Science.gov

Sample records for actin network growth

  1. Growth of branched actin networks against obstacles.

    PubMed Central

    Carlsson, A E

    2001-01-01

    A method for simulating the growth of branched actin networks against obstacles has been developed. The method is based on simple stochastic events, including addition or removal of monomers at filament ends, capping of filament ends, nucleation of branches from existing filaments, and detachment of branches; the network structure for several different models of the branching process has also been studied. The models differ with regard to their inclusion of effects such as preferred branch orientations, filament uncapping at the obstacle, and preferential branching at filament ends. The actin ultrastructure near the membrane in lamellipodia is reasonably well produced if preferential branching in the direction of the obstacle or barbed-end uncapping effects are included. Uncapping effects cause the structures to have a few very long filaments that are similar to those seen in pathogen-induced "actin tails." The dependence of the growth velocity, branch spacing, and network density on the rate parameters for the various processes is quite different among the branching models. An analytic theory of the growth velocity and branch spacing of the network is described. Experiments are suggested that could distinguish among some of the branching models. PMID:11566765

  2. A variational approach to the growth dynamics of pre-stressed actin filament networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    John, Karin; Stöter, Thomas; Misbah, Chaouqi

    2016-09-01

    In order to model the growth dynamics of elastic bodies with residual stresses a thermodynamically consistent approach is needed such that the cross-coupling between growth and mechanics can be correctly described. In the present work we apply a variational principle to the formulation of the interfacial growth dynamics of dendritic actin filament networks growing from biomimetic beads, an experimentally well studied system, where the buildup of residual stresses governs the network growth. We first introduce the material model for the network via a strain energy density for an isotropic weakly nonlinear elastic material and then derive consistently from this model the dynamic equations for the interfaces, i.e. for a polymerizing internal interface in contact with the bead and a depolymerizing external interface directed towards the solvent. We show that (i) this approach automatically preserves thermodynamic symmetry-properties, which is not the case for the often cited ‘rubber-band-model’ (Sekimoto et al 2004 Eur. Phys. J. E 13 247-59, Plastino et al 2004 Eur. Biophys. J. 33 310-20) and (ii) leads to a robust morphological instability of the treadmilling network interfaces. The nature of the instability depends on the interplay of the two dynamic interfaces. Depending on the biochemical conditions the network envelope evolves into a comet-like shape (i.e. the actin envelope thins out at one side and thickens on the opposite side of the bead) via a varicose instability or it breaks the symmetry via higher order zigzag modes. We conclude that morphological instabilities due to mechano-chemical coupling mechanisms and the presences of mechancial pre-stresses can play a major role in locally organizing the cytoskeleton of living cells.

  3. Actin-binding proteins take the reins in growth cones.

    PubMed

    Pak, Chi W; Flynn, Kevin C; Bamburg, James R

    2008-02-01

    Higher-order actin-based networks (actin superstructures) are important for growth-cone motility and guidance. Principles for generating, organizing and remodelling actin superstructures have emerged from recent findings in cell-free systems, non-neuronal cells and growth cones. This Review examines how actin superstructures are initiated de novo at the leading-edge membrane and how the spontaneous organization of actin superstructures is driven by ensembles of actin-binding proteins. How the regulation of actin-binding proteins can affect growth-cone turning and axonal regeneration is also discussed.

  4. Tau co-organizes dynamic microtubule and actin networks

    PubMed Central

    Elie, Auréliane; Prezel, Elea; Guérin, Christophe; Denarier, Eric; Ramirez-Rios, Sacnicte; Serre, Laurence; Andrieux, Annie; Fourest-Lieuvin, Anne; Blanchoin, Laurent; Arnal, Isabelle

    2015-01-01

    The crosstalk between microtubules and actin is essential for cellular functions. However, mechanisms underlying the microtubule-actin organization by cross-linkers remain largely unexplored. Here, we report that tau, a neuronal microtubule-associated protein, binds to microtubules and actin simultaneously, promoting in vitro co-organization and coupled growth of both networks. By developing an original assay to visualize concomitant microtubule and actin assembly, we show that tau can induce guided polymerization of actin filaments along microtubule tracks and growth of single microtubules along actin filament bundles. Importantly, tau mediates microtubule-actin co-alignment without changing polymer growth properties. Mutagenesis studies further reveal that at least two of the four tau repeated motifs, primarily identified as tubulin-binding sites, are required to connect microtubules and actin. Tau thus represents a molecular linker between microtubule and actin networks, enabling a coordination of the two cytoskeletons that might be essential in various neuronal contexts. PMID:25944224

  5. Fluorescent beads disintegrate actin networks.

    PubMed

    Golde, Tom; Schuldt, Carsten; Schnauß, Jörg; Strehle, Dan; Glaser, Martin; Käs, Josef

    2013-10-01

    We studied the influence of fluorescent polystyrene beads on both entangled and cross-linked actin networks. Thermal bead fluctuations were observed via video particle tracking and analyzed with one-point microrheology. Illumination of fluorescent beads with their appropriate excitation wavelength leads to a drastic softening of actin gels. Other wavelengths and bright field microscopy do not increase thermal bead fluctuations. This effect cannot be significantly reduced by adding common oxygen scavengers. We conclude that the usage of fluorescent beads impairs results when studying the microrheology of actin networks.

  6. Cytoskeletal social networking in the growth cone: how +TIPs mediate microtubule-actin cross-linking to drive axon outgrowth and guidance

    PubMed Central

    Cammarata, Garrett M.; Bearce, Elizabeth A.; Lowery, Laura Anne

    2016-01-01

    The growth cone is a unique structure capable of guiding axons to their proper destinations. Within the growth cone, extracellular guidance cues are interpreted and then transduced into physical changes in the actin filament (F-actin) and microtubule cytoskeletons, providing direction and movement. While both cytoskeletal networks individually possess important growth cone-specific functions, recent data over the past several years point towards a more cooperative role between the two systems. Facilitating this interaction between F-actin and microtubules, microtubule plus-end tracking proteins (+TIPs) have been shown to link the two cytoskeletons together. Evidence suggests that many +TIPs can couple microtubules to F-actin dynamics, supporting both microtubule advance and retraction in the growth cone periphery. In addition, growing in vitro and in vivo data support a secondary role for +TIPs in which they may participate as F-actin nucleators, thus directly influencing F-actin dynamics and organization. This review focuses on how +TIPs may link F-actin and microtubules together in the growth cone, and how these interactions may influence axon guidance. PMID:26783725

  7. How actin network dynamics control the onset of actin-based motility

    PubMed Central

    Kawska, Agnieszka; Carvalho, Kévin; Manzi, John; Boujemaa-Paterski, Rajaa; Blanchoin, Laurent; Martiel, Jean-Louis; Sykes, Cécile

    2012-01-01

    Cells use their dynamic actin network to control their mechanics and motility. These networks are made of branched actin filaments generated by the Arp2/3 complex. Here we study under which conditions the microscopic organization of branched actin networks builds up a sufficient stress to trigger sustained motility. In our experimental setup, dynamic actin networks or “gels” are grown on a hard bead in a controlled minimal protein system containing actin monomers, profilin, the Arp2/3 complex and capping protein. We vary protein concentrations and follow experimentally and through simulations the shape and mechanical properties of the actin gel growing around beads. Actin gel morphology is controlled by elementary steps including “primer” contact, growth of the network, entanglement, mechanical interaction and force production. We show that varying the biochemical orchestration of these steps can lead to the loss of network cohesion and the lack of effective force production. We propose a predictive phase diagram of actin gel fate as a function of protein concentrations. This work unveils how, in growing actin networks, a tight biochemical and physical coupling smoothens initial primer-caused heterogeneities and governs force buildup and cell motility. PMID:22908255

  8. Actin growth profile in clathrin-mediated endocytosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tweten, D. J.; Bayly, P. V.; Carlsson, A. E.

    2017-05-01

    Clathrin-mediated endocytosis in yeast is driven by a protein patch containing close to 100 different types of proteins. Among the proteins are 5000 -10 000 copies of polymerized actin, and successful endocytosis requires growth of the actin network. Since it is not known exactly how actin network growth drives endocytosis, we calculate the spatial distribution of actin growth required to generate the force that drives the process. First, we establish the force distribution that must be supplied by actin growth, by combining membrane-bending profiles obtained via electron microscopy with established theories of membrane mechanics. Next, we determine the profile of actin growth, using a continuum mechanics approach and an iterative procedure starting with an actin growth profile obtained from a linear analysis. The profile has fairly constant growth outside a central hole of radius 45-50 nm, but very little growth in this hole. This growth profile can reproduce the required forces if the actin shear modulus exceeds 80 kPa, and the growing filaments can exert very large polymerization forces. The growth profile prediction could be tested via electron-microscopy or super-resolution experiments in which the turgor pressure is suddenly turned off.

  9. Analysis of microtubule growth dynamics arising from altered actin network structure and contractility in breast tumor cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ory, Eleanor C.; Bhandary, Lekhana; E Boggs, Amanda; Chakrabarti, Kristi R.; Parker, Joshua; Losert, Wolfgang; Martin, Stuart S.

    2017-04-01

    The periphery of epithelial cells is shaped by opposing cytoskeletal physical forces generated predominately by two dynamic force generating systems—growing microtubule ends push against the boundary from the cell center, and the actin cortex contracts the attached plasma membrane. Here we investigate how changes to the structure and dynamics of the actin cortex alter the dynamics of microtubules. Current drugs target actin polymerization and contraction to reduce cell division and invasiveness; however, the impacts on microtubule dynamics remain incompletely understood. Using human MCF-7 breast tumor cells expressing GFP-tagged microtubule end-binding-protein-1 (EB1) and coexpression of cytoplasmic fluorescent protein mCherry, we map the trajectories of growing microtubule ends and cytoplasmic boundary respectively. Based on EB1 tracks and cytoplasmic boundary outlines, we calculate the speed, distance from cytoplasmic boundary, and straightness of microtubule growth. Actin depolymerization with Latrunculin-A reduces EB1 growth speed as well as allows the trajectories to extend beyond the cytoplasmic boundary. Blebbistatin, a direct myosin-II inhibitor, reduced EB1 speed and yielded less straight EB1 trajectories. Inhibiting signaling upstream of myosin-II contractility via the Rho-kinase inhibitor, Y-27632, altered EB1 dynamics differently from Blebbistatin. These results indicate that reduced actin cortex integrity can induce distinct alterations in microtubule dynamics. Given recent findings that tumor stem cell characteristics are increased by drugs which reduce actin contractility or stabilize microtubules, it remains important to clearly define how cytoskeletal drugs alter the interactions between these two filament systems in tumor cells.

  10. Analysis of microtubule growth dynamics arising from altered actin network structure and contractility in breast tumor cells.

    PubMed

    Ory, Eleanor; Bhandary, Lekhana; Boggs, Amanda; Chakrabarti, Kristi; Parker, Joshua; Losert, Wolfgang; Martin, Stuart S

    2017-01-16

    The periphery of epithelial cells is shaped by opposing cytoskeletal physical forces generated predominately by two dynamic force generating systems - growing microtubule ends push against the boundary from the cell center, and the actin cortex contracts the attached plasma membrane. Here we investigate how changes to the structure and dynamics of the actin cortex alter the dynamics of microtubules. Current drugs target actin polymerization and contraction to reduce cell division and invasiveness; however, the impacts on microtubule dynamics remain incompletely understood. Using human MCF-7 breast tumor cells expressing GFP-tagged microtubule end-binding-protein-1 (EB1) and coexpression of cytoplasmic fluorescent protein mCherry, we map the trajectories of growing microtubule ends and cytoplasmic boundary respectively. Based on EB1 tracks and cytoplasmic boundary outlines, we calculate the speed, distance from cytoplasmic boundary, and straightness of microtubule growth. Actin depolymerization with Latrunculin-A reduces EB1 growth speed as well as allows the trajectories to extend beyond the cytoplasmic boundary. Blebbistatin, a direct myosin-II inhibitor, reduced EB1 speed and yielded less straight EB1 trajectories. Inhibiting signaling upstream of myosin-II contractility via the Rho-kinase inhibitor, Y-27632, altered EB1 dynamics differently from Blebbistatin. These results indicate that reduced actin cortex integrity can induce distinct alterations in microtubule dynamics. Given recent findings that tumor stem cell characteristics are increased by drugs which reduce actin contractility or stabilize microtubules, it remains important to clearly define how cytoskeletal drugs alter the interactions between these two filament systems in tumor cells.

  11. Architecture and Connectivity Govern Actin Network Contractility.

    PubMed

    Ennomani, Hajer; Letort, Gaëlle; Guérin, Christophe; Martiel, Jean-Louis; Cao, Wenxiang; Nédélec, François; De La Cruz, Enrique M; Théry, Manuel; Blanchoin, Laurent

    2016-03-07

    Actomyosin contractility plays a central role in a wide range of cellular processes, including the establishment of cell polarity, cell migration, tissue integrity, and morphogenesis during development. The contractile response is variable and depends on actomyosin network architecture and biochemical composition. To determine how this coupling regulates actomyosin-driven contraction, we used a micropatterning method that enables the spatial control of actin assembly. We generated a variety of actin templates and measured how defined actin structures respond to myosin-induced forces. We found that the same actin filament crosslinkers either enhance or inhibit the contractility of a network, depending on the organization of actin within the network. Numerical simulations unified the roles of actin filament branching and crosslinking during actomyosin contraction. Specifically, we introduce the concept of "network connectivity" and show that the contractions of distinct actin architectures are described by the same master curve when considering their degree of connectivity. This makes it possible to predict the dynamic response of defined actin structures to transient changes in connectivity. We propose that, depending on the connectivity and the architecture, network contraction is dominated by either sarcomeric-like or buckling mechanisms. More generally, this study reveals how actin network contractility depends on its architecture under a defined set of biochemical conditions.

  12. Reversible stress softening of actin networks

    PubMed Central

    Chaudhuri, Ovijit; Parekh, Sapun H.; Fletcher, Daniel A.

    2011-01-01

    The mechanical properties of cells play an essential role in numerous physiological processes. Organized networks of semiflexible actin filaments determine cell stiffness and transmit force during mechanotransduction, cytokinesis, cell motility and other cellular shape changes1–3. Although numerous actin-binding proteins have been identified that organize networks, the mechanical properties of actin networks with physiological architectures and concentrations have been difficult to measure quantitatively. Studies of mechanical properties in vitro have found that crosslinked networks of actin filaments formed in solution exhibit stress stiffening arising from the entropic elasticity of individual filaments or crosslinkers resisting extension4–8. Here we report reversible stress-softening behaviour in actin networks reconstituted in vitro that suggests a critical role for filaments resisting compression. Using a modified atomic force microscope to probe dendritic actin networks (like those formed in the lamellipodia of motile cells), we observe stress stiffening followed by a regime of reversible stress softening at higher loads. This softening behaviour can be explained by elastic buckling of individual filaments under compression that avoids catastrophic fracture of the network. The observation of both stress stiffening and softening suggests a complex interplay between entropic and enthalpic elasticity in determining the mechanical properties of actin networks. PMID:17230186

  13. Reversible stress softening of actin networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaudhuri, Ovijit; Parekh, Sapun H.; Fletcher, Daniel A.

    2007-01-01

    The mechanical properties of cells play an essential role in numerous physiological processes. Organized networks of semiflexible actin filaments determine cell stiffness and transmit force during mechanotransduction, cytokinesis, cell motility and other cellular shape changes. Although numerous actin-binding proteins have been identified that organize networks, the mechanical properties of actin networks with physiological architectures and concentrations have been difficult to measure quantitatively. Studies of mechanical properties in vitro have found that crosslinked networks of actin filaments formed in solution exhibit stress stiffening arising from the entropic elasticity of individual filaments or crosslinkers resisting extension. Here we report reversible stress-softening behaviour in actin networks reconstituted in vitro that suggests a critical role for filaments resisting compression. Using a modified atomic force microscope to probe dendritic actin networks (like those formed in the lamellipodia of motile cells), we observe stress stiffening followed by a regime of reversible stress softening at higher loads. This softening behaviour can be explained by elastic buckling of individual filaments under compression that avoids catastrophic fracture of the network. The observation of both stress stiffening and softening suggests a complex interplay between entropic and enthalpic elasticity in determining the mechanical properties of actin networks.

  14. Growing actin networks regulated by obstacle size and shape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Bo; Lin, Ji; Qian, Jin

    2017-01-01

    Growing actin networks provide the driving force for the motility of cells and intracellular pathogens. Based on the molecular-level processes of actin polymerization, branching, capping, and depolymerization, we have developed a modeling framework to simulate the stochastic and cooperative behaviors of growing actin networks in propelling obstacles, with an emphasis on the size and shape effects on work capacity and filament orientation in the growing process. Our results show that the characteristic size of obstacles changes the protrusion power per unit length, without influencing the orientation distribution of actin filaments in growing networks. In contrast, the geometry of obstacles has a profound effect on filament patterning, which influences the orientation of filaments differently when the drag coefficient of environment is small, intermediate, or large. We also discuss the role of various parameters, such as the aspect ratio of obstacles, branching rate, and capping rate, in affecting the protrusion power of network growth.

  15. Actin Dynamics in Growth Cone Motility and Navigation

    PubMed Central

    Gomez, Timothy M.; Letourneau, Paul C.

    2014-01-01

    Motile growth cones lead growing axons through developing tissues to synaptic targets. These behaviors depend on the organization and dynamics of actin filaments that fill the growth cone leading margin (peripheral (P-) domain). Actin filament organization in growth cones is regulated by actin-binding proteins that control all aspects of filament assembly, turnover, interactions with other filaments and cytoplasmic components, and participation in producing mechanical forces. Actin filament polymerization drives protrusion of sensory filopodia and lamellipodia, and actin filament connections to the plasma membrane link the filament network to adhesive contacts of filopodia and lamellipodia with other surfaces. These contacts stabilize protrusions and transduce mechanical forces generated by actomyosin activity into traction that pulls an elongating axon along the path towards its target. Adhesive ligands and extrinsic guidance cues bind growth cone receptors and trigger signaling activities involving Rho GTPases, kinases, phosphatases, cyclic nucleotides and [Ca++] fluxes. These signals regulate actin binding proteins to locally modulate actin polymerization, interactions and force transduction to steer the growth cone leading margin towards the sources of attractive cues and away from repellent guidance cues. PMID:24164353

  16. A dynamic formin-dependent deep F-actin network in axons

    PubMed Central

    Ganguly, Archan; Tang, Yong; Wang, Lina; Ladt, Kelsey; Loi, Jonathan; Dargent, Bénédicte; Leterrier, Christophe

    2015-01-01

    Although actin at neuronal growth cones is well-studied, much less is known about actin organization and dynamics along axon shafts and presynaptic boutons. Using probes that selectively label filamentous-actin (F-actin), we found focal “actin hotspots” along axons—spaced ∼3–4 µm apart—where actin undergoes continuous assembly/disassembly. These foci are a nidus for vigorous actin polymerization, generating long filaments spurting bidirectionally along axons—a phenomenon we call “actin trails.” Super-resolution microscopy reveals intra-axonal deep actin filaments in addition to the subplasmalemmal “actin rings” described recently. F-actin hotspots colocalize with stationary axonal endosomes, and blocking vesicle transport diminishes the actin trails, suggesting mechanistic links between vesicles and F-actin kinetics. Actin trails are formin—but not Arp2/3—dependent and help enrich actin at presynaptic boutons. Finally, formin inhibition dramatically disrupts synaptic recycling. Collectively, available data suggest a two-tier F-actin organization in axons, with stable “actin rings” providing mechanical support to the plasma membrane and dynamic "actin trails" generating a flexible cytoskeletal network with putative physiological roles. PMID:26216902

  17. Labeling F-actin barbed ends with rhodamine-actin in permeabilized neuronal growth cones.

    PubMed

    Marsick, Bonnie M; Letourneau, Paul C

    2011-03-17

    The motile tips of growing axons are called growth cones. Growth cones lead navigating axons through developing tissues by interacting with locally expressed molecular guidance cues that bind growth cone receptors and regulate the dynamics and organization of the growth cone cytoskeleton. The main target of these navigational signals is the actin filament meshwork that fills the growth cone periphery and that drives growth cone motility through continual actin polymerization and dynamic remodeling. Positive or attractive guidance cues induce growth cone turning by stimulating actin filament (F-actin) polymerization in the region of the growth cone periphery that is nearer the source of the attractant cue. This actin polymerization drives local growth cone protrusion, adhesion of the leading margin and axonal elongation toward the attractant. Actin filament polymerization depends on the availability of sufficient actin monomer and on polymerization nuclei or actin filament barbed ends for the addition of monomer. Actin monomer is abundantly available in chick retinal and dorsal root ganglion (DRG) growth cones. Consequently, polymerization increases rapidly when free F-actin barbed ends become available for monomer addition. This occurs in chick DRG and retinal growth cones via the local activation of the F-actin severing protein actin depolymerizing factor (ADF/cofilin) in the growth cone region closer to an attractant. This heightened ADF/cofilin activity severs actin filaments to create new F-actin barbed ends for polymerization. The following method demonstrates this mechanism. Total content of F-actin is visualized by staining with fluorescent phalloidin. F-actin barbed ends are visualized by the incorporation of rhodamine-actin within growth cones that are permeabilized with the procedure described in the following, which is adapted from previous studies of other motile cells. When rhodamine-actin is added at a concentration above the critical concentration

  18. Global treadmilling coordinates actin turnover and controls the size of actin networks.

    PubMed

    Carlier, Marie-France; Shekhar, Shashank

    2017-03-01

    Various cellular processes (including cell motility) are driven by the regulated, polarized assembly of actin filaments into distinct force-producing arrays of defined size and architecture. Branched, linear, contractile and cytosolic arrays coexist in vivo, and cells intricately control the number, length and assembly rate of filaments in these arrays. Recent in vitro and in vivo studies have revealed novel molecular mechanisms that regulate the number of filament barbed and pointed ends and their respective assembly and disassembly rates, thus defining classes of dynamically different filaments, which coexist in the same cell. We propose that a global treadmilling process, in which a steady-state amount of polymerizable actin monomers is established by the dynamics of each network, is responsible for defining the size and turnover of coexisting actin networks. Furthermore, signal-induced changes in the partitioning of actin to distinct arrays (mediated by RHO GTPases) result in the establishment of various steady-state concentrations of polymerizable monomers, thereby globally influencing the growth rate of actin filaments.

  19. Load Adaptation of Lamellipodial Actin Networks.

    PubMed

    Mueller, Jan; Szep, Gregory; Nemethova, Maria; de Vries, Ingrid; Lieber, Arnon D; Winkler, Christoph; Kruse, Karsten; Small, J Victor; Schmeiser, Christian; Keren, Kinneret; Hauschild, Robert; Sixt, Michael

    2017-09-21

    Actin filaments polymerizing against membranes power endocytosis, vesicular traffic, and cell motility. In vitro reconstitution studies suggest that the structure and the dynamics of actin networks respond to mechanical forces. We demonstrate that lamellipodial actin of migrating cells responds to mechanical load when membrane tension is modulated. In a steady state, migrating cell filaments assume the canonical dendritic geometry, defined by Arp2/3-generated 70° branch points. Increased tension triggers a dense network with a broadened range of angles, whereas decreased tension causes a shift to a sparse configuration dominated by filaments growing perpendicularly to the plasma membrane. We show that these responses emerge from the geometry of branched actin: when load per filament decreases, elongation speed increases and perpendicular filaments gradually outcompete others because they polymerize the shortest distance to the membrane, where they are protected from capping. This network-intrinsic geometrical adaptation mechanism tunes protrusive force in response to mechanical load. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Mechanical detection of a long-range actin network emanating from a biomimetic cortex.

    PubMed

    Bussonnier, Matthias; Carvalho, Kevin; Lemière, Joël; Joanny, Jean-François; Sykes, Cécile; Betz, Timo

    2014-08-19

    Actin is ubiquitous globular protein that polymerizes into filaments and forms networks that participate in the force generation of eukaryotic cells. Such forces are used for cell motility, cytokinesis, and tissue remodeling. Among those actin networks, we focus on the actin cortex, a dense branched network beneath the plasma membrane that is of particular importance for the mechanical properties of the cell. Here we reproduce the cellular cortex by activating actin filament growth on a solid surface. We unveil the existence of a sparse actin network that emanates from the surface and extends over a distance that is at least 10 times larger than the cortex itself. We call this sparse actin network the "actin cloud" and characterize its mechanical properties with optical tweezers. We show, both experimentally and theoretically, that the actin cloud is mechanically relevant and that it should be taken into account because it can sustain forces as high as several picoNewtons (pN). In particular, it is known that in plant cells, actin networks similar to the actin cloud have a role in positioning the nucleus; in large oocytes, they play a role in driving chromosome movement. Recent evidence shows that such networks even prevent granule condensation in large cells.

  1. Curvature and torsion in growing actin networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaevitz, Joshua W.; Fletcher, Daniel A.

    2008-06-01

    Intracellular pathogens such as Listeria monocytogenes and Rickettsia rickettsii move within a host cell by polymerizing a comet-tail of actin fibers that ultimately pushes the cell forward. This dense network of cross-linked actin polymers typically exhibits a striking curvature that causes bacteria to move in gently looping paths. Theoretically, tail curvature has been linked to details of motility by considering force and torque balances from a finite number of polymerizing filaments. Here we track beads coated with a prokaryotic activator of actin polymerization in three dimensions to directly quantify the curvature and torsion of bead motility paths. We find that bead paths are more likely to have low rather than high curvature at any given time. Furthermore, path curvature changes very slowly in time, with an autocorrelation decay time of 200 s. Paths with a small radius of curvature, therefore, remain so for an extended period resulting in loops when confined to two dimensions. When allowed to explore a three-dimensional (3D) space, path loops are less evident. Finally, we quantify the torsion in the bead paths and show that beads do not exhibit a significant left- or right-handed bias to their motion in 3D. These results suggest that paths of actin-propelled objects may be attributed to slow changes in curvature, possibly associated with filament debranching, rather than a fixed torque.

  2. Curvature and torsion in growing actin networks

    PubMed Central

    Shaevitz, Joshua W; Fletcher, Daniel A

    2011-01-01

    Intracellular pathogens such as Listeria monocytogenes and Rickettsia rickettsii move within a host cell by polymerizing a comet-tail of actin fibers that ultimately pushes the cell forward. This dense network of cross-linked actin polymers typically exhibits a striking curvature that causes bacteria to move in gently looping paths. Theoretically, tail curvature has been linked to details of motility by considering force and torque balances from a finite number of polymerizing filaments. Here we track beads coated with a prokaryotic activator of actin polymerization in three dimensions to directly quantify the curvature and torsion of bead motility paths. We find that bead paths are more likely to have low rather than high curvature at any given time. Furthermore, path curvature changes very slowly in time, with an autocorrelation decay time of 200 s. Paths with a small radius of curvature, therefore, remain so for an extended period resulting in loops when confined to two dimensions. When allowed to explore a three-dimensional (3D) space, path loops are less evident. Finally, we quantify the torsion in the bead paths and show that beads do not exhibit a significant left- or right-handed bias to their motion in 3D. These results suggest that paths of actin-propelled objects may be attributed to slow changes in curvature, possibly associated with filament debranching, rather than a fixed torque. PMID:18560043

  3. Reconstitution of cortical actin networks within water-in-oil emulsions.

    PubMed

    Abu Shah, Enas; Malik-Garbi, Maya; Keren, Kinneret

    2015-01-01

    We describe the reconstitution of dynamic cortical actin networks within cell-like compartments. The approach is based on encapsulation of Xenopus egg extract within water-in-oil emulsions. The growth of cortical actin networks is catalyzed by an amphiphilic actin nucleation-promoting factor that localizes to the water/oil interface. We first describe the preparation of cell-free Xenopus egg extract that provides all the soluble components of the actin machinery. We then describe the preparation of the amphiphilic, fluorescent actin nucleation-promoting factor that directs actin polymerization to the interface. Finally, we describe the steps required for assembly of dynamic actin cortices within water-in-oil emulsions, including the emulsification process and the sample preparation procedures. We provide recommendations for handling sensitive system components and discuss potential uses of this reconstitution approach for cytoskeletal research. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Cyclic hardening in bundled actin networks.

    PubMed

    Schmoller, K M; Fernández, P; Arevalo, R C; Blair, D L; Bausch, A R

    2010-01-01

    Nonlinear deformations can irreversibly alter the mechanical properties of materials. Most soft materials, such as rubber and living tissues, display pronounced softening when cyclically deformed. Here we show that, in contrast, reconstituted networks of crosslinked, bundled actin filaments harden when subject to cyclical shear. As a consequence, they exhibit a mechano-memory where a significant stress barrier is generated at the maximum of the cyclic shear strain. This unique response is crucially determined by the network architecture: at lower crosslinker concentrations networks do not harden, but soften showing the classic Mullins effect known from rubber-like materials. By simultaneously performing macrorheology and confocal microscopy, we show that cyclic shearing results in structural reorganization of the network constituents such that the maximum applied strain is encoded into the network architecture.

  5. Actin network architecture can determine myosin motor activity.

    PubMed

    Reymann, Anne-Cécile; Boujemaa-Paterski, Rajaa; Martiel, Jean-Louis; Guérin, Christophe; Cao, Wenxiang; Chin, Harvey F; De La Cruz, Enrique M; Théry, Manuel; Blanchoin, Laurent

    2012-06-08

    The organization of actin filaments into higher-ordered structures governs eukaryotic cell shape and movement. Global actin network size and architecture are maintained in a dynamic steady state through regulated assembly and disassembly. Here, we used experimentally defined actin structures in vitro to investigate how the activity of myosin motors depends on network architecture. Direct visualization of filaments revealed myosin-induced actin network deformation. During this reorganization, myosins selectively contracted and disassembled antiparallel actin structures, while parallel actin bundles remained unaffected. The local distribution of nucleation sites and the resulting orientation of actin filaments appeared to regulate the scalability of the contraction process. This "orientation selection" mechanism for selective contraction and disassembly suggests how the dynamics of the cellular actin cytoskeleton can be spatially controlled by actomyosin contractility.

  6. Formin DAAM1 Organizes Actin Filaments in the Cytoplasmic Nodal Actin Network

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Weiwei; Lieu, Zi Zhao; Manser, Ed; Bershadsky, Alexander D.; Sheetz, Michael P.

    2016-01-01

    A nodal cytoplasmic actin network underlies actin cytoplasm cohesion in the absence of stress fibers. We previously described such a network that forms upon Latrunculin A (LatA) treatment, in which formin DAAM1 was localized at these nodes. Knock down of DAAM1 reduced the mobility of actin nodes but the nodes remained. Here we have investigated DAAM1 containing nodes after LatA washout. DAAM1 was found to be distributed between the cytoplasm and the plasma membrane. The membrane binding likely occurs through an interaction with lipid rafts, but is not required for F-actin assembly. Interesting the forced interaction of DAAM1 with plasma membrane through a rapamycin-dependent linkage, enhanced F-actin assembly at the cell membrane (compared to the cytoplasm) after the LatA washout. However, immediately after addition of both rapamycin and LatA, the cytoplasmic actin nodes formed transiently, before DAAM1 moved to the membrane. This was consistent with the idea that DAAM1 was initially anchored to cytoplasmic actin nodes. Further, photoactivatable tracking of DAAM1 showed DAAM1 was immobilized at these actin nodes. Thus, we suggest that DAAM1 organizes actin filaments into a nodal complex, and such nodal complexes seed actin network recovery after actin depolymerization. PMID:27760153

  7. Encoding Mechano-Memories in Actin Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foucard, Louis; Majumdar, Sayantan; Levine, Alex; Gardel, Margaret

    The ability of cells to sense and adapt to external mechanical stimuli is vital to many of its biological functions. A critical question is therefore to understand how mechanosensory mechanisms arise in living matter, with implications in both cell biology and smart materials design. Experimental work has demonstrated that the mechanical properties of semiflexible actin networks in Eukaryotic cells can be modulated (either transiently or irreversibly) via the application of external forces. Previous work has also shown with a combination of numerical simulations and analytic calculations shows that the broken rotational symmetry of the filament orientational distribution in semiflexible networks leads to dramatic changes in the mechanical response. Here we demonstrate with a combination of numerical and analytic calculations that the observed long-lived mechano-memory in the actin networks arise from changes in the nematic order of the constituent filaments. These stress-induced changes in network topology relax slowly under zero stress and can be observed through changes in the nonlinear mechanics. Our results provide a strategy for designing a novel class of materials and demonstrate a new putative mechanism of mechanical sensing in eukaryotic cells.

  8. Actin Assembly Factors Regulate the Gelation Kinetics and Architecture of F-actin Networks

    PubMed Central

    Falzone, Tobias T.; Oakes, Patrick W.; Sees, Jennifer; Kovar, David R.; Gardel, Margaret L.

    2013-01-01

    Dynamic regulation of the actin cytoskeleton is required for diverse cellular processes. Proteins regulating the assembly kinetics of the cytoskeletal biopolymer F-actin are known to impact the architecture of actin cytoskeletal networks in vivo, but the underlying mechanisms are not well understood. Here, we demonstrate that changes to actin assembly kinetics with physiologically relevant proteins profilin and formin (mDia1 and Cdc12) have dramatic consequences on the architecture and gelation kinetics of otherwise biochemically identical cross-linked F-actin networks. Reduced F-actin nucleation rates promote the formation of a sparse network of thick bundles, whereas increased nucleation rates result in a denser network of thinner bundles. Changes to F-actin elongation rates also have marked consequences. At low elongation rates, gelation ceases and a solution of rigid bundles is formed. By contrast, rapid filament elongation accelerates dynamic arrest and promotes gelation with minimal F-actin density. These results are consistent with a recently developed model of how kinetic constraints regulate network architecture and underscore how molecular control of polymer assembly is exploited to modulate cytoskeletal architecture and material properties. PMID:23601318

  9. Resemblance of actin-binding protein/actin gels to covalently crosslinked networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janmey, Paul A.; Hvidt, Søren; Lamb, Jennifer; Stossel, Thomas P.

    1990-05-01

    THE maintainance of the shape of cells is often due to their surface elasticity, which arises mainly from an actin-rich cytoplasmic cortex1,2. On locomotion, phagocytosis or fission, however, these cells become partially fluid-like. The finding of proteins that can bind to actin and control the assembly of, or crosslink, actin filaments, and of intracellular messages that regulate the activities of some of these actin-binding proteins, indicates that such 'gel sol' transformations result from the rearrangement of cortical actin-rich networks3. Alternatively, on the basis of a study of the mechanical properties of mixtures of actin filaments and an Acanthamoeba actin-binding protein, α-actinin, it has been proposed that these transformations can be accounted for by rapid exchange of crosslinks between actin filaments4: the cortical network would be solid when the deformation rate is greater than the rate of crosslink exchange, but would deform or 'creep' when deformation is slow enough to permit crosslinker molecules to rearrange. Here we report, however, that mixtures of actin filaments and actin-binding protein (ABP), an actin crosslinking protein of many higher eukaryotes, form gels Theologically equivalent to covalently crosslinked networks. These gels do not creep in response to applied stress on a time scale compatible with most cell-surface movements. These findings support a more complex and controlled mechanism underlying the dynamic mechanical properties of cortical cytoplasm, and can explain why cells do not collapse under the constant shear forces that often exist in tissues.

  10. Mechanics of composite actin networks: in vitro and cellular perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Upadhyaya, Arpita

    2014-03-01

    Actin filaments and associated actin binding proteins play an essential role in governing the mechanical properties of eukaryotic cells. Even though cells have multiple actin binding proteins (ABPs) that exist simultaneously to maintain the structural and mechanical integrity of the cellular cytoskeleton, how these proteins work together to determine the properties of actin networks is not well understood. The ABP, palladin, is essential for the integrity of cell morphology and movement during development. Palladin coexists with alpha-actinin in stress fibers and focal adhesions and binds to both actin and alpha-actinin. To obtain insight into how mutually interacting actin crosslinking proteins modulate the properties of actin networks, we have characterized the micro-structure and mechanics of actin networks crosslinked with palladin and alpha-actinin. Our studies on composite networks of alpha-actinin/palladin/actin show that palladin and alpha-actinin synergistically determine network viscoelasticity. We have further examined the role of palladin in cellular force generation and mechanosensing. Traction force microscopy revealed that TAFs are sensitive to substrate stiffness as they generate larger forces on substrates of increased stiffness. Contrary to expectations, knocking down palladin increased the forces generated by cells, and also inhibited the ability to sense substrate stiffness for very stiff gels. This was accompanied by significant differences in the actin organization and adhesion dynamics of palladin knock down cells. Perturbation experiments also suggest altered myosin activity in palladin KD cells. Our results suggest that the actin crosslinkers such as palladin and myosin motors coordinate for optimal cell function and to prevent aberrant behavior as in cancer metastasis.

  11. Actin network disassembly powers dissemination of Listeria monocytogenes

    PubMed Central

    Talman, Arthur M.; Chong, Ryan; Chia, Jonathan; Svitkina, Tatyana; Agaisse, Hervé

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Several bacterial pathogens hijack the actin assembly machinery and display intracellular motility in the cytosol of infected cells. At the cell cortex, intracellular motility leads to bacterial dissemination through formation of plasma membrane protrusions that resolve into vacuoles in adjacent cells. Here, we uncover a crucial role for actin network disassembly in dissemination of Listeria monocytogenes. We found that defects in the disassembly machinery decreased the rate of actin tail turnover but did not affect the velocity of the bacteria in the cytosol. By contrast, defects in the disassembly machinery had a dramatic impact on bacterial dissemination. Our results suggest a model of L. monocytogenes dissemination in which the disassembly machinery, through local recycling of the actin network in protrusions, fuels continuous actin assembly at the bacterial pole and concurrently exhausts cytoskeleton components from the network distal to the bacterium, which enables membrane apposition and resolution of protrusions into vacuoles. PMID:24155331

  12. Diffusing wave spectroscopy microrheology of actin filament networks.

    PubMed Central

    Palmer, A; Xu, J; Kuo, S C; Wirtz, D

    1999-01-01

    Filamentous actin (F-actin), one of the constituents of the cytoskeleton, is believed to be the most important participant in the motion and mechanical integrity of eukaryotic cells. Traditionally, the viscoelastic moduli of F-actin networks have been measured by imposing a small mechanical strain and quantifying the resulting stress. The magnitude of the viscoelastic moduli, their concentration dependence and strain dependence, as well as the viscoelastic nature (solid-like or liquid-like) of networks of uncross-linked F-actin, have been the subjects of debate. Although this paper helps to resolve the debate and establishes the extent of the linear regime of F-actin networks' rheology, we report novel measurements of the high-frequency behavior of networks of F-actin, using a noninvasive light-scattering based technique, diffusing wave spectroscopy (DWS). Because no external strain is applied, our optical assay generates measurements of the mechanical properties of F-actin networks that avoid many ambiguities inherent in mechanical measurements. We observe that the elastic modulus has a small magnitude, no strain dependence, and a weak concentration dependence. Therefore, F-actin alone is not sufficient to generate the elastic modulus necessary to sustain the structural rigidity of most cells or support new cellular protrusions. Unlike previous studies, our measurements show that the mechanical properties of F-actin are highly dependent on the frequency content of the deformation. We show that the loss modulus unexpectedly dominates the elastic modulus at high frequencies, which are key for fast transitions. Finally, the measured mean square displacement of the optical probes, which is also generated by DWS measurements, offers new insight into the local bending fluctuations of the individual actin filaments and shows how they generate enhanced dissipation at short time scales. PMID:9916038

  13. Formation of actin networks in microfluidic concentration gradients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strelnikova, Natalja; Herren, Florian; Schoenenberger, Cora-Ann; Pfohl, Thomas

    2016-05-01

    The physical properties of cytoskeletal networks are contributors in a number of mechanical responses of cells including cellular deformation and locomotion, and are crucial for the proper action of living cells. Local chemical gradients modulate cytoskeletal functionality including the interactions of the cytoskeleton with other cellular components. Actin is a major constituent of the cytoskeleton. Introducing a microfluidic-based platform, we explored the impact of concentration gradients on the formation and structural properties of actin networks. Microfluidics-controlled flow-free steady state experimental conditions allow for the generation of chemical gradients of different profiles, such as linear or step-like. We discovered specific features of actin networks emerging in defined gradients. In particular, we analyzed the effects of spatial conditions on network properties, bending rigidities of network links, and the network elasticity.

  14. 3D actin network centerline extraction with multiple active contours.

    PubMed

    Xu, Ting; Vavylonis, Dimitrios; Huang, Xiaolei

    2014-02-01

    Fluorescence microscopy is frequently used to study two and three dimensional network structures formed by cytoskeletal polymer fibers such as actin filaments and actin cables. While these cytoskeletal structures are often dilute enough to allow imaging of individual filaments or bundles of them, quantitative analysis of these images is challenging. To facilitate quantitative, reproducible and objective analysis of the image data, we propose a semi-automated method to extract actin networks and retrieve their topology in 3D. Our method uses multiple Stretching Open Active Contours (SOACs) that are automatically initialized at image intensity ridges and then evolve along the centerlines of filaments in the network. SOACs can merge, stop at junctions, and reconfigure with others to allow smooth crossing at junctions of filaments. The proposed approach is generally applicable to images of curvilinear networks with low SNR. We demonstrate its potential by extracting the centerlines of synthetic meshwork images, actin networks in 2D Total Internal Reflection Fluorescence Microscopy images, and 3D actin cable meshworks of live fission yeast cells imaged by spinning disk confocal microscopy. Quantitative evaluation of the method using synthetic images shows that for images with SNR above 5.0, the average vertex error measured by the distance between our result and ground truth is 1 voxel, and the average Hausdorff distance is below 10 voxels.

  15. Two-tiered coupling between flowing actin and immobilized N-cadherin/catenin complexes in neuronal growth cones

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, Mikael; Leduc, Cécile; Lagardère, Matthieu; Argento, Amélie; Sibarita, Jean-Baptiste; Thoumine, Olivier

    2015-01-01

    Neuronal growth cones move forward by dynamically connecting actin-based motility to substrate adhesion, but the mechanisms at the individual molecular level remain unclear. We cultured primary neurons on N-cadherin–coated micropatterned substrates, and imaged adhesion and cytoskeletal proteins at the ventral surface of growth cones using single particle tracking combined to photoactivated localization microscopy (sptPALM). We demonstrate transient interactions in the second time scale between flowing actin filaments and immobilized N-cadherin/catenin complexes, translating into a local reduction of the actin retrograde flow. Normal actin flow on micropatterns was rescued by expression of a dominant negative N-cadherin construct competing for the coupling between actin and endogenous N-cadherin. Fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) experiments confirmed the differential kinetics of actin and N-cadherin, and further revealed a 20% actin population confined at N-cadherin micropatterns, contributing to local actin accumulation. Computer simulations with relevant kinetic parameters modeled N-cadherin and actin turnover well, validating this mechanism. Such a combination of short- and long-lived interactions between the motile actin network and spatially restricted adhesive complexes represents a two-tiered clutch mechanism likely to sustain dynamic environment sensing and provide the force necessary for growth cone migration. PMID:26038554

  16. Self-organization of actin networks by a monomeric myosin

    PubMed Central

    Saczko-Brack, Dario; Warchol, Ewa; Rogez, Benoit; Kröss, Markus; Heissler, Sarah M.; Sellers, James R.; Batters, Christopher; Veigel, Claudia

    2016-01-01

    The organization of actomyosin networks lies at the center of many types of cellular motility, including cell polarization and collective cell migration during development and morphogenesis. Myosin-IXa is critically involved in these processes. Using total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy, we resolved actin bundles assembled by myosin-IXa. Electron microscopic data revealed that the bundles consisted of highly ordered lattices with parallel actin polarity. The myosin-IXa motor domains aligned across the network, forming cross-links at a repeat distance of precisely 36 nm, matching the helical repeat of actin. Single-particle image processing resolved three distinct conformations of myosin-IXa in the absence of nucleotide. Using cross-correlation of a modeled actomyosin crystal structure, we identified sites of additional mass, which can only be accounted for by the large insert in loop 2 exclusively found in the motor domain of class IX myosins. We show that the large insert in loop 2 binds calmodulin and creates two coordinated actin-binding sites that constrain the actomyosin interactions generating the actin lattices. The actin lattices introduce orientated tracks at specific sites in the cell, which might install platforms allowing Rho-GTPase–activating protein (RhoGAP) activity to be focused at a definite locus. In addition, the lattices might introduce a myosin-related, force-sensing mechanism into the cytoskeleton in cell polarization and collective cell migration. PMID:27956608

  17. Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Composite Actin Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gardel, Margaret; Shin, Jennifer; Mahadevan, L.; Matsudaira, Paul; Weitz, D. A.

    2003-03-01

    There exits a family of actin-binding proteins (ABPs) and each protein has a distinct function for bundling, networking, gelating, capping, or simply binding to actin. Whether actin serves as a structural or motile component, its mechanical properties are determined by its degree and kinds of association with different ABPs and these properties are often closely related to its functional needs. For instance, in a cell actin is highly crosslinked with multiple ABPs (fimbrin, alpha-actinin, etc.) to generate thrust and strength for locomotion. In the acrosomal reaction of horseshoe crab sperm, actin exists as a bundle of preassembled filaments crosslinked with scruin to form a rigid structure to penetrate into an egg without yielding. We study the effects three different ABPs (scruin,fimbrin and alpha-actinin) have on the rheology and microstructure of actin networks using multiparticle tracking, imaging, and bulk rheology. From these experiments we can deduce how an evolving microstructure affects the bulk rheological properties and the role different concentrations and kinds of ABPs have in these changes.

  18. The role of actin networks in cellular mechanosensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azatov, Mikheil

    Physical processes play an important role in many biological phenomena, such as wound healing, organ development, and tumor metastasis. During these processes, cells constantly interact with and adapt to their environment by exerting forces to mechanically probe the features of their surroundings and generating appropriate biochemical responses. The mechanisms underlying how cells sense the physical properties of their environment are not well understood. In this thesis, I present my studies to investigate cellular responses to the stiffness and topography of the environment. In order to sense the physical properties of their environment, cells dynamically reorganize the structure of their actin cytoskeleton, a dynamic network of biopolymers, altering the shape and spatial distribution of protein assemblies. Several observations suggest that proteins that crosslink actin filaments may play an important role in cellular mechanosensitivity. Palladin is an actin-crosslinking protein that is found in the lamellar actin network, stress fibers and focal adhesions, cellular structures that are critical for mechanosensing of the physical environment. By virtue of its close interactions with these structures in the cell, palladin may play an important role in cell mechanics. However, the role of actin crosslinkers in general, and palladin in particular, in cellular force generation and mechanosensing is not well known. I have investigated the role of palladin in regulating the plasticity of the actin cytoskeleton and cellular force generation in response to alterations in substrate stiffness. I have shown that the expression levels of palladin modulate the forces exerted by cells and their ability to sense substrate stiffness. Perturbation experiments also suggest that palladin levels in cells altered myosin motor activity. These results suggest that the actin crosslinkers, such as palladin, and myosin motors coordinate for optimal cell function and to prevent aberrant

  19. Auxins and Cytokinins as Antipodal Modulators of Elasticity within the Actin Network of Plant Cells.

    PubMed Central

    Grabski, S.; Schindler, M.

    1996-01-01

    The cytoskeleton of plant and animal cells serves as a transmitter, transducer, and effector of cell signaling mechanisms. In plants, pathways for proliferation, differentiation, intracellular vesicular transport, cell-wall biosynthesis, symbiosis, secretion, and membrane recycling depend on the organization and dynamic properties of actin- and tubulin-based structures that are either associated with the plasma membrane or traverse the cytoplasm. Recently, a new in vivo cytoskeletal assay (cell optical displacement assay) was introduced to measure the tension within subdomains (cortical, transvacuolar, and perinuclear) of the actin network in living plant cells. Cell optical displacement assay measurements within soybean (Glycine max [L.]) root cells previously demonstrated that lipophilic signals, e.g. linoleic acid and arachidonic acid or changes in cytoplasmic pH gradients, could induce significant reductions in the tension within the actin network of transvacuolar strands. In contrast, enhancement of cytoplasmic free Ca2+ resulted in an increase in tension. In the present communication we have used these measurements to show that a similar antipodal pattern of activity exists for auxins and cytokinins (in their ability to modify the tension within the actin network of plant cells). It is suggested that these growth substances exert their effect on the cytoskeleton through the activation of signaling cascades, which result in the production of lipophilic and ionic second messengers, both of which have been demonstrated to directly effect the tension within the actin network of soybean root cells. PMID:12226233

  20. Participation of Actin on Giardia lamblia Growth and Encystation

    PubMed Central

    Castillo-Romero, Araceli; Leon-Avila, Gloria; Perez Rangel, Armando; Cortes Zarate, Rafael; Garcia Tovar, Carlos; Hernandez, Jose Manuel

    2009-01-01

    Background Microfilaments play a determinant role in different cell processes such as: motility, cell division, phagocytosis and intracellular transport; however, these structures are poorly understood in the parasite Giardia lamblia. Methodology and Principal Findings By confocal microscopy using TRITC-phalloidin, we found structured actin distributed in the entire trophozoite, the label stand out at the ventral disc, median body, flagella and around the nuclei. During Giardia encystation, a sequence of morphological changes concurrent to modifications on the distribution of structured actin and in the expression of actin mRNA were observed. To elucidate whether actin participates actively on growth and encystation, cells were treated with Cytochalasin D, Latrunculin A and Jasplakinolide and analyzed by confocal and scanning electron microscopy. All drugs caused a growth reduction (27 to 45%) and changes on the distribution of actin. Besides, 60 to 80% of trophozoites treated with the drugs, exhibited damage at the caudal region, alterations in the flagella and wrinkles-like on the plasma membrane. The drugs also altered the cyst-yield and the morphology, scanning electron microscopy revealed diminished cytokinesis, cysts with damages in the wall and alterations in the size and on the intermembranal space. Furthermore, the drugs caused a significant reduction of the intensity of flourescence-labeled CWP1 on ESV and on cyst wall, this was coincident with a reduction of CWP1 gene expression (34%). Conclusions and Significance All our results, indicated an important role of actin in the morphology, growth and encystation and indirectly suggested an actin role in gene expression. PMID:19774081

  1. How does the antagonism between capping and anti-capping proteins affect actin network dynamics?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Longhua; Papoian, Garegin A.

    2011-09-01

    Actin-based cell motility is essential to many biological processes. We built a simplified, three-dimensional computational model and subsequently performed stochastic simulations to study the growth dynamics of lamellipodia-like branched networks. In this work, we shed light on the antagonism between capping and anti-capping proteins in regulating actin dynamics in the filamentous network. We discuss detailed mechanisms by which capping and anti-capping proteins affect the protrusion speed of the actin network and the rate of nucleation of filaments. We computed a phase diagram showing the regimes of motility enhancement and inhibition by these proteins. Our work shows that the effects of capping and anti-capping proteins are mainly transmitted by modulation of the filamentous network density and local availability of monomeric actin. We discovered that the combination of the capping/anti-capping regulatory network with nucleation-promoting proteins introduces robustness and redundancy in cell motility machinery, allowing the cell to easily achieve maximal protrusion speeds under a broader set of conditions. Finally, we discuss distributions of filament lengths under various conditions and speculate on their potential implication for the emergence of filopodia from the lamellipodial network.

  2. Viscoelastic properties of actin networks influence material transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stam, Samantha; Weirich, Kimberly; Gardel, Margaret

    2015-03-01

    Directed flows of cytoplasmic material are important in a variety of biological processes including assembly of a mitotic spindle, retraction of the cell rear during migration, and asymmetric cell division. Networks of cytoskeletal polymers and molecular motors are known to be involved in these events, but how the network mechanical properties are tuned to perform such functions is not understood. Here, we construct networks of either semiflexible actin filaments or rigid bundles with varying connectivity. We find that solutions of rigid rods, where unimpeded sliding of filaments may enhance transport in comparison to unmoving tracks, are the fastest at transporting network components. Entangled solutions of semiflexible actin filaments also transport material, but the entanglements provide resistance. Increasing the elasticity of the actin networks with crosslinking proteins slows network deformation further. However, the length scale of correlated transport in these networks is increased. Our results reveal how the rigidity and connectivity of biopolymers allows material transport to occur over time and length scales required for physiological processes. This work was supported by the U. Chicago MRSEC

  3. Actin Polymerization Is Essential for Pollen Tube GrowthV⃞

    PubMed Central

    Vidali, Luis; McKenna, Sylvester T.; Hepler, Peter K.

    2001-01-01

    Actin microfilaments, which are prominent in pollen tubes, have been implicated in the growth process; however, their mechanism of action is not well understood. In the present work we have used profilin and DNAse I injections, as well as latrunculin B and cytochalasin D treatments, under quantitatively controlled conditions, to perturb actin microfilament structure and assembly in an attempt to answer this question. We found that a ∼50% increase in the total profilin pool was necessary to half-maximally inhibit pollen tube growth, whereas a ∼100% increase was necessary for half-maximal inhibition of cytoplasmic streaming. DNAse I showed a similar inhibitory activity but with a threefold more pronounced effect on growth than streaming. Latrunculin B, at only 1–4 nM in the growth medium, has a similar proportion of inhibition of growth over streaming to that of profilin. The fact that tip growth is more sensitive than streaming to the inhibitory substances and that there is no correlation between streaming and growth rates suggests that tip growth requires actin assembly in a process independent of cytoplasmic streaming. PMID:11514633

  4. Interactions with Actin Monomers, Actin Filaments, and Arp2/3 Complex Define the Roles of WASP Family Proteins and Cortactin in Coordinately Regulating Branched Actin Networks*

    PubMed Central

    Helgeson, Luke A.; Prendergast, Julianna G.; Wagner, Andrew R.; Rodnick-Smith, Max; Nolen, Brad J.

    2014-01-01

    Arp2/3 complex is an important actin filament nucleator that creates branched actin filament networks required for formation of lamellipodia and endocytic actin structures. Cellular assembly of branched actin networks frequently requires multiple Arp2/3 complex activators, called nucleation promoting factors (NPFs). We recently presented a mechanism by which cortactin, a weak NPF, can displace a more potent NPF, N-WASP, from nascent branch junctions to synergistically accelerate nucleation. The distinct roles of these NPFs in branching nucleation are surprising given their similarities. We biochemically dissected these two classes of NPFs to determine how their Arp2/3 complex and actin interacting segments modulate their influences on branched actin networks. We find that the Arp2/3 complex-interacting N-terminal acidic sequence (NtA) of cortactin has structural features distinct from WASP acidic regions (A) that are required for synergy between the two NPFs. Our mutational analysis shows that differences between NtA and A do not explain the weak intrinsic NPF activity of cortactin, but instead that cortactin is a weak NPF because it cannot recruit actin monomers to Arp2/3 complex. We use TIRF microscopy to show that cortactin bundles branched actin filaments using actin filament binding repeats within a single cortactin molecule, but that N-WASP antagonizes cortactin-mediated bundling. Finally, we demonstrate that multiple WASP family proteins synergistically activate Arp2/3 complex and determine the biochemical requirements in WASP proteins for synergy. Our data indicate that synergy between WASP proteins and cortactin may play a general role in assembling diverse actin-based structures, including lamellipodia, podosomes, and endocytic actin networks. PMID:25160634

  5. Coupled actin-lamin biopolymer networks and protecting DNA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Tao; Rocklin, D. Zeb; Mao, Xiaoming; Schwarz, J. M.

    The mechanical properties of cells are largely determined by networks of semiflexible biopolymers forming the cytoskeleton. Similarly, the mechanical properties of cell nuclei are also largely determined by networks of semiflexible biopolymers forming the nuclear cytoskeleton. In particular, a network of filamentous lamin sits just inside the inner nuclear membrane to presumably protect the heart of the cell nucleus--the DNA. It has been demonstrated over the past decade that the actin cytoskeletal biopolymer network and the lamin biopolymer network are coupled via a sequence of proteins bridging the outer and inner nuclear membranes, known as the LINC complex. We, therefore, probe the consequences of such a coupling in a model biopolymer network system via numerical simulations to understand the resulting deformations in the lamin network in response to perturbations in the actin cytoskeletal network. We find, for example, that the force transmission across the coupled system can depend sensitively on the concentration of LINC complexes. Such study could have implications for mechanical mechanisms of the regulation of transcription since DNA couples to lamin via lamin-binding domains so that deformations in the lamin network may result in deformations in the DNA.

  6. Initial stem cell adhesion on porous silicon surface: molecular architecture of actin cytoskeleton and filopodial growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collart-Dutilleul, Pierre-Yves; Panayotov, Ivan; Secret, Emilie; Cunin, Frédérique; Gergely, Csilla; Cuisinier, Frédéric; Martin, Marta

    2014-10-01

    The way cells explore their surrounding extracellular matrix (ECM) during development and migration is mediated by lamellipodia at their leading edge, acting as an actual motor pulling the cell forward. Lamellipodia are the primary area within the cell of actin microfilaments (filopodia) formation. In this work, we report on the use of porous silicon (pSi) scaffolds to mimic the ECM of mesenchymal stem cells from the dental pulp (DPSC) and breast cancer (MCF-7) cells. Our atomic force microscopy (AFM), fluorescence microscopy, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) results show that pSi promoted the appearance of lateral filopodia protruding from the DPSC cell body and not only in the lamellipodia area. The formation of elongated lateral actin filaments suggests that pores provided the necessary anchorage points for protrusion growth. Although MCF-7 cells displayed a lower presence of organized actin network on both pSi and nonporous silicon, pSi stimulated the formation of extended cell protrusions.

  7. Mechanics and multiple-particle tracking microheterogeneity of alpha-actinin-cross-linked actin filament networks.

    PubMed Central

    Tseng, Y; Wirtz, D

    2001-01-01

    Cell morphology is controlled by the actin cytoskeleton organization and mechanical properties, which are regulated by the available contents in actin and actin regulatory proteins. Using rheometry and the recently developed multiple-particle tracking method, we compare the mechanical properties and microheterogeneity of actin filament networks containing the F-actin cross-linking protein alpha-actinin. The elasticity of F-actin/alpha-actinin networks increases with actin concentration more rapidly for a fixed molar ratio of actin to alpha-actinin than in the absence of alpha-actinin, for networks of fixed alpha-actinin concentration and of fixed actin concentration, but more slowly than theoretically predicted for a homogeneous cross-linked semiflexible polymer network. These rheological measurements are complemented by multiple-particle tracking of fluorescent microspheres imbedded in the networks. The distribution of the mean squared displacements of these microspheres becomes progressively more asymmetric and wider for increasing concentration in alpha-actinin and, to a lesser extent, for increasing actin concentration, which suggests that F-actin networks become progressively heterogeneous for increasing protein content. This may explain the slower-than-predicted rise in elasticity of F-actin/alpha-actinin networks. Together these in vitro results suggest that actin and alpha-actinin provides the cell with an unsuspected range of regulatory pathways to modulate its cytoskeleton's micromechanics and local organization in vivo. PMID:11509377

  8. Dynamic actin cycling through mitochondrial subpopulations locally regulates the fission-fusion balance within mitochondrial networks.

    PubMed

    Moore, Andrew S; Wong, Yvette C; Simpson, Cory L; Holzbaur, Erika L F

    2016-09-30

    Mitochondria form interconnected networks that dynamically remodel in response to cellular needs. Using live-cell imaging, we investigate the role of the actin cytoskeleton in regulating mitochondrial fission and fusion. We identify cycling of actin filaments onto and off of subsets of cellular mitochondria. The association of actin filaments with mitochondrial subpopulations is transient; actin quickly disassembles, then reassembles around a distinct subpopulation, efficiently cycling through all cellular mitochondria within 14 min. The focal assembly of actin induces local, Drp1-dependent fragmentation of the mitochondrial network. On actin disassembly, fragmented mitochondria undergo rapid fusion, leading to regional recovery of the tubular mitochondrial network. Cycling requires dynamic actin polymerization and is blocked by inhibitors of both Arp2/3 and formins. We propose that cyclic assembly of actin onto mitochondria modulates the fission/fusion balance, promotes network remodelling and content mixing, and thus may serve as an essential mechanism regulating mitochondrial network homeostasis.

  9. Dynamic actin cycling through mitochondrial subpopulations locally regulates the fission–fusion balance within mitochondrial networks

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Andrew S.; Wong, Yvette C.; Simpson, Cory L.; Holzbaur, Erika L. F.

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondria form interconnected networks that dynamically remodel in response to cellular needs. Using live-cell imaging, we investigate the role of the actin cytoskeleton in regulating mitochondrial fission and fusion. We identify cycling of actin filaments onto and off of subsets of cellular mitochondria. The association of actin filaments with mitochondrial subpopulations is transient; actin quickly disassembles, then reassembles around a distinct subpopulation, efficiently cycling through all cellular mitochondria within 14 min. The focal assembly of actin induces local, Drp1-dependent fragmentation of the mitochondrial network. On actin disassembly, fragmented mitochondria undergo rapid fusion, leading to regional recovery of the tubular mitochondrial network. Cycling requires dynamic actin polymerization and is blocked by inhibitors of both Arp2/3 and formins. We propose that cyclic assembly of actin onto mitochondria modulates the fission/fusion balance, promotes network remodelling and content mixing, and thus may serve as an essential mechanism regulating mitochondrial network homeostasis. PMID:27686185

  10. Viral Replication Protein Inhibits Cellular Cofilin Actin Depolymerization Factor to Regulate the Actin Network and Promote Viral Replicase Assembly

    PubMed Central

    Kovalev, Nikolay; de Castro Martín, Isabel Fernández; Barajas, Daniel; Risco, Cristina; Nagy, Peter D.

    2016-01-01

    RNA viruses exploit host cells by co-opting host factors and lipids and escaping host antiviral responses. Previous genome-wide screens with Tomato bushy stunt virus (TBSV) in the model host yeast have identified 18 cellular genes that are part of the actin network. In this paper, we show that the p33 viral replication factor interacts with the cellular cofilin (Cof1p), which is an actin depolymerization factor. Using temperature-sensitive (ts) Cof1p or actin (Act1p) mutants at a semi-permissive temperature, we find an increased level of TBSV RNA accumulation in yeast cells and elevated in vitro activity of the tombusvirus replicase. We show that the large p33 containing replication organelle-like structures are located in the close vicinity of actin patches in yeast cells or around actin cable hubs in infected plant cells. Therefore, the actin filaments could be involved in VRC assembly and the formation of large viral replication compartments containing many individual VRCs. Moreover, we show that the actin network affects the recruitment of viral and cellular components, including oxysterol binding proteins and VAP proteins to form membrane contact sites for efficient transfer of sterols to the sites of replication. Altogether, the emerging picture is that TBSV, via direct interaction between the p33 replication protein and Cof1p, controls cofilin activities to obstruct the dynamic actin network that leads to efficient subversion of cellular factors for pro-viral functions. In summary, the discovery that TBSV interacts with cellular cofilin and blocks the severing of existing filaments and the formation of new actin filaments in infected cells opens a new window to unravel the way by which viruses could subvert/co-opt cellular proteins and lipids. By regulating the functions of cofilin and the actin network, which are central nodes in cellular pathways, viruses could gain supremacy in subversion of cellular factors for pro-viral functions. PMID:26863541

  11. Actin-Capping Protein and the Hippo pathway regulate F-actin and tissue growth in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Fernández, Beatriz García; Gaspar, Pedro; Brás-Pereira, Catarina; Jezowska, Barbara; Rebelo, Sofia Raquel; Janody, Florence

    2011-06-01

    The conserved Hippo tumor suppressor pathway is a key kinase cascade that controls tissue growth by regulating the nuclear import and activity of the transcription co-activator Yorkie. Here, we report that the actin-Capping Protein αβ heterodimer, which regulates actin polymerization, also functions to suppress inappropriate tissue growth by inhibiting Yorkie activity. Loss of Capping Protein activity results in abnormal accumulation of apical F-actin, reduced Hippo pathway activity and the ectopic expression of several Yorkie target genes that promote cell survival and proliferation. Reduction of two other actin-regulatory proteins, Cofilin and the cyclase-associated protein Capulet, cause abnormal F-actin accumulation, but only the loss of Capulet, like that of Capping Protein, induces ectopic Yorkie activity. Interestingly, F-actin also accumulates abnormally when Hippo pathway activity is reduced or abolished, independently of Yorkie activity, whereas overexpression of the Hippo pathway component expanded can partially reverse the abnormal accumulation of F-actin in cells depleted for Capping Protein. Taken together, these findings indicate a novel interplay between Hippo pathway activity and actin filament dynamics that is essential for normal growth control.

  12. Microtubules Remodel Actomyosin Networks in Xenopus Egg Extracts via Two Mechanisms of F-Actin Transport

    PubMed Central

    Waterman-Storer, Clare; Duey, Devin Y.; Weber, Kari L.; Keech, John; Cheney, Richard E.; Salmon, E.D.; Bement, William M.

    2000-01-01

    Interactions between microtubules and filamentous actin (F-actin) are crucial for many cellular processes, including cell locomotion and cytokinesis, but are poorly understood. To define the basic principles governing microtubule/F-actin interactions, we used dual-wavelength digital fluorescence and fluorescent speckle microscopy to analyze microtubules and F-actin labeled with spectrally distinct fluorophores in interphase Xenopus egg extracts. In the absence of microtubules, networks of F-actin bundles zippered together or exhibited serpentine gliding along the coverslip. When microtubules were nucleated from Xenopus sperm centrosomes, they were released and translocated away from the aster center. In the presence of microtubules, F-actin exhibited two distinct, microtubule-dependent motilities: rapid (∼250–300 nm/s) jerking and slow (∼50 nm/s), straight gliding. Microtubules remodeled the F-actin network, as F-actin jerking caused centrifugal clearing of F-actin from around aster centers. F-actin jerking occurred when F-actin bound to motile microtubules powered by cytoplasmic dynein. F-actin straight gliding occurred when F-actin bundles translocated along the microtubule lattice. These interactions required Xenopus cytosolic factors. Localization of myosin-II to F-actin suggested it may power F-actin zippering, while localization of myosin-V on microtubules suggested it could mediate interactions between microtubules and F-actin. We examine current models for cytokinesis and cell motility in light of these findings. PMID:10908578

  13. Effects of latrunculin B on the actin cytoskeleton and hyphal growth in Phytophthora infestans.

    PubMed

    Ketelaar, Tijs; Meijer, Harold J G; Spiekerman, Marjolein; Weide, Rob; Govers, Francine

    2012-12-01

    The actin cytoskeleton is conserved in all eukaryotes, but its functions vary among different organisms. In oomycetes, the function of the actin cytoskeleton has received relatively little attention. We have performed a bioinformatics study and show that oomycete actin genes fall within a distinct clade that is divergent from plant, fungal and vertebrate actin genes. To obtain a better understanding of the functions of the actin cytoskeleton in hyphal growth of oomycetes, we studied the actin organization in Phytophthora infestans hyphae and the consequences of treatment with the actin depolymerising drug latrunculin B (latB). This revealed that latB treatment causes a concentration dependent inhibition of colony expansion and aberrant hyphal growth. The most obvious aberrations observed upon treatment with 0.1 μM latB were increased hyphal branching and irregular tube diameters whereas at higher concentrations latB (0.5 and 1 μM) tips of expanding hyphae changed into balloon-like shapes. This aberrant growth correlated with changes in the organization of the actin cytoskeleton. In untreated hyphae, staining with fluorescently tagged phalloidin revealed two populations of actin filaments: long, axially oriented actin filament cables and cortical actin filament plaques. Two hyphal subtypes were recognized, one containing only plaques and the other containing both cables and plaques. In the latter, some hyphae had an apical zone without actin filament plaques. Upon latB treatment, the proportion of hyphae without actin filament cables increased and there were more hyphae with a short apical zone without actin filament plaques. In general, actin filament plaques were more resilient against actin depolymerisation than actin filament cables. Besides disturbing hyphal growth and actin organization, actin depolymerisation also affected the positioning of nuclei. In the presence of latB, the distance between nuclei and the hyphal tip decreased, suggesting that the actin

  14. Dexamethasone alters F-actin architecture and promotes cross-linked actin network formation in human trabecular meshwork tissue.

    PubMed

    Clark, Abbot F; Brotchie, Daniel; Read, A Thomas; Hellberg, Peggy; English-Wright, Sherry; Pang, Iok-Hou; Ethier, C Ross; Grierson, Ian

    2005-02-01

    Elevated intraocular pressure is an important risk factor for the development of glaucoma, a leading cause of irreversible blindness. This ocular hypertension is due to increased hydrodynamic resistance to the drainage of aqueous humor through specialized outflow tissues, including the trabecular meshwork (TM) and the endothelial lining of Schlemm's canal. We know that glucocorticoid therapy can cause increased outflow resistance and glaucoma in susceptible individuals, that the cytoskeleton helps regulate aqueous outflow resistance, and that glucocorticoid treatment alters the actin cytoskeleton of cultured TM cells. Our purpose was to characterize the actin cytoskeleton of cells in outflow pathway tissues in situ, to characterize changes in the cytoskeleton due to dexamethasone treatment in situ, and to compare these with changes observed in cell culture. Human ocular anterior segments were perfused with or without 10(-7) M dexamethasone, and F-actin architecture was investigated by confocal laser scanning microscopy. We found that outflow pathway cells contained stress fibers, peripheral actin staining, and occasional actin "tangles." Dexamethasone treatment caused elevated IOP in several eyes and increased overall actin staining, with more actin tangles and the formation of cross-linked actin networks (CLANs). The actin architecture in TM tissues was remarkably similar to that seen in cultured TM cells. Although CLANs have been reported previously in cultured cells, this is the first report of CLANs in tissue. These cytoskeletal changes may be associated with increased aqueous humor outflow resistance after ocular glucocorticoid treatment.

  15. Myosin lever arm directs collective motion on cellular actin network

    PubMed Central

    Hariadi, Rizal F.; Cale, Mario; Sivaramakrishnan, Sivaraj

    2014-01-01

    The molecular motor myosin teams up to drive muscle contraction, membrane traffic, and cell division in biological cells. Myosin function in cells emerges from the interaction of multiple motors tethered to a scaffold, with surrounding actin filaments organized into 3D networks. Despite the importance of myosin function, the influence of intermotor interactions on collective motion remains poorly understood. In this study, we used precisely engineered myosin assemblies to examine emergence in collective myosin movement. We report that tethering multiple myosin VI motors, but not myosin V motors, modifies their movement trajectories on keratocyte actin networks. Single myosin V and VI dimers display similar skewed trajectories, albeit in opposite directions, when traversing the keratocyte actin network. In contrast, tethering myosin VI motors, but not myosin V motors, progressively straightens the trajectories with increasing myosin number. Trajectory shape of multimotor scaffolds positively correlates with the stiffness of the myosin lever arm. Swapping the flexible myosin VI lever arm for the relatively rigid myosin V lever increases trajectory skewness, and vice versa. A simplified model of coupled motor movement demonstrates that the differences in flexural rigidity of the two myosin lever arms is sufficient to account for the differences in observed behavior of groups of myosin V and VI motors. In accordance with this model trajectory, shapes for scaffolds containing both myosin V and VI are dominated by the myosin with a stiffer lever arm. Our findings suggest that structural features unique to each myosin type may confer selective advantages in cellular functions. PMID:24591646

  16. Myosin lever arm directs collective motion on cellular actin network.

    PubMed

    Hariadi, Rizal F; Cale, Mario; Sivaramakrishnan, Sivaraj

    2014-03-18

    The molecular motor myosin teams up to drive muscle contraction, membrane traffic, and cell division in biological cells. Myosin function in cells emerges from the interaction of multiple motors tethered to a scaffold, with surrounding actin filaments organized into 3D networks. Despite the importance of myosin function, the influence of intermotor interactions on collective motion remains poorly understood. In this study, we used precisely engineered myosin assemblies to examine emergence in collective myosin movement. We report that tethering multiple myosin VI motors, but not myosin V motors, modifies their movement trajectories on keratocyte actin networks. Single myosin V and VI dimers display similar skewed trajectories, albeit in opposite directions, when traversing the keratocyte actin network. In contrast, tethering myosin VI motors, but not myosin V motors, progressively straightens the trajectories with increasing myosin number. Trajectory shape of multimotor scaffolds positively correlates with the stiffness of the myosin lever arm. Swapping the flexible myosin VI lever arm for the relatively rigid myosin V lever increases trajectory skewness, and vice versa. A simplified model of coupled motor movement demonstrates that the differences in flexural rigidity of the two myosin lever arms is sufficient to account for the differences in observed behavior of groups of myosin V and VI motors. In accordance with this model trajectory, shapes for scaffolds containing both myosin V and VI are dominated by the myosin with a stiffer lever arm. Our findings suggest that structural features unique to each myosin type may confer selective advantages in cellular functions.

  17. Criticalities in crosslinked actin networks due to myosin activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheinman, Michael

    2013-03-01

    Many essential processes in cells and tissues, like motility and morphogenesis, are orchestrated by molecular motors applying internal, active stresses on crosslinked networks of actin filaments. Using scaling analysis, mean-field calculation, numerical modelling and in vitro experiments of such active networks we predict and observe different mechanical regimes exhibiting interesting critical behaviours with non-trivial power-law dependencies. Firstly, we find that the presence of active stresses can dramatically increase the stiffness of a floppy network, as was observed in reconstituted intracellular F-actin networks with myosin motors and extracellular gels with contractile cells. Uniform internal stress results in an anomalous, critical mechanical regime only in the vicinity of the rigidity percolation points of the network. However, taking into account heterogeneity of motors, we demonstrate that the motors, stiffening any floppy network, induce large non-affine fluctuations, giving rise to a critical mechanical regime. Secondly, upon increasing motor concentration, the resulting large internal stress is able to significantly enhance unbinding of the network's crosslinks and, therefore, disconnect the initially well-connected network to isolated clusters. However, during this process, when the network approaches marginal connectivity the internal stresses are expected to drop drastically such that the connectivity stabilizes. This general argument and detailed numerical simulations show that motors should drive a well connected network to a close vicinity of a critical point of marginal connectivity. Experiments clearly confirm this conclusion and demonstrate robust critical connectivity of initially well-connected networks, ruptured by the motor activity for a wide range of parameters. M. Sheinman, C.P. Broedersz and F.C. MacKintosh, Phys. Rev. Lett, in press. J. Alvarado, M. Sheinman, A. Sharma, F.C. MacKintosh and G. Koenderink, in preparation.

  18. Role of the actin bundling protein fascin in growth cone morphogenesis: localization in filopodia and lamellipodia.

    PubMed

    Cohan, C S; Welnhofer, E A; Zhao, L; Matsumura, F; Yamashiro, S

    2001-02-01

    Growth cones at the distal tips of growing nerve axons contain bundles of actin filaments distributed throughout the lamellipodium and that project into filopodia. The regulation of actin bundling by specific actin binding proteins is likely to play an important role in many growth cone behaviors. Although the actin binding protein, fascin, has been localized in growth cones, little information is available on its functional significance. We used the large growth cones of the snail Helisoma to determine whether fascin was involved in temporal changes in actin filaments during growth cone morphogenesis. Fascin localized to radially oriented actin bundles in lamellipodia (ribs) and filopodia. Using a fascin antibody and a GFP fascin construct, we found that fascin incorporated into actin bundles from the beginning of growth cone formation at the cut end of axons. Fascin associated with most of the actin bundle except the proximal 6--12% adjacent to the central domain, which is the region associated with actin disassembly. Later, during growth cone morphogenesis when actin ribs shortened, the proximal fascin-free zone of bundles increased, but fascin was retained in the distal, filopodial portion of bundles. Treatment with tumor promoter 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA), which phosphorylates fascin and decreases its affinity for actin, resulted in loss of all actin bundles from growth cones. Our findings suggest that fascin may be particularly important for the linear structure and dynamics of filopodia and for lamellipodial rib dynamics by regulating filament organization in bundles.

  19. Interaction between Calcium and Actin in Guard Cell and Pollen Signaling Networks

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Dong-Hua; Acharya, Biswa R.; Liu, Wei; Zhang, Wei

    2013-01-01

    Calcium (Ca2+) plays important roles in plant growth, development, and signal transduction. It is a vital nutrient for plant physical design, such as cell wall and membrane, and also serves as a counter-cation for biochemical, inorganic, and organic anions, and more particularly, its concentration change in cytosol is a ubiquitous second messenger in plant physiological signaling in responses to developmental and environmental stimuli. Actin cytoskeleton is well known for its importance in cellular architecture maintenance and its significance in cytoplasmic streaming and cell division. In plant cell system, the actin dynamics is a process of polymerization and de-polymerization of globular actin and filamentous actin and that acts as an active regulator for calcium signaling by controlling calcium evoked physiological responses. The elucidation of the interaction between calcium and actin dynamics will be helpful for further investigation of plant cell signaling networks at molecular level. This review mainly focuses on the recent advances in understanding the interaction between the two aforementioned signaling components in two well-established model systems of plant, guard cell, and pollen. PMID:27137395

  20. Branching influences force-velocity curves and length fluctuations in actin networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansda, Deepak Kumar; Sen, Shamik; Padinhateeri, Ranjith

    2014-12-01

    We investigate collective dynamics of branched actin networks growing against a rigid movable wall constrained by a resistive force. Computing the force velocity relations, we show that the stall force of such networks depends not only on the average number of filaments touching the wall, but also on the amount of fluctuation of the leading edge of the network. These differences arise due to differences in the network architecture, namely, distance between two adjacent branching points and the initial distance of the starting filament from the wall, with their relative magnitudes influencing the nature of the force velocity curves (convex versus concave). We also show that the introduction of branching results in nonmonotonic diffusion constant, a quantity that measures the growth in length fluctuation of the leading edge of the network, as a function of externally applied force. Together our results demonstrate how the collective dynamics of a branched network differs from that of a parallel filament network.

  1. Bacterial actin and tubulin homologs in cell growth and division.

    PubMed

    Busiek, Kimberly K; Margolin, William

    2015-03-16

    In contrast to the elaborate cytoskeletal machines harbored by eukaryotic cells, such as mitotic spindles, cytoskeletal structures detectable by typical negative stain electron microscopy are generally absent from bacterial cells. As a result, for decades it was thought that bacteria lacked cytoskeletal machines. Revolutions in genomics and fluorescence microscopy have confirmed the existence not only of smaller-scale cytoskeletal structures in bacteria, but also of widespread functional homologs of eukaryotic cytoskeletal proteins. The presence of actin, tubulin, and intermediate filament homologs in these relatively simple cells suggests that primitive cytoskeletons first arose in bacteria. In bacteria such as Escherichia coli, homologs of tubulin and actin directly interact with each other and are crucial for coordinating cell growth and division. The function and direct interactions between these proteins will be the focus of this review.

  2. Zyxin antagonizes the FERM protein expanded to couple F-actin and Yorkie-dependent organ growth.

    PubMed

    Gaspar, Pedro; Holder, Maxine V; Aerne, Birgit L; Janody, Florence; Tapon, Nicolas

    2015-03-16

    Coordinated multicellular growth during development is achieved by the sensing of spatial and nutritional boundaries. The conserved Hippo (Hpo) signaling pathway has been proposed to restrict tissue growth by perceiving mechanical constraints through actin cytoskeleton networks. The actin-associated LIM proteins Zyxin (Zyx) and Ajuba (Jub) have been linked to the control of tissue growth via regulation of Hpo signaling, but the study of Zyx has been hampered by a lack of genetic tools. We generated a zyx mutant in Drosophila using TALEN endonucleases and used this to show that Zyx antagonizes the FERM-domain protein Expanded (Ex) to control tissue growth, eye differentiation, and F-actin accumulation. Zyx membrane targeting promotes the interaction between the transcriptional co-activator Yorkie (Yki) and the transcription factor Scalloped (Sd), leading to activation of Yki target gene expression and promoting tissue growth. Finally, we show that Zyx's growth-promoting function is dependent on its interaction with the actin-associated protein Enabled (Ena) via a conserved LPPPP motif and is antagonized by Capping Protein (CP). Our results show that Zyx is a functional antagonist of Ex in growth control and establish a link between actin filament polymerization and Yki activity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Two Distinct Actin Networks Mediate Traction Oscillations to Confer Focal Adhesion Mechanosensing.

    PubMed

    Wu, Zhanghan; Plotnikov, Sergey V; Moalim, Abdiwahab Y; Waterman, Clare M; Liu, Jian

    2017-02-28

    Focal adhesions (FAs) are integrin-based transmembrane assemblies that connect a cell to its extracellular matrix (ECM). They are mechanosensors through which cells exert actin cytoskeleton-mediated traction forces to sense the ECM stiffness. Interestingly, FAs themselves are dynamic structures that adapt their growth in response to mechanical force. It is unclear how the cell manages the plasticity of the FA structure and the associated traction force to accurately sense ECM stiffness. Strikingly, FA traction forces oscillate in time and space, and govern the cell mechanosensing of ECM stiffness. However, precisely how and why the FA traction oscillates is unknown. We developed a model of FA growth that integrates the contributions of the branched actin network and stress fibers (SFs). Using the model in combination with experimental tests, we show that the retrograde flux of the branched actin network promotes the proximal growth of the FA and contributes to a traction peak near the FA's distal tip. The resulting traction gradient within the growing FA favors SF formation near the FA's proximal end. The SF-mediated actomyosin contractility further stabilizes the FA and generates a second traction peak near the center of the FA. Formin-mediated SF elongation negatively feeds back with actomyosin contractility, resulting in central traction peak oscillation. This underpins the observed FA traction oscillation and, importantly, broadens the ECM stiffness range over which FAs can accurately adapt to traction force generation. Actin cytoskeleton-mediated FA growth and maturation thus culminate with FA traction oscillation to drive efficient FA mechanosensing. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. Mesoscopic model for filament orientation in growing actin networks: the role of obstacle geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weichsel, Julian; Schwarz, Ulrich S.

    2013-03-01

    Propulsion by growing actin networks is a universal mechanism used in many different biological systems, ranging from the sheet-like lamellipodium of crawling animal cells to the actin comet tails induced by certain bacteria and viruses in order to move within their host cells. Although the core molecular machinery for actin network growth is well preserved in all of these cases, the geometry of the propelled obstacle varies considerably. During recent years, filament orientation distribution has emerged as an important observable characterizing the structure and dynamical state of the growing network. Here we derive several continuum equations for the orientation distribution of filaments growing behind stiff obstacles of various shapes and validate the predicted steady state orientation patterns by stochastic computer simulations based on discrete filaments. We use an ordinary differential equation approach to demonstrate that for flat obstacles of finite size, two fundamentally different orientation patterns peaked at either ±35° or +70°/0°/ - 70° exhibit mutually exclusive stability, in agreement with earlier results for flat obstacles of very large lateral extension. We calculate and validate phase diagrams as a function of model parameters and show how this approach can be extended to obstacles with piecewise straight contours. For curved obstacles, we arrive at a partial differential equation in the continuum limit, which again is in good agreement with the computer simulations. In all cases, we can identify the same two fundamentally different orientation patterns, but only within an appropriate reference frame, which is adjusted to the local orientation of the obstacle contour. Our results suggest that two fundamentally different network architectures compete with each other in growing actin networks, irrespective of obstacle geometry, and clarify how simulated and electron tomography data have to be analyzed for non-flat obstacle geometries.

  5. The Effect of Crosslinking on the Microscale Stress Response and Molecular Deformations in Actin Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gurmessa, Bekele; Fitzpatrick, Robert; Valdivia, Jonathon; Anderson, Rae M. R.

    Actin, the most abundant protein in eukaryotic cells, is a semi-flexible biopolymer in the cytoskeleton that plays a crucial structural and mechanical role in cell stability, motion and replication, as well as muscle contraction. Most of these mechanically driven structural changes in cells stem from the complex viscoelastic nature of entangled actin networks and the presence of a myriad of proteins that cross-link actin filaments. Despite their importance, the mechanical response of actin networks is not yet well understood, particularly at the molecular level. Here, we use optical trapping - coupled with fluorescence microscopy - to characterize the microscale stress response and induced filament deformations in entangled and cross-linked actin networks subject to localized mechanical perturbations. In particular, we actively drive a microsphere 10 microns through an entangled or cross- linked actin network at a constant speed and measure the resistive force that the deformed actin filaments exert on the bead during and following strain. We simultaneously visualize and track individual sparsely-labeled actin filaments to directly link force response to molecular deformations, and map the propagation of the initially localized perturbation field throughout the rest of the network (~100 um). By varying the concentration of actin and cross-linkers we directly determine the role of crosslinking and entanglements on the length and time scales of stress propagation, molecular deformation and relaxation mechanisms in actin networks.

  6. Cytoskeletal actin networks in motile cells are critically self-organized systems synchronized by mechanical interactions

    PubMed Central

    Cardamone, Luca; Laio, Alessandro; Torre, Vincent; Shahapure, Rajesh; DeSimone, Antonio

    2011-01-01

    Growing networks of actin fibers are able to organize into compact, stiff two-dimensional structures inside lamellipodia of crawling cells. We put forward the hypothesis that the growing actin network is a critically self-organized system, in which long-range mechanical stresses arising from the interaction with the plasma membrane provide the selective pressure leading to organization. We show that a simple model based only on this principle reproduces the stochastic nature of lamellipodia protrusion (growth periods alternating with fast retractions) and several of the features observed in experiments: a growth velocity initially insensitive to the external force; the capability of the network to organize its orientation; a load-history-dependent growth velocity. Our model predicts that the spectrum of the time series of the height of a growing lamellipodium decays with the inverse of the frequency. This behavior is a well-known signature of self-organized criticality and is confirmed by unique optical tweezer measurements performed in vivo on neuronal growth cones. PMID:21825142

  7. Cytoskeletal actin networks in motile cells are critically self-organized systems synchronized by mechanical interactions.

    PubMed

    Cardamone, Luca; Laio, Alessandro; Torre, Vincent; Shahapure, Rajesh; DeSimone, Antonio

    2011-08-23

    Growing networks of actin fibers are able to organize into compact, stiff two-dimensional structures inside lamellipodia of crawling cells. We put forward the hypothesis that the growing actin network is a critically self-organized system, in which long-range mechanical stresses arising from the interaction with the plasma membrane provide the selective pressure leading to organization. We show that a simple model based only on this principle reproduces the stochastic nature of lamellipodia protrusion (growth periods alternating with fast retractions) and several of the features observed in experiments: a growth velocity initially insensitive to the external force; the capability of the network to organize its orientation; a load-history-dependent growth velocity. Our model predicts that the spectrum of the time series of the height of a growing lamellipodium decays with the inverse of the frequency. This behavior is a well-known signature of self-organized criticality and is confirmed by unique optical tweezer measurements performed in vivo on neuronal growth cones.

  8. Nerve growth cone lamellipodia contain two populations of actin filaments that differ in organization and polarity

    PubMed Central

    1992-01-01

    The organization and polarity of actin filaments in neuronal growth cones was studied with negative stain and freeze-etch EM using a permeabilization protocol that caused little detectable change in morphology when cultured nerve growth cones were observed by video- enhanced differential interference contrast microscopy. The lamellipodial actin cytoskeleton was composed of two distinct subpopulations: a population of 40-100-nm-wide filament bundles radiated from the leading edge, and a second population of branching short filaments filled the volume between the dorsal and ventral membrane surfaces. Together, the two populations formed the three- dimensional structural network seen within expanding lamellipodia. Interaction of the actin filaments with the ventral membrane surface occurred along the length of the filaments via membrane associated proteins. The long bundled filament population was primarily involved in these interactions. The filament tips of either population appeared to interact with the membrane only at the leading edge; this interaction was mediated by a globular Triton-insoluble material. Actin filament polarity was determined by decoration with myosin S1 or heavy meromyosin. Previous reports have suggested that the polarity of the actin filaments in motile cells is uniform, with the barbed ends toward the leading edge. We observed that the actin filament polarity within growth cone lamellipodia is not uniform; although the predominant orientation was with the barbed end toward the leading edge (47-56%), 22-25% of the filaments had the opposite orientation with their pointed ends toward the leading edge, and 19-31% ran parallel to the leading edge. The two actin filament populations display distinct polarity profiles: the longer filaments appear to be oriented predominantly with their barbed ends toward the leading edge, whereas the short filaments appear to be randomly oriented. The different length, organization and polarity of the two filament

  9. Competition between Tropomyosin, Fimbrin, and ADF/Cofilin drives their sorting to distinct actin filament networks.

    PubMed

    Christensen, Jenna R; Hocky, Glen M; Homa, Kaitlin E; Morganthaler, Alisha N; Hitchcock-DeGregori, Sarah E; Voth, Gregory A; Kovar, David R

    2017-03-10

    The fission yeast actin cytoskeleton is an ideal, simplified system to investigate fundamental mechanisms behind cellular self-organization. By focusing on the stabilizing protein tropomyosin Cdc8, bundling protein fimbrin Fim1, and severing protein coffin Adf1, we examined how their pairwise and collective interactions with actin filaments regulate their activity and segregation to functionally diverse F-actin networks. Utilizing multi-color TIRF microscopy of in vitro reconstituted F-actin networks, we observed and characterized two distinct Cdc8 cables loading and spreading cooperatively on individual actin filaments. Furthermore, Cdc8, Fim1, and Adf1 all compete for association with F-actin by different mechanisms, and their cooperative association with actin filaments affects their ability to compete. Finally, competition between Fim1 and Adf1 for F-actin synergizes their activities, promoting rapid displacement of Cdc8 from a dense F-actin network. Our findings reveal that competitive and cooperative interactions between actin binding proteins help define their associations with different F-actin networks.

  10. Competition for actin between two distinct F-actin networks defines a bistable switch for cell polarization.

    PubMed

    Lomakin, Alexis J; Lee, Kun-Chun; Han, Sangyoon J; Bui, Duyen A; Davidson, Michael; Mogilner, Alex; Danuser, Gaudenz

    2015-11-01

    Symmetry-breaking polarization enables functional plasticity of cells and tissues and is yet not well understood. Here we show that epithelial cells, hard-wired to maintain a static morphology and to preserve tissue organization, can spontaneously switch to a migratory polarized phenotype after relaxation of the actomyosin cytoskeleton. We find that myosin II engages actin in the formation of cortical actomyosin bundles and thus makes it unavailable for deployment in the process of dendritic growth normally driving cell motility. Under low-contractility regimes, epithelial cells polarize in a front-back manner owing to the emergence of actin retrograde flows powered by dendritic polymerization of actin. Coupled to cell movement, the flows transport myosin II from the front to the back of the cell, where the motor locally 'locks' actin in contractile bundles. This polarization mechanism could be employed by embryonic and cancer epithelial cells in microenvironments where high-contractility-driven cell motion is inefficient.

  11. Focal loss of actin bundles causes microtubule redistribution and growth cone turning.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Feng-Quan; Waterman-Storer, Clare M; Cohan, Christopher S

    2002-05-27

    It is commonly believed that growth cone turning during pathfinding is initiated by reorganization of actin filaments in response to guidance cues, which then affects microtubule structure to complete the turning process. However, a major unanswered question is how changes in actin cytoskeleton are induced by guidance cues and how these changes are then translated into microtubule rearrangement. Here, we report that local and specific disruption of actin bundles from the growth cone peripheral domain induced repulsive growth cone turning. Meanwhile, dynamic microtubules within the peripheral domain were oriented into areas where actin bundles remained and were lost from areas where actin bundles disappeared. This resulted in directional microtubule extension leading to axon bending and growth cone turning. In addition, this local actin bundle loss coincided with localized growth cone collapse, as well as asymmetrical lamellipodial protrusion. Our results provide direct evidence, for the first time, that regional actin bundle reorganization can steer the growth cone by coordinating actin reorganization with microtubule dynamics. This suggests that actin bundles can be potential targets of signaling pathways downstream of guidance cues, providing a mechanism for coupling changes in leading edge actin with microtubules at the central domain during turning.

  12. Cofilin-mediated actin dynamics promotes actin bundle formation during Drosophila bristle development

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Jing; Wang, Heng; Guo, Xuan; Chen, Jiong

    2016-01-01

    The actin bundle is an array of linear actin filaments cross-linked by actin-bundling proteins, but its assembly and dynamics are not as well understood as those of the branched actin network. Here we used the Drosophila bristle as a model system to study actin bundle formation. We found that cofilin, a major actin disassembly factor of the branched actin network, promotes the formation and positioning of actin bundles in the developing bristles. Loss of function of cofilin or AIP1, a cofactor of cofilin, each resulted in increased F-actin levels and severe defects in actin bundle organization, with the defects from cofilin deficiency being more severe. Further analyses revealed that cofilin likely regulates actin bundle formation and positioning by the following means. First, cofilin promotes a large G-actin pool both locally and globally, likely ensuring rapid actin polymerization for bundle initiation and growth. Second, cofilin limits the size of a nonbundled actin-myosin network to regulate the positioning of actin bundles. Third, cofilin prevents incorrect assembly of branched and myosin-associated actin filament into bundles. Together these results demonstrate that the interaction between the dynamic dendritic actin network and the assembling actin bundles is critical for actin bundle formation and needs to be closely regulated. PMID:27385345

  13. Profilin Regulates Apical Actin Polymerization to Control Polarized Pollen Tube Growth.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaonan; Qu, Xiaolu; Jiang, Yuxiang; Chang, Ming; Zhang, Ruihui; Wu, Youjun; Fu, Ying; Huang, Shanjin

    2015-12-07

    Pollen tube growth is an essential step during flowering plant reproduction, whose growth depends on a population of dynamic apical actin filaments. Apical actin filaments were thought to be involved in the regulation of vesicle fusion and targeting in the pollen tube. However, the molecular mechanisms that regulate the construction of apical actin structures in the pollen tube remain largely unclear. Here, we identify profilin as an important player in the regulation of actin polymerization at the apical membrane in the pollen tube. Downregulation of profilin decreased the amount of filamentous actin and induced disorganization of apical actin filaments, and reduced tip-directed vesicle transport and accumulation in the pollen tube. Direct visualization of actin dynamics revealed that the elongation of actin filaments originating at the apical membrane decreased in profilin mutant pollen tubes. Mutant profilin that is defective in binding poly-L-proline only partially rescues the actin polymerization defect in profilin mutant pollen tubes, although it fully rescues the actin turnover phenotype. We propose that profilin controls the construction of actin structures at the pollen tube tip, presumably by favoring formin-mediated actin polymerization at the apical membrane.

  14. Actin-myosin network is required for proper assembly of influenza virus particles

    SciTech Connect

    Kumakura, Michiko; Kawaguchi, Atsushi Nagata, Kyosuke

    2015-02-15

    Actin filaments are known to play a central role in cellular dynamics. After polymerization of actin, various actin-crosslinking proteins including non-muscle myosin II facilitate the formation of spatially organized actin filament networks. The actin-myosin network is highly expanded beneath plasma membrane. The genome of influenza virus (vRNA) replicates in the cell nucleus. Then, newly synthesized vRNAs are nuclear-exported to the cytoplasm as ribonucleoprotein complexes (vRNPs), followed by transport to the beneath plasma membrane where virus particles assemble. Here, we found that, by inhibiting actin-myosin network formation, the virus titer tends to be reduced and HA viral spike protein is aggregated on the plasma membrane. These results indicate that the actin-myosin network plays an important role in the virus formation. - Highlights: • Actin-myosin network is important for the influenza virus production. • HA forms aggregations at the plasma membrane in the presence of blebbistatin. • M1 is recruited to the budding site through the actin-myosin network.

  15. Force feedback controls motor activity and mechanical properties of self-assembling branched actin networks

    PubMed Central

    Bieling, Peter; Li, Tai-De; Weichsel, Julian; McGorty, Ryan; Jreij, Pamela; Huang, Bo; Fletcher, Daniel A.; Mullins, R. Dyche

    2016-01-01

    Branched actin networks–created by the Arp2/3 complex, capping protein, and a nucleation promoting factor– generate and transmit forces required for many cellular processes, but their response to force is poorly understood. To address this, we assembled branched actin networks in vitro from purified components and used simultaneous fluorescence and atomic force microscopy to quantify their molecular composition and material properties under various forces. Remarkably, mechanical loading of these self-assembling materials increases their density, power, and efficiency. Microscopically, increased density reflects increased filament number and altered geometry, but no change in average length. Macroscopically, increased density enhances network stiffness and resistance to mechanical failure beyond those of isotropic actin networks. These effects endow branched actin networks with memory of their mechanical history that shapes their material properties and motor activity. This work reveals intrinsic force feedback mechanisms by which mechanical resistance makes self-assembling actin networks stiffer, stronger, and more powerful. PMID:26771487

  16. Avalanches, hardening and softening in dense cross-linked actin networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Astrom, Jan; Kumar, Sunil; Vattulainen, Ilpo; Karttunen, Mikko

    2008-03-01

    Actin filament networks enable the cytoskeleton to adjust to internal and external forcing. These active networks can adapt to changes by dynamically adjusting their crosslinks. Here, we study actin filaments as elastic fibers having finite dimensions. We employ a full three-dimensional model to study the elastic properties of actin networks by computer simulations. We model a dense actin network with the crosslinks being approximately 1μm apart. The results show that dense actin networks, without any pre-straining, are characterized by (a) strain hardening without entropic elasticity, (b) 'viscotic' hysteresis in the case of strong crosslinks, (c) avalanches of crosslink slippage leading to strain softening in the case of breakable crosslinks, and (d) spontaneous formation of stress fibers in the case of active crosslink formation and destruction. We will discuss the relation to recent experimental observations.

  17. The F-BAR protein Hof1 tunes formin activity to sculpt actin cables during polarized growth

    PubMed Central

    Graziano, Brian R.; Yu, Hoi-Ying E.; Alioto, Salvatore L.; Eskin, Julian A.; Ydenberg, Casey A.; Waterman, David P.; Garabedian, Mikael; Goode, Bruce L.

    2014-01-01

    Asymmetric cell growth and division rely on polarized actin cytoskeleton remodeling events, the regulation of which is poorly understood. In budding yeast, formins stimulate the assembly of an organized network of actin cables that direct polarized secretion. Here we show that the Fer/Cip4 homology–Bin amphiphysin Rvs protein Hof1, which has known roles in cytokinesis, also functions during polarized growth by directly controlling the activities of the formin Bnr1. A mutant lacking the C-terminal half of Hof1 displays misoriented and architecturally altered cables, along with impaired secretory vesicle traffic. In vitro, Hof1 inhibits the actin nucleation and elongation activities of Bnr1 without displacing the formin from filament ends. These effects depend on the Src homology 3 domain of Hof1, the formin homology 1 (FH1) domain of Bnr1, and Hof1 dimerization, suggesting a mechanism by which Hof1 “restrains” the otherwise flexible FH1-FH2 apparatus. In vivo, loss of inhibition does not alter actin levels in cables but, instead, cable shape and functionality. Thus Hof1 tunes formins to sculpt the actin cable network. PMID:24719456

  18. Effects of filament rigidity in myosin II-induced actin network contractility and dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weirich, Kimberly; Gardel, Margaret

    2014-03-01

    Cells change shape, deforming to move and divide. The dynamic protein scaffold that shapes the cell is the cortex, a disordered, thin network of actin filaments. Random, local stresses generated by myosin II in the network create cellular-scale deformations. Myosin induced buckling and severing of actin filaments has been shown to underlie the contractility of two-dimensional disordered actin networks. This non-linear elastic response of actin filaments is thought to be an essential symmetry breaking mechanism to produce robust contractility in disordered actomyosin networks. To test this idea, we explore the effects of an actin bundling protein fascin, a crosslinker which induces polarity specific bundling of actin filaments, to create a network of F-actin bundles. We investigate myosin-induced stresses in a network of randomly oriented actin filaments, confined to a thin sheet at a supported lipid bilayer surface through a crowding agent. We find fascin-bundled filaments are less prone to filament buckling and show increased filament sliding, causing the myosin activity to induce network reorganization rather than contraction. Thus, changes in the filament bending rigidity in motor-filament systems can drive the system between distinct states with unique dynamic and mechanical signatures.

  19. Why is Actin Patchy?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlsson, Anders

    2009-03-01

    The intracellular protein actin, by reversibly polymerizing into filaments, generates forces for motion and shape changes of many types of biological cells. Fluorescence imaging studies show that actin often occurs in the form of localized patches of size roughly one micrometer at the cell membrane. Patch formation is most prevalent when the free-actin concentration is low. I investigate possible mechanisms for the formation of actin patches by numerically simulating the ``dendritic nucleation'' model of actin network growth. The simulations include filament growth, capping, branching, severing, and debranching. The attachment of membrane-bound activators to actin filaments, and subsequent membrane diffusion of unattached activators, are also included. It is found that as the actin concentration increases from zero, the actin occurs in patches at lower actin concentrations, and the size of the patches increases with increasing actin concentration. At a critical value of the actin concentration, the system undergoes a transition to complete coverage. The results are interpreted within the framework of reaction-diffusion equations in two dimensions.

  20. Arabidopsis RIC1 Severs Actin Filaments at the Apex to Regulate Pollen Tube Growth

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Zhenzhen; Shi, Haifan; Chen, Binqing; Zhang, Ruihui; Huang, Shanjin; Fu, Ying

    2015-01-01

    Pollen tubes deliver sperms to the ovule for fertilization via tip growth. The rapid turnover of F-actin in pollen tube tips plays an important role in this process. In this study, we demonstrate that Arabidopsis thaliana RIC1, a member of the ROP-interactive CRIB motif-containing protein family, regulates pollen tube growth via its F-actin severing activity. Knockout of RIC1 enhanced pollen tube elongation, while overexpression of RIC1 dramatically reduced tube growth. Pharmacological analysis indicated that RIC1 affected F-actin dynamics in pollen tubes. In vitro biochemical assays revealed that RIC1 directly bound and severed F-actin in the presence of Ca2+ in addition to interfering with F-actin turnover by capping F-actin at the barbed ends. In vivo, RIC1 localized primarily to the apical plasma membrane (PM) of pollen tubes. The level of RIC1 at the apical PM oscillated during pollen tube growth. The frequency of F-actin severing at the apex was notably decreased in ric1-1 pollen tubes but was increased in pollen tubes overexpressing RIC1. We propose that RIC1 regulates F-actin dynamics at the apical PM as well as the cytosol by severing F-actin and capping the barbed ends in the cytoplasm, establishing a novel mechanism that underlies the regulation of pollen tube growth. PMID:25804540

  1. Arabidopsis microtubule-destabilizing protein 25 functions in pollen tube growth by severing actin filaments.

    PubMed

    Qin, Tao; Liu, Xiaomin; Li, Jiejie; Sun, Jingbo; Song, Leina; Mao, Tonglin

    2014-01-01

    The formation of distinct actin filament arrays in the subapical region of pollen tubes is crucial for pollen tube growth. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the organization and dynamics of the actin filaments in this region remain to be determined. This study shows that Arabidopsis thaliana MICROTUBULE-DESTABILIZING PROTEIN25 (MDP25) has the actin filament-severing activity of an actin binding protein. This protein negatively regulated pollen tube growth by modulating the organization and dynamics of actin filaments in the subapical region of pollen tubes. MDP25 loss of function resulted in enhanced pollen tube elongation and inefficient fertilization. MDP25 bound directly to actin filaments and severed individual actin filaments, in a manner that was dramatically enhanced by Ca(2+), in vitro. Analysis of a mutant that bears a point mutation at the Ca(2+) binding sites demonstrated that the subcellular localization of MDP25 was determined by cytosolic Ca(2+) level in the subapical region of pollen tubes, where MDP25 was disassociated from the plasma membrane and moved into the cytosol. Time-lapse analysis showed that the F-actin-severing frequency significantly decreased and a high density of actin filaments was observed in the subapical region of mdp25-1 pollen tubes. This study reveals a mechanism whereby calcium enhances the actin filament-severing activity of MDP25 in the subapical region of pollen tubes to modulate pollen tube growth.

  2. Comparative analysis of tools for live cell imaging of actin network architecture

    PubMed Central

    Belin, Brittany J; Goins, Lauren M; Mullins, R Dyche

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Fluorescent derivatives of actin and actin-binding domains are powerful tools for studying actin filament architecture and dynamics in live cells. Growing evidence, however, indicates that these probes are biased, and their cellular distribution does not accurately reflect that of the cytoskeleton. To understand the strengths and weaknesses of commonly used live-cell probes—fluorescent protein fusions of actin, Lifeact, F-tractin, and actin-binding domains from utrophin—we compared their distributions in cells derived from various model organisms. We focused on five actin networks: the peripheral cortex, lamellipodial and lamellar networks, filopodial bundles, and stress fibers. Using phalloidin as a standard, we identified consistent biases in the distribution of each probe. The localization of F-tractin is the most similar to that of phalloidin but induces organism-specific changes in cell morphology. Both Lifeact and GFP-actin concentrate in lamellipodial actin networks but are excluded from lamellar networks and filopodia. In contrast, the full utrophin actin-binding domain (Utr261) binds filaments of the lamellum but only weakly localizes to lamellipodia, while a shorter variant (Utr230) is restricted to the most stable subpopulations of actin filaments: cortical networks and stress fibers. In some cells, Utr230 also detects Golgi-associated filaments, previously detected by immunofluorescence but not visible by phalloidin staining. Consistent with its localization, Utr230 exhibits slow rates of fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) compared to F-tractin, Utr261 and Lifeact, suggesting that it may be more useful for FRAP- and photo-activation-based studies of actin network dynamics. PMID:26317264

  3. Comparative analysis of tools for live cell imaging of actin network architecture.

    PubMed

    Belin, Brittany J; Goins, Lauren M; Mullins, R Dyche

    2014-01-01

    Fluorescent derivatives of actin and actin-binding domains are powerful tools for studying actin filament architecture and dynamics in live cells. Growing evidence, however, indicates that these probes are biased, and their cellular distribution does not accurately reflect that of the cytoskeleton. To understand the strengths and weaknesses of commonly used live-cell probes--fluorescent protein fusions of actin, Lifeact, F-tractin, and actin-binding domains from utrophin--we compared their distributions in cells derived from various model organisms. We focused on five actin networks: the peripheral cortex, lamellipodial and lamellar networks, filopodial bundles, and stress fibers. Using phalloidin as a standard, we identified consistent biases in the distribution of each probe. The localization of F-tractin is the most similar to that of phalloidin but induces organism-specific changes in cell morphology. Both Lifeact and GFP-actin concentrate in lamellipodial actin networks but are excluded from lamellar networks and filopodia. In contrast, the full utrophin actin-binding domain (Utr261) binds filaments of the lamellum but only weakly localizes to lamellipodia, while a shorter variant (Utr230) is restricted to the most stable subpopulations of actin filaments: cortical networks and stress fibers. In some cells, Utr230 also detects Golgi-associated filaments, previously detected by immunofluorescence but not visible by phalloidin staining. Consistent with its localization, Utr230 exhibits slow rates of fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) compared to F-tractin, Utr261 and Lifeact, suggesting that it may be more useful for FRAP- and photo-activation-based studies of actin network dynamics.

  4. Cdc42 and actin control polarized expression of TI-VAMP vesicles to neuronal growth cones and their fusion with the plasma membrane.

    PubMed

    Alberts, Philipp; Rudge, Rachel; Irinopoulou, Theano; Danglot, Lydia; Gauthier-Rouvière, Cécile; Galli, Thierry

    2006-03-01

    Tetanus neurotoxin-insensitive vesicle-associated membrane protein (TI-VAMP)-mediated fusion of intracellular vesicles with the plasma membrane is crucial for neurite outgrowth, a pathway not requiring synaptobrevin-dependent exocytosis. Yet, it is not known how the TI-VAMP membrane trafficking pathway is regulated or how it is coordinated with cytoskeletal dynamics within the growth cone that guide neurite outgrowth. Here, we demonstrate that TI-VAMP, but not synaptobrevin 2, concentrates in the peripheral, F-actin-rich region of the growth cones of hippocampal neurons in primary culture. Its accumulation correlates with and depends upon the presence of F-actin. Moreover, acute stimulation of actin remodeling by homophilic activation of the adhesion molecule L1 induces a site-directed, actin-dependent recruitment of the TI-VAMP compartment. Expression of a dominant-positive mutant of Cdc42, a key regulator of cell polarity, stimulates formation of F-actin- and TI-VAMP-rich filopodia outside the growth cone. Furthermore, we report that Cdc42 activates exocytosis of pHLuorin tagged TI-VAMP in an actin-dependent manner. Collectively, our data suggest that Cdc42 and regulated assembly of the F-actin network control the accumulation and exocytosis of TI-VAMP-containing membrane vesicles in growth cones to coordinate membrane trafficking and actin remodeling during neurite outgrowth.

  5. Cdc42 and Actin Control Polarized Expression of TI-VAMP Vesicles to Neuronal Growth Cones and Their Fusion with the Plasma MembraneV⃞

    PubMed Central

    Alberts, Philipp; Rudge, Rachel; Irinopoulou, Theano; Danglot, Lydia; Gauthier-Rouvière, Cécile; Galli, Thierry

    2006-01-01

    Tetanus neurotoxin-insensitive vesicle-associated membrane protein (TI-VAMP)-mediated fusion of intracellular vesicles with the plasma membrane is crucial for neurite outgrowth, a pathway not requiring synaptobrevin-dependent exocytosis. Yet, it is not known how the TI-VAMP membrane trafficking pathway is regulated or how it is coordinated with cytoskeletal dynamics within the growth cone that guide neurite outgrowth. Here, we demonstrate that TI-VAMP, but not synaptobrevin 2, concentrates in the peripheral, F-actin-rich region of the growth cones of hippocampal neurons in primary culture. Its accumulation correlates with and depends upon the presence of F-actin. Moreover, acute stimulation of actin remodeling by homophilic activation of the adhesion molecule L1 induces a site-directed, actin-dependent recruitment of the TI-VAMP compartment. Expression of a dominant-positive mutant of Cdc42, a key regulator of cell polarity, stimulates formation of F-actin- and TI-VAMP-rich filopodia outside the growth cone. Furthermore, we report that Cdc42 activates exocytosis of pHLuorin tagged TI-VAMP in an actin-dependent manner. Collectively, our data suggest that Cdc42 and regulated assembly of the F-actin network control the accumulation and exocytosis of TI-VAMP-containing membrane vesicles in growth cones to coordinate membrane trafficking and actin remodeling during neurite outgrowth. PMID:16381811

  6. Initial stem cell adhesion on porous silicon surface: molecular architecture of actin cytoskeleton and filopodial growth

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The way cells explore their surrounding extracellular matrix (ECM) during development and migration is mediated by lamellipodia at their leading edge, acting as an actual motor pulling the cell forward. Lamellipodia are the primary area within the cell of actin microfilaments (filopodia) formation. In this work, we report on the use of porous silicon (pSi) scaffolds to mimic the ECM of mesenchymal stem cells from the dental pulp (DPSC) and breast cancer (MCF-7) cells. Our atomic force microscopy (AFM), fluorescence microscopy, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) results show that pSi promoted the appearance of lateral filopodia protruding from the DPSC cell body and not only in the lamellipodia area. The formation of elongated lateral actin filaments suggests that pores provided the necessary anchorage points for protrusion growth. Although MCF-7 cells displayed a lower presence of organized actin network on both pSi and nonporous silicon, pSi stimulated the formation of extended cell protrusions. PMID:25386101

  7. Oscillatory Increases in Alkalinity Anticipate Growth and May Regulate Actin Dynamics in Pollen Tubes of Lily[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Lovy-Wheeler, Alenka; Kunkel, Joseph G.; Allwood, Ellen G.; Hussey, Patrick J.; Hepler, Peter K.

    2006-01-01

    Lily (Lilium formosanum or Lilium longiflorum) pollen tubes, microinjected with a low concentration of the pH-sensitive dye bis-carboxyethyl carboxyfluorescein dextran, show oscillating pH changes in their apical domain relative to growth. An increase in pH in the apex precedes the fastest growth velocities, whereas a decline follows growth, suggesting a possible relationship between alkalinity and cell extension. A target for pH may be the actin cytoskeleton, because the apical cortical actin fringe resides in the same region as the alkaline band in lily pollen tubes and elongation requires actin polymerization. A pH-sensitive actin binding protein, actin-depolymerizing factor (ADF), together with actin-interacting protein (AIP) localize to the cortical actin fringe region. Modifying intracellular pH leads to reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton, especially in the apical domain. Acidification causes actin filament destabilization and inhibits growth by 80%. Upon complete growth inhibition, the actin fringe is the first actin cytoskeleton component to disappear. We propose that during normal growth, the pH increase in the alkaline band stimulates the fragmenting activity of ADF/AIP, which in turn generates more sites for actin polymerization. Increased actin polymerization supports faster growth rates and a proton influx, which inactivates ADF/AIP, decreases actin polymerization, and retards growth. As pH stabilizes and increases, the activity of ADF/AIP again increases, repeating the cycle of events. PMID:16920777

  8. Carbonylation and disassembly of the F-actin cytoskeleton in oxidant induced barrier dysfunction and its prevention by epidermal growth factor and transforming growth factor α in a human colonic cell line

    PubMed Central

    Banan, A; Zhang, Y; Losurdo, J; Keshavarzian, A

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND—Intestinal barrier dysfunction concomitant with high levels of reactive oxygen metabolites (ROM) in the inflamed mucosa have been observed in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). The cytoskeletal network has been suggested to be involved in the regulation of barrier function. Growth factors (epidermal growth factor (EGF) and transforming growth factor α (TGF-α)) protect gastrointestinal barrier integrity against a variety of noxious agents. However, the underlying mechanisms of oxidant induced disruption and growth factor mediated protection remain elusive.
AIMS—To determine: (1) if oxidation and disassembly of actin (a key cytoskeletal component) plays a major role in ROM induced epithelial monolayer barrier dysfunction; and (2) if growth factor mediated protection involves prevention of theses alterations.
METHODS—Caco-2 monolayers were preincubated with EGF, TGF-α, or vehicle before incubation with ROM (H2O2 or HOCl). Effects on cell integrity, barrier function, and G- and F-actin (oxidation, disassembly, and assembly) were determined.
RESULTS—ROM dose dependently and significantly increased F- and G-actin oxidation (carbonylation), decreased the stable F-actin fraction (index of stability), and increased the monomeric G-actin fraction (index of disassembly). Concomitant with these changes were disruption of the actin cytoskeleton and loss of the monolayer barrier function. In contrast, growth factor pretreatment decreased actin oxidation and enhanced the stable F-actin, while in concert prevented actin disruption and restored normal barrier function of monolayers exposed to ROM. Cytochalasin-D, an inhibitor of actin assembly, not only caused actin disassembly and barrier dysfunction but also abolished the protective action of growth factors. Moreover, an actin stabilising agent, phalloidin, mimicked the protective actions of the growth factors.
CONCLUSIONS—Oxidation, disassembly, and instability of the actin cytoskeleton appears to

  9. Self-organized DNA/F-actin gels: entangled networks of nematic domains with tunable density

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butler, John; Zribi, Olena; Smalyukh, Ivan; Hwee Lai, Ghee; Golestanian, Ramin; Angelini, Thomas; Wong, Gerard

    2008-03-01

    We examine mixtures of DNA and F-actin as a model system of like-charged rigid rods and flexible chains. Confocal microscopy reveals the formation of elongated nematic F-actin domains reticulated via defect-free vertices into a network, all embedded in a mesh of random DNA. Synchrotron x-ray scattering results indicate that the DNA mesh squeezes the F-actin domains into a nematic state via the osmotic pressure of uncondensed counterions, so that the inter-actin spacing within the domains decreases with increasing DNA concentration. These observations are consistent with arguments based on electrostatics and nematic elasticity.

  10. Apical myosin XI anticipates F-actin during polarized growth of Physcomitrella patens cells.

    PubMed

    Furt, Fabienne; Liu, Yen-Chun; Bibeau, Jeffrey P; Tüzel, Erkan; Vidali, Luis

    2013-02-01

    Tip growth is essential for land colonization by bryophytes, plant sexual reproduction and water and nutrient uptake. Because this specialized form of polarized cell growth requires both a dynamic actin cytoskeleton and active secretion, it has been proposed that the F-actin-associated motor myosin XI is essential for this process. Nevertheless, a spatial and temporal relationship between myosin XI and F-actin during tip growth is not known in any plant cell. Here, we use the highly polarized cells of the moss Physcomitrella patens to show that myosin XI and F-actin localize, in vivo, at the same apical domain and that both signals fluctuate. Surprisingly, phase analysis shows that increase in myosin XI anticipates that of F-actin; in contrast, myosin XI levels at the tip fluctuate in identical phase with a vesicle marker. Pharmacological analysis using a low concentration of the actin polymerization inhibitor latrunculin B showed that the F-actin at the tip can be significantly diminished while myosin XI remains elevated in this region, suggesting that a mechanism exists to cluster myosin XI-associated structures at the cell's apex. In addition, this approach uncovered a mechanism for actin polymerization-dependent motility in the moss cytoplasm, where myosin XI-associated structures seem to anticipate and organize the actin polymerization machinery. From our results, we inferred a model where the interaction between myosin XI-associated vesicular structures and F-actin polymerization-driven motility function at the cell's apex to maintain polarized cell growth. We hypothesize this is a general mechanism for the participation of myosin XI and F-actin in tip growing cells. © 2012 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  11. Cross-linked actin networks (CLANs) in glaucoma.

    PubMed

    Bermudez, Jaclyn Y; Montecchi-Palmer, Michela; Mao, Weiming; Clark, Abbot F

    2017-06-01

    One of the major causes of decreased vision, irreversible vision loss and blindness worldwide is glaucoma. Increased intraocular pressure (IOP) is a major risk factor associated with glaucoma and its molecular mechanisms are not fully understood. The trabecular meshwork (TM) is the primary site of injury in glaucoma, and its dysfunction results in elevated IOP. The glaucomatous TM has increased extracellular matrix deposition as well as cytoskeletal rearrangements referred to as cross-linked actin networks (CLANs) that consist of dome like structures consisting of hubs and spokes. CLANs are thought to play a role in increased aqueous humor outflow resistance and increased IOP by creating stiffer TM cells and tissue. CLANs are inducible by glucocorticoids (GCs) and TGFβ2 in confluent TM cells and TM tissues. The signaling pathways of these induction agents give insight into the possible mechanisms of CLAN formation, but to date, the mechanism of CLANs regulation by these pathways has yet to be determined. Understanding the role CLANs play in IOP elevation and their mechanisms of induction and regulation may lead to novel treatment options to help prevent or intervene in glaucomatous damage to the trabecular meshwork. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Passive and active microrheology for cross-linked F-actin networks in vitro.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyungsuk; Ferrer, Jorge M; Nakamura, Fumihiko; Lang, Matthew J; Kamm, Roger D

    2010-04-01

    Actin filament (F-actin) is one of the dominant structural constituents in the cytoskeleton. Orchestrated by various actin-binding proteins (ABPs), F-actin is assembled into higher-order structures such as bundles and networks that provide mechanical support for the cell and play important roles in numerous cellular processes. Although mechanical properties of F-actin networks have been extensively studied, the underlying mechanisms for network elasticity are not fully understood, in part because different measurements probe different length and force scales. Here, we developed both passive and active microrheology techniques using optical tweezers to estimate the mechanical properties of F-actin networks at a length scale comparable to cells. For the passive approach we tracked the motion of a thermally fluctuating colloidal sphere to estimate the frequency-dependent complex shear modulus of the network. In the active approach, we used an optical trap to oscillate an embedded microsphere and monitored the response in order to obtain network viscoelasticity over a physiologically relevant force range. While both active and passive measurements exhibit similar results at low strain, the F-actin network subject to high strain exhibits non-linear behavior which is analogous to the strain-hardening observed in macroscale measurements. Using confocal and total internal reflection fluorescent microscopy, we also characterize the microstructure of reconstituted F-actin networks in terms of filament length, mesh size and degree of bundling. Finally, we propose a model of network connectivity by investigating the effect of filament length on the mechanical properties and structure.

  13. Two distinct actin networks mediate traction oscillations to confer mechanosensitivity of focal adhesions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Zhanghan; Plotnikov, Sergey; Waterman, Clare; Liu, Jian

    Cells sense the mechanical stiffness of their extracellular matrix (ECM) by exerting traction force through focal adhesions (FAs), which are integrin-based protein assemblies. Strikingly, FA-mediated traction forces oscillate in time and space and govern durotaxis - the tendency of most cell types to migrate toward stiffer ECM. The underlying mechanism of this intriguing oscillation of FA traction force is unknown. Combing theory and experiment, we develop a model of FA growth, which integrates coordinated contributions of a branched actin network and stress fibers in the process. We show that retrograde flux of branched actin network contributes to a traction peak near the FA distal tip and that stress fiber-mediated actomyosin Contractility generates a second traction peak near the FA center. Formin-mediated stress fiber elongation negatively feeds back with actomyosin Contractility, resulting in the central traction peak oscillation. This underpins observed spatio-temporal patterns of the FA traction, and broadens the ECM stiffness range, over which FAs could accurately adapt with traction force generation. Our findings shed light on the fundamental mechanism of FA mechanosensing and hence durotaxis.

  14. A Gβγ effector, ElmoE, transduces GPCR signaling to the actin network during chemotaxis.

    PubMed

    Yan, Jianshe; Mihaylov, Vassil; Xu, Xuehua; Brzostowski, Joseph A; Li, Hongyan; Liu, Lunhua; Veenstra, Timothy D; Parent, Carole A; Jin, Tian

    2012-01-17

    Activation of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) leads to the dissociation of heterotrimeric G-proteins into Gα and Gβγ subunits, which go on to regulate various effectors involved in a panoply of cellular responses. During chemotaxis, Gβγ subunits regulate actin assembly and migration, but the protein(s) linking Gβγ to the actin cytoskeleton remains unknown. Here, we identified a Gβγ effector, ElmoE in Dictyostelium, and demonstrated that it is required for GPCR-mediated chemotaxis. Remarkably, ElmoE associates with Gβγ and Dock-like proteins to activate the small GTPase Rac, in a GPCR-dependent manner, and also associates with Arp2/3 complex and F-actin. Thus, ElmoE serves as a link between chemoattractant GPCRs, G-proteins and the actin cytoskeleton. The pathway, consisting of GPCR, Gβγ, Elmo/Dock, Rac, and Arp2/3, spatially guides the growth of dendritic actin networks in pseudopods of eukaryotic cells during chemotaxis.

  15. RefilinB (FAM101B) targets FilaminA to organize perinuclear actin networks and regulates nuclear shape

    PubMed Central

    Gay, Olivia; Gilquin, Benoît; Nakamura, Fumihiko; Jenkins, Zandra A.; McCartney, Rosannah; Krakow, Deborah; Deshiere, Alexandre; Assard, Nicole; Hartwig, John H.; Robertson, Stephen P.; Baudier, Jacques

    2011-01-01

    The intracellular localization and shape of the nucleus plays a central role in cellular and developmental processes. In fibroblasts, nuclear movement and shape are controlled by a specific perinuclear actin network made of contractile actin filament bundles called transmembrane actin-associated nuclear (TAN) lines that form a structure called the actin cap. The identification of regulatory proteins associated with this specific actin cytoskeletal dynamic is a priority for understanding actin-based changes in nuclear shape and position in normal and pathological situations. Here, we first identify a unique family of actin regulators, the refilin proteins (RefilinA and RefilinB), that stabilize specifically perinuclear actin filament bundles. We next identify the actin-binding filamin A (FLNA) protein as the downstream effector of refilins. Refilins act as molecular switches to convert FLNA from an actin branching protein into one that bundles. In NIH 3T3 fibroblasts, the RefilinB/FLNA complex organizes the perinuclear actin filament bundles forming the actin cap. Finally, we demonstrate that in epithelial normal murine mammary gland (NmuMG) cells, the RefilinB/FLNA complex controls formation of a new perinuclear actin network that accompanies nuclear shape changes during the epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT). Our studies open perspectives for further functional analyses of this unique actin-based network and shed light on FLNA function during development and in human syndromes associated with FLNA mutations. PMID:21709252

  16. Morphology and viscoelasticity of actin networks formed with the mutually interacting crosslinkers: palladin and alpha-actinin.

    PubMed

    Grooman, Brian; Fujiwara, Ikuko; Otey, Carol; Upadhyaya, Arpita

    2012-01-01

    Actin filaments and associated actin binding proteins play an essential role in governing the mechanical properties of eukaryotic cells. Even though cells have multiple actin binding proteins (ABPs) that exist simultaneously to maintain the structural and mechanical integrity of the cellular cytoskeleton, how these proteins work together to determine the properties of actin networks is not clearly understood. The ABP, palladin, is essential for the maintenance of cell morphology and the regulation of cell movement. Palladin coexists with α-actinin in stress fibers and focal adhesions and binds to both actin and α-actinin. To obtain insight into how mutually interacting actin crosslinking proteins modulate the properties of actin networks, we characterized the micro-structure and mechanics of actin networks crosslinked with palladin and α-actinin. We first showed that palladin crosslinks actin filaments into bundled networks which are viscoelastic in nature. Our studies also showed that composite networks of α-actinin/palladin/actin behave very similar to pure palladin or pure [Formula: see text]-actinin networks. However, we found evidence that palladin and α-actinin synergistically modify network viscoelasticity. To our knowledge, this is the first quantitative characterization of the physical properties of actin networks crosslinked with two mutually interacting crosslinkers.

  17. Growth cone-like waves transport actin and promote axonogenesis and neurite branching

    PubMed Central

    Flynn, Kevin C.; Pak, Chi W.; Shaw, Alisa E.; Bradke, Frank; Bamburg, James R.

    2010-01-01

    Axonogenesis involves a shift from uniform delivery of materials to all neurites to preferential delivery to the putative axon, supporting its more rapid extension. Waves, growth cone-like structures that propagate down the length of neurites, were shown previously to correlate with neurite growth in dissociated cultured hippocampal neurons. Waves are similar to growth cones in their structure, composition and dynamics. Here, we report that waves form in all undifferentiated neurites, but occur more frequently in the future axon during initial neuronal polarization. Moreover, wave frequency and their impact on neurite growth are altered in neurons treated with stimuli that enhance axonogenesis. Coincident with wave arrival, growth cones enlarge and undergo a marked increase in dynamics. Through their engorgement of filopodia along the neurite shaft, waves can induce de novo neurite branching. Actin in waves maintains much of its cohesiveness during transport whereas actin in non-wave regions of the neurite rapidly diffuses as measured by live cell imaging of photoactivated GFP-actin and photoconversion of Dendra-actin. Thus, waves represent an alternative axonal transport mechanism for actin. Waves also occur in neurons in organotypic hippocampal slices where they propagate along neurites in the dentate gyrus and the CA regions and induce branching. Taken together, our results indicate that waves are physiologically relevant and contribute to axon growth and branching via the transport of actin and by increasing growth cone dynamics. PMID:19513994

  18. Symmetric cell division of the mouse zygote requires an actin network.

    PubMed

    Chew, Ting Gang; Lorthongpanich, Chanchao; Ang, Wei Xia; Knowles, Barbara B; Solter, Davor

    2012-12-01

    Positioning of the cleavage plane is regulated to ensure proper animal development. Most animal cells rely on the astral microtubules to position the mitotic spindle, which in turn specifies the cleavage plane. The mouse zygote lacks discernible astral microtubules but still divides symmetrically. Here, we demonstrate a cloud-like accumulation of F-actin surrounds the spindle in zygotes and when this actin network is disassembled, the spindle assumes an off-center position, and the resulting zygote divides asymmetrically into two unequal size blastomeres. Interestingly, when the spindle is micromanipulated to the subcortical region, the zygote without the actin network is unable to reposition the spindle and cleavage plane at the cell center. This study reveals that an actin network maintains the central spindle position in anastral mitosis, and ensures the first embryonic mitosis is symmetrical. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Actin kinetics shapes cortical network structure and mechanics

    PubMed Central

    Fritzsche, Marco; Erlenkämper, Christoph; Moeendarbary, Emad; Charras, Guillaume; Kruse, Karsten

    2016-01-01

    The actin cortex of animal cells is the main determinant of cellular mechanics. The continuous turnover of cortical actin filaments enables cells to quickly respond to stimuli. Recent work has shown that most of the cortical actin is generated by only two actin nucleators, the Arp2/3 complex and the formin Diaph1. However, our understanding of their interplay, their kinetics, and the length distribution of the filaments that they nucleate within living cells is poor. Such knowledge is necessary for a thorough comprehension of cellular processes and cell mechanics from basic polymer physics principles. We determined cortical assembly rates in living cells by using single-molecule fluorescence imaging in combination with stochastic simulations. We find that formin-nucleated filaments are, on average, 10 times longer than Arp2/3-nucleated filaments. Although formin-generated filaments represent less than 10% of all actin filaments, mechanical measurements indicate that they are important determinants of cortical elasticity. Tuning the activity of actin nucleators to alter filament length distribution may thus be a mechanism allowing cells to adjust their macroscopic mechanical properties to their physiological needs. PMID:27152338

  20. Coordinated Movement of Vesicles and Actin Bundles during Nerve Growth Revealed by Superresolution Microscopy.

    PubMed

    Nozumi, Motohiro; Nakatsu, Fubito; Katoh, Kaoru; Igarashi, Michihiro

    2017-02-28

    The growth cone is an essential structure for nerve growth. Although its membrane and cytoskeleton are likely to interact coordinately during nerve growth, the mechanisms are unknown due to their close proximity. Here, we used superresolution microscopy to simultaneously observe vesicles and F-actin in growth cones. We identified a novel vesicular generation mechanism that is independent of clathrin and dependent on endophilin-3- and dynamin-1 and that occurs proximal to the leading edge simultaneously with fascin-1-dependent F-actin bundling. In contrast to conventional clathrin-dependent endocytosis, which occurs distal from the leading edge at the basal surfaces of growth cones, this mechanism was distinctly observed at the apical surface using 3D imaging and was involved in mediating axon growth. Reduced endophilin or fascin inhibited this endocytic mechanism. These results suggest that, at the leading edge, vesicles are coordinately generated and transported with actin bundling during nerve growth.

  1. The effects of collapsing factors on F-actin content and microtubule distribution of Helisoma growth cones.

    PubMed

    Torreano, Paul J; Waterman-Storer, Clare M; Cohan, Christopher S

    2005-03-01

    Growth cone collapsing factors induce growth cone collapse or repulsive growth cone turning by interacting with membrane receptors that induce alterations in the growth cone cytoskeleton. A common change induced by collapsing factors in the cytoskeleton of the peripheral domain, the thin lamellopodial area of growth cones, is a decline in the number of radially aligned F-actin bundles that form the core of filopodia. The present study examined whether ML-7, a myosin light chain kinase inhibitor, serotonin, a neurotransmitter and TPA, an activator of protein kinase C, which induce growth cone collapse of Helisoma growth cones, depolymerized or debundled F-actin. We report that these collapsing factors had different effects. ML-7 induced F-actin reorganization consistent with debundling whereas serotonin and TPA predominately depolymerized and possibly debundled F-actin. Additionally, these collapsing factors induced the formation of a dense actin-ring around the central domain, the thicker proximal area of growth cones [Zhou and Cohan, 2001: J. Cell Biol. 153:1071-1083]. The formation of the actin-ring occurred subsequent to the loss of actin bundles. The ML-7-induced actin-ring was found to inhibit microtubule extension into the P-domain. Thus, ML-7, serotonin, and TPA induce growth cone collapse associated with a decline in radially aligned F-actin bundles through at least two mechanisms involving debundling of actin filaments and/or actin depolymerization.

  2. Correlation of actin crosslinker and capper expression levels with stereocilia growth phases.

    PubMed

    Avenarius, Matthew R; Saylor, Katherine W; Lundeberg, Megan R; Wilmarth, Phillip A; Shin, Jung-Bum; Spinelli, Kateri J; Pagana, James M; Andrade, Leonardo; Kachar, Bechara; Choi, Dongseok; David, Larry L; Barr-Gillespie, Peter G

    2014-02-01

    During development of the chick cochlea, actin crosslinkers and barbed-end cappers presumably influence growth and remodeling of the actin paracrystal of hair cell stereocilia. We used mass spectrometry to identify and quantify major actin-associated proteins of the cochlear sensory epithelium from E14 to E21, when stereocilia widen and lengthen. Tight actin crosslinkers (i.e. fascins, plastins, and espin) are expressed dynamically during cochlear epithelium development between E7 and E21, with FSCN2 replacing FSCN1 and plastins remaining low in abundance. Capping protein, a barbed-end actin capper, is located at stereocilia tips; it is abundant during growth phase II, when stereocilia have ceased elongating and are increasing in diameter. Capping protein levels then decline during growth phase III, when stereocilia reinitiate barbed-end elongation. Although actin crosslinkers are readily detected by electron microscopy in developing chick cochlea stereocilia, quantitative mass spectrometry of stereocilia isolated from E21 chick cochlea indicated that tight crosslinkers are present there in stoichiometric ratios relative to actin that are much lower than their ratios for vestibular stereocilia. These results demonstrate the value of quantitation of global protein expression in chick cochlea during stereocilia development.

  3. Dendritic Branching and Homogenization of Actin Networks Mediated by Arp2/3 Complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tseng, Yiider; Wirtz, Denis

    2004-12-01

    The cytoskeleton of motile cells exploits accessory proteins to locally modulate its organization and micromechanics. Here, we demonstrate that the Arp2/3 complex plays the role, unique among other cytoskeleton proteins, of an actin network “homogenizer,” promoting the extremely rapid formation of homogeneous and stiff networks. Nanotracking of microspheres imbedded in F-actin networks reveals that the Arp2/3 complex promotes the formation of networks that are remarkably more homogeneous than control networks, a distinctive feature that coordinates a dramatic burst of elasticity. These results suggest that the Arp2/3 complex possesses a unique function of stabilizing membrane protrusions through the formation of homogeneous and stiff actin cytoskeleton at the leading edge of crawling cells.

  4. Nervous Wreck and Cdc42 cooperate to regulate endocytic actin assembly during synaptic growth

    PubMed Central

    Rodal, Avital A.; Motola-Barnes, Rebecca N.; Littleton, J. Troy

    2008-01-01

    Regulation of synaptic morphology depends on endocytosis of activated growth signal receptors, but the mechanisms regulating this membrane trafficking event are unclear. Actin polymerization mediated by WASp (Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome Protein) and the Arp2/3 (Actin related protein 2/3) complex generates forces at multiple stages of endocytosis. F-BAR/SH3 domain proteins play key roles in this process by coordinating membrane deformation with WASp-dependent actin polymerization. However, it is not known how other WASp ligands, such as the small GTPase Cdc42, coordinate with F-BAR/SH3 proteins to regulate actin polymerization at membranes. Nervous Wreck (Nwk) is a conserved neuronal F-BAR/SH3 protein that localizes to periactive zones at the Drosophila larval neuromuscular junction (NMJ) and is required for regulation of synaptic growth via BMP signaling. Here we show that Nwk interacts with the endocytic proteins dynamin and Dap160 and functions together with Cdc42 to promote WASp-mediated actin polymerization in vitro and to regulate synaptic growth in vivo. Cdc42 function is associated with Rab11-dependent recycling endosomes, and we show that Rab11 co-localizes with Nwk at the NMJ. Taken together, our results suggest that synaptic growth activated by growth factor signaling is controlled at an endosomal compartment via coordinated Nwk and Cdc42-dependent actin assembly. PMID:18701694

  5. Effect of cytochalasin A on apical growth, actin cytoskeleton organization and enzyme secretion in Aspergillus nidulans.

    PubMed

    Torralba, S; Raudaskoski, M; Pedregosa, A M; Laborda, F

    1998-01-01

    The role of actin in apical growth and enzyme secretion in the filamentous fungus Aspergillus nidulans was studied by treating the hyphae with cytochalasin A (CA), which inhibits actin polymerization. Indirect immunofluorescence microscopy revealed actin at the tips of main hyphae and branches, and at the site of developing septa. CA inhibited the growth of the fungus and changed the growth pattern of hyphal tips from cylindrical tubes to spherical beads. The regions with swellings showed no actin fluorescence, and neither was actin seen in association with septa. After 4 h exposure, hyphae were able to resume the normal tip growth pattern in the presence of CA for a short period of time and new cylindrical hyphae, with actin fluorescence at the apex, emerged from the swollen tips. Later, the tips of the hyphae swelled again, which led to a beaded appearance. We also studied the effect of CA on the secretion of alpha- and beta-galactosidase. alpha-Galactosidase is secreted into the culture medium, whereas beta-galactosidase remains in the mycelium, with part of its activity bound to the cell wall. When A. nidulans mycelium was incubated in the presence of CA, a reduction in the secretion of alpha-galactosidase into the culture medium and a decrease in the alpha- and beta-galactosidase activities bound to the cell wall was detected. However, the CA dose used for the hyphae did not modify the secretion of the enzymes from protoplasts. Results described here provide evidence that a polymerized actin cytoskeleton is required for normal apical growth, hyphal tip shape and polarized enzyme secretion in A. nidulans. Cytochalasin-induced disruptions of the actin cytoskeleton could result in the alterations of apical growth and inhibition of enzyme secretion observed by blocking secretory vesicle transport to the apex.

  6. Orientational Order of the Lamellipodial Actin Network as Demonstrated in Living Motile CellsV⃞

    PubMed Central

    Verkhovsky, Alexander B.; Chaga, Oleg Y.; Schaub, Sébastien; Svitkina, Tatyana M.; Meister, Jean-Jacques; Borisy, Gary G.

    2003-01-01

    Lamellipodia of crawling cells represent both the motor for cell advance and the primary building site for the actin cytoskeleton. The organization of actin in the lamellipodium reflects actin dynamics and is of critical importance for the mechanism of cell motility. In previous structural studies, the lamellipodial actin network was analyzed primarily by electron microscopy (EM). An understanding of lamellipodial organization would benefit significantly if the EM data were complemented and put into a kinetic context by establishing correspondence with structural features observable at the light microscopic level in living cells. Here, we use an enhanced phase contrast microscopy technique to visualize an apparent long-range diagonal actin meshwork in the advancing lamellipodia of living cells. Visualization of this meshwork permitted a correlative light and electron microscopic approach that validated the underlying organization of lamellipodia. The linear features in the light microscopic meshwork corresponded to regions of greater actin filament density. Orientation of features was analyzed quantitatively and compared with the orientation of actin filaments at the EM level. We infer that the light microscopic meshwork reflects the orientational order of actin filaments which, in turn, is related to their branching angle. PMID:13679520

  7. In vitro studies of actin filament and network dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Mullins, R Dyche; Hansen, Scott D

    2013-01-01

    Now that many genomes have been sequenced, a central concern of cell biology is to understand how the proteins they encode work together to create living matter. In vitro studies form an essential part of this program because understanding cellular functions of biological molecules often requires isolating them and reconstituting their activities. In particular, many elements of the actin cytoskeleton were first discovered by biochemical methods and their cellular functions deduced from in vitro experiments. We highlight recent advances that have come from in vitro studies, beginning with studies of actin filaments, and ending with multi-component reconstitutions of complex actin-based processes, including force-generation and cell spreading. We describe both scientific results and the technical innovations that made them possible. PMID:23267766

  8. Control of actin-based motility through localized actin binding

    PubMed Central

    Banigan, Edward J.; Lee, Kun-Chun; Liu, Andrea J.

    2014-01-01

    A wide variety of cell biological and biomimetic systems use actin polymerization to drive motility. It has been suggested that an object such as a bacterium can propel itself by self-assembling a high concentration of actin behind it if it is repelled by actin. However, it is also known that it is essential for the moving object to bind actin. Therefore, a key question is how the actin tail can propel an object when it both binds and repels the object. We present a physically consistent Brownian dynamics model for actin-based motility that includes the minimal components of the dendritic nucleation model and allows for both attractive and repulsive interactions between actin and a moveable disk. We find that the concentration gradient of filamentous actin generated by polymerization is sufficient to propel the object, even with moderately strong binding interactions. Additionally, actin binding can act as a biophysical cap, and may directly control motility through modulation of network growth. Overall, this mechanism is robust in that it can drive motility against a load up to a stall pressure that depends on the Young’s modulus of the actin network and can explain several aspects of actin-based motility. PMID:24225232

  9. A single charge in the actin binding domain of fascin can independently tune the linear and non-linear response of an actin bundle network.

    PubMed

    Maier, M; Müller, K W; Heussinger, C; Köhler, S; Wall, W A; Bausch, A R; Lieleg, O

    2015-05-01

    Actin binding proteins (ABPs) not only set the structure of actin filament assemblies but also mediate the frequency-dependent viscoelastic moduli of cross-linked and bundled actin networks. Point mutations in the actin binding domain of those ABPs can tune the association and dissociation dynamics of the actin/ABP bond and thus modulate the network mechanics both in the linear and non-linear response regime. We here demonstrate how the exchange of a single charged amino acid in the actin binding domain of the ABP fascin triggers such a modulation of the network rheology. Whereas the overall structure of the bundle networks is conserved, the transition point from strain-hardening to strain-weakening sensitively depends on the cross-linker off-rate and the applied shear rate. Our experimental results are consistent both with numerical simulations of a cross-linked bundle network and a theoretical description of the bundle network mechanics which is based on non-affine bending deformations and force-dependent cross-link dynamics.

  10. Structural and viscoelastic properties of actin networks formed by espin or pathologically relevant espin mutants.

    PubMed

    Lieleg, Oliver; Schmoller, Kurt M; Purdy Drew, Kirstin R; Claessens, Mireille M A E; Semmrich, Christine; Zheng, Lili; Bartles, James R; Bausch, Andreas R

    2009-11-09

    The structural organization of the cytoskeleton determines its viscoelastic response which is crucial for the correct functionality of living cells. Both the mechanical response and microstructure of the cytoskeleton are regulated on a microscopic level by the local activation of different actin binding and/or bundling proteins (ABPs). Misregulations in the expression of these ABPs or mutations in their sequence can entail severe cellular dysfunctions and diseases. Here, we study the structural and viscoelastic properties of reconstituted actin networks cross-linked by the ABP espin and compare the obtained network properties to those of other bundled actin networks. Moreover, we quantify the impact of pathologically relevant espin mutations on the viscoelastic properties of these cytoskeletal networks.

  11. Quantifying the contribution of actin networks to the elastic strength of fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Ananthakrishnan, Revathi; Guck, Jochen; Wottawah, Falk; Schinkinger, Stefan; Lincoln, Bryan; Romeyke, Maren; Moon, Tess; Käs, Josef

    2006-09-21

    The structural models created to understand the cytoskeletal mechanics of cells in suspension are described here. Suspended cells can be deformed by well-defined surface stresses in an Optical Stretcher [Guck, J., Ananthakrishnan, R., Mahmood, H., Moon, T.J., Cunningham, C.C., Käs, J., 2001. The optical stretcher: a novel laser tool to micromanipulate cells. Biophys. J. 81(2), 767-784], a two-beam optical trap designed for the contact-free deformation of cells. Suspended cells have a well-defined cytoskeleton, displaying a radially symmetric actin cortical network underlying the cell membrane with no actin stress fibers, and microtubules and intermediate filaments in the interior. Based on experimental data using suspended fibroblasts, we create two structural models: a thick shell actin cortex model that describes cell deformation for a localized stress distribution on these cells and a three-layered model that considers the entire cytoskeleton when a broad stress distribution is applied. Applying the models to data, we obtain a (actin) cortical shear moduli G of approximately 220 Pa for normal fibroblasts and approximately 185 Pa for malignantly transformed fibroblasts. Additionally, modeling the cortex as a transiently crosslinked isotropic actin network, we show that actin and its crosslinkers must be co-localized into a tight shell to achieve these cortical strengths. The similar moduli values and cortical actin and crosslinker densities but different deformabilities of the normal and cancerous cells suggest that a cell's structural strength is not solely determined by cytoskeletal composition but equally importantly by (actin) cytoskeletal architecture via differing cortical thicknesses. We also find that although the interior structural elements (microtubules, nucleus) contribute to the deformed cell's exact shape via their loose coupling to the cortex, it is the outer actin cortical shell (and its thickness) that mainly determines the cell's structural

  12. Surface adsorption and hopping cause probe-size-dependent microrheology of actin networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Jun; Tang, Jay X.

    2011-04-01

    A network of filaments formed primarily by the abundant cytoskeletal protein actin gives animal cells their shape and elasticity. The rheological properties of reconstituted actin networks have been studied by tracking micron-sized probe beads embedded within the networks. We investigate how microrheology depends on surface properties of probe particles by varying the stickiness of their surface. For this purpose, we chose carboxylate polystyrene (PS) beads, silica beads, bovine serum albumin (BSA) -coated PS beads, and polyethylene glycol (PEG) -grafted PS beads, which show descending stickiness to actin filaments, characterized by confocal imaging and microrheology. Probe size dependence of microrheology is observed for all four types of beads. For the slippery PEG beads, particle-tracking microrheology detects weaker networks using smaller beads, which tend to diffuse through the network by hopping from one confinement “cage” to another. This trend is reversed for the other three types of beads, for which microrheology measures stiffer networks for smaller beads due to physisorption of nearby filaments to the bead surface. We explain the probe size dependence with two simple models. We also evaluate depletion effect near nonadsorption bead surface using quantitative image analysis and discuss the possible impact of depletion on microrheology. Analysis of these effects is necessary in order to accurately define the actin network rheology both in vitro and in vivo.

  13. ZNF185, an actin-cytoskeleton-associated growth inhibitory LIM protein in prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Zhang, J-S; Gong, A; Young, C Y F

    2007-01-04

    We have recently identified ZNF185 as a gene that is downregulated in prostate cancer (PCa), in part via epigenetic alteration, and maybe associated with disease progression. In this study, we cloned the ZNF185 cDNA from normal human prostate tissues and investigated its biological function. We show that ZNF185 is a novel actin-cytoskeleton-associated Lin-l 1, Isl-1 and Mec-3 (LIM) domain-containing protein that localizes to F-actin structures, and is enriched at focal adhesions. We find that the NH(2)-terminal region, which we designate the actin-targeting domain, facilitates ZNF185 binding to actin in vitro and is both necessary and sufficient to mediate actin-cytoskeleton targeting of ZNF185, whereas the LIM domain, which is localized in the COOH-terminus is dispensable for this phenomenon. Interestingly, ectopic expression of full-length ZNF185, but not a mutant lacking the actin-targeting domain, could suppress proliferation and anchorage-independent growth of PCa cells. Together, our data suggest that ZNF185 may function as a tumor-suppressor protein by associating with the actin-cytoskeleton.

  14. Formation of regularly spaced networks as a general feature of actin bundle condensation by entropic forces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huber, Florian; Strehle, Dan; Schnauß, Jörg; Käs, Josef

    2015-04-01

    Biopolymer networks contribute mechanical integrity as well as functional organization to living cells. One of their major constituents, the protein actin, is present in a large variety of different network architectures, ranging from extensive networks to densely packed bundles. The shape of the network is directly linked to its mechanical properties and essential physiological functions. However, a profound understanding of architecture-determining mechanisms and their physical constraints remains elusive. We use experimental bottom-up systems to study the formation of confined actin networks by entropic forces. Experiments based on molecular crowding as well as counterion condensation reveal a generic tendency of homogeneous filament solutions to aggregate into regular actin bundle networks connected by aster-like centers. The network architecture is found to critically rely on network formation history. Starting from identical biochemical compositions, we observe drastic changes in network architecture as a consequence of initially biased filament orientation or mixing-induced perturbations. Our experiments suggest that the tendency to form regularly spaced bundle networks is a rather general feature of isotropic, homogeneous filament solutions subject to uniform attractive interactions. Due to the fundamental nature of the considered interactions, we expect that the investigated type of network formation further implies severe physical constraints for cytoskeleton self-organization on the more complex level of living cells.

  15. Strain hardening, avalanches, and strain softening in dense cross-linked actin networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Åström, Jan A.; Kumar, P. B. Sunil; Vattulainen, Ilpo; Karttunen, Mikko

    2008-05-01

    Actin filament networks enable the cytoskeleton to adjust to internal and external forcing. These dynamic networks can adapt to changes by dynamically adjusting their cross-links. Here, we model actin filaments as cross-linked elastic fibers of finite dimensions, with the cross-links being approximately 1μm apart, and employ a full three-dimensional model to study their elastic properties by computer simulations. The results show compelling evidence that dense actin networks are characterized by (a) strain hardening without entropic elasticity, (b) avalanches of cross-link slippage leading to strain softening in the case of breakable cross-links, and (c) spontaneous formation of stress fibers in the case of dynamic cross-link formation and destruction.

  16. Mechanics of actin networks crosslinked with mutant human α-actinin-4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volkmer, Sabine; Blair, Daniel; Kasza, Karen; Weitz, David

    2007-03-01

    Globular actin can be polymerized in vitro to form F-actin in the presence of various binding proteins. These networks often exhibit dramatic nonlinear rheological response to imposed strains. We study the rheological properties of F-actin networks crosslinked with human α-actinin-4. A single genetic mutation of the α-actinin-4 protein is associated with focal and segmented glomerulosclerosis (FSGS), a genetic disorder which leads to renal failure. Mechanically, the mutant crosslinker has an increased binding strength compared to the wild type. We will show that human α-actinin-4, displays a unique stiffening response. Moreover, we also demonstrate that a single point mutation dramatically effects the inherent relaxation time of the crosslinked network.

  17. Interdependence of endomembrane trafficking and actin dynamics during polarized growth of Arabidopsis pollen tubes

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    During polarized growth of pollen tubes, endomembrane trafficking and actin polymerization are two critical processes that establish membrane/wall homeostasis and maintain growth polarity. Fine-tuned interactions between these two processes are therefore necessary but poorly understood. To better un...

  18. Arabidopsis ACTIN-DEPOLYMERIZING FACTOR7 Severs Actin Filaments and Regulates Actin Cable Turnover to Promote Normal Pollen Tube Growth[W

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Yiyan; Xie, Yurong; Jiang, Yuxiang; Qu, Xiaolu; Huang, Shanjin

    2013-01-01

    Actin filaments are often arranged into higher-order structures, such as the longitudinal actin cables that generate the reverse fountain cytoplasmic streaming pattern present in pollen tubes. While several actin binding proteins have been implicated in the generation of these cables, the mechanisms that regulate their dynamic turnover remain largely unknown. Here, we show that Arabidopsis thaliana ACTIN-DEPOLYMERIZING FACTOR7 (ADF7) is required for turnover of longitudinal actin cables. In vitro biochemical analyses revealed that ADF7 is a typical ADF that prefers ADP-G-actin over ATP-G-actin. ADF7 inhibits nucleotide exchange on actin and severs filaments, but its filament severing and depolymerizing activities are less potent than those of the vegetative ADF1. ADF7 primarily decorates longitudinal actin cables in the shanks of pollen tubes. Consistent with this localization pattern, the severing frequency and depolymerization rate of filaments significantly decreased, while their maximum lifetime significantly increased, in adf7 pollen tube shanks. Furthermore, an ADF7–enhanced green fluorescent protein fusion with defective severing activity but normal G-actin binding activity could not complement adf7, providing compelling evidence that the severing activity of ADF7 is vital for its in vivo functions. These observations suggest that ADF7 evolved to promote turnover of longitudinal actin cables by severing actin filaments in pollen tubes. PMID:24058157

  19. Effect of jasplakinolide on the growth, encystation, and actin cytoskeleton of Entamoeba histolytica and Entamoeba invadens.

    PubMed

    Makioka, A; Kumagai, M; Ohtomo, H; Kobayashi, S; Takeuchi, T

    2001-04-01

    The effect of jasplakinolide. an actin-polymerizing and filament-stabilizing drug, on the growth, encystation, and actin cytoskeleton of Entamoeba histolytica and Entamoeba invadens was examined. Jasplakinolide inhibited the growth of E. histolytica strain HM-1:IMSS and E. invadens strain IP-1 in a concentration-dependent manner, the latter being more resistant to the drug. The inhibitory effect of jasplakinolide on the growth of E. histolytica trophozoites was reversed by removal of the drug after exposure to 1 microM for 1 day. Encystation of E. invadens as induced in vitro was also inhibited by jasplakinolide. Trophozoites exposed to jasplakinolide in encystation medium for 1 day did not encyst after removal of the drug, whereas those exposed to the drug in growth medium for 7 days did encyst without the drug. The process of cyst maturation was unaffected by jasplakinolide. Large round structures were formed in trophozoites of both amoebae grown with jasplakinolide; these were identified as F-actin aggregates by staining with fluorescent phalloidin. Accumulation in trophozoites of both amoebae of actin aggregates was observed after culture in jasplakinolide. Also, E. invadens cysts formed from trophozoites treated with jasplakinolide contained the actin aggregate. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and immunoblot analysis revealed that the jasplakinolide treatment led to an increase in the proportion of F-actin associated with formation of the aggregate. The results suggest that aggregates are formed from the cortical flow of F-actin filaments, and that these filaments would normally be depolymerized but are artificially stabilized by jasplakinolide binding.

  20. Kv3.3 Channels Bind Hax-1 and Arp2/3 to Assemble a Stable Local Actin Network that Regulates Channel Gating.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yalan; Zhang, Xiao-Feng; Fleming, Matthew R; Amiri, Anahita; El-Hassar, Lynda; Surguchev, Alexei A; Hyland, Callen; Jenkins, David P; Desai, Rooma; Brown, Maile R; Gazula, Valeswara-Rao; Waters, Michael F; Large, Charles H; Horvath, Tamas L; Navaratnam, Dhasakumar; Vaccarino, Flora M; Forscher, Paul; Kaczmarek, Leonard K

    2016-04-07

    Mutations in the Kv3.3 potassium channel (KCNC3) cause cerebellar neurodegeneration and impair auditory processing. The cytoplasmic C terminus of Kv3.3 contains a proline-rich domain conserved in proteins that activate actin nucleation through Arp2/3. We found that Kv3.3 recruits Arp2/3 to the plasma membrane, resulting in formation of a relatively stable cortical actin filament network resistant to cytochalasin D that inhibits fast barbed end actin assembly. These Kv3.3-associated actin structures are required to prevent very rapid N-type channel inactivation during short depolarizations of the plasma membrane. The effects of Kv3.3 on the actin cytoskeleton are mediated by the binding of the cytoplasmic C terminus of Kv3.3 to Hax-1, an anti-apoptotic protein that regulates actin nucleation through Arp2/3. A human Kv3.3 mutation within a conserved proline-rich domain produces channels that bind Hax-1 but are impaired in recruiting Arp2/3 to the plasma membrane, resulting in growth cones with deficient actin veils in stem cell-derived neurons.

  1. An epidermal plakin that integrates actin and microtubule networks at cellular junctions.

    PubMed

    Karakesisoglou, I; Yang, Y; Fuchs, E

    2000-04-03

    Plakins are cytoskeletal linker proteins initially thought to interact exclusively with intermediate filaments (IFs), but recently were found to associate additionally with actin and microtubule networks. Here, we report on ACF7, a mammalian orthologue of the Drosophila kakapo plakin genetically involved in epidermal-muscle adhesion and neuromuscular junctions. While ACF7/kakapo is divergent from other plakins in its IF-binding domain, it has at least one actin (K(d) = 0.35 microM) and one microtubule (K(d) approximately 6 microM) binding domain. Similar to its fly counterpart, ACF7 is expressed in the epidermis. In well spread epidermal keratinocytes, ACF7 discontinuously decorates the cytoskeleton at the cell periphery, including microtubules (MTs) and actin filaments (AFs) that are aligned in parallel converging at focal contacts. Upon calcium induction of intercellular adhesion, ACF7 and the cytoskeleton reorganize at cell-cell borders but with different kinetics from adherens junctions and desmosomes. Treatments with cytoskeletal depolymerizing drugs reveal that ACF7's cytoskeletal association is dependent upon the microtubule network, but ACF7 also appears to stabilize actin at sites where microtubules and microfilaments meet. We posit that ACF7 may function in microtubule dynamics to facilitate actin-microtubule interactions at the cell periphery and to couple the microtubule network to cellular junctions. These attributes provide a clear explanation for the kakapo mutant phenotype in flies.

  2. Action of the mechanical disruption of the actin network on the gravisensitivity of the root statocyte

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lefranc, A.; Jeune, B.; Driss-Ecole, D.; Perbal, G.

    The effects of the mechanical disruption of the thin actin network of statocytes on gravisensitivity have been studied on lentil roots. Seedling roots were first inverted for 7 min (root tip upward) and then placed in the downward (normal) position for 7 min before gravitropic stimulation in the horizontal position. The period of inversion allowed the amyloplasts to move from the distal part to the proximal part of the statocyte, but did not fully sediment. When the roots were returned to the tip down position, the amyloplasts moved toward the distal part, but also did not completely sediment by the time the roots were placed horizontally. Thus, in these roots the amyloplasts could be still moving toward the distal wall after they had been replaced in the normal position and the actin network should not be fully restored. Gravisensitivity was estimated by the analysis of the dose-response curves of vertical and treated (inverted and returned to downward position) roots. The only effect, which has been observed on treated roots, was a delay of graviresponse for about 1 min. Our interpretation of this result is that in vertical roots the amyloplasts can exert tensions in the actin network that are directly transmitted to mechanoreceptors located in the plasma membrane. In roots with a partially disrupted actin network, a delay of 1 min is necessary for the amyloplasts to activate mechanoreceptors.

  3. Buckling-induced F-actin fragmentation modulates the contraction of active cytoskeletal networks.

    PubMed

    Li, Jing; Biel, Thomas; Lomada, Pranith; Yu, Qilin; Kim, Taeyoon

    2017-04-11

    Actomyosin contractility originating from interactions between F-actin and myosin facilitates various structural reorganizations of the actin cytoskeleton. Cross-linked actomyosin networks show a tendency to contract to single or multiple foci, which has been investigated extensively in numerous studies. Recently, it was suggested that suppression of F-actin buckling via an increase in bending rigidity significantly reduces network contraction. In this study, we demonstrate that networks may show the largest contraction at intermediate bending rigidity, not at the lowest rigidity, if filaments are severed by buckling arising from myosin activity as demonstrated in recent experiments; if filaments are very flexible, frequent severing events can severely deteriorate network connectivity, leading to the formation of multiple small foci and low network contraction. By contrast, if filaments are too stiff, the networks exhibit minimal contraction due to the inhibition of filament buckling. This study reveals that buckling-induced filament severing can modulate the contraction of active cytoskeletal networks, which has been neglected to date.

  4. Arabidopsis Microtubule-Destabilizing Protein 25 Functions in Pollen Tube Growth by Severing Actin Filaments[W

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Tao; Liu, Xiaomin; Li, Jiejie; Sun, Jingbo; Song, Leina; Mao, Tonglin

    2014-01-01

    The formation of distinct actin filament arrays in the subapical region of pollen tubes is crucial for pollen tube growth. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the organization and dynamics of the actin filaments in this region remain to be determined. This study shows that Arabidopsis thaliana MICROTUBULE-DESTABILIZING PROTEIN25 (MDP25) has the actin filament–severing activity of an actin binding protein. This protein negatively regulated pollen tube growth by modulating the organization and dynamics of actin filaments in the subapical region of pollen tubes. MDP25 loss of function resulted in enhanced pollen tube elongation and inefficient fertilization. MDP25 bound directly to actin filaments and severed individual actin filaments, in a manner that was dramatically enhanced by Ca2+, in vitro. Analysis of a mutant that bears a point mutation at the Ca2+ binding sites demonstrated that the subcellular localization of MDP25 was determined by cytosolic Ca2+ level in the subapical region of pollen tubes, where MDP25 was disassociated from the plasma membrane and moved into the cytosol. Time-lapse analysis showed that the F-actin-severing frequency significantly decreased and a high density of actin filaments was observed in the subapical region of mdp25-1 pollen tubes. This study reveals a mechanism whereby calcium enhances the actin filament–severing activity of MDP25 in the subapical region of pollen tubes to modulate pollen tube growth. PMID:24424096

  5. Actin disruption alters the localization of tau in the growth cones of cerebellar granule neurons.

    PubMed

    Zmuda, J F; Rivas, R J

    2000-08-01

    Cultured cerebellar granule neurons initially extend a single axon, followed by the extension of a second axon to attain a bipolar morphology. Differentiation culminates with the extension of several short dendrites from the cell body. In the present study, we determined the location of the dephosphorylated form of the microtubule-associated protein tau (dtau) within the growth cones of newly forming axons and examined whether this localization was influenced by the actin cytoskeleton. Following elongation of the initial axon at 2-3 days in vitro, dtau immunoreactivity was present along the entire length of the axon, becoming most intense just proximal to the growth cone. Dtau labeling dropped off dramatically along the microtubules of the growth cone and was undetectable along the most distal tips of these microtubules. As the initial axon continued to elongate at 3-4 days in vitro, the actin-rich growth cone peripheral domain characteristically underwent a dramatic reduction in size. Dtau immunoreactivity extended all the way to the most distal tips of the microtubules in the growth cones of these cells. Cytochalasin D and latrunculin A mimicked the effects of this characteristic reduction in growth cone size with regard to dtau localization in the growth cone. Depolymerization of filamentous actin caused the collapse of the peripheral domain and allowed dtau to bind all the way to the most distal tips of microtubules in the axon. Upon removal of the drugs, the peripheral domain of the growth cone rapidly re-formed and dtau was once again excluded from the most distal regions of growth cone microtubules. These findings suggest a novel role for actin in determining the localization of the microtubule-associated protein &tgr; within the growth cones of neurons.

  6. A novel p21-activated kinase binds the actin and microtubule networks and induces microtubule stabilization

    PubMed Central

    Cau, Julien; Faure, Sandrine; Comps, Michel; Delsert, Claude; Morin, Nathalie

    2001-01-01

    Coordination of the different cytoskeleton networks in the cell is of central importance for morphogenesis, organelle transport, and motility. The Rho family proteins are well characterized for their effects on the actin cytoskeleton, but increasing evidence indicates that they may also control microtubule (MT) dynamics. Here, we demonstrate that a novel Cdc42/Rac effector, X-p21-activated kinase (PAK)5, colocalizes and binds to both the actin and MT networks and that its subcellular localization is regulated during cell cycle progression. In transfected cells, X-PAK5 promotes the formation of stabilized MTs that are associated in bundles and interferes with MTs dynamics, slowing both the elongation and shrinkage rates and inducing long paused periods. X-PAK5 subcellular localization is regulated tightly, since coexpression with active Rac or Cdc42 induces its shuttling to actin-rich structures. Thus, X-PAK5 is a novel MT-associated protein that may communicate between the actin and MT networks during cellular responses to environmental conditions. PMID:11733543

  7. An Epidermal Plakin That Integrates Actin and Microtubule Networks at Cellular Junctions

    PubMed Central

    Karakesisoglou, Iakowos; Yang, Yanmin; Fuchs, Elaine

    2000-01-01

    Plakins are cytoskeletal linker proteins initially thought to interact exclusively with intermediate filaments (IFs), but recently were found to associate additionally with actin and microtubule networks. Here, we report on ACF7, a mammalian orthologue of the Drosophila kakapo plakin genetically involved in epidermal–muscle adhesion and neuromuscular junctions. While ACF7/kakapo is divergent from other plakins in its IF-binding domain, it has at least one actin (Kd = 0.35 μM) and one microtubule (Kd ∼6 μM) binding domain. Similar to its fly counterpart, ACF7 is expressed in the epidermis. In well spread epidermal keratinocytes, ACF7 discontinuously decorates the cytoskeleton at the cell periphery, including microtubules (MTs) and actin filaments (AFs) that are aligned in parallel converging at focal contacts. Upon calcium induction of intercellular adhesion, ACF7 and the cytoskeleton reorganize at cell–cell borders but with different kinetics from adherens junctions and desmosomes. Treatments with cytoskeletal depolymerizing drugs reveal that ACF7's cytoskeletal association is dependent upon the microtubule network, but ACF7 also appears to stabilize actin at sites where microtubules and microfilaments meet. We posit that ACF7 may function in microtubule dynamics to facilitate actin–microtubule interactions at the cell periphery and to couple the microtubule network to cellular junctions. These attributes provide a clear explanation for the kakapo mutant phenotype in flies. PMID:10747097

  8. Toxoplasma gondii F-actin forms an extensive filamentous network required for material exchange and parasite maturation

    PubMed Central

    Periz, Javier; Whitelaw, Jamie; Harding, Clare; Gras, Simon; Del Rosario Minina, Mario Igor; Latorre-Barragan, Fernanda; Lemgruber, Leandro; Reimer, Madita Alice; Insall, Robert; Heaslip, Aoife; Meissner, Markus

    2017-01-01

    Apicomplexan actin is important during the parasite's life cycle. Its polymerization kinetics are unusual, permitting only short, unstable F-actin filaments. It has not been possible to study actin in vivo and so its physiological roles have remained obscure, leading to models distinct from conventional actin behaviour. Here a modified version of the commercially available actin-chromobody was tested as a novel tool for visualising F-actin dynamics in Toxoplasma gondii. Cb labels filamentous actin structures within the parasite cytosol and labels an extensive F-actin network that connects parasites within the parasitophorous vacuole and allows vesicles to be exchanged between parasites. In the absence of actin, parasites lack a residual body and inter-parasite connections and grow in an asynchronous and disorganized manner. Collectively, these data identify new roles for actin in the intracellular phase of the parasites lytic cycle and provide a robust new tool for imaging parasitic F-actin dynamics. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.24119.001 PMID:28322189

  9. Local F-actin network links synapse formation and axon branching.

    PubMed

    Chia, Poh Hui; Chen, Baoyu; Li, Pengpeng; Rosen, Michael K; Shen, Kang

    2014-01-16

    Axonal branching and synapse formation are tightly linked developmental events during the establishment of synaptic circuits. Newly formed synapses promote branch initiation and stability. However, little is known about molecular mechanisms that link these two processes. Here, we show that local assembly of an F-actin cytoskeleton at nascent presynaptic sites initiates both synapse formation and axon branching. We further find that assembly of the F-actin network requires a direct interaction between the synaptic cell adhesion molecule SYG-1 and a key regulator of actin cytoskeleton, the WVE-1/WAVE regulatory complex (WRC). SYG-1 cytoplasmic tail binds to the WRC using a consensus WRC interacting receptor sequence (WIRS). WRC mutants or mutating the SYG-1 WIRS motif leads to loss of local F-actin, synaptic material, and axonal branches. Together, these data suggest that synaptic adhesion molecules, which serve as a necessary component for both synaptogenesis and axonal branch formation, directly regulate subcellular actin cytoskeletal organization. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Actin and microtubule networks contribute differently to cell response for small and large strains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kubitschke, H.; Schnauss, J.; Nnetu, K. D.; Warmt, E.; Stange, R.; Kaes, J.

    2017-09-01

    Cytoskeletal filaments provide cells with mechanical stability and organization. The main key players are actin filaments and microtubules governing a cell’s response to mechanical stimuli. We investigated the specific influences of these crucial components by deforming MCF-7 epithelial cells at small (≤5% deformation) and large strains (>5% deformation). To understand specific contributions of actin filaments and microtubules, we systematically studied cellular responses after treatment with cytoskeleton influencing drugs. Quantification with the microfluidic optical stretcher allowed capturing the relative deformation and relaxation of cells under different conditions. We separated distinctive deformational and relaxational contributions to cell mechanics for actin and microtubule networks for two orders of magnitude of drug dosages. Disrupting actin filaments via latrunculin A, for instance, revealed a strain-independent softening. Stabilizing these filaments by treatment with jasplakinolide yielded cell softening for small strains but showed no significant change at large strains. In contrast, cells treated with nocodazole to disrupt microtubules displayed a softening at large strains but remained unchanged at small strains. Stabilizing microtubules within the cells via paclitaxel revealed no significant changes for deformations at small strains, but concentration-dependent impact at large strains. This suggests that for suspended cells, the actin cortex is probed at small strains, while at larger strains; the whole cell is probed with a significant contribution from the microtubules.

  11. Memo-RhoA-mDia1 signaling controls microtubules, the actin network, and adhesion site formation in migrating cells.

    PubMed

    Zaoui, Kossay; Honoré, Stéphane; Isnardon, Daniel; Braguer, Diane; Badache, Ali

    2008-11-03

    Actin assembly at the cell front drives membrane protrusion and initiates the cell migration cycle. Microtubules (MTs) extend within forward protrusions to sustain cell polarity and promote adhesion site turnover. Memo is an effector of the ErbB2 receptor tyrosine kinase involved in breast carcinoma cell migration. However, its mechanism of action remained unknown. We report in this study that Memo controls ErbB2-regulated MT dynamics by altering the transition frequency between MT growth and shortening phases. Moreover, although Memo-depleted cells can assemble the Rac1-dependent actin meshwork and form lamellipodia, they show defective localization of lamellipodial markers such as alpha-actinin-1 and a reduced number of short-lived adhesion sites underlying the advancing edge of migrating cells. Finally, we demonstrate that Memo is required for the localization of the RhoA guanosine triphosphatase and its effector mDia1 to the plasma membrane and that Memo-RhoA-mDia1 signaling coordinates the organization of the lamellipodial actin network, adhesion site formation, and MT outgrowth within the cell leading edge to sustain cell motility.

  12. Prestressed F-actin networks cross-linked by hinged filamins replicate mechanical properties of cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gardel, M. L.; Nakamura, F.; Hartwig, J. H.; Crocker, J. C.; Stossel, T. P.; Weitz, D. A.

    2006-02-01

    We show that actin filaments, shortened to physiological lengths by gelsolin and cross-linked with recombinant human filamins (FLNs), exhibit dynamic elastic properties similar to those reported for live cells. To achieve elasticity values of comparable magnitude to those of cells, the in vitro network must be subjected to external prestress, which directly controls network elasticity. A molecular requirement for the strain-related behavior at physiological conditionsis a flexible hinge found in FLNa and some FLNb molecules. Basic physical properties of the in vitro filamin-F-actin network replicate the essential mechanical properties of living cells. This physical behavior could accommodate passive deformation and internal organelle trafficking at low strains yet resist externally or internally generated high shear forces. cytoskeleton | cell mechanics | nonlinear rheology

  13. Arabidopsis ACT11 modifies actin turnover to promote pollen germination and maintain the normal rate of tube growth.

    PubMed

    Chang, Ming; Huang, Shanjin

    2015-08-01

    Actin is an ancient conserved protein that is encoded by multiple isovariants in multicellular organisms. There are eight functional actin genes in the Arabidopsis genome, and the precise function and mechanism of action of each isovariant remain poorly understood. Here, we report the characterization of ACT11, a reproductive actin isovariant. Our studies reveal that loss of function of ACT11 causes a delay in pollen germination, but enhances pollen tube growth. Cytological analysis revealed that the amount of filamentous actin decreased, and the rate of actin turnover increased in act11 pollen. Convergence of actin filaments upon the germination aperture was impaired in act11 pollen, consistent with the observed delay of germination. Reduction of actin dynamics with jasplakinolide suppressed the germination and tube growth phenotypes in act11 pollen, suggesting that the underlying mechanisms involve an increase in actin dynamics. Thus, we demonstrate that ACT11 is required to maintain the rate of actin turnover in order to promote pollen germination and maintain the normal rate of pollen tube growth.

  14. The Eps8/IRSp53/VASP Network Differentially Controls Actin Capping and Bundling in Filopodia Formation

    PubMed Central

    Milanesi, Francesca; Di Fiore, Pier Paolo; Menna, Elisabetta; Matteoli, Michela; Gov, Nir S.; Scita, Giorgio; Ciliberto, Andrea

    2011-01-01

    There is a body of literature that describes the geometry and the physics of filopodia using either stochastic models or partial differential equations and elasticity and coarse-grained theory. Comparatively, there is a paucity of models focusing on the regulation of the network of proteins that control the formation of different actin structures. Using a combination of in-vivo and in-vitro experiments together with a system of ordinary differential equations, we focused on a small number of well-characterized, interacting molecules involved in actin-dependent filopodia formation: the actin remodeler Eps8, whose capping and bundling activities are a function of its ligands, Abi-1 and IRSp53, respectively; VASP and Capping Protein (CP), which exert antagonistic functions in controlling filament elongation. The model emphasizes the essential role of complexes that contain the membrane deforming protein IRSp53, in the process of filopodia initiation. This model accurately accounted for all observations, including a seemingly paradoxical result whereby genetic removal of Eps8 reduced filopodia in HeLa, but increased them in hippocampal neurons, and generated quantitative predictions, which were experimentally verified. The model further permitted us to explain how filopodia are generated in different cellular contexts, depending on the dynamic interaction established by Eps8, IRSp53 and VASP with actin filaments, thus revealing an unexpected plasticity of the signaling network that governs the multifunctional activities of its components in the formation of filopodia. PMID:21814501

  15. MAP18 regulates the direction of pollen tube growth in Arabidopsis by modulating F-actin organization.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Lei; Zhang, Yan; Kang, Erfang; Xu, Qiangyi; Wang, Miaoying; Rui, Yue; Liu, Baoquan; Yuan, Ming; Fu, Ying

    2013-03-01

    For fertilization to occur in plants, the pollen tube must be guided to enter the ovule via the micropyle. Previous reports have implicated actin filaments, actin binding proteins, and the tip-focused calcium gradient as key contributors to polar growth of pollen tubes; however, the regulation of directional pollen tube growth is largely unknown. We reported previously that Arabidopsis thaliana MICROTUBULE-ASSOCIATED PROTEIN18 (MAP18) contributes to directional cell growth and cortical microtubule organization. The preferential expression of MAP18 in pollen and in pollen tubes suggests that MAP18 also may function in pollen tube growth. In this study, we demonstrate that MAP18 functions in pollen tubes by influencing actin organization, rather than microtubule assembly. In vitro biochemical results indicate that MAP18 exhibits Ca(2+)-dependent filamentous (F)-actin-severing activity. Abnormal expression of MAP18 in map18 and MAP18 OX plants was associated with disorganization of the actin cytoskeleton in the tube apex, resulting in aberrant pollen tube growth patterns and morphologies, inaccurate micropyle targeting, and fewer fertilization events. Experiments with MAP18 mutants created by site-directed mutagenesis suggest that F-actin-severing activity is essential to the effects of MAP18 on pollen tube growth direction. Our study demonstrates that in Arabidopsis, MAP18 guides the direction of pollen tube growth by modulating actin filaments.

  16. Nonequilibrium dynamics of probe filaments in actin-myosin networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gladrow, J.; Broedersz, C. P.; Schmidt, C. F.

    2017-08-01

    Active dynamic processes of cells are largely driven by the cytoskeleton, a complex and adaptable semiflexible polymer network, motorized by mechanoenzymes. Small dimensions, confined geometries, and hierarchical structures make it challenging to probe dynamics and mechanical response of such networks. Embedded semiflexible probe polymers can serve as nonperturbing multiscale probes to detect force distributions in active polymer networks. We show here that motor-induced forces transmitted to the probe polymers are reflected in nonequilibrium bending dynamics, which we analyze in terms of spatial eigenmodes of an elastic beam under steady-state conditions. We demonstrate how these active forces induce correlations among the mode amplitudes, which furthermore break time-reversal symmetry. This leads to a breaking of detailed balance in this mode space. We derive analytical predictions for the magnitude of resulting probability currents in mode space in the white-noise limit of motor activity. We relate the structure of these currents to the spatial profile of motor-induced forces along the probe polymers and provide a general relation for observable currents on two-dimensional hyperplanes.

  17. Nonequilibrium dynamics of probe filaments in actin-myosin networks.

    PubMed

    Gladrow, J; Broedersz, C P; Schmidt, C F

    2017-08-01

    Active dynamic processes of cells are largely driven by the cytoskeleton, a complex and adaptable semiflexible polymer network, motorized by mechanoenzymes. Small dimensions, confined geometries, and hierarchical structures make it challenging to probe dynamics and mechanical response of such networks. Embedded semiflexible probe polymers can serve as nonperturbing multiscale probes to detect force distributions in active polymer networks. We show here that motor-induced forces transmitted to the probe polymers are reflected in nonequilibrium bending dynamics, which we analyze in terms of spatial eigenmodes of an elastic beam under steady-state conditions. We demonstrate how these active forces induce correlations among the mode amplitudes, which furthermore break time-reversal symmetry. This leads to a breaking of detailed balance in this mode space. We derive analytical predictions for the magnitude of resulting probability currents in mode space in the white-noise limit of motor activity. We relate the structure of these currents to the spatial profile of motor-induced forces along the probe polymers and provide a general relation for observable currents on two-dimensional hyperplanes.

  18. Crosslinked actin networks show liquid crystal elastomer behaviour, including soft-mode elasticity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalhaimer, Paul; Discher, Dennis E.; Lubensky, Tom C.

    2007-05-01

    Actin filament networks with protein crosslinks of distinct length and flexibility resemble liquid crystal elastomers. We simulate actin filament systems with flexible crosslinkers of varying length and connectivity to understand general phase behaviour and elasticity. Simulated networks with very short filaments and long crosslinkers resemble the cytoskeleton of the red blood cell and remain isotropic in compression and shear, seeming well-suited to blood flow. In contrast, networks with longer filaments as found in many cell types show three regimes of nematic phase behaviour dependent on crosslinker length: (1) `loose' networks are isotropic at zero stress but align under compression or shear; (2) `semi-loose' networks are nematic at low stress but become isotropic under dilation and (3) `tight' networks possess a locked-in nematic order as represented by the cytoskeleton of the outer hair cell in the ear, for which anisotropic compliance directs sound propagation. Furthermore, for a subset of loose networks with `periodic' connections among filaments, extremely soft stress-strain behaviour is found, as predicted for liquid crystal elastomers.

  19. The spatial response of nonlinear strain propagation in response to actively driven microspheres through entangled actin networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falzone, Tobias; Blair, Savanna; Robertson-Anderson, Rae

    2015-03-01

    The semiflexible biopolymer actin, a ubiquitous component of nearly all biological organisms, plays an important role in many mechanically-driven processes such as muscle contraction, cancer invasion and cell motility. As such, entangled actin networks, which possess unique and complex viscoelastic properties, have been the subject of much theoretical and experimental work. However, due to this viscoelastic complexity, much is still unknown regarding the correlation of the applied stress on actin networks to the induced filament strain at the molecular and micro scale. Here, we use simultaneous optical trapping and fluorescence microscopy to characterize the link between applied microscopic forces and strain propagation as a function of strain rate and concentration. Specifically, we track fiduciary markers on entangled actin filaments before, during and after actively driving embedded microspheres through the network. These measurements provide much needed insight into the molecular-level dynamics connecting stress and strain in semiflexible polymer networks.

  20. AKAP220 manages apical actin networks that coordinate aquaporin-2 location and renal water reabsorption

    PubMed Central

    Whiting, Jennifer L.; Ogier, Leah; Forbush, Katherine A.; Bucko, Paula; Gopalan, Janani; Seternes, Ole-Morten; Langeberg, Lorene K.; Scott, John D.

    2016-01-01

    Filtration through the kidney eliminates toxins, manages electrolyte balance, and controls water homeostasis. Reabsorption of water from the luminal fluid of the nephron occurs through aquaporin-2 (AQP2) water pores in principal cells that line the kidney-collecting duct. This vital process is impeded by formation of an “actin barrier” that obstructs the passive transit of AQP2 to the plasma membrane. Bidirectional control of AQP2 trafficking is managed by hormones and signaling enzymes. We have discovered that vasopressin-independent facets of this homeostatic mechanism are under the control of A-Kinase Anchoring Protein 220 (AKAP220; product of the Akap11 gene). CRISPR/Cas9 gene editing and imaging approaches show that loss of AKAP220 disrupts apical actin networks in organoid cultures. Similar defects are evident in tissue sections from AKAP220-KO mice. Biochemical analysis of AKAP220-null kidney extracts detected reduced levels of active RhoA GTPase, a well-known modulator of the actin cytoskeleton. Fluorescent imaging of kidney sections from these genetically modified mice revealed that RhoA and AQP2 accumulate at the apical surface of the collecting duct. Consequently, these animals are unable to appropriately dilute urine in response to overhydration. We propose that membrane-proximal signaling complexes constrained by AKAP220 impact the actin barrier dynamics and AQP2 trafficking to ensure water homeostasis. PMID:27402760

  1. Modulating F-actin organization induces organ growth by affecting the Hippo pathway

    PubMed Central

    Sansores-Garcia, Leticia; Bossuyt, Wouter; Wada, Ken-Ichi; Yonemura, Shigenobu; Tao, Chunyao; Sasaki, Hiroshi; Halder, Georg

    2011-01-01

    The Hippo tumour suppressor pathway is a conserved signalling pathway that controls organ size. The core of the Hpo pathway is a kinase cascade, which in Drosophila involves the Hpo and Warts kinases that negatively regulate the activity of the transcriptional coactivator Yorkie. Although several additional components of the Hippo pathway have been discovered, the inputs that regulate Hippo signalling are not fully understood. Here, we report that induction of extra F-actin formation, by loss of Capping proteins A or B, or caused by overexpression of an activated version of the formin Diaphanous, induced strong overgrowth in Drosophila imaginal discs through modulating the activity of the Hippo pathway. Importantly, loss of Capping proteins and Diaphanous overexpression did not significantly affect cell polarity and other signalling pathways, including Hedgehog and Decapentaplegic signalling. The interaction between F-actin and Hpo signalling is evolutionarily conserved, as the activity of the mammalian Yorkie-orthologue Yap is modulated by changes in F-actin. Thus, regulators of F-actin, and in particular Capping proteins, are essential for proper growth control by affecting Hippo signalling. PMID:21556047

  2. The MARVEL domain protein Nce102 regulates actin organization and invasive growth of Candida albicans.

    PubMed

    Douglas, Lois M; Wang, Hong X; Konopka, James B

    2013-11-26

    Invasive growth of the fungal pathogen Candida albicans into tissues promotes disseminated infections in humans. The plasma membrane is essential for pathogenesis because this important barrier mediates morphogenesis and invasive growth, as well as secretion of virulence factors, cell wall synthesis, nutrient import, and other processes. Previous studies showed that the Sur7 tetraspan protein that localizes to MCC (membrane compartment occupied by Can1)/eisosome subdomains of the plasma membrane regulates a broad range of key functions, including cell wall synthesis, morphogenesis, and resistance to copper. Therefore, a distinct tetraspan protein found in MCC/eisosomes, Nce102, was investigated. Nce102 belongs to the MARVEL domain protein family, which is implicated in regulating membrane structure and function. Deletion of NCE102 did not cause the broad defects seen in sur7Δ cells. Instead, the nce102Δ mutant displayed a unique phenotype in that it was defective in forming hyphae and invading low concentrations of agar but could invade well in higher agar concentrations. This phenotype was likely due to a defect in actin organization that was observed by phalloidin staining. In support of this, the invasive growth defect of a bni1Δ mutant that mislocalizes actin due to lack of the Bni1 formin was also reversed at high agar concentrations. This suggests that a denser matrix provides a signal that compensates for the actin defects. The nce102Δ mutant displayed decreased virulence and formed abnormal hyphae in mice. These studies identify novel ways that Nce102 and the physical environment surrounding C. albicans regulate morphogenesis and pathogenesis. The plasma membrane promotes virulence of the human fungal pathogen Candida albicans by acting as a protective barrier around the cell and mediating dynamic activities, such as morphogenesis, cell wall synthesis, secretion of virulence factors, and nutrient uptake. To better understand how the plasma membrane

  3. MicroFilament Analyzer identifies actin network organizations in epidermal cells of Arabidopsis thaliana roots.

    PubMed

    Jacques, Eveline; Lewandowski, Michal; Buytaert, Jan; Fierens, Yves; Verbelen, Jean-Pierre; Vissenberg, Kris

    2013-07-01

    The plant cytoskeleton plays a crucial role in the cells' growth and development during different developmental stages and it undergoes many rearrangements. In order to describe the arrangements of the F-actin cytoskeleton in root epidermal cells of Arabidopsis thaliana, the recently developed software MicroFilament Analyzer (MFA) was exploited. This software enables high-throughput identification and quantification of the orientation of filamentous structures on digital images in a highly standardized and fast way. Using confocal microscopy and transgenic GFP-FABD2-GFP plants the actin cytoskeleton was visualized in the root epidermis. MFA analysis revealed that during the early stages of cell development F-actin is organized in a mainly random pattern. As the cells grow, they preferentially adopt a longitudinal organization, a pattern that is also preserved in the largest cells. In the evolution from young to old cells, an approximately even distribution of transverse, oblique or combined orientations is always present besides the switch from random to a longitudinal oriented actin cytoskeleton.

  4. MicroFilament Analyzer identifies actin network organizations in epidermal cells of Arabidopsis thaliana roots

    PubMed Central

    Jacques, Eveline; Lewandowski, Michal; Buytaert, Jan; Fierens, Yves; Verbelen, Jean-Pierre; Vissenberg, Kris

    2013-01-01

    The plant cytoskeleton plays a crucial role in the cells’ growth and development during different developmental stages and it undergoes many rearrangements. In order to describe the arrangements of the F-actin cytoskeleton in root epidermal cells of Arabidopsis thaliana, the recently developed software MicroFilament Analyzer (MFA) was exploited. This software enables high-throughput identification and quantification of the orientation of filamentous structures on digital images in a highly standardized and fast way. Using confocal microscopy and transgenic GFP-FABD2-GFP plants the actin cytoskeleton was visualized in the root epidermis. MFA analysis revealed that during the early stages of cell development F-actin is organized in a mainly random pattern. As the cells grow, they preferentially adopt a longitudinal organization, a pattern that is also preserved in the largest cells. In the evolution from young to old cells, an approximately even distribution of transverse, oblique or combined orientations is always present besides the switch from random to a longitudinal oriented actin cytoskeleton. PMID:23656865

  5. Mechanical output of myosin II motors is regulated by myosin filament size and actin network mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stam, Samantha; Alberts, Jonathan; Gardel, Margaret; Munro, Edwin

    2013-03-01

    The interactions of bipolar myosin II filaments with actin arrays are a predominate means of generating forces in numerous physiological processes including muscle contraction and cell migration. However, how the spatiotemporal regulation of these forces depends on motor mechanochemistry, bipolar filament size, and local actin mechanics is unknown. Here, we simulate myosin II motors with an agent-based model in which the motors have been benchmarked against experimental measurements. Force generation occurs in two distinct regimes characterized either by stable tension maintenance or by stochastic buildup and release; transitions between these regimes occur by changes to duty ratio and myosin filament size. The time required for building force to stall scales inversely with the stiffness of a network and the actin gliding speed of a motor. Finally, myosin motors are predicted to contract a network toward stiffer regions, which is consistent with experimental observations. Our representation of myosin motors can be used to understand how their mechanical and biochemical properties influence their observed behavior in a variety of in vitro and in vivo contexts.

  6. Actin-myosin network influences morphological response of neuronal cells to altered osmolarity.

    PubMed

    Bober, Brian G; Love, James M; Horton, Steven M; Sitnova, Mariya; Shahamatdar, Sina; Kannan, Ajay; Shah, Sameer B

    2015-04-01

    Acute osmotic fluctuations in the brain occur during a number of clinical conditions and can result in a variety of adverse neurological symptoms. Osmotic perturbation can cause changes in the volumes of intra- and extracellular fluid and, due to the rigidity of the skull, can alter intracranial pressure thus making it difficult to analyze purely osmotic effects in vivo. The present study aims to determine the effects of changes in osmolarity on SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells in vitro, and the role of the actin-myosin network in regulating this response. Cells were exposed to hyper- or hypoosmotic media and morphological and cytoskeletal responses were recorded. Hyperosmotic shock resulted in a drop in cell body volume and planar area, a persisting shape deformation, and increases in cellular translocation. Hypoosmotic shock did not significantly alter planar area, but caused a transient increase in cell body volume and an increase in cellular translocation via the development of small protrusions rich in actin. Disruption of the actin-myosin network with latrunculin and blebbistatin resulted in changes to volume and shape regulation, and a decrease in cellular translocation. In both osmotic perturbations, no apparent disruptions to cytoskeletal integrity were observed by light microscopy. Overall, because osmotically induced changes persisted even after volume regulation occurred, it is possible that osmotic stress may play a larger role in neurological dysfunction than currently believed.

  7. Arp2/3 complex ATP hydrolysis promotes lamellipodial actin network disassembly but is dispensable for assembly

    PubMed Central

    Ingerman, Elena; Hsiao, Jennifer Ying

    2013-01-01

    We examined the role of ATP hydrolysis by the Arp2/3 complex in building the leading edge of a cell by studying the effects of hydrolysis defects on the behavior of the complex in the lamellipodial actin network of Drosophila S2 cells and in a reconstituted, in vitro, actin-based motility system. In S2 cells, nonhydrolyzing Arp2 and Arp3 subunits expanded and delayed disassembly of lamellipodial actin networks and the effect of mutant subunits was additive. Arp2 and Arp3 ATP hydrolysis mutants remained in lamellipodial networks longer and traveled greater distances from the plasma membrane, even in networks still containing wild-type Arp2/3 complex. In vitro, wild-type and ATP hydrolysis mutant Arp2/3 complexes each nucleated actin and built similar dendritic networks. However, networks constructed with Arp2/3 hydrolysis-defective mutants were more resistant to disassembly by cofilin. Our results indicate that ATP hydrolysis on both Arp2 and Arp3 contributes to dissociation of the complex from the actin network but is not strictly necessary for lamellipodial network disassembly. PMID:23439681

  8. Dendritic Actin Nucleation Causes Traveling Waves and Patches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlsson, Anders

    2010-03-01

    Reversible polymerization of the intracellular protein actin into semiflexible filaments is crucial for cell motion and environmental sensing. Recent studies have shown that polymerized actin can spontaneously form traveling waves and/or moving patches. I investigate possible mechanisms for such phenomena by numerically simulating the ``dendritic nucleation'' model of actin network growth. The simulations treat the growth of an actin network on a flat portion of a cell membrane, using a stochastic-growth method which calculates an explicit three-dimensional network structure. The calculations treat processes including filament growth, capping, branching, severing, and Brownian motion. The dynamics of membrane proteins stimulating actin polymerization are also included: they diffuse in the membrane, and detach/deactivate in the presence of polymerized actin. The simulations show three types of polymerized-actin behavior: 1) traveling waves, 2) coherently moving patches, and 3) random fluctuations with occasional moving patches. Wave formation is favored at low free-actin concentrations by a long reattachment time for the membrane proteins, and by weakness of the attractive interaction between filaments and the membrane. Raising the free-actin concentration results in a randomly varying distribution of polymerized actin. Lowering the free-actin concentration below the optimal value for waves causes the waves to break up into patches which, however, move coherently. Effects of similar magnitude are predicted when other intracellular protein concentrations are varied. Diffusion of the membrane proteins slows the waves, and, if fast enough, stops them completely, resulting in the formation of a static spot.

  9. Self-organized gels in DNA/F-actin mixtures without crosslinkers: networks of induced nematic domains with tunable density.

    PubMed

    Lai, Ghee Hwee; Butler, John C; Zribi, Olena V; Smalyukh, Ivan I; Angelini, Thomas E; Purdy, Kirstin R; Golestanian, Ramin; Wong, Gerard C L

    2008-11-21

    We examine mixtures of DNA and filamentous actin (F-actin) as a model system of like-charged rigid rods and flexible chains. Confocal microscopy reveals the formation of elongated nematic F-actin domains reticulated via defect-free vertices into a network embedded in a mesh of random DNA. Synchrotron x-ray scattering results indicate that the DNA mesh squeezes the F-actin domains into a nematic state with an interactin spacing that decreases with increasing DNA concentration as d(actin) proportional, variantrho(DNA)(-1/2). Interestingly, the system changes from a counterion-controlled regime to a depletion-controlled regime with added salt, with drastic consequences for the osmotic pressure induced phase behavior.

  10. Microstructural model for cyclic hardening in F-actin networks crosslinked by α-actinin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López-Menéndez, Horacio; Rodríguez, José Félix

    2016-06-01

    The rheology of F-actin networks has attracted a great attention during the last years. In order to gain a complete understanding of the rheological properties of these novel materials, it is necessary the study in a large deformations regime to alter their internal structure. In this sense, Schmoller et al. (2010) showed that the reconstituted networks of F-actin crosslinked with α-actinin unexpectedly harden when they are subjected to a cyclical shear. This observation contradicts the expected Mullins effect observed in most soft materials, such as rubber and living tissues, where a pronounced softening is observed when they are cyclically deformed. We think that the key to understand this stunning effect is the gelation process. To define it, the most relevant constituents are the chemical crosslinks - α-actinin -, the physical crosslinks - introduced by the entanglement of the semiflexible network - and the interaction between them. As a consequence of this interaction, a pre-stressed network emerges and introduces a feedback effect, where the pre-stress also regulates the adhesion energy of the α-actinin, setting the structure in a metastable reference configuration. Therefore, the external loads and the evolvement of the trapped stress drive the microstructural changes during the cyclic loading protocol. In this work, we propose a micromechanical model into the framework of nonlinear continuum mechanics. The mechanics of the F-actin filaments is modelled using the wormlike chain model for semiflexible filaments and the gelation process is modelled as mesoscale dynamics for the α-actinin and physical crosslink. The model has been validated with reported experimental results.

  11. F-actin cross-linking enhances the stability of force generation in disordered actomyosin networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Wonyeong; Murrell, Michael P.; Kim, Taeyoon

    2015-12-01

    Myosin molecular motors and actin cross-linking proteins (ACPs) are known to mediate the generation and transmission of mechanical forces within the cortical F-actin cytoskeleton that drive major cellular processes such as cell division and migration. However, how motors and ACPs interact collectively over diverse timescales to modulate the time-dependent mechanical properties of the cytoskeleton remains unclear. In this study, we present a three-dimensional agent-based computational model of the cortical actomyosin network to quantitatively determine the effects of motor activity and the density and kinetics of ACPs on the accumulation and maintenance of mechanical tension within a disordered actomyosin network. We found that motors accumulate large stress quickly by behaving as temporary cross-linkers although this stress is relaxed over time unless there are sufficient passive ACPs to stabilize the network. Stabilization by ACPs helps motors to generate forces up to their maximum potential, leading to significant enhancement of the efficiency and stability of stress generation. Thus, we demonstrated that the force-dependent kinetics of ACP dissociation plays a critical role for the accumulation and sustainment of stress and the structural remodeling of networks.

  12. LRRK2 guides the actin cytoskeleton at growth cones together with ARHGEF7 and Tropomyosin 4.

    PubMed

    Häbig, Karina; Gellhaar, Sandra; Heim, Birgit; Djuric, Verena; Giesert, Florian; Wurst, Wolfgang; Walter, Carolin; Hentrich, Thomas; Riess, Olaf; Bonin, Michael

    2013-12-01

    Mutations in the leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) gene represent the most common genetic cause of Parkinson's disease (PD). However, LRRK2 function and molecular mechanisms causing the parkinsonian phenotype remain widely unknown. Most of LRRK2 knockdown and overexpression models strengthen the relevance of LRRK2 in regulating neurite outgrowth. We have recently identified ARHGEF7 as the first guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) of LRRK2. This GEF is influencing neurite outgrowth through regulation of actin polymerization. Here, we examined the expression profile of neuroblastoma cells with reduced LRRK2 and ARHGEF7 levels to identify additional partners of LRRK2 in this process. Tropomyosins (TPMs), and in particular TPM4, were the most interesting candidates next to other actin cytoskeleton regulating transcripts in this dataset. Subsequently, enhanced neurite branching was shown using primary hippocampal neurons of LRRK2 knockdown animals. Furthermore, we observed an enhanced number of growth cones per neuron and a mislocalization and dysregulation of ARHGEF7 and TPM4 in these neuronal compartments. Our results reveal a fascinating connection between the neurite outgrowth phenotype of LRRK2 models and the regulation of actin polymerization directing further investigations of LRRK2-related pathogenesis.

  13. STAR syndrome-associated CDK10/Cyclin M regulates actin network architecture and ciliogenesis.

    PubMed

    Guen, Vincent J; Gamble, Carly; Perez, Dahlia E; Bourassa, Sylvie; Zappel, Hildegard; Gärtner, Jutta; Lees, Jacqueline A; Colas, Pierre

    2016-01-01

    CDK10/CycM is a protein kinase deficient in STAR (toe Syndactyly, Telecanthus and Anogenital and Renal malformations) syndrome, which results from mutations in the X-linked FAM58A gene encoding Cyclin M. The biological functions of CDK10/CycM and etiology of STAR syndrome are poorly understood. Here, we report that deficiency of CDK10/Cyclin M promotes assembly and elongation of primary cilia. We establish that this reflects a key role for CDK10/Cyclin M in regulation of actin network organization, which is known to govern ciliogenesis. In an unbiased screen, we identified the RhoA-associated kinase PKN2 as a CDK10/CycM phosphorylation substrate. We establish that PKN2 is a bone fide regulator of ciliogenesis, acting in a similar manner to CDK10/CycM. We discovered that CDK10/Cyclin M binds and phosphorylates PKN2 on threonines 121 and 124, within PKN2's core RhoA-binding domain. Furthermore, we demonstrate that deficiencies in CDK10/CycM or PKN2, or expression of a non-phosphorylatable version of PKN2, destabilize both the RhoA protein and the actin network architecture. Importantly, we established that ectopic expression of RhoA is sufficient to override the induction of ciliogenesis resulting from CDK10/CycM knockdown, indicating that RhoA regulation is critical for CDK10/CycM's negative effect on ciliogenesis. Finally, we show that kidney sections from a STAR patient display dilated renal tubules and abnormal, elongated cilia. Altogether, these results reveal CDK10/CycM as a key regulator of actin dynamics and a suppressor of ciliogenesis through phosphorylation of PKN2 and promotion of RhoA signaling. Moreover, they suggest that STAR syndrome is a ciliopathy.

  14. Elastic Coupling of Nascent apCAM Adhesions to Flowing Actin Networks

    PubMed Central

    Mejean, Cecile O.; Schaefer, Andrew W.; Buck, Kenneth B.; Kress, Holger; Shundrovsky, Alla; Merrill, Jason W.; Dufresne, Eric R.; Forscher, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Adhesions are multi-molecular complexes that transmit forces generated by a cell’s acto-myosin networks to external substrates. While the physical properties of some of the individual components of adhesions have been carefully characterized, the mechanics of the coupling between the cytoskeleton and the adhesion site as a whole are just beginning to be revealed. We characterized the mechanics of nascent adhesions mediated by the immunoglobulin-family cell adhesion molecule apCAM, which is known to interact with actin filaments. Using simultaneous visualization of actin flow and quantification of forces transmitted to apCAM-coated beads restrained with an optical trap, we found that adhesions are dynamic structures capable of transmitting a wide range of forces. For forces in the picoNewton scale, the nascent adhesions’ mechanical properties are dominated by an elastic structure which can be reversibly deformed by up to 1 µm. Large reversible deformations rule out an interface between substrate and cytoskeleton that is dominated by a number of stiff molecular springs in parallel, and favor a compliant cross-linked network. Such a compliant structure may increase the lifetime of a nascent adhesion, facilitating signaling and reinforcement. PMID:24039928

  15. Elastic coupling of nascent apCAM adhesions to flowing actin networks.

    PubMed

    Mejean, Cecile O; Schaefer, Andrew W; Buck, Kenneth B; Kress, Holger; Shundrovsky, Alla; Merrill, Jason W; Dufresne, Eric R; Forscher, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Adhesions are multi-molecular complexes that transmit forces generated by a cell's acto-myosin networks to external substrates. While the physical properties of some of the individual components of adhesions have been carefully characterized, the mechanics of the coupling between the cytoskeleton and the adhesion site as a whole are just beginning to be revealed. We characterized the mechanics of nascent adhesions mediated by the immunoglobulin-family cell adhesion molecule apCAM, which is known to interact with actin filaments. Using simultaneous visualization of actin flow and quantification of forces transmitted to apCAM-coated beads restrained with an optical trap, we found that adhesions are dynamic structures capable of transmitting a wide range of forces. For forces in the picoNewton scale, the nascent adhesions' mechanical properties are dominated by an elastic structure which can be reversibly deformed by up to 1 µm. Large reversible deformations rule out an interface between substrate and cytoskeleton that is dominated by a number of stiff molecular springs in parallel, and favor a compliant cross-linked network. Such a compliant structure may increase the lifetime of a nascent adhesion, facilitating signaling and reinforcement.

  16. Ethylene promotes pollen tube growth by affecting actin filament organization via the cGMP-dependent pathway in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Jia, Honglei; Yang, Jun; Liesche, Johannes; Liu, Xin; Hu, Yanfeng; Si, Wantong; Guo, Junkang; Li, Jisheng

    2017-09-01

    Ethylene and cGMP are key regulators of plant developmental processes. In this study, we demonstrate that ethylene or cGMP promote pollen tube growth in a dose-dependent manner. The etr1-1 mutant was found to be insensitive to ethylene with regard to pollen tube growth, while the growth-promoting effect of ethylene in etr2-2, ein4-4, or ein4-7 did not change, suggesting that ethylene signaling was mainly perceived by ETR1. However, the function of cGMP was not inhibited in etr1-1 and pollen tubes became insensitive to ethylene when the endogenous cGMP level was artificially decreased. This shows that cGMP is necessary for the control of pollen tube growth and that it might be a downstream component of ETR1 in the ethylene signaling pathway. Our study also found that ethylene or cGMP increase the actin bundles and elevated the percentage of relative amount of F-actin, while removal of cGMP decreased actin bundles abundance and altered the ratio of F-actin in the tip and base regions of pollen tubes. In conclusion, our data suggests that ethylene functions as the upstream signal of cGMP, and that both signals promote pollen germination and tube growth by regulating F-actin, which is essential for vesicular transport and cytoplasmic streaming.

  17. Self-Organized Gels in DNA/F-Actin Mixtures without Crosslinkers: Networks of Induced Nematic Domains with Tunable Density

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, Ghee Hwee; Butler, John C.; Zribi, Olena V.; Smalyukh, Ivan I.; Angelini, Thomas E.; Purdy, Kirstin R.; Golestanian, Ramin; Wong, Gerard C. L.

    2008-11-01

    We examine mixtures of DNA and filamentous actin (F-actin) as a model system of like-charged rigid rods and flexible chains. Confocal microscopy reveals the formation of elongated nematic F-actin domains reticulated via defect-free vertices into a network embedded in a mesh of random DNA. Synchrotron x-ray scattering results indicate that the DNA mesh squeezes the F-actin domains into a nematic state with an interactin spacing that decreases with increasing DNA concentration as dactin∝ρDNA-1/2. Interestingly, the system changes from a counterion-controlled regime to a depletion-controlled regime with added salt, with drastic consequences for the osmotic pressure induced phase behavior.

  18. Constitutive modeling of the stress-strain behavior of F-actin filament networks.

    PubMed

    Palmer, Jeffrey S; Boyce, Mary C

    2008-05-01

    The central role of the cytoskeleton in both healthy and diseased cellular functions makes it a compelling subject for detailed three-dimensional (3D) micromechanical modeling. Microstructural features of the cytoskeleton govern the cell's mechanical behavior in many of the regulating cellular functions including cell division, adhesion, spreading, migration, contraction, and other mechanotransductive effects which influence biochemical processes. Actin microfilaments (AF) combine to form one of the predominant cytoskeletal networks important to these biological processes. Here, the AF cytoskeletal microstructure and stress-strain behavior is modeled via a microstructurally-informed continuum mechanics approach. The force-extension behavior of the individual filaments is captured using the MacKintosh derivation of the worm-like chain (WLC) constitutive relationship for short chains where a new and direct analytical expression for the filament force as a function of filament extension is developed in this paper. The filament force-extension behavior is then used in conjunction with the Arruda-Boyce eight-chain network model to capture the 3D multiaxial stress-strain behavior of the network. The resulting 3D cytoskeletal network constitutive model provides the ability to track microstructural stretch and orientation states during 3D macroscopic stretching conditions. The non-affine nature of the network model effectively accommodates the imposed macroscopic shear strain through filament rotation and a relatively small amount of filament stretch. These characteristics enable the network model, using physically realistic material properties, to capture the initial stiffness of the AF network as well as the nonlinear strain stiffening observed at large stresses. The network model predictions compare favorably with published microrheological data of in vitro AF networks.

  19. Convergence and extension at gastrulation require a myosin IIB dependent cortical actin network

    PubMed Central

    Skoglund, Paul; Rolo, Ana; Chen, Xuejun; Gumbiner, Barry M.; Keller, Ray

    2009-01-01

    Summary Force-producing convergence (narrowing) and extension (lengthening) of tissues by active intercalation of cells along the axis of convergence play a major role in axial morphogenesis during development of both vertebrate and invertebrate embryos, and failure of these processes in human embryos leads to embryonic defects including spina bifida and anencephaly. Here we use Xenopus laevis, a system in which the polarized cell motility that drives this active cell intercalation has been related to development of forces that close the blastopore and elongate the body axis, to examine the role of myosin IIB in convergence and extension. We find that myosin IIB is localized in the cortex of intercalating cells, and that morpholino knockdown of this myosin isoform shows that it is essential for maintenance of a stereotypical, cortical actin cytoskeleton that we visualize with time-lapse fluorescent confocal microscopy. We show that this actin network consists of foci or nodes connected by cables and is polarized relative to the embryonic axis, preferentially cyclically shortening and lengthening parallel to the axis of cell polarization, elongation, and intercalation, and also parallel to the axis of convergence forces during gastrulation. MHC-B-depletion results in disruption of this polarized cytoskeleton, loss of the polarized protrusive activity characteristic of intercalating cells, eventual loss of cell-cell and cell matrix adhesion, and dose-dependent failure of blastopore closure, arguably because of failure to develop convergence forces parallel to the myosin IIB-dependent dynamics of the actin cytoskeleton. These findings bridge the gap between a molecular-scale motor protein and tissue-scale embryonic morphogenesis. PMID:18550716

  20. Direct observation of dendritic actin filament networks nucleated by Arp2/3 complex and WASP/Scar proteins.

    PubMed

    Blanchoin, L; Amann, K J; Higgs, H N; Marchand, J B; Kaiser, D A; Pollard, T D

    2000-04-27

    Most nucleated cells crawl about by extending a pseudopod that is driven by the polymerization of actin filaments in the cytoplasm behind the leading edge of the plasma membrane. These actin filaments are linked into a network by Y-branches, with the pointed end of each filament attached to the side of another filament and the rapidly growing barbed end facing forward. Because Arp2/3 complex nucleates actin polymerization and links the pointed end to the side of another filament in vitro, a dendritic nucleation model has been proposed in which Arp2/3 complex initiates filaments from the sides of older filaments. Here we report, by using a light microscopy assay, many new features of the mechanism. Branching occurs during, rather than after, nucleation by Arp2/3 complex activated by the Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein (WASP) or Scar protein; capping protein and profilin act synergistically with Arp2/3 complex to favour branched nucleation; phosphate release from aged actin filaments favours dissociation of Arp2/3 complex from the pointed ends of filaments; and branches created by Arp2/3 complex are relatively rigid. These properties result in the automatic assembly of the branched actin network after activation by proteins of the WASP/Scar family and favour the selective disassembly of proximal regions of the network.

  1. Actinic keratoses show variable histological basal growth patterns - a proposed classification adjustment.

    PubMed

    Schmitz, L; Gambichler, T; Gupta, G; Stücker, M; Stockfleth, E; Szeimies, R M; Dirschka, T

    2017-08-10

    Common histological classification schemes of actinic keratoses (AK) do not evaluate growth patterns at basal epidermal aspects of AK. Until now, the importance of basal epidermal growth patterns of AK has not been studied. To investigate the extent of atypical keratinocytes throughout the epidermis and variation in basal growth patterns of AK. AK lesions occurring on the head/face from patients seen in routine practice were assessed histologically. We determined histological grade (AK I-III), basal growth patterns of atypical keratinocytes (crowding, budding, papillary sprouting) and accompanying parameters. Of the 246 lesions included, 28.0% were histologically classified as AK I, 46.7% as AK II, and 25.2% as AK III. 26.4% of the basal growth patterns were classified as crowding (pro I), 49.6% as budding (pro II), 17.9% as papillary sprouting (pro III) and 6.1% without basal directed growth. No significant correlation of the histological AK I-III grading and underlying growth patterns was observed (P= 0.4666). However, adnexal structure involvement (OR= 2.37; 95%CI 1.21-4.65), infiltration (OR= 2.53; 95%CI 1.31-4.90) and increased number of vessels (OR= 2.56; 95%CI 1.42-4.65) were independent positive predictive markers for pro II and pro III basal growth patterns. Basal growth patterns (pro I-III) in AK do not correlate with the established AK I-III histological grading system. Besides the degree of upward extension, varying degrees of downward extension exist. Histological classification should consider both, upwards and downward growth patterns when assessing AK. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  2. A family of ROP proteins that suppresses actin dynamics, and is essential for polarized growth and cell adhesion.

    PubMed

    Burkart, Graham M; Baskin, Tobias I; Bezanilla, Magdalena

    2015-07-15

    In plants, the ROP family of small GTPases has been implicated in the polarized growth of tip-growing cells, such as root hairs and pollen tubes; however, most of the data derive from overexpressing ROP genes or constitutively active and dominant-negative isoforms, whereas confirmation by using loss-of-function studies has generally been lacking. Here, in the model moss Physcomitrella patens, we study ROP signaling during tip growth by using a loss-of-function approach based on RNA interference (RNAi) to silence the entire moss ROP family. We find that plants with reduced expression of ROP genes, in addition to failing to initiate tip growth, have perturbed cell wall staining, reduced cell adhesion and have increased actin-filament dynamics. Although plants subjected to RNAi against the ROP family also have reduced microtubule dynamics, this reduction is not specific to loss of ROP genes, as it occurs when actin function is compromised chemically or genetically. Our data suggest that ROP proteins polarize the actin cytoskeleton by suppressing actin-filament dynamics, leading to an increase in actin filaments at the site of polarized secretion. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  3. Differential requirement of F-actin and microtubule cytoskeleton in cue-induced local protein synthesis in axonal growth cones.

    PubMed

    Piper, Michael; Lee, Aih Cheun; van Horck, Francisca P G; McNeilly, Heather; Lu, Trina Bo; Harris, William A; Holt, Christine E

    2015-02-25

    Local protein synthesis (LPS) via receptor-mediated signaling plays a role in the directional responses of axons to extrinsic cues. An intact cytoskeleton is critical to enact these responses, but it is not known whether the two major cytoskeletal elements, F-actin and microtubules, have any roles in regulating axonal protein synthesis. Here, we show that pharmacological disruption of either microtubules or actin filaments in growth cones blocks netrin-1-induced de novo synthesis of proteins, as measured by metabolic incorporation of labeled amino acids, implicating both elements in axonal synthesis. However, comparative analysis of the activated translation initiation regulator, eIF4E-BP1, revealed a striking difference in the point of action of the two elements: actin disruption completely inhibited netrin-1-induced eIF4E-BP1 phosphorylation while microtubule disruption had no effect. An intact F-actin, but not microtubule, cytoskeleton was also required for netrin-1-induced activation of the PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway, upstream of translation initiation. Downstream of translation initiation, microtubules were required for netrin-1-induced activation of eukaryotic elongation factor 2 kinase (eEF2K) and eEF2. Taken together, our results show that while actin and microtubules are both crucial for cue-induced axonal protein synthesis, they serve distinct roles with F-actin being required for the initiation of translation and microtubules acting later at the elongation step.

  4. Ponticulin is the major high affinity link between the plasma membrane and the cortical actin network in Dictyostelium

    PubMed Central

    1994-01-01

    Interactions between the plasma membrane and underlying actin-based cortex have been implicated in membrane organization and stability, the control of cell shape, and various motile processes. To ascertain the function of high affinity actin-membrane associations, we have disrupted by homologous recombination the gene encoding ponticulin, the major high affinity actin-membrane link in Dictyostelium discoideum amoebae. Cells lacking detectable amounts of ponticulin message and protein also are deficient in high affinity actin-membrane binding by several criteria. First, only 10-13% as much endogenous actin cosediments through sucrose and crude plasma membranes from ponticulin- minus cells, as compared with membranes from the parental strain. Second, purified plasma membranes exhibit little or no binding or nucleation of exogenous actin in vitro. Finally, only 10-30% as much endogenous actin partitions with plasma membranes from ponticulin-minus cells after these cells are mechanically unroofed with polylysine- coated coverslips. The loss of the cell's major actin-binding membrane protein appears to be surprisingly benign under laboratory conditions. Ponticulin-minus cells grow normally in axenic culture and pinocytose FITC-dextran at the same rate as do parental cells. The rate of phagocytosis of particles by ponticulin-minus cells in growth media also is unaffected. By contrast, after initiation of development, cells lacking ponticulin aggregate faster than the parental cells. Subsequent morphogenesis proceeds asynchronously, but viable spores can form. These results indicate that ponticulin is not required for cellular translocation, but apparently plays a role in cell patterning during development. PMID:8089176

  5. The Disruption of the Cytoskeleton during Semaphorin 3A induced Growth Cone Collapse Correlates with Differences in Actin Organization and Associated Binding Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Jacquelyn A; Bridgman, Paul C

    2010-01-01

    Repulsive guidance cues induce growth cone collapse or collapse and retraction. Collapse results from disruption and loss of the actin cytoskeleton. Actin rich regions of growth cones contain binding proteins that influence filament organization, such as Arp2/3, cortactin, and fascin, but little is known about the role that these proteins play in collapse. Here we show that Semaphorin 3A (Sema 3A), which is repulsive to mouse dorsal root ganglion neurons, has unequal effects on actin binding proteins and their associated filaments. The immunofluorescence staining intensity of Arp-2 and cortactin decreases relative to total protein, while in unextracted growth cones fascin increases. Fascin and myosin IIB staining redistribute and show increased overlap. The degree of actin filament loss during collapse correlates with filament superstructures detected by rotary shadow electron microscopy. Collapse results in the loss of branched f-actin meshworks, while actin bundles are partially retained to varying degrees. Taken together with the known affects of Sema 3A on actin, this suggests a model for collapse that follows a sequence; depolymerization of actin meshworks followed by partial depolymerization of fascin associated actin bundles and their movement to the neurite to complete collapse. The relocated fascin associated actin bundles may provide the substrate for actomyosin contractions that produce retraction. PMID:19513995

  6. Actin polymerization machinery: the finish line of signaling networks, the starting point of cellular movement.

    PubMed

    Disanza, A; Steffen, A; Hertzog, M; Frittoli, E; Rottner, K; Scita, G

    2005-05-01

    Dynamic assembly of actin filaments generates the forces supporting cell motility. Several recent biochemical and genetic studies have revealed a plethora of different actin binding proteins whose coordinated activity regulates the turnover of actin filaments, thus controlling a variety of actin-based processes, including cell migration. Additionally, emerging evidence is highlighting a scenario whereby the same basic set of actin regulatory proteins is also the convergent node of different signaling pathways emanating from extracellular stimuli, like those from receptor tyrosine kinases. Here, we will focus on the molecular mechanisms of how the machinery of actin polymerization functions and is regulated, in a signaling-dependent mode, to generate site-directed actin assembly leading to cell motility.

  7. In vitro expression of the alpha-smooth muscle actin isoform by rat lung mesenchymal cells: regulation by culture condition and transforming growth factor-beta.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, J J; Woodcock-Mitchell, J L; Perry, L; Zhao, J; Low, R B; Baldor, L; Absher, P M

    1993-07-01

    alpha-Smooth muscle actin (alpha SM actin)-containing cells recently have been demonstrated in intraalveolar lesions in both rat and human tissues following lung injury. In order to develop model systems for the study of such cells, we examined cultured lung cell lines for this phenotype. The adult rat lung fibroblast-like "RL" cell lines were found to express alpha SM actin mRNA and protein and to organize this actin into stress fiber-like structures. Immunocytochemical staining of subclones of the RL87 line demonstrated the presence in the cultures of at least four cell phenotypes, one that fails to express alpha SM actin and three distinct morphologic types that do express alpha SM actin. The proportion of cellular actin that is the alpha-isoform was modulated by the culture conditions. RL cells growing at low density expressed minimal alpha SM actin. On reaching confluent densities, however, alpha SM actin increased to at least 20% of the total actin content. This effect, combined with the observation that the most immunoreactive cells were those that displayed overlapping cell processes in culture, suggests that cell-cell contact may be involved in actin isoform regulation in these cells. Similar to the response of some smooth muscle cell lines, alpha SM actin expression in RL cells also was promoted by conditions, e.g., maintenance in low serum medium, which minimize cell division. alpha SM actin expression was modulated in RL cells by the growth factor transforming growth factor-beta. Addition of this cytokine to growing cells substantially elevated the proportion of alpha SM actin protein.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  8. Nckβ Adapter Regulates Actin Polymerization in NIH 3T3 Fibroblasts in Response to Platelet-Derived Growth Factor bb

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Min; She, Hongyun; Kim, Airie; Woodley, David T.; Li, Wei

    2000-01-01

    The SH3-SH3-SH3-SH2 adapter Nck represents a two-gene family that includes Nckα (Nck) and Nckβ (Grb4/Nck2), and it links receptor tyrosine kinases to intracellular signaling networks. The function of these mammalian Nck genes has not been established. We report here a specific role for Nckβ in platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-induced actin polymerization in NIH 3T3 cells. Overexpression of Nckβ but not Nckα blocks PDGF-stimulated membrane ruffling and formation of lamellipoda. Mutation in either the SH2 or the middle SH3 domain of Nckβ abolishes its interfering effect. Nckβ binds at Tyr-1009 in human PDGF receptor β (PDGFR-β) which is different from Nckα's binding site, Tyr-751, and does not compete with phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase for binding to PDGFR. Microinjection of an anti-Nckβ but not an anti-Nckα antibody inhibits PDGF-stimulated actin polymerization. Constitutively membrane-bound Nckβ but not Nckα blocks Rac1-L62-induced membrane ruffling and formation of lamellipodia, suggesting that Nckβ acts in parallel to or downstream of Rac1. This is the first report of Nckβ's role in receptor tyrosine kinase signaling to the actin cytoskeleton. PMID:11027258

  9. Time-resolved studies of actin organization by multivalent ions and actin-binding proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwee Lai, Ghee; Purdy, Kirstin; Bartles, James R.; Chee Lai Wong, Gerard

    2007-03-01

    Actin is one of the principal components in the eukaryotic cytoskeleton, the architecture of which is highly regulated for a wide range of biological functions. In the presence of multivalent salts or actin-binding proteins, it is known that F-actin can organize into bundles or networks. In this work, we use time-resolved confocal microscopy to study the dynamics of actin bundle growth induced by multivalent ions and by espin, a prototypical actin binding protein that is known to induce bundles. For divalent ion induced bundles, we observe a rapid lateral saturation followed by longitudinal growth of bundles, in sharp contrast to the bundling mechanism of espin, which favors finite length bundles.

  10. Gas7b (growth arrest specific protein 7b) regulates neuronal cell morphology by enhancing microtubule and actin filament assembly.

    PubMed

    Gotoh, Aina; Hidaka, Masafumi; Hirose, Keiko; Uchida, Takafumi

    2013-11-29

    Neurons undergo several morphological changes as a part of normal neuron maturation process. Alzheimer disease is associated with increased neuroproliferation and impaired neuronal maturation. In this study, we demonstrated that Gas7b (growth arrest specific protein 7b) expression in a neuronal cell line, Neuro 2A, induces cell maturation by facilitating formation of dendrite-like processes and/or filopodia projections and that Gas7b co-localizes with neurite microtubules. Molecular analysis was performed to evaluate whether Gas7b associates with actin filaments and microtubules, and the data revealed two novel roles of Gas7b in neurite outgrowth: we showed that Gas7b enhances bundling of several microtubule filaments and connects microtubules with actin filaments. These results suggest that Gas7b governs neural cell morphogenesis by enhancing the coordination between actin filaments and microtubules. We conclude that lower neuronal Gas7b levels may impact Alzheimer disease progression.

  11. Nuclei migrate through constricted spaces using microtubule motors and actin networks in C. elegans hypodermal cells.

    PubMed

    Bone, Courtney R; Chang, Yu-Tai; Cain, Natalie E; Murphy, Shaun P; Starr, Daniel A

    2016-11-15

    Cellular migrations through constricted spaces are a crucial aspect of many developmental and disease processes including hematopoiesis, inflammation and metastasis. A limiting factor in these events is nuclear deformation. Here, we establish an in vivo model in which nuclei can be visualized while moving through constrictions and use it to elucidate mechanisms for nuclear migration. C. elegans hypodermal P-cell larval nuclei traverse a narrow space that is about 5% their width. This constriction is blocked by fibrous organelles, structures that pass through P cells to connect the muscles to cuticle. Fibrous organelles are removed just prior to nuclear migration, when nuclei and lamins undergo extreme morphological changes to squeeze through the space. Both actin and microtubule networks are organized to mediate nuclear migration. The LINC complex, consisting of the SUN protein UNC-84 and the KASH protein UNC-83, recruits dynein and kinesin-1 to the nuclear surface. Both motors function in P-cell nuclear migration, but dynein, functioning through UNC-83, plays a more central role as nuclei migrate towards minus ends of polarized microtubule networks. Thus, the nucleoskeleton and cytoskeleton are coordinated to move nuclei through constricted spaces.

  12. Connective tissue growth factor modulates podocyte actin cytoskeleton and extracellular matrix synthesis and is induced in podocytes upon injury.

    PubMed

    Fuchshofer, Rudolf; Ullmann, Sabrina; Zeilbeck, Ludwig F; Baumann, Matti; Junglas, Benjamin; Tamm, Ernst R

    2011-09-01

    Structural changes of podocytes and retraction of their foot processes are a critical factor in the pathogenesis of minimal change nephritis and glomerulosclerosis. Here we tested, if connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) is involved in podocyte injury during acute and chronic puromycin aminonucleoside nephrosis (PAN) as animal models of minimal change nephritis, and focal segmental glomerulosclerosis, respectively. Rats were treated once (acute PAN) or for 13 weeks (chronic PAN). In both experimental conditions, CTGF and its mRNA were found to be highly upregulated in podocytes. The upregulation correlated with onset and duration of proteinuria in acute PAN, and glomerulosclerosis and high expression of glomerular fibronectin, and collagens I, III, and IV in chronic PAN. In vitro, treatment of podocytes with recombinant CTGF increased amount and density of actin stress fibers, the expression of actin-associated molecules such as podocalyxin, synaptopodin, ezrin, and actinin-4, and activation of focal adhesion kinase (FAK) and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK). Moreover, we observed increased podocyte expression of mRNA for transforming growth factor (TGF)-β2, TGF-β receptor II, fibronectin, and collagens I, III, and IV. Treatment of cultured podocytes with puromycin aminonucleoside resulted in loss of actin stress fibers and cell death, effects that were partially prevented when CTGF was added to the culture medium. Depletion of CTGF mRNA in cultured podocytes by RNA interference reduced both the number of actin stress fibers and the expression of actin-associated molecules. We propose that the expression of CTGF is acutely upregulated in podocytes as part of a cellular attempt to repair structural changes of the actin cytoskeleton. When the damaging effects on podocyte structure and function persist chronically, continuous CTGF expression in podocytes is a critical factor that promotes progressive accumulation of glomerular extracellular matrix and

  13. Transforming growth factor-beta 1 induces alpha-smooth muscle actin expression in granulation tissue myofibroblasts and in quiescent and growing cultured fibroblasts

    PubMed Central

    1993-01-01

    Granulation tissue fibroblasts (myofibroblasts) develop several ultrastructural and biochemical features of smooth muscle (SM) cells, including the presence of microfilament bundles and the expression of alpha-SM actin, the actin isoform typical of vascular SM cells. Myofibroblasts have been proposed to play a role in wound contraction and in retractile phenomena observed during fibrotic diseases. We show here that the subcutaneous administration of transforming growth factor- beta 1 (TGF beta 1) to rats results in the formation of a granulation tissue in which alpha-SM actin expressing myofibroblasts are particularly abundant. Other cytokines and growth factors, such as platelet-derived growth factor and tumor necrosis factor-alpha, despite their profibrotic activity, do not induce alpha-SM actin in myofibroblasts. In situ hybridization with an alpha-SM actin probe shows a high level of alpha-SM actin mRNA expression in myofibroblasts of TGF beta 1-induced granulation tissue. Moreover, TGF beta 1 induces alpha-SM actin protein and mRNA expression in growing and quiescent cultured fibroblasts and preincubation of culture medium containing whole blood serum with neutralizing antibodies to TGF beta 1 results in a decrease of alpha-SM actin expression by fibroblasts in replicative and non-replicative conditions. These results suggest that TGF beta 1 plays an important role in myofibroblast differentiation during wound healing and fibrocontractive diseases by regulating the expression of alpha-SM actin in these cells. PMID:8314838

  14. Network growth models and genetic regulatory networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foster, D. V.; Kauffman, S. A.; Socolar, J. E. S.

    2006-03-01

    We study a class of growth algorithms for directed graphs that are candidate models for the evolution of genetic regulatory networks. The algorithms involve partial duplication of nodes and their links, together with the innovation of new links, allowing for the possibility that input and output links from a newly created node may have different probabilities of survival. We find some counterintuitive trends as the parameters are varied, including the broadening of the in-degree distribution when the probability for retaining input links is decreased. We also find that both the scaling of transcription factors with genome size and the measured degree distributions for genes in yeast can be reproduced by the growth algorithm if and only if a special seed is used to initiate the process.

  15. Network growth models and genetic regulatory networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Socolar, Joshua; Foster, David; Kauffman, Stuart

    2006-03-01

    We study a class of growth algorithms for directed graphs that are candidate models for the evolution of genetic regulatory networks. The algorithms involve partial duplication of nodes and their links, together with innovation of new links, allowing for the possibility that input and output links from a newly created node may have different probabilities of survival. We find some counterintuitive trends as parameters are varied, including the broadening of indegree distribution when the probability for retaining input links is decreased. We also find that both the scaling of transcription factors with genome size and the measured degree distributions for genes in yeast can be reproduced by the growth algorithm if and only if a special seed is used to initiate the process.

  16. Directed actin assembly and motility.

    PubMed

    Boujemaa-Paterski, Rajaa; Galland, Rémi; Suarez, Cristian; Guérin, Christophe; Théry, Manuel; Blanchoin, Laurent

    2014-01-01

    The actin cytoskeleton is a key component of the cellular architecture. However, understanding actin organization and dynamics in vivo is a complex challenge. Reconstitution of actin structures in vitro, in simplified media, allows one to pinpoint the cellular biochemical components and their molecular interactions underlying the architecture and dynamics of the actin network. Previously, little was known about the extent to which geometrical constraints influence the dynamic ultrastructure of these networks. Therefore, in order to study the balance between biochemical and geometrical control of complex actin organization, we used the innovative methodologies of UV and laser patterning to design a wide repertoire of nucleation geometries from which we assembled branched actin networks. Using these methods, we were able to reconstitute complex actin network organizations, closely related to cellular architecture, to precisely direct and control their 3D connections. This methodology mimics the actin networks encountered in cells and can serve in the fabrication of innovative bioinspired systems.

  17. Networks Models of Actin Dynamics during Spermatozoa Postejaculatory Life: A Comparison among Human-Made and Text Mining-Based Models.

    PubMed

    Bernabò, Nicola; Ordinelli, Alessandra; Ramal Sanchez, Marina; Mattioli, Mauro; Barboni, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    Here we realized a networks-based model representing the process of actin remodelling that occurs during the acquisition of fertilizing ability of human spermatozoa (HumanMade_ActinSpermNetwork, HM_ASN). Then, we compared it with the networks provided by two different text mining tools: Agilent Literature Search (ALS) and PESCADOR. As a reference, we used the data from the online repository Kyoto Encyclopaedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG), referred to the actin dynamics in a more general biological context. We found that HM_ALS and the networks from KEGG data shared the same scale-free topology following the Barabasi-Albert model, thus suggesting that the information is spread within the network quickly and efficiently. On the contrary, the networks obtained by ALS and PESCADOR have a scale-free hierarchical architecture, which implies a different pattern of information transmission. Also, the hubs identified within the networks are different: HM_ALS and KEGG networks contain as hubs several molecules known to be involved in actin signalling; ALS was unable to find other hubs than "actin," whereas PESCADOR gave some nonspecific result. This seems to suggest that the human-made information retrieval in the case of a specific event, such as actin dynamics in human spermatozoa, could be a reliable strategy.

  18. Networks Models of Actin Dynamics during Spermatozoa Postejaculatory Life: A Comparison among Human-Made and Text Mining-Based Models

    PubMed Central

    Ordinelli, Alessandra; Ramal Sanchez, Marina; Mattioli, Mauro; Barboni, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    Here we realized a networks-based model representing the process of actin remodelling that occurs during the acquisition of fertilizing ability of human spermatozoa (HumanMade_ActinSpermNetwork, HM_ASN). Then, we compared it with the networks provided by two different text mining tools: Agilent Literature Search (ALS) and PESCADOR. As a reference, we used the data from the online repository Kyoto Encyclopaedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG), referred to the actin dynamics in a more general biological context. We found that HM_ALS and the networks from KEGG data shared the same scale-free topology following the Barabasi-Albert model, thus suggesting that the information is spread within the network quickly and efficiently. On the contrary, the networks obtained by ALS and PESCADOR have a scale-free hierarchical architecture, which implies a different pattern of information transmission. Also, the hubs identified within the networks are different: HM_ALS and KEGG networks contain as hubs several molecules known to be involved in actin signalling; ALS was unable to find other hubs than “actin,” whereas PESCADOR gave some nonspecific result. This seems to suggest that the human-made information retrieval in the case of a specific event, such as actin dynamics in human spermatozoa, could be a reliable strategy. PMID:27642606

  19. MAP18 Regulates the Direction of Pollen Tube Growth in Arabidopsis by Modulating F-Actin Organization[C][W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Lei; Zhang, Yan; Kang, Erfang; Xu, Qiangyi; Wang, Miaoying; Rui, Yue; Liu, Baoquan; Yuan, Ming; Fu, Ying

    2013-01-01

    For fertilization to occur in plants, the pollen tube must be guided to enter the ovule via the micropyle. Previous reports have implicated actin filaments, actin binding proteins, and the tip-focused calcium gradient as key contributors to polar growth of pollen tubes; however, the regulation of directional pollen tube growth is largely unknown. We reported previously that Arabidopsis thaliana MICROTUBULE-ASSOCIATED PROTEIN18 (MAP18) contributes to directional cell growth and cortical microtubule organization. The preferential expression of MAP18 in pollen and in pollen tubes suggests that MAP18 also may function in pollen tube growth. In this study, we demonstrate that MAP18 functions in pollen tubes by influencing actin organization, rather than microtubule assembly. In vitro biochemical results indicate that MAP18 exhibits Ca2+-dependent filamentous (F)-actin-severing activity. Abnormal expression of MAP18 in map18 and MAP18 OX plants was associated with disorganization of the actin cytoskeleton in the tube apex, resulting in aberrant pollen tube growth patterns and morphologies, inaccurate micropyle targeting, and fewer fertilization events. Experiments with MAP18 mutants created by site-directed mutagenesis suggest that F-actin-severing activity is essential to the effects of MAP18 on pollen tube growth direction. Our study demonstrates that in Arabidopsis, MAP18 guides the direction of pollen tube growth by modulating actin filaments. PMID:23463774

  20. Sequential interaction of actin-related proteins 2 and 3 (Arp2/3) complex with neural Wiscott-Aldrich syndrome protein (N-WASP) and cortactin during branched actin filament network formation.

    PubMed

    Uruno, Takehito; Liu, Jiali; Li, Yansong; Smith, Nicole; Zhan, Xi

    2003-07-11

    The WASP and cortactin families constitute two distinct classes of Arp2/3 modulators in mammalian cells. Physical and functional interactions among the Arp2/3 complex, VCA (a functional domain of N-WASP), and cortactin were examined under conditions that were with or without actin polymerization. In the absence of actin, cortactin binds significantly weaker to the Arp2/3 complex than VCA. At concentrations of VCA 20-fold lower than cortactin, the association of cortactin with the Arp2/3 complex was nearly abolished. Analysis of the cells infected with Shigella demonstrated that N-WASP located at the tip of the bacterium, whereas cortactin accumulated in the comet tail. Interestingly, cortactin promotes Arp2/3 complex-mediated actin polymerization and actin branching in the presence of VCA at a saturating concentration, and cortactin acquired 20 nm affinity for the Arp2/3 complex during actin polymerization. The interaction of VCA with the Arp2/3 complex was reduced in the presence of both cortactin and actin. Moreover, VCA reduced its affinity for Arp2/3 complex at branching sites that were stabilized by phalloidin. These data imply a novel mechanism for the de novo assembly of a branched actin network that involves a coordinated sequential interaction of N-WASP and cortactin with the Arp2/3 complex.

  1. Reversible mechano-memory in sheared cross-linked actin networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majumdar, Sayantan; Gardel, Margaret L.

    2015-03-01

    Is it possible to control the shear modulus of a material mechanically? We reconstitute a network of actin filaments cross-linked with Filamin A and show that the system has remarkable property to respond under shear in a deformation history dependent manner. When a large shear stress pulse is applied to the system, the system remembers the direction of deformation long after the stress pulse is removed. For the next loading cycle, shear response of the system becomes anisotropic; if the applied pulse direction is same as the previous one, the system behaves like a viscoelastic solid but a transient liquefaction is observed if the pulse direction is reversed. Imaging and normal force measurements under shear suggest that this anisotropic response comes from stretching and bending dominated deformation directions induced by the large shear deformation giving rise to a direction dependent mechano-memory. The long time scale over which the memory effect persists has relevance in various deformations in cellular and multicellular systems. S.M. acknowledges support from a Kadanoff-Rice Post Doctoral fellowship from MRSEC, University of Chicago.

  2. Ganglioside GD3 monoclonal antibody-induced paxillin tyrosine phosphorylation and filamentous actin assembly in cerebellar growth cones.

    PubMed

    Yuyama, Kohei; Sekino-Suzuki, Naoko; Yamamoto, Naomasa; Kasahara, Kohji

    2011-03-01

    We have demonstrated that antibody to ganglioside GD3 (R24) immunoprecipitates src-family tyrosine kinase Lyn from primary cerebellar granule cells and R24 treatment of the intact cells induces Lyn activation and rapid tyrosine phosphorylation of several substrates, suggesting the functional association of ganglioside GD3 with Lyn. In this study, R24 treatment of primary cerebellar granule cells enhances phosphorylation of paxillin at tyrosine residue 118 and induces filamentous actin assembly and neurite outgrowth. R24 treatment of cerebellar growth cone membrane fraction induces prominent tyrosine phosphorylation of 68 kDa protein which comigrates with phosphopaxillin at tyrosine residue 118. Tyrosine phosphorylation of paxillin is known to regulate actin cytoskeleton-dependent changes in cell morphology. Signal transduction by ganglioside GD3 is involved in growth cone morphology via tyrosine phosphorylation of paxillin. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Neurochemistry © 2011 International Society for Neurochemistry.

  3. Requirement of Nck adaptors for actin dynamics and cell migration stimulated by platelet-derived growth factor B.

    PubMed

    Rivera, G M; Antoku, S; Gelkop, S; Shin, N Y; Hanks, S K; Pawson, T; Mayer, B J

    2006-06-20

    The Nck family of Src homology (SH) 2/SH3 domain adaptors functions to link tyrosine phosphorylation induced by extracellular signals with downstream regulators of actin dynamics. We investigated the role of mammalian Nck adaptors in signaling from the activated platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) receptor (PDGFbetaR) to the actin cytoskeleton. We report here that Nck adaptors are required for cytoskeletal reorganization and chemotaxis stimulated by PDGF-B. Analysis of tyrosine-phosphorylated proteins demonstrated that Crk-associated substrate (p130(Cas)), not the activated PDGFbetaR itself, is the major Nck SH2 domain-binding protein in PDGF-B-stimulated cells. Both Nck- and p130(Cas)-deficient cells fail to display cytoskeletal rearrangements, including the formation of membrane ruffles and the disassembly of actin bundles, typically shown by their WT counterparts in response to PDGF-B. Furthermore, Nck and p130(Cas) colocalize in phosphotyrosine-enriched membrane ruffles induced by PDGF-B in NIH 3T3 cells. These results suggest that Nck adaptors play an essential role in linking the activated PDGFbetaR with actin dynamics through a pathway that involves p130(Cas).

  4. The Apical Actin Fringe Contributes to Localized Cell Wall Deposition and Polarized Growth in the Lily Pollen Tube1[W][OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Rounds, Caleb M.; Hepler, Peter K.; Winship, Lawrence J.

    2014-01-01

    In lily (Lilium formosanum) pollen tubes, pectin, a major component of the cell wall, is delivered through regulated exocytosis. The targeted transport and secretion of the pectin-containing vesicles may be controlled by the cortical actin fringe at the pollen tube apex. Here, we address the role of the actin fringe using three different inhibitors of growth: brefeldin A, latrunculin B, and potassium cyanide. Brefeldin A blocks membrane trafficking and inhibits exocytosis in pollen tubes; it also leads to the degradation of the actin fringe and the formation of an aggregate of filamentous actin at the base of the clear zone. Latrunculin B, which depolymerizes filamentous actin, markedly slows growth but allows focused pectin deposition to continue. Of note, the locus of deposition shifts frequently and correlates with changes in the direction of growth. Finally, potassium cyanide, an electron transport chain inhibitor, briefly stops growth while causing the actin fringe to completely disappear. Pectin deposition continues but lacks focus, instead being delivered in a wide arc across the pollen tube tip. These data support a model in which the actin fringe contributes to the focused secretion of pectin to the apical cell wall and, thus, to the polarized growth of the pollen tube. PMID:25037212

  5. The Arabidopsis Wave Complex: Mechanisms Of Localized Actin Polymerization And Growth

    SciTech Connect

    Daniel Szymanski

    2012-10-23

    The objective of this project was to discover the protein complexes and control mechanisms that determine the location of actin filament roadways in plant cells. Our work provided the first molecular description of protein complexes that are converted from inactive complexes to active actin filament nucleators in the cell. These discoveries provided a conceptual framework to control to roadways in plant cells that determine the location and delivery of plant metabolites and storage molecules that are relevant to the bioenergy economy.

  6. The actin network in the ciliary stalk of photoreceptors functions in the generation of new outer segment discs.

    PubMed

    Hale, I L; Fisher, S K; Matsumoto, B

    1996-12-02

    Cytochalasin D (CD) interferes with the morphogenesis of outer segment disc membrane in photoreceptors. Disruption of either the actin network in the ciliary stalk, where membrane evagination is initiated, or the actin core of the calycal processes, whose position could define the disc perimeter, could be responsible. We have attempted to determine which of these local F-actin populations is involved in membrane morphogenesis and what step in the process is actin-dependent. Biocytin accumulation in nascent discs, detected by fluorescent avidin and laser scanning confocal microscopy (LSCM), provided a means of labeling abnormal discs and a measure of disc membrane addition. F-actin content and distribution were assessed using fluorescent phalloidin and LSCM. First, we examined the effects of a range of CD dosages (0.1, 1.0, or 10.0 microM) on rod photoreceptors in Xenopus laevis eyecup cultures. Ectopic outgrowth of discs, evaluated by LSCM and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), occurred at each concentration. Phalloidin labeling intensified in the ciliary stalk with increasing CD concentration, indicating F-actin aggregation. In contrast, it diminished in the calycal processes, indicating dispersal; TEM showed that calycal process collapse ensued. Disruption was evident at a lower concentration in the ciliary stalk (0.1 microM) than in the calycal processes (1.0 microM). TEM confirmed that the calycal processes remained intact at 0.1 microM. Thus, CD's action on the ciliary stalk network is sufficient to disrupt disc morphogenesis. Second, we examined the effect of CD on temperature-induced acceleration of the rate of disc formation. In the absence of CD, a 10 degrees C temperature shift increased the disc formation rate nearly three-fold. CD (5 microM) caused a 94% inhibition (P < 0.025) of this response; yet, the rate of membrane addition to ectopically growing discs exhibited the expected three-fold increase. Thus, CD's action interferes with the generation

  7. Capping protein regulatory cycle driven by CARMIL and V-1 may promote actin network assembly at protruding edges.

    PubMed

    Fujiwara, Ikuko; Remmert, Kirsten; Piszczek, Grzegorz; Hammer, John A

    2014-05-13

    Although capping protein (CP) terminates actin filament elongation, it promotes Arp2/3-dependent actin network assembly and accelerates actin-based motility both in vitro and in vivo. In vitro, capping protein Arp2/3 myosin I linker (CARMIL) antagonizes CP by reducing its affinity for the barbed end and by uncapping CP-capped filaments, whereas the protein V-1/myotrophin sequesters CP in an inactive complex. Previous work showed that CARMIL can readily retrieve CP from the CP:V-1 complex, thereby converting inactive CP into a version with moderate affinity for the barbed end. Here we further clarify the mechanism of this exchange reaction, and we demonstrate that the CP:CARMIL complex created by complex exchange slows the rate of barbed-end elongation by rapidly associating with, and dissociating from, the barbed end. Importantly, the cellular concentrations of V-1 and CP determined here argue that most CP is sequestered by V-1 at steady state in vivo. Finally, we show that CARMIL is recruited to the plasma membrane and only at cell edges undergoing active protrusion. Assuming that CARMIL is active only at this location, our data argue that a large pool of freely diffusing, inactive CP (CP:V-1) feeds, via CARMIL-driven complex exchange, the formation of weak-capping complexes (CP:CARMIL) at the plasma membrane of protruding edges. In vivo, therefore, CARMIL should promote Arp2/3-dependent actin network assembly at the leading edge by promoting barbed-end capping there.

  8. Capping protein regulatory cycle driven by CARMIL and V-1 may promote actin network assembly at protruding edges

    PubMed Central

    Fujiwara, Ikuko; Remmert, Kirsten; Piszczek, Grzegorz; Hammer, John A.

    2014-01-01

    Although capping protein (CP) terminates actin filament elongation, it promotes Arp2/3-dependent actin network assembly and accelerates actin-based motility both in vitro and in vivo. In vitro, capping protein Arp2/3 myosin I linker (CARMIL) antagonizes CP by reducing its affinity for the barbed end and by uncapping CP-capped filaments, whereas the protein V-1/myotrophin sequesters CP in an inactive complex. Previous work showed that CARMIL can readily retrieve CP from the CP:V-1 complex, thereby converting inactive CP into a version with moderate affinity for the barbed end. Here we further clarify the mechanism of this exchange reaction, and we demonstrate that the CP:CARMIL complex created by complex exchange slows the rate of barbed-end elongation by rapidly associating with, and dissociating from, the barbed end. Importantly, the cellular concentrations of V-1 and CP determined here argue that most CP is sequestered by V-1 at steady state in vivo. Finally, we show that CARMIL is recruited to the plasma membrane and only at cell edges undergoing active protrusion. Assuming that CARMIL is active only at this location, our data argue that a large pool of freely diffusing, inactive CP (CP:V-1) feeds, via CARMIL-driven complex exchange, the formation of weak-capping complexes (CP:CARMIL) at the plasma membrane of protruding edges. In vivo, therefore, CARMIL should promote Arp2/3-dependent actin network assembly at the leading edge by promoting barbed-end capping there. PMID:24778263

  9. CRMP-5 interacts with actin to regulate neurite outgrowth

    PubMed Central

    GONG, XIAOBING; TAN, MINGHUI; GAO, YUAN; CHEN, KEEN; GUO, GUOQING

    2016-01-01

    CRMP family proteins (CRMPs) are abundantly expressed in the developing nervous system mediating growth cone guidance, neuronal polarity and axon elongation. CRMP-5 has been indicated to serve a critical role in neurite outgrowth. However, the detailed mechanisms of how CRMP-5 regulates neurite outgrowth remain unclear. In the current study, co-immunoprecipitation was used to identify the fact that CRMP-5 interacted with the actin and tubulin cytoskeleton networks in the growth cones of developing hippocampal neurons. CRMP-5 exhibited increased affinity towards actin when compared with microtubules. Immunocytochemistry was used to identify the fact that CRMP-5 colocalized with actin predominantly in the C-domain and T-zone in growth cones. In addition, genetic inhibition of CRMP-5 by siRNA suppressed the expression of actin, growth cone development and neurite outgrowth. Overexpression of CRMP-5 promoted the interaction with actin, growth cone development and hippocampal neurite outgrowth. Taken together, these data suggest that CRMP-5 is able to interact with the actin cytoskeleton network in the growth cone and affect growth cone development and neurite outgrowth via this interaction in developing hippocampal neurons. PMID:26677106

  10. TGFβ2 Induces the Formation of Cross-Linked Actin Networks (CLANs) in Human Trabecular Meshwork Cells Through the Smad and Non-Smad Dependent Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Montecchi-Palmer, Michela; Bermudez, Jaclyn Y.; Webber, Hannah C.; Patel, Gaurang C.; Clark, Abbot F.; Mao, Weiming

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Increased intraocular pressure results from increased aqueous humor (AH) outflow resistance at the trabecular meshwork (TM) due to pathologic changes including the formation of cross-linked actin networks (CLANs). Transforming growth factor β2 (TGFβ2) is elevated in the AH and TM of primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) patients and induces POAG-associated TM changes, including CLANs. We determined the role of individual TGFβ2 signaling pathways in CLAN formation. Methods Cultured nonglaucomatous human TM (NTM) cells were treated with control or TGFβ2, with or without the inhibitors of TGFβ receptor, Smad3, c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNK), extracellular signal regulated kinase (ERK), P38, or Rho-associated protein kinase (ROCK). NTM cells were cotreated with TGFβ2 plus inhibitors for 10 days or pretreated with TGFβ2 for 10 days followed by 1-hour inhibitor treatment. NTM cells were immunostained with phalloidin-Alexa-488 and 4′,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI). Data were analyzed using 1-way ANOVA and Dunnett's post hoc test. Results TGFβ2 significantly induced CLAN formation (n = 6 to 12, P < 0.05), which was completely inhibited by TGFβ receptor, Smad3, and ERK inhibitors, as well as completely or partially inhibited by JNK, P38, and ROCK inhibitors, depending on cell strains. One-hour exposure to ROCK inhibitor completely resolved formed CLANs (P < 0.05), whereas TGFβ receptor, Smad3 inhibitor, and ERK inhibitors resulted in partial or complete resolution. The JNK and P38 inhibitors showed partial or no resolution. Among these inhibitors, the ROCK inhibitor was the most disruptive to the actin stress fibers, whereas ERK inhibition showed the least disruption. Conclusions TGFβ2-induced CLANs in NTM cells were prevented and resolved using various pathway inhibitors. Apart from CLAN inhibition, some of these inhibitors also had different effects on actin stress fibers. PMID:28241317

  11. Distribution of GAP-43, beta-III tubulin and F-actin in developing and regenerating axons and their growth cones in vitro, following neurotrophin treatment.

    PubMed

    Avwenagha, Ovokeloye; Campbell, Gregor; Bird, Margaret M

    2003-11-01

    Brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) when added to explant cultures of both embryonic and adult retinal ganglion cell (RGC) axons exerted a marked effect on their growth cone size and complexity and also on the intensity of GAP-43, beta-III tubulin and F-actin immunoreaction product in their axons. GAP-43 was distributed in axons, lamellipodia, and filopodia whereas beta-III tubulin was distributed along the length of developing and adult regenerating axons and also in the C-domain of their growth cones. BDNF-treated developing RGC growth cones were larger and displayed increased numbers of GAP-43 and microtubule-containing branches. Although filopodia and lamellipodia were lost from both developing and adult RGC growth cones following trkB-IgG treatment, the intensity of the immunoreaction product of all these molecules was reduced and trkB-IgGs had no effect on the axonal distribution of betas-III tubulin and GAP-43. BDNF-treated growth cones also displayed increased numbers of F-actin containing filopodia and axonal protrusions. This study demonstrates, for the first time, that trkB-IgG treatment causes the loss of F-actin in the P-domain of growth cone tips in developing and regenerating RGC axons. Although microtubules and F-actin domains normally remained distinct in cultured growth cones, beta-III tubulin and F-actin overlapped within the growth cone C-domain, and within axonal protrusions of adult RGC axons, under higher concentrations of BDNF. The collapse of RGC growth cones appeared to correlate with the loss of F-actin. In vitro, trkB signalling may therefore be involved in the maintenance and stabilisation of RGC axons, by influencing F-actin polymerisation, stabilisation and distribution.

  12. Microtubules Modulate F-actin Dynamics during Neuronal Polarization.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Bing; Meka, Durga Praveen; Scharrenberg, Robin; König, Theresa; Schwanke, Birgit; Kobler, Oliver; Windhorst, Sabine; Kreutz, Michael R; Mikhaylova, Marina; Calderon de Anda, Froylan

    2017-08-29

    Neuronal polarization is reflected by different dynamics of microtubule and filamentous actin (F-actin). Axonal microtubules are more stable than those in the remaining neurites, while dynamics of F-actin in axonal growth cones clearly exceed those in their dendritic counterparts. However, whether a functional interplay exists between the microtubule network and F-actin dynamics in growing axons and whether this interplay is instrumental for breaking cellular symmetry is currently unknown. Here, we show that an increment on microtubule stability or number of microtubules is associated with increased F-actin dynamics. Moreover, we show that Drebrin E, an F-actin and microtubule plus-end binding protein, mediates this cross talk. Drebrin E segregates preferentially to growth cones with a higher F-actin treadmilling rate, where more microtubule plus-ends are found. Interruption of the interaction of Drebrin E with microtubules decreases F-actin dynamics and arrests neuronal polarization. Collectively the data show that microtubules modulate F-actin dynamics for initial axon extension during neuronal development.

  13. Nucleocapsid of Tomato spotted wilt tospovirus forms mobile particles that traffic on an actin/endoplasmic reticulum network driven by myosin XI-K.

    PubMed

    Feng, Zhike; Chen, Xiaojiao; Bao, Yiqun; Dong, Jiahong; Zhang, Zhongkai; Tao, Xiaorong

    2013-12-01

    A number of viral proteins from plant viruses, other than movement proteins, have been shown to traffic intracellularly along actin filaments and to be involved in viral infection. However, there has been no report that a viral capsid protein may traffic within a cell by utilizing the actin/endoplasmic reticulum (ER) network. We used Tomato spotted wilt tospovirus (TSWV) as a model virus to study the cell biological properties of a nucleocapsid (N) protein. We found that TSWV N protein was capable of forming highly motile cytoplasmic inclusions that moved along the ER and actin network. The disruption of actin filaments by latrunculin B, an actin-depolymerizing agent, almost stopped the intracellular movement of N inclusions, whereas treatment with a microtubule-depolymerizing reagent, oryzalin, did not. The over-expression of a myosin XI-K tail, functioning in a dominant-negative manner, completely halted the movement of N inclusions. Latrunculin B treatment strongly inhibited the formation of TSWV local lesions in Nicotiana tabacum cv Samsun NN and delayed systemic infection in N. benthamiana. Collectively, our findings provide the first evidence that the capsid protein of a plant virus has the novel property of intracellular trafficking. The findings add capsid protein as a new class of viral protein that traffics on the actin/ER system.

  14. Axonal actin in action: Imaging actin dynamics in neurons.

    PubMed

    Ladt, Kelsey; Ganguly, Archan; Roy, Subhojit

    2016-01-01

    Actin is a highly conserved, key cytoskeletal protein involved in numerous structural and functional roles. In neurons, actin has been intensively investigated in axon terminals-growth cones-and dendritic spines, but details about actin structure and dynamics in axon shafts have remained obscure for decades. A major barrier in the field has been imaging actin. Actin exists as soluble monomers (G-actin) as well as actin filaments (F-actin), and labeling actin with conventional fluorescent probes like GFP/RFP typically leads to a diffuse haze that makes it difficult to discern kinetic behaviors. In a recent publication, we used F-actin selective probes to visualize actin dynamics in axons, resolving striking actin behaviors that have not been described before. However, using these probes to visualize actin dynamics is challenging as they can cause bundling of actin filaments; thus, experimental parameters need to be strictly optimized. Here we describe some practical methodological details related to using these probes for visualizing F-actin dynamics in axons.

  15. Combinatorial genetic analysis of a network of actin disassembly‐promoting factors

    PubMed Central

    Ydenberg, Casey A.; Johnston, Adam; Weinstein, Jaclyn; Bellavance, Danielle; Jansen, Silvia

    2015-01-01

    The patterning of actin cytoskeleton structures in vivo is a product of spatially and temporally regulated polymer assembly balanced by polymer disassembly. While in recent years our understanding of actin assembly mechanisms has grown immensely, our knowledge of actin disassembly machinery and mechanisms has remained comparatively sparse. Saccharomyces cerevisiae is an ideal system to tackle this problem, both because of its amenabilities to genetic manipulation and live‐cell imaging and because only a single gene encodes each of the core disassembly factors: cofilin (COF1), Srv2/CAP (SRV2), Aip1 (AIP1), GMF (GMF1/AIM7), coronin (CRN1), and twinfilin (TWF1). Among these six factors, only the functions of cofilin are essential and have been well defined. Here, we investigated the functions of the nonessential actin disassembly factors by performing genetic and live‐cell imaging analyses on a combinatorial set of isogenic single, double, triple, and quadruple mutants in S. cerevisiae. Our results show that each disassembly factor makes an important contribution to cell viability, actin organization, and endocytosis. Further, our data reveal new relationships among these factors, providing insights into how they work together to orchestrate actin turnover. Finally, we observe specific combinations of mutations that are lethal, e.g., srv2Δ aip1Δ and srv2Δ crn1Δ twf1Δ, demonstrating that while cofilin is essential, it is not sufficient in vivo, and that combinations of the other disassembly factors perform vital functions. © 2015 The Authors. Cytoskeleton Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26147656

  16. miR-34/449 control apical actin network formation during multiciliogenesis through small GTPase pathways

    PubMed Central

    Chevalier, Benoît; Adamiok, Anna; Mercey, Olivier; Revinski, Diego R.; Zaragosi, Laure-Emmanuelle; Pasini, Andrea; Kodjabachian, Laurent; Barbry, Pascal; Marcet, Brice

    2015-01-01

    Vertebrate multiciliated cells (MCCs) contribute to fluid propulsion in several biological processes. We previously showed that microRNAs of the miR-34/449 family trigger MCC differentiation by repressing cell cycle genes and the Notch pathway. Here, using human and Xenopus MCCs, we show that beyond this initial step, miR-34/449 later promote the assembly of an apical actin network, required for proper basal bodies anchoring. Identification of miR-34/449 targets related to small GTPase pathways led us to characterize R-Ras as a key regulator of this process. Protection of RRAS messenger RNA against miR-34/449 binding impairs actin cap formation and multiciliogenesis, despite a still active RhoA. We propose that miR-34/449 also promote relocalization of the actin binding protein Filamin-A, a known RRAS interactor, near basal bodies in MCCs. Our study illustrates the intricate role played by miR-34/449 in coordinating several steps of a complex differentiation programme by regulating distinct signalling pathways. PMID:26381333

  17. Amplification of actin polymerization forces

    PubMed Central

    Dmitrieff, Serge; Nédélec, François

    2016-01-01

    The actin cytoskeleton drives many essential processes in vivo, using molecular motors and actin assembly as force generators. We discuss here the propagation of forces caused by actin polymerization, highlighting simple configurations where the force developed by the network can exceed the sum of the polymerization forces from all filaments. PMID:27002174

  18. Amplification of actin polymerization forces.

    PubMed

    Dmitrieff, Serge; Nédélec, François

    2016-03-28

    The actin cytoskeleton drives many essential processes in vivo, using molecular motors and actin assembly as force generators. We discuss here the propagation of forces caused by actin polymerization, highlighting simple configurations where the force developed by the network can exceed the sum of the polymerization forces from all filaments.

  19. The Spatial Distribution of the Exocyst and Actin Cortical Patches Is Sufficient To Organize Hyphal Tip Growth

    PubMed Central

    Caballero-Lima, David; Kaneva, Iliyana N.; Watton, Simon P.

    2013-01-01

    In the hyphal tip of Candida albicans we have made detailed quantitative measurements of (i) exocyst components, (ii) Rho1, the regulatory subunit of (1,3)-β-glucan synthase, (iii) Rom2, the specialized guanine-nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) of Rho1, and (iv) actin cortical patches, the sites of endocytosis. We use the resulting data to construct and test a quantitative 3-dimensional model of fungal hyphal growth based on the proposition that vesicles fuse with the hyphal tip at a rate determined by the local density of exocyst components. Enzymes such as (1,3)-β-glucan synthase thus embedded in the plasma membrane continue to synthesize the cell wall until they are removed by endocytosis. The model successfully predicts the shape and dimensions of the hyphae, provided that endocytosis acts to remove cell wall-synthesizing enzymes at the subapical bands of actin patches. Moreover, a key prediction of the model is that the distribution of the synthase is substantially broader than the area occupied by the exocyst. This prediction is borne out by our quantitative measurements. Thus, although the model highlights detailed issues that require further investigation, in general terms the pattern of tip growth of fungal hyphae can be satisfactorily explained by a simple but quantitative model rooted within the known molecular processes of polarized growth. Moreover, the methodology can be readily adapted to model other forms of polarized growth, such as that which occurs in plant pollen tubes. PMID:23666623

  20. Diclofenac Topical (actinic keratosis)

    MedlinePlus

    Solaraze® Gel ... Diclofenac topical gel (Solaraze) is used to treat actinic keratosis (flat, scaly growths on the skin caused by too much sun ... nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). The way diclofenac gel works to treat actinic keratosis is not known. ...

  1. Modulation of cargo release from dense core granules by size and actin network.

    PubMed

    Felmy, Felix

    2007-08-01

    During regulated fusion of secretory granules with the plasma membrane, a fusion pore first opens and then dilates. The dilating pore allows cargo proteins from the dense core to be released into the extracellular space. Using real-time evanescent field fluorescence microscopy of live PC12 cells, it was determined how rapidly proteins of different sizes escape from single granules after fusion. Tissue plasminogen activator (tPA)-Venus is released 40-fold slower than the three times smaller neuropeptide Y [NPY-monomeric GFP (mGFP)]. An NPY bearing two mGFPs in tandem [NPY-(mGFP)(2)] as an intermediate-sized fusion probe is released most slowly. Although, the time-course of release varies substantially for a given probe. Coexpression of beta-actin, actin-related protein 3 or mAbp1 slowed the release of the two larger cargo molecules but did not affect release of NPY-mGFP or of the granule-membrane-bound probe Vamp-pHluorin. Additionally, high concentrations of cytochalasin D slowed release of the tPA-Venus. Together these results suggest that fusion pore dilation is not the only determinate of release time-course and that actin rearrangements similar to those mediating actin-mediated motility influences the time-course of release without directly interfering with the granule membrane to cell membrane connection.

  2. The 5' cap of tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) is required for virion attachment to the actin/endoplasmic reticulum network during early infection.

    PubMed

    Christensen, Nynne; Tilsner, Jens; Bell, Karen; Hammann, Philippe; Parton, Richard; Lacomme, Christophe; Oparka, Karl

    2009-05-01

    Almost nothing is known of the earliest stages of plant virus infections. To address this, we microinjected Cy3 (UTP)-labelled tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) into living tobacco trichome cells. The Cy3-virions were infectious, and the viral genome trafficked from cell to cell. However, neither the fluorescent vRNA pool nor the co-injected green fluorescent protein (GFP) left the injected trichome, indicating that the synthesis of (unlabelled) progeny viral (v)RNA is required to initiate cell-to-cell movement, and that virus movement is not accompanied by passive plasmodesmatal gating. Cy3-vRNA formed granules that became anchored to the motile cortical actin/endoplasmic reticulum (ER) network within minutes of injection. Granule movement on actin/ER was arrested by actin inhibitors indicating actin-dependent RNA movement. The 5' methylguanosine cap was shown to be required for vRNA anchoring to the actin/ER. TMV vRNA lacking the 5' cap failed to form granules and was degraded in the cytoplasm. Removal of the 3' untranslated region or replicase both inhibited replication but did not prevent granule formation and movement. Dual-labelled TMV virions in which the vRNA and the coat protein were highlighted with different fluorophores showed that both fluorescent signals were initially located on the same ER-bound granules, indicating that TMV virions may become attached to the ER prior to uncoating of the viral genome.

  3. Myofibril growth during cardiac hypertrophy is regulated through dual phosphorylation and acetylation of the actin capping protein CapZ.

    PubMed

    Lin, Ying-Hsi; Warren, Chad M; Li, Jieli; McKinsey, Timothy A; Russell, Brenda

    2016-08-01

    The mechanotransduction signaling pathways initiated in heart muscle by increased mechanical loading are known to lead to long-term transcriptional changes and hypertrophy, but the rapid events for adaptation at the sarcomeric level are not fully understood. The goal of this study was to test the hypothesis that actin filament assembly during cardiomyocyte growth is regulated by post-translational modifications (PTMs) of CapZβ1. In rapidly hypertrophying neonatal rat ventricular myocytes (NRVMs) stimulated by phenylephrine (PE), two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2DGE) of CapZβ1 revealed a shift toward more negative charge. Consistent with this, mass spectrometry identified CapZβ1 phosphorylation on serine-204 and acetylation on lysine-199, two residues which are near the actin binding surface of CapZβ1. Ectopic expression of dominant negative PKCɛ (dnPKCɛ) in NRVMs blunted the PE-induced increase in CapZ dynamics, as evidenced by the kinetic constant (Kfrap) of fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP), and concomitantly reduced phosphorylation and acetylation of CapZβ1. Furthermore, inhibition of class I histone deacetylases (HDACs) increased lysine-199 acetylation on CapZβ1, which increased Kfrap of CapZ and stimulated actin dynamics. Finally, we show that PE treatment of NRVMs results in decreased binding of HDAC3 to myofibrils, suggesting a signal-dependent mechanism for the regulation of sarcomere-associated CapZβ1 acetylation. Taken together, this dual regulation through phosphorylation and acetylation of CapZβ1 provides a novel model for the regulation of myofibril growth during cardiac hypertrophy. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. The Interaction of Arp2/3 Complex with Actin: Nucleation, High Affinity Pointed End Capping, and Formation of Branching Networks of Filaments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dyche Mullins, R.; Heuser, John A.; Pollard, Thomas D.

    1998-05-01

    The Arp2/3 complex is a stable assembly of seven protein subunits including two actin-related proteins (Arp2 and Arp3) and five novel proteins. Previous work showed that this complex binds to the sides of actin filaments and is concentrated at the leading edges of motile cells. Here, we show that Arp2/3 complex purified from Acanthamoeba caps the pointed ends of actin filaments with high affinity. Arp2/3 complex inhibits both monomer addition and dissociation at the pointed ends of actin filaments with apparent nanomolar affinity and increases the critical concentration for polymerization at the pointed end from 0.6 to 1.0 μ M. The high affinity of Arp2/3 complex for pointed ends and its abundance in amoebae suggest that in vivo all actin filament pointed ends are capped by Arp2/3 complex. Arp2/3 complex also nucleates formation of actin filaments that elongate only from their barbed ends. From kinetic analysis, the nucleation mechanism appears to involve stabilization of polymerization intermediates (probably actin dimers). In electron micrographs of quick-frozen, deep-etched samples, we see Arp2/3 bound to sides and pointed ends of actin filaments and examples of Arp2/3 complex attaching pointed ends of filaments to sides of other filaments. In these cases, the angle of attachment is a remarkably constant 70 ± 7 degrees. From these in vitro biochemical properties, we propose a model for how Arp2/3 complex controls the assembly of a branching network of actin filaments at the leading edge of motile cells.

  5. Actinic keratosis

    MedlinePlus

    Solar keratosis; Sun-induced skin changes - keratosis; Keratosis - actinic (solar); Skin lesion - actinic keratosis ... likely to develop it if you: Have fair skin, blue or green eyes, or blond or red ...

  6. Semi-retentive cytoskeletal fractionation (SERCYF): A novel method for the biochemical analysis of the organization of microtubule and actin cytoskeleton networks.

    PubMed

    Sato, Yuta; Murakami, Yota; Takahashi, Masayuki

    2017-07-08

    A variety of biochemical fractionation methods are available for the quantification of cytoskeletal components. However, each method is designed to target only one cytoskeletal network, either the microtubule (MT) or actin cytoskeleton, and non-targeted cytoskeletal networks are ignored. Considering the importance of MT-actin crosstalk, the organization of both the targeted and non-targeted cytoskeletal networks must be retained intact during fractionation for the accurate analysis of cytoskeletal organization. In this study, we reveal that existing fractionation methods, represented by the MT-sedimentation-method for MTs and the Triton X-100 solubility assay-method for actin cytoskeletons, disrupt the organizations of the non-targeted cytoskeletons. We demonstrate a novel fractionation method for the accurate analysis of the cytoskeletal organizations using a taxol-containing PEM-based permeabilization buffer, which we name "semi-retentive cytoskeletal fractionation (SERCYF)-method". The organizations of both MTs and actin cytoskeletons were retained intact even after permeabilization with this buffer. By using the SERCYF-method, we analyzed the effects of nocodazole on the cytoskeletal organizations biochemically and showed promotion of the actin cytoskeletal organization by MT depolymerization. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. The yeast actin cytoskeleton.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Mithilesh; Huang, Junqi; Balasubramanian, Mohan K

    2014-03-01

    The actin cytoskeleton is a complex network of dynamic polymers, which plays an important role in various fundamental cellular processes, including maintenance of cell shape, polarity, cell division, cell migration, endocytosis, vesicular trafficking, and mechanosensation. Precise spatiotemporal assembly and disassembly of actin structures is regulated by the coordinated activity of about 100 highly conserved accessory proteins, which nucleate, elongate, cross-link, and sever actin filaments. Both in vivo studies in a wide range of organisms from yeast to metazoans and in vitro studies of purified proteins have helped shape the current understanding of actin dynamics and function. Molecular genetics, genome-wide functional analysis, sophisticated real-time imaging, and ultrastructural studies in concert with biochemical analysis have made yeast an attractive model to understand the actin cytoskeleton, its molecular dynamics, and physiological function. Studies of the yeast actin cytoskeleton have contributed substantially in defining the universal mechanism regulating actin assembly and disassembly in eukaryotes. Here, we review some of the important insights generated by the study of actin cytoskeleton in two important yeast models the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe. © 2014 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Cortactin involvement in the keratinocyte growth factor and fibroblast growth factor 10 promotion of migration and cortical actin assembly in human keratinocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Ceccarelli, Simona; Cardinali, Giorgia; Aspite, Nicaela; Picardo, Mauro; Marchese, Cinzia; Torrisi, Maria Rosaria; Mancini, Patrizia . E-mail: patrizia.mancini@uniroma1.it

    2007-05-15

    Keratinocyte growth factor (KGF/FGF7) and fibroblast growth factor 10 (FGF10/KGF2) regulate keratinocyte proliferation and differentiation by binding to the tyrosine kinase KGF receptor (KGFR). KGF induces keratinocyte motility and cytoskeletal rearrangement, whereas a direct role of FGF10 on keratinocyte migration is not clearly established. Here we analyzed the motogenic activity of FGF10 and KGF on human keratinocytes. Migration assays and immunofluorescence of actin cytoskeleton revealed that FGF10 is less efficient than KGF in promoting migration and exerts a delayed effect in inducing lamellipodia and ruffles formation. Both growth factors promoted phosphorylation and subsequent membrane translocation of cortactin, an F-actin binding protein involved in cell migration; however, FGF10-induced cortactin phosphorylation was reduced, more transient and delayed with respect to that promoted by KGF. Cortactin phosphorylation induced by both growth factors was Src-dependent, while its membrane translocation and cell migration were blocked by either Src and PI3K inhibitors, suggesting that both pathways are involved in KGF- and FGF10-dependent motility. Furthermore, siRNA-mediated downregulation of cortactin inhibited KGF- and FGF10-induced migration. These results indicate that cortactin is involved in keratinocyte migration promoted by both KGF and FGF10.

  9. Actin Mechanics and Fragmentation*

    PubMed Central

    De La Cruz, Enrique M.; Gardel, Margaret L.

    2015-01-01

    Cell physiological processes require the regulation and coordination of both mechanical and dynamical properties of the actin cytoskeleton. Here we review recent advances in understanding the mechanical properties and stability of actin filaments and how these properties are manifested at larger (network) length scales. We discuss how forces can influence local biochemical interactions, resulting in the formation of mechanically sensitive dynamic steady states. Understanding the regulation of such force-activated chemistries and dynamic steady states reflects an important challenge for future work that will provide valuable insights as to how the actin cytoskeleton engenders mechanoresponsiveness of living cells. PMID:25957404

  10. Chromosome translocation may lead to PRK1-dependent anticancer drug resistance in yeast via endocytic actin network deregulation.

    PubMed

    Nikitin, Dmitri V; Bruschi, Carlo V; Sims, Jason; Breitenbach, Michael; Rinnerthaler, Mark; Tosato, Valentina

    2014-04-01

    Chromosome translocations are often observed in cancer cells, being in some cases the cause of neoplastic transformation while in others the results of it. In previous works, we reproduced this major genomic rearrangement by bridge-induced chromosome translocation (BIT) technology in the model eukaryote Saccharomyces cerevisiae and reported that it affects DNA replication, cell cycle, karyogamy, and cytokinesis while it produces genetic instability. In the present work, we further discovered that this event can lead to increased resistance to anticancer chemicals like Doxorubicin and Latrunculin A via an endocytic actin network deregulation triggered by over-expression of the PRK1 serine/threonine protein kinase gene. This effect is further enhanced by the overexpression of PDR1 and PDR3 transcriptional regulators of pleiotropic drug resistance factors. However, when the actin depolymerizing drug Latrunculin A is forcefully allowed to penetrate through their altered cell wall and membrane barriers, it can kill translocants more efficiently than wild type cells. These observations provide an example of an acquired anticancer drug resistance mechanism and could serve as a lead to how it might be overcome, as any treatment inhibiting genome rearrangements could increase the positive outcome of anticancer therapy by lowering cellular drug resistance. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  11. Cholera toxin treatment of vascular smooth muscle cells decreases smooth muscle α-actin content and abolishes the platelet-derived growth factor-BB-stimulated DNA synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Sachinidis, Agapios; Seul, Claudia; Gouni-Berthold, Ioanna; Seewald, Stefan; Ko, Yon; Vetter, Hans; Fingerle, Jürgen; Hoppe, Jürgen

    2000-01-01

    The second messenger cyclic AMP regulates diverse biological processes such as cell morphology and cell growth. We examined the role of the second messenger cyclic AMP on rat aortic vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) morphology and the intracellular transduction pathway mediated by platelet-derived growth factor β-receptor (PDGF-Rβ). The effect of PDGF-BB on VSMCs growth was assessed by [3H]-thymidine incorporation. Tyrosine phosphorylation of PDGF-Rβ, PLC-γ1, ERK1 and ERK2, p125FAK and paxillin as well as Sm α-actin was examined by the chemiluminescence Western blotting method. Actin mRNA level was quantitated by Northern blotting. Visualization of Sm α-actin filaments, paxillin and PDGF-Rβ was performed by immunfluorescence microscopy. Cholera toxin (CTX; 10 nM) treatment lead to a large and sustained increase in the cyclic AMP concentration after 2 h which correlated with change of VSMC morphology including complete disruption of the Sm α-actin filament array and loss of focal adhesions. Treatment of VSMCs with CTX did not influence tyrosine phosphorylation of p125FAK and paxillin but decreased the content of a Sm α-actin protein. Maximal decrease of 70% was observed after 24 h of treatment. CTX also caused a 90% decrease of the actin mRNA level. CTX treatment completely abolished PDGF-BB stimulated DNA-synthesis although PDGF-Rβ level and subcellular distribution and translocation was not altered. Furthermore CTX attenuated the PDGF-BB-induced tyrosine phosphorylation of the PDGF-Rβ, PI 3′-K, PLC-γ1 and ERK1/2 indicating an action of cyclic AMP on PDGF-β receptor. We conclude that although cyclic AMP attenuates the PDGF-Rβ mediated intracellular transduction pathway, an intact actin filament may be required for the PDGF-BB-induced DNA synthesis in VSMCs. PMID:10928958

  12. Transient receptor potential vanilloid 2 activation by focal mechanical stimulation requires interaction with the actin cytoskeleton and enhances growth cone motility.

    PubMed

    Sugio, Shouta; Nagasawa, Masami; Kojima, Itaru; Ishizaki, Yasuki; Shibasaki, Koji

    2017-04-01

    We have previously reported that transient receptor potential vanilloid 2 (TRPV2) can be activated by mechanical stimulation, which enhances axonal outgrowth in developing neurons; however, the molecular mechanisms that govern the contribution of TRPV2 activation to axonal outgrowth remain unclear. In the present study, we examined this mechanism by using PC12 cells as a neuronal model. Overexpression of TRPV2 enhanced axonal outgrowth in a mechanical stimulus-dependent manner. Accumulation of TRPV2 at the cell surface was 4-fold greater in the growth cone compared with the soma. In the growth cone, TRPV2 is not static, but dynamically accumulates (within ∼100 ms) to the site of mechanical stimulation. The dynamic and acute clustering of TRPV2 can enhance very weak mechanical stimuli via focal accumulation of TRPV2. Focal application of mechanical stimuli dramatically increased growth cone motility and caused actin reorganization via activation of TRPV2. We also found that TRPV2 physically interacts with actin and that changes in the actin cytoskeleton are required for its activation. Here, we demonstrated for the first time to our knowledge that TRPV2 clustering is induced by mechanical stimulation generated by axonal outgrowth and that TRPV2 activation is triggered by actin rearrangements that result from mechanical stimulation. Moreover, TRPV2 activation enhances growth cone motility and actin accumulation to promote axonal outgrowth. Sugio, S., Nagasawa, M., Kojima, I., Ishizaki, Y., Shibasaki, K. Transient receptor potential vanilloid 2 activation by focal mechanical stimulation requires interaction with the actin cytoskeleton and enhances growth cone motility. © FASEB.

  13. Scale-free networks without growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Yan-Bo; Zhou, Tao; Wang, Bing-Hong

    2008-03-01

    In this paper, we proposed an ungrowing scale-free network model, indicating the growth may not be a necessary condition of the self-organization of a network in a scale-free structure. The analysis shows that the degree distributions of the present model can varying from the Poisson form to the power-law form with the decrease of a free parameter α. This model provides a possible mechanism for the evolution of some scale-free networks with fixed size, such as the friendship networks of school children and the functional networks of the human brain.

  14. A novel nuclear complex of DRR1, F-actin and COMMD1 involved in NF-κB degradation and cell growth suppression in neuroblastoma.

    PubMed

    Mu, P; Akashi, T; Lu, F; Kishida, S; Kadomatsu, K

    2017-10-12

    Downregulated in renal cell carcinoma 1 (DRR1) has important roles in tumor cell growth, neuron survival and spine formation, and was recently shown to bind actin. However, the roles of nuclear DRR1 remain largely unexplored. Here, we identified an interaction between filamentous actin (F-actin) and DRR1 in the nucleus, and demonstrated that copper metabolism MURR1 domain-containing 1 (COMMD1) is another binding partner of DRR1. Accordingly, DRR1, F-actin and COMMD1 were shown to form a complex in the nucleus, and the stability of COMMD1 was enhanced in this complex. Increased nuclear COMMD1 in turn promoted the degradation of NF-κB. In addition, DRR1 and COMMD1 suppressed the cyclin D1 expression, G1/S transition and cell proliferation of neuroblastoma cells. The binding between DRR1 and F-actin in the nucleus was required for these events. Consistent with these facts, low expressions of DRR1 were associated with tumorigenesis of human neuroblastoma and its mouse model. This study has thus revealed a novel nuclear complex of F-actin, DRR1 and COMMD1 that is involved in NF-κB degradation and cell cycle suppression in neuroblastoma cells.

  15. ARF6 promotes the formation of Rac1 and WAVE-dependent ventral F-actin rosettes in breast cancer cells in response to epidermal growth factor.

    PubMed

    Marchesin, Valentina; Montagnac, Guillaume; Chavrier, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    Coordination between actin cytoskeleton assembly and localized polarization of intracellular trafficking routes is crucial for cancer cell migration. ARF6 has been implicated in the endocytic recycling of surface receptors and membrane components and in actin cytoskeleton remodeling. Here we show that overexpression of an ARF6 fast-cycling mutant in MDA-MB-231 breast cancer-derived cells to mimick ARF6 hyperactivation observed in invasive breast tumors induced a striking rearrangement of the actin cytoskeleton at the ventral cell surface. This phenotype consisted in the formation of dynamic actin-based podosome rosette-like structures expanding outward as wave positive for F-actin and actin cytoskeleton regulatory components including cortactin, Arp2/3 and SCAR/WAVE complexes and upstream Rac1 regulator. Ventral rosette-like structures were similarly induced in MDA-MB-231 cells in response to epidermal growth factor (EGF) stimulation and to Rac1 hyperactivation. In addition, interference with ARF6 expression attenuated activation and plasma membrane targeting of Rac1 in response to EGF treatment. Our data suggest a role for ARF6 in linking EGF-receptor signaling to Rac1 recruitment and activation at the plasma membrane to promote breast cancer cell directed migration.

  16. An actin network is present in the cytoplasm throughout the cell cycle of carrot cells and associates with the dividing nucleus

    PubMed Central

    1987-01-01

    We have studied the F-actin network in cycling suspension culture cells of carrot (Daucus carota L.) using rhodaminyl lysine phallotoxin (RLP). In addition to conventional fixation with formaldehyde, we have used two different nonfixation methods before adding RLP: extracting cells in a stabilizing buffer; inducing transient pores in the plasma membrane with pulses of direct current (electroporation). These alternative methods for introducing RLP revealed additional features of the actin network not seen in aldehyde-fixed cells. The three- dimensional organization of this network in nonflattened cells was demonstrated by projecting stereopairs derived from through-focal series of computer-enhanced images. F-actin is present in interphase cells in four interconnected configurations: a meshwork surrounding the nucleus; thick cables in transvacuolar strands and deep in the cytoplasm; a finer network of bundles within the cortical cytoplasm; even finer filaments that run in ordered transverse array around the cell periphery. The actin network is organized differently during division but it does not disappear as do the cortical microtubules. RLP stains a central filamentous cortical band as the chromatin begins to condense (preprophase); it stains the mitotic spindle (as recently shown by Seagull et al. [Seagull, R. W., M. Falconer, and C. A. Weerdenburg, 1987, J. Cell Biol., 104:995-1004] for aldehyde fixed suspension cells) and the cytokinetic apparatus (as shown by Clayton, L., and C. W. Lloyd, 1985, Exp. Cell Res., 156:231-238). However, it is now shown that an additional network of F-actin persists in the cytoplasm throughout division associating in turn with the preprophase band, the mitotic spindle, and the cytokinetic phragmoplast. PMID:2440896

  17. Competitive cluster growth in complex networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreira, André A.; Paula, Demétrius R.; Costa Filho, Raimundo N.; Andrade, José S., Jr.

    2006-06-01

    In this work we propose an idealized model for competitive cluster growth in complex networks. Each cluster can be thought of as a fraction of a community that shares some common opinion. Our results show that the cluster size distribution depends on the particular choice for the topology of the network of contacts among the agents. As an application, we show that the cluster size distributions obtained when the growth process is performed on hierarchical networks, e.g., the Apollonian network, have a scaling form similar to what has been observed for the distribution of a number of votes in an electoral process. We suggest that this similarity may be due to the fact that social networks involved in the electoral process may also possess an underlining hierarchical structure.

  18. Salinomycin inhibits growth of pancreatic cancer and cancer cell migration by disruption of actin stress fiber integrity.

    PubMed

    Schenk, Miriam; Aykut, Berk; Teske, Christian; Giese, Nathalia A; Weitz, Juergen; Welsch, Thilo

    2015-03-28

    Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is characterized by aggressive growth, early metastasis and high resistance to chemotherapy. Salinomycin is a promising compound eliminating cancer stem cells and retarding cancer cell migration. The present study investigated the effectiveness of salinomycin against PDAC in vivo and elucidated the mechanism of PDAC growth inhibition. Salinomycin treatment was well tolerated by the mice and significantly reduced tumor growth after 19 days compared to the control group (each n = 16). There was a trend that salinomycin also impeded metastatic spread to the liver and peritoneum. Whereas salinomycin moderately induced apoptosis and retarded proliferation at 5-10 µM, it strongly inhibited cancer cell migration that was accompanied by a marked loss of actin stress fibers after 6-9 h. Salinomycin silenced RhoA activity, and loss of stress fibers could be reversed by Rho activation. Moreover, salinomycin dislocated fascin from filopodia and stimulated Rac-associated circular dorsal ruffle formation. In conclusion, salinomycin is an effective and promising compound against PDAC. Besides its known stem cell-specific cytotoxic effects, salinomycin blocks cancer cell migration by disrupting stress fiber integrity and affecting the mutual Rho-GTPase balance. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Contribution of space experiments to the study of the actin network structure of the lentil root statocyte

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Driss-Ecole, D.; Perbal, G.

    Two space experiments performed in the frame of the S/MM03 and S/MM05 Missions of Spacehab have permitted to study the structure of the actin network in the lentil root statocyte. In the first experiment, lentil seedlings were grown on a 1g centrifuge (with a root-tip-directed 1g acceleration) and then were placed in microgravity for increasing periods of time (13, 29, 46 or 122min). In the second experiments lentil seedlings were either grown in microgravity or on a 1g centrifuge and then were subjected to various centrifugal accelerations (from 0.39 to 0.93g for 9 or 22 min) perpendicular to the longitudinal axis the roots. At the end of the stimulation period, gravitropic curvature of roots was followed by time-lapse photography for 3 h in microgravity. In both experiments, some seedlings were chemically fixed in space in order to analyse the distribution of the amyloplasts within the statocytes in the different samples. The S/MM03 experiment has demonstrated that, in microgravity, the amyloplasts move from the distal pole to the proximal pole of the statocytes. This autonomous and directed movement is due to an actomyosin system and lead to a stable position of the statoliths near the nucleus after about 2h. A treatment with cytochalasin D did not stop this movement but slowed down the velocity of their displacement. The S/MM05 experiment showed that after a stimulation of 22 min at 0.93g the sedimentation of statoliths along the longitudinal wall is similar in statocytes of roots grown first in microgravity or on the 1g centrifuge although their initial position was not the same. When these stimulated seedlings were kept for 3 h in microgravity the amyloplasts in both cases move towards the nucleus. This overall oblique displacement could be due to the oblique orientation of the actin filaments with their + ends directed toward the nucleus. This hypothesis is reinforced by the results obtained with the S/MM03 experiment: the value of the force responsible for

  20. Bacterial nucleators: actin' on actin

    PubMed Central

    Bugalhão, Joana N.; Mota, Luís Jaime; Franco, Irina S.

    2015-01-01

    The actin cytoskeleton is a key target of numerous microbial pathogens, including protozoa, fungi, bacteria and viruses. In particular, bacterial pathogens produce and deliver virulence effector proteins that hijack actin dynamics to enable bacterial invasion of host cells, allow movement within the host cytosol, facilitate intercellular spread or block phagocytosis. Many of these effector proteins directly or indirectly target the major eukaryotic actin nucleator, the Arp2/3 complex, by either mimicking nucleation promoting factors or activating upstream small GTPases. In contrast, this review is focused on a recently identified class of effector proteins from Gram-negative bacteria that function as direct actin nucleators. These effector proteins mimic functional activities of formins, WH2-nucleators and Ena/VASP assembly promoting factors demonstrating that bacteria have coopted the complete set of eukaryotic actin assembly pathways. Structural and functional analyses of these nucleators have revealed several motifs and/or mechanistic activities that are shared with eukaryotic actin nucleators. However, functional effects of these proteins during infection extend beyond plain actin polymerization leading to interference with other host cell functions such as vesicle trafficking, cell cycle progression and cell death. Therefore, their use as model systems could not only help in the understanding of the mechanistic details of actin polymerization but also provide novel insights into the connection between actin dynamics and other cellular pathways. PMID:26416078

  1. Bistability in the Rac1, PAK, and RhoA Signaling Network Drives Actin Cytoskeleton Dynamics and Cell Motility Switches

    PubMed Central

    Byrne, Kate M.; Monsefi, Naser; Dawson, John C.; Degasperi, Andrea; Bukowski-Wills, Jimi-Carlo; Volinsky, Natalia; Dobrzyński, Maciej; Birtwistle, Marc R.; Tsyganov, Mikhail A.; Kiyatkin, Anatoly; Kida, Katarzyna; Finch, Andrew J.; Carragher, Neil O.; Kolch, Walter; Nguyen, Lan K.; von Kriegsheim, Alex; Kholodenko, Boris N.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Dynamic interactions between RhoA and Rac1, members of the Rho small GTPase family, play a vital role in the control of cell migration. Using predictive mathematical modeling, mass spectrometry-based quantitation of network components, and experimental validation in MDA-MB-231 mesenchymal breast cancer cells, we show that a network containing Rac1, RhoA, and PAK family kinases can produce bistable, switch-like responses to a graded PAK inhibition. Using a small chemical inhibitor of PAK, we demonstrate that cellular RhoA and Rac1 activation levels respond in a history-dependent, bistable manner to PAK inhibition. Consequently, we show that downstream signaling, actin dynamics, and cell migration also behave in a bistable fashion, displaying switches and hysteresis in response to PAK inhibition. Our results demonstrate that PAK is a critical component in the Rac1-RhoA inhibitory crosstalk that governs bistable GTPase activity, cell morphology, and cell migration switches. PMID:27136688

  2. Actin depolymerizing factors ADF7 and ADF10 play distinct roles during pollen development and pollen tube growth.

    PubMed

    Daher, Firas Bou; Geitmann, Anja

    2012-07-01

    An important player in actin remodeling is the actin depolymerizing factor (ADF) which increases actin filament treadmilling rates. Previously, we had prepared fluorescent protein fusions of two Arabidopsis pollen specific ADFs, ADF7 and ADF10. These had enabled us to determine the temporal expression patterns and subcellular localization of these proteins during male gametophyte development. Here we generated stable transformants containing both chimeric genes allowing for simultaneous imaging and direct comparison. One of the striking differences between the two proteins was the localization profile in the growing pollen tube apex. Whereas ADF10 was associated with the filamentous actin array forming the subapical actin fringe, ADF7 was present in the same cytoplasmic region, but in diffuse form. This suggests that ADF7 is involved in the high actin turnover that is likely to occur in the fringe by continuously and efficiently depolymerizing filamentous actin and supplying monomeric actin to the advancing end of the fringe. The possibility to visualize both of these pollen-specific ADFs simultaneously opens avenues for future research into the regulatory function of actin binding proteins in pollen.

  3. [Actinic keratoses].

    PubMed

    Babilas, P; Landthaler, M; Szeimies, R-M

    2003-06-01

    Actinic keratoses are defined as proliferation of cytologically atypical keratinocytes in the zone of epidermal-dermal junction in photodamaged skin. In the northern hemisphere the prevalence of actinic keratoses ranges depending on different epidemiological studies from 11% to 25% for people aged 40 or older. The main cause of actinic keratoses is exposure to UVB radiation in sunlight UVB radiation induces mutations in the telomerase gene and in the tumor suppressor gene P53, which can also be detected in invasive squamous cell carcinoma. The only histological parameter to distinguish between actinic keratoses and SCC is the level of invasiveness. The risk for actinic keratoses to develop into SCC is about 16% over lo years. For this reason and because of the high prevalence of actinic keratoses, it has been suggested to replace the term,, actinic keratosis K with intraepidermal squamous cell carcinoma' to better characterize the lesion. In the following review recent aspects of pathogenesis and therapy of actinic keratoses are discussed.

  4. Actinous enigma or enigmatic actin

    PubMed Central

    Povarova, Olga I; Uversky, Vladimir N; Kuznetsova, Irina M; Turoverov, Konstantin K

    2014-01-01

    Being the most abundant protein of the eukaryotic cell, actin continues to keep its secrets for more than 60 years. Everything about this protein, its structure, functions, and folding, is mysteriously counterintuitive, and this review represents an attempt to solve some of the riddles and conundrums commonly found in the field of actin research. In fact, actin is a promiscuous binder with a wide spectrum of biological activities. It can exist in at least three structural forms, globular, fibrillar, and inactive (G-, F-, and I-actin, respectively). G-actin represents a thermodynamically instable, quasi-stationary state, which is formed in vivo as a result of the energy-intensive, complex posttranslational folding events controlled and driven by cellular folding machinery. The G-actin structure is dependent on the ATP and Mg2+ binding (which in vitro is typically substituted by Ca2+) and protein is easily converted to the I-actin by the removal of metal ions and by action of various denaturing agents (pH, temperature, and chemical denaturants). I-actin cannot be converted back to the G-form. Foldable and “natively folded” forms of actin are always involved in interactions either with the specific protein partners, such as Hsp70 chaperone, prefoldin, and the CCT chaperonin during the actin folding in vivo or with Mg2+ and ATP as it takes place in the G-form. We emphasize that the solutions for the mysteries of actin multifunctionality, multistructurality, and trapped unfolding can be found in the quasi-stationary nature of this enigmatic protein, which clearly possesses many features attributed to both globular and intrinsically disordered proteins. PMID:28232879

  5. Membrane Tension Acts Through PLD2 and mTORC2 to Limit Actin Network Assembly During Neutrophil Migration

    PubMed Central

    Diz-Muñoz, Alba; Thurley, Kevin; Chintamen, Sana; Altschuler, Steven J.; Fletcher, Daniel A.; Weiner, Orion D.

    2016-01-01

    For efficient polarity and migration, cells need to regulate the magnitude and spatial distribution of actin assembly. This process is coordinated by reciprocal interactions between the actin cytoskeleton and mechanical forces. Actin polymerization-based protrusion increases tension in the plasma membrane, which in turn acts as a long-range inhibitor of actin assembly. These interactions form a negative feedback circuit that limits the magnitude of membrane tension in neutrophils and prevents expansion of the existing front and the formation of secondary fronts. It has been suggested that the plasma membrane directly inhibits actin assembly by serving as a physical barrier that opposes protrusion. Here we show that efficient control of actin polymerization-based protrusion requires an additional mechanosensory feedback cascade that indirectly links membrane tension with actin assembly. Specifically, elevated membrane tension acts through phospholipase D2 (PLD2) and the mammalian target of rapamycin complex 2 (mTORC2) to limit actin nucleation. In the absence of this pathway, neutrophils exhibit larger leading edges, higher membrane tension, and profoundly defective chemotaxis. Mathematical modeling suggests roles for both the direct (mechanical) and indirect (biochemical via PLD2 and mTORC2) feedback loops in organizing cell polarity and motility—the indirect loop is better suited to enable competition between fronts, whereas the direct loop helps spatially organize actin nucleation for efficient leading edge formation and cell movement. This circuit is essential for polarity, motility, and the control of membrane tension. PMID:27280401

  6. GhCFE1A, a dynamic linker between the ER network and actin cytoskeleton, plays an important role in cotton fibre cell initiation and elongation.

    PubMed

    Lv, Fenni; Wang, Haihai; Wang, Xinyu; Han, Libo; Ma, Yinping; Wang, Sen; Feng, Zhidi; Niu, Xiaowei; Cai, Caiping; Kong, Zhaosheng; Zhang, Tianzhen; Guo, Wangzhen

    2015-04-01

    Fibre cell initiation and elongation is critical for cotton fibre development. However, little is known about the regulation of initiation and elongation during fibre cell development. Here, the regulatory role of a novel protein GhCFE1A was uncovered. GhCFE1A is preferentially expressed at initiation and rapid elongation stages during fibre development; in addition, much higher expression of GhCFE1A was detected at the fibre initiation stage in fibreless cotton mutants than in the fibre-bearing TM-1 wild-type. Importantly, overexpression of GhCFE1A in cotton not only delayed fibre cell elongation but also significantly reduced the density of lint and fuzz fibre initials and stem trichomes. Yeast two-hybrid assay showed that GhCFE1A interacted with several actin proteins, and the interaction was further confirmed by co-sedimentation assay. Interestingly, a subcellular localization assay showed that GhCFE1A resided on the cortical endoplasmic reticulum (ER) network and co-localized with actin cables. Moreover, the density of F-actin filaments was shown to be reduced in GhCFE1A-overexpressing fibres at the rapid elongation stage compared with the wild-type control. Taken together, the results demonstrate that GhCFE1A probably functions as a dynamic linker between the actin cytoskeleton and the ER network, and plays an important role in fibre cell initiation and elongation during cotton fibre development.

  7. The knock-out of ARP3a gene affects F-actin cytoskeleton organization altering cellular tip growth, morphology and development in moss Physcomitrella patens.

    PubMed

    Finka, Andrija; Saidi, Younousse; Goloubinoff, Pierre; Neuhaus, Jean-Marc; Zrÿd, Jean-Pierre; Schaefer, Didier G

    2008-10-01

    The seven subunit Arp2/3 complex is a highly conserved nucleation factor of actin microfilaments. We have isolated the genomic sequence encoding a putative Arp3a protein of the moss Physcomitrella patens. The disruption of this ARP3A gene by allele replacement has generated loss-of-function mutants displaying a complex developmental phenotype. The loss-of function of ARP3A gene results in shortened, almost cubic chloronemal cells displaying affected tip growth and lacking differentiation to caulonemal cells. In moss arp3a mutants, buds differentiate directly from chloronemata to form stunted leafy shoots having differentiated leaves similar to wild type. Yet, rhizoids never differentiate from stem epidermal cells. To characterize the F-actin organization in the arp3a-mutated cells, we disrupted ARP3A gene in the previously described HGT1 strain expressing conditionally the GFP-talin marker. In vivo observation of the F-actin cytoskeleton during P. patens development demonstrated that loss-of-function of Arp3a is associated with the disappearance of specific F-actin cortical structures associated with the establishment of localized cellular growth domains. Finally, we show that constitutive expression of the P. patens Arp3a and its Arabidopsis thaliana orthologs efficiently complement the mutated phenotype indicating a high degree of evolutionary conservation of the Arp3 function in land plants.

  8. Directional Transport of a Bead Bound to Lamellipodial Surface Is Driven by Actin Polymerization

    PubMed Central

    Nobezawa, Daisuke; Ikeda, Sho-ichi; Wada, Eitaro; Nagano, Takashi

    2017-01-01

    The force driving the retrograde flow of actin cytoskeleton is important in the cellular activities involving cell movement (e.g., growth cone motility in axon guidance, wound healing, or cancer metastasis). However, relative importance of the forces generated by actin polymerization and myosin II in this process remains elusive. We have investigated the retrograde movement of the poly-d-lysine-coated bead attached with the optical trap to the edge of lamellipodium of Swiss 3T3 fibroblasts. The velocity of the attached bead drastically decreased by submicromolar concentration of cytochalasin D, latrunculin A, or jasplakinolide, indicating the involvement of actin turnover. On the other hand, the velocity decreased only slightly in the presence of 50 μM (−)-blebbistatin and Y-27632. Comparative fluorescence microscopy of the distribution of actin filaments and that of myosin II revealed that the inhibition of actin turnover by cytochalasin D, latrunculin A, or jasplakinolide greatly diminished the actin filament network. On the other hand, inhibition of myosin II activity by (−)-blebbistatin or Y-27632 little affected the actin network but diminished stress fibers. Based on these results, we conclude that the actin polymerization/depolymerization plays the major role in the retrograde movement, while the myosin II activity is involved in the maintenance of the dynamic turnover of actin in lamellipodium. PMID:28246604

  9. Botulinum toxin type A targets RhoB to inhibit lysophosphatidic acid-stimulated actin reorganization and acetylcholine release in nerve growth factor-treated PC12 cells.

    PubMed

    Ishida, Hiroshi; Zhang, Xieping; Erickson, Kelly; Ray, Prabhati

    2004-09-01

    Botulinum toxin type A (BoNT/A) produced by Clostridium botulinum inhibits Ca2+-dependent acetylcholine (ACh) release (neuroexocytosis) at peripheral neuromuscular junctions, sometimes causing neuromuscular paralysis. This inhibitory effect is attributed to its metalloprotease activity to cleave the 25-kDa synaptosomal-associated protein, which is essential for the exocytotic machinery. However, deletion of this protein does not result in a complete block of neuroexocytosis, suggesting that botulinum-mediated inhibition may occur via another mechanism. Rho GTPases, a class of small GTP-binding proteins (G proteins), control actin cytoskeletal organization, thereby regulating a variety of cellular functions in various cells, including neuronal cells. We have shown that the G protein activator lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) triggered actin reorganization followed by Ca2+-dependent ACh release in nerve growth factor-treated PC12 cells and that BoNT/A blocked both events through degradation of RhoB by the proteasome. Overexpression of wild-type RhoB caused actin reorganization and enhanced the release of ACh by LPA to overcome toxin's inhibitory effect on actin reorganization/exocytosis stimulated by LPA, whereas overexpression of a dominant negative RhoB inhibited ACh release, regardless of LPA and/or toxin treatment. Finally, a knockdown of the RhoB gene via sequence-specific, post-transcriptional gene silencing reduced RhoB expression in PC12 cells, resulting in total inhibition of both actin reorganization and ACh release induced by LPA. We conclude that the RhoB signaling pathway regulates ACh release via actin cytoskeletal reorganization and that botulinum toxin inhibits neuroexocytosis by targeting RhoB pathway.

  10. ROCK1 via LIM kinase regulates growth, maturation and actin based functions in mast cells

    PubMed Central

    Kapur, Reuben; Shi, Jianjian; Ghosh, Joydeep; Munugalavadla, Veerendra; Sims, Emily; Martin, Holly; Wei, Lei; Mali, Raghuveer Singh

    2016-01-01

    Understanding mast cell development is essential due to their critical role in regulating immunity and autoimmune diseases. Here, we show how Rho kinases (ROCK) regulate mast cell development and can function as therapeutic targets for treating allergic diseases. Rock1 deficiency results in delayed maturation of bone marrow derived mast cells (BMMCs) in response to IL-3 stimulation and reduced growth in response to stem cell factor (SCF) stimulation. Further, integrin-mediated adhesion and migration, and IgE-mediated degranulation are all impaired in Rock1-deficient BMMCs. To understand the mechanism behind altered mast cell development in Rock1−/− BMMCs, we analyzed the activation of ROCK and its downstream targets including LIM kinase (LIMK). We observed reduced activation of ROCK, LIMK, AKT and ERK1/2 in Rock1-deficient BMMCs in response to SCF stimulation. Further, loss of either Limk1 or Limk2 also demonstrated altered BMMC maturation and growth; combined deletion of both Limk1 and Limk2 resulted in further reduction in BMMC maturation and growth. In passive cutaneous anaphylaxis model, deficiency of Rock1 or treatment with ROCK inhibitor Fasudil protected mice against IgE-mediated challenge. Our results identify ROCK/LIMK pathway as a novel therapeutic target for treating allergic diseases involving mast cells. PMID:26943578

  11. Rictor/mTORC2 regulates blood-testis barrier dynamics via its effects on gap junction communications and actin filament network.

    PubMed

    Mok, Ka-Wai; Mruk, Dolores D; Lee, Will M; Cheng, C Yan

    2013-03-01

    In the mammalian testis, coexisting tight junctions (TJs), basal ectoplasmic specializations, and gap junctions (GJs), together with desmosomes near the basement membrane, constitute the blood-testis barrier (BTB). The most notable feature of the BTB, however, is the extensive network of actin filament bundles, which makes it one of the tightest blood-tissue barriers. The BTB undergoes restructuring to facilitate the transit of preleptotene spermatocytes at stage VIII-IX of the epithelial cycle. Thus, the F-actin network at the BTB undergoes cyclic reorganization via a yet-to-be explored mechanism. Rictor, the key component of mTORC2 that is known to regulate actin cytoskeleton, was shown to express stage-specifically at the BTB in the seminiferous epithelium. Its expression was down-regulated at the BTB in stage VIII-IX tubules, coinciding with BTB restructuring at these stages. Using an in vivo model, a down-regulation of rictor at the BTB was also detected during adjudin-induced BTB disruption, illustrating rictor expression is positively correlated with the status of the BTB integrity. Indeed, the knockdown of rictor by RNAi was found to perturb the Sertoli cell TJ-barrier function in vitro and the BTB integrity in vivo. This loss of barrier function was accompanied by changes in F-actin organization at the Sertoli cell BTB in vitro and in vivo, associated with a loss of interaction between actin and α-catenin or ZO-1. Rictor knockdown by RNAi was also found to impede Sertoli cell-cell GJ communication, disrupting protein distribution (e.g., occludin, ZO-1) at the BTB, illustrating that rictor is a crucial BTB regulator.

  12. Cortactin Localization to Sites of Actin Assembly in Lamellipodia Requires Interactions with F-Actin and the Arp2/3 Complex

    PubMed Central

    Weed, Scott A.; Karginov, Andrei V.; Schafer, Dorothy A.; Weaver, Alissa M.; Kinley, Andrew W.; Cooper, John A.; Parsons, J. Thomas

    2000-01-01

    Cortactin is an actin-binding protein that is enriched within the lamellipodia of motile cells and in neuronal growth cones. Here, we report that cortactin is localized with the actin-related protein (Arp) 2/3 complex at sites of actin polymerization within the lamellipodia. Two distinct sequence motifs of cortactin contribute to its interaction with the cortical actin network: the fourth of six tandem repeats and the amino-terminal acidic region (NTA). Cortactin variants lacking either the fourth tandem repeat or the NTA failed to localize at the cell periphery. Tandem repeat four was necessary for cortactin to stably bind F-actin in vitro. The NTA region interacts directly with the Arp2/3 complex based on affinity chromatography, immunoprecipitation assays, and binding assays using purified components. Cortactin variants containing the NTA region were inefficient at promoting Arp2/3 actin nucleation activity. These data provide strong evidence that cortactin is specifically localized to sites of dynamic cortical actin assembly via simultaneous interaction with F-actin and the Arp2/3 complex. Cortactin interacts via its Src homology 3 (SH3) domain with ZO-1 and the SHANK family of postsynaptic density 95/dlg/ZO-1 homology (PDZ) domain–containing proteins, suggesting that cortactin contributes to the spatial organization of sites of actin polymerization coupled to selected cell surface transmembrane receptor complexes. PMID:11018051

  13. Control of tissue growth by Yap relies on cell density and F-actin in zebrafish fin regeneration.

    PubMed

    Mateus, Rita; Lourenço, Raquel; Fang, Yi; Brito, Gonçalo; Farinho, Ana; Valério, Fábio; Jacinto, Antonio

    2015-08-15

    Caudal fin regeneration is characterized by a proliferation boost in the mesenchymal blastema that is controlled precisely in time and space. This allows a gradual and robust restoration of original fin size. However, how this is established and regulated is not well understood. Here, we report that Yap, the Hippo pathway effector, is a chief player in this process: functionally manipulating Yap during regeneration dramatically affects cell proliferation and expression of key signaling pathways, impacting regenerative growth. The intracellular location of Yap is tightly associated with different cell densities along the blastema proximal-distal axis, which correlate with alterations in cell morphology, cytoskeleton and cell-cell contacts in a gradient-like manner. Importantly, Yap inactivation occurs in high cell density areas, conditional to F-actin distribution and polymerization. We propose that Yap is essential for fin regeneration and that its function is dependent on mechanical tension, conferred by a balancing act of cell density and cytoskeleton activity. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  14. Formation and Destabilization of Actin Filaments with Tetramethylrhodamine-Modified Actin

    PubMed Central

    Kudryashov, Dmitry S.; Phillips, Martin; Reisler, Emil

    2004-01-01

    Actin labeling at Cys374 with tethramethylrhodamine derivatives (TMR-actin) has been widely used for direct observation of the in vitro filaments growth, branching, and treadmilling, as well as for the in vivo visualization of actin cytoskeleton. The advantage of TMR-actin is that it does not lock actin in filaments (as rhodamine-phalloidin does), possibly allowing for its use in investigating the dynamic assembly behavior of actin polymers. Although it is established that TMR-actin alone is polymerization incompetent, the impact of its copolymerization with unlabeled actin on filament structure and dynamics has not been tested yet. In this study, we show that TMR-actin perturbs the filaments structure when copolymerized with unlabeled actin; the resulting filaments are more fragile and shorter than the control filaments. Due to the increased severing of copolymer filaments, TMR-actin accelerates the polymerization of unlabeled actin in solution also at mole ratios lower than those used in most fluorescence microscopy experiments. The destabilizing and severing effect of TMR-actin is countered by filament stabilizing factors, phalloidin, S1, and tropomyosin. These results point to an analogy between the effects of TMR-actin and severing proteins on F-actin, and imply that TMR-actin may be inappropriate for investigations of actin filaments dynamics. PMID:15298916

  15. Accelerated actin filament polymerization from microtubule plus-ends

    PubMed Central

    Henty-Ridilla, Jessica L.; Rankova, Aneliya; Eskin, Julian A.; Kenny, Katelyn; Goode, Bruce L.

    2016-01-01

    Microtubules govern actin network remodeling in a wide range of biological processes, yet the mechanisms underlying this cytoskeletal crosstalk have remained obscure. Here we used single-molecule fluorescence microscopy to show that the microtubule plus-end associated protein CLIP-170 binds tightly to formins to accelerate actin filament elongation. Furthermore, we observed mDia1 dimers and CLIP-170 dimers co-tracking growing filament ends for minutes. CLIP-170-mDia1 complexes promoted actin polymerization approximately 18 times faster than free barbed end growth, while simultaneously enhancing protection from capping protein. We used a microtubule-actin dynamics co-reconstitution system to observe CLIP-170-mDia1 complexes being recruited to growing microtubule ends by EB1. The complexes triggered rapid growth of actin filaments that remained attached to the microtubule surface. These activities of CLIP-170 were required in primary neurons for normal dendritic morphology. Thus, our results reveal a cellular mechanism whereby growing microtubule plus-ends direct rapid actin assembly. PMID:27199431

  16. Actin polymerization or myosin contraction: two ways to build up cortical tension for symmetry breaking

    PubMed Central

    Carvalho, Kevin; Lemière, Joël; Faqir, Fahima; Manzi, John; Blanchoin, Laurent; Plastino, Julie; Betz, Timo; Sykes, Cécile

    2013-01-01

    Cells use complex biochemical pathways to drive shape changes for polarization and movement. One of these pathways is the self-assembly of actin filaments and myosin motors that together produce the forces and tensions that drive cell shape changes. Whereas the role of actin and myosin motors in cell polarization is clear, the exact mechanism of how the cortex, a thin shell of actin that is underneath the plasma membrane, can drive cell shape changes is still an open question. Here, we address this issue using biomimetic systems: the actin cortex is reconstituted on liposome membranes, in an ‘outside geometry’. The actin shell is either grown from an activator of actin polymerization immobilized at the membrane by a biotin–streptavidin link, or built by simple adsorption of biotinylated actin filaments to the membrane, in the presence or absence of myosin motors. We show that tension in the actin network can be induced either by active actin polymerization on the membrane via the Arp2/3 complex or by myosin II filament pulling activity. Symmetry breaking and spontaneous polarization occur above a critical tension that opens up a crack in the actin shell. We show that this critical tension is reached by growing branched networks, nucleated by the Arp2/3 complex, in a concentration window of capping protein that limits actin filament growth and by a sufficient number of motors that pull on actin filaments. Our study provides the groundwork to understanding the physical mechanisms at work during polarization prior to cell shape modifications. PMID:24062578

  17. Three-dimensional structure of actin filaments and of an actin gel made with actin-binding protein

    PubMed Central

    1983-01-01

    Purified muscle actin and mixtures of actin and actin-binding protein were examined in the transmission electron microscope after fixation, critical point drying, and rotary shadowing. The three-dimensional structure of the protein assemblies was analyzed by a computer-assisted graphic analysis applicable to generalized filament networks. This analysis yielded information concerning the frequency of filament intersections, the filament length between these intersections, the angle at which filaments branch at these intersections, and the concentration of filaments within a defined volume. Purified actin at a concentration of 1 mg/ml assembled into a uniform mass of long filaments which overlap at random angles between 0 degrees and 90 degrees. Actin in the presence of macrophage actin-binding protein assembled into short, straight filaments, organized in a perpendicular branching network. The distance between branch points was inversely related to the molar ratio of actin-binding protein to actin. This distance was what would be predicted if actin filaments grew at right angles off of nucleation sites on the two ends of actin-binding protein dimers, and then annealed. The results suggest that actin in combination with actin-binding protein self-assembles to form a three- dimensional network resembling the peripheral cytoskeleton of motile cells. PMID:6682423

  18. Three-dimensional structure of actin filaments and of an actin gel made with actin-binding protein.

    PubMed

    Niederman, R; Amrein, P C; Hartwig, J

    1983-05-01

    Purified muscle actin and mixtures of actin and actin-binding protein were examined in the transmission electron microscope after fixation, critical point drying, and rotary shadowing. The three-dimensional structure of the protein assemblies was analyzed by a computer-assisted graphic analysis applicable to generalized filament networks. This analysis yielded information concerning the frequency of filament intersections, the filament length between these intersections, the angle at which filaments branch at these intersections, and the concentration of filaments within a defined volume. Purified actin at a concentration of 1 mg/ml assembled into a uniform mass of long filaments which overlap at random angles between 0 degrees and 90 degrees. Actin in the presence of macrophage actin-binding protein assembled into short, straight filaments, organized in a perpendicular branching network. The distance between branch points was inversely related to the molar ratio of actin-binding protein to actin. This distance was what would be predicted if actin filaments grew at right angles off of nucleation sites on the two ends of actin-binding protein dimers, and then annealed. The results suggest that actin in combination with actin-binding protein self-assembles to form a three-dimensional network resembling the peripheral cytoskeleton of motile cells.

  19. Temperature-induced sol-gel transition and microgel formation in α-actinin cross-linked actin networks: A rheological study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tempel, M.; Isenberg, G.; Sackmann, E.

    1996-08-01

    We have studied the sol-gel transition, the viscoelastic and the structural properties of networks constituted of semiflexible actin filaments cross-linked by α-actinin. Cross-linking was regulated in a reversible way by varying the temperature through the association-dissociation equilibrium of the actin-α-actinin system. Viscoelastic parameters [shear storage modulus G'(ω), phase shift tan(Φ)(ω), creep compliance J(t)] were measured as a function of temperature and actin-to-cross-linker ratio by a magnetically driven rotating disc rheometer. G'(ω) and tan(Φ)(ω) were studied at a frequency ω corresponding to the elastic plateau regime of the G'(ω) versus ω spectrum of the purely entangled solution. The microstructure of the networks was viewed by negative staining electron microscopy (EM). The phase shift tan(Φ) (or equivalently the viscosity η) diverges and reaches a maximum when approaching the apparent gel point from lower and higher temperatures, and the maximum defines the gel point (temperature Tg). The elastic plateau modulus G'N diverges at temperatures beyond this gel point TTg. The cross-linking transition (corresponding to a sol-gel transition at zero frequency) is interpreted in terms of a percolation model and the divergence of G'N at TTg), (2) that microscopic segregation takes place at T<=Tg leading to local formation of clusters (a state termed microgel), and (3) that at low actin-α-actinin ratios (rAα<=10) and low temperatures (T<=10 °C) macroscopic segregation into bundles of cross-linked actin filaments and a diluted solution of actin filaments is observed. The three regimes of network structure are represented by an

  20. Ligand-mediated Galectin-1 endocytosis prevents intraneural H2O2 production promoting F-actin dynamics reactivation and axonal re-growth.

    PubMed

    Quintá, Héctor R; Wilson, Carlos; Blidner, Ada G; González-Billault, Christian; Pasquini, Laura A; Rabinovich, Gabriel A; Pasquini, Juana M

    2016-09-01

    Axonal growth cone collapse following spinal cord injury (SCI) is promoted by semaphorin3A (Sema3A) signaling via PlexinA4 surface receptor. This interaction triggers intracellular signaling events leading to increased hydrogen peroxide levels which in turn promote filamentous actin (F-actin) destabilization and subsequent inhibition of axonal re-growth. In the current study, we demonstrated that treatment with galectin-1 (Gal-1), in its dimeric form, promotes a decrease in hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) levels and F-actin repolimerization in the growth cone and in the filopodium of neuron surfaces. This effect was dependent on the carbohydrate recognition activity of Gal-1, as it was prevented using a Gal-1 mutant lacking carbohydrate-binding activity. Furthermore, Gal-1 promoted its own active ligand-mediated endocytosis together with the PlexinA4 receptor, through mechanisms involving complex branched N-glycans. In summary, our results suggest that Gal-1, mainly in its dimeric form, promotes re-activation of actin cytoskeleton dynamics via internalization of the PlexinA4/Gal-1 complex. This mechanism could explain, at least in part, critical events in axonal regeneration including the full axonal re-growth process, de novo formation of synapse clustering, axonal re-myelination and functional recovery of coordinated locomotor activities in an in vivo acute and chronic SCI model. Axonal regeneration is a response of injured nerve cells critical for nerve repair in human spinal cord injury. Understanding the molecular mechanisms controlling nerve repair by Galectin-1, may be critical for therapeutic intervention. Our results show that Galectin-1; in its dimeric form, interferes with hydrogen peroxide production triggered by Semaphorin3A. The high levels of this reactive oxygen species (ROS) seem to be the main factor preventing axonal regeneration due to promotion of actin depolymerization at the axonal growth cone. Thus, Galectin-1 administration emerges as a novel

  1. Actinic reticuloid

    SciTech Connect

    Marx, J.L.; Vale, M.; Dermer, P.; Ragaz, A.; Michaelides, P.; Gladstein, A.H.

    1982-09-01

    A 58-year-old man has his condition diagnosed as actinic reticuloid on the basis of clinical and histologic findings and phototesting data. He had clinical features resembling mycosis fungoides in light-exposed areas. Histologic findings disclosed a bandlike infiltrate with atypical mononuclear cells in the dermis and scattered atypical cells in the epidermis. Electron microscopy disclosed mononuclear cells with bizarre, convoluted nuclei, resembling cerebriform cells of Lutzner. Phototesting disclosed a diminished minimal erythemal threshold to UV-B and UV-A. Microscopic changes resembling actinic reticuloid were reproduced in this patient 24 and 72 hours after exposure to 15 minimal erythemal doses of UV-B.

  2. Mesoscopic model of actin-based propulsion.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Jie; Mogilner, Alex

    2012-01-01

    Two theoretical models dominate current understanding of actin-based propulsion: microscopic polymerization ratchet model predicts that growing and writhing actin filaments generate forces and movements, while macroscopic elastic propulsion model suggests that deformation and stress of growing actin gel are responsible for the propulsion. We examine both experimentally and computationally the 2D movement of ellipsoidal beads propelled by actin tails and show that neither of the two models can explain the observed bistability of the orientation of the beads. To explain the data, we develop a 2D hybrid mesoscopic model by reconciling these two models such that individual actin filaments undergoing nucleation, elongation, attachment, detachment and capping are embedded into the boundary of a node-spring viscoelastic network representing the macroscopic actin gel. Stochastic simulations of this 'in silico' actin network show that the combined effects of the macroscopic elastic deformation and microscopic ratchets can explain the observed bistable orientation of the actin-propelled ellipsoidal beads. To test the theory further, we analyze observed distribution of the curvatures of the trajectories and show that the hybrid model's predictions fit the data. Finally, we demonstrate that the model can explain both concave-up and concave-down force-velocity relations for growing actin networks depending on the characteristic time scale and network recoil. To summarize, we propose that both microscopic polymerization ratchets and macroscopic stresses of the deformable actin network are responsible for the force and movement generation.

  3. Mesoscopic Model of Actin-Based Propulsion

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Jie; Mogilner, Alex

    2012-01-01

    Two theoretical models dominate current understanding of actin-based propulsion: microscopic polymerization ratchet model predicts that growing and writhing actin filaments generate forces and movements, while macroscopic elastic propulsion model suggests that deformation and stress of growing actin gel are responsible for the propulsion. We examine both experimentally and computationally the 2D movement of ellipsoidal beads propelled by actin tails and show that neither of the two models can explain the observed bistability of the orientation of the beads. To explain the data, we develop a 2D hybrid mesoscopic model by reconciling these two models such that individual actin filaments undergoing nucleation, elongation, attachment, detachment and capping are embedded into the boundary of a node-spring viscoelastic network representing the macroscopic actin gel. Stochastic simulations of this ‘in silico’ actin network show that the combined effects of the macroscopic elastic deformation and microscopic ratchets can explain the observed bistable orientation of the actin-propelled ellipsoidal beads. To test the theory further, we analyze observed distribution of the curvatures of the trajectories and show that the hybrid model's predictions fit the data. Finally, we demonstrate that the model can explain both concave-up and concave-down force-velocity relations for growing actin networks depending on the characteristic time scale and network recoil. To summarize, we propose that both microscopic polymerization ratchets and macroscopic stresses of the deformable actin network are responsible for the force and movement generation. PMID:23133366

  4. Disruption of the actin cytoskeleton results in the promotion of gravitropism in inflorescence stems and hypocotyls of Arabidopsis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yamamoto, Kazuyoshi; Kiss, John Z.

    2002-01-01

    The actin cytoskeleton is hypothesized to play a major role in gravity perception and transduction mechanisms in roots of plants. To determine whether actin microfilaments (MFs) are involved in these processes in stem-like organs, we studied gravitropism in Arabidopsis inflorescence stems and hypocotyls. Localization studies using Alexa Fluor-phalloidin in conjugation with confocal microscopy demonstrated a longitudinally and transversely oriented actin MF network in endodermal cells of stems and hypocotyls. Latrunculin B (Lat-B) treatment of hypocotyls caused depolymerization of actin MFs in endodermal cells and a significant reduction of hypocotyl growth rates. Actin MFs in Lat-B-treated inflorescence stems also were disrupted, but growth rates were not affected. Despite disruption of the actin cytoskeleton in these two organs, Lat-B-treated stems and hypocotyls exhibited a promotion of gravitropic curvature in response to reorientation. In contrast, Lat-B reduced gravitropic curvature in roots but also reduced the growth rate. Thus, in contrast to prevailing hypotheses, our results suggest that actin MFs are not a necessary component of gravitropism in inflorescence stems and hypocotyls. Furthermore, this is the first study to demonstrate a prominent actin MF network in endodermal cells in the putative gravity-perceiving cells in stems.

  5. Disruption of the Actin Cytoskeleton Results in the Promotion of Gravitropism in Inflorescence Stems and Hypocotyls of Arabidopsis1

    PubMed Central

    Yamamoto, Kazuyoshi; Kiss, John Z.

    2002-01-01

    The actin cytoskeleton is hypothesized to play a major role in gravity perception and transduction mechanisms in roots of plants. To determine whether actin microfilaments (MFs) are involved in these processes in stem-like organs, we studied gravitropism in Arabidopsis inflorescence stems and hypocotyls. Localization studies using Alexa Fluor-phalloidin in conjugation with confocal microscopy demonstrated a longitudinally and transversely oriented actin MF network in endodermal cells of stems and hypocotyls. Latrunculin B (Lat-B) treatment of hypocotyls caused depolymerization of actin MFs in endodermal cells and a significant reduction of hypocotyl growth rates. Actin MFs in Lat-B-treated inflorescence stems also were disrupted, but growth rates were not affected. Despite disruption of the actin cytoskeleton in these two organs, Lat-B-treated stems and hypocotyls exhibited a promotion of gravitropic curvature in response to reorientation. In contrast, Lat-B reduced gravitropic curvature in roots but also reduced the growth rate. Thus, in contrast to prevailing hypotheses, our results suggest that actin MFs are not a necessary component of gravitropism in inflorescence stems and hypocotyls. Furthermore, this is the first study to demonstrate a prominent actin MF network in endodermal cells in the putative gravity-perceiving cells in stems. PMID:11842170

  6. Disruption of the actin cytoskeleton results in the promotion of gravitropism in inflorescence stems and hypocotyls of Arabidopsis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yamamoto, Kazuyoshi; Kiss, John Z.

    2002-01-01

    The actin cytoskeleton is hypothesized to play a major role in gravity perception and transduction mechanisms in roots of plants. To determine whether actin microfilaments (MFs) are involved in these processes in stem-like organs, we studied gravitropism in Arabidopsis inflorescence stems and hypocotyls. Localization studies using Alexa Fluor-phalloidin in conjugation with confocal microscopy demonstrated a longitudinally and transversely oriented actin MF network in endodermal cells of stems and hypocotyls. Latrunculin B (Lat-B) treatment of hypocotyls caused depolymerization of actin MFs in endodermal cells and a significant reduction of hypocotyl growth rates. Actin MFs in Lat-B-treated inflorescence stems also were disrupted, but growth rates were not affected. Despite disruption of the actin cytoskeleton in these two organs, Lat-B-treated stems and hypocotyls exhibited a promotion of gravitropic curvature in response to reorientation. In contrast, Lat-B reduced gravitropic curvature in roots but also reduced the growth rate. Thus, in contrast to prevailing hypotheses, our results suggest that actin MFs are not a necessary component of gravitropism in inflorescence stems and hypocotyls. Furthermore, this is the first study to demonstrate a prominent actin MF network in endodermal cells in the putative gravity-perceiving cells in stems.

  7. Disruption of the actin cytoskeleton results in the promotion of gravitropism in inflorescence stems and hypocotyls of Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Kazuyoshi; Kiss, John Z

    2002-02-01

    The actin cytoskeleton is hypothesized to play a major role in gravity perception and transduction mechanisms in roots of plants. To determine whether actin microfilaments (MFs) are involved in these processes in stem-like organs, we studied gravitropism in Arabidopsis inflorescence stems and hypocotyls. Localization studies using Alexa Fluor-phalloidin in conjugation with confocal microscopy demonstrated a longitudinally and transversely oriented actin MF network in endodermal cells of stems and hypocotyls. Latrunculin B (Lat-B) treatment of hypocotyls caused depolymerization of actin MFs in endodermal cells and a significant reduction of hypocotyl growth rates. Actin MFs in Lat-B-treated inflorescence stems also were disrupted, but growth rates were not affected. Despite disruption of the actin cytoskeleton in these two organs, Lat-B-treated stems and hypocotyls exhibited a promotion of gravitropic curvature in response to reorientation. In contrast, Lat-B reduced gravitropic curvature in roots but also reduced the growth rate. Thus, in contrast to prevailing hypotheses, our results suggest that actin MFs are not a necessary component of gravitropism in inflorescence stems and hypocotyls. Furthermore, this is the first study to demonstrate a prominent actin MF network in endodermal cells in the putative gravity-perceiving cells in stems.

  8. The Actin-Binding Proteins Eps8 and Gelsolin Have Complementary Roles in Regulating the Growth and Stability of Mechanosensory Hair Bundles of Mammalian Cochlear Outer Hair Cells

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Stuart L.; Parker, Andy; Kuhn, Stephanie; Bowl, Mike; Marcotti, Walter; Brown, Steve D. M.

    2014-01-01

    Sound transduction depends upon mechanosensitive channels localized on the hair-like bundles that project from the apical surface of cochlear hair cells. Hair bundles show a stair-case structure composed of rows of stereocilia, and each stereocilium contains a core of tightly-packed and uniformly-polarized actin filaments. The growth and maintenance of the stereociliary actin core are dynamically regulated. Recently, it was shown that the actin-binding protein gelsolin is expressed in the stereocilia of outer hair cells (OHCs) and in its absence they become long and straggly. Gelsolin is part of a whirlin scaffolding protein complex at the stereocilia tip, which has been shown to interact with other actin regulatory molecules such as Eps8. Here we investigated the physiological effects associated with the absence of gelsolin and its possible overlapping role with Eps8. We found that, in contrast to Eps8, gelsolin does not affect mechanoelectrical transduction during immature stages of development. Moreover, OHCs from gelsolin knockout mice were able to mature into fully functional sensory receptors as judged by the normal resting membrane potential and basolateral membrane currents. Mechanoelectrical transducer current in gelsolin-Eps8 double knockout mice showed a profile similar to that observed in the single mutants for Eps8. We propose that gelsolin has a non-overlapping role with Eps8. While Eps8 is mainly involved in the initial growth of stereocilia in both inner hair cells (IHCs) and OHCs, gelsolin is required for the maintenance of mature hair bundles of low-frequency OHCs after the onset of hearing. PMID:24475274

  9. The actin-binding proteins eps8 and gelsolin have complementary roles in regulating the growth and stability of mechanosensory hair bundles of mammalian cochlear outer hair cells.

    PubMed

    Olt, Jennifer; Mburu, Philomena; Johnson, Stuart L; Parker, Andy; Kuhn, Stephanie; Bowl, Mike; Marcotti, Walter; Brown, Steve D M

    2014-01-01

    Sound transduction depends upon mechanosensitive channels localized on the hair-like bundles that project from the apical surface of cochlear hair cells. Hair bundles show a stair-case structure composed of rows of stereocilia, and each stereocilium contains a core of tightly-packed and uniformly-polarized actin filaments. The growth and maintenance of the stereociliary actin core are dynamically regulated. Recently, it was shown that the actin-binding protein gelsolin is expressed in the stereocilia of outer hair cells (OHCs) and in its absence they become long and straggly. Gelsolin is part of a whirlin scaffolding protein complex at the stereocilia tip, which has been shown to interact with other actin regulatory molecules such as Eps8. Here we investigated the physiological effects associated with the absence of gelsolin and its possible overlapping role with Eps8. We found that, in contrast to Eps8, gelsolin does not affect mechanoelectrical transduction during immature stages of development. Moreover, OHCs from gelsolin knockout mice were able to mature into fully functional sensory receptors as judged by the normal resting membrane potential and basolateral membrane currents. Mechanoelectrical transducer current in gelsolin-Eps8 double knockout mice showed a profile similar to that observed in the single mutants for Eps8. We propose that gelsolin has a non-overlapping role with Eps8. While Eps8 is mainly involved in the initial growth of stereocilia in both inner hair cells (IHCs) and OHCs, gelsolin is required for the maintenance of mature hair bundles of low-frequency OHCs after the onset of hearing.

  10. The polarity protein Inturned links NPHP4 to Daam1 to control the subapical actin network in multiciliated cells.

    PubMed

    Yasunaga, Takayuki; Hoff, Sylvia; Schell, Christoph; Helmstädter, Martin; Kretz, Oliver; Kuechlin, Sebastian; Yakulov, Toma A; Engel, Christina; Müller, Barbara; Bensch, Robert; Ronneberger, Olaf; Huber, Tobias B; Lienkamp, Soeren S; Walz, Gerd

    2015-12-07

    Motile cilia polarization requires intracellular anchorage to the cytoskeleton; however, the molecular machinery that supports this process remains elusive. We report that Inturned plays a central role in coordinating the interaction between cilia-associated proteins and actin-nucleation factors. We observed that knockdown of nphp4 in multiciliated cells of the Xenopus laevis epidermis compromised ciliogenesis and directional fluid flow. Depletion of nphp4 disrupted the subapical actin layer. Comparison to the structural defects caused by inturned depletion revealed striking similarities. Furthermore, coimmunoprecipitation assays demonstrated that the two proteins interact with each other and that Inturned mediates the formation of ternary protein complexes between NPHP4 and DAAM1. Knockdown of daam1, but not formin-2, resulted in similar disruption of the subapical actin web, whereas nphp4 depletion prevented the association of Inturned with the basal bodies. Thus, Inturned appears to function as an adaptor protein that couples cilia-associated molecules to actin-modifying proteins to rearrange the local actin cytoskeleton.

  11. The polarity protein Inturned links NPHP4 to Daam1 to control the subapical actin network in multiciliated cells

    PubMed Central

    Yasunaga, Takayuki; Hoff, Sylvia; Schell, Christoph; Helmstädter, Martin; Kretz, Oliver; Kuechlin, Sebastian; Yakulov, Toma A.; Engel, Christina; Müller, Barbara; Bensch, Robert; Ronneberger, Olaf; Huber, Tobias B.; Lienkamp, Soeren S.

    2015-01-01

    Motile cilia polarization requires intracellular anchorage to the cytoskeleton; however, the molecular machinery that supports this process remains elusive. We report that Inturned plays a central role in coordinating the interaction between cilia-associated proteins and actin-nucleation factors. We observed that knockdown of nphp4 in multiciliated cells of the Xenopus laevis epidermis compromised ciliogenesis and directional fluid flow. Depletion of nphp4 disrupted the subapical actin layer. Comparison to the structural defects caused by inturned depletion revealed striking similarities. Furthermore, coimmunoprecipitation assays demonstrated that the two proteins interact with each other and that Inturned mediates the formation of ternary protein complexes between NPHP4 and DAAM1. Knockdown of daam1, but not formin-2, resulted in similar disruption of the subapical actin web, whereas nphp4 depletion prevented the association of Inturned with the basal bodies. Thus, Inturned appears to function as an adaptor protein that couples cilia-associated molecules to actin-modifying proteins to rearrange the local actin cytoskeleton. PMID:26644512

  12. Bacterial Actins.

    PubMed

    Izoré, Thierry; van den Ent, Fusinita

    2017-01-01

    A diverse set of protein polymers, structurally related to actin filaments contributes to the organization of bacterial cells as cytomotive or cytoskeletal filaments. This chapter describes actin homologs encoded by bacterial chromosomes. MamK filaments, unique to magnetotactic bacteria, help establishing magnetic biological compasses by interacting with magnetosomes. Magnetosomes are intracellular membrane invaginations containing biomineralized crystals of iron oxide that are positioned by MamK along the long-axis of the cell. FtsA is widespread across bacteria and it is one of the earliest components of the divisome to arrive at midcell, where it anchors the cell division machinery to the membrane. FtsA binds directly to FtsZ filaments and to the membrane through its C-terminus. FtsA shows altered domain architecture when compared to the canonical actin fold. FtsA's subdomain 1C replaces subdomain 1B of other members of the actin family and is located on the opposite side of the molecule. Nevertheless, when FtsA assembles into protofilaments, the protofilament structure is preserved, as subdomain 1C replaces subdomain IB of the following subunit in a canonical actin filament. MreB has an essential role in shape-maintenance of most rod-shaped bacteria. Unusually, MreB filaments assemble from two protofilaments in a flat and antiparallel arrangement. This non-polar architecture implies that both MreB filament ends are structurally identical. MreB filaments bind directly to membranes where they interact with both cytosolic and membrane proteins, thereby forming a key component of the elongasome. MreB filaments in cells are short and dynamic, moving around the long axis of rod-shaped cells, sensing curvature of the membrane and being implicated in peptidoglycan synthesis.

  13. Adaptive importance sampling for network growth models

    PubMed Central

    Holmes, Susan P.

    2016-01-01

    Network Growth Models such as Preferential Attachment and Duplication/Divergence are popular generative models with which to study complex networks in biology, sociology, and computer science. However, analyzing them within the framework of model selection and statistical inference is often complicated and computationally difficult, particularly when comparing models that are not directly related or nested. In practice, ad hoc methods are often used with uncertain results. If possible, the use of standard likelihood-based statistical model selection techniques is desirable. With this in mind, we develop an Adaptive Importance Sampling algorithm for estimating likelihoods of Network Growth Models. We introduce the use of the classic Plackett-Luce model of rankings as a family of importance distributions. Updates to importance distributions are performed iteratively via the Cross-Entropy Method with an additional correction for degeneracy/over-fitting inspired by the Minimum Description Length principle. This correction can be applied to other estimation problems using the Cross-Entropy method for integration/approximate counting, and it provides an interpretation of Adaptive Importance Sampling as iterative model selection. Empirical results for the Preferential Attachment model are given, along with a comparison to an alternative established technique, Annealed Importance Sampling. PMID:27182098

  14. Employment Growth through Labor Flow Networks

    PubMed Central

    Guerrero, Omar A.; Axtell, Robert L.

    2013-01-01

    It is conventional in labor economics to treat all workers who are seeking new jobs as belonging to a labor pool, and all firms that have job vacancies as an employer pool, and then match workers to jobs. Here we develop a new approach to study labor and firm dynamics. By combining the emerging science of networks with newly available employment micro-data, comprehensive at the level of whole countries, we are able to broadly characterize the process through which workers move between firms. Specifically, for each firm in an economy as a node in a graph, we draw edges between firms if a worker has migrated between them, possibly with a spell of unemployment in between. An economy's overall graph of firm-worker interactions is an object we call the labor flow network (LFN). This is the first study that characterizes a LFN for an entire economy. We explore the properties of this network, including its topology, its community structure, and its relationship to economic variables. It is shown that LFNs can be useful in identifying firms with high growth potential. We relate LFNs to other notions of high performance firms. Specifically, it is shown that fewer than 10% of firms account for nearly 90% of all employment growth. We conclude with a model in which empirically-salient LFNs emerge from the interaction of heterogeneous adaptive agents in a decentralized labor market. PMID:23658682

  15. IQGAP and mitotic exit network (MEN) proteins are required for cytokinesis and re-polarization of the actin cytoskeleton in the budding yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Corbett, Mark; Xiong, Yulan; Boyne, James R; Wright, Daniel J; Munro, Ewen; Price, Clive

    2006-11-01

    In budding yeast the final stages of the cell division cycle, cytokinesis and cell separation, are distinct events that require to be coupled, both together and with mitotic exit. Here we demonstrate that mutations in genes of the mitotic exit network (MEN) prevent cell separation and are synthetically lethal in combination with both cytokinesis and septation defective mutations. Analysis of the synthetic lethal phenotypes reveals that Iqg1p functions in combination with the MEN components, Tem1p, Cdc15p Dbf20p and Dbf2p to govern the re-polarization of the actin cytoskeleton to either side of the bud neck. In addition phosphorylation of the conserved PCH protein, Hof1p, is dependent upon these activities and requires actin ring assembly. Recruitment of Dbf2p to the bud neck is dependent upon actin ring assembly and correlates with Hof1p phosphorylation. Failure to phosphorylate Hof1p results in the increased stability of the protein and its persistence at the bud neck. These data establish a mechanistic dependency of cell separation upon an intermediate step requiring actomyosin ring assembly.

  16. Plasma membrane-associated SCAR complex subunits promote cortical F-actin accumulation and normal growth characteristics in Arabidopsis roots

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The ARP2/3 complex, a highly conserved nucleator of F-actin polymerization, and its activator, the SCAR complex, have been shown to play important roles in leaf epidermal cell morphogenesis in Arabidopsis. However, the intracellular site(s) and function(s) of SCAR complex and ARP2/3 complex-depende...

  17. Waves of actin and microtubule polymerization drive microtubule-based transport and neurite growth before single axon formation

    PubMed Central

    Winans, Amy M; Collins, Sean R; Meyer, Tobias

    2016-01-01

    Many developing neurons transition through a multi-polar state with many competing neurites before assuming a unipolar state with one axon and multiple dendrites. Hallmarks of the multi-polar state are large fluctuations in microtubule-based transport into and outgrowth of different neurites, although what drives these fluctuations remains elusive. We show that actin waves, which stochastically migrate from the cell body towards neurite tips, direct microtubule-based transport during the multi-polar state. Our data argue for a mechanical control system whereby actin waves transiently widen the neurite shaft to allow increased microtubule polymerization to direct Kinesin-based transport and create bursts of neurite extension. Actin waves also require microtubule polymerization, arguing that positive feedback links these two components. We propose that actin waves create large stochastic fluctuations in microtubule-based transport and neurite outgrowth, promoting competition between neurites as they explore the environment until sufficient external cues can direct one to become the axon. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.12387.001 PMID:26836307

  18. Growth-Induced Instability in Metabolic Networks

    SciTech Connect

    Goyal, Sidhartha; Wingreen, Ned S.

    2007-03-30

    Product-feedback inhibition is a ubiquitous regulatory scheme for maintaining homeostasis in living cells. Individual metabolic pathways with product-feedback inhibition are stable as long as one pathway step is rate limiting. However, pathways are often coupled both by the use of a common substrate and by stoichiometric utilization of their products for cell growth. We show that such a coupled network with product-feedback inhibition may exhibit limit-cycle oscillations which arise via a Hopf bifurcation. Our results highlight novel evolutionary constraints on the architecture of metabolism.

  19. The growth determinants and transport properties of tunneling nanotube networks between B lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Osteikoetxea-Molnár, Anikó; Szabó-Meleg, Edina; Tóth, Eszter Angéla; Oszvald, Ádám; Izsépi, Emese; Kremlitzka, Mariann; Biri, Beáta; Nyitray, László; Bozó, Tamás; Németh, Péter; Kellermayer, Miklós; Nyitrai, Miklós; Matko, Janos

    2016-12-01

    Tunneling nanotubes (TNTs) are long intercellular connecting structures providing a special transport route between two neighboring cells. To date TNTs have been reported in different cell types including immune cells such as T-, NK, dendritic cells, or macrophages. Here we report that mature, but not immature, B cells spontaneously form extensive TNT networks under conditions resembling the physiological environment. Live-cell fluorescence, structured illumination, and atomic force microscopic imaging provide new insights into the structure and dynamics of B cell TNTs. Importantly, the selective interaction of cell surface integrins with fibronectin or laminin extracellular matrix proteins proved to be essential for initiating TNT growth in B cells. These TNTs display diversity in length and thickness and contain not only F-actin, but their majority also contain microtubules, which were found, however, not essential for TNT formation. Furthermore, we demonstrate that Ca(2+)-dependent cortical actin dynamics exert a fundamental control over TNT growth-retraction equilibrium, suggesting that actin filaments form the TNT skeleton. Non-muscle myosin 2 motor activity was shown to provide a negative control limiting the uncontrolled outgrowth of membranous protrusions. Moreover, we also show that spontaneous growth of TNTs is either reduced or increased by B cell receptor- or LPS-mediated activation signals, respectively, thus supporting the critical role of cytoplasmic Ca(2+) in regulation of TNT formation. Finally, we observed transport of various GM1/GM3(+) vesicles, lysosomes, and mitochondria inside TNTs, as well as intercellular exchange of MHC-II and B7-2 (CD86) molecules which may represent novel pathways of intercellular communication and immunoregulation.

  20. Defective Gpsm2/Gαi3 signalling disrupts stereocilia development and growth cone actin dynamics in Chudley-McCullough syndrome

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mauriac, Stephanie A.; Hien, Yeri E.; Bird, Jonathan E.; Carvalho, Steve Dos-Santos; Peyroutou, Ronan; Lee, Sze Chim; Moreau, Maite M.; Blanc, Jean-Michel; Geyser, Aysegul; Medina, Chantal; Thoumine, Olivier; Beer-Hammer, Sandra; Friedman, Thomas B.; Rüttiger, Lukas; Forge, Andrew; Nürnberg, Bernd; Sans, Nathalie; Montcouquiol, Mireille

    2017-04-01

    Mutations in GPSM2 cause Chudley-McCullough syndrome (CMCS), an autosomal recessive neurological disorder characterized by early-onset sensorineural deafness and brain anomalies. Here, we show that mutation of the mouse orthologue of GPSM2 affects actin-rich stereocilia elongation in auditory and vestibular hair cells, causing deafness and balance defects. The G-protein subunit Gαi3, a well-documented partner of Gpsm2, participates in the elongation process, and its absence also causes hearing deficits. We show that Gpsm2 defines an ~200 nm nanodomain at the tips of stereocilia and this localization requires the presence of Gαi3, myosin 15 and whirlin. Using single-molecule tracking, we report that loss of Gpsm2 leads to decreased outgrowth and a disruption of actin dynamics in neuronal growth cones. Our results elucidate the aetiology of CMCS and highlight a new molecular role for Gpsm2/Gαi3 in the regulation of actin dynamics in epithelial and neuronal tissues.

  1. Filopodia and actin arcs guide the assembly and transport of two populations of microtubules with unique dynamic parameters in neuronal growth cones

    PubMed Central

    Schaefer, Andrew W.; Kabir, Nurul; Forscher, Paul

    2002-01-01

    We have used multimode fluorescent speckle microscopy (FSM) and correlative differential interference contrast imaging to investigate the actin–microtubule (MT) interactions and polymer dynamics known to play a fundamental role in growth cone guidance. We report that MTs explore the peripheral domain (P-domain), exhibiting classical properties of dynamic instability. MT extension occurs preferentially along filopodia, which function as MT polymerization guides. Filopodial bundles undergo retrograde flow and also transport MTs. Thus, distal MT position is determined by the rate of plus-end MT assembly minus the rate of retrograde F-actin flow. Short MT displacements independent of flow are sometimes observed. MTs loop, buckle, and break as they are transported into the T-zone by retrograde flow. MT breakage results in exposure of new plus ends which can regrow, and minus ends which rapidly undergo catastrophes, resulting in efficient MT turnover. We also report a previously undetected presence of F-actin arc structures, which exhibit persistent retrograde movement across the T-zone into the central domain (C-domain) at ∼1/4 the rate of P-domain flow. Actin arcs interact with MTs and transport them into the C-domain. Interestingly, although the MTs associated with arcs are less dynamic than P-domain MTs, they elongate efficiently as a result of markedly lower catastrophe frequencies. PMID:12105186

  2. Suppressors of Yeast Actin Mutations

    PubMed Central

    Novick, P.; Osmond, B. C.; Botstein, D.

    1989-01-01

    Suppressors of a temperature-sensitive mutation (act1-1) in the single actin gene of Saccharomyces cerevisiae were selected that had simultaneously acquired a cold-sensitive growth phenotype. Five genes, called SAC (suppressor of actin) were defined by complementation tests; both suppression and cold-sensitive phenotypes were recessive. Three of the genes (SAC1, SAC2 and SAC3) were subjected to extensive genetic and phenotypic analysis, including molecular cloning. Suppression was found to be allele-specific with respect to actin alleles. The sac mutants, even in ACT1(+) genetic backgrounds, displayed phenotypes similar to those of actin mutants, notably aberrant organization of intracellular actin and deposition of chitin at the cell surface. These results are interpreted as being consistent with the idea that the SAC genes encode proteins that interact with actin, presumably as components or controllers of the assembly or stability of the yeast actin cytoskeleton. Two unexpected properties of the SAC1 gene were noted. Disruptions of the gene indicated that its function is essential only at temperatures below about 17° and all sac1 alleles are inviable when combined with act1-2. These properties are interpreted in the context of the evolution of the actin cytoskeleton of yeast. PMID:2656401

  3. Actin cortex architecture regulates cell surface tension.

    PubMed

    Chugh, Priyamvada; Clark, Andrew G; Smith, Matthew B; Cassani, Davide A D; Dierkes, Kai; Ragab, Anan; Roux, Philippe P; Charras, Guillaume; Salbreux, Guillaume; Paluch, Ewa K

    2017-06-01

    Animal cell shape is largely determined by the cortex, a thin actin network underlying the plasma membrane in which myosin-driven stresses generate contractile tension. Tension gradients result in local contractions and drive cell deformations. Previous cortical tension regulation studies have focused on myosin motors. Here, we show that cortical actin network architecture is equally important. First, we observe that actin cortex thickness and tension are inversely correlated during cell-cycle progression. We then show that the actin filament length regulators CFL1, CAPZB and DIAPH1 regulate mitotic cortex thickness and find that both increasing and decreasing thickness decreases tension in mitosis. This suggests that the mitotic cortex is poised close to a tension maximum. Finally, using a computational model, we identify a physical mechanism by which maximum tension is achieved at intermediate actin filament lengths. Our results indicate that actin network architecture, alongside myosin activity, is key to cell surface tension regulation.

  4. Fabrication of three-dimensional electrical connections by means of directed actin self-organization.

    PubMed

    Galland, Rémi; Leduc, Patrick; Guérin, Christophe; Peyrade, David; Blanchoin, Laurent; Théry, Manuel

    2013-05-01

    A promising approach to improve the performance of microelectronic devices is to build three-dimensional (3D) chips made of stacked circuits. However, a major hurdle lies in the fabrication of dense arrays of electrical interconnections between these layers, where accessibility is limited. Here we show that the directed growth and self-organization of actin filaments can offer a solution to this problem. We defined the shape and orientation of 3D actin networks through both micropatterning of actin nucleation factors and biochemical control of actin filament polymerization. Networks growing from two opposing layers were able to interpenetrate and form mechanically stable connections, which were then coated with gold using a selective metallization process. The electrical conductivity, robustness and modularity of the metallized self-organized connections make this approach potentially attractive for 3D chip manufacturing.

  5. A genome-wide analysis reveals that the Drosophila transcription factor Lola promotes axon growth in part by suppressing expression of the actin nucleation factor Spire

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The phylogenetically conserved transcription factor Lola is essential for many aspects of axon growth and guidance, synapse formation and neural circuit development in Drosophila. To date it has been difficult, however, to obtain an overall view of Lola functions and mechanisms. Results We use expression microarrays to identify the lola-dependent transcriptome in the Drosophila embryo. We find that lola regulates the expression of a large selection of genes that are known to affect each of several lola-dependent developmental processes. Among other loci, we find lola to be a negative regulator of spire, an actin nucleation factor that has been studied for its essential role in oogenesis. We show that spire is expressed in the nervous system and is required for a known lola-dependent axon guidance decision, growth of ISNb motor axons. We further show that reducing spire gene dosage suppresses this aspect of the lola phenotype, verifying that derepression of spire is an important contributor to the axon stalling phenotype of embryonic motor axons in lola mutants. Conclusions These data shed new light on the molecular mechanisms of many lola-dependent processes, and also identify several developmental processes not previously linked to lola that are apt to be regulated by this transcription factor. These data further demonstrate that excessive expression of the actin nucleation factor Spire is as deleterious for axon growth in vivo as is the loss of Spire, thus highlighting the need for a balance in the elementary steps of actin dynamics to achieve effective neuronal morphogenesis. PMID:22129300

  6. Growth dominates choice in network percolation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vijayaraghavan, Vikram S.; Noël, Pierre-André; Waagen, Alex; D'Souza, Raissa M.

    2013-09-01

    The onset of large-scale connectivity in a network (i.e., percolation) often has a major impact on the function of the system. Traditionally, graph percolation is analyzed by adding edges to a fixed set of initially isolated nodes. Several years ago, it was shown that adding nodes as well as edges to the graph can yield an infinite order transition, which is much smoother than the traditional second-order transition. More recently, it was shown that adding edges via a competitive process to a fixed set of initially isolated nodes can lead to a delayed, extremely abrupt percolation transition with a significant jump in large but finite systems. Here we analyze a process that combines both node arrival and edge competition. If started from a small collection of seed nodes, we show that the impact of node arrival dominates: although we can significantly delay percolation, the transition is of infinite order. Thus, node arrival can mitigate the trade-off between delay and abruptness that is characteristic of explosive percolation transitions. This realization may inspire new design rules where network growth can temper the effects of delay, creating opportunities for network intervention and control.

  7. Network structure impacts global commodity trade growth and resilience.

    PubMed

    Kharrazi, Ali; Rovenskaya, Elena; Fath, Brian D

    2017-01-01

    Global commodity trade networks are critical to our collective sustainable development. Their increasing interconnectedness pose two practical questions: (i) Do the current network configurations support their further growth? (ii) How resilient are these networks to economic shocks? We analyze the data of global commodity trade flows from 1996 to 2012 to evaluate the relationship between structural properties of the global commodity trade networks and (a) their dynamic growth, as well as (b) the resilience of their growth with respect to the 2009 global economic shock. Specifically, we explore the role of network efficiency and redundancy using the information theory-based network flow analysis. We find that, while network efficiency is positively correlated with growth, highly efficient systems appear to be less resilient, losing more and gaining less growth following an economic shock. While all examined networks are rather redundant, we find that network redundancy does not hinder their growth. Moreover, systems exhibiting higher levels of redundancy lose less and gain more growth following an economic shock. We suggest that a strategy to support making global trade networks more efficient via, e.g., preferential trade agreements and higher specialization, can promote their further growth; while a strategy to increase the global trade networks' redundancy via e.g., more abundant free-trade agreements, can improve their resilience to global economic shocks.

  8. Metabolic network modularity in archaea depends on growth conditions.

    PubMed

    Takemoto, Kazuhiro; Borjigin, Suritalatu

    2011-01-01

    Network modularity is an important structural feature in metabolic networks. A previous study suggested that the variability in natural habitat promotes metabolic network modularity in bacteria. However, since many factors influence the structure of the metabolic network, this phenomenon might be limited and there may be other explanations for the change in metabolic network modularity. Therefore, we focus on archaea because they belong to another domain of prokaryotes and show variability in growth conditions (e.g., trophic requirement and optimal growth temperature), but not in habitats because of their specialized growth conditions (e.g., high growth temperature). The relationship between biological features and metabolic network modularity is examined in detail. We first show the absence of a relationship between network modularity and habitat variability in archaea, as archaeal habitats are more limited than bacterial habitats. Although this finding implies the need for further studies regarding the differences in network modularity, it does not contradict previous work. Further investigations reveal alternative explanations. Specifically, growth conditions, trophic requirement, and optimal growth temperature, in particular, affect metabolic network modularity. We have discussed the mechanisms for the growth condition-dependant changes in network modularity. Our findings suggest different explanations for the changes in network modularity and provide new insights into adaptation and evolution in metabolic networks, despite several limitations of data analysis.

  9. A Continuum Model of Actin Waves in Dictyostelium discoideum

    PubMed Central

    Khamviwath, Varunyu; Hu, Jifeng; Othmer, Hans G.

    2013-01-01

    Actin waves are complex dynamical patterns of the dendritic network of filamentous actin in eukaryotes. We developed a model of actin waves in PTEN-deficient Dictyostelium discoideum by deriving an approximation of the dynamics of discrete actin filaments and combining it with a signaling pathway that controls filament branching. This signaling pathway, together with the actin network, contains a positive feedback loop that drives the actin waves. Our model predicts the structure, composition, and dynamics of waves that are consistent with existing experimental evidence, as well as the biochemical dependence on various protein partners. Simulation suggests that actin waves are initiated when local actin network activity, caused by an independent process, exceeds a certain threshold. Moreover, diffusion of proteins that form a positive feedback loop with the actin network alone is sufficient for propagation of actin waves at the observed speed of . Decay of the wave back can be caused by scarcity of network components, and the shape of actin waves is highly dependent on the filament disassembly rate. The model allows retraction of actin waves and captures formation of new wave fronts in broken waves. Our results demonstrate that a delicate balance between a positive feedback, filament disassembly, and local availability of network components is essential for the complex dynamics of actin waves. PMID:23741312

  10. Synthetic peptides that cause F-actin bundling and block actin depolymerization

    DOEpatents

    Sederoff, Heike [Raleigh, NC; Huber, Steven C [Savoy, IL; Larabell, Carolyn A [Berkeley, CA

    2011-10-18

    Synthetic peptides derived from sucrose synthase, and having homology to actin and actin-related proteins, sharing a common motif, useful for causing acting bundling and preventing actin depolymerization. Peptides exhibiting the common motif are described, as well as specific synthetic peptides which caused bundled actin and inhibit actin depolymerization. These peptides can be useful for treating a subject suffering from a disease characterized by cells having neoplastic growth, for anti-cancer therapeutics, delivered to subjects solely, or concomitantly or sequentially with other known cancer therapeutics. These peptides can also be used for stabilizing microfilaments in living cells and inhibiting growth of cells.

  11. Network structure impacts global commodity trade growth and resilience

    PubMed Central

    Rovenskaya, Elena; Fath, Brian D.

    2017-01-01

    Global commodity trade networks are critical to our collective sustainable development. Their increasing interconnectedness pose two practical questions: (i) Do the current network configurations support their further growth? (ii) How resilient are these networks to economic shocks? We analyze the data of global commodity trade flows from 1996 to 2012 to evaluate the relationship between structural properties of the global commodity trade networks and (a) their dynamic growth, as well as (b) the resilience of their growth with respect to the 2009 global economic shock. Specifically, we explore the role of network efficiency and redundancy using the information theory-based network flow analysis. We find that, while network efficiency is positively correlated with growth, highly efficient systems appear to be less resilient, losing more and gaining less growth following an economic shock. While all examined networks are rather redundant, we find that network redundancy does not hinder their growth. Moreover, systems exhibiting higher levels of redundancy lose less and gain more growth following an economic shock. We suggest that a strategy to support making global trade networks more efficient via, e.g., preferential trade agreements and higher specialization, can promote their further growth; while a strategy to increase the global trade networks’ redundancy via e.g., more abundant free-trade agreements, can improve their resilience to global economic shocks. PMID:28207790

  12. Functional synergy of actin filament cross-linking proteins.

    PubMed

    Tseng, Yiider; Schafer, Benjamin W; Almo, Steven C; Wirtz, Denis

    2002-07-12

    The organization of filamentous actin (F-actin) in resilient networks is coordinated by various F-actin cross-linking proteins. The relative tolerance of cells to null mutations of genes that code for a single actin cross-linking protein suggests that the functions of those proteins are highly redundant. This apparent functional redundancy may, however, reflect the limited resolution of available assays in assessing the mechanical role of F-actin cross-linking/bundling proteins. Using reconstituted F-actin networks and rheological methods, we demonstrate how alpha-actinin and fascin, two F-actin cross-linking/bundling proteins that co-localize along stress fibers and in lamellipodia, could synergistically enhance the resilience of F-actin networks in vitro. These two proteins can generate microfilament arrays that "yield" at a strain amplitude that is much larger than each one of the proteins separately. F-actin/alpha-actinin/fascin networks display strain-induced hardening, whereby the network "stiffens" under shear deformations, a phenomenon that is non-existent in F-actin/fascin networks and much weaker in F-actin/alpha-actinin networks. Strain-hardening is further enhanced at high rates of deformation and high concentrations of actin cross-linking proteins. A simplified model suggests that the optimum results of the competition between the increased stiffness of bundles and their decreased density of cross-links. Our studies support a re-evaluation of the notion of functional redundancy among cytoskeletal regulatory proteins.

  13. Bisphenol A affects germination and tube growth in Picea meyeri pollen through modulating Ca2+ flux and disturbing actin-dependent vesicular trafficking during cell wall construction.

    PubMed

    Chang, Tongjie; Fan, Chengyu; Man, Yi; Zhou, Junhui; Jing, Yanping

    2015-09-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA), a widespread pollutant, is reportedly harmful to humans, animals and plants. However, the effect of BPA on plant pollen tube growth, as well as the mechanism involved, remains unclear. Here, we report that BPA significantly inhibited Picea meyeri pollen germination and tube elongation in a dose-dependent manner. Transmission electron microscopy showed that BPA was detrimental to organelles such as mitochondria and Golgi apparatus. Non-invasive detection revealed that BPA inhibited extracellular Ca(2+) influx and promoted intracellular Ca(2+) efflux at the pollen tube tip, thereby inducing a dissipated Ca(2+) gradient. Fluorescence labeling showed that BPA disorganized actin filaments (AFs), which subsequently led to abnormal vesicle trafficking. Furthermore, BPA reduced the activity of acid phosphatase, a typical exocytosis enzyme. Moreover, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) analysis and subsequent fluorescence labeling revealed that BPA induced an abnormal deposition of cell wall components, including pectins and callose. Taken together, our results indicate that BPA, a ubiquitous environmental pollutant, disturbs Ca(2+) flux in P. meyeri pollen tubes, thus disrupting AF organization, resulting in abnormal actin-dependent vesicle trafficking and further affecting the deposition of cell wall components. These findings provide new insight into the mechanism of BPA toxicity in pollen tube tip growth.

  14. Actin binding proteins and spermiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Mruk, Dolores D

    2011-01-01

    Drebrin E, an actin-binding protein lacking intrinsic activity in the regulation of actin dynamics (e.g., polymerization, capping, nucleation, branching, cross-linking, bundling and severing), is known to recruit actin regulatory proteins to a specific cellular site. Herein, we critically evaluate recent findings in the field which illustrate that drebrin E works together with two other actin-binding proteins, namely Arp3 (actin-related protein 3, a component of the Arp2/3 complex that simultaneously controls actin nucleation for polymerization and branching of actin filaments) and Eps8 (epidermal growth factor receptor pathway substrate 8 that controls capping of the barbed ends of actin filaments, as well as actin filament bundling) to regulate the homeostasis of F-actin filament bundles at the ectoplasmic specialization (ES), a testis-specific atypical adherens junction (AJ) in the seminiferous epithelium. This is mediated by the strict temporal and spatial expression of these three actin-binding proteins at the apical and basal ES at the Sertoli cell-spermatid (step 8–19) and Sertoli-Sertoli cell interface, respectively, during the seminiferous epithelial cycle of spermatogenesis. In this Commentary, we put forth a possible model by which drebrin E may be acting as a platform upon which proteins (e.g., Arp3) that are needed to alter the conformation of actin filament bundles at the ES can be recruited to the site, thus facilitating changes in cell shape and cell position in the epithelium during spermiogenesis and spermiation. In short, drebrin E may be acting as a “logistic” distribution center to manage different regulatory proteins at the apical ES, thereby regulating the dynamics of actin filament bundles and modulating the plasticity of the apical ES. This would allow adhesion to be altered continuously throughout the epithelial cycle to accommodate spermatid movement in the seminiferous epithelium during spermiogenesis and spermiation. We also

  15. From Cytoskeleton to Gene Expression: Actin in the Nucleus.

    PubMed

    Viita, Tiina; Vartiainen, Maria K

    2017-01-01

    Although most people still associate actin mainly with the cytoskeleton, several lines of evidence, with the earliest studies dating back to decades ago, have emphasized the importance of actin also inside the cell nucleus. Actin has been linked to many gene expression processes from gene activation to chromatin remodeling, but also to maintenance of genomic integrity and intranuclear movement of chromosomes and chromosomal loci. Recent advances in visualizing different forms and dynamic properties of nuclear actin have clearly advanced our understanding of the basic concepts by which actin operates in the nucleus. In this chapter we address the different breakthroughs in nuclear actin studies, as well as discuss the regulation nuclear actin and the importance of nuclear actin dynamics in relation to its different nuclear functions. Our aim is to highlight the fact that actin should be considered as an essential component of the cell nucleus, and its nuclear actions should be taken into account also in experiments on cytoplasmic actin networks.

  16. Rho, nuclear actin, and actin-binding proteins in the regulation of transcription and gene expression

    PubMed Central

    Rajakylä, Eeva Kaisa; Vartiainen, Maria K

    2014-01-01

    Actin cytoskeleton is one of the main targets of Rho GTPases, which act as molecular switches on many signaling pathways. During the past decade, actin has emerged as an important regulator of gene expression. Nuclear actin plays a key role in transcription, chromatin remodeling, and pre-mRNA processing. In addition, the “status” of the actin cytoskeleton is used as a signaling intermediate by at least the MKL1-SRF and Hippo-pathways, which culminate in the transcriptional regulation of cytoskeletal and growth-promoting genes, respectively. Rho GTPases may therefore regulate gene expression by controlling either cytoplasmic or nuclear actin dynamics. Although the regulation of nuclear actin polymerization is still poorly understood, many actin-binding proteins, which are downstream effectors of Rho, are found in the nuclear compartment. In this review, we discuss the possible mechanisms and key proteins that may mediate the transcriptional regulation by Rho GTPases through actin. PMID:24603113

  17. Laplacian networks: Growth, local symmetry, and shape optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devauchelle, O.; Szymczak, P.; Pecelerowicz, M.; Cohen, Y.; Seybold, H. J.; Rothman, D. H.

    2017-03-01

    Inspired by river networks and other structures formed by Laplacian growth, we use the Loewner equation to investigate the growth of a network of thin fingers in a diffusion field. We first review previous contributions to illustrate how this formalism reduces the network's expansion to three rules, which respectively govern the velocity, the direction, and the nucleation of its growing branches. This framework allows us to establish the mathematical equivalence between three formulations of the direction rule, namely geodesic growth, growth that maintains local symmetry, and growth that maximizes flux into tips for a given amount of growth. Surprisingly, we find that this growth rule may result in a network different from the static configuration that optimizes flux into tips.

  18. Nonlinear growth: an origin of hub organization in complex networks

    PubMed Central

    Kaiser, Marcus

    2017-01-01

    Many real-world networks contain highly connected nodes called hubs. Hubs are often crucial for network function and spreading dynamics. However, classical models of how hubs originate during network development unrealistically assume that new nodes attain information about the connectivity (for example the degree) of existing nodes. Here, we introduce hub formation through nonlinear growth where the number of nodes generated at each stage increases over time and new nodes form connections independent of target node features. Our model reproduces variation in number of connections, hub occurrence time, and rich-club organization of networks ranging from protein–protein, neuronal and fibre tract brain networks to airline networks. Moreover, nonlinear growth gives a more generic representation of these networks compared with previous preferential attachment or duplication–divergence models. Overall, hub creation through nonlinear network expansion can serve as a benchmark model for studying the development of many real-world networks. PMID:28405356

  19. Actinic Prurigo.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Carreón, Alma Angélica; Rodríguez-Lobato, Erika; Rodríguez-Gutiérrez, Georgina; Cuevas-González, Juan Carlos; Mancheno-Valencia, Alexandra; Solís-Arias, Martha Patricia; Vega-Memije, María Elisa; Hojyo-Tomoka, María Teresa; Domínguez-Soto, Luciano

    2015-01-01

    Actinic prurigo is an idiopathic photodermatosis that affects the skin, as well as the labial and conjunctival mucosa in indigenous and mestizo populations of Latin America. It starts predominantly in childhood, has a chronic course, and is exacerbated with solar exposure. Little is known of its pathophysiology, including the known mechanisms of the participation of HLA-DR4 and an abnormal immunologic response with increase of T CD4+ lymphocytes. The presence of IgE, eosinophils, and mast cells suggests that it is a hypersensitivity reaction (likely type IVa or b). The diagnosis is clinical, and the presence of lymphoid follicles in the mucosal histopathologic study of mucosa is pathognomonic. The best available treatment to date is thalidomide, despite its secondary effects.

  20. The murine Nck SH2/SH3 adaptors are important for the development of mesoderm-derived embryonic structures and for regulating the cellular actin network.

    PubMed

    Bladt, Friedhelm; Aippersbach, Elke; Gelkop, Sigal; Strasser, Geraldine A; Nash, Piers; Tafuri, Anna; Gertler, Frank B; Pawson, Tony

    2003-07-01

    Mammalian Nck1 and Nck2 are closely related adaptor proteins that possess three SH3 domains, followed by an SH2 domain, and are implicated in coupling phosphotyrosine signals to polypeptides that regulate the actin cytoskeleton. However, the in vivo functions of Nck1 and Nck2 have not been defined. We have mutated the murine Nck1 and Nck2 genes and incorporated beta-galactosidase reporters into the mutant loci. In mouse embryos, the two Nck genes have broad and overlapping expression patterns. They are functionally redundant in the sense that mice deficient for either Nck1 or Nck2 are viable, whereas inactivation of both Nck1 and Nck2 results in profound defects in mesoderm-derived notochord and embryonic lethality at embryonic day 9.5. Fibroblast cell lines derived from Nck1(-/-) Nck2(-/-) embryos have defects in cell motility and in the organization of the lamellipodial actin network. These data suggest that the Nck SH2/SH3 adaptors have important functions in the development of mesodermal structures during embryogenesis, potentially linked to a role in cell movement and cytoskeletal organization.

  1. The Murine Nck SH2/SH3 Adaptors Are Important for the Development of Mesoderm-Derived Embryonic Structures and for Regulating the Cellular Actin Network

    PubMed Central

    Bladt, Friedhelm; Aippersbach, Elke; Gelkop, Sigal; Strasser, Geraldine A.; Nash, Piers; Tafuri, Anna; Gertler, Frank B.; Pawson, Tony

    2003-01-01

    Mammalian Nck1 and Nck2 are closely related adaptor proteins that possess three SH3 domains, followed by an SH2 domain, and are implicated in coupling phosphotyrosine signals to polypeptides that regulate the actin cytoskeleton. However, the in vivo functions of Nck1 and Nck2 have not been defined. We have mutated the murine Nck1 and Nck2 genes and incorporated β-galactosidase reporters into the mutant loci. In mouse embryos, the two Nck genes have broad and overlapping expression patterns. They are functionally redundant in the sense that mice deficient for either Nck1 or Nck2 are viable, whereas inactivation of both Nck1 and Nck2 results in profound defects in mesoderm-derived notochord and embryonic lethality at embryonic day 9.5. Fibroblast cell lines derived from Nck1−/− Nck2−/− embryos have defects in cell motility and in the organization of the lamellipodial actin network. These data suggest that the Nck SH2/SH3 adaptors have important functions in the development of mesodermal structures during embryogenesis, potentially linked to a role in cell movement and cytoskeletal organization. PMID:12808099

  2. Arabidopsis thaliana calmodulin-like protein CML24 regulates pollen tube growth by modulating the actin cytoskeleton and controlling the cytosolic Ca(2+) concentration.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xue; Wang, Shuang-Shuang; Wang, Mei; Qiao, Zhu; Bao, Chan-Chan; Zhang, Wei

    2014-10-01

    Cytosolic free calcium ([Ca(2+)]cyt), which is essential during pollen germination and pollen tube growth, can be sensed by calmodulin-like proteins (CMLs). The Arabidopsis thaliana genome encodes over 50 CMLs, the physiological role(s) of most of which are unknown. Here we show that the gene AtCML24 acts as a regulator of pollen germination and pollen tube extension, since the pollen produced by loss-of-function mutants germinated less rapidly than that of wild-type (WT) plants, the rate of pollen tube extension was slower, and the final length of the pollen tube was shorter. The [Ca(2+)]cyt within germinated pollen and extending pollen tubes produced by the cml24 mutant were higher than their equivalents in WT plants, and pollen tube extension was less sensitive to changes in external [K(+)] and [Ca(2+)]. The pollen and pollen tubes produced by cml24 mutants were characterized by a disorganized actin cytoskeleton and lowered sensitivity to the action of latrunculin B. The observations support an interaction between CML24 and [Ca(2+)]cyt and an involvement of CML24 in actin organization, thereby affecting pollen germination and pollen tube elongation.

  3. Logical gates in actin monomer.

    PubMed

    Adamatzky, Andrew

    2017-09-18

    We evaluate information processing capacity of a single actin molecule by calculating distributions of logical gates implemented by the molecule via propagating patterns of excitation. We represent a filamentous actin molecule as an excitable automaton network (F-actin automaton). where every atom updates its state depending on states of atoms its connected to with chemical bonds (hard neighbours) and atoms being in physical proximity to the atom (soft neighbours). A resting atom excites if a sum of its excited hard neighbours and a weighted sum of its soft neighbours belong to some specified interval. We demonstrate that F-actin automata implement OR, AND, XOR and AND-NOT gates via interacting patterns of excitation. Gate AND is the most common gate and gate XOR is the rarest. Using the architectures of gates discovered we implement one bit half-adder and controlled-not circuits in the F-actin automata. Speed and space values of the F-actin molecular computers are discussed.

  4. Modeling actin waves in dictyostelium cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wasnik, Vaibhav; Mukhopadhyay, Ranjan

    2011-03-01

    Actin networks in living cells demonstrate a high capacity for self-organization and are responsible for the formation of a variety of structures such as lamellopodia, phagocytic cups, and cleavage furrows. Recent experiments have studied actin waves formed on the surface of dictyostelium cells that have been treated with a depolymerizing agent. These waves are believed to be physiologically important, for example, for the formation of phagocytic cups. We propose and study a minimal model, based on the dendritic nucleation of actin polymers, to explain the formation of these waves. This model can be extended to study the dynamics of the coupled actin-membrane system.

  5. Calcineurin-dependent cofilin activation and increased retrograde actin flow drive 5-HT-dependent neurite outgrowth in Aplysia bag cell neurons.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiao-Feng; Hyland, Callen; Van Goor, David; Forscher, Paul

    2012-12-01

    Neurite outgrowth in response to soluble growth factors often involves changes in intracellular Ca(2+); however, mechanistic roles for Ca(2+) in controlling the underlying dynamic cytoskeletal processes have remained enigmatic. Bag cell neurons exposed to serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine [5-HT]) respond with a threefold increase in neurite outgrowth rates. Outgrowth depends on phospholipase C (PLC) → inositol trisphosphate → Ca(2+) → calcineurin signaling and is accompanied by increased rates of retrograde actin network flow in the growth cone P domain. Calcineurin inhibitors had no effect on Ca(2+) release or basal levels of retrograde actin flow; however, they completely suppressed 5-HT-dependent outgrowth and F-actin flow acceleration. 5-HT treatments were accompanied by calcineurin-dependent increases in cofilin activity in the growth cone P domain. 5-HT effects were mimicked by direct activation of PLC, suggesting that increased actin network treadmilling may be a widespread mechanism for promoting neurite outgrowth in response to neurotrophic factors.

  6. Geometrical Determinants of Neuronal Actin Waves

    PubMed Central

    Tomba, Caterina; Braïni, Céline; Bugnicourt, Ghislain; Cohen, Floriane; Friedrich, Benjamin M.; Gov, Nir S.; Villard, Catherine

    2017-01-01

    Hippocampal neurons produce in their early stages of growth propagative, actin-rich dynamical structures called actin waves. The directional motion of actin waves from the soma to the tip of neuronal extensions has been associated with net forward growth, and ultimately with the specification of neurites into axon and dendrites. Here, geometrical cues are used to control actin wave dynamics by constraining neurons on adhesive stripes of various widths. A key observable, the average time between the production of consecutive actin waves, or mean inter-wave interval (IWI), was identified. It scales with the neurite width, and more precisely with the width of the proximal segment close to the soma. In addition, the IWI is independent of the total number of neurites. These two results suggest a mechanistic model of actin wave production, by which the material conveyed by actin waves is assembled in the soma until it reaches the threshold leading to the initiation and propagation of a new actin wave. Based on these observations, we formulate a predictive theoretical description of actin wave-driven neuronal growth and polarization, which consistently accounts for different sets of experiments. PMID:28424590

  7. ENA/VASP proteins regulate exocytosis by mediating myosin VI-dependent recruitment of secretory granules to the cortical actin network.

    PubMed

    Tomatis, Vanesa M; Josh, Peter; Papadopulos, Andreas; Gormal, Rachel S; Lanoue, Vanessa; Martin, Sally; Meunier, Frédéric A

    2017-08-04

    In neurosecretory cells, myosin VI associated with secretory granules (SGs) mediates their activity-dependent recruitment to the cortical actin network and is necessary to sustain exocytosis. The mechanism by which myosin VI interacts with SGs is unknown. Using a myosin VI pull-down assay and mass spectrometry we identified Mena, a member of the ENA/VASP family, as a myosin VI binding partner in PC12 cells, and confirmed that Mena colocalized with myosin VI on SGs. Using a knock-sideways approach to inactivate the ENA/VASP family members by mitochondrial relocation, we revealed a concomitant redistribution of myosin VI. This was ensued by a reduction in the association of myosin VI with SGs, a decreased SG mobility and density in proximity to the plasma membrane as well as decreased evoked exocytosis. These data demonstrate that ENA/VASP proteins regulate SG exocytosis through modulating the activity of myosin VI. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Elasticity, adhesion and actin based propulsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gopinathan, Ajay

    2006-03-01

    When a cells crawls, its shape re-organizes via polymerization and depolymerization of actin filaments. The growing ends of the filaments are oriented towards the outside of the cell, and their polymerization pushes the cell membrane forwards. The same mechanism comes into play when the bacterial pathogen Listeria monocytogenes infects a cell. The bacterium hijacks the host cell's actin machinery to create an actin network (the actin comet tail) that propels the bacterium through cells and into neighboring cells. We propose a mechanism for how polymerization gives rise to motility that incorporates the effects of inhomogeneous polymerization. We treat the actin comet tail as an elastic continuum tethered to the rear of the bacterium. The interplay of polymerization and tethering gives rise to inhomogeneous stresses calculated with a finite element analysis. We quantitatively reproduce many distinctive features of actin propulsion that have been observed experimentally, including stepped motion, hopping, tail shape and the propulsion of flat surfaces.

  9. Analysis of Network Topologies Underlying Ethylene Growth Response Kinetics

    PubMed Central

    Prescott, Aaron M.; McCollough, Forest W.; Eldreth, Bryan L.; Binder, Brad M.; Abel, Steven M.

    2016-01-01

    Most models for ethylene signaling involve a linear pathway. However, measurements of seedling growth kinetics when ethylene is applied and removed have resulted in more complex network models that include coherent feedforward, negative feedback, and positive feedback motifs. The dynamical responses of the proposed networks have not been explored in a quantitative manner. Here, we explore (i) whether any of the proposed models are capable of producing growth-response behaviors consistent with experimental observations and (ii) what mechanistic roles various parts of the network topologies play in ethylene signaling. To address this, we used computational methods to explore two general network topologies: The first contains a coherent feedforward loop that inhibits growth and a negative feedback from growth onto itself (CFF/NFB). In the second, ethylene promotes the cleavage of EIN2, with the product of the cleavage inhibiting growth and promoting the production of EIN2 through a positive feedback loop (PFB). Since few network parameters for ethylene signaling are known in detail, we used an evolutionary algorithm to explore sets of parameters that produce behaviors similar to experimental growth response kinetics of both wildtype and mutant seedlings. We generated a library of parameter sets by independently running the evolutionary algorithm many times. Both network topologies produce behavior consistent with experimental observations, and analysis of the parameter sets allows us to identify important network interactions and parameter constraints. We additionally screened these parameter sets for growth recovery in the presence of sub-saturating ethylene doses, which is an experimentally-observed property that emerges in some of the evolved parameter sets. Finally, we probed simplified networks maintaining key features of the CFF/NFB and PFB topologies. From this, we verified observations drawn from the larger networks about mechanisms underlying ethylene

  10. Actin as Deathly Switch? How Auxin Can Suppress Cell-Death Related Defence

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Xiaoli; Riemann, Michael; Liu, Qiong; Nick, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Plant innate immunity is composed of two layers – a basal immunity, and a specific effector-triggered immunity, which is often accompanied by hypersensitive cell death. Initiation of cell death depends on a complex network of signalling pathways. The phytohormone auxin as central regulator of plant growth and development represents an important component for the modulation of plant defence. In our previous work, we showed that cell death is heralded by detachment of actin from the membrane. Both, actin response and cell death, are triggered by the bacterial elicitor harpin in grapevine cells. In this study we investigated, whether harpin-triggered actin bundling is necessary for harpin-triggered cell death. Since actin organisation is dependent upon auxin, we used different auxins to suppress actin bundling. Extracellular alkalinisation and transcription of defence genes as the basal immunity were examined as well as cell death. Furthermore, organisation of actin was observed in response to pharmacological manipulation of reactive oxygen species and phospholipase D. We find that induction of defence genes is independent of auxin. However, auxin can suppress harpin-induced cell death and also counteract actin bundling. We integrate our findings into a model, where harpin interferes with an auxin dependent pathway that sustains dynamic cortical actin through the activity of phospholipase D. The antagonism between growth and defence is explained by mutual competition for signal molecules such as superoxide and phosphatidic acid. Perturbations of the auxin-actin pathway might be used to detect disturbed integrity of the plasma membrane and channel defence signalling towards programmed cell death. PMID:25933033

  11. Actin as deathly switch? How auxin can suppress cell-death related defence.

    PubMed

    Chang, Xiaoli; Riemann, Michael; Liu, Qiong; Nick, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Plant innate immunity is composed of two layers--a basal immunity, and a specific effector-triggered immunity, which is often accompanied by hypersensitive cell death. Initiation of cell death depends on a complex network of signalling pathways. The phytohormone auxin as central regulator of plant growth and development represents an important component for the modulation of plant defence. In our previous work, we showed that cell death is heralded by detachment of actin from the membrane. Both, actin response and cell death, are triggered by the bacterial elicitor harpin in grapevine cells. In this study we investigated, whether harpin-triggered actin bundling is necessary for harpin-triggered cell death. Since actin organisation is dependent upon auxin, we used different auxins to suppress actin bundling. Extracellular alkalinisation and transcription of defence genes as the basal immunity were examined as well as cell death. Furthermore, organisation of actin was observed in response to pharmacological manipulation of reactive oxygen species and phospholipase D. We find that induction of defence genes is independent of auxin. However, auxin can suppress harpin-induced cell death and also counteract actin bundling. We integrate our findings into a model, where harpin interferes with an auxin dependent pathway that sustains dynamic cortical actin through the activity of phospholipase D. The antagonism between growth and defence is explained by mutual competition for signal molecules such as superoxide and phosphatidic acid. Perturbations of the auxin-actin pathway might be used to detect disturbed integrity of the plasma membrane and channel defence signalling towards programmed cell death.

  12. Plant Growth Models Using Artificial Neural Networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bubenheim, David

    1997-01-01

    In this paper, we descrive our motivation and approach to devloping models and the neural network architecture. Initial use of the artificial neural network for modeling the single plant process of transpiration is presented.

  13. Plant Growth Models Using Artificial Neural Networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bubenheim, David

    1997-01-01

    In this paper, we descrive our motivation and approach to devloping models and the neural network architecture. Initial use of the artificial neural network for modeling the single plant process of transpiration is presented.

  14. Actin and Actin-Binding Proteins.

    PubMed

    Pollard, Thomas D

    2016-08-01

    Organisms from all domains of life depend on filaments of the protein actin to provide structure and to support internal movements. Many eukaryotic cells use forces produced by actin polymerization for their motility, and myosin motor proteins use ATP hydrolysis to produce force on actin filaments. Actin polymerizes spontaneously, followed by hydrolysis of a bound adenosine triphosphate (ATP). Dissociation of the γ-phosphate prepares the polymer for disassembly. This review provides an overview of the properties of actin and shows how dozens of proteins control both the assembly and disassembly of actin filaments. These players catalyze nucleotide exchange on actin monomers, initiate polymerization, promote phosphate dissociation, cap the ends of polymers, cross-link filaments to each other and other cellular components, and sever filaments. Copyright © 2016 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press; all rights reserved.

  15. Origins of fractality in the growth of complex networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Chaoming; Havlin, Shlomo; Makse, Hernán A.

    2006-04-01

    Complex networks from such different fields as biology, technology or sociology share similar organization principles. The possibility of a unique growth mechanism promises to uncover universal origins of collective behaviour. In particular, the emergence of self-similarity in complex networks raises the fundamental question of the growth process according to which these structures evolve. Here we investigate the concept of renormalization as a mechanism for the growth of fractal and non-fractal modular networks. We show that the key principle that gives rise to the fractal architecture of networks is a strong effective `repulsion' (or, disassortativity) between the most connected nodes (that is, the hubs) on all length scales, rendering them very dispersed. More importantly, we show that a robust network comprising functional modules, such as a cellular network, necessitates a fractal topology, suggestive of an evolutionary drive for their existence.

  16. SYP73 Anchors the ER to the Actin Cytoskeleton for Maintenance of ER Integrity and Streaming in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Cao, Pengfei; Renna, Luciana; Stefano, Giovanni; Brandizzi, Federica

    2016-12-05

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is an essential organelle that spreads throughout the cytoplasm as one interconnected network of narrow tubules and dilated cisternae that enclose a single lumen. The ER network undergoes extensive remodeling, which critically depends on membrane-cytoskeleton interactions [1]. In plants, the ER is also highly mobile, and its streaming contributes significantly to the movement of other organelles [2, 3]. The remodeling and motility of the plant ER rely mainly on actin [4] and to a minor extent on microtubules [5]. Although a three-way interaction between the ER, cytosolic myosin-XI, and F-actin mediates the plant ER streaming [6], the mechanisms underlying stable interaction of the ER membrane with actin are unknown. Early electron microscopy studies suggested a direct attachment of the plant ER with actin filaments [7, 8], but it is plausible that yet-unknown proteins facilitate anchoring of the ER membrane with the cytoskeleton. We demonstrate here that SYP73, a member of the plant Syp7 subgroup of SNARE proteins [9] containing actin-binding domains, is a novel ER membrane-associated actin-binding protein. We show that overexpression of SYP73 causes a striking rearrangement of the ER over actin and that, similar to mutations of myosin-XI [4, 10, 11], loss of SYP73 reduces ER streaming and affects overall ER network morphology and plant growth. We propose a model for plant ER remodeling whereby the dynamic rearrangement and streaming of the ER network depend on the propelling action of myosin-XI over actin coupled with a SYP73-mediated bridging, which dynamically anchors the ER membrane with actin filaments.

  17. Conflicting attachment and the growth of bipartite networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leung, Chung Yin Joey; Weitz, Joshua S.

    2016-03-01

    Simple growth mechanisms have been proposed to explain the emergence of seemingly universal network structures. The widely studied model of preferential attachment assumes that new nodes are more likely to connect to highly connected nodes. Preferential attachment explains the emergence of scale-free degree distributions within complex networks. Yet it is incompatible with many network systems, particularly bipartite systems in which two distinct types of agents interact. For example, the addition of new links in a host-parasite system corresponds to the infection of hosts by parasites. Increasing connectivity is beneficial to a parasite and detrimental to a host. Therefore, the overall network connectivity is subject to conflicting pressures. Here we propose a stochastic network growth model of conflicting attachment, inspired by a particular kind of parasite-host interaction: that of viruses interacting with microbial hosts. The mechanism of network growth includes conflicting preferences to network density as well as costs involved in modifying the network connectivity according to these preferences. We find that the resulting networks exhibit realistic patterns commonly observed in empirical data, including the emergence of nestedness, modularity, and nested-modular structures that exhibit both properties. We study the role of conflicting interests in shaping network structure and assess opportunities to incorporate greater realism in linking growth process to pattern in systems governed by antagonistic and mutualistic interactions.

  18. Myosin 1b promotes the formation of post-Golgi carriers by regulating actin assembly and membrane remodelling at the trans-Golgi network.

    PubMed

    Almeida, Claudia G; Yamada, Ayako; Tenza, Danièle; Louvard, Daniel; Raposo, Graça; Coudrier, Evelyne

    2011-06-12

    The function of organelles is intimately associated with rapid changes in membrane shape. By exerting force on membranes, the cytoskeleton and its associated motors have an important role in membrane remodelling. Actin and myosin 1 have been implicated in the invagination of the plasma membrane during endocytosis. However, whether myosin 1 and actin contribute to the membrane deformation that gives rise to the formation of post-Golgi carriers is unknown. Here we report that myosin 1b regulates the actin-dependent post-Golgi traffic of cargo, generates force that controls the assembly of F-actin foci and, together with the actin cytoskeleton, promotes the formation of tubules at the TGN. Our results provide evidence that actin and myosin 1 regulate organelle shape and uncover an important function for myosin 1b in the initiation of post-Golgi carrier formation by regulating actin assembly and remodelling TGN membranes.

  19. Model for the growth of the world airline network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verma, T.; Araújo, N. A. M.; Nagler, J.; Andrade, J. S.; Herrmann, H. J.

    2016-06-01

    We propose a probabilistic growth model for transport networks which employs a balance between popularity of nodes and the physical distance between nodes. By comparing the degree of each node in the model network and the World Airline Network (WAN), we observe that the difference between the two is minimized for α≈2. Interestingly, this is the value obtained for the node-node correlation function in the WAN. This suggests that our model explains quite well the growth of airline networks.

  20. Actin dynamics in mouse fibroblasts in microgravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moes, Maarten J. A.; Bijvelt, Jose J.; Boonstra, Johannes

    2007-09-01

    After stimulating with the growth factor PDGF, cells exhibit abundant membrane ruffling and other morphological changes under normal gravity conditions. These morphological changes are largely determined by the actin microfilament system. Now these actin dynamics were studied under microgravity conditions in mouse fibroblasts during the DELTA mission. The aim of the present study was to describe the actin morphology in detail, to establish the effect of PDGF on actin morphology and to study the role of several actin-interacting proteins involved in introduced actin dynamics in microgravity. Identical experiments were conducted at 1G on earth as a reference. No results in microgravity were obtained due to a combination of malfunctioning hardware and unfulfilled temperature requirements.

  1. Actin Age Orchestrates Myosin-5 and Myosin-6 Runlengths

    PubMed Central

    Zimmermann, Dennis; Santos, Alicja; Kovar, David R.; Rock, Ronald S.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Unlike a static and immobile skeleton, the actin cytoskeleton is a highly dynamic network of filamentous actin (F-actin) polymers that continuously turn over. In addition to generating mechanical forces and sensing mechanical deformation, dynamic F-actin networks serve as cellular tracks for myosin motor traffic. However, much of our mechanistic understanding of processive myosins comes from in vitro studies where motility was studied on pre-assembled and artificially stabilized, static F-actin tracks. In this work, we examine the role of actin dynamics in single-molecule myosin motility using assembling F-actin and the two highly processive motors, myosin-5 and myosin-6. These two myosins have distinct functions in the cell and travel in opposite directions along actin filaments [1–3]. Myosin-5 walks towards the barbed ends of F-actin, traveling to sites of actin polymerization at the cell periphery [4]. Myosin-6 walks towards the pointed end of F-actin [5], traveling towards the cell center along older segments of the actin filament. We find that myosin-5 takes 1.3 to 1.5-fold longer runs on ADP•Pi (young) F-actin, while myosin-6 takes 1.7 to 3.6-fold longer runs along ADP (old) F-actin. These results suggest that conformational differences between ADP•Pi and ADP F-actin tailor these myosins to walk farther toward their preferred actin filament end. Taken together, these experiments define a new mechanism by which myosin traffic may sort to different F-actin networks depending on filament age. PMID:26190073

  2. A Dictyostelium mutant lacking an F-actin cross-linking protein, the 120-kD gelation factor

    PubMed Central

    1990-01-01

    Actin-binding proteins are known to regulate in vitro the assembly of actin into supramolecular structures, but evidence for their activities in living nonmuscle cells is scarce. Amebae of Dictyostelium discoideum are nonmuscle cells in which mutants defective in several actin-binding proteins have been described. Here we characterize a mutant deficient in the 120-kD gelation factor, one of the most abundant F-actin cross- linking proteins of D. discoideum cells. No F-actin cross-linking activity attributable to the 120-kD protein was detected in mutant cell extracts, and antibodies recognizing different epitopes on the polypeptide showed the entire protein was lacking. Under the conditions used, elimination of the gelation factor did not substantially alter growth, shape, motility, or chemotactic orientation of the cells towards a cAMP source. Aggregates of the mutant developed into fruiting bodies consisting of normally differentiated spores and stalk cells. In cytoskeleton preparations a dense network of actin filaments as typical of the cell cortex, and bundles as they extend along the axis of filopods, were recognized. A significant alteration found was an enhanced accumulation of actin in cytoskeletons of the mutant when cells were stimulated with cyclic AMP. Our results indicate that control of cell shape and motility does not require the fine-tuned interactions of all proteins that have been identified as actin-binding proteins by in vitro assays. PMID:1698791

  3. F-actin waves, actin cortex disassembly and focal exocytosis driven by actin-phosphoinositide positive feedback.

    PubMed

    Masters, Thomas A; Sheetz, Michael P; Gauthier, Nils C

    2016-04-01

    Actin polymerization is controlled by the phosphoinositide composition of the plasma membrane. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the spatiotemporal regulation of actin network organization over extended length scales are still unclear. To observe phosphoinositide-dependent cytoskeletal dynamics we combined the model system of frustrated phagocytosis, total internal reflection microscopy and manipulation of the buffer tonicity. We found that macrophages interacting with IgG-coated glass substrates formed circular F-actin waves on their ventral surface enclosing a region of plasma membrane devoid of cortical actin. Plasma membrane free of actin cortex was strongly depleted of PI(4,5)P2 , but enriched in PI(3,4)P2 and displayed a fivefold increase in exocytosis. Wave formation could be promoted by application of a hypotonic shock. The actin waves were characteristic of a bistable wavefront at the boundary between the regions of membrane containing and lacking cortical actin. Phosphoinositide modifiers and RhoGTPase activities dramatically redistributed with respect to the wavefronts, which often exhibited spatial oscillations. Perturbation of either lipid or actin cytoskeleton-related pathways led to rapid loss of both the polarized lipid distribution and the wavefront. As waves travelled over the plasma membrane, wavefront actin was seen to rapidly polymerize and depolymerize at pre-existing clusters of FcγRIIA, coincident with rapid changes in lipid composition. Thus the potential of receptors to support rapid F-actin polymerization appears to depend acutely on the local concentrations of multiple lipid species. We propose that interdependence through positive feedback from the cytoskeleton to lipid modifiers leads to coordinated local cortex remodeling, focal exocytosis, and organizes extended actin networks.

  4. New Aspects of Progesterone Interactions with the Actin Cytoskeleton and Neurosteroidogenesis in the Cerebellum and the Neuronal Growth Cone

    PubMed Central

    Wessel, Lisa; Olbrich, Laura; Brand-Saberi, Beate

    2014-01-01

    The impact of progesterone on neuronal tissues in the central (CNS) and peripheral (PNS) nervous system is of significant scientific and therapeutic interest. Glial and neuronal cells of vertebrates express steroidogenic enzymes, and are able to synthesize progesterone de novo from cholesterol. Progesterone is described to have neuroprotective, neuroreparative, anti-degenerative, and anti-apoptotic effects in the CNS and the PNS. Thus, the first clinical studies promise new therapeutic options using progesterone in the treatment of patients with traumatic brain injury. Additionally, experimental data from different animal models suggest further positive effects of progesterone on neurological diseases such as cerebral ischemia, peripheral nerve injury and amyothropic lateral sclerosis. In regard to this future clinical use of progesterone, we discuss in this review the underlying physiological principles of progesterone effects in neuronal tissues. Mechanisms leading to morphological reorganizations of neurons in the CNS and PNS affected by progesterone are addressed, with special focus on the actin cytoskeleton. Furthermore, new aspects of a progesterone-dependent regulation of neurosteroidogenesis mediated by the recently described progesterone binding protein PGRMC1 in the nervous system are discussed. PMID:25141866

  5. Centrality Fingerprints for Power Grid Network Growth Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gurfinkel, Aleks Jacob; Silva, Daniel A.; Rikvold, Per Arne

    In our previous work, we have shown that many of the properties of the Florida power grid are reproduced by deterministic network growth models based on the minimization of energy dissipation Ediss. As there is no a priori best Ediss minimizing growth model, we here present a tool, called the "centrality fingerprint," for probing the behavior of different growth models. The centrality fingerprints are comparisons of the current flow into/out of the network with the values of various centrality measures calculated at every step of the growth process. Finally, we discuss applications to the Maryland power grid.

  6. GPCRs and actin-cytoskeleton dynamics.

    PubMed

    Vázquez-Victorio, Genaro; González-Espinosa, Claudia; Espinosa-Riquer, Zyanya P; Macías-Silva, Marina

    2016-01-01

    A multitude of physiological processes regulated by G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) signaling are accomplished by the participation of active rearrangements of the cytoskeleton. In general, it is common that a cross talk occurs among networks of microfilaments, microtubules, and intermediate filaments in order to reach specific cell responses. In particular, actin-cytoskeleton dynamics regulate processes such as cell shape, cell division, cell motility, and cell polarization, among others. This chapter describes the current knowledge about the regulation of actin-cytoskeleton dynamic by diverse GPCR signaling pathways, and also includes some protocols combining immunofluorescence and confocal microscopy for the visualization of the different rearrangements of the actin-cytoskeleton. We report how both the S1P-GPCR/G12/13/Rho/ROCK and glucagon-GPCR/Gs/cAMP axes induce differential actin-cytoskeleton rearrangements in epithelial cells. We also show that specific actin-binding molecules, like phalloidin and LifeAct, are very useful to analyze F-actin reorganization by confocal microscopy, and also that both molecules show similar results in fixed cells, whereas the anti-actin antibody is useful to detect both the G- and F-actin, as well as their compartmentalization. Thus, it is highly recommended to utilize different approaches to investigate the regulation of actin dynamics by GPCR signaling, with the aim to get a better picture of the phenomenon under study.

  7. Boolean gates on actin filaments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siccardi, Stefano; Tuszynski, Jack A.; Adamatzky, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Actin is a globular protein which forms long polar filaments in the eukaryotic cytoskeleton. Actin networks play a key role in cell mechanics and cell motility. They have also been implicated in information transmission and processing, memory and learning in neuronal cells. The actin filaments have been shown to support propagation of voltage pulses. Here we apply a coupled nonlinear transmission line model of actin filaments to study interactions between voltage pulses. To represent digital information we assign a logical TRUTH value to the presence of a voltage pulse in a given location of the actin filament, and FALSE to the pulse's absence, so that information flows along the filament with pulse transmission. When two pulses, representing Boolean values of input variables, interact, then they can facilitate or inhibit further propagation of each other. We explore this phenomenon to construct Boolean logical gates and a one-bit half-adder with interacting voltage pulses. We discuss implications of these findings on cellular process and technological applications.

  8. Effects of polymerization and nucleotide identity on the conformational dynamics of the bacterial actin homolog MreB.

    PubMed

    Colavin, Alexandre; Hsin, Jen; Huang, Kerwyn Casey

    2014-03-04

    The assembly of protein filaments drives many cellular processes, from nucleoid segregation, growth, and division in single cells to muscle contraction in animals. In eukaryotes, shape and motility are regulated through cycles of polymerization and depolymerization of actin cytoskeletal networks. In bacteria, the actin homolog MreB forms filaments that coordinate the cell-wall synthesis machinery to regulate rod-shaped growth and contribute to cellular stiffness through unknown mechanisms. Like actin, MreB is an ATPase and requires ATP to polymerize, and polymerization promotes nucleotide hydrolysis. However, it is unclear whether other similarities exist between MreB and actin because the two proteins share low sequence identity and have distinct cellular roles. Here, we use all-atom molecular dynamics simulations to reveal surprising parallels between MreB and actin structural dynamics. We observe that MreB exhibits actin-like polymerization-dependent structural changes, wherein polymerization induces flattening of MreB subunits, which restructures the nucleotide-binding pocket to favor hydrolysis. MreB filaments exhibited nucleotide-dependent intersubunit bending, with hydrolyzed polymers favoring a straighter conformation. We use steered simulations to demonstrate a coupling between intersubunit bending and the degree of flattening of each subunit, suggesting cooperative bending along a filament. Taken together, our results provide molecular-scale insight into the diversity of structural states of MreB and the relationships among polymerization, hydrolysis, and filament properties, which may be applicable to other members of the broad actin family.

  9. Actin filament curvature biases branching direction

    PubMed Central

    Risca, Viviana I.; Wang, Evan B.; Chaudhuri, Ovijit; Chia, Jia Jun; Geissler, Phillip L.; Fletcher, Daniel A.

    2012-01-01

    Mechanical cues affect many important biological processes in metazoan cells, such as migration, proliferation, and differentiation. Such cues are thought to be detected by specialized mechanosensing molecules linked to the cytoskeleton, an intracellular network of protein filaments that provide mechanical rigidity to the cell and drive cellular shape change. The most abundant such filament, actin, forms branched networks nucleated by the actin-related protein (Arp) 2/3 complex that support or induce membrane protrusions and display adaptive behavior in response to compressive forces. Here we show that filamentous actin serves in a mechanosensitive capacity itself, by biasing the location of actin branch nucleation in response to filament bending. Using an in vitro assay to measure branching from curved sections of immobilized actin filaments, we observed preferential branch formation by the Arp2/3 complex on the convex face of the curved filament. To explain this behavior, we propose a fluctuation gating model in which filament binding or branch nucleation by Arp2/3 occur only when a sufficiently large, transient, local curvature fluctuation causes a favorable conformational change in the filament, and we show with Monte Carlo simulations that this model can quantitatively account for our experimental data. We also show how the branching bias can reinforce actin networks in response to compressive forces. These results demonstrate how filament curvature can alter the interaction of cytoskeletal filaments with regulatory proteins, suggesting that direct mechanotransduction by actin may serve as a general mechanism for organizing the cytoskeleton in response to force. PMID:22308368

  10. Developmental time windows for axon growth influence neuronal network topology.

    PubMed

    Lim, Sol; Kaiser, Marcus

    2015-04-01

    Early brain connectivity development consists of multiple stages: birth of neurons, their migration and the subsequent growth of axons and dendrites. Each stage occurs within a certain period of time depending on types of neurons and cortical layers. Forming synapses between neurons either by growing axons starting at similar times for all neurons (much-overlapped time windows) or at different time points (less-overlapped) may affect the topological and spatial properties of neuronal networks. Here, we explore the extreme cases of axon formation during early development, either starting at the same time for all neurons (parallel, i.e., maximally overlapped time windows) or occurring for each neuron separately one neuron after another (serial, i.e., no overlaps in time windows). For both cases, the number of potential and established synapses remained comparable. Topological and spatial properties, however, differed: Neurons that started axon growth early on in serial growth achieved higher out-degrees, higher local efficiency and longer axon lengths while neurons demonstrated more homogeneous connectivity patterns for parallel growth. Second, connection probability decreased more rapidly with distance between neurons for parallel growth than for serial growth. Third, bidirectional connections were more numerous for parallel growth. Finally, we tested our predictions with C. elegans data. Together, this indicates that time windows for axon growth influence the topological and spatial properties of neuronal networks opening up the possibility to a posteriori estimate developmental mechanisms based on network properties of a developed network.

  11. A computational model for cancer growth by using complex networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galvão, Viviane; Miranda, José G. V.

    2008-09-01

    In this work we propose a computational model to investigate the proliferation of cancerous cell by using complex networks. In our model the network represents the structure of available space in the cancer propagation. The computational scheme considers a cancerous cell randomly included in the complex network. When the system evolves the cells can assume three states: proliferative, non-proliferative, and necrotic. Our results were compared with experimental data obtained from three human lung carcinoma cell lines. The computational simulations show that the cancerous cells have a Gompertzian growth. Also, our model simulates the formation of necrosis, increase of density, and resources diffusion to regions of lower nutrient concentration. We obtain that the cancer growth is very similar in random and small-world networks. On the other hand, the topological structure of the small-world network is more affected. The scale-free network has the largest rates of cancer growth due to hub formation. Finally, our results indicate that for different average degrees the rate of cancer growth is related to the available space in the network.

  12. Growing an actin gel on spherical surfaces.

    PubMed Central

    Noireaux, V; Golsteyn, R M; Friederich, E; Prost, J; Antony, C; Louvard, D; Sykes, C

    2000-01-01

    Inspired by the motility of the bacteria Listeria monocytogenes, we have experimentally studied the growth of an actin gel around spherical beads grafted with ActA, a protein known to be the promoter of bacteria movement. On ActA-grafted beads F-actin is formed in a spherical manner, whereas on the bacteria a "comet-like" tail of F-actin is produced. We show experimentally that the stationary thickness of the gel depends on the radius of the beads. Moreover, the actin gel is not formed if the ActA surface density is too low. To interpret our results, we propose a theoretical model to explain how the mechanical stress (due to spherical geometry) limits the growth of the actin gel. Our model also takes into account treadmilling of actin. We deduce from our work that the force exerted by the actin gel on the bacteria is of the order of 10 pN. Finally, we estimate from our theoretical model possible conditions for developing actin comet tails. PMID:10692348

  13. Arabidopsis Villins Promote Actin Turnover at Pollen Tube Tips and Facilitate the Construction of Actin Collars[W

    PubMed Central

    Qu, Xiaolu; Zhang, Hua; Xie, Yurong; Wang, Juan; Chen, Naizhi; Huang, Shanjin

    2013-01-01

    Apical actin filaments are crucial for pollen tube tip growth. However, the specific dynamic changes and regulatory mechanisms associated with actin filaments in the apical region remain largely unknown. Here, we have investigated the quantitative dynamic parameters that underlie actin filament growth and disappearance in the apical regions of pollen tubes and identified villin as the major player that drives rapid turnover of actin filaments in this region. Downregulation of Arabidopsis thaliana VILLIN2 (VLN2) and VLN5 led to accumulation of actin filaments at the pollen tube apex. Careful analysis of single filament dynamics showed that the severing frequency significantly decreased, and the lifetime significantly increased in vln2 vln5 pollen tubes. These results indicate that villin-mediated severing is critical for turnover and departure of actin filaments originating in the apical region. Consequently, the construction of actin collars was affected in vln2 vln5 pollen tubes. In addition to the decrease in severing frequency, actin filaments also became wavy and buckled in the apical cytoplasm of vln2 vln5 pollen tubes. These results suggest that villin confers rigidity upon actin filaments. Furthermore, an observed decrease in skewness of actin filaments in the subapical region of vln2 vln5 pollen tubes suggests that villin-mediated bundling activity may also play a role in the construction of actin collars. Thus, our data suggest that villins promote actin turnover at pollen tube tips and facilitate the construction of actin collars. PMID:23715472

  14. Arabidopsis VILLIN2 and VILLIN3 Are Required for the Generation of Thick Actin Filament Bundles and for Directional Organ Growth[C][W

    PubMed Central

    van der Honing, Hannie S.; Kieft, Henk; Emons, Anne Mie C.; Ketelaar, Tijs

    2012-01-01

    In plant cells, actin filament bundles serve as tracks for myosin-dependent organelle movement and play a role in the organization of the cytoplasm. Although virtually all plant cells contain actin filament bundles, the role of the different actin-bundling proteins remains largely unknown. In this study, we investigated the role of the actin-bundling protein villin in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). We used Arabidopsis T-DNA insertion lines to generate a double mutant in which VILLIN2 (VLN2) and VLN3 transcripts are truncated. Leaves, stems, siliques, and roots of vln2 vln3 double mutant plants are twisted, which is caused by local differences in cell length. Microscopy analysis of the actin cytoskeleton showed that in these double mutant plants, thin actin filament bundles are more abundant while thick actin filament bundles are virtually absent. In contrast to full-length VLN3, truncated VLN3 lacking the headpiece region does not rescue the phenotype of the vln2 vln3 double mutant. Our results show that villin is involved in the generation of thick actin filament bundles in several cell types and suggest that these bundles are involved in the regulation of coordinated cell expansion. PMID:22209875

  15. Complex Network Theory Applied to the Growth of Kuala Lumpur's Public Urban Rail Transit Network.

    PubMed

    Ding, Rui; Ujang, Norsidah; Hamid, Hussain Bin; Wu, Jianjun

    2015-01-01

    Recently, the number of studies involving complex network applications in transportation has increased steadily as scholars from various fields analyze traffic networks. Nonetheless, research on rail network growth is relatively rare. This research examines the evolution of the Public Urban Rail Transit Networks of Kuala Lumpur (PURTNoKL) based on complex network theory and covers both the topological structure of the rail system and future trends in network growth. In addition, network performance when facing different attack strategies is also assessed. Three topological network characteristics are considered: connections, clustering and centrality. In PURTNoKL, we found that the total number of nodes and edges exhibit a linear relationship and that the average degree stays within the interval [2.0488, 2.6774] with heavy-tailed distributions. The evolutionary process shows that the cumulative probability distribution (CPD) of degree and the average shortest path length show good fit with exponential distribution and normal distribution, respectively. Moreover, PURTNoKL exhibits clear cluster characteristics; most of the nodes have a 2-core value, and the CPDs of the centrality's closeness and betweenness follow a normal distribution function and an exponential distribution, respectively. Finally, we discuss four different types of network growth styles and the line extension process, which reveal that the rail network's growth is likely based on the nodes with the biggest lengths of the shortest path and that network protection should emphasize those nodes with the largest degrees and the highest betweenness values. This research may enhance the networkability of the rail system and better shape the future growth of public rail networks.

  16. Actin-Regulator Feedback Interactions during Endocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xinxin; Galletta, Brian J.; Cooper, John A.; Carlsson, Anders E.

    2016-01-01

    Endocytosis mediated by clathrin, a cellular process by which cells internalize membrane receptors and their extracellular ligands, is an important component of cell signaling regulation. Actin polymerization is involved in endocytosis in varying degrees depending on the cellular context. In yeast, clathrin-mediated endocytosis requires a pulse of polymerized actin and its regulators, which recruit and activate the Arp2/3 complex. In this article, we seek to identify the main protein-protein interactions that 1) cause actin and its regulators to appear in pulses, and 2) determine the effects of key mutations and drug treatments on actin and regulator assembly. We perform a joint modeling/experimental study of actin and regulator dynamics during endocytosis in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We treat both a stochastic model that grows an explicit three-dimensional actin network, and a simpler two-variable Fitzhugh-Nagumo type model. The models include a negative-feedback interaction of F-actin onto the Arp2/3 regulators. Both models explain the pulse time courses and the effects of interventions on actin polymerization: the surprising increase in the peak F-actin count caused by reduced regulator branching activity, the increase in F-actin resulting from slowing of actin disassembly, and the increased Arp2/3 regulator lifetime resulting from latrunculin treatment. In addition, they predict that decreases in the regulator branching activity lead to increases in accumulation of regulators, and we confirmed this prediction with experiments on yeast harboring mutations in the Arp2/3 regulators, using quantitative fluorescence microscopy. Our experimental measurements suggest that the regulators act quasi-independently, in the sense that accumulation of a particular regulator is most strongly affected by mutations of that regulator, as opposed to the others. PMID:27028652

  17. Computational model of polarized actin cables and cytokinetic actin ring formation in budding yeast

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Haosu; Bidone, Tamara C.

    2015-01-01

    The budding yeast actin cables and contractile ring are important for polarized growth and division, revealing basic aspects of cytoskeletal function. To study these formin-nucleated structures, we built a 3D computational model with actin filaments represented as beads connected by springs. Polymerization by formins at the bud tip and bud neck, crosslinking, severing, and myosin pulling, are included. Parameter values were estimated from prior experiments. The model generates actin cable structures and dynamics similar to those of wild type and formin deletion mutant cells. Simulations with increased polymerization rate result in long, wavy cables. Simulated pulling by type V myosin stretches actin cables. Increasing the affinity of actin filaments for the bud neck together with reduced myosin V pulling promotes the formation of a bundle of antiparallel filaments at the bud neck, which we suggest as a model for the assembly of actin filaments to the contractile ring. PMID:26538307

  18. Dynamics of Actin Cable Polymerization in Fission Yeast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hui; Vavylonis, Dimitrios

    2008-03-01

    In fission yeast, formin for3p nucleates actin filament bundles (cables) at cell tips which contribute to polarized cell growth. Actin cables reach a steady state of dynamic turnover involving for3p-mediated actin polymerization at the barbed ends near the plasma membrane, retrograde flow of polymerized actin toward the cell center, and cable disassembly. Formin for3p associates with actin at the cable tip where it transiently polymerizes actin filaments and subsequently follows the retrograde actin cable flow (Martin and Chang, Curr. Biol. 16, 1161, 2006). Because of the small number of formin nucleators, the actin cable dynamics are subject to spatial and temporal fluctuations. We studied actin cable dynamics with simple analytical models and whole cell computational models which combine deterministic simulation of actin diffusion with stochastic simulation of formin reaction and diffusion. Our model successfully explains a large number of experimental observations, such as density of formin speckles and variance of actin cable density. The model predicts significant spatial gradient of actin and formin molecules in the cytoplasm, powered by the retrograde flow of actin cables.

  19. The impact of capacity growth in national telecommunications networks.

    PubMed

    Lord, Andrew; Soppera, Andrea; Jacquet, Arnaud

    2016-03-06

    This paper discusses both UK-based and global Internet data bandwidth growth, beginning with historical data for the BT network. We examine the time variations in consumer behaviour and how this is statistically aggregated into larger traffic loads on national core fibre communications networks. The random nature of consumer Internet behaviour, where very few consumers require maximum bandwidth simultaneously, provides the opportunity for a significant statistical gain. The paper looks at predictions for how this growth might continue over the next 10-20 years, giving estimates for the amount of bandwidth that networks should support in the future. The paper then explains how national networks are designed to accommodate these traffic levels, and the various network roles, including access, metro and core, are described. The physical layer network is put into the context of how the packet and service layers are designed and the applications and location of content are also included in an overall network overview. The specific role of content servers in alleviating core network traffic loads is highlighted. The status of the relevant transmission technologies in the access, metro and core is given, showing that these technologies, with adequate research, should be sufficient to provide bandwidth for consumers in the next 10-20 years.

  20. Growth, collapse, and self-organized criticality in complex networks

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yafeng; Fan, Huawei; Lin, Weijie; Lai, Ying-Cheng; Wang, Xingang

    2016-01-01

    Network growth is ubiquitous in nature (e.g., biological networks) and technological systems (e.g., modern infrastructures). To understand how certain dynamical behaviors can or cannot persist as the underlying network grows is a problem of increasing importance in complex dynamical systems as well as sustainability science and engineering. We address the question of whether a complex network of nonlinear oscillators can maintain its synchronization stability as it expands. We find that a large scale avalanche over the entire network can be triggered in the sense that the individual nodal dynamics diverges from the synchronous state in a cascading manner within a relatively short time period. In particular, after an initial stage of linear growth, the network typically evolves into a critical state where the addition of a single new node can cause a group of nodes to lose synchronization, leading to synchronization collapse for the entire network. A statistical analysis reveals that the collapse size is approximately algebraically distributed, indicating the emergence of self-organized criticality. We demonstrate the generality of the phenomenon of synchronization collapse using a variety of complex network models, and uncover the underlying dynamical mechanism through an eigenvector analysis. PMID:27079515

  1. Growth, collapse, and self-organized criticality in complex networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yafeng; Fan, Huawei; Lin, Weijie; Lai, Ying-Cheng; Wang, Xingang

    2016-04-01

    Network growth is ubiquitous in nature (e.g., biological networks) and technological systems (e.g., modern infrastructures). To understand how certain dynamical behaviors can or cannot persist as the underlying network grows is a problem of increasing importance in complex dynamical systems as well as sustainability science and engineering. We address the question of whether a complex network of nonlinear oscillators can maintain its synchronization stability as it expands. We find that a large scale avalanche over the entire network can be triggered in the sense that the individual nodal dynamics diverges from the synchronous state in a cascading manner within a relatively short time period. In particular, after an initial stage of linear growth, the network typically evolves into a critical state where the addition of a single new node can cause a group of nodes to lose synchronization, leading to synchronization collapse for the entire network. A statistical analysis reveals that the collapse size is approximately algebraically distributed, indicating the emergence of self-organized criticality. We demonstrate the generality of the phenomenon of synchronization collapse using a variety of complex network models, and uncover the underlying dynamical mechanism through an eigenvector analysis.

  2. Growth, collapse, and self-organized criticality in complex networks.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yafeng; Fan, Huawei; Lin, Weijie; Lai, Ying-Cheng; Wang, Xingang

    2016-04-15

    Network growth is ubiquitous in nature (e.g., biological networks) and technological systems (e.g., modern infrastructures). To understand how certain dynamical behaviors can or cannot persist as the underlying network grows is a problem of increasing importance in complex dynamical systems as well as sustainability science and engineering. We address the question of whether a complex network of nonlinear oscillators can maintain its synchronization stability as it expands. We find that a large scale avalanche over the entire network can be triggered in the sense that the individual nodal dynamics diverges from the synchronous state in a cascading manner within a relatively short time period. In particular, after an initial stage of linear growth, the network typically evolves into a critical state where the addition of a single new node can cause a group of nodes to lose synchronization, leading to synchronization collapse for the entire network. A statistical analysis reveals that the collapse size is approximately algebraically distributed, indicating the emergence of self-organized criticality. We demonstrate the generality of the phenomenon of synchronization collapse using a variety of complex network models, and uncover the underlying dynamical mechanism through an eigenvector analysis.

  3. Profilin connects actin assembly with microtubule dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Nejedla, Michaela; Sadi, Sara; Sulimenko, Vadym; de Almeida, Francisca Nunes; Blom, Hans; Draber, Pavel; Aspenström, Pontus; Karlsson, Roger

    2016-01-01

    Profilin controls actin nucleation and assembly processes in eukaryotic cells. Actin nucleation and elongation promoting factors (NEPFs) such as Ena/VASP, formins, and WASP-family proteins recruit profilin:actin for filament formation. Some of these are found to be microtubule associated, making actin polymerization from microtubule-associated platforms possible. Microtubules are implicated in focal adhesion turnover, cell polarity establishment, and migration, illustrating the coupling between actin and microtubule systems. Here we demonstrate that profilin is functionally linked to microtubules with formins and point to formins as major mediators of this association. To reach this conclusion, we combined different fluorescence microscopy techniques, including superresolution microscopy, with siRNA modulation of profilin expression and drug treatments to interfere with actin dynamics. Our studies show that profilin dynamically associates with microtubules and this fraction of profilin contributes to balance actin assembly during homeostatic cell growth and affects micro­tubule dynamics. Hence profilin functions as a regulator of microtubule (+)-end turnover in addition to being an actin control element. PMID:27307590

  4. A statistically inferred microRNA network identifies breast cancer target miR-940 as an actin cytoskeleton regulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhajun, Ricky; Guyon, Laurent; Pitaval, Amandine; Sulpice, Eric; Combe, Stéphanie; Obeid, Patricia; Haguet, Vincent; Ghorbel, Itebeddine; Lajaunie, Christian; Gidrol, Xavier

    2015-02-01

    MiRNAs are key regulators of gene expression. By binding to many genes, they create a complex network of gene co-regulation. Here, using a network-based approach, we identified miRNA hub groups by their close connections and common targets. In one cluster containing three miRNAs, miR-612, miR-661 and miR-940, the annotated functions of the co-regulated genes suggested a role in small GTPase signalling. Although the three members of this cluster targeted the same subset of predicted genes, we showed that their overexpression impacted cell fates differently. miR-661 demonstrated enhanced phosphorylation of myosin II and an increase in cell invasion, indicating a possible oncogenic miRNA. On the contrary, miR-612 and miR-940 inhibit phosphorylation of myosin II and cell invasion. Finally, expression profiling in human breast tissues showed that miR-940 was consistently downregulated in breast cancer tissues

  5. Local Arp2/3-dependent actin assembly modulates applied traction force during apCAM adhesion site maturation

    PubMed Central

    Buck, Kenneth B.; Schaefer, Andrew W.; Schoonderwoert, Vincent T.; Creamer, Matthew S.; Dufresne, Eric R.; Forscher, Paul

    2017-01-01

    Homophilic binding of immunoglobulin superfamily molecules such as the Aplysia cell adhesion molecule (apCAM) leads to actin filament assembly near nascent adhesion sites. Such actin assembly can generate significant localized forces that have not been characterized in the larger context of axon growth and guidance. We used apCAM-coated bead substrates applied to the surface of neuronal growth cones to characterize the development of forces evoked by varying stiffness of mechanical restraint. Unrestrained bead propulsion matched or exceeded rates of retrograde network flow and was dependent on Arp2/3 complex activity. Analysis of growth cone forces applied to beads at low stiffness of restraint revealed switching between two states: frictional coupling to retrograde flow and Arp2/3-dependent propulsion. Stiff mechanical restraint led to formation of an extensive actin cup matching the geometric profile of the bead target and forward growth cone translocation; pharmacological inhibition of the Arp2/3 complex or Rac attenuated F-actin assembly near bead binding sites, decreased the efficacy of growth responses, and blocked accumulation of signaling molecules associated with nascent adhesions. These studies introduce a new model for regulation of traction force in which local actin assembly forces buffer nascent adhesion sites from the mechanical effects of retrograde flow. PMID:27852899

  6. [Cytoskeletal actin and its associated proteins. Some examples in Protista].

    PubMed

    Guillén, N; Carlier, M F; Brugerolle, G; Tardieux, I; Ausseil, J

    1998-06-01

    IB at the leading edge of E. histolytica. ABP-120 organizes F-actin in a network and myosin IB participates in the pseudopod formation. Similar approaches using T. vaginalis resulted in the discovery of an actin-binding protein that participate in the F-actin reorganization during adhesion of parasites to target cells. This protein is homologous to alpha-actinin from other eukaryotic cells. Finally, by using cell biology approaches, F-actin was observed in the cytoplasm as well as in the nucleus of Dinoflagellates. The recent developments in the molecular genetics of protozoa will provide new insights to understand the roles of actin-binding proteins during cytoskeleton activities.

  7. An analysis of actin delivery in the acrosomal process of thyone.

    PubMed Central

    Olbris, D J; Herzfeld, J

    1999-01-01

    The acrosomal process of the sea cucumber Thyone briareus can extend 90 microm in 10 s, but an epithelial goldfish keratocyte can only glide a few microns in the same time. Both speeds reflect the rate of extension of an actin network. The difference is in the delivery of actin monomers to the polymerization region. Diffusion supplies monomers fast enough to support the observed speed of goldfish keratocytes, but previous models have indicated that the acrosomal process of Thyone extends too rapidly for diffusion to keep up. Here we reexamine the assumptions made in earlier models and present a new model, the Actin Reconcentration Model, that includes more biological detail. Salt and water fluxes during the acrosomal reaction and the nonideality of the cytoplasm are particularly significant for actin delivery. We find that the variability of the acrosomal growth curve can be explained by the salt and water fluxes, and that nonideality magnifies the effect of actin concentration changes. We calculate the speed of process growth using biologically relevant parameters from the literature and find that the predictions of the model fall among the experimental data. PMID:10585963

  8. Live Cell Imaging of Actin Dynamics in the Filamentous Fungus Aspergillus nidulans.

    PubMed

    Schultzhaus, Zachary; Quintanilla, Laura; Hilton, Angelyn; Shaw, Brian D

    2016-04-01

    Hyphal cells of filamentous fungi grow at their tips in a method analogous to pollen tube and root hair elongation. This process, generally referred to as tip growth, requires precise regulation of the actin cytoskeleton, and characterizing the various actin structures in these cell types is currently an active area of research. Here, the actin marker Lifeact was used to document actin dynamics in the filamentous fungus Aspergillus nidulans. Contractile double rings were observed at septa, and annular clusters of puncta were seen subtending growing hyphal tips, corresponding to the well-characterized subapical endocytic collar. However, Lifeact also revealed two additional structures. One, an apical array, was dynamic on the face opposite the tip, while a subapical web was dynamic on the apical face and was located several microns behind the growth site. Each was observed turning into the other over time, implying that they could represent different localizations of the same structure, although hyphae with a subapical web grew faster than those exhibiting an apical array. The subapical web has not been documented in any filamentous fungus to date, and is separate from the networks of F-actin seen in other tip-growing organisms surrounding septa or stationary along the plasmalemma.

  9. Distributed actin turnover in the lamellipodium and FRAP kinetics.

    PubMed

    Smith, Matthew B; Kiuchi, Tai; Watanabe, Naoki; Vavylonis, Dimitrios

    2013-01-08

    Studies of actin dynamics at the leading edge of motile cells with single-molecule speckle (SiMS) microscopy have shown a broad distribution of EGFP-actin speckle lifetimes and indicated actin polymerization and depolymerization over an extended region. Other experiments using FRAP with the same EGFP-actin as a probe have suggested, by contrast, that polymerization occurs exclusively at the leading edge. We performed FRAP experiments on XTC cells to compare SiMS to FRAP on the same cell type. We used speckle statistics obtained by SiMS to model the steady-state distribution and kinetics of actin in the lamellipodium. We demonstrate that a model with a single diffuse actin species is in good agreement with FRAP experiments. A model including two species of diffuse actin provides an even better agreement. The second species consists of slowly diffusing oligomers that associate to the F-actin network throughout the lamellipodium or break up into monomers after a characteristic time. Our work motivates studies to test the presence and composition of slowly diffusing actin species that may contribute to local remodeling of the actin network and increase the amount of soluble actin.

  10. Network-based model of the growth of termite nests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eom, Young-Ho; Perna, Andrea; Fortunato, Santo; Darrouzet, Eric; Theraulaz, Guy; Jost, Christian

    2015-12-01

    We present a model for the growth of the transportation network inside nests of the social insect subfamily Termitinae (Isoptera, termitidae). These nests consist of large chambers (nodes) connected by tunnels (edges). The model based on the empirical analysis of the real nest networks combined with pruning (edge removal, either random or weighted by betweenness centrality) and a memory effect (preferential growth from the latest added chambers) successfully predicts emergent nest properties (degree distribution, size of the largest connected component, average path lengths, backbone link ratios, and local graph redundancy). The two pruning alternatives can be associated with different genuses in the subfamily. A sensitivity analysis on the pruning and memory parameters indicates that Termitinae networks favor fast internal transportation over efficient defense strategies against ant predators. Our results provide an example of how complex network organization and efficient network properties can be generated from simple building rules based on local interactions and contribute to our understanding of the mechanisms that come into play for the formation of termite networks and of biological transportation networks in general.

  11. Network-based model of the growth of termite nests.

    PubMed

    Eom, Young-Ho; Perna, Andrea; Fortunato, Santo; Darrouzet, Eric; Theraulaz, Guy; Jost, Christian

    2015-12-01

    We present a model for the growth of the transportation network inside nests of the social insect subfamily Termitinae (Isoptera, termitidae). These nests consist of large chambers (nodes) connected by tunnels (edges). The model based on the empirical analysis of the real nest networks combined with pruning (edge removal, either random or weighted by betweenness centrality) and a memory effect (preferential growth from the latest added chambers) successfully predicts emergent nest properties (degree distribution, size of the largest connected component, average path lengths, backbone link ratios, and local graph redundancy). The two pruning alternatives can be associated with different genuses in the subfamily. A sensitivity analysis on the pruning and memory parameters indicates that Termitinae networks favor fast internal transportation over efficient defense strategies against ant predators. Our results provide an example of how complex network organization and efficient network properties can be generated from simple building rules based on local interactions and contribute to our understanding of the mechanisms that come into play for the formation of termite networks and of biological transportation networks in general.

  12. Pharmacological characterization of actin-binding (-)-doliculide.

    PubMed

    Foerster, Florian; Braig, Simone; Chen, Tao; Altmann, Karl-Heinz; Vollmar, Angelika M

    2014-09-15

    Natural compounds offer a broad spectrum of potential drug candidates against human malignancies. Several cytostatic drugs, which are in clinical use for decades, derive directly from natural sources or are synthetically optimized derivatives of natural lead structures. An eukaryote target molecule to which many natural derived anti-cancer drugs bind to is the microtubule network. Of similar importance for the cell is the actin cytoskeleton, responsible for cell movements, migration of cells and cytokinesis. Nature provides also a broad range of compounds directed against actin as intracellular target, but none of these actin-targeting compounds has ever been brought to clinical trials. One reason why actin-binding compounds have not yet been considered for further clinical investigations is that little is known about their pharmacological properties in cancer cells. Herein, we focused on the closer characterization of doliculide, an actin binding natural compound of marine origin in the breast cancer cell lines MCF7 and MDA-MB-231. We used fluorescence-recovery-after-photobleaching (FRAP) analysis to determine doliculide's early effects on the actin cytoskeleton and rhodamin-phalloidin staining for long-term effects on the actin CSK. After validating the disruption of the actin network, we further investigated the functional effects of doliculide. Doliculide treatment leads to inhibition of proliferation and impairs the migratory potential. Finally, we could also show that doliculide leads to the induction of apoptosis in both cell lines. Our data for the first time provide a closer characterization of doliculide in breast cancer cells and propagate doliculide for further investigations as lead structure and potential therapeutic option as actin-targeting compound.

  13. Cysteine-rich protein 2 accelerates actin filament cluster formation

    PubMed Central

    Shinohara, Satoko; Takaoka, Shunpei; Miyake, Jun

    2017-01-01

    Filamentous actin (F-actin) forms many types of structures and dynamically regulates cell morphology and movement, and plays a mechanosensory role for extracellular stimuli. In this study, we determined that the smooth muscle-related transcription factor, cysteine-rich protein 2 (CRP2), regulates the supramolecular networks of F-actin. The structures of CRP2 and F-actin in solution were analyzed by small-angle X-ray solution scattering (SAXS). The general shape of CRP2 was partially unfolded and relatively ellipsoidal in structure, and the apparent cross sectional radius of gyration (Rc) was about 15.8 Å. The predicted shape, derived by ab initio modeling, consisted of roughly four tandem clusters: LIM domains were likely at both ends with the middle clusters being an unfolded linker region. From the SAXS analysis, the Rc of F-actin was about 26.7 Å, and it was independent of CRP2 addition. On the other hand, in the low angle region of the CRP2-bound F-actin scattering, the intensities showed upward curvature with the addition of CRP2, which indicates increasing branching of F-actin following CRP2 binding. From biochemical analysis, the actin filaments were augmented and clustered by the addition of CRP2. This F-actin clustering activity of CRP2 was cooperative with α-actinin. Thus, binding of CRP2 to F-actin accelerates actin polymerization and F-actin cluster formation. PMID:28813482

  14. Live Cell Imaging Reveals Structural Associations between the Actin and Microtubule Cytoskeleton in Arabidopsis [W] [OA

    PubMed Central

    Sampathkumar, Arun; Lindeboom, Jelmer J.; Debolt, Seth; Gutierrez, Ryan; Ehrhardt, David W.; Ketelaar, Tijs; Persson, Staffan

    2011-01-01

    In eukaryotic cells, the actin and microtubule (MT) cytoskeletal networks are dynamic structures that organize intracellular processes and facilitate their rapid reorganization. In plant cells, actin filaments (AFs) and MTs are essential for cell growth and morphogenesis. However, dynamic interactions between these two essential components in live cells have not been explored. Here, we use spinning-disc confocal microscopy to dissect interaction and cooperation between cortical AFs and MTs in Arabidopsis thaliana, utilizing fluorescent reporter constructs for both components. Quantitative analyses revealed altered AF dynamics associated with the positions and orientations of cortical MTs. Reorganization and reassembly of the AF array was dependent on the MTs following drug-induced depolymerization, whereby short AFs initially appeared colocalized with MTs, and displayed motility along MTs. We also observed that light-induced reorganization of MTs occurred in concert with changes in AF behavior. Our results indicate dynamic interaction between the cortical actin and MT cytoskeletons in interphase plant cells. PMID:21693695

  15. Comparison of Gompertz and neural network models of broiler growth.

    PubMed

    Roush, W B; Dozier, W A; Branton, S L

    2006-04-01

    Neural networks offer an alternative to regression analysis for biological growth modeling. Very little research has been conducted to model animal growth using artificial neural networks. Twenty-five male chicks (Ross x Ross 308) were raised in an environmental chamber. Body weights were determined daily and feed and water were provided ad libitum. The birds were fed a starter diet (23% CP and 3,200 kcal of ME/kg) from 0 to 21 d, and a grower diet (20% CP and 3,200 kcal of ME/ kg) from 22 to 70 d. Dead and female birds were not included in the study. Average BW of 18 birds were used as the data points for the growth curve to be modeled. Training data consisted of alternate-day weights starting with the first day. Validation data consisted of BW at all other age periods. Comparison was made between the modeling by the Gompertz nonlinear regression equation and neural network modeling. Neural network models were developed with the Neuroshell Predictor. Accuracy of the models was determined by mean square error (MSE), mean absolute deviation (MAD), mean absolute percentage error (MAPE), and bias. The Gompertz equation was fit for the data. Forecasting error measurements were based on the difference between the model and the observed values. For the training data, the lowest MSE, MAD, MAPE, and bias were noted for the neural-developed neural network. For the validation data, the lowest MSE and MAD were noted with the genetic algorithm-developed neural network. Lowest bias was for the neural-developed network. As measured by bias, the Gompertz equation underestimated the values whereas the neural- and genetic-developed neural networks produced little or no overestimation of the observed BW responses. Past studies have attempted to interpret the biological significance of the estimates of the parameters of an equation. However, it may be more practical to ignore the relevance of parameter estimates and focus on the ability to predict responses.

  16. Meeting explosive growth requirements in the metro optical network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibbemeyer, Alan; Finkenzeller, Michael

    2009-01-01

    The metro optical network growth continues so far unabated by the slowing economy. Main drivers for this are enterprise connectivity, triple play and high-bandwidth hungry internet applications. Every day more and more of the population is connected with a projection to have five (5) billion people connected by 2010 and an overall traffic increase of one-hundred fold by 2015. While key applications drive these deployments, it is the decrease in network cost that is the bandwidth enabler. Stagnant average revenue per user (ARPU) makes further reduction in the total cost of ownership key. As costs progress due to volume and technology maturity, prices drop and a stronger demand for bandwidth is generated in the market. Today the 10G Ethernet LAN PHY services drive this growth and the cost for 10G hardware continues to improve further enabling profitable growth. While 10G is the key transport technology today, there is a push to bring higher line rates into the metro deployments. 40G is currently undergoing a mass adoption in the long-haul core networks. The volumes in long-haul network deployments are driving down the costs making it a viable evolution path for the metro networks over time.

  17. Confinement induces actin flow in a meiotic cytoplasm

    PubMed Central

    Pinot, Mathieu; Steiner, Villier; Dehapiot, Benoit; Yoo, Byung-Kuk; Chesnel, Franck; Blanchoin, Laurent; Kervrann, Charles; Gueroui, Zoher

    2012-01-01

    In vivo, F-actin flows are observed at different cell life stages and participate in various developmental processes during asymmetric divisions in vertebrate oocytes, cell migration, or wound healing. Here, we show that confinement has a dramatic effect on F-actin spatiotemporal organization. We reconstitute in vitro the spontaneous generation of F-actin flow using Xenopus meiotic extracts artificially confined within a geometry mimicking the cell boundary. Perturbations of actin polymerization kinetics or F-actin nucleation sites strongly modify the network flow dynamics. A combination of quantitative image analysis and biochemical perturbations shows that both spatial localization of F-actin nucleators and actin turnover play a decisive role in generating flow. Interestingly, our in vitro assay recapitulates several symmetry-breaking processes observed in oocytes and early embryonic cells. PMID:22753521

  18. Gene duplication models for directed networks with limits on growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Enemark, Jakob; Sneppen, Kim

    2007-11-01

    Background: Duplication of genes is important for evolution of molecular networks. Many authors have therefore considered gene duplication as a driving force in shaping the topology of molecular networks. In particular it has been noted that growth via duplication would act as an implicit means of preferential attachment, and thereby provide the observed broad degree distributions of molecular networks. Results: We extend current models of gene duplication and rewiring by including directions and the fact that molecular networks are not a result of unidirectional growth. We introduce upstream sites and downstream shapes to quantify potential links during duplication and rewiring. We find that this in itself generates the observed scaling of transcription factors for genome sites in prokaryotes. The dynamical model can generate a scale-free degree distribution, p(k)\\propto 1/k^{\\gamma } , with exponent γ = 1 in the non-growing case, and with γ>1 when the network is growing. Conclusions: We find that duplication of genes followed by substantial recombination of upstream regions could generate features of genetic regulatory networks. Our steady state degree distribution is however too broad to be consistent with data, thereby suggesting that selective pruning acts as a main additional constraint on duplicated genes. Our analysis shows that gene duplication can only be a main cause for the observed broad degree distributions if there are also substantial recombinations between upstream regions of genes.

  19. The accelerated growth of the worldwide air transportation network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azzam, Mark; Klingauf, Uwe; Zock, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    Mobility by means of air transportation has a critical impact on the global economy. Especially against the backdrop of further growth and an aggravation of the energy crisis, it is crucial to design a sustainable air transportation system. Current approaches focus on air traffic management. Nevertheless, also the historically evolved network offers great potential for an optimized redesign. But the understanding of its complex structure and development is limited, although modern network science supplies a great set of new methods and tools. So far studies analyzing air transportation as a complex network are based on divers and poor data, which are either merely regional or strongly bounded time-wise. As a result, the current state of research is rather inconsistent regarding topological coefficients and incomplete regarding network evolution. Therefore, we use the historical, worldwide OAG flight schedules data between 1979 and 2007 for our study. Through analyzing by far the most comprehensive data base so far, a better understanding of the network, its evolution and further implications is being provided. To our knowledge we present the first study to determine that the degree distribution of the worldwide air transportation network is non-stationary and is subject to densification and accelerated growth, respectively.

  20. Fractional Dynamics of Network Growth Constrained by Aging Node Interactions.

    PubMed

    Safdari, Hadiseh; Zare Kamali, Milad; Shirazi, Amirhossein; Khalighi, Moein; Jafari, Gholamreza; Ausloos, Marcel

    2016-01-01

    In many social complex systems, in which agents are linked by non-linear interactions, the history of events strongly influences the whole network dynamics. However, a class of "commonly accepted beliefs" seems rarely studied. In this paper, we examine how the growth process of a (social) network is influenced by past circumstances. In order to tackle this cause, we simply modify the well known preferential attachment mechanism by imposing a time dependent kernel function in the network evolution equation. This approach leads to a fractional order Barabási-Albert (BA) differential equation, generalizing the BA model. Our results show that, with passing time, an aging process is observed for the network dynamics. The aging process leads to a decay for the node degree values, thereby creating an opposing process to the preferential attachment mechanism. On one hand, based on the preferential attachment mechanism, nodes with a high degree are more likely to absorb links; but, on the other hand, a node's age has a reduced chance for new connections. This competitive scenario allows an increased chance for younger members to become a hub. Simulations of such a network growth with aging constraint confirm the results found from solving the fractional BA equation. We also report, as an exemplary application, an investigation of the collaboration network between Hollywood movie actors. It is undubiously shown that a decay in the dynamics of their collaboration rate is found, even including a sex difference. Such findings suggest a widely universal application of the so generalized BA model.

  1. Model of Yeast Actin Cable Distribution and Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Haosu; Vavylonis, Dimitrios

    2013-03-01

    The growth of fission yeast relies on the polymerization of actin filaments at the cell tips. These filaments are nucleated by formin proteins that localize at tip cortical sites. These actin filaments bundle to form actin cables that span the cell and guide the movement of vesicles toward the cell tips. Since fluorescence microscopy shows the structure and dynamics of actin cables, we are able to compare the results of the theoretical models of actin cables to experiment, thus enabling quantitative tests of the mechanisms of actin polymerization in cells. We used computer simulations to study the spatial and dynamical properties of actin cables. We simulated individual actin filaments as three-dimensional semiflexible polymer, composed of beads connected with springs. Formin polymerization was simulated as filament growth out of cortical sites located at cell tips. Actin filament severing by cofilin was simulated as filament turnover. We added attractive interactions between beads to simulate filament bundling by actin cross-linkers such as fimbrin. Comparison of the results of the model to prior experiments suggests that filament severing, nucleation and crosslinking are sufficient to describe the many features of actin cables. We found bundled and unbundled phases as cross-linking strength was varied and propose experiments to test the model predictions.

  2. Direct Observation of Tropomyosin Binding to Actin Filaments

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, William M.; Lehman, William; Moore, Jeffrey R.

    2015-01-01

    Tropomyosin is an elongated α-helical coiled-coil that binds to seven consecutive actin subunits along the long-pitch helix of actin filaments. Once bound, tropomyosin polymerizes end-to-end and both stabilizes F-actin and regulates access of various actin binding proteins including myosin in muscle and non-muscle cells. Single tropomyosin molecules bind weakly to F-actin with millimolar Kd, whereas the end-to-end linked tropomyosin associates with about a one thousand-fold greater affinity. Despite years of study, the assembly mechanism of tropomyosin onto actin filaments remains unclear. In the current study, we used total internal reflection fluorescence (TIRF) microscopy to directly monitor the cooperative binding of fluorescently labeled tropomyosin molecules to phalloidin-stabilized actin filaments. We find that tropomyosin molecules assemble from multiple growth sites following random low affinity binding of single molecules to actin. As the length of the tropomyosin chain increases, the probability of detachment decreases, which leads to further chain growth. Tropomyosin chain extension is linearly dependent on tropomyosin concentration, occurring at approximately 100 monomers/(μM*s). The random tropomyosin binding to F-actin leads to discontinuous end-to-end association where gaps in the chain continuity smaller than the required seven sequential actin monomers are available. Direct observation of tropomyosin detachment revealed the number of gaps in actin-bound tropomyosin, the time course of gap annealing, and the eventual filament saturation process. PMID:26033920

  3. Actin-Based Feedback Circuits in Cell Migration and Endocytosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xinxin

    In this thesis, we study the switch and pulse functions of actin during two important cellular processes, cell migration and endocytosis. Actin is an abundant protein that can polymerize to form a dendritic network. The actin network can exert force to push or bend the cell membrane. During cell migration, the actin network behaves like a switch, assembling mostly at one end or at the other end. The end with the majority of the actin network is the leading edge, following which the cell can persistently move in the same direction. The other end, with the minority of the actin network, is the trailing edge, which is dragged by the cell as it moves forward. When subjected to large fluctuations or external stimuli, the leading edge and the trailing edge can interchange and change the direction of motion, like a motion switch. Our model of the actin network in a cell reveals that mechanical force is crucial for forming the motion switch. We find a transition from single state symmetric behavior to switch behavior, when tuning parameters such as the force. The model is studied by both stochastic simulations, and a set of rate equations that are consistent with the simulations. Endocytosis is a process by which cells engulf extracellular substances and recycle the cell membrane. In yeast cells, the actin network is transiently needed to overcome the pressure difference across the cell membrane caused by turgor pressure. The actin network behaves like a pulse, which assembles and then disassembles within about 30 seconds. Using a stochastic model, we reproduce the pulse behaviors of the actin network and one of its regulatory proteins, Las17. The model matches green fluorescence protein (GFP) experiments for wild-type cells. The model also predicts some phenotypes that modify or diminish the pulse behavior. The phenotypes are verified with both experiments performed at Washington University and with other groups' experiments. We find that several feedback mechanisms are

  4. Laboratory Observations on Tidal Network Growth and Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stefanon, L.; Carniello, L.; D'Alpaos, A.

    2011-12-01

    We present the results of laboratory experiments carried out in a large experimental apparatus aimed at reproducing a typical lagoonal environment subject to tidal forcings. The experiments were designed in order to improve our understanding of the main processes governing tidal network initiation and its progressive morphodynamic evolution. In particular, the experiments summarized herein aimed at understanding the physical processes, as well as boundary and initial conditions, which lead to the initiation and subsequent development of a tidal channel network, starting from a plane horizontal tidal flat located behind a barrier island and connected through the sea by a single inlet. During the experiments we observed the growth and development of tidal networks and analyzed their most relevant geomorphic features, taking into account the role played by the characteristics of the tidal forcing in driving the development of channelled patterns. The experimental evidence suggests that general network evolution is substantially characterized by three processes: (1) channel elongation via headward growth, driven by the exceedance of a critical bottom shear stress; (2) incision and sinuosity gradually increasing with channels age; (3) formation of new lateral creeks and tributaries. The lack of external sediment supply, the absence of vegetation, and the prevalence of bedload transport prevented any deposition processes and lateral surface accretion, attributing a purely erosive character to the experimental lagoon. Nevertheless, the morphodynamic feedbacks occurring in the erosional case are essentially the same that occur under depositional conditions. In fact, in both cases, channel excavation is closely connected to concentration of tidal fluxes within the channel network during maximum ebb phase when maximum velocities and shear stresses are reached. In this experimental lagoon the main morphodynamic process responsible for tidal network initiation and development

  5. Demonstration of prominent actin filaments in the root columella

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collings, D. A.; Zsuppan, G.; Allen, N. S.; Blancaflor, E. B.; Brown, C. S. (Principal Investigator)

    2001-01-01

    The distribution of actin filaments within the gravity-sensing columella cells of plant roots remains poorly understood, with studies over numerous years providing inconsistent descriptions of actin organization in these cells. This uncertainty in actin organization, and thus in actin's role in graviperception and gravisignaling, has led us to investigate actin arrangements in the columella cells of Zea mays L., Medicago truncatula Gaertn., Linum usitatissiilium L. and Nicotianla benthamiana Domin. Actin organization was examined using a combination of optimized immunofluorescence techniques, and an improved fluorochrome-conjugated phalloidin labeling method reliant on 3-maleimidobenzoyl-N-hydroxy-succinimide ester (MBS) cross-linking combined with glycerol permeabilization. Confocal microscopy of root sections labeled with anti-actin antibodies revealed patterns suggestive of actin throughout the columella region. These patterns included short and fragmented actin bundles, fluorescent rings around amyloplasts and intense fluorescence originating from the nucleus. Additionally, confocal microscopy of MBS-stabilized and Alexa Fluor-phalloidin-labeled root sections revealed a previously undetected state of actin organization in the columella. Discrete actin structures surrounded the amyloplasts and prominent actin cables radiated from the nuclear surface toward the cell periphery. Furthermore, the cortex of the columella cells contained fine actin bundles (or single filaments) that had a predominant transverse orientation. We also used confocal microscopy of plant roots expressing endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-targeted green fluorescent protein to demonstrate rapid ER movements within the columella cells, suggesting that the imaged actin network is functional. The successful identification of discrete actin structures in the root columella cells forms the perception and signaling.

  6. Demonstration of prominent actin filaments in the root columella

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collings, D. A.; Zsuppan, G.; Allen, N. S.; Blancaflor, E. B.; Brown, C. S. (Principal Investigator)

    2001-01-01

    The distribution of actin filaments within the gravity-sensing columella cells of plant roots remains poorly understood, with studies over numerous years providing inconsistent descriptions of actin organization in these cells. This uncertainty in actin organization, and thus in actin's role in graviperception and gravisignaling, has led us to investigate actin arrangements in the columella cells of Zea mays L., Medicago truncatula Gaertn., Linum usitatissiilium L. and Nicotianla benthamiana Domin. Actin organization was examined using a combination of optimized immunofluorescence techniques, and an improved fluorochrome-conjugated phalloidin labeling method reliant on 3-maleimidobenzoyl-N-hydroxy-succinimide ester (MBS) cross-linking combined with glycerol permeabilization. Confocal microscopy of root sections labeled with anti-actin antibodies revealed patterns suggestive of actin throughout the columella region. These patterns included short and fragmented actin bundles, fluorescent rings around amyloplasts and intense fluorescence originating from the nucleus. Additionally, confocal microscopy of MBS-stabilized and Alexa Fluor-phalloidin-labeled root sections revealed a previously undetected state of actin organization in the columella. Discrete actin structures surrounded the amyloplasts and prominent actin cables radiated from the nuclear surface toward the cell periphery. Furthermore, the cortex of the columella cells contained fine actin bundles (or single filaments) that had a predominant transverse orientation. We also used confocal microscopy of plant roots expressing endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-targeted green fluorescent protein to demonstrate rapid ER movements within the columella cells, suggesting that the imaged actin network is functional. The successful identification of discrete actin structures in the root columella cells forms the perception and signaling.

  7. Fragmented Romanian sociology: growth and structure of the collaboration network.

    PubMed

    Hâncean, Marian-Gabriel; Perc, Matjaž; Vlăsceanu, Lazăr

    2014-01-01

    Structural patterns in collaboration networks are essential for understanding how new ideas, research practices, innovation or cooperation circulate and develop within academic communities and between and within university departments. In our research, we explore and investigate the structure of the collaboration network formed by the academics working full-time within all the 17 sociology departments across Romania. We show that the collaboration network is sparse and fragmented, and that it constitutes an environment that does not promote the circulation of new ideas and innovation within the field. Although recent years have witnessed an increase in the productivity of Romanian sociologists, there is still ample room for improvement in terms of the interaction infrastructure that ought to link individuals together so that they could maximize their potentials. We also fail to discern evidence in favor of the Matthew effect governing the growth of the network, which suggests scientific success and productivity are not rewarded. Instead, the structural properties of the collaboration network are partly those of a core-periphery network, where the spread of innovation and change can be explained by structural equivalence rather than by interpersonal influence models. We also provide support for the idea that, within the observed network, collaboration is the product of homophily rather than prestige effects. Further research on the subject based on data from other countries in the region is needed to place our results in a comparative framework, in particular to discern whether the behavior of the Romanian sociologist community is unique or rather common.

  8. Fragmented Romanian Sociology: Growth and Structure of the Collaboration Network

    PubMed Central

    Hâncean, Marian-Gabriel; Perc, Matjaž; Vlăsceanu, Lazăr

    2014-01-01

    Structural patterns in collaboration networks are essential for understanding how new ideas, research practices, innovation or cooperation circulate and develop within academic communities and between and within university departments. In our research, we explore and investigate the structure of the collaboration network formed by the academics working full-time within all the 17 sociology departments across Romania. We show that the collaboration network is sparse and fragmented, and that it constitutes an environment that does not promote the circulation of new ideas and innovation within the field. Although recent years have witnessed an increase in the productivity of Romanian sociologists, there is still ample room for improvement in terms of the interaction infrastructure that ought to link individuals together so that they could maximize their potentials. We also fail to discern evidence in favor of the Matthew effect governing the growth of the network, which suggests scientific success and productivity are not rewarded. Instead, the structural properties of the collaboration network are partly those of a core-periphery network, where the spread of innovation and change can be explained by structural equivalence rather than by interpersonal influence models. We also provide support for the idea that, within the observed network, collaboration is the product of homophily rather than prestige effects. Further research on the subject based on data from other countries in the region is needed to place our results in a comparative framework, in particular to discern whether the behavior of the Romanian sociologist community is unique or rather common. PMID:25409180

  9. Actin machinery and mechanosensitivity in invadopodia, podosomes and focal adhesions

    PubMed Central

    Albiges-Rizo, Corinne; Destaing, Olivier; Fourcade, Bertrand; Planus, Emmanuelle; Block, Marc R.

    2009-01-01

    Summary The invasiveness of cells is correlated with the presence of dynamic actin-rich membrane structures called invadopodia, which are membrane protrusions that are associated with localized polymerization of sub-membrane actin filaments. Similar to focal adhesions and podosomes, invadopodia are cell matrix adhesion sites. Indeed, invadopodia share several features with podosomes, but whether they are distinct structures is still a matter of debate. Invadopodia are built upon an N-WASP-dependent branched actin network, and the Rho GTPase Cdc42 is involved in inducing invadopodial-membrane protrusion, which is mediated by actin filaments that are organized in bundles to form an actin core. Actin-core formation is thought to be an early step in invadopodium assembly, and the actin core is perpendicular to the extracellular matrix and the plasma membrane; this contrasts with the tangential orientation of actin stress fibers anchored to focal adhesions. In this Commentary, we attempt to summarize recent insights into the actin dynamics of invadopodia and podosomes, and the forces that are transmitted through these invasive structures. Although the mechanisms underlying force-dependent regulation of invadopodia and podosomes are largely unknown compared with those of focal adhesions, these structures do exhibit mechanosensitivity. Actin dynamics and associated forces might be key elements in discriminating between invadopodia, podosomes and focal adhesions. Targeting actin regulatory molecules that specifically promote invadopodium formation is an attractive strategy against cancer-cell invasion. PMID:19692590

  10. Geometrical and mechanical properties control actin filament organization.

    PubMed

    Letort, Gaëlle; Politi, Antonio Z; Ennomani, Hajer; Théry, Manuel; Nedelec, Francois; Blanchoin, Laurent

    2015-05-01

    The different actin structures governing eukaryotic cell shape and movement are not only determined by the properties of the actin filaments and associated proteins, but also by geometrical constraints. We recently demonstrated that limiting nucleation to specific regions was sufficient to obtain actin networks with different organization. To further investigate how spatially constrained actin nucleation determines the emergent actin organization, we performed detailed simulations of the actin filament system using Cytosim. We first calibrated the steric interaction between filaments, by matching, in simulations and experiments, the bundled actin organization observed with a rectangular bar of nucleating factor. We then studied the overall organization of actin filaments generated by more complex pattern geometries used experimentally. We found that the fraction of parallel versus antiparallel bundles is determined by the mechanical properties of actin filament or bundles and the efficiency of nucleation. Thus nucleation geometry, actin filaments local interactions, bundle rigidity, and nucleation efficiency are the key parameters controlling the emergent actin architecture. We finally simulated more complex nucleation patterns and performed the corresponding experiments to confirm the predictive capabilities of the model.

  11. Geometrical and Mechanical Properties Control Actin Filament Organization

    PubMed Central

    Ennomani, Hajer; Théry, Manuel; Nedelec, Francois; Blanchoin, Laurent

    2015-01-01

    The different actin structures governing eukaryotic cell shape and movement are not only determined by the properties of the actin filaments and associated proteins, but also by geometrical constraints. We recently demonstrated that limiting nucleation to specific regions was sufficient to obtain actin networks with different organization. To further investigate how spatially constrained actin nucleation determines the emergent actin organization, we performed detailed simulations of the actin filament system using Cytosim. We first calibrated the steric interaction between filaments, by matching, in simulations and experiments, the bundled actin organization observed with a rectangular bar of nucleating factor. We then studied the overall organization of actin filaments generated by more complex pattern geometries used experimentally. We found that the fraction of parallel versus antiparallel bundles is determined by the mechanical properties of actin filament or bundles and the efficiency of nucleation. Thus nucleation geometry, actin filaments local interactions, bundle rigidity, and nucleation efficiency are the key parameters controlling the emergent actin architecture. We finally simulated more complex nucleation patterns and performed the corresponding experiments to confirm the predictive capabilities of the model. PMID:26016478

  12. Nanotopography-induced symmetry-breaking and guidance of actin polymerization waves and cell migration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Losert, Wolfgang; Guven, Can; Sun, Xiaoyu; Fourkas, John; Carlsson, Anders; Driscoll, Meghan

    2015-03-01

    Many types of eukaryotic cells on a surfaces exhibit reaction diffusion-type waves of actin polymerization. Exposing migrating Dictyostelium discoideum cells to asymmetries at a length scale relevant to actin waves (300 nm) results in guidance of actin polymerization and of the migration of the cells themselves. Quantitative measurements of actin wave speed and direction distributions show that actin polymerization is preferentially localized to nanoridges and directed along the ridges, and that the velocity of guided actin polymerization waves decreases with decreasing ridge spacing. A stochastic growth model of actin polymerization dynamics reproduces these key observations. Supported by NSF-PoLS.

  13. Cyclase-associated protein (CAP) acts directly on F-actin to accelerate cofilin-mediated actin severing across the range of physiological pH.

    PubMed

    Normoyle, Kieran P M; Brieher, William M

    2012-10-12

    Fast actin depolymerization is necessary for cells to rapidly reorganize actin filament networks. Utilizing a Listeria fluorescent actin comet tail assay to monitor actin disassembly rates, we observed that although a mixture of actin disassembly factors (cofilin, coronin, and actin-interacting protein 1 is sufficient to disassemble actin comet tails in the presence of physiological G-actin concentrations this mixture was insufficient to disassemble actin comet tails in the presence of physiological F-actin concentrations. Using biochemical complementation, we purified cyclase-associated protein (CAP) from thymus extracts as a factor that protects against the inhibition of excess F-actin. CAP has been shown to participate in actin dynamics but has been thought to act by liberating cofilin from ADP·G-actin monomers to restore cofilin activity. However, we found that CAP augments cofilin-mediated disassembly by accelerating the rate of cofilin-mediated severing. We also demonstrated that CAP acts directly on F-actin and severs actin filaments at acidic, but not neutral, pH. At the neutral pH characteristic of cytosol in most mammalian cells, we demonstrated that neither CAP nor cofilin are capable of severing actin filaments. However, the combination of CAP and cofilin rapidly severed actin at all pH values across the physiological range. Therefore, our results reveal a new function for CAP in accelerating cofilin-mediated actin filament severing and provide a mechanism through which cells can maintain high actin turnover rates without having to alkalinize cytosol, which would affect many biochemical reactions beyond actin depolymerization.

  14. Cyclase-associated Protein (CAP) Acts Directly on F-actin to Accelerate Cofilin-mediated Actin Severing across the Range of Physiological pH*

    PubMed Central

    Normoyle, Kieran P. M.; Brieher, William M.

    2012-01-01

    Fast actin depolymerization is necessary for cells to rapidly reorganize actin filament networks. Utilizing a Listeria fluorescent actin comet tail assay to monitor actin disassembly rates, we observed that although a mixture of actin disassembly factors (cofilin, coronin, and actin-interacting protein 1 is sufficient to disassemble actin comet tails in the presence of physiological G-actin concentrations this mixture was insufficient to disassemble actin comet tails in the presence of physiological F-actin concentrations. Using biochemical complementation, we purified cyclase-associated protein (CAP) from thymus extracts as a factor that protects against the inhibition of excess F-actin. CAP has been shown to participate in actin dynamics but has been thought to act by liberating cofilin from ADP·G-actin monomers to restore cofilin activity. However, we found that CAP augments cofilin-mediated disassembly by accelerating the rate of cofilin-mediated severing. We also demonstrated that CAP acts directly on F-actin and severs actin filaments at acidic, but not neutral, pH. At the neutral pH characteristic of cytosol in most mammalian cells, we demonstrated that neither CAP nor cofilin are capable of severing actin filaments. However, the combination of CAP and cofilin rapidly severed actin at all pH values across the physiological range. Therefore, our results reveal a new function for CAP in accelerating cofilin-mediated actin filament severing and provide a mechanism through which cells can maintain high actin turnover rates without having to alkalinize cytosol, which would affect many biochemical reactions beyond actin depolymerization. PMID:22904322

  15. Gibberellins - a multifaceted hormone in plant growth regulatory network.

    PubMed

    Gantait, Saikat; Sinniah, Uma Rani; Ali, Md Nasim; Sahu, Narayan Chandra

    2015-01-01

    Plants tend to acclimatize to unfavourable environs by integrating growth and development to environmentally activated signals. Phytohormones strongly regulate convergent developmental and stress adaptive procedures and synchronize cellular reaction to the exogenous and endogenous conditions within the adaptive signaling networks. Gibberellins (GA), a group of tetracyclic diterpenoids, being vital regulators of plant growth, are accountable for regulating several aspects of growth and development of higher plants. If the element of reproduction is considered as an absolute requisite then for a majority of the higher plants GA signaling is simply indispensable. Latest reports have revealed unique conflicting roles of GA and other phytohormones in amalgamating growth and development in plants through environmental signaling. Numerous physiological researches have detailed substantial crosstalk between GA and other hormones like abscisic acid, auxin, cytokinin, and jasmonic acid. In this review, a number of explanations and clarifications for this discrepancy are explored based on the crosstalk among GA and other phytohormones.

  16. [Actin in the wound healing process].

    PubMed

    Nowak, Dorota; Popow-Woźniak, Agnieszka; Raźnikiewicz, Linda; Malicka-Błaszkiewicz, Maria

    2009-01-01

    Wound healing is an important biological process of crucial value for organisms survival and retention of its proper functions. The recognition of molecular mechanisms of these phenomenon is still under investigation. The transition of mesenchymal fibroblasts to myofibroblasts is a key point in wound healing. The contraction ability of myofibroblast enables the shrinkage of a wound and closes its edges. Alpha smooth muscle actin (alpha-SMA), one of six actin isoforms, is a marker of compeletely differentiated myofibroblast. The regulation of differentiation process depends on many growth factors (especially TGF beta 1), the level of active thymosin beta 4, extracellular matrix proteins--including fibronectin, and also on specificity of microenvironment. Thymosin beta 4 is responsible for maintenance of pool of monomeric actin and actin filaments depolymerization. It can also act as a transcription factor, migration stimulator and immunomodulator, so this protein deserves for more attention in wound healing research field.

  17. Chemotaxis and Actin Oscillations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bodenschatz, Eberhard; Hsu, Hsin-Fang; Negrete, Jose; Beta, Carsten; Pumir, Alain; Gholami, Azam; Tarantola, Marco; Westendorf, Christian; Zykov, Vladimir

    Recently, self-oscillations of the cytoskeletal actin have been observed in Dictyostelium, a model system for studying chemotaxis. Here we report experimental results on the self-oscillation mechanism and the role of regulatory proteins and myosin II. We stimulate cells rapidly and periodically by using photo un-caging of the chemoattractant in a micro-fluidic device and measured the cellular responses. We found that the response amplitude grows with stimulation strength only in a very narrow region of stimulation, after which the response amplitude reaches a plateau. Moreover, the frequency-response is not constant but rather varies with the strength of external stimuli. To understand the underlying mechanism, we analyzed the polymerization and de-polymerization time in the single cell level. Despite of the large cell-to-cell variability, we found that the polymerization time is independent of external stimuli and the de-polymerization time is prolonged as the stimulation strength increases. Our conclusions will be summarized and the role of noise in the signaling network will be discussed. German Science Foundation CRC 937.

  18. Physical determinants of vascular network remodeling during tumor growth.

    PubMed

    Welter, M; Rieger, H

    2010-10-01

    The process in which a growing tumor transforms a hierarchically organized arterio-venous blood vessel network into a tumor specific vasculature is analyzed with a theoretical model. The physical determinants of this remodeling involve the morphological and hydrodynamic properties of the initial network, generation of new vessels (sprouting angiogenesis), vessel dilation (circumferential growth), vessel regression, tumor cell proliferation and death, and the interdependence of these processes via spatio-temporal changes of blood flow parameters, oxygen/nutrient supply and growth factor concentration fields. The emerging tumor vasculature is non-hierarchical, compartmentalized into well-characterized zones, displays a complex geometry with necrotic zones and "hot spots" of increased vascular density and blood flow of varying size, and transports drug injections efficiently. Implications for current theoretical views on tumor-induced angiogenesis are discussed.

  19. A network meta-analysis of the relative efficacy of treatments for actinic keratosis of the face or scalp in Europe.

    PubMed

    Vegter, Stefan; Tolley, Keith

    2014-01-01

    Several treatments are available for actinic keratosis (AK) on the face and scalp. Most treatment modalities were compared to placebo and therefore little is known on their relative efficacy. To compare the different treatments for mild to moderate AK on the face and scalp available in clinical practice in Europe. A network meta-analysis (NMA) was performed on the outcome "complete patient clearance". Ten treatment modalities were included: two 5-aminolaevulinic acid photodynamic therapies (ALA-PDT), applied as gel (BF-200 ALA) or patch; methyl-aminolevulinate photodynamic therapy (MAL-PDT); three modalities with imiquimod (IMI), applied as a 4-week or 16-week course with 5% imiquimod, or a 2-3 week course with 3.75% imiquimod; cryotherapy; diclofenac 3% in 2.5% hyaluronic acid; 0.5% 5-fluorouracil (5-FU); and ingenol mebutate (IMB). The only data available for 5% 5-FU was from one small study and was determined to be too limited to be reliably included in the analysis. For BF-200 ALA and MAL-PDT, data from illumination with narrow-band lights were selected as these are typically used in clinical practice. The NMA was performed with a random-effects Bayesian model. 25 trials on 5,562 patients were included in the NMA. All active treatments were significantly better than placebo. BF-200 ALA showed the highest efficacy compared to placebo to achieve total patient clearance. BF-200 ALA had the highest probability to be the best treatment and the highest SUCRA score (64.8% and 92.1%), followed by IMI 5% 4 weeks (10.1% and 74.2%) and 5-FU 0.5% (7.2% and 66.8%). This NMA showed that BF-200 ALA, using narrow-band lights, was the most efficacious treatment for mild to moderate AK on the face and scalp. This analysis is relevant for clinical decision making and health technology assessment, assisting the improved management of AK.

  20. Requirements for F-BAR proteins TOCA-1 and TOCA-2 in actin dynamics and membrane trafficking during Caenorhabditis elegans oocyte growth and embryonic epidermal morphogenesis.

    PubMed

    Giuliani, Chiara; Troglio, Flavia; Bai, Zhiyong; Patel, Falshruti B; Zucconi, Adriana; Malabarba, Maria Grazia; Disanza, Andrea; Stradal, Theresia B; Cassata, Giuseppe; Confalonieri, Stefano; Hardin, Jeffrey D; Soto, Martha C; Grant, Barth D; Scita, Giorgio

    2009-10-01

    The TOCA family of F-BAR-containing proteins bind to and remodel lipid bilayers via their conserved F-BAR domains, and regulate actin dynamics via their N-Wasp binding SH3 domains. Thus, these proteins are predicted to play a pivotal role in coordinating membrane traffic with actin dynamics during cell migration and tissue morphogenesis. By combining genetic analysis in Caenorhabditis elegans with cellular biochemical experiments in mammalian cells, we showed that: i) loss of CeTOCA proteins reduced the efficiency of Clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME) in oocytes. Genetic interference with CeTOCAs interacting proteins WSP-1 and WVE-1, and other components of the WVE-1 complex, produced a similar effect. Oocyte endocytosis defects correlated well with reduced egg production in these mutants. ii) CeTOCA proteins localize to cell-cell junctions and are required for proper embryonic morphogenesis, to position hypodermal cells and to organize junctional actin and the junction-associated protein AJM-1. iii) Double mutant analysis indicated that the toca genes act in the same pathway as the nematode homologue of N-WASP/WASP, wsp-1. Furthermore, mammalian TOCA-1 and C. elegans CeTOCAs physically associated with N-WASP and WSP-1 directly, or WAVE2 indirectly via ABI-1. Thus, we propose that TOCA proteins control tissues morphogenesis by coordinating Clathrin-dependent membrane trafficking with WAVE and N-WASP-dependent actin-dynamics.

  1. Requirements for F-BAR Proteins TOCA-1 and TOCA-2 in Actin Dynamics and Membrane Trafficking during Caenorhabditis elegans Oocyte Growth and Embryonic Epidermal Morphogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Falshruti B.; Zucconi, Adriana; Malabarba, Maria Grazia; Disanza, Andrea; Stradal, Theresia B.; Cassata, Giuseppe; Confalonieri, Stefano; Hardin, Jeffrey D.; Soto, Martha C.; Grant, Barth D.; Scita, Giorgio

    2009-01-01

    The TOCA family of F-BAR–containing proteins bind to and remodel lipid bilayers via their conserved F-BAR domains, and regulate actin dynamics via their N-Wasp binding SH3 domains. Thus, these proteins are predicted to play a pivotal role in coordinating membrane traffic with actin dynamics during cell migration and tissue morphogenesis. By combining genetic analysis in Caenorhabditis elegans with cellular biochemical experiments in mammalian cells, we showed that: i) loss of CeTOCA proteins reduced the efficiency of Clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME) in oocytes. Genetic interference with CeTOCAs interacting proteins WSP-1 and WVE-1, and other components of the WVE-1 complex, produced a similar effect. Oocyte endocytosis defects correlated well with reduced egg production in these mutants. ii) CeTOCA proteins localize to cell–cell junctions and are required for proper embryonic morphogenesis, to position hypodermal cells and to organize junctional actin and the junction-associated protein AJM-1. iii) Double mutant analysis indicated that the toca genes act in the same pathway as the nematode homologue of N-WASP/WASP, wsp-1. Furthermore, mammalian TOCA-1 and C. elegans CeTOCAs physically associated with N-WASP and WSP-1 directly, or WAVE2 indirectly via ABI-1. Thus, we propose that TOCA proteins control tissues morphogenesis by coordinating Clathrin-dependent membrane trafficking with WAVE and N-WASP–dependent actin-dynamics. PMID:19798448

  2. Fractional Dynamics of Network Growth Constrained by Aging Node Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Safdari, Hadiseh; Zare Kamali, Milad; Shirazi, Amirhossein; Khalighi, Moein; Jafari, Gholamreza; Ausloos, Marcel

    2016-01-01

    In many social complex systems, in which agents are linked by non-linear interactions, the history of events strongly influences the whole network dynamics. However, a class of “commonly accepted beliefs” seems rarely studied. In this paper, we examine how the growth process of a (social) network is influenced by past circumstances. In order to tackle this cause, we simply modify the well known preferential attachment mechanism by imposing a time dependent kernel function in the network evolution equation. This approach leads to a fractional order Barabási-Albert (BA) differential equation, generalizing the BA model. Our results show that, with passing time, an aging process is observed for the network dynamics. The aging process leads to a decay for the node degree values, thereby creating an opposing process to the preferential attachment mechanism. On one hand, based on the preferential attachment mechanism, nodes with a high degree are more likely to absorb links; but, on the other hand, a node’s age has a reduced chance for new connections. This competitive scenario allows an increased chance for younger members to become a hub. Simulations of such a network growth with aging constraint confirm the results found from solving the fractional BA equation. We also report, as an exemplary application, an investigation of the collaboration network between Hollywood movie actors. It is undubiously shown that a decay in the dynamics of their collaboration rate is found, even including a sex difference. Such findings suggest a widely universal application of the so generalized BA model. PMID:27171424

  3. Spontaneous actin dynamics in contractile rings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kruse, Karsten; Wollrab, Viktoria; Thiagarajan, Raghavan; Wald, Anne; Riveline, Daniel

    Networks of polymerizing actin filaments are known to be capable to self-organize into a variety of structures. For example, spontaneous actin polymerization waves have been observed in living cells in a number of circumstances, notably, in crawling neutrophils and slime molds. During later stages of cell division, they can also spontaneously form a contractile ring that will eventually cleave the cell into two daughter cells. We present a framework for describing networks of polymerizing actin filaments, where assembly is regulated by various proteins. It can also include the effects of molecular motors. We show that the molecular processes driven by these proteins can generate various structures that have been observed in contractile rings of fission yeast and mammalian cells. We discuss a possible functional role of each of these patterns. The work was supported by Agence Nationale de la Recherche, France, (ANR-10-LABX-0030-INRT) and by Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft through SFB1027.

  4. Actin dynamics in Phytophthora infestans; rapidly reorganizing cables and immobile, long-lived plaques.

    PubMed

    Meijer, Harold J G; Hua, Chenlei; Kots, Kiki; Ketelaar, Tijs; Govers, Francine

    2014-06-01

    The actin cytoskeleton is a dynamic but well-organized intracellular framework that is essential for proper functioning of eukaryotic cells. Here, we use the actin binding peptide Lifeact to investigate the in vivo actin cytoskeleton dynamics in the oomycete plant pathogen Phytophthora infestans. Lifeact-eGFP labelled thick and thin actin bundles and actin filament plaques allowing visualization of actin dynamics. All actin structures in the hyphae were cortically localized. In growing hyphae actin filament cables were axially oriented in the sub-apical region whereas in the extreme apex in growing hyphae, waves of fine F-actin polymerization were observed. Upon growth termination, actin filament plaques appeared in the hyphal tip. The distance between a hyphal tip and the first actin filament plaque correlated strongly with hyphal growth velocity. The actin filament plaques were nearly immobile with average lifetimes exceeding 1 h, relatively long when compared to the lifetime of actin patches known in other eukaryotes. Plaque assembly required ∼30 s while disassembly was accomplished in ∼10 s. Remarkably, plaque disassembly was not accompanied with internalization and the formation of endocytic vesicles. These findings suggest that the functions of actin plaques in oomycetes differ from those of actin patches present in other organisms.

  5. Horizontal and vertical growth of S. cerevisiae metabolic network

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The growth and development of a biological organism is reflected by its metabolic network, the evolution of which relies on the essential gene duplication mechanism. There are two current views about the evolution of metabolic networks. The retrograde model hypothesizes that a pathway evolves by recruiting novel enzymes in a direction opposite to the metabolic flow. The patchwork model is instead based on the assumption that the evolution is based on the exploitation of broad-specificity enzymes capable of catalysing a variety of metabolic reactions. Results We analysed a well-studied unicellular eukaryotic organism, S. cerevisiae, and studied the effect of the removal of paralogous gene products on its metabolic network. Our results, obtained using different paralog and network definitions, show that, after an initial period when gene duplication was indeed instrumental in expanding the metabolic space, the latter reached an equilibrium and subsequent gene duplications were used as a source of more specialized enzymes rather than as a source of novel reactions. We also show that the switch between the two evolutionary strategies in S. cerevisiae can be dated to about 350 million years ago. Conclusions Our data, obtained through a novel analysis methodology, strongly supports the hypothesis that the patchwork model better explains the more recent evolution of the S. cerevisiae metabolic network. Interestingly, the effects of a patchwork strategy acting before the Euascomycete-Hemiascomycete divergence are still detectable today. PMID:21999464

  6. Network of European studies of genes in growth (NESTEGG).

    PubMed

    Johnston, Linda B; Ester, Wiestske; Caliebe, Janina; Molinas, Catherine; Wollmann, Hartmut; Fryklund, Linda; Clark, Adrian J; Ranke, Michael B; Tauber, Maithe; Hokken Koelega, Anita; Savage, Martin O

    2009-04-01

    The network of European studies of genes in growth (NESTEGG) is an international growth genomics project, focusing on the birth size phenotypes of small for gestational age (SGA) and idiopathic short stature. Seven hundred controls and 1,275 cases with their parents have been recruited. Detailed clinical histories and auxological measurements are recorded in a clinical database. Candidate gene studies are being undertaken with the study DNA samples. These genetic data will be used to explore associations with the clinical phenotypes of short stature and SGA birth size, and, in a subset, response to growth hormone (GH) therapy. This article describes the study methodology and reviews the association of the exon 3-deleted genotype of the GH receptor with GH responsiveness in GH-treated children born SGA. Copyright 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  7. The yeast actin cytoskeleton: from cellular function to biochemical mechanism.

    PubMed

    Moseley, James B; Goode, Bruce L

    2006-09-01

    All cells undergo rapid remodeling of their actin networks to regulate such critical processes as endocytosis, cytokinesis, cell polarity, and cell morphogenesis. These events are driven by the coordinated activities of a set of 20 to 30 highly conserved actin-associated proteins, in addition to many cell-specific actin-associated proteins and numerous upstream signaling molecules. The combined activities of these factors control with exquisite precision the spatial and temporal assembly of actin structures and ensure dynamic turnover of actin structures such that cells can rapidly alter their cytoskeletons in response to internal and external cues. One of the most exciting principles to emerge from the last decade of research on actin is that the assembly of architecturally diverse actin structures is governed by highly conserved machinery and mechanisms. With this realization, it has become apparent that pioneering efforts in budding yeast have contributed substantially to defining the universal mechanisms regulating actin dynamics in eukaryotes. In this review, we first describe the filamentous actin structures found in Saccharomyces cerevisiae (patches, cables, and rings) and their physiological functions, and then we discuss in detail the specific roles of actin-associated proteins and their biochemical mechanisms of action.

  8. Actin is required for IFT regulation in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.

    PubMed

    Avasthi, Prachee; Onishi, Masayuki; Karpiak, Joel; Yamamoto, Ryosuke; Mackinder, Luke; Jonikas, Martin C; Sale, Winfield S; Shoichet, Brian; Pringle, John R; Marshall, Wallace F

    2014-09-08

    Assembly of cilia and flagella requires intraflagellar transport (IFT), a highly regulated kinesin-based transport system that moves cargo from the basal body to the tip of flagella [1]. The recruitment of IFT components to basal bodies is a function of flagellar length, with increased recruitment in rapidly growing short flagella [2]. The molecular pathways regulating IFT are largely a mystery. Because actin network disruption leads to changes in ciliary length and number, actin has been proposed to have a role in ciliary assembly. However, the mechanisms involved are unknown. In Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, conventional actin is found in both the cell body and the inner dynein arm complexes within flagella [3, 4]. Previous work showed that treating Chlamydomonas cells with the actin-depolymerizing compound cytochalasin D resulted in reversible flagellar shortening [5], but how actin is related to flagellar length or assembly remains unknown. Here we utilize small-molecule inhibitors and genetic mutants to analyze the role of actin dynamics in flagellar assembly in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. We demonstrate that actin plays a role in IFT recruitment to basal bodies during flagellar elongation and that when actin is perturbed, the normal dependence of IFT recruitment on flagellar length is lost. We also find that actin is required for sufficient entry of IFT material into flagella during assembly. These same effects are recapitulated with a myosin inhibitor, suggesting that actin may act via myosin in a pathway by which flagellar assembly is regulated by flagellar length.

  9. Carbon nanotubes reorganize actin structures in cells and ex vivo.

    PubMed

    Holt, Brian D; Short, Philip A; Rape, Andrew D; Wang, Yu-li; Islam, Mohammad F; Dahl, Kris Noel

    2010-08-24

    The ability of globular actin to form filaments and higher-order network structures of the cytoskeleton is essential for cells to maintain their shape and perform essential functions such as force generation, motility, and division. Alterations of actin structures can dramatically change a cell's ability to function. We found that purified and dispersed single wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) can induce actin bundling in cells and in purified model actin systems. SWCNTs do not induce acute cell death, but cell proliferation is greatly reduced in SWCNT-treated cells with an increase in actin-related division defects. Actin, normally present in basal stress fibers in control cells, is located in heterogeneous structures throughout the SWCNT-treated cell. These SWCNT-induced changes in actin structures are seen functionally in multinucleated cells and with reduced force generation. Ex vivo, purified actin filaments cross-linked with alpha-actinin and formed isotropic networks, whereas SWCNTs caused purified actin filaments to assemble into bundles. While purified, isolated SWCNTs do not appear acutely toxic, this subcellular reorganization may cause chronic changes to cellular functions.

  10. What we talk about when we talk about nuclear actin

    PubMed Central

    Belin, Brittany J; Mullins, R Dyche

    2013-01-01

    In the cytoplasm, actin filaments form crosslinked networks that enable eukaryotic cells to transport cargo, change shape, and move. Actin is also present in the nucleus but, in this compartment, its functions are more cryptic and controversial. If we distill the substantial literature on nuclear actin down to its essentials, we find four, recurring, and more-or-less independent, claims: (1) crosslinked networks of conventional actin filaments span the nucleus and help maintain its structure and organize its contents; (2) assembly or contraction of filaments regulates specific nuclear events; (3) actin monomers moonlight as subunits of chromatin remodeling complexes, independent of their ability to form filaments; and (4) modified actin monomers or oligomers, structurally distinct from canonical, cytoskeletal filaments, mediate nuclear events by unknown mechanisms. We discuss the evidence underlying these claims and as well as their strengths and weaknesses. Next, we describe our recent work, in which we built probes specific for nuclear actin and used them to describe the form and distribution of actin in somatic cell nuclei. Finally, we discuss how different forms of nuclear actin may play different roles in different cell types and physiological contexts. PMID:23934079

  11. Actin protofilament orientation in deformation of the erythrocyte membrane skeleton.

    PubMed Central

    Picart, C; Dalhaimer, P; Discher, D E

    2000-01-01

    The red cell's spectrin-actin network is known to sustain local states of shear, dilation, and condensation, and yet the short actin filaments are found to maintain membrane-tangent and near-random azimuthal orientations. When calibrated with polarization results for single actin filaments, imaging of micropipette-deformed red cell ghosts has allowed an assessment of actin orientations and possible reorientations in the network. At the hemispherical cap of the aspirated projection, where the network can be dilated severalfold, filaments have the same membrane-tangent orientation as on a relatively unstrained portion of membrane. Likewise, over the length of the network projection pulled into the micropipette, where the network is strongly sheared in axial extension and circumferential contraction, actin maintains its tangent orientation and is only very weakly aligned with network extension. Similar results are found for the integral membrane protein Band 3. Allowing for thermal fluctuations, we deduce a bound for the effective coupling constant, alpha, between network shear and azimuthal orientation of the protofilament. The finding that alpha must be about an order of magnitude or more below its tight-coupling value illustrates how nanostructural kinematics can decouple from more macroscopic responses. Monte Carlo simulations of spectrin-actin networks at approximately 10-nm resolution further support this conclusion and substantiate an image of protofilaments as elements of a high-temperature spin glass. PMID:11106606

  12. Actin Polymerization is Stimulated by Actin Crosslinking Protein Palladin

    PubMed Central

    Gurung, Ritu; Yadav, Rahul; Brungardt, Joseph G.; Orlova, Albina; Egelman, Edward H.; Beck, Moriah R.

    2016-01-01

    The actin scaffold protein palladin regulates both normal cell migration and invasive cell motility, processes that require the coordinated regulation of actin dynamics. However, the potential effect of palladin on actin dynamics has remained elusive. Here we show that the actin binding immunoglobulin-like domain of palladin, which is directly responsible for both actin binding and bundling, also stimulates actin polymerization in vitro. Palladin eliminated the lag phase that is characteristic of the slow nucleation step of actin polymerization. Furthermore, palladin dramatically reduced depolymerization, slightly enhanced the elongation rate, and did not alter the critical concentration. Microscopy and in vitro crosslinking assays reveal differences in actin bundle architecture when palladin is incubated with actin before or after polymerization. These results suggest a model whereby palladin stimulates a polymerization-competent form of G-actin, akin to metal ions, either through charge neutralization or conformational changes. PMID:26607837

  13. Two Functionally Distinct Sources of Actin Monomers Supply the Leading Edge of Lamellipodia

    PubMed Central

    Vitriol, Eric A.; McMillen, Laura M.; Kapustina, Maryna; Gomez, Shawn M.; Vavylonis, Dimitrios; Zheng, James Q.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Lamellipodia, the sheet-like protrusions of motile cells, consist of networks of actin filaments (F-actin) regulated by the ordered assembly from and disassembly into actin monomers (G-actin). Traditionally, G-actin is thought to exist as a homogeneous pool. Here, we show that there are two functionally and molecularly distinct sources of G-actin that supply lamellipodial actin networks. G-actin originating from the cytosolic pool requires the monomer binding protein thymosin β4 (Tβ4) for optimal leading edge localization, is targeted to formins, and is responsible for creating an elevated G/F-actin ratio that promotes membrane protrusion. The second source of G-actin comes from recycled lamellipodia F-actin. Recycling occurs independently of Tβ4 and appears to regulate lamellipodia homeostasis. Tβ4-bound G-actin specifically localizes to the leading edge because it doesn’t interact with Arp2/3-mediated polymerization sites found throughout the lamellipodia. These findings demonstrate that actin networks can be constructed from multiple sources of monomers with discrete spatiotemporal functions. PMID:25865895

  14. Adhesive F-actin Waves: A Novel Integrin-Mediated Adhesion Complex Coupled to Ventral Actin Polymerization

    PubMed Central

    Case, Lindsay B.; Waterman, Clare M.

    2011-01-01

    At the leading lamellipodium of migrating cells, protrusion of an Arp2/3-nucleated actin network is coupled to formation of integrin-based adhesions, suggesting that Arp2/3-mediated actin polymerization and integrin-dependent adhesion may be mechanistically linked. Arp2/3 also mediates actin polymerization in structures distinct from the lamellipodium, in “ventral F-actin waves” that propagate as spots and wavefronts along the ventral plasma membrane. Here we show that integrins engage the extracellular matrix downstream of ventral F-actin waves in several mammalian cell lines as well as in primary mouse embryonic fibroblasts. These “adhesive F-actin waves” require a cycle of integrin engagement and disengagement to the extracellular matrix for their formation and propagation, and exhibit morphometry and a hierarchical assembly and disassembly mechanism distinct from other integrin-containing structures. After Arp2/3-mediated actin polymerization, zyxin and VASP are co-recruited to adhesive F-actin waves, followed by paxillin and vinculin, and finally talin and integrin. Adhesive F-actin waves thus represent a previously uncharacterized integrin-based adhesion complex associated with Arp2/3-mediated actin polymerization. PMID:22069459

  15. Regulation of myosin II activity by actin architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weirich, Kimberly; Stam, Samantha; McCall, Patrick; Munro, Edwin; Gardel, Margaret

    2015-03-01

    Networks of actin filaments containing myosin II motors generate forces and motions that promote biological processes such as cell division, motility, and cargo transport. In cells, actin filaments are arranged in various structures from disordered meshworks to tight bundles. Clusters of myosin II motors, known as myosin filaments, crosslink and generate force on neighboring actin filaments. We hypothesized that the local actin architecture controls the magnitude and duration of force generated by myosin II motors. We used fluorescence imaging to directly measure the mobility of myosin II filaments on actin networks and bundles with varying actin filament polarity, orientation, spacing, and length. On unipolar bundles, myosin exhibits fast, unidirectional motion consistent with their unloaded gliding speed. On mixed polarity bundles, myosin speed is reduced by one order of magnitude and marked by direction switching and trapping. Increasing filament spacing and bundle flexibility reduces the duration of trapping and enhances the mobility of motors. Simulations indicate that stable trapping is a signature of large generated forces while increased mobility indicates force release. Our data underscore that the efficiency of force generation by myosin motors in an actin network depends sensitively on its architecture and suggests actin crosslinking proteins are tuned to optimize actomyosin contractility.

  16. Actin-filament disassembly: it takes two to shrink them fast.

    PubMed

    Winterhoff, Moritz; Faix, Jan

    2015-06-01

    Actin-filament disassembly is indispensable for replenishing the pool of polymerizable actin and allows continuous dynamic remodelling of the actin cytoskeleton. A new study now reveals that ADF/cofilin preferentially dismantles branched networks and provides new insights into the collaborative work of ADF/cofilin and Aip1 on filament disassembly at the molecular level.

  17. Visualization and simulation of bubble growth in pore networks

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Xuehai; Yortsos, Y.C.

    1994-03-01

    Bubble nucleation and bubble growth in porous media is an important problem encountered in processes, such as pressure depletion and boiling. To understand its basic aspects, experiments and numerical simulations in micromodel geometries were undertaken. Experiments of bubble growth by pressure depletion were carried out in 2-D etched-glass micromodels and in Hele-Shaw cells. Nucleation of bubbles and the subsequent growth of gas clusters were visualized. Contrary to the bulk or to Hele-Shaw cells, gas clusters in the micromodel have irregular and ramified shapes and share many of the features of an external invasion process (e.g. of percolation during drainage). A pore network numerical model was developed to simulate the growth of multiple gas clusters under various conditions. The model is based on the solution of the convection-diffusions equation and also accounts for capillary and viscous forces, which play an important role in determining the growth patterns. Numerical simulation resulted in good agreement with the experimental results.

  18. Dendritic Actin Filament Nucleation Causes Traveling Waves and Patches

    PubMed Central

    Carlsson, Anders E

    2010-01-01

    The polymerization of actin via branching at a cell membrane containing nucleation-promoting factors (NPFs) is simulated using a stochastic-growth methodology. The polymerized-actin distribution displays three types of behavior: a) traveling waves, b) moving patches, and c) random fluctuations. Increasing actin concentration causes a transition from patches to waves. The waves and patches move by a treadmilling mechanism which does not require myosin II. The effects of downregulation of key proteins on actin wave behavior are evaluated. PMID:20867207

  19. Shape-dependent control of cell growth, differentiation, and apoptosis: switching between attractors in cell regulatory networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huang, S.; Ingber, D. E.

    2000-01-01

    Development of characteristic tissue patterns requires that individual cells be switched locally between different phenotypes or "fates;" while one cell may proliferate, its neighbors may differentiate or die. Recent studies have revealed that local switching between these different gene programs is controlled through interplay between soluble growth factors, insoluble extracellular matrix molecules, and mechanical forces which produce cell shape distortion. Although the precise molecular basis remains unknown, shape-dependent control of cell growth and function appears to be mediated by tension-dependent changes in the actin cytoskeleton. However, the question remains: how can a generalized physical stimulus, such as cell distortion, activate the same set of genes and signaling proteins that are triggered by molecules which bind to specific cell surface receptors. In this article, we use computer simulations based on dynamic Boolean networks to show that the different cell fates that a particular cell can exhibit may represent a preprogrammed set of common end programs or "attractors" which self-organize within the cell's regulatory networks. In this type of dynamic network model of information processing, generalized stimuli (e.g., mechanical forces) and specific molecular cues elicit signals which follow different trajectories, but eventually converge onto one of a small set of common end programs (growth, quiescence, differentiation, apoptosis, etc.). In other words, if cells use this type of information processing system, then control of cell function would involve selection of preexisting (latent) behavioral modes of the cell, rather than instruction by specific binding molecules. Importantly, the results of the computer simulation closely mimic experimental data obtained with living endothelial cells. The major implication of this finding is that current methods used for analysis of cell function that rely on characterization of linear signaling pathways or

  20. Shape-dependent control of cell growth, differentiation, and apoptosis: switching between attractors in cell regulatory networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huang, S.; Ingber, D. E.

    2000-01-01

    Development of characteristic tissue patterns requires that individual cells be switched locally between different phenotypes or "fates;" while one cell may proliferate, its neighbors may differentiate or die. Recent studies have revealed that local switching between these different gene programs is controlled through interplay between soluble growth factors, insoluble extracellular matrix molecules, and mechanical forces which produce cell shape distortion. Although the precise molecular basis remains unknown, shape-dependent control of cell growth and function appears to be mediated by tension-dependent changes in the actin cytoskeleton. However, the question remains: how can a generalized physical stimulus, such as cell distortion, activate the same set of genes and signaling proteins that are triggered by molecules which bind to specific cell surface receptors. In this article, we use computer simulations based on dynamic Boolean networks to show that the different cell fates that a particular cell can exhibit may represent a preprogrammed set of common end programs or "attractors" which self-organize within the cell's regulatory networks. In this type of dynamic network model of information processing, generalized stimuli (e.g., mechanical forces) and specific molecular cues elicit signals which follow different trajectories, but eventually converge onto one of a small set of common end programs (growth, quiescence, differentiation, apoptosis, etc.). In other words, if cells use this type of information processing system, then control of cell function would involve selection of preexisting (latent) behavioral modes of the cell, rather than instruction by specific binding molecules. Importantly, the results of the computer simulation closely mimic experimental data obtained with living endothelial cells. The major implication of this finding is that current methods used for analysis of cell function that rely on characterization of linear signaling pathways or

  1. Arabidopsis AtADF1 is functionally affected by mutations on actin binding sites.

    PubMed

    Dong, Chun-Hai; Tang, Wei-Ping; Liu, Jia-Yao

    2013-03-01

    The plant actin depolymerizing factor (ADF) binds to both monomeric and filamentous actin, and is directly involved in the depolymerization of actin filaments. To better understand the actin binding sites of the Arabidopsis thaliana L. AtADF1, we generated mutants of AtADF1 and investigated their functions in vitro and in vivo. Analysis of mutants harboring amino acid substitutions revealed that charged residues (Arg98 and Lys100) located at the α-helix 3 and forming an actin binding site together with the N-terminus are essential for both G- and F-actin binding. The basic residues on the β-strand 5 (K82/A) and the α-helix 4 (R135/A, R137/A) form another actin binding site that is important for F-actin binding. Using transient expression of CFP-tagged AtADF1 mutant proteins in onion (Allium cepa) peel epidermal cells and transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana L. plants overexpressing these mutants, we analyzed how these mutant proteins regulate actin organization and affect seedling growth. Our results show that the ADF mutants with a lower affinity for actin filament binding can still be functional, unless the affinity for actin monomers is also affected. The G-actin binding activity of the ADF plays an essential role in actin binding, depolymerization of actin polymers, and therefore in the control of actin organization. © 2012 Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  2. Actin-binding proteins implicated in the formation of the punctate actin foci stimulated by the self-incompatibility response in Papaver.

    PubMed

    Poulter, Natalie S; Staiger, Christopher J; Rappoport, Joshua Z; Franklin-Tong, Vernonica E

    2010-03-01

    The actin cytoskeleton is a key target for signaling networks and plays a central role in translating signals into cellular responses in eukaryotic cells. Self-incompatibility (SI) is an important mechanism responsible for preventing self-fertilization. The SI system of Papaver rhoeas pollen involves a Ca(2+)-dependent signaling network, including massive actin depolymerization as one of the earliest cellular responses, followed by the formation of large actin foci. However, no analysis of these structures, which appear to be aggregates of filamentous (F-)actin based on phalloidin staining, has been carried out to date. Here, we characterize and quantify the formation of F-actin foci in incompatible Papaver pollen tubes over time. The F-actin foci increase in size over time, and we provide evidence that their formation requires actin polymerization. Once formed, these SI-induced structures are unusually stable, being resistant to treatments with latrunculin B. Furthermore, their formation is associated with changes in the intracellular localization of two actin-binding proteins, cyclase-associated protein and actin-depolymerizing factor. Two other regulators of actin dynamics, profilin and fimbrin, do not associate with the F-actin foci. This study provides, to our knowledge, the first insights into the actin-binding proteins and mechanisms involved in the formation of these intriguing structures, which appear to be actively formed during the SI response.

  3. Baby Spider: Growth of a Martian Trough Network

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-12-20

    This image from NASA Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter shows the growth of a branching network of troughs carved by thawing carbon dioxide over the span of three Martian years. This process is believed to also form larger radially patterned channel features known as Martian "spiders." The image is one of three taken by the High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) camera on NASA's Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter and included in a report on the first detection of such troughs persisting and growing, from one Mars year to the next. An animation is available at http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA21257

  4. Cortical actin networks induce spatio-temporal confinement of phospholipids in the plasma membrane – a minimally invasive investigation by STED-FCS

    PubMed Central

    Andrade, Débora M.; Clausen, Mathias P.; Keller, Jan; Mueller, Veronika; Wu, Congying; Bear, James E.; Hell, Stefan W.; Lagerholm, B. Christoffer; Eggeling, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Important discoveries in the last decades have changed our view of the plasma membrane organisation. Specifically, the cortical cytoskeleton has emerged as a key modulator of the lateral diffusion of membrane proteins. Cytoskeleton-dependent compartmentalised lipid diffusion has been proposed, but this concept remains controversial because this phenomenon has thus far only been observed with artefact-prone probes in combination with a single technique: single particle tracking. In this paper, we report the first direct observation of compartmentalised phospholipid diffusion in the plasma membrane of living cells using a minimally invasive, fluorescent dye labelled lipid analogue. These observations were made using optical STED nanoscopy in combination with fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (STED-FCS), a technique which allows the study of membrane dynamics on a sub-millisecond time-scale and with a spatial resolution of down to 40 nm. Specifically, we find that compartmentalised phospholipid diffusion depends on the cortical actin cytoskeleton, and that this constrained diffusion is directly dependent on the F-actin branching nucleator Arp2/3. These findings provide solid evidence that the Arp2/3-dependent cortical actin cytoskeleton plays a pivotal role in the dynamic organisation of the plasma membrane, potentially regulating fundamental cellular processes. PMID:26118385

  5. Cortical actin networks induce spatio-temporal confinement of phospholipids in the plasma membrane - a minimally invasive investigation by STED-FCS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrade, Débora M.; Clausen, Mathias P.; Keller, Jan; Mueller, Veronika; Wu, Congying; Bear, James E.; Hell, Stefan W.; Lagerholm, B. Christoffer; Eggeling, Christian

    2015-06-01

    Important discoveries in the last decades have changed our view of the plasma membrane organisation. Specifically, the cortical cytoskeleton has emerged as a key modulator of the lateral diffusion of membrane proteins. Cytoskeleton-dependent compartmentalised lipid diffusion has been proposed, but this concept remains controversial because this phenomenon has thus far only been observed with artefact-prone probes in combination with a single technique: single particle tracking. In this paper, we report the first direct observation of compartmentalised phospholipid diffusion in the plasma membrane of living cells using a minimally invasive, fluorescent dye labelled lipid analogue. These observations were made using optical STED nanoscopy in combination with fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (STED-FCS), a technique which allows the study of membrane dynamics on a sub-millisecond time-scale and with a spatial resolution of down to 40 nm. Specifically, we find that compartmentalised phospholipid diffusion depends on the cortical actin cytoskeleton, and that this constrained diffusion is directly dependent on the F-actin branching nucleator Arp2/3. These findings provide solid evidence that the Arp2/3-dependent cortical actin cytoskeleton plays a pivotal role in the dynamic organisation of the plasma membrane, potentially regulating fundamental cellular processes.

  6. Cortical actin networks induce spatio-temporal confinement of phospholipids in the plasma membrane--a minimally invasive investigation by STED-FCS.

    PubMed

    Andrade, Débora M; Clausen, Mathias P; Keller, Jan; Mueller, Veronika; Wu, Congying; Bear, James E; Hell, Stefan W; Lagerholm, B Christoffer; Eggeling, Christian

    2015-06-29

    Important discoveries in the last decades have changed our view of the plasma membrane organisation. Specifically, the cortical cytoskeleton has emerged as a key modulator of the lateral diffusion of membrane proteins. Cytoskeleton-dependent compartmentalised lipid diffusion has been proposed, but this concept remains controversial because this phenomenon has thus far only been observed with artefact-prone probes in combination with a single technique: single particle tracking. In this paper, we report the first direct observation of compartmentalised phospholipid diffusion in the plasma membrane of living cells using a minimally invasive, fluorescent dye labelled lipid analogue. These observations were made using optical STED nanoscopy in combination with fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (STED-FCS), a technique which allows the study of membrane dynamics on a sub-millisecond time-scale and with a spatial resolution of down to 40 nm. Specifically, we find that compartmentalised phospholipid diffusion depends on the cortical actin cytoskeleton, and that this constrained diffusion is directly dependent on the F-actin branching nucleator Arp2/3. These findings provide solid evidence that the Arp2/3-dependent cortical actin cytoskeleton plays a pivotal role in the dynamic organisation of the plasma membrane, potentially regulating fundamental cellular processes.

  7. Inside view of cell locomotion through single-molecule: fast F-/G-actin cycle and G-actin regulation of polymer restoration

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, Naoki

    2010-01-01

    The actin cytoskeleton drives cell locomotion and tissue remodeling. The invention of live-cell fluorescence single-molecule imaging opened a window for direct viewing of the actin remodeling processes in the cell. Since then, a number of unanticipated molecular functions have been revealed. One is the mechanism of F-actin network breakdown. In lamellipodia, one third of newly polymerized F-actin disassembles within 10 seconds. This fast F-actin turnover is facilitated by the filament severing/disrupting activity involving cofilin and AIP1. Astoundingly fast dissociation kinetics of the barbed end interactors including capping protein suggests that F-actin turnover might proceed through repetitive disruption/reassembly of the filament near the barbed end. The picture of actin polymerization is also being revealed. At the leading edge of the cell, Arp2/3 complex is highly activated in a narrow edge region. In contrast, mDia1 and its related Formin homology proteins display a long-distance directional molecular movement using their processive actin capping ability. Recently, these two independently-developed projects converged into a discovery of the spatiotemporal coupling between mDia1-mediated filament nucleation and actin disassembly. Presumably, the local concentration fluctuation of G-actin regulates the actin nucleation efficiency of specific actin nucleators including mDia1. Pharmacological perturbation and quantitative molecular behavior analysis synergize to reveal hidden molecular linkages in the actin turnover cycle and cell signaling. PMID:20075609

  8. Histones bundle F-actin filaments and affect actin structure.

    PubMed

    Blotnick, Edna; Sol, Asaf; Muhlrad, Andras

    2017-01-01

    Histones are small polycationic proteins complexed with DNA located in the cell nucleus. Upon apoptosis they are secreted from the cells and react with extracellular polyanionic compounds. Actin which is a polyanionic protein, is also secreted from necrotic cells and interacts with histones. We showed that both histone mixture (histone type III) and the recombinant H2A histone bundles F-actin, increases the viscosity of the F-actin containing solution and polymerizes G-actin. The histone-actin bundles are relatively insensitive to increase of ionic strength, unlike other polycation, histatin, lysozyme, spermine and LL-37 induced F-actin bundles. The histone-actin bundles dissociate completely only in the presence of 300-400 mM NaCl. DNA, which competes with F-actin for histones, disassembles histone induced actin bundles. DNase1, which depolymerizes F- to G-actin, actively unbundles the H2A histone induced but slightly affects the histone mixture induced actin bundles. Cofilin decreases the amount of F-actin sedimented by low speed centrifugation, increases light scattering and viscosity of F-actin-histone mixture containing solutions and forms star like superstructures by copolymerizing G-actin with H2A histone. The results indicate that histones are tightly attached to F-actin by strong electrostatic and hydrophobic forces. Since both histones and F-actin are present in the sputum of patients with cystic fibrosis, therefore, the formation of the stable histone-actin bundles can contribute to the pathology of this disease by increasing the viscosity of the sputum. The actin-histone interaction in the nucleus might affect gene expression.

  9. The development of actinic keratosis into invasive squamous cell carcinoma: evidence and evolving classification schemes.

    PubMed

    Anwar, Jamshaid; Wrone, David A; Kimyai-Asadi, Arash; Alam, Murad

    2004-01-01

    Actinic keratosis is an incipient form of cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma. Consequently, actinic keratoses must be treated expeditiously to forestall their downward growth. Several classification schemes have been proposed to better categorize actinic keratoses, and to guide their diagnosis and treatment. Among these approaches is the "keratinocyte intraepithelial neoplasia" (KIN) system developed by Cockerell; Goldberg's concept of the "proliferative actinic keratosis" (PAK), and Berhane's emphasis on the "inflamed actinic keratosis" (IAK). In the future, disparate classification schemes may be unified into a single pragmatic approach which accurately reflects the biological process whereby actinic keratoses devolve into invasive squamous cell carcinoma.

  10. Polycation induced actin bundles.

    PubMed

    Muhlrad, Andras; Grintsevich, Elena E; Reisler, Emil

    2011-04-01

    Three polycations, polylysine, the polyamine spermine and the polycationic protein lysozyme were used to study the formation, structure, ionic strength sensitivity and dissociation of polycation-induced actin bundles. Bundles form fast, simultaneously with the polymerization of MgATP-G-actins, upon the addition of polycations to solutions of actins at low ionic strength conditions. This indicates that nuclei and/or nascent filaments bundle due to attractive, electrostatic effect of polycations and the neutralization of repulsive interactions of negative charges on actin. The attractive forces between the filaments are strong, as shown by the low (in nanomolar range) critical concentration of their bundling at low ionic strength. These bundles are sensitive to ionic strength and disassemble partially in 100 mM NaCl, but both the dissociation and ionic strength sensitivity can be countered by higher polycation concentrations. Cys374 residues of actin monomers residing on neighboring filaments in the bundles can be cross-linked by the short span (5.4Å) MTS-1 (1,1-methanedyl bismethanethiosulfonate) cross-linker, which indicates a tight packing of filaments in the bundles. The interfilament cross-links, which connect monomers located on oppositely oriented filaments, prevent disassembly of bundles at high ionic strength. Cofilin and the polysaccharide polyanion heparin disassemble lysozyme induced actin bundles more effectively than the polylysine-induced bundles. The actin-lysozyme bundles are pathologically significant as both proteins are found in the pulmonary airways of cystic fibrosis patients. Their bundles contribute to the formation of viscous mucus, which is the main cause of breathing difficulties and eventual death in this disorder.

  11. Actin reorganization through dynamic interactions with single-wall carbon nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Shams, Hengameh; Holt, Brian D; Mahboobi, Seyed Hanif; Jahed, Zeinab; Islam, Mohammad F; Dahl, Kris Noel; Mofrad, Mohammad R K

    2014-01-28

    Single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) have been widely used for biological applications in recent years, and thus, it is critical to understand how these inert nanomaterials influence cell behavior. Recently, it has been observed that cellular phenotypes such as proliferation, force generation and growth change upon SWCNT treatment, and SWCNTs directly affect the organization and redistribution of the actin cytoskeleton. However, the interactions between SWCNTs and actin at the molecular level or how this interaction changes actin structure remain largely unknown. Here, we investigated direct interaction of actin with SWCNT using all-atom molecular dynamics simulations and NIR spectroscopy of actin-dispersed SWCNTs. Actin can stably bind to the SWCNT surfaces via hydrophobic interactions but still allows nanotubes to slide and rotate on the actin surface. Our results establish several nanoscale conformational changes for the actin-SWCNT complexes, and we suggest these changes likely induce reorganization of actin filaments observed at larger scales.

  12. Actin organization and gene expression in Beta vulgaris seedlings under clinorotation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozeko, L. Y.; Shevchenko, G. V.; Artemenko, O. A.; Martyn, G. G.; Kordyum, E. L.

    2005-08-01

    Actin microfilaments (MFs) as highly dynamic structure respond by rapid reorganization to different external influences, including gravity. The object of our experiments was to examine both the actin organization and actin gene expression during growth and differentiation of root cells under clinorotation. It was shown that MFs acted as the indicator of changes caused by altered gravity in distal elongation zone (DEZ) cells, particularly actin cytoskeleton is enhanced in cortex cells. The data testify stable actin expression under altered gravity. The F-actin MFs enhancement in cortex cells of the DEZ occurred under clinorotation at the same level of the total actin content as in the stationary conditions is suggested to be caused by transformation of G-actin into F-actin.

  13. Actin is an essential component of plant gravitropic signaling pathways

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braun, Markus; Hauslage, Jens; Limbach, Christoph

    2003-08-01

    A role of the actin cytoskeleton in the different phases of gravitropism in higher plant organs seems obvious, but experimental evidence is still inconclusive and contradictory. In gravitropically tip-growing rhizoids and protonemata, however, it is well documented that actin is an essential component of the tip-growth machinery and is involved either in the cellular mechanisms that lead to gravity sensing and in the processes of the graviresponses that result in the reorientation of the growth direction. All these processes depend on a complexly organized and highly dynamic organization of actin filaments whose diverse functions are coordinated by numerous associated proteins. Actin filaments and myosins mediate the transport of secretory vehicles to the growing tip and precisely control the delivery of cell wall material. In addition, both cell types use a very efficient actomyosin-based system to control and correct the position of their statoliths and to direct sedimenting statoliths to confined graviperception sites at the plasma membrane. The studies presented in this paper provide evidence for the essential role of actin in plant gravity sensing and the gravitropic responses. A unique actin-organizing center exists in the tip of characean rhizoids and protonemata which is associated with and dynamically regulated by a specific set of actin-dynamizing proteins. It is concluded that this highly dynamic apical actin array is an essential prerequisite for gravity sensing and gravity-oriented tip growth.

  14. Biomimetic systems for studying actin-based motility.

    PubMed

    Upadhyaya, Arpita; van Oudenaarden, Alexander

    2003-09-16

    Actin polymerization provides a major driving force for eukaryotic cell motility. Successive intercalation of monomeric actin subunits between the plasma membrane and the filamentous actin network results in protrusions of the membrane enabling the cell to move or to change shape. One of the challenges in understanding eukaryotic cell motility is to dissect the elementary biochemical and biophysical steps that link actin polymerization to mechanical force generation. Recently, significant progress was made using biomimetic, in vitro systems that are inspired by the actin-based motility of bacterial pathogens such as Listeria monocytogenes. Polystyrene microspheres and synthetic phospholipid vesicles coated with proteins that initiate actin polymerization display motile behavior similar to Listeria, mimicking the leading edge of lamellipodia and filopodia. A major advantage of these biomimetic systems is that both biochemical and physical parameters can be controlled precisely. These systems provide a test bed for validating theoretical models on force generation and polarity establishment resulting from actin polymerization. In this review, we discuss recent experimental progress using biomimetic systems propelled by actin polymerization and discuss these results in the light of recent theoretical models on actin-based motility.

  15. Actin cytoskeleton in Arabidopsis thaliana under blue and red light.

    PubMed

    Krzeszowiec, Weronika; Rajwa, Bartek; Dobrucki, Jurek; Gabryś, Halina

    2007-05-01

    Actin cytoskeleton is the basis of chloroplast-orientation movements. These movements are activated by blue light in the leaves of terrestrial angiosperms. Red light has been shown to affect the spatial reorganization of F-actin in water plants, where chloroplast movements are closely connected with cytoplasmic streaming. The aim of the present study was to determine whether blue light, which triggers characteristic responses of chloroplasts, i.e. avoidance and accumulation, also influences F-actin organization in the mesophyll cells of Arabidopsis thaliana. Actin filaments in fixed mesophyll tissue were labelled with Alexa Fluor 488-conjugated phalloidin. The configuration of actin filaments, expressed as a form factor (4 pi x area/perimeter(2)), was determined for all actin formations which were measured in fluorescence confocal images. In the present study, we compare form-factor distributions and the median form factors for strong and weak, blue- and red-irradiated tissues. Spatial organization of the F-actin network did not undergo any changes which could be attributed specifically to blue light. Actin patterns were similar in blue-irradiated wild-type plants and phot2 (phototropin 2) mutants which lack the avoidance response of chloroplasts. However, significant differences in the shape and distribution of F-actin formations were observed between mesophyll cells of phot2 mutants irradiated with strong and weak red light. These differences were absent in wild-type leaves. Actin does not appear to be the main target for the blue-light chloroplast-orientation signal. The modes of actin involvement in chloroplast translocations are different in water and terrestrial angiosperms. The results suggest that co-operation occurs between blue- and red-light photoreceptors in the control of the actin cytoskeleton architecture in Arabidopsis.

  16. Integrated healthcare networks' performance: a growth curve modeling approach.

    PubMed

    Wan, Thomas T H; Wang, Bill B L

    2003-05-01

    This study examines the effects of integration on the performance ratings of the top 100 integrated healthcare networks (IHNs) in the United States. A strategic-contingency theory is used to identify the relationship of IHNs' performance to their structural and operational characteristics and integration strategies. To create a database for the panel study, the top 100 IHNs selected by the SMG Marketing Group in 1998 were followed up in 1999 and 2000. The data were merged with the Dorenfest data on information system integration. A growth curve model was developed and validated by the Mplus statistical program. Factors influencing the top 100 IHNs' performance in 1998 and their subsequent rankings in the consecutive years were analyzed. IHNs' initial performance scores were positively influenced by network size, number of affiliated physicians and profit margin, and were negatively associated with average length of stay and technical efficiency. The continuing high performance, judged by maintaining higher performance scores, tended to be enhanced by the use of more managerial or executive decision-support systems. Future studies should include time-varying operational indicators to serve as predictors of network performance.

  17. An actin-binding protein, LlLIM1, mediates calcium and hydrogen regulation of actin dynamics in pollen tubes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Huei-Jing; Wan, Ai-Ru; Jauh, Guang-Yuh

    2008-08-01

    Actin microfilaments are crucial for polar cell tip growth, and their configurations and dynamics are regulated by the actions of various actin-binding proteins (ABPs). We explored the function of a lily (Lilium longiflorum) pollen-enriched LIM domain-containing protein, LlLIM1, in regulating the actin dynamics in elongating pollen tube. Cytological and biochemical assays verified LlLIM1 functioning as an ABP, promoting filamentous actin (F-actin) bundle assembly and protecting F-actin against latrunculin B-mediated depolymerization. Overexpressed LlLIM1 significantly disturbed pollen tube growth and morphology, with multiple tubes protruding from one pollen grain and coaggregation of FM4-64-labeled vesicles and Golgi apparatuses at the subapex of the tube tip. Moderate expression of LlLIM1 induced an oscillatory formation of asterisk-shaped F-actin aggregates that oscillated with growth period but in different phases at the subapical region. These results suggest that the formation of LlLIM1-mediated overstabilized F-actin bundles interfered with endomembrane trafficking to result in growth retardation. Cosedimentation assays revealed that the binding affinity of LlLIM1 to F-actin was simultaneously regulated by both pH and Ca(2+): LlLIM1 showed a preference for F-actin binding under low pH and low Ca(2+) concentration. The potential functions of LlLIM1 as an ABP sensitive to pH and calcium in integrating endomembrane trafficking, oscillatory pH, and calcium circumstances to regulate tip-focused pollen tube growth are discussed.

  18. Genetic control of root growth: from genes to networks

    PubMed Central

    Slovak, Radka; Ogura, Takehiko; Satbhai, Santosh B.; Ristova, Daniela; Busch, Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    Background Roots are essential organs for higher plants. They provide the plant with nutrients and water, anchor the plant in the soil, and can serve as energy storage organs. One remarkable feature of roots is that they are able to adjust their growth to changing environments. This adjustment is possible through mechanisms that modulate a diverse set of root traits such as growth rate, diameter, growth direction and lateral root formation. The basis of these traits and their modulation are at the cellular level, where a multitude of genes and gene networks precisely regulate development in time and space and tune it to environmental conditions. Scope This review first describes the root system and then presents fundamental work that has shed light on the basic regulatory principles of root growth and development. It then considers emerging complexities and how they have been addressed using systems-biology approaches, and then describes and argues for a systems-genetics approach. For reasons of simplicity and conciseness, this review is mostly limited to work from the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana, in which much of the research in root growth regulation at the molecular level has been conducted. Conclusions While forward genetic approaches have identified key regulators and genetic pathways, systems-biology approaches have been successful in shedding light on complex biological processes, for instance molecular mechanisms involving the quantitative interaction of several molecular components, or the interaction of large numbers of genes. However, there are significant limitations in many of these methods for capturing dynamic processes, as well as relating these processes to genotypic and phenotypic variation. The emerging field of systems genetics promises to overcome some of these limitations by linking genotypes to complex phenotypic and molecular data using approaches from different fields, such as genetics, genomics, systems biology and phenomics. PMID

  19. Genetic control of root growth: from genes to networks.

    PubMed

    Slovak, Radka; Ogura, Takehiko; Satbhai, Santosh B; Ristova, Daniela; Busch, Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    Roots are essential organs for higher plants. They provide the plant with nutrients and water, anchor the plant in the soil, and can serve as energy storage organs. One remarkable feature of roots is that they are able to adjust their growth to changing environments. This adjustment is possible through mechanisms that modulate a diverse set of root traits such as growth rate, diameter, growth direction and lateral root formation. The basis of these traits and their modulation are at the cellular level, where a multitude of genes and gene networks precisely regulate development in time and space and tune it to environmental conditions. This review first describes the root system and then presents fundamental work that has shed light on the basic regulatory principles of root growth and development. It then considers emerging complexities and how they have been addressed using systems-biology approaches, and then describes and argues for a systems-genetics approach. For reasons of simplicity and conciseness, this review is mostly limited to work from the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana, in which much of the research in root growth regulation at the molecular level has been conducted. While forward genetic approaches have identified key regulators and genetic pathways, systems-biology approaches have been successful in shedding light on complex biological processes, for instance molecular mechanisms involving the quantitative interaction of several molecular components, or the interaction of large numbers of genes. However, there are significant limitations in many of these methods for capturing dynamic processes, as well as relating these processes to genotypic and phenotypic variation. The emerging field of systems genetics promises to overcome some of these limitations by linking genotypes to complex phenotypic and molecular data using approaches from different fields, such as genetics, genomics, systems biology and phenomics. © The Author 2015. Published by

  20. A synthetic mechano-growth factor E peptide promotes rat tenocyte migration by lessening cell stiffness and increasing F-actin formation via the FAK-ERK1/2 signaling pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Bingyu; Luo, Qing; Mao, Xinjian; Xu, Baiyao; Yang, Li; Ju, Yang; Song, Guanbin

    2014-03-10

    Tendon injuries are common in sports and are frequent reasons for orthopedic consultations. The management of damaged tendons is one of the most challenging problems in orthopedics. Mechano-growth factor (MGF), a recently discovered growth repair factor, plays positive roles in tissue repair through the improvement of cell proliferation and migration and the protection of cells against injury-induced apoptosis. However, it remains unclear whether MGF has the potential to accelerate tendon repair. We used a scratch wound assay in this study to demonstrate that MGF-C25E (a synthetic mechano-growth factor E peptide) promotes the migration of rat tenocytes and that this promotion is accompanied by an elevation in the expression of the following signaling molecules: focal adhesion kinase (FAK) and extracellular signal regulated kinase1/2 (ERK1/2). Inhibitors of the FAK and ERK1/2 pathways inhibited the MGF-C25E-induced tenocyte migration, indicating that MGF-C25E promotes tenocyte migration through the FAK-ERK1/2 signaling pathway. The analysis of the mechanical properties showed that the Young's modulus of tenocytes was decreased through treatment of MGF-C25E, and an obvious formation of pseudopodia and F-actin was observed in MGF-C25E-treated tenocytes. The inhibition of the FAK or ERK1/2 signals restored the decrease in Young's modulus and inhibited the formation of pseudopodia and F-actin. Overall, our study demonstrated that MGF-C25E promotes rat tenocyte migration by lessening cell stiffness and increasing pseudopodia formation via the FAK-ERK1/2 signaling pathway. - Highlights: • Mechano-growth factor E peptide (MGF-C25E) promotes migration of rat tenocytes. • MGF-C25E activates the FAK-ERK1/2 pathway in rat tenocytes. • MGF-C25E induces the actin remodeling and the formation of pseudopodia, and decreases the stiffness in rat tenocytes. • MGF-C25E promotes tenocyte migration via altering stiffness and forming pseudopodia by the activation of the FAK-ERK1

  1. In vitro inhibition of incompatible pollen tubes in Nicotiana alata involves the uncoupling of the F-actin cytoskeleton and the endomembrane trafficking system.

    PubMed

    Roldán, Juan A; Rojas, Hernán J; Goldraij, Ariel

    2015-01-01

    In the S-RNase-based self-incompatibility system, subcellular events occurring in the apical region of incompatible pollen tubes during the pollen rejection process are poorly understood. F-actin dynamics and endomembrane trafficking are crucial for polar growth, which is temporally and spatially controlled in the tip region of pollen tubes. Thus, we developed a simple in vitro assay to study the changes in the F-actin cytoskeleton and the endomembrane system at the apical region of incompatible pollen tubes in Nicotiana alata. Growth but not germination of pollen tubes of S c₁₀-, S₇₀-, and S₇₅-haplotypes was selectively inhibited by style extracts carrying the same haplotypes. Pollen F-actin cytoskeleton and endomembrane system, visualized by fluorescent markers, were normal during the initial 60 min of pollen culture in the presence of compatible and incompatible style extracts. Additional culture resulted in complete growth arrest and critical alterations in the integrity of the F-actin cytoskeleton and the endomembrane system of incompatible pollen tubes. The F-actin ring and the V-shaped zone disappeared from the apical region, while distorted F-actin cables and progressive formation of membrane aggregates evolved in the subapical region and the shank. The vacuolar network of incompatible pollen tubes invaded the tip region, but vacuolar membrane integrity remained mostly unaffected. The polar growth machinery of incompatible pollen tubes was uncoupled, as evidenced by the severe disruption of colocalization between the F-actin cytoskeleton and the endomembrane compartments. A model of pollen rejection integrating the main subcellular events occurring in incompatible pollen is discussed.

  2. Calcium Regulation of an Actin Spring

    PubMed Central

    Tam, Barney K.; Shin, Jennifer H.; Pfeiffer, Emily; Matsudaira, P.; Mahadevan, L.

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Calcium is essential for many biological processes involved in cellular motility. However, the pathway by which calcium influences motility, in processes such as muscle contraction and neuronal growth, is often indirect and complex. We establish a simple and direct mechanochemical link that shows how calcium quantitatively regulates the dynamics of a primitive motile system, the actin-based acrosomal bundle of horseshoe crab sperm. The extension of this bundle requires the continuous presence of external calcium. Furthermore, the extension rate increases with calcium concentration, but at a given concentration, we find that the volumetric rate of extension is constant. Our experiments and theory suggest that calcium sequentially binds to calmodulin molecules decorating the actin filaments. This binding leads to a collective wave of untwisting of the actin filaments that drives bundle extension. PMID:19686660

  3. Quantitative Fluorescent Speckle Microscopy (QFSM) to Measure Actin Dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Mendoza, Michelle C.; Besson, Sebastien; Danuser, Gaudenz

    2012-01-01

    Quantitative Fluorescent Speckle Microscopy (QFSM) is a live cell imaging method to analyze the dynamics of macromolecular assemblies with high spatial and temporal resolution. Its greatest successes were in the analysis of actin filament and adhesion dynamics in the context of cell migration and microtubule dynamics in interphase and the meotic/mitotic spindle. Here, we focus on the former application to illustrate the procedures of FSM imaging and the computational image processing that extracts quantitative information from these experiments. QFSM is advantageous over other methods because it measures the movement and turnover kinetics of the actin filament (F-actin) network in living cells across the entire field of view. Experiments begin with microinjection of fluorophore-labeled actin into cells, which generate a low ratio of fluorescently-labeled:endogenous unlabeled actin monomers. Spinning disk confocal or wide-field imaging then visualizes fluorophore clusters (2–8 actin monomers) within the assembled F-actin network as speckles. QFSM software identifies and computationally tracks and utilizes the location, appearance, and disappearance of speckles to derive network flows and maps of the rate of filament assembly and disassembly. PMID:23042526

  4. Arabidopsis CAP regulates the actin cytoskeleton necessary for plant cell elongation and division.

    PubMed

    Barrero, Roberto A; Umeda, Masaaki; Yamamura, Saburo; Uchimiya, Hirofumi

    2002-01-01

    An Arabidopsis cDNA (AtCAP1) that encodes a predicted protein of 476 amino acids highly homologous with the yeast cyclase-associated protein (CAP) was isolated. Expression of AtCAP1 in the budding yeast CAP mutant was able to rescue defects such as abnormal cell morphology and random budding pattern. The C-terminal domain, 158 amino acids of AtCAP1 possessing in vitro actin binding activity, was needed for the regulation of cytoskeleton-related defects of yeast. Transgenic plants overexpressing AtCAP1 under the regulation of a glucocorticoid-inducible promoter showed different levels of AtCAP1 accumulation related to the extent of growth abnormalities, in particular size reduction of leaves as well as petioles. Morphological alterations in leaves were attributable to decreased cell size and cell number in both epidermal and mesophyll cells. Tobacco suspension-cultured cells (Bright Yellow 2) overexpressing AtCAP1 exhibited defects in actin filaments and were unable to undergo mitosis. Furthermore, an immunoprecipitation experiment suggested that AtCAP1 interacted with actin in vivo. Therefore, AtCAP1 may play a functional role in actin cytoskeleton networking that is essential for proper cell elongation and division.

  5. How VASP enhances actin-based motility

    PubMed Central

    Samarin, Stanislav; Romero, Stéphane; Kocks, Christine; Didry, Dominique; Pantaloni, Dominique; Carlier, Marie-France

    2003-01-01

    The function of vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein (VASP) in motility is analyzed using a biomimetic motility assay in which ActA-coated microspheres propel themselves in a medium containing actin, the Arp2/3 complex, and three regulatory proteins in the absence or presence of VASP. Propulsion is linked to cycles of filament barbed end attachment-branching-detachment-growth in which the ActA-activated Arp2/3 complex incorporates at the junctions of branched filaments. VASP increases the velocity of beads. VASP increases branch spacing of filaments in the actin tail, as it does in lamellipodia in living cells. The effect of VASP on branch spacing of Arp2/3-induced branched actin arrays is opposed to the effect of capping proteins. However, VASP does not compete with capping proteins for binding barbed ends of actin filaments. VASP enhances branched actin polymerization only when ActA is immobilized on beads or on Listeria. VASP increases the rate of dissociation of the branch junction from immobilized ActA, which is the rate-limiting step in the catalytic cycle of site-directed filament branching. PMID:14557252

  6. Quantitative apical membrane proteomics reveals vasopressin-induced actin dynamics in collecting duct cells

    PubMed Central

    Loo, Chin-San; Chen, Cheng-Wei; Wang, Po-Jen; Chen, Pei-Yu; Lin, Shu-Yu; Khoo, Kay-Hooi; Fenton, Robert A.; Knepper, Mark A.; Yu, Ming-Jiun

    2013-01-01

    In kidney collecting duct cells, filamentous actin (F-actin) depolymerization is a critical step in vasopressin-induced trafficking of aquaporin-2 to the apical plasma membrane. However, the molecular components of this response are largely unknown. Using stable isotope-based quantitative protein mass spectrometry and surface biotinylation, we identified 100 proteins that showed significant abundance changes in the apical plasma membrane of mouse cortical collecting duct cells in response to vasopressin. Fourteen of these proteins are involved in actin cytoskeleton regulation, including actin itself, 10 actin-associated proteins, and 3 regulatory proteins. Identified were two integral membrane proteins (Clmn, Nckap1) and one actin-binding protein (Mpp5) that link F-actin to the plasma membrane, five F-actin end-binding proteins (Arpc2, Arpc4, Gsn, Scin, and Capzb) involved in F-actin reorganization, and two actin adaptor proteins (Dbn1, Lasp1) that regulate actin cytoskeleton organization. There were also protease (Capn1), protein kinase (Cdc42bpb), and Rho guanine nucleotide exchange factor 2 (Arhgef2) that mediate signal-induced F-actin changes. Based on these findings, we devised a live-cell imaging method to observe vasopressin-induced F-actin dynamics in polarized mouse cortical collecting duct cells. In response to vasopressin, F-actin gradually disappeared near the center of the apical plasma membrane while consolidating laterally near the tight junction. This F-actin peripheralization was blocked by calcium ion chelation. Vasopressin-induced apical aquaporin-2 trafficking and forskolin-induced water permeability increase were blocked by F-actin disruption. In conclusion, we identified a vasopressin-regulated actin network potentially responsible for vasopressin-induced apical F-actin dynamics that could explain regulation of apical aquaporin-2 trafficking and water permeability increase. PMID:24085853

  7. Viscoelastic properties of actin-coated membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helfer, E.; Harlepp, S.; Bourdieu, L.; Robert, J.; Mackintosh, F. C.; Chatenay, D.

    2001-02-01

    In living cells, cytoskeletal filaments interact with the plasma membrane to form structures that play a key role in cell shape and mechanical properties. To study the interaction between these basic components, we designed an in vitro self-assembled network of actin filaments attached to the outer surface of giant unilamellar vesicles. Optical tweezers and single-particle tracking experiments are used to study the rich dynamics of these actin-coated membranes (ACM). We show that microrheology studies can be carried out on such an individual microscopic object. The principle of the experiment consists in measuring the thermally excited position fluctuations of a probe bead attached biochemically to the membrane. We propose a model that relates the power spectrum of these thermal fluctuations to the viscoelastic properties of the membrane. The presence of the actin network modifies strongly the membrane dynamics with respect to a fluid, lipid bilayer one. It induces first a finite (ω=0) two-dimensional (2D) shear modulus G02D~0.5 to 5 μN/m in the membrane plane. Moreover, the frequency dependence at high frequency of the shear modulus [G'2D(f )~f0.85+/-0.07] and of the bending modulus (κACM(f)~f0.55+/-0.21) demonstrate the viscoelastic behavior of the composite membrane. These results are consistent with a common exponent of 0.75 for both moduli as expected from our model and from prior measurements on actin solutions.

  8. A green fluorescent protein fusion to actin-binding domain 2 of Arabidopsis fimbrin highlights new features of a dynamic actin cytoskeleton in live plant cells.

    PubMed

    Sheahan, Michael B; Staiger, Chris J; Rose, Ray J; McCurdy, David W

    2004-12-01

    The actin cytoskeleton coordinates numerous cellular processes required for plant development. The functions of this network are intricately linked to its dynamic arrangement, and thus progress in understanding how actin orchestrates cellular processes relies on critical evaluation of actin organization and turnover. To investigate the dynamic nature of the actin cytoskeleton, we used a fusion protein between green fluorescent protein (GFP) and the second actin-binding domain (fABD2) of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) fimbrin, AtFIM1. The GFP-fABD2 fusion protein labeled highly dynamic and dense actin networks in diverse species and cell types, revealing structural detail not seen with alternative labeling methods, such as the commonly used mouse talin GFP fusion (GFP-mTalin). Further, we show that expression of the GFP-fABD2 fusion protein in Arabidopsis, unlike GFP-mTalin, has no detectable adverse effects on plant morphology or development. Time-lapse confocal microscopy and fluorescence recovery after photobleaching analyses of the actin cytoskeleton labeled with GFP-fABD2 revealed that lateral-filament migration and sliding of individual actin filaments or bundles are processes that contribute to the dynamic and continually reorganizing nature of the actin scaffold. These new observations of the dynamic actin cytoskeleton in plant cells using GFP-fABD2 reveal the value of this probe for future investigations of how actin filaments coordinate cellular processes required for plant development.

  9. αE-catenin actin-binding domain alters actin filament conformation and regulates binding of nucleation and disassembly factors

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, Scott D.; Kwiatkowski, Adam V.; Ouyang, Chung-Yueh; Liu, HongJun; Pokutta, Sabine; Watkins, Simon C.; Volkmann, Niels; Hanein, Dorit; Weis, William I.; Mullins, R. Dyche; Nelson, W. James

    2013-01-01

    The actin-binding protein αE-catenin may contribute to transitions between cell migration and cell–cell adhesion that depend on remodeling the actin cytoskeleton, but the underlying mechanisms are unknown. We show that the αE-catenin actin-binding domain (ABD) binds cooperatively to individual actin filaments and that binding is accompanied by a conformational change in the actin protomer that affects filament structure. αE-catenin ABD binding limits barbed-end growth, especially in actin filament bundles. αE-catenin ABD inhibits actin filament branching by the Arp2/3 complex and severing by cofilin, both of which contact regions of the actin protomer that are structurally altered by αE-catenin ABD binding. In epithelial cells, there is little correlation between the distribution of αE-catenin and the Arp2/3 complex at developing cell–cell contacts. Our results indicate that αE-catenin binding to filamentous actin favors assembly of unbranched filament bundles that are protected from severing over more dynamic, branched filament arrays. PMID:24068324

  10. A small molecule inhibitor of tropomyosin dissociates actin binding from tropomyosin-directed regulation of actin dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Bonello, Teresa T.; Janco, Miro; Hook, Jeff; Byun, Alex; Appaduray, Mark; Dedova, Irina; Hitchcock-DeGregori, Sarah; Hardeman, Edna C.; Stehn, Justine R.; Böcking, Till; Gunning, Peter W.

    2016-01-01

    The tropomyosin family of proteins form end-to-end polymers along the actin filament. Tumour cells rely on specific tropomyosin-containing actin filament populations for growth and survival. To dissect out the role of tropomyosin in actin filament regulation we use the small molecule TR100 directed against the C terminus of the tropomyosin isoform Tpm3.1. TR100 nullifies the effect of Tpm3.1 on actin depolymerisation but surprisingly Tpm3.1 retains the capacity to bind F-actin in a cooperative manner. In vivo analysis also confirms that, in the presence of TR100, fluorescently tagged Tpm3.1 recovers normally into stress fibers. Assembling end-to-end along the actin filament is thereby not sufficient for tropomyosin to fulfil its function. Rather, regulation of F-actin stability by tropomyosin requires fidelity of information communicated at the barbed end of the actin filament. This distinction has significant implications for perturbing tropomyosin-dependent actin filament function in the context of anti-cancer drug development. PMID:26804624

  11. Organization and regulation of the actin cytoskeleton in the pollen tube

    PubMed Central

    Qu, Xiaolu; Jiang, Yuxiang; Chang, Ming; Liu, Xiaonan; Zhang, Ruihui; Huang, Shanjin

    2015-01-01

    Proper organization of the actin cytoskeleton is crucial for pollen tube growth. However, the precise mechanisms by which the actin cytoskeleton regulates pollen tube growth remain to be further elucidated. The functions of the actin cytoskeleton are dictated by its spatial organization and dynamics. However, early observations of the distribution of actin filaments at the pollen tube apex were quite perplexing, resulting in decades of controversial debate. Fortunately, due to improvements in fixation regimens for staining actin filaments in fixed pollen tubes, as well as the adoption of appropriate markers for visualizing actin filaments in living pollen tubes, this issue has been resolved and has given rise to the consensus view of the spatial distribution of actin filaments throughout the entire pollen tube. Importantly, recent descriptions of the dynamics of individual actin filaments in the apical region have expanded our understanding of the function of actin in regulation of pollen tube growth. Furthermore, careful documentation of the function and mode of action of several actin-binding proteins expressed in pollen have provided novel insights into the regulation of actin spatial distribution and dynamics. In the current review, we summarize our understanding of the organization, dynamics, and regulation of the actin cytoskeleton in the pollen tube. PMID:25620974

  12. Local Arp2/3-dependent actin assembly modulates applied traction force during apCAM adhesion site maturation.

    PubMed

    Buck, Kenneth B; Schaefer, Andrew W; Schoonderwoert, Vincent T; Creamer, Matthew S; Dufresne, Eric R; Forscher, Paul

    2017-01-01

    Homophilic binding of immunoglobulin superfamily molecules such as the Aplysia cell adhesion molecule (apCAM) leads to actin filament assembly near nascent adhesion sites. Such actin assembly can generate significant localized forces that have not been characterized in the larger context of axon growth and guidance. We used apCAM-coated bead substrates applied to the surface of neuronal growth cones to characterize the development of forces evoked by varying stiffness of mechanical restraint. Unrestrained bead propulsion matched or exceeded rates of retrograde network flow and was dependent on Arp2/3 complex activity. Analysis of growth cone forces applied to beads at low stiffness of restraint revealed switching between two states: frictional coupling to retrograde flow and Arp2/3-dependent propulsion. Stiff mechanical restraint led to formation of an extensive actin cup matching the geometric profile of the bead target and forward growth cone translocation; pharmacological inhibition of the Arp2/3 complex or Rac attenuated F-actin assembly near bead binding sites, decreased the efficacy of growth responses, and blocked accumulation of signaling molecules associated with nascent adhesions. These studies introduce a new model for regulation of traction force in which local actin assembly forces buffer nascent adhesion sites from the mechanical effects of retrograde flow. © 2017 Buck et al. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). Two months after publication it is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).

  13. Feisty filaments: actin dynamics in the red blood cell membrane skeleton

    PubMed Central

    Gokhin, David S.; Fowler, Velia M.

    2016-01-01

    STRUCTURED ABSTRACT Purpose of review The purpose of this review is to discuss recent advances and unsolved questions in our understanding of actin filament organization and dynamics in the red blood cell (RBC) membrane skeleton, a two-dimensional quasi-hexagonal network consisting of (α1β1)2-spectrin tetramers interconnecting short actin filament-based junctional complexes. Recent findings In contrast to the long-held view that RBC actin filaments are static structures that do not exchange subunits with the cytosol, RBC actin filaments are dynamic structures that undergo subunit exchange and turnover, as evidenced by monomer incorporation experiments with rhodamine-actin and filament disruption experiments with actin-targeting drugs. The malaria-causing parasite, Plasmodium falciparum, co-opts RBC actin dynamics to construct aberrantly branched actin filament networks. Even though RBC actin filaments are dynamic, RBC actin filament lengths are highly uniform (~37 nm). RBC actin filament lengths are thought to be stabilized by the capping proteins, tropomodulin-1 and αβ-adducin, as well as the side-binding protein tropomyosin, present in an equimolar combination of two isoforms, TM5b (Tpm1.9) and TM5NM1 (Tpm3.1). Summary New evidence indicates that RBC actin filaments are not simply passive cytolinkers, but rather dynamic structures whose assembly and disassembly play important roles in RBC membrane function. PMID:27055045

  14. Aluminum modifies the viscosity of filamentous actin solutions as measured by optical displacement microviscometry.

    PubMed

    Arnoys, E J; Schindler, M

    2000-01-01

    A microtechnique has been developed that is capable of measuring the viscosity of filamentous actin (F-actin) solutions. This method, called optical displacement microviscometry (ODM), was utilized to determine the changes in viscosity of solutions of rabbit muscle, human platelet, and maize pollen actin when measured in the absence and presence of aluminum. Measurements demonstrated that the viscosity of the different actin solutions decreased with aluminum concentration. In contrast, increases in viscosity were observed when aluminum was added to F-actin solutions containing filamin (chicken gizzard), a protein that bundles actin filaments. Confocal fluorescence imaging of pure actin solutions in the presence of aluminum showed a disrupted actin network composed of fragmented actin filaments in the form of small aggregates. In contrast, in the presence of filamin, aluminum promoted the formation of thicker actin filaments. These measurements demonstrate that aluminum can affect actin filaments differentially depending on the presence of an actin-binding protein. In addition, a strong correlation is observed between the changes in viscosity as measured by ODM and the thickness and assembled state of bundles of actin filaments.

  15. Synthesis of a 35-Member Stereoisomer Library of Bistramide A: Evaluation of Effects on Actin State, Cell Cycle and Tumor Cell Growth

    PubMed Central

    Wrona, Iwona E.; Lowe, Jason T.; Turbyville, Thomas J.; Johnson, Tanya R.; Beignet, Julien; Beutler, John A.; Panek, James S.

    2011-01-01

    Synthesis and preliminary biological evaluation of a 35-member library of bistramide A stereoisomers are reported. All eight stereoisomers of the C1-C13 tetrahydropyran fragment of the molecule were prepared utilizing crotylsilane reagents 9 and 10 in our [4+2]-annulation methodology. In addition, the four isomers of the C14-C18 γ-amino acid unit were accessed via a Lewis acid mediated crotylation reaction using both enantiomers of organosilane 11. The spiroketal subunit of bistramide A was modified at the C39-alcohol to give another point of stereochemical diversification. The fragments were coupled using standard peptide coupling protocol to provide 35 stereoisomers of the natural product. These stereochemical analogs were screened for their effects on cellular actin and cytotoxicity against cancer cell lines (UO-31 renal and SF-295 CNS). The results of these assays identified one analog, 1.21, with enhanced potency relative to the natural product, bistramide A. PMID:19191575

  16. Complex Network Theory Applied to the Growth of Kuala Lumpur’s Public Urban Rail Transit Network

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Rui; Ujang, Norsidah; Hamid, Hussain bin; Wu, Jianjun

    2015-01-01

    Recently, the number of studies involving complex network applications in transportation has increased steadily as scholars from various fields analyze traffic networks. Nonetheless, research on rail network growth is relatively rare. This research examines the evolution of the Public Urban Rail Transit Networks of Kuala Lumpur (PURTNoKL) based on complex network theory and covers both the topological structure of the rail system and future trends in network growth. In addition, network performance when facing different attack strategies is also assessed. Three topological network characteristics are considered: connections, clustering and centrality. In PURTNoKL, we found that the total number of nodes and edges exhibit a linear relationship and that the average degree stays within the interval [2.0488, 2.6774] with heavy-tailed distributions. The evolutionary process shows that the cumulative probability distribution (CPD) of degree and the average shortest path length show good fit with exponential distribution and normal distribution, respectively. Moreover, PURTNoKL exhibits clear cluster characteristics; most of the nodes have a 2-core value, and the CPDs of the centrality’s closeness and betweenness follow a normal distribution function and an exponential distribution, respectively. Finally, we discuss four different types of network growth styles and the line extension process, which reveal that the rail network’s growth is likely based on the nodes with the biggest lengths of the shortest path and that network protection should emphasize those nodes with the largest degrees and the highest betweenness values. This research may enhance the networkability of the rail system and better shape the future growth of public rail networks. PMID:26448645

  17. Actinic keratosis. Current treatment options.

    PubMed

    Jeffes, E W; Tang, E H

    2000-01-01

    Actinic keratoses are hyperkeratotic skin lesions that represent focal abnormal proliferation of epidermal keratinocytes. Some actinic keratoses evolve into squamous cell carcinoma of the skin, while others resolve spontaneously. The conversion rate of actinic keratosis to squamous cell carcinoma is not accurately known, but appears to be in the range of 0.25 to 1% per year. Although there is a low rate of conversion of actinic keratoses to squamous cell carcinoma, 60% of squamous cell carcinomas of the skin probably arise from actinic keratoses. The main cause of actinic keratoses in otherwise healthy Caucasians appears to be the sun. Therapy for actinic keratoses begins with prevention which starts with sun avoidance and physical protection. Sunprotection with sunscreens actually slows the return of actinic keratoses in patients already getting actinic keratoses. Interestingly, a few studies are available that demonstrate that a high fat diet is associated with the production of more actinic keratoses than is a low fat diet. One of the mainstays of therapy has been local destruction of the actinic keratoses with cryotherapy, and curettage and electrodesiccation. A new addition to this group of therapies to treat individual actinic keratoses is photodynamic therapy with topical aminolevulinic acid and light. In patients who have numerous actinic keratoses in an area of severely sun damaged skin, therapies which are applied to the whole actinic keratosis area are used. The goal of treating such an area of skin is to treat all of the early as well as the numerous clinically evident actinic keratoses at the same time. The classical approaches for treating areas of photodamaged skin without treating actinic keratoses individually include: the use of topically applied fluorouracil cream, dermabrasion, and cutaneous peels with various agents like trichloroacetic acid. Both topically as well as orally administered retinoids have been used to treat actinic keratoses but

  18. Genetic networks in the mouse retina: Growth Associated Protein 43 and Phosphatase Tensin Homolog network

    PubMed Central

    Freeman, Natalie E.; Templeton, Justin P.; Orr, William E.; Lu, Lu; Williams, Robert W.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose The present study examines the structure and covariance of endogenous variation in gene expression across the recently expanded family of C57BL/6J (B) X DBA/2J (D) Recombinant Inbred (BXD RI) strains of mice. This work is accompanied by a highly interactive database that can be used to generate and test specific hypotheses. For example, we define the genetic network regulating growth associated protein 43 (Gap43) and phosphatase tensin homolog (Pten). Methods The Hamilton Eye Institute (HEI) Retina Database within GeneNetwork features the data analysis of 346 Illumina Sentrix BeadChip Arrays (mouse whole genome-6 version 2). Eighty strains of mice are presented, including 75 BXD RI strains, the parental strains (C57BL/6J and DBA/2J), the reciprocal crosses, and the BALB/cByJ mice. Independent biologic samples for at least two animals from each gender were obtained with a narrow age range (48 to 118 days). Total RNA was prepared followed by the production of biotinylated cRNAs, which were pipetted into the Mouse WG-6V2 arrays. The data was globally normalized with rank invariant and stabilization (2z+8). Results The HEI Retina Database is located on the GeneNetwork website. The database was used to extract unique transcriptome signatures for specific cell types in the retina (retinal pigment epithelial, amacrine, and retinal ganglion cells). Two genes associated with axonal outgrowth (Gap43 and Pten) were used to display the power of this new retina database. Bioinformatic tools located within GeneNetwork in conjunction with the HEI Retina Database were used to identify the unique signature Quantitative Trait Loci (QTLs) for Gap43 and Pten on chromosomes 1, 2, 12, 15, 16, and 19. Gap43 and Pten possess networks that are similar to ganglion cell networks that may be associated with axonal growth in the mouse retina. This network involves high correlations of transcription factors (SRY sex determining region Y-box 2 [Sox2], paired box gene 6 [Pax6], and

  19. Simulation of the effect of confinement in actin ring formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adeli Koudehi, Maral; Vavylonis, Dimitrios; Haosu Tang Team; Dimitrios Vavylonis Team

    Actin filaments are vital for different network structures in living cells. During cytokinesis, they form a contractile ring containing myosin motor proteins and actin filament cross-linkers to separate one cell into two cells. Recent experimental studies have quantified the bundle, ring, and network structures that form when actin filaments polymerize in confined environments in vitro, in the presence of varying concentrations of cross-linkers. In this study, we performed numerical simulations to investigate the effect of actin spherical confinement and cross-linking in ring formation. We used a spring-bead model and Brownian dynamics to simulate semiflexible actin filaments that polymerize in a confining sphere with a rate proportional to the monomer concentration. Applying the model for different size of the confining spheres shows that the probability of ring formation decreases by increasing the radius (at fixed initial monomer concentration), in agreement with prior experimental data. We describe the effect of persistence length, orientation-dependent cross-linking, and initial actin monomer concentration. Simulations show that equilibrium configurations can be reached through zipping and unzipping of actin filaments in bundles and transient ring formation.

  20. The centrosome is an actin-organizing center

    PubMed Central

    Farina, Francesca; Gaillard, Jérémie; Guérin, Christophe; Couté, Yohann; Sillibourne, James; Blanchoin, Laurent; Théry, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    Microtubules and actin filaments are the two main cytoskeleton networks supporting intracellular architecture and cell polarity. The centrosome nucleates and anchors microtubules and is therefore considered to be the main microtubule-organizing center. However, recurring, yet unexplained, observations have pointed towards a connection between the centrosome and actin filaments. Here we have used isolated centrosomes to demonstrate that the centrosome can directly promote actin filament assembly. A cloud of centrosome-associated actin filaments could be identified in living cells as well. Actin-filament nucleation at the centrosome was mediated by the nucleation promoting factor WASH in combination with the Arp2/3 complex. Pericentriolar material 1 (PCM1) appeared to modulate the centrosomal actin network by regulating Arp2/3 complex and WASH recruitment to the centrosome. Hence our results reveal an additional facet of the centrosome as an intracellular organizer and provide mechanistic insights into how the centrosome can function as an actin filament-organizing center. PMID:26655833

  1. The centrosome is an actin-organizing centre.

    PubMed

    Farina, Francesca; Gaillard, Jérémie; Guérin, Christophe; Couté, Yohann; Sillibourne, James; Blanchoin, Laurent; Théry, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    Microtubules and actin filaments are the two main cytoskeleton networks supporting intracellular architecture and cell polarity. The centrosome nucleates and anchors microtubules and is therefore considered to be the main microtubule-organizing centre. However, recurring, yet unexplained, observations have pointed towards a connection between the centrosome and actin filaments. Here we have used isolated centrosomes to demonstrate that the centrosome can directly promote actin-filament assembly. A cloud of centrosome-associated actin filaments could be identified in living cells as well. Actin-filament nucleation at the centrosome was mediated by the nucleation-promoting factor WASH in combination with the Arp2/3 complex. Pericentriolar material 1 (PCM1) seemed to modulate the centrosomal actin network by regulating Arp2/3 complex and WASH recruitment to the centrosome. Hence, our results reveal an additional facet of the centrosome as an intracellular organizer and provide mechanistic insights into how the centrosome can function as an actin-filament-organizing centre.

  2. The Saccharomyces cerevisiae actin-related protein Arp2 is involved in the actin cytoskeleton

    PubMed Central

    1996-01-01

    Arp2p is an essential yeast actin-related protein. Disruption of the corresponding ARP2 gene leads to a terminal phenotype characterized by the presence of a single large bud. Thus, Arp2p may be important for a late stage of the cell cycle (Schwob, E., and R.P. Martin, 1992. Nature (Lond.). 355:179-182). We have localized Arp2p by indirect immunofluorescence. Specific peptide antibodies revealed punctate staining under the plasma membrane, which partially colocalizes with actin. Temperature-sensitive arp2 mutations were created by PCR mutagenesis and selected by an ade2/SUP11 sectoring screen. One temperature-sensitive mutant that was characterized, arp2-H330L, was osmosensitive and had an altered actin cytoskeleton at a nonpermissive temperature, suggesting a role of Arp2p in the actin cytoskeleton. Random budding patterns were observed in both haploid and diploid arp2- H330L mutant cells. Endocytosis, as judged by Lucifer yellow uptake, was severely reduced in the mutant, at all temperatures. In addition, genetic interaction was observed between temperature-sensitive alleles arp2-H330L and cdc10-1. CDC10 is a gene encoding a neck filament- associated protein that is necessary for polarized growth and cytokinesis. Overall, the immunolocalization, mutant phenotypes, and genetic interaction suggest that the Arp2 protein is an essential component of the actin cytoskeleton that is involved in membrane growth and polarity, as well as in endocytosis. PMID:8698808

  3. Lamellipodial actin mechanically links myosin activity with adhesion site formation

    PubMed Central

    Giannone, Gregory; Dubin-Thaler, Benjamin; Rossier, Olivier; Cai, Yunfei; Chaga, Oleg; Jiang, Guoying; Beaver, William; Döbereiner, Hans-Günther; Freund, Yoav; Borisy, Gary; Sheetz, Michael P.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Cell motility proceeds by cycles of edge protrusion, adhesion and retraction. Whether these functions are coordinated by biochemical or biomechanical processes is unknown. We find that myosin II pulls the rear of the lamellipodial actin network, causing upward bending, edge retraction and initiation of new adhesion sites. The network then separates from the edge and condenses over the myosin. Protrusion resumes as lamellipodial actin regenerates from the front and extends rearward until it reaches newly assembled myosin, initiating the next cycle. Upward bending, observed by evanescence and electron microscopy, results in ruffle formation when adhesion strength is low. Correlative fluorescence and electron microscopy shows that the regenerating lamellipodium forms a cohesive, separable layer of actin above the lamellum. Thus, actin polymerization periodically builds a mechanical link, the lamellipodium, connecting myosin motors with the initiation of adhesion sites, suggesting that the major functions driving motility are coordinated by a biomechanical process. PMID:17289574

  4. Interaction of Phalloidin with Actin

    PubMed Central

    Lengsfeld, Anneliese M.; Löw, Irmentraut; Wieland, Theodor; Dancker, Peter; Hasselbach, Wilhelm

    1974-01-01

    Phalloidin, a toxic bicyclic peptide of rapid action from the toadstool, Amanita phalloides, gives rise to polymerization of G-actin to filamentous structures (Ph-actin) in a medium of low ionic strength. Ph-actin closely resembles the microfilaments found in liver membrane fractions (Ph-filaments) after in vivo or in vitro poisoning. Both phalloidin induced filaments are resistant to 0.6 M KI in contrast to F-actin, and become decorated by heavy meromyosin. After preincubation with cytochalasin B significantly fewer actin filaments are observed. Images PMID:4368830

  5. Pattern formation in actin gels: A study in the mechanics of gels formed by the important cytoskeletal protein actin, especially as applied to cellular motility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balter, Ariel

    We have studied pattern formation in actin gels to better understand how they function in biological systems, especially in the motility mechanism used by some pathogenic bacteria such as Listeria. By coating themselves with certain enzymes, these bacteria appropriate actin (a protein) from the surrounding host cell's cytoplasm and cause a network or "gel" of actin filaments to grow on their outer surface. As the resulting "comet tail" shaped protrusion grows, it pushes the bacterium away. In experiments, polystyrene beads coated with the same enzymes will also generate comet tails and swim in a very similar manner. However, these bead experiments have also generated anomalous results such as the formation of many comet tails. In some experiments, when two comet tails formed they systematically grew into regular, oppositely handed helices. The formation of any comet tails on a bead poses a physical conundrum. The bacterial enzyme coating is asymmetrical so the comet tail forms in a particular place. But the beads are symmetrical, so comet tails formation constitutes symmetry breaking and spontaneous pattern formation. We have modeled this process as a competition between elastic energy (which favors many tails) and chemical energy (which favors few tails). Our analytical model explains the factors that experimentally determine the number of tails, and numerical simulations confirm these predictions. To understand the helical tails, we did extensive data analysis involving image processing, statistical analysis and mathematical modeling of images of the helical tails. We identified some important features of how the twin tails form. For instance, the tail growth rate is independent of drag force, and bead rotation must accompany helical tail formation. We also created a physical model for helical growth. Numerical simulations of our model show that at very low Reynolds number, a cylindrical object growing under the conditions of an actin comet tail can spontaneously

  6. A Legionella Effector Disrupts Host Cytoskeletal Structure by Cleaving Actin

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yao; Zhu, Wenhan; Tan, Yunhao; Nakayasu, Ernesto S.; Staiger, Christopher J.

    2017-01-01

    Legionella pneumophila, the etiological agent of Legionnaires’ disease, replicates intracellularly in protozoan and human hosts. Successful colonization and replication of this pathogen in host cells requires the Dot/Icm type IVB secretion system, which translocates approximately 300 effector proteins into the host cell to modulate various cellular processes. In this study, we identified RavK as a Dot/Icm substrate that targets the host cytoskeleton and reduces actin filament abundance in mammalian cells upon ectopic expression. RavK harbors an H95EXXH99 motif associated with diverse metalloproteases, which is essential for the inhibition of yeast growth and for the induction of cell rounding in HEK293T cells. We demonstrate that the actin protein itself is the cellular target of RavK and that this effector cleaves actin at a site between residues Thr351 and Phe352. Importantly, RavK-mediated actin cleavage also occurs during L. pneumophila infection. Cleavage by RavK abolishes the ability of actin to form polymers. Furthermore, an F352A mutation renders actin resistant to RavK-mediated cleavage; expression of the mutant in mammalian cells suppresses the cell rounding phenotype caused by RavK, further establishing that actin is the physiological substrate of RavK. Thus, L. pneumophila exploits components of the host cytoskeleton by multiple effectors with distinct mechanisms, highlighting the importance of modulating cellular processes governed by the actin cytoskeleton in the intracellular life cycle of this pathogen. PMID:28129393

  7. Interaction of microtubules with the actin cytoskeleton via cross-talk of EB1-containing +TIPs and γ-actin in epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Dugina, Vera; Alieva, Irina; Khromova, Natalya; Kireev, Igor; Gunning, Peter W.; Kopnin, Pavel

    2016-01-01

    Actin microfilaments and microtubules are both highly dynamic cytoskeleton components implicated in a wide range of intracellular processes as well as cell-cell and cell-substrate interactions. The interactions of actin filaments with the microtubule system play an important role in the assembly and maintenance of 3D cell structure. Here we demonstrate that cytoplasmic actins are differentially distributed in relation to the microtubule system. LSM, 3D-SIM, proximity ligation assay (PLA) and co-immunoprecipitation methods applied in combination with selective depletion of β- or γ-cytoplasmic actins revealed a selective interaction between microtubules and γ-, but not β-cytoplasmic actin via the microtubule +TIPs protein EB1. EB1-positive comet distribution analysis and quantification have shown more effective microtubule growth in the absence of β-actin. Our data represent the first demonstration that microtubule +TIPs protein EB1 interacts mainly with γ-cytoplasmic actin in epithelial cells. PMID:27683037

  8. Interaction of microtubules with the actin cytoskeleton via cross-talk of EB1-containing +TIPs and γ-actin in epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Dugina, Vera; Alieva, Irina; Khromova, Natalya; Kireev, Igor; Gunning, Peter W; Kopnin, Pavel

    2016-11-08

    Actin microfilaments and microtubules are both highly dynamic cytoskeleton components implicated in a wide range of intracellular processes as well as cell-cell and cell-substrate interactions. The interactions of actin filaments with the microtubule system play an important role in the assembly and maintenance of 3D cell structure. Here we demonstrate that cytoplasmic actins are differentially distributed in relation to the microtubule system. LSM, 3D-SIM, proximity ligation assay (PLA) and co-immunoprecipitation methods applied in combination with selective depletion of β- or γ-cytoplasmic actins revealed a selective interaction between microtubules and γ-, but not β-cytoplasmic actin via the microtubule +TIPs protein EB1. EB1-positive comet distribution analysis and quantification have shown more effective microtubule growth in the absence of β-actin. Our data represent the first demonstration that microtubule +TIPs protein EB1 interacts mainly with γ-cytoplasmic actin in epithelial cells.

  9. Actin interaction and regulation of cyclin-dependent kinase 5/p35 complex activity.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jiqing; Tsutsumi, Koji; Tokuraku, Kiyotaka; Estes, Katherine A; Hisanaga, Shin-ichi; Ikezu, Tsuneya

    2011-01-01

    Cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (Cdk5) plays a critical role during neurodevelopment, synaptic plasticity, and neurodegeneration. Cdk5 activity depends on association with neuronal proteins p35 and p25, a proteolytic product of p35. Cdk5 regulates the actin cytoskeletal dynamics that are essential for neuronal migration, neuritic growth, and synaptogenesis. However, little is known about the interaction of actin and Cdk5 and its effect on neuronal Cdk5 activity. In a previous study, we observed that Cdk5/p35 activity is negatively correlated with co-immunoprecipitated F-actin (filamentous actin) amounts in the mouse brain, and suggested that F-actin inhibits the formation of the Cdk5/p35 complex [Journal of Neuroscience (2008) vol. 28, p. 14511]. The experiments reported here were undertaken to elucidate the relationship between actin and the formation of the Cdk5/p35 complex and its activity. Instead of an F-actin-mediated inhibition, we propose that G-actin (globular actin) in the F-actin preparations is responsible for inhibiting Cdk5/p35 and Cdk5/p25 kinase activity. We found that F-actin binds to p35 but not p25 or Cdk5. We have shown that G-actin binds directly to Cdk5 without disrupting the formation of the Cdk5/p35 or Cdk5/p25 complexes. G-actin potently suppressed Cdk5/p35 and Cdk5/p25 activity when either histone H1 or purified human tau protein were used as substrates, indicating a substrate-independent inhibitory effect of G-actin on Cdk5 activity. Finally, G-actin suppressed the activity of Cdk5 immunoprecipitated from wild type and p35-deficient mouse brain, suggesting that G-actin suppresses endogenous Cdk5 activity in a p35-independent manner. Together, these results suggest a novel mechanism of actin cytoskeletal regulation of Cdk5/p35 activity.

  10. Actin stress in cell reprogramming

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Jun; Wang, Yuexiu; Sachs, Frederick; Meng, Fanjie

    2014-01-01

    Cell mechanics plays a role in stem cell reprogramming and differentiation. To understand this process better, we created a genetically encoded optical probe, named actin–cpstFRET–actin (AcpA), to report forces in actin in living cells in real time. We showed that stemness was associated with increased force in actin. We reprogrammed HEK-293 cells into stem-like cells using no transcription factors but simply by softening the substrate. However, Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cell reprogramming required, in addition to a soft substrate, Harvey rat sarcoma viral oncogene homolog expression. Replating the stem-like cells on glass led to redifferentiation and reduced force in actin. The actin force probe was a FRET sensor, called cpstFRET (circularly permuted stretch sensitive FRET), flanked by g-actin subunits. The labeled actin expressed efficiently in HEK, MDCK, 3T3, and bovine aortic endothelial cells and in multiple stable cell lines created from those cells. The viability of the cell lines demonstrated that labeled actin did not significantly affect cell physiology. The labeled actin distribution was similar to that observed with GFP-tagged actin. We also examined the stress in the actin cross-linker actinin. Actinin force was not always correlated with actin force, emphasizing the need for addressing protein specificity when discussing forces. Because actin is a primary structural protein in animal cells, understanding its force distribution is central to understanding animal cell physiology and the many linked reactions such as stress-induced gene expression. This new probe permits measuring actin forces in a wide range of experiments on preparations ranging from isolated proteins to transgenic animals. PMID:25422450

  11. Symmetry breaking in reconstituted actin cortices

    PubMed Central

    Abu Shah, Enas; Keren, Kinneret

    2014-01-01

    The actin cortex plays a pivotal role in cell division, in generating and maintaining cell polarity and in motility. In all these contexts, the cortical network has to break symmetry to generate polar cytoskeletal dynamics. Despite extensive research, the mechanisms responsible for regulating cortical dynamics in vivo and inducing symmetry breaking are still unclear. Here we introduce a reconstituted system that self-organizes into dynamic actin cortices at the inner interface of water-in-oil emulsions. This artificial system undergoes spontaneous symmetry breaking, driven by myosin-induced cortical actin flows, which appears remarkably similar to the initial polarization of the embryo in many species. Our in vitro model system recapitulates the rich dynamics of actin cortices in vivo, revealing the basic biophysical and biochemical requirements for cortex formation and symmetry breaking. Moreover, this synthetic system paves the way for further exploration of artificial cells towards the realization of minimal model systems that can move and divide. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.01433.001 PMID:24843007

  12. Tropomyosin and Profilin Cooperate to Promote Formin-Mediated Actin Nucleation and Drive Yeast Actin Cable Assembly.

    PubMed

    Alioto, Salvatore L; Garabedian, Mikael V; Bellavance, Danielle R; Goode, Bruce L

    2016-12-05

    Tropomyosins comprise a large family of actin-binding proteins with critical roles in diverse actin-based processes [1], but our understanding of how they mechanistically contribute to actin filament dynamics has been limited. We addressed this question in S. cerevisiae, where tropomyosins (Tpm1 and Tpm2), profilin (Pfy1), and formins (Bni1 and Bnr1) are required for the assembly of an array of actin cables that facilitate polarized vesicle delivery and daughter cell growth. Formins drive cable formation by promoting actin nucleation and by accelerating actin filament elongation together with profilin [2]. In contrast, how tropomyosins contribute mechanistically to cable formation has been unclear, but genetic studies demonstrate that Tpm1 plays a more important role than Tpm2 [3, 4]. Here, we found that loss of TPM1 in strains lacking BNR1, but not BNI1, leads to severe defects in cable formation, polarized secretion, and cell growth, suggesting that TPM1 function is required for proper Bni1-mediated cable assembly. Furthermore, in vitro total internal reflection fluorescence (TIRF) microscopy demonstrated that Tpm1 strongly enhances Bni1-mediated, but not Bnr1-mediated, actin nucleation without affecting filament elongation rate, whereas Tpm2 has no effects on Bni1 or Bnr1. Tpm1 stimulation of Bni1-mediated nucleation also requires profilin and its interactions with both G-actin and formins. Together, these results demonstrate that yeast Tpm1 works in concert with profilin to promote formin-dependent nucleation of actin cables, thus expanding our understanding of how specific tropomyosin isoforms influence actin dynamics. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Disseminated superficial actinic porokeratosis.

    PubMed

    Rouhani, Panta; Fischer, Max; Meehan, Shane; Pomeranz, Miriam Keltz

    2012-12-15

    Disseminated superficial actinic porokeratosis, which was described in 1966, is characterized by small, atrophic patches with distinctive keratin rims that occur on sun-exposed areas of the extremities, shoulders, and back. The diagnosis is based on the histopathologic finding of a cornoid lamella, absence of a granular layer, and often a thin epidermis. It is associated with exposure to ultraviolet radiation. Gene studies suggest a pathway defect in which several mutations in keratinocyte proliferation and differentiation lead to development of porokeratosis.

  14. Arabidopsis FIM5 decorates apical actin filaments and regulates their organization in the pollen tube

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Meng; Zhang, Ruihui; Qu, Xiaolu; Huang, Shanjin

    2016-01-01

    The actin cytoskeleton is increasingly recognized as a major regulator of pollen tube growth. Actin filaments have distinct distribution patterns and dynamic properties within different regions of the pollen tube. Apical actin filaments are highly dynamic and crucial for pollen tube growth. However, how apical actin filaments are generated and properly constructed remains an open question. Here we showed that Arabidopsis fimbrin5 (FIM5) decorates filamentous structures throughout the entire tube but is apically concentrated. Apical actin structures are disorganized to different degrees in the pollen tubes of fim5 loss-of-function mutants. Further observations suggest that apical actin structures are not constructed properly because apical actin filaments cannot be maintained at the cortex of fim5 pollen tubes. Actin filaments appeared to be more curved in fim5 pollen tubes and this was confirmed by measurements showing that the convolutedness and the rate of change of convolutedness of actin filaments was significantly increased in fim5 pollen tubes. This suggests that the rigidity of the actin filaments may be compromised in fim5 pollen tubes. Further, the apical cell wall composition is altered, implying that tip-directed vesicle trafficking events are impaired in fim5 pollen tubes. Thus, we found that FIM5 decorates apical actin filaments and regulates their organization in order to drive polarized pollen tube growth. PMID:27117336