in porcine longissimus muscle (LM) during postnatal growth of pigs. Five DLY (Duroc×Landrace×Yorkshire) crossbred pigs were selected, slaughtered and sampled at postnatal 7, 30, 60, 120, and 180 days, respectively. Each muscle was subjected to quantity MyHCs protein contents through an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), to quantity myosin heavy-chains (MyHCs) mRNA abundances using real-time polymerase chain reaction. We calculated the proportion (%) of each MyHC to total of four MyHC for two levels, respectively. Moreover, the activities of several key energy metabolism enzymes were determined in LM. The result showed that mRNA transcription and protein expression of MyHC I, IIa, IIx and IIb in LM all presented some obvious changes with postnatal aging of pigs, especially at the early stage after birth, and their mRNA transcriptions were easy to be influenced than their protein expressions. The relative proportion of each MyHC mRNA was significantly positively related to that of its corresponding protein (p<0.01), and MyHC I mRNA proportion was positively correlated with creatine kinase (CK), succinate dehydrogenase (SDH), malate dehydrogenase (MDH) activities (p<0.05). These data suggested that MyHC mRNA transcription can be used to reflect MyHC expression, metabolism property and adaptive plasticity of porcine skeletal muscles, and MyHC mRNA composition could be a molecular index reflecting muscle fiber type characteristics. PMID:26949945

  3. Evolution of expression of cardiac phenotypes over a 4-year period in the β-myosin heavy chain-Q403 transgenic rabbit model of human hypertrophic cardiomyopathy

    PubMed Central

    Nagueh, Sherif F.; Chen, Suetnee; Patel, Rajnikant; Tsybouleva, Natalia; Lutucuta, Silvia; Kopelen, Helen A.; Zoghbi, William A.; Quiñones, Miguel A.; Roberts, Robert; Marian, A.J.

    2009-01-01

    Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), the most common cause of sudden cardiac death in the young, is characterized by a diverse array of cardiac phenotypes evolving over several decades. We have developed transgenic rabbits that fully recapitulate the phenotype of human HCM and provide for the opportunity to delineate the sequence of evolution of cardiac phenotypes, and thus, the pathogenesis of HCM. We determined evolution of biochemical, molecular, histological, structural and functional phenotypes at 4 age-periods in 47 β-myosin heavy chain-glutamine (MyHC-Q)-403 transgenic rabbits. Ca+2 sensitivity of myofibrillar ATPase activity was reduced very early and in the absence of other discernible phenotypes. Myocyte disarray also occurred early, prior to, and independent of hypertrophy and fibrosis. The latter phenotypes evolved predominantly during puberty in conjunction with activation of stress-related signaling kinases. Myocardial contraction and relaxation velocities were decreased early despite normal global cardiac function and in the absence of histological phenotype. Global cardiac function declined with aging, while left atrial size was increased along with Doppler indices of left ventricular filling pressure. Thus, Ca+2 sensitivity of myofibrillar ATPase activity is a primary phenotype expressed early and independent of the ensuing phenotypes. Pathogenesis of myocyte disarray, which exhibits age-independent penetrance, differs from those of hypertrophy and fibrosis, which show age-dependent expression. Myocardial dysfunction is an early marker that predicts subsequent development of hypertrophy. These findings in an animal model that recapitulates the phenotype of human HCM, implicate involvement of multiple independent mechanisms in the pathogenesis of cardiac phenotypes in HCM. PMID:15135661

  4. Role of cyclic AMP sensor Epac1 in masseter muscle hypertrophy and myosin heavy chain transition induced by β2-adrenoceptor stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Ohnuki, Yoshiki; Umeki, Daisuke; Mototani, Yasumasa; Jin, Huiling; Cai, Wenqian; Shiozawa, Kouichi; Suita, Kenji; Saeki, Yasutake; Fujita, Takayuki; Ishikawa, Yoshihiro; Okumura, Satoshi

    2014-01-01

    The predominant isoform of β-adrenoceptor (β-AR) in skeletal muscle is β2-AR and that in the cardiac muscle is β1-AR. We have reported that Epac1 (exchange protein directly activated by cAMP 1), a new protein kinase A-independent cAMP sensor, does not affect cardiac hypertrophy in response to pressure overload or chronic isoproterenol (isoprenaline) infusion. However, the role of Epac1 in skeletal muscle hypertrophy remains poorly understood. We thus examined the effect of disruption of Epac1, the major Epac isoform in skeletal muscle, on masseter muscle hypertrophy induced by chronic β2-AR stimulation with clenbuterol (CB) in Epac1-null mice (Epac1KO). The masseter muscle weight/tibial length ratio was similar in wild-type (WT) and Epac1KO at baseline and was significantly increased in WT after CB infusion, but this increase was suppressed in Epac1KO. CB treatment significantly increased the proportion of myosin heavy chain (MHC) IIb at the expense of that of MHC IId/x in both WT and Epac1KO, indicating that Epac1 did not mediate the CB-induced MHC isoform transition towards the faster isoform. The mechanism of suppression of CB-mediated hypertrophy in Epac1KO is considered to involve decreased activation of Akt signalling. In addition, CB-induced histone deacetylase 4 (HDAC4) phosphorylation on serine 246 mediated by calmodulin kinase II (CaMKII), which plays a role in skeletal muscle hypertrophy, was suppressed in Epac1KO. Our findings suggest that Epac1 plays a role in β2-AR-mediated masseter muscle hypertrophy, probably through activation of both Akt signalling and CaMKII/HDAC4 signalling. PMID:25344550

  5. Immunohistochemical Characterization of Slow and Fast Myosin Heavy Chain Composition of Muscle Fibres in the Styloglossus Muscle of the Human and Macaque (M. rhesus)

    PubMed Central

    Sokoloff, Alan J.; Yang, Betty; Li, Haiyan; Burkholder, Thomas J.

    2007-01-01

    Objective Muscle fibre contractile diversity is thought to be increased by the hybridization of multiple myosin heavy chain (MHC) isoforms in single muscle fibres. Reports of hybrid fibres composed of MHCI and MHCII isoforms in human, but not macaque, tongue muscles, suggest a human adaptation for increased tongue muscle contractile diversity. Here we test whether hybrid fibres composed of MHCI and MHCII are unique to human tongue muscles or are present as well in the macaque. Methods MHC composition of the macaque and human styloglossus was characterized with antibodies that allowed identification of three muscle fibre phenotypes, a slow phenotype composed of MHCI, a fast phenotype composed of MHCII and a hybrid phenotype composed of MHCI and MHCII. Results The fast phenotype constitutes 68.5% of fibres in the macaque and 43.4% of fibres in the human (P<0001). The slow phenotype constitutes 20.2% of fibres in the macaque and 39.3% of fibres in the human (P<0001). The hybrid phenotype constitutes 11.2% of fibres in the macaque and 17.3% of fibres in the human (P=0002). Macaques and humans do not differ in fiber size (cross-sectional area, diameter). However, measures of fibre size differ by phenotype such that fast > hybrid > slow (P<0.05). Conclusion These data demonstrate differences in the relative percent of muscle fibre phenotypes in the macaque and human styloglossus but also demonstrate that all three phenotypes are present in both species. These data suggest a similar range of mechanical properties in styloglossus muscle fibres of the macaque and human. PMID:17210117

  6. High-intensity resistance training with insufficient recovery time between bouts induce atrophy and alterations in myosin heavy chain content in rat skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    De Souza, Rodrigo Wagner Alves; Aguiar, Andreo Fernando; Carani, Fernanda Regina; Campos, Gerson Eduardo Rocha; Padovani, Carlos Roberto; Silva, Maeli Dal Pai

    2011-08-01

    The aim of this study was to test whether high-intensity resistance training with insufficient recovery time between bouts, could result in a decrease of muscle fiber cross-sectional area (CSA), alter fiber-type frequencies and myosin heavy chain (MHC) isoform content in rat skeletal muscle. Wistar rats were divided into two groups: trained (Tr) and control (Co). Tr group were subjected to a high-intensity resistance training program (5 days/week) for 12 weeks, involving jump bouts into water, carrying progressive overloads based on percentage body weight. At the end of experiment, animals were sacrificed, superficial white (SW) and deep red (DR) portions of the plantaris muscle were removed and submitted to mATPase histochemical reaction and SDS-PAGE analysis. Throughout the experiment, both groups increased body weight, but Tr was lower than Co. There was a significant reduction in IIA and IID muscle fiber CSA in the DR portion of Tr compared to Co. Muscle fiber-type frequencies showed a reduction in Types I and IIA in the DR portion and IID in the SW portion of Tr compared to Co; there was an increase in Types IIBD frequency in the DR portion. Change in muscle fiber-type frequency was supported by a significant decrease in MHCI and MHCIIa isoforms accompanied by a significant increase in MHCIIb isoform content. MHCIId showed no significant differences between groups. These data show that high-intensity resistance training with insufficient recovery time between bouts promoted muscle atrophy and a transition from slow-to-fast contractile activity in rat plantaris muscle.

  7. Acute Myosin Heavy Chain Isoform mRNA Expression in Response to Two Resistance Exercise Intensities With Equal Volume Load in Resistance-Trained Men.

    PubMed

    Schwarz, Neil A; Spillane, Mike B; McKinley, Sarah K; Andre, Thomas L; Gann, Joshua J; Willoughby, Darryn S

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if resistance exercise intensity, in the context of equal volume load, differentially affected myosin heavy chain (MHC) isoform messenger RNA (mRNA) expression in resistance-trained men. In a crossover, uniform-balanced design, 10 male participants (23.7 ± 2.8 years, 178.8 ± 5.9 cm, 85.9 ± 9.2 kg) completed 2 lower-body resistance exercise sessions of different intensities with equal volume load. For the higher-intensity exercise session, participants performed 5 sets of 6 repetitions at 80% of 1 repetition maximum (1RM). For the lower-intensity exercise session, participants performed 3 sets of 16 repetitions at 50% of 1RM. Muscle samples from the vastus lateralis were acquired before exercise (PRE), 45 minutes postexercise (45MINPE), 3 hours postexercise (3HRPE), 24 hours postexercise (24HRPE), and 48 hours postexercise (48HRPE). Statistical analyses of mRNA expression were performed using separate 2 × 5 two-way repeated-measures analyses of variance for each criterion variable (p ≤ 0.05). There were no statistically significant interactions between intensity and time. Likewise, there were no significant differences between exercise intensity in MHC expression. Expression of mRNA for all MHC isoforms decreased at all postexercise time points, except 3HRPE (p = 0.051), compared with PRE following both exercise bouts (p ≤ 0.05). The results of this study found no difference in mRNA expression of MHC isoforms as a function of resistance exercise intensity. In addition, in contrast to results found in previous studies of untrained men, MHC mRNA expression seems to decrease in response to acute resistance exercise in previously resistance-trained men.

  8. Analysis of the myosins encoded in the recently completed Arabidopsis thaliana genome sequence

    PubMed Central

    Reddy, Anireddy SN; Day, Irene S

    2001-01-01

    Background Three types of molecular motors play an important role in the organization, dynamics and transport processes associated with the cytoskeleton. The myosin family of molecular motors move cargo on actin filaments, whereas kinesin and dynein motors move cargo along microtubules. These motors have been highly characterized in non-plant systems and information is becoming available about plant motors. The actin cytoskeleton in plants has been shown to be involved in processes such as transportation, signaling, cell division, cytoplasmic streaming and morphogenesis. The role of myosin in these processes has been established in a few cases but many questions remain to be answered about the number, types and roles of myosins in plants. Results Using the motor domain of an Arabidopsis myosin we identified 17 myosin sequences in the Arabidopsis genome. Phylogenetic analysis of the Arabidopsis myosins with non-plant and plant myosins revealed that all the Arabidopsis myosins and other plant myosins fall into two groups - class VIII and class XI. These groups contain exclusively plant or algal myosins with no animal or fungal myosins. Exon/intron data suggest that the myosins are highly conserved and that some may be a result of gene duplication. Conclusions Plant myosins are unlike myosins from any other organisms except algae. As a percentage of the total gene number, the number of myosins is small overall in Arabidopsis compared with the other sequenced eukaryotic genomes. There are, however, a large number of class XI myosins. The function of each myosin has yet to be determined. PMID:11516337

  9. Actinic Keratosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... rashes clinical tools newsletter | contact Share | Actinic Keratosis (Solar Keratosis) Information for adults A A A Actinic ... the touch. Overview Actinic keratoses, also known as solar keratoses, are small rough or scaly areas of ...

  10. Kinetic mechanism of Nicotiana tabacum myosin-11 defines a new type of a processive motor.

    PubMed

    Diensthuber, Ralph P; Tominaga, Motoki; Preller, Matthias; Hartmann, Falk K; Orii, Hidefumi; Chizhov, Igor; Oiwa, Kazuhiro; Tsiavaliaris, Georgios

    2015-01-01

    The 175-kDa myosin-11 from Nicotiana tabacum (Nt(175kDa)myosin-11) is exceptional in its mechanical activity as it is the fastest known processive actin-based motor, moving 10 times faster than the structurally related class 5 myosins. Although this ability might be essential for long-range organelle transport within larger plant cells, the kinetic features underlying the fast processive movement of Nt(175kDa)myosin-11 still remain unexplored. To address this, we generated a single-headed motor domain construct and carried out a detailed kinetic analysis. The data demonstrate that Nt(175kDa)myosin-11 is a high duty ratio motor, which remains associated with actin most of its enzymatic cycle. However, different from other processive myosins that establish a high duty ratio on the basis of a rate-limiting ADP-release step, Nt(175kDa)myosin-11 achieves a high duty ratio by a prolonged duration of the ATP-induced isomerization of the actin-bound states and ADP release kinetics, both of which in terms of the corresponding time constants approach the total ATPase cycle time. Molecular modeling predicts that variations in the charge distribution of the actin binding interface might contribute to the thermodynamic fine-tuning of the kinetics of this myosin. Our study unravels a new type of a high duty ratio motor and provides important insights into the molecular mechanism of processive movement of higher plant myosins. PMID:25326536

  11. Calcium and cargoes as regulators of myosin 5a activity

    SciTech Connect

    Sellers, James R. Thirumurugan, Kavitha; Sakamoto, Takeshi; Hammer, John A.; Knight, Peter J.

    2008-04-25

    Myosin 5a is a two-headed actin-dependent motor that transports various cargoes in cells. Its enzymology and mechanochemistry have been extensively studied in vitro. It is a processive motor that takes multiple 36 nm steps on actin. The enzymatic activity of myosin 5 is regulated by an intramolecular folding mechanism whereby its lever arms fold back against the coiled-coil tail such that the motor domains directly bind the globular tail domains. We show that the structure seen in individual folded molecules is consistent with electron density map of two-dimensional crystals of the molecule. In this compact state, the actin-activated MgATPase activity of the molecule is markedly inhibited and the molecule cannot move processively on surface bound actin filaments. The actin-activated MgATPase activity of myosin 5a is activated by increasing the calcium concentration or by binding of a cargo-receptor molecule, melanophilin, in vitro. However, calcium binding to the calmodulin light chains results in dissociation of some of the calmodulin which disrupts the ability of myosin 5a to move on actin filaments in vitro. Thus we propose that the physiologically relevant activation pathway in vivo involves binding of cargo-receptor proteins.

  12. Association of a Nonmuscle Myosin II with Axoplasmic Organelles

    PubMed Central

    DeGiorgis, Joseph A.; Reese, Thomas S.; Bearer, Elaine L.

    2002-01-01

    Association of motor proteins with organelles is required for the motors to mediate transport. Because axoplasmic organelles move on actin filaments, they must have associated actin-based motors, most likely members of the myosin superfamily. To gain a better understanding of the roles of myosins in the axon we used the giant axon of the squid, a powerful model for studies of axonal physiology. First, a ∼220 kDa protein was purified from squid optic lobe, using a biochemical protocol designed to isolate myosins. Peptide sequence analysis, followed by cloning and sequencing of the full-length cDNA, identified this ∼220 kDa protein as a nonmuscle myosin II. This myosin is also present in axoplasm, as determined by two independent criteria. First, RT-PCR using sequence-specific primers detected the transcript in the stellate ganglion, which contains the cell bodies that give rise to the giant axon. Second, Western blot analysis using nonmuscle myosin II isotype-specific antibodies detected a single ∼220 kDa band in axoplasm. Axoplasm was fractionated through a four-step sucrose gradient after 0.6 M KI treatment, which separates organelles from cytoskeletal components. Of the total nonmuscle myosin II in axoplasm, 43.2% copurified with organelles in the 15% sucrose fraction, while the remainder (56.8%) was soluble and found in the supernatant. This myosin decorates the cytoplasmic surface of 21% of the axoplasmic organelles, as demonstrated by immunogold electron-microscopy. Thus, nonmuscle myosin II is synthesized in the cell bodies of the giant axon, is present in the axon, and is associated with isolated axoplasmic organelles. Therefore, in addition to myosin V, this myosin is likely to be an axoplasmic organelle motor. PMID:11907281

  13. Emergent Systems Energy Laws for Predicting Myosin Ensemble Processivity

    PubMed Central

    Egan, Paul; Moore, Jeffrey; Schunn, Christian; Cagan, Jonathan; LeDuc, Philip

    2015-01-01

    In complex systems with stochastic components, systems laws often emerge that describe higher level behavior regardless of lower level component configurations. In this paper, emergent laws for describing mechanochemical systems are investigated for processive myosin-actin motility systems. On the basis of prior experimental evidence that longer processive lifetimes are enabled by larger myosin ensembles, it is hypothesized that emergent scaling laws could coincide with myosin-actin contact probability or system energy consumption. Because processivity is difficult to predict analytically and measure experimentally, agent-based computational techniques are developed to simulate processive myosin ensembles and produce novel processive lifetime measurements. It is demonstrated that only systems energy relationships hold regardless of isoform configurations or ensemble size, and a unified expression for predicting processive lifetime is revealed. The finding of such laws provides insight for how patterns emerge in stochastic mechanochemical systems, while also informing understanding and engineering of complex biological systems. PMID:25885169

  14. Myosin translocation in retinal pericytes during free-radical induced apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Shojaee, N; Patton, W F; Hechtman, H B; Shepro, D

    1999-10-01

    Vascular pathologies induced by ischemia/reperfusion involve the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) that in part cause tissue injury. The production of ROS that occurs upon reperfusion activates specific second messenger pathways. In diabetic retinopathy there is a characteristic loss of the microvascular pericyte. Pericytes are more sensitive than endothelial cells to low concentrations of ROS, such as hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) when tested in vitro. Whether the pericyte loss is due to toxic cell death triggered by the noxious H(2)O(2) or apoptosis, due to activation of specific second messenger pathways, is unknown. During apoptosis, a cell's nucleus and cytoplasm condense, the cell becomes fragmented, and ultimately forms apoptotic bodies. It is generally assumed that apoptosis depends on nuclear signaling, but cytoplasmic morphological processes are not well described. We find that exposing cultured retinal pericytes to 100 microM H(2)O(2) for 30 min leads to myosin heavy chain translocation from the cytosol to the cytoskeleton and a significant decrease in cell surface area. Pericyte death follows within 60-120 min. Exposing cells to 150 mJ/cm(2) ultraviolet radiation, an alternate free radical generating system, also causes pericyte myosin translocation and apoptosis. Proteolytic cleavage of actin is not observed in pericyte apoptosis. 3-aminobenzamide, a pharmacological inhibitor of the cleavage and activation of the DNA-repairing enzyme poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibits pericyte apoptosis, and prevents myosin translocation. Deferoxamine, an iron chelator known to interfere with free radical generation, also inhibits pericyte myosin translocation, contractility, and cell death. Myosin translocation to the cytoskeleton may be an early step in assembly of a competent contractile apparatus, which is involved in apoptotic cell condensation. These results suggest that pericyte loss associated with increased free radical production in

  15. Myosin flexibility: structural domains and collective vibrations.

    PubMed

    Navizet, Isabelle; Lavery, Richard; Jernigan, Robert L

    2004-02-15

    The movement of the myosin motor along an actin filament involves a directed conformational change within the cross-bridge formed between the protein and the filament. Despite the structural data that has been obtained on this system, little is known of the mechanics of this conformational change. We have used existing crystallographic structures of three conformations of the myosin head, containing the motor domain and the lever arm, for structural comparisons and mechanical studies with a coarse-grained elastic network model. The results enable us to define structurally conserved domains within the protein and to better understand myosin flexibility. Notably they point to the role of the light chains in rigidifying the lever arm and to changes in flexibility as a consequence of nucleotide binding.

  16. Structural insight into the UNC-45-myosin complex.

    PubMed

    Fratev, Filip; Osk Jónsdóttir, Svava; Pajeva, Ilza

    2013-07-01

    The UNC-45 chaperone protein interacts with and affects the folding, stability, and the ATPase activity of myosins. It plays a critical role in the cardiomyopathy development and in the breast cancer tumor growth. Here we propose the first structural model of the UNC-45-myosin complex using various in silico methods. Initially, the human UNC-45B binding epitope was identified and the protein was docked to the cardiac myosin (MYH7) motor domain. The final UNC45B-MYH7 structure was obtained by performing of total 630 ns molecular dynamics simulations. The results indicate a complex formation, which is mainly stabilized by electrostatic interactions. Remarkably, the contact surface area is similar to that of the myosin-actin complex. A significant interspecies difference in the myosin binding epitope is observed. Our results reveal the structural basis of MYH7 exons 15-16 hypertrophic cardiomyopathy mutations and provide directions for drug targeting. PMID:23408646

  17. Nucleotide pocket thermodynamics measured by EPR reveal how energy partitioning relates myosin speed to efficiency.

    PubMed

    Purcell, Thomas J; Naber, Nariman; Franks-Skiba, Kathy; Dunn, Alexander R; Eldred, Catherine C; Berger, Christopher L; Málnási-Csizmadia, András; Spudich, James A; Swank, Douglas M; Pate, Edward; Cooke, Roger

    2011-03-18

    We have used spin-labeled ADP to investigate the dynamics of the nucleotide-binding pocket in a series of myosins, which have a range of velocities. Electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy reveals that the pocket is in equilibrium between open and closed conformations. In the absence of actin, the closed conformation is favored. When myosin binds actin, the open conformation becomes more favored, facilitating nucleotide release. We found that faster myosins favor a more closed pocket in the actomyosin•ADP state, with smaller values of ΔH(0) and ΔS(0), even though these myosins release ADP at a faster rate. A model involving a partitioning of free energy between work-generating steps prior to rate-limiting ADP release explains both the unexpected correlation between velocity and opening of the pocket and the observation that fast myosins are less efficient than slow myosins.

  18. Myosin-V stepping kinetics: a molecular model for processivity.

    PubMed

    Rief, M; Rock, R S; Mehta, A D; Mooseker, M S; Cheney, R E; Spudich, J A

    2000-08-15

    Myosin-V is a molecular motor that moves processively along its actin track. We have used a feedback-enhanced optical trap to examine the stepping kinetics of this movement. By analyzing the distribution of time periods separating discrete approximately 36-nm mechanical steps, we characterize the number and duration of rate-limiting biochemical transitions preceding each such step. These data show that myosin-V is a tightly coupled motor whose cycle time is limited by ADP release. On the basis of these results, we propose a model for myosin-V processivity.

  19. Regulation of an Actin Spring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tam, Barney; Shin, Jennifer; Brau, Ricardo; Lang, Matthew; Mahadevan, L.; Matsudaira, Paul

    2006-03-01

    To produce motion, cells rely on the conversion of potential energy into mechanical work. One such example is the dramatic process involving the acrosome reaction of Limulus sperm, whereby a 60 μm-long bundle of actin filaments straightens from a coiled conformation to extend out of the cell in five seconds. This cellular engine and the motion it produces represent a third type of actin-based motility fundamentally different from polymerization or myosin-driven processes. The motive force for this extension originates from stored elastic energy in the overtwisted, pre-formed coil---much like a compressed mechanical spring. When the actin bundle untwists, this energy is converted to mechanical work powering the extension. We report on experiments probing the regulation of this actin spring by extracellular calcium. We find that extracellular calcium needs to be present for the spring to activate, and that calcium regulates the velocity of the extension.

  20. Structural changes accompanying phosphorylation of tarantula muscle myosin filaments

    PubMed Central

    1987-01-01

    Electron microscopy has been used to study the structural changes that occur in the myosin filaments of tarantula striated muscle when they are phosphorylated. Myosin filaments in muscle homogenates maintained in relaxing conditions (ATP, EGTA) are found to have nonphosphorylated regulatory light chains as shown by urea/glycerol gel electrophoresis and [32P]phosphate autoradiography. Negative staining reveals an ordered, helical arrangement of crossbridges in these filaments, in which the heads from axially neighboring myosin molecules appear to interact with each other. When the free Ca2+ concentration in a homogenate is raised to 10(-4) M, or when a Ca2+-insensitive myosin light chain kinase is added at low Ca2+ (10(-8) M), the regulatory light chains of myosin become rapidly phosphorylated. Phosphorylation is accompanied by potentiation of the actin activation of the myosin Mg- ATPase activity and by loss of order of the helical crossbridge arrangement characteristic of the relaxed filament. We suggest that in the relaxed state, when the regulatory light chains are not phosphorylated, the myosin heads are held down on the filament backbone by head-head interactions or by interactions of the heads with the filament backbone. Phosphorylation of the light chains may alter these interactions so that the crossbridges become more loosely associated with the filament backbone giving rise to the observed changes and facilitating crossbridge interaction with actin. PMID:2958483

  1. Immunogenicity and Protective Efficacy of Brugia malayi Heavy Chain Myosin as Homologous DNA, Protein and Heterologous DNA/Protein Prime Boost Vaccine in Rodent Model

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Jyoti; Pathak, Manisha; Misra, Sweta; Misra-Bhattacharya, Shailja

    2015-01-01

    We earlier demonstrated the immunoprophylactic efficacy of recombinant heavy chain myosin (Bm-Myo) of Brugia malayi (B. malayi) in rodent models. In the current study, further attempts have been made to improve this efficacy by employing alternate approaches such as homologous DNA (pcD-Myo) and heterologous DNA/protein prime boost (pcD-Myo+Bm-Myo) in BALB/c mouse model. The gene bm-myo was cloned in a mammalian expression vector pcDNA 3.1(+) and protein expression was confirmed in mammalian Vero cell line. A significant degree of protection (79.2%±2.32) against L3 challenge in pcD-Myo+Bm-Myo immunized group was observed which was much higher than that exerted by Bm-Myo (66.6%±2.23) and pcD-Myo (41.6%±2.45). In the heterologous immunized group, the percentage of peritoneal leukocytes such as macrophages, neutrophils, B cells and T cells marginally increased and their population augmented further significantly following L3 challenge. pcD-Myo+Bm-Myo immunization elicited robust cellular and humoral immune responses as compared to pcD-Myo and Bm-Myo groups as evidenced by an increased accumulation of CD4+, CD8+ T cells and CD19+ B cells in the mouse spleen and activation of peritoneal macrophages. Though immunized animals produced antigen-specific IgG antibodies and isotypes, sera of mice receiving pcD-Myo+Bm-Myo or Bm-Myo developed much higher antibody levels than other groups and there was profound antibody-dependent cellular adhesion and cytotoxicity (ADCC) to B. malayi infective larvae (L3). pcD-Myo+Bm-Myo as well as Bm-Myo mice generated a mixed T helper cell phenotype as evidenced by the production of both pro-inflammatory (IL-2, IFN-γ) and anti-inflammatory (IL-4, IL-10) cytokines. Mice receiving pcD-Myo on contrary displayed a polarized pro-inflammatory immune response. The findings suggest that the priming of animals with DNA followed by protein booster generates heightened and mixed pro- and anti-inflammatory immune responses that are capable of providing

  2. Immunogenicity and Protective Efficacy of Brugia malayi Heavy Chain Myosin as Homologous DNA, Protein and Heterologous DNA/Protein Prime Boost Vaccine in Rodent Model.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Jyoti; Pathak, Manisha; Misra, Sweta; Misra-Bhattacharya, Shailja

    2015-01-01

    We earlier demonstrated the immunoprophylactic efficacy of recombinant heavy chain myosin (Bm-Myo) of Brugia malayi (B. malayi) in rodent models. In the current study, further attempts have been made to improve this efficacy by employing alternate approaches such as homologous DNA (pcD-Myo) and heterologous DNA/protein prime boost (pcD-Myo+Bm-Myo) in BALB/c mouse model. The gene bm-myo was cloned in a mammalian expression vector pcDNA 3.1(+) and protein expression was confirmed in mammalian Vero cell line. A significant degree of protection (79.2%±2.32) against L3 challenge in pcD-Myo+Bm-Myo immunized group was observed which was much higher than that exerted by Bm-Myo (66.6%±2.23) and pcD-Myo (41.6%±2.45). In the heterologous immunized group, the percentage of peritoneal leukocytes such as macrophages, neutrophils, B cells and T cells marginally increased and their population augmented further significantly following L3 challenge. pcD-Myo+Bm-Myo immunization elicited robust cellular and humoral immune responses as compared to pcD-Myo and Bm-Myo groups as evidenced by an increased accumulation of CD4+, CD8+ T cells and CD19+ B cells in the mouse spleen and activation of peritoneal macrophages. Though immunized animals produced antigen-specific IgG antibodies and isotypes, sera of mice receiving pcD-Myo+Bm-Myo or Bm-Myo developed much higher antibody levels than other groups and there was profound antibody-dependent cellular adhesion and cytotoxicity (ADCC) to B. malayi infective larvae (L3). pcD-Myo+Bm-Myo as well as Bm-Myo mice generated a mixed T helper cell phenotype as evidenced by the production of both pro-inflammatory (IL-2, IFN-γ) and anti-inflammatory (IL-4, IL-10) cytokines. Mice receiving pcD-Myo on contrary displayed a polarized pro-inflammatory immune response. The findings suggest that the priming of animals with DNA followed by protein booster generates heightened and mixed pro- and anti-inflammatory immune responses that are capable of providing

  3. UV-induced vanadate-dependent modification and cleavage of skeletal myosin subfragment 1 heavy chain. 1. Evidence for active site modification

    SciTech Connect

    Grammer, J.C.; Cremo, C.R.; Yount, R.G.

    1988-11-01

    Ultraviolet irradiation above 300 nm of the stable MgADP-orthovanadate (V/sub i/)-myosin subfragment 1(S1) complex resulted in covalent modification of the S1 and in the rapid release of trapped MgADP and V/sub i/. This photomodified S1 had Ca/sup 2 +/ATPase activity 4-5-fold higher than that of the nonirradiated control S1, while the K/sup +/EDTA-ATPase activity was below 10% of controls. There was a linear correlation between the activation of the Ca/sup 2 +/ATPase and the release of both ADP and V/sub i/ with irradiation time. Analysis of the total number of thiols and the ability of photomodified S1 to retrap MgADP by cross-linking SH1 and SH2 with various bifunctional thiols reagents indicated that the photomodification did not involve these reactive thiols. Irradiation of the S1-MgADP-V/sub i/ complex caused a large increase in absorbance of the enzyme at 270 nm which was correlated with the release of V/sub i/ from the active site, suggesting an aromatic amino acid(s) was (were) involved. However, analysis by three different methods showed no loss of tryptophan. All the irradiation-dependent phenomena could be prevented by replacing Mg/sup 2 +/ with either Co/sup 2 +/, Mn/sup 2 +/, or Ni/sup 2 +/. Unlike previous irradiation studies of V/sub i/-dynein complexes, no peptide bonds were cleaved in photomodified S1. Photomodified S1 was able to retrap MgADP-V/sub i/ at levels similar to unmodified S1. Upon irradiation of the photomodified S1-MgADP-V/sub i/ complex, MgADP and V/sub i/ were again released from the active site, resulting in heavy chain cleavage to form NH/sub 2/-terminal 21-kDa and COOH-terminal 74-kDa peptides. All evidence indicates that this new photomodification and subsequent chain cleavage occur specifically at the active site.

  4. Tropomyosin movement on F-actin during muscle activation explained by energy landscapes.

    PubMed

    Orzechowski, Marek; Moore, Jeffrey R; Fischer, Stefan; Lehman, William

    2014-03-01

    Muscle contraction is regulated by tropomyosin movement across the thin filament surface, which exposes or blocks myosin-binding sites on actin. Recent atomic structures of F-actin-tropomyosin have yielded the positions of tropomyosin on myosin-free and myosin-decorated actin. Here, the repositioning of α-tropomyosin between these locations on F-actin was systematically examined by optimizing the energy of the complex for a wide range of tropomyosin positions on F-actin. The resulting energy landscape provides a full-map of the F-actin surface preferred by tropomyosin, revealing a broad energy basin associated with the tropomyosin position that blocks myosin-binding. This is consistent with previously proposed low-energy oscillations of semi-rigid tropomyosin, necessary for shifting of tropomyosin following troponin-binding. In contrast, the landscape shows much less favorable energies when tropomyosin locates near its myosin-induced "open-state" position. This indicates that spontaneous movement of tropomyosin away from its energetic "ground-state" to the open-state is unlikely in absence of myosin. Instead, myosin-binding must drive tropomyosin toward the open-state to activate the thin filament. Additional energy landscapes were computed for disease-causing actin mutants that distort the topology of the actin-tropomyosin energy landscape, explaining their phenotypes. Thus, the computation of such energy landscapes offers a sensitive way to estimate the impact of mutations.

  5. Myosin 18A coassembles with nonmuscle myosin 2 to form mixed bipolar filaments.

    PubMed

    Billington, Neil; Beach, Jordan R; Heissler, Sarah M; Remmert, Kirsten; Guzik-Lendrum, Stephanie; Nagy, Attila; Takagi, Yasuharu; Shao, Lin; Li, Dong; Yang, Yi; Zhang, Yingfan; Barzik, Melanie; Betzig, Eric; Hammer, John A; Sellers, James R

    2015-03-30

    Class-18 myosins are most closely related to conventional class-2 nonmuscle myosins (NM2). Surprisingly, the purified head domains of Drosophila, mouse, and human myosin 18A (M18A) lack actin-activated ATPase activity and the ability to translocate actin filaments, suggesting that the functions of M18A in vivo do not depend on intrinsic motor activity. M18A has the longest coiled coil of any myosin outside of the class-2 myosins, suggesting that it might form bipolar filaments similar to conventional myosins. To address this possibility, we expressed and purified full-length mouse M18A using the baculovirus/Sf9 system. M18A did not form large bipolar filaments under any of the conditions tested. Instead, M18A formed an ∼ 65-nm-long bipolar structure with two heads at each end. Importantly, when NM2 was polymerized in the presence of M18A, the two myosins formed mixed bipolar filaments, as evidenced by cosedimentation, electron microscopy, and single-molecule imaging. Moreover, super-resolution imaging of NM2 and M18A using fluorescently tagged proteins and immunostaining of endogenous proteins showed that NM2 and M18A are present together within individual filaments inside living cells. Together, our in vitro and live-cell imaging data argue strongly that M18A coassembles with NM2 into mixed bipolar filaments. M18A could regulate the biophysical properties of these filaments and, by virtue of its extra N- and C-terminal domains, determine the localization and/or molecular interactions of the filaments. Given the numerous, fundamental cellular and developmental roles attributed to NM2, our results have far-reaching biological implications.

  6. Impacts of Usher Syndrome Type IB Mutations on Human Myosin VIIa Motor Function†

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, Shinya; Umeki, Nobuhisa; Ikebe, Reiko; Ikebe, Mitsuo

    2010-01-01

    Usher syndrome (USH) is a human hereditary disorder characterized by profound congenital deafness, retinitis pigmentosa and vestibular dysfunction. Myosin VIIa has been identified as the responsible gene for USH type 1B, and a number of missense mutations have been identified in the affected families. However, the molecular basis of the dysfunction of USH gene, myosin VIIa, in the affected families is unknown to date. Here we clarified the effects of USH1B mutations on human myosin VIIa motor function for the first time. The missense mutations of USH1B significantly inhibited the actin activation of ATPase activity of myosin VIIa. G25R, R212C, A397D and E450Q mutations abolished the actin-activated ATPase activity completely. P503L mutation increased the basal ATPase activity for 2-3 fold, but reduced the actin-activated ATPase activity to 50% of the wild type. While all the mutations examined, except for R302H, reduced the affinity for actin and the ATP hydrolysis cycling rate, they did not largely decrease the rate of ADP release from acto-myosin, suggesting that the mutations reduce the duty ratio of myosin VIIa. Taken together, the results suggest that the mutations responsible for USH1B cause the complete loss of the actin-activated ATPase activity or the reduction of duty ratio of myosin VIIa. PMID:18700726

  7. Unique charge distribution in surface loops confers high velocity on the fast motor protein Chara myosin.

    PubMed

    Ito, Kohji; Yamaguchi, Yukie; Yanase, Kenji; Ichikawa, Yousuke; Yamamoto, Keiichi

    2009-12-22

    Most myosins have a positively charged loop 2 with a cluster of lysine residues that bind to the negatively charged N-terminal segment of actin. However, the net charge of loop 2 of very fast Chara myosin is zero and there is no lysine cluster in it. In contrast, Chara myosin has a highly positively charged loop 3. To elucidate the role of these unique surface loops of Chara myosin in its high velocity and high actin-activated ATPase activity, we have undertaken mutational analysis using recombinant Chara myosin motor domain. It was found that net positive charge in loop 3 affected V(max) and K(app) of actin activated ATPase activity, while it affected the velocity only slightly. The net positive charge in loop 2 affected K(app) and the velocity, although it did not affect V(max). Our results suggested that Chara myosin has evolved to have highly positively charged loop 3 for its high ATPase activity and have less positively charged loop 2 for its high velocity. Since high positive charge in loop 3 and low positive charge in loop 2 seem to be one of the reasons for Chara myosin's high velocity, we manipulated charge contents in loops 2 and 3 of Dictyostelium myosin (class II). Removing positive charge from loop 2 and adding positive charge to loop 3 of Dictyostelium myosin made its velocity higher than that of the wild type, suggesting that the charge strategy in loops 2 and 3 is widely applicable.

  8. Actin-crosslinking protein regulation of filament movement in motility assays: a theoretical model.

    PubMed Central

    Janson, L W; Taylor, D L

    1994-01-01

    The interaction of single actin filaments on a myosin-coated coverslip has been modeled by several authors. One model adds a component of "frictional drag" by myosin heads that oppose movement of the actin filaments. We have extended this concept by including the resistive drag from actin crosslinking proteins to understand better the relationship among crosslinking number, actin-myosin force generation, and motility. The validity of this model is supported by agreement with the experimental results from a previous study in which crosslinking proteins were added with myosin molecules under otherwise standard motility assay conditions. The theoretical relationship provides a means to determine many physical parameters that characterize the interaction between a single actin filament and a single actin-crosslinking molecule (various types). In particular, the force constant of a single filamin molecule is calculated as 1.105 pN, approximately 3 times less than a driving myosin head (3.4 pN). Knowledge of this parameter and others derived from this model allows a better understanding of the interaction between myosin and the actin/actin-binding protein cytoskeleton and the role of actin-binding proteins in the regulation and modulation of motility. PMID:7811954

  9. Bending Flexibility of Actin Filaments during Motor-Induced Sliding

    PubMed Central

    Vikhorev, Petr G.; Vikhoreva, Natalia N.; Månsson, Alf

    2008-01-01

    Muscle contraction and other forms of cell motility occur as a result of cyclic interactions between myosin molecules and actin filaments. Force generation is generally attributed to ATP-driven structural changes in myosin, whereas a passive role is ascribed to actin. However, some results challenge this view, predicting structural changes in actin during motor activity, e.g., when the actin filaments slide on a myosin-coated surface in vitro. Here, we analyzed statistical properties of the sliding filament paths, allowing us to detect changes of this type. It is interesting to note that evidence for substantial structural changes that led to increased bending flexibility of the filaments was found in phalloidin-stabilized, but not in phalloidin-free, actin filaments. The results are in accordance with the idea that a high-flexibility structural state of actin is a prerequisite for force production, but not the idea that a low-to-high flexibility transition of the actin filament should be an important component of the force-generating step per se. Finally, our data challenge the general view that phalloidin-stabilized filaments behave as native actin filaments in their interaction with myosin. This has important implications, since phalloidin stabilization is a routine procedure in most studies of actomyosin function. PMID:18835897

  10. Globular tail of myosin-V is bound to vamp/synaptobrevin.

    PubMed

    Ohyama, A; Komiya, Y; Igarashi, M

    2001-02-01

    VAMP/synaptobrevin is one of a number of v-SNAREs involved in vesicular fusion events in neurons. In a previous report, VAMP was shown to form a complex with synaptophysin and myosin V, a motor protein based on the F-actin, and that myosin V was then released from the complex in a Ca(2+)-dependent manner. Here, we found that VAMP alone is bound to myosin V in a Ca(2+)-independent manner, and determined that the globular tail domain of myosin V is its binding site. The syntaxin-VAMP-myosin V formed in the presence of Ca(2+)/calmodulin (CaM). In the absence of CaM, only syntaxin-VAMP, or VAMP-myosin V complex was formed. Our results suggest that VAMP acts as a myosin V receptor on the vesicles and regulates formation of the complex.

  11. In vivo myosin step-size from zebrafish skeletal muscle

    PubMed Central

    Ajtai, Katalin; Sun, Xiaojing; Takubo, Naoko; Wang, Yihua

    2016-01-01

    Muscle myosins transduce ATP free energy into actin displacement to power contraction. In vivo, myosin side chains are modified post-translationally under native conditions, potentially impacting function. Single myosin detection provides the ‘bottom-up’ myosin characterization probing basic mechanisms without ambiguities inherent to ensemble observation. Macroscopic muscle physiological experimentation provides the definitive ‘top-down’ phenotype characterizations that are the concerns in translational medicine. In vivo single myosin detection in muscle from zebrafish embryo models for human muscle fulfils ambitions for both bottom-up and top-down experimentation. A photoactivatable green fluorescent protein (GFP)-tagged myosin light chain expressed in transgenic zebrafish skeletal muscle specifically modifies the myosin lever-arm. Strychnine induces the simultaneous contraction of the bilateral tail muscles in a live embryo, causing them to be isometric while active. Highly inclined thin illumination excites the GFP tag of single lever-arms and its super-resolution orientation is measured from an active isometric muscle over a time sequence covering many transduction cycles. Consecutive frame lever-arm angular displacement converts to step-size by its product with the estimated lever-arm length. About 17% of the active myosin steps that fall between 2 and 7 nm are implicated as powerstrokes because they are beyond displacements detected from either relaxed or ATP-depleted (rigor) muscle. PMID:27249818

  12. In vivo myosin step-size from zebrafish skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Burghardt, Thomas P; Ajtai, Katalin; Sun, Xiaojing; Takubo, Naoko; Wang, Yihua

    2016-05-01

    Muscle myosins transduce ATP free energy into actin displacement to power contraction. In vivo, myosin side chains are modified post-translationally under native conditions, potentially impacting function. Single myosin detection provides the 'bottom-up' myosin characterization probing basic mechanisms without ambiguities inherent to ensemble observation. Macroscopic muscle physiological experimentation provides the definitive 'top-down' phenotype characterizations that are the concerns in translational medicine. In vivo single myosin detection in muscle from zebrafish embryo models for human muscle fulfils ambitions for both bottom-up and top-down experimentation. A photoactivatable green fluorescent protein (GFP)-tagged myosin light chain expressed in transgenic zebrafish skeletal muscle specifically modifies the myosin lever-arm. Strychnine induces the simultaneous contraction of the bilateral tail muscles in a live embryo, causing them to be isometric while active. Highly inclined thin illumination excites the GFP tag of single lever-arms and its super-resolution orientation is measured from an active isometric muscle over a time sequence covering many transduction cycles. Consecutive frame lever-arm angular displacement converts to step-size by its product with the estimated lever-arm length. About 17% of the active myosin steps that fall between 2 and 7 nm are implicated as powerstrokes because they are beyond displacements detected from either relaxed or ATP-depleted (rigor) muscle. PMID:27249818

  13. Cell-scale dynamic recycling and cortical flow of the actin–myosin cytoskeleton for rapid cell migration

    PubMed Central

    Yumura, Shigehiko; Itoh, Go; Kikuta, Yumi; Kikuchi, Takeomi; Kitanishi-Yumura, Toshiko; Tsujioka, Masatsune

    2013-01-01

    Summary Actin and myosin II play major roles in cell migration. Whereas pseudopod extension by actin polymerization has been intensively researched, less attention has been paid to how the rest of the actin cytoskeleton such as the actin cortex contributes to cell migration. In this study, cortical actin and myosin II filaments were simultaneously observed in migrating Dictyostelium cells under total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy. The cortical actin and myosin II filaments remained stationary with respect to the substratum as the cells advanced. However, fluorescence recovery after photobleaching experiments and direct observation of filaments showed that they rapidly turned over. When the cells were detached from the substratum, the actin and myosin filaments displayed a vigorous retrograde flow. Thus, when the cells migrate on the substratum, the cortical cytoskeleton firmly holds the substratum to generate the motive force instead. The present studies also demonstrate how myosin II localizes to the rear region of the migrating cells. The observed dynamic turnover of actin and myosin II filaments contributes to the recycling of their subunits across the whole cell and enables rapid reorganization of the cytoskeleton. PMID:23430058

  14. Motility assays using myosin attached to surfaces through specific binding to monoclonal antibodies.

    PubMed Central

    Winkelmann, D. A.; Bourdieu, L.; Kinose, F.; Libchaber, A.

    1995-01-01

    We have analyzed the dependence of actin filament movement on the mode of myosin attachment to surfaces. Monoclonal antibodies that bind to three distinct sites were used to tether myosin to nitrocellulose-coated glass. One antibody reacts with an epitope on the regulatory light chain located at the head-rod junction. The other two react with sites in the rod domain, one in the S2 region near the S2-LMM hinge, and the other at the C terminus of the myosin rod. These monoclonal antibodies were used to provide increasing flexibility in the mode of attachment. Fast skeletal muscle myosin monomers were bound to the surfaces through the specific interaction with these monoclonal antibodies and the sliding movement of fluorescently labeled actin filaments analyzed by video microscopy. Each of these antibodies produced stable, myosin-coated surfaces that supported uniform movement of actin over the course of several hours. Attachment of myosin through the anti-S2 and anti-LMM monoclonal antibodies yielded a maximum velocity of 10 microns/s at 30 degrees C, whereas attachment through anti-LC2 produced a lower velocity of 4-5 microns/s. Each antibody showed a characteristic minimum myosin density below which sliding movement was no longer supported and an exponential dependence of actin filament velocity on myosin surface density below Vmax. Maximum sliding velocity was achieved over a range of myosin surface densities. Thus, the specific mode of attachment can influence the characteristic velocity of actin filament movement and the surface density needed to support movement. These data are being used to analyze the dynamics of sliding filament assays and evaluate estimates of the average number of motor molecules per unit length of actin required to support movement. PMID:7787107

  15. Motility assays using myosin attached to surfaces through specific binding to monoclonal antibodies.

    PubMed

    Winkelmann, D A; Bourdieu, L; Kinose, F; Libchaber, A

    1995-04-01

    We have analyzed the dependence of actin filament movement on the mode of myosin attachment to surfaces. Monoclonal antibodies that bind to three distinct sites were used to tether myosin to nitrocellulose-coated glass. One antibody reacts with an epitope on the regulatory light chain located at the head-rod junction. The other two react with sites in the rod domain, one in the S2 region near the S2-LMM hinge, and the other at the C terminus of the myosin rod. These monoclonal antibodies were used to provide increasing flexibility in the mode of attachment. Fast skeletal muscle myosin monomers were bound to the surfaces through the specific interaction with these monoclonal antibodies and the sliding movement of fluorescently labeled actin filaments analyzed by video microscopy. Each of these antibodies produced stable, myosin-coated surfaces that supported uniform movement of actin over the course of several hours. Attachment of myosin through the anti-S2 and anti-LMM monoclonal antibodies yielded a maximum velocity of 10 microns/s at 30 degrees C, whereas attachment through anti-LC2 produced a lower velocity of 4-5 microns/s. Each antibody showed a characteristic minimum myosin density below which sliding movement was no longer supported and an exponential dependence of actin filament velocity on myosin surface density below Vmax. Maximum sliding velocity was achieved over a range of myosin surface densities. Thus, the specific mode of attachment can influence the characteristic velocity of actin filament movement and the surface density needed to support movement. These data are being used to analyze the dynamics of sliding filament assays and evaluate estimates of the average number of motor molecules per unit length of actin required to support movement.

  16. Kinetic characterization of the sole nonmuscle myosin-2 from the model organism Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Heissler, Sarah M; Chinthalapudi, Krishna; Sellers, James R

    2015-04-01

    Nonmuscle myosin-2 is the primary enzyme complex powering contractility of the F-actin cytoskeleton in the model organism Drosophila. Despite myosin's essential function in fly development and homeostasis, its kinetic features remain elusive. The purpose of this in vitro study is a detailed steady-state and presteady-state kinetic characterization of the Drosophila nonmuscle myosin-2 motor domain. Kinetic features are a slow steady-state ATPase activity, high affinities for F-actin and ADP, and a low duty ratio. Comparative analysis of the overall enzymatic signatures across the nonmuscle myosin-2 complement from model organisms indicates that the Drosophila protein resembles nonmuscle myosin-2s from metazoa rather than protozoa, though modulatory aspects of myosin motor function are distinct. Drosophila nonmuscle myosin-2 is uniquely insensitive toward blebbistatin, a commonly used myosin-2 inhibitor. An in silico modeling approach together with kinetic studies indicate that the nonconsensus amino acid Met466 in the Drosophila nonmuscle myosin-2 active-site loop switch-2 acts as blebbistatin desensitizer. Introduction of the M466I mutation sensitized the protein for blebbistatin, resulting in a half-maximal inhibitory concentration of 36.3 ± 4.1 µM. Together, these data show that Drosophila nonmuscle myosin-2 is a bona fide molecular motor and establish an important link between switch-2 and blebbistatin sensitivity.

  17. Direct Measurements of Local Coupling between Myosin Molecules Are Consistent with a Model of Muscle Activation

    PubMed Central

    Walcott, Sam; Kad, Neil M.

    2015-01-01

    Muscle contracts due to ATP-dependent interactions of myosin motors with thin filaments composed of the proteins actin, troponin, and tropomyosin. Contraction is initiated when calcium binds to troponin, which changes conformation and displaces tropomyosin, a filamentous protein that wraps around the actin filament, thereby exposing myosin binding sites on actin. Myosin motors interact with each other indirectly via tropomyosin, since myosin binding to actin locally displaces tropomyosin and thereby facilitates binding of nearby myosin. Defining and modeling this local coupling between myosin motors is an open problem in muscle modeling and, more broadly, a requirement to understanding the connection between muscle contraction at the molecular and macro scale. It is challenging to directly observe this coupling, and such measurements have only recently been made. Analysis of these data suggests that two myosin heads are required to activate the thin filament. This result contrasts with a theoretical model, which reproduces several indirect measurements of coupling between myosin, that assumes a single myosin head can activate the thin filament. To understand this apparent discrepancy, we incorporated the model into stochastic simulations of the experiments, which generated simulated data that were then analyzed identically to the experimental measurements. By varying a single parameter, good agreement between simulation and experiment was established. The conclusion that two myosin molecules are required to activate the thin filament arises from an assumption, made during data analysis, that the intensity of the fluorescent tags attached to myosin varies depending on experimental condition. We provide an alternative explanation that reconciles theory and experiment without assuming that the intensity of the fluorescent tags varies. PMID:26536123

  18. Purification and Characterization of Actin from Maize Pollen 1

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xiong; Yen, Lung-Fei

    1992-01-01

    Pollen is an excellent source of actin for biochemical and physiological studies of the actomyosin system in higher plants. We have developed an efficient method to prepare relatively high levels of actin from the pollen of maize (Zea mays L.). The procedures of purification include acetone powder preparation, saturated ammonium sulfate fractionation, diethylaminoethyl-cellulose chromatography, a cycle of polymerization-depolymerization, and Sephacryl S-200 gel filtration. The average yield of actin is 19 milligrams per 100 grams of pollen grains extracted. This is comparable with those of Acanthamoeba castellanii and human platelets. The purified pollen actin is electrophoretically homogeneous and its molecular mass is 42 kilodaltons. The amino acid composition and circular dichroism spectrum of pollen actin are identical to those of muscle actin. The actin purified from pollen is able to polymerize to F-actin. The pollen F-actin activated the activity of the muscle myosin ATPase sevenfold. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2 PMID:16668982

  19. Myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) regulates cell migration in a myosin regulatory light chain phosphorylation-independent mechanism.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chen; Tao, Tao; Wen, Cheng; He, Wei-Qi; Qiao, Yan-Ning; Gao, Yun-Qian; Chen, Xin; Wang, Pei; Chen, Cai-Ping; Zhao, Wei; Chen, Hua-Qun; Ye, An-Pei; Peng, Ya-Jing; Zhu, Min-Sheng

    2014-10-10

    Myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) has long been implicated in the myosin phosphorylation and force generation required for cell migration. Here, we surprisingly found that the deletion of MLCK resulted in fast cell migration, enhanced protrusion formation, and no alteration of myosin light chain phosphorylation. The mutant cells showed reduced membrane tether force and fewer membrane F-actin filaments. This phenotype was rescued by either kinase-dead MLCK or five-DFRXXL motif, a MLCK fragment with potent F-actin-binding activity. Pull-down and co-immunoprecipitation assays showed that the absence of MLCK led to attenuated formation of transmembrane complexes, including myosin II, integrins and fibronectin. We suggest that MLCK is not required for myosin phosphorylation in a migrating cell. A critical role of MLCK in cell migration involves regulating the cell membrane tension and protrusion necessary for migration, thereby stabilizing the membrane skeleton through F-actin-binding activity. This finding sheds light on a novel regulatory mechanism of protrusion during cell migration.

  20. Regulation and function of the fission yeast myosins.

    PubMed

    East, Daniel A; Mulvihill, Daniel P

    2011-05-01

    It is now quarter of a century since the actin cytoskeleton was first described in the fission yeast, Schizosaccharomyces pombe. Since then, a substantial body of research has been undertaken on this tractable model organism, extending our knowledge of the organisation and function of the actomyosin cytoskeleton in fission yeast and eukaryotes in general. Yeast represents one of the simplest eukaryotic model systems that has been characterised to date, and its genome encodes genes for homologues of the majority of actin regulators and actin-binding proteins found in metazoan cells. The ease with which diverse methodologies can be used, together with the small number of myosins, makes fission yeast an attractive model system for actomyosin research and provides the opportunity to fully understand the biochemical and functional characteristics of all myosins within a single cell type. In this Commentary, we examine the differences between the five S. pombe myosins, and focus on how these reflect the diversity of their functions. We go on to examine the role that the actin cytoskeleton plays in regulating the myosin motor activity and function, and finally explore how research in this simple unicellular organism is providing insights into the substantial impacts these motors can have on development and viability in multicellular higher-order eukaryotes. PMID:21502135

  1. Leveraging the membrane-cytoskeleton interface with myosin-1

    PubMed Central

    McConnell, Russell E.; Tyska, Matthew J.

    2010-01-01

    Class 1 myosins are small motor proteins with the ability to simultaneously bind to actin filaments and cellular membranes. Given their ability to generate mechanical force, and their high prevalence in many cell types, these molecules are well positioned to carry out a number of important biological functions at the interface of membrane and the actin cytoskeleton. Indeed, recent studies implicate these motors in endocytosis, exocytosis, release of extracellular vesicles, and the regulation of tension between membrane and the cytoskeleton. Many class 1 myosins also exhibit a load-dependent mechano-chemical cycle that enables them to maintain tension for long periods of time without hydrolyzing ATP. These properties put myosins-1 in a unique position to regulate dynamic membrane-cytoskeleton interactions and respond to physical forces during these events. PMID:20471271

  2. Approaches to myosin modelling in a two-phase flow model for cell motility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kimpton, L. S.; Whiteley, J. P.; Waters, S. L.; Oliver, J. M.

    2016-04-01

    A wide range of biological processes rely on the ability of cells to move through their environment. Mathematical models have been developed to improve our understanding of how cells achieve motion. Here we develop models that explicitly track the cell's distribution of myosin within a two-phase flow framework. Myosin is a small motor protein which is important for contracting the cell's actin cytoskeleton and enabling cell motion. The two phases represent the actin network and the cytosol in the cell. We start from a fairly general description of myosin kinetics, advection and diffusion in the two-phase flow framework, then identify a number of sub-limits of the model that may be relevant in practice, two of which we investigate further via linear stability analyses and numerical simulations. We demonstrate that myosin-driven contraction of the actin network destabilizes a stationary steady state leading to cell motion, but that rapid diffusion of myosin and rapid unbinding of myosin from the actin network are stabilizing. We use numerical simulation to investigate travelling-wave solutions relevant to a steadily gliding cell and we consider a reduction of the model in which the cell adheres strongly to the substrate on which it is crawling. This work demonstrates that a number of existing models for the effect of myosin on cell motility can be understood as different sub-limits of our two-phase flow model.

  3. Overexpression of Smooth Muscle Myosin Heavy Chain Leads to Activation of the Unfolded Protein Response and Autophagic Turnover of Thick Filament-associated Proteins in Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells*

    PubMed Central

    Kwartler, Callie S.; Chen, Jiyuan; Thakur, Dhananjay; Li, Shumin; Baskin, Kedryn; Wang, Shanzhi; Wang, Zhao V.; Walker, Lori; Hill, Joseph A.; Epstein, Henry F.; Taegtmeyer, Heinrich; Milewicz, Dianna M.

    2014-01-01

    Duplications spanning nine genes at the genomic locus 16p13.1 predispose individuals to acute aortic dissections. The most likely candidate gene in this region leading to the predisposition for dissection is MYH11, which encodes smooth muscle myosin heavy chain (SM-MHC). The effects of increased expression of MYH11 on smooth muscle cell (SMC) phenotypes were explored using mouse aortic SMCs with transgenic overexpression of one isoform of SM-MHC. We found that these cells show increased expression of Myh11 and myosin filament-associated contractile genes at the message level when compared with control SMCs, but not at the protein level due to increased protein degradation. Increased expression of Myh11 resulted in endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in SMCs, which led to a paradoxical decrease of protein levels through increased autophagic degradation. An additional consequence of ER stress in SMCs was increased intracellular calcium ion concentration, resulting in increased contractile signaling and contraction. The increased signals for contraction further promote transcription of contractile genes, leading to a feedback loop of metabolic abnormalities in these SMCs. We suggest that overexpression of MYH11 can lead to increased ER stress and autophagy, findings that may be globally implicated in disease processes associated with genomic duplications. PMID:24711452

  4. Tension Recovery following Ramp-Shaped Release in High-Ca and Low-Ca Rigor Muscle Fibers: Evidence for the Dynamic State of AMADP Myosin Heads in the Absence of ATP.

    PubMed

    Sugi, Haruo; Yamaguchi, Maki; Ohno, Tetsuo; Kobayashi, Takakazu; Chaen, Shigeru; Okuyama, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    During muscle contraction, myosin heads (M) bound to actin (A) perform power stroke associated with reaction, AMADPPi → AM + ADP + Pi. In this scheme, A • M is believed to be a high-affinity complex after removal of ATP. Biochemical studies on extracted protein samples show that, in the AM complex, actin-binding sites are located at both sides of junctional peptide between 50K and 20K segments of myosin heavy chain. Recently, we found that a monoclonal antibody (IgG) to the junctional peptide had no effect on both in vitro actin-myosin sliding and skinned muscle fiber contraction, though it covers the actin-binding sites on myosin. It follows from this that, during muscle contraction, myosin heads do not pass through the static rigor AM configuration, determined biochemically and electron microscopically using extracted protein samples. To study the nature of AM and AMADP myosin heads, actually existing in muscle, we examined mechanical responses to ramp-shaped releases (0.5% of Lo, complete in 5ms) in single skinned rabbit psoas muscle fibers in high-Ca (pCa, 4) and low-Ca (pCa, >9) rigor states. The fibers exhibited initial elastic tension drop and subsequent small but definite tension recovery to a steady level. The tension recovery was present over many minutes in high-Ca rigor fibers, while it tended to decrease quickly in low-Ca rigor fibers. EDTA (10mM, with MgCl2 removed) had no appreciable effect on the tension recovery in high-Ca rigor fibers, while it completely eliminated the tension recovery in low-Ca rigor fibers. These results suggest that the AMADP myosin heads in rigor muscle have long lifetimes and dynamic properties, which show up as the tension recovery following applied release. Possible AM linkage structure in muscle is discussed in connection with the X-ray diffraction pattern from contracting muscle, which is intermediate between resting and rigor muscles. PMID:27583360

  5. Tension Recovery following Ramp-Shaped Release in High-Ca and Low-Ca Rigor Muscle Fibers: Evidence for the Dynamic State of AMADP Myosin Heads in the Absence of ATP.

    PubMed

    Sugi, Haruo; Yamaguchi, Maki; Ohno, Tetsuo; Kobayashi, Takakazu; Chaen, Shigeru; Okuyama, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    During muscle contraction, myosin heads (M) bound to actin (A) perform power stroke associated with reaction, AMADPPi → AM + ADP + Pi. In this scheme, A • M is believed to be a high-affinity complex after removal of ATP. Biochemical studies on extracted protein samples show that, in the AM complex, actin-binding sites are located at both sides of junctional peptide between 50K and 20K segments of myosin heavy chain. Recently, we found that a monoclonal antibody (IgG) to the junctional peptide had no effect on both in vitro actin-myosin sliding and skinned muscle fiber contraction, though it covers the actin-binding sites on myosin. It follows from this that, during muscle contraction, myosin heads do not pass through the static rigor AM configuration, determined biochemically and electron microscopically using extracted protein samples. To study the nature of AM and AMADP myosin heads, actually existing in muscle, we examined mechanical responses to ramp-shaped releases (0.5% of Lo, complete in 5ms) in single skinned rabbit psoas muscle fibers in high-Ca (pCa, 4) and low-Ca (pCa, >9) rigor states. The fibers exhibited initial elastic tension drop and subsequent small but definite tension recovery to a steady level. The tension recovery was present over many minutes in high-Ca rigor fibers, while it tended to decrease quickly in low-Ca rigor fibers. EDTA (10mM, with MgCl2 removed) had no appreciable effect on the tension recovery in high-Ca rigor fibers, while it completely eliminated the tension recovery in low-Ca rigor fibers. These results suggest that the AMADP myosin heads in rigor muscle have long lifetimes and dynamic properties, which show up as the tension recovery following applied release. Possible AM linkage structure in muscle is discussed in connection with the X-ray diffraction pattern from contracting muscle, which is intermediate between resting and rigor muscles.

  6. Tension Recovery following Ramp-Shaped Release in High-Ca and Low-Ca Rigor Muscle Fibers: Evidence for the Dynamic State of AMADP Myosin Heads in the Absence of ATP

    PubMed Central

    Sugi, Haruo; Yamaguchi, Maki; Ohno, Tetsuo; Kobayashi, Takakazu; Chaen, Shigeru; Okuyama, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    During muscle contraction, myosin heads (M) bound to actin (A) perform power stroke associated with reaction, AMADPPi → AM + ADP + Pi. In this scheme, A • M is believed to be a high-affinity complex after removal of ATP. Biochemical studies on extracted protein samples show that, in the AM complex, actin-binding sites are located at both sides of junctional peptide between 50K and 20K segments of myosin heavy chain. Recently, we found that a monoclonal antibody (IgG) to the junctional peptide had no effect on both in vitro actin-myosin sliding and skinned muscle fiber contraction, though it covers the actin-binding sites on myosin. It follows from this that, during muscle contraction, myosin heads do not pass through the static rigor AM configuration, determined biochemically and electron microscopically using extracted protein samples. To study the nature of AM and AMADP myosin heads, actually existing in muscle, we examined mechanical responses to ramp-shaped releases (0.5% of Lo, complete in 5ms) in single skinned rabbit psoas muscle fibers in high-Ca (pCa, 4) and low-Ca (pCa, >9) rigor states. The fibers exhibited initial elastic tension drop and subsequent small but definite tension recovery to a steady level. The tension recovery was present over many minutes in high-Ca rigor fibers, while it tended to decrease quickly in low-Ca rigor fibers. EDTA (10mM, with MgCl2 removed) had no appreciable effect on the tension recovery in high-Ca rigor fibers, while it completely eliminated the tension recovery in low-Ca rigor fibers. These results suggest that the AMADP myosin heads in rigor muscle have long lifetimes and dynamic properties, which show up as the tension recovery following applied release. Possible AM linkage structure in muscle is discussed in connection with the X-ray diffraction pattern from contracting muscle, which is intermediate between resting and rigor muscles. PMID:27583360

  7. Interhead fluorescence energy transfer between probes attached to translationally equivalent sites on the regulatory light chains of scallop myosin.

    PubMed

    Chantler, P D; Tao, T

    1986-11-01

    Interhead fluorescence energy transfer studies between probes located at translationally equivalent sites on the two heads of scallop myosin indicates that the distance between such sites is no less than 50 A. Regulatory light chains, possessing either one (Mercenaria, chicken gizzard) or two (Loligo, rabbit skeletal) sulfhydryl groups, were modified either with 1,5-IAEDANS (N'-iodoacetyl-N'-(1-sulfo-5-n-naphthyl)ethylenediamine), as energy transfer donor, or with IAF (5-(iodoacetamido)fluorescein) or DABMI (4-dimethylaminophenylazophenyl-4'-maleimide), as energy transfer acceptor. The sulfhydryl groups on these light chains are located at different positions within the regulatory light-chain primary sequence; this enables one to probe a variety of locations, with respect to regulatory light-chain topology, on each myosin head. These independently modified regulatory light chains were added back to desensitized scallop myosin under a variety of conditions, including biphasic re-addition, the aim being to maximize the number of interhead energy transfer couples present. The efficiency of energy transfer was determined on the same samples by both steady-state and time-decay techniques. Results obtained by these two techniques were in good agreement with each other and indicated that the efficiency of energy transfer did not exceed 20% in any of the hybrids studied. Transfer efficiencies were invariant, irrespective of the presence or absence of MgATP, calcium or actin, either separately or in combination. Results using heavy meromyosin at low ionic strength were identical. It is shown that these results, in conjunction with the results of recent crosslinking studies performed on comparable myosin hybrids, may place certain restrictions on the configurations of the two heads of myosin.

  8. Competition of two distinct actin networks for actin defines a bistable switch for cell polarization

    PubMed Central

    Lomakin, Alexis J.; Lee, Kun-Chun; Han, Sangyoon J.; Bui, D A.; Davidson, Michael; Mogilner, Alex; Danuser, Gaudenz

    2015-01-01

    Symmetry-breaking polarization enables functional plasticity of cells and tissues and is yet not well understood. Here we show that epithelial cells, hard-wired to maintain a static morphology and to preserve tissue organization, can spontaneously switch to a migratory polarized phenotype upon relaxation of the actomyosin cytoskeleton. We find that myosin-II engages actin in the formation of cortical actomyosin bundles and thus makes it unavailable for deployment in the process of dendritic growth normally driving cell motility. At low contractility regimes epithelial cells polarize in a front-back manner due to emergence of actin retrograde flows powered by dendritic polymerization of actin. Coupled to cell movement, the flows transport myosin-II from the front to the back of the cell, where the motor locally “locks” actin in contractile bundles. This polarization mechanism could be employed by embryonic and cancer epithelial cells in microenvironments where high contractility-driven cell motion is inefficient. PMID:26414403

  9. Modeling Hand-Over-Hand and Inchworm Steps in Myosin VI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jack, Amanda; Lowe, Ian; Tehver, Riina

    Myosin VI is a molecular motor protein that moves along actin filaments to transport cargo within a cell. There is much experimental evidence that the myosin VI dimer moves ``hand-over-hand'' along actin; however, recent experiments suggest that the protein can also move via an ``inchworm'' mechanism. We created a mechanochemical kinetic model to predict myosin VI's behavior under different ATP, ADP, and force conditions, taking these alternative mechanisms into account. Our model's calculations agree well with experimental results and can also be used to predict myosin VI's behavior outside experimentally tested regimes, such as under forward force. We also predict an optimized motor function for the protein around physiological (-2 pN) load and anchoring under -3 pN load. By using our model to predict myosin VI's response to environmental change, we can gain insight into the behavior of a protein that can be difficult to observe experimentally.

  10. A Myo6 Mutation Destroys Coordination between the Myosin Heads, Revealing New Functions of Myosin VI in the Stereocilia of Mammalian Inner Ear Hair Cells

    PubMed Central

    Dror, Amiel A.; Song, Lin; Ron, Uri; Tan, Joshua T.; Shitrit, Alina Starovolsky; Fuchs, Helmut; Hasson, Tama; Ben-Tal, Nir; Sweeney, H. Lee; de Angelis, Martin Hrabe; Steel, Karen P.; Avraham, Karen B.

    2008-01-01

    Myosin VI, found in organisms from Caenorhabditis elegans to humans, is essential for auditory and vestibular function in mammals, since genetic mutations lead to hearing impairment and vestibular dysfunction in both humans and mice. Here, we show that a missense mutation in this molecular motor in an ENU-generated mouse model, Tailchaser, disrupts myosin VI function. Structural changes in the Tailchaser hair bundles include mislocalization of the kinocilia and branching of stereocilia. Transfection of GFP-labeled myosin VI into epithelial cells and delivery of endocytic vesicles to the early endosome revealed that the mutant phenotype displays disrupted motor function. The actin-activated ATPase rates measured for the D179Y mutation are decreased, and indicate loss of coordination of the myosin VI heads or ‘gating’ in the dimer form. Proper coordination is required for walking processively along, or anchoring to, actin filaments, and is apparently destroyed by the proximity of the mutation to the nucleotide-binding pocket. This loss of myosin VI function may not allow myosin VI to transport its cargoes appropriately at the base and within the stereocilia, or to anchor the membrane of stereocilia to actin filaments via its cargos, both of which lead to structural changes in the stereocilia of myosin VI–impaired hair cells, and ultimately leading to deafness. PMID:18833301

  11. Still and rotating myosin clusters determine cytokinetic ring constriction.

    PubMed

    Wollrab, Viktoria; Thiagarajan, Raghavan; Wald, Anne; Kruse, Karsten; Riveline, Daniel

    2016-07-01

    The cytokinetic ring is essential for separating daughter cells during division. It consists of actin filaments and myosin motors that are generally assumed to organize as sarcomeres similar to skeletal muscles. However, direct evidence is lacking. Here we show that the internal organization and dynamics of rings are different from sarcomeres and distinct in different cell types. Using micro-cavities to orient rings in single focal planes, we find in mammalian cells a transition from a homogeneous distribution to a periodic pattern of myosin clusters at the onset of constriction. In contrast, in fission yeast, myosin clusters rotate prior to and during constriction. Theoretical analysis indicates that both patterns result from acto-myosin self-organization and reveals differences in the respective stresses. These findings suggest distinct functional roles for rings: contraction in mammalian cells and transport in fission yeast. Thus self-organization under different conditions may be a generic feature for regulating morphogenesis in vivo.

  12. Still and rotating myosin clusters determine cytokinetic ring constriction.

    PubMed

    Wollrab, Viktoria; Thiagarajan, Raghavan; Wald, Anne; Kruse, Karsten; Riveline, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    The cytokinetic ring is essential for separating daughter cells during division. It consists of actin filaments and myosin motors that are generally assumed to organize as sarcomeres similar to skeletal muscles. However, direct evidence is lacking. Here we show that the internal organization and dynamics of rings are different from sarcomeres and distinct in different cell types. Using micro-cavities to orient rings in single focal planes, we find in mammalian cells a transition from a homogeneous distribution to a periodic pattern of myosin clusters at the onset of constriction. In contrast, in fission yeast, myosin clusters rotate prior to and during constriction. Theoretical analysis indicates that both patterns result from acto-myosin self-organization and reveals differences in the respective stresses. These findings suggest distinct functional roles for rings: contraction in mammalian cells and transport in fission yeast. Thus self-organization under different conditions may be a generic feature for regulating morphogenesis in vivo. PMID:27363521

  13. Still and rotating myosin clusters determine cytokinetic ring constriction

    PubMed Central

    Wollrab, Viktoria; Thiagarajan, Raghavan; Wald, Anne; Kruse, Karsten; Riveline, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    The cytokinetic ring is essential for separating daughter cells during division. It consists of actin filaments and myosin motors that are generally assumed to organize as sarcomeres similar to skeletal muscles. However, direct evidence is lacking. Here we show that the internal organization and dynamics of rings are different from sarcomeres and distinct in different cell types. Using micro-cavities to orient rings in single focal planes, we find in mammalian cells a transition from a homogeneous distribution to a periodic pattern of myosin clusters at the onset of constriction. In contrast, in fission yeast, myosin clusters rotate prior to and during constriction. Theoretical analysis indicates that both patterns result from acto-myosin self-organization and reveals differences in the respective stresses. These findings suggest distinct functional roles for rings: contraction in mammalian cells and transport in fission yeast. Thus self-organization under different conditions may be a generic feature for regulating morphogenesis in vivo. PMID:27363521

  14. Axial disposition of myosin heads in isometrically contracting muscles.

    PubMed Central

    Juanhuix, J; Bordas, J; Campmany, J; Svensson, A; Bassford, M L; Narayanan, T

    2001-01-01

    Meridional x-ray diffraction diagrams, recorded with high angular resolution, from muscles contracting at the plateau of isometric tension show that the myosin diffraction orders are clusters of peaks. These clusters are due to pronounced interference effects between the myosin diffracting units on either side of the M-line. A theoretical analysis based on the polarity of the myosin (and actin) filaments shows that it is possible to extract phase information from which the axial disposition of the myosin heads can be determined. The results show that each head in a crown pair has a distinct structural disposition. It appears that only one of the heads in the pair stereospecifically interacts with the thin filament at any one time. PMID:11222303

  15. Heterogeneity of myofibrillar proteins in lobster fast and slow muscles: variants of troponin, paramyosin, and myosin light chains comprise four distinct protein assemblages

    SciTech Connect

    Mykles, D.L.

    1985-01-01

    Fast and slow muscles from the claws and abdomen of the American lobster Homarus americanus were examined for adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase) activity and for differences in myofibrillar proteins. Both myosin and actomyosin ATPase were correlated with fiber composition and contractile speed. Four distinct patterns of myofibrilla proteins observed in sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gels were distinguished by different assemblages of regulatory and contractile protein variants. A total of three species of troponin-T, five species of troponin-I, and three species of troponin-C were observed. Lobster myosins contained two groups of light chains (LC), termed alpha and beta. There were three ..cap alpha..-LC variants and two ..beta..-LC variants. There were no apparent differences in myosin heavy chain, actin, and tropomyosin. Only paramyosin showed a pattern completely consistent with muscle fiber type: slow fibers contained a species (105 kD) slightly smaller than the principle variant (110 kD) in fast fibers. It is proposed that the type of paramyosin present could provide a biochemical marker to identify the fiber composition of muscles that have not been fully characterized. The diversity of troponin and myosin LC variants suggests that subtle differences in physiological performance exist within the broader categories of fast- and slow-twitch muscles. 31 references, 6 figures, 2 tables.

  16. Role of myosin light chain and myosin light chain kinase in advanced glycation end product-induced endothelial hyperpermeability in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Wu, Fan; Guo, Xiaohua; Xu, Jing; Wang, Weiju; Li, Bingling; Huang, Qiaobing; Su, Lei; Xu, Qiulin

    2016-03-01

    We have previously reported that advanced glycation end products activated Rho-associated protein kinase and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase, causing endothelial hyperpermeability. However, the mechanisms involved were not fully clarified. Here, we explored the role of myosin light chain kinase in advanced glycation end product-induced endothelial hyperpermeability. Myosin light chain phosphorylation significantly increased by advanced glycation end products in endothelial cells in a time- and dose-dependent manner, indicating that myosin light chain phosphorylation is involved in the advanced glycation end product pathway. Advanced glycation end products also induced myosin phosphatase-targeting subunit 1 phosphorylation, and small interfering RNA knockdown of the receptor for advanced glycation end products, or blocking myosin light chain kinase with its inhibitor, ML-7, or small interfering RNA abated advanced glycation end product-induced myosin light chain phosphorylation. Advanced glycation end product-induced F-actin rearrangement and endothelial hyperpermeability were also diminished by inhibition of receptor for advanced glycation end product or myosin light chain kinase signalling. Moreover, inhibiting myosin light chain kinase with ML-7 or blocking receptor for advanced glycation end product with its neutralizing antibody attenuated advanced glycation end product-induced microvascular hyperpermeability. Our findings suggest a novel role for myosin light chain and myosin light chain kinase in advanced glycation end product-induced endothelial hyperpermeability.

  17. Determination of the myosin step size from mechanical and kinetic data.

    PubMed Central

    Pate, E; White, H; Cooke, R

    1993-01-01

    During muscle contraction, work is generated when a myosin cross-bridge attaches to an actin filament and exerts a force on it through some power-stroke distance, h. At the end of this power stroke, attached myosin heads are carried into regions where they exert a negative force on the actin filament (the drag stroke) and where they are released rapidly from actin by ATP binding. Although the length of the power stroke remains controversial, average distance traversed in the drag-stroke region can be determined when one knows both rate of cross-bridge dissociation and filament-sliding velocity. At maximum contraction velocity, the average force exerted in the drag stroke must balance that exerted in the power stroke. We discuss here a simple model of cross-bridge interaction that allows one to calculate the force exerted in the drag stroke and to relate this to the power-stroke distance h traversed by cross-bridges in the positive-force region. Both the rate at which myosin can be dissociated from actin and the velocity at which an actin filament can be translated have been measured for a series of myosin isozymes and for different substrates, producing a wide range of values for each. Nonetheless, we show here that the rate of myosin dissociation from actin correlates well with the velocity of filament sliding, providing support for the simple model presented and suggesting that the power stroke is approximately 10 nm in length. PMID:8460156

  18. Thirteen is enough: the myosins of Dictyostelium discoideum and their light chains

    PubMed Central

    Kollmar, Martin

    2006-01-01

    Background Dictyostelium discoideum is one of the most famous model organisms for studying motile processes like cell movement, organelle transport, cytokinesis, and endocytosis. Members of the myosin superfamily, that move on actin filaments and power many of these tasks, are tripartite proteins consisting of a conserved catalytic domain followed by the neck region consisting of a different number of so-called IQ motifs for binding of light chains. The tails contain functional motifs that are responsible for the accomplishment of the different tasks in the cell. Unicellular organisms like yeasts contain three to five myosins while vertebrates express over 40 different myosin genes. Recently, the question has been raised how many myosins a simple multicellular organism like Dictyostelium would need to accomplish all the different motility-related tasks. Results The analysis of the Dictyostelium genome revealed thirteen myosins of which three have not been described before. The phylogenetic analysis of the motor domains of the new myosins placed Myo1F to the class-I myosins and Myo5A to the class-V myosins. The third new myosin, an orphan myosin, has been named MyoG. It contains an N-terminal extension of over 400 residues, and a tail consisting of four IQ motifs and two MyTH4/FERM (myosin tail homology 4/band 4.1, ezrin, radixin, and moesin) tandem domains that are separated by a long region containing an SH3 (src homology 3) domain. In contrast to previous analyses, an extensive comparison with 126 class-VII, class-X, class-XV, and class-XXII myosins now showed that MyoI does not group into any of these classes and should not be used as a model for class-VII myosins. The search for calmodulin related proteins revealed two further potential myosin light chains. One is a close homolog of the two EF-hand motifs containing MlcB, and the other, CBP14, phylogenetically groups to the ELC/RLC/calmodulin (essential light chain/regulatory light chain) branch of the tree

  19. Regulatory Light Chain Mutations Associated with Cardiomyopathy Affect Myosin Mechanics and Kinetics

    PubMed Central

    Greenberg, Michael J.; Watt, James D.; Jones, Michelle; Kazmierczak, Katarzyna; Szczesna-Cordary, Danuta; Moore, Jeffrey R.

    2009-01-01

    The myosin regulatory light chain (RLC) wraps around the alpha helical neck region of myosin. This neck region has been proposed to act as a lever arm, amplifying small conformational changes in the myosin head to generate motion. The RLC serves an important structural role, supporting the myosin neck region and a modulatory role, tuning the kinetics of the actin myosin interaction. Given the importance of the RLC, it is not surprising that mutations of the RLC can lead to familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (FHC), the leading cause of sudden cardiac death in people under 30. Population studies identified two FHC mutations located near the cationic binding site of the RLC, R58Q and N47K. Although these mutations are close in sequence, they differ in clinical presentation and prognosis with R58Q showing a more severe phenotype. We examined the molecular based changes in myosin that are responsible for the disease phenotype by purifying myosin from transgenic mouse hearts expressing mutant myosins and examining actin filament sliding using the in vitro motility assay. We found that both R58Q and N47K showed reductions in force compared to the wild type that could result in compensatory hypertrophy. Furthermore, we observed a higher ATPase rate and an increased activation at submaximal calcium levels for the R58Q myosin that could lead to decreased efficiency and incomplete cardiac relaxation, potentially explaining the more severe phenotype for the R58Q mutation. PMID:18929571

  20. Calcium-dependent regulation of the motor activity of recombinant full-length Physarum myosin.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ying; Kawamichi, Hozumi; Tanaka, Hideyuki; Yoshiyama, Shinji; Kohama, Kazuhiro; Nakamura, Akio

    2012-08-01

    We successfully synthesized full-length and the mutant Physarum myosin and heavy meromyosin (HMM) constructs associated with Physarum regulatory light chain and essential light chain (PhELC) using Physarum myosin heavy chain in Sf-9 cells, and examined their Ca(2+)-mediated regulation. Ca(2+) inhibited the motility and ATPase activities of Physarum myosin and HMM. The Ca(2+) effect is also reversible at the in vitro motility of Physarum myosin. We demonstrated that full-length myosin increases the Ca(2+) inhibition more effectively than HMM. Furthermore, Ca(2+) did not affect the motility and ATPase activities of the mutant Physarum myosin with PhELC that lost Ca(2+)-binding ability. Therefore, we conclude that PhELC plays a critical role in Ca(2+)-dependent regulation of Physarum myosin.

  1. Polymer Nanocomposites as a Facile Method for Engineering Acto-Myosin Networks at the Interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caporizzo, Matthew; Sun, Yujie; Goldman, Yale; Composto, Russell; Nano-Bio Interface Center Collaboration

    2011-03-01

    Filamentous actin acts as the rails for the molecular motor myosin in muscle contraction and intercellular mass transport. Consequently, understanding the process by which actin organizes, polymerizes, and binds is fundamental for the design of myosin based actuators capable of responding to external stimuli. Starting with atomically smooth, freshly cleaved mica optically coupled to glass slides, a random copolymer nanoparticle composite is engineered for in situ single molecule TIRF/AFM studies with controlled roughness, electrostatic binding strength, and binding site density. Four distinct regimes of actin binding are observed; no attachment, end-on attachment, weak side-on attachment, and side-on immobilization. Transitions between regimes are likely to mark competition between the affinity to charged nanoparticles and the inherent resistance of the semi-rigid filaments to bending. Surface conditions optimal for actin immobilization are identified, and Myosin V stepping kinetics are studied on the artificially immobilized filaments, confirming filament support of motility. Supported by NSF grant DMR-0425780.

  2. Xenopus egg cytoplasm with intact actin.

    PubMed

    Field, Christine M; Nguyen, Phuong A; Ishihara, Keisuke; Groen, Aaron C; Mitchison, Timothy J

    2014-01-01

    We report optimized methods for preparing Xenopus egg extracts without cytochalasin D, that we term "actin-intact egg extract." These are undiluted egg cytoplasm that contains abundant organelles, and glycogen which supplies energy, and represents the least perturbed cell-free cytoplasm preparation we know of. We used this system to probe cell cycle regulation of actin and myosin-II dynamics (Field et al., 2011), and to reconstitute the large, interphase asters that organize early Xenopus embryos (Mitchison et al., 2012; Wühr, Tan, Parker, Detrich, & Mitchison, 2010). Actin-intact Xenopus egg extracts are useful for analysis of actin dynamics, and interaction of actin with other cytoplasmic systems, in a cell-free system that closely mimics egg physiology, and more generally for probing the biochemistry and biophysics of the egg, zygote, and early embryo. Detailed protocols are provided along with assays used to check cell cycle state and tips for handling and storing undiluted egg extracts.

  3. Molecular Characterization and Subcellular Localization of Arabidopsis Class VIII Myosin, ATM1*

    PubMed Central

    Haraguchi, Takeshi; Tominaga, Motoki; Matsumoto, Rie; Sato, Kei; Nakano, Akihiko; Yamamoto, Keiichi; Ito, Kohji

    2014-01-01

    Land plants possess myosin classes VIII and XI. Although some information is available on the molecular properties of class XI myosins, class VIII myosins are not characterized. Here, we report the first analysis of the enzymatic properties of class VIII myosin. The motor domain of Arabidopsis class VIII myosin, ATM1 (ATM1-MD), and the motor domain plus one IQ motif (ATM1-1IQ) were expressed in a baculovirus system and characterized. ATM1-MD and ATM1-1IQ had low actin-activated Mg2+-ATPase activity (Vmax = 4 s−1), although their affinities for actin were high (Kactin = 4 μm). The actin-sliding velocities of ATM1-MD and ATM1-1IQ were 0.02 and 0.089 μm/s, respectively, from which the value for full-length ATM1 is calculated to be ∼0.2 μm/s. The results of actin co-sedimentation assay showed that the duty ratio of ATM1 was ∼90%. ADP dissociation from the actin·ATM1 complex (acto-ATM1) was extremely slow, which accounts for the low actin-sliding velocity, low actin-activated ATPase activity, and high duty ratio. The rate of ADP dissociation from acto-ATM1 was markedly biphasic with fast and slow phase rates (5.1 and 0.41 s−1, respectively). Physiological concentrations of free Mg2+ modulated actin-sliding velocity and actin-activated ATPase activity by changing the rate of ADP dissociation from acto-ATM1. GFP-fused full-length ATM1 expressed in Arabidopsis was localized to plasmodesmata, plastids, newly formed cell walls, and actin filaments at the cell cortex. Our results suggest that ATM1 functions as a tension sensor/generator at the cell cortex and other structures in Arabidopsis. PMID:24637024

  4. Emerin organizes actin flow for nuclear movement and centrosome orientation in migrating fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Chang, Wakam; Folker, Eric S; Worman, Howard J; Gundersen, Gregg G

    2013-12-01

    In migrating fibroblasts, rearward movement of the nucleus orients the centrosome toward the leading edge. Nuclear movement results from coupling rearward-moving, dorsal actin cables to the nucleus by linear arrays of nesprin-2G and SUN2, termed transmembrane actin-associated nuclear (TAN) lines. A-type lamins anchor TAN lines, prompting us to test whether emerin, a nuclear membrane protein that interacts with lamins and TAN line proteins, contributes to nuclear movement. In fibroblasts depleted of emerin, nuclei moved nondirectionally or completely failed to move. Consistent with these nuclear movement defects, dorsal actin cable flow was nondirectional in cells lacking emerin. TAN lines formed normally in cells lacking emerin and were coordinated with the erratic nuclear movements, although in 20% of the cases, TAN lines slipped over immobile nuclei. Myosin II drives actin flow, and depletion of myosin IIB, but not myosin IIA, showed similar nondirectional nuclear movement and actin flow as in emerin-depleted cells. Myosin IIB specifically coimmunoprecipitated with emerin, and emerin depletion prevented myosin IIB localization near nuclei. These results show that emerin functions with myosin IIB to polarize actin flow and nuclear movement in fibroblasts, suggesting a novel function for the nuclear envelope in organizing directional actin flow and cytoplasmic polarity.

  5. Antithetical regulation of α-myosin heavy chain between fetal and adult heart failure though shuttling of HDAC5 regulating YY-1 function.

    PubMed

    Fang, Jie; Li, Yifei; Zhou, Kaiyu; Hua, Yimin; Wang, Chuan; Mu, Dezhi

    2015-04-01

    Molecular switches of myosin isoforms are known to occur in various conditions. Here, we demonstrated the result from fetal heart failure and its potential mechanisms. Fetal and adult heart failure rat models were induced by injections of isoproterenol as previously described, and Go6976 was given to heart failing fetuses. Real-time PCR and Western blot were adopted to measure the expressions of α-MHC, β-MHC and YY-1. Co-immunoprecipitation was performed to analysis whether YY-1 interacts with HDAC5. Besides, histological immunofluorescence assessment was carried out to identify the location of HDAC5. α-MHC was recorded elevated in fetal heart failure which was decreased in adult heart failure. Besides, YY-1 was observed elevated both in fetal and adult failing hearts, but YY-1 could co-immunoprecipitation with HDAC5 only in adult hearts. Nuclear localization of HDAC5 was identified in adult cardiomyocytes, while cytoplasmic localization was identified in fetuses. After Go6976 supplied, HDAC5 shuttled into nucleuses interacted with YY-1. The myosin molecular switches were reversed with worsening cardiac functions and higher mortalities. Regulation of MHC in fetal heart failure was different from adult which provided a better compensation with increased α-MHC. This kind of transition was involved with shuttling of HDAC5 regulating YY-1 function.

  6. UCS protein Rng3p is essential for myosin-II motor activity during cytokinesis in fission yeast.

    PubMed

    Stark, Benjamin C; James, Michael L; Pollard, Luther W; Sirotkin, Vladimir; Lord, Matthew

    2013-01-01

    UCS proteins have been proposed to operate as co-chaperones that work with Hsp90 in the de novo folding of myosin motors. The fission yeast UCS protein Rng3p is essential for actomyosin ring assembly and cytokinesis. Here we investigated the role of Rng3p in fission yeast myosin-II (Myo2p) motor activity. Myo2p isolated from an arrested rng3-65 mutant was capable of binding actin, yet lacked stability and activity based on its expression levels and inactivity in ATPase and actin filament gliding assays. Myo2p isolated from a myo2-E1 mutant (a mutant hyper-sensitive to perturbation of Rng3p function) showed similar behavior in the same assays and exhibited an altered motor conformation based on limited proteolysis experiments. We propose that Rng3p is not required for the folding of motors per se, but instead wor