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Sample records for actin polymerization controls

  1. Spatial control of actin polymerization during neutrophil chemotaxis

    PubMed Central

    Weiner, Orion D.; Servant, Guy; Welch, Matthew D.; Mitchison, Timothy J.; Sedat, John W.; Bourne, Henry R.

    2010-01-01

    Neutrophils respond to chemotactic stimuli by increasing the nucleation and polymerization of actin filaments, but the location and regulation of these processes are not well understood. Here, using a permeabilized-cell assay, we show that chemotactic stimuli cause neutrophils to organize many discrete sites of actin polymerization, the distribution of which is biased by external chemotactic gradients. Furthermore, the Arp2/3 complex, which can nucleate actin polymerization, dynamically redistributes to the region of living neutrophils that receives maximal chemotactic stimulation, and the least-extractable pool of the Arp2/3 complex co-localizes with sites of actin polymerization. Our observations indicate that chemoattractant-stimulated neutrophils may establish discrete foci of actin polymerization that are similar to those generated at the posterior surface of the intracellular bacterium Listeria monocytogenes. We propose that asymmetrical establishment and/or maintenance of sites of actin polymerization produces directional migration of neutrophils in response to chemotactic gradients. PMID:10559877

  2. Profilin Regulates Apical Actin Polymerization to Control Polarized Pollen Tube Growth.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaonan; Qu, Xiaolu; Jiang, Yuxiang; Chang, Ming; Zhang, Ruihui; Wu, Youjun; Fu, Ying; Huang, Shanjin

    2015-12-01

    Pollen tube growth is an essential step during flowering plant reproduction, whose growth depends on a population of dynamic apical actin filaments. Apical actin filaments were thought to be involved in the regulation of vesicle fusion and targeting in the pollen tube. However, the molecular mechanisms that regulate the construction of apical actin structures in the pollen tube remain largely unclear. Here, we identify profilin as an important player in the regulation of actin polymerization at the apical membrane in the pollen tube. Downregulation of profilin decreased the amount of filamentous actin and induced disorganization of apical actin filaments, and reduced tip-directed vesicle transport and accumulation in the pollen tube. Direct visualization of actin dynamics revealed that the elongation of actin filaments originating at the apical membrane decreased in profilin mutant pollen tubes. Mutant profilin that is defective in binding poly-L-proline only partially rescues the actin polymerization defect in profilin mutant pollen tubes, although it fully rescues the actin turnover phenotype. We propose that profilin controls the construction of actin structures at the pollen tube tip, presumably by favoring formin-mediated actin polymerization at the apical membrane.

  3. Amplification of actin polymerization forces

    PubMed Central

    Dmitrieff, Serge; Nédélec, François

    2016-01-01

    The actin cytoskeleton drives many essential processes in vivo, using molecular motors and actin assembly as force generators. We discuss here the propagation of forces caused by actin polymerization, highlighting simple configurations where the force developed by the network can exceed the sum of the polymerization forces from all filaments. PMID:27002174

  4. Colchicine activates actin polymerization by microtubule depolymerization.

    PubMed

    Jung, H I; Shin, I; Park, Y M; Kang, K W; Ha, K S

    1997-06-30

    Swiss 3T3 fibroblasts were treated with the microtubule-disrupting agent colchicine to study any interaction between microtubule dynamics and actin polymerization. Colchicine increased the amount of filamentous actin (F-actin), in a dose- and time-dependent manner with a significant increase at 1 h by about 130% over control level. Confocal microscopic observation showed that colchicine increased F-actin contents by stress fiber formation without inducing membrane ruffling. Colchicine did not activate phospholipase C and phospholipase D, whereas lysophosphatidic acid did, indicating that colchicine may have a different mechanism of actin polymerization regulation from LPA. A variety of microtubule-disrupting agents stimulated actin polymerization in Swiss 3T3 and Rat-2 fibroblasts as did colchicine, but the microtubule-stabilizing agent taxol inhibited actin polymerization induced by the above microtubule-disrupting agents. In addition, colchicine-induced actin polymerization was blocked by two protein phosphatase inhibitors, okadaic acid and calyculin A. These results suggest that microtubule depolymerization activates stress fiber formation by serine/threonine dephosphorylation in fibroblasts. PMID:9264034

  5. Structural insights into de novo actin polymerization

    PubMed Central

    Dominguez, Roberto

    2010-01-01

    Summary Many cellular functions depend on rapid and localized actin polymerization/depolymerization. Yet, the de novo polymerization of actin in cells is kinetically unfavorable because of the instability of polymerization intermediates (small actin oligomers) and the actions of actin monomer binding proteins. Cells use filament nucleation and elongation factors to initiate and sustain polymerization. Structural biology is beginning to shed light on the diverse mechanisms by which these unrelated proteins initiate polymerization, undergo regulation, and mediate the transition of monomeric actin onto actin filaments. A prominent role is played by the W domain, which in some of these proteins occurs in tandem repeats that recruit multiple actin subunits. Pro-rich regions are also abundant and mediate the binding of profilin-actin complexes, which are the main source of polymerization competent actin in cells. Filament nucleation and elongation factors frequently interact with Rho family GTPases, which relay signals from membrane receptors to regulate actin cytoskeleton remodeling. PMID:20096561

  6. The reconstitution of actin polymerization on liposomes.

    PubMed

    Stamnes, Mark; Xu, Weidong

    2010-01-01

    Membrane-associated actin polymerization is of considerable interest due to its role in cell migration and the motility of intracellular organelles. Intensive research efforts are underway to investigate the physiological role of membrane-associated actin as well as the regulation and mechanics of actin assembly. Branched actin polymerization on membranes is catalyzed by the Arp2/3 complex. Signaling events leading to the activation of the guanosine triphosphate (GTP)-binding protein Cdc42 stimulate Arp2/3-dependent actin polymerization. We have studied the role of Cdc42 at the Golgi apparatus in part by reconstituting actin polymerization on isolated Golgi membranes and on liposomes. In this manner, we showed that cytosolic proteins are sufficient for actin assembly on a phospholipid bilayer. Here we describe methods for the cell-free reconstitution of membrane-associated actin polymerization using liposomes and brain cytosol.

  7. Polymerization of Actin from Maize Pollen.

    PubMed Central

    Yen, L. F.; Liu, X.; Cai, S.

    1995-01-01

    Here we describe the in vitro polymerization of actin from maize (Zea mays) pollen. The purified actin from maize pollen reported in our previous paper (X. Liu, L.F. Yen [1992] Plant Physiol 99: 1151-1155) is biologically active. In the presence of ATP, KCl, and MgCl2 the purified pollen actin polymerized into filaments. During polymerization the spectra of absorbance at 232 nm increased gradually. Polymerization of pollen actin was evidently accompanied by an increase in viscosity of the pollen actin solution. Also, the specific viscosity of pollen F-actin increased in a concentration-dependent manner. The ultraviolet difference spectrum of pollen actin is very similar to that of rabbit muscle actin. The activity of myosin ATPase from rabbit muscle was activated 7-fold by the polymerized pollen actin (F-actin). The actin filaments were visualized under the electron microscope as doubly wound strands of 7 nm diameter. If cytochalasin B was added before staining, no actin filaments were observed. When actin filaments were treated with rabbit heavy meromyosin, the actin filaments were decorated with an arrowhead structure. These results imply that there is much similarity between pollen and muscle actin. PMID:12228343

  8. Impact of Carbon Nanomaterials on Actin Polymerization.

    PubMed

    Dong, Ying; Sun, Haiyan; Li, Xu; Li, Xin; Zhao, Lina

    2016-03-01

    Many nanomaterials have entered people's daily lives and impact the normal process of biological entities consequently. As one kind of the important nanomaterials, carbon based nanomaterials have invoked a lot of concerns from scientific researches because of their unique physicochemical properties. In eukaryotes, actin is the most abundantly distributed protein in both cytoplasm and cell nucleus, and closely controls the cell proliferation and mobility. Recently, many investigations have found some carbon based nanomaterials can affect actin cytoskeleton remarkably, including fullerenes derivatives, carbon nanotubes, graphene and its derivatives. However, these interaction processes are complicated and the underlying mechanism is far from being understood clearly. In this review, we discussed the different mechanisms of carbon nanomaterials impact on actin polymerization into three pathways, as triggering the signaling pathways from carbon nanomaterials outside of cells, increasing the production of reactive oxygen species from carbon nanomaterials inside of cells and direct interaction from carbon nanomaterials inside of cells. As a result, the dimension and size of carbon nanomaterials play a key role in regulation of actin cytoskeleton. Furthermore, we forecasted the possible investigation strategy for meeting the challenges of the future study on this topic. We hope the findings are helpful in understanding the molecular mechanism in carbon nanomaterials regulating actin polymerization, and provide new insight in novel nanomedicine development for inhibition tumor cell migration. PMID:27455649

  9. mTORC2 controls actin polymerization required for consolidation of long-term memory.

    PubMed

    Huang, Wei; Zhu, Ping Jun; Zhang, Shixing; Zhou, Hongyi; Stoica, Loredana; Galiano, Mauricio; Krnjević, Krešimir; Roman, Gregg; Costa-Mattioli, Mauro

    2013-04-01

    A major goal of biomedical research is the identification of molecular and cellular mechanisms that underlie memory storage. Here we report a previously unknown signaling pathway that is necessary for the conversion from short- to long-term memory. The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) complex 2 (mTORC2), which contains the regulatory protein Rictor (rapamycin-insensitive companion of mTOR), was discovered only recently and little is known about its function. We found that conditional deletion of Rictor in the postnatal murine forebrain greatly reduced mTORC2 activity and selectively impaired both long-term memory (LTM) and the late phase of hippocampal long-term potentiation (L-LTP). We also found a comparable impairment of LTM in dTORC2-deficient flies, highlighting the evolutionary conservation of this pathway. Actin polymerization was reduced in the hippocampus of mTORC2-deficient mice and its restoration rescued both L-LTP and LTM. Moreover, a compound that promoted mTORC2 activity converted early LTP into late LTP and enhanced LTM. Thus, mTORC2 could be a therapeutic target for the treatment of cognitive dysfunction.

  10. Stochastic model of profilin-actin polymerization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horan, Brandon; Vavylonis, Dimitrios

    A driving factor in cell motility and other processes that involve changes of cell shape is the rapid polymerization of actin subunits into long filaments. This process is regulated by profilin, a protein which binds to actin subunits and regulates elongation of actin filaments. Whether profilin stimulates polymerization by coupling to hydrolysis of ATP-bound actin is debated. Previous studies have proposed indirect coupling to ATP hydrolysis using rate equations, but did not include the effects of fluctuations that are important near the critical concentration. We developed stochastic simulations using the Gillespie algorithm to study single filament elongation at the barbed end in the presence of profilin. We used recently measured rate constants and estimated the rate of profilin binding to the barbed end such that detailed balance is satisfied. Fast phosphate release at the tip of the filament was accounted for. The elongation rate and length diffusivity as functions of profilin and actin concentration were calculated and used to extract the critical concentrations of free actin and of total actin. We show under what conditions profilin leads to an increase in the critical concentration of total actin but a decrease in the critical concentration of free actin.

  11. Control of actin-based motility through localized actin binding.

    PubMed

    Banigan, Edward J; Lee, Kun-Chun; Liu, Andrea J

    2013-12-01

    A wide variety of cell biological and biomimetic systems use actin polymerization to drive motility. It has been suggested that an object such as a bacterium can propel itself by self-assembling a high concentration of actin behind it, if it is repelled by actin. However, it is also known that it is essential for the moving object to bind actin. Therefore, a key question is how the actin tail can propel an object when it both binds and repels the object. We present a physically consistent Brownian dynamics model for actin-based motility that includes the minimal components of the dendritic nucleation model and allows for both attractive and repulsive interactions between actin and a moveable disc. We find that the concentration gradient of filamentous actin generated by polymerization is sufficient to propel the object, even with moderately strong binding interactions. Additionally, actin binding can act as a biophysical cap, and may directly control motility through modulation of network growth. Overall, this mechanism is robust in that it can drive motility against a load up to a stall pressure that depends on the Young's modulus of the actin network and can explain several aspects of actin-based motility.

  12. Change in the actin-myosin subfragment 1 interaction during actin polymerization.

    PubMed

    Chaussepied, P; Kasprzak, A A

    1989-12-01

    To better characterize the conformational differences of G- and F-actin, we have compared the interaction between G- and F-actin with myosin subfragment 1 (S1) which had part of its F-actin binding site (residues 633-642) blocked by a complementary peptide or "antipeptide" (Chaussepied, P., and Morales, M. F. (1988) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 85, 7471-7475). Light scattering, sedimentation, and electron microscopy measurements showed that, with the antipeptide covalently attached to the S1 heavy chain, S1 was not capable of inducing G-actin polymerization in the absence of salt. Moreover, the antipeptide-carrying S1 did not change the fluorescence polarization of 5-[2-(iodoacetyl)-aminoethyl]aminonaphthalene-1-sulfonic acid (1,5-IAEDANS)-labeled G-actin or of 1,5-IAEDANS-labeled actin dimer, compared to the control S1. This result, interpreted as a lack of interaction between G-actin and antipeptide-carrying S1, was confirmed further by the following experiments: in the presence of G-actin, antipeptide.S1 heavy chain was not protected against trypsin and papain proteolysis, and G-actin could not be cross-linked to antipeptide.S1 by 1-ethyl-3[-3-(dimethylamino)propyl]carbodiimide. In contrast, similar experiments showed that antipeptide.S1 was able to interact with nascent F-actin and with F-actin. Thus, blocking the stretch 633-642 of S1 heavy chain by the antipeptide strongly inhibits G-actin-S1 interaction but only slightly alters F-actin-S1 contact. We, therefore postulate that this stretch of skeletal S1 heavy chain is essential for G-actin-S1 interaction and that the G-F transformation generates new S1 binding site(s) on the actin molecule.

  13. Yersinia effector YopO uses actin as bait to phosphorylate proteins that regulate actin polymerization

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Wei Lin; Grimes, Jonathan M; Robinson, Robert C

    2016-01-01

    Pathogenic Yersinia species evade host immune systems through the injection of Yersinia outer proteins (Yops) into phagocytic cells. One Yop, YopO, also known as YpkA, induces actin-filament disruption, impairing phagocytosis. Here we describe the X-ray structure of Yersinia enterocolitica YopO in complex with actin, which reveals that YopO binds to an actin monomer in a manner that blocks polymerization yet allows the bound actin to interact with host actin-regulating proteins. SILAC-MS and biochemical analyses confirm that actin-polymerization regulators such as VASP, EVL, WASP, gelsolin and the formin diaphanous 1 are directly sequestered and phosphorylated by YopO through formation of ternary complexes with actin. This leads to a model in which YopO at the membrane sequesters actin from polymerization while using the bound actin as bait to recruit, phosphorylate and misregulate host actin-regulating proteins to disrupt phagocytosis. PMID:25664724

  14. Yersinia effector YopO uses actin as bait to phosphorylate proteins that regulate actin polymerization.

    PubMed

    Lee, Wei Lin; Grimes, Jonathan M; Robinson, Robert C

    2015-03-01

    Pathogenic Yersinia species evade host immune systems through the injection of Yersinia outer proteins (Yops) into phagocytic cells. One Yop, YopO, also known as YpkA, induces actin-filament disruption, impairing phagocytosis. Here we describe the X-ray structure of Yersinia enterocolitica YopO in complex with actin, which reveals that YopO binds to an actin monomer in a manner that blocks polymerization yet allows the bound actin to interact with host actin-regulating proteins. SILAC-MS and biochemical analyses confirm that actin-polymerization regulators such as VASP, EVL, WASP, gelsolin and the formin diaphanous 1 are directly sequestered and phosphorylated by YopO through formation of ternary complexes with actin. This leads to a model in which YopO at the membrane sequesters actin from polymerization while using the bound actin as bait to recruit, phosphorylate and misregulate host actin-regulating proteins to disrupt phagocytosis.

  15. Actin polymerization and intracellular solvent flow in cell surface blebbing

    PubMed Central

    1995-01-01

    The cortical actin gel of eukaryotic cells is postulated to control cell surface activity. One type of protrusion that may offer clues to this regulation are the spherical aneurysms of the surface membrane known as blebs. Blebs occur normally in cells during spreading and alternate with other protrusions, such as ruffles, suggesting similar protrusive machinery is involved. We recently reported that human melanoma cell lines deficient in the actin filament cross-linking protein, ABP-280, show prolonged blebbing, thus allowing close study of blebs and their dynamics. Blebs expand at different rates of volume increase that directly predict the final size achieved by each bleb. These rates decrease as the F-actin concentration of the cells increase over time after plating on a surface, but do so at lower concentrations in ABP-280 expressing cells. Fluorescently labeled actin and phalloidin injections of blebbing cells indicate that a polymerized actin structure is not present initially, but appears later and is responsible for stopping further bleb expansion. Therefore, it is postulated that blebs occur when the fluid-driven expansion of the cell membrane is sufficiently rapid to initially outpace the local rate of actin polymerization. In this model, the rate of intracellular solvent flow driving this expansion decreases as cortical gelation is achieved, whether by factors such as ABP-280, or by concentrated actin polymers alone, thereby leading to decreased size and occurrence of blebs. Since the forces driving bleb extension would always be present in a cell, this process may influence other cell protrusions as well. PMID:7790356

  16. Formin-mediated actin polymerization promotes Salmonella invasion.

    PubMed

    Truong, Dorothy; Brabant, Danielle; Bashkurov, Mikhail; Wan, Leo C K; Braun, Virginie; Heo, Won Do; Meyer, Tobias; Pelletier, Laurence; Copeland, John; Brumell, John H

    2013-12-01

    Salmonella invade host cells using Type 3 secreted effectors, which modulate host cellular targets to promote actin rearrangements at the cell surface that drive bacterial uptake. The Arp2/3 complex contributes to Salmonella invasion but is not essential, indicating other actin regulatory factors are involved. Here, we show a novel role for FHOD1, a formin family member, in Salmonella invasion. FHOD1 and Arp2/3 occupy distinct microdomains at the invasion site and control distinct aspects of membrane protrusion formation. FHOD1 is phosphorylated during infection and this modification is required for promoting bacterial uptake by host cells. ROCK II, but not ROCK I, is recruited to the invasion site and is required for FHOD1 phosphorylation and for Salmonella invasion. Together, our studies revealan important phospho-dependent FHOD1 actin polymerization pathway in Salmonella invasion.

  17. Magnetic manipulation of actin orientation, polymerization, and gliding on myosin using superparamagnetic iron oxide particles.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yun; Guzik, Stephanie; Sumner, James P; Moreland, John; Koretsky, Alan P

    2011-02-11

    The actin cytoskeleton controls cell shape, motility, as well as intracellular molecular trafficking. The ability to remotely manipulate actin is therefore highly desirable as a tool to probe and manipulate biological processes at the molecular level. We demonstrate actin manipulation by labeling actin filaments with superparamagnetic iron oxide particles (IOPs) and applying a uniform magnetic field to affect actin orientation, polymerization and gliding on myosin. We show for the first time magnetic manipulation of magnetizable actin filaments at the molecular level while gliding on a bed of myosin molecules and during polymerization. A model for the magnetic alignment and guiding mechanism is proposed based on the torque from the induced molecular anisotropy due to interactions between neighboring IOPs distributed along magnetically labeled actin molecules.

  18. Feedback Interactions of Polymerized Actin with the Cell Membrane: Waves, Pulses, and Oscillations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlsson, Anders

    Polymerized filaments of the protein actin have crucial functions in cell migration, and in bending the cell membrane to drive endocytosis or the formation of protrusions. The nucleation and polymerization of actin filaments are controlled by upstream agents in the cell membrane, including nucleation-promoting factors (NPFs) that activate the Arp2/3 complex to form new branches on pre-existing filaments. But polymerized actin (F-actin) also feeds back on the assembly of NPFs. We explore the effects of the resulting feedback loop of F-actin and NPFs on two phenomena: actin pulses that drive endocytosis in yeast, and actin waves traveling along the membrane of several cell types. In our model of endocytosis in yeast, the actin network is grown explicitly in three dimensions, exerts a negative feedback interaction on localized patch of NPFs in the membrane, and bends the membrane by exerting a distribution of forces. This model explains observed actin and NPF pulse dynamics, and the effects of several interventions including i) NPF mutations, ii) inhibition of actin polymerization, and iii) deletion of a protein that allows F-actin to bend the cell membrane. The model predicts that mutation of the active region of an NPF will enhance the accumulation of that NPF, and we confirm this prediction by quantitative fluorescence microscopy. For actin waves, we treat a similar model, with NPFs distributed over a larger region of the cell membrane. This model naturally generates actin waves, and predicts a transition from wave behavior to spatially localized oscillations when NPFs are confined to a small region. We also predict a transition from waves to static polarization as the negative-feedback coupling between F-actin and the NPFs is reduced. Supported by NIGMS Grant R01 GM107667.

  19. Role of Actin Polymerization in Cell Locomotion: Molecules and Models

    PubMed Central

    Bearer, E. L.

    2015-01-01

    Actin filaments forming at the anterior margin of a migrating cell are essential for the formation of filopodia, lamellipodia, and pseudopodia, the “feet” that the cell extends before it. These structures in turn are required for cell locomotion. Yet the molecular nature of the “nucleator” that seeds the polymerization of actin at the leading edge is unknown. Recent advances, including video microscopy of actin dynamics, discovery of proteins unique to the leading edge such as ponticulin, the Mab 2E4 antigen, and ABP 120, and novel experimental models of actin polymerization such as the actin-based movements of intracellular parasites, promise to shed light on this problem in the near future. PMID:8323743

  20. Polarized Exocytosis Induces Compensatory Endocytosis by Sec4p-Regulated Cortical Actin Polymerization

    PubMed Central

    Johansen, Jesper; Alfaro, Gabriel; Beh, Christopher T.

    2016-01-01

    Polarized growth is maintained by both polarized exocytosis, which transports membrane components to specific locations on the cell cortex, and endocytosis, which retrieves these components before they can diffuse away. Despite functional links between these two transport pathways, they are generally considered to be separate events. Using live cell imaging, in vivo and in vitro protein binding assays, and in vitro pyrene-actin polymerization assays, we show that the yeast Rab GTPase Sec4p couples polarized exocytosis with cortical actin polymerization, which induces endocytosis. After polarized exocytosis to the plasma membrane, Sec4p binds Las17/Bee1p (yeast Wiskott—Aldrich Syndrome protein [WASp]) in a complex with Sla1p and Sla2p during actin patch assembly. Mutations that inactivate Sec4p, or its guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) Sec2p, inhibit actin patch formation, whereas the activating sec4-Q79L mutation accelerates patch assembly. In vitro assays of Arp2/3-dependent actin polymerization established that GTPγS-Sec4p overrides Sla1p inhibition of Las17p-dependent actin nucleation. These results support a model in which Sec4p relocates along the plasma membrane from polarized sites of exocytic vesicle fusion to nascent sites of endocytosis. Activated Sec4p then promotes actin polymerization and triggers compensatory endocytosis, which controls surface expansion and kinetically refines cell polarization. PMID:27526190

  1. Force Generation, Polymerization Dynamics and Nucleation of Actin Filaments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ruizhe

    We study force generation and actin filament dynamics using stochastic and deterministic methods. First, we treat force generation of bundled actin filaments by polymerization via molecular-level stochastic simulations. In the widely-used Brownian Ratchet model, actin filaments grow freely whenever the tip-obstacle gap created by thermal fluctuation exceeds the monomer size. We name this model the Perfect Brownian Ratchet (PBR) model. In the PBR model, actin monomer diffusion is treated implicitly. We perform a series of simulations based on the PBR, in which obstacle motion is treated explicitly; in most previous studies, obstacle motion has been treated implicitly. We find that the cooperativity of filaments is generally weak in the PBR model, meaning that more filaments would grow more slowly given the same force per filament. Closed-form formulas are also developed, which match the simulation results. These portable and accurate formulas provide guidance for experiments and upper and lower bounds for theoretical analyses. We also studied a variation of the PBR, called the Diffusing Brownian Ratchet (DBR) model, in which both actin monomer and obstacle diffusion are treated explicitly. We find that the growth rate of multiple filaments is even lower, compared with that in PBR. This finding challenges the widely-accepted PBR assumption and suggests that pushing the study of actin dynamics down to the sub-nanometer level yields new insights. We subsequently used a rate equation approach to model the effect of local depletion of actin monomers on the nucleation of actin filaments on biomimetic beads, and how the effect is regulated by capping protein (CP). We find that near the bead surface, a higher CP concentration increases local actin concentration, which leads to an enhanced activities of actin filaments' nucleation. Our model analysis matches the experimental results and lends support to an important but undervalued hypothesis proposed by Carlier and

  2. A Structural Basis for Regulation of Actin Polymerization by Pectenotoxins

    PubMed Central

    Allingham, John S.; Miles, Christopher O.; Rayment, Ivan

    2007-01-01

    Pectenotoxins (PTXs) are polyether macrolides found in certain dinoflagellates, sponges and shellfish, and have been associated with diarrhetic shellfish poisoning. In addition to their in vivo toxicity, some PTXs are potently cytotoxic in human cancer cell lines. Recent studies have demonstrated that disruption of the actin cytoskeleton may be a key function of these compounds, although no clarification their mechanism of action at a molecular level was available. We have obtained an X-ray crystal structure of PTX-2 bound to actin which, in combination with analyses of the effect of PTX-2 on purified actin filament dynamics, provides a molecular explanation for its effects on actin. PTX-2 formed a 1:1 complex with actin and engaged a novel site between subdomains 1 and 3. Based on models of the actin filament, PTX binding would disrupt key lateral contacts between the PTX-bound actin monomer and the lower lateral actin monomer within the filament, thereby capping the barbed-end. The location of this binding position within the interior of the filament indicates that it may not be accessible once polymerization has occurred, a hypothesis supported by our observation that PTX-2 caused filament capping without inducing filament severing. This mode of action is unique, as other actin filament destabilizing toxins appear to exclusively disrupt longitudinal monomer contacts allowing many of them to sever filaments in addition to capping them. Examination of the PTX-binding site on actin provides a rationalization for the structure–activity relationships observed in vivo and in vitro, and may provide a basis for predicting toxicity of PTX analogues. PMID:17599353

  3. Bundling of actin filaments by elongation factor 1 alpha inhibits polymerization at filament ends

    PubMed Central

    1996-01-01

    Elongation factor 1 alpha (EF1 alpha) is an abundant protein that binds aminoacyl-tRNA and ribosomes in a GTP-dependent manner. EF1 alpha also interacts with the cytoskeleton by binding and bundling actin filaments and microtubules. In this report, the effect of purified EF1 alpha on actin polymerization and depolymerization is examined. At molar ratios present in the cytosol, EF1 alpha significantly blocks both polymerization and depolymerization of actin filaments and increases the final extent of actin polymer, while at high molar ratios to actin, EF1 alpha nucleates actin polymerization. Although EF1 alpha binds actin monomer, this monomer-binding activity does not explain the effects of EF1 alpha on actin polymerization at physiological molar ratios. The mechanism for the inhibition of polymerization is related to the actin-bundling activity of EF1 alpha. Both ends of the actin filament are inhibited for polymerization and both bundling and the inhibition of actin polymerization are affected by pH within the same physiological range; at high pH both bundling and the inhibition of actin polymerization are reduced. Additionally, it is seen that the binding of aminoacyl-tRNA to EF1 alpha releases EF1 alpha's inhibiting effect on actin polymerization. These data demonstrate that EF1 alpha can alter the assembly of F-actin, a filamentous scaffold on which non- membrane-associated protein translation may be occurring in vivo. PMID:8947553

  4. Stimulation of actin polymerization by vacuoles via Cdc42p-dependent signaling.

    PubMed

    Isgandarova, Sabina; Jones, Lynden; Forsberg, Daniel; Loncar, Ana; Dawson, John; Tedrick, Kelly; Eitzen, Gary

    2007-10-19

    We have previously shown that actin ligands inhibit the fusion of yeast vacuoles in vitro, which suggests that actin remodeling is a subreaction of membrane fusion. Here, we demonstrate the presence of vacuole-associated actin polymerization activity, and its dependence on Cdc42p and Vrp1p. Using a sensitive in vitro pyrene-actin polymerization assay, we found that vacuole membranes stimulated polymerization, and this activity increased when vacuoles were preincubated under conditions that support membrane fusion. Vacuoles purified from a VRP1-gene deletion strain showed reduced polymerization activity, which could be recovered when reconstituted with excess Vrp1p. Cdc42p regulates this activity because overexpression of dominant-negative Cdc42p significantly reduced vacuole-associated polymerization activity, while dominant-active Cdc42p increased activity. We also used size-exclusion chromatography to directly examine changes in yeast actin induced by vacuole fusion. This assay confirmed that actin undergoes polymerization in a process requiring ATP. To further confirm the need for actin polymerization during vacuole fusion, an actin polymerization-deficient mutant strain was examined. This strain showed in vivo defects in vacuole fusion, and actin purified from this strain inhibited in vitro vacuole fusion. Affinity isolation of vacuole-associated actin and in vitro binding assays revealed a polymerization-dependent interaction between actin and the SNARE Ykt6p. Our results suggest that actin polymerization is a subreaction of vacuole membrane fusion governed by Cdc42p signal transduction.

  5. Actin depolymerizing factor controls actin turnover and gliding motility in Toxoplasma gondii

    PubMed Central

    Mehta, Simren; Sibley, L. David

    2011-01-01

    Apicomplexan parasites rely on actin-based gliding motility to move across the substratum, cross biological barriers, and invade their host cells. Gliding motility depends on polymerization of parasite actin filaments, yet ∼98% of actin is nonfilamentous in resting parasites. Previous studies suggest that the lack of actin filaments in the parasite is due to inherent instability, leaving uncertain the role of actin-binding proteins in controlling dynamics. We have previously shown that the single allele of Toxoplasma gondii actin depolymerizing factor (TgADF) has strong actin monomer–sequestering and weak filament-severing activities in vitro. Here we used a conditional knockout strategy to investigate the role of TgADF in vivo. Suppression of TgADF led to accumulation of actin-rich filaments that were detected by immunofluorescence and electron microscopy. Parasites deficient in TgADF showed reduced speed of motility, increased aberrant patterns of motion, and inhibition of sustained helical gliding. Lack of TgADF also led to severe defects in entry and egress from host cells, thus blocking infection in vitro. These studies establish that the absence of stable actin structures in the parasite are not simply the result of intrinsic instability, but that TgADF is required for the rapid turnover of parasite actin filaments, gliding motility, and cell invasion. PMID:21346192

  6. Hippocampal Dendritic Spines Are Segregated Depending on Their Actin Polymerization

    PubMed Central

    Domínguez-Iturza, Nuria; Calvo, María; Benoist, Marion; Esteban, José Antonio; Morales, Miguel

    2016-01-01

    Dendritic spines are mushroom-shaped protrusions of the postsynaptic membrane. Spines receive the majority of glutamatergic synaptic inputs. Their morphology, dynamics, and density have been related to synaptic plasticity and learning. The main determinant of spine shape is filamentous actin. Using FRAP, we have reexamined the actin dynamics of individual spines from pyramidal hippocampal neurons, both in cultures and in hippocampal organotypic slices. Our results indicate that, in cultures, the actin mobile fraction is independently regulated at the individual spine level, and mobile fraction values do not correlate with either age or distance from the soma. The most significant factor regulating actin mobile fraction was the presence of astrocytes in the culture substrate. Spines from neurons growing in the virtual absence of astrocytes have a more stable actin cytoskeleton, while spines from neurons growing in close contact with astrocytes show a more dynamic cytoskeleton. According to their recovery time, spines were distributed into two populations with slower and faster recovery times, while spines from slice cultures were grouped into one population. Finally, employing fast lineal acquisition protocols, we confirmed the existence of loci with high polymerization rates within the spine. PMID:26881098

  7. Force-velocity relation for actin-polymerization-driven motility from Brownian dynamics simulations.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kun-Chun; Liu, Andrea J

    2009-09-01

    We report numerical simulation results for the force-velocity relation for actin-polymerization-driven motility. We use Brownian dynamics to solve a physically consistent formulation of the dendritic nucleation model with semiflexible filaments that self-assemble and push a disk. We find that at small loads, the disk speed is independent of load, whereas at high loads, the speed decreases and vanishes at a characteristic stall pressure. Our results demonstrate that at small loads, the velocity is controlled by the reaction rates, whereas at high loads the stall pressure is determined by the mechanical properties of the branched actin network. The behavior is consistent with experiments and with our recently proposed self-diffusiophoretic mechanism for actin-polymerization-driven motility. New in vitro experiments to measure the force-velocity relation are proposed.

  8. A second Las17 monomeric actin-binding motif functions in Arp2/3-dependent actin polymerization during endocytosis.

    PubMed

    Feliciano, Daniel; Tolsma, Thomas O; Farrell, Kristen B; Aradi, Al; Di Pietro, Santiago M

    2015-04-01

    During clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME), actin assembly provides force to drive vesicle internalization. Members of the Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein (WASP) family play a fundamental role stimulating actin assembly. WASP family proteins contain a WH2 motif that binds globular actin (G-actin) and a central-acidic motif that binds the Arp2/3 complex, thus promoting the formation of branched actin filaments. Yeast WASP (Las17) is the strongest of five factors promoting Arp2/3-dependent actin polymerization during CME. It was suggested that this strong activity may be caused by a putative second G-actin-binding motif in Las17. Here, we describe the in vitro and in vivo characterization of such Las17 G-actin-binding motif (LGM) and its dependence on a group of conserved arginine residues. Using the yeast two-hybrid system, GST-pulldown, fluorescence polarization and pyrene-actin polymerization assays, we show that LGM binds G-actin and is necessary for normal Arp2/3-mediated actin polymerization in vitro. Live-cell fluorescence microscopy experiments demonstrate that LGM is required for normal dynamics of actin polymerization during CME. Further, LGM is necessary for normal dynamics of endocytic machinery components that are recruited at early, intermediate and late stages of endocytosis, as well as for optimal endocytosis of native CME cargo. Both in vitro and in vivo experiments show that LGM has relatively lower potency compared to the previously known Las17 G-actin-binding motif, WH2. These results establish a second G-actin-binding motif in Las17 and advance our knowledge on the mechanism of actin assembly during CME.

  9. LeftyA decreases Actin Polymerization and Stiffness in Human Endometrial Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Salker, Madhuri S.; Schierbaum, Nicolas; Alowayed, Nour; Singh, Yogesh; Mack, Andreas F.; Stournaras, Christos; Schäffer, Tilman E.; Lang, Florian

    2016-01-01

    LeftyA, a cytokine regulating stemness and embryonic differentiation, down-regulates cell proliferation and migration. Cell proliferation and motility require actin reorganization, which is under control of ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 1 (Rac1) and p21 protein-activated kinase 1 (PAK1). The present study explored whether LeftyA modifies actin cytoskeleton, shape and stiffness of Ishikawa cells, a well differentiated endometrial carcinoma cell line. The effect of LeftyA on globular over filamentous actin ratio was determined utilizing Western blotting and flow cytometry. Rac1 and PAK1 transcript levels were measured by qRT-PCR as well as active Rac1 and PAK1 by immunoblotting. Cell stiffness (quantified by the elastic modulus), cell surface area and cell volume were studied by atomic force microscopy (AFM). As a result, 2 hours treatment with LeftyA (25 ng/ml) significantly decreased Rac1 and PAK1 transcript levels and activity, depolymerized actin, and decreased cell stiffness, surface area and volume. The effect of LeftyA on actin polymerization was mimicked by pharmacological inhibition of Rac1 and PAK1. In the presence of the Rac1 or PAK1 inhibitor LeftyA did not lead to significant further actin depolymerization. In conclusion, LeftyA leads to disruption of Rac1 and Pak1 activity with subsequent actin depolymerization, cell softening and cell shrinkage. PMID:27404958

  10. Palmitoylation of LIM Kinase-1 ensures spine-specific actin polymerization and morphological plasticity

    PubMed Central

    George, Joju; Soares, Cary; Montersino, Audrey; Beique, Jean-Claude; Thomas, Gareth M

    2015-01-01

    Precise regulation of the dendritic spine actin cytoskeleton is critical for neurodevelopment and neuronal plasticity, but how neurons spatially control actin dynamics is not well defined. Here, we identify direct palmitoylation of the actin regulator LIM kinase-1 (LIMK1) as a novel mechanism to control spine-specific actin dynamics. A conserved palmitoyl-motif is necessary and sufficient to target LIMK1 to spines and to anchor LIMK1 in spines. ShRNA knockdown/rescue experiments reveal that LIMK1 palmitoylation is essential for normal spine actin polymerization, for spine-specific structural plasticity and for long-term spine stability. Palmitoylation is critical for LIMK1 function because this modification not only controls LIMK1 targeting, but is also essential for LIMK1 activation by its membrane-localized upstream activator PAK. These novel roles for palmitoylation in the spatial control of actin dynamics and kinase signaling provide new insights into structural plasticity mechanisms and strengthen links between dendritic spine impairments and neuropathological conditions. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.06327.001 PMID:25884247

  11. Mechanical force-induced polymerization and depolymerization of F-actin at water/solid interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xueqiang; Hu, Xiuyuan; Lei, Haozhi; Hu, Jun; Zhang, Yi

    2016-03-01

    Actin molecules are among the three main cytoskeleton proteins of cells and undergo rapid cycling to regulate critical processes such as endocytosis, cytokinesis, cell polarity, and cell morphogenesis. Although extensive studies have been carried out on the dynamics as well as biological functions of actin polymerization and depolymerization both in vivo and in vitro, the molecular mechanisms by which cells sense and respond to mechanical signals are not fully understood. In particular, little attention has been paid to the effect of a physical force that is exerted directly on the actin cytoskeleton. In this paper, we have explored how the mechanical force affects the actin polymerization and depolymerization behaviors at water/solid interfaces using an atomic force microscope (AFM) operated in liquid. By raster scanning an AFM probe on a substrate surface with a certain load, it was found that actin monomers could polymerize into filaments without the help of actin related proteins (ARPs). Further study indicated that actin monomers were inclined to form filaments only under a small scanning load. The polymerized actin filaments would be depolymerized when the mechanical force was stronger. A possible mechanism has been suggested to explain the mechanical force induced actin polymerization.Actin molecules are among the three main cytoskeleton proteins of cells and undergo rapid cycling to regulate critical processes such as endocytosis, cytokinesis, cell polarity, and cell morphogenesis. Although extensive studies have been carried out on the dynamics as well as biological functions of actin polymerization and depolymerization both in vivo and in vitro, the molecular mechanisms by which cells sense and respond to mechanical signals are not fully understood. In particular, little attention has been paid to the effect of a physical force that is exerted directly on the actin cytoskeleton. In this paper, we have explored how the mechanical force affects the actin

  12. The Effects of Disease Models of Nuclear Actin Polymerization on the Nucleus

    PubMed Central

    Serebryannyy, Leonid A.; Yuen, Michaela; Parilla, Megan; Cooper, Sandra T.; de Lanerolle, Primal

    2016-01-01

    Actin plays a crucial role in regulating multiple processes within the nucleus, including transcription and chromatin organization. However, the polymerization state of nuclear actin remains controversial, and there is no evidence for persistent actin filaments in a normal interphase nucleus. Further, several disease pathologies are characterized by polymerization of nuclear actin into stable filaments or rods. These include filaments that stain with phalloidin, resulting from point mutations in skeletal α-actin, detected in the human skeletal disease intranuclear rod myopathy, and cofilin/actin rods that form in response to cellular stressors like heatshock. To further elucidate the effects of these pathological actin structures, we examined the nucleus in both cell culture models as well as isolated human tissues. We find these actin structures alter the distribution of both RNA polymerase II and chromatin. Our data suggest that nuclear actin filaments result in disruption of nuclear organization, which may contribute to the disease pathology. PMID:27774069

  13. ERK reinforces actin polymerization to power persistent edge protrusion during motility

    PubMed Central

    Mendoza, Michelle C.; Vilela, Marco; Juarez, Jesus E.; Blenis, John; Danuser, Gaudenz

    2016-01-01

    Cells move through perpetual protrusion and retraction cycles at the leading edge. These cycles are coordinated with substrate adhesion and retraction of the cell rear. Here, we tracked spatial and temporal fluctuations in the molecular activities of individual moving cells to elucidate how extracellular regulated kinase (ERK) signaling controlled the dynamics of protrusion and retraction cycles. ERK is activated by many cell-surface receptors and we found that ERK signaling specifically reinforced cellular protrusions so that they translated into rapid, sustained forward motion of the leading edge. Using quantitative fluorescent speckle microscopy (qFSM) and cross-correlation analysis, we showed that ERK controlled the rate and timing of actin polymerization by promoting the recruitment of the actin nucleator Arp2/3 to the leading edge. Arp2/3 activity generates branched actin networks that can produce pushing force. These findings support a model in which surges in ERK activity induced by extracellular cues enhance Arp2/3-mediated actin polymerization to generate protrusion power phases with enough force to counteract increasing membrane tension and to promote sustained motility. PMID:25990957

  14. Tip-localized actin polymerization and remodeling, reflected by the localization of ADF, profilin and villin, are fundamental for gravity-sensing and polar growth in characean rhizoids.

    PubMed

    Braun, Markus; Hauslage, Jens; Czogalla, Aleksander; Limbach, Christoph

    2004-07-01

    Polar organization and gravity-oriented, polarized growth of characean rhizoids are dependent on the actin cytoskeleton. In this report, we demonstrate that the prominent center of the Spitzenkörper serves as the apical actin polymerization site in the extending tip. After cytochalasin D-induced disruption of the actin cytoskeleton, the regeneration of actin microfilaments (MFs) starts with the reappearance of a flat, brightly fluorescing actin array in the outermost tip. The actin array rounds up, produces actin MFs that radiate in all directions and is then relocated into its original central position in the center of the Spitzenkörper. The emerging actin MFs rearrange and cross-link to form the delicate, subapical meshwork, which then controls the statolith positioning, re-establishes the tip-high calcium gradient and mediates the reorganization of the Spitzenkörper with its central ER aggregate and the accumulation of secretory vesicles. Tip growth and gravitropic sensing, which includes control of statolith positioning and gravity-induced sedimentation, are not resumed until the original polar actin organization is completely restored. Immunolocalization of the actin-binding proteins, actin-depolymerizing factor (ADF) and profilin, which both accumulate in the center of the Spitzenkörper, indicates high actin turnover and gives additional support for the actin-polymerizing function of this central, apical area. Association of villin immunofluorescence with two populations of thick undulating actin cables with uniform polarity underlying rotational cytoplasmic streaming in the basal region suggests that villin is the major actin-bundling protein in rhizoids. Our results provide evidence that the precise coordination of apical actin polymerization and dynamic remodeling of actin MFs by actin-binding proteins play a fundamental role in cell polarization, gravity sensing and gravity-oriented polarized growth of characean rhizoids.

  15. Differential effects of caldesmon on the intermediate conformational states of polymerizing actin.

    PubMed

    Huang, Renjian; Grabarek, Zenon; Wang, Chih-Lueh Albert

    2010-01-01

    The actin-binding protein caldesmon (CaD) reversibly inhibits smooth muscle contraction. In non-muscle cells, a shorter CaD isoform co-exists with microfilaments in the stress fibers at the quiescent state, but the phosphorylated CaD is found at the leading edge of migrating cells where dynamic actin filament remodeling occurs. We have studied the effect of a C-terminal fragment of CaD (H32K) on the kinetics of the in vitro actin polymerization by monitoring the fluorescence of pyrene-labeled actin. Addition of H32K or its phosphorylated form either attenuated or accelerated the pyrene emission enhancement, depending on whether it was added at the early or the late phase of actin polymerization. However, the CaD fragment had no effect on the yield of sedimentable actin, nor did it affect the actin ATPase activity. Our findings can be explained by a model in which nascent actin filaments undergo a maturation process that involves at least two intermediate conformational states. If present at early stages of actin polymerization, CaD stabilizes one of the intermediate states and blocks the subsequent filament maturation. Addition of CaD at a later phase accelerates F-actin formation. The fact that CaD is capable of inhibiting actin filament maturation provides a novel function for CaD and suggests an active role in the dynamic reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton.

  16. Mechanical force-induced polymerization and depolymerization of F-actin at water/solid interfaces.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xueqiang; Hu, Xiuyuan; Lei, Haozhi; Hu, Jun; Zhang, Yi

    2016-03-21

    Actin molecules are among the three main cytoskeleton proteins of cells and undergo rapid cycling to regulate critical processes such as endocytosis, cytokinesis, cell polarity, and cell morphogenesis. Although extensive studies have been carried out on the dynamics as well as biological functions of actin polymerization and depolymerization both in vivo and in vitro, the molecular mechanisms by which cells sense and respond to mechanical signals are not fully understood. In particular, little attention has been paid to the effect of a physical force that is exerted directly on the actin cytoskeleton. In this paper, we have explored how the mechanical force affects the actin polymerization and depolymerization behaviors at water/solid interfaces using an atomic force microscope (AFM) operated in liquid. By raster scanning an AFM probe on a substrate surface with a certain load, it was found that actin monomers could polymerize into filaments without the help of actin related proteins (ARPs). Further study indicated that actin monomers were inclined to form filaments only under a small scanning load. The polymerized actin filaments would be depolymerized when the mechanical force was stronger. A possible mechanism has been suggested to explain the mechanical force induced actin polymerization.

  17. Shwachman-Diamond syndrome neutrophils have altered chemoattractant-induced F-actin polymerization and polarization characteristics.

    PubMed

    Orelio, Claudia; Kuijpers, Taco W

    2009-03-01

    Shwachman-Diamond syndrome is a hereditary disorder characterized by pancreatic insufficiency and bone marrow failure. Most Shwachman-Diamond syndrome patients have mutations in the SBDS gene located at chromosome 7 and suffer from recurrent infections, due to neutropenia in combination with impaired neutrophil chemotaxis. Currently, the role of the actin cytoskeleton in Shwachman-Diamond syndrome neutrophils has not been investigated. Therefore, we performed immunofluorescence for SBDS and F-actin on human neutrophilic cells. Additionally, we examined in control neutrophils and cells from genetically defined Shwachman-Diamond syndrome patients F-actin polymerization and cytoskeletal polarization characteristics upon chemoattractant stimulation. These studies showed that SBDS and F-actin co-localize in neutrophilic cells and that F-actin polymerization and depolymerization characteristics are altered in Shwachman-Diamond syndrome neutrophils as compared to control neutrophils in response to both fMLP and C5a. Moreover, F-actin cytoskeletal polarization is delayed in Shwachman-Diamond syndrome neutrophils. Thus, Shwachman-Diamond syndrome neutrophils have aberrant chemoattractant-induced F-actin properties which might contribute to the impaired neutrophil chemotaxis.

  18. ERK reinforces actin polymerization to power persistent edge protrusion during motility.

    PubMed

    Mendoza, Michelle C; Vilela, Marco; Juarez, Jesus E; Blenis, John; Danuser, Gaudenz

    2015-05-19

    Cells move through perpetual protrusion and retraction cycles at the leading edge. These cycles are coordinated with substrate adhesion and retraction of the cell rear. We tracked spatial and temporal fluctuations in the molecular activities of individual moving cells to elucidate how extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signaling controlled the dynamics of protrusion and retraction cycles. ERK is activated by many cell surface receptors, and we found that ERK signaling specifically reinforced cellular protrusions so that they translated into rapid, sustained forward motion of the leading edge. Using quantitative fluorescent speckle microscopy and cross-correlation analysis, we showed that ERK controlled the rate and timing of actin polymerization by promoting the recruitment of the actin nucleator Arp2/3 to the leading edge. These findings support a model in which surges in ERK activity induced by extracellular cues enhance Arp2/3-mediated actin polymerization to generate protrusion power phases with enough force to counteract increasing membrane tension and to promote sustained motility.

  19. The Formin Diaphanous Regulates Myoblast Fusion through Actin Polymerization and Arp2/3 Regulation.

    PubMed

    Deng, Su; Bothe, Ingo; Baylies, Mary K

    2015-08-01

    The formation of multinucleated muscle cells through cell-cell fusion is a conserved process from fruit flies to humans. Numerous studies have shown the importance of Arp2/3, its regulators, and branched actin for the formation of an actin structure, the F-actin focus, at the fusion site. This F-actin focus forms the core of an invasive podosome-like structure that is required for myoblast fusion. In this study, we find that the formin Diaphanous (Dia), which nucleates and facilitates the elongation of actin filaments, is essential for Drosophila myoblast fusion. Following cell recognition and adhesion, Dia is enriched at the myoblast fusion site, concomitant with, and having the same dynamics as, the F-actin focus. Through analysis of Dia loss-of-function conditions using mutant alleles but particularly a dominant negative Dia transgene, we demonstrate that reduction in Dia activity in myoblasts leads to a fusion block. Significantly, no actin focus is detected, and neither branched actin regulators, SCAR or WASp, accumulate at the fusion site when Dia levels are reduced. Expression of constitutively active Dia also causes a fusion block that is associated with an increase in highly dynamic filopodia, altered actin turnover rates and F-actin distribution, and mislocalization of SCAR and WASp at the fusion site. Together our data indicate that Dia plays two roles during invasive podosome formation at the fusion site: it dictates the level of linear F-actin polymerization, and it is required for appropriate branched actin polymerization via localization of SCAR and WASp. These studies provide new insight to the mechanisms of cell-cell fusion, the relationship between different regulators of actin polymerization, and invasive podosome formation that occurs in normal development and in disease.

  20. Cooperative symmetry-breaking by actin polymerization in a model for cell motility.

    PubMed

    van Oudenaarden, A; Theriot, J A

    1999-12-01

    Polymerizing networks of actin filaments are capable of exerting significant mechanical forces, used by eukaryotic cells and their prokaryotic pathogens to change shape or to move. Here we show that small beads coated uniformly with a protein that catalyses actin polymerization are initially surrounded by symmetrical clouds of actin filaments. This symmetry is broken spontaneously, after which the beads undergo directional motion. We have developed a stochastic theory, in which each actin filament is modelled as an elastic brownian ratchet, that quantitatively accounts for the observed emergent symmetry-breaking behaviour. Symmetry-breaking can only occur for polymers that have a significant subunit off-rate, such as the biopolymers actin and tubulin.

  1. Engineering an artificial amoeba propelled by nanoparticle-triggered actin polymerization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, Jinsoo; Schmidt, Jacob; Chien, Aichi; Montemagno, Carlo D.

    2009-02-01

    We have engineered an amoeba system combining nanofabricated inorganic materials with biological components, capable of propelling itself via actin polymerization. The nanofabricated materials have a mechanism similar to the locomotion of the Listeria monocytogenes, food poisoning bacteria. The propulsive force generation utilizes nanoparticles made from nickel and gold functionalized with the Listeria monocytogenes transmembrane protein, ActA. These Listeria-mimic nanoparticles were in concert with actin, actin binding proteins, ATP (adenosine triphosphate) and encapsulated within a lipid vesicle. This system is an artificial cell, such as a vesicle, where artificial nanobacteria and actin polymerization machinery are used in driving force generators inside the cell. The assembled structure was observed to crawl on a glass surface analogously to an amoeba, with the speed of the movement dependent on the amount of actin monomers and ATP present.

  2. A Steric Antagonism of Actin Polymerization by a Salmonella Virulence Protein

    SciTech Connect

    Margarit,S.; Davidson, W.; Frego, L.; Stebbins, F.

    2006-01-01

    Salmonella spp. require the ADP-ribosyltransferase activity of the SpvB protein for intracellular growth and systemic virulence. SpvB covalently modifies actin, causing cytoskeletal disruption and apoptosis. We report here the crystal structure of the catalytic domain of SpvB, and we show by mass spectrometric analysis that SpvB modifies actin at Arg177, inhibiting its ATPase activity. We also describe two crystal structures of SpvB-modified, polymerization-deficient actin. These structures reveal that ADP-ribosylation does not lead to dramatic conformational changes in actin, suggesting a model in which this large family of toxins inhibits actin polymerization primarily through steric disruption of intrafilament contacts.

  3. Engineering an artificial amoeba propelled by nanoparticle-triggered actin polymerization.

    PubMed

    Yi, Jinsoo; Schmidt, Jacob; Chien, Aichi; Montemagno, Carlo D

    2009-02-25

    We have engineered an amoeba system combining nanofabricated inorganic materials with biological components, capable of propelling itself via actin polymerization. The nanofabricated materials have a mechanism similar to the locomotion of the Listeria monocytogenes, food poisoning bacteria. The propulsive force generation utilizes nanoparticles made from nickel and gold functionalized with the Listeria monocytogenes transmembrane protein, ActA. These Listeria-mimic nanoparticles were in concert with actin, actin binding proteins, ATP (adenosine triphosphate) and encapsulated within a lipid vesicle. This system is an artificial cell, such as a vesicle, where artificial nanobacteria and actin polymerization machinery are used in driving force generators inside the cell. The assembled structure was observed to crawl on a glass surface analogously to an amoeba, with the speed of the movement dependent on the amount of actin monomers and ATP present. PMID:19417437

  4. Rapid polymerization of Entamoeba histolytica actin induced by interaction with target cells.

    PubMed

    Bailey, G B; Day, D B; Gasque, J W

    1985-08-01

    Within 5 s of challenge of Entamoeba histolytica trophozoites with red blood cells (RBC), attachment and deformation of target cells occurred at multiple sites on the amoeba surface. Many trophozoite-target interfaces were outlined with a ring of polymerized amoeba actin, revealed by rhodamine-phalloidin staining of glutaraldehyde-fixed and Triton-X 100-extracted cells. The beginnings of phagocytic pseudopods rimmed many targets. The phagocytic membrane and underlying actin network grew uniformly about a target cell, which became dramatically elongated and constricted, sometimes severed, as it entered the amoeba. Total engulfment of RBC targets occurred within 10 s. By methanol extraction and spectrofluorimetric measurement of bound rhodamine-phalloidin we were able to quantitate polymerized actin in amoebae. Interaction with target cells was accompanied by a net increase of up to twofold in the average polymerized actin content of trophozoites. This reached a maximum during the period of most active phagocytosis (4 min after challenge at 25 degrees C), and declined as phagocytic activity diminished (8-16 min). Challenge with latex beads of similar size and number, which E. histolytica phagocytized more slowly than RBC, induced neither a detectable increase in polymerized actin content nor appearance of polymerized actin at the contact interface. RBC inhibited phagocytosis of latex beads, but the reverse did not occur. The results demonstrate a rapid, recognition-specific stimulation of reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton of E. histolytica induced by binding to target cells. Vigorous phagocytic activity is frequently an immediate consequence of cell-cell contact, which emphasizes the importance of this process in the contact-mediated attack mechanism of this pathogen. The quantitative assay of polymerized actin may be useful in further studies of this mechanism. PMID:2862217

  5. Actin polymerization driven by WASH causes V-ATPase retrieval and vesicle neutralization before exocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Carnell, Michael; Zech, Tobias; Calaminus, Simon D.; Ura, Seiji; Hagedorn, Monica; Johnston, Simon A.; May, Robin C.; Soldati, Thierry; Machesky, Laura M.

    2011-01-01

    WASP and SCAR homologue (WASH) is a recently identified and evolutionarily conserved regulator of actin polymerization. In this paper, we show that WASH coats mature Dictyostelium discoideum lysosomes and is essential for exocytosis of indigestible material. A related process, the expulsion of the lethal endosomal pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans from mammalian macrophages, also uses WASH-coated vesicles, and cells expressing dominant negative WASH mutants inefficiently expel C. neoformans. D. discoideum WASH causes filamentous actin (F-actin) patches to form on lysosomes, leading to the removal of vacuolar adenosine triphosphatase (V-ATPase) and the neutralization of lysosomes to form postlysosomes. Without WASH, no patches or coats are formed, neutral postlysosomes are not seen, and indigestible material such as dextran is not exocytosed. Similar results occur when actin polymerization is blocked with latrunculin. V-ATPases are known to bind avidly to F-actin. Our data imply a new mechanism, actin-mediated sorting, in which WASH and the Arp2/3 complex polymerize actin on vesicles to drive the separation and recycling of proteins such as the V-ATPase. PMID:21606208

  6. Mena–GRASP65 interaction couples actin polymerization to Golgi ribbon linking

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Danming; Zhang, Xiaoyan; Huang, Shijiao; Yuan, Hebao; Li, Jie; Wang, Yanzhuang

    2016-01-01

    In mammalian cells, the Golgi reassembly stacking protein 65 (GRASP65) has been implicated in both Golgi stacking and ribbon linking by forming trans-oligomers through the N-terminal GRASP domain. Because the GRASP domain is globular and relatively small, but the gaps between stacks are large and heterogeneous, it remains puzzling how GRASP65 physically links Golgi stacks into a ribbon. To explore the possibility that other proteins may help GRASP65 in ribbon linking, we used biochemical methods and identified the actin elongation factor Mena as a novel GRASP65-binding protein. Mena is recruited onto the Golgi membranes through interaction with GRASP65. Depleting Mena or disrupting actin polymerization resulted in Golgi fragmentation. In cells, Mena and actin were required for Golgi ribbon formation after nocodazole washout; in vitro, Mena and microfilaments enhanced GRASP65 oligomerization and Golgi membrane fusion. Thus Mena interacts with GRASP65 to promote local actin polymerization, which facilitates Golgi ribbon linking. PMID:26538023

  7. Actin-related protein 2/3 complex-based actin polymerization is critical for male fertility.

    PubMed

    Lee, J S; Kwon, W S; Rahman, M S; Yoon, S J; Park, Y J; Pang, M G

    2015-09-01

    The actin-related protein 2/3 (Arp2/3) complex is critical for regulation of actin polymerization, which is associated with sperm motility and capacitation status. However, the function of the Arp2/3 complex in male fertility has not yet been fully elucidated. Therefore, this study was designed to investigate the role of the Arp2/3 complex in different processes in spermatozoa and its consequences on fertilization and early embryonic development. In this in vitro study, mouse spermatozoa were incubated with different concentrations (10, 100, and 500 μm) of CK-636, an Arp2/3 complex antagonist. Our results demonstrated that inhibition of the Arp2/3 complex by high concentrations (100 and 500 μm) of CK-636 induced hyper-activated motility and acrosomal reaction, whereas intracellular calcium and tyrosine phosphorylation levels in spermatozoa were inhibited. Moreover, exposure of spermatozoa to the highest concentration of CK-636 reduced fertilization and embryo development. Interestingly, fertilization was significantly increased after treatment with 100 μm CK-636, whereas embryonic development was significantly decreased. Therefore, we conclude that the Arp2/3 complex plays a decisive role in regulation of sperm function and male fertility via actin polymerization. We anticipate that the Arp2/3 complex may have clinical application as marker for male fertility and male contraceptive targeting.

  8. Wound closure in the lamellipodia of single cells: mediation by actin polymerization in the absence of an actomyosin purse string.

    PubMed

    Henson, John H; Nazarian, Ronniel; Schulberg, Katrina L; Trabosh, Valerie A; Kolnik, Sarah E; Burns, Andrew R; McPartland, Kenneth J

    2002-03-01

    The actomyosin purse string is an evolutionarily conserved contractile structure that is involved in cytokinesis, morphogenesis, and wound healing. Recent studies suggested that an actomyosin purse string is crucial for the closure of wounds in single cells. In the present study, morphological and pharmacological methods were used to investigate the role of this structure in the closure of wounds in the peripheral cytoplasm of sea urchin coelomocytes. These discoidal shaped cells underwent a dramatic form of actin-based centripetal/retrograde flow and occasionally opened and closed spontaneous wounds in their lamellipodia. Fluorescent phalloidin staining indicated that a well defined fringe of actin filaments assembles from the margin of these holes, and drug studies with cytochalasin D and latrunculin A indicated that actin polymerization is required for wound closure. Additional evidence that actin polymerization is involved in wound closure was provided by the localization of components of the Arp2/3 complex to the wound margin. Significantly, myosin II immunolocalization demonstrated that it is not associated with wound margins despite being present in the perinuclear region. Pharmacological evidence for the lack of myosin II involvement in wound closure comes from experiments in which a microneedle was used to produce wounds in cells in which actomyosin contraction was inhibited by treatment with kinase inhibitors. Wounds produced in kinase inhibitor-treated cells closed in a manner similar to that seen with control cells. Taken together, our results suggest that an actomyosin purse string mechanism is not responsible for the closure of lamellar wounds in coelomocytes. We hypothesize that the wounds heal by means of a combination of the force produced by actin polymerization alone and centripetal flow. Interestingly, these cells did assemble an actomyosin structure around the margin of phagosome-like membrane invaginations, indicating that myosin is not simply

  9. Waves of actin and microtubule polymerization drive microtubule-based transport and neurite growth before single axon formation

    PubMed Central

    Winans, Amy M; Collins, Sean R; Meyer, Tobias

    2016-01-01

    Many developing neurons transition through a multi-polar state with many competing neurites before assuming a unipolar state with one axon and multiple dendrites. Hallmarks of the multi-polar state are large fluctuations in microtubule-based transport into and outgrowth of different neurites, although what drives these fluctuations remains elusive. We show that actin waves, which stochastically migrate from the cell body towards neurite tips, direct microtubule-based transport during the multi-polar state. Our data argue for a mechanical control system whereby actin waves transiently widen the neurite shaft to allow increased microtubule polymerization to direct Kinesin-based transport and create bursts of neurite extension. Actin waves also require microtubule polymerization, arguing that positive feedback links these two components. We propose that actin waves create large stochastic fluctuations in microtubule-based transport and neurite outgrowth, promoting competition between neurites as they explore the environment until sufficient external cues can direct one to become the axon. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.12387.001 PMID:26836307

  10. Fz2 and Cdc42 Mediate Melanization and Actin Polymerization but Are Dispensable for Plasmodium Killing in the Mosquito Midgut

    PubMed Central

    Zachary, Daniel; Hoffmann, Jules A; Levashina, Elena A

    2006-01-01

    The midgut epithelium of the mosquito malaria vector Anopheles is a hostile environment for Plasmodium, with most parasites succumbing to host defenses. This study addresses morphological and ultrastructural features associated with Plasmodium berghei ookinete invasion in Anopheles gambiae midguts to define the sites and possible mechanisms of parasite killing. We show by transmission electron microscopy and immunofluorescence that the majority of ookinetes are killed in the extracellular space. Dead or dying ookinetes are surrounded by a polymerized actin zone formed within the basal cytoplasm of adjacent host epithelial cells. In refractory strain mosquitoes, we found that formation of this zone is strongly linked to prophenoloxidase activation leading to melanization. Furthermore, we identify two factors controlling both phenomena: the transmembrane receptor frizzled-2 and the guanosine triphosphate–binding protein cell division cycle 42. However, the disruption of actin polymerization and melanization by double-stranded RNA inhibition did not affect ookinete survival. Our results separate the mechanisms of parasite killing from subsequent reactions manifested by actin polymerization and prophenoloxidase activation in the A. gambiae–P. berghei model. These latter processes are reminiscent of wound healing in other organisms, and we propose that they represent a form of wound-healing response directed towards a moribund ookinete, which is perceived as damaged tissue. PMID:17196037

  11. Real-Time Measurements of Actin Filament Polymerization by Total Internal Reflection Fluorescence Microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Kuhn, Jeffrey R.; Pollard, Thomas D.

    2005-01-01

    Understanding the mechanism of actin polymerization and its regulation by associated proteins requires an assay to monitor polymerization dynamics and filament topology simultaneously. The only assay meeting these criteria is total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy (Amann and Pollard, 2001; Fujiwara et al., 2002). The fluorescence signal is fourfold stronger with actin labeled on Cys-374 with Oregon green rather than rhodamine. To distinguish growth at barbed and pointed ends we used image drift correction and maximum intensity projections to reveal points where single N-ethylmaleimide inactivated myosins attach filaments to the glass coverslip. We estimated association rates at high actin concentrations and dissociation rates near and below the critical actin concentration. At the barbed end, the association rate constant for Mg-ATP-actin is 7.4 μM−1 s−1 and the dissociation rate constant is 0.89 s−1. At the pointed end the association and dissociation rate constants are 0.56 μM−1 s−1 and 0.19 s−1. When vitamin D binding protein sequesters all free monomers, ADP-actin dissociates from barbed ends at 1.4 s−1 and from pointed ends at 0.16 s−1 regardless of buffer nucleotide. PMID:15556992

  12. Changes in molar volume and heat capacity of actin upon polymerization.

    PubMed Central

    Quirion, F; Gicquaud, C

    1993-01-01

    We have used densimetry and microcalorimetry to measure the changes in molar volume and heat capacity of the actin molecule during Mg(2+)-induced polymerization. Molar volume is decreased by 720 ml/mol. This result is in contradiction with previous measurements by Ikkai and Ooi [(1966) Science 152, 1756-1757], and by Swezey and Somero [(1985) Biochemistry 24, 852-860]: both of these groups reported increases in actin volume during polymerization, of 391 ml/mol and 63 ml/mol respectively. We also observed a decrease in heat capacity of about 69.5 kJ.K-1.mol-1 during polymerization. This is in agreement with the concept of conformational fluctuation of proteins proposed by Lumry and Gregory [(1989) J.Mol. Liq. 42, 113-144]whereby either ligand binding by a protein or monomer-monomer interaction decreases the protein's conformational flexibility. PMID:8240275

  13. The actin cytoskeleton may control the polar distribution of an auxin transport protein

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muday, G. K.; Hu, S.; Brady, S. R.; Davies, E. (Principal Investigator)

    2000-01-01

    The gravitropic bending of plants has long been linked to the changes in the transport of the plant hormone auxin. To understand the mechanism by which gravity alters auxin movement, it is critical to know how polar auxin transport is initially established. In shoots, polar auxin transport is basipetal (i.e., from the shoot apex toward the base). It is driven by the basal localization of the auxin efflux carrier complex. One mechanism for localizing this efflux carrier complex to the basal membrane may be through attachment to the actin cytoskeleton. The efflux carrier protein complex is believed to consist of several polypeptides, including a regulatory subunit that binds auxin transport inhibitors, such as naphthylphthalamic acid (NPA). Several lines of experimentation have been used to determine if the NPA binding protein interacts with actin filaments. The NPA binding protein has been shown to partition with the actin cytoskeleton during detergent extraction. Agents that specifically alter the polymerization state of the actin cytoskeleton change the amount of NPA binding protein and actin recovered in these cytoskeletal pellets. Actin-affinity columns were prepared with polymers of actin purified from zucchini hypocotyl tissue. NPA binding activity was eluted in a single peak from the actin filament column. Cytochalasin D, which fragments the actin cytoskeleton, was shown to reduce polar auxin transport in zucchini hypocotyls. The interaction of the NPA binding protein with the actin cytoskeleton may localize it in one plane of the plasma membrane, and thereby control the polarity of auxin transport.

  14. Cytosolic pressure provides a propulsive force comparable to actin polymerization during lamellipod protrusion

    PubMed Central

    Manoussaki, Daphne; Shin, William D.; Waterman, Clare M.; Chadwick, Richard S.

    2015-01-01

    Does cytosolic pressure facilitate f-actin polymerization to push the leading edge of a cell forward during self-propelled motion? AFM force-distance (f-d) curves obtained from lamellipodia of live cells often exhibit a signal from which the tension, bending modulus, elastic modulus and thickness in the membrane-cortex complex can be estimated close to the contact point. These measurements permit an estimate of the cytosolic pressure via the canonical Laplace force balance. The deeper portion of the f-d curve allows estimation of the bulk modulus of the cytoskeleton after removal of the bottom effect artifact. These estimates of tension, pressure, cortex thickness and elastic moduli imply that cytosolic pressure both pushes the membrane forward and compresses the actin cortex rearward to facilitate f-actin polymerization. We also estimate that cytosolic pressure fluctuations, most likely induced by myosin, provide a propulsive force comparable to that provided by f-actin polymerization in a lamellipod. PMID:26197304

  15. Genghis Khan (Gek) as a putative effector for Drosophila Cdc42 and regulator of actin polymerization.

    PubMed

    Luo, L; Lee, T; Tsai, L; Tang, G; Jan, L Y; Jan, Y N

    1997-11-25

    The small GTPases Cdc42 and Rac regulate a variety of biological processes, including actin polymerization, cell proliferation, and JNK/mitogen-activated protein kinase activation, conceivably via distinct effectors. Whereas the effector for mitogen-activated protein kinase activation appears to be p65PAK, the identity of effector(s) for actin polymerization remains unclear. We have found a putative effector for Drosophila Cdc42, Genghis Khan (Gek), which binds to Dcdc42 in a GTP-dependent and effector domain-dependent manner. Gek contains a predicted serine/threonine kinase catalytic domain that is 63% identical to human myotonic dystrophy protein kinase and has protein kinase activities. It also possesses a large coiled-coil domain, a putative phorbol ester binding domain, a pleckstrin homology domain, and a Cdc42 binding consensus sequence that is required for its binding to Dcdc42. To study the in vivo function of gek, we generated mutations in the Drosophila gek locus. Egg chambers homozygous for gek mutations exhibit abnormal accumulation of F-actin and are defective in producing fertilized eggs. These phenotypes can be rescued by a wild-type gek transgene. Our results suggest that this multidomain protein kinase is an effector for the regulation of actin polymerization by Cdc42.

  16. Focal adhesion kinase is required for actin polymerization and remodeling of the cytoskeleton during sperm capacitation

    PubMed Central

    Roa-Espitia, Ana L.; Hernández-Rendón, Eva R.; Baltiérrez-Hoyos, Rafael; Muñoz-Gotera, Rafaela J.; Cote-Vélez, Antonieta; Jiménez, Irma; González-Márquez, Humberto

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Several focal adhesion proteins are known to cooperate with integrins to link the extracellular matrix to the actin cytoskeleton; as a result, many intracellular signaling pathways are activated and several focal adhesion complexes are formed. However, how these proteins function in mammalian spermatozoa remains unknown. We confirm the presence of focal adhesion proteins in guinea pig spermatozoa, and we explore their role during capacitation and the acrosome reaction, and their relationship with the actin cytoskeleton. Our results suggest the presence of a focal adhesion complex formed by β1-integrin, focal adhesion kinase (FAK), paxillin, vinculin, talin, and α-actinin in the acrosomal region. Inhibition of FAK during capacitation affected the protein tyrosine phosphorylation associated with capacitation that occurs within the first few minutes of capacitation, which caused the acrosome reaction to become increasingly Ca2+ dependent and inhibited the polymerization of actin. The integration of vinculin and talin into the complex, and the activation of FAK and paxillin during capacitation, suggests that the complex assembles at this time. We identify that vinculin and α-actinin increase their interaction with F-actin while it remodels during capacitation, and that during capacitation focal adhesion complexes are structured. FAK contributes to acrosome integrity, likely by regulating the polymerization and the remodeling of the actin cytoskeleton. PMID:27402964

  17. Focal adhesion kinase is required for actin polymerization and remodeling of the cytoskeleton during sperm capacitation.

    PubMed

    Roa-Espitia, Ana L; Hernández-Rendón, Eva R; Baltiérrez-Hoyos, Rafael; Muñoz-Gotera, Rafaela J; Cote-Vélez, Antonieta; Jiménez, Irma; González-Márquez, Humberto; Hernández-González, Enrique O

    2016-01-01

    Several focal adhesion proteins are known to cooperate with integrins to link the extracellular matrix to the actin cytoskeleton; as a result, many intracellular signaling pathways are activated and several focal adhesion complexes are formed. However, how these proteins function in mammalian spermatozoa remains unknown. We confirm the presence of focal adhesion proteins in guinea pig spermatozoa, and we explore their role during capacitation and the acrosome reaction, and their relationship with the actin cytoskeleton. Our results suggest the presence of a focal adhesion complex formed by β1-integrin, focal adhesion kinase (FAK), paxillin, vinculin, talin, and α-actinin in the acrosomal region. Inhibition of FAK during capacitation affected the protein tyrosine phosphorylation associated with capacitation that occurs within the first few minutes of capacitation, which caused the acrosome reaction to become increasingly Ca(2+) dependent and inhibited the polymerization of actin. The integration of vinculin and talin into the complex, and the activation of FAK and paxillin during capacitation, suggests that the complex assembles at this time. We identify that vinculin and α-actinin increase their interaction with F-actin while it remodels during capacitation, and that during capacitation focal adhesion complexes are structured. FAK contributes to acrosome integrity, likely by regulating the polymerization and the remodeling of the actin cytoskeleton. PMID:27402964

  18. Focal adhesion kinase is required for actin polymerization and remodeling of the cytoskeleton during sperm capacitation.

    PubMed

    Roa-Espitia, Ana L; Hernández-Rendón, Eva R; Baltiérrez-Hoyos, Rafael; Muñoz-Gotera, Rafaela J; Cote-Vélez, Antonieta; Jiménez, Irma; González-Márquez, Humberto; Hernández-González, Enrique O

    2016-09-15

    Several focal adhesion proteins are known to cooperate with integrins to link the extracellular matrix to the actin cytoskeleton; as a result, many intracellular signaling pathways are activated and several focal adhesion complexes are formed. However, how these proteins function in mammalian spermatozoa remains unknown. We confirm the presence of focal adhesion proteins in guinea pig spermatozoa, and we explore their role during capacitation and the acrosome reaction, and their relationship with the actin cytoskeleton. Our results suggest the presence of a focal adhesion complex formed by β1-integrin, focal adhesion kinase (FAK), paxillin, vinculin, talin, and α-actinin in the acrosomal region. Inhibition of FAK during capacitation affected the protein tyrosine phosphorylation associated with capacitation that occurs within the first few minutes of capacitation, which caused the acrosome reaction to become increasingly Ca(2+) dependent and inhibited the polymerization of actin. The integration of vinculin and talin into the complex, and the activation of FAK and paxillin during capacitation, suggests that the complex assembles at this time. We identify that vinculin and α-actinin increase their interaction with F-actin while it remodels during capacitation, and that during capacitation focal adhesion complexes are structured. FAK contributes to acrosome integrity, likely by regulating the polymerization and the remodeling of the actin cytoskeleton.

  19. Increased actin polymerization and stabilization interferes with neuronal function and survival in the AMPKγ mutant Loechrig.

    PubMed

    Cook, Mandy; Bolkan, Bonnie J; Kretzschmar, Doris

    2014-01-01

    loechrig (loe) mutant flies are characterized by progressive neuronal degeneration, behavioral deficits, and early death. The mutation is due to a P-element insertion in the gene for the γ-subunit of the trimeric AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) complex, whereby the insertion affects only one of several alternative transcripts encoding a unique neuronal isoform. AMPK is a cellular energy sensor that regulates a plethora of signaling pathways, including cholesterol and isoprenoid synthesis via its downstream target hydroxy-methylglutaryl (HMG)-CoA reductase. We recently showed that loe interferes with isoprenoid synthesis and increases the prenylation and thereby activation of RhoA. During development, RhoA plays an important role in neuronal outgrowth by activating a signaling cascade that regulates actin dynamics. Here we show that the effect of loe/AMPKγ on RhoA prenylation leads to a hyperactivation of this signaling pathway, causing increased phosphorylation of the actin depolymerizating factor cofilin and accumulation of filamentous actin. Furthermore, our results show that the resulting cytoskeletal changes in loe interfere with neuronal growth and disrupt axonal integrity. Surprisingly, these phenotypes were enhanced by expressing the Slingshot (SSH) phosphatase, which during development promotes actin depolymerization by dephosphorylating cofilin. However, our studies suggest that in the adult SSH promotes actin polymerization, supporting in vitro studies using human SSH1 that suggested that SSH can also stabilize and bundle filamentous actin. Together with the observed increase in SSH levels in the loe mutant, our experiments suggest that in mature neurons SSH may function as a stabilization factor for filamentous actin instead of promoting actin depolymerization.

  20. Pearling instability of membrane tubes driven by curved proteins and actin polymerization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jelerčič, U.; Gov, N. S.

    2015-12-01

    Membrane deformation inside living cells is crucial for the proper shaping of various intracellular organelles and is necessary during the fission/fusion processes that allow membrane recycling and transport (e.g. endocytosis). Proteins that induce membrane curvature play a key role in such processes, mostly by adsorbing to the membrane and forming a scaffold that deforms the membrane according to the curvature of the proteins. In this paper we explore the possibility of membrane tube destabilization through a pearling mechanism enabled by the combined effects of the adsorbed curved proteins and the actin polymerization that they recruit. The pearling instability can serve as the initiation for fission of the tube into vesicles. We find that adsorbed curved proteins are more likely to stabilize the tubes, while the actin polymerization can provide the additional constrictive force needed for the robust instability. We discuss the relevance of the theoretical results to in vivo and in vitro experiments.

  1. Guardians of the actin monomer.

    PubMed

    Xue, Bo; Robinson, Robert C

    2013-01-01

    Actin is a universal force provider in eukaryotic cells. Biological processes harness the pressure generated from actin polymerization through dictating the time, place and direction of filament growth. As such, polymerization is initiated and maintained via tightly controlled filament nucleation and elongation machineries. Biological systems integrate force into their activities through recruiting and activating these machineries. In order that actin function as a common force generating polymerization motor, cells must maintain a pool of active, polymerization-ready monomeric actin, and minimize extemporaneous polymerization. Maintenance of the active monomeric actin pool requires the recycling of actin filaments, through depolymerization, nucleotide exchange and reloading of the polymerization machineries, while the levels of monomers are constantly monitored and supplemented, when needed, via the access of a reserve pool of monomers and through gene expression. Throughout its monomeric life, actin needs to be protected against gratuitous nucleation events. Here, we review the proteins that act as custodians of monomeric actin. We estimate their levels on a tissue scale, and calculate the implied concentrations of each actin complex based on reported binding affinities. These estimations predict that monomeric actin is rarely, if ever, alone. Thus, the guardians keep the volatility of actin in check, so that its explosive power is only released in the controlled environments of the nucleation and polymerization machineries. PMID:24268205

  2. A Legionella effector modulates host cytoskeletal structure by inhibiting actin polymerization

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Zhenhua; Stephenson, Robert; Qiu, Jiazhang; Zheng, Shijun; Luo, Zhao-Qing

    2014-01-01

    Successful infection by the opportunistic pathogen Legionella pneumophila requires the collective activity of hundreds of virulence proteins delivered into the host cell by the Dot/Icm type IV secretion system. These virulence proteins, also called effectors modulate distinct host cellular processes to create a membrane-bound niche called the Legionella containing vacuole (LCV) supportive of bacterial growth. We found that Ceg14(Lpg0437), a Dot/Icm substrate is toxic to yeast and such toxicity can be alleviated by overexpression of profilin, a protein involved in cytoskeletal structure in eukaryotes. We further showed that mutations in profilin affect actin binding but not other functions such as interactions with poly-L-proline or phosphatidylinositol, abolish its suppressor activity. Consistent with the fact the profilin suppresses its toxicity, expression of Ceg14 but not its non-toxic mutants in yeast affects actin distribution and budding of daughter cells. Although Ceg14 does not detectably interact with profilin, it co-sediments with filamentous actin and inhibits actin polymerization, causing the accumulation of short actin filaments. These results reveal that multiple L. pneumophila effectors target components of the host cytoskeleton. PMID:24286927

  3. De novo actin polymerization is required for model Hirano body formation in Dictyostelium

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Yun; Shahid-Salles, Sonbol; Sherling, Dan; Fechheimer, Nathan; Iyer, Nathan; Wells, Lance; Fechheimer, Marcus

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Hirano bodies are eosinophilic, actin-rich inclusions found in autopsied brains in numerous neurodegenerative diseases. The mechanism of Hirano body formation is unknown. Mass spectrometry analysis was performed to identify proteins from partially purified model Hirano bodies from Dictyostelium. This analysis identified proteins primarily belonging to ribosomes, proteasomes, mitochondria and cytoskeleton. Profilin, Arp/2/3 and WASH identified by mass spectrometry were found to colocalise with model Hirano bodies. Due to their roles in actin regulation, we selected these proteins for further investigation. Inhibition of the Arp2/3 complex by CK666 prevented formation of model Hirano bodies. Since Arp2/3 activation occurs via the WASH or WAVE complex, we next investigated how these proteins affect Hirano body formation. Whereas model Hirano bodies could form in WASH-deficient cells, they failed to form in cells lacking HSPC300, a member of the WAVE complex. We identified other proteins required for Hirano body formation that include profilin and VASP, an actin nucleation factor. In the case of VASP, both its G- and F-actin binding domains were required for model Hirano body formation. Collectively, our results indicate that de novo actin polymerization is required to form model Hirano bodies. PMID:27215322

  4. The Arabidopsis Wave Complex: Mechanisms Of Localized Actin Polymerization And Growth

    SciTech Connect

    Daniel Szymanski

    2012-10-23

    The objective of this project was to discover the protein complexes and control mechanisms that determine the location of actin filament roadways in plant cells. Our work provided the first molecular description of protein complexes that are converted from inactive complexes to active actin filament nucleators in the cell. These discoveries provided a conceptual framework to control to roadways in plant cells that determine the location and delivery of plant metabolites and storage molecules that are relevant to the bioenergy economy.

  5. Early nucleation events in the polymerization of actin, probed by time-resolved small-angle x-ray scattering

    PubMed Central

    Oda, Toshiro; Aihara, Tomoki; Wakabayashi, Katsuzo

    2016-01-01

    Nucleators generating new F-actin filaments play important roles in cell activities. Detailed information concerning the events involved in nucleation of actin alone in vitro is fundamental to understanding these processes, but such information has been hard to come by. We addressed the early process of salt-induced polymerization of actin using the time-resolved synchrotron small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS). Actin molecules in low salt solution maintain a monomeric state by an electrostatic repulsive force between molecules. On mixing with salts, the repulsive force was rapidly screened, causing an immediate formation of many of non-polymerizable dimers. SAXS kinetic analysis revealed that tetramerization gives the highest energetic barrier to further polymerization, and the major nucleation is the formation of helical tetramers. Filaments start to grow rapidly with the formation of pentamers. These findings suggest an acceleration mechanism of actin assembly by a variety of nucleators in cells. PMID:27775032

  6. Correlation between ECM guidance and actin polymerization on osteogenic differentiation of human adipose-derived stem cells.

    PubMed

    Keller, Vivian; Deiwick, Andrea; Pflaum, Michael; Schlie-Wolter, Sabrina

    2016-10-01

    The correlation between extracellular matrix (ECM) components, cell shape, and stem cell guidance can shed light in understanding and mimicking the functionality of stem cell niches for various applications. This interplay on osteogenic guidance of human adipose-derived stem cells (hASCs) was focus of this study. Proliferation and osteogenic markers like alkaline phosphatase activity and calcium mineralization were slightly increased by the ECM components laminin (LA), collagen I (COL), and fibronectin (FIB); with control medium no differentiation occurred. ECM guided differentiation was rather dependent on osterix than on Runx2 pathway. FIB significantly enhanced cell elongation even in presence of actin polymerization blockers cytochalasin D (CytoD) and ROCK inhibitor Y-27632, which generally caused more rounded cells. Except for the COL surface, both inhibitors increased the extent of osterix, while the Runx2 pathway was more sensitive to the culture condition. Both inhibitors did not affect hASC proliferation. CytoD enabled osteogenic differentiation independently from the ECM, while it was rather blocked via Y-27632 treatment; on FIB the general highest extent of differentiation occurred. Taken together, the ECM effect on hASCs occurs indirectly and selectively via a dominant role of FIB: it sustains osteogenic differentiation in case of a tension-dependent control of actin polymerization. PMID:27590529

  7. Shape control of lipid bilayer membranes by confined actin bundles.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Feng-Ching; Koenderink, Gijsje Hendrika

    2015-12-01

    In living cells, lipid membranes and biopolymers determine each other's conformation in a delicate force balance. Cellular polymers such as actin filaments are strongly confined by the plasma membrane in cell protrusions such as lamellipodia and filopodia. Conversely, protrusion formation is facilitated by actin-driven membrane deformation and these protrusions are maintained by dense actin networks or bundles of actin filaments. Here we investigate the mechanical interplay between actin bundles and lipid bilayer membranes by reconstituting a minimal model system based on cell-sized liposomes with encapsulated actin filaments bundled by fascin. To address the competition between the deformability of the membrane and the enclosed actin bundles, we tune the bundle stiffness (through the fascin-to-actin molar ratio) and the membrane rigidity (through protein decoration). Using confocal microscopy and quantitative image analysis, we show that actin bundles deform the liposomes into a rich set of morphologies. For liposomes having a small membrane bending rigidity, the actin bundles tend to generate finger-like membrane protrusions that resemble cellular filopodia. Stiffer bundles formed at high crosslink density stay straight in the liposome body, whereas softer bundles formed at low crosslink density are bent and kinked. When the membrane has a large bending rigidity, membrane protrusions are suppressed. In this case, membrane enclosure forces the actin bundles to organize into cortical rings, to minimize the energy cost associated with filament bending. Our results highlight the importance of taking into account mechanical interactions between the actin cytoskeleton and the membrane to understand cell shape control.

  8. Vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein (VASP) regulates actin polymerization and contraction in airway smooth muscle by a vinculin-dependent mechanism.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yidi; Gunst, Susan J

    2015-05-01

    Vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein (VASP) can catalyze actin polymerization by elongating actin filaments. The elongation mechanism involves VASP oligomerization and its binding to profilin, a G-actin chaperone. Actin polymerization is required for tension generation during the contraction of airway smooth muscle (ASM); however, the role of VASP in regulating actin dynamics in ASM is not known. We stimulated ASM cells and tissues with the contractile agonist acetylcholine (ACh) or the adenylyl cyclase activator, forskolin (FSK), a dilatory agent. ACh and FSK stimulated VASP Ser(157) phosphorylation by different kinases. Inhibition of VASP Ser(157) phosphorylation by expression of the mutant VASP S157A in ASM tissues suppressed VASP phosphorylation and membrane localization in response to ACh, and also inhibited contraction and actin polymerization. ACh but not FSK triggered the formation of VASP-VASP complexes as well as VASP-vinculin and VASP-profilin complexes at membrane sites. VASP-VASP complex formation and the interaction of VASP with vinculin and profilin were inhibited by expression of the inactive vinculin mutant, vinculin Y1065F, but VASP phosphorylation and membrane localization were unaffected. We conclude that VASP phosphorylation at Ser(157) mediates its localization at the membrane, but that VASP Ser(157) phosphorylation and membrane localization are not sufficient to activate its actin catalytic activity. The interaction of VASP with activated vinculin at membrane adhesion sites is a necessary prerequisite for VASP-mediated molecular processes necessary for actin polymerization. Our results show that VASP is a critical regulator of actin dynamics and tension generation during the contractile activation of ASM.

  9. Macromolecular crowding gives rise to microviscosity, anomalous diffusion and accelerated actin polymerization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rashid, Rafi; Chee, Stella Min Ling; Raghunath, Michael; Wohland, Thorsten

    2015-05-01

    Macromolecular crowding (MMC) has been used in various in vitro experimental systems to mimic in vivo physiology. This is because the crowded cytoplasm of cells contains many different types of solutes dissolved in an aqueous medium. MMC in the extracellular microenvironment is involved in maintaining stem cells in their undifferentiated state (niche) as well as in aiding their differentiation after they have travelled to new locations outside the niche. MMC at physiologically relevant fractional volume occupancies (FVOs) significantly enhances the adipogenic differentiation of human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells during chemically induced adipogenesis. The mechanism by which MMC produces this enhancement is not entirely known. In the context of extracellular collagen deposition, we have recently reported the importance of optimizing the FVO while minimizing the bulk viscosity. Two opposing properties will determine the net rate of a biochemical reaction: the negative effect of bulk viscosity and the positive effect of the excluded volume, the latter being expressed by the FVO. In this study we have looked more closely at the effect of viscosity on reaction rates. We have used fluorimetry to measure the rate of actin polymerization and fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) to measure diffusion of various probes in solutions containing the crowder Ficoll at physiological concentrations. Similar to its effect on collagen, Ficoll enhanced the actin polymerization rate despite increasing the bulk viscosity. Our FCS measurements reveal a relatively minor component of anomalous diffusion. In addition, our measurements do suggest that microviscosity becomes relevant in a crowded environment. We ruled out bulk viscosity as a cause of the rate enhancement by performing the actin polymerization assay in glycerol. These opposite effects of Ficoll and glycerol led us to conclude that microviscosity becomes relevant at the length scale of the reacting

  10. Macromolecular crowding gives rise to microviscosity, anomalous diffusion and accelerated actin polymerization.

    PubMed

    Rashid, Rafi; Chee, Stella Min Ling; Raghunath, Michael; Wohland, Thorsten

    2015-04-30

    Macromolecular crowding (MMC) has been used in various in vitro experimental systems to mimic in vivo physiology. This is because the crowded cytoplasm of cells contains many different types of solutes dissolved in an aqueous medium. MMC in the extracellular microenvironment is involved in maintaining stem cells in their undifferentiated state (niche) as well as in aiding their differentiation after they have travelled to new locations outside the niche. MMC at physiologically relevant fractional volume occupancies (FVOs) significantly enhances the adipogenic differentiation of human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells during chemically induced adipogenesis. The mechanism by which MMC produces this enhancement is not entirely known. In the context of extracellular collagen deposition, we have recently reported the importance of optimizing the FVO while minimizing the bulk viscosity. Two opposing properties will determine the net rate of a biochemical reaction: the negative effect of bulk viscosity and the positive effect of the excluded volume, the latter being expressed by the FVO. In this study we have looked more closely at the effect of viscosity on reaction rates. We have used fluorimetry to measure the rate of actin polymerization and fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) to measure diffusion of various probes in solutions containing the crowder Ficoll at physiological concentrations. Similar to its effect on collagen, Ficoll enhanced the actin polymerization rate despite increasing the bulk viscosity. Our FCS measurements reveal a relatively minor component of anomalous diffusion. In addition, our measurements do suggest that microviscosity becomes relevant in a crowded environment. We ruled out bulk viscosity as a cause of the rate enhancement by performing the actin polymerization assay in glycerol. These opposite effects of Ficoll and glycerol led us to conclude that microviscosity becomes relevant at the length scale of the reacting

  11. Polymerization properties of the Thermotoga maritima actin MreB: roles of temperature, nucleotides, and ions.

    PubMed

    Bean, Greg J; Amann, Kurt J

    2008-01-15

    MreB is a bacterial orthologue of actin that affects cell shape, polarity, and chromosome segregation. Although a significant body of work has explored its cellular functions, we know very little about the biochemical behavior of MreB. We have cloned, overexpressed in Escherichia coli, and purified untagged MreB1 from Thermotoga maritima. We have characterized the conditions that regulate its monomer-to-polymer assembly reaction, the critical concentrations of that reaction, the manner in which MreB uses nucleotides, its stability, and the structure of the assembled polymer. MreB requires a bound purine nucleotide for polymerization and rapidly hydrolyzes it following assembly. MreB assembly contains two distinct components, one that does not require divalent cations and one that does, which may comprise the nucleation and elongation phases of assembly, respectively. MreB assembly is strongly favored by increasing temperature or protein concentration but inhibited differentially by high concentrations of monovalent salts. The polymerization rate increases and the bulk critical concentration decreases with increasing temperature, but in contrast to previous reports, MreB is capable of polymerizing across a broad range of temperatures. MreB polymers are shorter and stiffer and scatter more light than eukaryotic actin filaments. Due to rapid ATP hydrolysis and phosphate release, we suggest that most assembled MreB in cells is in the ADP-bound state. Because of only moderate differences between the ATP and ADP critical concentrations, treadmilling may occur, but we do not predict dynamic instability in cells. Because of the relatively low cellular concentration of MreB and the observed structural properties of the polymer, a single MreB assembly may exist in cells.

  12. Actin dynamics affect mitochondrial quality control and aging in budding yeast.

    PubMed

    Higuchi, Ryo; Vevea, Jason D; Swayne, Theresa C; Chojnowski, Robert; Hill, Vanessa; Boldogh, Istvan R; Pon, Liza A

    2013-12-01

    Actin cables of budding yeast are bundles of F-actin that extend from the bud tip or neck to the mother cell tip, serve as tracks for bidirectional cargo transport, and undergo continuous movement from buds toward mother cells [1]. This movement, retrograde actin cable flow (RACF), is similar to retrograde actin flow in lamellipodia, growth cones, immunological synapses, dendritic spines, and filopodia [2-5]. In all cases, actin flow is driven by the push of actin polymerization and assembly at the cell cortex, and myosin-driven pulling forces deeper within the cell [6-10]. Therefore, for movement and inheritance from mothers to buds, mitochondria must "swim upstream" against the opposing force of RACF [11]. We find that increasing RACF rates results in increased fitness of mitochondria inherited by buds and that the increase in mitochondrial fitness leads to extended replicative lifespan and increased cellular healthspan. The sirtuin SIR2 is required for normal RACF and mitochondrial fitness, and increasing RACF rates in sir2Δ cells increases mitochondrial fitness and cellular healthspan but does not affect replicative lifespan. These studies support the model that RACF serves as a filter for segregation of fit from less-fit mitochondria during inheritance, which controls cellular lifespan and healthspan. They also support a role for Sir2p in these processes.

  13. Detection of adenosine triphosphate through polymerization-induced aggregation of actin-conjugated gold/silver nanorods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, Yu-Ju; Shiang, Yen-Chun; Chen, Li-Yi; Hsu, Chia-Lun; Huang, Chih-Ching; Chang, Huan-Tsung

    2013-11-01

    We have developed a simple and selective nanosensor for the optical detection of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) using globular actin-conjugated gold/silver nanorods (G-actin-Au/Ag NRs). By simply mixing G-actin and Au/Ag NRs (length ˜56 nm and diameter ˜12 nm), G-actin-Au/Ag NRs were prepared which were stable in physiological solutions (25 mM Tris-HCl, 150 mM NaCl, 5.0 mM KCl, 3.0 mM MgCl2 and 1.0 mM CaCl2; pH 7.4). Introduction of ATP into the G-actin-Au/Ag NR solutions in the presence of excess G-actin induced the formation of filamentous actin-conjugated Au/Ag NR aggregates through ATP-induced polymerization of G-actin. When compared to G-actin-modified spherical Au nanoparticles having a size of 13 nm or 56 nm, G-actin-Au/Ag NRs provided better sensitivity for ATP, mainly because the longitudinal surface plasmon absorbance of the Au/Ag NR has a more sensitive response to aggregation. This G-actin-Au/Ag NR probe provided high sensitivity (limit of detection 25 nM) for ATP with remarkable selectivity (>10-fold) over other adenine nucleotides (adenosine, adenosine monophosphate and adenosine diphosphate) and nucleoside triphosphates (guanosine triphosphate, cytidine triphosphate and uridine triphosphate). It also allowed the determination of ATP concentrations in plasma samples without conducting tedious sample pretreatments; the only necessary step was simple dilution. Our experimental results are in good agreement with those obtained from a commercial luciferin-luciferase bioluminescence assay. Our simple, sensitive and selective approach appears to have a practical potential for the clinical diagnosis of diseases (e.g. cystic fibrosis) associated with changes in ATP concentrations.

  14. Electrically controlled polymeric gel actuators

    DOEpatents

    Adolf, D.B.; Shahinpoor, M.; Segalman, D.J.; Witkowski, W.R.

    1993-10-05

    Electrically controlled polymeric gel actuators or synthetic muscles are described capable of undergoing substantial expansion and contraction when subjected to changing pH environments, temperature, or solvent. The actuators employ compliant containers for the gels and their solvents. The gels employed may be cylindrical electromechanical gel fibers such as polyacrylamide fibers or a mixture of poly vinyl alcohol-polyacrylic acid arranged in a parallel aggregate and contained in an electrolytic solvent bath such as salt water. The invention includes smart, electrically activated devices exploiting this phenomenon. These devices are capable of being manipulated via active computer control as large displacement actuators for use in adaptive structure such as robots. 11 figures.

  15. Electrically controlled polymeric gel actuators

    DOEpatents

    Adolf, Douglas B.; Shahinpoor, Mohsen; Segalman, Daniel J.; Witkowski, Walter R.

    1993-01-01

    Electrically controlled polymeric gel actuators or synthetic muscles capable of undergoing substantial expansion and contraction when subjected to changing pH environments, temperature, or solvent. The actuators employ compliant containers for the gels and their solvents. The gels employed may be cylindrical electromechanical gel fibers such as polyacrylamide fibers or a mixture of poly vinyl alcohol-polyacrylic acid arranged in a parallel aggregate and contained in an electrolytic solvent bath such as salt water. The invention includes smart, electrically activated devices exploiting this phenomenon. These devices are capable of being manipulated via active computer control as large displacement actuators for use in adaptive structure such as robots.

  16. PLCβ3 mediates cortactin interaction with WAVE2 in MCP1-induced actin polymerization and cell migration

    PubMed Central

    Janjanam, Jagadeesh; Chandaka, Giri Kumar; Kotla, Sivareddy; Rao, Gadiparthi N.

    2015-01-01

    Monocyte chemotactic protein 1 (MCP1) stimulates vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) migration in vascular wall remodeling. However, the mechanisms underlying MCP1-induced VSMC migration have not been understood. Here we identify the signaling pathway associated with MCP1-induced human aortic smooth muscle cell (HASMC) migration. MCP1, a G protein–coupled receptor agonist, activates phosphorylation of cortactin on S405 and S418 residues in a time-dependent manner, and inhibition of its phosphorylation attenuates MCP1-induced HASMC G-actin polymerization, F-actin stress fiber formation, and migration. Cortactin phosphorylation on S405/S418 is found to be critical for its interaction with WAVE2, a member of the WASP family of cytoskeletal regulatory proteins required for cell migration. In addition, the MCP1-induced cortactin phosphorylation is dependent on PLCβ3-mediated PKCδ activation, and siRNA-mediated down-regulation of either of these molecules prevents cortactin interaction with WAVE2, affecting G-actin polymerization, F-actin stress fiber formation, and HASMC migration. Upstream, MCP1 activates CCR2 and Gαq/11 in a time-dependent manner, and down-regulation of their levels attenuates MCP1-induced PLCβ3 and PKCδ activation, cortactin phosphorylation, cortactin–WAVE2 interaction, G-actin polymerization, F-actin stress fiber formation, and HASMC migration. Together these findings demonstrate that phosphorylation of cortactin on S405 and S418 residues is required for its interaction with WAVE2 in MCP1-induced cytoskeleton remodeling, facilitating HASMC migration. PMID:26490115

  17. Formation and ingression of division furrow can progress under the inhibitory condition of actin polymerization in ciliate Tetrahymena pyriformis.

    PubMed

    Shimizu, Yuhta; Kushida, Yasuharu; Kiriyama, Shuhei; Nakano, Kentaro; Numata, Osamu

    2013-12-01

    In eukaryotic cells that multiply by binary fission, the interaction of actin filaments with myosin II in the contractile ring is widely recognized to generate force for membrane ingression into the cleavage furrow; however, the expression of myosin II is restricted in animals, yeast, fungi, and amoeba (collectively, unikonts). No corresponding motor protein capable of forming mini-filaments that could exert sufficient tension to cleave the cell body is found in bikonts, consisting of planta, algae, and most protozoa; however, cells in some bikont lineages multiply by binary fission, as do animal cells. Of these, the ciliate Tetrahymena is known to form an actin ring beneath the division furrow in cytokinesis. Here, we investigated the role of filamentous actin in the cytokinesis of Tetrahymena pyriformis by treating synchronized dividing cells with an actin-inhibiting drug, Latrunculin-A. Video microscopic observation of live cells undergoing cytokinesis was performed, and contrary to expectation, we found that initiation of furrow ingression and its progress are not suppressed under the inhibitory condition of actin polymerization in Tetrahymena cells. We suggest that an actin filament-independent mechanism of binary fission may have been acquired during the evolution in this organism.

  18. Formation and ingression of division furrow can progress under the inhibitory condition of actin polymerization in ciliate Tetrahymena pyriformis.

    PubMed

    Shimizu, Yuhta; Kushida, Yasuharu; Kiriyama, Shuhei; Nakano, Kentaro; Numata, Osamu

    2013-12-01

    In eukaryotic cells that multiply by binary fission, the interaction of actin filaments with myosin II in the contractile ring is widely recognized to generate force for membrane ingression into the cleavage furrow; however, the expression of myosin II is restricted in animals, yeast, fungi, and amoeba (collectively, unikonts). No corresponding motor protein capable of forming mini-filaments that could exert sufficient tension to cleave the cell body is found in bikonts, consisting of planta, algae, and most protozoa; however, cells in some bikont lineages multiply by binary fission, as do animal cells. Of these, the ciliate Tetrahymena is known to form an actin ring beneath the division furrow in cytokinesis. Here, we investigated the role of filamentous actin in the cytokinesis of Tetrahymena pyriformis by treating synchronized dividing cells with an actin-inhibiting drug, Latrunculin-A. Video microscopic observation of live cells undergoing cytokinesis was performed, and contrary to expectation, we found that initiation of furrow ingression and its progress are not suppressed under the inhibitory condition of actin polymerization in Tetrahymena cells. We suggest that an actin filament-independent mechanism of binary fission may have been acquired during the evolution in this organism. PMID:24328456

  19. Induction of megakaryocyte differentiation drives nuclear accumulation and transcriptional function of MKL1 via actin polymerization and RhoA activation

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Elenoe C.; Teixeira, Alexandra M.; Chen, Rachel C.; Wang, Lin; Gao, Yuan; Hahn, Katherine L.

    2013-01-01

    How components of the cytoskeleton regulate complex cellular responses is fundamental to understanding cellular function. Megakaryoblast leukemia 1 (MKL1), an activator of serum response factor (SRF) transcriptional activity, promotes muscle, neuron, and megakaryocyte differentiation. In muscle cells, where MKL1 subcellular localization is one mechanism by which cells control SRF activity, MKL1 translocation from the cytoplasm to the nucleus in response to actin polymerization is critical for its function as a transcriptional regulator. MKL1 localization is cell-type specific; it is predominantly cytoplasmic in unstimulated fibroblasts and some muscle cell types and is constitutively nuclear in neuronal cells. In the present study, we report that in megakaryocytes, subcellular localization and regulation of MKL1 is dependent on RhoA activity and actin organization. Induction of megakaryocytic differentiation of human erythroleukemia cells by 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate and primary megakaryocytes by thrombopoietin promotes MKL1 nuclear localization. This MKL1 localization is blocked by drugs inhibiting RhoA activity or actin polymerization. We also show that nuclear-localized MKL1 activates the transcription of SRF target genes. This report broadens our knowledge of the molecular mechanisms regulating megakaryocyte differentiation. PMID:23243284

  20. Actin Grips: Circular Actin-Rich Cytoskeletal Structures that Mediate the Wrapping of Polymeric Microfibers by Endothelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Desiree; Park, DoYoung; Anghelina, Mirela; Pecot, Thierry; Machiraju, Raghu; Xue, Ruipeng; Lannutti, John; Thomas, Jessica; Cole, Sara; Moldovan, Leni; Moldovan, Nicanor I.

    2015-01-01

    Interaction of endothelial-lineage cells with three-dimensional substrates was much less studied than that with flat culture surfaces. We investigated the in vitro attachment of both mature endothelial cells (ECs) and of less differentiated EC colony-forming cells to poly-e-capro-lactone (PCL) fibers with diameters in 5–20 μm range (‘scaffold microfibers’, SMFs). We found that notwithstanding the poor intrinsic adhesiveness to PCL, both cell types completely wrapped the SMFs after long-term cultivation, thus attaining a cylindrical morphology. In this system, both EC types grew vigorously for more than a week and became increasingly more differentiated, as shown by multiplexed gene expression. Three-dimensional reconstructions from multiphoton confocal microscopy images using custom software showed that the filamentous (F) actin bundles took a conspicuous ring-like organization around the SMFs. Unlike the classical F-actin-containing stress fibers, these rings were not associated with either focal adhesions or intermediate filaments. We also demonstrated that plasma membrane boundaries adjacent to these circular cytoskeletal structures were tightly yet dynamically apposed to the SMFs, for which reason we suggest to call them ‘actin grips’. In conclusion, we describe a particular form of F-actin assembly with relevance for cytoskeletal organization in response to biomaterials, for endothelial-specific cell behavior in vitro and in vivo, and for tissue engineering. PMID:25818446

  1. WIP Provides an Essential Link between Nck and N-WASP during Arp2/3-Dependent Actin Polymerization

    PubMed Central

    Donnelly, Sara K.; Weisswange, Ina; Zettl, Markus; Way, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Summary Nck links phosphotyrosine-based signaling to Arp2/3-dependent actin polymerization during many different cellular processes as well as actin-based motility of enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) [1, 2], vaccinia [3, 4], and other vertebrate poxviruses [5] by interacting with N-WASP/WASP [6, 7]. Nck also binds WASP-interacting protein (WIP) [8], which inhibits the ability of N-WASP to activate the Arp2/3 complex until it receives an appropriate signaling input [9, 10]. Using mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) lacking Nck, WIP, or N-WASP [3, 11, 12], we have investigated whether an interaction of Nck with both WIP and N-WASP is required for their recruitment to vaccinia during Arp2/3-dependent actin assembly. We find that WIP or its homolog WIRE is required for N-WASP recruitment and actin-based motility of the virus. WIP contains two Nck-binding sites and is recruited to the virus, bound to N-WASP, by interacting with the second SH3 domain of Nck. N-WASP also contains two Nck-binding sites, but its recruitment is dependent on its interaction with WIP rather than Nck. The first and third SH3 domains of Nck are not required to recruit the WIP:N-WASP complex but are essential to stimulate actin assembly. We have established that WIP acts as an essential link between Nck and N-WASP. Our observations provide important insights into the hierarchy and connections in one of the major cellular signaling networks stimulating Arp2/3 complex-dependent actin polymerization. PMID:23707428

  2. ACTG2 variants impair actin polymerization in sporadic Megacystis Microcolon Intestinal Hypoperistalsis Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Halim, Danny; Hofstra, Robert M W; Signorile, Luca; Verdijk, Rob M; van der Werf, Christine S; Sribudiani, Yunia; Brouwer, Rutger W W; van IJcken, Wilfred F J; Dahl, Niklas; Verheij, Joke B G M; Baumann, Clarisse; Kerner, John; van Bever, Yolande; Galjart, Niels; Wijnen, Rene M H; Tibboel, Dick; Burns, Alan J; Muller, Françoise; Brooks, Alice S; Alves, Maria M

    2016-02-01

    Megacystis Microcolon Intestinal Hypoperistalsis Syndrome (MMIHS) is a rare congenital disorder, in which heterozygous missense variants in the Enteric Smooth Muscle actin γ-2 (ACTG2) gene have been recently identified. To investigate the mechanism by which ACTG2 variants lead to MMIHS, we screened a cohort of eleven MMIHS patients, eight sporadic and three familial cases, and performed immunohistochemistry, molecular modeling and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, and in vitro assays. In all sporadic cases, a heterozygous missense variant in ACTG2 was identified. ACTG2 expression was detected in all intestinal layers where smooth muscle cells are present in different stages of human development. No histopathological abnormalities were found in the patients. Using molecular modeling and MD simulations, we predicted that ACTG2 variants lead to significant changes to the protein function. This was confirmed by in vitro studies, which showed that the identified variants not only impair ACTG2 polymerization, but also contribute to reduced cell contractility. Taken together, our results confirm the involvement of ACTG2 in sporadic MMIHS, and bring new insights to MMIHS pathogenesis. PMID:26647307

  3. alpha2-Adrenoceptor stimulation promotes actin polymerization and focal adhesion in 3T3F442A and BFC-1beta preadipocytes.

    PubMed

    Bétuing, S; Daviaud, D; Valet, P; Bouloumié, A; Lafontan, M; Saulnier-Blache, J S

    1996-12-01

    We previously demonstrated that in white fat cell precursors alpha2-adrenoceptor stimulation lead to the phosphorylation of p44 and p42 mitogen-activated protein kinases and an increase in cell number. Regulation of cell adhesion and cell cytoskeleton plays a crucial role in the control of cell growth by various growth factors. Here, we report that in mouse 3T3F442A preadipocytes expressing 2500 fmol/mg protein of the human alpha2C10-adrenoceptor (alpha2AF2 cells), alpha2-adrenergic stimulation rapidly restored the spreading of cells previously retracted by serum withdrawal. This effect was pertussis toxin sensitive and was blocked by pretreatment of the cells with dihydrocytochalasin B (a blocker of actin polymerization), genistein (a tyrosine kinase inhibitor), or agents that increase cell cAMP content. Spreading was accompanied by cell membrane ruffling, formation of lamelipodia and filipodia, appearance of focal adhesion plaques, and induction of actin stress fibers. alpha2-Adrenergic stimulation also lead to a rapid Gi- and actin-dependent tyrosine phosphorylation of the pp125 focal adhesion kinase (FAK) as well as of the p42 and p44 mitogen-activated protein kinases. alpha2-Adrenergic-dependent spreading and FAK and mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphorylation were also observed in 3T3F442A preadipocytes permanently expressing 20 fmol/mg protein of the human alpha2C10-adrenoceptor (alpha2AF3 cells) as well as in BFC-1beta preadipocytes, which constitutively express 25 fmol/mg protein of mouse alpha2A-adrenoceptors. In BFC-1beta preadipocytes, alpha2-adrenergic-dependent spreading and pp125FAK phosphorylation were counteracted by beta-adrenergic stimulation. Our results suggest that alpha2-adrenergic control of actin polymerization and focal adhesion assembly could play a crucial role in the regulation of preadipocyte growth by the sympathetic nervous system.

  4. Structural basis of thymosin-β4/profilin exchange leading to actin filament polymerization

    PubMed Central

    Xue, Bo; Leyrat, Cedric; Grimes, Jonathan M.; Robinson, Robert C.

    2014-01-01

    Thymosin-β4 (Tβ4) and profilin are the two major sequestering proteins that maintain the pool of monomeric actin (G-actin) within cells of higher eukaryotes. Tβ4 prevents G-actin from joining a filament, whereas profilin:actin only supports barbed-end elongation. Here, we report two Tβ4:actin structures. The first structure shows that Tβ4 has two helices that bind at the barbed and pointed faces of G-actin, preventing the incorporation of the bound G-actin into a filament. The second structure displays a more open nucleotide binding cleft on G-actin, which is typical of profilin:actin structures, with a concomitant disruption of the Tβ4 C-terminal helix interaction. These structures, combined with biochemical assays and molecular dynamics simulations, show that the exchange of bound actin between Tβ4 and profilin involves both steric and allosteric components. The sensitivity of profilin to the conformational state of actin indicates a similar allosteric mechanism for the dissociation of profilin during filament elongation. PMID:25313062

  5. Cortactin promotes exosome secretion by controlling branched actin dynamics.

    PubMed

    Sinha, Seema; Hoshino, Daisuke; Hong, Nan Hyung; Kirkbride, Kellye C; Grega-Larson, Nathan E; Seiki, Motoharu; Tyska, Matthew J; Weaver, Alissa M

    2016-07-18

    Exosomes are extracellular vesicles that influence cellular behavior and enhance cancer aggressiveness by carrying bioactive molecules. The mechanisms that regulate exosome secretion are poorly understood. Here, we show that the actin cytoskeletal regulatory protein cortactin promotes exosome secretion. Knockdown or overexpression of cortactin in cancer cells leads to a respective decrease or increase in exosome secretion, without altering exosome cargo content. Live-cell imaging revealed that cortactin controls both trafficking and plasma membrane docking of multivesicular late endosomes (MVEs). Regulation of exosome secretion by cortactin requires binding to the branched actin nucleating Arp2/3 complex and to actin filaments. Furthermore, cortactin, Rab27a, and coronin 1b coordinately control stability of cortical actin MVE docking sites and exosome secretion. Functionally, the addition of purified exosomes to cortactin-knockdown cells rescued defects of those cells in serum-independent growth and invasion. These data suggest a model in which cortactin promotes exosome secretion by stabilizing cortical actin-rich MVE docking sites. PMID:27402952

  6. High throughput fluorometric technique for assessment of macrophage phagocytosis and actin polymerization.

    PubMed

    Ninković, Jana; Roy, Sabita

    2014-01-01

    The goal of fluorometric analysis is to serve as an efficient, cost effective, high throughput method of analyzing phagocytosis and other cellular processes. This technique can be used on a variety of cell types, both adherent and non-adherent, to examine a variety of cellular properties. When studying phagocytosis, fluorometric technique utilizes phagocytic cell types such as macrophages, and fluorescently labeled opsonized particles whose fluorescence can be extinguished in the presence of trypan blue. Following plating of adherent macrophages in 96-well plates, fluorescent particles (green or red) are administered and cells are allowed to phagocytose for varied amounts of time. Following internalization of fluorescent particles, cells are washed with trypan blue, which facilitates extinction of fluorescent signal from bacteria which are not internalized, or are merely adhering to the cell surface. Following the trypan wash, cells are washed with PBS, fixed, and stained with DAPI (nuclear blue fluorescent label), which serves to label nuclei of cells. By a simple fluorometric quantification through plate reading of nuclear (blue) or particle (red/green) fluorescence we can examine the ratio of relative fluorescence units of green:blue and determine a phagocytic index indicative of amount of fluorescent bacteria internalized per cell. The duration of assay using a 96-well method and multichannel pipettes for washing, from end of phagocytosis to end of data acquisition, is less than 45 min. Flow cytometry could be used in a similar manner but the advantage of fluorometry is its high throughput, rapid method of assessment with minimal manipulation of samples and quick quantification of fluorescent intensity per cell. Similar strategies can be applied to non adherent cells, live labeled bacteria, actin polymerization, and essentially any process utilizing fluorescence. Therefore, fluorometry is a promising method for its low cost, high throughput capabilities in the

  7. High Throughput Fluorometric Technique for Assessment of Macrophage Phagocytosis and Actin Polymerization

    PubMed Central

    Ninković, Jana; Roy, Sabita

    2014-01-01

    The goal of fluorometric analysis is to serve as an efficient, cost effective, high throughput method of analyzing phagocytosis and other cellular processes. This technique can be used on a variety of cell types, both adherent and non-adherent, to examine a variety of cellular properties. When studying phagocytosis, fluorometric technique utilizes phagocytic cell types such as macrophages, and fluorescently labeled opsonized particles whose fluorescence can be extinguished in the presence of trypan blue. Following plating of adherent macrophages in 96-well plates, fluorescent particles (green or red) are administered and cells are allowed to phagocytose for varied amounts of time. Following internalization of fluorescent particles, cells are washed with trypan blue, which facilitates extinction of fluorescent signal from bacteria which are not internalized, or are merely adhering to the cell surface. Following the trypan wash, cells are washed with PBS, fixed, and stained with DAPI (nuclear blue fluorescent label), which serves to label nuclei of cells. By a simple fluorometric quantification through plate reading of nuclear (blue) or particle (red/green) fluorescence we can examine the ratio of relative fluorescence units of green:blue and determine a phagocytic index indicative of amount of fluorescent bacteria internalized per cell. The duration of assay using a 96-well method and multichannel pipettes for washing, from end of phagocytosis to end of data acquisition, is less than 45 min. Flow cytometry could be used in a similar manner but the advantage of fluorometry is its high throughput, rapid method of assessment with minimal manipulation of samples and quick quantification of fluorescent intensity per cell. Similar strategies can be applied to non adherent cells, live labeled bacteria, actin polymerization, and essentially any process utilizing fluorescence. Therefore, fluorometry is a promising method for its low cost, high throughput capabilities in the

  8. Caspase-11 and caspase-1 differentially modulate actin polymerization via RhoA and Slingshot proteins to promote bacterial clearance

    PubMed Central

    Caution, Kyle; Gavrilin, Mikhail A.; Tazi, Mia; Kanneganti, Apurva; Layman, Daniel; Hoque, Sheshadri; Krause, Kathrin; Amer, Amal O.

    2015-01-01

    Inflammasomes are multiprotein complexes that include members of the NOD-like receptor family and caspase-1. Caspase-1 is required for the fusion of the Legionella vacuole with lysosomes. Caspase-11, independently of the inflammasome, also promotes phagolysosomal fusion. However, it is unclear how these proteases alter intracellular trafficking. Here, we show that caspase-11 and caspase-1 function in opposing manners to phosphorylate and dephosphorylate cofilin, respectively upon infection with Legionella. Caspase-11 targets cofilin via the RhoA GTPase, whereas caspase-1 engages the Slingshot phosphatase. The absence of either caspase-11 or caspase-1 maintains actin in the polymerized or depolymerized form, respectively and averts the fusion of pathogen-containing vacuoles with lysosomes. Therefore, caspase-11 and caspase-1 converge on the actin machinery with opposing effects to promote vesicular trafficking. PMID:26686473

  9. Ampakines promote spine actin polymerization, long-term potentiation, and learning in a mouse model of Angelman Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Baudry, Michel; Kramar, Eniko; Xu, Xiaobo; Zadran, Homera; Moreno, Stephanie; Lynch, Gary; Gall, Christine; Bi, Xiaoning

    2012-01-01

    Angelman syndrome (AS) is a neurodevelopmental disorder largely due to abnormal maternal expression of the UBE3A gene leading to the deletion of E6-associated protein. AS subjects have severe cognitive impairments for which there are no therapeutic interventions. Mouse models (knockouts of the maternal Ube3a gene: ‘AS mice’) of the disorder have substantial deficits in long-term potentiation (LTP) and learning. Here we report a clinically plausible pharmacological treatment that ameliorates both deficits. AS mice were injected ip twice daily for 5 days with vehicle or the ampakine CX929; drugs of this type enhance fast EPSCs by positively modulating AMPA receptors. Theta burst stimulation (TBS) produced a normal enhancement of field EPSPs in hippocampal slices prepared from vehicle-treated AS mice but LTP decreased steadily to baseline; however, LTP in slices from ampakine-treated AS mice stabilized at levels found in wild-type controls. TBS-induced actin polymerization within dendritic spines, an essential event for stabilizing LTP, was severely impaired in slices from vehicle-treated AS mice but not in those from ampakine-treated AS mice. Long-term memory scores in a fear conditioning paradigm were reduced by 50% in vehicle-treated AS mice but were comparable to values for littermate controls in the ampakine-treated AS mice. We propose that AS is associated with a profound defect in activity-driven spine cytoskeletal reorganization, resulting in a loss of the synaptic plasticity required for the encoding of long-term memory. Notably, the spine abnormality along with the LTP and learning impairments can be reduced by a minimally invasive drug treatment. PMID:22525571

  10. Vault-poly-ADP-ribose polymerase in the Octopus vulgaris brain: a regulatory factor of actin polymerization dynamic.

    PubMed

    De Maio, Anna; Natale, Emiliana; Rotondo, Sergio; Di Cosmo, Anna; Faraone-Mennella, Maria Rosaria

    2013-09-01

    Our previous behavioural, biochemical and immunohistochemical analyses conducted in selected regions (supra/sub oesophageal masses) of the Octopus vulgaris brain detected a cytoplasmic poly-ADP-ribose polymerase (more than 90% of total enzyme activity). The protein was identified as the vault-free form of vault-poly-ADP-ribose polymerase. The present research extends and integrates the biochemical characterization of poly-ADP-ribosylation system, namely, reaction product, i.e., poly-ADP-ribose, and acceptor proteins, in the O. vulgaris brain. Immunochemical analyses evidenced that the sole poly-ADP-ribose acceptor was the octopus cytoskeleton 50-kDa actin. It was present in both free, endogenously poly-ADP-ribosylated form (70kDa) and in complex with V-poly-ADP-ribose polymerase and poly-ADP-ribose (260kDa). The components of this complex, alkali and high salt sensitive, were purified and characterized. The kind and the length of poly-ADP-ribose corresponded to linear chains of 30-35 ADP-ribose units, in accordance with the features of the polymer synthesized by the known vault-poly-ADP-ribose polymerase. In vitro experiments showed that V-poly-ADP-ribose polymerase activity of brain cytoplasmic fraction containing endogenous actin increased upon the addition of commercial actin and was highly reduced by ATP. Anti-actin immunoblot of the mixture in the presence and absence of ATP showed that the poly-ADP-ribosylation of octopus actin is a dynamic process balanced by the ATP-dependent polymerization of the cytoskeleton protein, a fundamental mechanism for synaptic plasticity.

  11. Mechano-chemical energy transduction in biological systems. The effect of mechanical stimulation on the polymerization of actin: a kinetic study.

    PubMed Central

    Ferri, A; Grazi, E

    1982-01-01

    Mechanical stimulation (forced circulation in narrow tubing) accelerates as much as 10-fold the rate of polymerization of actin. The increase in the rate is proportional to the intensity of the stimulation for flow rates between 0 and 3 cm/s. This supports the hypothesis that a statistical factor (the orientation of the flowing particles) is influenced by the flow. Comparison of the kinetics of the polymerization of resting and of mechanically stimulated actin solutions shows that both the nucleation and the elongation steps are accelerated. It is thus concluded that flow orients not only the oligomeric structures but also the actin monomers. The elongation reaction, also in the flow-stimulated samples, occurs always by the addition of ATP--G-actin (or ATP-containing oligomers) and not by the fusion of ADP-containing oligomeric structures. PMID:7138502

  12. Technical advance: identification of plant actin-binding proteins by F-actin affinity chromatography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hu, S.; Brady, S. R.; Kovar, D. R.; Staiger, C. J.; Clark, G. B.; Roux, S. J.; Muday, G. K.

    2000-01-01

    Proteins that interact with the actin cytoskeleton often modulate the dynamics or organization of the cytoskeleton or use the cytoskeleton to control their localization. In plants, very few actin-binding proteins have been identified and most are thought to modulate cytoskeleton function. To identify actin-binding proteins that are unique to plants, the development of new biochemical procedures will be critical. Affinity columns using actin monomers (globular actin, G-actin) or actin filaments (filamentous actin, F-actin) have been used to identify actin-binding proteins from a wide variety of organisms. Monomeric actin from zucchini (Cucurbita pepo L.) hypocotyl tissue was purified to electrophoretic homogeneity and shown to be native and competent for polymerization to actin filaments. G-actin, F-actin and bovine serum albumin affinity columns were prepared and used to separate samples enriched in either soluble or membrane-associated actin-binding proteins. Extracts of soluble actin-binding proteins yield distinct patterns when eluted from the G-actin and F-actin columns, respectively, leading to the identification of a putative F-actin-binding protein of approximately 40 kDa. When plasma membrane-associated proteins were applied to these columns, two abundant polypeptides eluted selectively from the F-actin column and cross-reacted with antiserum against pea annexins. Additionally, a protein that binds auxin transport inhibitors, the naphthylphthalamic acid binding protein, which has been previously suggested to associate with the actin cytoskeleton, was eluted in a single peak from the F-actin column. These experiments provide a new approach that may help to identify novel actin-binding proteins from plants.

  13. Broadening the Spectrum of Actin-Based Protrusive Activity Mediated by Arp2/3 Complex-Facilitated Polymerization: Motility of Cytoplasmic Ridges and Tubular Projections

    PubMed Central

    Henson, John H.; Gianakas, Anastasia D.; Henson, Lauren H.; Lakin, Christina L.; Voss, Meagen K.; Bewersdorf, Joerg; Oldenbourg, Rudolf; Morris, Robert L.

    2014-01-01

    Arp2/3 complex-facilitated actin polymerization plays an essential role in a variety of cellular functions including motility, adherence, endocytosis and trafficking. In the present study we employ the sea urchin coelomocyte experimental model system to test the hypotheses that Arp2/3 complex-nucleated actin assembly mediates the motility of two unusual cellular protrusions; the cytoplasmic ridges present during coelomocyte spreading, and inducible, tubular-shaped, and neurite-like projections. Our investigations couple pharmacological manipulation employing inhibitors of actin polymerization and the Arp2/3 complex with a wide array of imaging methods including digitally enhanced phase contrast, DIC and polarization light microscopy of live cells; conventional, confocal and super-resolution light microscopy of fluorescently labeled cells; and scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Taken together, the results of this study indicate that Arp2/3 complex-facilitated actin polymerization underlies the motility of coelomocyte cytoplasmic ridges and tubular projections, that these processes are related to each other, and that they have been preliminarily identified in other cell types. The results also highlight the broad spectrum of actin-based protrusive activities dependent on the Arp2/3 complex and provide additional insights into the pervasive nature of this ubiquitous actin nucleator. Furthermore we provide the first evidence of a possible mechanistic difference between the impacts of the small molecule drugs BDM and CK666 on the Arp2/3 complex. PMID:25111797

  14. Calcium influx through CRAC channels controls actin organization and dynamics at the immune synapse

    PubMed Central

    Hartzell, Catherine A; Jankowska, Katarzyna I; Burkhardt, Janis K; Lewis, Richard S

    2016-01-01

    T cell receptor (TCR) engagement opens Ca2+ release-activated Ca2+ (CRAC) channels and triggers formation of an immune synapse between T cells and antigen-presenting cells. At the synapse, actin reorganizes into a concentric lamellipod and lamella with retrograde actin flow that helps regulate the intensity and duration of TCR signaling. We find that Ca2+ influx is required to drive actin organization and dynamics at the synapse. Calcium acts by promoting actin depolymerization and localizing actin polymerization and the actin nucleation promotion factor WAVE2 to the periphery of the lamellipod while suppressing polymerization elsewhere. Ca2+-dependent retrograde actin flow corrals ER tubule extensions and STIM1/Orai1 complexes to the synapse center, creating a self-organizing process for CRAC channel localization. Our results demonstrate a new role for Ca2+ as a critical regulator of actin organization and dynamics at the synapse, and reveal potential feedback loops through which Ca2+ influx may modulate TCR signaling. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.14850.001 PMID:27440222

  15. Mechanism of Actin-Based Motility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pantaloni, Dominique; Le Clainche, Christophe; Carlier, Marie-France

    2001-05-01

    Spatially controlled polymerization of actin is at the origin of cell motility and is responsible for the formation of cellular protrusions like lamellipodia. The pathogens Listeria monocytogenes and Shigella flexneri, which undergo actin-based propulsion, are acknowledged models of the leading edge of lamellipodia. Actin-based motility of the bacteria or of functionalized microspheres can be reconstituted in vitro from only five pure proteins. Movement results from the regulated site-directed treadmilling of actin filaments, consistent with observations of actin dynamics in living motile cells and with the biochemical properties of the components of the synthetic motility medium.

  16. Dynamic actin controls polarity induction de novo in protoplasts.

    PubMed

    Zaban, Beatrix; Maisch, Jan; Nick, Peter

    2013-02-01

    Cell polarity and axes are central for plant morphogenesis. To study how polarity and axes are induced de novo, we investigated protoplasts of tobacco Nicotiana tabacum cv. BY-2 expressing fluorescently-tagged cytoskeletal markers. We standardized the system to such a degree that we were able to generate quantitative data on the temporal patterns of regeneration stages. The synthesis of a new cell wall marks the transition to the first stage of regeneration, and proceeds after a long preparatory phase within a few minutes. During this preparatory phase, the nucleus migrates actively, and cytoplasmic strands remodel vigorously. We probed this system for the effect of anti-cytoskeletal compounds, inducible bundling of actin, RGD-peptides, and temperature. Suppression of actin dynamics at an early stage leads to aberrant tripolar cells, whereas suppression of microtubule dynamics produces aberrant sausage-like cells with asymmetric cell walls. We integrated these data into a model, where the microtubular cytoskeleton conveys positional information between the nucleus and the membrane controlling the release or activation of components required for cell wall synthesis. Cell wall formation is followed by the induction of a new cell pole requiring dynamic actin filaments, and the new cell axis is manifested as elongation growth perpendicular to the orientation of the aligned cortical microtubules.

  17. Dock mediates Scar- and WASp-dependent actin polymerization through interaction with cell adhesion molecules in founder cells and fusion-competent myoblasts

    PubMed Central

    Kaipa, Balasankara Reddy; Shao, Huanjie; Schäfer, Gritt; Trinkewitz, Tatjana; Groth, Verena; Liu, Jianqi; Beck, Lothar; Bogdan, Sven; Abmayr, Susan M.; Önel, Susanne-Filiz

    2013-01-01

    Summary The formation of the larval body wall musculature of Drosophila depends on the asymmetric fusion of two myoblast types, founder cells (FCs) and fusion-competent myoblasts (FCMs). Recent studies have established an essential function of Arp2/3-based actin polymerization during myoblast fusion, formation of a dense actin focus at the site of fusion in FCMs, and a thin sheath of actin in FCs and/or growing muscles. The formation of these actin structures depends on recognition and adhesion of myoblasts that is mediated by cell surface receptors of the immunoglobulin superfamily. However, the connection of the cell surface receptors with Arp2/3-based actin polymerization is poorly understood. To date only the SH2-SH3 adaptor protein Crk has been suggested to link cell adhesion with Arp2/3-based actin polymerization in FCMs. Here, we propose that the SH2-SH3 adaptor protein Dock, like Crk, links cell adhesion with actin polymerization. We show that Dock is expressed in FCs and FCMs and colocalizes with the cell adhesion proteins Sns and Duf at cell–cell contact points. Biochemical data in this study indicate that different domains of Dock are involved in binding the cell adhesion molecules Duf, Rst, Sns and Hbs. We emphasize the importance of these interactions by quantifying the enhanced myoblast fusion defects in duf dock, sns dock and hbs dock double mutants. Additionally, we show that Dock interacts biochemically and genetically with Drosophila Scar, Vrp1 and WASp. Based on these data, we propose that Dock links cell adhesion in FCs and FCMs with either Scar– or Vrp1–WASp-dependent Arp2/3 activation. PMID:22992459

  18. Dock mediates Scar- and WASp-dependent actin polymerization through interaction with cell adhesion molecules in founder cells and fusion-competent myoblasts.

    PubMed

    Kaipa, Balasankara Reddy; Shao, Huanjie; Schäfer, Gritt; Trinkewitz, Tatjana; Groth, Verena; Liu, Jianqi; Beck, Lothar; Bogdan, Sven; Abmayr, Susan M; Önel, Susanne-Filiz

    2013-01-01

    The formation of the larval body wall musculature of Drosophila depends on the asymmetric fusion of two myoblast types, founder cells (FCs) and fusion-competent myoblasts (FCMs). Recent studies have established an essential function of Arp2/3-based actin polymerization during myoblast fusion, formation of a dense actin focus at the site of fusion in FCMs, and a thin sheath of actin in FCs and/or growing muscles. The formation of these actin structures depends on recognition and adhesion of myoblasts that is mediated by cell surface receptors of the immunoglobulin superfamily. However, the connection of the cell surface receptors with Arp2/3-based actin polymerization is poorly understood. To date only the SH2-SH3 adaptor protein Crk has been suggested to link cell adhesion with Arp2/3-based actin polymerization in FCMs. Here, we propose that the SH2-SH3 adaptor protein Dock, like Crk, links cell adhesion with actin polymerization. We show that Dock is expressed in FCs and FCMs and colocalizes with the cell adhesion proteins Sns and Duf at cell-cell contact points. Biochemical data in this study indicate that different domains of Dock are involved in binding the cell adhesion molecules Duf, Rst, Sns and Hbs. We emphasize the importance of these interactions by quantifying the enhanced myoblast fusion defects in duf dock, sns dock and hbs dock double mutants. Additionally, we show that Dock interacts biochemically and genetically with Drosophila Scar, Vrp1 and WASp. Based on these data, we propose that Dock links cell adhesion in FCs and FCMs with either Scar- or Vrp1-WASp-dependent Arp2/3 activation.

  19. AIP1 acts with cofilin to control actin dynamics during epithelial morphogenesis.

    PubMed

    Chu, Dandan; Pan, Hanshuang; Wan, Ping; Wu, Jing; Luo, Jun; Zhu, Hong; Chen, Jiong

    2012-10-01

    During epithelial morphogenesis, cells not only maintain tight adhesion for epithelial integrity but also allow dynamic intercellular movement to take place within cell sheets. How these seemingly opposing processes are coordinated is not well understood. Here, we report that the actin disassembly factors AIP1 and cofilin are required for remodeling of adherens junctions (AJs) during ommatidial precluster formation in Drosophila eye epithelium, a highly stereotyped cell rearrangement process which we describe in detail in our live imaging study. AIP1 is enriched together with F-actin in the apical region of preclusters, whereas cofilin displays a diffuse and uniform localization pattern. Cofilin overexpression completely rescues AJ remodeling defects caused by AIP1 loss of function, and cofilin physically interacts with AIP1. Pharmacological reduction of actin turnover results in similar AJ remodeling defects and decreased turnover of E-cadherin, which also results from AIP1 deficiency, whereas an F-actin-destabilizing drug affects AJ maintenance and epithelial integrity. Together with other data on actin polymerization, our results suggest that AIP1 enhances cofilin-mediated actin disassembly in the apical region of precluster cells to promote remodeling of AJs and thus intercellular movement, but also that robust actin polymerization promotes AJ general adhesion and integrity during the remodeling process.

  20. Structure of a pentavalent G-actin*MRTF-A complex reveals how G-actin controls nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of a transcriptional coactivator.

    PubMed

    Mouilleron, Stéphane; Langer, Carola A; Guettler, Sebastian; McDonald, Neil Q; Treisman, Richard

    2011-06-14

    Subcellular localization of the actin-binding transcriptional coactivator MRTF-A is controlled by its interaction with monomeric actin (G-actin). Signal-induced decreases in G-actin concentration reduce MRTF-A nuclear export, leading to its nuclear accumulation, whereas artificial increases in G-actin concentration in resting cells block MRTF-A nuclear import, retaining it in the cytoplasm. This regulation is dependent on three actin-binding RPEL motifs in the regulatory domain of MRTF-A. We describe the structures of pentavalent and trivalent G-actin•RPEL domain complexes. In the pentavalent complex, each RPEL motif and the two intervening spacer sequences bound an actin monomer, forming a compact assembly. In contrast, the trivalent complex lacked the C-terminal spacer- and RPEL-actins, both of which bound only weakly in the pentavalent complex. Cytoplasmic localization of MRTF-A in unstimulated fibroblasts also required binding of G-actin to the spacer sequences. The bipartite MRTF-A nuclear localization sequence was buried in the pentameric assembly, explaining how increases in G-actin concentration prevent nuclear import of MRTF-A. Analyses of the pentavalent and trivalent complexes show how actin loads onto the RPEL domain and reveal a molecular mechanism by which actin can control the activity of one of its binding partners.

  1. Dynamin at actin tails.

    PubMed

    Lee, Eunkyung; De Camilli, Pietro

    2002-01-01

    Dynamin, the product of the shibire gene of Drosophila, is a GTPase critically required for endocytosis. Some studies have suggested a functional link between dynamin and the actin cytoskeleton. This link is of special interest, because there is evidence implicating actin dynamics in endocytosis. Here we show that endogenous dynamin 2, as well as green fluorescence protein fusion proteins of both dynamin 1 and 2, is present in actin comets generated by Listeria or by type I PIP kinase (PIPK) overexpression. In PIPK-induced tails, dynamin is further enriched at the interface between the tails and the moving organelles. Dynamin mutants harboring mutations in the GTPase domain inhibited nucleation of actin tails induced by PIPK and moderately reduced their speed. Although dynamin localization to the tails required its proline-rich domain, expression of a dynamin mutant lacking this domain also diminished tail formation. In addition, this mutant disrupted a membrane-associated actin scaffold (podosome rosette) previously shown to include dynamin. These findings suggest that dynamin is part of a protein network that controls nucleation of actin from membranes. At endocytic sites, dynamin may couple the fission reaction to the polymerization of an actin pool that functions in the separation of the endocytic vesicles from the plasma membrane. PMID:11782545

  2. The Nebivolol action on vascular tone is dependent on actin cytoskeleton polymerization and Rho-A activity into ECs and SMCs.

    PubMed

    Kadi, A; de Isla, N; Moby, V; Lacolley, P; Labrude, P; Stoltz, J F; Menu, P

    2014-01-01

    Nitric oxide is implicated in the target action of Nebivolol, a selective β1 adrenoceptor blocker used in hypertension treatment. As the Nitric Oxide (NO) production and the actin cytoskeleton are linked, the aim of this work was to study the involvement of actin cytoskeleton on mechanism of action of Nebivolol in cultured endothelial cells. We studied the effect of Nebivolol (200 μM) on actin filaments remodeling and its impact on NO production and eNOS activation. Results showed that Nebivolol perturbs actin filaments polymerization, increases NO production and eNOS activity between 30 minutes and 1 h. Stabilization of actin filaments with phalloïdine (50 μM) abolishes Nebivolol effects on eNOS activation and NO production. Furthermore, Rho-kinase activity decreased during the first hour of Nebivolol treatment, then increased after 3 h, while actin filaments repolymerized, eNOS activation and NO production decreased. In SMCs, Nebivolol induced a decrease in the Rho-kinase activity from 1 h until 24 h of incubation. In conclusion, we suggest that Nebivolol induced NO production in Endothelial Cells (ECs) via complementary actions between actin cytoskeleton remodeling inducing eNOS activation and Rho-kinase implication. The effect of Nebivolol on ECs occurs during the first hour, this effect on SMCs seems to be maintained until 24 h, explaining persisted action of Nebivolol observed in vivo.

  3. All-polymeric control of nanoferronics

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Beibei; Li, Huashan; Hall, Asha; Gao, Wenxiu; Gong, Maogang; Yuan, Guoliang; Grossman, Jeffrey; Ren, Shenqiang

    2015-01-01

    In the search for light and flexible nanoferronics, significant research effort is geared toward discovering the coexisting magnetic and electric orders in crystalline charge-transfer complexes. We report the first example of multiferroicity in centimeter-sized crystalline polymeric charge-transfer superstructures that grow at the liquid-air interface and are controlled by the regioregularity of the polymeric chain. The charge order–driven ferroic mechanism reveals spontaneous and hysteretic polarization and magnetization at the donor-acceptor interface. The charge transfer and ordering in the ferroic assemblies depend critically on the self-organizing and molecular packing of electron donors and acceptors. The invention described here not only represents a new coupling mechanism of magnetic and electric ordering but also creates a new class of emerging all-organic nanoferronics. PMID:26824068

  4. Peculiarities of the exposure of actinic radiation on polymeric holographic recording media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manukhin, B. G.; Andreeva, N. V.; Andreeva, O. V.

    2016-08-01

    The results of experiments that allow to evaluate changes of optical parameters of polymeric recording medium with diffusional amplification occurring during recording of information are presented. It is shown that phase characteristics of the sample compared to its initial state are observed during recording of information and in the post-exposure period, i.e. in a stable condition of the finished element. Quantitative estimates which can be used for planning conditions of holographic experiment during creating highly selective holographic optical elements (HOE) with given parameters are obtained.

  5. Ubiquitin ligase TRIM3 controls hippocampal plasticity and learning by regulating synaptic γ-actin levels.

    PubMed

    Schreiber, Joerg; Végh, Marlene J; Dawitz, Julia; Kroon, Tim; Loos, Maarten; Labonté, Dorthe; Li, Ka Wan; Van Nierop, Pim; Van Diepen, Michiel T; De Zeeuw, Chris I; Kneussel, Matthias; Meredith, Rhiannon M; Smit, August B; Van Kesteren, Ronald E

    2015-11-01

    Synaptic plasticity requires remodeling of the actin cytoskeleton. Although two actin isoforms, β- and γ-actin, are expressed in dendritic spines, the specific contribution of γ-actin in the expression of synaptic plasticity is unknown. We show that synaptic γ-actin levels are regulated by the E3 ubiquitin ligase TRIM3. TRIM3 protein and Actg1 transcript are colocalized in messenger ribonucleoprotein granules responsible for the dendritic targeting of messenger RNAs. TRIM3 polyubiquitylates γ-actin, most likely cotranslationally at synaptic sites. Trim3(-/-) mice consequently have increased levels of γ-actin at hippocampal synapses, resulting in higher spine densities, increased long-term potentiation, and enhanced short-term contextual fear memory consolidation. Interestingly, hippocampal deletion of Actg1 caused an increase in long-term fear memory. Collectively, our findings suggest that temporal control of γ-actin levels by TRIM3 is required to regulate the timing of hippocampal plasticity. We propose a model in which TRIM3 regulates synaptic γ-actin turnover and actin filament stability and thus forms a transient inhibitory constraint on the expression of hippocampal synaptic plasticity. PMID:26527743

  6. Ubiquitin ligase TRIM3 controls hippocampal plasticity and learning by regulating synaptic γ-actin levels

    PubMed Central

    Schreiber, Joerg; Végh, Marlene J.; Dawitz, Julia; Kroon, Tim; Loos, Maarten; Labonté, Dorthe; Li, Ka Wan; Van Nierop, Pim; Van Diepen, Michiel T.; De Zeeuw, Chris I.; Kneussel, Matthias; Meredith, Rhiannon M.; Smit, August B.

    2015-01-01

    Synaptic plasticity requires remodeling of the actin cytoskeleton. Although two actin isoforms, β- and γ-actin, are expressed in dendritic spines, the specific contribution of γ-actin in the expression of synaptic plasticity is unknown. We show that synaptic γ-actin levels are regulated by the E3 ubiquitin ligase TRIM3. TRIM3 protein and Actg1 transcript are colocalized in messenger ribonucleoprotein granules responsible for the dendritic targeting of messenger RNAs. TRIM3 polyubiquitylates γ-actin, most likely cotranslationally at synaptic sites. Trim3−/− mice consequently have increased levels of γ-actin at hippocampal synapses, resulting in higher spine densities, increased long-term potentiation, and enhanced short-term contextual fear memory consolidation. Interestingly, hippocampal deletion of Actg1 caused an increase in long-term fear memory. Collectively, our findings suggest that temporal control of γ-actin levels by TRIM3 is required to regulate the timing of hippocampal plasticity. We propose a model in which TRIM3 regulates synaptic γ-actin turnover and actin filament stability and thus forms a transient inhibitory constraint on the expression of hippocampal synaptic plasticity. PMID:26527743

  7. Control of Formin Distribution and Actin Cable Assembly by the E3 Ubiquitin Ligases Dma1 and Dma2.

    PubMed

    Juanes, M Angeles; Piatti, Simonetta

    2016-09-01

    Formins are widespread actin-polymerizing proteins that play pivotal roles in a number of processes, such as cell polarity, morphogenesis, cytokinesis, and cell migration. In agreement with their crucial function, formins are prone to a variety of regulatory mechanisms that include autoinhibition, post-translational modifications, and interaction with formin modulators. Furthermore, activation and function of formins is intimately linked to their ability to interact with membranes. In the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the two formins Bni1 and Bnr1 play both separate and overlapping functions in the organization of the actin cytoskeleton. In addition, they are controlled by both common and different regulatory mechanisms. Here we show that proper localization of both formins requires the redundant E3 ubiquitin ligases Dma1 and Dma2, which were previously involved in spindle positioning and septin organization. In dma1 dma2 double mutants, formin distribution at polarity sites is impaired, thus causing defects in the organization of the actin cable network and hypersensitivity to the actin depolymerizer latrunculin B. Expression of a hyperactive variant of Bni1 (Bni1-V360D) rescues these defects and partially restores proper spindle positioning in the mutant, suggesting that the failure of dma1 dma2 mutant cells to position the spindle is partly due to faulty formin activity. Strikingly, Dma1/2 interact physically with both formins, while their ubiquitin-ligase activity is required for formin function and polarized localization. Thus, ubiquitylation of formin or a formin interactor(s) could promote formin binding to membrane and its ability to nucleate actin. Altogether, our data highlight a novel level of formin regulation that further expands our knowledge of the complex and multilayered controls of these key cytoskeleton organizers.

  8. Arp2/3-mediated F-actin formation controls regulated exocytosis in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Tran, Duy T.; Masedunskas, Andrius; Weigert, Roberto; Ten Hagen, Kelly G.

    2015-01-01

    The actin cytoskeleton plays crucial roles in many cellular processes, including regulated secretion. However, the mechanisms controlling F-actin dynamics in this process are largely unknown. Through 3D time-lapse imaging in a secreting organ, we show that F-actin is actively disassembled along the apical plasma membrane at the site of secretory vesicle fusion and re-assembled directionally on vesicle membranes. Moreover, we show that fusion pore formation and PIP2 redistribution precedes actin and myosin recruitment to secretory vesicle membranes. Finally, we show essential roles for the branched actin nucleators Arp2/3- and WASp in the process of secretory cargo expulsion and integration of vesicular membranes with the apical plasma membrane. Our results highlight previously unknown roles for branched actin in exocytosis and provide a genetically tractable system to image the temporal and spatial dynamics of polarized secretion in vivo. PMID:26639106

  9. Arp2/3-mediated F-actin formation controls regulated exocytosis in vivo.

    PubMed

    Tran, Duy T; Masedunskas, Andrius; Weigert, Roberto; Ten Hagen, Kelly G

    2015-01-01

    The actin cytoskeleton plays crucial roles in many cellular processes, including regulated secretion. However, the mechanisms controlling F-actin dynamics in this process are largely unknown. Through 3D time-lapse imaging in a secreting organ, we show that F-actin is actively disassembled along the apical plasma membrane at the site of secretory vesicle fusion and re-assembled directionally on vesicle membranes. Moreover, we show that fusion pore formation and PIP2 redistribution precedes actin and myosin recruitment to secretory vesicle membranes. Finally, we show essential roles for the branched actin nucleators Arp2/3- and WASp in the process of secretory cargo expulsion and integration of vesicular membranes with the apical plasma membrane. Our results highlight previously unknown roles for branched actin in exocytosis and provide a genetically tractable system to image the temporal and spatial dynamics of polarized secretion in vivo.

  10. Arp2/3-mediated F-actin formation controls regulated exocytosis in vivo.

    PubMed

    Tran, Duy T; Masedunskas, Andrius; Weigert, Roberto; Ten Hagen, Kelly G

    2015-01-01

    The actin cytoskeleton plays crucial roles in many cellular processes, including regulated secretion. However, the mechanisms controlling F-actin dynamics in this process are largely unknown. Through 3D time-lapse imaging in a secreting organ, we show that F-actin is actively disassembled along the apical plasma membrane at the site of secretory vesicle fusion and re-assembled directionally on vesicle membranes. Moreover, we show that fusion pore formation and PIP2 redistribution precedes actin and myosin recruitment to secretory vesicle membranes. Finally, we show essential roles for the branched actin nucleators Arp2/3- and WASp in the process of secretory cargo expulsion and integration of vesicular membranes with the apical plasma membrane. Our results highlight previously unknown roles for branched actin in exocytosis and provide a genetically tractable system to image the temporal and spatial dynamics of polarized secretion in vivo. PMID:26639106

  11. Actin nucleation and elongation factors: mechanisms and interplay.

    PubMed

    Chesarone, Melissa A; Goode, Bruce L

    2009-02-01

    Cells require actin nucleators to catalyze the de novo assembly of filaments and actin elongation factors to control the rate and extent of polymerization. Nucleation and elongation factors identified to date include Arp2/3 complex, formins, Ena/VASP, and newcomers Spire, Cobl, and Lmod. Here, we discuss recent advances in understanding their activities and mechanisms and new evidence for their cooperation and interaction in vivo. Earlier models had suggested that different nucleators function independently to assemble distinct actin arrays. However, more recent observations indicate that the construction of most cellular actin networks depends on the activities of multiple actin assembly-promoting factors working in concert.

  12. F-actin waves, actin cortex disassembly and focal exocytosis driven by actin-phosphoinositide positive feedback.

    PubMed

    Masters, Thomas A; Sheetz, Michael P; Gauthier, Nils C

    2016-04-01

    Actin polymerization is controlled by the phosphoinositide composition of the plasma membrane. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the spatiotemporal regulation of actin network organization over extended length scales are still unclear. To observe phosphoinositide-dependent cytoskeletal dynamics we combined the model system of frustrated phagocytosis, total internal reflection microscopy and manipulation of the buffer tonicity. We found that macrophages interacting with IgG-coated glass substrates formed circular F-actin waves on their ventral surface enclosing a region of plasma membrane devoid of cortical actin. Plasma membrane free of actin cortex was strongly depleted of PI(4,5)P2 , but enriched in PI(3,4)P2 and displayed a fivefold increase in exocytosis. Wave formation could be promoted by application of a hypotonic shock. The actin waves were characteristic of a bistable wavefront at the boundary between the regions of membrane containing and lacking cortical actin. Phosphoinositide modifiers and RhoGTPase activities dramatically redistributed with respect to the wavefronts, which often exhibited spatial oscillations. Perturbation of either lipid or actin cytoskeleton-related pathways led to rapid loss of both the polarized lipid distribution and the wavefront. As waves travelled over the plasma membrane, wavefront actin was seen to rapidly polymerize and depolymerize at pre-existing clusters of FcγRIIA, coincident with rapid changes in lipid composition. Thus the potential of receptors to support rapid F-actin polymerization appears to depend acutely on the local concentrations of multiple lipid species. We propose that interdependence through positive feedback from the cytoskeleton to lipid modifiers leads to coordinated local cortex remodeling, focal exocytosis, and organizes extended actin networks. PMID:26915738

  13. F-actin waves, actin cortex disassembly and focal exocytosis driven by actin-phosphoinositide positive feedback.

    PubMed

    Masters, Thomas A; Sheetz, Michael P; Gauthier, Nils C

    2016-04-01

    Actin polymerization is controlled by the phosphoinositide composition of the plasma membrane. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the spatiotemporal regulation of actin network organization over extended length scales are still unclear. To observe phosphoinositide-dependent cytoskeletal dynamics we combined the model system of frustrated phagocytosis, total internal reflection microscopy and manipulation of the buffer tonicity. We found that macrophages interacting with IgG-coated glass substrates formed circular F-actin waves on their ventral surface enclosing a region of plasma membrane devoid of cortical actin. Plasma membrane free of actin cortex was strongly depleted of PI(4,5)P2 , but enriched in PI(3,4)P2 and displayed a fivefold increase in exocytosis. Wave formation could be promoted by application of a hypotonic shock. The actin waves were characteristic of a bistable wavefront at the boundary between the regions of membrane containing and lacking cortical actin. Phosphoinositide modifiers and RhoGTPase activities dramatically redistributed with respect to the wavefronts, which often exhibited spatial oscillations. Perturbation of either lipid or actin cytoskeleton-related pathways led to rapid loss of both the polarized lipid distribution and the wavefront. As waves travelled over the plasma membrane, wavefront actin was seen to rapidly polymerize and depolymerize at pre-existing clusters of FcγRIIA, coincident with rapid changes in lipid composition. Thus the potential of receptors to support rapid F-actin polymerization appears to depend acutely on the local concentrations of multiple lipid species. We propose that interdependence through positive feedback from the cytoskeleton to lipid modifiers leads to coordinated local cortex remodeling, focal exocytosis, and organizes extended actin networks.

  14. Papaverine Prevents Vasospasm by Regulation of Myosin Light Chain Phosphorylation and Actin Polymerization in Human Saphenous Vein

    PubMed Central

    Hocking, Kyle M.; Putumbaka, Gowthami; Wise, Eric S.; Cheung-Flynn, Joyce; Brophy, Colleen M.; Komalavilas, Padmini

    2016-01-01

    Objective Papaverine is used to prevent vasospasm in human saphenous veins (HSV) during vein graft preparation prior to implantation as a bypass conduit. Papaverine is a nonspecific inhibitor of phosphodiesterases, leading to increases in both intracellular cGMP and cAMP. We hypothesized that papaverine reduces force by decreasing intracellular calcium concentrations ([Ca2+]i) and myosin light chain phosphorylation, and increasing actin depolymerization via regulation of actin regulatory protein phosphorylation. Approach and Results HSV was equilibrated in a muscle bath, pre-treated with 1 mM papaverine followed by 5 μM norepinephrine, and force along with [Ca2+]i levels were concurrently measured. Filamentous actin (F-actin) level was measured by an in vitro actin assay. Tissue was snap frozen to measure myosin light chain and actin regulatory protein phosphorylation. Pre-treatment with papaverine completely inhibited norepinephrine-induced force generation, blocked increases in [Ca2+]i and led to a decrease in the phosphorylation of myosin light chain. Papaverine pre-treatment also led to increased phosphorylation of the heat shock-related protein 20 (HSPB6) and the vasodilator stimulated phosphoprotein (VASP), as well as decreased filamentous actin (F-actin) levels suggesting depolymerization of actin. Conclusions These results suggest that papaverine-induced force inhibition of HSV involves [Ca2+]i-mediated inhibition of myosin light chain phosphorylation and actin regulatory protein phosphorylation-mediated actin depolymerization. Thus, papaverine induces sustained inhibition of contraction of HSV by the modulation of both myosin cross-bridge formation and actin cytoskeletal dynamics and is a pharmacological alternative to high pressure distention to prevent vasospasm. PMID:27136356

  15. Actin nucleation at the centrosome controls lymphocyte polarity

    PubMed Central

    Obino, Dorian; Farina, Francesca; Malbec, Odile; Sáez, Pablo J.; Maurin, Mathieu; Gaillard, Jérémie; Dingli, Florent; Loew, Damarys; Gautreau, Alexis; Yuseff, Maria-Isabel; Blanchoin, Laurent; Théry, Manuel; Lennon-Duménil, Ana-Maria

    2016-01-01

    Cell polarity is required for the functional specialization of many cell types including lymphocytes. A hallmark of cell polarity is the reorientation of the centrosome that allows repositioning of organelles and vesicles in an asymmetric fashion. The mechanisms underlying centrosome polarization are not fully understood. Here we found that in resting lymphocytes, centrosome-associated Arp2/3 locally nucleates F-actin, which is needed for centrosome tethering to the nucleus via the LINC complex. Upon lymphocyte activation, Arp2/3 is partially depleted from the centrosome as a result of its recruitment to the immune synapse. This leads to a reduction in F-actin nucleation at the centrosome and thereby allows its detachment from the nucleus and polarization to the synapse. Therefore, F-actin nucleation at the centrosome—regulated by the availability of the Arp2/3 complex—determines its capacity to polarize in response to external stimuli. PMID:26987298

  16. Profilin Interaction with Actin Filament Barbed End Controls Dynamic Instability, Capping, Branching, and Motility

    PubMed Central

    Pernier, Julien; Shekhar, Shashank; Jegou, Antoine; Guichard, Bérengère; Carlier, Marie-France

    2016-01-01

    Summary Cell motility and actin homeostasis depend on the control of polarized growth of actin filaments. Profilin, an abundant regulator of actin dynamics, supports filament assembly at barbed ends by binding G-actin. Here, we demonstrate how, by binding and destabilizing filament barbed ends at physiological concentrations, profilin also controls motility, cell migration, and actin homeostasis. Profilin enhances filament length fluctuations. Profilin competes with Capping Protein at barbed ends, which generates a lower amount of profilin-actin than expected if barbed ends were tightly capped. Profilin competes with barbed end polymerases, such as formins and VopF, and inhibits filament branching by WASP-Arp2/3 complex by competition for filament barbed ends, accounting for its as-yet-unknown effects on motility and metastatic cell migration observed in this concentration range. In conclusion, profilin is a major coordinator of polarized growth of actin filaments, controlled by competition between barbed end cappers, trackers, destabilizers, and filament branching machineries. PMID:26812019

  17. Actin3 promoter reveals undulating F-actin bundles at shanks and dynamic F-actin meshworks at tips of tip-growing pollen tubes.

    PubMed

    Jásik, Ján; Mičieta, Karol; Siao, Wei; Voigt, Boris; Stuchlík, Stanislav; Schmelzer, Elmon; Turňa, Ján; Baluška, František

    2016-01-01

    The dynamic actin cytoskeleton of pollen tubes is both the driver of the tip growth and the organizer of cell polarity. In order to understand this fast re-arranging cytoskeletal system, we need reliable constructs expressed under relevant promoters. Here we are reporting that the Lifeact reporter, expressed under the pollen-specific Actin3 promoter, visualizes very dynamic F-actin elements both in germinating pollen grains and tip-growing pollen tubes. Importantly, we have documented very active actin polymerization at the cell periphery, especially in the bulging area during pollen germination and in the apical clear zone. Expression of the Lifeact reporter under control of the pollen-specific Actin3 promoter revealed 2 new aspects: (i) long F-actin bundles in pollen tube shanks are dynamic, showing undulating movements, (ii) subapical 'actin collars' or 'fringes' are absent.

  18. Actin3 promoter reveals undulating F-actin bundles at shanks and dynamic F-actin meshworks at tips of tip-growing pollen tubes

    PubMed Central

    Jásik, Ján; Mičieta, Karol; Siao, Wei; Voigt, Boris; Stuchlík, Stanislav; Schmelzer, Elmon; Turňa, Ján; Baluška, František

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The dynamic actin cytoskeleton of pollen tubes is both the driver of the tip growth and the organizer of cell polarity. In order to understand this fast re-arranging cytoskeletal system, we need reliable constructs expressed under relevant promoters. Here we are reporting that the Lifeact reporter, expressed under the pollen-specific Actin3 promoter, visualizes very dynamic F-actin elements both in germinating pollen grains and tip-growing pollen tubes. Importantly, we have documented very active actin polymerization at the cell periphery, especially in the bulging area during pollen germination and in the apical clear zone. Expression of the Lifeact reporter under control of the pollen-specific Actin3 promoter revealed 2 new aspects: (i) long F-actin bundles in pollen tube shanks are dynamic, showing undulating movements, (ii) subapical ‘actin collars’ or ‘fringes’ are absent. PMID:26980067

  19. Polymerization of actin in RBL-2H3 cells can be triggered through either the IgE receptor or the adenosine receptor but different signaling pathways are used.

    PubMed Central

    Apgar, J R

    1994-01-01

    Crosslinking of the IgE receptor on rat basophilic leukemia (RBL) cells using the multivalent antigen DNP-BSA leads to a rapid and sustained increase in the filamentous actin content of the cells. Stimulation of RBL cells through the adenosine receptor also induces a very rapid polymerization of actin, which peaks in 45-60 s and is equivalent in magnitude to the F-actin response elicited through stimulation of the IgE receptor. However, in contrast to the IgE mediated response, which remains elevated for over 30 min, the F-actin increase induced by the adenosine analogue 5'-(N-ethylcarboxamido)-adenosine (NECA) is relatively transient and returns to baseline values within 5-10 min. While previous work has shown that the polymerization of actin in RBL cells stimulated through the IgE receptor is mediated by protein kinase C (PKC), protein kinase inhibitors have no effect on the F-actin response activated through the adenosine receptor. In contrast, pretreatment of the cells with pertussis toxin completely inhibits the F-actin response to NECA but has relatively little effect on the response induced through the IgE receptor. Stimulation of RBL cells through either receptor causes increased production of phosphatidylinositol mono-phosphate (PIP) and phosphatidylinositol bis-phosphate (PIP2), which correlates with the F-actin response. Production of PIP and PIP2 may be important downstream signals since these polyphosphoinositides are able to regulate the interaction of gelsolin and profilin with actin. Thus the polymerization of actin can be triggered through either the adenosine receptor or the IgE receptor, but different upstream signaling pathways are being used. The IgE mediated response requires the activation of PKC while stimulation through the adenosine receptor is PKC independent but involves a G protein. PMID:8049523

  20. Utilization of paramagnetic relaxation enhancements for structural analysis of actin-binding proteins in complex with actin

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Shuxian; Umemoto, Ryo; Tamura, Yuki; Kofuku, Yutaka; Uyeda, Taro Q. P.; Nishida, Noritaka; Shimada, Ichio

    2016-01-01

    Actin cytoskeleton dynamics are controlled by various actin binding proteins (ABPs) that modulate the polymerization of the monomeric G-actin and the depolymerization of filamentous F-actin. Although revealing the structures of the actin/ABP complexes is crucial to understand how the ABPs regulate actin dynamics, the X-ray crystallography and cryoEM methods are inadequate to apply for the ABPs that interact with G- or F-actin with lower affinity or multiple binding modes. In this study, we aimed to establish the alternative method to build a structural model of G-actin/ABP complexes, utilizing the paramagnetic relaxation enhancement (PRE) experiments. Thymosin β4 (Tβ4) was used as a test case for validation, since its structure in complex with G-actin was reported recently. Recombinantly expressed G-actin, containing a cysteine mutation, was conjugated with a nitroxyl spin label at the specific site. Based on the intensity ratio of the 1H-15N HSQC spectra of Tβ4 in the complex with G-actin in the paramagnetic and diamagnetic states, the distances between the amide groups of Tβ4 and the spin label of G-actin were estimated. Using the PRE-derived distance constraints, we were able to compute a well-converged docking structure of the G-actin/Tβ4 complex that shows great accordance with the reference structure. PMID:27654858

  1. A synaptic F-actin network controls otoferlin-dependent exocytosis in auditory inner hair cells

    PubMed Central

    Vincent, Philippe FY; Bouleau, Yohan; Petit, Christine; Dulon, Didier

    2015-01-01

    We show that a cage-shaped F-actin network is essential for maintaining a tight spatial organization of Cav1.3 Ca2+ channels at the synaptic ribbons of auditory inner hair cells. This F-actin network is also found to provide mechanosensitivity to the Cav1.3 channels when varying intracellular hydrostatic pressure. Furthermore, this F-actin mesh network attached to the synaptic ribbons directly influences the efficiency of otoferlin-dependent exocytosis and its sensitivity to intracellular hydrostatic pressure, independently of its action on the Cav1.3 channels. We propose a new mechanistic model for vesicle exocytosis in auditory hair cells where the rate of vesicle recruitment to the ribbons is directly controlled by a synaptic F-actin network and changes in intracellular hydrostatic pressure. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.10988.001 PMID:26568308

  2. Dendrite architecture organized by transcriptional control of the F-actin nucleator Spire.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Tiago; Ou, Yimiao; Li, Sally; Giniger, Edward; van Meyel, Donald J

    2014-02-01

    The architectures of dendritic trees are crucial for the wiring and function of neuronal circuits because they determine coverage of receptive territories, as well as the nature and strength of sensory or synaptic inputs. Here, we describe a cell-intrinsic pathway sculpting dendritic arborization (da) neurons in Drosophila that requires Longitudinals Lacking (Lola), a BTB/POZ transcription factor, and its control of the F-actin cytoskeleton through Spire (Spir), an actin nucleation protein. Loss of Lola from da neurons reduced the overall length of dendritic arbors, increased the expression of Spir, and produced inappropriate F-actin-rich dendrites at positions too near the cell soma. Selective removal of Lola from only class IV da neurons decreased the evasive responses of larvae to nociception. The increased Spir expression contributed to the abnormal F-actin-rich dendrites and the decreased nocifensive responses because both were suppressed by reduced dose of Spir. Thus, an important role of Lola is to limit expression of Spir to appropriate levels within da neurons. We found Spir to be expressed in dendritic arbors and to be important for their development. Removal of Spir from class IV da neurons reduced F-actin levels and total branch number, shifted the position of greatest branch density away from the cell soma, and compromised nocifensive behavior. We conclude that the Lola-Spir pathway is crucial for the spatial arrangement of branches within dendritic trees and for neural circuit function because it provides balanced control of the F-actin cytoskeleton.

  3. Elevated Glucose Levels Promote Contractile and Cytoskeletal Gene Expression in Vascular Smooth Muscle via Rho/Protein Kinase C and Actin Polymerization.

    PubMed

    Hien, Tran Thi; Turczyńska, Karolina M; Dahan, Diana; Ekman, Mari; Grossi, Mario; Sjögren, Johan; Nilsson, Johan; Braun, Thomas; Boettger, Thomas; Garcia-Vaz, Eliana; Stenkula, Karin; Swärd, Karl; Gomez, Maria F; Albinsson, Sebastian

    2016-02-12

    Both type 1 and type 2 diabetes are associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease. This is in part attributed to the effects of hyperglycemia on vascular endothelial and smooth muscle cells, but the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. In diabetic animal models, hyperglycemia results in hypercontractility of vascular smooth muscle possibly due to increased activation of Rho-kinase. The aim of the present study was to investigate the regulation of contractile smooth muscle markers by glucose and to determine the signaling pathways that are activated by hyperglycemia in smooth muscle cells. Microarray, quantitative PCR, and Western blot analyses revealed that both mRNA and protein expression of contractile smooth muscle markers were increased in isolated smooth muscle cells cultured under high compared with low glucose conditions. This effect was also observed in hyperglycemic Akita mice and in diabetic patients. Elevated glucose activated the protein kinase C and Rho/Rho-kinase signaling pathways and stimulated actin polymerization. Glucose-induced expression of contractile smooth muscle markers in cultured cells could be partially or completely repressed by inhibitors of advanced glycation end products, L-type calcium channels, protein kinase C, Rho-kinase, actin polymerization, and myocardin-related transcription factors. Furthermore, genetic ablation of the miR-143/145 cluster prevented the effects of glucose on smooth muscle marker expression. In conclusion, these data demonstrate a possible link between hyperglycemia and vascular disease states associated with smooth muscle contractility.

  4. Direct dynamin–actin interactions regulate the actin cytoskeleton

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Changkyu; Yaddanapudi, Suma; Weins, Astrid; Osborn, Teresia; Reiser, Jochen; Pollak, Martin; Hartwig, John; Sever, Sanja

    2010-01-01

    The large GTPase dynamin assembles into higher order structures that are thought to promote endocytosis. Dynamin also regulates the actin cytoskeleton through an unknown, GTPase-dependent mechanism. Here, we identify a highly conserved site in dynamin that binds directly to actin filaments and aligns them into bundles. Point mutations in the actin-binding domain cause aberrant membrane ruffling and defective actin stress fibre formation in cells. Short actin filaments promote dynamin assembly into higher order structures, which in turn efficiently release the actin-capping protein (CP) gelsolin from barbed actin ends in vitro, allowing for elongation of actin filaments. Together, our results support a model in which assembled dynamin, generated through interactions with short actin filaments, promotes actin polymerization via displacement of actin-CPs. PMID:20935625

  5. SelR reverses Mical-mediated oxidation of actin to regulate F-actin dynamics.

    PubMed

    Hung, Ruei-Jiun; Spaeth, Christopher S; Yesilyurt, Hunkar Gizem; Terman, Jonathan R

    2013-12-01

    Actin's polymerization properties are markedly altered by oxidation of its conserved Met 44 residue. Mediating this effect is a specific oxidation-reduction (redox) enzyme, Mical, that works with Semaphorin repulsive guidance cues and selectively oxidizes Met 44. We now find that this actin-regulatory process is reversible. Employing a genetic approach, we identified a specific methionine sulfoxide reductase (MsrB) enzyme SelR that opposes Mical redox activity and Semaphorin-Plexin repulsion to direct multiple actin-dependent cellular behaviours in vivo. SelR specifically catalyses the reduction of the R isomer of methionine sulfoxide (methionine-R-sulfoxide) to methionine, and we found that SelR directly reduced Mical-oxidized actin, restoring its normal polymerization properties. These results indicate that Mical oxidizes actin stereospecifically to generate actin Met-44-R-sulfoxide (actin(Met(R)O-44)), and also implicate the interconversion of specific Met/Met(R)O residues as a precise means to modulate protein function. Our results therefore uncover a specific reversible redox actin regulatory system that controls cell and developmental biology.

  6. Profilin connects actin assembly with microtubule dynamics.

    PubMed

    Nejedla, Michaela; Sadi, Sara; Sulimenko, Vadym; de Almeida, Francisca Nunes; Blom, Hans; Draber, Pavel; Aspenström, Pontus; Karlsson, Roger

    2016-08-01

    Profilin controls actin nucleation and assembly processes in eukaryotic cells. Actin nucleation and elongation promoting factors (NEPFs) such as Ena/VASP, formins, and WASP-family proteins recruit profilin:actin for filament formation. Some of these are found to be microtubule associated, making actin polymerization from microtubule-associated platforms possible. Microtubules are implicated in focal adhesion turnover, cell polarity establishment, and migration, illustrating the coupling between actin and microtubule systems. Here we demonstrate that profilin is functionally linked to microtubules with formins and point to formins as major mediators of this association. To reach this conclusion, we combined different fluorescence microscopy techniques, including superresolution microscopy, with siRNA modulation of profilin expression and drug treatments to interfere with actin dynamics. Our studies show that profilin dynamically associates with microtubules and this fraction of profilin contributes to balance actin assembly during homeostatic cell growth and affects micro-tubule dynamics. Hence profilin functions as a regulator of microtubule (+)-end turnover in addition to being an actin control element.

  7. Profilin connects actin assembly with microtubule dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Nejedla, Michaela; Sadi, Sara; Sulimenko, Vadym; de Almeida, Francisca Nunes; Blom, Hans; Draber, Pavel; Aspenström, Pontus; Karlsson, Roger

    2016-01-01

    Profilin controls actin nucleation and assembly processes in eukaryotic cells. Actin nucleation and elongation promoting factors (NEPFs) such as Ena/VASP, formins, and WASP-family proteins recruit profilin:actin for filament formation. Some of these are found to be microtubule associated, making actin polymerization from microtubule-associated platforms possible. Microtubules are implicated in focal adhesion turnover, cell polarity establishment, and migration, illustrating the coupling between actin and microtubule systems. Here we demonstrate that profilin is functionally linked to microtubules with formins and point to formins as major mediators of this association. To reach this conclusion, we combined different fluorescence microscopy techniques, including superresolution microscopy, with siRNA modulation of profilin expression and drug treatments to interfere with actin dynamics. Our studies show that profilin dynamically associates with microtubules and this fraction of profilin contributes to balance actin assembly during homeostatic cell growth and affects micro­tubule dynamics. Hence profilin functions as a regulator of microtubule (+)-end turnover in addition to being an actin control element. PMID:27307590

  8. Actin filament nucleation and elongation factors--structure-function relationships.

    PubMed

    Dominguez, Roberto

    2009-01-01

    The spontaneous and unregulated polymerization of actin filaments is inhibited in cells by actin monomer-binding proteins such as profilin and Tbeta4. Eukaryotic cells and certain pathogens use filament nucleators to stabilize actin polymerization nuclei, whose formation is rate-limiting. Known filament nucleators include the Arp2/3 complex and its large family of nucleation promoting factors (NPFs), formins, Spire, Cobl, VopL/VopF, TARP and Lmod. These molecules control the time and location for polymerization, and additionally influence the structures of the actin networks that they generate. Filament nucleators are generally unrelated, but with the exception of formins they all use the WASP-Homology 2 domain (WH2 or W), a small and versatile actin-binding motif, for interaction with actin. A common architecture, found in Spire, Cobl and VopL/VopF, consists of tandem W domains that bind three to four actin subunits to form a nucleus. Structural considerations suggest that NPFs-Arp2/3 complex can also be viewed as a specialized form of tandem W-based nucleator. Formins are unique in that they use the formin-homology 2 (FH2) domain for interaction with actin and promote not only nucleation, but also processive barbed end elongation. In contrast, the elongation function among W-based nucleators has been "outsourced" to a dedicated family of proteins, Eva/VASP, which are related to WASP-family NPFs.

  9. Control of Electrostatic Interactions Between F-Actin And Genetically Modified Lysozyme in Aqueous Media

    SciTech Connect

    Sanders, L.K.; Xian, W.; Guaqueta, C.; Strohman, M.; Vrasich, C.R.; Luijten, E.; Wong, G.C.L.

    2009-06-04

    The aim for deterministic control of the interactions between macroions in aqueous media has motivated widespread experimental and theoretical work. Although it has been well established that like-charged macromolecules can aggregate under the influence of oppositely charged condensing agents, the specific conditions for the stability of such aggregates can only be determined empirically. We examine these conditions, which involve an interplay of electrostatic and osmotic effects, by using a well defined model system composed of F-actin, an anionic rod-like polyelectrolyte, and lysozyme, a cationic globular protein with a charge that can be genetically modified. The structure and stability of actin-lysozyme complexes for different lysozyme charge mutants and salt concentrations are examined by using synchrotron x-ray scattering and molecular dynamics simulations. We provide evidence that supports a structural transition from columnar arrangements of F-actin held together by arrays of lysozyme at the threefold interstitial sites of the actin sublattice to marginally stable complexes in which lysozyme resides at twofold bridging sites between actin. The reduced stability arises from strongly reduced partitioning of salt between the complex and the surrounding solution. Changes in the stability of actin-lysozyme complexes are of biomedical interest because their formation has been reported to contribute to the persistence of airway infections in cystic fibrosis by sequestering antimicrobials such as lysozyme. We present x-ray microscopy results that argue for the existence of actin-lysozyme complexes in cystic fibrosis sputum and demonstrate that, for a wide range of salt conditions, charge-reduced lysozyme is not sequestered in ordered complexes while retaining its bacterial killing activity.

  10. Control of electrostatic interactions between F-actin and genetically modified lysozyme in aqueous media

    SciTech Connect

    Sanders, Lori K.; Xian, Wujing; Guaqueta, Camilo; Strohman, Michael J.; Vrasich, Chuck R.; Luijten, Erik; Wong, Gerard C.L.

    2008-07-11

    The aim for deterministic control of the interactions between macroions in aqueous media has motivated widespread experimental and theoretical work. Although it has been well established that like-charged macromolecules can aggregate under the influence of oppositely charged condensing agents, the specific conditions for the stability of such aggregates can only be determined empirically. We examine these conditions, which involve an interplay of electrostatic and osmotic effects, by using a well defined model system composed of F-actin, an anionic rod-like polyelectrolyte, and lysozyme, a cationic globular protein with a charge that can be genetically modified. The structure and stability of actin-lysozyme complexes for different lysozyme charge mutants and salt concentrations are examined by using synchrotron x-ray scattering and molecular dynamics simulations. We provide evidence that supports a structural transition from columnar arrangements of F-actin held together by arrays of lysozyme at the threefold interstitial sites of the actin sublattice to marginally stable complexes in which lysozyme resides at twofold bridging sites between actin. The reduced stability arises from strongly reduced partitioning of salt between the complex and the surrounding solution. Changes in the stability of actin-lysozyme complexes are of biomedical interest because their formation has been reported to contribute to the persistence of airway infections in cystic fibrosis by sequestering antimicrobials such as lysozyme. We present x-ray microscopy results that argue for the existence of actin-lysozyme complexes in cystic fibrosis sputum and demonstrate that, for a wide range of salt conditions, charge-reduced lysozyme is not sequestered in ordered complexes while retaining its bacterial killing activity.

  11. Persistent nuclear actin filaments inhibit transcription by RNA polymerase II.

    PubMed

    Serebryannyy, Leonid A; Parilla, Megan; Annibale, Paolo; Cruz, Christina M; Laster, Kyle; Gratton, Enrico; Kudryashov, Dmitri; Kosak, Steven T; Gottardi, Cara J; de Lanerolle, Primal

    2016-09-15

    Actin is abundant in the nucleus and it is clear that nuclear actin has important functions. However, mystery surrounds the absence of classical actin filaments in the nucleus. To address this question, we investigated how polymerizing nuclear actin into persistent nuclear actin filaments affected transcription by RNA polymerase II. Nuclear filaments impaired nuclear actin dynamics by polymerizing and sequestering nuclear actin. Polymerizing actin into stable nuclear filaments disrupted the interaction of actin with RNA polymerase II and correlated with impaired RNA polymerase II localization, dynamics, gene recruitment, and reduced global transcription and cell proliferation. Polymerizing and crosslinking nuclear actin in vitro similarly disrupted the actin-RNA-polymerase-II interaction and inhibited transcription. These data rationalize the general absence of stable actin filaments in mammalian somatic nuclei. They also suggest a dynamic pool of nuclear actin is required for the proper localization and activity of RNA polymerase II.

  12. Formin-mediated actin polymerization cooperates with Mushroom body defect (Mud)–Dynein during Frizzled–Dishevelled spindle orientation

    PubMed Central

    Johnston, Christopher A.; Manning, Laurina; Lu, Michelle S.; Golub, Ognjen; Doe, Chris Q.; Prehoda, Kenneth E.

    2013-01-01

    Summary To position the mitotic spindle, cytoskeletal components must be coordinated to generate cortical forces on astral microtubules. Although the dynein motor is common to many spindle orientation systems, ‘accessory pathways’ are often also required. In this work, we identified an accessory spindle orientation pathway in Drosophila that functions with Dynein during planar cell polarity, downstream of the Frizzled (Fz) effector Dishevelled (Dsh). Dsh contains a PDZ ligand and a Dynein-recruiting DEP domain that are both required for spindle orientation. The Dsh PDZ ligand recruits Canoe/Afadin and ultimately leads to Rho GTPase signaling mediated through RhoGEF2. The formin Diaphanous (Dia) functions as the Rho effector in this pathway, inducing F-actin enrichment at sites of cortical Dsh. Chimeric protein experiments show that the Dia–actin accessory pathway can be replaced by an independent kinesin (Khc73) accessory pathway for Dsh-mediated spindle orientation. Our results define two ‘modular’ spindle orientation pathways and show an essential role for actin regulation in Dsh-mediated spindle orientation. PMID:23868974

  13. Formation and Remodeling of Hair Bundles Promoted by Continuous Actin Polymerization at the Tips of Stereocilia:. Mechanical Considerations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, M. E.; Rzadzinska, A.; Davies, C.; Kachar, B.

    2003-02-01

    Mechanosensory transduction in the inner ear depends on the deflection of stereocilia, which are specialized microvilli that form a bundle on the surface of the hair cell. Previously, mature stereocilia were thought to be extremely stable because they are supported by a rigid semi-crystalline array of cross-linked parallel actin filaments of uniform polarity. Structural stability is deemed important for mechano-reception that is sensitive to displacements at the nanometer scale [1]. Recently, we showed that these actin filament bundles are continuously being remodeled by addition of actin monomers at the tips of the stereocilia and that the entire stereocilium is renewed every 48 hours [2]. Recognition of this dynamic aspect of stereocilia is essential to understanding the development and maintenance of normal sensory function. Such a dynamic renewal mechanism could also help understand the molecular basis of several genetic, environmental and age-related inner-ear disorders that involve malformation or disruption of stereocilia. We discuss here the micromechanical consequences of this newly discovered stereocilia plasticity.

  14. Formin-mediated actin polymerization cooperates with Mushroom body defect (Mud)-Dynein during Frizzled-Dishevelled spindle orientation.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Christopher A; Manning, Laurina; Lu, Michelle S; Golub, Ognjen; Doe, Chris Q; Prehoda, Kenneth E

    2013-10-01

    To position the mitotic spindle, cytoskeletal components must be coordinated to generate cortical forces on astral microtubules. Although the dynein motor is common to many spindle orientation systems, 'accessory pathways' are often also required. In this work, we identified an accessory spindle orientation pathway in Drosophila that functions with Dynein during planar cell polarity, downstream of the Frizzled (Fz) effector Dishevelled (Dsh). Dsh contains a PDZ ligand and a Dynein-recruiting DEP domain that are both required for spindle orientation. The Dsh PDZ ligand recruits Canoe/Afadin and ultimately leads to Rho GTPase signaling mediated through RhoGEF2. The formin Diaphanous (Dia) functions as the Rho effector in this pathway, inducing F-actin enrichment at sites of cortical Dsh. Chimeric protein experiments show that the Dia-actin accessory pathway can be replaced by an independent kinesin (Khc73) accessory pathway for Dsh-mediated spindle orientation. Our results define two 'modular' spindle orientation pathways and show an essential role for actin regulation in Dsh-mediated spindle orientation.

  15. Application of Controlled Radical Polymerization for Nucleic Acid Delivery

    PubMed Central

    CHU, DAVID S.H.; SCHELLINGER, JOAN G.; SHI, JULIE; CONVERTINE, ANTHONY J.; STAYTON, PATRICK S.; PUN, SUZIE H.

    2012-01-01

    CONSPECTUS Nucleic acid-based therapeutics can potentially address otherwise untreatable genetic disorders and have significant potential for a wide range of diseases. Therapeutic gene delivery can restore protein function by replacing defunct genes to restore cellular health while RNA interference (RNAi) can mask mutated and harmful genes. Cationic polymers have been extensively studied for nucleic acid delivery applications due to their self-assembly with nucleic acids into virus-sized nanoparticles and high transfection efficiency in vitro, but toxicity and particle stability have limited their clinical applications. The advent of controlled radical polymerization has improved the quality, control and reproducibility of synthesized materials. Controlled radical polymerization yields well-defined, narrowly disperse materials of designable architectures and molecular weight, allowing study of the effects of polymer architecture and molecular weight on transfection efficiency and cytotoxicity for improved design of next-generation vectors. Robust methods such as atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP), reverse addition-fragmentation chain transfer polymerization (RAFT), and ring-opening metastasis polymerization (ROMP) have been used to engineer materials that specifically enhance extracellular stability, cellular specificity, and decrease toxicity. This Account reviews findings from structure-function studies that have elucidated key design motifs necessary for the development of effective nucleic acid vectors. In addition, polymers that are biodegradable, form supramolecular structures, target specific cells, or facilitate endosomal release are also discussed. Finally, promising materials with in vivo applications ranging from pulmonary gene delivery to DNA vaccines are described. PMID:22242774

  16. Actin Assembly at Model-Supported Lipid Bilayers

    PubMed Central

    Heath, George R.; Johnson, Benjamin R.G.; Olmsted, Peter D.; Connell, Simon D.; Evans, Stephen D.

    2013-01-01

    We report on the use of supported lipid bilayers to reveal dynamics of actin polymerization from a nonpolymerizing subphase via cationic phospholipids. Using varying fractions of charged lipid, lipid mobility, and buffer conditions, we show that dynamics at the nanoscale can be used to control the self-assembly of these structures. In the case of fluid-phase lipid bilayers, the actin adsorbs to form a uniform two-dimensional layer with complete surface coverage whereas gel-phase bilayers induce a network of randomly oriented actin filaments, of lower coverage. Reducing the pH increased the polymerization rate, the number of nucleation events, and the total coverage of actin. A model of the adsorption/diffusion process is developed to provide a description of the experimental data and shows that, in the case of fluid-phase bilayers, polymerization arises equally due to the adsorption and diffusion of surface-bound monomers and the addition of monomers directly from the solution phase. In contrast, in the case of gel-phase bilayers, polymerization is dominated by the addition of monomers from solution. In both cases, the filaments are stable for long times even when the G-actin is removed from the supernatant—making this a practical approach for creating stable lipid-actin systems via self-assembly. PMID:24268147

  17. Measuring F-actin properties in dendritic spines

    PubMed Central

    Koskinen, Mikko; Hotulainen, Pirta

    2014-01-01

    During the last decade, numerous studies have demonstrated that the actin cytoskeleton plays a pivotal role in the control of dendritic spine shape. Synaptic stimulation rapidly changes the actin dynamics and many actin regulators have been shown to play roles in neuron functionality. Accordingly, defects in the regulation of the actin cytoskeleton in neurons have been implicated in memory disorders. Due to the small size of spines, it is difficult to detect changes in the actin structures in dendritic spines by conventional light microscopy imaging. Instead, to know how tightly actin filaments are bundled together, and how fast the filaments turnover, we need to use advanced microscopy techniques, such as fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP), photoactivatable green fluorescent protein (PAGFP) fluorescence decay and fluorescence anisotropy. Fluorescence anisotropy, which measures the Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) between two GFP fluorophores, has been proposed as a method to measure the level of actin polymerization. Here, we propose a novel idea that fluorescence anisotropy could be more suitable to study the level of actin filament bundling instead of actin polymerization. We validate the method in U2OS cell line where the actin structures can be clearly distinguished and apply to analyze how actin filament organization in dendritic spines changes during neuronal maturation. In addition to fluorescence anisotropy validation, we take a critical look at the properties and limitations of FRAP and PAGFP fluorescence decay methods and offer our proposals for the analysis methods for these approaches. These three methods complement each other, each providing additional information about actin dynamics and organization in dendritic spines. PMID:25140131

  18. Mitochondrial Dysfunction, Disruption of F-Actin Polymerization, and Transcriptomic Alterations in Zebrafish Larvae Exposed to Trichloroethylene.

    PubMed

    Wirbisky, Sara E; Damayanti, Nur P; Mahapatra, Cecon T; Sepúlveda, Maria S; Irudayaraj, Joseph; Freeman, Jennifer L

    2016-02-15

    Trichloroethylene (TCE) is primarily used as an industrial degreasing agent and has been in use since the 1940s. TCE is released into the soil, surface, and groundwater. From an environmental and regulatory standpoint, more than half of Superfund hazardous waste sites on the National Priority List are contaminated with TCE. Occupational exposure to TCE occurs primarily via inhalation, while environmental TCE exposure also occurs through ingestion of contaminated drinking water. Current literature links TCE exposure to various adverse health effects including cardiovascular toxicity. Current studies aiming to address developmental cardiovascular toxicity utilized rodent and avian models, with the majority of studies using relatively higher parts per million (mg/L) doses. In this study, to further investigate developmental cardiotoxicity of TCE, zebrafish embryos were treated with 0, 10, 100, or 500 parts per billion (ppb; μg/L) TCE during embryogenesis and/or through early larval stages. After the appropriate exposure period, angiogenesis, F-actin, and mitochondrial function were assessed. A significant dose-response decrease in angiogenesis, F-actin, and mitochondrial function was observed. To further complement this data, a transcriptomic profile of zebrafish larvae was completed to identify gene alterations associated with the 10 ppb TCE exposure. Results from the transcriptomic data revealed that embryonic TCE exposure caused significant changes in genes associated with cardiovascular disease, cancer, and organismal injury and abnormalities with a number of targets in the FAK signaling pathway. Overall, results from our study support TCE as a developmental cardiovascular toxicant, provide molecular targets and pathways for investigation in future studies, and indicate a need for continued priority for environmental regulation. PMID:26745549

  19. Reconstitution of actin-based motility of Listeria and Shigella using pure proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loisel, Thomas P.; Boujemaa, Rajaa; Pantaloni, Dominique; Carlier, Marie-France

    1999-10-01

    Actin polymerization is essential for cell locomotion and is thought to generate the force responsible for cellular protrusions. The Arp2/3 complex is required to stimulate actin assembly at the leading edge in response to signalling. The bacteria Listeria and Shigella bypass the signalling pathway and harness the Arp2/3 complex to induce actin assembly and to propel themselves in living cells. However, the Arp2/3 complex alone is insufficient to promote movement. Here we have used pure components of the actin cytoskeleton to reconstitute sustained movement in Listeria and Shigella in vitro. Actin-based propulsion is driven by the free energy released by ATP hydrolysis linked to actin polymerization, and does not require myosin. In addition to actin and activated Arp2/3 complex, actin depolymerizing factor (ADF, or cofilin) and capping protein are also required for motility as they maintain a high steady-state level of G-actin, which controls the rate of unidirectional growth of actin filaments at the surface of the bacterium. The movement is more effective when profilin, α-actinin and VASP (for Listeria) are also included. These results have implications for our understanding of the mechanism of actin-based motility in cells.

  20. Filopodial retraction force is generated by cortical actin dynamics and controlled by reversible tethering at the tip

    PubMed Central

    Bornschlögl, Thomas; Romero, Stéphane; Vestergaard, Christian L.; Joanny, Jean-François; Van Nhieu, Guy Tran; Bassereau, Patricia

    2013-01-01

    Filopodia are dynamic, finger-like plasma membrane protrusions that sense the mechanical and chemical surroundings of the cell. Here, we show in epithelial cells that the dynamics of filopodial extension and retraction are determined by the difference between the actin polymerization rate at the tip and the retrograde flow at the base of the filopodium. Adhesion of a bead to the filopodial tip locally reduces actin polymerization and leads to retraction via retrograde flow, reminiscent of a process used by pathogens to invade cells. Using optical tweezers, we show that filopodial retraction occurs at a constant speed against counteracting forces up to 50 pN. Our measurements point toward retrograde flow in the cortex together with frictional coupling between the filopodial and cortical actin networks as the main retraction-force generator for filopodia. The force exerted by filopodial retraction, however, is limited by the connection between filopodial actin filaments and the membrane at the tip. Upon mechanical rupture of the tip connection, filopodia exert a passive retraction force of 15 pN via their plasma membrane. Transient reconnection at the tip allows filopodia to continuously probe their surroundings in a load-and-fail manner within a well-defined force range. PMID:24198333

  1. SelR/MsrB Reverses Mical-mediated Oxidation of Actin to Regulate F-actin Dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Hung, Ruei-Jiun; Spaeth, Christopher S.; Yesilyurt, Hunkar Gizem; Terman, Jonathan R.

    2014-01-01

    Actin's polymerization properties are dramatically altered by oxidation of its conserved methionine (Met)-44 residue. Mediating this effect is a specific oxidation-reduction (Redox) enzyme, Mical, that works with Semaphorin repulsive guidance cues and selectively oxidizes Met-44. We now find that this actin regulatory process is reversible. Employing a genetic approach, we identified a specific methionine sulfoxide reductase enzyme SelR that opposes Mical Redox activity and Semaphorin/Plexin repulsion to direct multiple actin-dependent cellular behaviors in vivo. SelR specifically catalyzes the reduction of the R-isomer of methionine sulfoxide (methionine-R-sulfoxide) to methionine, and we found that SelR directly reduced Mical-oxidized actin, restoring its normal polymerization properties. These results indicate that Mical oxidizes actin stereo-specifically to generate actin Met-44-R-sulfoxide (actinMet(R)O-44) – and they also implicate the interconversion of specific Met/Met(R)O residues as a precise means to modulate protein function. Our results therefore uncover a specific reversible Redox actin regulatory system that controls cell and developmental biology. PMID:24212093

  2. Engineering control technology in polyvinyl chloride polymerization plants.

    PubMed

    Gideon, J A

    1979-01-01

    The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Division of Physical Sciences and Engineering has initiated a research program in control technology. The objective of this program is to facilitate the implementation of effective preventative measures in order to prevent occupational illness. The plastics and resins industry control technology assessment has recently been completed. The objectives of this study were to document and evaluate effective control technology for plastics and resins polymerization plants. Particular emphasis was given to PVC polymerization processes, since the relatively recent lowering in the personal exposure limit for vinyl chloride monomer (VCM) to an 8-hour 1-ppm time-weighted average has required the application of state-of-the-art controls. The present paper contains a summary of the control technology that was found to be effective in controlling VCM in processes manufacturing PVC by suspension, bulk, and dispersion polymerization. Controls necessary for VCM include process and equipment modification, isolation, local and general ventilation, work practices, personal protective equipment, workplace monitoring systems, employee/employer education, and on-going effort by both workers and management. All of these components must function together as an integrated coordinated system in order to assure worker protection under normal operating conditions or under conditions of process upset or maintenance.

  3. Stain-Free total protein staining is a superior loading control to β-actin for Western blots.

    PubMed

    Gilda, Jennifer E; Gomes, Aldrin V

    2013-09-15

    Semi-quantification of proteins using Western blots typically involves normalization against housekeeping genes such as β-actin. More recently, Ponceau S and Coomassie blue staining have both been shown to be suitable alternatives to housekeeping genes as loading controls. Stain-Free total protein staining offers the advantage of no staining or destaining steps. Evaluation of the use of Stain-Free staining as an alternative to β-actin or the protein stain Ponceau S showed that Stain-Free staining was superior to β-actin and as good as or better than Ponceau S staining as a loading control for Western blots. PMID:23747530

  4. Perinuclear Arp2/3-driven actin polymerization enables nuclear deformation to facilitate cell migration through complex environments

    PubMed Central

    Thiam, Hawa-Racine; Vargas, Pablo; Carpi, Nicolas; Crespo, Carolina Lage; Raab, Matthew; Terriac, Emmanuel; King, Megan C.; Jacobelli, Jordan; Alberts, Arthur S.; Stradal, Theresia; Lennon-Dumenil, Ana-Maria; Piel, Matthieu

    2016-01-01

    Cell migration has two opposite faces: although necessary for physiological processes such as immune responses, it can also have detrimental effects by enabling metastatic cells to invade new organs. In vivo, migration occurs in complex environments and often requires a high cellular deformability, a property limited by the cell nucleus. Here we show that dendritic cells, the sentinels of the immune system, possess a mechanism to pass through micrometric constrictions. This mechanism is based on a rapid Arp2/3-dependent actin nucleation around the nucleus that disrupts the nuclear lamina, the main structure limiting nuclear deformability. The cells' requirement for Arp2/3 to pass through constrictions can be relieved when nuclear stiffness is decreased by suppressing lamin A/C expression. We propose a new role for Arp2/3 in three-dimensional cell migration, allowing fast-moving cells such as leukocytes to rapidly and efficiently migrate through narrow gaps, a process probably important for their function. PMID:26975831

  5. Perinuclear Arp2/3-driven actin polymerization enables nuclear deformation to facilitate cell migration through complex environments.

    PubMed

    Thiam, Hawa-Racine; Vargas, Pablo; Carpi, Nicolas; Crespo, Carolina Lage; Raab, Matthew; Terriac, Emmanuel; King, Megan C; Jacobelli, Jordan; Alberts, Arthur S; Stradal, Theresia; Lennon-Dumenil, Ana-Maria; Piel, Matthieu

    2016-01-01

    Cell migration has two opposite faces: although necessary for physiological processes such as immune responses, it can also have detrimental effects by enabling metastatic cells to invade new organs. In vivo, migration occurs in complex environments and often requires a high cellular deformability, a property limited by the cell nucleus. Here we show that dendritic cells, the sentinels of the immune system, possess a mechanism to pass through micrometric constrictions. This mechanism is based on a rapid Arp2/3-dependent actin nucleation around the nucleus that disrupts the nuclear lamina, the main structure limiting nuclear deformability. The cells' requirement for Arp2/3 to pass through constrictions can be relieved when nuclear stiffness is decreased by suppressing lamin A/C expression. We propose a new role for Arp2/3 in three-dimensional cell migration, allowing fast-moving cells such as leukocytes to rapidly and efficiently migrate through narrow gaps, a process probably important for their function. PMID:26975831

  6. The yin-yang of dendrite morphology: unity of actin and microtubules.

    PubMed

    Georges, Penelope C; Hadzimichalis, Norell M; Sweet, Eric S; Firestein, Bonnie L

    2008-12-01

    Actin and microtubules (MT) are targets of numerous molecular pathways that control neurite outgrowth. To generate a neuronal protrusion, coordinated structural changes of the actin and MT cytoskeletons must occur. Neurite formation occurs when actin filaments (F-actin) are destabilized, filopodia are extended, and MTs invade filopodia. This process results in either axon or dendrite formation. Axonal branching involves interplay between F-actin and MTs, with F-actin and MTs influencing polymerization, stabilization, and maintenance of each other. Our knowledge of the mechanisms regulating development of the axon, however, far eclipses our understanding of dendritic development and branching. The two classes of neurites, while fundamentally similar in their ability to elongate and branch, dramatically differ in growth rate, orientation of polarized MT bundles, and mechanisms that initiate branching. In this review, we focus on how F-actin, MTs, and proteins that link the two cytoskeletons coordinate to specifically initiate dendritic events. PMID:18987787

  7. Induction of Necrosis in Human Neutrophils by Shigella flexneri Requires Type III Secretion, IpaB and IpaC Invasins, and Actin Polymerization

    PubMed Central

    François, Mathias; Le Cabec, Véronique; Dupont, Marie-Ange; Sansonetti, Philippe J.; Maridonneau-Parini, Isabelle

    2000-01-01

    Infection by Shigella flexneri is characterized by infiltration of neutrophils in the intestinal mucosa and by a strong inflammatory reaction. Although neutrophils are constitutively programmed to die by apoptosis, we show that isolated human neutrophils undergo necrosis 2 h after infection with virulent S. flexneri strain M90T but not with the virulence plasmid-cured strain BS176. This was demonstrated by the release of azurophil granule proteins concomitant with the release of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), disruption of the plasma membrane, and absence of DNA fragmentation. Mutants with the mxiD1 gene, coding for an essential component of the secretion type III machinery, or the genes coding for IpaB or IpaC invasins deleted were not cytotoxic. Neutrophil necrosis occurred independently of the bacterial ability to leave phagosomes, and it involved actin polymerization, as the addition of cytochalasin D after phagocytosis of Shigella inhibited the release of LDH. In conclusion, Shigella kills neutrophils by necrosis, a process characterized by the release of tissue-injurious granular proteins. This probably contributes to disruption of the epithelial barrier, leading to the dysentery observed in shigellosis and allowing Shigella to enter its host cells. PMID:10678940

  8. Shape Control in Engineering of Polymeric Nanoparticles for Therapeutic Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Williford, John-Michael; Santos, Jose Luis; Shyam, Rishab; Mao, Hai-Quan

    2015-01-01

    Nanoparticle-mediated delivery of therapeutics holds great potential for the diagnosis and treatment of a wide range of diseases. Significant advances have been made in the design of new polymeric nanoparticle carriers through modulation of their physical and chemical structures and biophysical properties. Nanoparticle shape has been increasingly proposed as an important attribute dictating their transport properties in biological milieu. In this review, we highlight three major methods for preparing polymeric nanoparticles that allow for exquisite control of particle shape. Special attention is given to various approaches to controlling nanoparticle shape by tuning copolymer structural parameters and assembly conditions. This review also provides comparisons of these methods in terms of their unique capabilities, materials choices, and specific delivery cargos, and summarizes the biological effects of nanoparticle shape on transport properties at the tissue and cellular levels. PMID:26146550

  9. Shank–cortactin interactions control actin dynamics to maintain flexibility of neuronal spines and synapses

    PubMed Central

    MacGillavry, Harold D.; Kerr, Justin M.; Kassner, Josh; Frost, Nicholas A.; Blanpied, Thomas A.

    2016-01-01

    The family of Shank scaffolding molecules (comprising Shank1, 2 and 3) are core components of the postsynaptic density (PSD) in neuronal synapses. Shanks link surface receptors to other scaffolding molecules within the PSD, as well as to the actin cytoskeleton. However, determining the function of Shank proteins in neurons has been complicated because the different Shank isoforms share a very high degree of sequence and domain homology. Therefore, to control Shank content while minimizing potential compensatory effects, a miRNA-based knockdown strategy was developed to reduce the expression of all synaptically targeted Shank isoforms simultaneously in rat hippocampal neurons. Using this approach, a strong (>75%) reduction in total Shank protein levels was achieved at individual dendritic spines, prompting an approximately 40% decrease in mushroom spine density. Furthermore, Shank knockdown reduced spine actin levels and increased sensitivity to the actin depolymerizing agent Latrunculin A. A SHANK2 mutant lacking the proline-rich cortactin-binding motif (SHANK2-ΔPRO) was unable to rescue these defects. Furthermore, Shank knockdown reduced cortactin levels in spines and increased the mobility of spine cortactin as measured by single-molecule tracking photoactivated localization microscopy, suggesting that Shank proteins recruit and stabilize cortactin at the synapse. Furthermore, it was found that Shank knockdown significantly reduced spontaneous remodelling of synapse morphology that could not be rescued by the SHANK2-ΔPRO mutant. It was concluded that Shank proteins are key intermediates between the synapse and the spine interior that, via cortactin, permit the actin cytoskeleton to dynamically regulate synapse morphology and function. PMID:26547831

  10. Pollen specific expression of maize genes encoding actin depolymerizing factor-like proteins.

    PubMed Central

    Lopez, I; Anthony, R G; Maciver, S K; Jiang, C J; Khan, S; Weeds, A G; Hussey, P J

    1996-01-01

    In pollen development, a dramatic reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton takes place during the passage of the pollen grain into dormancy and on activation of pollen tube growth. A role for actin-binding proteins is implicated and we report here the identification of a small gene family in maize that encodes actin depolymerizing factor (ADF)-like proteins. The ADF group of proteins are believed to control actin polymerization and depolymerization in response to both intracellular and extracellular signals. Two of the maize genes ZmABP1 and ZmABP2 are expressed specifically in pollen and germinating pollen suggesting that the protein products may be involved in pollen actin reorganization. A third gene, ZmABP3, encodes a protein only 56% and 58% identical to ZmABP1 and ZmABP2, respectively, and its expression is suppressed in pollen and germinated pollen. The fundamental biochemical characteristics of the ZmABP proteins has been elucidated using bacterially expressed ZmABP3 protein. This has the ability to bind monomeric actin (G-actin) and filamentous actin (F-actin). Moreover, it decreases the viscosity of polymerized actin solutions consistent with an ability to depolymerize filaments. These biochemical characteristics, taken together with the sequence comparisons, support the inclusion of the ZmABP proteins in the ADF group. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:8693008

  11. Genome-wide RNAi screen for nuclear actin reveals a network of cofilin regulators

    PubMed Central

    Dopie, Joseph; Rajakylä, Eeva K.; Joensuu, Merja S.; Huet, Guillaume; Ferrantelli, Evelina; Xie, Tiao; Jäälinoja, Harri; Jokitalo, Eija; Vartiainen, Maria K.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Nuclear actin plays an important role in many processes that regulate gene expression. Cytoplasmic actin dynamics are tightly controlled by numerous actin-binding proteins, but regulation of nuclear actin has remained unclear. Here, we performed a genome-wide RNA interference (RNAi) screen in Drosophila cells to identify proteins that influence either nuclear polymerization or import of actin. We validate 19 factors as specific hits, and show that Chinmo (known as Bach2 in mammals), SNF4Aγ (Prkag1 in mammals) and Rab18 play a role in nuclear localization of actin in both fly and mammalian cells. We identify several new regulators of cofilin activity, and characterize modulators of both cofilin kinases and phosphatase. For example, Chinmo/Bach2, which regulates nuclear actin levels also in vivo, maintains active cofilin by repressing the expression of the kinase Cdi (Tesk in mammals). Finally, we show that Nup98 and lamin are candidates for regulating nuclear actin polymerization. Our screen therefore reveals new aspects of actin regulation and links nuclear actin to many cellular processes. PMID:26021350

  12. Genome-wide RNAi screen for nuclear actin reveals a network of cofilin regulators.

    PubMed

    Dopie, Joseph; Rajakylä, Eeva K; Joensuu, Merja S; Huet, Guillaume; Ferrantelli, Evelina; Xie, Tiao; Jäälinoja, Harri; Jokitalo, Eija; Vartiainen, Maria K

    2015-07-01

    Nuclear actin plays an important role in many processes that regulate gene expression. Cytoplasmic actin dynamics are tightly controlled by numerous actin-binding proteins, but regulation of nuclear actin has remained unclear. Here, we performed a genome-wide RNA interference (RNAi) screen in Drosophila cells to identify proteins that influence either nuclear polymerization or import of actin. We validate 19 factors as specific hits, and show that Chinmo (known as Bach2 in mammals), SNF4Aγ (Prkag1 in mammals) and Rab18 play a role in nuclear localization of actin in both fly and mammalian cells. We identify several new regulators of cofilin activity, and characterize modulators of both cofilin kinases and phosphatase. For example, Chinmo/Bach2, which regulates nuclear actin levels also in vivo, maintains active cofilin by repressing the expression of the kinase Cdi (Tesk in mammals). Finally, we show that Nup98 and lamin are candidates for regulating nuclear actin polymerization. Our screen therefore reveals new aspects of actin regulation and links nuclear actin to many cellular processes.

  13. Actinic Keratosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... rashes clinical tools newsletter | contact Share | Actinic Keratosis (Solar Keratosis) Information for adults A A A Actinic ... the touch. Overview Actinic keratoses, also known as solar keratoses, are small rough or scaly areas of ...

  14. In vitro and in vivo evidence for actin association of the naphthylphthalamic acid-binding protein from zucchini hypocotyls

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butler, J. H.; Hu, S.; Brady, S. R.; Dixon, M. W.; Muday, G. K.

    1998-01-01

    The N-1-naphthylphthalamic acid (NPA)-binding protein is part of the auxin efflux carrier, the protein complex that controls polar auxin transport in plant tissues. This study tested the hypothesis that the NPA-binding protein (NBP) is associated with the actin cytoskeleton in vitro and that an intact actin cytoskeleton is required for polar auxin transport in vivo. Cytoskeletal polymerization was altered in extracts of zucchini hypocotyls with reagents that stabilized either the polymeric or monomeric forms of actin or tubulin. Phalloidin treatment altered actin polymerization, as demonstrated by immunoblot analyses following native and denaturing electrophoresis. Phalloidin increased both filamentous actin (F-actin) and NPA-binding activity, while cytochalasin D and Tris decreased both F-actin and NPA-binding activity in cytoskeletal pellets. The microtubule stabilizing drug taxol increased pelletable tubulin, but did not alter either the amount of pelletable actin or NPA-binding activity. Treatment of etiolated zucchini hypocotyls with cytochalasin D decreased the amount of auxin transport and its regulation by NPA. These experimental results are consistent with an in vitro actin cytoskeletal association of the NPA-binding protein and with the requirement of an intact actin cytoskeleton for maximal polar auxin transport in vivo.

  15. Identification of an ATP-controlled allosteric switch that controls actin filament nucleation by Arp2/3 complex

    PubMed Central

    Rodnick-Smith, Max; Liu, Su-Ling; Balzer, Connor J.; Luan, Qing; Nolen, Brad J.

    2016-01-01

    Nucleation of branched actin filaments by Arp2/3 complex is tightly regulated to control actin assembly in cells. Arp2/3 complex activation involves conformational changes brought about by ATP, Nucleation Promoting Factor (NPF) proteins, actin filaments and NPF-recruited actin monomers. To understand how these factors promote activation, we must first understand how the complex is held inactive in their absence. Here we demonstrate that the Arp3 C-terminal tail is a structural switch that prevents Arp2/3 complex from adopting an active conformation. The interaction between the tail and a hydrophobic groove in Arp3 blocks movement of Arp2 and Arp3 into an activated filament-like (short pitch) conformation. Our data indicate ATP binding destabilizes this interaction via an allosteric link between the Arp3 nucleotide cleft and the hydrophobic groove, thereby promoting the short-pitch conformation. Our results help explain how Arp2/3 complex is locked in an inactive state without activators and how autoinhibition is relieved. PMID:27417392

  16. Identification of an ATP-controlled allosteric switch that controls actin filament nucleation by Arp2/3 complex.

    PubMed

    Rodnick-Smith, Max; Liu, Su-Ling; Balzer, Connor J; Luan, Qing; Nolen, Brad J

    2016-01-01

    Nucleation of branched actin filaments by Arp2/3 complex is tightly regulated to control actin assembly in cells. Arp2/3 complex activation involves conformational changes brought about by ATP, Nucleation Promoting Factor (NPF) proteins, actin filaments and NPF-recruited actin monomers. To understand how these factors promote activation, we must first understand how the complex is held inactive in their absence. Here we demonstrate that the Arp3 C-terminal tail is a structural switch that prevents Arp2/3 complex from adopting an active conformation. The interaction between the tail and a hydrophobic groove in Arp3 blocks movement of Arp2 and Arp3 into an activated filament-like (short pitch) conformation. Our data indicate ATP binding destabilizes this interaction via an allosteric link between the Arp3 nucleotide cleft and the hydrophobic groove, thereby promoting the short-pitch conformation. Our results help explain how Arp2/3 complex is locked in an inactive state without activators and how autoinhibition is relieved. PMID:27417392

  17. Photomediated Controlled Radical Polymerization and Block Copolymerization of Vinylidene Fluoride.

    PubMed

    Asandei, Alexandru D

    2016-02-24

    This review summarizes recent research on novel photochemical methods for the initiation and control of the polymerization of main chain fluorinated monomers as exemplified by vinylidene fluoride (VDF) and for the synthesis of their block copolymers. Such reactions can be carried out at ambient temperature in glass tubes using visible light. Novel, original protocols include the use of hypervalent iodide carboxylates alone or in conjunction with molecular iodine, as well as the use of photoactive transition metal carbonyls in the presence of alkyl, fluoroalkyl, and perfluoroalkyl halides. An in-depth study of the reaction parameters highlights the use of dimethyl carbonate as a preferred polymerization solvent and outlines the structure-property relationship for hypervalent iodide carboxylates and halide initiators in both the free radical and iodine degenerative transfer controlled radical polymerization (IDT-CRP) of VDF. Finally, the rational selection of metal carbonyls that are successful not only as IDT mediators but, more importantly, in the quantitative activation of both PVDF-CH2-CF2-I and PVDF-CF2-CH2-I chain ends toward the synthesis of well-defined PVDF block copolymers is presented. PMID:26760676

  18. Controlled release of ethylene via polymeric films for food packaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pisano, Roberto; Bazzano, Marco; Capozzi, Luigi Carlo; Ferri, Ada; Sangermano, Marco

    2015-12-01

    In modern fruit supply chain a common method to trigger ripening is to keep fruits inside special chambers and initiate the ripening process through administration of ethylene. Ethylene is usually administered through cylinders with inadequate control of its final concentration in the chamber. The aim of this study is the development of a new technology to accurately regulate ethylene concentration in the atmosphere where fruits are preserved: a polymeric film, containing an inclusion complex of α-cyclodextrin with ethylene, was developed. The complex was prepared by molecular encapsulation which allows the entrapment of ethylene into the cavity of α-cyclodextrin. After encapsulation, ethylene can be gradually released from the inclusion complex and its release rate can be regulated by temperature and humidity. The inclusion complex was dispersed into a thin polymeric film produced by UV-curing. This method was used because is solvent-free and involves low operating temperature; both conditions are necessary to prevent rapid release of ethylene from the film. The polymeric films were characterized with respect to thermal behaviour, crystalline structure and kinetics of ethylene release, showing that can effectively control the release of ethylene within confined volume.

  19. Reticulated Nanoporous Polymers by Controlled Polymerization-Induced Microphase Separation

    SciTech Connect

    Seo, Myungeun; Hillmyer, Marc A.

    2013-04-08

    Materials with percolating mesopores are attractive for applications such as catalysis, nanotemplating, and separations. Polymeric frameworks are particularly appealing because the chemical composition and the surface chemistry are readily tunable. We report on the preparation of robust nanoporous polymers with percolating pores in the 4- to 8-nanometer range from a microphase-separated bicontinuous precursor. We combined polymerization-induced phase separation with in situ block polymer formation from a mixture of multifunctional monomers and a chemically etchable polymer containing a terminal chain transfer agent. This marriage results in microphase separation of the mixture into continuous domains of the etchable polymer and the emergent cross-linked polymer. Precise control over pore size distribution and mechanical integrity renders these materials particularly suited for various advanced applications.

  20. Noncovalent interaction-assisted polymeric micelles for controlled drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Ding, Jianxun; Chen, Linghui; Xiao, Chunsheng; Chen, Li; Zhuang, Xiuli; Chen, Xuesi

    2014-10-01

    Polymeric micelles are one of the most promising nanovehicles for drug delivery. In addition to amphiphilicity, various individual or synergistic noncovalent interplays including strong hydrophobic, electrostatic, host-guest, hydrogen bonding, stereocomplex and coordination interactions have been recently employed to improve the physical stability of micelles, and even provide them with certain intelligences or bioactivities. Through the ingenious designs and precise preparations, many noncovalent-mediated micelles display great prospects in the realm of controlled drug delivery, and certain species have been promoted to clinical trials. The current review presents the diverse noncovalent interactions that are applied to enhance polymeric micelles as drug nanocarriers, and preliminarily discusses the future directions and perspectives of this field.

  1. Application of advanced polymeric materials for controlled release pesticides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahim, M.; Hakim, M. R.; Haris, H. M.

    2016-08-01

    The objective of this work was to study the capability of advanced polymeric material constituted by chitosan and natural rubber matrices for controlled release of pesticides (1-hydroxynaphthalene and 2-hydroxynaphthalene) in aqueous solution. The released amount of pesticides was measured spectrophotometrically from the absorbance spectra applying a standardized curve. The release of the pesticides was studied into refreshing and non-refreshing neutral aqueous media. Interestingly, formulation successfully indicated a consistent, controlled and prolonged release of pesticides over a period of 35 days.

  2. Chemical control of rate and onset temperature of nadimide polymerization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lauver, R. W.

    1985-01-01

    The chemistry of norbornenyl capped imide compounds (nadimides) is briefly reviewed with emphasis on the contribution of Diels-Alder reversion in controlling the rate and onset of the thermal polymerization reaction. Control of onset temperature of the cure exotherm by adjusting the concentration of maleimide is demonstrated using selected model compounds. The effects of nitrophenyl compounds as free radical retarders on nadimide reactivity are discussed. A simple copolymerization model is proposed for the overall nadimide cure reaction. An approximate numerical analysis is carried out to demonstrate the ability of the model to simulate the trends observed for both maleimide and nitrophenyl additions.

  3. Immunological Responses and Actin Dynamics in Macrophages Are Controlled by N-Cofilin but Are Independent from ADF

    PubMed Central

    Jönsson, Friederike; Gurniak, Christine B.; Fleischer, Bernhard; Kirfel, Gregor; Witke, Walter

    2012-01-01

    Dynamic changes in the actin cytoskeleton are essential for immune cell function and a number of immune deficiencies have been linked to mutations, which disturb the actin cytoskeleton. In macrophages and dendritic cells, actin remodelling is critical for motility, phagocytosis and antigen presentation, however the actin binding proteins, which control antigen presentation have been poorly characterized. Here we dissect the specific roles of the family of ADF/cofilin F-actin depolymerizing factors in macrophages and in local immune responses. Macrophage migration, cell polarization and antigen presentation to T-cells require n-cofilin mediated F-actin remodelling. Using a conditional mouse model, we show that n-cofilin also controls MHC class II-dependent antigen presentation. Other cellular processes such as phagocytosis and antigen processing were found to be independent of n-cofilin. Our data identify n-cofilin as a novel regulator of antigen presentation, while ADF on the other hand is dispensable for macrophage motility and antigen presentation. PMID:22558315

  4. Control of Granule Mobility and Exocytosis by Ca2+-Dependent Formation of F-Actin in Pancreatic Duct Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Seung-Ryoung; Kim, Mean-Hwan; Hille, Bertil; Koh, Duk-Su

    2009-01-01

    Elevation of intracellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) triggers exocytosis of secretory granules in pancreatic duct epithelia. In this study, we find that the signal also controls granule movement. Motions of fluorescently labeled granules stopped abruptly after a [Ca2+]i increase, kinetically coincident with formation of filamentous actin (F-actin) in the whole cytoplasm. At high resolution, the new F-actin meshwork was so dense that cellular structures of granule size appeared physically trapped in it. Depolymerization of F-actin with latrunculin B blocked both the F-actin formation and the arrest of granules. Interestingly, when monitored with total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy, the immobilized granules still moved slowly and concertedly toward the plasma membrane. This group translocation was abolished by blockers of myosin. Exocytosis measured by microamperometry suggested that formation of a dense F-actin meshwork inhibited exocytosis at small Ca2+ rises <1 μm. Larger [Ca2+]i rises increased exocytosis because of the co-ordinate translocation of granules and fusion to the membrane. We propose that the Ca2+-dependent freezing of granules filters out weak inputs but allows exocytosis under stronger inputs by controlling granule movements. PMID:19192247

  5. Quantifying actin wave modulation on periodic topography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guven, Can; Driscoll, Meghan; Sun, Xiaoyu; Parker, Joshua; Fourkas, John; Carlsson, Anders; Losert, Wolfgang

    2014-03-01

    Actin is the essential builder of the cell cytoskeleton, whose dynamics are responsible for generating the necessary forces for the formation of protrusions. By exposing amoeboid cells to periodic topographical cues, we show that actin can be directionally guided via inducing preferential polymerization waves. To quantify the dynamics of these actin waves and their interaction with the substrate, we modify a technique from computer vision called ``optical flow.'' We obtain vectors that represent the apparent actin flow and cluster these vectors to obtain patches of newly polymerized actin, which represent actin waves. Using this technique, we compare experimental results, including speed distribution of waves and distance from the wave centroid to the closest ridge, with actin polymerization simulations. We hypothesize the modulation of the activity of nucleation promotion factors on ridges (elevated regions of the surface) as a potential mechanism for the wave-substrate coupling. Funded by NIH grant R01GM085574.

  6. Correlation between polymerizability and conformation in scallop beta-like actin and rabbit skeletal muscle alpha-actin.

    PubMed

    Khaitlina, S; Antropova, O; Kuznetsova, I; Turoverov, K; Collins, J H

    1999-08-01

    In order to investigate the structural basis for functional differences among actin isoforms, we have compared the polymerization properties and conformations of scallop adductor muscle beta-like actin and rabbit skeletal muscle alpha-actin. Polymerization of scallop Ca(2+)-actin was slower than that of skeletal muscle Ca(2+)-actin. Cleavage of the actin polypeptide chain between Gly-42 and Val-43 with Escherichia coli protease ECP 32 impaired the polymerization of scallop Mg(2+)-actin to a greater extent than skeletal muscle Mg(2+)-actin. When monomeric scallop and skeletal muscle Ca(2+)-actins were subjected to limited proteolysis with trypsin, subtilisin, or ECP 32, no differences in the conformation of actin subdomain 2 were detected. At the same time, local differences in the conformations of scallop and skeletal muscle actin subdomains 1 were revealed as intrinsic fluorescence differences. Replacement of tightly bound Ca(2+) with Mg(2+) resulted in more extensive proteolysis of segment 61-69 of scallop actin than in the case of skeletal muscle actin. Furthermore, segment 61-69 was more accessible to proteolysis with subtilisin in polymerized scallop Ca(2+)-actin than in polymerized skeletal muscle Ca(2+)-actin, indicating that, in the polymeric form, the nucleotide-containing cleft is in a more open conformation in beta-like scallop actin than in skeletal muscle alpha-actin. We suggest that this difference between scallop and skeletal muscle actins is due to a less efficient shift of scallop actin subdomain 2 to the position it has in the polymer. The possible consequences of amino acid substitutions in actin subdomain 1 in the allosteric regulation of the actin cleft, and hence in the different stabilities of polymers formed by different actins, are discussed. PMID:10415117

  7. miR-8 controls synapse structure by repression of the actin regulator enabled.

    PubMed

    Loya, Carlos M; McNeill, Elizabeth M; Bao, Hong; Zhang, Bing; Van Vactor, David

    2014-05-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are post-transcriptional regulators of gene expression that play important roles in nervous system development and physiology. However, our understanding of the strategies by which miRNAs control synapse development is limited. We find that the highly conserved miRNA miR-8 regulates the morphology of presynaptic arbors at the Drosophila neuromuscular junction (NMJ) through a postsynaptic mechanism. Developmental analysis shows that miR-8 is required for presynaptic expansion that occurs in response to larval growth of the postsynaptic muscle targets. With an in vivo sensor, we confirm our hypothesis that the founding member of the conserved Ena/VASP (Enabled/Vasodilator Activated Protein) family is regulated by miR-8 through a conserved site in the Ena 3' untranslated region (UTR). Synaptic marker analysis and localization studies suggest that Ena functions within the subsynaptic reticulum (SSR) surrounding presynaptic terminals. Transgenic lines that express forms of a conserved mammalian Ena ortholog further suggest that this localization and function of postsynaptic Ena/VASP family protein is dependent on conserved C-terminal domains known to mediate actin binding and assembly while antagonizing actin-capping proteins. Ultrastructural analysis demonstrates that miR-8 is required for SSR morphogenesis. As predicted by our model, we find that Ena is both sufficient and necessary to account for miR-8-mediated regulation of SSR architecture, consistent with its localization in this compartment. Finally, electrophysiological analysis shows that miR-8 is important for spontaneous neurotransmitter release frequency and quantal content. However, unlike the structural phenotypes, increased expression of Ena fails to mimic the functional defects observed in miR-8-null animals. Together, these findings suggest that miR-8 limits the expansion of presynaptic terminals during larval synapse development through regulation of postsynaptic actin assembly that

  8. ROP Gtpase–Dependent Dynamics of Tip-Localized F-Actin Controls Tip Growth in Pollen Tubes

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Ying; Wu, Guang; Yang, Zhenbiao

    2001-01-01

    Tip-growing pollen tubes provide a useful model system to study polar growth. Although roles for tip-focused calcium gradient and tip-localized Rho-family GTPase in pollen tube growth is established, the existence and function of tip-localized F-actin have been controversial. Using the green fluorescent protein–tagged actin-binding domain of mouse talin, we found a dynamic form of tip-localized F-actin in tobacco pollen tubes, termed short actin bundles (SABs). The dynamics of SABs during polar growth in pollen tubes is regulated by Rop1At, a Rop GTPase belonging to the Rho family. When overexpressed, Rop1At transformed SAB into a network of fine filaments and induced a transverse actin band behind the tip, leading to depolarized growth. These changes were due to ectopic Rop1At localization to the apical region of the plasma membrane and were suppressed by guanine dissociation inhibitor overexpression, which removed ectopically localized Rop1At. Rop GTPase–activating protein (RopGAP1) overexpression, or Latrunculin B treatments, also recovered normal actin organization and tip growth in Rop1At-overexpressing tubes. Moreover, overexpression of RopGAP1 alone disrupted SABs and inhibited growth. Finally, SAB oscillates and appears at the tip before growth. Together, these results indicate that the dynamics of tip actin are essential for tip growth and provide the first direct evidence to link Rho GTPase to actin organization in controlling cell polarity and polar growth in plants. PMID:11238457

  9. Atomic Force Microscopy and Light Scattering of Small Unilamellar Actin-Containing Liposomes

    PubMed Central

    Palmer, Andre F.; Wingert, Philip; Nickels, Jonathan

    2003-01-01

    Three-dimensional networks of filamentous actin (F-actin) encapsulated inside phosphatidylcholine liposomes are currently being used in an effort to model the cytoskeleton and plasma membrane of eukaryotic cells. In this article, unilamellar lipid vesicles consisting of egg yolk-derived phosphatidylcholine encapsulating monomeric actin (G-actin) were made via extrusion in low ionic strength buffer (G-buffer). Vesicle shape and structure in these dispersions was studied using a combination of fluid-tapping atomic force microscopy, and multiangle static light scattering. After subjecting the liposome dispersion to high ionic strength polymerization buffer (F-buffer) containing K+ ions, atomic force microscopy imaging and light scattering of these liposomes indicated the formation of specialized structures, including an overall liposome structure transformation from spherical to torus, disk-shaped geometries and tubular assemblies. Several atomic force microscopy control measurements were made to ascertain that the specialized structures formed were not due to free G-actin and F-actin self-assembling on the sample surface, plain liposomes exposed to G- and F-buffer, or liposomes encapsulating G-actin. Liposomes encapsulating G-actin assumed mostly thin disk shapes and some large irregularly shaped aggregates. In contrast, liposomes encapsulating polymerized actin assumed mostly torus or disk shapes along with some high aspect ratio tubular structures. PMID:12885667

  10. Fixed Point Transformations Based Iterative Control of a Polymerization Reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tar, József K.; Rudas, Imre J.

    As a paradigm of strongly coupled non-linear multi-variable dynamic systems the mathematical model of the free-radical polymerization of methyl-metachrylate with azobis (isobutyro-nitrile) as an initiator and toluene as a solvent taking place in a jacketed Continuous Stirred Tank Reactor (CSTR) is considered. In the adaptive control of this system only a single input variable is used as the control signal (the process input, i.e. dimensionless volumetric flow rate of the initiator), and a single output variable is observed (the process output, i.e. the number-average molecular weight of the polymer). Simulation examples illustrate that on the basis of a very rough and primitive model consisting of two scalar variables various fixed-point transformations based convergent iterations result in a novel, sophisticated adaptive control.

  11. Controlling internal pore sizes in bicontinuous polymeric nanospheres.

    PubMed

    McKenzie, Beulah E; Friedrich, Heiner; Wirix, Maarten J M; de Visser, Joël F; Monaghan, Olivia R; Bomans, Paul H H; Nudelman, Fabio; Holder, Simon J; Sommerdijk, Nico A J M

    2015-02-16

    Complex polymeric nanospheres were formed in water from comb-like amphiphilic block copolymers. Their internal morphology was determined by three-dimensional cryo-electron tomographic analysis. Varying the polymer molecular weight (MW) and the hydrophilic block weight content allowed for fine control over the internal structure. Construction of a partial phase diagram allowed us to determine the criteria for the formation of bicontinuous polymer nanosphere (BPN), namely for copolymers with MW of up to 17 kDa and hydrophilic weight fractions of ≤0.25; and varying the organic solvent to water ratio used in their preparation allowed for control over nanosphere diameters from 70 to 460 nm. Significantly, altering the block copolymer hydrophilic-hydrophobic balance enabled control of the internal pore diameter of the BPNs from 10 to 19 nm. PMID:25640026

  12. The formation of ordered nanoclusters controls cadherin anchoring to actin and cell–cell contact fluidity

    PubMed Central

    Strale, Pierre-Olivier; Duchesne, Laurence; Peyret, Grégoire; Montel, Lorraine; Nguyen, Thao; Png, Evelyn; Tampé, Robert; Troyanovsky, Sergey; Hénon, Sylvie; Ladoux, Benoit

    2015-01-01

    Oligomerization of cadherins could provide the stability to ensure tissue cohesion. Cadherins mediate cell–cell adhesion by forming trans-interactions. They form cis-interactions whose role could be essential to stabilize intercellular junctions by shifting cadherin clusters from a fluid to an ordered phase. However, no evidence has been provided so far for cadherin oligomerization in cellulo and for its impact on cell–cell contact stability. Visualizing single cadherins within cell membrane at a nanometric resolution, we show that E-cadherins arrange in ordered clusters, providing the first demonstration of the existence of oligomeric cadherins at cell–cell contacts. Studying the consequences of the disruption of the cis-interface, we show that it is not essential for adherens junction formation. Its disruption, however, increased the mobility of junctional E-cadherin. This destabilization strongly affected E-cadherin anchoring to actin and cell–cell rearrangement during collective cell migration, indicating that the formation of oligomeric clusters controls the anchoring of cadherin to actin and cell–cell contact fluidity. PMID:26195669

  13. The formation of ordered nanoclusters controls cadherin anchoring to actin and cell-cell contact fluidity.

    PubMed

    Strale, Pierre-Olivier; Duchesne, Laurence; Peyret, Grégoire; Montel, Lorraine; Nguyen, Thao; Png, Evelyn; Tampé, Robert; Troyanovsky, Sergey; Hénon, Sylvie; Ladoux, Benoit; Mège, René-Marc

    2015-07-20

    Oligomerization of cadherins could provide the stability to ensure tissue cohesion. Cadherins mediate cell-cell adhesion by forming trans-interactions. They form cis-interactions whose role could be essential to stabilize intercellular junctions by shifting cadherin clusters from a fluid to an ordered phase. However, no evidence has been provided so far for cadherin oligomerization in cellulo and for its impact on cell-cell contact stability. Visualizing single cadherins within cell membrane at a nanometric resolution, we show that E-cadherins arrange in ordered clusters, providing the first demonstration of the existence of oligomeric cadherins at cell-cell contacts. Studying the consequences of the disruption of the cis-interface, we show that it is not essential for adherens junction formation. Its disruption, however, increased the mobility of junctional E-cadherin. This destabilization strongly affected E-cadherin anchoring to actin and cell-cell rearrangement during collective cell migration, indicating that the formation of oligomeric clusters controls the anchoring of cadherin to actin and cell-cell contact fluidity.

  14. Cofilin-mediated actin dynamics promotes actin bundle formation during Drosophila bristle development

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Jing; Wang, Heng; Guo, Xuan; Chen, Jiong

    2016-01-01

    The actin bundle is an array of linear actin filaments cross-linked by actin-bundling proteins, but its assembly and dynamics are not as well understood as those of the branched actin network. Here we used the Drosophila bristle as a model system to study actin bundle formation. We found that cofilin, a major actin disassembly factor of the branched actin network, promotes the formation and positioning of actin bundles in the developing bristles. Loss of function of cofilin or AIP1, a cofactor of cofilin, each resulted in increased F-actin levels and severe defects in actin bundle organization, with the defects from cofilin deficiency being more severe. Further analyses revealed that cofilin likely regulates actin bundle formation and positioning by the following means. First, cofilin promotes a large G-actin pool both locally and globally, likely ensuring rapid actin polymerization for bundle initiation and growth. Second, cofilin limits the size of a nonbundled actin-myosin network to regulate the positioning of actin bundles. Third, cofilin prevents incorrect assembly of branched and myosin-associated actin filament into bundles. Together these results demonstrate that the interaction between the dynamic dendritic actin network and the assembling actin bundles is critical for actin bundle formation and needs to be closely regulated. PMID:27385345

  15. Cofilin-mediated actin dynamics promotes actin bundle formation during Drosophila bristle development.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jing; Wang, Heng; Guo, Xuan; Chen, Jiong

    2016-08-15

    The actin bundle is an array of linear actin filaments cross-linked by actin-bundling proteins, but its assembly and dynamics are not as well understood as those of the branched actin network. Here we used the Drosophila bristle as a model system to study actin bundle formation. We found that cofilin, a major actin disassembly factor of the branched actin network, promotes the formation and positioning of actin bundles in the developing bristles. Loss of function of cofilin or AIP1, a cofactor of cofilin, each resulted in increased F-actin levels and severe defects in actin bundle organization, with the defects from cofilin deficiency being more severe. Further analyses revealed that cofilin likely regulates actin bundle formation and positioning by the following means. First, cofilin promotes a large G-actin pool both locally and globally, likely ensuring rapid actin polymerization for bundle initiation and growth. Second, cofilin limits the size of a nonbundled actin-myosin network to regulate the positioning of actin bundles. Third, cofilin prevents incorrect assembly of branched and myosin-associated actin filament into bundles. Together these results demonstrate that the interaction between the dynamic dendritic actin network and the assembling actin bundles is critical for actin bundle formation and needs to be closely regulated.

  16. Association of actin with alpha crystallins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gopalakrishnan, S.; Boyle, D.; Takemoto, L.; Spooner, B. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1993-01-01

    The alpha crystallins are cytosolic proteins that co-localize and co-purify with actin-containing microfilaments. Affinity column chromatography employing both covalently-coupled actin or alpha crystallin was used to demonstrate specific and saturable binding of actin with alpha crystallin. This conclusion was confirmed by direct visualization of alpha aggregates bound to actin polymerized in vitro. The significance of this interaction in relation to the functional properties of these two polypeptides will be discussed.

  17. Topography design concept of a tissue engineering scaffold for controlling cell function and fate through actin cytoskeletal modulation.

    PubMed

    Miyoshi, Hiromi; Adachi, Taiji

    2014-12-01

    The physiological role of the actin cytoskeleton is well known: it provides mechanical support and endogenous force generation for formation of a cell shape and for migration. Furthermore, a growing number of studies have demonstrated another significant role of the actin cytoskeleton: it offers dynamic epigenetic memory for guiding cell fate, in particular, proliferation and differentiation. Because instantaneous imbalance in the mechanical homeostasis is adjusted through actin remodeling, a synthetic extracellular matrix (ECM) niche as a source of topographical and mechanical cues is expected to be effective at modulation of the actin cytoskeleton. In this context, the synthetic ECM niche determines cell migration, proliferation, and differentiation, all of which have to be controlled in functional tissue engineering scaffolds to ensure proper regulation of tissue/organ formation, maintenance of tissue integrity and repair, and regeneration. Here, with an emphasis on the epigenetic role of the actin cytoskeletal system, we propose a design concept of micro/nanotopography of a tissue engineering scaffold for control of cell migration, proliferation, and differentiation in a stable and well-defined manner, both in vitro and in vivo. PMID:24720435

  18. TRANSITION METAL CATALYSIS IN CONTROLLED RADICAL POLYMERIZATION: ATOM TRANSFER RADICAL POLYMERIZATION. (R826735)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Novel and diversified macromolecular structures, which include polymers with designed topologies (top), compostions (middle), and functionalities (bottom), can be prepared by atom transfer radical polymerization processes. These polymers can be synthesized from a large variety of...

  19. Profilin-Dependent Nucleation and Assembly of Actin Filaments Controls Cell Elongation in Arabidopsis1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Lingyan; Blanchoin, Laurent; Staiger, Christopher J.

    2016-01-01

    Actin filaments in plant cells are incredibly dynamic; they undergo incessant remodeling and assembly or disassembly within seconds. These dynamic events are choreographed by a plethora of actin-binding proteins, but the exact mechanisms are poorly understood. Here, we dissect the contribution of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) PROFILIN1 (PRF1), a conserved actin monomer-binding protein, to actin organization and single filament dynamics during axial cell expansion of living epidermal cells. We found that reduced PRF1 levels enhanced cell and organ growth. Surprisingly, we observed that the overall frequency of nucleation events in prf1 mutants was dramatically decreased and that a subpopulation of actin filaments that assemble at high rates was reduced. To test whether profilin cooperates with plant formin proteins to execute actin nucleation and rapid filament elongation in cells, we used a pharmacological approach. Here, we used Small Molecule Inhibitor of Formin FH2 (SMIFH2), after validating its mode of action on a plant formin in vitro, and observed a reduced nucleation frequency of actin filaments in live cells. Treatment of wild-type epidermal cells with SMIFH2 mimicked the phenotype of prf1 mutants, and the nucleation frequency in prf1-2 mutant was completely insensitive to these treatments. Our data provide compelling evidence that PRF1 coordinates the stochastic dynamic properties of actin filaments by modulating formin-mediated actin nucleation and assembly during plant cell expansion. PMID:26574597

  20. A semi-flexible model prediction for the polymerization force exerted by a living F-actin filament on a fixed wall.

    PubMed

    Pierleoni, Carlo; Ciccotti, Giovanni; Ryckaert, Jean-Paul

    2015-10-14

    We consider a single living semi-flexible filament with persistence length ℓp in chemical equilibrium with a solution of free monomers at fixed monomer chemical potential μ1 and fixed temperature T. While one end of the filament is chemically active with single monomer (de)polymerization steps, the other end is grafted normally to a rigid wall to mimic a rigid network from which the filament under consideration emerges. A second rigid wall, parallel to the grafting wall, is fixed at distance L < < ℓp from the filament seed. In supercritical conditions where monomer density ρ1 is higher than the critical density ρ1c, the filament tends to polymerize and impinges onto the second surface which, in suitable conditions (non-escaping filament regime), stops the filament growth. We first establish the grand-potential Ω(μ1, T, L) of this system treated as an ideal reactive mixture, and derive some general properties, in particular the filament size distribution and the force exerted by the living filament on the obstacle wall. We apply this formalism to the semi-flexible, living, discrete Wormlike chain model with step size d and persistence length ℓp, hitting a hard wall. Explicit properties require the computation of the mean force f̄i(L) exerted by the wall at L and associated potential f̄i(L)=-dWi(L)/dL on a filament of fixed size i. By original Monte-Carlo calculations for few filament lengths in a wide range of compression, we justify the use of the weak bending universal expressions of Gholami et al. [Phys. Rev. E 74, 041803 (2006)] over the whole non-escaping filament regime. For a filament of size i with contour length Lc = (i - 1) d, this universal form is rapidly growing from zero (non-compression state) to the buckling value fb(Lc,ℓp)=π(2)kBTℓp4Lc (2) over a compression range much narrower than the size d of a monomer. Employing this universal form for living filaments, we find that the average force exerted by a living filament on a wall at

  1. Actin cytoskeleton control of the comings and goings of T lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Lafouresse, F; Vasconcelos, Z; Cotta-de-Almeida, V; Dupré, L

    2013-11-01

    T lymphocytes are key players of adaptive immune responses. Upon recognition of specific peptides presented by human leukocyte antigen (HLA) molecules on antigen presenting cells (APC), these cells execute subset-related functions such as killing, help and regulation. The ontogeny, the activation and the effector functions of T lymphocytes are all steps of T-lymphocyte life cycle that rely on high motility properties. These cells travel through the organism in a succession of steps, including entry into tissues, interstitial migration, APC scanning, synapse formation and tissue exit. Such ability is possible because of a plastic motility behavior, which is highly controlled in time and space. The molecular basis for the adaptable motility behavior of T lymphocytes is only starting to be unraveled. The scope of this review is to discuss recent data pointing to the key role of regulators of actin cytoskeleton remodeling in tuning distinct aspects of T-lymphocyte motility during their entry, residency and exit from tissues.

  2. Tissue-specific mechanical and geometrical control of cell viability and actin cytoskeleton alignment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Dong; Zheng, Wenfu; Xie, Yunyan; Gong, Peiyuan; Zhao, Fang; Yuan, Bo; Ma, Wanshun; Cui, Yan; Liu, Wenwen; Sun, Yi; Piel, Matthieu; Zhang, Wei; Jiang, Xingyu

    2014-08-01

    Different tissues have specific mechanical properties and cells of different geometries, such as elongated muscle cells and polygonal endothelial cells, which are precisely regulated during embryo development. However, the mechanisms that underlie these processes are not clear. Here, we built an in vitro model to mimic the cellular microenvironment of muscle by combining both mechanical stretch and geometrical control. We found that mechanical stretch was a key factor that determined the optimal geometry of myoblast C2C12 cells under stretch, whereas vascular endothelial cells and fibroblasts had no such dependency. We presented the first experimental evidence that can explain why myoblasts are destined to take the elongated geometry so as to survive and maintain parallel actin filaments along the stretching direction. The study is not only meaningful for the research on myogenesis but also has potential application in regenerative medicine.

  3. Tissue-specific mechanical and geometrical control of cell viability and actin cytoskeleton alignment.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dong; Zheng, Wenfu; Xie, Yunyan; Gong, Peiyuan; Zhao, Fang; Yuan, Bo; Ma, Wanshun; Cui, Yan; Liu, Wenwen; Sun, Yi; Piel, Matthieu; Zhang, Wei; Jiang, Xingyu

    2014-08-22

    Different tissues have specific mechanical properties and cells of different geometries, such as elongated muscle cells and polygonal endothelial cells, which are precisely regulated during embryo development. However, the mechanisms that underlie these processes are not clear. Here, we built an in vitro model to mimic the cellular microenvironment of muscle by combining both mechanical stretch and geometrical control. We found that mechanical stretch was a key factor that determined the optimal geometry of myoblast C2C12 cells under stretch, whereas vascular endothelial cells and fibroblasts had no such dependency. We presented the first experimental evidence that can explain why myoblasts are destined to take the elongated geometry so as to survive and maintain parallel actin filaments along the stretching direction. The study is not only meaningful for the research on myogenesis but also has potential application in regenerative medicine.

  4. Primary granule exocytosis in human neutrophils is regulated by Rac-dependent actin remodeling.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Troy; Lo, Andrea; Logan, Michael R; Lacy, Paige; Eitzen, Gary

    2008-11-01

    The actin cytoskeleton regulates exocytosis in all secretory cells. In neutrophils, Rac2 GTPase has been shown to control primary (azurophilic) granule exocytosis. In this report, we propose that Rac2 is required for actin cytoskeletal remodeling to promote primary granule exocytosis. Treatment of neutrophils with low doses (< or = 10 microM) of the actin-depolymerizing drugs latrunculin B (Lat B) or cytochalasin B (CB) enhanced both formyl peptide receptor- and Ca(2+) ionophore-stimulated exocytosis. Higher concentrations of CB or Lat B, or stabilization of F-actin with jasplakinolide (JP), inhibited primary granule exocytosis measured as myeloperoxidase release but did not affect secondary granule exocytosis determined by lactoferrin release. These results suggest an obligatory role for F-actin disassembly before primary granule exocytosis. However, lysates from secretagogue-stimulated neutrophils showed enhanced actin polymerization activity in vitro. Microscopic analysis showed that resting neutrophils contain significant cortical F-actin, which was redistributed to sites of primary granule translocation when stimulated. Exocytosis and actin remodeling was highly polarized when cells were primed with CB; however, polarization was reduced by Lat B preincubation, and both polarization and exocytosis were blocked when F-actin was stabilized with JP. Treatment of cells with the small molecule Rac inhibitor NSC23766 also inhibited actin remodeling and primary granule exocytosis induced by Lat B/fMLF or CB/fMLF, but not by Ca(2+) ionophore. Therefore, we propose a role for F-actin depolymerization at the cell cortex coupled with Rac-dependent F-actin polymerization in the cell cytoplasm to promote primary granule exocytosis.

  5. Morphology Control of Multicomponent Polymeric Surfactants Using Pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Junhan

    The development of nanoscale morphologies for a molten polymeric surfactant under pressure is investigated by using a recently formulated self-consistent field theory. A linear ABC block copolymer is taken as our model system that allows a disparity in the propensities for curved interfaces and pressure responses of ij-pairs. The interplay of those features lead the copolymer to new morphologies at a moderate segregation level and at ambient condition such as networks and pillars of 2-dimensional array. It is shown that pressure is an effective means of morphology control and identification for those new structures. The role of volume fluctuations in the development of those structures is discussed. J.C. acknowledges the support from Center for Photofunctional Energy Materials through Gyeonggi Regional Research Program.

  6. PLEKHG3 enhances polarized cell migration by activating actin filaments at the cell front.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Trang Thi Thu; Park, Wei Sun; Park, Byung Ouk; Kim, Cha Yeon; Oh, Yohan; Kim, Jin Man; Choi, Hana; Kyung, Taeyoon; Kim, Cheol-Hee; Lee, Gabsang; Hahn, Klaus M; Meyer, Tobias; Heo, Won Do

    2016-09-01

    Cells migrate by directing Ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 1 (Rac1) and cell division control protein 42 (Cdc42) activities and by polymerizing actin toward the leading edge of the cell. Previous studies have proposed that this polarization process requires a local positive feedback in the leading edge involving Rac small GTPase and actin polymerization with PI3K likely playing a coordinating role. Here, we show that the pleckstrin homology and RhoGEF domain containing G3 (PLEKHG3) is a PI3K-regulated Rho guanine nucleotide exchange factor (RhoGEF) for Rac1 and Cdc42 that selectively binds to newly polymerized actin at the leading edge of migrating fibroblasts. Optogenetic inactivation of PLEKHG3 showed that PLEKHG3 is indispensable both for inducing and for maintaining cell polarity. By selectively binding to newly polymerized actin, PLEKHG3 promotes local Rac1/Cdc42 activation to induce more local actin polymerization, which in turn promotes the recruitment of more PLEKHG3 to induce and maintain cell front. Thus, autocatalytic reinforcement of PLEKHG3 localization to the leading edge of the cell provides a molecular basis for the proposed positive feedback loop that is required for cell polarization and directed migration. PMID:27555588

  7. PLEKHG3 enhances polarized cell migration by activating actin filaments at the cell front

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Trang Thi Thu; Park, Wei Sun; Park, Byung Ouk; Kim, Cha Yeon; Oh, Yohan; Kim, Jin Man; Choi, Hana; Kyung, Taeyoon; Kim, Cheol-Hee; Lee, Gabsang; Hahn, Klaus M.; Meyer, Tobias; Heo, Won Do

    2016-01-01

    Cells migrate by directing Ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 1 (Rac1) and cell division control protein 42 (Cdc42) activities and by polymerizing actin toward the leading edge of the cell. Previous studies have proposed that this polarization process requires a local positive feedback in the leading edge involving Rac small GTPase and actin polymerization with PI3K likely playing a coordinating role. Here, we show that the pleckstrin homology and RhoGEF domain containing G3 (PLEKHG3) is a PI3K-regulated Rho guanine nucleotide exchange factor (RhoGEF) for Rac1 and Cdc42 that selectively binds to newly polymerized actin at the leading edge of migrating fibroblasts. Optogenetic inactivation of PLEKHG3 showed that PLEKHG3 is indispensable both for inducing and for maintaining cell polarity. By selectively binding to newly polymerized actin, PLEKHG3 promotes local Rac1/Cdc42 activation to induce more local actin polymerization, which in turn promotes the recruitment of more PLEKHG3 to induce and maintain cell front. Thus, autocatalytic reinforcement of PLEKHG3 localization to the leading edge of the cell provides a molecular basis for the proposed positive feedback loop that is required for cell polarization and directed migration. PMID:27555588

  8. Membrane Tension Acts Through PLD2 and mTORC2 to Limit Actin Network Assembly During Neutrophil Migration

    PubMed Central

    Diz-Muñoz, Alba; Thurley, Kevin; Chintamen, Sana; Altschuler, Steven J.; Fletcher, Daniel A.; Weiner, Orion D.

    2016-01-01

    For efficient polarity and migration, cells need to regulate the magnitude and spatial distribution of actin assembly. This process is coordinated by reciprocal interactions between the actin cytoskeleton and mechanical forces. Actin polymerization-based protrusion increases tension in the plasma membrane, which in turn acts as a long-range inhibitor of actin assembly. These interactions form a negative feedback circuit that limits the magnitude of membrane tension in neutrophils and prevents expansion of the existing front and the formation of secondary fronts. It has been suggested that the plasma membrane directly inhibits actin assembly by serving as a physical barrier that opposes protrusion. Here we show that efficient control of actin polymerization-based protrusion requires an additional mechanosensory feedback cascade that indirectly links membrane tension with actin assembly. Specifically, elevated membrane tension acts through phospholipase D2 (PLD2) and the mammalian target of rapamycin complex 2 (mTORC2) to limit actin nucleation. In the absence of this pathway, neutrophils exhibit larger leading edges, higher membrane tension, and profoundly defective chemotaxis. Mathematical modeling suggests roles for both the direct (mechanical) and indirect (biochemical via PLD2 and mTORC2) feedback loops in organizing cell polarity and motility—the indirect loop is better suited to enable competition between fronts, whereas the direct loop helps spatially organize actin nucleation for efficient leading edge formation and cell movement. This circuit is essential for polarity, motility, and the control of membrane tension. PMID:27280401

  9. Membrane Tension Acts Through PLD2 and mTORC2 to Limit Actin Network Assembly During Neutrophil Migration.

    PubMed

    Diz-Muñoz, Alba; Thurley, Kevin; Chintamen, Sana; Altschuler, Steven J; Wu, Lani F; Fletcher, Daniel A; Weiner, Orion D

    2016-06-01

    For efficient polarity and migration, cells need to regulate the magnitude and spatial distribution of actin assembly. This process is coordinated by reciprocal interactions between the actin cytoskeleton and mechanical forces. Actin polymerization-based protrusion increases tension in the plasma membrane, which in turn acts as a long-range inhibitor of actin assembly. These interactions form a negative feedback circuit that limits the magnitude of membrane tension in neutrophils and prevents expansion of the existing front and the formation of secondary fronts. It has been suggested that the plasma membrane directly inhibits actin assembly by serving as a physical barrier that opposes protrusion. Here we show that efficient control of actin polymerization-based protrusion requires an additional mechanosensory feedback cascade that indirectly links membrane tension with actin assembly. Specifically, elevated membrane tension acts through phospholipase D2 (PLD2) and the mammalian target of rapamycin complex 2 (mTORC2) to limit actin nucleation. In the absence of this pathway, neutrophils exhibit larger leading edges, higher membrane tension, and profoundly defective chemotaxis. Mathematical modeling suggests roles for both the direct (mechanical) and indirect (biochemical via PLD2 and mTORC2) feedback loops in organizing cell polarity and motility-the indirect loop is better suited to enable competition between fronts, whereas the direct loop helps spatially organize actin nucleation for efficient leading edge formation and cell movement. This circuit is essential for polarity, motility, and the control of membrane tension.

  10. Role of actin and myosin in the control of paracellular permeability in pig, rat and human vascular endothelium.

    PubMed Central

    Schnittler, H J; Wilke, A; Gress, T; Suttorp, N; Drenckhahn, D

    1990-01-01

    1. We have investigated the endothelial actomyosin system with particular emphasis on its possible role in actively opening a paracellular route for permeability. 2. Actin and myosin comprised 16% of total endothelial protein with a molar actin/myosin ratio of 16.2 which is close to the actin/myosin ratio of muscle (studies on freshly isolated pig pulmonary arterial endothelial cells, PAEC). 3. By immunocytochemistry at the light and electron microscope levels the bulk of actin and myosin was colocalized in close vicinity to the intercellular clefts of both micro- and macrovascular endothelial cells in situ and in vitro. 4. Calcium-ionophore-induced rise in permeability of human umbilical venous endothelial cells (HUVEC) and PAEC monolayers grown on filters in a two-chamber permeability system was caused by opening of intercellular gaps. Gap formation depended on the rise in intracellular Ca2+ and could be blocked by the calmodulin-binding drugs trifluperazine (TFP) and W7. 5. In skinned monolayers of cultured PAEC and in isolated sheets of HUVEC gap formation was shown to require ATP and occurred only when free myosin binding sites were available on endothelial actin filaments (experiments with myosin subfragment 1 modified by N-ethylmaleimide, S1-NEM). 6. These experiments suggest that actin and myosin in endothelial cells play a central role in regulating the width of the intercellular clefts, thereby controlling the paracellular pathway of vascular permeability. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 Fig. 14 Fig. 15 PMID:2100310

  11. Phylogenetic Analysis Identifies Many Uncharacterized Actin-like Proteins (Alps) in Bacteria: Regulated Polymerization, Dynamic Instability, and Treadmilling in Alp7A

    PubMed Central

    Derman, Alan I.; Becker, Eric C.; Truong, Bao D.; Fujioka, Akina; Tucey, Timothy M.; Erb, Marcella L.; Patterson, Paula C.; Pogliano, Joe

    2010-01-01

    Summary Actin, one of the most abundant proteins in the eukaryotic cell, also has an abundance of relatives in the eukaryotic proteome. To date though, only five families of actins have been characterized in bacteria. We have conducted a phylogenetic search and uncovered more than 35 highly divergent families of actin-like proteins (Alps) in bacteria. Their genes are found primarily on phage genomes, on plasmids, and on integrating conjugative elements, and are likely to be involved in a variety of functions. We characterize three Alps and find that all form filaments in the cell. The filaments of Alp7A, a plasmid partitioning protein and one of the most divergent of the Alps, display dynamic instability and also treadmill. Alp7A requires other elements from the plasmid to assemble into dynamic polymers in the cell. Our findings suggest that most if not all of the Alps are indeed actin relatives, and that actin is very well represented in bacteria. PMID:19602153

  12. Actin Filaments at the Leading Edge of Cancer Cells Are Characterized by a High Mobile Fraction and Turnover Regulation by Profilin I

    PubMed Central

    Lorente, Gisela; Syriani, Emilio; Morales, Miguel

    2014-01-01

    Cellular motility is the basis for cancer cell invasion and metastasis. In the case of breast cancer, the most common type of cancer among women, metastasis represents the most devastating stage of the disease. The central role of cellular motility in cancer development emphasizes the importance of understanding the specific mechanisms involved in this process. In this context, tumor development and metastasis would be the consequence of a loss or defect of the mechanisms that control cytoskeletal remodeling. Profilin I belongs to a family of small actin binding proteins that are thought to assist in actin filament elongation at the leading edge of migrating cells. Traditionally, Profilin I has been considered to be an essential control element for actin polymerization and cell migration. Expression of Profilin I is down-regulated in breast and various other cancer cells. In MDA-MB-231 cells, a breast cancer cell line, further inhibition of Profilin I expression promotes hypermotility and metastatic spread, a finding that contrasts with the proposed role of Profilin in enhancing polymerization. In this report, we have taken advantage of the fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) of GFP-actin to quantify and compare actin dynamics at the leading edge level in both cancer and non-cancer cell models. Our results suggest that (i) a high level of actin dynamics (i.e., a large mobile fraction of actin filaments and a fast turnover) is a common characteristic of some cancer cells; (ii) actin polymerization shows a high degree of independence from the presence of extracellular growth factors; and (iii) our results also corroborate the role of Profilin I in regulating actin polymerization, as raising the intracellular levels of Profilin I decreased the mobile fraction ratio of actin filaments and slowed their polymerization rate; furthermore, increased Profilin levels also led to reduced individual cell velocity and directionality. PMID:24465723

  13. ADF and Cofilin1 Control Actin Stress Fibers, Nuclear Integrity, and Cell Survival

    PubMed Central

    Kanellos, Georgios; Zhou, Jing; Patel, Hitesh; Ridgway, Rachel A.; Huels, David; Gurniak, Christine B.; Sandilands, Emma; Carragher, Neil O.; Sansom, Owen J.; Witke, Walter; Brunton, Valerie G.; Frame, Margaret C.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Genetic co-depletion of the actin-severing proteins ADF and CFL1 triggers catastrophic loss of adult homeostasis in multiple tissues. There is impaired cell-cell adhesion in skin keratinocytes with dysregulation of E-cadherin, hyperproliferation of differentiated cells, and ultimately apoptosis. Mechanistically, the primary consequence of depleting both ADF and CFL1 is uncontrolled accumulation of contractile actin stress fibers associated with enlarged focal adhesions at the plasma membrane, as well as reduced rates of membrane protrusions. This generates increased intracellular acto-myosin tension that promotes nuclear deformation and physical disruption of the nuclear lamina via the LINC complex that normally connects regulated actin filaments to the nuclear envelope. We therefore describe a pathway involving the actin-severing proteins ADF and CFL1 in regulating the dynamic turnover of contractile actin stress fibers, and this is vital to prevent the nucleus from being damaged by actin contractility, in turn preserving cell survival and tissue homeostasis. PMID:26655907

  14. Polymeric surfaces exhibiting photocatalytic activity and controlled anisotropic wettability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anastasiadis, Spiros H.; Frysali, Melani A.; Papoutsakis, Lampros; Kenanakis, George; Stratakis, Emmanuel; Vamvakaki, Maria; Mountrichas, Grigoris; Pispas, Stergios

    2015-03-01

    In this work we focus on surfaces, which exhibit controlled, switchable wettability in response to one or more external stimuli as well as photocatalytic activity. For this we are inspired from nature to produce surfaces with a dual-scale hierarchical roughness and combine them with the appropriate inorganic and/or polymer coating. The combination of the hierarchical surface with a ZnO coating and a pH- or temperature-responsive polymer results in efficient photo-active properties as well as reversible superhydrophobic / superhydrophilic surfaces. Furthermore, we fabricate surfaces with unidirectional wettability variation. Overall, such complex surfaces require advanced design, combining hierarchically structured surfaces with suitable polymeric materials. Acknowledgment: This research was partially supported by the European Union (European Social Fund, ESF) and Greek national funds through the ``ARISTEIA II'' Action (SMART-SURF) of the Operational Programme ``Education and Lifelong Learning,'' NSRF 2007-2013, via the General Secretariat for Research & Technology, Ministry of Education and Religious Affairs, Greece.

  15. Application of control technology developed in the polyvinyl chloride industry to polymerization processes using acrylonitrile.

    PubMed

    Schoultz, K S; Gideon, J A; Bochinski, J H

    1979-02-01

    Polymerization processes for PVC are sufficiently similar to acrylonitrile polymerization processes to allow a significant transfer of control technology. This transfer should be of value to manufacturers of polyacrylonitrile, ABS/SAN resins, nitrile elastomer and latex who will need to install extensive additional controls to comply with the new permanent standard for acrylonitrile scheduled to be issued by OSHA in late 1978. Control strategies and individual controls developed to limit worker exposure in the PVC industry are described and evaluated relative to applicability to acrylonitrile polymerization processes. PMID:495444

  16. Liposome-encapsulated actin-hemoglobin (LEAcHb) artificial blood substitutes.

    PubMed

    Li, Shuliang; Nickels, Jonathan; Palmer, Andre Francis

    2005-06-01

    A new approach to enhance the circulation persistence of liposomes has been applied to develop liposome-encapsulated actin-hemoglobin (LEAcHb) dispersions as potential blood substitutes by introducing an actin matrix into the liposome aqueous core. Asymmetric flow field-flow fractionation coupled with multi-angle static light scattering was used to study the shape, size distribution, and encapsulation efficiency of liposome-encapsulated hemoglobin (LEHb) and LEAcHb dispersions. By polymerizing monomeric actin into filamentous actin inside the liposome aqueous core, LEAcHb particles transformed into a disk-like shape. We studied the effect of an encapsulated actin matrix on the size distribution, hemoglobin (Hb) encapsulation efficiency, oxygen affinity, and methemoglobin (MetHb) level of LEAcHb dispersions, and compared them with plain LEHb dispersions (without actin). LEHb, and LEAcHb dispersions extruded through 400 nm membranes were injected into rats and it was observed that LEAcHb dispersions with 1mg/mL of actin enhanced the circulatory half-life versus LEHb dispersions. The circulatory characteristics of empty PEGylated and non-PEGylated actin-containing liposomes (without Hb) were studied as controls for the LEHb and LEAcHb dispersions in this paper, which displayed maximum circulatory half-lives greater than 72 h. Taken together the results of this study supports our hypothesis that a lipid membrane supported by an underlying actin matrix will extend the circulatory half-life of LEHb dispersions.

  17. Actinic keratosis

    MedlinePlus

    Solar keratosis; Sun-induced skin changes - keratosis; Keratosis - actinic (solar) ... Actinic keratosis is caused by exposure to sunlight. You are more likely to develop it if you: Have fair skin, blue or green eyes, or blond or red hair Had a ...

  18. Purification and Characterization of Actin from Maize Pollen 1

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xiong; Yen, Lung-Fei

    1992-01-01

    Pollen is an excellent source of actin for biochemical and physiological studies of the actomyosin system in higher plants. We have developed an efficient method to prepare relatively high levels of actin from the pollen of maize (Zea mays L.). The procedures of purification include acetone powder preparation, saturated ammonium sulfate fractionation, diethylaminoethyl-cellulose chromatography, a cycle of polymerization-depolymerization, and Sephacryl S-200 gel filtration. The average yield of actin is 19 milligrams per 100 grams of pollen grains extracted. This is comparable with those of Acanthamoeba castellanii and human platelets. The purified pollen actin is electrophoretically homogeneous and its molecular mass is 42 kilodaltons. The amino acid composition and circular dichroism spectrum of pollen actin are identical to those of muscle actin. The actin purified from pollen is able to polymerize to F-actin. The pollen F-actin activated the activity of the muscle myosin ATPase sevenfold. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2 PMID:16668982

  19. WIP modulates dendritic spine actin cytoskeleton by transcriptional control of lipid metabolic enzymes.

    PubMed

    Franco-Villanueva, Ana; Fernández-López, Estefanía; Gabandé-Rodríguez, Enrique; Bañón-Rodríguez, Inmaculada; Esteban, Jose Antonio; Antón, Inés M; Ledesma, María Dolores

    2014-08-15

    We identify Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein (WASP)-interacting protein (WIP) as a novel component of neuronal synapses whose absence increases dendritic spine size and filamentous actin levels in an N-WASP/Arp2/3-independent, RhoA/ROCK/profilinIIa-dependent manner. These effects depend on the reduction of membrane sphingomyelin (SM) due to transcriptional upregulation of neutral sphingomyelinase (NSM) through active RhoA; this enhances RhoA binding to the membrane, raft partitioning and activation in steady state but prevents RhoA changes in response to stimulus. Inhibition of NSM or SM addition reverses RhoA, filamentous actin and functional anomalies in synapses lacking WIP. Our findings characterize WIP as a link between membrane lipid composition and actin cytoskeleton at dendritic spines. They also contribute to explain cognitive deficits shared by individuals bearing mutations in the region assigned to the gene encoding for WIP.

  20. F-actin mechanics control spindle centring in the mouse zygote

    PubMed Central

    Chaigne, Agathe; Campillo, Clément; Voituriez, Raphaël; Gov, Nir S.; Sykes, Cécile; Verlhac, Marie-Hélène; Terret, Marie-Emilie

    2016-01-01

    Mitotic spindle position relies on interactions between astral microtubules nucleated by centrosomes and a rigid cortex. Some cells, such as mouse oocytes, do not possess centrosomes and astral microtubules. These cells rely only on actin and on a soft cortex to position their spindle off-centre and undergo asymmetric divisions. While the first mouse embryonic division also occurs in the absence of centrosomes, it is symmetric and not much is known on how the spindle is positioned at the exact cell centre. Using interdisciplinary approaches, we demonstrate that zygotic spindle positioning follows a three-step process: (1) coarse centring of pronuclei relying on the dynamics of an F-actin/Myosin-Vb meshwork; (2) fine centring of the metaphase plate depending on a high cortical tension; (3) passive maintenance at the cell centre. Altogether, we show that F-actin-dependent mechanics operate the switch between asymmetric to symmetric division required at the oocyte to embryo transition. PMID:26727405

  1. F-actin mechanics control spindle centring in the mouse zygote

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaigne, Agathe; Campillo, Clément; Voituriez, Raphaël; Gov, Nir S.; Sykes, Cécile; Verlhac, Marie-Hélène; Terret, Marie-Emilie

    2016-01-01

    Mitotic spindle position relies on interactions between astral microtubules nucleated by centrosomes and a rigid cortex. Some cells, such as mouse oocytes, do not possess centrosomes and astral microtubules. These cells rely only on actin and on a soft cortex to position their spindle off-centre and undergo asymmetric divisions. While the first mouse embryonic division also occurs in the absence of centrosomes, it is symmetric and not much is known on how the spindle is positioned at the exact cell centre. Using interdisciplinary approaches, we demonstrate that zygotic spindle positioning follows a three-step process: (1) coarse centring of pronuclei relying on the dynamics of an F-actin/Myosin-Vb meshwork; (2) fine centring of the metaphase plate depending on a high cortical tension; (3) passive maintenance at the cell centre. Altogether, we show that F-actin-dependent mechanics operate the switch between asymmetric to symmetric division required at the oocyte to embryo transition.

  2. F-actin mechanics control spindle centring in the mouse zygote.

    PubMed

    Chaigne, Agathe; Campillo, Clément; Voituriez, Raphaël; Gov, Nir S; Sykes, Cécile; Verlhac, Marie-Hélène; Terret, Marie-Emilie

    2016-01-01

    Mitotic spindle position relies on interactions between astral microtubules nucleated by centrosomes and a rigid cortex. Some cells, such as mouse oocytes, do not possess centrosomes and astral microtubules. These cells rely only on actin and on a soft cortex to position their spindle off-centre and undergo asymmetric divisions. While the first mouse embryonic division also occurs in the absence of centrosomes, it is symmetric and not much is known on how the spindle is positioned at the exact cell centre. Using interdisciplinary approaches, we demonstrate that zygotic spindle positioning follows a three-step process: (1) coarse centring of pronuclei relying on the dynamics of an F-actin/Myosin-Vb meshwork; (2) fine centring of the metaphase plate depending on a high cortical tension; (3) passive maintenance at the cell centre. Altogether, we show that F-actin-dependent mechanics operate the switch between asymmetric to symmetric division required at the oocyte to embryo transition. PMID:26727405

  3. Cdc42 and Actin Control Polarized Expression of TI-VAMP Vesicles to Neuronal Growth Cones and Their Fusion with the Plasma MembraneV⃞

    PubMed Central

    Alberts, Philipp; Rudge, Rachel; Irinopoulou, Theano; Danglot, Lydia; Gauthier-Rouvière, Cécile; Galli, Thierry

    2006-01-01

    Tetanus neurotoxin-insensitive vesicle-associated membrane protein (TI-VAMP)-mediated fusion of intracellular vesicles with the plasma membrane is crucial for neurite outgrowth, a pathway not requiring synaptobrevin-dependent exocytosis. Yet, it is not known how the TI-VAMP membrane trafficking pathway is regulated or how it is coordinated with cytoskeletal dynamics within the growth cone that guide neurite outgrowth. Here, we demonstrate that TI-VAMP, but not synaptobrevin 2, concentrates in the peripheral, F-actin-rich region of the growth cones of hippocampal neurons in primary culture. Its accumulation correlates with and depends upon the presence of F-actin. Moreover, acute stimulation of actin remodeling by homophilic activation of the adhesion molecule L1 induces a site-directed, actin-dependent recruitment of the TI-VAMP compartment. Expression of a dominant-positive mutant of Cdc42, a key regulator of cell polarity, stimulates formation of F-actin- and TI-VAMP-rich filopodia outside the growth cone. Furthermore, we report that Cdc42 activates exocytosis of pHLuorin tagged TI-VAMP in an actin-dependent manner. Collectively, our data suggest that Cdc42 and regulated assembly of the F-actin network control the accumulation and exocytosis of TI-VAMP-containing membrane vesicles in growth cones to coordinate membrane trafficking and actin remodeling during neurite outgrowth. PMID:16381811

  4. Cdc42 and actin control polarized expression of TI-VAMP vesicles to neuronal growth cones and their fusion with the plasma membrane.

    PubMed

    Alberts, Philipp; Rudge, Rachel; Irinopoulou, Theano; Danglot, Lydia; Gauthier-Rouvière, Cécile; Galli, Thierry

    2006-03-01

    Tetanus neurotoxin-insensitive vesicle-associated membrane protein (TI-VAMP)-mediated fusion of intracellular vesicles with the plasma membrane is crucial for neurite outgrowth, a pathway not requiring synaptobrevin-dependent exocytosis. Yet, it is not known how the TI-VAMP membrane trafficking pathway is regulated or how it is coordinated with cytoskeletal dynamics within the growth cone that guide neurite outgrowth. Here, we demonstrate that TI-VAMP, but not synaptobrevin 2, concentrates in the peripheral, F-actin-rich region of the growth cones of hippocampal neurons in primary culture. Its accumulation correlates with and depends upon the presence of F-actin. Moreover, acute stimulation of actin remodeling by homophilic activation of the adhesion molecule L1 induces a site-directed, actin-dependent recruitment of the TI-VAMP compartment. Expression of a dominant-positive mutant of Cdc42, a key regulator of cell polarity, stimulates formation of F-actin- and TI-VAMP-rich filopodia outside the growth cone. Furthermore, we report that Cdc42 activates exocytosis of pHLuorin tagged TI-VAMP in an actin-dependent manner. Collectively, our data suggest that Cdc42 and regulated assembly of the F-actin network control the accumulation and exocytosis of TI-VAMP-containing membrane vesicles in growth cones to coordinate membrane trafficking and actin remodeling during neurite outgrowth.

  5. Structural Differences Explain Diverse Functions of Plasmodium Actins

    PubMed Central

    Vahokoski, Juha; Martinez, Silvia Muñico; Ignatev, Alexander; Lepper, Simone; Frischknecht, Friedrich; Sidén-Kiamos, Inga; Sachse, Carsten; Kursula, Inari

    2014-01-01

    Actins are highly conserved proteins and key players in central processes in all eukaryotic cells. The two actins of the malaria parasite are among the most divergent eukaryotic actins and also differ from each other more than isoforms in any other species. Microfilaments have not been directly observed in Plasmodium and are presumed to be short and highly dynamic. We show that actin I cannot complement actin II in male gametogenesis, suggesting critical structural differences. Cryo-EM reveals that Plasmodium actin I has a unique filament structure, whereas actin II filaments resemble canonical F-actin. Both Plasmodium actins hydrolyze ATP more efficiently than α-actin, and unlike any other actin, both parasite actins rapidly form short oligomers induced by ADP. Crystal structures of both isoforms pinpoint several structural changes in the monomers causing the unique polymerization properties. Inserting the canonical D-loop to Plasmodium actin I leads to the formation of long filaments in vitro. In vivo, this chimera restores gametogenesis in parasites lacking actin II, suggesting that stable filaments are required for exflagellation. Together, these data underline the divergence of eukaryotic actins and demonstrate how structural differences in the monomers translate into filaments with different properties, implying that even eukaryotic actins have faced different evolutionary pressures and followed different paths for developing their polymerization properties. PMID:24743229

  6. Crystal structure of a nuclear actin ternary complex.

    PubMed

    Cao, Tingting; Sun, Lingfei; Jiang, Yuxiang; Huang, Shanjin; Wang, Jiawei; Chen, Zhucheng

    2016-08-01

    Actin polymerizes and forms filamentous structures (F-actin) in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells. It also exists in the nucleus and regulates various nucleic acid transactions, particularly through its incorporation into multiple chromatin-remodeling complexes. However, the specific structure of actin and the mechanisms that regulate its polymeric nature inside the nucleus remain unknown. Here, we report the crystal structure of nuclear actin (N-actin) complexed with actin-related protein 4 (Arp4) and the helicase-SANT-associated (HSA) domain of the chromatin remodeler Swr1. The inner face and barbed end of N-actin are sequestered by interactions with Arp4 and the HSA domain, respectively, which prevents N-actin from polymerization and binding to many actin regulators. The two major domains of N-actin are more twisted than those of globular actin (G-actin), and its nucleotide-binding pocket is occluded, freeing N-actin from binding to and regulation by ATP. These findings revealed the salient structural features of N-actin that distinguish it from its cytoplasmic counterpart and provide a rational basis for its functions and regulation inside the nucleus. PMID:27457955

  7. Src64 controls a novel actin network required for proper ring canal formation in the Drosophila male germline.

    PubMed

    Eikenes, Åsmund Husabø; Malerød, Lene; Lie-Jensen, Anette; Sem Wegner, Catherine; Brech, Andreas; Liestøl, Knut; Stenmark, Harald; Haglund, Kaisa

    2015-12-01

    In many organisms, germ cells develop as cysts in which cells are interconnected via ring canals (RCs) as a result of incomplete cytokinesis. However, the molecular mechanisms of incomplete cytokinesis remain poorly understood. Here, we address the role of tyrosine phosphorylation of RCs in the Drosophila male germline. We uncover a hierarchy of tyrosine phosphorylation within germline cysts that positively correlates with RC age. The kinase Src64 is responsible for mediating RC tyrosine phosphorylation, and loss of Src64 causes a reduction in RC diameter within germline cysts. Mechanistically, we show that Src64 controls an actin network around the RCs that depends on Abl and the Rac/SCAR/Arp2/3 pathway. The actin network around RCs is required for correct RC diameter in cysts of developing germ cells. We also identify that Src64 is required for proper germ cell differentiation in the Drosophila male germline independent of its role in RC regulation. In summary, we report that Src64 controls actin dynamics to mediate proper RC formation during incomplete cytokinesis during germline cyst development in vivo. PMID:26628094

  8. Src64 controls a novel actin network required for proper ring canal formation in the Drosophila male germline.

    PubMed

    Eikenes, Åsmund Husabø; Malerød, Lene; Lie-Jensen, Anette; Sem Wegner, Catherine; Brech, Andreas; Liestøl, Knut; Stenmark, Harald; Haglund, Kaisa

    2015-12-01

    In many organisms, germ cells develop as cysts in which cells are interconnected via ring canals (RCs) as a result of incomplete cytokinesis. However, the molecular mechanisms of incomplete cytokinesis remain poorly understood. Here, we address the role of tyrosine phosphorylation of RCs in the Drosophila male germline. We uncover a hierarchy of tyrosine phosphorylation within germline cysts that positively correlates with RC age. The kinase Src64 is responsible for mediating RC tyrosine phosphorylation, and loss of Src64 causes a reduction in RC diameter within germline cysts. Mechanistically, we show that Src64 controls an actin network around the RCs that depends on Abl and the Rac/SCAR/Arp2/3 pathway. The actin network around RCs is required for correct RC diameter in cysts of developing germ cells. We also identify that Src64 is required for proper germ cell differentiation in the Drosophila male germline independent of its role in RC regulation. In summary, we report that Src64 controls actin dynamics to mediate proper RC formation during incomplete cytokinesis during germline cyst development in vivo.

  9. Dynamic Polymeric Microtubes for the Remote-Controlled Capture, Guidance, and Release of Sperm Cells.

    PubMed

    Magdanz, Veronika; Guix, Maria; Hebenstreit, Franziska; Schmidt, Oliver G

    2016-06-01

    Remote-controlled release of single sperm cells is demonstrated by the use of polymeric microtubes that unfold upon temperature increase to 38 °C. Thermoresponsive, ferromagnetic multilayers are tailored to catch sperm cells and remotely control them by external magnetic fields. These polymeric spermbots are propelled by the sperm flagella. When the temperature is increased, the tubes unfold and the cell is set free. PMID:27003908

  10. A General Approach to Sequence-Controlled Polymers Using Macrocyclic Ring Opening Metathesis Polymerization

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    A new and general strategy for the synthesis of sequence-defined polymers is described that employs relay metathesis to promote the ring opening polymerization of unstrained macrocyclic structures. Central to this approach is the development of a small molecule “polymerization trigger” which when coupled with a diverse range of sequence-defined units allows for the controlled, directional synthesis of sequence controlled polymers. PMID:26053158

  11. Actinic Cheilitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... is a precancerous condition related to cumulative lifetime sun exposure. The lower lip is most often affected. Individuals ... Wearing barrier clothing (eg, wide-brimmed hats) and sunscreen-containing lip balms can aid in preventing actinic ...

  12. How actin binds and assembles onto plasma membranes from Dictyostelium discoideum

    PubMed Central

    1988-01-01

    We have shown previously (Schwartz, M. A., and E. J. Luna. 1986. J. Cell Biol. 102: 2067-2075) that actin binds with positive cooperativity to plasma membranes from Dictyostelium discoideum. Actin is polymerized at the membrane surface even at concentrations well below the critical concentration for polymerization in solution. Low salt buffer that blocks actin polymerization in solution also prevents actin binding to membranes. To further explore the relationship between actin polymerization and binding to membranes, we prepared four chemically modified actins that appear to be incapable of polymerizing in solution. Three of these derivatives also lost their ability to bind to membranes. The fourth derivative (EF actin), in which histidine-40 is labeled with ethoxyformic anhydride, binds to membranes with reduced affinity. Binding curves exhibit positive cooperativity, and cross- linking experiments show that membrane-bound actin is multimeric. Thus, binding and polymerization are tightly coupled, and the ability of these membranes to polymerize actin is dramatically demonstrated. EF actin coassembles weakly with untreated actin in solution, but coassembles well on membranes. Binding by untreated actin and EF actin are mutually competitive, indicating that they bind to the same membrane sites. Hill plots indicate that an actin trimer is the minimum assembly state required for tight binding to membranes. The best explanation for our data is a model in which actin oligomers assemble by binding to clustered membrane sites with successive monomers on one side of the actin filament bound to the membrane. Individual binding affinities are expected to be low, but the overall actin-membrane avidity is high, due to multivalency. Our results imply that extracellular factors that cluster membrane proteins may create sites for the formation of actin nuclei and thus trigger actin polymerization in the cell. PMID:3392099

  13. Polymeric phosphorylcholine-camptothecin conjugates prepared by controlled free radical polymerization and click chemistry.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiangji; McRae, Samantha; Parelkar, Sangram; Emrick, Todd

    2009-12-01

    Novel polymer-drug conjugates, consisting of zwitterionic poly(methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine) (polyMPC) as the polymer component, and camptothecin (CPT) as the drug, were prepared by two methods. In one case, CPT was transformed by acylation into a functional initiator for copper catalyzed atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP), and polyMPC was grown from this therapeutic initiator. In the other case, a one-pot ATRP-"click" conjugation strategy was employed to synthesize novel polyMPC structures containing multiple copies of the drug pendant to the zwitterionic polymer chain. The latter method allows polyMPC-graft-CPT conjugates to be prepared with a high weight percent drug loading (up to 14% CPT) with excellent solubility in pure water (>250 mg/mL). The linkage chemistry chosen between the polyMPC backbone and the pendant drugs proved critically important for assuring drug release within a time frame reasonable to consider these structures as a platform for injectable cancer therapeutics. Liberation of the drug from the polymer backbone was monitored by high-performance liquid chromatography, using size-exclusion and reverse-phase columns, and the toxicity of the polymer-drug conjugates was examined in cell culture against breast (MCF7), ovarian (OVCAR-3), and colorectal (COLO 205) cancer cell lines.

  14. Regulation of an Actin Spring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tam, Barney; Shin, Jennifer; Brau, Ricardo; Lang, Matthew; Mahadevan, L.; Matsudaira, Paul

    2006-03-01

    To produce motion, cells rely on the conversion of potential energy into mechanical work. One such example is the dramatic process involving the acrosome reaction of Limulus sperm, whereby a 60 μm-long bundle of actin filaments straightens from a coiled conformation to extend out of the cell in five seconds. This cellular engine and the motion it produces represent a third type of actin-based motility fundamentally different from polymerization or myosin-driven processes. The motive force for this extension originates from stored elastic energy in the overtwisted, pre-formed coil---much like a compressed mechanical spring. When the actin bundle untwists, this energy is converted to mechanical work powering the extension. We report on experiments probing the regulation of this actin spring by extracellular calcium. We find that extracellular calcium needs to be present for the spring to activate, and that calcium regulates the velocity of the extension.

  15. Site-specific cation release drives actin filament severing by vertebrate cofilin

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Hyeran; Bradley, Michael J.; Cao, Wenxiang; Zhou, Kaifeng; Grintsevich, Elena E.; Michelot, Alphée; Sindelar, Charles V.; Hochstrasser, Mark; De La Cruz, Enrique M.

    2014-01-01

    Actin polymerization powers the directed motility of eukaryotic cells. Sustained motility requires rapid filament turnover and subunit recycling. The essential regulatory protein cofilin accelerates network remodeling by severing actin filaments and increasing the concentration of ends available for elongation and subunit exchange. Although cofilin effects on actin filament assembly dynamics have been extensively studied, the molecular mechanism of cofilin-induced filament severing is not understood. Here we demonstrate that actin filament severing by vertebrate cofilin is driven by the linked dissociation of a single cation that controls filament structure and mechanical properties. Vertebrate cofilin only weakly severs Saccharomyces cerevisiae actin filaments lacking this “stiffness cation” unless a stiffness cation-binding site is engineered into the actin molecule. Moreover, vertebrate cofilin rescues the viability of a S. cerevisiae cofilin deletion mutant only when the stiffness cation site is simultaneously introduced into actin, demonstrating that filament severing is the essential function of cofilin in cells. This work reveals that site-specific interactions with cations serve a key regulatory function in actin filament fragmentation and dynamics. PMID:25468977

  16. Computational model of polarized actin cables and cytokinetic actin ring formation in budding yeast

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Haosu; Bidone, Tamara C.

    2015-01-01

    The budding yeast actin cables and contractile ring are important for polarized growth and division, revealing basic aspects of cytoskeletal function. To study these formin-nucleated structures, we built a 3D computational model with actin filaments represented as beads connected by springs. Polymerization by formins at the bud tip and bud neck, crosslinking, severing, and myosin pulling, are included. Parameter values were estimated from prior experiments. The model generates actin cable structures and dynamics similar to those of wild type and formin deletion mutant cells. Simulations with increased polymerization rate result in long, wavy cables. Simulated pulling by type V myosin stretches actin cables. Increasing the affinity of actin filaments for the bud neck together with reduced myosin V pulling promotes the formation of a bundle of antiparallel filaments at the bud neck, which we suggest as a model for the assembly of actin filaments to the contractile ring. PMID:26538307

  17. Actin, Membrane Trafficking and the Control of Prion Induction, Propagation and Transmission in Yeast.

    PubMed

    Moosavi, Behrooz; Mousavi, Bibimaryam; Yang, Guang-Fu

    2016-01-01

    The model eukaryotic yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae has proven a useful model system in which prion biogenesis and elimination are studied. Several yeast prions exist in budding yeast and a number of studies now suggest that these alternate protein conformations may play important roles in the cell. During the last few years cellular factors affecting prion induction, propagation and elimination have been identified. Amongst these, proteins involved in the regulation of the actin cytoskeleton and dynamic membrane processes such as endocytosis have been found to play a critical role not only in facilitating de novo prion formation but also in prion propagation. Here we briefly review prion formation and maintenance with special attention given to the cellular processes that require the functionality of the actin cytoskeleton. PMID:26503767

  18. Mechanics model for actin-based motility.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yuan

    2009-02-01

    We present here a mechanics model for the force generation by actin polymerization. The possible adhesions between the actin filaments and the load surface, as well as the nucleation and capping of filament tips, are included in this model on top of the well-known elastic Brownian ratchet formulation. A closed form solution is provided from which the force-velocity relationship, summarizing the mechanics of polymerization, can be drawn. Model predictions on the velocity of moving beads driven by actin polymerization are consistent with experiment observations. This model also seems capable of explaining the enhanced actin-based motility of Listeria monocytogenes and beads by the presence of Vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein, as observed in recent experiments.

  19. Mechanics model for actin-based motility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Yuan

    2009-02-01

    We present here a mechanics model for the force generation by actin polymerization. The possible adhesions between the actin filaments and the load surface, as well as the nucleation and capping of filament tips, are included in this model on top of the well-known elastic Brownian ratchet formulation. A closed form solution is provided from which the force-velocity relationship, summarizing the mechanics of polymerization, can be drawn. Model predictions on the velocity of moving beads driven by actin polymerization are consistent with experiment observations. This model also seems capable of explaining the enhanced actin-based motility of Listeria monocytogenes and beads by the presence of Vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein, as observed in recent experiments.

  20. Integration of linear and dendritic actin nucleation in Nck-induced actin comets

    PubMed Central

    Borinskaya, Sofya; Velle, Katrina B.; Campellone, Kenneth G.; Talman, Arthur; Alvarez, Diego; Agaisse, Hervé; Wu, Yi I.; Loew, Leslie M.; Mayer, Bruce J.

    2016-01-01

    The Nck adaptor protein recruits cytosolic effectors such as N-WASP that induce localized actin polymerization. Experimental aggregation of Nck SH3 domains at the membrane induces actin comet tails—dynamic, elongated filamentous actin structures similar to those that drive the movement of microbial pathogens such as vaccinia virus. Here we show that experimental manipulation of the balance between unbranched/branched nucleation altered the morphology and dynamics of Nck-induced actin comets. Inhibition of linear, formin-based nucleation with the small-molecule inhibitor SMIFH2 or overexpression of the formin FH1 domain resulted in formation of predominantly circular-shaped actin structures with low mobility (actin blobs). These results indicate that formin-based linear actin polymerization is critical for the formation and maintenance of Nck-dependent actin comet tails. Consistent with this, aggregation of an exclusively branched nucleation-promoting factor (the VCA domain of N-WASP), with density and turnover similar to those of N-WASP in Nck comets, did not reconstitute dynamic, elongated actin comets. Furthermore, enhancement of branched Arp2/3-mediated nucleation by N-WASP overexpression caused loss of the typical actin comet tail shape induced by Nck aggregation. Thus the ratio of linear to dendritic nucleation activity may serve to distinguish the properties of actin structures induced by various viral and bacterial pathogens. PMID:26609071

  1. Integration of linear and dendritic actin nucleation in Nck-induced actin comets.

    PubMed

    Borinskaya, Sofya; Velle, Katrina B; Campellone, Kenneth G; Talman, Arthur; Alvarez, Diego; Agaisse, Hervé; Wu, Yi I; Loew, Leslie M; Mayer, Bruce J

    2016-01-15

    The Nck adaptor protein recruits cytosolic effectors such as N-WASP that induce localized actin polymerization. Experimental aggregation of Nck SH3 domains at the membrane induces actin comet tails--dynamic, elongated filamentous actin structures similar to those that drive the movement of microbial pathogens such as vaccinia virus. Here we show that experimental manipulation of the balance between unbranched/branched nucleation altered the morphology and dynamics of Nck-induced actin comets. Inhibition of linear, formin-based nucleation with the small-molecule inhibitor SMIFH2 or overexpression of the formin FH1 domain resulted in formation of predominantly circular-shaped actin structures with low mobility (actin blobs). These results indicate that formin-based linear actin polymerization is critical for the formation and maintenance of Nck-dependent actin comet tails. Consistent with this, aggregation of an exclusively branched nucleation-promoting factor (the VCA domain of N-WASP), with density and turnover similar to those of N-WASP in Nck comets, did not reconstitute dynamic, elongated actin comets. Furthermore, enhancement of branched Arp2/3-mediated nucleation by N-WASP overexpression caused loss of the typical actin comet tail shape induced by Nck aggregation. Thus the ratio of linear to dendritic nucleation activity may serve to distinguish the properties of actin structures induced by various viral and bacterial pathogens. PMID:26609071

  2. An unconventional form of actin in protozoan hemoflagellate, Leishmania.

    PubMed

    Kapoor, Prabodh; Sahasrabuddhe, Amogh A; Kumar, Ashutosh; Mitra, Kalyan; Siddiqi, Mohammad Imran; Gupta, Chhitar M

    2008-08-15

    Leishmania actin was cloned, overexpressed in baculovirus-insect cell system, and purified to homogeneity. The purified protein polymerized optimally in the presence of Mg2+ and ATP, but differed from conventional actins in its following properties: (i) it did not polymerize in the presence of Mg2+ alone, (ii) it polymerized in a restricted range of pH 7.0-8.5, (iii) its critical concentration for polymerization was found to be 3-4-fold lower than of muscle actin, (iv) it predominantly formed bundles rather than single filaments at pH 8.0, (v) it displayed considerably higher ATPase activity during polymerization, (vi) it did not inhibit DNase-I activity, and (vii) it did not bind the F-actin-binding toxin phalloidin or the actin polymerization disrupting agent Latrunculin B. Computational and molecular modeling studies revealed that the observed unconventional behavior of Leishmania actin is related to the diverged amino acid stretches in its sequence, which may lead to changes in the overall charge distribution on its solvent-exposed surface, ATP binding cleft, Mg2+ binding sites, and the hydrophobic loop that is involved in monomer-monomer interactions. Phylogenetically, it is related to ciliate actins, but to the best of our knowledge, no other actin with such unconventional properties has been reported to date. It is therefore suggested that actin in Leishmania may serve as a novel target for design of new antileishmanial drugs. PMID:18539603

  3. Force generation by endocytic actin patches in budding yeast.

    PubMed

    Carlsson, Anders E; Bayly, Philip V

    2014-04-15

    Membrane deformation during endocytosis in yeast is driven by local, templated assembly of a sequence of proteins including polymerized actin and curvature-generating coat proteins such as clathrin. Actin polymerization is required for successful endocytosis, but it is not known by what mechanisms actin polymerization generates the required pulling forces. To address this issue, we develop a simulation method in which the actin network at the protein patch is modeled as an active gel. The deformation of the gel is treated using a finite-element approach. We explore the effects and interplay of three different types of force driving invagination: 1), forces perpendicular to the membrane, generated by differences between actin polymerization rates at the edge of the patch and those at the center; 2), the inherent curvature of the coat-protein layer; and 3), forces parallel to the membrane that buckle the coat protein layer, generated by an actomyosin contractile ring. We find that with optimistic estimates for the stall stress of actin gel growth and the shear modulus of the actin gel, actin polymerization can generate almost enough force to overcome the turgor pressure. In combination with the other mechanisms, actin polymerization can the force over the critical value.

  4. Force Generation by Endocytic Actin Patches in Budding Yeast

    PubMed Central

    Carlsson, Anders E.; Bayly, Philip V.

    2014-01-01

    Membrane deformation during endocytosis in yeast is driven by local, templated assembly of a sequence of proteins including polymerized actin and curvature-generating coat proteins such as clathrin. Actin polymerization is required for successful endocytosis, but it is not known by what mechanisms actin polymerization generates the required pulling forces. To address this issue, we develop a simulation method in which the actin network at the protein patch is modeled as an active gel. The deformation of the gel is treated using a finite-element approach. We explore the effects and interplay of three different types of force driving invagination: 1), forces perpendicular to the membrane, generated by differences between actin polymerization rates at the edge of the patch and those at the center; 2), the inherent curvature of the coat-protein layer; and 3), forces parallel to the membrane that buckle the coat protein layer, generated by an actomyosin contractile ring. We find that with optimistic estimates for the stall stress of actin gel growth and the shear modulus of the actin gel, actin polymerization can generate almost enough force to overcome the turgor pressure. In combination with the other mechanisms, actin polymerization can the force over the critical value. PMID:24739159

  5. G-actin sequestering protein thymosin-β4 regulates the activity of myocardin-related transcription factor

    SciTech Connect

    Morita, Tsuyoshi Hayashi, Ken’ichiro

    2013-08-02

    Highlights: •Tβ4 competed with MRTF-A for G-actin binding. •Tβ4 activated the MRTF–SRF signaling pathway. •Tβ4 increased the endogenous expression of SRF-dependent genes. -- Abstract: Myocardin-related transcription factors (MRTFs) are robust coactivators of serum response factor (SRF). MRTFs contain three copies of the RPEL motif at their N-terminus, and they bind to monomeric globular actin (G-actin). Previous studies illustrate that G-actin binding inhibits MRTF activity by preventing the MRTFs nuclear accumulation. In the living cells, the majority of G-actin is sequestered by G-actin binding proteins that prevent spontaneous actin polymerization. Here, we demonstrate that the most abundant G-actin sequestering protein thymosin-β4 (Tβ4) was involved in the regulation of subcellular localization and activity of MRTF-A. Tβ4 competed with MRTF-A for G-actin binding; thus, interfering with G-actin–MRTF-A complex formation. Tβ4 overexpression induced the MRTF-A nuclear accumulation and activation of MRTF–SRF signaling. The activation rate of MRTF-A by the Tβ4 mutant L17A, whose affinity for G-actin is very low, was lower than that by wild-type Tβ4. In contrast, the β-actin mutant 3DA, which has a lower affinity for Tβ4, more effectively suppressed MRTF-A activity than wild-type β-actin. Furthermore, ectopic Tβ4 increased the endogenous expression of SRF-dependent actin cytoskeletal genes. Thus, Tβ4 is an important MRTF regulator that controls the G-actin–MRTFs interaction.

  6. Controlled Bioactive Molecules Delivery Strategies for Tendon and Ligament Tissue Engineering using Polymeric Nanofibers.

    PubMed

    Hiong Teh, Thomas Kok; Hong Goh, James Cho; Toh, Siew Lok

    2015-01-01

    The interest in polymeric nanofibers has escalated over the past decade given its promise as tissue engineering scaffolds that can mimic the nanoscale structure of the native extracellular matrix. With functionalization of the polymeric nanofibers using bioactive molecules, localized signaling moieties can be established for the attached cells, to stimulate desired biological effects and direct cellular or tissue response. The inherently high surface area per unit mass of polymeric nanofibers can enhance cell adhesion, bioactive molecules loading and release efficiencies, and mass transfer properties. In this review article, the application of polymeric nanofibers for controlled bioactive molecules delivery will be discussed, with a focus on tendon and ligament tissue engineering. Various polymeric materials of different mechanical and degradation properties will be presented along with the nanofiber fabrication techniques explored. The bioactive molecules of interest for tendon and ligament tissue engineering, including growth factors and small molecules, will also be reviewed and compared in terms of their nanofiber incorporation strategies and release profiles. This article will also highlight and compare various innovative strategies to control the release of bioactive molecules spatiotemporally and explore an emerging tissue engineering strategy involving controlled multiple bioactive molecules sequential release. Finally, the review article concludes with challenges and future trends in the innovation and development of bioactive molecules delivery using polymeric nanofibers for tendon and ligament tissue engineering.

  7. Model for adhesion clutch explains biphasic relationship between actin flow and traction at the cell leading edge

    PubMed Central

    Craig, Erin M.; Stricker, Jonathan; Gardel, Margaret L.; Mogilner, Alex

    2015-01-01

    Cell motility relies on the continuous reorganization of a dynamic actin-myosin-adhesion network at the leading edge of the cell, in order to generate protrusion at the leading edge and traction between the cell and its external environment. We analyze experimentally measured spatial distributions of actin flow, traction force, myosin density, and adhesion density in control and pharmacologically perturbed epithelial cells in order to develop a mechanical model of the actin-adhesion-myosin self-organization at the leading edge. A model in which the F-actin network is treated as a viscous gel, and adhesion clutch engagement is strengthened by myosin but weakened by actin flow, can explain the measured molecular distributions and correctly predict the spatial distributions of the actin flow and traction stress. We test the model by comparing its predictions with measurements of the actin flow and traction stress in cells with fast and slow actin polymerization rates. The model predicts how the location of the lamellipodium-lamellum boundary depends on the actin viscosity and adhesion strength. The model further predicts that the location of the lamellipodium-lamellum boundary is not very sensitive to the level of myosin contraction. PMID:25969948

  8. Photo-Regeneration of Severed Gel Using Photo-Controlled Radical Polymerization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Awaneesh; Kuksenok, Olga; Johnson, Jeremiah A.; Balazs, Anna C.

    Using the framework of dissipative particle dynamics (DPD) simulation, we developed a novel computational model that enables photo-regeneration of the gel matrix when a significant portion of the material is severed. We considered photo-controlled radical polymerization (photo-CRP) within polymer networks with embedded iniferters (initiators for the photo-CRP reaction). These iniferters turn on the polymerization process in the presence of light with monomers and cross-linkers in the solution. This ''photo-growth'' allow us to effectively regenerate severed gels under the application of light. The growth process can be turned off once the polymerization is near completion, which forms a new cross-linked gel that resembles the uncut material. The polymerization rate can be modulated by altering the light intensity.

  9. Assembly Kinetics Determine the Architecture of α-actinin Crosslinked F-actin Networks

    PubMed Central

    Falzone, Tobias T.; Lenz, Martin; Kovar, David R.; Gardel, Margaret L.

    2013-01-01

    The actin cytoskeleton is organized into diverse meshworks and bundles that support many aspects of cell physiology. Understanding the self-assembly of these actin-based structures is essential for developing predictive models of cytoskeletal organization. Here we show that the competing kinetics of bundle formation with the onset of dynamic arrest arising from filament entanglements and cross-linking determine the architecture of reconstituted actin networks formed with α-actinin cross-links. Cross-link mediated bundle formation only occurs in dilute solutions of highly mobile actin filaments. As actin polymerization proceeds, filament mobility and bundle formation are arrested concomitantly. By controlling the onset of dynamic arrest, perturbations to actin assembly kinetics dramatically alter the architecture of biochemically identical samples. Thus, the morphology of reconstituted F-actin networks is a kinetically determined structure similar to those formed by physical gels and glasses. These results establish mechanisms controlling the structure and mechanics in diverse semi-flexible biopolymer networks. PMID:22643888

  10. Chemotaxis and Actin Oscillations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bodenschatz, Eberhard; Hsu, Hsin-Fang; Negrete, Jose; Beta, Carsten; Pumir, Alain; Gholami, Azam; Tarantola, Marco; Westendorf, Christian; Zykov, Vladimir

    Recently, self-oscillations of the cytoskeletal actin have been observed in Dictyostelium, a model system for studying chemotaxis. Here we report experimental results on the self-oscillation mechanism and the role of regulatory proteins and myosin II. We stimulate cells rapidly and periodically by using photo un-caging of the chemoattractant in a micro-fluidic device and measured the cellular responses. We found that the response amplitude grows with stimulation strength only in a very narrow region of stimulation, after which the response amplitude reaches a plateau. Moreover, the frequency-response is not constant but rather varies with the strength of external stimuli. To understand the underlying mechanism, we analyzed the polymerization and de-polymerization time in the single cell level. Despite of the large cell-to-cell variability, we found that the polymerization time is independent of external stimuli and the de-polymerization time is prolonged as the stimulation strength increases. Our conclusions will be summarized and the role of noise in the signaling network will be discussed. German Science Foundation CRC 937.

  11. Actin dynamics in papilla cells of Brassica rapa during self- and cross-pollination.

    PubMed

    Iwano, Megumi; Shiba, Hiroshi; Matoba, Kyoko; Miwa, Teruhiko; Funato, Miyuki; Entani, Tetsuyuki; Nakayama, Pulla; Shimosato, Hiroko; Takaoka, Akio; Isogai, Akira; Takayama, Seiji

    2007-05-01

    The self-incompatibility system of the plant species Brassica is controlled by the S-locus, which contains S-RECEPTOR KINASE (SRK) and S-LOCUS PROTEIN11 (SP11). SP11 binding to SRK induces SRK autophosphorylation and initiates a signaling cascade leading to the rejection of self pollen. However, the mechanism controlling hydration and germination arrest during self-pollination is unclear. In this study, we examined the role of actin, a key cytoskeletal component regulating the transport system for hydration and germination in the papilla cell during pollination. Using rhodamine-phalloidin staining, we showed that cross-pollination induced actin polymerization, whereas self-pollination induced actin reorganization and likely depolymerization. By monitoring transiently expressed green fluorescent protein fused to the actin-binding domain of mouse talin, we observed the concentration of actin bundles at the cross-pollen attachment site and actin reorganization and likely depolymerization at the self-pollen attachment site; the results correspond to those obtained by rhodamine-phalloidin staining. We further showed that the coat of self pollen is sufficient to mediate this response. The actin-depolymerizing drug cytochalasin D significantly inhibited pollen hydration and germination during cross-pollination, further emphasizing a role for actin in these processes. Additionally, three-dimensional electron microscopic tomography revealed the close association of the actin cytoskeleton with an apical vacuole network. Self-pollination disrupted the vacuole network, whereas cross-pollination led to vacuolar rearrangements toward the site of pollen attachment. Taken together, our data suggest that self- and cross-pollination differentially affect the dynamics of the actin cytoskeleton, leading to changes in vacuolar structure associated with hydration and germination.

  12. The PAR complex controls the spatiotemporal dynamics of F-actin and the MTOC in directionally migrating leukocytes

    PubMed Central

    Crespo, Carolina Lage; Vernieri, Claudio; Keller, Philipp J.; Garrè, Massimiliano; Bender, Jeffrey R.; Wittbrodt, Joachim; Pardi, Ruggero

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Inflammatory cells acquire a polarized phenotype to migrate towards sites of infection or injury. A conserved polarity complex comprising PAR-3, PAR-6 and atypical protein kinase C (aPKC) relays extracellular polarizing cues to control cytoskeletal and signaling networks affecting morphological and functional polarization. However, there is no evidence that myeloid cells use PAR signaling to migrate vectorially in three-dimensional (3D) environments in vivo. Using genetically encoded bioprobes and high-resolution live imaging, we reveal the existence of F-actin oscillations in the trailing edge and constant repositioning of the microtubule organizing center (MTOC) to direct leukocyte migration in wounded medaka fish larvae (Oryzias latipes). Genetic manipulation in live myeloid cells demonstrates that the catalytic activity of aPKC and the regulated interaction with PAR-3 and PAR-6 are required for consistent F-actin oscillations, MTOC perinuclear mobility, aPKC repositioning and wound-directed migration upstream of Rho kinase (also known as ROCK or ROK) activation. We propose that the PAR complex coordinately controls cytoskeletal changes affecting both the generation of traction force and the directionality of leukocyte migration to sites of injury. PMID:25179599

  13. Zygotically controlled F-actin establishes cortical compartments to stabilize furrows during Drosophila cellularization

    PubMed Central

    Sokac, Anna Marie; Wieschaus, Eric

    2009-01-01

    Summary Cortical compartments partition proteins and membrane at the cell surface to define regions of specialized function. Here we ask how cortical compartments arise along the plasma membrane furrows that cellularize the early Drosophila embryo, and investigate the influence that this compartmentalization has on furrow ingression. We find that the zygotic gene product Nullo aids the establishment of discrete cortical compartments, called furrow canals, which form at the tip of incipient furrows. Upon nullo loss-of-function, proteins that are normally restricted to adjacent lateral regions of the furrow, such as Neurotactin and Discs large, spread into the furrow canals. At the same time, cortical components that should concentrate in furrow canals, such as Myosin 2 (Zipper) and Anillin (Scraps), are missing from some furrows. Depletion of these cortical components from the furrow canal compartments precipitates furrow regression. Contrary to previous models, we find that furrow compartmentalization does not require cell-cell junctions that border the furrow canals. Instead, compartmentalization is disrupted by treatments that reduce levels of cortical F-actin. Because the earliest uniform phenotype detected in nullo mutants is reduced levels of F-actin at furrow canals, we propose that Nullo compartmentalizes furrows via its regulation of Factin, thus stabilizing furrows and insuring their ingression to complete cellularization. PMID:18460582

  14. Cadherin controls nectin recruitment into adherens junctions by remodeling the actin cytoskeleton

    PubMed Central

    Troyanovsky, Regina B.; Indra, Indrajyoti; Chen, Chi-Shuo; Hong, Soonjin; Troyanovsky, Sergey M.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The mechanism that coordinates activities of different adhesion receptors is poorly understood. We investigated this mechanism by focusing on the nectin-2 and E-cadherin adherens junction receptors. We found that, cadherin was not required for the basic process of nectin junction formation because nectin-2 formed junctions in cadherin-deficient A431D cells. Formation of nectin-2 junctions in these cells, however, became regulated by cadherin as soon as E-cadherin was re-expressed. E-cadherin recruited nectin-2 into adherens junctions, where both proteins formed distinct but tightly associated clusters. Live-cell imaging showed that the appearance of E-cadherin clusters often preceded that of nectin-2 clusters at sites of junction assembly. Inactivation of E-cadherin clustering by different strategies concomitantly suppressed the formation of nectin clusters. Furthermore, cadherin significantly increased the stability of nectin clusters, thereby making them resistant to the BC-12 antibody, which targets the nectin-2 adhesion interface. By testing different E-cadherin–α-catenin chimeras, we showed that the recruitment of nectin into chimera junctions is mediated by the actin-binding domain of α-catenin. Our data suggests that E-cadherin regulates assembly of nectin junctions through α-catenin-induced remodeling of the actin cytoskeleton around the cadherin clusters. PMID:25395582

  15. The IQGAP-related protein DGAP1 interacts with Rac and is involved in the modulation of the F-actin cytoskeleton and control of cell motility.

    PubMed

    Faix, J; Clougherty, C; Konzok, A; Mintert, U; Murphy, J; Albrecht, R; Mühlbauer, B; Kuhlmann, J

    1998-10-01

    DGAP1 of Dictyostelium discoideum is a cell cortex associated 95 kDa protein that shows homology to both RasGTPase-activating proteins (RasGAPs) and RasGAP-related proteins. When tested for RasGAP activity, recombinant DGAP1 protein did not promote the GTPase activity of human H-Ras or of Dictyostelium RasG in vitro. Instead, DGAP1 bound to Dictyostelium Rac1A and human Rac1, but not to human Cdc42. DGAP1 preferentially interacted with the activated GTP-bound forms of Rac1 and Rac1A, but did not affect the GTPase activities. Since Rho-type GTPases are implicated in the formation of specific F-actin structures and in the control of cell morphology, the microfilament system of mutants that either lack or overexpress DGAP1 has been analysed. DGAP1-null mutants showed elevated levels of F-actin that was organised in large leading edges, membrane ruffles or numerous large filopods. Expression of actin fused to green fluorescent protein (GFP) was used to monitor the actin dynamics in these cells, and revealed that the F-actin cytoskeleton of DGAP1-null cells was rapidly re-arranged to form ruffles and filopods. Conversely, in DGAP1-overexpressing cells, the formation of cellular projections containing F-actin was largely suppressed. Measurement of cell migration demonstrated that DGAP1 expression is inversely correlated with the speed of cell motility. PMID:9739079

  16. Tau co-organizes dynamic microtubule and actin networks

    PubMed Central

    Elie, Auréliane; Prezel, Elea; Guérin, Christophe; Denarier, Eric; Ramirez-Rios, Sacnicte; Serre, Laurence; Andrieux, Annie; Fourest-Lieuvin, Anne; Blanchoin, Laurent; Arnal, Isabelle

    2015-01-01

    The crosstalk between microtubules and actin is essential for cellular functions. However, mechanisms underlying the microtubule-actin organization by cross-linkers remain largely unexplored. Here, we report that tau, a neuronal microtubule-associated protein, binds to microtubules and actin simultaneously, promoting in vitro co-organization and coupled growth of both networks. By developing an original assay to visualize concomitant microtubule and actin assembly, we show that tau can induce guided polymerization of actin filaments along microtubule tracks and growth of single microtubules along actin filament bundles. Importantly, tau mediates microtubule-actin co-alignment without changing polymer growth properties. Mutagenesis studies further reveal that at least two of the four tau repeated motifs, primarily identified as tubulin-binding sites, are required to connect microtubules and actin. Tau thus represents a molecular linker between microtubule and actin networks, enabling a coordination of the two cytoskeletons that might be essential in various neuronal contexts. PMID:25944224

  17. Single-Molecule Discrimination within Dendritic Spines of Discrete Perisynaptic Sites of Actin Filament Assembly Driving Postsynaptic Reorganization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanpied, Thomas A.

    2013-03-01

    In the brain, the strength of synaptic transmission between neurons is principally set by the organization of proteins within the receptive, postsynaptic cell. Synaptic strength at an individual site of contact can remain remarkably stable for months or years. However, it also can undergo diverse forms of plasticity which change the strength at that contact independent of changes to neighboring synapses. Such activity-triggered neural plasticity underlies memory storage and cognitive development, and is disrupted in pathological physiology such as addiction and schizophrenia. Much of the short-term regulation of synaptic plasticity occurs within the postsynaptic cell, in small subcompartments surrounding the synaptic contact. Biochemical subcompartmentalization necessary for synapse-specific plasticity is achieved in part by segregation of synapses to micron-sized protrusions from the cell called dendritic spines. Dendritic spines are heavily enriched in the actin cytoskeleton, and regulation of actin polymerization within dendritic spines controls both basal synaptic strength and many forms of synaptic plasticity. However, understanding the mechanism of this control has been difficult because the submicron dimensions of spines limit examination of actin dynamics in the spine interior by conventional confocal microscopy. To overcome this, we developed single-molecule tracking photoactivated localization microscopy (smtPALM) to measure the movement of individual actin molecules within living spines. This revealed inward actin flow from broad areas of the spine plasma membrane, as well as a dense central core of heterogeneous filament orientation. The velocity of single actin molecules along filaments was elevated in discrete regions within the spine, notably near the postsynaptic density but surprisingly not at the endocytic zone which is involved in some forms of plasticity. We conclude that actin polymerization is initiated at many well-separated foci within

  18. Intranuclear Actin Regulates Osteogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Sen, Buer; Xie, Zhihui; Uzer, Gunes; Thompson, William R.; Styner, Maya; Wu, Xin; Rubin, Janet

    2016-01-01

    Depolymerization of the actin cytoskeleton induces nuclear trafficking of regulatory proteins and global effects on gene transcription. We here show that in mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), cytochalasin D treatment causes rapid cofilin-/importin-9-dependent transfer of G-actin into the nucleus. The continued presence of intranuclear actin, which forms rod-like structures that stain with phalloidin, is associated with induction of robust expression of the osteogenic genes osterix and osteocalcin in a Runx2-dependent manner, and leads to acquisition of osteogenic phenotype. Adipogenic differentiation also occurs, but to a lesser degree. Intranuclear actin leads to nuclear export of Yes-associated protein (YAP); maintenance of nuclear YAP inhibits Runx2 initiation of osteogenesis. Injection of cytochalasin into the tibial marrow space of live mice results in abundant bone formation within the space of 1 week. In sum, increased intranuclear actin forces MSC into osteogenic lineage through controlling Runx2 activity; this process may be useful for clinical objectives of forming bone. PMID:26140478

  19. Molecular and structural basis for redox regulation of beta-actin.

    PubMed

    Lassing, Ingrid; Schmitzberger, Florian; Björnstedt, Mikael; Holmgren, Arne; Nordlund, Pär; Schutt, Clarence E; Lindberg, Uno

    2007-07-01

    An essential consequence of growth factor-mediated signal transduction is the generation of intracellular H(2)O(2). It operates as a second messenger in the control of actin microfilament dynamics, causing rapid and dramatic changes in the morphology and motile activity of stimulated cells. Little is understood about the molecular mechanisms causing these changes in the actin system. Here, it is shown that H(2)O(2) acts directly upon several levels of this system, and some of the mechanistic effects are detailed. We describe the impact of oxidation on the polymerizability of non-muscle beta/gamma-actin and compare with that of muscle alpha-actin. Oxidation of beta/gamma-actin can cause a complete loss of polymerizability, crucially, reversible by the thioredoxin system. Further, oxidation of the actin impedes its interaction with profilin and causes depolymerization of filamentous actin. The effects of oxidation are critically dependent on the nucleotide state and the concentration of Ca(2+). We have determined the crystal structure of oxidized beta-actin to a resolution of 2.6 A. The arrangement in the crystal implies an antiparallel homodimer connected by an intermolecular disulfide bond involving cysteine 374. Our data indicate that this dimer forms under non-polymerizing and oxidizing conditions. We identify oxidation of cysteine 272 in the crystallized actin dimer, likely to a cysteine sulfinic acid. In beta/gamma-actin, this is the cysteine residue most reactive towards H(2)O(2) in solution, and we suggest plausible structural determinants for its reactivity. No other oxidative modification was obvious in the structure, highlighting the specificity of the oxidation by H(2)O(2). Possible consequences of the observed effects in a cellular context and their potential relevance are discussed.

  20. Endosome-ER Contacts Control Actin Nucleation and Retromer Function through VAP-Dependent Regulation of PI4P.

    PubMed

    Dong, Rui; Saheki, Yasunori; Swarup, Sharan; Lucast, Louise; Harper, J Wade; De Camilli, Pietro

    2016-07-14

    VAP (VAPA and VAPB) is an evolutionarily conserved endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-anchored protein that helps generate tethers between the ER and other membranes through which lipids are exchanged across adjacent bilayers. Here, we report that by regulating PI4P levels on endosomes, VAP affects WASH-dependent actin nucleation on these organelles and the function of the retromer, a protein coat responsible for endosome-to-Golgi traffic. VAP is recruited to retromer budding sites on endosomes via an interaction with the retromer SNX2 subunit. Cells lacking VAP accumulate high levels of PI4P, actin comets, and trans-Golgi proteins on endosomes. Such defects are mimicked by downregulation of OSBP, a VAP interactor and PI4P transporter that participates in VAP-dependent ER-endosomes tethers. These results reveal a role of PI4P in retromer-/WASH-dependent budding from endosomes. Collectively, our data show how the ER can control budding dynamics and association with the cytoskeleton of another membrane by direct contacts leading to bilayer lipid modifications. PMID:27419871

  1. Ssp1 CaMKK: A Sensor of Actin Polarization That Controls Mitotic Commitment through Srk1 in Schizosaccharomyces pombe

    PubMed Central

    Giménez-Zaragoza, David; López-Avilés, Sandra; Yance-Chávez, Tula; Montserrat, Marta; Pujol, M. Jesús; Bachs, Oriol; Aligue, Rosa

    2015-01-01

    Background Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase (CaMKK) is required for diverse cellular functions. Mammalian CaMKK activates CaMKs and also the evolutionarily-conserved AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). The fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe CaMKK, Ssp1, is required for tolerance to limited glucose through the AMPK, Ssp2, and for the integration of cell growth and division through the SAD kinase Cdr2. Results Here we report that Ssp1 controls the G2/M transition by regulating the activity of the CaMK Srk1. We show that inhibition of Cdc25 by Srk1 is regulated by Ssp1; and also that restoring growth polarity and actin localization of ssp1-deleted cells by removing the actin-monomer-binding protein, twinfilin, is sufficient to suppress the ssp1 phenotype. Conclusions These findings demonstrate that entry into mitosis is mediated by a network of proteins, including the Ssp1 and Srk1 kinases. Ssp1 connects the network of components that ensures proper polarity and cell size with the network of proteins that regulates Cdk1-cyclin B activity, in which Srk1 plays an inhibitory role. PMID:26575035

  2. Endosome-ER Contacts Control Actin Nucleation and Retromer Function through VAP-Dependent Regulation of PI4P.

    PubMed

    Dong, Rui; Saheki, Yasunori; Swarup, Sharan; Lucast, Louise; Harper, J Wade; De Camilli, Pietro

    2016-07-14

    VAP (VAPA and VAPB) is an evolutionarily conserved endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-anchored protein that helps generate tethers between the ER and other membranes through which lipids are exchanged across adjacent bilayers. Here, we report that by regulating PI4P levels on endosomes, VAP affects WASH-dependent actin nucleation on these organelles and the function of the retromer, a protein coat responsible for endosome-to-Golgi traffic. VAP is recruited to retromer budding sites on endosomes via an interaction with the retromer SNX2 subunit. Cells lacking VAP accumulate high levels of PI4P, actin comets, and trans-Golgi proteins on endosomes. Such defects are mimicked by downregulation of OSBP, a VAP interactor and PI4P transporter that participates in VAP-dependent ER-endosomes tethers. These results reveal a role of PI4P in retromer-/WASH-dependent budding from endosomes. Collectively, our data show how the ER can control budding dynamics and association with the cytoskeleton of another membrane by direct contacts leading to bilayer lipid modifications.

  3. Ena/VASP proteins cooperate with the WAVE complex to regulate the actin cytoskeleton.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xing Judy; Squarr, Anna Julia; Stephan, Raiko; Chen, Baoyu; Higgins, Theresa E; Barry, David J; Martin, Morag C; Rosen, Michael K; Bogdan, Sven; Way, Michael

    2014-09-01

    Ena/VASP proteins and the WAVE regulatory complex (WRC) regulate cell motility by virtue of their ability to independently promote actin polymerization. We demonstrate that Ena/VASP and the WRC control actin polymerization in a cooperative manner through the interaction of the Ena/VASP EVH1 domain with an extended proline rich motif in Abi. This interaction increases cell migration and enables VASP to cooperatively enhance WRC stimulation of Arp2/3 complex-mediated actin assembly in vitro in the presence of Rac. Loss of this interaction in Drosophila macrophages results in defects in lamellipodia formation, cell spreading, and redistribution of Ena to the tips of filopodia-like extensions. Rescue experiments of abi mutants also reveals a physiological requirement for the Abi:Ena interaction in photoreceptor axon targeting and oogenesis. Our data demonstrate that the activities of Ena/VASP and the WRC are intimately linked to ensure optimal control of actin polymerization during cell migration and development.

  4. Actinic Keratoses

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Marc D.

    2009-01-01

    Actinic keratoses are common intra-epidermal neoplasms that lie on a continuum with squamous cell carcinoma. Tightly linked to ultraviolet irradiation, they occur in areas of chronic sun exposure, and early treatment of these lesions may prevent their progression to invasive disease. A large variety of effective treatment modalities exist, and the optimal therapeutic choice is dependent on a variety of patient- and physician-associated variables. Many established and more recent approaches are discussed in this review with a focus on efficacy and administration techniques. Several previously experimental options, such as imiquimod and photodynamic therapy, have become incorporated as first-line options for the treatment of actinic keratoses, while combination treatment strategies have been gaining in popularity. The goal of all therapies is to ultimately limit the morbidity and mortality of squamous cell carcinoma. (J Clin Aesthetic Dermatol. 2009;2(7):43–48.) PMID:20729970

  5. Accessing conjugated polymers with precisely controlled heterobisfunctional chain ends via post-polymerization modification of the OTf group and controlled Pd(0)/t-Bu3P-catalyzed Suzuki cross-coupling polymerization

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, Qiao -Sheng; Hong, Kunlun; Zhang, Hong -Hai

    2015-08-12

    In this study, a general strategy toward the synthesis of well-defined conjugated polymers with controlled heterobisfunctional chain ends via combination of controlled Pd(0)/t-Bu3P Suzuki cross-coupling polymerization with the post-polymerization modification of the triflate (OTf) group was disclosed.

  6. Accessing conjugated polymers with precisely controlled heterobisfunctional chain ends via post-polymerization modification of the OTf group and controlled Pd(0)/t-Bu3P-catalyzed Suzuki cross-coupling polymerization

    DOE PAGES

    Hu, Qiao -Sheng; Hong, Kunlun; Zhang, Hong -Hai

    2015-08-12

    In this study, a general strategy toward the synthesis of well-defined conjugated polymers with controlled heterobisfunctional chain ends via combination of controlled Pd(0)/t-Bu3P Suzuki cross-coupling polymerization with the post-polymerization modification of the triflate (OTf) group was disclosed.

  7. Sterically controlled azomethine ylide cycloaddition polymerization of phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester.

    PubMed

    Stephen, Meera; Ramanitra, Hasina H; Santos Silva, Hugo; Dowland, Simon; Bégué, Didier; Genevičius, Kristijonas; Arlauskas, Kęstutis; Juška, Gytis; Morse, Graham E; Distler, Andreas; Hiorns, Roger C

    2016-05-01

    Phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) is polymerized simply using a one-pot reaction to yield soluble, high molecular weight polymers. The sterically controlled azomethine ylide cycloaddition polymerization (SACAP) is demonstrated to be highly adaptable and yields polymers with probable Mn≈ 24 600 g mol(-1) and Mw≈ 73 800 g mol(-1). Products are metal-free and of possible benefit to organic and hybrid photovoltaics and electronics as they form thin films from solution and have raised LUMOs. The promising electronic properties of this new polymer are discussed. PMID:27066898

  8. Spontaneous actin dynamics in contractile rings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kruse, Karsten; Wollrab, Viktoria; Thiagarajan, Raghavan; Wald, Anne; Riveline, Daniel

    Networks of polymerizing actin filaments are known to be capable to self-organize into a variety of structures. For example, spontaneous actin polymerization waves have been observed in living cells in a number of circumstances, notably, in crawling neutrophils and slime molds. During later stages of cell division, they can also spontaneously form a contractile ring that will eventually cleave the cell into two daughter cells. We present a framework for describing networks of polymerizing actin filaments, where assembly is regulated by various proteins. It can also include the effects of molecular motors. We show that the molecular processes driven by these proteins can generate various structures that have been observed in contractile rings of fission yeast and mammalian cells. We discuss a possible functional role of each of these patterns. The work was supported by Agence Nationale de la Recherche, France, (ANR-10-LABX-0030-INRT) and by Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft through SFB1027.

  9. Stereo- and Temporally Controlled Coordination Polymerization Triggered by Alternating Addition of a Lewis Acid and Base.

    PubMed

    Liu, Bo; Cui, Dongmei; Tang, Tao

    2016-09-19

    Significant progress has been made with regard to temporally controlled radical and ring-opening polymerizations, for example, by means of chemical reagents, light, and voltage, whereas quantitative switch coordination polymerization is still challenging. Herein, we report the temporally and stereocontrolled 3,4-polymerization of isoprene through allosterically regulating the active metal center by alternating addition of Lewis basic pyridine to "poison" the Lewis acidic active metal species through acid-base interactions and Lewis acidic Al(i) Bu3 to release the original active species through pyridine abstraction. This process is quick, quantitative, and can be repeated multiple times while maintaining high 3,4-selectivity. Moreover, this strategy is also effective for the switch copolymerization of isoprene and styrene with dual 3,4- and syndiotactic selectivity. Tuning the switch cycles and intervals enables the isolation of various copolymers with different distributions of 3,4-polyisoprene and syndiotactic polystyrene sequences. PMID:27539866

  10. Tailoring the Structure of Polymer Networks with Photo-Controlled Radical Polymerization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Awaneesh; Kuksenok, Olga; Johnson, Jeremiah A.; Balazs, Anna C.

    Using dissipative particle dynamics (DPD) approach, we developed a novel computational model to study the photo-controlled radical polymerization (photo-CRP) within polymer networks with embedded iniferters. The polymerization process can be turned ``on'' or ``off'' in response to light and the polymerization rate can be modulated by altering the light intensity. This ``photo-growth'' approach allows us to impart changes in the gel network pore size and composition to form photo-tunable smart materials. For example, our approach allows us to design gel composites that are comprised of two distinct layers made of two compatible components at low photo-iniferter concentrations or gel composites that are comprised of two incompatible components that are relatively well intermixed at high photo-iniferter concentration.

  11. Drosophila actin-Capping Protein limits JNK activation by the Src proto-oncogene.

    PubMed

    Fernández, B G; Jezowska, B; Janody, F

    2014-04-17

    The Src family kinases c-Src, and its downstream effectors, the Rho family of small GTPases RhoA and Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) have a significant role in tumorigenesis. In this report, using the Drosophila wing disc epithelium as a model system, we demonstrate that the actin-Capping Protein (CP) αβ heterodimer, which regulates actin filament (F-actin) polymerization, limits Src-induced apoptosis or tissue overgrowth by restricting JNK activation. We show that overexpressing Src64B drives JNK-independent loss of epithelial integrity and JNK-dependent apoptosis via Btk29A, p120ctn and Rho1. However, when cells are kept alive with the Caspase inhibitor P35, JNK acts as a potent inducer of proliferation via activation of the Yorkie oncogene. Reducing CP levels direct apoptosis of overgrowing Src64B-overexpressing tissues. Conversely, overexpressing capping protein inhibits Src64B and Rho1, but not Rac1-induced JNK signaling. CP requires the actin-binding domain of the α-subunit to limit Src64B-induced apoptosis, arguing that the control of F-actin mediates this effect. In turn, JNK directs F-actin accumulation. Moreover, overexpressing capping protein also prevents apoptosis induced by ectopic JNK expression. Our data are consistent with a model in which the control of F-actin by CP limits Src-induced apoptosis or tissue overgrowth by acting downstream of Btk29A, p120ctn and Rho1, but upstream of JNK. In turn, JNK may counteract the effect of CP on F-actin, providing a positive feedback, which amplifies JNK activation. We propose that cytoskeletal changes triggered by misregulation of F-actin modulators may have a significant role in Src-mediated malignant phenotypes during the early stages of cellular transformation.

  12. Oscillatory increases in alkalinity anticipate growth and may regulate actin dynamics in pollen tubes of lily.

    PubMed

    Lovy-Wheeler, Alenka; Kunkel, Joseph G; Allwood, Ellen G; Hussey, Patrick J; Hepler, Peter K

    2006-09-01

    Lily (Lilium formosanum or Lilium longiflorum) pollen tubes, microinjected with a low concentration of the pH-sensitive dye bis-carboxyethyl carboxyfluorescein dextran, show oscillating pH changes in their apical domain relative to growth. An increase in pH in the apex precedes the fastest growth velocities, whereas a decline follows growth, suggesting a possible relationship between alkalinity and cell extension. A target for pH may be the actin cytoskeleton, because the apical cortical actin fringe resides in the same region as the alkaline band in lily pollen tubes and elongation requires actin polymerization. A pH-sensitive actin binding protein, actin-depolymerizing factor (ADF), together with actin-interacting protein (AIP) localize to the cortical actin fringe region. Modifying intracellular pH leads to reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton, especially in the apical domain. Acidification causes actin filament destabilization and inhibits growth by 80%. Upon complete growth inhibition, the actin fringe is the first actin cytoskeleton component to disappear. We propose that during normal growth, the pH increase in the alkaline band stimulates the fragmenting activity of ADF/AIP, which in turn generates more sites for actin polymerization. Increased actin polymerization supports faster growth rates and a proton influx, which inactivates ADF/AIP, decreases actin polymerization, and retards growth. As pH stabilizes and increases, the activity of ADF/AIP again increases, repeating the cycle of events. PMID:16920777

  13. Dynamic actin structures stabilized by profilin.

    PubMed Central

    Finkel, T; Theriot, J A; Dise, K R; Tomaselli, G F; Goldschmidt-Clermont, P J

    1994-01-01

    We describe the production and analysis of clonal cell lines in which we have overexpressed human profilin, a small ubiquitous actin monomer binding protein, to assess the role of profilin on actin function in vivo. The concentration of filamentous actin is increased in cells with higher profilin levels, and actin filament half-life measured in these cells is directly proportional to the steady-state profilin concentration. The distribution of actin filaments is altered by profilin overexpression. While parallel actin bundles crossing the cells are virtually absent in cells overexpressing profilin, the submembranous actin network of these cells is denser than in control cells. These results suggest that in vivo profilin regulates the stability, and thereby distribution, of specific dynamic actin structures. Images PMID:8108438

  14. The role of actin in the temperature-dependent gelation and contraction of extracts of Acanthamoeba

    PubMed Central

    1976-01-01

    The temperature-dependent assembly and the interaction of Acanthamoeba contractile proteins have been studied in a crude extract. A cold extract of soluble proteins from Acanthamoeba castellanii is prepared by homogenizing the cells in a sucrose-ATP-ethyleneglycol-bis-(beta- aminoethyl ether) N,N'-tetraacetic acid buffer and centrifuging at 136,000 g for 1 h. When this supernate of soluble proteins is warmed to room temperature, it forms a solid gel. Upon standing at room temperature, the gel slowly contracts and squeezes out soluble components. The rates of gelation and contraction are both highly temperature dependent, with activation energies of about 20 kcal per mol. Gel formation is dependent upon the presence of ATP and Mg++. Low concentrations of Ca++ accelerate the contractile phase of this phenomenon. The major protein component of the gel is actin. It is associated with myosin, cofactor, a high molecular weight protein tentatively identfied as actin-binding protein, and several other unidentified proteins. Actin has been purified from these gels and was found to be capable of forming a solid gel when polymerized in the presence of ATP, MgCl3, and KCL. The rate of purified actin polymerication is very temperature dependent and is accelerated by the addition of fragments of muscle actin filaments. These data suggest that Acanthamoeba contractile proteins have a dual role in the cell; they may generate the forces for cellular movements and also act as cytoskeletal elements by controlling the consistency of the cytoplasm. PMID:1030705

  15. Quantitative analysis of beta-actin, beta-2-microglobulin and porphobilinogen deaminase mRNA and their comparison as control transcripts for RT-PCR.

    PubMed

    Lupberger, J; Kreuzer, K A; Baskaynak, G; Peters, U R; le Coutre, P; Schmidt, C A

    2002-02-01

    Quantitation of target mRNAs using the reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction found a widespread field of application in diverse biomedical diagnostic assays. However, the problem of varying sample quality has to be solved by correcting target molecule amounts through detection of an endogenous control template. The choice of an appropriate reference gene is still object of debate as pseudogene co-amplification and expression level variations may limit the usefulness of some currently used reference reactions. We compared quantitative expression levels of the commonly used endogenous reference genes beta-actin (beta-actin), beta-2-microglobulin (beta2-MG) and porphobilinogen deaminase (PBDG) using the TaqMan chemistry. With these assays we investigated the respective expression patterns in K562 cells and leucocytes of normal individuals as well as of malignoma patients. In K562 cells 1544+246 beta-actin, 65+30 beta2-MG and 22+/-8 PBDG copies/cell were detected. In normal leucocytes 491+/-97 beta-actin, 40+/-17 beta2-MG and <1 PBDG copies/cell were quantified. Leucocytes of various malignancies exhibited 84+/-51 beta-actin, 106+/-8 beta2-MG and <1 PBDG copies/cell. We conclude that beta2-MG is the most suitable reference gene tested as its variation between different sample origins and within distinct cell types was acceptable low.

  16. Excitable actin dynamics in lamellipodial protrusion and retraction.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Gillian L; Petroccia, Heather M; Watanabe, Naoki; Vavylonis, Dimitrios

    2012-04-01

    Many animal cells initiate crawling by protruding lamellipodia, consisting of a dense network of actin filaments, at their leading edge. We imaged XTC cells that exhibit flat lamellipodia on poly-L-lysine-coated coverslips. Using active contours, we tracked the leading edge and measured the total amount of F-actin by summing the pixel intensities within a 5-μm band. We observed protrusion and retraction with period 130-200 s and local wavelike features. Positive (negative) velocities correlated with minimum (maximum) integrated actin concentration. Approximately constant retrograde flow indicated that protrusions and retractions were driven by fluctuations of the actin polymerization rate. We present a model of these actin dynamics as an excitable system in which a diffusive, autocatalytic activator causes actin polymerization; F-actin accumulation in turn inhibits further activator accumulation. Simulations of the model reproduced the pattern of actin polymerization seen in experiments. To explore the model's assumption of an autocatalytic activation mechanism, we imaged cells expressing markers for both F-actin and the p21 subunit of the Arp2/3 complex. We found that integrated Arp2/3-complex concentrations spike several seconds before spikes of F-actin concentration. This suggests that the Arp2/3 complex participates in an activation mechanism that includes additional diffuse components. Response of cells to stimulation by fetal calf serum could be reproduced by the model, further supporting the proposed dynamical picture.

  17. Molecular mechanism of Ena/VASP-mediated actin-filament elongation.

    PubMed

    Breitsprecher, Dennis; Kiesewetter, Antje K; Linkner, Joern; Vinzenz, Marlene; Stradal, Theresia E B; Small, John Victor; Curth, Ute; Dickinson, Richard B; Faix, Jan

    2011-02-01

    Ena/VASP proteins are implicated in a variety of fundamental cellular processes including axon guidance and cell migration. In vitro, they enhance elongation of actin filaments, but at rates differing in nearly an order of magnitude according to species, raising questions about the molecular determinants of rate control. Chimeras from fast and slow elongating VASP proteins were generated and their ability to promote actin polymerization and to bind G-actin was assessed. By in vitro TIRF microscopy as well as thermodynamic and kinetic analyses, we show that the velocity of VASP-mediated filament elongation depends on G-actin recruitment by the WASP homology 2 motif. Comparison of the experimentally observed elongation rates with a quantitative mathematical model moreover revealed that Ena/VASP-mediated filament elongation displays a saturation dependence on the actin monomer concentration, implying that Ena/VASP proteins, independent of species, are fully saturated with actin in vivo and generally act as potent filament elongators. Moreover, our data showed that spontaneous addition of monomers does not occur during processive VASP-mediated filament elongation on surfaces, suggesting that most filament formation in cells is actively controlled.

  18. Multi input single output model predictive control of non-linear bio-polymerization process

    SciTech Connect

    Arumugasamy, Senthil Kumar; Ahmad, Z.

    2015-05-15

    This paper focuses on Multi Input Single Output (MISO) Model Predictive Control of bio-polymerization process in which mechanistic model is developed and linked with the feedforward neural network model to obtain a hybrid model (Mechanistic-FANN) of lipase-catalyzed ring-opening polymerization of ε-caprolactone (ε-CL) for Poly (ε-caprolactone) production. In this research, state space model was used, in which the input to the model were the reactor temperatures and reactor impeller speeds and the output were the molecular weight of polymer (M{sub n}) and polymer polydispersity index. State space model for MISO created using System identification tool box of Matlab™. This state space model is used in MISO MPC. Model predictive control (MPC) has been applied to predict the molecular weight of the biopolymer and consequently control the molecular weight of biopolymer. The result shows that MPC is able to track reference trajectory and give optimum movement of manipulated variable.

  19. Common formin-regulating sequences in Smy1 and Bud14 are required for the control of actin cable assembly in vivo.

    PubMed

    Eskin, Julian A; Rankova, Aneliya; Johnston, Adam B; Alioto, Salvatore L; Goode, Bruce L

    2016-03-01

    Formins comprise a large family of proteins with diverse roles in remodeling the actin cytoskeleton. However, the spatiotemporal mechanisms used by cells to control formin activities are only beginning to be understood. Here we dissected Smy1, which has dual roles in regulating formins and myosin. Using mutagenesis, we identified specific sequences in Smy1 critical for its in vitro inhibitory effects on the FH2 domain of the formin Bnr1. By integrating smy1 alleles targeting those sequences, we genetically uncoupled Smy1's functions in regulating formins and myosin. Quantitative imaging analysis further demonstrated that the ability of Smy1 to directly control Bnr1 activity is crucial in vivo for proper actin cable length, shape, and velocity and, in turn, efficient secretory vesicle transport. A Smy1-like sequence motif was also identified in a different Bnr1 regulator, Bud14, and found to be essential for Bud14 functions in regulating actin cable architecture and function in vivo. Together these observations reveal unanticipated mechanistic ties between two distinct formin regulators. Further, they emphasize the importance of tightly controlling formin activities in vivo to generate specialized geometries and dynamics of actin structures tailored to their physiological roles.

  20. Common formin-regulating sequences in Smy1 and Bud14 are required for the control of actin cable assembly in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Eskin, Julian A.; Rankova, Aneliya; Johnston, Adam B.; Alioto, Salvatore L.; Goode, Bruce L.

    2016-01-01

    Formins comprise a large family of proteins with diverse roles in remodeling the actin cytoskeleton. However, the spatiotemporal mechanisms used by cells to control formin activities are only beginning to be understood. Here we dissected Smy1, which has dual roles in regulating formins and myosin. Using mutagenesis, we identified specific sequences in Smy1 critical for its in vitro inhibitory effects on the FH2 domain of the formin Bnr1. By integrating smy1 alleles targeting those sequences, we genetically uncoupled Smy1’s functions in regulating formins and myosin. Quantitative imaging analysis further demonstrated that the ability of Smy1 to directly control Bnr1 activity is crucial in vivo for proper actin cable length, shape, and velocity and, in turn, efficient secretory vesicle transport. A Smy1-like sequence motif was also identified in a different Bnr1 regulator, Bud14, and found to be essential for Bud14 functions in regulating actin cable architecture and function in vivo. Together these observations reveal unanticipated mechanistic ties between two distinct formin regulators. Further, they emphasize the importance of tightly controlling formin activities in vivo to generate specialized geometries and dynamics of actin structures tailored to their physiological roles. PMID:26764093

  1. Fabrication of Polymeric Coatings with Controlled Microtopographies Using an Electrospraying Technique

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Qiongyu; Mather, Jason P.; Yang, Pine; Boden, Mark; Mather, Patrick T.

    2015-01-01

    Surface topography of medical implants provides an important biophysical cue on guiding cellular functions at the cell-implant interface. However, few techniques are available to produce polymeric coatings with controlled microtopographies onto surgical implants, especially onto implant devices of small dimension and with complex structures such as drug-eluting stents. Therefore, the main objective of this study was to develop a new strategy to fabricate polymeric coatings using an electrospraying technique based on the uniqueness of this technique in that it can be used to produce a mist of charged droplets with a precise control of their shape and dimension. We hypothesized that this technique would allow facile manipulation of coating morphology by controlling the shape and dimension of electrosprayed droplets. More specifically, we employed the electrospraying technique to coat a layer of biodegradable polyurethane with tailored microtopographies onto commercial coronary stents. The topography of such stent coatings was modulated by controlling the ratio of round to stretched droplets or the ratio of round to crumped droplets under high electric field before deposition. The shape of electrosprayed droplets was governed by the stability of these charged droplets right after ejection or during their flight in the air. Using the electrospraying technique, we achieved conformal polymeric coatings with tailored microtopographies onto conductive surgical implants. The approach offers potential for controlling the surface topography of surgical implant devices to modulate their integration with surrounding tissues. PMID:26090663

  2. Distributed actin turnover in the lamellipodium and FRAP kinetics.

    PubMed

    Smith, Matthew B; Kiuchi, Tai; Watanabe, Naoki; Vavylonis, Dimitrios

    2013-01-01

    Studies of actin dynamics at the leading edge of motile cells with single-molecule speckle (SiMS) microscopy have shown a broad distribution of EGFP-actin speckle lifetimes and indicated actin polymerization and depolymerization over an extended region. Other experiments using FRAP with the same EGFP-actin as a probe have suggested, by contrast, that polymerization occurs exclusively at the leading edge. We performed FRAP experiments on XTC cells to compare SiMS to FRAP on the same cell type. We used speckle statistics obtained by SiMS to model the steady-state distribution and kinetics of actin in the lamellipodium. We demonstrate that a model with a single diffuse actin species is in good agreement with FRAP experiments. A model including two species of diffuse actin provides an even better agreement. The second species consists of slowly diffusing oligomers that associate to the F-actin network throughout the lamellipodium or break up into monomers after a characteristic time. Our work motivates studies to test the presence and composition of slowly diffusing actin species that may contribute to local remodeling of the actin network and increase the amount of soluble actin.

  3. Ethanol-resistant polymeric film coatings for controlled drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Rosiaux, Y; Muschert, S; Chokshi, R; Leclercq, B; Siepmann, F; Siepmann, J

    2013-07-10

    The sensitivity of controlled release dosage forms to the presence of ethanol in the gastro intestinal tract is critical, if the incorporated drug is potent and exhibits severe side effects. This is for instance the case for most opioid drugs. The co-ingestion of alcoholic beverages can lead to dose dumping and potentially fatal consequences. For these reasons the marketing of hydromorphone HCl extended release capsules (Palladone) was suspended. The aim of this study was to develop a novel type of controlled release film coatings, which are ethanol-resistant: even the presence of high ethanol concentrations in the surrounding bulk fluid (e.g., up to 40%) should not affect the resulting drug release kinetics. Interestingly, blends of ethylcellulose and medium or high viscosity guar gums provide such ethanol resistance. Theophylline release from pellets coated with the aqueous ethylcellulose dispersion Aquacoat® ECD 30 containing 10 or 15% medium and high viscosity guar gum was virtually unaffected by the addition of 40% ethanol to the release medium. Furthermore, drug release was shown to be long term stable from this type of dosage forms under ambient and stress conditions (without packaging material), upon appropriate curing.

  4. Surface Treatment of Polymeric Materials Controlling the Adhesion of Biomolecules

    PubMed Central

    Poncin-Epaillard, Fabienne; Vrlinic, Tjasa; Debarnot, Dominique; Mozetic, Miran; Coudreuse, Arnaud; Legeay, Gilbert; El Moualij, Benaïssa; Zorzi, Willy

    2012-01-01

    This review describes different strategies of surface elaboration for a better control of biomolecule adsorption. After a brief description of the fundamental interactions between surfaces and biomolecules, various routes of surface elaboration are presented dealing with the attachment of functional groups mostly thanks to plasma techniques, with the grafting to and from methods, and with the adsorption of surfactants. The grafting of stimuli-responsive polymers is also pointed out. Then, the discussion is focused on the protein adsorption phenomena showing how their interactions with solid surfaces are complex. The adsorption mechanism is proved to be dependent on the solid surface physicochemical properties as well as on the surface and conformation properties of the proteins. Different behaviors are also reported for complex multiple protein solutions. PMID:24955631

  5. From polymeric "plasticine" to shape-controlled mesoporous carbon.

    PubMed

    Qian, Xu-Fang; Wang, Zheng; Wan, Ying

    2009-07-15

    A soft-phase intercalating process to synthesize mesostructured plasticine by using amphiphilic triblock copolymer F127 as a structure-directing agent, reverse triblock copolymer 25R4 as an intercalating soft matter, and soluble phenolic resin as a carbon source is demonstrated. The "plasticine" has interlayer organic-organic hybrid structure, which is emplastic, sticky, and able to be easily shaped at will. After template removal at 350 degrees C and further carbonization at 600 degrees C, highly ordered mesoporous polymers and carbons can be successively obtained with the maintenance of the original shape. The self-supported, shape-controlled, ordered mesoporous carbon products possess high surface areas (495-777 m(2)/g), large pore volumes (0.32-0.47 cm(3)/g), uniform pore sizes (2.5-4.3 nm) in the nanoscale and hollow tremella-like morphology in the micronscale which may facilitate mass transportation. PMID:19406429

  6. Impact of Alkyl Spacer Length on Aggregation Pathways in Kinetically Controlled Supramolecular Polymerization.

    PubMed

    Ogi, Soichiro; Stepanenko, Vladimir; Thein, Johannes; Würthner, Frank

    2016-01-20

    We have investigated the kinetic and thermodynamic supramolecular polymerizations of a series of amide-functionalized perylene bisimide (PBI) organogelator molecules bearing alkyl spacers of varied lengths (ethylene to pentylene chains, PBI-1-C2 to PBI-1-C5) between the amide and PBI imide groups. These amide-functionalized PBIs form one-dimensional fibrous nanostructures as the thermodynamically favored states in solvents of low polarity. Our in-depth studies revealed, however, that the kinetic behavior of their supramolecular polymerization is dependent on the spacer length. Propylene- and pentylene-tethered PBIs follow a similar polymerization process as previously observed for the ethylene-tethered PBI. Thus, the monomers of these PBIs are kinetically trapped in conformationally restricted states through intramolecular hydrogen bonding between the amide and imide groups. In contrast, the intramolecularly hydrogen-bonded monomers of butylene-tethered PBI spontaneously self-assemble into nanoparticles, which constitute an off-pathway aggregate state with regard to the thermodynamically stable fibrous supramolecular polymers obtained. Thus, for this class of π-conjugated system, an unprecedented off-pathway aggregate with high kinetic stability could be realized for the first time by introducing an alkyl linker of optimum length (C4 chain) between the amide and imide groups. Our current system with an energy landscape of two competing nucleated aggregation pathways is applicable to the kinetic control over the supramolecular polymerization by the seeding approach. PMID:26699283

  7. Arp2/3 complex and actin dynamics are required for actin-based mitochondrial motility in yeast.

    PubMed

    Boldogh, I R; Yang, H C; Nowakowski, W D; Karmon, S L; Hays, L G; Yates, J R; Pon, L A

    2001-03-13

    The Arp2/3 complex is implicated in actin polymerization-driven movement of Listeria monocytogenes. Here, we find that Arp2p and Arc15p, two subunits of this complex, show tight, actin-independent association with isolated yeast mitochondria. Arp2p colocalizes with mitochondria. Consistent with this result, we detect Arp2p-dependent formation of actin clouds around mitochondria in intact yeast. Cells bearing mutations in ARP2 or ARC15 genes show decreased velocities of mitochondrial movement, loss of all directed movement and defects in mitochondrial morphology. Finally, we observe a decrease in the velocity and extent of mitochondrial movement in yeast in which actin dynamics are reduced but actin cytoskeletal structure is intact. These results support the idea that the movement of mitochondria in yeast is actin polymerization driven and that this movement requires Arp2/3 complex.

  8. Optimization of release from magnetically controlled polymeric drug release devices.

    PubMed

    Edelman, E R; Langer, R

    1993-07-01

    Release rates from drug:polymer matrices embedded with small magnets increase in the presence of oscillating magnetic fields. Previous studies of these systems have defined those parameters that determine the extent of the increase in release, and implied that not only was the force generated within the matrix an important determinant of the extent of modulation but also that the greater the amount of matrix actually displaced, the greater the observed modulation. We investigated this possibility in the magnetic system and developed a model taking into account the intersection of the volume of a cylindrical polymer-drug magnet embedded matrix with an imaginary sphere representing the upper limit of matrix deformation by the magnet. The intersection correlated in a linear fashion with the increase in release (slope = 1.16 +/- 0.26, R = 0.864, P = 0.003, s.e.e. = 1.38). Magnet orientation alone was insufficient to explain the data. It appears that a modulated system is optimized when the modulating force overlaps precisely with the maximum amount of matrix drug that can be released. If the size of the matrix, position of the magnet, force generated on the matrix by the magnet, viscoelastic properties of the matrix, etc. are not matched then modulation is inefficient. These results should provide further insight into and a means of optimization for externally regulated controlled release systems.

  9. [Actinic Keratosis].

    PubMed

    Dejaco, D; Hauser, U; Zelger, B; Riechelmann, H

    2015-07-01

    Actinic keratosis is a cutaneous lesion characterized by proliferation of atypical epidermal keratinocytes due to prolonged exposure to exogenous factors such as ultraviolet radiation. AKs are in-situ-squamous cell carcinomas (PEC) of the skin. AK typically presents as erythematous, scaly patch or papule (classic AK), occasionally as thick, adherent scale on an erythematous base. Mostly fair-skinned adults are affected. AKs typically occur in areas of frequent sun exposure (balding scalp, face, "H-region", lateral neck, décolleté, dorsum of the hand and lower extremities). Actinic Cheilitis is the term used for AKs appearing on the lips. The diagnosis of AK is based on clinical examination including inspection and palpation. The typical palpable rough surface of AK often precedes a visible lesion. Dermoscopy may provide additional information. If diagnosis is uncertain and invasion suspected, biopsy and histopathologic evaluation should be performed. The potential for progression to invasive PECs mandates therapeutic intervention. Treatment options include topical and systemic therapies. Topical therapies are classified into physical, medical and combined physical-chemical approaches and a sequential combination of treatment modalities is possible. Topical-physical cryotherapy is the treatment of choice for isolated, non-hypertrophic AK. Topical-medical treatment, e. g. 5-fluoruracil (5FU) cream or Imiquomod or Ingenolmebutat application is used for multiple, non-hypertrophic AKs. For hypertrophic AKs, a dehorning pretreatment with salicinated vaseline is recommended. Isolated hypertrophic AKs often need cryotherapy with prolonged freezing time or several consecutive applications. Sequentially combined approaches are recommended for multiple, hypertrophic AKs. Photodynamic therapy (PDT) as example for a combined physical-chemical approach is an established treatment for multiple, non-hypertrophic and hypertrophic AKs. Prevention includes avoidance of sun and

  10. Guidance of subcellular tubulogenesis by actin under the control of a synaptotagmin-like protein and Moesin.

    PubMed

    JayaNandanan, N; Mathew, Renjith; Leptin, Maria

    2014-01-01

    Apical membranes in many polarized epithelial cells show specialized morphological adaptations that fulfil distinct physiological functions. The air-transporting tubules of Drosophila tracheal terminal cells represent an extreme case of membrane specialization. Here we show that Bitesize (Btsz), a synaptotagmin-like protein family member, is needed for luminal membrane morphogenesis. Unlike in multicellular tubes and other epithelia, where it influences apical integrity by affecting adherens junctions, Btsz here acts at a distance from junctions. Localized at the luminal membrane through its tandem C2 domain, it recruits activated Moesin. Both proteins are needed for the integrity of the actin cytoskeleton at the luminal membrane, but not for other pools of F-actin in the cell, nor do actin-dependent processes at the outer membrane, such as filopodial activity or membrane growth depend on Btsz. Btsz and Moesin guide luminal membrane morphogenesis through organizing actin and allowing the incorporation of membrane containing the apical determinant Crumbs.

  11. Polymeric controlled release formulations of niclosamide for control of Biomphalaria alexandrina, the vector snail of schistosomiasis.

    PubMed

    Kenawy, El-Refaie; Rizk, El-Sayed

    2004-02-20

    Schistosomiasis is one of the most important public health problems in many developing countries. The present study was conducted to investigate the effect of the polymeric niclosamide formulations against Biomphalaria alexandrina snails, the intermediate host of Schistosoma mansoni in Egypt. Three new polymeric formulations were prepared for the molluscicide niclosamide. The formulations were prepared either by the chemical modifications of poly(glycidyl methacrylate) or by physical entrapment of the niclosamide in calcium alginate beads. The release of the niclosamide from the polymeric formulations was investigated. The activity of the prepared formulations against Biomphalaria alexandrina was investigated. The results obtained revealed higher potency for polymerized niclosamide B3 than B1; the lowest potency was revealed for B2. After an exposure period of 24 hours, LC(50) values were 0.073, 0.098 and 1.09 ppm for B3, B1 and B2, respectively. In addition, the molluscicidal potency of the test polymeric niclosamide was age-dependent, where old snails were more tolerant to the test solutions than young and newly hatched snails. The results also indicated that the molluscicidal activity of B3 was extended for 21 days and 17 days for B1, compared with 5 days for free niclosamide. However, the molluscicidal potency of the polymerized niclosamide was increased after boiling for one hour, and was increased with increasing the pH of the medium to pH 9. In addition, their potency was increased with decreasing the water hardness concentrations (CaCO(3)).Molluscicidal activity of free niclosamide and its polymeric formulations vs. exposure time.

  12. Actin Age Orchestrates Myosin-5 and Myosin-6 Runlengths

    PubMed Central

    Zimmermann, Dennis; Santos, Alicja; Kovar, David R.; Rock, Ronald S.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Unlike a static and immobile skeleton, the actin cytoskeleton is a highly dynamic network of filamentous actin (F-actin) polymers that continuously turn over. In addition to generating mechanical forces and sensing mechanical deformation, dynamic F-actin networks serve as cellular tracks for myosin motor traffic. However, much of our mechanistic understanding of processive myosins comes from in vitro studies where motility was studied on pre-assembled and artificially stabilized, static F-actin tracks. In this work, we examine the role of actin dynamics in single-molecule myosin motility using assembling F-actin and the two highly processive motors, myosin-5 and myosin-6. These two myosins have distinct functions in the cell and travel in opposite directions along actin filaments [1–3]. Myosin-5 walks towards the barbed ends of F-actin, traveling to sites of actin polymerization at the cell periphery [4]. Myosin-6 walks towards the pointed end of F-actin [5], traveling towards the cell center along older segments of the actin filament. We find that myosin-5 takes 1.3 to 1.5-fold longer runs on ADP•Pi (young) F-actin, while myosin-6 takes 1.7 to 3.6-fold longer runs along ADP (old) F-actin. These results suggest that conformational differences between ADP•Pi and ADP F-actin tailor these myosins to walk farther toward their preferred actin filament end. Taken together, these experiments define a new mechanism by which myosin traffic may sort to different F-actin networks depending on filament age. PMID:26190073

  13. A dynamic formin-dependent deep F-actin network in axons

    PubMed Central

    Ganguly, Archan; Tang, Yong; Wang, Lina; Ladt, Kelsey; Loi, Jonathan; Dargent, Bénédicte; Leterrier, Christophe

    2015-01-01

    Although actin at neuronal growth cones is well-studied, much less is known about actin organization and dynamics along axon shafts and presynaptic boutons. Using probes that selectively label filamentous-actin (F-actin), we found focal “actin hotspots” along axons—spaced ∼3–4 µm apart—where actin undergoes continuous assembly/disassembly. These foci are a nidus for vigorous actin polymerization, generating long filaments spurting bidirectionally along axons—a phenomenon we call “actin trails.” Super-resolution microscopy reveals intra-axonal deep actin filaments in addition to the subplasmalemmal “actin rings” described recently. F-actin hotspots colocalize with stationary axonal endosomes, and blocking vesicle transport diminishes the actin trails, suggesting mechanistic links between vesicles and F-actin kinetics. Actin trails are formin—but not Arp2/3—dependent and help enrich actin at presynaptic boutons. Finally, formin inhibition dramatically disrupts synaptic recycling. Collectively, available data suggest a two-tier F-actin organization in axons, with stable “actin rings” providing mechanical support to the plasma membrane and dynamic "actin trails" generating a flexible cytoskeletal network with putative physiological roles. PMID:26216902

  14. Filopodia-like actin cables position nuclei in association with perinuclear actin in Drosophila nurse cells.

    PubMed

    Huelsmann, Sven; Ylänne, Jari; Brown, Nicholas H

    2013-09-30

    Controlling the position of the nucleus is vital for a number of cellular processes from yeast to humans. In Drosophila nurse cells, nuclear positioning is crucial during dumping, when nurse cells contract and expel their contents into the oocyte. We provide evidence that in nurse cells, continuous filopodia-like actin cables, growing from the plasma membrane and extending to the nucleus, achieve nuclear positioning. These actin cables move nuclei away from ring canals. When nurse cells contract, actin cables associate laterally with the nuclei, in some cases inducing nuclear turning so that actin cables become partially wound around the nuclei. Our data suggest that a perinuclear actin meshwork connects actin cables to nuclei via actin-crosslinking proteins such as the filamin Cheerio. We provide a revised model for how actin structures position nuclei in nurse cells, employing evolutionary conserved machinery.

  15. Controlled drug release through a plasma polymerized tetramethylcyclo-tetrasiloxane coating barrier.

    PubMed

    Osaki, Shigemasa; Chen, Meng; Zamora, Paul O

    2012-01-01

    A plasma polymerized tetramethylcyclo-tetrasiloxane (TMCTS) coating was deposited onto a metallic biomaterial, 316 stainless steel, to control the release rate of drugs, including daunomycin, rapamycin and NPC-15199 (N-(9-fluorenylmethoxy-carbonyl)-leucine), from the substrate surface. The plasma-state polymerized TMCTS thin film was deposited in a vacuum plasma reactor operated at a radio-frequency of 13.56 MHz, and was highly adhesive to the stainless steel, providing a smooth and hard coating layer for drugs coated on the substrate. To investigate the influence of plasma coating thickness on the drug diffusion profile, coatings were deposited at various time lengths from 20 s to 6 min, depending on the type of drug. Atomic force spectroscopy (AFM) was utilized to characterize coating thickness. Drug elution was measured using a spectrophotometer or high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) system. The experimental results indicate that plasma polymerized TMCTS can be used as an over-coating to control drug elution at the desired release rate. The drug-release rate was also found to be dependent on the molecular weight of the drug with plasma coating barrier on top of it. The in vitro cytotoxicity test result suggested that the TMCTS plasma coatings did not produce a cytotoxic response to mammalian cells. The non-cytotoxicity of TMCTS coating plus its high thrombo-resistance and biocompatibility are very beneficial to drug-eluting devices that contact blood.

  16. Anchoring energy enhancement and pretilt angle control of liquid crystal alignment on polymerized surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weng, Libo; Liao, Pei-Chun; Lin, Chen-Chun; Ting, Tien-Lun; Hsu, Wen-Hao; Su, Jenn-Jia; Chien, Liang-Chy

    2015-09-01

    We demonstrate enhanced surface anchoring energy and control of pretilt angle in a nematic liquid crystal cell with vertical alignment and polymerized surfaces (PS-VA). The polymerized surfaces are formed by ultraviolet (UV) irradiation-induced phase separation of a minute amount of a reactive monomer in the vertical-aligned nematic liquid crystal. By introducing a bias voltage during UV curing, surface-localized polymer protrusions with a dimension of 100nm and a field-induced pretilt angle are observed. Experimental evidences and theoretical analyses validate that PS-VA has increased surface anchoring strength by two folds and pretilt angle has been changed from 89° to 86° compared to those of a VA cell. The enabling PS-VA cell technique with excel electro-optical properties such as very good dark state, high optical contrast, and fast rise and decay times may lead to development of a wide range of applications.

  17. Anchoring energy enhancement and pretilt angle control of liquid crystal alignment on polymerized surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Weng, Libo; Chien, Liang-Chy; Liao, Pei-Chun; Lin, Chen-Chun; Ting, Tien-Lun; Hsu, Wen-Hao; Su, Jenn-Jia

    2015-09-15

    We demonstrate enhanced surface anchoring energy and control of pretilt angle in a nematic liquid crystal cell with vertical alignment and polymerized surfaces (PS-VA). The polymerized surfaces are formed by ultraviolet (UV) irradiation-induced phase separation of a minute amount of a reactive monomer in the vertical-aligned nematic liquid crystal. By introducing a bias voltage during UV curing, surface-localized polymer protrusions with a dimension of 100nm and a field-induced pretilt angle are observed. Experimental evidences and theoretical analyses validate that PS-VA has increased surface anchoring strength by two folds and pretilt angle has been changed from 89° to 86° compared to those of a VA cell. The enabling PS-VA cell technique with excel electro-optical properties such as very good dark state, high optical contrast, and fast rise and decay times may lead to development of a wide range of applications.

  18. Graphene oxide as a radical initiator: Free radical and controlled radical polymerization of sodium 4-vinylbenzenesulfonate with graphene oxide

    DOE PAGES

    Voylov, Dmitry N.; Saito, Tomonori; Lokitz, Bradley S.; Uhrig, David; Wang, Yangyang; Agapov, Alexander L.; Holt, Adam P.; Bocharova, Vera; Kisliuk, Alexander; Sokolov, Alexei P.

    2016-01-19

    The free radical and controlled radical polymerization of sodium 4-vinylbenzenesulfonate using graphene oxide as a radical initiator was studied. This work demonstrates that graphene oxide can initiate radical polymerization in an aqueous solution without any additional initiator. Poly(sodium 4-vinylbenzenesulfonate) obtained via reversible addition fragmentation chain transfer polymerization had a controlled molecular weight with a very narrow polydispersity ranging between 1.01 and 1.03. Furthermore, the reduction process of graphene oxide as well as the resulting composite material properties were analyzed in detail.

  19. Structural Dynamics of an Actin Spring

    PubMed Central

    Mahadevan, L.; Riera, C.S.; Shin, Jennifer H.

    2011-01-01

    Actin-based motility in cells is usually associated with either polymerization/depolymerization in the presence of cross-linkers or contractility in the presence of myosin motors. Here, we focus on a third distinct mechanism involving actin in motility, seen in the dynamics of an active actin spring that powers the acrosomal reaction of the horseshoe crab (Limulus polyphemus) sperm. During this process, a 60-μm bent and twisted bundle of cross-linked actin uncoils and becomes straight in a few seconds in the presence of Ca2+. This straightening, which occurs at a constant velocity, allows the acrosome to forcefully penetrate the egg. Synthesizing ultrastructural information with the kinetics, energetics, and imaging of calcium binding allows us to construct a dynamical theory for this mechanochemical engine consistent with our experimental observations. It also illuminates the general mechanism by which energy may be stored in conformational changes and released cooperatively in ordered macromolecular assemblies. PMID:21320427

  20. How capping protein enhances actin filament growth and nucleation on biomimetic beads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ruizhe; Carlsson, Anders E.

    2015-12-01

    Capping protein (CP), which caps the growing ends of actin filaments, accelerates actin-based motility. Recent experiments on biomimetic beads have shown that CP also enhances the rate of actin filament nucleation. Proposed explanations for these phenomena include (i) the actin funneling hypothesis (AFH), in which the presence of CP increases the free-actin concentration, and (ii) the monomer gating model, in which CP binding to actin filament barbed ends makes more monomers available for filament nucleation. To establish how CP increases the rates of filament elongation and nucleation on biomimetic beads, we perform a quantitative modeling analysis of actin polymerization, using rate equations that include actin filament nucleation, polymerization and capping, as modified by monomer depletion near the surface of the bead. With one adjustable parameter, our simulation results match previously measured time courses of polymerized actin and filament number. The results support a version of the AFH where CP increases the local actin monomer concentration at the bead surface, but leaves the global free-actin concentration nearly constant. Because the rate of filament nucleation increases with the monomer concentration, the increased local monomer concentration enhances actin filament nucleation. We derive a closed-form formula for the characteristic CP concentration where the local free-actin concentration reaches half the bulk value, and find it to be comparable to the global Arp2/3 complex concentration. We also propose an experimental protocol for distinguishing branching nucleation of filaments from spontaneous nucleation.

  1. Computational Study of the Binding Mechanism of Actin-Depolymerizing Factor 1 with Actin in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xue; Dong, Chun-Hai; Yang, Jian Ming; Yao, Xiao Jun

    2016-01-01

    Actin is a highly conserved protein. It plays important roles in cellular function and exists either in the monomeric (G-actin) or polymeric form (F-actin). Members of the actin-depolymerizing factor (ADF)/cofilin protein family bind to both G-actin and F-actin and play vital roles in actin dynamics by manipulating the rates of filament polymerization and depolymerization. It has been reported that the S6D and R98A/K100A mutants of actin-depolymerizing factor 1 (ADF1) in Arabidopsis thaliana decreased the binding affinity of ADF for the actin monomer. To investigate the binding mechanism and dynamic behavior of the ADF1–actin complex, we constructed a homology model of the AtADF1–actin complex based on the crystal structure of AtADF1 and the twinfilin C-terminal ADF-H domain in a complex with a mouse actin monomer. The model was then refined for subsequent molecular dynamics simulations. Increased binding energy of the mutated system was observed using the Molecular Mechanics Generalized Born Surface Area and Poisson–Boltzmann Surface Area (MM-GB/PBSA) methods. To determine the residues that make decisive contributions to the ADF1 actin-binding affinity, per-residue decomposition and computational alanine scanning analyses were performed, which provided more detailed information on the binding mechanism. Root-mean-square fluctuation and principal component analyses confirmed that the S6D and R98A/K100A mutants induced an increased conformational flexibility. The comprehensive molecular insight gained from this study is of great importance for understanding the binding mechanism of ADF1 and G-actin. PMID:27414648

  2. Computational Study of the Binding Mechanism of Actin-Depolymerizing Factor 1 with Actin in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Du, Juan; Wang, Xue; Dong, Chun-Hai; Yang, Jian Ming; Yao, Xiao Jun

    2016-01-01

    Actin is a highly conserved protein. It plays important roles in cellular function and exists either in the monomeric (G-actin) or polymeric form (F-actin). Members of the actin-depolymerizing factor (ADF)/cofilin protein family bind to both G-actin and F-actin and play vital roles in actin dynamics by manipulating the rates of filament polymerization and depolymerization. It has been reported that the S6D and R98A/K100A mutants of actin-depolymerizing factor 1 (ADF1) in Arabidopsis thaliana decreased the binding affinity of ADF for the actin monomer. To investigate the binding mechanism and dynamic behavior of the ADF1-actin complex, we constructed a homology model of the AtADF1-actin complex based on the crystal structure of AtADF1 and the twinfilin C-terminal ADF-H domain in a complex with a mouse actin monomer. The model was then refined for subsequent molecular dynamics simulations. Increased binding energy of the mutated system was observed using the Molecular Mechanics Generalized Born Surface Area and Poisson-Boltzmann Surface Area (MM-GB/PBSA) methods. To determine the residues that make decisive contributions to the ADF1 actin-binding affinity, per-residue decomposition and computational alanine scanning analyses were performed, which provided more detailed information on the binding mechanism. Root-mean-square fluctuation and principal component analyses confirmed that the S6D and R98A/K100A mutants induced an increased conformational flexibility. The comprehensive molecular insight gained from this study is of great importance for understanding the binding mechanism of ADF1 and G-actin. PMID:27414648

  3. Beyond Traditional RAFT: Alternative Activation of Thiocarbonylthio Compounds for Controlled Polymerization

    PubMed Central

    McKenzie, Thomas G.; Fu, Qiang; Uchiyama, Mineto; Satoh, Kotaro; Xu, Jiangtao

    2016-01-01

    Recent developments in polymerization reactions utilizing thiocarbonylthio compounds have highlighted the surprising versatility of these unique molecules. The increasing popularity of reversible addition–fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) radical polymerization as a means of producing well‐defined, ‘controlled’ synthetic polymers is largely due to its simplicity of implementation and the availability of a wide range of compatible reagents. However, novel modes of thiocarbonylthio activation can expand the technique beyond the traditional system (i.e., employing a free radical initiator) pushing the applicability and use of thiocarbonylthio compounds even further than previously assumed. The primary advances seen in recent years are a revival in the direct photoactivation of thiocarbonylthio compounds, their activation via photoredox catalysis, and their use in cationic polymerizations. These synthetic approaches and their implications for the synthesis of controlled polymers represent a significant advance in polymer science, with potentially unforeseen benefits and possibilities for further developments still ahead. This Research News aims to highlight key works in this area while also clarifying the differences and similarities of each system. PMID:27711266

  4. Beyond Traditional RAFT: Alternative Activation of Thiocarbonylthio Compounds for Controlled Polymerization

    PubMed Central

    McKenzie, Thomas G.; Fu, Qiang; Uchiyama, Mineto; Satoh, Kotaro; Xu, Jiangtao

    2016-01-01

    Recent developments in polymerization reactions utilizing thiocarbonylthio compounds have highlighted the surprising versatility of these unique molecules. The increasing popularity of reversible addition–fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) radical polymerization as a means of producing well‐defined, ‘controlled’ synthetic polymers is largely due to its simplicity of implementation and the availability of a wide range of compatible reagents. However, novel modes of thiocarbonylthio activation can expand the technique beyond the traditional system (i.e., employing a free radical initiator) pushing the applicability and use of thiocarbonylthio compounds even further than previously assumed. The primary advances seen in recent years are a revival in the direct photoactivation of thiocarbonylthio compounds, their activation via photoredox catalysis, and their use in cationic polymerizations. These synthetic approaches and their implications for the synthesis of controlled polymers represent a significant advance in polymer science, with potentially unforeseen benefits and possibilities for further developments still ahead. This Research News aims to highlight key works in this area while also clarifying the differences and similarities of each system.

  5. Surface morphology control of cross-linked polymer particles via dispersion polymerization.

    PubMed

    Peng, Bo; Imhof, Arnout

    2015-05-14

    Cross-linked polymer colloids (poly(methyl methacrylate) and polystyrene) with diverse shapes were prepared in polar solvents (ethanol, methanol and water) via dispersion polymerization, in which a linear addition of the cross-linker was used during reaction. Apart from spherical particles we found dented spheres or particles covered with nodules, or a combination of both. A comprehensive investigation was carried out, mainly concentrating on the effect of the experimental conditions (e.g., the addition start time and total addition time, cross-linker density and the solvency of the solvents) on particle morphologies. Consequently, we suggest a number of effective ways for the synthesis of regular (spherical) colloidal particles through maintaining a relatively low concentration of the cross-linker during the entire reaction, or forcing the co-polymerization (of monomer and cross-linker) locus to the continuous medium, or using a high quality or quantity of the stabilizer. Moreover, the size of the particles was also precisely manipulated by varying the polarity of the solvents, the concentration of the cross-linker, and the amount and average molecular weight of the stabilizer. In addition, the formation of the heavily dented particles with a very rough surface prepared under a pure or oxygen-'contaminated' nitrogen environment was monitored over time. The results accumulated in this article are of use for a better understanding of the mechanism of the polymerization and control over the structure and property of polymer particles.

  6. The polarity protein Inturned links NPHP4 to Daam1 to control the subapical actin network in multiciliated cells

    PubMed Central

    Yasunaga, Takayuki; Hoff, Sylvia; Schell, Christoph; Helmstädter, Martin; Kretz, Oliver; Kuechlin, Sebastian; Yakulov, Toma A.; Engel, Christina; Müller, Barbara; Bensch, Robert; Ronneberger, Olaf; Huber, Tobias B.; Lienkamp, Soeren S.

    2015-01-01

    Motile cilia polarization requires intracellular anchorage to the cytoskeleton; however, the molecular machinery that supports this process remains elusive. We report that Inturned plays a central role in coordinating the interaction between cilia-associated proteins and actin-nucleation factors. We observed that knockdown of nphp4 in multiciliated cells of the Xenopus laevis epidermis compromised ciliogenesis and directional fluid flow. Depletion of nphp4 disrupted the subapical actin layer. Comparison to the structural defects caused by inturned depletion revealed striking similarities. Furthermore, coimmunoprecipitation assays demonstrated that the two proteins interact with each other and that Inturned mediates the formation of ternary protein complexes between NPHP4 and DAAM1. Knockdown of daam1, but not formin-2, resulted in similar disruption of the subapical actin web, whereas nphp4 depletion prevented the association of Inturned with the basal bodies. Thus, Inturned appears to function as an adaptor protein that couples cilia-associated molecules to actin-modifying proteins to rearrange the local actin cytoskeleton. PMID:26644512

  7. The polarity protein Inturned links NPHP4 to Daam1 to control the subapical actin network in multiciliated cells.

    PubMed

    Yasunaga, Takayuki; Hoff, Sylvia; Schell, Christoph; Helmstädter, Martin; Kretz, Oliver; Kuechlin, Sebastian; Yakulov, Toma A; Engel, Christina; Müller, Barbara; Bensch, Robert; Ronneberger, Olaf; Huber, Tobias B; Lienkamp, Soeren S; Walz, Gerd

    2015-12-01

    Motile cilia polarization requires intracellular anchorage to the cytoskeleton; however, the molecular machinery that supports this process remains elusive. We report that Inturned plays a central role in coordinating the interaction between cilia-associated proteins and actin-nucleation factors. We observed that knockdown of nphp4 in multiciliated cells of the Xenopus laevis epidermis compromised ciliogenesis and directional fluid flow. Depletion of nphp4 disrupted the subapical actin layer. Comparison to the structural defects caused by inturned depletion revealed striking similarities. Furthermore, coimmunoprecipitation assays demonstrated that the two proteins interact with each other and that Inturned mediates the formation of ternary protein complexes between NPHP4 and DAAM1. Knockdown of daam1, but not formin-2, resulted in similar disruption of the subapical actin web, whereas nphp4 depletion prevented the association of Inturned with the basal bodies. Thus, Inturned appears to function as an adaptor protein that couples cilia-associated molecules to actin-modifying proteins to rearrange the local actin cytoskeleton.

  8. Interior decoration: tropomyosin in actin dynamics and cell migration.

    PubMed

    Lees, Justin G; Bach, Cuc T T; O'Neill, Geraldine M

    2011-01-01

    Cell migration and invasion requires the precise temporal and spatial orchestration of a variety of biological processes. Filaments of polymerized actin are critical players in these diverse processes, including the regulation of cell anchorage points (both cell-cell and cell-extracellular matrix), the uptake and delivery of molecules via endocytic pathways and the generation of force for both membrane protrusion and retraction. How the actin filaments are specialized for each of these discrete functions is yet to be comprehensively elucidated. The cytoskeletal tropomyosins are a family of actin associating proteins that form head-to-tail polymers which lay in the major groove of polymerized actin filaments. In the present review we summarize the emerging isoform-specific functions of tropomyosins in cell migration and invasion and discuss their potential roles in the specialization of actin filaments for the diverse cellular processes that together regulate cell migration and invasion.

  9. Side-binding proteins modulate actin filament dynamics.

    PubMed

    Crevenna, Alvaro H; Arciniega, Marcelino; Dupont, Aurélie; Mizuno, Naoko; Kowalska, Kaja; Lange, Oliver F; Wedlich-Söldner, Roland; Lamb, Don C

    2015-01-01

    Actin filament dynamics govern many key physiological processes from cell motility to tissue morphogenesis. A central feature of actin dynamics is the capacity of filaments to polymerize and depolymerize at their ends in response to cellular conditions. It is currently thought that filament kinetics can be described by a single rate constant for each end. In this study, using direct visualization of single actin filament elongation, we show that actin polymerization kinetics at both filament ends are strongly influenced by the binding of proteins to the lateral filament surface. We also show that the pointed-end has a non-elongating state that dominates the observed filament kinetic asymmetry. Estimates of flexibility as well as effects on fragmentation and growth suggest that the observed kinetic diversity arises from structural alteration. Tuning elongation kinetics by exploiting the malleability of the filament structure may be a ubiquitous mechanism to generate a rich variety of cellular actin dynamics. PMID:25706231

  10. Actin-binding proteins: the long road to understanding the dynamic landscape of cellular actin networks.

    PubMed

    Lappalainen, Pekka

    2016-08-15

    The actin cytoskeleton supports a vast number of cellular processes in nonmuscle cells. It is well established that the organization and dynamics of the actin cytoskeleton are controlled by a large array of actin-binding proteins. However, it was only 40 years ago that the first nonmuscle actin-binding protein, filamin, was identified and characterized. Filamin was shown to bind and cross-link actin filaments into higher-order structures and contribute to phagocytosis in macrophages. Subsequently many other nonmuscle actin-binding proteins were identified and characterized. These proteins regulate almost all steps of the actin filament assembly and disassembly cycles, as well as the arrangement of actin filaments into diverse three-dimensional structures. Although the individual biochemical activities of most actin-regulatory proteins are relatively well understood, knowledge of how these proteins function together in a common cytoplasm to control actin dynamics and architecture is only beginning to emerge. Furthermore, understanding how signaling pathways and mechanical cues control the activities of various actin-binding proteins in different cellular, developmental, and pathological processes will keep researchers busy for decades. PMID:27528696

  11. Supramolecular polymerization of a prebiotic nucleoside provides insights into the creation of sequence-controlled polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jun; Bonnesen, Peter V.; Rangel, E.; Vallejo, E.; Sanchez-Castillo, Ariadna; James Cleaves, H., II; Baddorf, Arthur P.; Sumpter, Bobby G.; Pan, Minghu; Maksymovych, Petro; Fuentes-Cabrera, Miguel

    2016-01-01

    Self-assembly of a nucleoside on Au(111) was studied to ascertain whether polymerization on well-defined substrates constitutes a promising approach for making sequence-controlled polymers. Scanning tunneling microscopy and density functional theory were used to investigate the self-assembly on Au(111) of (RS)-N9-(2,3-dihydroxypropyl)adenine (DHPA), a plausibly prebiotic nucleoside analog of adenosine. It is found that DHPA molecules self-assemble into a hydrogen-bonded polymer that grows almost exclusively along the herringbone reconstruction pattern, has a two component sequence that is repeated over hundreds of nanometers, and is erasable with electron-induced excitation. Although the sequence is simple, more complicated ones are envisioned if two or more nucleoside types are combined. Because polymerization occurs on a substrate in a dry environment, the success of each combination can be gauged with high-resolution imaging and accurate modeling techniques. These characteristics make nucleoside self-assembly on a substrate an attractive approach for designing sequence-controlled polymers. Further, by choosing plausibly prebiotic nucleosides, insights may be provided into how nature created the first sequence-controlled polymers capable of storing information. Such insights, in turn, can inspire new ways of synthesizing sequence-controlled polymers.

  12. Supramolecular polymerization of a prebiotic nucleoside provides insights into the creation of sequence-controlled polymers

    DOE PAGES

    Wang, Jun; Bonnesen, Peter V; Rangel, E.; Vallejo, E.; Sanchez-Castillo, Ariadna; Cleaves, II, H. James; Baddorf, Arthur P; Sumpter, Bobby G; Pan, Minghu; Maksymovych, Petro; et al

    2016-01-04

    The self-assembly of a nucleoside on Au(111) was studied to ascertain whether polymerization on well-defined substrates constitutes a promising approach for making sequence-controlled polymers. Scanning tunneling microscopy and density functional theory were used to investigate the self-assembly on Au(111) of (RS)-N9-(2,3-dihydroxypropyl)adenine (DHPA), a plausibly prebiotic nucleoside analog of adenosine. It is found that DHPA molecules self-assemble into a hydrogen-bonded polymer that grows almost exclusively along the herringbone reconstruction pattern, has a two component sequence that is repeated over hundreds of nanometers, and is erasable with electron-induced excitation. Although the sequence is simple, more complicated ones are envisioned if two ormore » more nucleoside types are combined. Because polymerization occurs on a substrate in a dry environment, the success of each combination can be gauged with high-resolution imaging and accurate modeling techniques. The resulting characteristics make nucleoside self-assembly on a substrate an attractive approach for designing sequence-controlled polymers. Moreover, by choosing plausibly prebiotic nucleosides, insights may be provided into how nature created the first sequence-controlled polymers capable of storing information. Such insights, in turn, can inspire new ways of synthesizing sequence-controlled polymers.« less

  13. Supramolecular polymerization of a prebiotic nucleoside provides insights into the creation of sequence-controlled polymers.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jun; Bonnesen, Peter V; Rangel, E; Vallejo, E; Sanchez-Castillo, Ariadna; James Cleaves Ii, H; Baddorf, Arthur P; Sumpter, Bobby G; Pan, Minghu; Maksymovych, Petro; Fuentes-Cabrera, Miguel

    2016-01-01

    Self-assembly of a nucleoside on Au(111) was studied to ascertain whether polymerization on well-defined substrates constitutes a promising approach for making sequence-controlled polymers. Scanning tunneling microscopy and density functional theory were used to investigate the self-assembly on Au(111) of (RS)-N(9)-(2,3-dihydroxypropyl)adenine (DHPA), a plausibly prebiotic nucleoside analog of adenosine. It is found that DHPA molecules self-assemble into a hydrogen-bonded polymer that grows almost exclusively along the herringbone reconstruction pattern, has a two component sequence that is repeated over hundreds of nanometers, and is erasable with electron-induced excitation. Although the sequence is simple, more complicated ones are envisioned if two or more nucleoside types are combined. Because polymerization occurs on a substrate in a dry environment, the success of each combination can be gauged with high-resolution imaging and accurate modeling techniques. These characteristics make nucleoside self-assembly on a substrate an attractive approach for designing sequence-controlled polymers. Further, by choosing plausibly prebiotic nucleosides, insights may be provided into how nature created the first sequence-controlled polymers capable of storing information. Such insights, in turn, can inspire new ways of synthesizing sequence-controlled polymers. PMID:26725380

  14. Supramolecular polymerization of a prebiotic nucleoside provides insights into the creation of sequence-controlled polymers

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jun; Bonnesen, Peter V.; Rangel, E.; Vallejo, E.; Sanchez-Castillo, Ariadna; James Cleaves II, H.; Baddorf, Arthur P.; Sumpter, Bobby G.; Pan, Minghu; Maksymovych, Petro; Fuentes-Cabrera, Miguel

    2016-01-01

    Self-assembly of a nucleoside on Au(111) was studied to ascertain whether polymerization on well-defined substrates constitutes a promising approach for making sequence-controlled polymers. Scanning tunneling microscopy and density functional theory were used to investigate the self-assembly on Au(111) of (RS)-N9-(2,3-dihydroxypropyl)adenine (DHPA), a plausibly prebiotic nucleoside analog of adenosine. It is found that DHPA molecules self-assemble into a hydrogen-bonded polymer that grows almost exclusively along the herringbone reconstruction pattern, has a two component sequence that is repeated over hundreds of nanometers, and is erasable with electron-induced excitation. Although the sequence is simple, more complicated ones are envisioned if two or more nucleoside types are combined. Because polymerization occurs on a substrate in a dry environment, the success of each combination can be gauged with high-resolution imaging and accurate modeling techniques. These characteristics make nucleoside self-assembly on a substrate an attractive approach for designing sequence-controlled polymers. Further, by choosing plausibly prebiotic nucleosides, insights may be provided into how nature created the first sequence-controlled polymers capable of storing information. Such insights, in turn, can inspire new ways of synthesizing sequence-controlled polymers. PMID:26725380

  15. The Interaction of Arp2/3 Complex with Actin: Nucleation, High Affinity Pointed End Capping, and Formation of Branching Networks of Filaments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dyche Mullins, R.; Heuser, John A.; Pollard, Thomas D.

    1998-05-01

    The Arp2/3 complex is a stable assembly of seven protein subunits including two actin-related proteins (Arp2 and Arp3) and five novel proteins. Previous work showed that this complex binds to the sides of actin filaments and is concentrated at the leading edges of motile cells. Here, we show that Arp2/3 complex purified from Acanthamoeba caps the pointed ends of actin filaments with high affinity. Arp2/3 complex inhibits both monomer addition and dissociation at the pointed ends of actin filaments with apparent nanomolar affinity and increases the critical concentration for polymerization at the pointed end from 0.6 to 1.0 μ M. The high affinity of Arp2/3 complex for pointed ends and its abundance in amoebae suggest that in vivo all actin filament pointed ends are capped by Arp2/3 complex. Arp2/3 complex also nucleates formation of actin filaments that elongate only from their barbed ends. From kinetic analysis, the nucleation mechanism appears to involve stabilization of polymerization intermediates (probably actin dimers). In electron micrographs of quick-frozen, deep-etched samples, we see Arp2/3 bound to sides and pointed ends of actin filaments and examples of Arp2/3 complex attaching pointed ends of filaments to sides of other filaments. In these cases, the angle of attachment is a remarkably constant 70 ± 7 degrees. From these in vitro biochemical properties, we propose a model for how Arp2/3 complex controls the assembly of a branching network of actin filaments at the leading edge of motile cells.

  16. The controlled placement and delayed polymerization technique for the direct Class 2 posterior composite restoration.

    PubMed

    Atlas, Alan M

    2005-11-01

    Adhesion dentistry and its application to the direct posterior composite restoration is the most controversial topic in dentistry today. The concepts behind this procedure are now the backbone of restorative dentistry. Adhesion dentistry influences basic fillings, crown buildups, post-and-core restorations, cementation, orthodontics, and endodontics. Yet, controversy remains about the correct way to place a direct Class 2 posterior composite restoration. This article will examine the scientific evidence to determine which materials and placement techniques will achieve the optimum direct Class 2 posterior composite restoration at or below the cementoenamel junction using the controlled placement and delayed polymerization technique.

  17. Direct Observation of Tropomyosin Binding to Actin Filaments

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, William M.; Lehman, William; Moore, Jeffrey R.

    2015-01-01

    Tropomyosin is an elongated α-helical coiled-coil that binds to seven consecutive actin subunits along the long-pitch helix of actin filaments. Once bound, tropomyosin polymerizes end-to-end and both stabilizes F-actin and regulates access of various actin binding proteins including myosin in muscle and non-muscle cells. Single tropomyosin molecules bind weakly to F-actin with millimolar Kd, whereas the end-to-end linked tropomyosin associates with about a one thousand-fold greater affinity. Despite years of study, the assembly mechanism of tropomyosin onto actin filaments remains unclear. In the current study, we used total internal reflection fluorescence (TIRF) microscopy to directly monitor the cooperative binding of fluorescently labeled tropomyosin molecules to phalloidin-stabilized actin filaments. We find that tropomyosin molecules assemble from multiple growth sites following random low affinity binding of single molecules to actin. As the length of the tropomyosin chain increases, the probability of detachment decreases, which leads to further chain growth. Tropomyosin chain extension is linearly dependent on tropomyosin concentration, occurring at approximately 100 monomers/(μM*s). The random tropomyosin binding to F-actin leads to discontinuous end-to-end association where gaps in the chain continuity smaller than the required seven sequential actin monomers are available. Direct observation of tropomyosin detachment revealed the number of gaps in actin-bound tropomyosin, the time course of gap annealing, and the eventual filament saturation process. PMID:26033920

  18. Actin in xenopus oocytes: II. intracellular distribution and polymerizability

    PubMed Central

    Merriam, RW; Clark, TG

    1978-01-01

    The largest oocytes of Xenopus Laevis were broken open in the absence of shearing forces which might transfer actin from particulate to supernatant fractions. Particulate and postmitochondrial supernatant fractions were prepared by centrifugation. SDS-electrophoretic fractionation on polyacrylamide gels and quantitative scanning techniques were used to separate actin and to assay its amount in cellular fractions. The actin has been identified in electrophoretograms by its molecular weight and its binding to DNase I. oocytes contain 1.4-1.7 {um}g of actin per cell, of which up to 88 percent is recovered in the postmitochondrial supernate under a variety of conditions. In the soluble fraction, it represents about 8.8 percent of the total protein. Its concentration in native cytoplasm was directly assayed at 4.1 mg/ml. There is no detectable actin that can be transferred from the particulate to the soluble phase by neutral detergents or ionic conditions that would depolymerize muscle actin. Centrifugation of the soluble oocyte fractions showed that 75-95 percent of the actin can not be sedimented under forces that would pellet filamentous actin. Addition of potassium and magnesium to the cytoplasm, to concentrations that would polymerize muscle actin, does not increase the amount of sedimentable actin. Roughly one-third of the soluble actin is recovered from Sephadex columns at about the position of monomer. About two- thirds is in complexes of 100,000 daltons or greater. PMID:565782

  19. Bundling actin filaments from membranes: some novel players

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Clément

    2012-01-01

    Progress in live-cell imaging of the cytoskeleton has significantly extended our knowledge about the organization and dynamics of actin filaments near the plasma membrane of plant cells. Noticeably, two populations of filamentous structures can be distinguished. On the one hand, fine actin filaments which exhibit an extremely dynamic behavior basically characterized by fast polymerization and prolific severing events, a process referred to as actin stochastic dynamics. On the other hand, thick actin bundles which are composed of several filaments and which are comparatively more stable although they constantly remodel as well. There is evidence that the actin cytoskeleton plays critical roles in trafficking and signaling at both the cell cortex and organelle periphery but the exact contribution of actin bundles remains unclear. A common view is that actin bundles provide the long-distance tracks used by myosin motors to deliver their cargo to growing regions and accordingly play a particularly important role in cell polarization. However, several studies support that actin bundles are more than simple passive highways and display multiple and dynamic roles in the regulation of many processes, such as cell elongation, polar auxin transport, stomatal and chloroplast movement, and defense against pathogens. The list of identified plant actin-bundling proteins is ever expanding, supporting that plant cells shape structurally and functionally different actin bundles. Here I review the most recently characterized actin-bundling proteins, with a particular focus on those potentially relevant to membrane trafficking and/or signaling. PMID:22936939

  20. Controlling cell growth on titanium by surface functionalization of heptylamine using a novel combined plasma polymerization mode.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jing H; Michalski, Wojtek P; Williams, Catherine; Li, Li; Xu, Hong-Sheng; Lamb, Peter R; Jones, Scott; Zhou, Yan M; Dai, Xiujuan J

    2011-05-01

    A novel bio-interface, produced by a combined plasma polymerization mode on a titanium (Ti) surface, was shown to enhance osteoblast growth and reduce fibroblast cell growth. This new method can securely attach a tailored interface to difficult materials such as Ti or ceramics. Here a more stable and higher density of NH₂ functional groups is able to withstand sterilization in ethanol. The biocompatibility, in terms of cell attachment and actin cytoskeleton development, was markedly improved in vitro, compared with untreated Ti surfaces and samples treated by other plasma modes. It gave a boosted (approximately six times higher) cellular response of osteoblasts in their initial adhesion stage. These factors should increase the formation of new bone around implants (reducing healing time), promoting osseointegration and thereby increasing implantation success rates. PMID:21370442

  1. Scope of controlled synthesis via chain-growth condensation polymerization: from aromatic polyamides to π-conjugated polymers.

    PubMed

    Yokozawa, Tsutomu; Ohta, Yoshihiro

    2013-09-28

    Conventional condensation polymerization proceeds in a step-growth polymerization manner, in which the generated polymers possess a broad molecular weight distribution, and control over molecular weight and polymer end groups is difficult. However, the mechanism of condensation polymerization of some monomers has been converted from step-growth to chain-growth by means of activation of the polymer end group, either due to the difference in substituent effects between the monomer and the polymer, or due to successive intramolecular transfer of catalyst to the polymer end. In this article, we review recent developments in chain-growth condensation polymerization (CGCP) in these two areas. The former approach has yielded many architectures containing aromatic polyamides and aromatic polyethers, with unique properties. In the latter case, the mechanism, catalysts, and initiators of Ni- and Pd-catalyzed coupling polymerizations leading to poly(alkylthiophene)s and poly(p-phenylene)s have been extensively investigated. Other well-defined π-conjugated polymers, such as polyfluorenes, n-type polymers, and alternating aryl polymers, have also been synthesized by means of catalyst-transfer condensation polymerization. Many π-conjugated polymer architectures prepared by utilizing catalyst-transfer condensation polymerization are not covered in this article.

  2. Polymeric Nanoparticles with Precise Ratiometric Control over Drug Loading for Combination Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Aryal, Santosh; Hu, Che-Ming Jack; Zhang, Liangfang

    2011-01-01

    We report a novel approach for nanoparticle-based combination chemotherapy by concurrently incorporating two different types of drugs into a single polymeric nanoparticle with ratiometric control over the loading of the two drugs. By adapting metal alkoxide chemistry, we synthesize highly hydrophobic drug-poly-l-lactide (drug-PLA) conjugates, of which the polymer has the same chain length while the drug may differ. These drug-polymer conjugates are then encapsulated into lipid-coated polymeric nanoparticles through a single-step nanoprecipication method. Using doxorubicin (DOX) and camptothecin (CPT) as two model chemotherapy drugs, various ratios of DOX-PLA and CPT-PLA conjugates are loaded into the nanoparticles with over 90% loading efficiency. The resulting nanoparticles are uniform in size, size distribution and surface charge. The loading yield of DOX and CPT in the particles can be precisely controlled by simply adjusting the DOX-PLA:CPT-PLA molar ratio. Cellular cytotoxicity results show that the dual-drug loaded nanoparticles are superior to the corresponding cocktail mixtures of single-drug loaded nanoparticles. This dual-drug delivery approach offers a solution to the long-standing challenge in ratiometric control over the loading of different types of drugs onto the same drug delivery vehicle. We expect that this approach can be exploited for many types of chemotherapeutic agents containing hydroxyl groups and thus enable co-delivery of various drug combinations for combinatorial treatments of diseases. PMID:21696189

  3. Curvature and torsion in growing actin networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaevitz, Joshua W.; Fletcher, Daniel A.

    2008-06-01

    Intracellular pathogens such as Listeria monocytogenes and Rickettsia rickettsii move within a host cell by polymerizing a comet-tail of actin fibers that ultimately pushes the cell forward. This dense network of cross-linked actin polymers typically exhibits a striking curvature that causes bacteria to move in gently looping paths. Theoretically, tail curvature has been linked to details of motility by considering force and torque balances from a finite number of polymerizing filaments. Here we track beads coated with a prokaryotic activator of actin polymerization in three dimensions to directly quantify the curvature and torsion of bead motility paths. We find that bead paths are more likely to have low rather than high curvature at any given time. Furthermore, path curvature changes very slowly in time, with an autocorrelation decay time of 200 s. Paths with a small radius of curvature, therefore, remain so for an extended period resulting in loops when confined to two dimensions. When allowed to explore a three-dimensional (3D) space, path loops are less evident. Finally, we quantify the torsion in the bead paths and show that beads do not exhibit a significant left- or right-handed bias to their motion in 3D. These results suggest that paths of actin-propelled objects may be attributed to slow changes in curvature, possibly associated with filament debranching, rather than a fixed torque.

  4. Actin-Dynamics in Plant Cells: The Function of Actin Perturbing Substances Jasplakinolide, Chondramides, Phalloidin, Cytochalasins, and Latrunculins

    PubMed Central

    Holzinger, Andreas; Blaas, Kathrin

    2016-01-01

    This chapter will give an overview of the most common F-actin perturbing substances, that are used to study actin dynamics in living plant cells in studies on morphogenesis, motility, organelle movement or when apoptosis has to be induced. These substances can be divided into two major subclasses – F-actin stabilizing and polymerizing substances like jasplakinolide, chondramides and F-actin severing compounds like chytochalasins and latrunculins. Jasplakinolide was originally isolated form a marine sponge, and can now be synthesized and has become commercially available, which is responsible for its wide distribution as membrane permeable F-actin stabilizing and polymerizing agent, which may even have anti-cancer activities. Cytochalasins, derived from fungi show an F-actin severing function and many derivatives are commercially available (A, B, C, D, E, H, J), also making it a widely used compound for F-actin disruption. The same can be stated for latrunculins (A, B), derived from red sea sponges, however the mode of action is different by binding to G-actin and inhibiting incorporation into the filament. In the case of swinholide a stable complex with actin dimers is formed resulting also in severing of F-actin. For influencing F-actin dynamics in plant cells only membrane permeable drugs are useful in a broad range. We however introduce also the phallotoxins and synthetic derivatives, as they are widely used to visualize F-actin in fixed cells. A particular uptake mechanism has been shown for hepatocytes, but has also been described in siphonal giant algae. In the present chapter the focus is set on F-actin dynamics in plant cells where alterations in cytoplasmic streaming can be particularly well studied; however methods by fluorescence applications including phalloidin- and antibody staining as well as immunofluorescence-localization of the inhibitor drugs are given. PMID:26498789

  5. Virulent Burkholderia species mimic host actin polymerases to drive actin-based motility

    PubMed Central

    Benanti, Erin L.; Nguyen, Catherine M.; Welch, Matthew D.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Burkholderia pseudomallei and B. mallei are bacterial pathogens that cause melioidosis and glanders, while their close relative B. thailandensis is nonpathogenic. All use the trimeric autotransporter BimA to facilitate actin-based motility, host cell fusion and dissemination. Here, we show that BimA orthologs mimic different host actin-polymerizing proteins. B. thailandensis BimA activates the host Arp2/3 complex. In contrast, B. pseudomallei and B. mallei BimA mimic host Ena/VASP actin polymerases in their ability to nucleate, elongate and bundle filaments by associating with barbed ends, as well as in their use of WH2 motifs and oligomerization for activity. Mechanistic differences among BimA orthologs resulted in distinct actin filament organization and motility parameters, which affected the efficiency of cell fusion during infection. Our results identify bacterial Ena/VASP mimics and reveal that pathogens imitate the full spectrum of host actin-polymerizing pathways, suggesting that mimicry of different polymerization mechanisms influences key parameters of infection. PMID:25860613

  6. Virulent Burkholderia species mimic host actin polymerases to drive actin-based motility.

    PubMed

    Benanti, Erin L; Nguyen, Catherine M; Welch, Matthew D

    2015-04-01

    Burkholderia pseudomallei and B. mallei are bacterial pathogens that cause melioidosis and glanders, whereas their close relative B. thailandensis is non-pathogenic. All use the trimeric autotransporter BimA to facilitate actin-based motility, host cell fusion, and dissemination. Here, we show that BimA orthologs mimic different host actin-polymerizing proteins. B. thailandensis BimA activates the host Arp2/3 complex. In contrast, B. pseudomallei and B. mallei BimA mimic host Ena/VASP actin polymerases in their ability to nucleate, elongate, and bundle filaments by associating with barbed ends, as well as in their use of WH2 motifs and oligomerization for activity. Mechanistic differences among BimA orthologs resulted in distinct actin filament organization and motility parameters, which affected the efficiency of cell fusion during infection. Our results identify bacterial Ena/VASP mimics and reveal that pathogens imitate the full spectrum of host actin-polymerizing pathways, suggesting that mimicry of different polymerization mechanisms influences key parameters of infection.

  7. Metal-centered polymers: Using controlled polymerization methodologies for the generation of responsive materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Robert Matthew

    Controlled polymerization methods were used to prepare highly modular polymeric metal complexes via convergent and divergent strategies. In these materials, the metal center provides a versatile hub for preparing diverse architectures through coordinative bonds. Moreover, the metal complex introduces various properties to the polymer such as luminescence, magnetism, or electroactivity. Suitably functionalized metal complexes have been used for the atom transfer radical polymerization of acrylate and methacrylate monomers by metalloinitiation to generate luminescent biocompatible materials through a divergent synthesis. By cleaving the tert-butyl groups from poly(tert -butyl acrylate), water soluble [Ru(bpyPAA2)3] 2+ has been prepared as well as the amphiphilic star block copolymer [Ru{bpy(PLA-PAA)2}3]2+ (PLA = poly(lactic acid), PAA = poly(acrylic acid) Bipyridine-centered polymeric macroligands may be chelated to a variety of metal salts. The polymer size greatly influences the formation of [Fe(bpy) 3]2+ centered polymers. As the molecular weight increases (> ˜25 kDa) tris complex formation decreases. Tris(bpy) synthesis is also impacted by chemical composition. BpyPtBA2 (PtBA = poly(tert-butyl acrylate) generates an iron mono(bpy) complex before giving rise to the bis(bpy) iron complex; no tris complex is observed. In contrast, the combination of bpyPEG2 (3 equiv) (PEG = (poly(ethylene glycol)) results in the formation of some iron tris(bpy) compound; however, complete tris(bpy) product formation is suppressed, presumably because of the chelating ability of the PEG chains. These examples contrast with other polymeric macroligands such as bpyPS2, bpyPMMA2, bpyPCL2 and bpyPLA 2 (PS = polystyrene; PMMA = poly(methyl methacrylate); PCL = poly(epsilon-caprolactone); PLA = poly(DL-lactic acid)) for which chelation reactions are facile for low molecular weight macroligands (<15 kDa), with chelation efficiencies (defined as (epsilonPMC/epsilonbpy) x 100%) only declining

  8. The actin cytoskeleton in endothelial cell phenotypes

    PubMed Central

    Prasain, Nutan; Stevens, Troy

    2009-01-01

    Endothelium forms a semi-permeable barrier that separates blood from the underlying tissue. Barrier function is largely determined by cell-cell and cell-matrix adhesions that define the limits of cell borders. Yet, such cell-cell and cell-matrix tethering is critically reliant upon the nature of adherence within the cell itself. Indeed, the actin cytoskeleton fulfills this essential function, to provide a strong, dynamic intracellular scaffold that organizes integral membrane proteins with the cell’s interior, and responds to environmental cues to orchestrate appropriate cell shape. The actin cytoskeleton is comprised of three distinct, but interrelated structures, including actin cross-linking of spectrin within the membrane skeleton, the cortical actin rim, and actomyosin-based stress fibers. This review addresses each of these actin-based structures, and discusses cellular signals that control the disposition of actin in different endothelial cell phenotypes. PMID:19028505

  9. The accessibility of etheno-nucleotides to collisional quenchers and the nucleotide cleft in G- and F-actin.

    PubMed Central

    Root, D. D.; Reisler, E.

    1992-01-01

    Recent publication of the atomic structure of G-actin (Kabsch, W., Mannherz, H. G., Suck, D., Pai, E. F., & Holmes, K. C., 1990, Nature 347, 37-44) raises questions about how the conformation of actin changes upon its polymerization. In this work, the effects of various quenchers of etheno-nucleotides bound to G- and F-actin were examined in order to assess polymerization-related changes in the nucleotide phosphate site. The Mg(2+)-induced polymerization of actin quenched the fluorescence of the etheno-nucleotides by approximately 20% simultaneously with the increase in light scattering by actin. A conformational change at the nucleotide binding site was also indicated by greater accessibility of F-actin than G-actin to positively, negatively, and neutrally charged collisional quenchers. The difference in accessibility between G- and F-actin was greatest for I-, indicating that the environment of the etheno group is more positively charged in the polymerized form of actin. Based on calculations of the change in electric potential of the environment of the etheno group, specific polymerization-related movements of charged residues in the atomic structure of G-actin are suggested. The binding of S-1 to epsilon-ATP-G-actin increased the accessibility of the etheno group to I- even over that in Mg(2+)-polymerized actin. The quenching of the etheno group by nitromethane was, however, unaffected by the binding of S-1 to actin. Thus, the binding of S-1 induces conformational changes in the cleft region of actin that are different from those caused by Mg2+ polymerization of actin.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1304380

  10. Actin filaments target the oligomeric maturation of the dynamin GTPase Drp1 to mitochondrial fission sites.

    PubMed

    Ji, Wei-ke; Hatch, Anna L; Merrill, Ronald A; Strack, Stefan; Higgs, Henry N

    2015-11-26

    While the dynamin GTPase Drp1 plays a critical role during mitochondrial fission, mechanisms controlling its recruitment to fission sites are unclear. A current assumption is that cytosolic Drp1 is recruited directly to fission sites immediately prior to fission. Using live-cell microscopy, we find evidence for a different model, progressive maturation of Drp1 oligomers on mitochondria through incorporation of smaller mitochondrially-bound Drp1 units. Maturation of a stable Drp1 oligomer does not forcibly lead to fission. Drp1 oligomers also translocate directionally along mitochondria. Ionomycin, a calcium ionophore, causes rapid mitochondrial accumulation of actin filaments followed by Drp1 accumulation at the fission site, and increases fission rate. Inhibiting actin polymerization, myosin IIA, or the formin INF2 reduces both un-stimulated and ionomycin-induced Drp1 accumulation and mitochondrial fission. Actin filaments bind purified Drp1 and increase GTPase activity in a manner that is synergistic with the mitochondrial protein Mff, suggesting a role for direct Drp1/actin interaction. We propose that Drp1 is in dynamic equilibrium on mitochondria in a fission-independent manner, and that fission factors such as actin filaments target productive oligomerization to fission sites.

  11. Actin filaments target the oligomeric maturation of the dynamin GTPase Drp1 to mitochondrial fission sites

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Wei-ke; Hatch, Anna L; Merrill, Ronald A; Strack, Stefan; Higgs, Henry N

    2015-01-01

    While the dynamin GTPase Drp1 plays a critical role during mitochondrial fission, mechanisms controlling its recruitment to fission sites are unclear. A current assumption is that cytosolic Drp1 is recruited directly to fission sites immediately prior to fission. Using live-cell microscopy, we find evidence for a different model, progressive maturation of Drp1 oligomers on mitochondria through incorporation of smaller mitochondrially-bound Drp1 units. Maturation of a stable Drp1 oligomer does not forcibly lead to fission. Drp1 oligomers also translocate directionally along mitochondria. Ionomycin, a calcium ionophore, causes rapid mitochondrial accumulation of actin filaments followed by Drp1 accumulation at the fission site, and increases fission rate. Inhibiting actin polymerization, myosin IIA, or the formin INF2 reduces both un-stimulated and ionomycin-induced Drp1 accumulation and mitochondrial fission. Actin filaments bind purified Drp1 and increase GTPase activity in a manner that is synergistic with the mitochondrial protein Mff, suggesting a role for direct Drp1/actin interaction. We propose that Drp1 is in dynamic equilibrium on mitochondria in a fission-independent manner, and that fission factors such as actin filaments target productive oligomerization to fission sites. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.11553.001 PMID:26609810

  12. Interactions of actin, myosin, and an actin-binding protein of chronic myelogenous leukemia leukocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Boxer, L A; Stossel, T P

    1976-01-01

    Actin, myosin, and a high molecular weight actin-binding protein were purified from chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) leukocytes. CML leukocyte actin resembled skeletal muscle and other cytoplasmic actins by its subunit molecular weight, by its ability to polymerize in the presence of salts, and to activate the Mg2+-ATPase activity of rabbit skeletal muscle myosin. CML leukocyte myosin was similar to other vertebrate cytoplasmic myosins in having heavy chains and two light subunits. However, its apparent heavy-chain molecular weight and Stokes radius suggested that it was variably degraded during purification. Purified CML leukocyte myosin had average specific EDTA- AND Ca2+-activated ATPase activities of 125 and 151 nmol Pi released/mg protein per min, respectively and low specific Mg2+-ATPase activity. The Mg2+-ATPase activity of CML myosin was increased 200-fold by rabbit skeletal muscle F-actin, but the specific activity relative to that of actin-activated rabbit skeletal muscle myosin was low. CML leukocyte myosin, like other vertebrate cytoplasmic myosins, formed filaments in 0.1 M KCl solutions. Reduced and denatured CML leukocyte-actin-binding protein had a single high molecular weight subunit like a recently described actin-binding protein of rabbit pulmonary macrophages which promotes the polymerization and gelation of actin. Cytoplasmic extracts of CML leukocytes prepared with ice-cold 0.34-M sucrose solutions containing Mg2+-ATP, dithiothreitol, and EDTA at pH 7.0 underwent rapid gelation when warmed to 25 degrees C. Initially, the gel could be liquified by cooling to ice-bath temperature. With time, warmed cytoplasmic extract gels shrunk ("contracted") into aggregates. The following findings indicated that CML leukocyte actin-binding protein promoted the temperature-dependent gelation of actin in the cytoplasmic extracts and that CML leukocyte myosin was involved in the contraction of the actin gels: (a) Cytoplasmic extract gels initially contained

  13. Identification of sucrose synthase as an actin-binding protein

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winter, H.; Huber, J. L.; Huber, S. C.; Davies, E. (Principal Investigator)

    1998-01-01

    Several lines of evidence indicate that sucrose synthase (SuSy) binds both G- and F-actin: (i) presence of SuSy in the Triton X-100-insoluble fraction of microsomal membranes (i.e. crude cytoskeleton fraction); (ii) co-immunoprecipitation of actin with anti-SuSy monoclonal antibodies; (iii) association of SuSy with in situ phalloidin-stabilized F-actin filaments; and (iv) direct binding to F-actin, polymerized in vitro. Aldolase, well known to interact with F-actin, interfered with binding of SuSy, suggesting that a common or overlapping binding site may be involved. We postulate that some of the soluble SuSy in the cytosol may be associated with the actin cytoskeleton in vivo.

  14. Control of polymerization shrinkage and stress in nanogel-modified monomer and composite materials

    PubMed Central

    Moraes, Rafael R.; Garcia, Jeffrey W.; Barros, Matthew D.; Lewis, Steven H.; Pfeifer, Carmem S.; Liu, JianCheng; Stansbury, Jeffrey W.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives This study demonstrates the effects of nano-scale prepolymer particles as additives to model dental monomer and composite formulations. Methods Discrete nanogel particles were prepared by solution photopolymerization of isobornyl methacrylate and urethane dimethacrylate in the presence of a chain transfer agent, which also provided a means to attach reactive groups to the prepolymer. Nanogel was added to triethylene glycol dimethacrylate (TEGDMA) in increments between 5 and 40 wt% with resin viscosity, reaction kinetics, shrinkage, mechanical properties, stress and optical properties evaluated. Maximum loading of barium glass filler was determined as a function of nanogel content and composites with varied nanogel content but uniform filler loading were compared in terms of consistency, conversion, shrinkage and mechanical properties. Results High conversion, high molecular weight internally crosslinked and cyclized nanogel prepolymer was efficiently prepared and redispersed into TEGDMA with an exponential rise in viscosity accompanying nanogel content. Nanogel addition at any level produced no deleterious effects on reaction kinetics, conversion or mechanical properties, as long as reactive nanogels were used. A reduction in polymerization shrinkage and stress was achieved in proportion to nanogel content. Even at high nanogel concentrations, the maximum loading of glass filler was only marginally reduced relative to the control and high strength composite materials with low shrinkage were obtained. Significance The use of reactive nanogels offers a versatile platform from which resin and composite handling properties can be adjusted while the polymerization shrinkage and stress development that challenge the adhesive bonding of dental restoratives are controllably reduced. PMID:21388669

  15. Facile and Efficient Preparation of Tri-component Fluorescent Glycopolymers via RAFT-controlled Polymerization

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wei; Lester, John M.; Amorosa, Anthony E.; Chance, Deborah L.; Mossine, Valeri V.; Mawhinney, Thomas P.

    2015-01-01

    Synthetic glycopolymers are instrumental and versatile tools used in various biochemical and biomedical research fields. An example of a facile and efficient synthesis of well-controlled fluorescent statistical glycopolymers using reversible addition-fragmentation chain-transfer (RAFT)-based polymerization is demonstrated. The synthesis starts with the preparation of β-galactose-containing glycomonomer 2-lactobionamidoethyl methacrylamide obtained by reaction of lactobionolactone and N-(2-aminoethyl) methacrylamide (AEMA). 2-Gluconamidoethyl methacrylamide (GAEMA) is used as a structural analog lacking a terminal β-galactoside. The following RAFT-mediated copolymerization reaction involves three different monomers: N-(2-hydroxyethyl) acrylamide as spacer, AEMA as target for further fluorescence labeling, and the glycomonomers. Tolerant of aqueous systems, the RAFT agent used in the reaction is (4-cyanopentanoic acid)-4-dithiobenzoate. Low dispersities (≤1.32), predictable copolymer compositions, and high reproducibility of the polymerizations were observed among the products. Fluorescent polymers are obtained by modifying the glycopolymers with carboxyfluorescein succinimidyl ester targeting the primary amine functional groups on AEMA. Lectin-binding specificities of the resulting glycopolymers are verified by testing with corresponding agarose beads coated with specific glycoepitope recognizing lectins. Because of the ease of the synthesis, the tight control of the product compositions and the good reproducibility of the reaction, this protocol can be translated towards preparation of other RAFT-based glycopolymers with specific structures and compositions, as desired. PMID:26132587

  16. Functional Interfaces Constructed by Controlled/Living Radical Polymerization for Analytical Chemistry.

    PubMed

    Wang, Huai-Song; Song, Min; Hang, Tai-Jun

    2016-02-10

    The high-value applications of functional polymers in analytical science generally require well-defined interfaces, including precisely synthesized molecular architectures and compositions. Controlled/living radical polymerization (CRP) has been developed as a versatile and powerful tool for the preparation of polymers with narrow molecular weight distributions and predetermined molecular weights. Among the CRP system, atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) and reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) are well-used to develop new materials for analytical science, such as surface-modified core-shell particles, monoliths, MIP micro- or nanospheres, fluorescent nanoparticles, and multifunctional materials. In this review, we summarize the emerging functional interfaces constructed by RAFT and ATRP for applications in analytical science. Various polymers with precisely controlled architectures including homopolymers, block copolymers, molecular imprinted copolymers, and grafted copolymers were synthesized by CRP methods for molecular separation, retention, or sensing. We expect that the CRP methods will become the most popular technique for preparing functional polymers that can be broadly applied in analytical chemistry.

  17. Functional Interfaces Constructed by Controlled/Living Radical Polymerization for Analytical Chemistry.

    PubMed

    Wang, Huai-Song; Song, Min; Hang, Tai-Jun

    2016-02-10

    The high-value applications of functional polymers in analytical science generally require well-defined interfaces, including precisely synthesized molecular architectures and compositions. Controlled/living radical polymerization (CRP) has been developed as a versatile and powerful tool for the preparation of polymers with narrow molecular weight distributions and predetermined molecular weights. Among the CRP system, atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) and reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) are well-used to develop new materials for analytical science, such as surface-modified core-shell particles, monoliths, MIP micro- or nanospheres, fluorescent nanoparticles, and multifunctional materials. In this review, we summarize the emerging functional interfaces constructed by RAFT and ATRP for applications in analytical science. Various polymers with precisely controlled architectures including homopolymers, block copolymers, molecular imprinted copolymers, and grafted copolymers were synthesized by CRP methods for molecular separation, retention, or sensing. We expect that the CRP methods will become the most popular technique for preparing functional polymers that can be broadly applied in analytical chemistry. PMID:26785308

  18. Study of mass loss of spacecraft polymeric thermal control coatings under electron and proton radiations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khasanshin, Rashid; Novikov, Lev; Galygin, Alexander

    Polymeric composites have a number of properties that give a possibility to apply them as spacecraft external coatings. In space environment, however, such materials become one of the main sources of volatile products that form the outer spacecraft atmosphere and are able to con-dense on contamination-sensitive surfaces of onboard equipment. Thermal control coatings oc-cupy a considerable part of a satellite surface and are mostly subjected to ionizing radiations ac-companying by outgassing. The main stages of the process are the following: formation of vola-tile radiolysis products, diffusion of the products to free material surface, and desorption. Radia-tion-induced destruction and outgassing of material increase its permeability and accelerate mi-gration processes in it. Experimental data of effect of radiation on mass loss of polymeric composites used as thermal control coatings was analyzed and interpreted in the work. As a particular case, it was shown that mass loss of a polymeric composite irradiated by protons is greater than by electrons if energies and flux densities of the particles are the same. It can be explained that volatile products, in the first case, generate within a thin near-surface layer of material which permeability increases together with the absorbed dose, and quickly escape in vacuum. In the second case, a bulk of volatile products emerges far enough from the free surface of material which permeability increases slower as compared with proton radiation. Therefore, migration time of volatile products to the free surface grows and quantity of chemical reactions which they are involved in increases. To analyze and interpret experimental data, a mathematical model describing mass loss of polymeric composites subject to its growth of permeability under radiation is proposed. Based upon analysis of experiments and numerical simulation results, thresholds of fluen-cies and flux densities of electron and proton were determined. Exceeding these

  19. Supramolecular Architectures Based no Dehydro[24]annulenes: Toward the Controlled Synthesis of pi-Conjugated Nanotubular Materials via Topochemical Polymerization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Mitsuharu

    Chapter 1 overviews currently available synthetic methodologies of carbon nanomaterials. Conventional syntheses, stepwise chemical syntheses, and seeding/cloning approaches are described. Problems associated with each methodology are pointed out. Chapter 2 begins with introductions to the dehydroannulene-based synthesis of carbon nanomaterials and topochemical polymerization of butadiynes. This chapter then describes a new approach to achieve the controlled synthesis of tubular nanocarbon materials, namely multifold topochemical polymerization of dehydroannulenes. An extensive crystal-engineering study leads to successful formation of supramolecular nanotubes based on dehydro[24]annulenes. The obtained structures possess preferable packing parameters for the intended multifold topochemical polymerization. Chapter 3 explores on-surface self-assemblies of dehydro[24]annulenes. The relationship between the molecular structure and self-assembling behavior of is examined with the aid of scanning tunnel microscopy. This study paves the way for the topochemical polymerization of these compounds within surface-confined self-assemblies.

  20. Photorhabdus luminescens toxins ADP-ribosylate actin and RhoA to force actin clustering.

    PubMed

    Lang, Alexander E; Schmidt, Gudula; Schlosser, Andreas; Hey, Timothy D; Larrinua, Ignacio M; Sheets, Joel J; Mannherz, Hans G; Aktories, Klaus

    2010-02-26

    The bacterium Photorhabdus luminescens is mutualistically associated with entomopathogenetic nematodes. These nematodes invade insect larvae and release the bacteria from their intestine, which kills the insects through the action of toxin complexes. We elucidated the mode of action of two of these insecticidal toxins from P. luminescens. We identified the biologically active components TccC3 and TccC5 as adenosine diphosphate (ADP)-ribosyltransferases, which modify unusual amino acids. TccC3 ADP-ribosylated threonine-148 of actin, resulting in actin polymerization. TccC5 ADP-ribosylated Rho guanosine triphosphatase proteins at glutamine-61 and glutamine-63, inducing their activation. The concerted action of both toxins inhibited phagocytosis of target insect cells and induced extensive intracellular polymerization and clustering of actin. Several human pathogenic bacteria produce related toxins. PMID:20185726

  1. Preparation of acetylsalicylic acid-acylated chitosan as a novel polymeric drug for drug controlled release.

    PubMed

    Liu, Changkun; Wu, Yiguang; Zhao, Liyan; Huang, Xinzheng

    2015-01-01

    The acetylsalicylic acid-acylated chitosan (ASACTS) with high degree of substitution (DS) was successfully synthesized, and characterized with FTIR, (1)H NMR and elemental analysis methods. The optimum synthesis conditions were obtained which gave the highest DS (about 60%) for ASACTS. Its drug release experiments were carried out in simulated gastric and intestine fluids. The results show that the drugs in the form of acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) and salicylic acid (SA) were released in a controlled manner from ASACTS only in simulated gastric fluid. The release profile can be best fitted with logistic and Weibull model. The research results reveal that ASACTS can be a potential polymeric drug for the controlled release of ASA and SA in the targeted gastric environment.

  2. Competition of two distinct actin networks for actin defines a bistable switch for cell polarization

    PubMed Central

    Lomakin, Alexis J.; Lee, Kun-Chun; Han, Sangyoon J.; Bui, D A.; Davidson, Michael; Mogilner, Alex; Danuser, Gaudenz

    2015-01-01

    Symmetry-breaking polarization enables functional plasticity of cells and tissues and is yet not well understood. Here we show that epithelial cells, hard-wired to maintain a static morphology and to preserve tissue organization, can spontaneously switch to a migratory polarized phenotype upon relaxation of the actomyosin cytoskeleton. We find that myosin-II engages actin in the formation of cortical actomyosin bundles and thus makes it unavailable for deployment in the process of dendritic growth normally driving cell motility. At low contractility regimes epithelial cells polarize in a front-back manner due to emergence of actin retrograde flows powered by dendritic polymerization of actin. Coupled to cell movement, the flows transport myosin-II from the front to the back of the cell, where the motor locally “locks” actin in contractile bundles. This polarization mechanism could be employed by embryonic and cancer epithelial cells in microenvironments where high contractility-driven cell motion is inefficient. PMID:26414403

  3. Mechanical stimulation induces formin-dependent assembly of a perinuclear actin rim

    PubMed Central

    Shao, Xiaowei; Li, Qingsen; Mogilner, Alex; Bershadsky, Alexander D.; Shivashankar, G. V.

    2015-01-01

    Cells constantly sense and respond to mechanical signals by reorganizing their actin cytoskeleton. Although a number of studies have explored the effects of mechanical stimuli on actin dynamics, the immediate response of actin after force application has not been studied. We designed a method to monitor the spatiotemporal reorganization of actin after cell stimulation by local force application. We found that force could induce transient actin accumulation in the perinuclear region within ∼2 min. This actin reorganization was triggered by an intracellular Ca2+ burst induced by force application. Treatment with the calcium ionophore A23187 recapitulated the force-induced perinuclear actin remodeling. Blocking of actin polymerization abolished this process. Overexpression of Klarsicht, ANC-1, Syne Homology (KASH) domain to displace nesprins from the nuclear envelope did not abolish Ca2+-dependent perinuclear actin assembly. However, the endoplasmic reticulum- and nuclear membrane-associated inverted formin-2 (INF2), a potent actin polymerization activator (mutations of which are associated with several genetic diseases), was found to be important for perinuclear actin assembly. The perinuclear actin rim structure colocalized with INF2 on stimulation, and INF2 depletion resulted in attenuation of the rim formation. Our study suggests that cells can respond rapidly to external force by remodeling perinuclear actin in a unique Ca2+- and INF2-dependent manner. PMID:25941386

  4. Architecture and Connectivity Govern Actin Network Contractility.

    PubMed

    Ennomani, Hajer; Letort, Gaëlle; Guérin, Christophe; Martiel, Jean-Louis; Cao, Wenxiang; Nédélec, François; De La Cruz, Enrique M; Théry, Manuel; Blanchoin, Laurent

    2016-03-01

    Actomyosin contractility plays a central role in a wide range of cellular processes, including the establishment of cell polarity, cell migration, tissue integrity, and morphogenesis during development. The contractile response is variable and depends on actomyosin network architecture and biochemical composition. To determine how this coupling regulates actomyosin-driven contraction, we used a micropatterning method that enables the spatial control of actin assembly. We generated a variety of actin templates and measured how defined actin structures respond to myosin-induced forces. We found that the same actin filament crosslinkers either enhance or inhibit the contractility of a network, depending on the organization of actin within the network. Numerical simulations unified the roles of actin filament branching and crosslinking during actomyosin contraction. Specifically, we introduce the concept of "network connectivity" and show that the contractions of distinct actin architectures are described by the same master curve when considering their degree of connectivity. This makes it possible to predict the dynamic response of defined actin structures to transient changes in connectivity. We propose that, depending on the connectivity and the architecture, network contraction is dominated by either sarcomeric-like or buckling mechanisms. More generally, this study reveals how actin network contractility depends on its architecture under a defined set of biochemical conditions.

  5. Temporal Control of Gelation and Polymerization Fronts Driven by an Autocatalytic Enzyme Reaction.

    PubMed

    Jee, Elizabeth; Bánsági, Tamás; Taylor, Annette F; Pojman, John A

    2016-02-01

    Chemical systems that remain kinetically dormant until activated have numerous applications in materials science. Herein we present a method for the control of gelation that exploits an inbuilt switch: the increase in pH after an induction period in the urease-catalyzed hydrolysis of urea was used to trigger the base-catalyzed Michael addition of a water-soluble trithiol to a polyethylene glycol diacrylate. The time to gelation (minutes to hours) was either preset through the initial concentrations or the reaction was initiated locally by a base, thus resulting in polymerization fronts that converted the mixture from a liquid into a gel (ca. 0.1 mm min(-1)). The rate of hydrolytic degradation of the hydrogel depended on the initial concentrations, thus resulting in a gel lifetime of hours to months. In this way, temporal programming of gelation was possible under mild conditions by using the output of an autocatalytic enzyme reaction to drive both the polymerization and subsequent degradation of a hydrogel.

  6. Temporal Control of Gelation and Polymerization Fronts Driven by an Autocatalytic Enzyme Reaction

    PubMed Central

    Jee, Elizabeth; Bánsági, Tamás

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Chemical systems that remain kinetically dormant until activated have numerous applications in materials science. Herein we present a method for the control of gelation that exploits an inbuilt switch: the increase in pH after an induction period in the urease‐catalyzed hydrolysis of urea was used to trigger the base‐catalyzed Michael addition of a water‐soluble trithiol to a polyethylene glycol diacrylate. The time to gelation (minutes to hours) was either preset through the initial concentrations or the reaction was initiated locally by a base, thus resulting in polymerization fronts that converted the mixture from a liquid into a gel (ca. 0.1 mm min−1). The rate of hydrolytic degradation of the hydrogel depended on the initial concentrations, thus resulting in a gel lifetime of hours to months. In this way, temporal programming of gelation was possible under mild conditions by using the output of an autocatalytic enzyme reaction to drive both the polymerization and subsequent degradation of a hydrogel. PMID:26732469

  7. Temporal Control of Gelation and Polymerization Fronts Driven by an Autocatalytic Enzyme Reaction.

    PubMed

    Jee, Elizabeth; Bánsági, Tamás; Taylor, Annette F; Pojman, John A

    2016-02-01

    Chemical systems that remain kinetically dormant until activated have numerous applications in materials science. Herein we present a method for the control of gelation that exploits an inbuilt switch: the increase in pH after an induction period in the urease-catalyzed hydrolysis of urea was used to trigger the base-catalyzed Michael addition of a water-soluble trithiol to a polyethylene glycol diacrylate. The time to gelation (minutes to hours) was either preset through the initial concentrations or the reaction was initiated locally by a base, thus resulting in polymerization fronts that converted the mixture from a liquid into a gel (ca. 0.1 mm min(-1)). The rate of hydrolytic degradation of the hydrogel depended on the initial concentrations, thus resulting in a gel lifetime of hours to months. In this way, temporal programming of gelation was possible under mild conditions by using the output of an autocatalytic enzyme reaction to drive both the polymerization and subsequent degradation of a hydrogel. PMID:26732469

  8. Modular and Versatile Spatial Functionalization of Tissue Engineering Scaffolds through Fiber‐Initiated Controlled Radical Polymerization

    PubMed Central

    Harrison, Rachael H.; Steele, Joseph A. M.; Chapman, Robert; Gormley, Adam J.; Chow, Lesley W.; Mahat, Muzamir M.; Podhorska, Lucia; Palgrave, Robert G.; Payne, David J.; Hettiaratchy, Shehan P.; Dunlop, Iain E.

    2015-01-01

    Native tissues are typically heterogeneous and hierarchically organized, and generating scaffolds that can mimic these properties is critical for tissue engineering applications. By uniquely combining controlled radical polymerization (CRP), end‐functionalization of polymers, and advanced electrospinning techniques, a modular and versatile approach is introduced to generate scaffolds with spatially organized functionality. Poly‐ε‐caprolactone is end functionalized with either a polymerization‐initiating group or a cell‐binding peptide motif cyclic Arg‐Gly‐Asp‐Ser (cRGDS), and are each sequentially electrospun to produce zonally discrete bilayers within a continuous fiber scaffold. The polymerization‐initiating group is then used to graft an antifouling polymer bottlebrush based on poly(ethylene glycol) from the fiber surface using CRP exclusively within one bilayer of the scaffold. The ability to include additional multifunctionality during CRP is showcased by integrating a biotinylated monomer unit into the polymerization step allowing postmodification of the scaffold with streptavidin‐coupled moieties. These combined processing techniques result in an effective bilayered and dual‐functionality scaffold with a cell‐adhesive surface and an opposing antifouling non‐cell‐adhesive surface in zonally specific regions across the thickness of the scaffold, demonstrated through fluorescent labelling and cell adhesion studies. This modular and versatile approach combines strategies to produce scaffolds with tailorable properties for many applications in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. PMID:27134621

  9. The EGF receptor is an actin-binding protein

    PubMed Central

    1992-01-01

    In a number of recent studies it has been shown that in vivo part of the EGF receptor (EGFR) population is associated to the actin filament system. In this paper we demonstrate that the purified EGFR can be cosedimented with purified filamentous actin (F-actin) indicating a direct association between EGFR and actin. A truncated EGFR, previously shown not to be associated to the cytoskeleton, was used as a control and this receptor did not cosediment with actin filaments. Determination of the actin-binding domain of the EGFR was done by measuring competition of either a polyclonal antibody or synthetic peptides on EGFR cosedimentation with F-actin. A synthetic peptide was made homologous to amino acid residues 984-996 (HL-33) of the EGFR which shows high homology with the actin-binding domain of Acanthamoeba profilin. A polyclonal antibody raised against HL-33 was found to prevent cosedimentation of EGFR with F-actin. This peptide HL-33 was shown to bind directly to actin in contrast with a synthetic peptide homologous to residues 1001-1013 (HL-34). During cosedimentation, HL-33 competed for actin binding of the EGFR and HL-34 did not, indicating that the EGFR contains one actin-binding site. These results demonstrate that the EGFR is an actin-binding protein which binds to actin via a domain containing amino acids residues 984-996. PMID:1383230

  10. Design of a self-tuning regulator for temperature control of a polymerization reactor.

    PubMed

    Vasanthi, D; Pranavamoorthy, B; Pappa, N

    2012-01-01

    The temperature control of a polymerization reactor described by Chylla and Haase, a control engineering benchmark problem, is used to illustrate the potential of adaptive control design by employing a self-tuning regulator concept. In the benchmark scenario, the operation of the reactor must be guaranteed under various disturbing influences, e.g., changing ambient temperatures or impurity of the monomer. The conventional cascade control provides a robust operation, but often lacks in control performance concerning the required strict temperature tolerances. The self-tuning control concept presented in this contribution solves the problem. This design calculates a trajectory for the cooling jacket temperature in order to follow a predefined trajectory of the reactor temperature. The reaction heat and the heat transfer coefficient in the energy balance are estimated online by using an unscented Kalman filter (UKF). Two simple physically motivated relations are employed, which allow the non-delayed estimation of both quantities. Simulation results under model uncertainties show the effectiveness of the self-tuning control concept.

  11. Synaptotagmin 1 causes phosphatidyl inositol lipid-dependent actin remodeling in cultured non-neuronal and neuronal cells

    SciTech Connect

    Johnsson, Anna-Karin; Karlsson, Roger

    2012-01-15

    Here we demonstrate that a dramatic actin polymerizing activity caused by ectopic expression of the synaptic vesicle protein synaptotagmin 1 that results in extensive filopodia formation is due to the presence of a lysine rich sequence motif immediately at the cytoplasmic side of the transmembrane domain of the protein. This polybasic sequence interacts with anionic phospholipids in vitro, and, consequently, the actin remodeling caused by this sequence is interfered with by expression of a phosphatidyl inositol (4,5)-bisphosphate (PIP2)-targeted phosphatase, suggesting that it intervenes with the function of PIP2-binding actin control proteins. The activity drastically alters the behavior of a range of cultured cells including the neuroblastoma cell line SH-SY5Y and primary cortical mouse neurons, and, since the sequence is conserved also in synaptotagmin 2, it may reflect an important fine-tuning role for these two proteins during synaptic vesicle fusion and neurotransmitter release.

  12. Systematic mutational analysis of the amino-terminal domain of the Listeria monocytogenes ActA protein reveals novel functions in actin-based motility.

    PubMed

    Lauer, P; Theriot, J A; Skoble, J; Welch, M D; Portnoy, D A

    2001-12-01

    The Listeria monocytogenes ActA protein acts as a scaffold to assemble and activate host cell actin cytoskeletal factors at the bacterial surface, resulting in directional actin polymerization and propulsion of the bacterium through the cytoplasm. We have constructed 20 clustered charged-to-alanine mutations in the NH2-terminal domain of ActA and replaced the endogenous actA gene with these molecular variants. These 20 clones were evaluated in several biological assays for phenotypes associated with particular amino acid changes. Additionally, each protein variant was purified and tested for stimulation of the Arp2/3 complex, and a subset was tested for actin monomer binding. These specific mutations refined the two regions involved in Arp2/3 activation and suggest that the actin-binding sequence of ActA spans 40 amino acids. We also identified a 'motility rate and cloud-to-tail transition' region in which nine contiguous mutations spanning amino acids 165-260 caused motility rate defects and changed the ratio of intracellular bacteria associated with actin clouds and comet tails without affecting Arp2/3 activation. Several unusual motility phenotypes were associated with amino acid changes in this region, including altered paths through the cytoplasm, discontinuous actin tails in host cells and the tendency to 'skid' or dramatically change direction while moving. These unusual phenotypes illustrate the complexity of ActA functions that control the actin-based motility of L. monocytogenes.

  13. Systematic mutational analysis of the amino-terminal domain of the Listeria monocytogenes ActA protein reveals novel functions in actin-based motility.

    PubMed

    Lauer, P; Theriot, J A; Skoble, J; Welch, M D; Portnoy, D A

    2001-12-01

    The Listeria monocytogenes ActA protein acts as a scaffold to assemble and activate host cell actin cytoskeletal factors at the bacterial surface, resulting in directional actin polymerization and propulsion of the bacterium through the cytoplasm. We have constructed 20 clustered charged-to-alanine mutations in the NH2-terminal domain of ActA and replaced the endogenous actA gene with these molecular variants. These 20 clones were evaluated in several biological assays for phenotypes associated with particular amino acid changes. Additionally, each protein variant was purified and tested for stimulation of the Arp2/3 complex, and a subset was tested for actin monomer binding. These specific mutations refined the two regions involved in Arp2/3 activation and suggest that the actin-binding sequence of ActA spans 40 amino acids. We also identified a 'motility rate and cloud-to-tail transition' region in which nine contiguous mutations spanning amino acids 165-260 caused motility rate defects and changed the ratio of intracellular bacteria associated with actin clouds and comet tails without affecting Arp2/3 activation. Several unusual motility phenotypes were associated with amino acid changes in this region, including altered paths through the cytoplasm, discontinuous actin tails in host cells and the tendency to 'skid' or dramatically change direction while moving. These unusual phenotypes illustrate the complexity of ActA functions that control the actin-based motility of L. monocytogenes. PMID:11886549

  14. Non-polymeric coatings to control drug release from metallic coronary stents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Celia Edith Macias

    Percutaneous transluminal coronary angiography (PTCA) is a procedure used to re-open narrowed coronary arteries. During PTCA, a coronary stent is expanded inside a diseased vessel and serves as a scaffold to keep the artery open. The major drawback of stenting is restenosis---a re-narrowing of the vessel resulting from the hyperproliferation of smooth muscle cells. Drug eluting stents (DES) reduce the rate of restenosis compared to bare metal stents. Paclitaxel (PAT) is commonly used in DES for its ability to prevent restenosis. However, DES have been associated with thrombosis due to the polymer carrier that controls drug delivery. Therefore, there is a need to change the drug delivery mechanisms to eliminate the need of polymers. The goal of this dissertation is to develop a novel polymer-free drug eluting stent that controls drug release using nanoscale metal coatings. The coating was designed to release PAT as the metal slowly degrades in biological conditions. Once all the Paclitaxel has eluted from the surface, the coating will continue to degrade until the final result is a bare metal stent. The results of this study include a novel non-polymeric drug delivery system using nanoscale coatings that release Paclitaxel at a rate similar to commercial stents, as well as the biocompatibility and efficacy of these coatings. The non-polymeric drug delivery system described here achieved a Paclitaxel release profile equivalent to clinically available Paclitaxel-eluting stents and effectively inhibits smooth muscle cell proliferation, thereby completely eliminating the need for polymers to control drug release from coronary stents.

  15. Rapid-processing procedure for heat polymerization of polymethyl methacrylate in a pressure cooker with automatic controls.

    PubMed

    Xia, C M; Shi, C; He, W

    1996-10-01

    This study introduces a new rapid-processing procedure for curing polymethyl methacrylate denture base resin in an automatically controlled pressure cooker. The cooker filled with water was inflated with 6 kgf/cm2 air pressure and heated to 120 degrees C (248 degrees F) and maintained for 10 minutes. No significant differences were found between the new pressure cooker method and the conventional method for surface hardness and porosity (p > 0.05). The pressure cooker significantly shortened polymerization time, and the polymerization is controlled automatically.

  16. AFAP-1L1-mediated actin filaments crosslinks hinder Trypanosoma cruzi cell invasion and intracellular multiplication.

    PubMed

    de Araújo, Karine Canuto Loureiro; Teixeira, Thaise Lara; Machado, Fabrício Castro; da Silva, Aline Alves; Quintal, Amanda Pifano Neto; da Silva, Claudio Vieira

    2016-10-01

    Host actin cytoskeleton polymerization has been shown to play an important role during Trypanosoma cruzi internalization into mammalian cell. The structure and dynamics of the actin cytoskeleton in cells are regulated by a vast number of actin-binding proteins. Here we aimed to verify the impact of AFAP-1L1, during invasion and multiplication of T. cruzi. Knocking-down AFAP-1L1 increased parasite cell invasion and intracellular multiplication. Thus, we have shown that the integrity of the machinery formed by AFAP-1L1 in actin cytoskeleton polymerization is important to hinder parasite infection.

  17. Long-range conformational effects of proteolytic removal of the last three residues of actin.

    PubMed Central

    Strzelecka-Gołaszewska, H; Mossakowska, M; Woźniak, A; Moraczewska, J; Nakayama, H

    1995-01-01

    Truncated derivatives of actin devoid of either the last two (actin-2C) or three residues (actin-3C) were used to study the role of the C-terminal segment in the polymerization of actin. The monomer critical concentration and polymerization rate increased in the order: intact actin < actin-2C < actin-3C. Conversely, the rate of hydrolysis of actin-bound ATP during spontaneous polymerization of Mg-actin decreased in the same order, so that, for actin-3C, the ATP hydrolysis significantly lagged behind the polymer growth. Probing the conformation of the nucleotide site in the monomer form by measuring the rates of the bound nucleotide exchange revealed a similar change upon removal of either the two or three residues from the C-terminus. The C-terminal truncation also resulted in a slight decrease in the rate of subtilisin cleavage of monomeric actin within the DNAse-I binding loop, whereas in F-actin subunits the susceptibility of this and of another site within this loop, specifically cleaved by a proteinase from Escherichia coli A2 strain, gradually increased upon sequential removal of the two and of the third residue from the C-terminus. From these and other observations made in this work it has been concluded that perturbation of the C-terminal structure in monomeric actin is transmitted to the cleft, where nucleotide and bivalent cation are bound, and to the DNAse-I binding loop on the top of subdomain 2. Further changes at these sites, observed on the polymer level, seem to result from elimination of the intersubunit contact between the C-terminal residues and the DNAse-I binding loop. It is suggested that formation of this contact plays an essential role in regulating the hydrolysis of actin-bound ATP associated with the polymerization process. Images Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 8 PMID:7733893

  18. Post-polymerization of preorganized assemblies for creating shape-controlled functional materials.

    PubMed

    Sada, Kazuki; Takeuchi, Masayuki; Fujita, Norifumi; Numata, Munenori; Shinkai, Seiji

    2007-02-01

    Combination of supramolecular chemistry with molecular recognition has been successfully applied to creating large superstructures with a wide variety of morphologies. Control of shapes and patterns of ordered molecular assemblies in nano and micro scales has attracted considerable interest as promising bottom-up technology. It is known, however, that these molecular assembling superstructures are fragile, reflecting the characteristic of the non-covalent interaction, a driving force operating in these molecular systems. In fact, they easily collapse or change by small perturbation in the environmental conditions. Thus, over the last decade, researchers have been seeking possible methods for the immobilization these superstructures. This critical review focuses on recent advances in in situ post-modification under the influence of the molecular assemblies as templates and polymerization of ordered molecular assemblies such as organogel fibers and crystals to preserve their original superstructures and intensify their mechanical strength.

  19. Bulkiness or aromatic nature of tyrosine-143 of actin is important for the weak binding between F-actin and myosin-ADP-phosphate

    SciTech Connect

    Gomibuchi, Yuki; Uyeda, Taro Q.P.; Wakabayashi, Takeyuki

    2013-11-29

    Highlights: •The effect of mutation of Tyr143 that becomes more exposed on assembly was examined. •Mutation of tyrosine-143 of Dictyostelium actin changed actin polymerizability. •The bulkiness or aromatic nature of Tyr143 is important for the weak binding. •The weak interaction between myosin and actin strengthened by Tyr143Trp mutation. -- Abstract: Actin filaments (F-actin) interact with myosin and activate its ATPase to support force generation. By comparing crystal structures of G-actin and the quasi-atomic model of F-actin based on high-resolution cryo-electron microscopy, the tyrosine-143 was found to be exposed more than 60 Å{sup 2} to the solvent in F-actin. Because tyrosine-143 flanks the hydrophobic cleft near the hydrophobic helix that binds to myosin, the mutant actins, of which the tyrosine-143 was replaced with tryptophan, phenylalanine, or isoleucine, were generated using the Dictyostelium expression system. It polymerized significantly poorly when induced by NaCl, but almost normally by KCl. In the presence of phalloidin and KCl, the extents of the polymerization of all the mutant actins were comparable to that of the wild-type actin so that the actin-activated myosin ATPase activity could be reliably compared. The affinity of skeletal heavy meromyosin to F-actin and the maximum ATPase activity (V{sub max}) were estimated by a double reciprocal plot. The Tyr143Trp-actin showed the higher affinity (smaller K{sub app}) than that of the wild-type actin, with the V{sub max} being almost unchanged. The K{sub app} and V{sub max} of the Tyr143Phe-actin were similar to those of the wild-type actin. However, the activation by Tyr143Ile-actin was much smaller than the wild-type actin and the accurate determination of K{sub app} was difficult. Comparison of the myosin ATPase activated by the various mutant actins at the same concentration of F-actin showed that the extent of activation correlates well with the solvent-accessible surface areas (ASA

  20. Dissociation of F-actin induced by hydrostatic pressure.

    PubMed

    Garcia, C R; Amaral Júnior, J A; Abrahamsohn, P; Verjovski-Almeida, S

    1992-11-01

    F-actin purified from rabbit skeletal muscle undergoes reversible dissociation when subjected to hydrostatic pressures up to 240 MPa. Dissociation and reversibility were detected by the following procedures: fluorescence spectral changes observed under pressure, when either intrinsic tryptophan or pyrenyl emission of N-(1-pyrenyl)iodoacetamide-labeled actin were monitored; electron microscopy of samples fixed under pressure; size-exclusion HPLC of pressurized actin. The effect of pressure upon F-actin that had been polymerized in the presence of either Mg2+, Ca2+ or K+ was studied. The standard volume changes for the association of actin subunits, calculated from pressure/dissociation curves were 74 +/- 14 ml/mol for Mg-F-actin, 79 +/- 12 ml/mol for Ca-F-actin and 328 +/- 63 ml/mol for K-F-actin, indicating that actin subunits are packed differently in the polymer depending on which cation is present. All pressure/dissociation data could be fitted by a model for dissociation of a dimer, which suggests that in the F-actin filament there is a predominant intersubunit interaction interface, most likely the head-to-tail intrastrand interaction between two subunits which repeats itself along the polymer. A tenfold change in total protein concentration from 20 micrograms to 200 micrograms/ml Mg-F-actin did not cause a change in the pressure required for half-maximal dissociation. This indicates a heterogeneity of free energy of association among actin monomers in the Mg-F-actin polymer, suggesting that, in addition to the predominant intersubunit interaction, the disordered interactions in the filament significantly contribute to the heterogeneity of microenvironments in the interface between the subunits. PMID:1425683

  1. Recyclable Crosslinked Polymer Networks via One-Step Controlled Radical Polymerization.

    PubMed

    Jin, Kailong; Li, Lingqiao; Torkelson, John M

    2016-08-01

    A nitroxide-mediated polymerization strategy allows one-step synthesis of recyclable crosslinked polymeric materials from any monomers or polymers that contain carbon-carbon double bonds amenable to radical polymerization. The resulting materials with dynamic covalent bonds can show full property recovery after multiple melt-reprocessing recycles. This one-step strategy provides for both robust, relatively sustainable recyclability of crosslinked polymers and design of networks for advanced technologies.

  2. Evolutionarily Divergent, Unstable Filamentous Actin Is Essential for Gliding Motility in Apicomplexan Parasites

    PubMed Central

    Skillman, Kristen M.; Diraviyam, Karthikeyan; Khan, Asis; Tang, Keliang; Sept, David; Sibley, L. David

    2011-01-01

    Apicomplexan parasites rely on a novel form of actin-based motility called gliding, which depends on parasite actin polymerization, to migrate through their hosts and invade cells. However, parasite actins are divergent both in sequence and function and only form short, unstable filaments in contrast to the stability of conventional actin filaments. The molecular basis for parasite actin filament instability and its relationship to gliding motility remain unresolved. We demonstrate that recombinant Toxoplasma (TgACTI) and Plasmodium (PfACTI and PfACTII) actins polymerized into very short filaments in vitro but were induced to form long, stable filaments by addition of equimolar levels of phalloidin. Parasite actins contain a conserved phalloidin-binding site as determined by molecular modeling and computational docking, yet vary in several residues that are predicted to impact filament stability. In particular, two residues were identified that form intermolecular contacts between different protomers in conventional actin filaments and these residues showed non-conservative differences in apicomplexan parasites. Substitution of divergent residues found in TgACTI with those from mammalian actin resulted in formation of longer, more stable filaments in vitro. Expression of these stabilized actins in T. gondii increased sensitivity to the actin-stabilizing compound jasplakinolide and disrupted normal gliding motility in the absence of treatment. These results identify the molecular basis for short, dynamic filaments in apicomplexan parasites and demonstrate that inherent instability of parasite actin filaments is a critical adaptation for gliding motility. PMID:21998582

  3. Neutrophils establish rapid and robust WAVE complex polarity in an actin-dependent fashion

    PubMed Central

    Millius, Arthur; Dandekar, Sheel N.; Houk, Andrew R.; Weiner, Orion D.

    2009-01-01

    Asymmetric intracellular signals enable cells to migrate in response to external cues. The multiprotein WAVE (SCAR/WASF) complex activates the actin-nucleating Arp2/3 complex [1-4] and localizes to propagating “waves”, which direct actin assembly during neutrophil migration [5, 6]. Here, we observe similar WAVE complex dynamics in other mammalian cells and analyze WAVE complex dynamics during the establishment of neutrophil polarity. Earlier models proposed that either spatially-biased generation [7] or selection of protrusions [8] enables chemotaxis. These models require existing morphological polarity to control protrusions. Similar spatially-biased generation and selection of WAVE complex recruitment occur in morphologically unpolarized neutrophils during the development of their first protrusions. Additionally, several mechanisms limit WAVE complex recruitment during polarization and movement: intrinsic cues restrict WAVE complex distribution during the establishment of polarity, and asymmetric intracellular signals constrain WAVE complex distribution in morphologically polarized cells. External gradients can overcome both intrinsic biases and control WAVE complex localization. Following latrunculin-mediated inhibition of actin polymerization, addition and removal of agonist gradients globally recruits and releases the WAVE complex from the membrane. Under these conditions the WAVE complex no longer polarizes, despite the presence of strong external gradients. Thus, actin polymer and the WAVE complex reciprocally interact during polarization. PMID:19200726

  4. Upregulation of two actin genes and redistribution of actin during diapause and cold stress in the northern house mosquito, Culex pipiens.

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Mijung; Robich, Rebecca M.; Rinehart, Joseph P.; Denlinger, David L.

    2007-01-01

    Two actin genes cloned from Culex pipiens L. are upregulated during adult diapause. Though actins 1 and 2 were expressed throughout diapause, both genes were most highly expressed early in diapause. These changes in gene expression were accompanied by a conspicuous redistribution of polymerized actin that was most pronounced in the midguts of diapausing mosquitoes that were exposed to low temperature. In nondiapausing mosquitoes reared at 25°C and in diapausing mosquitoes reared at 18°C, polymerized actin was clustered at high concentrations at the intersections of the muscle fibers that form the midgut musculature. When adults 7–10 days post-eclosion were exposed to low temperature (-5°C for 12h), the polymerized actin was evenly distributed along the muscle fibers in both nondiapausing and diapausing mosquitoes. Exposure of older adults (1month post-eclosion) to low temperature (−5°C for 12h) elicited an even greater distribution of polymerized actin, an effect that was especially pronounced in diapausing mosquitoes. These changes in gene expression and actin distribution suggest a role for actins in enhancing survival of diapausing adults during the low temperatures of winter by fortification of the cytoskeleton. PMID:17078965

  5. Control of molecular weight of polystyrene using the reverse iodine transfer polymerization (RITP)-emulsion technique.

    PubMed

    Oh, Hyeong Geun; Shin, Hongcheol; Jung, Hyejun; Lee, Byung Hyung; Choe, Soonja

    2011-01-15

    The RITP-emulsion polymerization of styrene in the presence of molecular iodine has been successfully performed using potassium persulfate (KPS) as an initiator and 1-hexadecanesulfonate as an emulsifier under argon atmosphere at 80°C for 7 hrs in the absence of light. The effects of the iodine concentration, molar ratio between KPS and iodine, and solid contents on the molecular weight of polystyrene (PS) were studied. As the iodine concentration increased from 0.05 to 0.504 mmol under the fixed [KPS]/[I(2)] ratio at 4.5, the weight-average molecular weight of PS substantially decreased from 126,120 to 35,690 g/mol, the conversion increased from 85.0% to 95.2%, and the weight-average particle diameter decreased from 159 to 103 nm. In addition, as the ratio of [KPS]/[I(2)] increased from 0.5 to 6.0 at the fixed [I(2)] of 0.504 mmol, the weight-average molecular weight of PS decreased from 72,170 to 30,640 g/mol with high conversion between 81.7% and 96.5%. Moreover, when the styrene solid content increased from 10 to 40 wt.% at the fixed [KPS]/[I(2)] ratio of 4.5, the weight-average molecular weight of PS varied between 33,500 and 37,200 g/mol, the conversion varied between 94.9% and 89.7% and the weight-average diameter varied from 122 to 205 nm. Thus, the control of molecular weight of PS less than 100,000g/mol with high conversion (95%) and particle stability of up to 40 wt.% solid content were easily achieved through the usage of iodine with suitable ratio of [KPS]/[I(2)] in the RITP-emulsion polymerization technique, which is of great industrial importance.

  6. Actin network architecture can determine myosin motor activity.

    PubMed

    Reymann, Anne-Cécile; Boujemaa-Paterski, Rajaa; Martiel, Jean-Louis; Guérin, Christophe; Cao, Wenxiang; Chin, Harvey F; De La Cruz, Enrique M; Théry, Manuel; Blanchoin, Laurent

    2012-06-01

    The organization of actin filaments into higher-ordered structures governs eukaryotic cell shape and movement. Global actin network size and architecture are maintained in a dynamic steady state through regulated assembly and disassembly. Here, we used experimentally defined actin structures in vitro to investigate how the activity of myosin motors depends on network architecture. Direct visualization of filaments revealed myosin-induced actin network deformation. During this reorganization, myosins selectively contracted and disassembled antiparallel actin structures, while parallel actin bundles remained unaffected. The local distribution of nucleation sites and the resulting orientation of actin filaments appeared to regulate the scalability of the contraction process. This "orientation selection" mechanism for selective contraction and disassembly suggests how the dynamics of the cellular actin cytoskeleton can be spatially controlled by actomyosin contractility.

  7. Formation of size-controlled, denaturation-resistant lipid nanodiscs by an amphiphilic self-polymerizing peptide.

    PubMed

    Kondo, Hiroaki; Ikeda, Keisuke; Nakano, Minoru

    2016-10-01

    Nanodiscs are discoidal particles with a planar phospholipid bilayer enwrapped by proteins such as apolipoprotein A-I. Nanodiscs have been widely used for analyzing structures and functions of membrane proteins by dispersing them in solution. They are expected to be used as drug carriers and therapeutic agents. Amphiphilic peptides are known to form nanodiscs. However, the lipid-peptide nanodiscs are relatively unstable in solution, making them unsuitable for many applications. Here, we report the synthesis of an amphiphilic self-polymerizing peptide termed ASPP1, which polymerizes by intermolecular native chemical ligation reactions. ASPP1 spontaneously formed nanodiscs when added to phospholipid vesicles without using detergents. The diameter of the planar lipid bilayer in the nanodiscs was controlled by the lipid:peptide molar ratio. ASPP1-nanodiscs exhibited greater stability at high temperatures or in the presence of urea than nanodiscs formed by the non-polymerizing amphiphilic peptide or apolipoprotein A-I. Average and maximal degrees of ASPP1 polymerization were 2.4 and 12, respectively. Self-polymerization of the peptide appears to be responsible for stabilization of the nanodiscs. Our results open a new avenue for the development of nanodisc technology.

  8. One-Pot Synthesis of Multifunctional Polymers by Light-Controlled Radical Polymerization and Enzymatic Catalysis with Candida antarctica Lipase B.

    PubMed

    Hrsic, Emin; Keul, Helmut; Möller, Martin

    2015-12-01

    The preparation of multifunctional polymers and block copolymers by a straightforward one-pot reaction process that combines enzymatic transacylation with light-controlled polymerization is described. Functional methacrylate monomers are synthesized by enzymatic transacylation and used in situ for light-controlled polymerization, leading to multifunctional methacrylate-based polymers with well-defined microstructure.

  9. Controlled atom transfer radical polymerization of MMA onto the surface of high-density functionalized graphene oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Mukesh; Chung, Jin Suk; Hur, Seung Hyun

    2014-07-01

    We report on the grafting of poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) onto the surface of high-density functionalized graphene oxides (GO) through controlled radical polymerization (CRP). To increase the density of surface grafting, GO was first diazotized (DGO), followed by esterification with 2-bromoisobutyryl bromide, which resulted in an atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) initiator-functionalized DGO-Br. The functionalized DGO-Br was characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Raman, and XRD patterns. PMMA chains were then grafted onto the DGO-Br surface through a `grafting from' technique using ATRP. Gel permeation chromatography (GPC) results revealed that polymerization of methyl methacrylate (MMA) follows CRP. Thermal studies show that the resulting graphene-PMMA nanocomposites have higher thermal stability and glass transition temperatures ( T g) than those of pristine PMMA.

  10. Controlled atom transfer radical polymerization of MMA onto the surface of high-density functionalized graphene oxide

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    We report on the grafting of poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) onto the surface of high-density functionalized graphene oxides (GO) through controlled radical polymerization (CRP). To increase the density of surface grafting, GO was first diazotized (DGO), followed by esterification with 2-bromoisobutyryl bromide, which resulted in an atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) initiator-functionalized DGO-Br. The functionalized DGO-Br was characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Raman, and XRD patterns. PMMA chains were then grafted onto the DGO-Br surface through a ‘grafting from’ technique using ATRP. Gel permeation chromatography (GPC) results revealed that polymerization of methyl methacrylate (MMA) follows CRP. Thermal studies show that the resulting graphene-PMMA nanocomposites have higher thermal stability and glass transition temperatures (Tg) than those of pristine PMMA. PMID:25114639

  11. Controlled release of benzoyl peroxide from a porous microsphere polymeric system can reduce topical irritancy.

    PubMed

    Wester, R C; Patel, R; Nacht, S; Leyden, J; Melendres, J; Maibach, H

    1991-05-01

    Skin absorption of benzoyl peroxide from a topical lotion containing freely dispersed drug was compared with that from the same lotion in which the drug was entrapped in a controlled-release styrene-divinylbenzene polymer system. In an in vitro diffusion system, statistically significant (p = 0.01) differences were found in the content of benzoyl peroxide in excised human skin and in percutaneous absorption. In vivo, significantly (p = 0.002) less benzoyl peroxide was absorbed through rhesus monkey skin from the polymeric system. This controlled release of benzoyl peroxide to skin can alter the dose relation that exists between efficacy and skin irritation. Corresponding studies showed reduced skin irritation in cumulative irritancy studies in rabbits and human beings, whereas in vivo human antimicrobial efficacy studies showed that application of the formulations containing entrapped benzoyl peroxide significantly reduced counts of Propionibacterium acnes (p less than 0.001) and aerobic bacteria (p less than 0.001) and the free fatty acid/triglyceride ratio in skin lipids. These findings support the hypothesis that, at least for this drug, controlled topical delivery can enhance safety without sacrificing efficacy.

  12. Actin in Herpesvirus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Kari L.; Baines, Joel D.

    2011-01-01

    Actin is important for a variety of cellular processes, including uptake of extracellular material and intracellular transport. Several emerging lines of evidence indicate that herpesviruses exploit actin and actin-associated myosin motors for viral entry, intranuclear transport of capsids, and virion egress. The goal of this review is to explore these processes and to highlight potential future directions for this area of research. PMID:21994736

  13. Dynamic actin cycling through mitochondrial subpopulations locally regulates the fission–fusion balance within mitochondrial networks

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Andrew S.; Wong, Yvette C.; Simpson, Cory L.; Holzbaur, Erika L. F.

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondria form interconnected networks that dynamically remodel in response to cellular needs. Using live-cell imaging, we investigate the role of the actin cytoskeleton in regulating mitochondrial fission and fusion. We identify cycling of actin filaments onto and off of subsets of cellular mitochondria. The association of actin filaments with mitochondrial subpopulations is transient; actin quickly disassembles, then reassembles around a distinct subpopulation, efficiently cycling through all cellular mitochondria within 14 min. The focal assembly of actin induces local, Drp1-dependent fragmentation of the mitochondrial network. On actin disassembly, fragmented mitochondria undergo rapid fusion, leading to regional recovery of the tubular mitochondrial network. Cycling requires dynamic actin polymerization and is blocked by inhibitors of both Arp2/3 and formins. We propose that cyclic assembly of actin onto mitochondria modulates the fission/fusion balance, promotes network remodelling and content mixing, and thus may serve as an essential mechanism regulating mitochondrial network homeostasis. PMID:27686185

  14. Actin purification from a gel of rat brain extracts.

    PubMed

    Levilliers, N; Peron-Renner, M; Coffe, G; Pudles, J

    1984-01-01

    Actin, 99% pure, has been recovered from rat brain with a high yield (greater than 15 mg/100 g brain). We have shown that: 1. a low ionic strength extract from rat brain tissue is capable of giving rise to a gel; 2. actin is the main gel component and its proportion is one order of magnitude higher than in the original extract; 3. actin can be isolated from this extract by a three-step procedure involving gelation, dissociation of the gel in 0.6 M KCl, followed by one or two depolymerization-polymerization cycles. PMID:6529588

  15. Nucleotide Regulation of the Structure and Dynamics of G-Actin

    PubMed Central

    Saunders, Marissa G.; Tempkin, Jeremy; Weare, Jonathan; Dinner, Aaron R.; Roux, Benoît; Voth, Gregory A.

    2014-01-01

    Actin, a highly conserved cytoskeletal protein found in all eukaryotic cells, facilitates cell motility and membrane remodeling via a directional polymerization cycle referred to as treadmilling. The nucleotide bound at the core of each actin subunit regulates this process. Although the biochemical kinetics of treadmilling has been well characterized, the atomistic details of how the nucleotide affects polymerization remain to be definitively determined. There is increasing evidence that the nucleotide regulation (and other characteristics) of actin cannot be fully described from the minimum energy structure, but rather depends on a dynamic equilibrium between conformations. In this work we explore the conformational mobility of the actin monomer (G-actin) in a coarse-grained subspace using umbrella sampling to bias all-atom molecular-dynamics simulations along the variables of interest. The results reveal that ADP-bound actin subunits are more conformationally mobile than ATP-bound subunits. We used a multiscale analysis method involving coarse-grained and atomistic representations of these simulations to characterize how the nucleotide affects the low-energy states of these systems. The interface between subdomains SD2–SD4, which is important for polymerization, is stabilized in an actin filament-like (F-actin) conformation in ATP-bound G-actin. Additionally, the nucleotide modulates the conformation of the SD1-SD3 interface, a region involved in the binding of several actin-binding proteins. PMID:24739170

  16. Modulation of actin structure and function by phosphorylation of Tyr-53 and profilin binding

    SciTech Connect

    Baek, Kyuwon; Liu, Xiong; Ferron, Francois; Shu, Shi; Korn, Edward D.; Dominguez, Roberto

    2008-08-27

    On starvation, Dictyostelium cells aggregate to form multicellular fruiting bodies containing spores that germinate when transferred to nutrient-rich medium. This developmental cycle correlates with the extent of actin phosphorylation at Tyr-53 (pY53-actin), which is low in vegetative cells but high in viable mature spores. Here we describe high-resolution crystal structures of pY53-actin and unphosphorylated actin in complexes with gelsolin segment 1 and profilin. In the structure of pY53-actin, the phosphate group on Tyr-53 makes hydrogen-bonding interactions with residues of the DNase I-binding loop (D-loop) of actin, resulting in a more stable conformation of the D-loop than in the unphosphorylated structures. A more rigidly folded D-loop may explain some of the previously described properties of pY53-actin, including its increased critical concentration for polymerization, reduced rates of nucleation and pointed end elongation, and weak affinity for DNase I. We show here that phosphorylation of Tyr-53 inhibits subtilisin cleavage of the D-loop and reduces the rate of nucleotide exchange on actin. The structure of profilin-Dictyostelium-actin is strikingly similar to previously determined structures of profilin-{beta}-actin and profilin-{alpha}-actin. By comparing this representative set of profilin-actin structures with other structures of actin, we highlight the effects of profilin on the actin conformation. In the profilin-actin complexes, subdomains 1 and 3 of actin close around profilin, producing a 4.7 deg. rotation of the two major domains of actin relative to each other. As a result, the nucleotide cleft becomes moderately more open in the profilin-actin complex, probably explaining the stimulation of nucleotide exchange on actin by profilin.

  17. Actin Rings of Power.

    PubMed

    Schwayer, Cornelia; Sikora, Mateusz; Slováková, Jana; Kardos, Roland; Heisenberg, Carl-Philipp

    2016-06-20

    Circular or ring-like actin structures play important roles in various developmental and physiological processes. Commonly, these rings are composed of actin filaments and myosin motors (actomyosin) that, upon activation, trigger ring constriction. Actomyosin ring constriction, in turn, has been implicated in key cellular processes ranging from cytokinesis to wound closure. Non-constricting actin ring-like structures also form at cell-cell contacts, where they exert a stabilizing function. Here, we review recent studies on the formation and function of actin ring-like structures in various morphogenetic processes, shedding light on how those different rings have been adapted to fulfill their specific roles. PMID:27326928

  18. Miniemulsion polymerizations of n-butyl cyanoacrylate via two routes: towards a control of particle degradation.

    PubMed

    Hansali, F; Poisson, G; Wu, M; Bendedouch, D; Marie, E

    2011-11-01

    This study aimed at determining the influence of the mechanism of polymerization on the molar mass and degradation of poly(n-butyl cyanoacrylate) (PBCA) nanoparticles obtained by miniemulsion polymerization. Therefore, nanoparticles of poly(n-butyl cyanoacrylate) were synthesized via radical and/or anionic miniemulsion polymerization stabilized by Brij®78, a POE based surfactant. Polymerization conditions had little influence on the final diameter while it severely affected the final molar masses of PBCA. An increase of the temperature and of the pH of the continuous phase led to higher molar masses. A further increase was observed when a radical initiator was added in the monomer. The evolution of the molar mass of the synthesized poly(n-butyl cyanoacrylate) was followed as a function of time at pH 7.4 by Size Exclusion Chromatography. As expected, the degradation kinetics strongly depended on the polymerization mechanism (anionic or radical).

  19. Actin-cytoskeleton dynamics in non-monotonic cell spreading

    PubMed Central

    Heinrich, Doris; Youssef, Simon; Schroth-Diez, Britta; Engel, Ulrike; Aydin, Daniel; Blümmel, Jacques; Spatz, Joachim P

    2008-01-01

    The spreading of motile cells on a substrate surface is accompanied by reorganization of their actin network. We show that spreading in the highly motile cells of Dictyostelium is non-monotonic, and thus differs from the passage of spreading cells through a regular series of stages. Quantification of the gain and loss of contact area revealed fluctuating forces of protrusion and retraction that dominate the interaction of Dictyostelium cells with a substrate. The molecular basis of these fluctuations is elucidated by dual-fluorescence labeling of filamentous actin together with proteins that highlight specific activities in the actin system. Front-to-tail polarity is established by the sorting out of myosin-II from regions where dense actin assemblies are accumulating. Myosin-IB identifies protruding front regions, and the Arp2/3 complex localizes to lamellipodia protruded from the fronts. Coronin is used as a sensitive indicator of actin disassembly to visualize the delicate balance of polymerization and depolymerization in spreading cells. Short-lived actin patches that co-localize with clathrin suggest that membrane internalization occurs even when the substrate-attached cell surface expands. We conclude that non-monotonic cell spreading is characterized by spatiotemporal patterns formed by motor proteins together with regulatory proteins that either promote or terminate actin polymerization on the scale of seconds. PMID:19262103

  20. Simulation of the effect of confinement in actin ring formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adeli Koudehi, Maral; Vavylonis, Dimitrios; Haosu Tang Team; Dimitrios Vavylonis Team

    Actin filaments are vital for different network structures in living cells. During cytokinesis, they form a contractile ring containing myosin motor proteins and actin filament cross-linkers to separate one cell into two cells. Recent experimental studies have quantified the bundle, ring, and network structures that form when actin filaments polymerize in confined environments in vitro, in the presence of varying concentrations of cross-linkers. In this study, we performed numerical simulations to investigate the effect of actin spherical confinement and cross-linking in ring formation. We used a spring-bead model and Brownian dynamics to simulate semiflexible actin filaments that polymerize in a confining sphere with a rate proportional to the monomer concentration. Applying the model for different size of the confining spheres shows that the probability of ring formation decreases by increasing the radius (at fixed initial monomer concentration), in agreement with prior experimental data. We describe the effect of persistence length, orientation-dependent cross-linking, and initial actin monomer concentration. Simulations show that equilibrium configurations can be reached through zipping and unzipping of actin filaments in bundles and transient ring formation.

  1. Quality control associated with the use of semipermeable polymeric membrane devices (SPMDs)

    SciTech Connect

    DeVita, W.; Crunkilton, R.

    1995-12-31

    Semipermeable polymeric membrane devices have been proposed as sentinels of nonpolar organic substances which have the potential to bioconcentrate. The focus of this study was to assess quality control aspects associated with use of these new devices. SPMDs were employed to monitor 17 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHS) in an urban stream. SPMDs were deployed in aquaria housed inside a USGS gauging station along the banks of Lincoln Creek, an urban stream in Milwaukee, Wisconsin. A minimum of three replicate SPMDs were deployed, exposed and analyzed for each period. SPMDs were subsequently dialyzed in hexane for 48 hours and residual lipid removed by gel permeation chromatography. Refined extracts were analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (ion trap). Method detection limits ranged from 8 ng/g SPMD for benzo(e)pyrene to 230 ng/g SPMD for benzo(g,h,i)pyrene. Reproducibility, as measured by percent relative standard deviation (%RSD), was routinely well below the US EPA standard of 30%. This %RSD accounts for errors in SPMD preparation, deployment, exposure, retrieval, and analysis (dialysis, refinement and instrumental determination). With each set of SPMDs, one SPMD was spiked with a PAH mixture, stored for 30 days, then analyzed with the others from that set. Percent recoveries ranged from an average of 64% for acenaphthylene to 79% for phenanthrene which is considered an acceptable range by US EPA Method SW-846. Overall, SPMDs produced acceptable quality control for PAHs.

  2. Controlled Release Inhalable Polymeric Microspheres for Treatment of Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension.

    PubMed

    Saigal, Aparna; Ng, Wai Kiong; Tan, Reginald B H; Chan, Sui Yung

    2015-01-01

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a chronic ailment of the lungs, exhibiting elevated arterial pressure and vascular resistance; with a mean arterial pressure above 25 mmHg at rest and above 30 mmHg during exercise. It is associated with poor prognosis, and its prevalence is estimated to be 15 cases per one million. The current treatment options for PAH are discussed with the prostanoid class of drugs being the most effective. The latter drugs act by dilating systemic and pulmonary arterial vascular beds and, with sustained long-term usage, altering pulmonary remodelling. They are administered as IV infusions or inhalation solutions. Despite their clinical effectiveness, prostanoids have short half-lives requiring frequent administration of 6-9 times daily and thus suffer from poor compliance. Controlled release inhalation delivery systems for treatment of PAH, ranging from liposomes, biodegradable nano- and microparticles, formation of co-precipitates and complexation with cyclodextrins, are explored. Arising from these formulation strategies, we developed novel polymeric microspheres for inhalation to reduce dosing frequency and improve medication compliance. These microspheres are designed with release modifiers, to reside in the lung which is the site of drug action for a longer duration so as to release the drug slowly and consistently over a prolonged period. This could lead to the development of the first commercially available controlled release inhalation product. PMID:26446472

  3. Controlling the cell adhesion property of silk films by graft polymerization.

    PubMed

    Dhyani, Vartika; Singh, Neetu

    2014-04-01

    We report here a graft polymerization method to improve the cell adhesion property of Bombyx mori silk fibroin films. B. mori silk has evolved as a promising material for tissue engineering because of its biocompatibility and biodegradability. However, silk's hydrophobic character makes cell adhesion and proliferation difficult. Also, the lack of sufficient reactive amino acid residues makes biofunctionalization via chemical modification challenging. Our study describes a simple method that provides increased chemical handles for tuning of the surface chemistry of regenerated silk films (SFs), thus allowing manipulation of their bioactivity. By grafting pAAc and pHEMA via plasma etching, we have increased carboxylic acid and hydroxyl groups on silk, respectively. These modifications allowed us to tune the hydrophilicity of SFs and provide functional groups for bioconjugation. Our strategy also allowed us to develop silk-based surface coatings, where spatial control over cell adhesion can be achieved. This control over cell adhesion in a particular region of the SFs is difficult to obtain via existing methods of modifying the silk fibroin instead of the SF surface. Thus, our strategy will be a valuable addition to the toolkit of biofunctionalization for enhancing SFs' tissue engineering applications.

  4. Electrically-controlled polymeric gels as active materials in adaptive structures

    SciTech Connect

    Segalman, D.; Witkowski, W.; Adolf, D. ); Shahinpoor, M. . Dept. of Mechanical Engineering)

    1991-01-01

    This paper presents several applications of ionizable polymeric gels that are capable of undergoing substantial expansions and contractions when subjected to changing pH environments, temperature, or solvent. Conceptual designs for smart, electrically activated devices exploiting this phenomenon are discussed. These devices have the possibility of being manipulated via active computer control as large displacement actuators for use in adaptive structures. The enabling technology of these novel devices is the use of compliant containers for the gels and their solvents, removing the difficulties associated with maintaining a bath for the gels. Though most of these devices are designed using properties well discussed in the literature, some presented near the end of this paper make use of conclusions that the authors have drawn form the literature and their own experimental work. Those conclusions about the basic mechanisms of electromechanical gels are discussed in the third part of this paper and a complete set of governing equations describing these mechanisms are presented in the fourth section. This paper concludes with a discussion of some of the ramifications of the above system of equations and a discussion on gel-driven devices and on the control of such devices. 24 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  5. Controlled nanopatterning of a polymerized ionic liquid in a strong electric field

    SciTech Connect

    Bocharova, Vera; Agapov, Alexander L.; Tselev, Alexander; Kumar, Rajeev; Berdzinski, Stefan; Strehmel, Veronika; Kisliuk, Alexander; Kravchenko, Ivan I.; Sumpter, Bobby G.; Sokolov, Alexei P.; Kalinin, Sergei V.; Strelcov, Evgheni; Collins, Liam

    2014-12-17

    Nanolithography has become a driving force in advancements of the modern day's electronics, allowing for miniaturization of devices and a steady increase of the calculation, power, and storage densities. Among various nanofabrication approaches, scanning probe techniques, including atomic force microscopy (AFM), are versatile tools for creating nanoscale patterns utilizing a range of physical stimuli such as force, heat, or electric field confined to the nanoscale. In this study, the potential of using the electric field localized at the apex of an AFM tip to induce and control changes in the mechanical properties of an ion containing polymer—a polymerized ionic liquid (PolyIL)—on a very localized scale is explored. In particular, it is demonstrated that by means of AFM, one can form topographical features on the surface of PolyIL-based thin films with a significantly lower electric potential and power consumption as compared to nonconductive polymer materials. Lastly,, by tuning the applied voltage and ambient air humidity, control over dimensions of the formed structures is reproducibly achieved.

  6. Controlled nanopatterning of a polymerized ionic liquid in a strong electric field

    DOE PAGES

    Bocharova, Vera; Agapov, Alexander L.; Tselev, Alexander; Kumar, Rajeev; Berdzinski, Stefan; Strehmel, Veronika; Kisliuk, Alexander; Kravchenko, Ivan I.; Sumpter, Bobby G.; Sokolov, Alexei P.; et al

    2014-12-17

    Nanolithography has become a driving force in advancements of the modern day's electronics, allowing for miniaturization of devices and a steady increase of the calculation, power, and storage densities. Among various nanofabrication approaches, scanning probe techniques, including atomic force microscopy (AFM), are versatile tools for creating nanoscale patterns utilizing a range of physical stimuli such as force, heat, or electric field confined to the nanoscale. In this study, the potential of using the electric field localized at the apex of an AFM tip to induce and control changes in the mechanical properties of an ion containing polymer—a polymerized ionic liquidmore » (PolyIL)—on a very localized scale is explored. In particular, it is demonstrated that by means of AFM, one can form topographical features on the surface of PolyIL-based thin films with a significantly lower electric potential and power consumption as compared to nonconductive polymer materials. Lastly,, by tuning the applied voltage and ambient air humidity, control over dimensions of the formed structures is reproducibly achieved.« less

  7. Nuclear and cytoplasmic actin in dinoflagellates.

    PubMed

    Soyer-Gobillard, M O; Ausseil, J; Géraud, M L

    1996-01-01

    Experiments using monoclonal and polyclonal anti-actin antibodies allowed us to demonstrate the presence of F- or G-actin in original protists, dinoflagellates, either by biochemistry, immunofluorescence and in TEM. SDS-PAGE electrophoresis and immunoblottings made either from total or nuclear protein extracts revealed the presence of a 44-kDa band reacting with monoclonal anti-actin antibody in two species, Prorocentrum micans and Crypthecodinium cohnii, and thus demonstrated the presence of actin in nuclear and cytoplasmic fractions. After squash preparation of P micans cells, actin was identified within the nucleus and in some regions of the cytoplasm by immunofluorescence microscopy. Labelling of both the nucleolus and the centrosome region was evident together with amorphous nucleoplasmic material surrounding the chromosomes. The use of cryosections of intact P micans and C cohnii cells for immunofluorescence along with staining with DAPI to delineate the chromosomes themselves, yielded finer resolution of the intranuclear network labelling pattern and allowed us to complete our observations, in particular on the cytoplasmic labelling. In P micans, in addition to the centrosome region, the cytoplasmic channels passing through the nucleus in dividing cells are labelled. In C cohnii, the cortex, the centrosome region, the cytoplasmic channels, the region surrounding the nucleus, the filaments linking it to the cortex and the cleavage furrow are also labelled. In the nucleus of the two species, there is a prominent "weft' of fine actin filaments in the nucleoplasm forming a matrix of varying density around the persistent chromosomes. This actin matrix, of unknown function, is most conspicuous at the end of the S-phase of the cell cycle. Fluorescent derivatives of phalloidin, used as diagnostic cytochemical probes for polymeric actin (F-actin), gave similar results. Positive TEM immunolabelling of intranuclear actin confirms its presence in the nucleoplasm, in the

  8. Optogenetic Control of PIP3: PIP3 Is Sufficient to Induce the Actin-Based Active Part of Growth Cones and Is Regulated via Endocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Kakumoto, Toshiyuki; Nakata, Takao

    2013-01-01

    Phosphatidylinositol-3,4,5-trisphosphate (PIP3) is highly regulated in a spatiotemporal manner and plays multiple roles in individual cells. However, the local dynamics and primary functions of PIP3 in developing neurons remain unclear because of a lack of techniques for manipulating PIP3 spatiotemporally. We addressed this issue by combining optogenetic control and observation of endogenous PIP3 signaling. Endogenous PIP3 was abundant in actin-rich structures such as growth cones and “waves”, and PIP3-rich plasma membranes moved actively within growth cones. To study the role of PIP3 in developing neurons, we developed a PI3K photoswitch that can induce production of PIP3 at specific locations upon blue light exposure. We succeeded in producing PIP3 locally in mouse hippocampal neurons. Local PIP3 elevation at neurite tips did not induce neurite elongation, but it was sufficient to induce the formation of filopodia and lamellipodia. Interestingly, ectopic PIP3 elevation alone activated membranes to form actin-based structures whose behavior was similar to that of growth-cone-like “waves”. We also found that endocytosis regulates effective PIP3 concentration at plasma membranes. These results revealed the local dynamics and primary functions of PIP3, providing fundamental information about PIP3 signaling in neurons. PMID:23951027

  9. Novel regulation of Ski protein stability and endosomal sorting by actin cytoskeleton dynamics in hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Vázquez-Victorio, Genaro; Caligaris, Cassandre; Del Valle-Espinosa, Eugenio; Sosa-Garrocho, Marcela; González-Arenas, Nelly R; Reyes-Cruz, Guadalupe; Briones-Orta, Marco A; Macías-Silva, Marina

    2015-02-13

    TGF-β-induced antimitotic signals are highly regulated during cell proliferation under normal and pathological conditions, such as liver regeneration and cancer. Up-regulation of the transcriptional cofactors Ski and SnoN during liver regeneration may favor hepatocyte proliferation by inhibiting TGF-β signals. In this study, we found a novel mechanism that regulates Ski protein stability through TGF-β and G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) signaling. Ski protein is distributed between the nucleus and cytoplasm of normal hepatocytes, and the molecular mechanisms controlling Ski protein stability involve the participation of actin cytoskeleton dynamics. Cytoplasmic Ski is partially associated with actin and localized in cholesterol-rich vesicles. Ski protein stability is decreased by TGF-β/Smads, GPCR/Rho signals, and actin polymerization, whereas GPCR/cAMP signals and actin depolymerization promote Ski protein stability. In conclusion, TGF-β and GPCR signals differentially regulate Ski protein stability and sorting in hepatocytes, and this cross-talk may occur during liver regeneration.

  10. Modulation of the interaction between G-actin and thymosin beta 4 by the ATP/ADP ratio: possible implication in the regulation of actin dynamics.

    PubMed Central

    Carlier, M F; Jean, C; Rieger, K J; Lenfant, M; Pantaloni, D

    1993-01-01

    The interaction of G-actin with thymosin beta 4 (T beta 4), the major G-actin-sequestering protein in motile and proliferating cells, has been analyzed in vitro. T beta 4 is found to have a 50-fold higher affinity for MgATP-actin than for MgADP-actin. These results imply that in resting platelets and neutrophils, actin is sequestered by T beta 4 as MgATP-G-actin. Kinetic experiments and theoretical calculations demonstrate that this ATP/ADP dependence of T beta 4 affinity for G-actin can generate a mechanism of desequestration of G-actin by ADP, in the presence of physiological concentrations of T beta 4 (approximately 0.1 mM). The desequestration of G-actin by ADP is kinetically enhanced by profilin, which accelerates the dissociation of ATP from G-actin. Whether a local drop in the ATP/ADP ratio can allow local, transient desequestration and polymerization of actin either close to the plasma membrane, following platelet or neutrophil stimulation, or behind the Listeria bacterium in the host cell, while the surrounding cytoplasm contains sequestered ATP-G-actin, is an open issue raised by the present work. PMID:8506348

  11. A central role for the WH2 domain of Srv2/CAP in recharging actin monomers to drive actin turnover in vitro and in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Chaudhry, Faisal; Little, Kristin; Talarico, Lou; Quintero-Monzon, Omar; Goode, Bruce L.

    2010-01-01

    Cellular processes propelled by actin polymerization require rapid disassembly of filaments, and then efficient recycling of ADF/cofilin-bound ADP-actin monomers back to an assembly-competent ATP-bound state. How monomer recharging is regulated in vivo is still not well understood, but recent work suggests the involvement of the ubiquitous actin-monomer binding protein Srv2/CAP. To better understand Srv2/CAP mechanism, we explored the contribution of its WH2 domain, the function of which has remained highly elusive. We found that the WH2 domain binds to actin monomers and, unlike most other WH2 domains, exhibits similar binding affinity for ATP-actin and ADP-actin (Kd ~1.5μM). Mutations in the WH2 domain that impair actin binding disrupt the ability of purified full-length Srv2/CAP to catalyze nucleotide exchange on ADF/cofilin-bound actin monomers and accelerate actin turnover in vitro. The same mutations impair Srv2/CAP function in vivo in regulating actin organization, cell growth, and cell morphogenesis. Thus, normal cell growth and organization depend on the ability of Srv2/CAP to recharge actin monomers, and the WH2 domain plays a central role in this process. Our data also reveal that while most isolated WH2 domains inhibit nucleotide exchange on actin, WH2 domains in the context of intact proteins can help promote nucleotide exchange. PMID:20169536

  12. Polymeric nanocapsules with SEDDS oil-core for the controlled and enhanced oral absorption of cyclosporine.

    PubMed

    Park, Min-Jeong; Balakrishnan, Prabagar; Yang, Su-Geun

    2013-01-30

    Self-microemulsifying drug delivery system (SEDDS) cored-polymeric nanocapsules (NC) were fabricated using emulsion diffusion method for the controlled oral absorption of the poorly water soluble drug, cyclosporine. Poly-dl-lactide (PDLLA) was used as the shell-forming polymer. The NCs in different polymer/oil ratios (from 25/125 to 125/125) were prepared following a solvent-diffusion method. Especially, the SEDDS oil-core compositions, which can form microemulsions on dispersion, were selected based on a pseudo-phase diagram study and further optimized based on the solubility and permeability studies. The prepared NCs were with a mean diameter of 150-220 nm and 9.4-4.5% w/w drug loading. In vivo study in rats showed that the optimized NC(50/125) and NC(100/125) released the drug in controlled way as well as enhanced the bioavailability significantly with AUC(0-24h) values of 14880.3±1470.6 and 12657.8±754.5 ng h/ml, respectively, compared to that of SEDDS-core solution (9878.9±409.6 ng h/ml). Moreover it was observed that the NCs maintained blood concentration of cyclosporine (>500 ng/ml) for 14-20 h but in the case of control formulation it was only 7.33 h. Our results suggest that the prepared NCs could be a potential carrier for the oral controlled release formulation of cyclosporine.

  13. Controlled RAFT Polymerization of 2-Vinyl-4,4-Dimethylazlactone (VDMA): A Facile Route to Bio-Inspired Polymer Surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Lokitz, Bradley S; Messman, Jamie M; Hinestrosa Salazar, Juan Pablo; Alonzo Calderon, Jose E; Verduzco, Rafael; Brown, Rebecca H; Osa, Masashi; Ankner, John Francis; Kilbey, II, S Michael

    2009-01-01

    We report the controlled radical polymerization of 2-vinyl-4,4-dimethyl azlactone (VDMA), a 2-alkenyl-2-oxazolin-5-one monomer that contains a polymerizable vinyl moiety as well as a highly reactive, pendant azlactone as well as solution characterizations and surface attachment and functionaliztion. Reversible addition fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) was used to polymerize of VDMA in benzene at 65 C using either 2-(2-cyanopropyl) dithiobenzoate (CPDB) or 2-dodecylsulfanylthiocarbonyl-sulfanyl-2-methylpropionic acid (DMP) as RAFT chain transfer agents (CTAs). The pseudo first order kinetics and resultant well-defined polymers of low polydispersity indicate that both CTAs afford control over the RAFT polymerization of VDMA. Dynamic and static light scattering and small angle neutron scattering were performed to determine the dn/dc, weight-average molecular weight, radius of gyration, and second virial coefficient of VDMA homopolymers in THF. Additionally, well-defined polymers of VDMA containing carboxyl end groups were covalently attached to epoxy modified silicon wafers via esterification to produce polymeric scaffolds that could be subsequently functionalized for various bio-inspired applications.

  14. Microtransfer printing of metal ink patterns onto plastic substrates utilizing an adhesion-controlled polymeric donor layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Ji-Sub; Choi, Jun-Chan; Park, Min-Kyu; Bae, Jeong Min; Bae, Jin-Hyuk; Kim, Hak-Rin

    2016-06-01

    We propose a method for transfer-printed electrode patterns onto flexible/plastic substrates, specifically intended for metal ink that requires a high sintering temperature. Typically, metal-ink-based electrodes cannot be picked up for microtransfer printing because the adhesion between the electrodes and the donor substrate greatly increases after the sintering process due to the binding materials. We introduced a polymeric donor layer between the printed electrodes and the donor substrate and effectively reduced the adhesion between the Ag pattern and the polymeric donor layer by controlling the interfacial contact area. After completing a wet-etching process for the polymeric donor layer, we obtained Ag patterns supported on the fine polymeric anchor structures; the Ag patterns could be picked up onto the stamp surface even after the sintering process by utilizing the viscoelastic properties of the elastomeric stamp with a pick-up velocity control. The proposed method enables highly conductive metal-ink-based electrode patterns to be applied on thermally weak plastic substrates via an all-solution process. Metal electrodes transferred onto a film showed superior electrical and mechanical stability under the bending stress test required for use in printed flexible electronics.

  15. Incorporation and turnover of biotin-labeled actin microinjected into fibroblastic cells: an immunoelectron microscopic study

    PubMed Central

    1989-01-01

    . By 60 min after injection, stress fibers were labeled uniformly. We also analyzed the actin incorporation into polygonal nets of actin bundles. Circular dense foci, where actin bundles radiate, were stable structures, and actin filaments around the foci incorporated biotin- actin the slowest among the actin-containing structures within the injected cells. These results indicate that the rate and pattern of actin subunit incorporation differ in different regions of the cytoplasm and suggest the possible role of rapid actin polymerization at the leading margin on the protrusive movement of fibroblastic cells. PMID:2677022

  16. Prostaglandins temporally regulate cytoplasmic actin bundle formation during Drosophila oogenesis.

    PubMed

    Spracklen, Andrew J; Kelpsch, Daniel J; Chen, Xiang; Spracklen, Cassandra N; Tootle, Tina L

    2014-02-01

    Prostaglandins (PGs)--lipid signals produced downstream of cyclooxygenase (COX) enzymes--regulate actin dynamics in cell culture and platelets, but their roles during development are largely unknown. Here we define a new role for Pxt, the Drosophila COX-like enzyme, in regulating the actin cytoskeleton--temporal restriction of actin remodeling during oogenesis. PGs are required for actin filament bundle formation during stage 10B (S10B). In addition, loss of Pxt results in extensive early actin remodeling, including actin filaments and aggregates, within the posterior nurse cells of S9 follicles; wild-type follicles exhibit similar structures at a low frequency. Hu li tai shao (Hts-RC) and Villin (Quail), an actin bundler, localize to all early actin structures, whereas Enabled (Ena), an actin elongation factor, preferentially localizes to those in pxt mutants. Reduced Ena levels strongly suppress early actin remodeling in pxt mutants. Furthermore, loss of Pxt results in reduced Ena localization to the sites of bundle formation during S10B. Together these data lead to a model in which PGs temporally regulate actin remodeling during Drosophila oogenesis by controlling Ena localization/activity, such that in S9, PG signaling inhibits, whereas at S10B, it promotes Ena-dependent actin remodeling.

  17. Two Functionally Distinct Sources of Actin Monomers Supply the Leading Edge of Lamellipodia

    PubMed Central

    Vitriol, Eric A.; McMillen, Laura M.; Kapustina, Maryna; Gomez, Shawn M.; Vavylonis, Dimitrios; Zheng, James Q.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Lamellipodia, the sheet-like protrusions of motile cells, consist of networks of actin filaments (F-actin) regulated by the ordered assembly from and disassembly into actin monomers (G-actin). Traditionally, G-actin is thought to exist as a homogeneous pool. Here, we show that there are two functionally and molecularly distinct sources of G-actin that supply lamellipodial actin networks. G-actin originating from the cytosolic pool requires the monomer binding protein thymosin β4 (Tβ4) for optimal leading edge localization, is targeted to formins, and is responsible for creating an elevated G/F-actin ratio that promotes membrane protrusion. The second source of G-actin comes from recycled lamellipodia F-actin. Recycling occurs independently of Tβ4 and appears to regulate lamellipodia homeostasis. Tβ4-bound G-actin specifically localizes to the leading edge because it doesn’t interact with Arp2/3-mediated polymerization sites found throughout the lamellipodia. These findings demonstrate that actin networks can be constructed from multiple sources of monomers with discrete spatiotemporal functions. PMID:25865895

  18. Resemblance of actin-binding protein/actin gels to covalently crosslinked networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janmey, Paul A.; Hvidt, Søren; Lamb, Jennifer; Stossel, Thomas P.

    1990-05-01

    THE maintainance of the shape of cells is often due to their surface elasticity, which arises mainly from an actin-rich cytoplasmic cortex1,2. On locomotion, phagocytosis or fission, however, these cells become partially fluid-like. The finding of proteins that can bind to actin and control the assembly of, or crosslink, actin filaments, and of intracellular messages that regulate the activities of some of these actin-binding proteins, indicates that such 'gel sol' transformations result from the rearrangement of cortical actin-rich networks3. Alternatively, on the basis of a study of the mechanical properties of mixtures of actin filaments and an Acanthamoeba actin-binding protein, α-actinin, it has been proposed that these transformations can be accounted for by rapid exchange of crosslinks between actin filaments4: the cortical network would be solid when the deformation rate is greater than the rate of crosslink exchange, but would deform or 'creep' when deformation is slow enough to permit crosslinker molecules to rearrange. Here we report, however, that mixtures of actin filaments and actin-binding protein (ABP), an actin crosslinking protein of many higher eukaryotes, form gels Theologically equivalent to covalently crosslinked networks. These gels do not creep in response to applied stress on a time scale compatible with most cell-surface movements. These findings support a more complex and controlled mechanism underlying the dynamic mechanical properties of cortical cytoplasm, and can explain why cells do not collapse under the constant shear forces that often exist in tissues.

  19. Anti-inflammatory drug incorporation into polymeric nano-hybrids for local controlled release.

    PubMed

    Sammartino, G; Marenzi, G; Tammaro, L; Bolognese, A; Calignano, A; Costantino, U; Califano, L; Mastrangelo, F; Tetè, S; Vittoria, V

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we present the formulation, preparation and characterization of new polymeric composite materials containing a nano-hybrid to be used for the controlled molecular delivery of an anti-inflammatory molecule, Diclofenac. The nano-hybrid consists of a layer of double hydroxide of an Mg-Al hydrotalcite type, in which we replaced the chloride anions present in the host galleries with Diclofenac anions by a simple ion-exchange reaction. Different amounts of the hybrid material were incorporated in polycaprolactone and processed as films of 0.15 mm thickness. The composite materials were analyzed by X-ray diffractometry, thermogravimetry and for their mechanical properties, and showed properties even better than those for the pristine polymer. The release process of the anti-inflammatory molecules was very interesting and promising for tuneable drug delivery. It consists of two stages: a first stage, very rapid as a burst in which a small fraction of the drug is released, and of a second stage that is much slower, extending for longer and longer periods. The parameters influencing the drug release were individuated and discussed.

  20. Polymeric IgA1 controls erythroblast proliferation and accelerates erythropoiesis recovery in anemia.

    PubMed

    Coulon, Séverine; Dussiot, Michaël; Grapton, Damien; Maciel, Thiago Trovati; Wang, Pamella Huey Mei; Callens, Celine; Tiwari, Meetu Kaushik; Agarwal, Saurabh; Fricot, Aurelie; Vandekerckhove, Julie; Tamouza, Houda; Zermati, Yael; Ribeil, Jean-Antoine; Djedaini, Kamel; Oruc, Zeliha; Pascal, Virginie; Courtois, Geneviève; Arnulf, Bertrand; Alyanakian, Marie-Alexandra; Mayeux, Patrick; Leanderson, Tomas; Benhamou, Marc; Cogné, Michel; Monteiro, Renato C; Hermine, Olivier; Moura, Ivan C

    2011-10-23

    Anemia because of insufficient production of and/or response to erythropoietin (Epo) is a major complication of chronic kidney disease and cancer. The mechanisms modulating the sensitivity of erythroblasts to Epo remain poorly understood. We show that, when cultured with Epo at suboptimal concentrations, the growth and clonogenic potential of erythroblasts was rescued by transferrin receptor 1 (TfR1)-bound polymeric IgA1 (pIgA1). Under homeostatic conditions, erythroblast numbers were increased in mice expressing human IgA1 compared to control mice. Hypoxic stress of these mice led to increased amounts of pIgA1 and erythroblast expansion. Expression of human IgA1 or treatment of wild-type mice with the TfR1 ligands pIgA1 or iron-loaded transferrin (Fe-Tf) accelerated recovery from acute anemia. TfR1 engagement by either pIgA1 or Fe-Tf increased cell sensitivity to Epo by inducing activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) signaling pathways. These cellular responses were mediated through the TfR1-internalization motif, YXXΦ. Our results show that pIgA1 and TfR1 are positive regulators of erythropoiesis in both physiological and pathological situations. Targeting this pathway may provide alternate approaches to the treatment of ineffective erythropoiesis and anemia.

  1. Polymer nanostructures synthesized by controlled living polymerization for tumor-targeted drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Wang, Christine E; Stayton, Patrick S; Pun, Suzie H; Convertine, Anthony J

    2015-12-10

    The development of drug delivery systems based on well-defined polymer nanostructures could lead to significant improvements in the treatment of cancer. The design of these therapeutic nanosystems must account for numerous systemic and circulation obstacles as well as the specific pathophysiology of the tumor. Nanoparticle size and surface charge must also be carefully selected in order to maintain long circulation times, allow tumor penetration, and avoid clearance by the reticuloendothelial system (RES). Targeting ligands such as vitamins, peptides, and antibodies can improve the accumulation of nanoparticle-based therapies in tumor tissue but must be optimized to allow for intratumoral penetration. In this review, we will highlight factors influencing the design of nanoparticle therapies as well as the development of modern controlled "living" polymerization techniques (e.g. ATRP, RAFT, ROMP) that are leading to the creation of sophisticated new polymer architectures with discrete spatially-defined functional modules. These innovative materials (e.g. star polymers, polymer brushes, macrocyclic polymers, and hyperbranched polymers) combine many of the desirable properties of traditional nanoparticle therapies while substantially reducing or eliminating the need for complex formulations.

  2. 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid promotes S-nitrosylation and oxidation of actin affecting cytoskeleton and peroxisomal dynamics.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Serrano, M; Pazmiño, D M; Sparkes, I; Rochetti, A; Hawes, C; Romero-Puertas, M C; Sandalio, L M

    2014-09-01

    2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) is a synthetic auxin used as a herbicide to control weeds in agriculture. A high concentration of 2,4-D promotes leaf epinasty and cell death. In this work, the molecular mechanisms involved in the toxicity of this herbicide are studied by analysing in Arabidopsis plants the accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nitric oxide (NO), and their effect on cytoskeleton structure and peroxisome dynamics. 2,4-D (23 mM) promotes leaf epinasty, whereas this process was prevented by EDTA, which can reduce ·OH accumulation. The analysis of ROS accumulation by confocal microscopy showed a 2,4-D-dependent increase in both H2O2 and O2·(-), whereas total NO was not affected by the treatment. The herbicide promotes disturbances on the actin cytoskeleton structure as a result of post-translational modification of actin by oxidation and S-nitrosylation, which could disturb actin polymerization, as suggested by the reduction of the F-actin/G-actin ratio. These effects were reduced by EDTA, and the reduction of ROS production in Arabidopsis mutants deficient in xanthine dehydrogenase (Atxdh) gave rise to a reduction in actin oxidation. Also, 2,4-D alters the dynamics of the peroxisome, slowing the speed and shortening the distances by which these organelles are displaced. It is concluded that 2,4-D promotes oxidative and nitrosative stress, causing disturbances in the actin cytoskeleton, thereby affecting the dynamics of peroxisomes and some other organelles such as the mitochondria, with xanthine dehydrogenase being involved in ROS production under these conditions. These structural changes in turn appear to be responsible for the leaf epinasty.

  3. p-Hydroxyphenyl (H) Units Lower the Degree of Polymerization in Lignin: Chemical Control in Lignin Biosynthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Sangha, A. K.; Parks, J. M.; Davis, M. F.; Smith, J. C.

    2013-01-01

    Lignin, composed predominantly of p-hydroxyphenyl (H), guaiacyl (G) and syringyl (S) subunits, is a major component of plant cell walls that imparts resistance toward chemical and microbial deconstruction of plant biomass, rendering its conversion inefficient and costly. Previous studies have shown that alterating lignin composition, i.e., the relative abundance of H, G and S subunits, promises more efficient extraction of sugars from plant biomass. Smaller and less branched lignin chains are more easily extracted during pretreatment, making cellulose more readily degradable. Here, using density functional theory calculations, we show that the incorporation of H subunits into lignin via b-b and b-5 interunit linkages reduces the degree of polymerization in lignin. Frontier molecular orbital analyses of lignin dimers and trimers show that H as a terminal subunit on a growing lignin polymer linked via b-b and b-5 linkage cannot undergo radical formation, preventing further chain growth by endwise polymerization resulting in lignin polymers with lower degree of polymerization. These results indicate that, for endwise polymerization in lignin synthesis, there exists a chemical control that may lay a significant role in determining the structure of lignin.

  4. Precision control of radical polymerization via transition metal catalysis: from dormant species to designed catalysts for precision functional polymers.

    PubMed

    Ouchi, Makoto; Terashima, Takaya; Sawamoto, Mitsuo

    2008-09-01

    In the past decade, living radical polymerization has provided one of the most versatile methods to precisely construct designed polymer architectures with complexity and polar functionality. This process takes advantage of carbon-radical intermediates, which tolerate a variety of functional groups in monomers and reaction media. "Transition metal-catalyzed living radical polymerization", one of these living systems, has widely been employed for precision polymer synthesis. Not only can this process produce well-defined functional polymers, but it can also generate hybrids or conjugates with other (often biological) materials. Metal-catalyzed systems retain the advantages of conventional radical polymerization but distinguish themselves through a catalytic reversible halogen exchange equilibrium: the growing radical exists alongside a dormant speciesa covalent precursor capped with a terminal halogen from an initiator. The catalyst dictates the selectivity, exchange rate, and control over the polymerization. This Account provides an updated overview of our group's efforts in transition metal-catalyzed living radical polymerization with specific emphasis on the design of metal catalysts and the resulting precision polymer syntheses. With increasing use of the living processes as convenient tools for materials synthesis, researchers are currently seeking more active and versatile metal catalysts that are tolerant to functional groups. Such catalysts would enable a wider range of applications and target products, would have low metal content, could be readily removed from products, and would allow recycling. Since we first developed the "transition metal-catalyzed living radical polymerization" with RuCl 2(PPh 3) 3, FeCl 2(PPh 3) 2, and NiBr 2(PPh 3) 2, we have strived to systematically design metal catalysts to meet these new demands. For example, we have enhanced catalytic activity and control through several modifications: electron-donating or resonance

  5. A mitochondria-anchored isoform of the actin-nucleating spire protein regulates mitochondrial division.

    PubMed

    Manor, Uri; Bartholomew, Sadie; Golani, Gonen; Christenson, Eric; Kozlov, Michael; Higgs, Henry; Spudich, James; Lippincott-Schwartz, Jennifer

    2015-08-25

    Mitochondrial division, essential for survival in mammals, is enhanced by an inter-organellar process involving ER tubules encircling and constricting mitochondria. The force for constriction is thought to involve actin polymerization by the ER-anchored isoform of the formin protein inverted formin 2 (INF2). Unknown is the mechanism triggering INF2-mediated actin polymerization at ER-mitochondria intersections. We show that a novel isoform of the formin-binding, actin-nucleating protein Spire, Spire1C, localizes to mitochondria and directly links mitochondria to the actin cytoskeleton and the ER. Spire1C binds INF2 and promotes actin assembly on mitochondrial surfaces. Disrupting either Spire1C actin- or formin-binding activities reduces mitochondrial constriction and division. We propose Spire1C cooperates with INF2 to regulate actin assembly at ER-mitochondrial contacts. Simulations support this model's feasibility and demonstrate polymerizing actin filaments can induce mitochondrial constriction. Thus, Spire1C is optimally positioned to serve as a molecular hub that links mitochondria to actin and the ER for regulation of mitochondrial division.

  6. A mitochondria-anchored isoform of the actin-nucleating spire protein regulates mitochondrial division

    PubMed Central

    Manor, Uri; Bartholomew, Sadie; Golani, Gonen; Christenson, Eric; Kozlov, Michael; Higgs, Henry; Spudich, James; Lippincott-Schwartz, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    Mitochondrial division, essential for survival in mammals, is enhanced by an inter-organellar process involving ER tubules encircling and constricting mitochondria. The force for constriction is thought to involve actin polymerization by the ER-anchored isoform of the formin protein inverted formin 2 (INF2). Unknown is the mechanism triggering INF2-mediated actin polymerization at ER-mitochondria intersections. We show that a novel isoform of the formin-binding, actin-nucleating protein Spire, Spire1C, localizes to mitochondria and directly links mitochondria to the actin cytoskeleton and the ER. Spire1C binds INF2 and promotes actin assembly on mitochondrial surfaces. Disrupting either Spire1C actin- or formin-binding activities reduces mitochondrial constriction and division. We propose Spire1C cooperates with INF2 to regulate actin assembly at ER-mitochondrial contacts. Simulations support this model's feasibility and demonstrate polymerizing actin filaments can induce mitochondrial constriction. Thus, Spire1C is optimally positioned to serve as a molecular hub that links mitochondria to actin and the ER for regulation of mitochondrial division. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.08828.001 PMID:26305500

  7. Distribution of actin of the human erythrocyte membrane cytoskeleton after interaction with radiographic contrast media.

    PubMed

    Franke, R P; Scharnweber, T; Fuhrmann, R; Krüger, A; Wenzel, F; Mrowietz, C; Jung, F

    2013-01-01

    A type-dependent chemotoxic effect of radiographic contrast media on erythrocytes and endothelial cells was reported several times. While mechanisms of toxicity are still unclear the cellular reactions e.g. echinocyte formation in erythrocytes and the buckling of endothelial cells coincided with deterioration of capillary perfusion (in patients with coronary artery disease) and tissue oxygen tension (in the myocardium of pigs). Whether the shape changes in erythrocytes coincide with changes in the arrangement of actin, the core of the actin-spectrin cytoskeletal network and possible actor in membrane stresses and deformation is not known until now. To get specific informations actin was stained using two different staining methods (antibodies to β-actin staining oligomeric G-actin and polymeric F-actin and Phalloidin-Rhodamin staining polymeric F-actin only). In addition, an advanced version of confocal laser scanning microscopes was used enabling the display of the actin arrangement near substrate surfaces. Blood smears were produced after erythrocyte suspension in autologous plasma or in two different plasma/RCM mixtures. In this study an even homogenous distribution of fine grained globular actin in the normal human erythrocyte could be demonstrated. After suspension of erythrocytes in a plasma/Iodixanol mixture an increased number of membrane protrusions appeared densely filled with intensely stained actin similar to cells suspended in autologous plasma, however, there in less numbers. Suspension in Iopromide, in contrast, induced a complete reorganization of the cytoskeletal actin: the fine grained globular actin distribution disappeared and only few, long and thick actin filaments bundled and possibly polymerized appeared, instead, shown here for the first time.

  8. Partial Depletion of Gamma-Actin Suppresses Microtubule Dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Po'uha, Sela T; Honore, Stephane; Braguer, Diane; Kavallaris, Maria

    2013-01-01

    Actin and microtubule interactions are important for many cellular events, however these interactions are poorly described. Alterations in γ-actin are associated with diseases such as hearing loss and cancer. Functional investigations demonstrated that partial depletion of γ-actin affects cell polarity and induces resistance to microtubule-targeted agents. To determine whether γ-actin alterations directly affect microtubule dynamics, microtubule dynamic instability was analyzed in living cells following partial siRNA depletion of γ-actin. Partial depletion of γ-actin suppresses interphase microtubule dynamics by 17.5% due to a decrease in microtubule shortening rates and an increase in microtubule attenuation. γ-Actin partial depletion also increased distance-based microtubule catastrophe and rescue frequencies. In addition, knockdown of γ-actin delayed mitotic progression, partially blocking metaphase–anaphase transition and inhibiting cell proliferation. Interestingly, in the presence of paclitaxel, interphase microtubule dynamics were further suppressed by 24.4% in the γ-actin knockdown cells, which is comparable to 28.8% suppression observed in the control siRNA treated cells. Paclitaxel blocked metaphase–anaphase transition in both the γ-actin knockdown cells and the control siRNA cells. However, the extent of mitotic arrest was much higher in the control cells (28.4%), compared to the γ-actin depleted cells (8.5%). Therefore, suppression of microtubule dynamics by partial depletion of γ-actin is associated with marked delays in metaphase-anaphase transition and not mitotic arrest. This is the first demonstration that γ-actin can modulate microtubule dynamics by reducing the microtubule shortening rate, promoting paused/attenuated microtubules, and increasing transition frequencies suggesting a mechanistic link between γ-actin and microtubules. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc PMID:23335583

  9. Lifetime of major histocompatibility complex class-I membrane clusters is controlled by the actin cytoskeleton.

    PubMed

    Lavi, Yael; Gov, Nir; Edidin, Michael; Gheber, Levi A

    2012-04-01

    Lateral heterogeneity of cell membranes has been demonstrated in numerous studies showing anomalous diffusion of membrane proteins; it has been explained by models and experiments suggesting dynamic barriers to free diffusion, that temporarily confine membrane proteins into microscopic patches. This picture, however, comes short of explaining a steady-state patchy distribution of proteins, in face of the transient opening of the barriers. In our previous work we directly imaged persistent clusters of MHC-I, a type I transmembrane protein, and proposed a model of a dynamic equilibrium between proteins newly delivered to the cell surface by vesicle traffic, temporary confinement by dynamic barriers to lateral diffusion, and dispersion of the clusters by diffusion over the dynamic barriers. Our model predicted that the clusters are dynamic, appearing when an exocytic vesicle fuses with the plasma membrane and dispersing with a typical lifetime that depends on lateral diffusion and the dynamics of barriers. In a subsequent work, we showed this to be the case. Here we test another prediction of the model, and show that changing the stability of actin barriers to lateral diffusion changes cluster lifetimes. We also develop a model for the distribution of cluster lifetimes, consistent with the function of barriers to lateral diffusion in maintaining MHC-I clusters.

  10. A supracellular system of actin-lined canals controls biogenesis and release of virulence factors in parasitoid venom glands.

    PubMed

    Ferrarese, Roberto; Morales, Jorge; Fimiarz, Daniel; Webb, Bruce A; Govind, Shubha

    2009-07-01

    Parasitoid wasps produce virulence factors that bear significant resemblance to viruses and have the ability to block host defense responses. The function of these virulence factors, produced predominantly in wasp venom glands, and the ways in which they interfere with host development and physiology remain mysterious. Here, we report the discovery of a specialized system of canals in venom glands of five parasitoid wasps that differ in their infection strategies. This supracellular canal system is made up of individual secretory units, one per secretory cell. Individual units merge into the canal lumen. The membrane surface of the proximal end of each canal within the secretory cell assumes brush border morphology, lined with bundles of F-actin. Systemic administration of cytochalasin D compromises the integrity of the secretory unit. We show a dynamic and continuous association of p40, a protein of virus-like particles from a Drosophila parasitoid, L. heterotoma, with the canal and venom gland lumen. Similar structures in three Leptopilina species and Ganaspis xanthopoda, parasitoids of Drosophila spp., and Campoletis sonorenesis, a parasitoid of Heliothis virescens, suggest that this novel supracellular canal system is likely to be a common trait of parasitoid venom glands that is essential for efficient biogenesis and delivery of virulence factors. PMID:19561216

  11. A supracellular system of actin-lined canals controls biogenesis and release of virulence factors in parasitoid venom glands

    PubMed Central

    Ferrarese, Roberto; Morales, Jorge; Fimiarz, Daniel; Webb, Bruce A.; Govind, Shubha

    2009-01-01

    Summary Parasitoid wasps produce virulence factors that bear significant resemblance to viruses and have the ability to block host defense responses. The function of these virulence factors, produced predominantly in wasp venom glands, and the ways in which they interfere with host development and physiology remain mysterious. Here, we report the discovery of a specialized system of canals in venom glands of five parasitoid wasps that differ in their infection strategies. This supracellular canal system is made up of individual secretory units, one per secretory cell. Individual units merge into the canal lumen. The membrane surface of the proximal end of each canal within the secretory cell assumes brush border morphology, lined with bundles of F-actin. Systemic administration of cytochalasin D compromises the integrity of the secretory unit. We show a dynamic and continuous association of p40, a protein of virus-like particles from a Drosophila parasitoid, L. heterotoma, with the canal and venom gland lumen. Similar structures in three Leptopilina species and Ganaspis xanthopoda, parasitoids of Drosophila spp., and Campoletis sonorenesis, a parasitoid of Heliothis virescens, suggest that this novel supracellular canal system is likely to be a common trait of parasitoid venom glands that is essential for efficient biogenesis and delivery of virulence factors. PMID:19561216

  12. Actin Mechanics and Fragmentation*

    PubMed Central

    De La Cruz, Enrique M.; Gardel, Margaret L.

    2015-01-01

    Cell physiological processes require the regulation and coordination of both mechanical and dynamical properties of the actin cytoskeleton. Here we review recent advances in understanding the mechanical properties and stability of actin filaments and how these properties are manifested at larger (network) length scales. We discuss how forces can influence local biochemical interactions, resulting in the formation of mechanically sensitive dynamic steady states. Understanding the regulation of such force-activated chemistries and dynamic steady states reflects an important challenge for future work that will provide valuable insights as to how the actin cytoskeleton engenders mechanoresponsiveness of living cells. PMID:25957404

  13. Lamellipodin promotes actin assembly by clustering Ena/VASP proteins and tethering them to actin filaments.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Scott D; Mullins, R Dyche

    2015-01-01

    Enabled/Vasodilator (Ena/VASP) proteins promote actin filament assembly at multiple locations, including: leading edge membranes, focal adhesions, and the surface of intracellular pathogens. One important Ena/VASP regulator is the mig-10/Lamellipodin/RIAM family of adaptors that promote lamellipod formation in fibroblasts and drive neurite outgrowth and axon guidance in neurons. To better understand how MRL proteins promote actin network formation we studied the interactions between Lamellipodin (Lpd), actin, and VASP, both in vivo and in vitro. We find that Lpd binds directly to actin filaments and that this interaction regulates its subcellular localization and enhances its effect on VASP polymerase activity. We propose that Lpd delivers Ena/VASP proteins to growing barbed ends and increases their polymerase activity by tethering them to filaments. This interaction represents one more pathway by which growing actin filaments produce positive feedback to control localization and activity of proteins that regulate their assembly.

  14. Towards the Structure Determination of a Modulated Protein Crystal: The Semicrystalline State of Profilin:Actin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borgstahl, G.; Lovelace, J.; Snell, E. H.; Bellamy, H.

    2003-01-01

    microfilament system to be restructured in a controlled manner via polymerization, depolymerization, severing, cross-linking, and anchorage. The structure the semicrystalline state of profilin:actin will challenge and validate current models of muscle contraction and cell motility. The methodology and theory under development will be easily extendable to other systems.

  15. Controlled Radical Polymerization as an Enabling Approach for the Next Generation of Protein-Polymer Conjugates.

    PubMed

    Pelegri-O'Day, Emma M; Maynard, Heather D

    2016-09-20

    Protein-polymer conjugates are unique constructs that combine the chemical properties of a synthetic polymer chain with the biological properties of a biomacromolecule. This often leads to improved stabilities, solubilities, and in vivo half-lives of the resulting conjugates, and expands the range of applications for the proteins. However, early chemical methods for protein-polymer conjugation often required multiple polymer modifications, which were tedious and low yielding. To solve these issues, work in our laboratory has focused on the development of controlled radical polymerization (CRP) techniques to improve synthesis of protein-polymer conjugates. Initial efforts focused on the one-step syntheses of protein-reactive polymers through the use of functionalized initiators and chain transfer agents. A variety of functional groups such as maleimide and pyridyl disulfide could be installed with high end-group retention, which could then react with protein functional groups through mild and biocompatible chemistries. While this grafting to method represented a significant advance in conjugation technique, purification and steric hindrance between large biomacromolecules and polymer chains often led to low conjugation yields. Therefore, a grafting from approach was developed, wherein a polymer chain is grown from an initiating site on a functionalized protein. These conjugates have demonstrated improved homogeneity, characterization, and easier purification, while maintaining protein activity. Much of this early work utilizing CRP techniques focused on polymers made up of biocompatible but nonfunctional monomer units, often containing oligoethylene glycol meth(acrylate) or N-isopropylacrylamide. These branched polymers have significant advantages compared to the historically used linear poly(ethylene glycols) including decreased viscosities and thermally responsive behavior, respectively. Recently, we were motivated to use CRP techniques to develop polymers with

  16. Controlled Radical Polymerization as an Enabling Approach for the Next Generation of Protein-Polymer Conjugates.

    PubMed

    Pelegri-O'Day, Emma M; Maynard, Heather D

    2016-09-20

    Protein-polymer conjugates are unique constructs that combine the chemical properties of a synthetic polymer chain with the biological properties of a biomacromolecule. This often leads to improved stabilities, solubilities, and in vivo half-lives of the resulting conjugates, and expands the range of applications for the proteins. However, early chemical methods for protein-polymer conjugation often required multiple polymer modifications, which were tedious and low yielding. To solve these issues, work in our laboratory has focused on the development of controlled radical polymerization (CRP) techniques to improve synthesis of protein-polymer conjugates. Initial efforts focused on the one-step syntheses of protein-reactive polymers through the use of functionalized initiators and chain transfer agents. A variety of functional groups such as maleimide and pyridyl disulfide could be installed with high end-group retention, which could then react with protein functional groups through mild and biocompatible chemistries. While this grafting to method represented a significant advance in conjugation technique, purification and steric hindrance between large biomacromolecules and polymer chains often led to low conjugation yields. Therefore, a grafting from approach was developed, wherein a polymer chain is grown from an initiating site on a functionalized protein. These conjugates have demonstrated improved homogeneity, characterization, and easier purification, while maintaining protein activity. Much of this early work utilizing CRP techniques focused on polymers made up of biocompatible but nonfunctional monomer units, often containing oligoethylene glycol meth(acrylate) or N-isopropylacrylamide. These branched polymers have significant advantages compared to the historically used linear poly(ethylene glycols) including decreased viscosities and thermally responsive behavior, respectively. Recently, we were motivated to use CRP techniques to develop polymers with

  17. Cell Motility Resulting form Spontaneous Polymerization Waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kruse, Karsten

    2014-03-01

    The crawling of living cells on solid substrates is often driven by the actin cytoskeleton, a network of structurally polar filamentous proteins that is intrinsically driven by the hydrolysis of ATP. How cells organize their actin network during crawling is still poorly understood. A possible general mechanism underlying actin organization has been offered by the observation of spontaneous actin polymerization waves in various different cell types. We use a theoretical approach to investigate the possible role of spontaneous actin waves on cell crawling. To this end, we develop a meanfield framework for studying spatiotemporal aspects of actin assembly dynamics, which helped to identify possible origins of self-organized actin waves. The impact of these waves on cell crawling is then investigated by using a phase-field approach to confine the actin network to a cellular domain. We find that spontaneous actin waves can lead to directional or amoeboidal crawling. In the latter case, the cell performs a random walk. Within our deterministic framework, this behavior is due to complex spiral waves inside the cell. Finally, we compare the seemingly random motion of our model cells to the dynamics of cells of the human immune system. These cells patrol the body in search for infected cells and we discuss possible implications of our theory for the search process' efficiency. Work was funded by the DFG through KR3430/1, GK1276, and SFB 1027.

  18. Whole Cell Model of Actin Diffusion and Reaction based on Single Molecule Speckle Microscopy Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McMillen, Laura; Vavylonis, Dimitrios; Vavylonis Group Team

    It is debated whether transport of actin across the cell by diffusion alone is sufficiently fast to account for the rapid reorganization of actin filaments at the leading edge of motile cells. In order to investigate this question, we created a 3D model of the whole cell that includes reaction and diffusion of actin using a particle Monte Carlo method. For the lamellipodium of the simulated cell we use the model by Smith et al. Biophys. J 104:247 (2013), which includes two diffuse pools of actin, one which is slowly diffusing and the other which diffuses more quickly, as well as a pool of filamentous actin undergoing retrograde flow towards the cell center. We adjusted this model to fit a circular geometry around the whole cell. We also consider actin in the cell center which is either diffusing or in stationary filamentous form, representing cortical actin or actin in stress fibers. The local rates of polymerization and the lifetime distributions of polymerized actin were estimated from single molecule speckle microscopy experiments by the group of N. Watanabe. With this model we are able to simulate prior experiments that monitored the redistribution of actin after photoactivation or fluorescence recovery after photobleaching in various parts of the cell. We find that transport by diffusion is sufficient to fit these data, without the need for an active transport mechanism, however significant concentration gradients may develop at steady state.

  19. Isolation of a 5-Kilodalton Actin-Sequestering Peptide from Human Blood Platelets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Safer, Daniel; Golla, Rajasree; Nachmias, Vivianne T.

    1990-04-01

    Resting human platelets contain ≈0.3 mM unpolymerized actin. When freshly drawn and washed platelets are treated with saponin, 85-90% of the unpolymerized actin diffuses out. Analysis by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis under nondenaturing conditions shows that the bulk of this unpolymerized actin migrates with a higher mobility than does pure G-actin, profilactin, or actin-gelsolin complex. When muscle G-actin is added to fresh or boiled saponin extract, the added muscle actin is shifted to the high-mobility form. The saponin extract contains an acidic peptide having a molecular mass in the range of 5 kDa, which has been purified to homogeneity by reverse-phase HPLC. This peptide also shifts muscle actin to the high-mobility form. Addition of either boiled saponin extract or the purified peptide to muscle G-actin also strongly and stoichiometrically inhibits salt-induced polymerization, as assayed by falling-ball viscometry and by sedimentation. We conclude that this peptide binds to the bulk of the unpolymerized actin in platelets and prevents it from polymerizing.

  20. On-demand degrafting of polymer brushes prepared by controlled radical polymerization on flat silica substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patil, Rohan; Srogl, Jiri; Kiserow, Douglas; Genzer, Jan

    2014-03-01

    Polymer brush degrafting refers to the removal of grafted polymer chains from the substrate without harming the polymer chemical structure. We grow poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) brushes on flat silicon substrates using atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) and remove them from the surface by exposing the samples to tetrabutyl ammonium fluoride. We then analyze the polymer molecular weight of degrafted PMMA chains by size exclusion chromatography. The kinetics of PMMA brush degrafting exhibits double exponential behavior suggesting a transition from `brush' to `mushroom' regime. The dry brush thickness increases initially with increasing polymerization time. At longer reaction times, the thickness starts to plateau due to loss in the living nature of ATRP. We examine the relationship between the brush dry thickness and molecular weight and show that grafting density of the PMMA brush does not remain constant over the course of polymerization but reduces with time.

  1. β- and γ-Actins in the nucleus of human melanoma A375 cells.

    PubMed

    Migocka-Patrzałek, Marta; Makowiecka, Aleksandra; Nowak, Dorota; Mazur, Antonina J; Hofmann, Wilma A; Malicka-Błaszkiewicz, Maria

    2015-11-01

    Actin is a highly conserved protein that is expressed in all eukaryotic cells and has essential functions in the cytoplasm and the nucleus. Nuclear actin is involved in transcription by all three RNA polymerases, chromatin remodelling, RNA processing, intranuclear transport, nuclear export and in maintenance of the nuclear architecture. The nuclear actin level and polymerization state are important factors regulating nuclear processes such as transcription. Our study shows that, in contrast to the cytoplasm, the majority of endogenous nuclear actin is unpolymerized in human melanoma A375 cells. Most mammalian cells express the two non-muscle β- and γ-actin isoforms that differ in only four amino acids. Despite their sequence similarity, studies analysing the cytoplasmic functions of these isoforms demonstrated that β- and γ-actins show differences in localization and function. However, little is known about the involvement of the individual actin isoforms in nuclear processes. Here, we used the human melanoma A375 cell line to analyse actin isoforms in regard to their nuclear localization. We show that both β- and γ-non-muscle actin isoforms are present in nuclei of these cells. Immunolocalization studies demonstrate that both isoforms co-localize with RNA polymerase II and hnRNP U. However, we observe differences in the ratio of cytoplasmic to nuclear actin distribution between the isoforms. We show that β-actin has a significantly higher nucleus-to-cytoplasm ratio than γ-actin.

  2. Microtubule and Actin Interplay Drive Intracellular c-Src Trafficking.

    PubMed

    Arnette, Christopher; Frye, Keyada; Kaverina, Irina

    2016-01-01

    The proto-oncogene c-Src is involved in a variety of signaling processes. Therefore, c-Src spatiotemporal localization is critical for interaction with downstream targets. However, the mechanisms regulating this localization have remained elusive. Previous studies have shown that c-Src trafficking is a microtubule-dependent process that facilitates c-Src turnover in neuronal growth cones. As such, microtubule depolymerization lead to the inhibition of c-Src recycling. Alternatively, c-Src trafficking was also shown to be regulated by RhoB-dependent actin polymerization. Our results show that c-Src vesicles primarily exhibit microtubule-dependent trafficking; however, microtubule depolymerization does not inhibit vesicle movement. Instead, vesicular movement becomes both faster and less directional. This movement was associated with actin polymerization directly at c-Src vesicle membranes. Interestingly, it has been shown previously that c-Src delivery is an actin polymerization-dependent process that relies on small GTPase RhoB at c-Src vesicles. In agreement with this finding, microtubule depolymerization induced significant activation of RhoB, together with actin comet tail formation. These effects occurred downstream of GTP-exchange factor, GEF-H1, which was released from depolymerizing MTs. Accordingly, GEF-H1 activity was necessary for actin comet tail formation at the Src vesicles. Our results indicate that regulation of c-Src trafficking requires both microtubules and actin polymerization, and that GEF-H1 coordinates c-Src trafficking, acting as a molecular switch between these two mechanisms. PMID:26866809

  3. Microtubule and Actin Interplay Drive Intracellular c-Src Trafficking

    PubMed Central

    Arnette, Christopher; Frye, Keyada; Kaverina, Irina

    2016-01-01

    The proto-oncogene c-Src is involved in a variety of signaling processes. Therefore, c-Src spatiotemporal localization is critical for interaction with downstream targets. However, the mechanisms regulating this localization have remained elusive. Previous studies have shown that c-Src trafficking is a microtubule-dependent process that facilitates c-Src turnover in neuronal growth cones. As such, microtubule depolymerization lead to the inhibition of c-Src recycling. Alternatively, c-Src trafficking was also shown to be regulated by RhoB-dependent actin polymerization. Our results show that c-Src vesicles primarily exhibit microtubule-dependent trafficking; however, microtubule depolymerization does not inhibit vesicle movement. Instead, vesicular movement becomes both faster and less directional. This movement was associated with actin polymerization directly at c-Src vesicle membranes. Interestingly, it has been shown previously that c-Src delivery is an actin polymerization-dependent process that relies on small GTPase RhoB at c-Src vesicles. In agreement with this finding, microtubule depolymerization induced significant activation of RhoB, together with actin comet tail formation. These effects occurred downstream of GTP-exchange factor, GEF-H1, which was released from depolymerizing MTs. Accordingly, GEF-H1 activity was necessary for actin comet tail formation at the Src vesicles. Our results indicate that regulation of c-Src trafficking requires both microtubules and actin polymerization, and that GEF-H1 coordinates c-Src trafficking, acting as a molecular switch between these two mechanisms. PMID:26866809

  4. Molecular weight control in organochromium olefin polymerization catalysis by hemilabile ligand-metal interactions.

    PubMed

    Mark, Stefan; Wadepohl, Hubert; Enders, Markus

    2016-01-01

    A series of Cr(III) complexes based on quinoline-cyclopentadienyl ligands with additional hemilabile side arms were prepared and used as single-site catalyst precursors for ethylene polymerization. The additional donor functions interact with the metal centers only after activation with the co-catalyst. Evidence for this comes from DFT-calculations and from the differing behavior of the complexes in ethylene polymerization. All complexes investigated show very high catalytic activity and the additional side arm minimizes chain-transfer reactions, leading to increase of molecular weights of the resulting polymers. PMID:27559387

  5. Molecular weight control in organochromium olefin polymerization catalysis by hemilabile ligand–metal interactions

    PubMed Central

    Mark, Stefan; Wadepohl, Hubert

    2016-01-01

    Summary A series of Cr(III) complexes based on quinoline-cyclopentadienyl ligands with additional hemilabile side arms were prepared and used as single-site catalyst precursors for ethylene polymerization. The additional donor functions interact with the metal centers only after activation with the co-catalyst. Evidence for this comes from DFT-calculations and from the differing behavior of the complexes in ethylene polymerization. All complexes investigated show very high catalytic activity and the additional side arm minimizes chain-transfer reactions, leading to increase of molecular weights of the resulting polymers. PMID:27559387

  6. Actin Automata with Memory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alonso-Sanz, Ramón; Adamatzky, Andy

    Actin is a globular protein which forms long polar filaments in eukaryotic. The actin filaments play the roles of cytoskeleton, motility units, information processing and learning. We model actin filament as a double chain of finite state machines, nodes, which take states “0” and “1”. The states are abstractions of absence and presence of a subthreshold charge on actin units corresponding to the nodes. All nodes update their state in parallel to discrete time. A node updates its current state depending on states of two closest neighbors in the node chain and two closest neighbors in the complementary chain. Previous models of actin automata consider momentary state transitions of nodes. We enrich the actin automata model by assuming that states of nodes depend not only on the current states of neighboring node but also on their past states. Thus, we assess the effect of memory of past states on the dynamics of acting automata. We demonstrate in computational experiments that memory slows down propagation of perturbations, decrease entropy of space-time patterns generated, transforms traveling localizations to stationary oscillators, and stationary oscillations to still patterns.

  7. Measuring actin dynamics during phagocytosis using photo-switchable fluorescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovari, Daniel T.; Curtis, Jennifer E.

    2013-03-01

    Phagocytosis has traditionally been investigated in terms of the relevant biochemical signaling pathways. However, a growing number of studies investigating the physical aspects of phagocytosis have demonstrated that several distinct forces are exerted throughout particle ingestion. We use variations on FRAP (Fluorescence Recovery After Photobleaching) in combination with photo-switchable fluorescent protein to investigate actin dynamics as a phagocyte attempts to engulf its prey. The goal of our actin studies are to determine the recruitment and polymerization rate of actin in the forming phagosome and whether an organized contractile actin ring is present and responsible for phagosome closure, as proposed in the literature. These experiments are ongoing and contribute to our long term effort of developing a physics based model of phagocytosis.

  8. The Molecular Evolution of Actin

    PubMed Central

    Hightower, Robin C.; Meagher, Richard B.

    1986-01-01

    We have investigated the molecular evolution of plant and nonplant actin genes comparing nucleotide and amino acid sequences of 20 actin genes. Nucleotide changes resulting in amino acid substitutions (replacement substitutions) ranged from 3–7% for all pairwise comparisons of animal actin genes with the following exceptions. Comparisons between higher animal muscle actin gene sequences and comparisons between higher animal cytoplasmic actin gene sequences indicated <3% divergence. Comparisons between plant and nonplant actin genes revealed, with two exceptions, 11–15% replacement substitution. In the analysis of plant actins, replacement substitution between soybean actin genes SAc1, SAc3, SAc4 and maize actin gene MAc1 ranged from 8–10%, whereas these members within the soybean actin gene family ranged from 6–9% replacement substitution. The rate of sequence divergence of plant actin sequences appears to be similar to that observed for animal actins. Furthermore, these and other data suggest that the plant actin gene family is ancient and that the families of soybean and maize actin genes have diverged from a single common ancestral plant actin gene that originated long before the divergence of monocots and dicots. The soybean actin multigene family encodes at least three classes of actin. These classes each contain a pair of actin genes that have been designated kappa (SAc1, SAc6), lambda (SAc2, SAc4) and mu (SAc3, SAc7). The three classes of soybean actin are more divergent in nucleotide sequence from one another than higher animal cytoplasmic actin is divergent from muscle actin. The location and distribution of amino acid changes were compared between actin proteins from all sources. A comparison of the hydropathy of all actin sequences, except from Oxytricha, indicated a strong similarity in hydropathic character between all plant and nonplant actins despite the greater number of replacement substitutions in plant actins. These protein sequence

  9. Controlled radical polymerization of vinyl acetate mediated by a vanadium complex.

    PubMed

    Shaver, Michael P; Hanhan, M Emre; Jones, Michael R

    2010-03-28

    Initiation of the polymerization of vinyl acetate with azobis(isobutyronitrile) in the presence of a vanadium bis(iminopyridine) complex generates vanadium-capped dormant polymer chains with excellent correlation between molecular weight and conversion and good molecular weight distributions.

  10. Molecular mechanisms underlying the force-dependent regulation of actin-to-ECM linkage at the focal adhesions.

    PubMed

    Hirata, Hiroaki; Sokabe, Masahiro; Lim, Chwee Teck

    2014-01-01

    The linkage of the actin cytoskeleton to extracellular matrices (ECMs) at focal adhesions provides a physical path for cells to exert traction forces on substrates during cellular processes such as migration and morphogenesis. Mechanical strength of the actin-to-ECM linkage increases in response to forces loaded at this linkage. This is achieved by local accumulations of actin filaments, as well as linker proteins connecting actins to integrins, at force-bearing adhesion sites, which leads to an increase in the number of molecular bonds between the actin cytoskeleton- and ECM-bound integrins. Zyxin-dependent actin polymerization and filamin-mediated actin bundling are seemingly involved in the force-dependent actin accumulation. Each actin-integrin link is primarily mediated by the linker protein talin, which is strengthened by another linker protein vinculin connecting the actin filaments to talin in a force-dependent manner. This eliminates slippage between the actin cytoskeleton and talin (clutch mechanism), thus playing a crucial role in creating cell membrane protrusions mediated by actin polymerization. Finally, each integrin-ECM bond is also strengthened when a force is loaded on it, which ensures force transmission at focal adhesions, contributing to stable cell-substrate adhesion in cell migration. PMID:25081617

  11. Sensing actin dynamics: Structural basis for G-actin-sensitive nuclear import of MAL

    SciTech Connect

    Hirano, Hidemi; Matsuura, Yoshiyuki

    2011-10-22

    Highlights: {yields} MAL has a bipartite NLS that binds to Imp{alpha} in an extended conformation. {yields} Mutational analyses verified the functional significance of MAL-Imp{alpha} interactions. {yields} Induced folding and NLS-masking by G-actins inhibit nuclear import of MAL. -- Abstract: The coordination of cytoskeletal actin dynamics with gene expression reprogramming is emerging as a crucial mechanism to control diverse cellular processes, including cell migration, differentiation and neuronal circuit assembly. The actin-binding transcriptional coactivator MAL (also known as MRTF-A/MKL1/BSAC) senses G-actin concentration and transduces Rho GTPase signals to serum response factor (SRF). MAL rapidly shuttles between the cytoplasm and the nucleus in unstimulated cells but Rho-induced depletion of G-actin leads to MAL nuclear accumulation and activation of transcription of SRF:MAL-target genes. Although the molecular and structural basis of actin-regulated nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of MAL is not understood fully, it is proposed that nuclear import of MAL is mediated by importin {alpha}/{beta} heterodimer, and that G-actin competes with importin {alpha}/{beta} for the binding to MAL. Here we present structural, biochemical and cell biological evidence that MAL has a classical bipartite nuclear localization signal (NLS) in the N-terminal 'RPEL' domain containing Arg-Pro-X-X-X-Glu-Leu (RPEL) motifs. The NLS residues of MAL adopt an extended conformation and bind along the surface groove of importin-{alpha}, interacting with the major- and minor-NLS binding sites. We also present a crystal structure of wild-type MAL RPEL domain in complex with five G-actins. Comparison of the importin-{alpha}- and actin-complexes revealed that the binding of G-actins to MAL is associated with folding of NLS residues into a helical conformation that is inappropriate for importin-{alpha} recognition.

  12. Competition for actin between two distinct F-actin networks defines a bistable switch for cell polarization.

    PubMed

    Lomakin, Alexis J; Lee, Kun-Chun; Han, Sangyoon J; Bui, Duyen A; Davidson, Michael; Mogilner, Alex; Danuser, Gaudenz

    2015-11-01

    Symmetry-breaking polarization enables functional plasticity of cells and tissues and is yet not well understood. Here we show that epithelial cells, hard-wired to maintain a static morphology and to preserve tissue organization, can spontaneously switch to a migratory polarized phenotype after relaxation of the actomyosin cytoskeleton. We find that myosin II engages actin in the formation of cortical actomyosin bundles and thus makes it unavailable for deployment in the process of dendritic growth normally driving cell motility. Under low-contractility regimes, epithelial cells polarize in a front-back manner owing to the emergence of actin retrograde flows powered by dendritic polymerization of actin. Coupled to cell movement, the flows transport myosin II from the front to the back of the cell, where the motor locally 'locks' actin in contractile bundles. This polarization mechanism could be employed by embryonic and cancer epithelial cells in microenvironments where high-contractility-driven cell motion is inefficient.

  13. Concentration profiles of actin-binding molecules in lamellipodia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falcke, Martin

    2016-04-01

    Motile cells form lamellipodia in the direction of motion, which are flat membrane protrusions containing an actin filament network. The network flows rearward relative to the leading edge of the lamellipodium due to actin polymerization at the front. Thus, actin binding molecules are subject to transport towards the rear of the cell in the bound state and diffuse freely in the unbound state. We analyze this reaction-diffusion-advection process with respect to the concentration profiles of these species and provide an analytic approximation for them. Network flow may cause a depletion zone of actin binding molecules close to the leading edge. The existence of such zone depends on the free molecule concentration in the cell body, on the ratio of the diffusion length to the distance bound molecules travel rearward with the flow before dissociating, and the ratio of the diffusion length to the width of the region with network flow and actin binding. Our calculations suggest the existence of depletion zones for the F-actin cross-linkers filamin and α-actinin in fish keratocytes (and other cell types), which is in line with the small elastic moduli of the F-actin network close to the leading edge found in measurements of the force motile cells are able to exert.

  14. Interconnection between actin cytoskeleton and plant defense signaling.

    PubMed

    Janda, Martin; Matoušková, Jindřiška; Burketová, Lenka; Valentová, Olga

    2014-01-01

    Actin cytoskeleton is the fundamental structural component of eukaryotic cells. It has a role in numerous elementary cellular processes such as reproduction, development and also in response to abiotic and biotic stimuli. Remarkably, the role of actin cytoskeleton in plant response to pathogens is getting to be under magnifying glass. Based on microscopic studies, most of the data showed, that actin plays an important role in formation of physiological barrier in the site of infection. Actin dynamics is involved in the transport of antimicrobial compounds and cell wall fortifying components (e.g. callose) to the site of infection. Also the role in PTI (pathogen triggered immunity) and ETI (effector triggered immunity) was recently indicated. On the other hand much less is known about the transcriptome reprogramming upon changes in actin dynamics. Our recently published results showed that drugs inhibiting actin polymerization (latrunculin B, cytochalasin E) cause the induction of genes which are involved in salicylic acid (SA) signaling pathway. In this addendum we would like to highlight in more details current state of knowledge concerning the involvement of actin dynamics in plant defense signaling.

  15. Symmetry breaking in actin gels - Implications for cellular motility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    John, Karin; Peyla, Philippe; Misbah, Chaouqi

    2007-03-01

    The physical origin of cell motility is not fully understood. Recently minimal model systems have shown, that polymerizing actin itself can produce a motile force, without the help of motor proteins. Pathogens like Shigella or Listeria use actin to propel themselves forward in their host cell. The same process can be mimicked with polystyrene beads covered with the activating protein ActA, which reside in a solution containing actin monomers. ActA induces the growth of an actin gel at the bead surface. Initially the gel grows symmetrically around the bead until a critical size is reached. Subsequently one observes a symmetry breaking and the gel starts to grow asymmetrically around the bead developing a tail of actin at one side. This symmetry breaking is accompanied by a directed movement of the bead, with the actin tail trailing behind the bead. Force generation relies on the combination of two properties: growth and elasticity of the actin gel. We study this phenomenon theoretically within the framework of a linear elasticity theory and linear flux-force relationships for the evolution of an elastic gel around a hard sphere. Conditions for a parity symmetry breaking are identified analytically and illustrated numerically with the help of a phasefield model.

  16. Xenopus laevis nucleotide binding protein 1 (xNubp1) is important for convergent extension movements and controls ciliogenesis via regulation of the actin cytoskeleton.

    PubMed

    Ioannou, Andriani; Santama, Niovi; Skourides, Paris A

    2013-08-15

    Nucleotide binding protein 1 (Nubp1) is a highly conserved phosphate loop (P-loop) ATPase involved in diverse processes including iron-sulfur protein assembly, centrosome duplication and lung development. Here, we report the cloning, expression and functional characterization of Xenopus laevis Nubp1. We show that xNubp1 is expressed maternally, displays elevated expression in neural tissues and is required for convergent extension movements and neural tube closure. In addition, xNubp1knockdown leads to defective ciliogenesis of the multi-ciliated cells of the epidermis as well as the monociliated cells of the gastrocoel roof plate. Specifically, xNubp1 is required for basal body migration, spacing and docking in multi-ciliated cells and basal body positioning and axoneme elongation in monociliated gastrocoel roof plate cells. Live imaging of the different pools of actin and basal body migration during the process of ciliated cell intercalation revealed that two independent pools of actin are present from the onset of cell intercalation; an internal network surrounding the basal bodies, anchoring them to the cell cortex and an apical pool of punctate actin which eventually matures into the characteristic apical actin network. We show that xNubp1 colocalizes with the apical actin network of multiciliated cells and that problems in basal body transport in xNubp1 morphants are associated with defects of the internal network of actin, while spacing and polarity issues are due to a failure of the apical and sub-apical actin pools to mature into a network. Effects of xNubp1 knockdown on the actin cytoskeleton are independent of RhoA localization and activation, suggesting that xNubp1 may have a direct role in the regulation of the actin cytoskeleton.

  17. Polymeric microspheres

    DOEpatents

    Walt, David R.; Mandal, Tarun K.; Fleming, Michael S.

    2004-04-13

    The invention features core-shell microsphere compositions, hollow polymeric microspheres, and methods for making the microspheres. The microspheres are characterized as having a polymeric shell with consistent shell thickness.

  18. Sarcomeric Pattern Formation by Actin Cluster Coalescence

    PubMed Central

    Friedrich, Benjamin M.; Fischer-Friedrich, Elisabeth; Gov, Nir S.; Safran, Samuel A.

    2012-01-01

    Contractile function of striated muscle cells depends crucially on the almost crystalline order of actin and myosin filaments in myofibrils, but the physical mechanisms that lead to myofibril assembly remains ill-defined. Passive diffusive sorting of actin filaments into sarcomeric order is kinetically impossible, suggesting a pivotal role of active processes in sarcomeric pattern formation. Using a one-dimensional computational model of an initially unstriated actin bundle, we show that actin filament treadmilling in the presence of processive plus-end crosslinking provides a simple and robust mechanism for the polarity sorting of actin filaments as well as for the correct localization of myosin filaments. We propose that the coalescence of crosslinked actin clusters could be key for sarcomeric pattern formation. In our simulations, sarcomere spacing is set by filament length prompting tight length control already at early stages of pattern formation. The proposed mechanism could be generic and apply both to premyofibrils and nascent myofibrils in developing muscle cells as well as possibly to striated stress-fibers in non-muscle cells. PMID:22685394

  19. Actin-Based Feedback Circuits in Cell Migration and Endocytosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xinxin

    In this thesis, we study the switch and pulse functions of actin during two important cellular processes, cell migration and endocytosis. Actin is an abundant protein that can polymerize to form a dendritic network. The actin network can exert force to push or bend the cell membrane. During cell migration, the actin network behaves like a switch, assembling mostly at one end or at the other end. The end with the majority of the actin network is the leading edge, following which the cell can persistently move in the same direction. The other end, with the minority of the actin network, is the trailing edge, which is dragged by the cell as it moves forward. When subjected to large fluctuations or external stimuli, the leading edge and the trailing edge can interchange and change the direction of motion, like a motion switch. Our model of the actin network in a cell reveals that mechanical force is crucial for forming the motion switch. We find a transition from single state symmetric behavior to switch behavior, when tuning parameters such as the force. The model is studied by both stochastic simulations, and a set of rate equations that are consistent with the simulations. Endocytosis is a process by which cells engulf extracellular substances and recycle the cell membrane. In yeast cells, the actin network is transiently needed to overcome the pressure difference across the cell membrane caused by turgor pressure. The actin network behaves like a pulse, which assembles and then disassembles within about 30 seconds. Using a stochastic model, we reproduce the pulse behaviors of the actin network and one of its regulatory proteins, Las17. The model matches green fluorescence protein (GFP) experiments for wild-type cells. The model also predicts some phenotypes that modify or diminish the pulse behavior. The phenotypes are verified with both experiments performed at Washington University and with other groups' experiments. We find that several feedback mechanisms are

  20. The association of myosin IB with actin waves in dictyostelium requires both the plasma membrane-binding site and actin-binding region in the myosin tail.

    PubMed

    Brzeska, Hanna; Pridham, Kevin; Chery, Godefroy; Titus, Margaret A; Korn, Edward D

    2014-01-01

    F-actin structures and their distribution are important determinants of the dynamic shapes and functions of eukaryotic cells. Actin waves are F-actin formations that move along the ventral cell membrane driven by actin polymerization. Dictyostelium myosin IB is associated with actin waves but its role in the wave is unknown. Myosin IB is a monomeric, non-filamentous myosin with a globular head that binds to F-actin and has motor activity, and a non-helical tail comprising a basic region, a glycine-proline-glutamine-rich region and an SH3-domain. The basic region binds to acidic phospholipids in the plasma membrane through a short basic-hydrophobic site and the Gly-Pro-Gln region binds F-actin. In the current work we found that both the basic-hydrophobic site in the basic region and the Gly-Pro-Gln region of the tail are required for the association of myosin IB with actin waves. This is the first evidence that the Gly-Pro-Gln region is required for localization of myosin IB to a specific actin structure in situ. The head is not required for myosin IB association with actin waves but binding of the head to F-actin strengthens the association of myosin IB with waves and stabilizes waves. Neither the SH3-domain nor motor activity is required for association of myosin IB with actin waves. We conclude that myosin IB contributes to anchoring actin waves to the plasma membranes by binding of the basic-hydrophobic site to acidic phospholipids in the plasma membrane and binding of the Gly-Pro-Gln region to F-actin in the wave.

  1. In vitro, in vivo and pharmacokinetic assessment of amikacin sulphate laden polymeric nanoparticles meant for controlled ocular drug delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Upendra Kumar; Verma, Amita; Prajapati, Sunil Kuamr; Pandey, Himanshu; Pandey, Avinash C.

    2015-02-01

    The rationale of current exploration was to formulate positively charged amikacin-loaded polymeric nanoparticles providing a controlled release attribute. Amikacin sulphate-loaded nanoparticles were prepared by w/o/w emulsification solvent evaporation approach succeeded by high-pressure homogenization. Two bioadhesive positively charged polymers, Eudragit® RS 100 and Eudragit® RL 100, were used in the blend, with variable ratios of drug and polymer. The formulations were assessed in terms of particle size and zeta potential. Thermal gravimetric analysis was brought out on the samples of drug, polymer and drug polymer complex. Drug loading and release attributes of the nanoparticles were scrutinized and antimicrobial activity in contrast to Staphylococcus aureus was appraised. Ocular irritation test, in vivo ocular retention study, in vivo release profile (permeation study) and in vivo antibacterial activity of polymeric nanosuspensions were executed. No rupture consequence but a lengthened drug release was contemplated from all formulations. Amikacin sulphate release from the polymeric nanoparticles reflected a better fit with Korsmeyer-Peppas model. In the course of the antibacterial activity of nanoparticles against S. aureus, formulation AE1 displays the most prominent inhibitory effect as compared with marketed formulation of amikacin sulphate.

  2. Nonspherical nanoparticles with controlled morphologies via seeded surface-initiated single electron transfer radical polymerization in soap-free emulsion.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Jinfeng; Wang, Lixia; Zhu, Lei; Pan, Mingwang; Wang, Wenjie; Liu, Ying; Liu, Gang

    2015-04-14

    This work reports a facile novel approach to prepare asymmetric poly(vinylidene fluoride)/polystyrene (PVDF/PS) composite latex particles with controllable morphologies using one-step soap-free seeded emulsion polymerization, i.e., surface-initiated single electron transfer radical polymerization (SET-RP) of styrene (St) at the surface of PVDF seed particles. It was observed that the morphology was influenced mainly by the St/PVDF feed ratio, the polymerization temperature, and the length of the catalyst Cu(0) wire (Φ 1.00 mm). When the feed ratio was St/PVDF = 5.0 g/1.0 g, snowman-like Janus particles were exclusively obtained. Raspberry-like and popcorn-like composite particles were observed at a higher reaction temperature or a shorter length of the catalyst wire. The reaction kinetics plots demonstrated some unique features. The formation of nonspherical composite nanoparticles can be ascribed to the surface nucleation of PS bulges following the SET-RP. PMID:25797695

  3. Evaluation of Thermal Control Coatings and Polymeric Materials Exposed to Ground Simulated Atomic Oxygen and Vacuum Ultraviolet Radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kamenetzky, R. R.; Vaughn, J. A.; Finckenor, M. M.; Linton, R. C.

    1995-01-01

    Numerous thermal control and polymeric samples with potential International Space Station applications were evaluated for atomic oxygen and vacuum ultraviolet radiation effects in the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory 5 eV Neutral Atomic Oxygen Facility and in the MSFC Atomic Oxygen Drift Tube System. Included in this study were samples of various anodized aluminum samples, ceramic paints, polymeric materials, and beta cloth, a Teflon-impregnated fiberglass cloth. Aluminum anodizations tested were black duranodic, chromic acid anodize, and sulfuric acid anodize. Paint samples consisted of an inorganic glassy black paint and Z-93 white paint made with the original PS7 binder and the new K2130 binder. Polymeric samples evaluated included bulk Halar, bulk PEEK, and silverized FEP Teflon. Aluminized and nonaluminized Chemfab 250 beta cloth were also exposed. Samples were evaluated for changes in mass, thickness, solar absorptance, and infrared emittance. In addition to material effects, an investigation was made comparing diffuse reflectance/solar absorptance measurements made using a Beckman DK2 spectroreflectometer and like measurements made using an AZ Technology-developed laboratory portable spectroreflectometer.

  4. Cortical actin regulation modulates vascular contractility and compliance in veins

    PubMed Central

    Saphirstein, Robert J; Gao, Yuan Z; Lin, Qian Qian; Morgan, Kathleen G

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The literature on arterial mechanics is extensive, but far less is known about mechanisms controlling mechanical properties of veins. We use here a multi-scale approach to identify subcellular sources of venous stiffness. Portal vein tissue displays a severalfold decrease in passive stiffness compared to aortic tissues. The α-adrenergic agonist phenylephrine (PE) increased tissue stress and stiffness, both attenuated by cytochalasin D (CytoD) and PP2, inhibitors of actin polymerization and Src activity, respectively. We quantify, for the first time, cortical cellular stiffness in freshly isolated contractile vascular smooth muscle cells using magnetic microneedle technology. Cortical stiffness is significantly increased by PE and CytoD inhibits this increase but, surprisingly, PP2 does not. No detectable change in focal adhesion size, measured by immunofluorescence of FAK and zyxin, accompanies the PE-induced changes in cortical stiffness. Probing with phospho-specific antibodies confirmed activation of FAK/Src and ERK pathways and caldesmon phosphorylation. Thus, venous tissue stiffness is regulated both at the level of the smooth muscle cell cortex, via cortical actin polymerization, and by downstream smooth muscle effectors of Src/ERK signalling pathways. These findings identify novel potential molecular targets for the modulation of venous capacitance and venous return in health and disease. Key points Most cardiovascular research focuses on arterial mechanisms of disease, largely ignoring venous mechanisms. Here we examine ex vivo venous stiffness, spanning tissue to molecular levels, using biomechanics and magnetic microneedle technology, and show for the first time that venous stiffness is regulated by a molecular actin switch within the vascular smooth muscle cell in the wall of the vein. This switch connects the contractile apparatus within the cell to adhesion structures and facilitates stiffening of the vessel wall, regulating blood flow return

  5. The Yeast Actin Cytoskeleton: from Cellular Function to Biochemical Mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Moseley, James B.; Goode, Bruce L.

    2006-01-01

    All cells undergo rapid remodeling of their actin networks to regulate such critical processes as endocytosis, cytokinesis, cell polarity, and cell morphogenesis. These events are driven by the coordinated activities of a set of 20 to 30 highly conserved actin-associated proteins, in addition to many cell-specific actin-associated proteins and numerous upstream signaling molecules. The combined activities of these factors control with exquisite precision the spatial and temporal assembly of actin structures and ensure dynamic turnover of actin structures such that cells can rapidly alter their cytoskeletons in response to internal and external cues. One of the most exciting principles to emerge from the last decade of research on actin is that the assembly of architecturally diverse actin structures is governed by highly conserved machinery and mechanisms. With this realization, it has become apparent that pioneering efforts in budding yeast have contributed substantially to defining the universal mechanisms regulating actin dynamics in eukaryotes. In this review, we first describe the filamentous actin structures found in Saccharomyces cerevisiae (patches, cables, and rings) and their physiological functions, and then we discuss in detail the specific roles of actin-associated proteins and their biochemical mechanisms of action. PMID:16959963

  6. Controlled radical polymerization of an acrylamide containing L-alanine moiety via ATRP.

    PubMed

    Rafiee, Zahra

    2016-02-01

    Homopolymerization of an optically active acrylamide having an amino acid moiety in the side chain, N-acryloyl-L-alanine (AAla) was carried out via atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) at room temperature using 2-hydroxyethyl-2'-methyl-2'-bromopropionate (HMB) or sodium-4-(bromomethyl)benzoate (SBB) as initiator in pure water, methanol/water mixture and pure methanol solvents. The polymerization reaction resulted in the optically active biocompatible amino acid-based homopolymer in good yield with narrow molecular weight distribution. The number average molecular weight increased with conversion and polydispersity was low. The structure and molecular weight of synthesized polymer were characterized by (1)H NMR, FT-IR spectroscopic techniques and size-exclusion chromatography.

  7. Dynamics of Actin Cables in Polarized Growth of the Filamentous Fungus Aspergillus nidulans

    PubMed Central

    Bergs, Anna; Ishitsuka, Yuji; Evangelinos, Minoas; Nienhaus, G. U.; Takeshita, Norio

    2016-01-01

    Highly polarized growth of filamentous fungi requires a continuous supply of proteins and lipids to the hyphal tip. This transport is managed by vesicle trafficking via the actin and microtubule cytoskeletons and their associated motor proteins. Particularly, actin cables originating from the hyphal tip are essential for hyphal growth. Although, specific marker proteins have been developed to visualize actin cables in filamentous fungi, the exact organization and dynamics of actin cables has remained elusive. Here, we observed actin cables using tropomyosin (TpmA) and Lifeact fused to fluorescent proteins in living Aspergillus nidulans hyphae and studied the dynamics and regulation. GFP tagged TpmA visualized dynamic actin cables formed from the hyphal tip with cycles of elongation and shrinkage. The elongation and shrinkage rates of actin cables were similar and approximately 0.6 μm/s. Comparison of actin markers revealed that high concentrations of Lifeact reduced actin dynamics. Simultaneous visualization of actin cables and microtubules suggests temporally and spatially coordinated polymerization and depolymerization between the two cytoskeletons. Our results provide new insights into the molecular mechanism of ordered polarized growth regulated by actin cables and microtubules. PMID:27242709

  8. Pharmacological targeting of actin-dependent dynamin oligomerization ameliorates chronic kidney disease in diverse animal models

    PubMed Central

    Schiffer, Mario; Teng, Beina; Gu, Changkyu; Shchedrina, Valentina A.; Kasaikina, Marina; Pham, Vincent A.; Hanke, Nils; Rong, Song; Gueler, Faikah; Schroder, Patricia; Tossidou, Irini; Park, Joon-Keun; Staggs, Lynne; Haller, Hermann; Erschow, Sergej; Hilfiker-Kleiner, Denise; Wei, Changli; Chen, Chuang; Tardi, Nicholas; Hakroush, Samy; Selig, Martin K.; Vasilyev, Aleksandr; Merscher, Sandra; Reiser, Jochen; Sever, Sanja

    2015-01-01

    Dysregulation of the actin cytoskeleton in podocytes represents a common pathway in the pathogenesis of proteinuria across a spectrum of chronic kidney diseases (CKD). The GTPase dynamin has been implicated in the maintenance of cellular architecture in podocytes through its direct interaction with actin. Furthermore, the propensity of dynamin to oligomerize into higher-order structures in an actin-dependent manner and to crosslink actin microfilaments into higher order structures have been correlated with increased actin polymerization and global organization of the actin cytoskeleton in the cell. We found that use of the small molecule Bis-T-23, which promotes actin-dependent dynamin oligomerization and thus increased actin polymerization in injured podocytes, was sufficient to improve renal health in diverse models of both transient kidney disease and of CKD. In particular, administration of Bis-T-23 in these renal disease models restored the normal ultrastructure of podocyte foot processes, lowered proteinuria, lowered collagen IV deposits in the mesangial matrix, diminished mesangial matrix expansion and extended lifespan. These results further establish that alterations in the actin cytoskeleton of kidney podocytes is a common hallmark of CKD, while also underscoring the significant regenerative potential of injured glomeruli and that targeting the oligomerization cycle of dynamin represents an attractive potential therapeutic target to treat CKD. PMID:25962121

  9. Actin, RhoA, and Rab11 participation during encystment in Entamoeba invadens.

    PubMed

    Herrera-Martínez, M; Hernández-Ramírez, V I; Lagunes-Guillén, A E; Chávez-Munguía, B; Talamás-Rohana, P

    2013-01-01

    In the genus Entamoeba, actin reorganization is necessary for cyst differentiation; however, its role is still unknown. The aim of this work was to investigate the role of actin and encystation-related proteins during Entamoeba invadens encystation. Studied proteins were actin, RhoA, a small GTPase involved through its effectors in the rearrangement of the actin cytoskeleton; Rab11, a protein involved in the transport of encystation vesicles; and enolase, as an encystment vesicles marker. Results showed a high level of polymerized actin accompanied by increased levels of RhoA-GTP during cell rounding and loss of vacuoles. Cytochalasin D, an actin polymerization inhibitor, and Y27632, an inhibitor of RhoA activity, reduced encystment in 80%. These inhibitors also blocked cell rounding, disposal of vacuoles, and the proper formation of the cysts wall. At later times, F-actin and Rab11 colocalized with enolase, suggesting that Rab11 could participate in the transport of the cyst wall components through the F-actin cytoskeleton. These results suggest that actin cytoskeleton rearrangement is playing a decisive role in determining cell morphology changes and helping with the transport of cell wall components to the cell surface during encystment of E. invadens.

  10. Myosin II regulates actin rearrangement-related structural synaptic plasticity during conditioned taste aversion memory extinction.

    PubMed

    Bi, Ai-Ling; Wang, Yue; Zhang, Shuang; Li, Bo-Qin; Sun, Zong-Peng; Bi, Hong-Sheng; Chen, Zhe-Yu

    2015-03-01

    Similar to memory formation, memory extinction is also a new learning process that requires synaptic plasticity. Actin rearrangement is fundamental for synaptic plasticity, however, whether actin rearrangement in the infralimbic cortex (IL) plays a role in memory extinction, as well as the mechanisms underlying it, remains unclear. Here, using a conditioned taste aversion (CTA) paradigm, we demonstrated increased synaptic density and actin rearrangement in the IL during the extinction of CTA. Targeted infusion of an actin rearrangement inhibitor, cytochalasin D, into the IL impaired memory extinction and de novo synapse formation. Notably, we also found increased myosin II phosphorylation in the IL during the extinction of CTA. Microinfusion of a specific inhibitor of the myosin II ATPase, blebbistatin (Blebb), into the IL impaired memory extinction as well as the related actin rearrangement and changes in synaptic density. Moreover, the extinction deficit and the reduction of synaptic density induced by Blebb could be rescued by the actin polymerization stabilizer jasplakinolide (Jasp), suggesting that myosin II acts via actin filament polymerization to stabilize synaptic plasticity during the extinction of CTA. Taken together, we conclude that myosin II may regulate the plasticity of actin-related synaptic structure during memory extinction. Our studies provide a molecular mechanism for understanding the plasticity of actin rearrangement-associated synaptic structure during memory extinction.

  11. Controlling surface enrichment in polymeric hole extraction layers to achieve high-efficiency organic photovoltaic cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dong-Hun; Lim, Kyung-Geun; Park, Jong Hyeok; Lee, Tae-Woo

    2012-10-01

    Hole extraction in organic photovoltaic cells (OPVs) can be modulated by a surface-enriched layer formed on top of the conducting polymer-based hole extraction layer (HEL). This tunes the surface work function of the HEL to better align with the ionization potential of the polymeric photoactive layer. Results show noticeable improvement in device power conversion efficiencies (PCEs) in OPVs. We achieved a 6.1 % PCE from the OPV by optimizing the surface-enriched layer.

  12. Structure Control of Nitrogen-Rich Graphene Nanosheets Using Hydrothermal Treatment and Formaldehyde Polymerization for Supercapacitors.

    PubMed

    Wen, Yangyang; Rufford, Thomas E; Hulicova-Jurcakova, Denisa; Zhu, Xiaobo; Wang, Lianzhou

    2016-07-20

    Nitrogen-rich graphene nanosheets (NGN) with intentionally crumpled, stacked, and cross-linked sheet structures were developed using hydrothermal and/or formaldehyde polymerization processes. It is revealed that the hydrothermal treatment produced crumpled NGN (6.0 at% N) with a high surface area of 383 m(2)·g(-1). In contrast, the formaldehyde polymerization process yielded stacked NGN (11.3 at% N) with very low surface area. The combination of formaldehyde polymerization synthesis with hydrothermal treatment led to NGN (14.7 at% N) with a cross-linked structure and a moderate surface area of 88 m(2)·g(-1). Interestingly, this cross-linked NGN exhibited the best electrochemical performance compared with other NGN, with a remarkable specific capacitance of 201 F·g(-1) at 0.05 A·g(-1) in 1 M H2SO4 electrolyte, and an excellent retention rate of 96.2% of the initial capacitance after 10 000 charge-discharge cycles at a current density of 5 A·g(-1) was achieved. PMID:27341589

  13. Structure Control of Nitrogen-Rich Graphene Nanosheets Using Hydrothermal Treatment and Formaldehyde Polymerization for Supercapacitors.

    PubMed

    Wen, Yangyang; Rufford, Thomas E; Hulicova-Jurcakova, Denisa; Zhu, Xiaobo; Wang, Lianzhou

    2016-07-20

    Nitrogen-rich graphene nanosheets (NGN) with intentionally crumpled, stacked, and cross-linked sheet structures were developed using hydrothermal and/or formaldehyde polymerization processes. It is revealed that the hydrothermal treatment produced crumpled NGN (6.0 at% N) with a high surface area of 383 m(2)·g(-1). In contrast, the formaldehyde polymerization process yielded stacked NGN (11.3 at% N) with very low surface area. The combination of formaldehyde polymerization synthesis with hydrothermal treatment led to NGN (14.7 at% N) with a cross-linked structure and a moderate surface area of 88 m(2)·g(-1). Interestingly, this cross-linked NGN exhibited the best electrochemical performance compared with other NGN, with a remarkable specific capacitance of 201 F·g(-1) at 0.05 A·g(-1) in 1 M H2SO4 electrolyte, and an excellent retention rate of 96.2% of the initial capacitance after 10 000 charge-discharge cycles at a current density of 5 A·g(-1) was achieved.

  14. TSC1 controls distribution of actin fibers through its effect on function of Rho family of small GTPases and regulates cell migration and polarity.

    PubMed

    Ohsawa, Maki; Kobayashi, Toshiyuki; Okura, Hidehiro; Igarashi, Takashi; Mizuguchi, Masashi; Hino, Okio

    2013-01-01

    The tumor-suppressor genes TSC1 and TSC2 are mutated in tuberous sclerosis, an autosomal dominant multisystem disorder. The gene products of TSC1 and TSC2 form a protein complex that inhibits the signaling of the mammalian target of rapamycin complex1 (mTORC1) pathway. mTORC1 is a crucial molecule in the regulation of cell growth, proliferation and survival. When the TSC1/TSC2 complex is not functional, uncontrolled mTORC1 activity accelerates the cell cycle and triggers tumorigenesis. Recent studies have suggested that TSC1 and TSC2 also regulate the activities of Rac1 and Rho, members of the Rho family of small GTPases, and thereby influence the ensuing actin cytoskeletal organization at focal adhesions. However, how TSC1 contributes to the establishment of cell polarity is not well understood. Here, the relationship between TSC1 and the formation of the actin cytoskeleton was analyzed in stable TSC1-expressing cell lines originally established from a Tsc1-deficient mouse renal tumor cell line. Our analyses showed that cell proliferation and migration were suppressed when TSC1 was expressed. Rac1 activity in these cells was also decreased as was formation of lamellipodia and filopodia. Furthermore, the number of basal actin stress fibers was reduced; by contrast, apical actin fibers, originating at the level of the tight junction formed a network in TSC1-expressing cells. Treatment with Rho-kinase (ROCK) inhibitor diminished the number of apical actin fibers, but rapamycin had no effect. Thus, the actin fibers were regulated by the Rho-ROCK pathway independently of mTOR. In addition, apical actin fibers appeared in TSC1-deficient cells after inhibition of Rac1 activity. These results suggest that TSC1 regulates cell polarity-associated formation of actin fibers through the spatial regulation of Rho family of small GTPases.

  15. Dynamic Localization of G-actin During Membrane Protrusion in Neuronal Motility

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Chi Wai; Vitriol, Eric A.; Shim, Sangwoo; Wise, Ariel L.; Velayutham, Radhi P.; Zheng, James Q.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Background Actin-based cell motility is fundamental for the development, function, and malignant events of eukaryotic organisms. During neural development, axonal growth cones depend on rapid assembly and disassembly of actin filaments (F-actin) for their guided extension to specific targets for wiring. Monomeric globular actin (G-actin) is the building block for F-actin but is not considered to play a direct role in spatiotemporal control of actin dynamics in cell motility. Results Here we report that a pool of G-actin dynamically localizes to the leading edge of growth cones and neuroblastoma cells to spatially elevate the G-/F-actin ratio that drives membrane protrusion and cell movement. Loss of G-actin localization leads to the cessation and retraction of membrane protrusions. Moreover, G-actin localization occurs asymmetrically in growth cones during attractive turning. Finally, we identify the actin monomer binding proteins profilin and thymosin β4 as key molecules that localize actin monomers to the leading edge of lamellipodia for their motility. Conclusions Our results suggest that dynamic localization of G-actin provides a novel mechanism to regulate the spatiotemporal actin dynamics underlying membrane protrusion in cell locomotion and growth cone chemotaxis. PMID:23746641

  16. Arabidopsis AtADF1 is functionally affected by mutations on actin binding sites.

    PubMed

    Dong, Chun-Hai; Tang, Wei-Ping; Liu, Jia-Yao

    2013-03-01

    The plant actin depolymerizing factor (ADF) binds to both monomeric and filamentous actin, and is directly involved in the depolymerization of actin filaments. To better understand the actin binding sites of the Arabidopsis thaliana L. AtADF1, we generated mutants of AtADF1 and investigated their functions in vitro and in vivo. Analysis of mutants harboring amino acid substitutions revealed that charged residues (Arg98 and Lys100) located at the α-helix 3 and forming an actin binding site together with the N-terminus are essential for both G- and F-actin binding. The basic residues on the β-strand 5 (K82/A) and the α-helix 4 (R135/A, R137/A) form another actin binding site that is important for F-actin binding. Using transient expression of CFP-tagged AtADF1 mutant proteins in onion (Allium cepa) peel epidermal cells and transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana L. plants overexpressing these mutants, we analyzed how these mutant proteins regulate actin organization and affect seedling growth. Our results show that the ADF mutants with a lower affinity for actin filament binding can still be functional, unless the affinity for actin monomers is also affected. The G-actin binding activity of the ADF plays an essential role in actin binding, depolymerization of actin polymers, and therefore in the control of actin organization. PMID:23190411

  17. Arabidopsis CROOKED encodes for the smallest subunit of the ARP2/3 complex and controls cell shape by region specific fine F-actin formation.

    PubMed

    Mathur, Jaideep; Mathur, Neeta; Kirik, Victor; Kernebeck, Birgit; Srinivas, Bhylahalli Purushottam; Hülskamp, Martin

    2003-07-01

    The generation of a specific cell shape requires differential growth, whereby specific regions of the cell expand more relative to others. The Arabidopsis crooked mutant exhibits aberrant cell shapes that develop because of mis-directed expansion, especially during a rapid growth phase. GFP-aided visualization of the F-actin cytoskeleton and the behavior of subcellular organelles in different cell-types in crooked and wild-type Arabidopsis revealed that localized expansion is promoted in cellular regions with fine F-actin arrays but is restricted in areas that maintain dense F-actin. This suggested that a spatiotemporal distinction between fine versus dense F-actin in a growing cell could determine the final shape of the cell. CROOKED was molecularly identified as the plant homolog of ARPC5, the smallest sub-unit of the ARP2/3 complex that in other organisms is renowned for its role in creating dendritic arrays of fine F-actin. Rescue of crooked phenotype by the human ortholog provides the first molecular evidence for the presence and functional conservation of the complex in higher plants. Our cell-biological and molecular characterization of CROOKED suggests a general actin-based mechanism for regulating differential growth and generating cell shape diversity. PMID:12783786

  18. Electron tomography and simulation of baculovirus actin comet tails support a tethered filament model of pathogen propulsion.

    PubMed

    Mueller, Jan; Pfanzelter, Julia; Winkler, Christoph; Narita, Akihiro; Le Clainche, Christophe; Nemethova, Maria; Carlier, Marie-France; Maeda, Yuichiro; Welch, Matthew D; Ohkawa, Taro; Schmeiser, Christian; Resch, Guenter P; Small, J Victor

    2014-01-01

    Several pathogens induce propulsive actin comet tails in cells they invade to disseminate their infection. They achieve this by recruiting factors for actin nucleation, the Arp2/3 complex, and polymerization regulators from the host cytoplasm. Owing to limited information on the structural organization of actin comets and in particular the spatial arrangement of filaments engaged in propulsion, the underlying mechanism of pathogen movement is currently speculative and controversial. Using electron tomography we have resolved the three-dimensional architecture of actin comet tails propelling baculovirus, the smallest pathogen yet known to hijack the actin motile machinery. Comet tail geometry was also mimicked in mixtures of virus capsids with purified actin and a minimal inventory of actin regulators. We demonstrate that propulsion is based on the assembly of a fishbone-like array of actin filaments organized in subsets linked by branch junctions, with an average of four filaments pushing the virus at any one time. Using an energy-minimizing function we have simulated the structure of actin comet tails as well as the tracks adopted by baculovirus in infected cells in vivo. The results from the simulations rule out gel squeezing models of propulsion and support those in which actin filaments are continuously tethered during branch nucleation and polymerization. Since Listeria monocytogenes, Shigella flexneri, and Vaccinia virus among other pathogens use the same common toolbox of components as baculovirus to move, we suggest they share the same principles of actin organization and mode of propulsion. PMID:24453943

  19. Effect of cooling (4°C) and cryopreservation on cytoskeleton actin and protein tyrosine phosphorylation in buffalo spermatozoa.

    PubMed

    Naresh, Sai

    2016-02-01

    Semen cryopreservation is broadly utilized as a part of the bovine reproducing industry, a large portion of the spermatozoa does not survive and the majority of those that do survive experience various molecular and physiological changes that influence their fertilizing capacity. The main aim of this study is to determine the effect of cooling (4 °C) and cryopreservation on cytoskeleton actin, tyrosine phosphorylation and quality of buffalo spermatozoa, and to determine the similarity between in vitro capacitation and cryopreservation induced capacitation like changes. To achieve this, Western blot was used to examine the changes in actin expression and protein tyrosine phosphorylation, whereas changes in actin polymerization, localization of actin and protein tyrosine phosphorylation during capacitation and cryopreservation were evaluated by indirect immunofluorescence technique. Localization studies revealed that the actin localized to flagella and acrosome membrane regions and following, capacitation it migrated towards the acrosome region of sperm. Time dependent increase in actin polymerization and protein tyrosine phosphorylation was observed during in vitro capacitation. The cooling phase (4 °C) and cryopreservation processes resulted in the loss/damage of cytoskeleton actin. In addition, we performed the actin polymerization and protein tyrosine phosphorylation in cooled and cryopreserved buffalo spermatozoa. Interestingly, cooling and cryopreservation induces actin polymerization and protein tyrosine phosphorylation, which were similar to in vitro capacitation (cryo-capacitation). These changes showed 1.3 folds reduction in the sperm quality parameters which includes motility, viability and plasma membrane integrity. Furthermore, our findings indicate that cooling and cryopreservation damages the cytoskeleton actin and also induces capacitation like changes such as protein tyrosine phosphorylation and actin polymerization. This could be one of the

  20. Plant pathogenic bacteria target the actin microfilament network involved in the trafficking of disease defense components.

    PubMed

    Jelenska, Joanna; Kang, Yongsung; Greenberg, Jean T

    2014-01-01

    Cells of infected organisms transport disease defense-related molecules along actin filaments to deliver them to their sites of action to combat the pathogen. To accommodate higher demand for intracellular traffic, plant F-actin density increases transiently during infection or treatment of Arabidopsis with pathogen-associated molecules. Many animal and plant pathogens interfere with actin polymerization and depolymerization to avoid immune responses. Pseudomonas syringae, a plant extracellular pathogen, injects HopW1 effector into host cells to disrupt the actin cytoskeleton and reduce vesicle movement in order to elude defense responses. In some Arabidopsis accessions, however, HopW1 is recognized and causes resistance via an actin-independent mechanism. HopW1 targets isoform 7 of vegetative actin (ACT7) that is regulated by phytohormones and environmental factors. We hypothesize that dynamic changes of ACT7 filaments are involved in plant immunity. PMID:25551177

  1. Actin filament turnover drives leading edge growth during myelin sheath formation in the central nervous system.

    PubMed

    Nawaz, Schanila; Sánchez, Paula; Schmitt, Sebastian; Snaidero, Nicolas; Mitkovski, Mišo; Velte, Caroline; Brückner, Bastian R; Alexopoulos, Ioannis; Czopka, Tim; Jung, Sang Y; Rhee, Jeong S; Janshoff, Andreas; Witke, Walter; Schaap, Iwan A T; Lyons, David A; Simons, Mikael

    2015-07-27

    During CNS development, oligodendrocytes wrap their plasma membrane around axons to generate multilamellar myelin sheaths. To drive growth at the leading edge of myelin at the interface with the axon, mechanical forces are necessary, but the underlying mechanisms are not known. Using an interdisciplinary approach that combines morphological, genetic, and biophysical analyses, we identified a key role for actin filament network turnover in myelin growth. At the onset of myelin biogenesis, F-actin is redistributed to the leading edge, where its polymerization-based forces push out non-adhesive and motile protrusions. F-actin disassembly converts protrusions into sheets by reducing surface tension and in turn inducing membrane spreading and adhesion. We identified the actin depolymerizing factor ADF/cofilin1, which mediates high F-actin turnover rates, as an essential factor in this process. We propose that F-actin turnover is the driving force in myelin wrapping by regulating repetitive cycles of leading edge protrusion and spreading.

  2. Yeast actin filaments display ATP-dependent sliding movement over surfaces coated with rabbit muscle myosin.

    PubMed Central

    Kron, S J; Drubin, D G; Botstein, D; Spudich, J A

    1992-01-01

    The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been used to study the function of components of the actin cytoskeleton in vivo, mainly because it is easy to derive and characterize mutations affecting these proteins. In contrast, biochemical studies have generally used proteins derived from higher eukaryotes. We have devised a simple procedure to prepare, in high yield, homogeneous native actin from wild-type and act1 mutant yeast. Using intensified video fluorescence microscopy, we found that actin filaments polymerized from these preparations exhibit ATP-dependent sliding movement over surfaces coated with rabbit skeletal muscle myosin. The rates of sliding movement of the wild-type and mutant yeast actins were each about half that of rabbit skeletal muscle actin under similar conditions. We conclude that over the large evolutionary distance between yeast and mammals there has been significant conservation of actin function, specifically the ability to be moved by interaction with myosin. Images PMID:1533933

  3. Actin Cys374 as a nucleophilic target of alpha,beta-unsaturated aldehydes.

    PubMed

    Dalle-Donne, Isabella; Carini, Marina; Vistoli, Giulio; Gamberoni, Luca; Giustarini, Daniela; Colombo, Roberto; Maffei Facino, Roberto; Rossi, Ranieri; Milzani, Aldo; Aldini, Giancarlo

    2007-03-01

    We have recently shown that actin can be modified by the Michael addition of 4-hydroxynonenal to Cys374. Here, we have exposed purified actin at increasing acrolein concentrations and have identified the sites of acrolein addition using LC-ESI-MS/MS. Acrolein reacted with Cys374, His87, His173, and, minimally, His40. Cys374 adduction by both 4-hydroxynonenal and acrolein negligibly affected the polymerization of aldehyde-modified (carbonylated) actin, as shown by fluorescence measurements. Differently, acrolein binding at histidine residues, when Cys374 was completely saturated, inhibited polymerization in a dose-dependent manner. Molecular modeling analyses indicated that structural distortions of the ATP-binding site, induced by four acrolein-Michael adducts, could explain the changes in the polymerization process. Aldehyde binding to Cys374 does not alter significantly actin polymerization because this residue is located in a very flexible region, whose covalent modifications do not alter the protein folding. These data demonstrate that Cys374 represents the primary target site of alpha,beta-unsaturated aldehyde addition to actin in vitro. As Cys374 is a preferential target for various oxidative/nitrosative modifications, and actin is one of the main carbonylated proteins in vivo, these findings also suggest that the highly reactive Cys374 could serve as a carbonyl scavenger of reactive alpha,beta-unsaturated aldehydes and other electrophilic lipids.

  4. Endothelial actin-binding proteins and actin dynamics in leukocyte transendothelial migration.

    PubMed

    Schnoor, Michael

    2015-04-15

    The endothelium is the first barrier that leukocytes have to overcome during recruitment to sites of inflamed tissues. The leukocyte extravasation cascade is a complex multistep process that requires the activation of various adhesion molecules and signaling pathways, as well as actin remodeling, in both leukocytes and endothelial cells. Endothelial adhesion molecules, such as E-selectin or ICAM-1, are connected to the actin cytoskeleton via actin-binding proteins (ABPs). Although the contribution of receptor-ligand interactions to leukocyte extravasation has been studied extensively, the contribution of endothelial ABPs to the regulation of leukocyte adhesion and transendothelial migration remains poorly understood. This review focuses on recently published evidence that endothelial ABPs, such as cortactin, myosin, or α-actinin, regulate leukocyte extravasation by controlling actin dynamics, biomechanical properties of endothelia, and signaling pathways, such as GTPase activation, during inflammation. Thus, ABPs may serve as targets for novel treatment strategies for disorders characterized by excessive leukocyte recruitment.

  5. The Nf-actin gene is an important factor for food-cup formation and cytotoxicity of pathogenic Naegleria fowleri.

    PubMed

    Sohn, Hae-Jin; Kim, Jong-Hyun; Shin, Myeong-Heon; Song, Kyoung-Ju; Shin, Ho-Joon

    2010-03-01

    Naegleria fowleri destroys target cells by trogocytosis, a phagocytosis mechanism, and a process of piecemeal ingestion of target cells by food-cups. Phagocytosis is an actin-dependent process that involves polymerization of monomeric G-actin into filamentous F-actin. However, despite the numerous studies concerning phagocytosis, its role in the N. fowleri food-cup formation related with trogocytosis has been poorly reported. In this study, we cloned and characterized an Nf-actin gene to elucidate the role of Nf-actin gene in N. fowleri pathogenesis. The Nf-actin gene is composed of 1,128-bp and produced a 54.1-kDa recombinant protein (Nf-actin). The sequence identity was 82% with nonpathogenic Naegleria gruberi but has no sequence identity with other mammals or human actin gene. Anti-Nf-actin polyclonal antibody was produced in BALB/c mice immunized with recombinant Nf-actin. The Nf-actin was localized on the cytoplasm, pseudopodia, and especially, food-cup structure (amoebastome) in N. fowleri trophozoites using immunofluorescence assay. When N. fowleri co-cultured with Chinese hamster ovary cells, Nf-actin was observed to localize around on phagocytic food-cups. We also observed that N. fowleri treated with cytochalasin D as actin polymerization inhibitor or transfected with antisense oligomer of Nf-actin gene had shown the reduced ability of food-cup formation and in vitro cytotoxicity. Finally, it suggests that Nf-actin plays an important role in phagocytic activity of pathogenic N. fowleri.

  6. Regulation of Actin by Ion-Linked Equilibria

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Hyeran; Bradley, Michael J.; Elam, W. Austin; De La Cruz, Enrique M.

    2013-01-01

    Actin assembly, filament mechanical properties, and interactions with regulatory proteins depend on the types and concentrations of salts in solution. Salts modulate actin through both nonspecific electrostatic effects and specific binding to discrete sites. Multiple cation-binding site classes spanning a broad range of affinities (nanomolar to millimolar) have been identified on actin monomers and filaments. This review focuses on discrete, low-affinity cation-binding interactions that drive polymerization, regulate filament-bending mechanics, and modulate interactions with regulatory proteins. Cation binding may be perturbed by actin post-translational modifications and linked equilibria. Partial cation occupancy under physiological and commonly used in vitro solution conditions likely contribute to filament mechanical heterogeneity and structural polymorphism. Site-specific cation-binding residues are conserved in Arp2 and Arp3, and may play a role in Arp2/3 complex activation and actin-filament branching activity. Actin-salt interactions demonstrate the relevance of ion-linked equilibria in the operation and regulation of complex biological systems. PMID:24359734

  7. Role of extracellular polymeric substances in bioflocculation of activated sludge microorganisms under glucose-controlled conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Badireddy, Appala R.; Chellam, Shankararaman; Gassman, Paul L.; Engelhard, Mark H.; Lea, Alan S.; Rosso, Kevin M.

    2010-08-01

    Extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) secreted by suspended cultures of microorganisms from an activated sludge plant in the presence of glucose was characterized in detail using colorimetric analysis, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. EPS produced by the mixed population were similar to literature reports obtained from pure cultures in terms of functionalities with respect to C and O but differed subtly in terms of N and P. Hence, it appears that EPS produced by different microorganisms maybe similar in major chemical constituents but may differ in minor components. The role of specific EPS constituents on microbial aggregation was also determined. The weak tendency of microorganisms to bioflocculate during the exponential growth phase was attributed to electrostatic repulsion when EPS concentration was low and acidic in nature (higher fraction of uronic acids to total EPS). However, during the stationary phase, polymeric interactions overwhelmed electrostatic interactions (lower fraction of uronic acids to total EPS) resulting in greater bioflocculation. More specifically, microorganisms appeared to aggregate in the presence of protein secondary structures including aggregated strands, β-sheets, α- and 3-turn helical structures. Bioflocculation was also favored by increasing O-acetylated carbohydrates and overall C-(O,N) and O=C–OH + O=C–OR functionalities.

  8. Controlled Bulk Properties of Composite Polymeric Solutions for Extensive Structural Order of Honeycomb Polysulfone Membranes

    PubMed Central

    Gugliuzza, Annarosa; Perrotta, Maria Luisa; Drioli, Enrico

    2016-01-01

    This work provides additional insights into the identification of operating conditions necessary to overcome a current limitation to the scale-up of the breath figure method, which is regarded as an outstanding manufacturing approach for structurally ordered porous films. The major restriction concerns, indeed, uncontrolled touching droplets at the boundary. Herein, the bulk of polymeric solutions are properly managed to generate honeycomb membranes with a long-range structurally ordered texture. Water uptake and dynamics are explored as chemical environments are changed with the intent to modify the hydrophilic/hydrophobic balance and local water floatation. In this context, a model surfactant such as the polyoxyethylene sorbitan monolaurate is used in combination with alcohols at different chain length extents and a traditional polymer such as the polyethersufone. Changes in the interfacial tension and kinematic viscosity taking place in the bulk of composite solutions are explored and examined in relation to competitive droplet nucleation and growth rate. As a result, extensive structurally ordered honeycomb textures are obtained with the rising content of the surfactant while a broad range of well-sized pores is targeted as a function of the hydrophilic-hydrophobic balance and viscosity of the composite polymeric mixture. The experimental findings confirm the consistency of the approach and are expected to give propulsion to the commercially production of breath figures films shortly. PMID:27196938

  9. Kinetic Insights into the Elongation Reaction of Actin Filaments as a Function of Temperature, Pressure, and Macromolecular Crowding.

    PubMed

    Gao, Mimi; Winter, Roland

    2015-12-01

    Actin polymerization is an essential process in eukaryotic cells that provides a driving force for motility and mechanical resistance for cell shape. By using preformed gelsolin-actin nuclei and applying stopped-flow methodology, we quantitatively studied the elongation kinetics of actin filaments as a function of temperature and pressure in the presence of synthetic and protein crowding agents. We show that the association of actin monomers to the pointed end of double-stranded helical actin filaments (F-actin) proceeds via a transition state that requires an activation energy of 56 kJ mol(-1) for conformational and hydration rearrangements, but exhibits a negligible activation volume, pointing to a compact transition state that is devoid of packing defects. Macromolecular crowding causes acceleration of the F-actin elongation rate and counteracts the deteriorating effect of pressure. The results shed new light on the combined effect of these parameters on the polymerization process of actin, and help us understand the temperature and pressure sensitivity of actin polymerization under extreme conditions.

  10. Assembly and Turnover of Short Actin Filaments by the Formin INF2 and Profilin*

    PubMed Central

    Gurel, Pinar S.; A, Mu; Guo, Bingqian; Shu, Rui; Mierke, Dale F.; Higgs, Henry N.

    2015-01-01

    INF2 (inverted formin 2) is a formin protein with unique biochemical effects on actin. In addition to the common formin ability to accelerate actin nucleation and elongation, INF2 can also sever filaments and accelerate their depolymerization. Although we understand key attributes of INF2-mediated severing, we do not understand the mechanism by which INF2 accelerates depolymerization subsequent to severing. Here, we show that INF2 can create short filaments (<60 nm) that continuously turn over actin subunits through a combination of barbed end elongation, severing, and WH2 motif-mediated depolymerization. This pseudo-steady state condition occurs whether starting from actin filaments or monomers. The rate-limiting step of the cycle is nucleotide exchange of ADP for ATP on actin monomers after release from the INF2/actin complex. Profilin addition has two effects: 1) to accelerate filament turnover 6-fold by accelerating nucleotide exchange and 2) to shift the equilibrium toward polymerization, resulting in longer filaments. In sum, our findings show that the combination of multiple interactions of INF2 with actin can work in concert to increase the ATP turnover rate of actin. Depending on the ratio of INF2:actin, this increased flux can result in rapid filament depolymerization or maintenance of short filaments. We also show that high concentrations of cytochalasin D accelerate ATP turnover by actin but through a different mechanism from that of INF2. PMID:26124273

  11. Assembly and turnover of short actin filaments by the formin INF2 and profilin.

    PubMed

    Gurel, Pinar S; A, Mu; Guo, Bingqian; Shu, Rui; Mierke, Dale F; Higgs, Henry N

    2015-09-11

    INF2 (inverted formin 2) is a formin protein with unique biochemical effects on actin. In addition to the common formin ability to accelerate actin nucleation and elongation, INF2 can also sever filaments and accelerate their depolymerization. Although we understand key attributes of INF2-mediated severing, we do not understand the mechanism by which INF2 accelerates depolymerization subsequent to severing. Here, we show that INF2 can create short filaments (<60 nm) that continuously turn over actin subunits through a combination of barbed end elongation, severing, and WH2 motif-mediated depolymerization. This pseudo-steady state condition occurs whether starting from actin filaments or monomers. The rate-limiting step of the cycle is nucleotide exchange of ADP for ATP on actin monomers after release from the INF2/actin complex. Profilin addition has two effects: 1) to accelerate filament turnover 6-fold by accelerating nucleotide exchange and 2) to shift the equilibrium toward polymerization, resulting in longer filaments. In sum, our findings show that the combination of multiple interactions of INF2 with actin can work in concert to increase the ATP turnover rate of actin. Depending on the ratio of INF2:actin, this increased flux can result in rapid filament depolymerization or maintenance of short filaments. We also show that high concentrations of cytochalasin D accelerate ATP turnover by actin but through a different mechanism from that of INF2.

  12. Gamma Interferon-Induced Guanylate Binding Protein 1 Is a Novel Actin Cytoskeleton Remodeling Factor

    PubMed Central

    Ostler, Nicole; Britzen-Laurent, Nathalie; Liebl, Andrea; Naschberger, Elisabeth; Lochnit, Günter; Ostler, Markus; Forster, Florian; Kunzelmann, Peter; Ince, Semra; Supper, Verena; Praefcke, Gerrit J. K.; Schubert, Dirk W.; Stockinger, Hannes; Herrmann, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Gamma interferon (IFN-γ) regulates immune defenses against viruses, intracellular pathogens, and tumors by modulating cell proliferation, migration, invasion, and vesicle trafficking processes. The large GTPase guanylate binding protein 1 (GBP-1) is among the cellular proteins that is the most abundantly induced by IFN-γ and mediates its cell biologic effects. As yet, the molecular mechanisms of action of GBP-1 remain unknown. Applying an interaction proteomics approach, we identified actin as a strong and specific binding partner of GBP-1. Furthermore, GBP-1 colocalized with actin at the subcellular level and was both necessary and sufficient for the extensive remodeling of the fibrous actin structure observed in IFN-γ-exposed cells. These effects were dependent on the oligomerization and the GTPase activity of GBP-1. Purified GBP-1 and actin bound to each other, and this interaction was sufficient to impair the formation of actin filaments in vitro, as demonstrated by atomic force microscopy, dynamic light scattering, and fluorescence-monitored polymerization. Cosedimentation and band shift analyses demonstrated that GBP-1 binds robustly to globular actin and slightly to filamentous actin. This indicated that GBP-1 may induce actin remodeling via globular actin sequestering and/or filament capping. These results establish GBP-1 as a novel member within the family of actin-remodeling proteins specifically mediating IFN-γ-dependent defense strategies. PMID:24190970

  13. Rickettsia Sca2 is a bacterial formin-like mediator of actin-based motility

    PubMed Central

    Haglund, Cat M.; Choe, Julie E.; Skau, Colleen T.; Kovar, David R.; Welch, Matthew D.

    2011-01-01

    Diverse intracellular pathogens subvert the host actin polymerization machinery to drive movement within and between cells during infection. Rickettsia in the spotted fever group (SFG) are Gram-negative, obligate intracellular bacterial pathogens that undergo actin-based motility and assemble distinctive ‘comet tails’ that consist of long, unbranched actin filaments1,2. Despite this distinct organization, it was proposed that actin in Rickettsia comet tails is nucleated by the host Arp2/3 complex and the bacterial protein RickA, which assemble branched actin networks3,4. However, a second bacterial gene, sca2, was recently implicated in actin tail formation by R. rickettsii5. Here, we demonstrate that Sca2 is a bacterial actin-assembly factor that functionally mimics eukaryotic formin proteins. Sca2 nucleates unbranched actin filaments, processively associates with growing barbed ends, requires profilin for efficient elongation, and inhibits the activity of capping protein, all properties shared with formins. Sca2 localizes to the Rickettsia surface and is sufficient to promote the assembly of actin filaments in cytoplasmic extract. These results suggest that Sca2 mimics formins to determine the unique organization of actin filaments in Rickettsia tails and drive bacterial motility, independently of host nucleators. PMID:20972427

  14. Vinculin Is a Dually Regulated Actin Filament Barbed End-capping and Side-binding Protein

    PubMed Central

    Le Clainche, Christophe; Dwivedi, Satya Prakash; Didry, Dominique; Carlier, Marie-France

    2010-01-01

    The focal adhesion protein vinculin is an actin-binding protein involved in the mechanical coupling between the actin cytoskeleton and the extracellular matrix. An autoinhibitory interaction between the N-terminal head (Vh) and the C-terminal tail (Vt) of vinculin masks an actin filament side-binding domain in Vt. The binding of several proteins to Vh disrupts this intramolecular interaction and exposes the actin filament side-binding domain. Here, by combining kinetic assays and microscopy observations, we show that Vt inhibits actin polymerization by blocking the barbed ends of actin filaments. In low salt conditions, Vt nucleates actin filaments capped at their barbed ends. We determined that the interaction between vinculin and the barbed end is characterized by slow association and dissociation rate constants. This barbed end capping activity requires C-terminal amino acids of Vt that are dispensable for actin filament side binding. Like the side-binding domain, the capping domain of vinculin is masked by an autoinhibitory interaction between Vh and Vt. In contrast to the side-binding domain, the capping domain is not unmasked by the binding of a talin domain to Vh and requires the dissociation of an additional autoinhibitory interaction. Finally, we show that vinculin and the formin mDia1, which is involved in the processive elongation of actin filaments in focal adhesions, compete for actin filament barbed ends. PMID:20484056

  15. Ha-VP39 binding to actin and the influence of F-actin on assembly of progeny virions.

    PubMed

    Lu, S; Ge, G; Qi, Y

    2004-11-01

    We present evidence that actin is necessary for the successful assembly of HaNPV virions. Purified nucleocapsid protein Ha-VP39 of Heliothis armigera nuclear polyhedrosis virus (HaNPV) was found to be able to bind to actin in vitro without assistance, as demonstrated by Western blot and isothermal titration calorimeter. DeltaH and binding constants (K) detected by isothermal titration calorimeter strongly suggested that Ha-VP39 first binds actin to seed the formation of hexamer complex of actin, and the hexamers then link to each other to form filaments, and the filaments finally twist into cable structures. The proliferation of HaNPV was completely inhibited in Hz-AM1 cells cultivated in the medium containing 0.5 microg/ml cytochalasin D (CD) to prevent polymerization of actin, while its yield was reduced to 10(-4) in the presence of 0.1 microg/ml CD. Actin concentration and the viral DNA synthesis were not significantly affected by CD even though the progeny virions assembled in the CD treated cells were morphologically different from normal ones and resulted in fewer plaques in plaque assay.

  16. A dynamin-actin interaction is required for vesicle scission during endocytosis in yeast.

    PubMed

    Palmer, Sarah E; Smaczynska-de Rooij, Iwona I; Marklew, Christopher J; Allwood, Ellen G; Mishra, Ritu; Johnson, Simeon; Goldberg, Martin W; Ayscough, Kathryn R

    2015-03-30

    Actin is critical for endocytosis in yeast cells, and also in mammalian cells under tension. However, questions remain as to how force generated through actin polymerization is transmitted to the plasma membrane to drive invagination and scission. Here, we reveal that the yeast dynamin Vps1 binds and bundles filamentous actin. Mutational analysis of Vps1 in a helix of the stalk domain identifies a mutant RR457-458EE that binds actin more weakly. In vivo analysis of Vps1 function demonstrates that the mutation disrupts endocytosis but not other functions of Vps1 such as vacuolar trafficking or peroxisome fission. The mutant Vps1 is stably expressed in cells and co-localizes with the endocytic reporters Abp1 and the amphiphysin Rvs167. Detailed analysis of individual endocytic patch behavior indicates that the mutation causes aberrant movements in later stages of endocytosis, consistent with a scission defect. Ultrastructural analysis of yeast cells using electron microscopy reveals a significant increase in invagination depth, further supporting a role for the Vps1-actin interaction during scission. In vitro analysis of the mutant protein demonstrates that--like wild-type Vps1--it is able to form oligomeric rings, but, critically, it has lost its ability to bundle actin filaments into higher-order structures. A model is proposed in which actin filaments bind Vps1 during invagination, and this interaction is important to transduce the force of actin polymerization to the membrane to drive successful scission.

  17. Development of an in situ controllable polymerization tool and process for hydrogel used to replace nucleus pulposus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmocker, Andreas M.; Khoushabi, Azadeh; Bourban, Pierre-Etienne; Schizas, Constantin; Pioletti, Dominique P.; Moser, Christophe

    2015-06-01

    Currently implants or tissue replacements are inserted either as a whole implant or by injecting a liquid which polymerizes to form a solid implant at the appropriate location. This is either highly invasive or not controllable. We developed a tool to perform such surgeries in a minimally invasive and controllable way. It combines photopolymerization and fluorescence spectroscopy in a surgical apparatus. However, to successfully replace tissue such as cartilage or an intervertebral disc, photopolymerizable materials do not only need to be photoactive. They should also be able to withstand the environmental loading conditions after implantation. Therefore we developed a set of in situ and in vitro tests adapted to the evaluation of photopolymerized tissue replacements and implants. In particular in this article, we report on a method, which combines photopolymerization and photorheology to track the current state of polymer during photopolymerization.

  18. Synthesis of biodegradable polymeric nanoparticles and their controlled drug delivery for tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Malathi, S; Balasubramanian, S

    2011-02-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is the leading cause of infectious diseases affecting the 2 billion people worldwide. To improve the current method of treatment a synthetic polymeric anti-TB nanodrug delivery system was attempted. A series of PLGA polymers with different molar feed ratios i.e., 90/10, 75/25, 50/50 were synthesized by direct melt polycondensation method. The PLGA nanoparticles and the drug (Rifampicin (RIF)) encapsulation were prepared by double emulsion-solvent evaporation technique. The in vitro release profile of the RIF loaded PLGA NPs showed an initial burst followed by sustained release. The nanoparticles were remarkably advantageous in terms of high drug encapsulation efficiency, low polymer consumption and better sustained release profile.

  19. Clathrin adaptors. AP2 controls clathrin polymerization with a membrane-activated switch.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Bernard T; Graham, Stephen C; Liska, Nicole; Dannhauser, Philip N; Höning, Stefan; Ungewickell, Ernst J; Owen, David J

    2014-07-25

    Clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME) is vital for the internalization of most cell-surface proteins. In CME, plasma membrane-binding clathrin adaptors recruit and polymerize clathrin to form clathrin-coated pits into which cargo is sorted. Assembly polypeptide 2 (AP2) is the most abundant adaptor and is pivotal to CME. Here, we determined a structure of AP2 that includes the clathrin-binding β2 hinge and developed an AP2-dependent budding assay. Our findings suggest that an autoinhibitory mechanism prevents clathrin recruitment by cytosolic AP2. A large-scale conformational change driven by the plasma membrane phosphoinositide phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate and cargo relieves this autoinhibition, triggering clathrin recruitment and hence clathrin-coated bud formation. This molecular switching mechanism can couple AP2's membrane recruitment to its key functions of cargo and clathrin binding.

  20. Actin stress in cell reprogramming

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Jun; Wang, Yuexiu; Sachs, Frederick; Meng, Fanjie

    2014-01-01

    Cell mechanics plays a role in stem cell reprogramming and differentiation. To understand this process better, we created a genetically encoded optical probe, named actin–cpstFRET–actin (AcpA), to report forces in actin in living cells in real time. We showed that stemness was associated with increased force in actin. We reprogrammed HEK-293 cells into stem-like cells using no transcription factors but simply by softening the substrate. However, Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cell reprogramming required, in addition to a soft substrate, Harvey rat sarcoma viral oncogene homolog expression. Replating the stem-like cells on glass led to redifferentiation and reduced force in actin. The actin force probe was a FRET sensor, called cpstFRET (circularly permuted stretch sensitive FRET), flanked by g-actin subunits. The labeled actin expressed efficiently in HEK, MDCK, 3T3, and bovine aortic endothelial cells and in multiple stable cell lines created from those cells. The viability of the cell lines demonstrated that labeled actin did not significantly affect cell physiology. The labeled actin distribution was similar to that observed with GFP-tagged actin. We also examined the stress in the actin cross-linker actinin. Actinin force was not always correlated with actin force, emphasizing the need for addressing protein specificity when discussing forces. Because actin is a primary structural protein in animal cells, understanding its force distribution is central to understanding animal cell physiology and the many linked reactions such as stress-induced gene expression. This new probe permits measuring actin forces in a wide range of experiments on preparations ranging from isolated proteins to transgenic animals. PMID:25422450

  1. Reversible Membrane Pearling in Live Cells upon Destruction of the Actin Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Heinrich, Doris; Ecke, Mary; Jasnin, Marion; Engel, Ulrike; Gerisch, Günther

    2014-01-01

    Membrane pearling in live cells is observed when the plasma membrane is depleted of its support, the cortical actin network. Upon efficient depolymerization of actin, pearls of variable size are formed, which are connected by nanotubes of ∼40 nm diameter. We show that formation of the membrane tubes and their transition into chains of pearls do not require external tension, and that they neither depend on microtubule-based molecular motors nor pressure generated by myosin-II. Pearling thus differs from blebbing. The pearling state is stable as long as actin is prevented from polymerizing. When polymerization is restored, the pearls are retracted into the cell, indicating continuity of the membrane. Our data suggest that the alternation of pearls and strings is an energetically favored state of the unsupported plasma membrane, and that one of the functions of the actin cortex is to prevent the membrane from spontaneously assuming this configuration. PMID:24606932

  2. Accelerators, Brakes, and Gears of Actin Dynamics in Dendritic Spines

    PubMed Central

    Pontrello, Crystal G.; Ethell, Iryna M.

    2010-01-01

    Dendritic spines are actin-rich structures that accommodate the postsynaptic sites of most excitatory synapses in the brain. Although dendritic spines form and mature as synaptic connections develop, they remain plastic even in the adult brain, where they can rapidly grow, change, or collapse in response to normal physiological changes in synaptic activity that underlie learning and memory. Pathological stimuli can adversely affect dendritic spine shape and number, and this is seen in neurodegenerative disorders and some forms of mental retardation and autism as well. Many of the molecular signals that control these changes in dendritic spines act through the regulation of filamentous actin (F-actin), some through direct interaction with actin, and others via downstream effectors. For example, cortactin, cofilin, and gelsolin are actin-binding proteins that directly regulate actin dynamics in dendritic spines. Activities of these proteins are precisely regulated by intracellular signaling events that control their phosphorylation state and localization. In this review, we discuss how actin-regulating proteins maintain the balance between F-actin assembly and disassembly that is needed to stabilize mature dendritic spines, and how changes in their activities may lead to rapid remodeling of dendritic spines. PMID:20463852

  3. Actin dynamics in living mammalian cells.

    PubMed

    Ballestrem, C; Wehrle-Haller, B; Imhof, B A

    1998-06-01

    The actin cytoskeleton maintains the cellular architecture and mediates cell movements. To explore actin cytoskeletal dynamics, the enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) was fused to human &bgr ;-actin. The fusion protein was incorporated into actin fibers which became depolymerized upon cytochalasin B treatment. This functional EGFP-actin construct enabled observation of the actin cytoskeleton in living cells by time lapse fluorescence microscopy. Stable expression of the construct was obtained in mammalian cell lines of different tissue origins. In stationary cells, actin rich, ring-like structured 'actin clouds' were observed in addition to stress fibers. These ruffle-like structures were found to be involved in the reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton. In migratory cells, EGFP-actin was found in the advancing lamellipodium. Immobile actin spots developed in the lamellipodium and thin actin fibers formed parallel to the leading edge. Thus EGFP-actin expressed in living cells unveiled structures involved in the dynamics of the actin cytoskeleton.

  4. Stimuli-Responsive Polymeric Systems for Controlled Protein and Peptide Delivery: Future Implications for Ocular Delivery.

    PubMed

    Mahlumba, Pakama; Choonara, Yahya E; Kumar, Pradeep; du Toit, Lisa C; Pillay, Viness

    2016-01-01

    Therapeutic proteins and peptides have become notable in the drug delivery arena for their compatibility with the human body as well as their high potency. However, their biocompatibility and high potency does not negate the existence of challenges resulting from physicochemical properties of proteins and peptides, including large size, short half-life, capability to provoke immune responses and susceptibility to degradation. Various delivery routes and delivery systems have been utilized to improve bioavailability, patient acceptability and reduce biodegradation. The ocular route remains of great interest, particularly for responsive delivery of macromolecules due to the anatomy and physiology of the eye that makes it a sensitive and complex environment. Research in this field is slowly gaining attention as this could be the breakthrough in ocular drug delivery of macromolecules. This work reviews stimuli-responsive polymeric delivery systems, their use in the delivery of therapeutic proteins and peptides as well as examples of proteins and peptides used in the treatment of ocular disorders. Stimuli reviewed include pH, temperature, enzymes, light, ultrasound and magnetic field. In addition, it discusses the current progress in responsive ocular drug delivery. Furthermore, it explores future prospects in the use of stimuli-responsive polymers for ocular delivery of proteins and peptides. Stimuli-responsive polymers offer great potential in improving the delivery of ocular therapeutics, therefore there is a need to consider them in order to guarantee a local, sustained and ideal delivery of ocular proteins and peptides, evading tissue invasion and systemic side-effects. PMID:27483234

  5. Micropatterned Surfaces for Atmospheric Water Condensation via Controlled Radical Polymerization and Thin Film Dewetting.

    PubMed

    Wong, Ian; Teo, Guo Hui; Neto, Chiara; Thickett, Stuart C

    2015-09-30

    Inspired by an example found in nature, the design of patterned surfaces with chemical and topographical contrast for the collection of water from the atmosphere has been of intense interest in recent years. Herein we report the synthesis of such materials via a combination of macromolecular design and polymer thin film dewetting to yield surfaces consisting of raised hydrophilic bumps on a hydrophobic background. RAFT polymerization was used to synthesize poly(2-hydroxypropyl methacrylate) (PHPMA) of targeted molecular weight and low dispersity; spin-coating of PHPMA onto polystyrene films produced stable polymer bilayers under appropriate conditions. Thermal annealing of these bilayers above the glass transition temperature of the PHPMA layer led to complete dewetting of the top layer and the formation of isolated PHPMA domains atop the PS film. Due to the vastly different rates of water nucleation on the two phases, preferential dropwise nucleation of water occurred on the PHPMA domains, as demonstrated by optical microscopy. The simplicity of the preparation method and ability to target polymers of specific molecular weight demonstrate the value of these materials with respect to large-scale water collection devices or other materials science applications where patterning is required.

  6. Controlled fabrication of theophylline imprinted polymers on multiwalled carbon nanotubes via atom transfer radical polymerization.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jianxiong; Gao, Yong; Li, Huaming

    2011-02-01

    Theophylline imprinted polymers were synthesized on the surface of multiwalled carbon nanotubes via atom transfer radical polymerization using brominated multiwalled carbon nanotubes as an initiator. The nanotube-based initiator was prepared by directly reacting acyl chloride-modified multiwalled carbon nanotubes with 2-hydroxylethyl-2'-bromoisobutyrate. The grafting copolymerization of 2-hydroxyethyl-2-methyl-2-propenoate and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate in the presence of template theophylline led to thin molecularly imprinted polymer films coating multiwalled carbon nanotubes. The thickness of molecularly imprinted polymer films prepared in this study was about 5 nm as determined by transmission electron microscopy. Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy was utilized to follow the introduction of initiator groups as well as polymers on the carbon nanotube surfaces. Thermogravimetric analysis indicated that the molecularly imprinted polymers were successfully grown from the carbon nanotube surfaces, with the final products having a polymer weight percentage of ca. 50 wt%. The adsorption properties, such as adsorption dynamics, special binding and selective recognition capacity, of the as-prepared molecularly imprinted polymer films were evaluated. The results demonstrated that the composite of molecularly imprinted polymers and multiwalled carbon nanotubes not only possessed a rapid dynamics but also exhibited a good selectivity toward theophylline, compared to caffeine.

  7. Micropatterned Surfaces for Atmospheric Water Condensation via Controlled Radical Polymerization and Thin Film Dewetting.

    PubMed

    Wong, Ian; Teo, Guo Hui; Neto, Chiara; Thickett, Stuart C

    2015-09-30

    Inspired by an example found in nature, the design of patterned surfaces with chemical and topographical contrast for the collection of water from the atmosphere has been of intense interest in recent years. Herein we report the synthesis of such materials via a combination of macromolecular design and polymer thin film dewetting to yield surfaces consisting of raised hydrophilic bumps on a hydrophobic background. RAFT polymerization was used to synthesize poly(2-hydroxypropyl methacrylate) (PHPMA) of targeted molecular weight and low dispersity; spin-coating of PHPMA onto polystyrene films produced stable polymer bilayers under appropriate conditions. Thermal annealing of these bilayers above the glass transition temperature of the PHPMA layer led to complete dewetting of the top layer and the formation of isolated PHPMA domains atop the PS film. Due to the vastly different rates of water nucleation on the two phases, preferential dropwise nucleation of water occurred on the PHPMA domains, as demonstrated by optical microscopy. The simplicity of the preparation method and ability to target polymers of specific molecular weight demonstrate the value of these materials with respect to large-scale water collection devices or other materials science applications where patterning is required. PMID:26372163

  8. How actin initiates the motor activity of Myosin.

    PubMed

    Llinas, Paola; Isabet, Tatiana; Song, Lin; Ropars, Virginie; Zong, Bin; Benisty, Hannah; Sirigu, Serena; Morris, Carl; Kikuti, Carlos; Safer, Dan; Sweeney, H Lee; Houdusse, Anne

    2015-05-26

    Fundamental to cellular processes are directional movements driven by molecular motors. A common theme for these and other molecular machines driven by ATP is that controlled release of hydrolysis products is essential for using the chemical energy efficiently. Mechanochemical transduction by myosin motors on actin is coupled to unknown structural changes that result in the sequential release of inorganic phosphate (Pi) and MgADP. We present here a myosin structure possessing an actin-binding interface and a tunnel (back door) that creates an escape route for Pi with a minimal rotation of the myosin lever arm that drives movements. We propose that this state represents the beginning of the powerstroke on actin and that Pi translocation from the nucleotide pocket triggered by actin binding initiates myosin force generation. This elucidates how actin initiates force generation and movement and may represent a strategy common to many molecular machines.

  9. Synthetic chondramide A analogues stabilize filamentous actin and block invasion by Toxoplasma gondii.

    PubMed

    Ma, Christopher I; Diraviyam, Karthikeyan; Maier, Martin E; Sept, David; Sibley, L David

    2013-09-27

    Apicomplexan parasites such as Toxoplasma gondii rely on actin-based motility to cross biological barriers and invade host cells. Key structural and biochemical differences in host and parasite actins make this an attractive target for small-molecule inhibitors. Here we took advantage of recent advances in the synthesis of cyclic depsipeptide compounds that stabilize filamentous actin to test the ability of chondramides to disrupt growth of T. gondii in vitro. Structural modeling of chondramide A (2) binding to an actin filament model revealed variations in the binding site between host and parasite actins. A series of 10 previously synthesized analogues (2b-k) with substitutions in the β-tyrosine moiety blocked parasite growth on host cell monolayers with EC₅₀ values that ranged from 0.3 to 1.3 μM. In vitro polymerization assays using highly purified recombinant actin from T. gondii verified that synthetic and natural product chondramides target the actin cytoskeleton. Consistent with this, chondramide treatment blocked parasite invasion into host cells and was more rapidly effective than pyrimethamine, a standard therapeutic agent. Although the current compounds lack specificity for parasite vs host actin, these studies provide a platform for the future design and synthesis of synthetic cyclic peptide inhibitors that selectively disrupt actin dynamics in parasites. PMID:24020843

  10. Actin-myosin network is required for proper assembly of influenza virus particles