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Sample records for actin-activated atpase activity

  1. The 110-kD protein-calmodulin complex of the intestinal microvillus is an actin-activated MgATPase

    PubMed Central

    1987-01-01

    The microvillus 110-kD protein-calmodulin complex (designated 110K-CM) shares several properties with all myosins. In addition to its well- defined ATP-dependent binding interaction with F-actin, 110K-CM is an ATPase with diagnostically myosin-like divalent cation sensitivity. It exhibits maximum enzymatic activity in the presence of K+ and EDTA (0.24 mumol P1/mg per min) or in the presence of Ca++ (0.40 mumol P1/mg per min) and significantly less activity in physiological ionic conditions of salt and Mg++ (0.04 mumol P1/mg per min). This MgATPase is activated by F-actin in an actin concentration-dependent manner (up to 2.5-3.5-fold). The specific MgATPase activity of 110K-CM is also enhanced by the addition of 5-10 microM Ca++, but in the isolated complex, there is often also a decrease in the extent of actin activation in this range of free Ca++. Actin activation is maintained, however, in samples with exogenously added calmodulin; under these conditions, there is an approximately sevenfold stimulation of 110K- CM's enzymatic activity in the presence of 5-10 microM Ca++ and actin. 110K-CM is relatively indiscriminant in its nucleoside triphosphate specificity; in addition to ATP, GTP, CTP, UTP, and ITP are all hydrolyzed by the complex in the presence of either Mg++ or Ca++. Neither AMP nor the phosphatase substrate p-nitrophenyl phosphate are substrates for the enzymatic activity. The pH optimum for CaATPase activity is 6.0-7.5; maximum actin activation of MgATPase occurs over a broad pH range of 6.5-8.5. Finally, like myosins, purified 110K-CM crosslinks actin filaments into loosely ordered aggregates in the absence of ATP. Collectively these data support the proposal of Collins and Borysenko (1984, J. Biol. Chem., 259:14128-14135) that the 110K-CM complex is functionally analogous to the mechanoenzyme myosin. PMID:2956266

  2. Phosphorylation and actin activation of brain myosin.

    PubMed Central

    Barylko, B; Sobieszek, A

    1983-01-01

    A method is described for obtaining brain myosin that shows significant actin activation, after phosphorylation with chicken gizzard myosin light chain kinase. Myosin with this activity could be obtained only via the initial purification of brain actomyosin. The latter complex, isolated by a method similar to that used for smooth muscle, contained actin, myosin, tropomyosin of the non-muscle type and another actin-binding protein of approximately 100,000 daltons. From the presence of a specific myosin light chain kinase and phosphatase in brain tissue it is suggested that the regulation of actin-myosin interaction operates via phosphorylation and dephosphorylation of myosin. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 3. PMID:11894951

  3. ATPase Activity of Pea Cotyledon Submitochondrial Particles

    PubMed Central

    Grubmeyer, Charles; Spencer, Mary

    1980-01-01

    Submitochondrial particles freshly prepared by sonication from pea cotyledon mitochondria showed low ATPase activity. Activity increased 20-fold on exposure to trypsin. The pea cotyledon submitochondrial particle ATPase was also activated by “aging” in vitro. At pH 7.0 addition of 1 millimolar ATP prevented the activation. ATPase of freshly prepared pea cotyledon submitochondrial particles had a substrate specificity similar to that of the soluble ATPase from pea cotyledon mitochondria, with GTPase > ATPase. “Aged” or trypsin-treated particles showed equal activity with the two substrates. NaCl and NaHCO3, which stimulate the ATPase but not the GTPase activity of the soluble pea enzyme, were stimulatory to both the ATPase and GTPase activities of freshly prepared submitochondrial particles. However, they were stimulatory only to the ATPase activity of trypsin-treated or “aged” submitochondrial particles. In contrast, the ATPase activity of rat liver submitochondrial particles was stimulated by HCO3−, but inhibited by Cl−, indicating that Cl− stimulation is a distinguishing property of the pea mitochondrial ATPase complex. PMID:16661174

  4. [ATPase and phosphatase activity of drone brood].

    PubMed

    Bodnarchuk, L I; Stakhman, O S

    2004-01-01

    Most researches on insect enzymes concern carbohydrate and nitrogenous exchange. Data on ATPase activity for larval material of drone brood are absent in the available literature. The drone brood is one of the least investigated apiproducts. Allowing for the important role of ATPase in the vital functions of the insect cells our work was aimed at the study of ATPase of the drone blood activity and that of alkaline and acid phosphatases. When studying liophylised preparations of the drone brood homogenate we have found out high activity of Mg2+, Na+, K+-, Ca2+- and Mg2+-ATPase and of alkaline and acid phosphatase, that is the possible explanation of the high-intensity power and plastic processes proceeding during growth and development of larvae.

  5. [ATPase and phosphatase activity of drone brood].

    PubMed

    Bodnarchuk, L I; Stakhman, O S

    2004-01-01

    Most researches on insect enzymes concern carbohydrate and nitrogenous exchange. Data on ATPase activity for larval material of drone brood are absent in the available literature. The drone brood is one of the least investigated apiproducts. Allowing for the important role of ATPase in the vital functions of the insect cells our work was aimed at the study of ATPase of the drone blood activity and that of alkaline and acid phosphatases. When studying liophylised preparations of the drone brood homogenate we have found out high activity of Mg2+, Na+, K+-, Ca2+- and Mg2+-ATPase and of alkaline and acid phosphatase, that is the possible explanation of the high-intensity power and plastic processes proceeding during growth and development of larvae. PMID:16350755

  6. Na+/K+-ATPase: Activity and inhibition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Čolović, M.; Krstić, D.; Krinulović, K.; Momić, T.; Savić, J.; Vujačić, A.; Vasić, V.

    2009-09-01

    The aim of the study was to give an overview of the mechanism of inhibition of Na+/K+-ATPase activity induced by some specific and non specific inhibitors. For this purpose, the effects of some ouabain like compounds (digoxin, gitoxin), noble metals complexes ([PtCl2DMSO2], [AuCl4]-, [PdCl4]2-, [PdCl(dien)]+, [PdCl(Me4dien)]+), transition metal ions (Cu2+, Zn2+, Fe2+, Co2+), and heavy metal ions (Hg2+, Pb2+, Cd2+) on the activity of Na+/K+-ATPase from rat synaptic plasma membranes (SPM), porcine cerebral cortex and human erythrocytes were discussed.

  7. Trypsin-induced ATPase Activity in Potato Mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Jung, D W; Laties, G G

    1976-04-01

    Potato mitochondria (Solanum tuberosum var. Russet Burbank), which readily phosphorylate ADP in oxidative phosphorylation, show low levels of ATPase activity which is stimulated neither by Mg(2+), 2,4-dinitrophenol, incubation with respiratory substrates, nor disruption by sonication or treatment with Triton X-100, individually or in concert. Treatment of disrupted potato mitochondria with trypsin stimulates Mg(2+)-dependent, oligomycin-sensitive ATPase activity 10- to 15-fold, suggesting the presence of an ATPase inhibitor protein. Trypsin-induced ATPase activity was unaffected by uncoupler. Oligomycin-sensitive ATPase activity decreases as exposure to trypsin is increased. Incubation at alkaline pH or heating at 60 C for 2 minutes also activates ATPase of sonicated potato mitochondria. Disruption of cauliflower (Brassica oleracea), red sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas), and carrot (Daucus carota) mitochondria increases ATPase activity, which is further enhanced by treatment with trypsin. The significance of the tight association of the inhibitor protein and ATPase in potato mitochondria is not clear.

  8. Trifluoperazine inhibits the MgATPase activity and in vitro motility of conventional and unconventional myosins.

    PubMed

    Sellers, James R; Wang, Fei; Chantler, Peter D

    2003-01-01

    Trifluoperazine, a calmodulin antagonist, has recently been shown to inhibit the MgATPase activity of scallop myosin in the absence of light chain dissociation (Patel et al. (2000) J Biol Chem 275: 4880-4888). To investigate the generality of this observation and the mechanism by which it occurs, we have examined the ability of trifluoperazine to inhibit the enzymatic properties of other conventional and unconventional myosins. We show that trifluoperazine can inhibit the actin-activated MgATPase activity of rabbit skeletal muscle myosin II heavy meromyosin (HMM), phosphorylated turkey gizzard smooth muscle myosin II HMM, phosphorylated human nonmuscle myosin IIA HMM and myosin V subfragment-1 (S1). In all cases half maximal inhibition occurred at 50-75 microM trifluoperazine while light chains (myosin II) or calmodulin (myosin V) remained associated with the heavy chains. In vitro motility of all myosins tested was completely inhibited by trifluoperazine. Chymotryptic digestion of baculovirus-expressed myosin V HMM possessing only two calmodulin binding sites yielded a minimal motor fragment with no bound calmodulin. The MgATPase of this fragment was inhibited by trifluoperazine over the same range of concentrations as the S1 fragment of myosin.

  9. Specific anion effects on ATPase activity, calmodulin sensitivity, and solubilization of dynein ATPases.

    PubMed

    Blum, J J; Hayes, A

    1984-01-01

    The basal ATPase activity of 30S dynein, whether obtained by extraction of ciliary axonemes with a high (0.5 M NaCl) or low (1 mM Tris-0.1 mM EDTA) ionic strength buffer is increased by NaCl, NaNO3, and Na acetate, with NaNO3 causing the largest increase. The calmodulin-activated ATPase activity of 30S dynein is also increased by addition of NaCl, NaNO3, or Na acetate, but the effects are less pronounced than on basal activity, so that the calmodulin activation ratio (CAR) decreases to 1.0 as salt concentration increases to 0.2 M. These salts also reduce the CAR of 14S dynein ATPase to 1.0 but by strongly inhibiting the calmodulin-activated ATPase activity and only slightly inhibiting the basal activity. Sodium fluoride differs both quantitatively and qualitatively from the other three salts studied. It inhibits the ATPase activity of both 14S and 30S dyneins at concentrations below 5 mM and, by a stronger inhibition of the calmodulin-activated ATPase activities, reduces the CAR to 1.0. Na acetate does not inhibit axonemal ATPase, nor does it interfere with the drop in turbidity caused by ATP and extracts very little protein from the axonemes. NaCl and, especially, NaNO3, cause a slow decrease in A350 of an axonemal suspension and an inhibition of the turbidity response to ATP. NaF, at concentrations comparable to those that inhibit the ATPase activities of the solubilized dyneins, also inhibits axonemal ATPase activity and the turbidity response. Pretreatment of demembranated axonemes with a buffer containing 0.25 M sodium acetate for 5 min followed by extraction for 5 min with a buffer containing 0.5 M NaCl and resolution of the extracted dynein on a sucrose density gradient generally yields a 30S dynein that is activated by calmodulin in a heterogeneous manner, ie, the "light" 30S dynein ATPase fractions are more activated than the "heavy" 30S dynein fractions. These results demonstrate specific anion effects on the basal and calmodulin-activated dynein ATPase

  10. Hyperthyroidism increases the uncoupled ATPase activity and heat production by the sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase.

    PubMed Central

    Arruda, Ana Paula; Da-Silva, Wagner S; Carvalho, Denise P; De Meis, Leopoldo

    2003-01-01

    The sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase is able to modulate the distribution of energy released during ATP hydrolysis, so that a portion of energy is used for Ca2+ transport (coupled ATPase activity) and a portion is converted into heat (uncoupled ATPase activity). In this report it is shown that T4 administration to rabbits promotes an increase in the rates of both the uncoupled ATPase activity and heat production in sarcoplasmic reticulum vesicles, and that the degree of activation varies depending on the muscle type used. In white muscles hyperthyroidism promotes a 0.8-fold increase of the uncoupled ATPase activity and in red muscle a 4-fold increase. The yield of vesicles from hyperthyroid muscles is 3-4-fold larger than that obtained from normal muscles; thus the rate of heat production by the Ca2+-ATPase expressed in terms of g of muscle in hyperthyroidism is increased by a factor of 3.6 in white muscles and 12.0 in red muscles. The data presented suggest that the Ca2+-ATPase uncoupled activity may represent one of the heat sources that contributes to the enhanced thermogenesis noted in hyperthyroidism. PMID:12887329

  11. Aurora kinase A activates the vacuolar H+-ATPase (V-ATPase) in kidney carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Al-Bataineh, Mohammad M; Alzamora, Rodrigo; Ohmi, Kazuhiro; Ho, Pei-Yin; Marciszyn, Allison L; Gong, Fan; Li, Hui; Hallows, Kenneth R; Pastor-Soler, Núria M

    2016-06-01

    Extracellular proton-secreting transport systems that contribute to extracellular pH include the vacuolar H(+)-ATPase (V-ATPase). This pump, which mediates ATP-driven transport of H(+) across membranes, is involved in metastasis. We previously showed (Alzamora R, Thali RF, Gong F, Smolak C, Li H, Baty CJ, Bertrand CA, Auchli Y, Brunisholz RA, Neumann D, Hallows KR, Pastor-Soler NM. J Biol Chem 285: 24676-24685, 2010) that V-ATPase A subunit phosphorylation at Ser-175 is important for PKA-induced V-ATPase activity at the membrane of kidney intercalated cells. However, Ser-175 is also located within a larger phosphorylation consensus sequence for Aurora kinases, which are known to phosphorylate proteins that contribute to the pathogenesis of metastatic carcinomas. We thus hypothesized that Aurora kinase A (AURKA), overexpressed in aggressive carcinomas, regulates the V-ATPase in human kidney carcinoma cells (Caki-2) via Ser-175 phosphorylation. We found that AURKA is abnormally expressed in Caki-2 cells, where it binds the V-ATPase A subunit in an AURKA phosphorylation-dependent manner. Treatment with the AURKA activator anacardic acid increased V-ATPase expression and activity at the plasma membrane of Caki-2 cells. In addition, AURKA phosphorylates the V-ATPase A subunit at Ser-175 in vitro and in Caki-2 cells. Immunolabeling revealed that anacardic acid induced marked membrane accumulation of the V-ATPase A subunit in transfected Caki-2 cells. However, anacardic acid failed to induce membrane accumulation of a phosphorylation-deficient Ser-175-to-Ala (S175A) A subunit mutant. Finally, S175A-expressing cells had decreased migration in a wound-healing assay compared with cells expressing wild-type or a phospho-mimetic Ser-175-to-Asp (S175D) mutant A subunit. We conclude that AURKA activates the V-ATPase in kidney carcinoma cells via phosphorylation of Ser-175 in the V-ATPase A subunit. This regulation contributes to kidney carcinoma V-ATPase-mediated extracellular

  12. Calcium Modulation of Plant Plasma Membrane-Bound Atpase Activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caldwell, C.

    1983-01-01

    The kinetic properties of barley enzyme are discussed and compared with those of other plants. Possibilities for calcium transport in the plasma membrane by proton pump and ATPase-dependent calcium pumps are explored. Topics covered include the ph phase of the enzyme; high affinity of barley for calcium; temperature dependence, activation enthalpy, and the types of ATPase catalytic sites. Attention is given to lipids which are both screened and bound by calcium. Studies show that barley has a calmodulin activated ATPase that is found in the presence of magnesium and calcium.

  13. Photosynthesis Activates Plasma Membrane H+-ATPase via Sugar Accumulation.

    PubMed

    Okumura, Masaki; Inoue, Shin-Ichiro; Kuwata, Keiko; Kinoshita, Toshinori

    2016-05-01

    Plant plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase acts as a primary transporter via proton pumping and regulates diverse physiological responses by controlling secondary solute transport, pH homeostasis, and membrane potential. Phosphorylation of the penultimate threonine and the subsequent binding of 14-3-3 proteins in the carboxyl terminus of the enzyme are required for H(+)-ATPase activation. We showed previously that photosynthesis induces phosphorylation of the penultimate threonine in the nonvascular bryophyte Marchantia polymorpha However, (1) whether this response is conserved in vascular plants and (2) the process by which photosynthesis regulates H(+)-ATPase phosphorylation at the plasma membrane remain unresolved issues. Here, we report that photosynthesis induced the phosphorylation and activation of H(+)-ATPase in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) leaves via sugar accumulation. Light reversibly phosphorylated leaf H(+)-ATPase, and this process was inhibited by pharmacological and genetic suppression of photosynthesis. Immunohistochemical and biochemical analyses indicated that light-induced phosphorylation of H(+)-ATPase occurred autonomously in mesophyll cells. We also show that the phosphorylation status of H(+)-ATPase and photosynthetic sugar accumulation in leaves were positively correlated and that sugar treatment promoted phosphorylation. Furthermore, light-induced phosphorylation of H(+)-ATPase was strongly suppressed in a double mutant defective in ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase and triose phosphate/phosphate translocator (adg1-1 tpt-2); these mutations strongly inhibited endogenous sugar accumulation. Overall, we show that photosynthesis activated H(+)-ATPase via sugar production in the mesophyll cells of vascular plants. Our work provides new insight into signaling from chloroplasts to the plasma membrane ion transport mechanism. PMID:27016447

  14. Recombinant motor domain constructs of Chara corallina myosin display fast motility and high ATPase activity.

    PubMed

    Ito, Kohji; Kashiyama, Taku; Shimada, Kiyo; Yamaguchi, Akira; Awata, Jun ya; Hachikubo, You; Manstein, Dietmar J; Yamamoto, Keiichi

    2003-12-26

    The mechanism and structural features that are responsible for the fast motility of Chara corallina myosin (CCM) have not been elucidated, so far. The low yields of native CCM that can be purified to homogeneity were the major reason for this. Here, we describe the expression of recombinant CCM motor domains, which support the fast movement of actin filaments in an in vitro motility assay. A CCM motor domain without light chain binding site moved actin filaments at a velocity of 8.8 microm/s at 30 degrees C and a CCM motor domain with an artificial lever arm consisting of two alpha-actinin repeats moved actin filaments at 16.2 microm/s. Both constructs displayed high actin-activated ATPase activities ( approximately 500 Pi/s/head), which is indicative of a very fast hydrolysis step. Our results provide an excellent system to dissect the specific structural and functional features that distinguish the myosin responsible for fast cytoplasmic streaming.

  15. Measuring In Vitro ATPase Activity for Enzymatic Characterization.

    PubMed

    Rule, Chelsea S; Patrick, Marcella; Sandkvist, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Adenosine triphosphate-hydrolyzing enzymes, or ATPases, play a critical role in a diverse array of cellular functions. These dynamic proteins can generate energy for mechanical work, such as protein trafficking and degradation, solute transport, and cellular movements. The protocol described here is a basic assay for measuring the in vitro activity of purified ATPases for functional characterization. Proteins hydrolyze ATP in a reaction that results in inorganic phosphate release, and the amount of phosphate liberated is then quantitated using a colorimetric assay. This highly adaptable protocol can be adjusted to measure ATPase activity in kinetic or endpoint assays. A representative protocol is provided here based on the activity and requirements of EpsE, the AAA+ ATPase involved in Type II Secretion in the bacterium Vibrio cholerae. The amount of purified protein needed to measure activity, length of the assay and the timing and number of sampling intervals, buffer and salt composition, temperature, co-factors, stimulants (if any), etc. may vary from those described here, and thus some optimization may be necessary. This protocol provides a basic framework for characterizing ATPases and can be performed quickly and easily adjusted as necessary. PMID:27584824

  16. A structural pathway for activation of the kinesin motor ATPase

    PubMed Central

    Yun, Mikyung; Zhang, Xiaohua; Park, Cheon-Gil; Park, Hee-Won; Endow, Sharyn A.

    2001-01-01

    Molecular motors move along actin or microtubules by rapidly hydrolyzing ATP and undergoing changes in filament-binding affinity with steps of the nucleotide hydrolysis cycle. It is generally accepted that motor binding to its filament greatly increases the rate of ATP hydrolysis, but the structural changes in the motor associated with ATPase activation are not known. To identify the conformational changes underlying motor movement on its filament, we solved the crystal structures of three kinesin mutants that decouple nucleotide and microtubule binding by the motor, and block microtubule-activated, but not basal, ATPase activity. Conformational changes in the structures include a disordered loop and helices in the switch I region and a visible switch II loop, which is disordered in wild-type structures. Switch I moved closer to the bound nucleotide in two mutant structures, perturbing water-mediated interactions with the Mg2+. This could weaken Mg2+ binding and accelerate ADP release to activate the motor ATPase. The structural changes we observe define a signaling pathway within the motor for ATPase activation that is likely to be essential for motor movement on microtubules. PMID:11387196

  17. Influence of activating hormones on human platelet membrane Ca/sup 2 +/-ATPase activity

    SciTech Connect

    Resink, T.J.; Dimitrov, D.; Stucki, S.; Buehler, F.R.

    1986-07-16

    Intact platelets were pretreated with hormones and thereafter membranes were prepared and Ca/sup 2 +/-ATPase activity determined. Thrombin decreased the V/sub max/ of Ca/sup 2 +/-ATPase after pretreatment of intact platelets. Platelet activating factor, vasopressin and ADP also decreased Ca/sup 2 +/-ATPase activity. 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) or A23187 or ionomycin alone had no effect, while the simultaneous pretreatment with TPA and Ca/sup 2 +/-ionophore decreased Ca/sup 2 +/-ATPase activity. cAMP elevating agents prostaglandin E/sub 1/ (PGE/sub 1/) and forskolin had no influence per se on Ca/sup 2 +/-ATPase, but antagonized the inhibitory effect of thrombin. The data suggest a close connection between phosphoinositide metabolism and the Ca/sup 2 +/-ATPase system.

  18. Cadmium inhibits motility, activities of plasma membrane Ca(2+)-ATPase and axonemal dynein-ATPase of human spermatozoa.

    PubMed

    Da Costa, R; Botana, D; Piñero, S; Proverbio, F; Marín, R

    2016-05-01

    Cd(2+) has been associated with decreased sperm motility in individuals exposed to this element, such as smokers. Among other factors, this lowered motility could be the result of inhibition exerted by Cd(2+) on the activity of the sperm ATPases associated with sperm motility. In this study, we evaluated the plasma membrane Ca(2+)-ATPase and the axonemal dynein-ATPase activities as well as sperm motility, in the presence of different free Cd(2+) concentrations in the assay media. It was found that spermatozoa incubated for 5 h in a medium containing 25 nm free Cd(2+) showed a significant inhibition of progressive motility, reaching values even lower at higher Cd(2+) concentrations. In addition, it was found that the activity of the plasma membrane Ca(2+)-ATPase reached maximal inhibition at 50 nm free Cd(2+), with a K50% inhibition of 18.3 nm free Cd(2+). The dynein-ATPase activity was maximally inhibited by 25 nm free Cd(2+) in the assay medium, with a K50% inhibition of 11.3 nm Cd(2+). Our results indicate that the decreased activity of the sperm ATPases might have a critical importance in the biochemical mechanisms underlying the decreased sperm motility of individuals exposed to Cd(2+). PMID:26259968

  19. Brain Na+, K+-ATPase Activity In Aging and Disease

    PubMed Central

    de Lores Arnaiz, Georgina Rodríguez; Ordieres, María Graciela López

    2014-01-01

    Na+/K+ pump or sodium- and potassium-activated adenosine 5’-triphosphatase (Na+, K+-ATPase), its enzymatic version, is a crucial protein responsible for the electrochemical gradient across the cell membranes. It is an ion transporter, which in addition to exchange cations, is the ligand for cardenolides. This enzyme regulates the entry of K+ with the exit of Na+ from cells, being the responsible for Na+/K+ equilibrium maintenance through neuronal membranes. This transport system couples the hydrolysis of one molecule of ATP to exchange three sodium ions for two potassium ions, thus maintaining the normal gradient of these cations in animal cells. Oxidative metabolism is very active in brain, where large amounts of chemical energy as ATP molecules are consumed, mostly required for the maintenance of the ionic gradients that underlie resting and action potentials which are involved in nerve impulse propagation, neurotransmitter release and cation homeostasis. Protein phosphorylation is a key process in biological regulation. At nervous system level, protein phosphorylation is the major molecular mechanism through which the function of neural proteins is modulted in response to extracellular signals, including the response to neurotransmitter stimuli. It is the major mechanism of neural plasticity, including memory processing. The phosphorylation of Na+, K+-ATPase catalytic subunit inhibits enzyme activity whereas the inhibition of protein kinase C restores the enzyme activity. The dephosphorylation of neuronal Na+, K+-ATPase is mediated by calcineurin, a serine / threonine phosphatase. The latter enzyme is involved in a wide range of cellular responses to Ca2+ mobilizing signals, in the regulation of neuronal excitability by controlling the activity of ion channels, in the release of neurotransmitters and hormones, as well as in synaptic plasticity and gene transcription. In the present article evidence showing Na+, K+-ATPase involvement in signaling pathways

  20. The effect of basketball training on the players' erythrocyte membrane acetylcholinesterase, (Na+,K+)-ATPase and Mg2+-ATPase activities.

    PubMed

    Parthimos, T; Tsopanakis, C; Angelogianni, P; Schulpis, K H; Parthimos, N; Tsakiris, S

    2007-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether the activities of erythrocyte membrane acetylcholinesterase (AChE), (Na (+),K (+))-ATPase and Mg (2+)-ATPase are modulated by a basketball training. Blood was obtained from 10 basketball players pre- and postexercise. Total antioxidant status (TAS), lactate and pyruvate concentrations were determined with kits, while the enzyme activities were determined spectrophotometrically. Post-training blood lactate and pyruvate concentrations as well as AChE (2.90 +/- 0.05 vs. 3.98 +/- 0.09 Delta OD/min . mg protein, p < 0.01) and Na (+),K (+)-ATPase (0.58 +/- 0.04 vs. 1.27 +/- 0.12 micromol Pi/h . mg protein, p < 0.001) activities were remarkably increased, whereas TAS was significantly decreased. Mg (2+)-ATPase activity remained unaltered at the end of the training. In conclusion, the stimulation of AChE and Na (+),K (+)-ATPase by the training may be due to the rise of blood catecholamine oxidation contributing to TAS decrease and/or the increase of serotonin levels. This stress condition may modulate cholinergic and catecholaminergic/serotoninergic functions in players.

  1. An RNA polymerase II transcription factor has an associated DNA-dependent ATPase (dATPase) activity strongly stimulated by the TATA region of promoters.

    PubMed Central

    Conaway, R C; Conaway, J W

    1989-01-01

    A transcription factor required for synthesis of accurately initiated run-off transcripts by RNA polymerase II has been purified and shown to have an associated DNA-dependent ATPase (dATPase) activity that is strongly stimulated by the TATA region of promoters. This transcription factor, designated delta, was purified more than 3000-fold from extracts of crude rat liver nuclei and has a native molecular mass of approximately 230 kDa. DNA-dependent ATPase (dATPase) and transcription activities copurify when delta is analyzed by hydrophobic interaction and ion-exchange HPLC, arguing that transcription factor delta possesses an ATPase (dATPase) activity. ATPase (dATPase) is specific for adenine nucleotides; ATP and dATP, but not CTP, UTP, or GTP, are hydrolyzed. ATPase (dATPase) is stimulated by both double-stranded and single-stranded DNAs, including pUC18, ssM13, and poly(dT); however, DNA fragments containing the TATA region of either the adenovirus 2 major late or mouse interleukin 3 promoters stimulate ATPase as much as 10-fold more effectively than DNA fragments containing nonpromoter sequences. These data suggest the intriguing possibility that delta plays a critical role in the ATP (dATP)-dependent activation of run-off transcription through a direct interaction with the TATA region of promoters. Images PMID:2552440

  2. Dietary selenium increases the antioxidant levels and ATPase activity in the arteries and veins of poultry.

    PubMed

    Cao, Changyu; Zhao, Xia; Fan, Ruifeng; Zhao, Jinxin; Luan, Yilin; Zhang, Ziwei; Xu, Shiwen

    2016-07-01

    Selenium (Se) deficiency is associated with the pathogenesis of vascular diseases. It has been shown that oxidative levels and ATPase activity were involved in Se deficiency diseases in humans and mammals; however, the mechanism by how Se influences the oxidative levels and ATPase activity in the poultry vasculature is unclear. We assessed the effects of dietary Se deficiency on the oxidative stress parameters (superoxide dismutase, catalase, and hydroxyl radical) and ATPase (Na(+)K(+)-ATPase, Ca(++)-ATPase, Mg(++)-ATPase, and Ca(++)Mg(++)-ATPase) activity in broiler poultry. A total of 40 broilers (1-day old) were randomly divided into a Se-deficient group (L group, fed a Se-deficient diet containing 0.08 mg/kg Se) and a control group (C group, fed a diet containing sodium selenite at 0.20 mg/kg Se). Then, arteries and veins were collected following euthanasia when typical symptoms of Se deficiency appeared. Antioxidant indexes and ATPase activity were evaluated using standard assays in arteries and veins. The results indicated that superoxide dismutase activity in the artery according to dietary Se deficiency was significantly lower (p < 0.05) compared with the C group. The catalase activity in the veins and hydroxyl radical inhibition in the arteries and veins by dietary Se deficiency were significantly higher (p < 0.05) compared with the C group. The Se-deficient group showed a significantly lower (p < 0.05) tendency in Na(+)K(+)-ATPase activity, Ca(++)-ATPase activity, and Ca(++)Mg(++)-ATPase activity. There were strong correlations between antioxidant indexes and Ca(++)-ATPase activity. Thus, these results indicate that antioxidant indexes and ATPases may have special roles in broiler artery and vein injuries under Se deficiency. PMID:26637493

  3. Oscillations in glycolysis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae: the role of autocatalysis and intracellular ATPase activity.

    PubMed

    Kloster, Antonina; Olsen, Lars Folke

    2012-05-01

    We have investigated the glycolytic oscillations, measured as NADH autofluorescence, in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae in a batch reactor. Specifically, we have tested the effect of cell density and a number of inhibitors or activators of ATPase activity on the amplitude of the oscillations. The amplitude dependence on cell density shows the same behavior as that observed in cells in a CSTR. Furthermore, the amplitude decreases with increasing inhibition of the three ATPases (i) F(0)F(1) ATPase, (ii) plasma membrane ATPase (Pma1p) and (iii) vacuolar ATPase (V-ATPase). The amplitude of the oscillations also decreases by stimulating the ATPase activity, e.g. by FCCP or Amphotericin B. Thus, ATPase activity strongly affects the glycolytic oscillations. We discuss these data in relation to a simple autocatalytic model of glycolysis which can reproduce the experimental data and explain the role of membrane-bound ATPases . In addition we also studied a recent detailed model of glycolysis and found that, although this model faithfully reproduces the oscillations of glycolytic intermediates observed experimentally, it is not able to explain the role of ATPase activity on the oscillations.

  4. Substrate independent ATPase activity may complicate high throughput screening.

    PubMed

    Tuntland, Micheal L; Fung, L W-M

    2016-10-01

    Inorganic phosphate release, [Pi], is often measured in an enzymatic reaction in a high throughput setting. Based on the published mechanism, we designed a protocol for our screening for inhibitors of SAICAR synthetase (PurC), and we found a gradual increase in [Pi] in positive control samples over the course of the day. Further investigation indicated that hydrolysis of ATP catalyzed by PurC, rather than substrate-related phosphate release, was responsible for a partial contribution to the signals in the control samples. Thus substrate-independent ATPase activity may complicate high throughput screening. PMID:27430931

  5. Origin of concurrent ATPase activities in skinned cardiac trabeculae from rat.

    PubMed Central

    Ebus, J P; Stienen, G J

    1996-01-01

    1. To determine the rate of ATP turnover by the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca2+ pump in cardiac muscle, and to assess the contributions of other ATPase activities to the overall ATP turnover rate, ATPase activity and isometric force production were studied in saponin-skinned trabeculae from rat. ATP hydrolysis was enzymatically coupled to the oxidation of NADH; the concentration of NADH was monitored photometrically. All measurements were performed at 20 +/- 1 degrees C and pH 7.0. Resting sarcomere length was adjusted to 2.1 microns. All solutions contained 5 mM caffeine to ensure continuous release of Ca2+ from the SR. 2. The Ca(2+)-independent ATPase activity, determined in relaxing solution (pCa 9), amounted to 130 +/- 13 microM s-1 (mean +/- S.E.M., n = 7) at the beginning of an experiment. During subsequent measurements in relaxing solution, a decrease in ATPase activity was observed, indicative of loss of membrane-bound ATPase activity. The steady-state Ca(2+)-independent (basal) ATPase activity was 83 +/- 5 microM s-1 (n = 66). 3. Treatment of saponin-skinned preparations with Triton X-100 abolished 50 microM s-1 (60%) of the basal ATPase activity. Addition of ouabain (1 mM) suppressed 14 +/- 5% of the basal activity, whereas 8 +/- 3% was suppressed by 20 microM cyclopiazonic acid (CPA). It is argued that 31 microM s-1 of the basal ATPase activity may be associated with MgATPase from the transverse tubular system. 4. The maximal Ca(2+)-activated ATPase activity, i.e. the total ATPase activity (determined in activating solution, pCa 4.3) corrected for basal ATPase activity, was found to be 409 +/- 15 microM s-1 (n = 66). Experiments with CPA indicated that at least 9 +/- 6% of the maximal Ca(2+)-activated ATPase activity originates from the sarcoplasmic Ca2+ pump. These experiments indicate that the rate of ATP consumption by the SR Ca2+ transporting ATPase amounts to at least 37 microM s-1. 5. Treatment of preparations with Triton X-100 abolished 15 +/- 3

  6. Rapid activation of gill Na+,K+-ATPase in the euryhaline teleost Fundulus heteroclitus

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mancera, J.M.; McCormick, S.D.

    2000-01-01

    The rapid activation of gill Na+,K+-ATPase was analyzed in the mummichog (Fundulus heteroclitus) and Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) transferred from low salinity (0.1 ppt) to high salinity (25-35 ppt). In parr and presmolt, Salmo salar gill Na+,K+-ATPase activity started to increase 3 days after transfer. Exposure of Fundulus heteroclitus to 35 ppt seawater (SW) induced a rise in gill Na+,K+-ATPase activity 3 hr after transfer. After 12 hr, the values dropped to initial levels but showed a second significant increase 3 days after transfer. The absence of detergent in the enzyme assay resulted in lower values of gill Na+,K+-ATPase, and the rapid increase after transfer to SW was not observed. Na+,K+-ATPase activity of gill filaments in vitro for 3 hr increased proportionally to the osmolality of the culture medium (600 mosm/kg > 500 mosm/kg > 300 mosm/kg). Osmolality of 800 mosm/kg resulted in lower gill Na+,K+-ATPase activity relative to 600 mosm/kg. Increasing medium osmolality to 600 mosm/kg with mannitol also increased gill Na+,K+-ATPase. Cycloheximide inhibited the increase in gill Na+,K+-ATPase activity observed in hyperosmotic medium in a dose-dependent manner (10-4 M > 10-5 M > 10-6 M). Actinomycin D or bumetanide in the culture (doses of 10-4 M, 10-5 M, and 10-6 M) did not affect gill Na+,K+-ATPase. Injection of fish with actinomycin D prior to gill organ culture, however, prevented the increase in gill Na+,K+-ATPase activity in hyperosmotic media. The results show a very rapid and transitory increase in gill Na+,K+-ATPase activity in the first hours after the transfer of Fundulus heteroclitus to SW that is dependent on translational and transcriptional processes. (C) 2000 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  7. Studies on lipids and the activity of Na,K-ATPase in lens fibre cells.

    PubMed Central

    Dean, W L; Delamere, N A; Borchman, D; Moseley, A E; Ahuja, R P

    1996-01-01

    Na,K-ATPase was studied in the two cell types that make up the lens of the eye. Membrane material was isolated from lens fibre cells, which make up the bulk of the lens cell mass, and also from lens epithelial cells, which are present only as a monolayer on the anterior lens surface. Judged by immunoblotting, greater amounts of Na,K-ATPase alpha1 and beta1 polypeptides were found in fibre cell membrane material than in epithelial cell membrane material. However, the NA,K-ATPase activity in epithelial cell membrane material was 20 times that measured in fibre cell membrane material. In 86Rb uptake experiments with intact lenses, ouabain-inhibitable 86Rb uptake was observed for lens epithelium but not for lens fibres. These findings are consistent with a low Na,K-ATPase activity in lens fibre cells even though these cells express a considerable amount of Na,K-ATPase alpha1 and beta1 polypeptides. The lipid composition of lens fibre cell membranes causes them to be more ordered than epithelial cell membranes; this was confirmed by measurements of the infrared CH2 symmetric stretching band frequency. Because lipid composition can influence Na,K-ATPase activity, experiments were conducted to determine whether the activity of Na,K-ATPase alpha1 beta1 is inhibited by lens fibre lipid. However, no significant difference in Na,K-ATPase activity was detected when Na,K-ATPase alpha1 beta1 was purified from rabbit kidney and then reconstituted with lipid that had been isolated from either lens epithelium or lens fibre cells. These studies indicate that lens fibre cells contain both Na,K-ATPase alpha1 and beta1 polypeptides but have low Na,K-ATPase activity. However, the results do not support the notion that this is due to the lipid composition of lens fibre cell membranes. PMID:8615795

  8. [ATPase activity of the guinea pig central nervous system tissue with experimental allergic encephalomyelitis].

    PubMed

    Metal'nikova, N P; Terlets'ka, Ia T; Belik, Ia V; Chepurko, V N

    1977-01-01

    It is established that the activity of Na+, K+ = ATPase and Mg2+, Ca2+ = ATPase lowers significantly at the paralytic stage of the disease. At earlier stages of the disease preceding the appearance of peculiar neurological symptoms (the seventh and fourteenth days of the incubation period) a decrease of the Mg2+, Ca2+ = ATPase activity was observed in the brain and spinal cord, whereas the Na+, K+ = ATPase activity in the brain remained at the control level up to the appearance of the disease clearly developed symptoms. The Na+, K+ = ATPase activity of the brain on the fourteenth day of the incubation period corresponded to the level of the activity at the paralytic stage of the disease.

  9. Effect of hindlimb unweighting on single soleus fiber maximal shortening velocity and ATPase activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcdonald, K. S.; Fitts, R. H.

    1993-01-01

    The effect of hindlimb unweighting (HU) for 1 to 3 wks on the shortening velocity of a soleus fiber, its ATPase content, and the relative contents of the slow and fast myosin was investigated by measuring fiber force, V(0), ATPase activity, and myosin content in SDS protein profiles of a single rat soleus fiber suspended between a motor arm and a transducer. It was found that HU induces a progressive increase in fiber V(0) that is likely caused, at least in part, by an increase in the fiber's myofibrillar ATPase activity. The HU-induced increases in V(0) and ATPase were associated with the presence of a greater percentage of fast type IIa fibers. However, a large population of fibers after 1, 2, and 3 wks of HU showed increases in V(0) and ATPase but displayed the same myosin protein profile on SDS gels as control fibers.

  10. Auxin activates the plasma membrane H+-ATPase by phosphorylation during hypocotyl elongation in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Koji; Hayashi, Ken-ichiro; Kinoshita, Toshinori

    2012-06-01

    The phytohormone auxin is a major regulator of diverse aspects of plant growth and development. The ubiquitin-ligase complex SCF(TIR1/AFB) (for Skp1-Cul1-F-box protein), which includes the TRANSPORT INHIBITOR RESPONSE1/AUXIN SIGNALING F-BOX (TIR1/AFB) auxin receptor family, has recently been demonstrated to be critical for auxin-mediated transcriptional regulation. Early-phase auxin-induced hypocotyl elongation, on the other hand, has long been explained by the acid-growth theory, for which proton extrusion by the plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase is a functional prerequisite. However, the mechanism by which auxin mediates H(+)-ATPase activation has yet to be elucidated. Here, we present direct evidence for H(+)-ATPase activation in etiolated hypocotyls of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) by auxin through phosphorylation of the penultimate threonine during early-phase hypocotyl elongation. Application of the natural auxin indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) to endogenous auxin-depleted hypocotyl sections induced phosphorylation of the penultimate threonine of the H(+)-ATPase and increased H(+)-ATPase activity without altering the amount of the enzyme. Changes in both the phosphorylation level of H(+)-ATPase and IAA-induced elongation were similarly concentration dependent. Furthermore, IAA-induced H(+)-ATPase phosphorylation occurred in a tir1-1 afb2-3 double mutant, which is severely defective in auxin-mediated transcriptional regulation. In addition, α-(phenylethyl-2-one)-IAA, the auxin antagonist specific for the nuclear auxin receptor TIR1/AFBs, had no effect on IAA-induced H(+)-ATPase phosphorylation. These results suggest that the TIR1/AFB auxin receptor family is not involved in auxin-induced H(+)-ATPase phosphorylation. Our results define the activation mechanism of H(+)-ATPase by auxin during early-phase hypocotyl elongation; this is the long-sought-after mechanism that is central to the acid-growth theory.

  11. Na,K-ATPase activity in mouse muscle is regulated by AMPK and PGC-1α.

    PubMed

    Ingwersen, Maria S; Kristensen, Michael; Pilegaard, Henriette; Wojtaszewski, Jørgen F P; Richter, Erik A; Juel, Carsten

    2011-07-01

    Na,K-ATPase activity, which is crucial for skeletal muscle function, undergoes acute and long-term regulation in response to muscle activity. The aim of the present study was to test the hypothesis that AMP kinase (AMPK) and the transcriptional coactivator PGC-1α are underlying factors in long-term regulation of Na,K-ATPase isoform (α,β and PLM) abundance and Na(+) affinity. Repeated treatment of mice with the AMPK activator AICAR decreased total PLM protein content but increased PLM phosphorylation, whereas the number of α- and β-subunits remained unchanged. The K(m) for Na(+) stimulation of Na,K-ATPase was reduced (higher affinity) after AICAR treatment. PLM abundance was increased in AMPK kinase-dead mice compared with control mice, but PLM phosphorylation and Na,K-ATPase Na(+) affinity remained unchanged. Na,K-ATPase activity and subunit distribution were also measured in mice with different degrees of PGC-1α expression. Protein abundances of α1 and α2 were reduced in PGC-1α +/- and -/- mice, and the β(1)/β(2) ratio was increased with PGC-1α overexpression (TG mice). PLM protein abundance was decreased in TG mice, but phosphorylation status was unchanged. Na,K-ATPase V (max) was decreased in PCG-1α TG and KO mice. Experimentally in vitro induced phosphorylation of PLM increased Na,K-ATPase Na(+) affinity, confirming that PLM phosphorylation is important for Na,K-ATPase function. In conclusion, both AMPK and PGC-1α regulate PLM abundance, AMPK regulates PLM phosphorylation and PGC-1α expression influences Na,K-ATPase α(1) and α(2) content and β(1)/β(2) isoform ratio. Phosphorylation of the Na,K-ATPase subunit PLM is an important regulatory mechanism.

  12. Ca2+ activates human homologous recombination protein Rad51 by modulating its ATPase activity

    PubMed Central

    Bugreev, Dmitry V.; Mazin, Alexander V.

    2004-01-01

    Human Rad51 (hRad51) protein plays a key role in homologous recombination and DNA repair. hRad51 protein forms a helical filament on single-stranded DNA (ssDNA), which performs the basic steps of homologous recombination: a search for homologous double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) and DNA strand exchange. hRad51 protein possesses DNA-dependent ATPase activity; however, the role of this activity has not been understood. Our current results show that Ca2+ greatly stimulates DNA strand exchange activity of hRad51 protein. We found that Ca2+ exerts its stimulatory effect by modulating the ATPase activity of hRad51 protein. Our data demonstrate that, in the presence of Mg2+, the hRad51-ATP-ssDNA filament is quickly converted to an inactive hRad51-ADP-ssDNA form, due to relatively rapid ATP hydrolysis and slow dissociation of ADP. Ca2+ maintains the active hRad51-ATP-ssDNA filament by reducing the ATP hydrolysis rate. These findings demonstrate a crucial role of the ATPase activity in regulation of DNA strand exchange activity of hRad51 protein. This mechanism of Rad51 protein regulation by modulating its ATPase activity is evolutionarily recent; we found no such mechanism for yeast Rad51 (yRad51) protein. PMID:15226506

  13. Comparison of developmental gradients for growth, ATPase, and fusicoccin-binding activity in mung bean hypocotyls

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Basel, L. E.; Cleland, R. E.

    1992-01-01

    A comparison has been made of the developmental gradients along a mung bean (Vigna radiata L.) hypocotyl of the growth rate, plasma membrane ATPase, and fusicoccin-binding protein (FCBP) activity to determine whether they are interrelated. The hook and four sequential 7.5 millimeter segments of the hypocotyl below the hook were cut. A plasma membrane-enriched fraction was isolated from each section by aqueous two-phase partitioning and assayed for vanadate-sensitive ATPase and FCBP activity. Each gradient had a distinctive and different pattern. Endogenous growth rate was maximal in the second section and much lower in the others. Vanadate-sensitive ATPase activity was maximal in the third section, but remained high in the older sections. Amounts of ATPase protein, shown by specific antibody binding, did not correlate with the amount of vanadate-sensitive ATPase activity in the three youngest sections. FCBP activity was almost absent in the first section, then increased to a maximum in the oldest sections. These data show that the growth rate is not determined by the ATPase activity, and that there are no fixed ratios between the ATPase and FCBP.

  14. Abscisic Acid Induction of Vacuolar H+-ATPase Activity in Mesembryanthemum crystallinum Is Developmentally Regulated1

    PubMed Central

    Barkla, Bronwyn J.; Vera-Estrella, Rosario; Maldonado-Gama, Minerva; Pantoja, Omar

    1999-01-01

    Abscisic acid (ABA) has been implicated as a key component in water-deficit-induced responses, including those triggered by drought, NaCl, and low- temperature stress. In this study a role for ABA in mediating the NaCl-stress-induced increases in tonoplast H+-translocating ATPase (V-ATPase) and Na+/H+ antiport activity in Mesembryanthemum crystallinum, leading to vacuolar Na+ sequestration, were investigated. NaCl or ABA treatment of adult M. crystallinum plants induced V-ATPase H+ transport activity, and when applied in combination, an additive effect on V-ATPase stimulation was observed. In contrast, treatment of juvenile plants with ABA did not induce V-ATPase activity, whereas NaCl treatment resulted in a similar response to that observed in adult plants. Na+/H+ antiport activity was induced in both juvenile and adult plants by NaCl, but ABA had no effect at either developmental stage. Results indicate that ABA-induced changes in V-ATPase activity are dependent on the plant reaching its adult phase, whereas NaCl-induced increases in V-ATPase and Na+/H+ antiport activity are independent of plant age. This suggests that ABA-induced V-ATPase activity may be linked to the stress-induced, developmentally programmed switch from C3 metabolism to Crassulacean acid metabolism in adult plants, whereas, vacuolar Na+ sequestration, mediated by the V-ATPase and Na+/H+ antiport, is regulated through ABA-independent pathways. PMID:10398716

  15. New aspects of the glucose activation of the H(+)-ATPase in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Souza, M A; Trópia, M J; Brandão, R L

    2001-10-01

    The glucose-induced activation of plasma membrane ATPase from Saccharomyces cerevisiae was first described by Serrano in 1983. Many aspects of this signal transduction pathway are still obscure. In this paper, evidence is presented for the involvement of Snf3p as the glucose sensor related to this activation process. It is shown that, in addition to glucose detection by Snf3p, sugar transport is also necessary for activation of the ATPase. The participation of the G protein, Gpa2p, in transducing the internal signal (phosphorylated sugars) is also demonstrated. Moreover, the involvement of protein kinase C in the regulation of ATPase activity is confirmed. Finally, a model pathway is presented for sensing and transmission of the glucose activation signal of the yeast H(+)-ATPase.

  16. Leishmania amazonensis: PKC-like protein kinase modulates the (Na++K+)ATPase activity.

    PubMed

    Almeida-Amaral, Elmo Eduardo de; Caruso-Neves, Celso; Lara, Lucienne Silva; Pinheiro, Carla Mônica; Meyer-Fernandes, José Roberto

    2007-08-01

    The present study aimed to identify the presence of protein kinase C-like (PKC-like) in Leishmania amazonensis and to elucidate its possible role in the modulation of the (Na(+)+K(+))ATPase activity. Immunoblotting experiments using antibody against a consensus sequence (Ac 543-549) of rabbit protein kinase C (PKC) revealed the presence of a protein kinase of 80 kDa in L. amazonensis. Measurements of protein kinase activity showed the presence of both (Ca(2+)-dependent) and (Ca(2+)-independent) protein kinase activity in plasma membrane and cytosol. Phorbol ester (PMA) activation of the Ca(2+)-dependent protein kinase stimulated the (Na(+)+K(+))ATPase activity, while activation of the Ca(2+)-independent protein kinase was inhibitory. Both effects of protein kinase on the (Na(+)+K(+))ATPase of the plasma membrane were lower than that observed in intact cells. PMA induced the translocation of protein kinase from cytosol to plasma membrane, indicating that the maximal effect of protein kinase on the (Na(+)+K(+))ATPase activity depends on the synergistic action of protein kinases from both plasma membrane and cytosol. This is the first demonstration of a protein kinase activated by PMA in L. amazonensis and the first evidence for a possible role in the regulation of the (Na(+)+K(+))ATPase activity in this trypanosomatid. Modulation of the (Na(+)+K(+))ATPase by protein kinase in a trypanosomatid opens up new possibilities to understand the regulation of ion homeostasis in this parasite. PMID:17475255

  17. Suppression of Na+/K+-ATPase activity during estivation in the land snail Otala lactea.

    PubMed

    Ramnanan, Christopher J; Storey, Kenneth B

    2006-02-01

    Entry into the hypometabolic state of estivation requires a coordinated suppression of the rate of cellular ATP turnover, including both ATP-generating and ATP-consuming reactions. As one of the largest consumers of cellular ATP, the plasma membrane Na+/K+-ATPase is a potentially key target for regulation during estivation. Na+/K+-ATPase was investigated in foot muscle and hepatopancreas of the land snail Otala lactea, comparing active and estivating states. In both tissues enzyme properties changed significantly during estivation: maximal activity was reduced by about one-third, affinity for Mg.ATP was reduced (Km was 40% higher), and activation energy (derived from Arrhenius plots) was increased by approximately 45%. Foot muscle Na+/K+-ATPase from estivated snails also showed an 80% increase in Km Na+ and a 60% increase in Ka Mg2+ as compared with active snails, whereas hepatopancreas Na+/K+-ATPase showed a 70% increase in I50 K+ during estivation. Western blotting with antibodies recognizing the alpha subunit of Na+/K+-ATPase showed no change in the amount of enzyme protein during estivation. Instead, the estivation-responsive change in Na+/K+-ATPase activity was linked to posttranslational modification. In vitro incubations manipulating endogenous kinase and phosphatase activities indicated that Na+/K+-ATPase from estivating snails was a high phosphate, low activity form, whereas dephosphorylation returned the enzyme to a high activity state characteristic of active snails. Treatment with protein kinases A, C or G could all mediate changes in enzyme properties in vitro that mimicked the effect of estivation, whereas treatments with protein phosphatase 1 or 2A had the opposite effect. Reversible phosphorylation control of Na+/K+-ATPase can provide the means of coordinating ATP use by this ion pump with the rates of ATP generation by catabolic pathways in estivating snails. PMID:16449562

  18. Photosynthesis Activates Plasma Membrane H+-ATPase via Sugar Accumulation1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Okumura, Masaki; Inoue, Shin-ichiro; Kuwata, Keiko

    2016-01-01

    Plant plasma membrane H+-ATPase acts as a primary transporter via proton pumping and regulates diverse physiological responses by controlling secondary solute transport, pH homeostasis, and membrane potential. Phosphorylation of the penultimate threonine and the subsequent binding of 14-3-3 proteins in the carboxyl terminus of the enzyme are required for H+-ATPase activation. We showed previously that photosynthesis induces phosphorylation of the penultimate threonine in the nonvascular bryophyte Marchantia polymorpha. However, (1) whether this response is conserved in vascular plants and (2) the process by which photosynthesis regulates H+-ATPase phosphorylation at the plasma membrane remain unresolved issues. Here, we report that photosynthesis induced the phosphorylation and activation of H+-ATPase in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) leaves via sugar accumulation. Light reversibly phosphorylated leaf H+-ATPase, and this process was inhibited by pharmacological and genetic suppression of photosynthesis. Immunohistochemical and biochemical analyses indicated that light-induced phosphorylation of H+-ATPase occurred autonomously in mesophyll cells. We also show that the phosphorylation status of H+-ATPase and photosynthetic sugar accumulation in leaves were positively correlated and that sugar treatment promoted phosphorylation. Furthermore, light-induced phosphorylation of H+-ATPase was strongly suppressed in a double mutant defective in ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase and triose phosphate/phosphate translocator (adg1-1 tpt-2); these mutations strongly inhibited endogenous sugar accumulation. Overall, we show that photosynthesis activated H+-ATPase via sugar production in the mesophyll cells of vascular plants. Our work provides new insight into signaling from chloroplasts to the plasma membrane ion transport mechanism. PMID:27016447

  19. Leishmania amazonensis: effects of heat shock on ecto-ATPase activity.

    PubMed

    Peres-Sampaio, Carlos Eduardo; de Almeida-Amaral, Elmo Eduardo; Giarola, Naira Ligia Lima; Meyer-Fernandes, José Roberto

    2008-05-01

    In this work we demonstrated that promastigotes of Leishmania amazonensis exhibit an Mg-dependent ecto-ATPase activity, which is stimulated by heat shock. The Mg-dependent ATPase activity of cells grown at 22 and 28 degrees C was 41.0+/-5.2 nmol Pi/h x 10(7)cells and 184.2+/-21.0 nmol Pi/h x 10(7)cells, respectively. When both promastigotes were pre-incubated at 37 degrees C for 2h, the ATPase activity of cells grown at 22 degrees C was increased to 136.4+/-10.6 nmol Pi/h x 10(7) whereas that the ATPase activity of cells grown at 28 degrees C was not modified by the heat shock (189.8+/-10.3 nmol Pi/h x 10(7)cells). It was observed that Km of the enzyme from cells grown at 22 degrees C (Km=980.2+/-88.6 microM) was the same to the enzyme from cells grown at 28 degrees C (Km=901.4+/-91.9 microM). In addition, DIDS (4,4'-diisothiocyanatostilbene 2,2'-disulfonic acid) and suramin, two inhibitors of ecto-ATPases, also inhibited similarly the ATPase activities from promastigotes grown at 22 and 28 degrees C. We also observed that cells grown at 22 degrees C exhibit the same ecto-phosphatase and ecto 3'- and 5'-nucleotidase activities than cells grown at 28 degrees C. Interestingly, cycloheximide, an inhibitor of protein synthesis, suppressed the heat-shock effect on ecto-ATPase activity of cells grown at 22 degrees C were exposed at 37 degrees C for 2h. A comparison between the stimulation of the Mg-dependent ecto-ATPase activity of virulent and avirulent promastigotes by the heat shock showed that avirulent promastigotes had a higher stimulation than virulent promastigotes after heat stress. PMID:18295760

  20. The promiscuous phosphomonoestearase activity of Archaeoglobus fulgidus CopA, a thermophilic Cu+ transport ATPase.

    PubMed

    Bredeston, Luis M; González Flecha, F Luis

    2016-07-01

    Membrane transport P-type ATPases display two characteristic enzymatic activities: a principal ATPase activity provides the driving force for ion transport across biological membranes, whereas a promiscuous secondary activity catalyzes the hydrolysis of phosphate monoesters. This last activity is usually denoted as the phosphatase activity of P-ATPases. In the present study, we characterize the phosphatase activity of the Cu(+)-transport ATPase from Archaeglobus fulgidus (Af-CopA) and compare it with the principal ATPase activity. Our results show that the phosphatase turnover number was 20 times higher than that corresponding to the ATPase activity, but it is compensated by a high value of Km, producing a less efficient catalysis for pNPP. This secondary activity is enhanced by Mg(2+) (essential activator) and phospholipids (non-essential activator), and inhibited by salts and Cu(+). Transition state analysis of the catalyzed and noncatalyzed hydrolysis of pNPP indicates that Af-CopA enhances the reaction rates by a factor of 10(5) (ΔΔG(‡)=38 kJ/mol) mainly by reducing the enthalpy of activation (ΔΔH(‡)=30 kJ/mol), whereas the entropy of activation is less negative on the enzyme than in solution. For the ATPase activity, the decrease in the enthalpic component of the barrier is higher (ΔΔH(‡)=39 kJ/mol) and the entropic component is small on both the enzyme and in solution. These results suggest that different mechanisms are involved in the transference of the phosphoryl group of p-nitrophenyl phosphate and ATP. PMID:27086711

  1. Protein Kinase C-α Interaction with F0F1-ATPase Promotes F0F1-ATPase Activity and Reduces Energy Deficits in Injured Renal Cells*

    PubMed Central

    Nowak, Grażyna; Bakajsova, Diana

    2015-01-01

    We showed previously that active PKC-α maintains F0F1-ATPase activity, whereas inactive PKC-α mutant (dnPKC-α) blocks recovery of F0F1-ATPase activity after injury in renal proximal tubules (RPTC). This study tested whether mitochondrial PKC-α interacts with and phosphorylates F0F1-ATPase. Wild-type PKC-α (wtPKC-α) and dnPKC-α were overexpressed in RPTC to increase their mitochondrial levels, and RPTC were exposed to oxidant or hypoxia. Mitochondrial levels of the γ-subunit, but not the α- and β-subunits, were decreased by injury, an event associated with 54% inhibition of F0F1-ATPase activity. Overexpressing wtPKC-α blocked decreases in γ-subunit levels, maintained F0F1-ATPase activity, and improved ATP levels after injury. Deletion of PKC-α decreased levels of α-, β-, and γ-subunits, decreased F0F1-ATPase activity, and hindered the recovery of ATP content after RPTC injury. Mitochondrial PKC-α co-immunoprecipitated with α-, β-, and γ-subunits of F0F1-ATPase. The association of PKC-α with these subunits decreased in injured RPTC overexpressing dnPKC-α. Immunocapture of F0F1-ATPase and immunoblotting with phospho(Ser) PKC substrate antibody identified phosphorylation of serine in the PKC consensus site on the α- or β- and γ-subunits. Overexpressing wtPKC-α increased phosphorylation and protein levels, whereas deletion of PKC-α decreased protein levels of α-, β-, and γ-subunits of F0F1-ATPase in RPTC. Phosphoproteomics revealed phosphorylation of Ser146 on the γ subunit in response to wtPKC-α overexpression. We concluded that active PKC-α 1) prevents injury-induced decreases in levels of γ subunit of F0F1-ATPase, 2) interacts with α-, β-, and γ-subunits leading to increases in their phosphorylation, and 3) promotes the recovery of F0F1-ATPase activity and ATP content after injury in RPTC. PMID:25627689

  2. L-Cysteine and glutathione restore the reduction of rat hippocampal Na+, K+-ATPase activity induced by aspartame metabolites.

    PubMed

    Simintzi, Irene; Schulpis, Kleopatra H; Angelogianni, Panagoula; Liapi, Charis; Tsakiris, Stylianos

    2007-07-31

    Studies have implicated aspartame (ASP) ingestion in neurological problems. The aim of this study was to evaluate hippocampal Na(+),K(+)-ATPase and Mg(2+)-ATPase activities after incubation with ASP or each of ASP metabolites, phenylalanine (Phe), methanol (MeOH) and aspartic acid (asp) separately. Suckling rat hippocampal homogenates or pure Na(+),K(+)-ATPase were incubated with ASP metabolites. Na(+),K(+)-ATPase and Mg(2+)-ATPase activities were measured spectrophotometrically. Incubation of hippocampal or pure Na(+),K(+)-ATPase with ASP concentrations (expected in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)) after ASP consumption of 34, 150 or 200mg/kg resulted in hippocampal enzyme activity reduction of 26%, 50% or 59%, respectively, whereas pure enzyme was remarkably stimulated. Moreover, incubation with hippocampal homogenate of each one of the corresponding in the CSF ASP metabolites related to the intake of common, high/abuse doses of the sweetener, inhibited Na(+),K(+)-ATPase, while pure enzyme was activated. Hippocampal Mg(2+)-ATPase remained unaltered. Addition of l-cysteine (cys) or reduced glutathione (GSH) in ASP mixtures, related with high/toxic doses of the sweetener, completely or partially restored the inactivated membrane Na(+),K(+)-ATPase, whereas the activated pure enzyme activity returned to normal. CSF concentrations of ASP metabolites related to common, abuse/toxic doses of the additive significantly reduced rat hippocampal Na(+),K(+)-ATPase activity, whereas pure enzyme was activated. Cys or GSH completely or partially restored both enzyme activities.

  3. Effect of alpha-actinin on actin structure. Actin ATPase activity.

    PubMed

    Singh, I; Goll, D E; Robson, R M

    1981-08-28

    Alpha-Actinin increases the ATPase activity of actin by up to 84%, depending un pH, divalent cations present and the added Mg2+: ATP ratio. Dithiothreitol decreases actin ATPase activity approx. 20% but does not reduce the ability of alpha-actinin to increase actin ATP activity. Increasing amounts of added alpha-actinin up to 1 mos alpha-actinin to 49 mol actin cause in increasing increment in actin ATPase activity, but adding alpha-actinin beyond 1 mol alpha-actinin to 49 mol actin elicits only small additional increments in activity. Actin ATPase activity ranges from approx 100 nmol Pi/mg actin per h (4.3 mol Pi/mol actin per h) at high levels (10 mM) of ATP in the presence of lower amounts (1 mM) of added mg2+ to approx. 12.5 nmol Pi/mg actin per h (0.52 mol Pi/mol actin per h) at high pH (8.5) or at low levels (0.5-1.0 mM) of ATP in the presence of higher amounts (10 mM) of added Mg2+ ATp uncomplexed with Mg2+ inhibits the ability of alpha-actinin to increase F-actin ATPase activity. Activities with different divalent cations showed that the actin ATPase in these studies, which was 1/100 as great as Mg2+-modified actomyosin ATPase activity, was not due to trace amounts of myosin contaminating the actin preparations. The results are consistent with the concept that alpha-actinin can alter the structure of actin monomers. PMID:6456018

  4. Myofibril ATPase activity of cardiac and skeletal muscle of exhaustively exercised rats.

    PubMed

    Belcastro, A N; Turcotte, R; Rossiter, M; Secord, D; Maybank, P E

    1984-01-01

    The activation characteristics of Mg-ATP and Ca2+ on cardiac and skeletal muscle myofibril ATPase activity were studied in rats following a run to exhaustion. In addition, the effect of varying ionic strength was determined on skeletal muscle from exhausted animals. The exhausted group (E) ran at a speed of 25 m min-1 with an 8% incline. Myofibril ATPase activities for control (C) and E were determined with 1, 3 and 5 mM Mg-ATP and 1 and 10 microM Ca2+ at pH 7.0 and 30 degrees C. For control skeletal muscle, at 1 and 10 microM Ca2+, there was an increase in ATPase activity from 1 to 5 mM Mg-ATP (P less than 0.05). For E animals the myofibril ATPase activities at 10 microM Ca2+ and all Mg-ATP concentrations were similar to C (P greater than 0.05). At 1.0 microM Ca2+ and all Mg-ATP concentrations were similar to C (P greater than 0.05). At 1.0 microM Ca2+ the activities at 3 and 5 mM Mg-ATP were greater for the E animals (P less than 0.05). Increasing KCl concentrations resulted in greater inhibition for E animals. With cardiac muscle, the myofibril ATPase activities at 1.0 microM free Ca2+ were lower for E at all Mg-ATP levels (P less than 0.05). In contrast, at 10 microM Ca2+, the E group exhibited an elevated myofibril ATPase activity. The results indicate that Mg-ATP and Ca2+ activation of cardiac and skeletal muscle myofibril ATPase is altered with exhaustive exercise. PMID:6230276

  5. Cholesterol-mediated activation of P-glycoprotein: distinct effects on basal and drug-induced ATPase activities.

    PubMed

    Belli, Sara; Elsener, Priska M; Wunderli-Allenspach, Heidi; Krämer, Stefanie D

    2009-05-01

    Cholesterol promotes basal and verapamil-induced ATPase activity of P-glycoprotein (P-gp). We investigated whether these effects are related to each other and to the impact of the sterol on bilayer fluidity and verapamil membrane affinity. P-gp was reconstituted in egg-phosphatidylcholine (PhC) liposomes with or without cholesterol, 1,2-dipalmitoyl-phosphatidylcholine (DPPC), alpha-tocopherol (alpha-Toc) or 2,2,5,7,8-pentamethyl-6-chromanol (PMC). Basal and verapamil-induced ATPase activities were studied with an enzymatic assay. Membrane fluidity was characterized with diphenyl-hexatriene anisotropy measurements and membrane affinity by equilibrium dialysis. DPPC (70% mol/mol) decreased the fluidity of PhC bilayers to the same level as 20% cholesterol. PMC (20%) and alpha-Toc (20%) decreased the fluidity to lesser extents. alpha-Toc and PMC, but not DPPC increased the verapamil membrane affinity. While 20% cholesterol strikingly enhanced the basal ATPase activity, none of the other constituents had a similar effect. In contrast, verapamil stimulation of P-gp ATPase activity was not only enabled by cholesterol but also by alpha-Toc and DPPC. PMC had no effect. In conclusion, cholesterol exerts distinct effects on basal and verapamil-induced ATPase activity. The influence on basal ATPase activity is sterol-specific while its effect on verapamil-induced ATPase activity is unspecific and not related to its influence on membrane fluidity and on verapamil membrane affinity.

  6. Agrin regulation of alpha3 sodium-potassium ATPase activity modulates cardiac myocyte contraction.

    PubMed

    Hilgenberg, Lutz G W; Pham, Bryan; Ortega, Maria; Walid, Saif; Kemmerly, Thomas; O'Dowd, Diane K; Smith, Martin A

    2009-06-19

    Drugs that inhibit Na,K-ATPases, such as digoxin and ouabain, alter cardiac myocyte contractility. We recently demonstrated that agrin, a protein first identified at the vertebrate neuromuscular junction, binds to and regulates the activity of alpha3 subunit-containing isoforms of the Na,K-ATPase in the mammalian brain. Both agrin and the alpha3 Na,K-ATPase are expressed in heart, but their potential for interaction and effect on cardiac myocyte function was unknown. Here we show that agrin binds to the alpha3 subunit of the Na,K-ATPase in cardiac myocyte membranes, inducing tyrosine phosphorylation and inhibiting activity of the pump. Agrin also triggers a rapid increase in cytoplasmic Na(+) in cardiac myocytes, suggesting a role in cardiac myocyte function. Consistent with this hypothesis, spontaneous contraction frequencies of cultured cardiac myocytes prepared from mice in which agrin expression is blocked by mutation of the Agrn gene are significantly higher than in the wild type. The Agrn mutant phenotype is rescued by acute treatment with recombinant agrin. Furthermore, exposure of wild type myocytes to an agrin antagonist phenocopies the Agrn mutation. These data demonstrate that the basal frequency of myocyte contraction depends on endogenous agrin-alpha3 Na,K-ATPase interaction and suggest that agrin modulation of the alpha3 Na,K-ATPase is important in regulating heart function.

  7. Glycolytic control of vacuolar-type ATPase activity: A mechanism to regulate influenza viral infection

    SciTech Connect

    Kohio, Hinissan P.; Adamson, Amy L.

    2013-09-15

    As new influenza virus strains emerge, finding new mechanisms to control infection is imperative. In this study, we found that we could control influenza infection of mammalian cells by altering the level of glucose given to cells. Higher glucose concentrations induced a dose-specific increase in influenza infection. Linking influenza virus infection with glycolysis, we found that viral replication was significantly reduced after cells were treated with glycolytic inhibitors. Addition of extracellular ATP after glycolytic inhibition restored influenza infection. We also determined that higher levels of glucose promoted the assembly of the vacuolar-type ATPase within cells, and increased vacuolar-type ATPase proton-transport activity. The increase of viral infection via high glucose levels could be reversed by inhibition of the proton pump, linking glucose metabolism, vacuolar-type ATPase activity, and influenza viral infection. Taken together, we propose that altering glucose metabolism may be a potential new approach to inhibit influenza viral infection. - Highlights: • Increased glucose levels increase Influenza A viral infection of MDCK cells. • Inhibition of the glycolytic enzyme hexokinase inhibited Influenza A viral infection. • Inhibition of hexokinase induced disassembly the V-ATPase. • Disassembly of the V-ATPase and Influenza A infection was bypassed with ATP. • The state of V-ATPase assembly correlated with Influenza A infection of cells.

  8. Luminal flow modulates H+-ATPase activity in the cortical collecting duct (CCD).

    PubMed

    Liu, Wen; Pastor-Soler, Núria M; Schreck, Carlos; Zavilowitz, Beth; Kleyman, Thomas R; Satlin, Lisa M

    2012-01-01

    Epithelial Na(+) channel (ENaC)-mediated Na(+) absorption and BK channel-mediated K(+) secretion in the cortical collecting duct (CCD) are modulated by flow, the latter requiring an increase in intracellular Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)](i)), microtubule integrity, and exocytic insertion of preformed channels into the apical membrane. As axial flow modulates HCO(3)(-) reabsorption in the proximal tubule due to changes in both luminal Na(+)/H(+) exchanger 3 and H(+)-ATPase activity (Du Z, Yan Q, Duan Y, Weinbaum S, Weinstein AM, Wang T. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 290: F289-F296, 2006), we sought to test the hypothesis that flow also regulates H(+)-ATPase activity in the CCD. H(+)-ATPase activity was assayed in individually identified cells in microperfused CCDs isolated from New Zealand White rabbits, loaded with the pH-sensitive dye BCECF, and then subjected to an acute intracellular acid load (NH(4)Cl prepulse technique). H(+)-ATPase activity was defined as the initial rate of bafilomycin-inhibitable cell pH (pH(i)) recovery in the absence of luminal K(+), bilateral Na(+), and CO(2)/HCO(3)(-), from a nadir pH of ∼6.2. We found that 1) an increase in luminal flow rate from ∼1 to 5 nl·min(-1)·mm(-1) stimulated H(+)-ATPase activity, 2) flow-stimulated H(+) pumping was Ca(2+) dependent and required microtubule integrity, and 3) basal and flow-stimulated pH(i) recovery was detected in cells that labeled with the apical principal cell marker rhodamine Dolichos biflorus agglutinin as well as cells that did not. We conclude that luminal flow modulates H(+)-ATPase activity in the rabbit CCD and that H(+)-ATPases therein are present in both principal and intercalated cells. PMID:21957178

  9. Methylphenidate treatment increases Na(+), K (+)-ATPase activity in the cerebrum of young and adult rats.

    PubMed

    Scherer, Emilene B S; Matté, Cristiane; Ferreira, Andréa G K; Gomes, Karin M; Comim, Clarissa M; Mattos, Cristiane; Quevedo, João; Streck, Emilio L; Wyse, Angela T S

    2009-12-01

    Methylphenidate is a central nervous system stimulant used for the treatment of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. Na(+), K(+)-ATPase is a membrane-bound enzyme necessary to maintain neuronal excitability. Considering that methylphenidate effects on central nervous system metabolism are poorly known and that Na(+), K(+)-ATPase is essential to normal brain function, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of this drug on Na(+), K(+)-ATPase activity in the cerebrum of young and adult rats. For acute administration, a single injection of methylphenidate (1.0, 2.0, or 10.0 mg/Kg) or saline was given to rats on postnatal day 25 or postnatal day 60, in the young and adult groups, respectively. For chronic administration, methylphenidate (1.0, 2.0, or 10.0 mg/Kg) or saline injections were given to young rats starting at postnatal day 25 once daily for 28 days. In adult rats, the same regimen was performed starting at postnatal day 60. Our results showed that acute methylphenidate administration increased Na(+), K(+)-ATPase activity in hippocampus, prefrontal cortex, and striatum of young and adult rats. In young rats, chronic administration of methylphenidate also enhanced Na(+), K(+)-ATPase activity in hippocampus and prefrontal cortex, but not in striatum. When tested in adult rats, Na(+), K(+)-ATPase activity was increased in all cerebral structures studied. The present findings suggest that increased Na(+), K(+)-ATPase activity may be associated with neuronal excitability caused by methylphenidate.

  10. Ca2+-dependent phosphatase and Ca2+-dependent ATPase activities in plasma membranes of eel gill epithelium--III. Stimulation of branchial high-affinity Ca2+-ATPase activity during prolactin-induced hypercalcemia in American eels.

    PubMed

    Flik, G; Wendelaar Bonga, S E; Fenwick, J C

    1984-01-01

    Infusions of ovine prolactin for 10 days induced hypercalcemia in unfed American eels, Anguilla rostrata LeSueur, that tentatively was related to stimulation of branchial Ca2+-uptake mechanisms. Analysis of ATPase activities in the plasma membranes of the branchial epithelium in prolactin treated eels showed a specific stimulation of high-affinity Ca2+-ATPase. The results of this study form further evidence that the high-affinity Ca2+-ATPase activity represents the Ca2+-pump of the branchial epithelium.

  11. Ca/sup 2 +/-CaM-ATPase activity after corticosterone binding to synaptosomal plasma membrane

    SciTech Connect

    Iqbal, Z.; Sze, P.Y.

    1986-03-01

    Studies conducted in the laboratory have demonstrated that corticosterone (CS) binds specifically to synaptosomal plasma membrane (SPM) and modify the cellular events in the synaptosomes. On an exposure of a rat brain synaptosomes to physiological concentrations (<1..mu..M) of CS, the uptake of /sup 45/Ca/sup 2 +/ into synaptosomes was increased by 40-50%. Similarly the binding of /sup 45/Ca/sup 2 +/ to isolated SPM was also enhanced by 50% in the presence of CS. However when intact synaptosomes were pre-incubated with CS, the capacity of membranes to bind /sup 45/Ca/sup 2 +/ was increased by 2-fold. After the incubation of intact synaptosomes with < ..mu..M CS, the activity of trifluoperazine sensitive and CaM dependent Ca/sup 2 +/-ATPase at 1..mu..M Ca/sup 2 +/ was found to be stimulated by 20-30% whereas the activity of Ca/sup 2 +/-ATPase at 1mM Ca/sup 2 +/ remained unaffected. Exposure of synaptosomes to CS was also effective in protecting the reduction of ouabain-sensitive ATPase (Na/sup +/-K/sup +/-ATPase) activity caused by 0.5% ethanol used as a solvent medium for CS. These findings suggest that one of the physiological actions of CS in synaptosomes, after binding to synaptosomal plasma membranes, is an enhancement of Ca/sup 2 +/ transport and an increase of Ca/sup 2 +/-CaM-ATPase activity.

  12. The Apparent Rates of Crossbridge Attachment and Detachment Estimated from Atpase Activity in Insect Flight Muscle

    PubMed Central

    Güth, K.; Poole, K. J. V.; Maughan, D.; Kuhn, H. J.

    1987-01-01

    The ATPase activity of single fibers of small fiber bundles (one to three fibers) of insect flight muscle was measured when fibers were repetitively released and restretched by 1.5% of their initial length. The ATPase activity increased with increasing duration of release-restretch pulses applied at a constant repetition frequency, reaching a maximum at a duration of ∼20 ms. For a given duration, the average ATPase activity also increased with increasing frequency of applied length changes and reached a maximum (200% of the isometric ATPase) at a frequency of ∼50 Hz. The data could be fitted to a two-state model in which the apparent rate of crossbridge detachment is enhanced when the crossbridges are mechanically released. Estimates of the apparent rates of attachment and detachment in the isometrically contracting state and of the enhanced detachment rate of unloaded crossbridges were derived from fits to the two-state model. After short pulses of releasing and restretching the fiber the force was low and increased after the restretch in a roughly exponential manner to the initial level. The rate at which force increased after a release-restretch pulse was similar to the sum of the apparent attachment and detachment rates for the isometrically contracting muscle derived from the ATPase activity measurements. PMID:19431712

  13. Inhibition of ecto-ATPase activities impairs HIV-1 infection of macrophages.

    PubMed

    Schachter, Julieta; Delgado, Kelly Valcárcel; Barreto-de-Souza, Victor; Bou-Habib, Dumith Chequer; Persechini, Pedro Muanis; Meyer-Fernandes, José Roberto

    2015-05-01

    Nucleotides and nucleosides are secreted into extracellular media at different concentrations as a consequence of different physiologic and pathological conditions. Ecto-nucleotidases, enzymes present on the surface of most cells, hydrolyze these extracellular nucleotides and reduce the concentration of them, thus affecting the activation of different nucleotide and nucleoside receptors. Also, ecto-nucleotidases are present in a number of microorganisms and play important roles in host-pathogen interactions. Here, we characterized the ecto-ATPase activities present on the surface of HIV-1 particle and human macrophages as well. We found that the kinetic properties of HIV-1 and macrophage ecto-ATPases are similar, suggesting that the enzyme is the same. This ecto-ATPase activity was increased in macrophages infected in vitro with HIV-1. Using three different non-related ecto-ATPase inhibitors-POM-1, ARL67156 and BG0-we showed that the inhibition of these macrophage and viral ecto-ATPase activities impairs HIV-1 infection. In addition, we also found that elevated extracellular concentrations of ATP inhibit HIV-1 production by infected macrophages.

  14. Organophosphate inhibition of avian salt gland Na, K-ATPase activity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eastin, W.C.; Fleming, W.J.; Murray, H.C.

    1982-01-01

    1. Adult black ducks (Anas rubripes) were given freshwater or saltwater (1.5% NaCl) for 11 days and half of each group was also given an organophosphate (17 p.p.m. fenthion) in the diet on days 6-11. 2. After 11 days, ducks drinking saltwater had lost more weight and had higher plasma Na and uric acid concentrations and osmolalities than birds drinking freshwater. 3. Saltwater treatment stimulated the salt gland to increased weight and Na, K-ATPase activity. 4. Fenthion generally reduced plasma and brain cholinesterase activity and depressed cholinesterase and Na, K-ATPase activities in salt glands of birds drinking saltwater.

  15. Active ingredients in Chinese medicines promoting blood circulation as Na+/K+-ATPase inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ronald JY; Jinn, Tzyy-rong; Chen, Yi-ching; Chung, Tse-yu; Yang, Wei-hung; Tzen, Jason TC

    2011-01-01

    The positive inotropic effect of cardiac glycosides lies in their reversible inhibition on the membrane-bound Na+/K+-ATPase in human myocardium. Steroid-like compounds containing a core structure similar to cardiac glycosides are found in many Chinese medicines conventionally used for promoting blood circulation. Some of them are demonstrated to be Na+/K+-ATPase inhibitors and thus putatively responsible for their therapeutic effects via the same molecular mechanism as cardiac glycosides. On the other hand, magnesium lithospermate B of danshen is also proposed to exert its cardiac therapeutic effect by effectively inhibiting Na+/K+-ATPase. Theoretical modeling suggests that the number of hydrogen bonds and the strength of hydrophobic interaction between the effective ingredients of various medicines and residues around the binding pocket of Na+/K+-ATPase are crucial for the inhibitory potency of these active ingredients. Ginsenosides, the active ingredients in ginseng and sanqi, substantially inhibit Na+/K+-ATPase when sugar moieties are attached only to the C-3 position of their steroid-like structure, equivalent to the sugar position in cardiac glycosides. Their inhibitory potency is abolished, however, when sugar moieties are linked to C-6 or C-20 position of the steroid nucleus; presumably, these sugar attachments lead to steric hindrance for the entrance of ginsenosides into the binding pocket of Na+/K+-ATPase. Neuroprotective effects of cardiac glycosides, several steroid-like compounds, and magnesium lithospermate B against ischemic stroke have been accordingly observed in a cortical brain slice-based assay model, and cumulative data support that effective inhibitors of Na+/K+-ATPase in the brain could be potential drugs for the treatment of ischemic stroke. PMID:21293466

  16. Active ingredients in Chinese medicines promoting blood circulation as Na+/K+ -ATPase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ronald J Y; Jinn, Tzyy-rong; Chen, Yi-ching; Chung, Tse-yu; Yang, Wei-hung; Tzen, Jason T C

    2011-02-01

    The positive inotropic effect of cardiac glycosides lies in their reversible inhibition on the membrane-bound Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase in human myocardium. Steroid-like compounds containing a core structure similar to cardiac glycosides are found in many Chinese medicines conventionally used for promoting blood circulation. Some of them are demonstrated to be Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase inhibitors and thus putatively responsible for their therapeutic effects via the same molecular mechanism as cardiac glycosides. On the other hand, magnesium lithospermate B of danshen is also proposed to exert its cardiac therapeutic effect by effectively inhibiting Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase. Theoretical modeling suggests that the number of hydrogen bonds and the strength of hydrophobic interaction between the effective ingredients of various medicines and residues around the binding pocket of Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase are crucial for the inhibitory potency of these active ingredients. Ginsenosides, the active ingredients in ginseng and sanqi, substantially inhibit Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase when sugar moieties are attached only to the C-3 position of their steroid-like structure, equivalent to the sugar position in cardiac glycosides. Their inhibitory potency is abolished, however, when sugar moieties are linked to C-6 or C-20 position of the steroid nucleus; presumably, these sugar attachments lead to steric hindrance for the entrance of ginsenosides into the binding pocket of Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase. Neuroprotective effects of cardiac glycosides, several steroid-like compounds, and magnesium lithospermate B against ischemic stroke have been accordingly observed in a cortical brain slice-based assay model, and cumulative data support that effective inhibitors of Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase in the brain could be potential drugs for the treatment of ischemic stroke.

  17. [Na,K-ATPase activity of erythrocytes of rats during prolonged starvation].

    PubMed

    Skverchinskaia, E A; Tavrovskaia, T V; Novozhilov, A V

    2013-01-01

    Activity of Na,K-ATPase (Na+,K+-adenosine triphosphatase, EC 3.6.3.9) in the whole erythrocytes was studied in dynamics of the complete rat alimentary starvation for 1, 3, 5, 7-8, and 10-12 days with water drinking ad libitum. There has been established a change of the erythrocyte Na,K-ATPase activity depending on the phase of starvation (the period connected with a certain level of metabolism). After the state on an empty stomach and adaptation to endogenous nutrition (the 0-I phase), from the 3rd to the 7-8th starvation day, the II phase, the period of compensated adaptation occurs (the euglycemia is preserved, the plateau level is preserved, the plateau level is achieved for protein loss and hormonal stimulation). Changes of the Na,K-ATPase activity level within the limits of the II phase were insignificant (p < 0.05), but loses of potassium content in plasma and erythrocytes have been from the 5th starvation day. The III phase (the 12-13th day) is the beginning of the terminal period and is characterized by a decrease of the Na,K-ATPase activity (the oubain-sensitive activity) and of Mg2+-ATPase (the oubain-independent activity), by a decrease of the plasma sodium level (prior to that, this level remained practically unchanged). Ad causes of the revealed decrease of the ATPase activities at the long-term starvation, there are considered aging of population of circulating erythrocytes (the absence of reticulocytes and young erythrocytes), depletion of cell energetic resources (hypoglycemia and glycopenia), effect of endogenous oubain, and endotoxemia.

  18. Selective decrease of Na+/k+ -ATPase activity in the brain of hypothyroid rats.

    PubMed

    Pacheco-Rosado, Jorge; Arias-Citalán, G; Ortiz-Butrón, R; Rodríquez-Páez, L

    2005-01-01

    The present work was performed in order to know if mild hypothyroidism in rats modifies the activity of the Na+/K+ -ATPase in different regions of the brain. Male Wistar rats (300-350 g) were randomly divided into three groups: (1) control group (n=8) drank tap water. (2) hypothyroid group (n=8) treated with 60 mg/kg of methimazole in drinking water; and (3) replaced group (n=8) treated with 60 mg/kg of methimazole plus 35 microg/kg of thyroid hormone (T3) in drinking water. After four weeks of treatment, the rats of all groups were sacrificed by decapitation. The cortex, amygdala, hippocampus and cerebellum were dissected and frozen at -70 degrees C until assay. For enzymatic assay, the tissues were homogenized. The Na+/K+ -ATPase activity was determined by quantifying inorganic phosphate after the samples were incubated with ATP in the presence and absence of 1 mM ouabain. The Na+/K+ -ATPase activity is expressed as pmoles Pi/hr/mg protein. The results showed that the Na+/K+ -ATPase activity in the cortex, amygdala and hippocampus, but not in cerebellum, was lower in hypothyroid group than in control group (p<0.05). The co-administration of methimazole and T3 avoided the decrease of Na+/K+ -ATPase activity, except in amygdala. According to the results obtained we concluded that methimazole treatment decreased the Na+/K+- ATPase activity in the brain's regions which are related to seizures onset. That decrement in enzyme activity was avoided with the coadministration of thyroid hormone.

  19. ATPase activity measurement of DNA replicative helicase from Bacillus stearothermophilus by malachite green method.

    PubMed

    Yang, Mu; Wang, Ganggang

    2016-09-15

    The DnaB helicase from Bacillus stearothermophilus (DnaBBst) was a model protein for studying the bacterial DNA replication. In this work, a non-radioactive method for measuring ATPase activity of DnaBBst helicase was described. The working parameters and conditions were optimized. Furthermore, this method was applied to investigate effects of DnaG primase, ssDNA and helicase loader protein (DnaI) on ATPase activity of DnaBBst. Our results showed this method was sensitive and efficient. Moreover, it is suitable for the investigation of functional interaction between DnaB and related factors.

  20. ATPase activity measurement of DNA replicative helicase from Bacillus stearothermophilus by malachite green method.

    PubMed

    Yang, Mu; Wang, Ganggang

    2016-09-15

    The DnaB helicase from Bacillus stearothermophilus (DnaBBst) was a model protein for studying the bacterial DNA replication. In this work, a non-radioactive method for measuring ATPase activity of DnaBBst helicase was described. The working parameters and conditions were optimized. Furthermore, this method was applied to investigate effects of DnaG primase, ssDNA and helicase loader protein (DnaI) on ATPase activity of DnaBBst. Our results showed this method was sensitive and efficient. Moreover, it is suitable for the investigation of functional interaction between DnaB and related factors. PMID:27372608

  1. Relation of Na+, K(+)-ATPase to delayed motor nerve conduction velocity: effect of aldose reductase inhibitor, ADN-138, on Na+, K(+)-ATPase activity.

    PubMed

    Hirata, Y; Okada, K

    1990-06-01

    The role of sorbitol, myo-inositol, and Na+, K(+)-adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase) activity on motor nerve conduction velocity (MNCV) in streptozotocin (STZ)-diabetic rats was studied. Reduction of MNCV and Na+, K(+)-ATPase in caudal nerves appeared after 3 weeks of diabetes, and at this time treatment with aldose reductase inhibitor (ARI), ADN-138 and 1% myo-inositol supplement was begun. One percent myo-inositol supplement for 3 weeks resulted in a significant increase in myo-inositol levels in diabetic nerves, but left MNCV and sorbitol levels unchanged. In contrast, treatment with ADN-138 for 3 weeks reduced sorbitol levels in diabetic nerves and resulted in significant increases in MNCV and Na+, K(+)-ATPase in the nerves. Since ADN-138 did not restore myo-inositol levels, the increase in Na+, K(+)-ATPase levels by ADN-138 treatment was independent of myo-inositol levels. Also, nerve Na+ levels in ADN-138-treated rats were reduced and the ratio of K+ to Na+ was raised, while 1% myo-inositol supplement did not affect them. These results suggest that treatment with ADN-138 elevates MNCV through a series of processes: ARI----reduction of sorbitol level----increase in Na+, K(+)-ATPase activity----correction of K+, Na+ imbalance----increase in MNCV.

  2. Glucose-induced activation of the plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase in Fusarium oxysporum.

    PubMed

    Brandão, R L; Castro, I M; Passos, J B; Nicoli, J R; Thevelein, J M

    1992-08-01

    Addition of glucose and other sugars to derepressed cells of the fungus Fusarium oxysporum var. lini triggered activation of the plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase within 5 min. Glucose was the best activator while galactose and lactose had a lesser effect. The activation was not prevented by previous addition of cycloheximide and it was fully reversible when the glucose was removed. The activation process in vivo also caused changes in the kinetic properties of the enzyme. The non-activated enzyme had an apparent Km of about 3.2 mM for ATP whereas the activated enzyme showed an apparent Km of 0.26 mM. In addition, the pH optimum of the H(+)-ATPase changed from 6.0 to 7.5 upon activation. The activated enzyme was more sensitive to inhibition by vanadate. When F. oxysporum was cultivated in media containing glucose as the major carbon source, enhanced H(+)-ATPase activity was largely confined to the period corresponding to the lag phase, i.e. just before the start of acidification of the medium. This suggests that the activation process might play a role in the onset of extracellular acidification. Addition of glucose to F. oxysporum var. lini cells also caused an increase in the cAMP level. No reliable increase could be demonstrated for the other sugars. Addition of proton ionophores such as DNP and CCCP at pH 5.0 caused both a large increase in the intracellular level of cAMP and in the activity of the plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase. Inhibition of the DNP-induced increase in the cAMP level by acridine orange also resulted in inhibition of the activation of plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  3. P-glycoprotein ATPase activity requires lipids to activate a switch at the first transmission interface.

    PubMed

    Loo, Tip W; Clarke, David M

    2016-04-01

    P-glycoprotein (P-gp) is an ABC (ATP-Binding Cassette) drug pump. A common feature of ABC proteins is that they are organized into two wings. Each wing contains a transmembrane domain (TMD) and a nucleotide-binding domain (NBD). Drug substrates and ATP bind at the interface between the TMDs and NBDs, respectively. Drug transport involves ATP-dependent conformational changes between inward- (open, NBDs far apart) and outward-facing (closed, NBDs close together) conformations. P-gps crystallized in the presence of detergent show an open structure. Human P-gp is inactive in detergent but basal ATPase activity is restored upon addition of lipids. The lipids might cause closure of the wings to bring the NBDs close together to allow ATP hydrolysis. We show however, that cross-linking the wings together did not activate ATPase activity when lipids were absent suggesting that lipids may induce other structural changes required for ATPase activity. We then tested the effect of lipids on disulfide cross-linking of mutants at the first transmission interface between intracellular loop 4 (TMD2) and NBD1. Mutants L443C/S909C and L443C/R905C but not G471C/S909C and V472C/S909C were cross-linked with oxidant when in membranes. The mutants were then purified and cross-linked with or without lipids. Mutants G471C/S909C and V472C/S909C cross-linked only in the absence of lipids whereas mutants L443C/S909C and L443C/R905C were cross-linked only in the presence of lipids. The results suggest that lipids activate a switch at the first transmission interface and that the structure of P-gp is different in detergents and lipids. PMID:26944019

  4. P-glycoprotein ATPase activity requires lipids to activate a switch at the first transmission interface.

    PubMed

    Loo, Tip W; Clarke, David M

    2016-04-01

    P-glycoprotein (P-gp) is an ABC (ATP-Binding Cassette) drug pump. A common feature of ABC proteins is that they are organized into two wings. Each wing contains a transmembrane domain (TMD) and a nucleotide-binding domain (NBD). Drug substrates and ATP bind at the interface between the TMDs and NBDs, respectively. Drug transport involves ATP-dependent conformational changes between inward- (open, NBDs far apart) and outward-facing (closed, NBDs close together) conformations. P-gps crystallized in the presence of detergent show an open structure. Human P-gp is inactive in detergent but basal ATPase activity is restored upon addition of lipids. The lipids might cause closure of the wings to bring the NBDs close together to allow ATP hydrolysis. We show however, that cross-linking the wings together did not activate ATPase activity when lipids were absent suggesting that lipids may induce other structural changes required for ATPase activity. We then tested the effect of lipids on disulfide cross-linking of mutants at the first transmission interface between intracellular loop 4 (TMD2) and NBD1. Mutants L443C/S909C and L443C/R905C but not G471C/S909C and V472C/S909C were cross-linked with oxidant when in membranes. The mutants were then purified and cross-linked with or without lipids. Mutants G471C/S909C and V472C/S909C cross-linked only in the absence of lipids whereas mutants L443C/S909C and L443C/R905C were cross-linked only in the presence of lipids. The results suggest that lipids activate a switch at the first transmission interface and that the structure of P-gp is different in detergents and lipids.

  5. [Changes in acetylcholinesterase and ATPase activity and certain structural features of the erythrocyte membrane in experimental myocardial ischemia].

    PubMed

    Chernukh, A M; Kopteva, L A; Shevchenko, A S

    1980-09-01

    Acute heart ischemia induced by ligation of the left coronary artery is associated with variation in the activity of acetylcholinesterase, Na, K-ATPase and Ca, Mg-ATPase in rat erythrocytes. The maximum pronounced variations in the enzymatic activity and in the membrane capacity of erythroblasts for binding direct turquoise are recorded on the 7th day of the experimental myocardial infarction.

  6. Characterization of ATPase activity of the AAA ARC from Bifidobacterium longum subsp. infantis.

    PubMed

    Guzmán-Rodríguez, Mabel; de la Rosa, Ana Paulina Barba; Santos, Leticia

    2015-01-01

    Bifidobacteria are considered to be probiotics that exist in the large intestine and are helpful to maintain human health. Oral administration of bifidobacteria may be effective in improving the intestinal flora and environment, stimulating the immune response and possibly preventing cancer. However, for consistent and positive results, further well-controlled studies are urgently needed to describe the basic mechanisms of this microorganism. Analysis of the proteasome-lacking Bifidobacterium longum genome reveals that it possesses a gene, IPR003593 AAA ATPase core, which codes a 56 kDa protein containing one AAA ATPase domain. Phylogenetic classification made by CLANS, positioned this sequence into the ARC divergent branch of the AAA ATPase family of proteins. N-terminal analysis of the sequence indicates this protein is closely related to other ATPases such as the Rhodococcus erythropolis ARC, Archaeoglobus fulgidus PAN, Mycobacterium tuberculosis Mpa and the human proteasomal Rpt1 subunit. This gene was cloned, the full-length recombinant protein was overexpressed in Escherichia coli, purified as a high-molecular size complex and named Bl-ARC. Enzymatic characterization showed that Bl-ARC ATPase is active, Mg(+2)-dependent and sensitive to N-ethylmaleimide. Gene organization positions bl-arc in a region flanked by a cluster of genes that includes pup, dop and pafA genes. These findings point to a possible function as a chaperone in the degradation pathway via pupylation.

  7. Effect of TGFβ on Na{sup +}/K{sup +} ATPase activity in megakaryocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Hosseinzadeh, Zohreh; Schmid, Evi; Shumilina, Ekaterina; Laufer, Stefan; Borst, Oliver; Gawaz, Meinrad; Lang, Florian

    2014-09-26

    Highlights: • TGFß1 markedly up-regulates Na{sup +}/K{sup +} ATPase in megakaryocytes. • The effect is abrogated by p38-MAP kinase inhibitor skepinone. • The effect is abrogated by SGK inhibitor EMD638683. • The effect is abrogated by NF-κB inhibitor wogonin. - Abstract: The Na{sup +}/K{sup +} ATPase generates the Na{sup +} and K{sup +} concentration gradients across the plasma membrane and is thus essential for cellular electrolyte homeostasis, cell membrane potential and cell volume maintenance. A powerful regulator of Na{sup +}/K{sup +} ATPase is the serum- and glucocorticoid-inducible kinase 1 (SGK1). The most powerful known regulator of SGK1 expression is TGFß1, which is pivotal in the regulation of megakaryocyte maturation and platelet formation. Signaling involved in the upregulation of SGK1 by TGFß1 includes p38 mitogen activated protein (MAP) kinase. SGK1 in turn phosphorylates the IκB kinase (IKKα/β), which phosphorylates the inhibitor protein IκBα thus triggering nuclear translocation of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB). The present study explored whether TGFβ influences Na{sup +}/K{sup +} ATPase activity in megakaryocytes, and if so, whether the effect of TGß1 requires p38 MAP kinase, SGK1 and/or NF-κB. To this end, murine megakaryocytes were treated with TGFß1 and Na{sup +}/K{sup +} ATPase activity determined from K{sup +} induced current utilizing whole cell patch clamp. The pump current (I{sub pump}) was determined in the absence and presence of Na{sup +}/K{sup +} ATPase inhibitor ouabain (100 μM). TGFß1 (60 ng/ml) was added in the absence or presence of p38 MAP kinase inhibitor skepinone-L (1 μM), SGK1 inhibitor EMD638683 (50 μM) or NF-κB inhibitor wogonin (50 nM). As a result, the I{sub pump} was significantly increased by pretreatment of the megakaryocytes with TGFß1, an effect reaching statistical significance within 16 and 24 h and virtually abrogated in the presence of skepinone-L, EMD638683 or wogonin. In conclusion

  8. How Phosphorylation and ATPase Activity Regulate Anion Flux though the Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator (CFTR).

    PubMed

    Zwick, Matthias; Esposito, Cinzia; Hellstern, Manuel; Seelig, Anna

    2016-07-01

    The cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR, ABCC7), mutations of which cause cystic fibrosis, belongs to the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter family and works as a channel for small anions, such as chloride and bicarbonate. Anion channel activity is known to depend on phosphorylation by cAMP-dependent protein kinase A (PKA) and CFTR-ATPase activity. Whereas anion channel activity has been extensively investigated, phosphorylation and CFTR-ATPase activity are still poorly understood. Here, we show that the two processes can be measured in a label-free and non-invasive manner in real time in live cells, stably transfected with CFTR. This study reveals three key findings. (i) The major contribution (≥90%) to the total CFTR-related ATP hydrolysis rate is due to phosphorylation by PKA and the minor contribution (≤10%) to CFTR-ATPase activity. (ii) The mutant CFTR-E1371S that is still conductive, but defective in ATP hydrolysis, is not phosphorylated, suggesting that phosphorylation requires a functional nucleotide binding domain and occurs in the post-hydrolysis transition state. (iii) CFTR-ATPase activity is inversely related to CFTR anion flux. The present data are consistent with a model in which CFTR is in a closed conformation with two ATPs bound. The open conformation is induced by ATP hydrolysis and corresponds to the post-hydrolysis transition state that is stabilized by phosphorylation and binding of chloride channel potentiators. PMID:27226582

  9. Changes in the level and activation state of the plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase during aging of red beet slices.

    PubMed Central

    Papini, R; De Michelis, M I

    1997-01-01

    The effect of aging on the plasma membrane (PM) H(+)-ATPase of red beet (Beta vulgaris L.) parenchyma discs was analyzed in PM purified by aqueous two-phase partitioning. Aging increased both the activity in the amount of immunodetectable H(+)-ATPase in the PM. The activity assayed at slightly alkaline pH values increased earlier and more strongly than that assayed at acidic pH values, so that the pH curve of the enzyme from aged beet discs was shifted toward more alkaline values. Aging decreased the stimulation of the PM H(+)-ATPase activity by controlled trypsin treatments or by lysophosphatidylcholine. After trypsin treatment the pH dependence of H(+)-ATPase from dormant or aged beet discs became equal. These results indicate that aging not only increases the level of H(+)-ATPase in the PM, but also determines its activation, most likely by modifying the interaction between the autoinhibitory carboxyl-terminal domain and the catalytic site. When the PM H(+)-ATPase activity was assayed at a slightly alkaline pH, the tyrosine modifier N-acetylimidazole inhibited the H(+)-ATPase in the PM from dormant beet discs much less than in the PM from aged discs, suggesting that modification of a tyrosine residue may be involved in the activation of the PM H(+)-ATPase induced by aging. The results are discussed with regard to aging-induced development of transmembrane transport activities. PMID:9232872

  10. [Effect of electromagnetic field of extremely low frequency on ATPase activity of actomyosin].

    PubMed

    Tseĭslier, Iu V; Sheliuk, O V; Martyniuk, V S; Nuryshchenko, N Ie

    2012-01-01

    The Mg2+/Ca2+ and K(+)-ATPase actomyosin activity of rabbit skeletal muscle was evaluated by the Fiske-Subbarow method during a five-hour exposition of protein solutions in electromagnetic field of extremely low frequency of 8 Hz and 25 microT induction. The results of the study of the ATPase activity of actomyosin upon electromagnetic exposure have shown statistically significant changes that are characterized by a rather complex time dynamics. After 1, 2 and 4 hours of exposure of protein solutions the effect of ELF EMF exposure inhibits the ATPase activity compared to control samples, which are not exposed to the magnetic field. By the third and fifth hours of exposure to the electromagnetic field, there is a significant increase in the ATPase activity of actomyosin. It should be noted that a similar pattern of change in enzyme activity was universal, both for the environment by Mg2+ and Ca2+, and in the absence of these ions in the buffer. This can evidence for Ca(2+)-independent ways of the infuence of electromagnetic field (EMP) on biologic objects. In our opinion, the above effects are explained by EMP influence on the dynamic properties of actomyosin solutions, which are based on the processes of spontaneous dynamic formation of structure.

  11. Acute delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol exposure alters Ca2+ ATPase activity in neuroendocrine and gonadal tissues in mice.

    PubMed

    Dalterio, S L; Bernard, S A; Esquivel, C R

    1987-05-01

    Acute administration of delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) (50 mg/kg) at puberty (35-40 days) significantly (P less than 0.05) reduced Ca2+ ATPase activity in hypothalamic plasma membranes but increased, although not significantly, enzyme activity in hypothalamic tissue obtained from adult mice. In contrast, testicular Ca2+ ATPase activity was increased in pubertal THC-treated males, and significantly reduced in adults. Pituitary Ca2+ ATPase activity exhibited a dose-related decrease after acute THC administration at 0.5, 5 or 50 mg/kg, but there were no differential effects of age. Pituitary plasma membranes obtained from THC-treated males did not respond to in vitro exposure to luteinizing hormone releasing hormone (LHRH, 10(-7) M) with the marked reduction (approximately 40%) in Ca2+ ATPase activity observed in pituitaries from oil-treated controls. In addition, effects of THC appear specific for Ca2+ ATPase activity, since Mg2+ ATPase and Na+/K+ ATPase activities were not affected. These findings indicate that acute in vivo administration of THC influences Ca2+ membrane transport, in particular Ca2+ ATPase activity. These effects occur at each level of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis, are related to dose and developmental age at exposure, and also appear specific for Ca2+-dependent ATPase activity. Furthermore, THC exposure modulates pituitary sensitivity to LHRH receptor-mediated effects on Ca2+ ATPase activity. Therefore, effects on Ca2+ membrane transport may be involved in acute THC actions on hormonal activity at these HPG sites.

  12. Increased oxidative stress and decreased activities of Ca2+/Mg2+-ATPase and Na+/K+-ATPase in the red blood cells of the hibernating black bear

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chauhan, V.P.S.; Tsiouris, J.A.; Chauhan, A.; Sheikh, A.M.; Brown, W. Ted; Vaughan, M.

    2002-01-01

    During hibernation, animals undergo metabolic changes that result in reduced utilization of glucose and oxygen. Fat is known to be the preferential source of energy for hibernating animals. Malonyldialdehyde (MDA) is an end product of fatty acid oxidation, and is generally used as an index of lipid peroxidation. We report here that peroxidation of lipids is increased in the plasma and in the membranes of red blood cells in black bears during hibernation. The plasma MDA content was about four fold higher during hibernation as compared to that during the active, non-hibernating state (P < 0.0001). Similarly, MDA content of erythrocyte membranes was significantly increased during hibernation (P < 0.025). The activity of Ca2+/Mg2+-ATPase in the erythrocyte membrane was significantly decreased in the hibernating state as compared to the active state. Na+/K+-ATPase activity was also decreased, though not significant, during hibernation. These results suggest that during hibernation, the bears are under increased oxidative stress, and have reduced activities of membrane-bound enzymes such as Ca2+/Mg2+-ATPase and Na+/K+-ATPase. These changes can be considered part of the adaptive for survival process of metabolic depression. ?? 2002 Elsevier Science Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. [Effect of glycine and strychnine on Cl(-)-activated Mg2+-ATPase from bream brain microsomes (Abamis brama L.)].

    PubMed

    Menzikov, S A; Menzikova, O V

    2001-01-01

    The effect of glycine and strychnine on Mg2+-ATPase from the microsomal fraction of the bream (Abramis brama L.) brain was studied. The glycine in the concentration range 10(-7)-10(-4) M activates the enzyme. The effect of glycine on Mg2+-ATPase is obviated by 100 microM strychnine. The strychnine in the concentration range 5-90 microM activates the basal Mg2+-ATPase but decreases the effect of the enzyme activation by 10(-4) M glycine. The effect of Cl- on Mg2+-ATPase depends on the substrate concentration (Mg2+-ATP) and is not observed in the presence of 100 microM strychnine. A receptor-dependent pathway of glycine and strychnine action on Cl(-)-activated Mg2+-ATPase from bream brain microsomes is proposed.

  14. Substrates Control Multimerization and Activation of the Multi-Domain ATPase Motor of Type VII Secretion

    DOE PAGES

    Rosenberg, Oren S.; Dovala, Dustin; Li, Xueming; Connolly, Lynn; Bendebury, Anastasia; Finer-Moore, Janet; Holton, James; Cheng, Yifan; Stroud, Robert M.; Cox, Jeffery S.

    2015-04-09

    We report that Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Staphylococcus aureus secrete virulence factors via type VII protein secretion (T7S), a system that intriguingly requires all of its secretion substrates for activity. To gain insights into T7S function, we used structural approaches to guide studies of the putative translocase EccC, a unique enzyme with three ATPase domains, and its secretion substrate EsxB. The crystal structure of EccC revealed that the ATPase domains are joined by linker/pocket interactions that modulate its enzymatic activity. EsxB binds via its signal sequence to an empty pocket on the C-terminal ATPase domain, which is accompanied by an increasemore » in ATPase activity. Surprisingly, substrate binding does not activate EccC allosterically but, rather, by stimulating its multimerization. Thus, the EsxB substrate is also an integral T7S component, illuminating a mechanism that helps to explain interdependence of substrates, and suggests a model in which binding of substrates modulates their coordinate release from the bacterium.« less

  15. Substrates Control Multimerization and Activation of the Multi-Domain ATPase Motor of Type VII Secretion

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenberg, Oren S.; Dovala, Dustin; Li, Xueming; Connolly, Lynn; Bendebury, Anastasia; Finer-Moore, Janet; Holton, James; Cheng, Yifan; Stroud, Robert M.; Cox, Jeffery S.

    2015-04-09

    We report that Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Staphylococcus aureus secrete virulence factors via type VII protein secretion (T7S), a system that intriguingly requires all of its secretion substrates for activity. To gain insights into T7S function, we used structural approaches to guide studies of the putative translocase EccC, a unique enzyme with three ATPase domains, and its secretion substrate EsxB. The crystal structure of EccC revealed that the ATPase domains are joined by linker/pocket interactions that modulate its enzymatic activity. EsxB binds via its signal sequence to an empty pocket on the C-terminal ATPase domain, which is accompanied by an increase in ATPase activity. Surprisingly, substrate binding does not activate EccC allosterically but, rather, by stimulating its multimerization. Thus, the EsxB substrate is also an integral T7S component, illuminating a mechanism that helps to explain interdependence of substrates, and suggests a model in which binding of substrates modulates their coordinate release from the bacterium.

  16. The prokaryotic enhancer binding protein NTRC has an ATPase activity which is phosphorylation and DNA dependent.

    PubMed Central

    Austin, S; Dixon, R

    1992-01-01

    The prokaryotic activator protein NTRC binds to enhancer-like elements and activates transcription in response to nitrogen limitation by catalysing open complex formation by sigma 54 RNA polymerase holoenzyme. Formation of open complexes requires the phosphorylated form of NTRC and the reaction is ATP dependent. We find that NTRC has an ATPase activity which is activated by phosphorylation and is strongly stimulated by the presence of DNA containing specific NTRC binding sites. Images PMID:1534752

  17. Hexamers of the Type II Secretion ATPase GspE from Vibrio cholerae with Increased ATPase Activity

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Connie; Turley, Stewart; Marionni, Samuel T.; Park, Young-Jun; Lee, Kelly K.; Patrick, Marcella; Shah, Ripal; Sandkvist, Maria; Bush, Matthew F.; Hol, Wim G. J.

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY The Type II Secretion System (T2SS), a multi-protein machinery spanning two membranes in Gram-negative bacteria, is responsible for the secretion of folded proteins from the periplasm across the outer membrane. The critical multi-domain T2SS assembly ATPase GspEEpsE had so far not been structurally characterized as a hexamer. Here, four hexamers of Vibrio cholerae GspEEpsE are obtained when fused to Hcp1 as an assistant hexamer, as shown by native mass spectrometry. The enzymatic activity of the GspEEpsE-Hcp1 fusions is ~20 times higher than that of a GspEEpsE monomer indicating that increasing the local concentration of GspEEpsE by the fusion strategy was successful. Crystal structures of GspEEpsE-Hcp1 fusions with different linker lengths reveal regular and elongated hexamers of GspEEpsE with major differences in domain orientation within subunits, and in subunit assembly. SAXS studies on GspEEpsE-Hcp1 fusions suggest that even further variability in GspEEpsE hexamer architecture is likely. PMID:23954505

  18. Impact of membrane-associated hydrogenases on the F₀F₁-ATPase in Escherichia coli during glycerol and mixed carbon fermentation: ATPase activity and its inhibition by N,N'-dicyclohexylcarbodiimide in the mutants lacking hydrogenases.

    PubMed

    Blbulyan, Syuzanna; Trchounian, Armen

    2015-08-01

    Escherichia coli is able to ferment glycerol and to produce molecular hydrogen (H2) by four membrane-associated hydrogenases (Hyd) changing activity in response to different conditions. In this study, overall ATPase activity of glycerol alone and mixed carbon sources (glucose and glycerol) fermented E. coli wild type and different Hyd mutants and its inhibition by N,N'-dicyclohexylcarbodiimide (DCCD) were first investigated. ATPase activity was higher in glycerol fermented wild type cells at pH 7.5 compared to pH 6.5 and pH 5.5; DCCD inhibited markedly ATPase activity at pH 7.5. The ATPase activity at pH 7.5, compared with wild type, was lower in selC and less in hypF single mutants, suppressed in hyaB hybC selC triple mutant. Moreover, total ATPase activity of mixed carbon fermented wild type cells was maximal at pH 7.5 and lowered at pH 5.5. The ATPase activities of hypF and hyaB hybC selC mutants were higher at pH 5.5, compared with wild type; DCCD inhibited markedly ATPase activity of hypF mutant. These results demonstrate that in E. coli during glycerol fermentation the membrane proton-translocating FOF1-ATPase has major input in overall ATPase activity and alkaline pH is more optimal for the FOF1-ATPase operation. Hyd-1 and Hyd-2 are required for the FOF1-ATPase activity upon anaerobic fermentation of glycerol. The impact of Hyd-1 and Hyd-2 on the FOF1-ATPase is more obvious during mixed carbon fermentation at slightly acidic pH.

  19. V-ATPase Proton Pumping Activity Is Required for Adult Zebrafish Appendage Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Monteiro, Joana; Aires, Rita; Becker, Jörg D.; Jacinto, António; Certal, Ana C.; Rodríguez-León, Joaquín

    2014-01-01

    The activity of ion channels and transporters generates ion-specific fluxes that encode electrical and/or chemical signals with biological significance. Even though it is long known that some of those signals are crucial for regeneration, only in recent years the corresponding molecular sources started to be identified using mainly invertebrate or larval vertebrate models. We used adult zebrafish caudal fin as a model to investigate which and how ion transporters affect regeneration in an adult vertebrate model. Through the combined use of biophysical and molecular approaches, we show that V-ATPase activity contributes to a regeneration-specific H+ ef`flux. The onset and intensity of both V-ATPase expression and H+ efflux correlate with the different regeneration rate along the proximal-distal axis. Moreover, we show that V-ATPase inhibition impairs regeneration in adult vertebrate. Notably, the activity of this H+ pump is necessary for aldh1a2 and mkp3 expression, blastema cell proliferation and fin innervation. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on the role of V-ATPase during adult vertebrate regeneration. PMID:24671205

  20. V-ATPase proton pumping activity is required for adult zebrafish appendage regeneration.

    PubMed

    Monteiro, Joana; Aires, Rita; Becker, Jörg D; Jacinto, António; Certal, Ana C; Rodríguez-León, Joaquín

    2014-01-01

    The activity of ion channels and transporters generates ion-specific fluxes that encode electrical and/or chemical signals with biological significance. Even though it is long known that some of those signals are crucial for regeneration, only in recent years the corresponding molecular sources started to be identified using mainly invertebrate or larval vertebrate models. We used adult zebrafish caudal fin as a model to investigate which and how ion transporters affect regeneration in an adult vertebrate model. Through the combined use of biophysical and molecular approaches, we show that V-ATPase activity contributes to a regeneration-specific H+ ef`flux. The onset and intensity of both V-ATPase expression and H+ efflux correlate with the different regeneration rate along the proximal-distal axis. Moreover, we show that V-ATPase inhibition impairs regeneration in adult vertebrate. Notably, the activity of this H+ pump is necessary for aldh1a2 and mkp3 expression, blastema cell proliferation and fin innervation. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on the role of V-ATPase during adult vertebrate regeneration.

  1. Leishmania amazonensis: characterization of an ouabain-insensitive Na+-ATPase activity.

    PubMed

    de Almeida-Amaral, Elmo Eduardo; Caruso-Neves, Celso; Pires, Vanessa Maria Pereira; Meyer-Fernandes, José Roberto

    2008-02-01

    We characterized ouabain-insensitive Na+-ATPase activity present in the plasma membrane of Leishmania amazonensis and investigated its possible role in the growth of the parasite. An increase in Na+ concentration in the presence of 1mM ouabain, increased the ATPase activity with a V(max) of 154.1+/-13.5nmol Pi x h(-1) x mg(-1) and a K0.5 of 28.9+/-7.7mM. Furosemide and sodium orthovanadate inhibited the Na+-stimulated ATPase activity with an IC(50) of 270microM and 0.10microM, respectively. Furosemide inhibited the growth of L. amazonensis after 48h incubation, with maximal effect after 96h. The IC50 for furosemide was 840. On the other hand, ouabain (1mM) did not change the growth of the parasite. Taken together, these results show that L. amazonensis expresses a P-type, ouabain-insensitive Na+-ATPase that could be involved with the growth of the parasite. PMID:17825292

  2. Quantitation of Na+, K+-atpase Enzymatic Activity in Tissues of the Mammalian Vestibular System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kerr, T. P.

    1985-01-01

    In order to quantify vestibular Na(+), K(+)-ATPase, a microassay technique was developed which is sufficiently sensitive to measure the enzymatic activity in tissue from a single animal. The assay was used to characterize ATPase in he vestibular apparatus of the Mongolian gerbil. The quantitative procedure employs NPP (5 mM) as synthetic enzyme substrate. The assay relies upon spectrophotometric measurement (410 nm) of nitrophenol (NP) released by enzymatic hydrolysis of the substrate. Product formation in the absence of ouabain reflects both specific (Na(+), K(+)-ATPase) and non-specific (Mg(++)-ATPase) enzymatic activity. By measuring the accumulation of reaction product (NP) at three-minute intervals during the course of incubation, it is found that the overall enzymatic reaction proceeds linearly for at least 45 minutes. It is therefore possible to determine two separate reaction rates from a single set of tissues. Initial results indicate that total activity amounts to 53.3 + or - 11.2 (S.E.M.) nmol/hr/mg dry tissue, of which approximately 20% is ouabain-sensitive.

  3. Cooperativity of thiol-modified myosin filaments. ATPase and motility assays of myosin function.

    PubMed Central

    Root, D D; Reisler, E

    1992-01-01

    The effects of chemical modifications of myosin's reactive cysteines on actomyosin adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase) activities and sliding velocities in the in vitro motility assays were examined in this work. The three types of modifications studied were 4-[N-[(iodoacetoxy)ethyl]-N-methylamino]-7-nitrobenz-2-oxa-1,3- diazole labeling of SH2 (based on Ajtai and Burghart. 1989. Biochemistry. 28:2204-2210.), phenylmaleimide labeling of SH1, and phenylmaleimide labeling of myosin in myofibrils under rigor conditions. Each type of modified myosin inhibited the sliding of actin in motility assays. The sliding velocities of actin over copolymers of modified and unmodified myosins in the motility assay were slowest with rigor-modified myosin and most rapid with SH2-labeled myosin. The actin-activated ATPase activities of similarly copolymerized myosins were lowest with SH2-labeled myosin and highest with rigor-modified myosin. The actin-activated ATPase activities of myosin subfragment-1 obtained from these modified myosins decreased in the same linear manner with the fraction of modified heads. These results are interpreted using a model in which the sliding of actin filaments over myosin filaments decreases the probability of myosin activation by actin. The sliding velocity of actin over monomeric rigor-modified myosin exceeded that over the filamentous form, which suggests for this myosin that filament structure is important for the inhibition of actin sliding in motility assays. The fact that all cysteine modifications examined inhibited the actomyosin ATPase activities and sliding velocities of actin over myosin poses questions concerning the information about the activated crossbridge obtained from probes attached to SH1 or SH2 on myosin. PMID:1420910

  4. A unique DNase activity shares the active site with ATPase activity of the RecA/Rad51 homologue (Pk-REC) from a hyperthermophilic archaeon.

    PubMed

    Rashid, N; Morikawa, M; Kanaya, S; Atomi, H; Imanaka, T

    1999-02-19

    A RecA/Rad51 homologue from Pyrococcus kodakaraensis KOD1 (Pk-REC) is the smallest protein among various RecA/Rad51 homologues. Nevertheless, Pk-Rec is a super multifunctional protein and shows a deoxyribonuclease activity. This deoxyribonuclease activity was inhibited by 3 mM or more ATP, suggesting that the catalytic centers of the ATPase and deoxyribonuclease activities are overlapped. To examine whether these two enzymatic activities share the same active site, a number of site-directed mutations were introduced into Pk-REC and the ATPase and deoxyribonuclease activities of the mutant proteins were determined. The mutant enzyme in which double mutations Lys-33 to Ala and Thr-34 to Ala were introduced, fully lost both of these activities, indicating that Lys-33 and/or Thr-34 are important for both ATPase and deoxyribonuclease activities. The mutation of Asp-112 to Ala slightly and almost equally reduced both ATPase and deoxyribonuclease activities. In addition, the mutation of Glu-54 to Gln did not seriously affect the ATPase, deoxyribonuclease, and UV tolerant activities. These results strongly suggest that the active sites of the ATPase and deoxyribonuclease activities of Pk-REC are common. It is noted that unlike Glu-96 in Escherichia coli RecA, which has been proposed to be a catalytic residue for the ATPase activity, the corresponding residual Glu-54 in Pk-REC is not involved in the catalytic function of the protein.

  5. Modulation of Na+/K+ ATPase Activity by Hydrogen Peroxide Generated through Heme in L. amazonensis.

    PubMed

    Rocco-Machado, Nathália; Cosentino-Gomes, Daniela; Meyer-Fernandes, José Roberto

    2015-01-01

    Leishmania amazonensis is a protozoan parasite that occurs in many areas of Brazil and causes skin lesions. Using this parasite, our group showed the activation of Na+/K+ ATPase through a signaling cascade that involves the presence of heme and protein kinase C (PKC) activity. Heme is an important biomolecule that has pro-oxidant activity and signaling capacity. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) can act as second messengers, which are required in various signaling cascades. Our goal in this work is to investigate the role of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) generated in the presence of heme in the Na+/K+ ATPase activity of L. amazonensis. Our results show that increasing concentrations of heme stimulates the production of H2O2 in a dose-dependent manner until a concentration of 2.5 μM heme. To confirm that the effect of heme on the Na+/K+ ATPase is through the generation of H2O2, we measured enzyme activity using increasing concentrations of H2O2 and, as expected, the activity increased in a dose-dependent manner until a concentration of 0.1 μM H2O2. To investigate the role of PKC in this signaling pathway, we observed the production of H2O2 in the presence of its activator phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) and its inhibitor calphostin C. Both showed no effect on the generation of H2O2. Furthermore, we found that PKC activity is increased in the presence of H2O2, and that in the presence of calphostin C, H2O2 is unable to activate the Na+/K+ ATPase. 100 μM of Mito-TEMPO was capable of abolishing the stimulatory effect of heme on Na+/K+ ATPase activity, indicating that mitochondria might be the source of the hydrogen peroxide production induced by heme. The modulation of L. amazonensis Na+/K+ ATPase by H2O2 opens new possibilities for understanding the signaling pathways of this parasite. PMID:26070143

  6. Activation and Deactivation of H+-ATPase in Intact Chloroplasts 1

    PubMed Central

    Shahak, Yosepha

    1982-01-01

    The light activation mechanism of the latent H+-ATPase was investigated in intact spinach (Spinacia oleracea, Hybrid 424) chloroplasts. The following observations were made. (a) Photosystem I electron acceptors such as methyl viologen, nitrite, oxaloacetate, etc., inhibit the light activation of the enzyme. (b) The electron transfer inhibitor 3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea (DCMU) fully inhibits the process. (c) Ascorbate plus diaminodurene or dithionite can restore light activation in DCMU-poisoned chloroplasts. (d) The activated state of the enzyme decays rather slowly (within a few minutes) after illumination of the intact chloroplasts. (e) The rate of dark decay is accelerated by oxidants (H2O2 or ferricyanide) and slowed down by dithiothreitol. It is suggested that the physiological mechanism for regulation of the H+-ATPase involves oxidation and reduction reactions in a manner which resembles the regulation of the light-activated carbon cycle enzymes. PMID:16662486

  7. Trypanosoma cruzi: effects of heat shock on ecto-ATPase activity.

    PubMed

    Giarola, Naira Lígia Lima; de Almeida-Amaral, Elmo Eduardo; Collopy-Júnior, Itallo; Fonseca-de-Souza, André Luiz; Majerowicz, David; Paes, Lisvane Silva; Gondim, Katia C; Meyer-Fernandes, José Roberto

    2013-04-01

    In this work, we demonstrate that Trypanosoma cruzi Y strain epimastigotes exhibit Mg2+-dependent ecto-ATPase activity that is stimulated by heat shock. When the epimastigotes were incubated at 37°C for 2h, the ecto-ATPase activity of the cells was 43.95±0.97 nmol Pi/h×10(7) cells, whereas the ecto-ATPase activity of cells that were not exposed to heat shock stress was 16.97±0.30 nmol Pi/h×10(7) cells. The ecto-ATPase activities of cells, that were exposed or not exposed to heat shock stress had approximately the same Km values (2.25±0.26 mM ATP and 1.55±0.23 mM ATP, respectively) and different Vmax values. The heat-shocked cells had higher Vmax values (54.38±3.07 nmol Pi/h×10(7) cells) than the cells that were not exposed to heat shock (19.38±1.76 nmol Pi/h×10(7) cells). We also observed that the ecto-phosphatase and ecto-5'nucleotidase activities of cells that had been incubated at 28°C or 37°C were the same. Interestingly, cycloheximide, an inhibitor of protein synthesis, suppressed the heat shock effect of ecto-ATPase activity on T. cruzi. The Mg2+-dependent ecto-ATPase activity from the Y strain (high virulence) was approximately 2-fold higher than that of Dm28c (a clone with low virulence). In addition, these two strains presented different responses to heat shock with regard to their ecto-ATPase activities; Y strain epimastigotes had a stimulation of 2.52-fold while the Dm28c strain had a 1.71-fold stimulation. In this context, the virulent trypomastigote form of T. cruzi, Dm28c, had an ecto-ATPase activity that was more than 7-fold higher (66.67±5.98 nmol Pi/h×10(7) cells) than that of the insect epimastigote forms (8.91±0.76 nmol Pi/h×10(7) cells). This difference increased to approximately 10-fold when both forms were subjected to heat shock stress (181.14±16.48 nmol Pi/h×10(7) cells for trypomastigotes and 16.71±1.17 nmol Pi/h×10(7) cells for epimastigotes at 37°C). The ecto-ATPase activity of a plasma membrane-enriched fraction

  8. Effect of Hindlimb Unweighting on Single Soleus Fiber Maximal Shortening Velocity and ATPase Activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McDonald, K. S.; Fitts, R. H.

    1993-01-01

    This study characterizes the time course of change in single soleus muscle fiber size and function elicited by hindlimb un weighting (HU) and analyzes the extent to which varying durations of HU altered maximal velocity of shortening (V(sub o)), myofibrillar adenosinetriphosphatase (ATPase), and relative content of slow and fast myosin in individual soleus fibers. After 1, 2, or 3 weeks of HU, soleus muscle bundles were prepared and stored in skinning solution at -20 C. Single fibers were isolated and mounted between a motor arm and a transducer, and fiber force, V(sub o), and ATPase activity were measured. Fiber myosin content was determined by one-dimensional sodium dodecyl sulfate- (SDS) polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. After 1, 2, and 3 weeks of HU, soleus fibers exhibited a progressive reduction in fiber diameter (16, 22, and 42%, respectively) and peak force (42, 48, and 7%, respectively). Peak specific tension was significantly reduced after 1 week of HU (18%) and showed no further change in 2-3 weeks of HU. During 1 and 3 wk of HU, fiber V(sub o) and ATPase showed a significant increase. By 3 week, V(sub o) had increased from 1.32 +/- 0.04 to 2.94 +/- 0.17 fiber lengths/s and fiber ATPase from 291 +/- 16 to 1064 +/- 128 micro-M min(sub -1) mm(sub -3). The percent fibers expressing fast myosin heavy chain increased from 4% to 29% by 3 week of HU, and V(sub o) and ATPase activity within a fiber were highly correlated. However, a large population of fibers after 1, 2, and 3 weeks of HU showed increases in V(sub o) and ATPase but displayed the same myosin protein profile on SDS gels as control fibers. The mechanism eliciting increased fiber V(sub o) and ATPase activity was not obvious but may have been due to increases in fast myosin that went undetected on SDS gels and/or other factors unrelated to the myosin filament.

  9. ADPase activity of recombinantly expressed thermotolerant ATPases may be caused by copurification of adenylate kinase of Escherichia coli

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Baoyu; Sysoeva, Tatyana A.; Chowdhury, Saikat; Guo, Liang; Nixon, B.Tracy

    2009-10-06

    Except for apyrases, ATPases generally target only the {gamma}-phosphate of a nucleotide. Some non-apyrase ATPases from thermophilic microorganisms are reported to hydrolyze ADP as well as ATP, which has been described as a novel property of the ATPases from extreme thermophiles. Here, we describe an apparent ADP hydrolysis by highly purified preparations of the AAA+ ATPase NtrC1 from an extremely thermophilic bacterium, Aquifex aeolicus. This activity is actually a combination of the activities of the ATPase and contaminating adenylate kinase (AK) from Escherichia coli, which is present at 1/10 000 of the level of the ATPase. AK catalyzes conversion of two molecules of ADP into AMP and ATP, the latter being a substrate for the ATPase. We raise concern that the observed thermotolerance of E. coli AK and its copurification with thermostable proteins by commonly used methods may confound studies of enzymes that specifically catalyze hydrolysis of nucleoside diphosphates or triphosphates. For example, contamination with E. coli AK may be responsible for reported ADPase activities of the ATPase chaperonins from Pyrococcus furiosus, Pyrococcus horikoshii, Methanococcus jannaschii and Thermoplasma acidophilum; the ATP/ADP-dependent DNA ligases from Aeropyrum pernix K1 and Staphylothermus marinus; or the reported ATP-dependent activities of ADP-dependent phosphofructokinase of P. furiosus. Purification methods developed to separate NtrC1 ATPase from AK also revealed two distinct forms of the ATPase. One is tightly bound to ADP or GDP and able to bind to Q but not S ion exchange matrixes. The other is nucleotide-free and binds to both Q and S ion exchange matrixes.

  10. In vitro antioxidant and H+, K+-ATPase inhibition activities of Acalypha wilkesiana foliage extract

    PubMed Central

    Prakash Gupta, Rajesh Kashi; Pradeepa; Hanumanthappa, Manjunatha

    2013-01-01

    Aims: The aim of this study was to evaluate the antioxidant activty and anti-acid property of Acalypha wilkesiana foliage extract. Materials and Methods: Hot and cold aqueous extracts were prepared from healthy leaves of A. wilkesiana. Free radical scavenging activity and H+, K+-ATPase inhibition activities of aqueous foliage extracts was screened by in vitro models. Statistical Analysis Used: All experiments were performed in triplicate and results are expressed as mean ± SEM. Results: A. wilkesiana hot aqueous extract (AWHE) showed significant antioxidants and free radical scavenging activity. Further, AWHE has shown a potent H+, K+-ATPase inhibitory activity (IC50: 51.5 ± 0.28 μg/ml) when compare to standard proton pump inhibitor omeprazole (56.2 ± 0.64 μg/ml); however, latter activity is equal to A. wilkesiana cold aqueous extract (AWCE). Quantitative analysis of AWHE has revealed more content of phenols and flavonoids; this is found to be the reason for good antioxidant activity over AWCE. Molecular docking was carried out against H+, K+-ATPase enzyme crystal structure to validate the anti-acid activity of A. wilkesiana major phytochemicals. Conclusions: The present study indicates that the constituents of AWHE and AWCE have good antacid and free radical scavenging activity. PMID:24082698

  11. Gill ATPase activity in Procambarus clarkii as an indicator of heavy metal pollution

    SciTech Connect

    Torreblanca, A.; Del Ramo, J.; Diaz-Mayans, J. )

    1989-06-01

    Lake Albufera and the surrounding rice field waters are subjected to very heavy loads of sewage and toxic industrial residues, including heavy metals, from the many urban and waste waters of this area. The American red crayfish, Procambarus clarkii have a high resistance to toxic effects of heavy metals. The sublethal effects of heavy metals on gills of fish and aquatic invertebrates have been extensively studied. Some metabolic disturbances and histologic damages have been reported, as well as osmoregulation alterations. However, little work has been done about the effect of heavy metals on Na,K and Mg-ATPases of freshwater invertebrate gills. Na,K-ATPase is the prime mediator of ion transport across cellular membranes and plays a central role in whole body ion regulation in marine and estuarine animals. Na,K-ATPase has been reviewed and assessed as a potentially useful indicator of pollution stress in aquatic animals. The purpose of this study is look for the relation, if any, between crayfish gill ATP-ase activity changes and metal exposure in laboratory. This find would allow the authors to assay this potential indicator in the field.

  12. P-glycoprotein substrate transport assessed by comparing cellular and vesicular ATPase activity.

    PubMed

    Nervi, Pierluigi; Li-Blatter, Xiaochun; Aänismaa, Päivi; Seelig, Anna

    2010-03-01

    We compared the P-glycoprotein ATPase activity in inside-out plasma membrane vesicles and living NIH-MDR1-G185 cells with the aim to detect substrate transport. To this purpose we used six substrates which differ significantly in their passive influx through the plasma membrane. In cells, the cytosolic membrane leaflet harboring the substrate binding site of P-glycoprotein has to be approached by passive diffusion through the lipid membrane, whereas in inside-out plasma membrane vesicles, it is accessible directly from the aqueous phase. Compounds exhibiting fast passive influx compared to active efflux by P-glycoprotein induced similar ATPase activity profiles in cells and inside-out plasma membrane vesicles, because their concentrations in the cytosolic leaflets were similar. Compounds exhibiting similar influx as efflux induced in contrast different ATPase activity profiles in cells and inside-out vesicles. Their concentration was significantly lower in the cytosolic leaflet of cells than in the cytosolic leaflet of inside-out membrane vesicles, indicating that P-glycoprotein could cope with passive influx. P-glycoprotein thus transported all compounds at a rate proportional to ATP hydrolysis (i.e. all compounds were substrates). However, it prevented substrate entry into the cytosol only if passive influx of substrates across the lipid bilayer was in a similar range as active efflux. PMID:20004641

  13. Effect of the Electrochemical Proton Gradient and Anions on the ATPase Activity of Soybean Submitochondrial Particles 1

    PubMed Central

    Martins, Ione S.; Martins, Orlando B.; de Gómez-Puyou, Marietta Tuena; Gómez-Puyou, Armando

    1988-01-01

    Submitochondrial particles from soybean (Glycine max L. cv Jupiter) hypocotyls with an ATPase activity of 0.3 to 1.0 micromole per minute per milligram were prepared by sonication with Mg-ATP. The particles catalyzed ATP synthesis with NADH and succinate; the ratios of ATP/O with these substrates were 1.0 and 0.1, respectively. As monitored by oxonol-VI, the particles built up and maintained a membrane potential that was higher with NADH than with succinate or Mg-ATP. The ATPase activity of the particles increased two to threefold by preincubation with 50 millimolar phosphate at a temperature of 38°C. The increase in ATPase activity became higher (five to sixfold) when particles were preincubated with Mg-ATP plus phosphate. Under the latter conditions, collapse of Δ̄μH by carbonyl cyanide p-trifluoromethoxyphenylhydrazone prevented the activation. An increase in ATPase activity of the particles was also observed with NADH and succinate, although activation was lower with succinate. With these substrates, phosphate did not increase ATPase activation. When particles were preincubated with Mg-ATP, anions that stimulate ATP hydrolysis (malate, malonate, and bicarbonate) had an activating effect similar to that of phosphate. The data suggest that the soybean mitochondrial ATPase can be activated by Δ̄μH but that this activation is increased by the binding of certain anions to a conformation of the enzyme that appears during hydrolytic cycles. PMID:16666151

  14. Retinitis Pigmentosa Mutations in Bad Response to Refrigeration 2 (Brr2) Impair ATPase and Helicase Activity.

    PubMed

    Ledoux, Sarah; Guthrie, Christine

    2016-06-01

    Brr2 is an RNA-dependent ATPase required to unwind the U4/U6 snRNA duplex during spliceosome assembly. Mutations within the ratchet helix of the Brr2 RNA binding channel result in a form of degenerative human blindness known as retinitis pigmentosa (RP). The biochemical consequences of these mutations on Brr2's RNA binding, helicase, and ATPase activity have not yet been characterized. Therefore, we identified the largest construct of Brr2 that is soluble in vitro, which truncates the first 247 amino acids of the N terminus (Δ247-Brr2), to characterize the effects of the RP mutations on Brr2 activity. The Δ247-Brr2 RP mutants exhibit a gradient of severity of weakened RNA binding, reduced helicase activity, and reduced ATPase activity compared with wild type Δ247-Brr2. The globular C-terminal Jab1/Mpn1-like domain of Prp8 increases the ability of Δ247-Brr2 to bind the U4/U6 snRNA duplex at high pH and increases Δ247-Brr2's RNA-dependent ATPase activity and the extent of RNA unwinding. However, this domain of Prp8 does not differentially affect the Δ247-Brr2 RP mutants compared with the wild type Δ247-Brr2. When stimulated by Prp8, wild type Δ247-Brr2 is able to unwind long stable duplexes in vitro, and even the RP mutants capable of binding RNA with tight affinity are incapable of fully unwinding short duplex RNAs. Our data suggest that the RP mutations within the ratchet helix impair Brr2 translocation through RNA helices. PMID:27072132

  15. Modulation of plasma membrane H+-ATPase activity differentially activates wound and pathogen defense responses in tomato plants.

    PubMed Central

    Schaller, A; Oecking, C

    1999-01-01

    Systemin is an important mediator of wound-induced defense gene activation in tomato plants, and it elicits a rapid alkalinization of the growth medium of cultured Lycopersicon peruvianum cells. A possible mechanistic link between proton fluxes across the plasma membrane and the induction of defense genes was investigated by modulating plasma membrane H+-ATPase activity. Inhibitors of H+-ATPase (erythrosin B, diethyl stilbestrol, and vanadate) were found to alkalinize the growth medium of L. peruvianum cell cultures and to induce wound response genes in whole tomato plants. Conversely, an activator of the H+-ATPase (fusicoccin) acidified the growth medium of L. peruvianum cell cultures and suppressed systemin-induced medium alkalinization. Likewise, in fusicoccin-treated tomato plants, the wound- and systemin-triggered accumulation of wound-responsive mRNAs was found to be suppressed. However, fusicoccin treatment of tomato plants led to the accumulation of salicylic acid and the expression of pathogenesis-related genes. Apparently, the wound and pathogen defense signaling pathways are differentially regulated by changes in the proton electrochemical gradient across the plasma membrane. In addition, alkalinization of the L. peruvianum cell culture medium was found to depend on the influx of Ca2+ and the activity of a protein kinase. Reversible protein phosphorylation was also shown to be involved in the induction of wound response genes. The plasma membrane H+-ATPase as a possible target of a Ca2+-activated protein kinase and its role in defense signaling are discussed. PMID:9927643

  16. Inhibitory Effect of Fluoride on Na+,K+ ATPase Activity in Human Erythrocyte Membrane.

    PubMed

    A, Shashi; G, Meenakshi

    2015-12-01

    The present study was performed to evaluate the role of long-term consumption of excessive fluoride on electrolyte homeostasis and their transporting mechanisms in erythrocytes of subjects afflicted with dental and skeletal fluorosis. A total of 620 adult (20-50 years) Indian residents participated in this study: 258 men and 242 women exposed to high concentrations of fluoride and 120 age and gender-matched control subjects. Erythrocytes were isolated from blood samples, washed, and used for the estimation of intraerythrocyte sodium and potassium concentrations. Na+,K+ ATPase activity was determined spectrophotometrically from a ghost erythrocyte membrane prepared by osmotic lysis. Erythrocyte analytes were correlated with the water and serum fluoride concentrations by Pearson's bivariate correlation and regression analysis. Results indicated a significant increase in intraerythrocyte sodium (F=14306.265, P<0.0001) in subjects from endemic fluorosis study groups as compared to controls. A significant (P<0.05) positive correlation of intracellular sodium was found with water and serum fluoride concentrations. Mean concentration of intraerythrocytic potassium ions showed significant reduction (F=9136.318, P<0.0001) in subjects exposed to fluoride. A significant (P<0.05) negative correlation of potassium ions was noted with water and serum fluoride concentrations. Na+,K+ ATPase activity was significantly declined (F=1572.763, P<0.0001) in subjects exposed to fluoride. A significant (P<0.05) inverse relationship of Na+,K+ ATPase activity was revealed with water and serum fluoride concentrations.

  17. Different effect of cadmium and copper on H+-ATPase activity in plasma membrane vesicles from Cucumis sativus roots.

    PubMed

    Janicka-Russak, Małgorzata; Kabała, Katarzyna; Burzynski, Marek

    2012-06-01

    The effect of heavy metals on plasma membrane (PM) H(+)-ATPase (EC 3.6.3.14) activity in cucumber (Cucumis sativus) roots was studied. The aim of this work was to explain the mechanism of modification of the PM H(+)-ATPase activity in plants subjected to heavy metals. Plants were treated with 10 μM Cd or Cu for 6 d. After 3 d exposure to the heavy metals, some of the plants were transferred to control conditions for a further 3 d (3/3 plants). The activity of PM H(+)-ATPase was found to be increased in plants treated with heavy metals. The highest activity measured as proton transport was observed in 3/3 plants. Estimation of transcript levels of C. sativus PM H(+)-ATPase in roots indicated that the action of Cd, but not Cu, affected the gene expression level. Transcript levels of C. sativus PM H(+)-ATPase (CsHA2, CsHA3, CsHA4, CsHA8, and CsHA9) genes increased in roots treated with Cd. Moreover, Western blot analysis with antibody against phosphothreonine and 14-3-3 protein indicated that increased activity of PM H(+)-ATPase under heavy-metal stress resulted from phosphorylation of the enzyme. It was found that Cu markedly increased the activity of catalase and ascorbate peroxidase and reduced the level of H(2)O(2) in cucumber roots. In contrast, Cd did not affect these parameters. These results indicate that Cd and Cu can, in different ways, lead to modification of PM H(+)-ATPase activity. Additionally, it was observed that treatment of plants with heavy metals led to an increased level of heat-shock proteins in the tissues. This suggests that the plants had started adaptive processes to survive adverse conditions, and increased PM H(+)-ATPase activity could further enhance the repair processes in heavy-metal-stressed plants.

  18. Different effect of cadmium and copper on H+-ATPase activity in plasma membrane vesicles from Cucumis sativus roots

    PubMed Central

    Janicka-Russak, Małgorzata; Kabała, Katarzyna; Burzyński, Marek

    2012-01-01

    The effect of heavy metals on plasma membrane (PM) H+-ATPase (EC 3.6.3.14) activity in cucumber (Cucumis sativus) roots was studied. The aim of this work was to explain the mechanism of modification of the PM H+-ATPase activity in plants subjected to heavy metals. Plants were treated with 10 μM Cd or Cu for 6 d. After 3 d exposure to the heavy metals, some of the plants were transferred to control conditions for a further 3 d (3/3 plants). The activity of PM H+-ATPase was found to be increased in plants treated with heavy metals. The highest activity measured as proton transport was observed in 3/3 plants. Estimation of transcript levels of C. sativus PM H+-ATPase in roots indicated that the action of Cd, but not Cu, affected the gene expression level. Transcript levels of C. sativus PM H+-ATPase (CsHA2, CsHA3, CsHA4, CsHA8, and CsHA9) genes increased in roots treated with Cd. Moreover, Western blot analysis with antibody against phosphothreonine and 14-3-3 protein indicated that increased activity of PM H+-ATPase under heavy-metal stress resulted from phosphorylation of the enzyme. It was found that Cu markedly increased the activity of catalase and ascorbate peroxidase and reduced the level of H2O2 in cucumber roots. In contrast, Cd did not affect these parameters. These results indicate that Cd and Cu can, in different ways, lead to modification of PM H+-ATPase activity. Additionally, it was observed that treatment of plants with heavy metals led to an increased level of heat-shock proteins in the tissues. This suggests that the plants had started adaptive processes to survive adverse conditions, and increased PM H+-ATPase activity could further enhance the repair processes in heavy-metal-stressed plants. PMID:22451724

  19. Loss of Vacuolar H+-ATPase (V-ATPase) Activity in Yeast Generates an Iron Deprivation Signal That Is Moderated by Induction of the Peroxiredoxin TSA2 *

    PubMed Central

    Diab, Heba I.; Kane, Patricia M.

    2013-01-01

    Vacuolar H+-ATPases (V-ATPases) acidify intracellular organelles and help to regulate overall cellular pH. Yeast vma mutants lack V-ATPase activity and allow exploration of connections between cellular pH, iron, and redox homeostasis common to all eukaryotes. A previous microarray study in a vma mutant demonstrated up-regulation of multiple iron uptake genes under control of Aft1p (the iron regulon) and only one antioxidant gene, the peroxiredoxin TSA2 (Milgrom, E., Diab, H., Middleton, F., and Kane, P. M. (2007) Loss of vacuolar proton-translocating ATPase activity in yeast results in chronic oxidative stress. J. Biol. Chem. 282, 7125–7136). Fluorescent biosensors placing GFP under transcriptional control of either an Aft1-dependent promoter (PFIT2-GFP) or the TSA2 promoter (PTSA2-GFP) were constructed to monitor transcriptional signaling. Both biosensors were up-regulated in the vma2Δ mutant, and acute V-ATPase inhibition with concanamycin A induced coordinate up-regulation from both promoters. PTSA2-GFP induction was Yap1p-dependent, indicating an oxidative stress signal. Total cell iron measurements indicate that the vma2Δ mutant is iron-replete, despite up-regulation of the iron regulon. Acetic acid up-regulated PFIT2-GFP expression in wild-type cells, suggesting that loss of pH control contributes to an iron deficiency signal in the mutant. Iron supplementation significantly decreased PFIT2-GFP expression and, surprisingly, restored PTSA2-GFP to wild-type levels. A tsa2Δ mutation induced both nuclear localization of Aft1p and PFIT2-GFP expression. The data suggest a novel function for Tsa2p as a negative regulator of Aft1p-driven transcription, which is induced in V-ATPase mutants to limit transcription of the iron regulon. This represents a new mechanism bridging the antioxidant and iron-regulatory pathways that is intimately linked to pH homeostasis. PMID:23457300

  20. Nucleotide-induced asymmetry within ATPase activator ring drives σ54-RNAP interaction and ATP hydrolysis

    SciTech Connect

    Sysoeva, Tatyana A.; Chowdhury, Saikat; Guo, Liang; Nixon, B. Tracy

    2013-12-10

    It is largely unknown how the typical homomeric ring geometry of ATPases associated with various cellular activities enables them to perform mechanical work. Small-angle solution X-ray scattering, crystallography, and electron microscopy (EM) reconstructions revealed that partial ATP occupancy caused the heptameric closed ring of the bacterial enhancer-binding protein (bEBP) NtrC1 to rearrange into a hexameric split ring of striking asymmetry. The highly conserved and functionally crucial GAFTGA loops responsible for interacting with σ54–RNA polymerase formed a spiral staircase. We propose that splitting of the ensemble directs ATP hydrolysis within the oligomer, and the ring's asymmetry guides interaction between ATPase and the complex of σ54 and promoter DNA. Similarity between the structure of the transcriptional activator NtrC1 and those of distantly related helicases Rho and E1 reveals a general mechanism in homomeric ATPases whereby complex allostery within the ring geometry forms asymmetric functional states that allow these biological motors to exert directional forces on their target macromolecules.

  1. Cohesin’s ATPase Activity Couples Cohesin Loading onto DNA with Smc3 Acetylation

    PubMed Central

    Ladurner, Rene; Bhaskara, Venugopal; Huis in ’t Veld, Pim J.; Davidson, Iain F.; Kreidl, Emanuel; Petzold, Georg; Peters, Jan-Michael

    2014-01-01

    Summary Background Cohesin mediates sister chromatid cohesion by topologically entrapping sister DNA molecules inside its ring structure. Cohesin is loaded onto DNA by the Scc2/NIPBL-Scc4/MAU2-loading complex in a manner that depends on the adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase) activity of cohesin’s Smc1 and Smc3 subunits. Subsequent cohesion establishment during DNA replication depends on Smc3 acetylation by Esco1 and Esco2 and on recruitment of sororin, which “locks” cohesin on DNA by inactivating the cohesin release factor Wapl. Results Human cohesin ATPase mutants associate transiently with DNA in a manner that depends on the loading complex but cannot be stabilized on chromatin by depletion of Wapl. These mutants cannot be acetylated, fail to interact with sororin, and do not mediate cohesion. The absence of Smc3 acetylation in the ATPase mutants is not a consequence of their transient association with DNA but is directly caused by their inability to hydrolyze ATP because acetylation of wild-type cohesin also depends on ATP hydrolysis. Conclusions Our data indicate that cohesion establishment involves the following steps. First, cohesin transiently associates with DNA in a manner that depends on the loading complex. Subsequently, ATP hydrolysis by cohesin leads to entrapment of DNA and converts Smc3 into a state that can be acetylated. Finally, Smc3 acetylation leads to recruitment of sororin, inhibition of Wapl, and stabilization of cohesin on DNA. Our finding that cohesin’s ATPase activity is required for both cohesin loading and Smc3 acetylation raises the possibility that cohesion establishment is directly coupled to the reaction in which cohesin entraps DNA. PMID:25220052

  2. Redox Activation of the Universally Conserved ATPase YchF by Thioredoxin 1

    PubMed Central

    Hannemann, Liya; Suppanz, Ida; Ba, Qiaorui; MacInnes, Katherine; Drepper, Friedel; Warscheid, Bettina

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Aims: YchF/Ola1 are unconventional members of the universally conserved GTPase family because they preferentially hydrolyze ATP rather than GTP. These ATPases have been associated with various cellular processes and pathologies, including DNA repair, tumorigenesis, and apoptosis. In particular, a possible role in regulating the oxidative stress response has been suggested for both bacterial and human YchF/Ola1. In this study, we analyzed how YchF responds to oxidative stress and how it potentially regulates the antioxidant response. Results: Our data identify a redox-regulated monomer–dimer equilibrium of YchF as a key event in the functional cycle of YchF. Upon oxidative stress, the oxidation of a conserved and surface-exposed cysteine residue promotes YchF dimerization, which is accompanied by inhibition of the ATPase activity. No dimers were observed in a YchF mutant lacking this cysteine. In vitro, the YchF dimer is dissociated by thioredoxin 1 (TrxA) and this stimulates the ATPase activity. The physiological significance of the YchF-thioredoxin 1 interaction was demonstrated by in vivo cross-linking, which validated this interaction in living cells. This approach also revealed that both the ATPase domain and the helical domain of YchF are in contact with TrxA. Innovation: YchF/Ola1 are the first redox-regulated members of the universally conserved GTPase family and are inactivated by oxidation of a conserved cysteine residue within the nucleotide-binding motif. Conclusion: Our data provide novel insights into the regulation of the so far ill-defined YchF/Ola1 family of proteins and stipulate their role as negative regulators of the oxidative stress response. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 24, 141–156. PMID:26160547

  3. Leishmania amazonensis: Increase in ecto-ATPase activity and parasite burden of vinblastine-resistant protozoa.

    PubMed

    Giarola, Naira Lígia Lima; Silveira, Thaís Souza; Inacio, Job Domingos Filho; Vieira, Lisvane Paes; Almeida-Amaral, Elmo Eduardo; Meyer-Fernandes, José Roberto

    2014-11-01

    Leishmania amazonensis is a protozoan parasite that induces mucocutaneous and diffuse cutaneous lesions upon infection. An important component in treatment failure is the emergence of drug-resistant parasites. It is necessary to clarify the mechanism of resistance that occurs in these parasites to develop effective drugs for leishmaniasis treatment. Promastigote forms of L. amazonensis were selected by gradually increasing concentrations of vinblastine and were maintained under continuous drug pressure (resistant cells). Vinblastine-resistant L. amazonensis proliferated similarly to control parasites. However, resistant cells showed changes in the cell shape, irregular flagella and a decrease in rhodamine 123 accumulation, which are factors associated with the development of resistance, suggesting the MDR phenotype. The Mg-dependent-ecto-ATPase, an enzyme located on cell surface of Leishmania parasites, is involved in the acquisition of purine and participates in the adhesion and infectivity process. We compared control and resistant L. amazonensis ecto-enzymatic activities. The control and resistant Leishmania ecto-ATPase activities were 16.0 ± 1.5 nmol Pi × h(-1) × 10(-7) cells and 40.0 ± 4.4 nmol Pi × h(-1) × 10(-7)cells, respectively. Interestingly, the activity of other ecto-enzymes present on the L. amazonensis cell surface, the ecto-5' and 3'-nucleotidases and ecto-phosphatase, did not increase. The level of ecto-ATPase modulation is related to the degree of resistance of the cell. Cells resistant to 10 μM and 60 μM of vinblastine have ecto-ATPase activities of 22.7 ± 0.4 nmol Pi × h(-1) × 10(-7) cells and 33.8 ± 0.8 nmol Pi × h(-1) × 10(-7)cells, respectively. In vivo experiments showed that both lesion size and parasite burden in mice infected with resistant parasites are greater than those of L. amazonensis control cells. Furthermore, our data established a relationship between the increase in ecto-ATPase activity and greater infectivity and

  4. A new steroidal saponin from AGAVE brittoniana and its biphasic effect on the Na+-ATPase activity.

    PubMed

    Silva, Graziela M; De Souza, Aloa M; Lara, Luciene S; Mendes, Tatiana P; da Silva, Bernadete P; Lopes, Anibal G

    2005-01-01

    A new steroidal saponin, 3-{(O-6-deoxy-a-L-mannopyranosyl-(1 --> 4)-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1 --> 3)-O-[O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1 --> 3)-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1 --> 2)]-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1 --> 4)-beta-D-galactopyranosyl)oxy}-6-hydroxy-(3beta,5alpha,6alpha,25R)-spirostan-12-one, was isolated from Agave brittoniana Trel. The structure was determined by extensive NMR spectroscopy studies and chemical conversions. Its effects on the Na+-ATPase and (Na+ + K+)-ATPase activities of the proximal tubule from pig kidney were evaluated. It was observed that this steroidal saponin exerts a biphasic effect on the Na+-ATPase activity. It is concluded that the effect of the aqueous extract as a diuretic is due, at least in part, to the action of saponin on the ouabain-insensitive Na+-ATPase.

  5. γ-Benzylidene digoxin derivatives synthesis and molecular modeling: Evaluation of anticancer and the Na,K-ATPase activity effect.

    PubMed

    Alves, Silmara L G; Paixão, Natasha; Ferreira, Letícia G R; Santos, Felipe R S; Neves, Luiza D R; Oliveira, Gisele C; Cortes, Vanessa F; Salomé, Kahlil S; Barison, Andersson; Santos, Fabio V; Cenzi, Gisele; Varotti, Fernando P; Oliveira, Soraya M F; Taranto, Alex G; Comar, Moacyr; Silva, Luciana M; Noël, François; Quintas, Luis Eduardo M; Barbosa, Leandro A; Villar, José A F P

    2015-08-01

    Cardiotonic steroids (CS), natural compounds with traditional use in cardiology, have been recently suggested to exert potent anticancer effects. However, the repertoire of molecules with Na,K-ATPase activity and anticancer properties is limited. This paper describes the synthesis of 6 new digoxin derivatives substituted (on the C17-butenolide) with γ-benzylidene group and their cytotoxic effect on human fibroblast (WI-26 VA4) and cancer (HeLa and RKO) cell lines as well as their effect on Na,K-ATPase activity and expression. As digoxin, compound BD-4 was almost 100-fold more potent than the other derivatives for cytotoxicity with the three types of cells used and was also the only one able to fully inhibit the Na,K-ATPase of HeLa cells after 24h treatment. No change in the Na,K-ATPase α1 isoform protein expression was detected. On the other hand it was 30-40 fold less potent for direct Na,K-ATPase inhibition, when compared to the most potent derivatives, BD-1 and BD-3, and digoxin. The data presented here demonstrated that the anticancer effect of digoxin derivatives substituted with γ-benzylidene were not related with their inhibition of Na,K-ATPase activity or alteration of its expression, suggesting that this classical molecular mechanism of CS is not involved in the cytotoxic effect of our derivatives.

  6. Calcium Activation of the Ca-ATPase Enhances Conformational Heterogeneity Between Nucleotide Binding and Phosphorylation Domains

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Baowei; Squier, Thomas C.; Bigelow, Diana J.

    2004-04-13

    High-resolution crystal structures obtained in two conformations of the Ca-ATPase suggest that a large-scale rigid-body domain reorientation of approximately 50 involving the nucleotide-binding (N) domain is required to permit the transfer of the -phosphoryl group of ATP to Asp351 in the phosphorylation (P) domain during coupled calcium transport. However, variability observed in the orientation of the N-domain relative to the P-domain in both different crystal structures of the Ca-ATPase following calcium activation, and structures of other P-type ATPases, suggests the presence of conformational heterogeneity in solution which may be modulated by contact interactions within the crystal. Therefore, to address the extent of conformational heterogeneity between these domains in solution, we have used fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) to measure the spatial separation and conformational heterogeneity between donor (i.e., 5-[[2-[(iodoacetyl)amino]ethyl]amino] naphthalene-1-sulfonic acid) and acceptor (i.e., fluorescein 5-isothiocyanate) chromophores covalently bound to the P- and N-domains, respectively, within the Ca-ATPase stabilized in different enzymatic states associated with the transport cycle. In comparison to the unliganded enzyme, the spatial separation and conformational heterogeneity between these domains is unaffected by enzyme phosphorylation. However, calcium-activation results in a 3.4 increase in the average spatial separation, which increases from 29.4 to 32.8 , in good agreement with the high-resolution structures where these sites are respectively separated by 31.6 (1 IWO.pdb) and 35.9 (1EUL.pdb). Thus, the crystal structures accurately reflect the average solution structures of the Ca-ATPase. However, there is substantial conformational heterogeneity for all enzyme states measured, indicating that formation of catalytically important transition states involves a subpopulation of enzyme intermediates. These results suggest that the

  7. Calcium Release-Activated Calcium (CRAC) Channels Mediate the β2-Adrenergic Regulation of Na,K-ATPase

    PubMed Central

    Keller, Michael J.; Lecuona, Emilia; Prakriya, Murali; Cheng, Yuan; Soberanes, Saul; Scott Budinger, G.R.; Sznajder, Jacob I.

    2014-01-01

    β2-adrenergic agonists have been shown to regulate Na,K-ATPase in the alveolar epithelium by recruiting Na,K-ATPase-containing vesicles to the plasma membrane of alveolar epithelial cells (AEC). Here, we provide evidence that β2-agonists induce store-operated calcium entry (SOCE) in AECs. This calcium entry is necessary for β2-agonist-induced recruitment of Na,K-ATPase to the plasma membrane of AECs. Specifically, we show that β2-agonists induce SOCE via stromal interaction molecule 1 (STIM1)-associated calcium release-activated calcium (CRAC) channels. We also demonstrate that the magnitude of SOCE affects the abundance of Na,K-ATPase at the plasma membrane of AECs. PMID:25447523

  8. Effects of diene valepotriates from Valeriana glechomifolia on Na+/K+-ATPase activity in the cortex and hippocampus of mice.

    PubMed

    Müller, Liz G; Salles, Luisa; Lins, Helena A; Feijó, Priscilla R O; Cassel, Eduardo; Vargas, Rubem; von Poser, Gilsane L; Noël, François; Quintas, Luis E M; Rates, Stela M K

    2015-02-01

    Diene valepotriates obtained from Valeriana glechomifolia present antidepressant-like activity, mediated by dopaminergic and noradrenergic neurotransmissions. Also, previous studies have shown inhibitory activity of diene valepotriates towards Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase from the rat brain in vitro. Nevertheless, in vivo studies regarding the action of diene valepotriates on this enzyme are still lacking. Considering that Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase cerebral activity is involved in depressive disorders, the aim of this study was to investigate the effects of acute (5 mg/kg, p. o.) and repeated (5 mg/kg, p. o., once a day for three days) diene valepotriate administration on Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase activity in the cortex and hippocampus of mice submitted or not submitted to the forced swimming test. In addition, the protein expression of Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase α1, α2, and α3 isoforms in the cortex of mice repeatedly treated with diene valepotriates (and submitted or not submitted to the forced swimming test) was investigated. Diene valepotriates significantly decreased mice immobility time in the forced swimming test when compared to the control group. Only the animals repeatedly treated with diene valepotriates presented increased Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase activity in the cerebral cortex, and the exposure to the forced swimming test counteracted the effects of the diene valepotriates. No alterations in the hippocampal Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase activity were observed. Repeated diene valepotriate administration increased the cortical content of the α2 isoform, but the α3 isoform protein expression was augmented only in mice repeatedly treated with diene valepotriates and forced to swim. Mice treated with the vehicle and submitted to the forced swimming test also presented an increase in the content of the α2 isoform, but no alterations in Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase activity. These results suggest that cortical Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase may represent a molecular target of the diene valepotriates in vivo and long

  9. Na(+)-, ouabain-, Ca(2+)-, and thapsigargin-sensitive ATPase activity expressed in chimeras between the calcium and the sodium pump alpha subunits.

    PubMed Central

    Ishii, T; Lemas, M V; Takeyasu, K

    1994-01-01

    Using the chicken sarcoplasmic/endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ (SERCA)-ATPase as a parental molecule and replacing various portions with the corresponding portions of the chicken Na+,K(+)-ATPase alpha 1 subunit, Ca2+/thapsigargin- and Na+/ouabain-sensitive domains critical for these P-type ATPase activities were identified. In the chimera, [n/c]CC, the amino-terminal amino acids Met-1 to Asp-162 of the SERCA (isoform 1) (SERCA1) ATPase were replaced with the corresponding portion (Met-1-Asp-200) of the Na+,K(+)-ATPase alpha 1 subunit. In the chimera CC[c/n], the carboxyl-terminal amino acids (Ser-830 to COOH) of the SERCA1 ATPase were replaced with the corresponding segment (Leu-861 to COOH) of the Na+,K(+)-ATPase alpha 1 subunit, and in the chimera CNC, the middle part (Gly-354-Lys-712) of the SERCA1 ATPase was exchanged with the Na+,K(+)-ATPase alpha 1 subunit (Gly-378-Lys-724). None of the chimeric molecules exhibited any detectable ouabain-sensitive Na+,K(+)-ATPase activity, but they did exhibit thapsigargin-sensitive Ca(2+)-ATPase activity. Therefore, the segments Ile-163-Gly-354 and Lys-712-Ser-830 of the SERCA1 ATPase are sufficient for Ca2+ and thapsigargin sensitivity. The SERCA1-ATPase activity of [n/c]CC, but not of CCC, CNC, or CC[c/n], was further stimulated by addition of Na+ in the assay medium containing Ca2+. This additional stimulation of SERCA1-ATPase activity by Na+ was abolished when the amino-terminal region (Met-1-Leu-69) of [n/c]CC was deleted ([delta n/c]CC). In the absence of Na+, the SERCA1-ATPase activity of [n/c]CC was inhibited by ouabain, and, in the presence of Na+, its activity was stimulated by this drug. On the other hand, the ATPase activity of [delta n/c]CC was not affected by ouabain, although [delta n/c]CC can still bind [3H]ouabain. These results suggest that a distinct Na(+)-sensitive domain (Na+ sensor) located within the restricted amino-terminal region (Met-1-Leu-69) of the Na+,K(+)-ATPase alpha 1 subunit regulates ATPase

  10. Low temperature alters plasma membrane lipid composition and ATPase activity of pineapple fruit during blackheart development.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yuchan; Pan, Xiaoping; Qu, Hongxia; Underhill, Steven J R

    2014-02-01

    Plasma membrane (PM) plays central role in triggering primary responses to chilling injury and sustaining cellular homeostasis. Characterising response of membrane lipids to low temperature can provide important information for identifying early causal factors contributing to chilling injury. To this end, PM lipid composition and ATPase activity were assessed in pineapple fruit (Ananas comosus) in relation to the effect of low temperature on the development of blackheart, a form of chilling injury. Chilling temperature at 10 °C induced blackheart development in concurrence with increase in electrolyte leakage. PM ATPase activity was decreased after 1 week at low temperature, followed by a further decrease after 2 weeks. The enzyme activity was not changed during 25 °C storage. Loss of total PM phospholipids was found during postharvest senescence, but more reduction was shown from storage at 10 °C. Phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine were the predominant PM phospholipid species. Low temperature increased the level of phosphatidic acid but decreased the level of phosphatidylinositol. Both phospholipid species were not changed during storage at 25 °C. Postharvest storage at both temperatures decreased the levels of C18:3 and C16:1, and increased level of C18:1. Low temperature decreased the level of C18:2 and increased the level of C14:0. Exogenous application of phosphatidic acid was found to inhibit the PM ATPase activity of pineapple fruit in vitro. Modification of membrane lipid composition and its effect on the functional property of plasma membrane at low temperature were discussed in correlation with their roles in blackheart development of pineapple fruit.

  11. Relationship between body size, Na+-K+-ATPase activity, and membrane lipid composition in mammal and bird kidney.

    PubMed

    Turner, Nigel; Haga, Kurt L; Hulbert, A J; Else, Paul L

    2005-01-01

    We investigated the relationship between body size, Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase molecular activity, and membrane lipid composition in the kidney of five mammalian and eight avian species ranging from 30-g mice to 280-kg cattle and 13-g zebra finches to 35-kg emus, respectively. Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase activity was found to be higher in the smaller species of both groups. In small mammals, the higher Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase activity was primarily the result of an increase in the molecular activity (turnover rate) of individual enzymes, whereas in small birds the higher Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase activity was the result of an increased enzyme concentration. Phospholipids from both mammals and birds contained a relatively constant percentage of unsaturated fatty acids; however, phospholipids from the smaller species were generally more polyunsaturated, and a complementary significant allometric increase in monounsaturate content was observed in the larger species. In particular, the relative content of the highly polyunsaturated docosahexaenoic acid [22:6(n-3)] displayed the greatest variation with body mass, scaling with allometric exponents of -0.21 and -0.26 in the mammals and birds, respectively. This allometric variation in fatty acid composition was correlated with Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase molecular activity in mammals, whereas in birds molecular activity only correlated with membrane cholesterol content. These relationships are discussed with respect to the metabolic intensity of different-sized animals.

  12. Mutant LV(476-7)AA of A-subunit of Enterococcus hirae V1-ATPase: High affinity of A3B3 complex to DF axis and low ATPase activity.

    PubMed

    Alam, Jahangir; Yamato, Ichiro; Arai, Satoshi; Saijo, Shinya; Mizutani, Kenji; Ishizuka-Katsura, Yoshiko; Ohsawa, Noboru; Terada, Takaho; Shirouzu, Mikako; Yokoyama, Shigeyuki; Iwata, So; Kakinuma, Yoshimi; Murata, Takeshi

    2013-01-01

    Vacuolar ATPase (V-ATPase) of Enterococcus hirae is composed of a soluble functional domain V1 (A3B3DF) and an integral membrane domain Vo (ac), where V1 and Vo domains are connected by a central stalk, composed of D-, F-, and d-subunits; and two peripheral stalks (E- and G-subunits). We identified 120 interacting residues of A3B3 heterohexamer with D-subunit in DF heterodimer in the crystal structures of A3B3 and A3B3DF. In our previous study, we reported 10 mutants of E. hirae V1-ATPase, which showed lower binding affinities of DF with A3B3 complex leading to higher initial specific ATPase activities compared to the wild-type. In this study, we identified a mutation of A-subunit (LV(476-7)AA) at its C-terminal domain resulting in the A3B3 complex with higher binding affinities for wild-type or mutant DF heterodimers and lower initial ATPase activities compared to the wild-type A3B3 complex, consistent with our previous proposal of reciprocal relationship between the ATPase activity and the protein-protein binding affinity of DF axis to the A3B3 catalytic domain of E. hirae V-ATPase. These observations suggest that the binding of DF axis at the contact region of A3B3 rotary ring is relevant to its rotation activity. PMID:24404436

  13. [Effect of picrotoxin on the Cl-activated ATPase microsomal fraction of bream brain (Abramis brama L.)].

    PubMed

    Menzikov, S A; Menzikova, O V

    2001-01-01

    It is found that picrotoxine in range concentrations 0.1-10 microM stimulates the basal Mg(2+)-ATPase from microsomal fraction of fish bream (Abramis brama L.), however decreases activating effect of 10(-5) M GABA on the enzyme. The stimulative effect of picrotoxine dependants on duration of preincubation with microsomes. It was established that basal Mg(2+)-ATP-ase activity was activated by anions (Cl- > Br- > I-). The activated effect of anions on the Mg(2+)-ATP-ase is decreased in the presence 1 microM picrotoxine. It was shown that in the dependence on concentration of the Mg(2+)-ATP (0.2 or 1 mM) in the incubation medium the picrotoxine serves as on activator or inhibitor of the enzyme activity. It is supposed that picrotoxine allosterially influences on the enzyme by the receptor-dependent way.

  14. Ouabain triggers preconditioning through activation of the Na+,K+-ATPase signaling cascade in rat hearts

    PubMed Central

    Pierre, Sandrine V.; Yang, Changjun; Yuan, Zhaokan; Seminerio, Jennifer; Mouas, Christian; Garlid, Keith D.; Dos-Santos, Pierre; Xie, Zijian

    2007-01-01

    Objective Because ouabain activates several pathways that are critical to cardioprotective mechanisms such as ischemic preconditioning, we tested if this digitalis compound could protect the heart against ischemia-reperfusion injury through activation of the Na+,K+-ATPase/c-Src receptor complex. Methods and Results In Langendorff-perfused rat hearts, a short (4 min) administration of ouabain 10 μM followed by an 8-minute washout before 30 minutes of global ischemia and reperfusion improved cardiac function, decreased lactate dehydrogenase release and reduced infarct size by 40%. Western blot analysis revealed that ouabain activated the cardioprotective phospholipase Cγ1/protein kinase Cε (PLC-γ1/PKCε) pathway. Pre-treatment of the hearts with the Src kinase family inhibitor 4-amino-5-(4-chlorophenyl)-7-(t-butyl)pyrazolol[3,4-d]pyrimidine (PP2) blocked not only ouabain-induced activation of PLC-γ1/PKCε pathway, but also cardiac protection. This protection was also blocked by a PKCε translocation inhibitor peptide (PKCε TIP). Conclusion Short exposure to a low concentration of ouabain protects the heart against ischemia/reperfusion injury. This effect of ouabain on the heart is most likely due to the activation of the Na+,K+-ATPase/c-Src receptor complex and subsequent stimulation of key mediators of preconditioning, namely PLC-γ1 and PKCε. PMID:17157283

  15. Alterations in erythrocyte membrane fluidity and Na+/K+ -ATPase activity in chronic alcoholics.

    PubMed

    Maturu, Paramahamsa; Vaddi, Damodara Reddy; Pannuru, Padmavathi; Nallanchakravarthula, Varadacharyulu

    2010-06-01

    Ethanol disorders biological membranes causing perturbations in the bilayer and also by altering the physicochemical properties of membrane lipids. But, chronic alcohol consumption also increases nitric oxide (NO) production. There was no systemic study was done related to alcohol-induced production of NO and consequent formation of peroxynitrite mediated changes in biophysical and biochemical properties, structure, composition, integrity and function of erythrocyte membranes in chronic alcoholics. Hence, keeping all these conditions in mind the present study was undertaken to investigate the role of over produced nitric oxide on red cell membrane physicochemical properties in chronic alcoholics. Human male volunteers aged 44 +/- 6 years with similar dietary habits were divided into two groups, namely nonalcoholic controls and chronic alcoholics (~125 g of alcohol at least five times per week for the past 10-12 years). Elevated nitrite and nitrate levels in plasma and lysate, changes in erythrocyte membrane individual phospholipid composition, increased lipid peroxidation, protein carbonyls, cholesterol and phospholipids ratio (C/P ratio) and anisotropic value (gamma) with decreased sulfhydryl groups and Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase activity in alcoholics was evident from this study. RBC lysate NO was positively correlated with C/P ratio (r = 0.547) and anisotropic (gamma) value (r = 0.428), Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase activity was negatively correlated with RBC lysate NO (r = -0.372) and anisotropic (gamma) value (r = -0.624) in alcoholics. Alcohol-induced overproduction of nitric oxide reacts with superoxide radicals to produce peroxynitrite, which appears to be responsible for changes in erythrocyte membrane lipids and the activity of Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase.

  16. D-Methionine attenuated cisplatin-induced vestibulotoxicity through altering ATPase activities and oxidative stress in guinea pigs

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, P.-W.; Liu, S.-H.; Young, Y.-H.; Lin-Shiau, Shoei-Yn . E-mail: syl@ha.mc.ntu.edu.tw

    2006-09-01

    Cisplatin has been used as a chemotherapeutic agent to treat many kinds of malignancies. Its damage to the vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) system has been reported. However, the underlying biochemical change in the inner ear or central vestibular nervous system is not fully understood. In this study, we attempted to examine whether cisplatin-induced vestibulotoxicity and D-methionine protection were correlated with the changes of ATPase activities and oxidative stress of ampullary tissue of vestibules as well as cerebellar cortex (the inhibitory center of VOR system) of guinea pigs. By means of a caloric test coupled with electronystagmographic recordings, we found that cisplatin exposure caused a dose-dependent (1, 3, or 5 mg/kg) vestibular dysfunction as revealed by a decrease of slow phase velocity (SPV). In addition, cisplatin significantly inhibited the Na{sup +}, K{sup +}-ATPase and Ca{sup 2+}-ATPase activities in the ampullary tissue with a good dose-response relationship but not those of cerebellar cortex. Regression analysis indicated that a decrease of SPV was well correlated with the reduction of Na{sup +}, K{sup +}-ATPase and Ca{sup 2+}-ATPase activities of the ampullary tissue. D-Methionine (300 mg/kg) reduced both abnormalities of SPV and ATPase activities in a correlated manner. Moreover, cisplatin exposure led to a significant dose-dependent increase of lipid peroxidation and nitric oxide concentrations of the vestibules, which could be significantly suppressed by D-methionine. However, cisplatin did not alter the levels of lipid peroxidation and nitric oxide of the cerebellum. In conclusion, cisplatin inhibited ATPase activities and increased oxidative stress in guinea pig vestibular labyrinths. D-Methionine attenuated cisplatin-induced vestibulotoxicity associated with ionic disturbance through its antioxidative property.

  17. A plant proton-pumping inorganic pyrophosphatase functionally complements the vacuolar ATPase transport activity and confers bafilomycin resistance in yeast.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Castiñeira, José R; Hernández, Agustín; Drake, Rocío; Serrano, Aurelio

    2011-07-15

    V-ATPases (vacuolar H+-ATPases) are a specific class of multi-subunit pumps that play an essential role in the generation of proton gradients across eukaryotic endomembranes. Another simpler proton pump that co-localizes with the V-ATPase occurs in plants and many protists: the single-subunit H+-PPase [H+-translocating PPase (inorganic pyrophosphatase)]. Little is known about the relative contribution of these two proteins to the acidification of intracellular compartments. In the present study, we show that the expression of a chimaeric derivative of the Arabidopsis thaliana H+-PPase AVP1, which is preferentially targeted to internal membranes of yeast, alleviates the phenotypes associated with V-ATPase deficiency. Phenotypic complementation was achieved both with a yeast strain with its V-ATPase specifically inhibited by bafilomycin A1 and with a vma1-null mutant lacking a catalytic V-ATPase subunit. Cell staining with vital fluorescent dyes showed that AVP1 recovered vacuole acidification and normalized the endocytic pathway of the vma mutant. Biochemical and immunochemical studies further demonstrated that a significant fraction of heterologous H+-PPase is located at the vacuolar membrane. These results raise the question of the occurrence of distinct proton pumps in certain single-membrane organelles, such as plant vacuoles, by proving yeast V-ATPase activity dispensability and the capability of H+-PPase to generate, by itself, physiologically suitable internal pH gradients. Also, they suggest new ways of engineering macrolide drug tolerance and outline an experimental system for testing alternative roles for fungal and animal V-ATPases, other than the mere acidification of subcellular organelles.

  18. Fluidity-dependent Mg2(+)-ATPase activity in membranes from Leishmania donovani promastigotes.

    PubMed Central

    Dutta, M; Bandyopadhyay, R; Ghosh, C; Basu, M K

    1990-01-01

    The state of the lipid phase of the membrane plays a key role in the exposure of various receptors, antigens and enzymes on the membrane surface. The fluidity of membranes of Leishmania donovani promastigotes was monitored by two independent methods, i.e. influx of sterol from liposomes and removal of phospholipids by treatment with phospholipase C. The altered sterol/phospholipid ratio, in both cases, provided evidence that the activity of the functionally important membrane-bound enzyme Mg2(+)-ATPase is modulated by the state of the lipid phase of the membrane. PMID:2137691

  19. Studies on the bivalent-cation-activated ATPase activities of highly purified human platelet surface and intracellular membranes.

    PubMed

    Hack, N; Croset, M; Crawford, N

    1986-02-01

    Membrane-bound Ca2+-ATPases are responsible for the energy-dependent transport of Ca2+ across membrane barriers against concentration gradients. Such enzymes have been identified in sarcoplasmic reticulum of muscle tissues and in non-muscle cells in both surface membranes and endoplasmic-reticulum-like intracellular membrane complexes. In a previous study using membrane fractionation by density-gradient and free-flow electrophoresis, we reported that the intracellular membranes of human blood platelets were a major storage site for Ca2+ and involved in maintaining low cytosol [Ca2+] in the unactivated cell. In the present report we demonstrated that the intracellular membranes also exhibit a high-affinity Ca2+-ATPase which appears to be kinetically associated with the Ca2+-sequestering process. We found that both the surface membrane and the intracellular membrane exhibited a basal Mg2+-ATPase activity, but Ca2+ activation of this enzyme was confined only to the intracellular membrane. Use of Ca2+-EGTA buffers to control the extravesicle [Ca2+] allowed a direct comparison of the Ca2+-ATPase and the Ca2+-uptake process over a Ca2+ range of 0.01 microM to 1.0 mM, and it was found that both properties were maximally expressed in the range of external [Ca2+] 1-50 microM, with concentrations greater than 100 microM showing substantial inhibition. Double-reciprocal plots for the Ca2+-ATPase activity and Ca2+ uptake gave apparent Km values for Ca2+ of 0.15 and 0.13 microM respectively. However, similar plots for ATP with the enzyme revealed a discontinuity (two affinity sites, with Km 20 and 145 microM), whereas plots for the Ca2+ uptake gave a single Km value for Ca2+, 1.1 microM. Phosphorylation studies during Ca2+ uptake using [gamma-32P]ATP revealed two components of 90 and 95 kDa phosphorylated at extravesicle [Ca2+] of 3 microM. The Ca2+-ATPase activity, Ca2+ uptake and phosphorylation were all almost completely inhibited in the presence of 500 microM-Ca2+. Similar

  20. Small terminase couples viral DNA-binding to genome-packaging ATPase activity

    PubMed Central

    Roy, Ankoor; Bhardwaj, Anshul; Datta, Pinaki; Lander, Gabriel C.; Cingolani, Gino

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY Packaging of viral genomes into empty procapsids is powered by a large DNA-packaging motor. In most viruses, this machine is composed of a large (L) and a small (S) terminase subunit complexed with a dodecamer of portal protein. Here, we describe the 1.75 Å crystal structure of the bacteriophage P22 S-terminase in a nonameric conformation. The structure presents a central channel ~23 Å in diameter, sufficiently large to accommodate hydrated B-DNA. The last 23 residues of S-terminase are essential for binding to DNA and assembly to L-terminase. Upon binding to its own DNA, S-terminase functions as a specific activator of L-terminase ATPase activity. The DNA-dependent stimulation of ATPase activity thus rationalizes the exclusive specificity of genome-packaging motors for viral DNA in the crowd of host DNA, ensuring fidelity of packaging and avoiding wasteful ATP hydrolysis. This posits a model for DNA-dependent activation of genome-packaging motors of general interest in virology. PMID:22771211

  1. Colocalization of the (Pro)renin Receptor/Atp6ap2 with H+-ATPases in Mouse Kidney but Prorenin Does Not Acutely Regulate Intercalated Cell H+-ATPase Activity

    PubMed Central

    Daryadel, Arezoo; Bourgeois, Soline; Figueiredo, Marta F. L.; Gomes Moreira, Ana; Kampik, Nicole B.; Oberli, Lisa; Mohebbi, Nilufar; Lu, Xifeng; Meima, Marcel E.; Danser, A. H. Jan; Wagner, Carsten A.

    2016-01-01

    The (Pro)renin receptor (P)RR/Atp6ap2 is a cell surface protein capable of binding and non-proteolytically activate prorenin. Additionally, (P)RR is associated with H+-ATPases and alternative functions in H+-ATPase regulation as well as in Wnt signalling have been reported. Kidneys express very high levels of H+-ATPases which are involved in multiple functions such as endocytosis, membrane protein recycling as well as urinary acidification, bicarbonate reabsorption, and salt absorption. Here, we wanted to localize the (P)RR/Atp6ap2 along the murine nephron, exmaine whether the (P)RR/Atp6ap2 is coregulated with other H+-ATPase subunits, and whether acute stimulation of the (P)RR/Atp6ap2 with prorenin regulates H+-ATPase activity in intercalated cells in freshly isolated collecting ducts. We localized (P)PR/Atp6ap2 along the murine nephron by qPCR and immunohistochemistry. (P)RR/Atp6ap2 mRNA was detected in all nephron segments with highest levels in the collecting system coinciding with H+-ATPases. Further experiments demonstrated expression at the brush border membrane of proximal tubules and in all types of intercalated cells colocalizing with H+-ATPases. In mice treated with NH4Cl, NaHCO3, KHCO3, NaCl, or the mineralocorticoid DOCA for 7 days, (P)RR/Atp6ap2 and H+-ATPase subunits were regulated but not co-regulated at protein and mRNA levels. Immunolocalization in kidneys from control, NH4Cl or NaHCO3 treated mice demonstrated always colocalization of PRR/Atp6ap2 with H+-ATPase subunits at the brush border membrane of proximal tubules, the apical pole of type A intercalated cells, and at basolateral and/or apical membranes of non-type A intercalated cells. Microperfusion of isolated cortical collecting ducts and luminal application of prorenin did not acutely stimulate H+-ATPase activity. However, incubation of isolated collecting ducts with prorenin non-significantly increased ERK1/2 phosphorylation. Our results suggest that the PRR/Atp6ap2 may form a complex

  2. Job Sharing in the Endomembrane System: Vacuolar Acidification Requires the Combined Activity of V-ATPase and V-PPase.

    PubMed

    Kriegel, Anne; Andrés, Zaida; Medzihradszky, Anna; Krüger, Falco; Scholl, Stefan; Delang, Simon; Patir-Nebioglu, M Görkem; Gute, Gezahegn; Yang, Haibing; Murphy, Angus S; Peer, Wendy Ann; Pfeiffer, Anne; Krebs, Melanie; Lohmann, Jan U; Schumacher, Karin

    2015-12-01

    The presence of a large central vacuole is one of the hallmarks of a prototypical plant cell, and the multiple functions of this compartment require massive fluxes of molecules across its limiting membrane, the tonoplast. Transport is assumed to be energized by the membrane potential and the proton gradient established by the combined activity of two proton pumps, the vacuolar H(+)-pyrophosphatase (V-PPase) and the vacuolar H(+)-ATPase (V-ATPase). Exactly how labor is divided between these two enzymes has remained elusive. Here, we provide evidence using gain- and loss-of-function approaches that lack of the V-ATPase cannot be compensated for by increased V-PPase activity. Moreover, we show that increased V-ATPase activity during cold acclimation requires the presence of the V-PPase. Most importantly, we demonstrate that a mutant lacking both of these proton pumps is conditionally viable and retains significant vacuolar acidification, pointing to a so far undetected contribution of the trans-Golgi network/early endosome-localized V-ATPase to vacuolar pH. PMID:26589552

  3. V-ATPase and osmotic imbalances activate endolysosomal LC3 lipidation.

    PubMed

    Florey, Oliver; Gammoh, Noor; Kim, Sung Eun; Jiang, Xuejun; Overholtzer, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Recently a noncanonical activity of autophagy proteins has been discovered that targets lipidation of microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 (LC3) onto macroendocytic vacuoles, including macropinosomes, phagosomes, and entotic vacuoles. While this pathway is distinct from canonical autophagy, the mechanism of how these nonautophagic membranes are targeted for LC3 lipidation remains unclear. Here we present evidence that this pathway requires activity of the vacuolar-type H(+)-ATPase (V-ATPase) and is induced by osmotic imbalances within endolysosomal compartments. LC3 lipidation by this mechanism is induced by treatment of cells with the lysosomotropic agent chloroquine, and through exposure to the Heliobacter pylori pore-forming toxin VacA. These data add novel mechanistic insights into the regulation of noncanonical LC3 lipidation and its associated processes, including LC3-associated phagocytosis (LAP), and demonstrate that the widely and therapeutically used drug chloroquine, which is conventionally used to inhibit autophagy flux, is an inducer of LC3 lipidation. PMID:25484071

  4. Characterization of ATPase Activity of P2RX2 Cation Channel.

    PubMed

    Mittal, Rahul; Grati, M'hamed; Sedlacek, Miloslav; Yuan, Fenghua; Chang, Qing; Yan, Denise; Lin, Xi; Kachar, Bechara; Farooq, Amjad; Chapagain, Prem; Zhang, Yanbin; Liu, Xue Z

    2016-01-01

    P2X purinergic receptors are plasma membrane ATP-dependent cation channels that are broadly distributed in the mammalian tissues. P2RX2 is a modulator of auditory sensory hair cell mechanotransduction and plays an important role in hair cell tolerance to noise. In this study, we demonstrate for the first time in vitro and in cochlear neuroepithelium, that P2RX2 possesses the ATPase activity. We observed that the P2RX2 V60L human deafness mutation alters its ability to bind ATP, while the G353R has no effect on ATP binding or hydrolysis. A non-hydrolysable ATP assay using HEK293 cells suggests that ATP hydrolysis plays a significant role in the opening and gating of the P2RX2 ion channel. Moreover, the results of structural modeling of the molecule was in agreement with our experimental observations. These novel findings suggest the intrinsic ATPase activity of P2RX2 and provide molecular insights into the channel opening. PMID:27252659

  5. Characterization of ATPase Activity of P2RX2 Cation Channel

    PubMed Central

    Mittal, Rahul; Grati, M'hamed; Sedlacek, Miloslav; Yuan, Fenghua; Chang, Qing; Yan, Denise; Lin, Xi; Kachar, Bechara; Farooq, Amjad; Chapagain, Prem; Zhang, Yanbin; Liu, Xue Z.

    2016-01-01

    P2X purinergic receptors are plasma membrane ATP-dependent cation channels that are broadly distributed in the mammalian tissues. P2RX2 is a modulator of auditory sensory hair cell mechanotransduction and plays an important role in hair cell tolerance to noise. In this study, we demonstrate for the first time in vitro and in cochlear neuroepithelium, that P2RX2 possesses the ATPase activity. We observed that the P2RX2 V60L human deafness mutation alters its ability to bind ATP, while the G353R has no effect on ATP binding or hydrolysis. A non-hydrolysable ATP assay using HEK293 cells suggests that ATP hydrolysis plays a significant role in the opening and gating of the P2RX2 ion channel. Moreover, the results of structural modeling of the molecule was in agreement with our experimental observations. These novel findings suggest the intrinsic ATPase activity of P2RX2 and provide molecular insights into the channel opening. PMID:27252659

  6. [Effect of Cu2+ and Zn2+ ions in Ca-ATPase activity isolated from Pachymerus nucleorum (Fabricius) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae, Bruchinae) larvae].

    PubMed

    Dias, Decivaldo S; Coelho, Milton V

    2007-01-01

    ATPases, an important target of insecticides, are enzymes that hydrolyze ATP and use the energy released in that process to accomplish some type of cellular work. Pachymerus nucleorum (Fabricius) larvae possess an ATPase, that presents high Ca-ATPase activity, but no Mg-ATPase activity. In the present study, the effect of zinc and copper ions in the activity Ca-ATPase of that enzyme was tested. More than 90% of the Ca-ATPase activity was inhibited in 0.5 mM of copper ions or 0.25 mM of zinc ions. In the presence of EDTA, but not in the absence, the inhibition by zinc was reverted with the increase of calcium concentration. The inhibition by copper ions was not reverted in the presence or absence of EDTA. The Ca-ATPase was not inhibited by treatment of the ATPase fraction with copper, suggesting that the copper ion does not bind directly to the enzyme. The results suggest that zinc and copper ions form a complex with ATP and bind to the enzyme inhibiting its Ca-ATPase activity. PMID:17420863

  7. Down-regulated Na+/K+-ATPase activity in ischemic penumbra after focal cerebral ischemia/reperfusion in rats

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Hao; Chen, Yang-Mei; Zhu, Fei; Tang, Shi-Ting; Xiao, Ji-Dong; Li, Lv-Li; Lin, Xin-Jing

    2015-01-01

    This study was aimed to examine whether the Na+/K+ adenosine triphosphatase (Na+/K+-ATPase) activity in ischemic penumbra is associated with the pathogenesis of ischemia/reperfusion-induced brain injury. An experimental model of cerebral ischemia/reperfusion was made by transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAO) in rats and the changes of Na+/K+-ATPase activity in the ischemic penumbra was examined by Enzyme Assay Kit. Extensive infarction was observed in the frontal and parietal cortical and subcortical areas at 6 h, 24 h, 48 h, 3 d and 7 d after tMCAO. Enzyme Assay analyses revealed the activity of Na+/K+-ATPase was decreased in the ischemic penumbra of model rats after focal cerebral ischemia/reperfusion compared with sham-operated rats, and reduced to its minimum at 48 h, while the infarct volume was enlarged gradually. In addition, accompanied by increased brain water content, apoptosis-related bcl-2 and Bax proteins, apoptotic index and neurologic deficits Longa scores, but fluctuated the ratio of bcl-2/Bax. Correlation analysis showed that the infarct volume, apoptotic index, neurologic deficits Longa scores and brain water content were negatively related with Na+/K+-ATPase activity, while the ratio of bcl-2/Bax was positively related with Na+/K+-ATPase activity. Our results suggest that down-regulated Na+/K+-ATPase activity in ischemic penumbra might be involved in the pathogenesis of cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury presumably through the imbalance ratio of bcl-2/Bax and neuronal apoptosis, and identify novel target for neuroprotective therapeutic intervention in cerebral ischemic disease. PMID:26722460

  8. Effect of Rejection on Electrophysiologic Function of Canine Intestinal Grafts: Correlation with Histopathology and Na–K-ATPase Activity

    PubMed Central

    TAKEYOSHI, IZUMI; ZHANG, SHIMIN; KOKUDO, YASUTAKA; NAKAMURA, KENJIRO; IKOMA, AKIRA; ZHU, YUE; STARZL, THOMAS E.; TODO, SATORU

    2010-01-01

    To investigate whether electrophysiologic changes can detect the early onset and progress of intestinal rejection, changes in in vitro electrophysiologic function, intestinal histopathology, and Na–K-ATPase activity were studied in dogs. Adult mongrel dogs of both sexes, weighing 18–24 kg, were used for auto and allo small bowel transplantation. The entire small bowels, except for short segments at the proximal and distal ends, were switched between a pair of dogs (allograft). Animals receiving intestinal autotransplantation were used as controls. Allograft recipients were sacrificed 3, 4, 5, 7, or 9 days after transplantation, and autograft recipients were sacrificed 3, 7, or 14 days after transplantation. Immunosuppression was not used. Electrophysiologic measurements were done with an Ussing chamber. Histological analysis was performed blindly using whole thickness sections. Na–K–ATPase activity in the mucosal tissue, which is said to regulate the potential difference, was also measured. Potential difference, resistance, and Na–K-ATPase activity of the allograft intestine decreased with time and were significantly lower 7 and 9 days after transplantation compared to host intestine, normal intestine, and graft intestine of controls (autograft). Potential difference, resistance, and Na–K-ATPase activity of the native intestinal tissue and the autografts did not decrease with time. Detection of histologically mild rejection of the intestine, which is important for appropriate immunosuppressive treatment in clinical cases, could not be achieved based on electrophysiology or Na–K-ATPase activity. Deterioration of electrophysiologic function during rejection correlated with the histological rejection process and Na–K-ATPase activity; however, electrophysiology may not be a reliable tool for monitoring grafts, since it cannot detect early intestinal rejection. PMID:8519738

  9. V-ATPase-activity in the TGN/EE is required for exocytosis and recycling in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yi; Irani, Niloufer G.; Rubbo, Simone Di; Neumetzler, Lutz; Krishnamoorthy, Praveen; Van Houtte, Isabelle; Mylle, Evelien; Bischoff, Volker; Vernhettes, Samantha; Winne, Johan; Friml, Jiří; Stierhof, York-Dieter

    2016-01-01

    In plants, vacuolar H+-ATPase (V-ATPase) activity acidifies both the trans-Golgi network/early endosome (TGN/EE) and the vacuole. This dual V-ATPase function has impeded our understanding in how the pH homeostasis within the plant TGN/EE controls exo- and endocytosis. Here, we show that the weak V-ATPase mutant deetiolated3 (det3) displayed a pH increase in the TGN/EE, but not in the vacuole, strongly impairing secretion and recycling of the brassinosteroid receptor and the cellulose synthase complexes to the plasma membrane, in contrast to mutants lacking tonoplast-localized V-ATPase activity only. The brassinosteroid insensitivity and the cellulose deficiency defects in det3 were tightly correlated with reduced Golgi and TGN/EE motility. Thus, our results provide strong evidence that acidification of the TGN/EE, but not of the vacuole, is indispensable for functional secretion and recycling in plants. PMID:27250258

  10. Alterations in erythrocyte plasma membrane ATPase activity and adenine nucleotide content in a spontaneously diabetic subline of the Chinese hamster.

    PubMed

    Bettin, D; Klöting, I; Kohnert, K D

    1996-01-01

    The CHIG/Han subline of the Chinese hamster develops noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus characterized by hyperinsulinemia and different degrees of glucose intolerance. To study whether these abnormalities could affect transmembrane cation transport activity, we determined membrane ATPase activity and ATP concentrations in red blood cells of diabetes-resistant CHIA and diabetes-susceptible CHIG sublines of the Chinese hamster. Mg(2+)-ATPase activity was increased in red blood cell membranes of diabetic hamsters compared with that of nondiabetic CHIG and the diabetes-resistant CHIA animals and correlated with plasma triglyceride and cholesterol levels. Ca(2+)-ATPase and Na+/K+ATPase activity were not significantly different between diabetic and nondiabetic hamsters, but for the Na+/K(+)-ATPase, Km was decreased and the Vmax value increased in membrane preparations from severely diabetic hamsters. Both ATP and ADP content were lower in erythrocytes from diabetic than nondiabetic hamsters. Independently of the levels of glycemia, AMP concentrations were higher in CHIG than in CHIA hamsters. While ATP/AMP ratios were found to be decreased in erythrocytes from diabetes-susceptible CHIG hamsters compared to the diabetes-resistant CHIA animals, they were significantly correlated with the levels of glycemia. Furthermore, the relationship between blood glucose levels and kidney weight in hamsters of the diabetes-susceptible CHIG subline was such, that severely hyperglycemic animals displayed the greatest increase in kidney wet weight. These results indicate that the progressive metabolic deterioration in the development of noninsulin-dependent diabetes is associated with significant changes in the activity and kinetic parameters of cellular ATPases which could probably indicate early membrane alterations which may eventually result in the late microangiopathic complications of diabetes. PMID:8820985

  11. [GABA(A)-Coupled Cl-/HCO3(-)-ATPase: Candidate for an Novel Primary Active Transporter in Neuronal Membranes].

    PubMed

    Menzikov, S A

    2015-01-01

    Cl(-)-transport systems in cell membranes from various origins (including neurons) play an important role in different processes of their vital functions. Various transport mechanisms involved in the maintenance of intracellular concentration of Cl- that differs from concentration equilibrium have been considered. This review provides the biochemical properties of the GABA(A)-coupled Cl-/HCO3(-)-ATPase which is a candidate for an novel primary active system in neuronal membranes. Special emphasis has been placed on a review of the prerequisites for the existence of the GABA(A)-coupled ATPase. This work provides data for the benefit not only functional but also the alleged structural coupling of the enzyme with GABA(A)-receptors. It is concluded on the importance of the found ATPase in primary active transport processes across the plasma membrane of neuronal cells with different level of the organization.

  12. Structure of a topoisomerase II-DNA-nucleotide complex reveals a new control mechanism for ATPase activity

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, Bryan H.; Osheroff, Neil; Berger, James M.

    2012-01-01

    Type IIA topoisomerases control DNA supercoiling and disentangle chromosomes by a complex, ATP-dependent strand passage mechanism. Although a general framework exists for type IIA topoisomerase function, the architecture of the full-length enzyme has remained undefined. Here we present the first structure of a fully-catalytic Saccharomyces cerevisiae topoisomerase II homodimer, complexed with DNA and a nonhydrolyzable ATP analog. The enzyme adopts a domain-swapped configuration wherein the ATPase domain of one protomer sits atop the nucleolytic region of its partner subunit. This organization produces an unexpected interaction between the bound DNA and a conformational transducing element in the ATPase domain, which we show is critical for both DNA-stimulated ATP hydrolysis and global topoisomerase activity. Our data indicate that the ATPase domains pivot about each other to ensure unidirectional strand passage and that this state senses bound DNA to promote ATP turnover and enzyme reset. PMID:23022727

  13. Effects of magnesium chloride on smooth muscle actomyosin adenosine-5'-triphosphatase activity, myosin conformation, and tension development in glycerinated smooth muscle fibers.

    PubMed

    Ikebe, M; Barsotti, R J; Hinkins, S; Hartshorne, D J

    1984-10-01

    The contractile system of smooth muscle exhibits distinctive responses to varying Mg2+ concentrations in that maximum adenosine-5'-triphosphatase (ATPase) activity of actomyosin requires relatively high concentrations of Mg2+ and also that tension in skinned smooth muscle fibers can be induced in the absence of Ca2+ by high Mg2+ concentrations. We have examined the effects of MgCl2 on actomyosin ATPase activity and on tension development in skinned gizzard fibers and suggest that the MgCl2-induced changes may be correlated to shifts in myosin conformation. At low concentrations of free Mg2+ (less than or equal to 1 mM) the actin-activated ATPase activity of phosphorylated turkey gizzard myosin is reduced and is increased as the Mg2+ concentration is raised. The increase in Mg2+ (over a range of 1-10 mM added MgCl2) induces the conversion of 10S phosphorylated myosin to the 6S form, and it was found that the proportion of myosin as 10S is inversely related to the level of actin-activated ATPase activity. Activation of the actin-activated ATPase activity also occurs with dephosphorylated myosin but at higher MgCl2 concentrations, between 10 and 40 mM added MgCl2. Viscosity and fluorescence measurements indicate that increasing Mg2+ levels over this concentration range favor the formation of the 6S conformation of dephosphorylated myosin, and it is proposed that the 10S to 6S transition is a prerequisite for the observed activation of ATPase activity. With glycerinated chicken gizzard fibers high MgCl2 concentrations (6-20 mM) promote tension in the absence of Ca2+.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  14. Demethoxycurcumin modulates human P-glycoprotein function via uncompetitive inhibition of ATPase hydrolysis activity.

    PubMed

    Teng, Yu-Ning; Hsieh, Yow-Wen; Hung, Chin-Chuan; Lin, Hui-Yi

    2015-01-28

    Curcuminoids are major components of Curcuma longa L., which is widely used as spice in food. This study aimed at identifying whether curcumin, demethoxycurcumin, and bisdemethoxycurcumin could modulate efflux function of human P-glycoprotein and be used as chemosensitizers in cancer treatments. Without altering P-glycoprotein expression levels and conformation, the purified curcuminoids significantly inhibited P-glycoprotein efflux function. In rhodamine 123 efflux and calcein-AM accumulation assays, demethoxycurcumin demonstrated the highest inhibition potency (inhibitory IC50 = 1.56 ± 0.13 μM) among the purified curcuminoids, as well as in the fold of reversal assays. Demethoxycurcumin inhibited P-glycoprotein-mediated ATP hydrolysis under concentrations of <1 μM and efficiently inhibited 200 μM verapamil-stimulated ATPase activity, indicating a high affinity of demethoxycurcumin for P-glycoprotein. These results suggested that demethoxycurcumin may be a potential additive natural product in combination with chemotherapeutic agents in drug-resistant cancers.

  15. Sphingosine inhibits the sarco(endo)plasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPase (SERCA) activity.

    PubMed

    Benaim, Gustavo; Pimentel, Adriana A; Felibertt, Pimali; Mayora, Adriana; Colman, Laura; Sojo, Felipe; Rojas, Héctor; De Sanctis, Juan B

    2016-04-29

    The increase in the intracellular Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)]i) is the key variable for many different processes, ranging from regulation of cell proliferation to apoptosis. In this work we demonstrated that the sphingolipid sphingosine (Sph) increases the [Ca(2+)]i by inhibiting the sarco(endo)plasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPase (SERCA), in a similar manner to thapsigargin (Tg), a specific inhibitor of this Ca(2+) pump. The results showed that addition of sphingosine produced a release of Ca(2+) from the endoplasmic reticulum followed by a Ca(2+) entrance from the outside mileu. The results presented in this work support that this sphingolipid could control the activity of the SERCA, and hence sphingosine may participate in the regulation of [Ca(2+)]I in mammalian cells.

  16. Influence of phosphate and pH on myofibrillar ATPase activity and force in skinned cardiac trabeculae from rat.

    PubMed Central

    Ebus, J P; Stienen, G J; Elzinga, G

    1994-01-01

    1. The effects of inorganic phosphate (Pi) and pH on maximal calcium-activated isometric force and MgATPase activity were studied in chemically skinned cardiac trabeculae from rat. ATP hydrolysis was coupled enzymatically to the breakdown of NADH, and its concentration was determined photometrically. Measurements were performed at 2.1 microns sarcomere length and 20 degrees C. ATPase activity and force were also determined when square-wave-shaped length changes were applied, with a frequency of 23 Hz and an amplitude of 2.5%. 2. At pH 7.0 without added Pi, the average isometric force (+/- S.E.M.) was 51 +/- 3 kN m-2 (n = 23). The average isometric ATPase activity was 0.43 +/- 0.02 mM s-1 (n = 23). During the changes in length ATPase activity increased to 152 +/- 3% of the isometric value, while the average force level decreased to 48 +/- 2%. 3. Isometric force gradually decreased to 31 +/- 2% of the control value when the Pi concentration was increased to 30 mM. Isometric ATPase activity, however, remained constant for Pi concentrations up to 5 mM and decreased to 87 +/- 3% at 30 mM Pi. When Pi accumulation inside the preparation due to ATP hydrolysis was taken into account, a linear relationship was found between isometric force and log [Pi]. The decrease in relative force was found to be 44 +/- 4% per decade. 4. During the length changes, ATPase activity and average force showed, apart from the increase in ATPase activity and decrease in average force, the same dependence on Pi as the isometric values. Stiffness, estimated from the amplitude of the force responses during the length changes, decreased in proportion to isometric force when the Pi concentration was increased. The changes in the shape of the force responses due to the repetitive changes in length as a function of the Pi concentration were relatively small. These results suggest that the effect of Pi on the transitions which influence ATP turnover is rather insensitive to changes in cross

  17. A flipped ion pair at the dynein-microtubule interface is critical for dynein motility and ATPase activation.

    PubMed

    Uchimura, Seiichi; Fujii, Takashi; Takazaki, Hiroko; Ayukawa, Rie; Nishikawa, Yosuke; Minoura, Itsushi; Hachikubo, You; Kurisu, Genji; Sutoh, Kazuo; Kon, Takahide; Namba, Keiichi; Muto, Etsuko

    2015-01-19

    Dynein is a motor protein that moves on microtubules (MTs) using the energy of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) hydrolysis. To understand its motility mechanism, it is crucial to know how the signal of MT binding is transmitted to the ATPase domain to enhance ATP hydrolysis. However, the molecular basis of signal transmission at the dynein-MT interface remains unclear. Scanning mutagenesis of tubulin identified two residues in α-tubulin, R403 and E416, that are critical for ATPase activation and directional movement of dynein. Electron cryomicroscopy and biochemical analyses revealed that these residues form salt bridges with the residues in the dynein MT-binding domain (MTBD) that work in concert to induce registry change in the stalk coiled coil and activate the ATPase. The R403-E3390 salt bridge functions as a switch for this mechanism because of its reversed charge relative to other residues at the interface. This study unveils the structural basis for coupling between MT binding and ATPase activation and implicates the MTBD in the control of directional movement.

  18. Effects of Iron Overload on the Activity of Na,K-ATPase and Lipid Profile of the Human Erythrocyte Membrane

    PubMed Central

    Sousa, Leilismara; Garcia, Israel J. P.; Costa, Tamara G. F.; Silva, Lilian N. D.; Renó, Cristiane O.; Oliveira, Eneida S.; Tilelli, Cristiane Q.; Santos, Luciana L.; Cortes, Vanessa F.; Santos, Herica L.; Barbosa, Leandro A.

    2015-01-01

    Iron is an essential chemical element for human life. However, in some pathological conditions, such as hereditary hemochromatosis type 1 (HH1), iron overload induces the production of reactive oxygen species that may lead to lipid peroxidation and a change in the plasma-membrane lipid profile. In this study, we investigated whether iron overload interferes with the Na,K-ATPase activity of the plasma membrane by studying erythrocytes that were obtained from the whole blood of patients suffering from iron overload. Additionally, we treated erythrocytes of normal subjects with 0.8 mM H2O2 and 1 μM FeCl3 for 24 h. We then analyzed the lipid profile, lipid peroxidation and Na,K-ATPase activity of plasma membranes derived from these cells. Iron overload was more frequent in men (87.5%) than in women and was associated with an increase (446%) in lipid peroxidation, as indicated by the amount of the thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and an increase (327%) in the Na,K-ATPase activity in the plasma membrane of erythrocytes. Erythrocytes treated with 1 μM FeCl3 for 24 h showed an increase (132%) in the Na,K-ATPase activity but no change in the TBARS levels. Iron treatment also decreased the cholesterol and phospholipid content of the erythrocyte membranes and similar decreases were observed in iron overload patients. In contrast, erythrocytes treated with 0.8 mM H2O2 for 24 h showed no change in the measured parameters. These results indicate that erythrocytes from patients with iron overload exhibit higher Na,K-ATPase activity compared with normal subjects and that this effect is specifically associated with altered iron levels. PMID:26197432

  19. Effects of Iron Overload on the Activity of Na,K-ATPase and Lipid Profile of the Human Erythrocyte Membrane.

    PubMed

    Sousa, Leilismara; Garcia, Israel J P; Costa, Tamara G F; Silva, Lilian N D; Renó, Cristiane O; Oliveira, Eneida S; Tilelli, Cristiane Q; Santos, Luciana L; Cortes, Vanessa F; Santos, Herica L; Barbosa, Leandro A

    2015-01-01

    Iron is an essential chemical element for human life. However, in some pathological conditions, such as hereditary hemochromatosis type 1 (HH1), iron overload induces the production of reactive oxygen species that may lead to lipid peroxidation and a change in the plasma-membrane lipid profile. In this study, we investigated whether iron overload interferes with the Na,K-ATPase activity of the plasma membrane by studying erythrocytes that were obtained from the whole blood of patients suffering from iron overload. Additionally, we treated erythrocytes of normal subjects with 0.8 mM H2O2 and 1 μM FeCl3 for 24 h. We then analyzed the lipid profile, lipid peroxidation and Na,K-ATPase activity of plasma membranes derived from these cells. Iron overload was more frequent in men (87.5%) than in women and was associated with an increase (446%) in lipid peroxidation, as indicated by the amount of the thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and an increase (327%) in the Na,K-ATPase activity in the plasma membrane of erythrocytes. Erythrocytes treated with 1 μM FeCl3 for 24 h showed an increase (132%) in the Na,K-ATPase activity but no change in the TBARS levels. Iron treatment also decreased the cholesterol and phospholipid content of the erythrocyte membranes and similar decreases were observed in iron overload patients. In contrast, erythrocytes treated with 0.8 mM H2O2 for 24 h showed no change in the measured parameters. These results indicate that erythrocytes from patients with iron overload exhibit higher Na,K-ATPase activity compared with normal subjects and that this effect is specifically associated with altered iron levels.

  20. Seasonal variation in nitrogen net uptake and root plasma membrane H+-ATPase activity of Scots pine seedlings as affected by nutrient availability.

    PubMed

    Iivonen, Sari; Vapaavuori, Elina

    2002-01-01

    We examined changes in nitrogen (N) net uptake and activity and amount of plasma membrane H+-ATPase (PM-ATPase) in roots of hydroponically cultured Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) seedlings throughout a simulated second growing season. Seedlings were grown with low (0.25 mM N) or high (2.5 mM N) nutrient availability to determine whether root PM-ATPase is dependent on an external nutrient supply. Climatic conditions in the growth chamber simulated the mean growing season from May to mid-October in southern Finland. Root PM-ATPase activity varied considerably during the growing season and was higher in current-year roots than in previous-year roots. Total PM-ATPase activity of current-year roots was highest at the end of the growing season, whereas PM-ATPase activity per unit fresh mass of current-year roots and specific absorption rate of N were highest in mid-July and decreased at the end of the growing season. This indicates that the decrease in PM-ATPase activity per unit fresh mass of the roots at the end of the growing season was compensated by the increased size of the root system. Seasonal variation in PM-ATPase activity had no clear dependence on root zone temperature. The response of PM-ATPase to root zone temperature was dependent on the developmental stage of the seedling. High nutrient availability resulted in increased root PM-ATPase activity and an extended period of root growth in autumn. PMID:11772550

  1. Arabidopsis V-ATPase activity at the tonoplast is required for efficient nutrient storage but not for sodium accumulation

    PubMed Central

    Krebs, Melanie; Beyhl, Diana; Görlich, Esther; Al-Rasheid, Khaled A. S.; Marten, Irene; Stierhof, York-Dieter; Hedrich, Rainer; Schumacher, Karin

    2010-01-01

    The productivity of higher plants as a major source of food and energy is linked to their ability to buffer changes in the concentrations of essential and toxic ions. Transport across the tonoplast is energized by two proton pumps, the vacuolar H+-ATPase (V-ATPase) and the vacuolar H+-pyrophosphatase (V-PPase); however, their functional relation and relative contributions to ion storage and detoxification are unclear. We have identified an Arabidopsis mutant in which energization of vacuolar transport solely relies on the activity of the V-PPase. The vha-a2 vha-a3 double mutant, which lacks the two tonoplast-localized isoforms of the membrane-integral V-ATPase subunit VHA-a, is viable but shows day-length-dependent growth retardation. Nitrate content is reduced whereas nitrate assimilation is increased in the vha-a2 vha-a3 mutant, indicating that vacuolar nitrate storage represents a major growth-limiting factor. Zinc is an essential micronutrient that is toxic at excess concentrations and is detoxified via a vacuolar Zn2+/H+-antiport system. Accordingly, the double mutant shows reduced zinc tolerance. In the same way the vacuolar Na+/H+-antiport system is assumed to be an important component of the system that removes sodium from the cytosol. Unexpectedly, salt tolerance and accumulation are not affected in the vha-a2 vha-a3 double mutant. In contrast, reduction of V-ATPase activity in the trans-Golgi network/early endosome (TGN/EE) leads to increased salt sensitivity. Taken together, our results show that during gametophyte and embryo development V-PPase activity at the tonoplast is sufficient whereas tonoplast V-ATPase activity is limiting for nutrient storage but not for sodium tolerance during vegetative and reproductive growth. PMID:20133698

  2. Effects of sex hormones on genioglossal muscle contractility and SR Ca2+-ATPase activity in aged rat.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yue-Hua; Qi, Juan; Hou, Yu-Xia; Wang, Fei

    2008-04-01

    This investigation was designed to examine whether short-term administration of sex hormones could produce changes in contractile properties and the sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPase (SERCA) function in genioglossal muscle (GG) of aged male rats. Twenty-four aged male rats were randomly divided into three groups to receive an intramuscular injection of either 0.1mg/kg oestrogen (group A), 2.5 mg/kg testosterone (group B), or 0.2 ml sterile peanut oil (group C, control), twice a week, during 4 weeks. After hormone treatment, in vivo isometric contractile properties were determined using surgically prepared GG muscles with platinum electrodes for stimulation of the medial branch of the hypoglossus nerve. Sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPase activity was measured in muscle homogenates by detecting the amount of inorganic phosphorus ion released in a standard coupled enzyme assay. SERCA1 mRNA level was observed using a real-time quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (Q-RT-PCR). It was found that, compared with group C, testosterone treatment decreased the fatigue resistance in GG muscles (p<.05), whereas no change was observed in the isometric twitch (P(t)) and tetanic tension (P(0)) (p>.05). By contrast, in oestrogen treated GG muscles, no significant modification was found either in the contractile or in endurance properties (p>.05). The change in GG fatigue resistance of group B was associated with a marked decrease in SR Ca(2+)-ATPase activity when compared with that of the control group (p<.01). Furthermore, SERCA1 mRNA level was also down regulated in group B (p<.05). No prominent differences in SR Ca(2+)-ATPase activity and SERCA1 mRNA expression existed between group A and group C (p>.05). The present results show that exogenous testosterone produces more pronounced changes in GG muscle fatigue resistance than oestrogen does by acting at SR Ca(2+)-ATPase activity and SERCA gene expression.

  3. Managing Brain Extracellular K+ during Neuronal Activity: The Physiological Role of the Na+/K+-ATPase Subunit Isoforms

    PubMed Central

    Larsen, Brian Roland; Stoica, Anca; MacAulay, Nanna

    2016-01-01

    During neuronal activity in the brain, extracellular K+ rises and is subsequently removed to prevent a widespread depolarization. One of the key players in regulating extracellular K+ is the Na+/K+-ATPase, although the relative involvement and physiological impact of the different subunit isoform compositions of the Na+/K+-ATPase remain unresolved. The various cell types in the brain serve a certain temporal contribution in the face of network activity; astrocytes respond directly to the immediate release of K+ from neurons, whereas the neurons themselves become the primary K+ absorbers as activity ends. The kinetic characteristics of the catalytic α subunit isoforms of the Na+/K+-ATPase are, partly, determined by the accessory β subunit with which they combine. The isoform combinations expressed by astrocytes and neurons, respectively, appear to be in line with the kinetic characteristics required to fulfill their distinct physiological roles in clearance of K+ from the extracellular space in the face of neuronal activity. Understanding the nature, impact and effects of the various Na+/K+-ATPase isoform combinations in K+ management in the central nervous system might reveal insights into pathological conditions such as epilepsy, migraine, and spreading depolarization following cerebral ischemia. In addition, particular neurological diseases occur as a result of mutations in the α2- (familial hemiplegic migraine type 2) and α3 isoforms (rapid-onset dystonia parkinsonism/alternating hemiplegia of childhood). This review addresses aspects of the Na+/K+-ATPase in the regulation of extracellular K+ in the central nervous system as well as the related pathophysiology. Understanding the physiological setting in non-pathological tissue would provide a better understanding of the pathological events occurring during disease. PMID:27148079

  4. The LEF-4 subunit of baculovirus RNA polymerase has RNA 5'-triphosphatase and ATPase activities.

    PubMed

    Jin, J; Dong, W; Guarino, L A

    1998-12-01

    The baculovirus Autographa californica nuclear polyhedrosis virus encodes a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase that is required for transcription of viral late genes. This polymerase is composed of four equimolar subunits, LEF-8, LEF-4, LEF-9, and p47. The LEF-4 subunit has guanylyltransferase activity, suggesting that baculoviruses may encode a full complement of capping enzymes. Here we show that LEF-4 is a bifunctional enzyme that hydrolyzes the gamma phosphates of triphosphate-terminated RNA and also hydrolyzes ATP and GTP to the respective diphosphate forms. Alanine substitution of five residues previously shown to be essential for vaccinia virus RNA triphosphatase activity inactivated the triphosphatase component of LEF-4 but not the guanylyltransferase domain. Conversely, mutation of the invariant lysine in the guanylyltransferase domain abolished the guanylyltransferase activity without affecting triphosphatase function. We also investigated the effects of substituting phenylalanine for leucine at position 105, a mutation that results in a virus that is temperature sensitive for late gene expression. We found that this mutation had no significant effect on the ATPase or guanylyltransferase activity of LEF-4 but resulted in a modest decrease in RNA triphosphatase activity. PMID:9811739

  5. A novel inhibitor of vacuolar ATPase, FR167356, which can discriminate between osteoclast vacuolar ATPase and lysosomal vacuolar ATPase

    PubMed Central

    Niikura, Kazuaki; Takano, Mikiko; Sawada, Masae

    2004-01-01

    Vacuolar ATPase (V-ATPase) has been proposed as a drug target in lytic bone diseases. Studies of bafilomycin derivatives suggest that the key issue regarding the therapeutic usefulness of V-ATPase inhibitors is selective inhibition of osteoclast V-ATPase. Previous efforts to develop therapeutic inhibitors of osteoclast V-ATPase have been frustrated by a lack of synthetically tractable and biologically selective leads. Therefore, we tried to find novel potent and specific V-ATPase inhibitors, which have new structural features and inhibition selectivity, from random screening using osteoclast microsomes. Finally, a novel V-ATPase inhibitor, FR167356, was obtained through chemical modification of a parental hit compound. FR167356 inhibited not only H+ transport activity of osteoclast V-ATPase but also H+ extrusion from cytoplasm of osteoclasts, which depends on the V-ATPase activity. As expected, FR167356 remarkably inhibited bone resorption in vitro. FR167356 also showed inhibitory effects on other V-ATPases, renal brush border V-ATPase, macrophage microsome V-ATPase and lysosomal V-ATPase. However, FR167356 was approximately seven-fold less potent in inhibiting lysosomal V-ATPase compared to osteoclast V-ATPase. Moreover, LDL metabolism in cells, which depends on acidification of lysosome, was blocked merely at higher concentration than bone resorption, suggesting that FR167356 inhibits V-ATPase of osteoclast ruffled border membrane still more selectively than lysosome at the cellular level. These results from the experiments seem to indicate that osteoclast V-ATPase may be different from lysosomal V-ATPase in respect of their structure. FR167356 had a novel chemical structural feature as well as inhibitory characteristics distinctly different from any previously known V-ATPase inhibitor family. Therefore, FR167356 is thought to be a useful tool for estimating the essential characteristics of V-ATPase inhibitors for drug development. PMID:15148249

  6. Gill Na{sup +}, K{sup +}-ATPase activity in largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) inhabiting reservoirs contaminated with mercury

    SciTech Connect

    Brundage, S.; Jagoe, C.H.; Shaw-Allen, P.

    1995-12-31

    Active transport of Na{sup +} and K{sup +} for osmoregulation in fish involves gill Na{sup +}, K{sup +}-ATPase, a membrane-bound enzyme powered by hydrolysis of ATP. Na{sup +}, K{sup +}-ATPase is inhibited by many dissolved metals including Al, Cd, Cu and Hg, resulting in ionoregulatory dysfunction. However, dissolved Hg concentrations are quite low in most aquatic systems, and dietary sources are the most important contributors to Hg burdens in fish. One recent study demonstrated relationships between muscle Hg concentration and gill Na{sup +}, K{sup +}-ATPase in a marine fish, suggesting that Hg accumulated via diet can affect osmoregulation. The authors tested for such a relationship in several age-classes of a freshwater fish (Micropterus salmoides) collected from three reservoirs. Fish from Par Pond and L Lake, on the USDOE Savannah River Site in South Carolina had relatively high Hg content: for Par Pond, muscle and liver ranged from 1.58--12.01 and 1.46--23.22 {micro}g Hg/g dry mass, respectively, and for L Lake muscle and liver ranged from 3.11--5.16 and 1.28--12.59 {micro}g Hg/g dry mass, respectively. Bass from an offsite location, Thurmond Lake, had significantly (P <0.05 by Kruskal-Wallis test) less Hg (muscle and liver range 0.61--2.39 and 0.28--2.32 {micro}g Hg/g dry mass, respectively). In all reservoirs, liver Hg varied more among individuals than muscle Hg. Water chemistry was similar in all reservoirs. Fish from the three reservoirs did not differ significantly in gill ATPase activity, and a correlation between tissue Hg and Na{sup +}, K{sup +}-ATPase activity was not evident.

  7. Walker-A threonine couples nucleotide occupancy with the chaperone activity of the AAA+ ATPase ClpB

    PubMed Central

    Nagy, Maria; Wu, Hui-Chuan; Liu, Zhonghua; Kedzierska-Mieszkowska, Sabina; Zolkiewski, Michal

    2009-01-01

    Hexameric AAA+ ATPases induce conformational changes in a variety of macromolecules. AAA+ structures contain the nucleotide-binding P-loop with the Walker A sequence motif: GxxGxGK(T/S). A subfamily of AAA+ sequences contains Asn in the Walker A motif instead of Thr or Ser. This noncanonical subfamily includes torsinA, an ER protein linked to human dystonia and DnaC, a bacterial helicase loader. Role of the noncanonical Walker A motif in the functionality of AAA+ ATPases has not been explored yet. To determine functional effects of introduction of Asn into the Walker A sequence, we replaced the Walker-A Thr with Asn in ClpB, a bacterial AAA+ chaperone which reactivates aggregated proteins. We found that the T-to-N mutation in Walker A partially inhibited the ATPase activity of ClpB, but did not affect the ClpB capability to associate into hexamers. Interestingly, the noncanonical Walker A sequence in ClpB induced preferential binding of ADP vs. ATP and uncoupled the linkage between the ATP-bound conformation and the high-affinity binding to protein aggregates. As a consequence, ClpB with the noncanonical Walker A sequence showed a low chaperone activity in vitro and in vivo. Our results demonstrate a novel role of the Walker-A Thr in sensing the nucleotide's γ-phosphate and in maintaining an allosteric linkage between the P-loop and the aggregate binding site of ClpB. We postulate that AAA+ ATPases with the noncanonical Walker A might utilize distinct mechanisms to couple the ATPase cycle with their substrate-remodeling activity. PMID:19177562

  8. A novel type of replicative enzyme harbouring ATPase, primase and DNA polymerase activity

    PubMed Central

    Lipps, Georg; Röther, Susanne; Hart, Christina; Krauss, Gerhard

    2003-01-01

    Although DNA replication is a process common in all domains of life, primase and replicative DNA polymerase appear to have evolved independently in the bacterial domain versus the archaeal/eukaryal branch of life. Here, we report on a new type of replication protein that constitutes the first member of the DNA polymerase family E. The protein ORF904, encoded by the plasmid pRN1 from the thermoacidophile archaeon Sulfolobus islandicus, is a highly compact multifunctional enzyme with ATPase, primase and DNA polymerase activity. Recombinant purified ORF904 hydrolyses ATP in a DNA-dependent manner. Deoxynucleotides are preferentially used for the synthesis of primers ∼8 nucleotides long. The DNA polymerase activity of ORF904 synthesizes replication products of up to several thousand nucleotides in length. The primase and DNA polymerase activity are located in the N-terminal half of the protein, which does not show homology to any known DNA polymerase or primase. ORF904 constitutes a new type of replication enzyme, which could have evolved indepen dently from the eubacterial and archaeal/eukaryal proteins of DNA replication. PMID:12743045

  9. Decoupling catalytic activity from biological function of the ATPase that powers lipopolysaccharide transport.

    PubMed

    Sherman, David J; Lazarus, Michael B; Murphy, Lea; Liu, Charles; Walker, Suzanne; Ruiz, Natividad; Kahne, Daniel

    2014-04-01

    The cell surface of Gram-negative bacteria contains lipopolysaccharides (LPS), which provide a barrier against the entry of many antibiotics. LPS assembly involves a multiprotein LPS transport (Lpt) complex that spans from the cytoplasm to the outer membrane. In this complex, an unusual ATP-binding cassette transporter is thought to power the extraction of LPS from the outer leaflet of the cytoplasmic membrane and its transport across the cell envelope. We introduce changes into the nucleotide-binding domain, LptB, that inactivate transporter function in vivo. We characterize these residues using biochemical experiments combined with high-resolution crystal structures of LptB pre- and post-ATP hydrolysis and suggest a role for an active site residue in phosphate exit. We also identify a conserved residue that is not required for ATPase activity but is essential for interaction with the transmembrane components. Our studies establish the essentiality of ATP hydrolysis by LptB to power LPS transport in cells and suggest strategies to inhibit transporter function away from the LptB active site.

  10. The secretory response of parathyroid hormone to acute hypocalcemia in vivo is independent of parathyroid glandular sodium/potassium-ATPase activity.

    PubMed

    Martuseviciene, Giedre; Hofman-Bang, Jacob; Clausen, Torben; Olgaard, Klaus; Lewin, Ewa

    2011-04-01

    The involvement of sodium/potassium-ATPase in regulating parathyroid hormone (PTH) secretion is inferred from in vitro studies. Recently, the α-klotho-dependent rapid recruitment of this ATPase to the parathyroid cell plasma membrane in response to low extracellular calcium ion was suggested to be linked to increased hormone secretion. In this study, we used an in vivo rat model to determine the importance of sodium/potassium-ATPase in PTH secretion. Glands were exposed and treated in situ with vehicle or ouabain, a specific inhibitor of sodium/potassium-ATPase. PTH secretion was significantly increased in response to ethylene glycol tetraacetic acid-induced acute hypocalcemia and to the same extent in both vehicle and ouabain groups. The glands were removed, and inhibition of the ATPase was measured by (86)rubidium uptake, which was found to be significantly decreased in ouabain-treated parathyroid glands, indicating inhibition of the ATPase. As ouabain induced systemic hyperkalemia, the effect of high potassium on hormone secretion was also examined but was found to have no effect. Thus, inhibition of the parathyroid gland sodium/potassium-ATPase activity in vivo had no effect on the secretory response to acute hypocalcemia. Hence, the suggested importance of this ATPase in the regulation of PTH secretion could not be confirmed in this in vivo model. PMID:21209610

  11. V-ATPase: a master effector of E2F1-mediated lysosomal trafficking, mTORC1 activation and autophagy

    PubMed Central

    Meo-Evoli, Nathalie; Almacellas, Eugènia; Massucci, Francesco Alessandro; Gentilella, Antonio; Ambrosio, Santiago; Kozma, Sara C.; Thomas, George; Tauler, Albert

    2015-01-01

    In addition to being a master regulator of cell cycle progression, E2F1 regulates other associated biological processes, including growth and malignancy. Here, we uncover a regulatory network linking E2F1 to lysosomal trafficking and mTORC1 signaling that involves v-ATPase regulation. By immunofluorescence and time-lapse microscopy we found that E2F1 induces the movement of lysosomes to the cell periphery, and that this process is essential for E2F1-induced mTORC1 activation and repression of autophagy. Gain- and loss-of-function experiments reveal that E2F1 regulates v-ATPase activity and inhibition of v-ATPase activity repressed E2F1-induced lysosomal trafficking and mTORC1 activation. Immunoprecipitation experiments demonstrate that E2F1 induces the recruitment of v-ATPase to lysosomal RagB GTPase, suggesting that E2F1 regulates v-ATPase activity by enhancing the association of V0 and V1 v-ATPase complex. Analysis of v-ATPase subunit expression identified B subunit of V0 complex, ATP6V0B, as a transcriptional target of E2F1. Importantly, ATP6V0B ectopic-expression increased v-ATPase and mTORC1 activity, consistent with ATP6V0B being responsible for mediating the effects of E2F1 on both responses. Our findings on lysosomal trafficking, mTORC1 activation and autophagy suppression suggest that pharmacological intervention at the level of v-ATPase may be an efficacious avenue for the treatment of metastatic processes in tumors overexpressing E2F1. PMID:26356814

  12. V-ATPase: a master effector of E2F1-mediated lysosomal trafficking, mTORC1 activation and autophagy.

    PubMed

    Meo-Evoli, Nathalie; Almacellas, Eugènia; Massucci, Francesco Alessandro; Gentilella, Antonio; Ambrosio, Santiago; Kozma, Sara C; Thomas, George; Tauler, Albert

    2015-09-29

    In addition to being a master regulator of cell cycle progression, E2F1 regulates other associated biological processes, including growth and malignancy. Here, we uncover a regulatory network linking E2F1 to lysosomal trafficking and mTORC1 signaling that involves v-ATPase regulation. By immunofluorescence and time-lapse microscopy we found that E2F1 induces the movement of lysosomes to the cell periphery, and that this process is essential for E2F1-induced mTORC1 activation and repression of autophagy. Gain- and loss-of-function experiments reveal that E2F1 regulates v-ATPase activity and inhibition of v-ATPase activity repressed E2F1-induced lysosomal trafficking and mTORC1 activation. Immunoprecipitation experiments demonstrate that E2F1 induces the recruitment of v-ATPase to lysosomal RagB GTPase, suggesting that E2F1 regulates v-ATPase activity by enhancing the association of V0 and V1 v-ATPase complex. Analysis of v-ATPase subunit expression identified B subunit of V0 complex, ATP6V0B, as a transcriptional target of E2F1. Importantly, ATP6V0B ectopic-expression increased v-ATPase and mTORC1 activity, consistent with ATP6V0B being responsible for mediating the effects of E2F1 on both responses. Our findings on lysosomal trafficking, mTORC1 activation and autophagy suppression suggest that pharmacological intervention at the level of v-ATPase may be an efficacious avenue for the treatment of metastatic processes in tumors overexpressing E2F1.

  13. Proteomic analysis of V-ATPase-rich cells harvested from the kidney and epididymis by fluorescence-activated cell sorting

    PubMed Central

    Da Silva, Nicolas; Pisitkun, Trairak; Belleannée, Clémence; Miller, Lance R.; Nelson, Raoul; Knepper, Mark A.; Brown, Dennis

    2010-01-01

    Proton-transporting cells are located in several tissues where they acidify the extracellular environment. These cells express the vacuolar H+-ATPase (V-ATPase) B1 subunit (ATP6V1B1) in their plasma membrane. We provide here a comprehensive catalog of the proteins that are expressed in these cells, after their isolation by enzymatic digestion and fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) from transgenic B1-enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) mice. In these mice, type A and B intercalated cells and connecting segment cells of the kidney, and narrow and clear cells of the epididymis, which all express ATP6V1B1, also express EGFP, while all other cell types are negative. The proteome of renal and epididymal EGFP-positive (EGFP+) cells was identified by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) and compared with their respective EGFP-negative (EGFP−) cell populations. A total of 2,297 and 1,564 proteins were detected in EGFP+ cells from the kidney and epididymis, respectively. Out of these proteins, 202 and 178 were enriched by a factor greater than 1.5 in EGFP+ cells compared with EGFP− cells, in the kidney and epididymis respectively, and included subunits of the V-ATPase (B1, a4, and A). In addition, several proteins involved in intracellular trafficking, signaling, and cytoskeletal dynamics were identified. A novel common protein that was enriched in renal and epididymal EGFP+ cells is the progesterone receptor, which might be a potential candidate for the regulation of V-ATPase-dependent proton transport. These proteomic databases provide a framework for comprehensive future analysis of the common and distinct functions of V-ATPase-B1-expressing cells in the kidney and epididymis. PMID:20181927

  14. H(+)/K(+) ATPase activity is required for biomineralization in sea urchin embryos.

    PubMed

    Schatzberg, Daphne; Lawton, Matthew; Hadyniak, Sarah E; Ross, Erik J; Carney, Tamara; Beane, Wendy S; Levin, Michael; Bradham, Cynthia A

    2015-10-15

    The bioelectrical signatures associated with regeneration, wound healing, development, and cancer are changes in the polarization state of the cell that persist over long durations, and are mediated by ion channel activity. To identify physiologically relevant bioelectrical changes that occur during normal development of the sea urchin Lytechinus variegatus, we tested a range of ion channel inhibitors, and thereby identified SCH28080, a chemical inhibitor of the H(+)/K(+) ATPase (HKA), as an inhibitor of skeletogenesis. In sea urchin embryos, the primary mesodermal lineage, the PMCs, produce biomineral in response to signals from the ectoderm. However, in SCH28080-treated embryos, aside from randomization of the left-right axis, the ectoderm is normally specified and differentiated, indicating that the block to skeletogenesis observed in SCH28080-treated embryos is PMC-specific. HKA inhibition did not interfere with PMC specification, and was sufficient to block continuing biomineralization when embryos were treated with SCH28080 after the initiation of skeletogenesis, indicating that HKA activity is continuously required during biomineralization. Ion concentrations and voltage potential were abnormal in the PMCs in SCH28080-treated embryos, suggesting that these bioelectrical abnormalities prevent biomineralization. Our results indicate that this effect is due to the inhibition of amorphous calcium carbonate precipitation within PMC vesicles. PMID:26282894

  15. H(+)/K(+) ATPase activity is required for biomineralization in sea urchin embryos.

    PubMed

    Schatzberg, Daphne; Lawton, Matthew; Hadyniak, Sarah E; Ross, Erik J; Carney, Tamara; Beane, Wendy S; Levin, Michael; Bradham, Cynthia A

    2015-10-15

    The bioelectrical signatures associated with regeneration, wound healing, development, and cancer are changes in the polarization state of the cell that persist over long durations, and are mediated by ion channel activity. To identify physiologically relevant bioelectrical changes that occur during normal development of the sea urchin Lytechinus variegatus, we tested a range of ion channel inhibitors, and thereby identified SCH28080, a chemical inhibitor of the H(+)/K(+) ATPase (HKA), as an inhibitor of skeletogenesis. In sea urchin embryos, the primary mesodermal lineage, the PMCs, produce biomineral in response to signals from the ectoderm. However, in SCH28080-treated embryos, aside from randomization of the left-right axis, the ectoderm is normally specified and differentiated, indicating that the block to skeletogenesis observed in SCH28080-treated embryos is PMC-specific. HKA inhibition did not interfere with PMC specification, and was sufficient to block continuing biomineralization when embryos were treated with SCH28080 after the initiation of skeletogenesis, indicating that HKA activity is continuously required during biomineralization. Ion concentrations and voltage potential were abnormal in the PMCs in SCH28080-treated embryos, suggesting that these bioelectrical abnormalities prevent biomineralization. Our results indicate that this effect is due to the inhibition of amorphous calcium carbonate precipitation within PMC vesicles.

  16. Osmoregulation and salt gland Na, K-ATPase activity following exposure to the anticholinesterase fenthion

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rattner, B.A.; Fleming, W.J.; Murray, H.C.

    1982-01-01

    Salt gland function and osmoregulation in aquatic birds drinking hyperosmotic water has been suggested to be impaired by organophosphorus insecticides. To test this hypothesis, adult ducks (Anas rubripes) were provided various regimens of fresh or salt (1.5% NaCl) water (FW, SW) and mash containing vehicle or 21 ppm fenthion (Fn) on days 1-7 and 7-12 of this study. The 8 treatments (day 1-7:day 7-12) included :FW:FW, FW:FW+Fn, FW:SW, FW+Fn:SW, FW:SW+Fn, FW+Fn:SW+FN, SW;SW, and SW:5W+Fn. Ducks were bled by jugular venipuncture on days 1,7 and 12, and then sacrificed. Brain and salt gland acetylcholinesterase activities were substantially inhibited (44-52% and 14-26%) by Fn. However, plasma Na, Cl and osmolality, as indirect but cumulative indices of salt gland function, were uniformly elevated in all SW groups including those receiving Fn. In a second experiment, salt gland Na,K-ATPase activity was reduced after in vitro incubation with DDE (40 and 400 ?M; positive control), but was unaffected by Fn and its oxygen analog (0.04-400 ?M). The present findings suggest that environmentally realistic concentrations of organophosphorus insecticides do not affect osmoregulatory function in adult ducks.

  17. Effects of Celangulin IV and V From Celastrus angulatus Maxim on Na+/K+-ATPase Activities of the Oriental Armyworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    PubMed

    Cheng, Dan; Feng, Mingxing; Ji, Yufei; Wu, Wenjun; Hu, Zhaonong

    2016-01-01

    Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase (sodium pump) is an important target for the development of botanical pesticide as it is responsible for transforming chemical energy in ATP to osmotic work and maintaining electrochemical Na(+ )and K(+ )gradients across the cell membrane of most animal cells. Celangulin IV (C-IV) and V (C-V), which are isolated from the root bark of Celastrus angulatus, are the major active ingredients of this insecticidal plant. The activities of C-IV and C-V on Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase were investigated by ultramicro measuring method to evaluate the effects of C-IV and C-V on Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase activities of the brain from the fifth Mythimna separata larvae and to discuss the insecticidal mechanism of C-IV and C-V. Results indicate that inhibitory activities of Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase by C-IV and C-V possess an obvious concentration-dependent in vitro. Compared with C-IV, the inhibition of C-V on Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase was not striking. In vivo, at a concentration of 25 mg/liter, the inhibition ratio of C-IV on Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase activity from the brain in narcosis and recovery period was more remarkable than that of C-V. Furthermore, the insects were fed with different mixture ratios of C-IV and C-V. The inhibition extent of Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase activity was corresponded with the dose of C-IV. However, C-V had no notable effects. This finding may mean that the mechanism of action of C-IV and C-V on Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase were different. Na(+)/K -ATPase may be an action target of C-IV and C-V.

  18. Effects of Celangulin IV and V From Celastrus angulatus Maxim on Na+/K+-ATPase Activities of the Oriental Armyworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Dan; Feng, Mingxing; Ji, Yufei; Wu, Wenjun; Hu, Zhaonong

    2016-01-01

    Na+/K+-ATPase (sodium pump) is an important target for the development of botanical pesticide as it is responsible for transforming chemical energy in ATP to osmotic work and maintaining electrochemical Na+ and K+ gradients across the cell membrane of most animal cells. Celangulin IV (C-IV) and V (C-V), which are isolated from the root bark of Celastrus angulatus, are the major active ingredients of this insecticidal plant. The activities of C-IV and C-V on Na+/K+-ATPase were investigated by ultramicro measuring method to evaluate the effects of C-IV and C-V on Na+/K+-ATPase activities of the brain from the fifth Mythimna separata larvae and to discuss the insecticidal mechanism of C-IV and C-V. Results indicate that inhibitory activities of Na+/K+-ATPase by C-IV and C-V possess an obvious concentration-dependent in vitro. Compared with C-IV, the inhibition of C-V on Na+/K+-ATPase was not striking. In vivo, at a concentration of 25 mg/liter, the inhibition ratio of C-IV on Na+/K+-ATPase activity from the brain in narcosis and recovery period was more remarkable than that of C-V. Furthermore, the insects were fed with different mixture ratios of C-IV and C-V. The inhibition extent of Na+/K+-ATPase activity was corresponded with the dose of C-IV. However, C-V had no notable effects. This finding may mean that the mechanism of action of C-IV and C-V on Na+/K+-ATPase were different. Na+/K -ATPase may be an action target of C-IV and C-V. PMID:27324586

  19. Effects of Celangulin IV and V From Celastrus angulatus Maxim on Na+/K+-ATPase Activities of the Oriental Armyworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    PubMed

    Cheng, Dan; Feng, Mingxing; Ji, Yufei; Wu, Wenjun; Hu, Zhaonong

    2016-01-01

    Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase (sodium pump) is an important target for the development of botanical pesticide as it is responsible for transforming chemical energy in ATP to osmotic work and maintaining electrochemical Na(+ )and K(+ )gradients across the cell membrane of most animal cells. Celangulin IV (C-IV) and V (C-V), which are isolated from the root bark of Celastrus angulatus, are the major active ingredients of this insecticidal plant. The activities of C-IV and C-V on Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase were investigated by ultramicro measuring method to evaluate the effects of C-IV and C-V on Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase activities of the brain from the fifth Mythimna separata larvae and to discuss the insecticidal mechanism of C-IV and C-V. Results indicate that inhibitory activities of Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase by C-IV and C-V possess an obvious concentration-dependent in vitro. Compared with C-IV, the inhibition of C-V on Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase was not striking. In vivo, at a concentration of 25 mg/liter, the inhibition ratio of C-IV on Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase activity from the brain in narcosis and recovery period was more remarkable than that of C-V. Furthermore, the insects were fed with different mixture ratios of C-IV and C-V. The inhibition extent of Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase activity was corresponded with the dose of C-IV. However, C-V had no notable effects. This finding may mean that the mechanism of action of C-IV and C-V on Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase were different. Na(+)/K -ATPase may be an action target of C-IV and C-V. PMID:27324586

  20. Plasma membrane H(+) -ATPase gene expression, protein level and activity in growing and non-growing regions of barley (Hordeum vulgare) leaves.

    PubMed

    Visnovitz, Tamás; Solti, Adám; Csikós, György; Fricke, Wieland

    2012-04-01

    Plasma membrane proton ATPase (PM-H⁺-ATPase) is the key means through which plant cells energize nutrient uptake and acidify the apoplast. Both of these processes aid cell elongation; yet, it is not known how such a suspected role of the PM-H⁺-ATPase in growth is reflected through changes in its transcript level and activity in grass leaves. In the present study on leaf three of barley, the elongation zone and the emerged blade, which contained fully expanded cells were analyzed. Plasma membranes were isolated and used to assay the activity (ATPase assay) and abundance (western blotting) of PM-H⁺-ATPase protein. Expression of mRNA was quantified using real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). PM-H⁺-ATPase transcript and protein level and activity differed little between growing and non-growing leaf regions when values were related to unit extracted total RNA and cell number, respectively. However, when values were related to unit surface area of plasma membrane, they were more than twice as high in growing compared with non-growing leaf tissue. It is concluded that this higher surface density of PM-H⁺-ATPase activity in growing barley leaf tissue aids apoplast acidification and cell expansion. PMID:22257033

  1. 3-Methylcrotonylglycine disrupts mitochondrial energy homeostasis and inhibits synaptic Na(+),K (+)-ATPase activity in brain of young rats.

    PubMed

    Moura, Alana Pimentel; Ribeiro, César Augusto João; Zanatta, Ângela; Busanello, Estela Natacha Brandt; Tonin, Anelise Miotti; Wajner, Moacir

    2012-03-01

    Deficiency of 3-methylcrotonyl-CoA carboxylase activity is an inherited metabolic disease biochemically characterized by accumulation and high urinary excretion of 3-methylcrotonylglycine (3MCG), and also of 3-hydroisovalerate in lesser amounts. Affected patients usually have neurologic dysfunction, brain abnormalities and cardiomyopathy, whose pathogenesis is still unknown. The present study investigated the in vitro effects of 3MCG on important parameters of energy metabolism, including CO(2) production from labeled acetate, enzyme activities of the citric acid cycle, as well as of the respiratory chain complexes I-IV (oxidative phosphorylation), creatine kinase (intracellular ATP transfer), and synaptic Na(+),K(+)-ATPase (neurotransmission) in brain cortex of young rats. 3MCG significantly reduced CO(2) production, implying that this compound compromises citric acid cycle activity. Furthermore, 3MCG diminished the activities of complex II-III of the respiratory chain, mitochondrial creatine kinase and synaptic membrane Na(+),K(+)-ATPase. Furthermore, antioxidants were able to attenuate or fully prevent the inhibitory effect of 3MCG on creatine kinase and synaptic membrane Na(+),K(+)-ATPase activities. We also observed that lipid peroxidation was elicited by 3MCG, suggesting the involvement of free radicals on 3MCG-induced effects. Considering the importance of the citric acid cycle and the electron flow through the respiratory chain for brain energy production, creatine kinase for intracellular energy transfer, and Na(+),K(+)-ATPase for the maintenance of the cell membrane potential, the present data indicate that 3MCG potentially impairs mitochondrial brain energy homeostasis and neurotransmission. It is presumed that these pathomechanisms may be involved in the neurological damage found in patients affected by 3-methylcrotonyl-CoA carboxylase deficiency.

  2. CALIX[4]ARENE C-99 INHIBITS MYOSIN ATPase ACTIVITY AND CHANGES THE ORGANIZATION OF CONTRACTILE FILAMENTS OF MYOMETRIUM.

    PubMed

    Labyntseva, R D; Bevza, A A; Lul'ko, A O; Cherenok, S O; Kalchenko, V I; Kosterin, S O

    2015-01-01

    Calix[4]arenes are cup-like macrocyclic (polyphenolic) compounds, they are regarded as promising molecular "platforms" for the design of new physiologically active compounds. We have earlier found that calix[4]arene C-99 inhibits the ATPase activity of actomyosin and myosin subfragment-1 of pig uterus in vitro. The aim of this study was to investigate the interaction of calix[4]arene C-99 with myosin from rat uterine myocytes. It was found that the ATPase activity of myosin prepared from pre-incubated with 100 mM of calix[4]arene C-99 myocytes was almost 50% lower than in control. Additionally, we have revealed the effect of calix[4]arene C-99 on the subcellular distribution of actin and myosin in uterus myocytes by the method of confocal microscopy. This effect can be caused by reorganization of the structure of the contractile smooth muscle cell proteins due to their interaction with calix[4]arene. The obtained results demonstrate the ability of calix[4]arene C-99 to penetrate into the uterus muscle cells and affect not only the myosin ATPase activity, but also the structure of the actin and myosin filaments in the myometrial cells. Demonstrated ability of calix[4]arene C-99 can be used for development of new pharmacological agents for efficient normalization of myometrial contractile hyperfunction.

  3. Effect of cinnamon, clove and some of their constituents on the Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase activity and alanine absorption in the rat jejunum.

    PubMed

    Kreydiyyeh, S I; Usta, J; Copti, R

    2000-09-01

    The effect of a water extract of some spices on the in vitro activity of the rat jejunal Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase was investigated. Extracts of nutmeg, cinnamon, clove, cumin, coriander, turmeric and caraway all inhibited the ATPase, while anise seed and white pepper exerted no significant effects. The extracts of clove and cinnamon had the most potent inhibitory effect on the intestinal ATPase as compared to extracts of other spices. They also inhibited the in vitro Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase activity in a crude kidney homogenate and the activity of an isolated dog kidney Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase. The alcoholic extract of cinnamon, compared to the aqueous extract, had a stronger inhibitory action on the jejunal enzyme and a lower IC(50) value, which was not significantly different from the one observed with cinnamaldehyde, the major volatile oil present cinnamon, suggesting that in alcoholic extracts cinnamaldehyde is the major inhibitory component. The IC(50) values of eugenol, aqueous clove extract and ethanolic clove extract all fell within the same range and were not significantly different from each other, suggesting that eugenol is the major inhibitory component in both alcoholic and aqueous extracts. Based on the IC(50) values, the order of sensitivity of the enzyme to the spices extracts is as follows: isolated dog kidney ATPase>rat kidney ATPase>rat intestine ATPase. The aqueous extracts of clove and cinnamon also significantly lowered the absorption of alanine from the rat intestine. It was concluded that the active principle(s) in clove and cinnamon can permeate the membrane of the enterocytes and inhibit the Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase that provides the driving force for many transport processes. PMID:10930696

  4. Nutrient transport in the small intestine: Na+,K+-ATPase expression and activity in the small intestine of the chicken as influenced by dietary sodium.

    PubMed

    Gal-Garber, O; Mabjeesh, S J; Sklan, D; Uni, Z

    2003-07-01

    The Na+-K+-ATPase, localized in the basolateral membrane of enterocytes plays a major role in nutrient transport in the small intestine by transferring K+ ions into and Na+ out of the cell. Within the enterocyte, homeostasis is maintained by active exclusion of Na from the cell by the Na+,K+-adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase) or sodium pump. Because much of the intestinal nutrient transport is by Na cotransporters, Na+,K+-ATPase may be used to evaluate nutrient uptake. In this study, nutrient transport was evaluated by determining expression and activity of Na+-K+-ATPase in the jejunum of chicks fed diets with different concentrations of Na. Expression of the chicken Na+-K+-ATPase gene was examined following isolation of an 1,140 bp cDNA fragment of the alpha-subunit using a reverse transcription (RT)-PCR reaction with specific primers. This fragment was sequenced and showed 95 to 98% homology with the mammalian alpha-subunit of the Na+-K+-ATPase genes. This cDNA fragment was used as a specific probe in Northern blot hybridization for determination of expression in the chicken jejunum. Expression of mRNA of Na+-K+-ATPase was enhanced at low dietary Na but was unchanged at high dietary Na concentrations. In contrast, activity of the enzyme was low with low dietary Na and unchanged at high dietary Na. The Vmax of the Na+-K+-ATPase was unchanged, but affinity was altered by dietary Na concentrations. Thus, determination of expression and activity of intestinal Na+-K+-ATPase allows clearer understanding of changes in intestinal uptake due to dietary Na.

  5. The structural coupling between ATPase activation and recovery stroke in the myosin II motor

    SciTech Connect

    Koppole, Sampath; Smith, Jeremy C; Fischer, S.

    2007-07-01

    Before the myosin motor head can perform the next power stroke, it undergoes a large conformational transition in which the converter domain, bearing the lever arm, rotates {approx} 65{sup o}. Simultaneous with this 'recovery stroke', myosin activates its ATPase function by closing the Switch-2 loop over the bound ATP. This coupling between the motions of the converter domain and of the 40 {angstrom}-distant Switch-2 loop is essential to avoid unproductive ATP hydrolysis. The coupling mechanism is determined here by finding a series of optimized intermediates between crystallographic end structures of the recovery stroke (Dictyostelium discoideum), yielding movies of the transition at atomic detail. The successive formation of two hydrogen bonds by the Switch-2 loop is correlated with the successive see-saw motions of the relay and SH1 helices that hold the converter domain. SH1 helix and Switch-2 loop communicate via a highly conserved loop that wedges against the SH1-helix upon Switch-2 closing.

  6. Optimisation of Recombinant Production of Active Human Cardiac SERCA2a ATPase

    PubMed Central

    Antaloae, Ana V.; Montigny, Cédric; le Maire, Marc; Watson, Kimberly A.; Sørensen, Thomas L.-M.

    2013-01-01

    Methods for recombinant production of eukaryotic membrane proteins, yielding sufficient quantity and quality of protein for structural biology, remain a challenge. We describe here, expression and purification optimisation of the human SERCA2a cardiac isoform of Ca2+ translocating ATPase, using Saccharomyces cerevisiae as the heterologous expression system of choice. Two different expression vectors were utilised, allowing expression of C-terminal fusion proteins with a biotinylation domain or a GFP- His8 tag. Solubilised membrane fractions containing the protein of interest were purified onto Streptavidin-Sepharose, Ni-NTA or Talon resin, depending on the fusion tag present. Biotinylated protein was detected using specific antibody directed against SERCA2 and, advantageously, GFP-His8 fusion protein was easily traced during the purification steps using in-gel fluorescence. Importantly, talon resin affinity purification proved more specific than Ni-NTA resin for the GFP-His8 tagged protein, providing better separation of oligomers present, during size exclusion chromatography. The optimised method for expression and purification of human cardiac SERCA2a reported herein, yields purified protein (> 90%) that displays a calcium-dependent thapsigargin-sensitive activity and is suitable for further biophysical, structural and physiological studies. This work provides support for the use of Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a suitable expression system for recombinant production of multi-domain eukaryotic membrane proteins. PMID:23951256

  7. ATPase active-site electrostatic interactions control the global conformation of the 100 kDa SecA translocase.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dorothy M; Zheng, Haiyan; Huang, Yuanpeng J; Montelione, Gaetano T; Hunt, John F

    2013-02-27

    SecA is an intensively studied mechanoenzyme that uses ATP hydrolysis to drive processive extrusion of secreted proteins through a protein-conducting channel in the cytoplasmic membrane of eubacteria. The ATPase motor of SecA is strongly homologous to that in DEAD-box RNA helicases. It remains unclear how local chemical events in its ATPase active site control the overall conformation of an ~100 kDa multidomain enzyme and drive protein transport. In this paper, we use biophysical methods to establish that a single electrostatic charge in the ATPase active site controls the global conformation of SecA. The enzyme undergoes an ATP-modulated endothermic conformational transition (ECT) believed to involve similar structural mechanics to the protein transport reaction. We have characterized the effects of an isosteric glutamate-to-glutamine mutation in the catalytic base, a mutation which mimics the immediate electrostatic consequences of ATP hydrolysis in the active site. Calorimetric studies demonstrate that this mutation facilitates the ECT in Escherichia coli SecA and triggers it completely in Bacillus subtilis SecA. Consistent with the substantial increase in entropy observed in the course of the ECT, hydrogen-deuterium exchange mass spectrometry demonstrates that it increases protein backbone dynamics in domain-domain interfaces at remote locations from the ATPase active site. The catalytic glutamate is one of ~250 charged amino acids in SecA, and yet neutralization of its side chain charge is sufficient to trigger a global order-disorder transition in this 100 kDa enzyme. The intricate network of structural interactions mediating this effect couples local electrostatic changes during ATP hydrolysis to global conformational and dynamic changes in SecA. This network forms the foundation of the allosteric mechanochemistry that efficiently harnesses the chemical energy stored in ATP to drive complex mechanical processes. PMID:23167435

  8. Positive regulation of the enzymatic activity of gastric H(+),K(+)-ATPase by sialylation of its β-subunit.

    PubMed

    Fujii, Takuto; Watanabe, Midori; Shimizu, Takahiro; Takeshima, Hiroshi; Kushiro, Keiichiro; Takai, Madoka; Sakai, Hideki

    2016-06-01

    The gastric proton pump (H(+),K(+)-ATPase) consists of a catalytic α-subunit (αHK) and a glycosylated β-subunit (βHK). βHK glycosylation is essential for the apical trafficking and stability of αHK in gastric parietal cells. Here, we report the properties of sialic acids at the termini of the oligosaccharide chains of βHK. Sialylation of βHK was found in LLC-PK1 cells stably expressing αHK and βHK by staining of the cells with lectin-tagged fluorescent polymeric nanoparticles. This sialylation was also confirmed by biochemical studies using sialic acid-binding lectin beads and an anti-βHK antibody. The sialic acids of βHK are cleaved enzymatically by neuraminidase (sialidase) and nonenzymatically by an acidic solution (pH5). Interestingly, the enzymatic activity of H(+),K(+)-ATPase was significantly decreased by cleavage of the sialic acids of βHK. In contrast, βHK was not sialylated in the gastric tubulovesicles prepared from the stomach of fed hogs. The H(+),K(+)-ATPase activity in these tubulovesicles was not significantly altered by neuraminidase. Importantly, the sialylation of βHK was observed in the gastric samples prepared from the stomach of famotidine (a histamine H2 receptor antagonist)-treated rats, but not histamine (an acid secretagogue)-treated rats. The enzymatic activity of H(+),K(+)-ATPase in the samples of the famotidine-treated rats was significantly higher than in the histamine-treated rats. The effects of famotidine were weakened by neuraminidase. These results indicate that βHK is sialylated at neutral or weakly acidic pH, but not at acidic pH, suggesting that the sialic acids of βHK positively regulate the enzymatic activity of αHK.

  9. Interdomain regulation of the ATPase activity of the ABC transporter haemolysin B from Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Reimann, Sven; Poschmann, Gereon; Kanonenberg, Kerstin; Stühler, Kai; Smits, Sander H J; Schmitt, Lutz

    2016-08-15

    Type 1 secretion systems (T1SS) transport a wide range of substrates across both membranes of Gram-negative bacteria and are composed of an outer membrane protein, a membrane fusion protein and an ABC (ATP-binding cassette) transporter. The ABC transporter HlyB (haemolysin B) is part of a T1SS catalysing the export of the toxin HlyA in E. coli HlyB consists of the canonical transmembrane and nucleotide-binding domains. Additionally, HlyB contains an N-terminal CLD (C39-peptidase-like domain) that interacts with the transport substrate, but its functional relevance is still not precisely defined. In the present paper, we describe the purification and biochemical characterization of detergent-solubilized HlyB in the presence of its transport substrate. Our results exhibit a positive co-operativity in ATP hydrolysis. We characterized further the influence of the CLD on kinetic parameters by using an HlyB variant lacking the CLD (HlyB∆CLD). The biochemical parameters of HlyB∆CLD revealed an increased basal maximum velocity but no change in substrate-binding affinity in comparison with full-length HlyB. We also assigned a distinct interaction of the CLD and a transport substrate (HlyA1), leading to an inhibition of HlyB hydrolytic activity at low HlyA1 concentrations. At higher HlyA1 concentrations, we observed a stimulation of the hydrolytic activities of both HlyB and HlyB∆CLD, which was completely independent of the interaction of HlyA1 with the CLD. Notably, all observed effects on ATPase activity, which were also analysed in detail by mass spectrometry, were independent of the HlyA1 secretion signal. These results assign an interdomain regulatory role for the CLD modulating the hydrolytic activity of HlyB. PMID:27279651

  10. Iron nanoparticle-induced activation of plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase promotes stomatal opening in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jae-Hwan; Oh, Youngjun; Yoon, Hakwon; Hwang, Inhwan; Chang, Yoon-Seok

    2015-01-20

    Engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) enable the control and exploration of intermolecular interactions inside microscopic systems, but the potential environmental impacts of their inevitable release remain largely unknown. Plants exposed to ENMs display effects, such as increase in biomass and chlorophyll, distinct from those induced by exposure to their bulk counterparts, but few studies have addressed the mechanisms underlying such physiological results. The current investigation found that exposure of Arabidopsis thaliana to nano zerovalent iron (nZVI) triggered high plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase activity. The increase in activity caused a decrease in apoplastic pH, an increase in leaf area, and also wider stomatal aperture. Analysis of gene expression indicated that the levels of the H(+)-ATPase isoform responsible for stomatal opening, AHA2, were 5-fold higher in plants exposed to nZVI than in unexposed control plants. This is the first study to show that nZVI enhances stomatal opening by inducing the activation of plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase, leading to the possibility of increased CO2 uptake. PMID:25496563

  11. Na,K-ATPase activity and epithelial interfaces in gills of the freshwater shrimp Macrobrachium amazonicum (Decapoda, Palaemonidae).

    PubMed

    Belli, N M; Faleiros, R O; Firmino, K C S; Masui, D C; Leone, F A; McNamara, J C; Furriel, R P M

    2009-03-01

    Diadromous freshwater shrimps are exposed to brackish water both as an obligatory part of their larval life cycle and during adult reproductive migration; their well-developed osmoregulatory ability is crucial to survival in such habitats. This study examines gill microsomal Na,K-ATPase (K-phosphatase activity) kinetics and protein profiles in the freshwater shrimp Macrobrachium amazonicum when in fresh water and after 10-days of acclimation to brackish water (21 per thousand salinity), as well as potential routes of Na+ uptake across the gill epithelium in fresh water. On acclimation, K-phosphatase activity decreases 2.5-fold, Na,K-ATPase alpha-subunit expression declines, total protein expression pattern is markedly altered, and enzyme activity becomes redistributed into different density membrane fractions, possibly reflecting altered vesicle trafficking between the plasma membrane and intracellular compartments. Ultrastructural analysis reveals an intimately coupled pillar cell-septal cell architecture and shows that the cell membrane interfaces between the external medium and the hemolymph are greatly augmented by apical pillar cell evaginations and septal cell invaginations, respectively. These findings are discussed regarding the putative movement of Na+ across the pillar cell interfaces and into the hemolymph via the septal cells, powered by the Na,K-ATPase located in their invaginations.

  12. Overproduction, purification, and ATPase activity of the Escherichia coli RuvB protein involved in DNA repair.

    PubMed Central

    Iwasaki, H; Shiba, T; Makino, K; Nakata, A; Shinagawa, H

    1989-01-01

    The ruvA and ruvB genes of Escherichia coli constitute an operon which belongs to the SOS regulon. Genetic evidence suggests that the products of the ruv operon are involved in DNA repair and recombination. To begin biochemical characterization of these proteins, we developed a plasmid system that overproduced RuvB protein to 20% of total cell protein. Starting from the overproducing system, we purified RuvB protein. The purified RuvB protein behaved like a monomer in gel filtration chromatography and had an apparent relative molecular mass of 38 kilodaltons in sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, which agrees with the value predicted from the DNA sequence. The amino acid sequence of the amino-terminal region of the purified protein was analyzed, and the sequence agreed with the one deduced from the DNA sequence. Since the deduced sequence of RuvB protein contained the consensus sequence for ATP-binding proteins, we examined the ATP-binding and ATPase activities of the purified RuvB protein. RuvB protein had a stronger affinity to ADP than to ATP and weak ATPase activity. The results suggest that the weak ATPase activity of RuvB protein is at least partly due to end product inhibition by ADP. Images PMID:2529252

  13. Effects of vanadium on population growth and Na-K-ATPase activity of the brackish water hydroid Cordylophora caspia

    SciTech Connect

    Ringelband, U.; Karbe, L.

    1996-07-01

    Vanadium, a relatively abundant heavy metal, enters the environment naturally through rock weathering. A large fraction of vanadium input is of human origin. The combustion of petroleum- and coal-products, which contain relatively high concentrations of vanadium, is one of the most important sources of the enrichment of vanadium in the environment. As it is used as an alloy, and vanadium rich iron-ores of various origin are used in steel production, the residual slag-stones of the steel industry can contain considerable vanadium concentrations. Wherever slag-stones serve as a cheap and convenient material in riverbank reinforcement, vanadium can leach into the aquatic environment. Vanadium is regarded as an essential trace element for higher animals. Cantley et al. indicated a regulatory function of vanadate in vivo. Although considerable information is available on the toxic effects of vanadium on humans, very little is known about the toxicity of vanadium towards aquatic organisms, especially invertebrates. Bell and Sargent have shown an inhibition of Na-K-ATPase activity in gills of the eel Anguilla anguilla. Holleland and Towle have demonstrated the inhibition of Na-K-ATPase activity in the gills of the shore crab Carcinus maenas. The aim of this study was to determine the toxicity of vanadium towards the brackish water hydroid Cordylophora caspia. Hydroids are known to be particularly sensitive to heavy metals and their asexual reproduction can be used in a well-established population growth test. Furthermore, the effects of vanadium on Na-K-ATPase activity in hydroids were studied in in vivo experiments, wherein the animals were exposed to sublethal concentrations of vanadium. In addition, the inhibition of Na-K-ATPase was measured in vitro, by adding vanadium to a microsomal preparation. 16 refs., 4 figs.

  14. Preliminary study of gill NA+,K+-ATPase activity in juvenile spring chinook salmon following electroshock or handling stress

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    VanderKooi, S.P.; Gale, William L.; Maule, A.G.

    2000-01-01

    We compared gill Na+,K+-ATPase in subyearling and yearling spring chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha 3 h, 24 h, and 7 d after exposure to either a short pulsed DC electroshock (300 V, 50 Hz, 8-ms pulse duration) or an acute handling stress. Mean gill Na+,K+-ATPase values ranged from 7.5 to 11.8 ??mol inorganic phosphate (Pi) ?? (mg protein)-1 ?? h-1. No significant differences were detected, with the exception of electroshocked subyearlings 7 d after treatment. Increased activity was attributed to the presence of two influential values. No significant differences were detected after removal of these observations, so the increase was not considered biologically significant. Inclusion of the outliers did not alter our interpretation of the results given that the observed increase was slight compared with the magnitude of changes reported under experimental conditions and in migrating juvenile salmonids. The treatment groups underwent a typical stress response and had significantly elevated cortisol and glucose levels 3 h after treatment. Recovery to control levels occurred within 24 h for cortisol and from 24 h to 7 d for glucose. Our results lead to the conclusion that neither acute electroshock nor acute handling stress alters Na+,K+-ATPase activity in juvenile spring chinook salmon.

  15. Nucleotide-induced asymmetry within ATPase activator ring drives σ54–RNAP interaction and ATP hydrolysis

    PubMed Central

    Sysoeva, Tatyana A.; Chowdhury, Saikat; Guo, Liang; Nixon, B. Tracy

    2013-01-01

    It is largely unknown how the typical homomeric ring geometry of ATPases associated with various cellular activities enables them to perform mechanical work. Small-angle solution X-ray scattering, crystallography, and electron microscopy (EM) reconstructions revealed that partial ATP occupancy caused the heptameric closed ring of the bacterial enhancer-binding protein (bEBP) NtrC1 to rearrange into a hexameric split ring of striking asymmetry. The highly conserved and functionally crucial GAFTGA loops responsible for interacting with σ54–RNA polymerase formed a spiral staircase. We propose that splitting of the ensemble directs ATP hydrolysis within the oligomer, and the ring's asymmetry guides interaction between ATPase and the complex of σ54 and promoter DNA. Similarity between the structure of the transcriptional activator NtrC1 and those of distantly related helicases Rho and E1 reveals a general mechanism in homomeric ATPases whereby complex allostery within the ring geometry forms asymmetric functional states that allow these biological motors to exert directional forces on their target macromolecules. PMID:24240239

  16. Bufadienolides from parotoid gland secretions of Cuban toad Peltophryne fustiger (Bufonidae): Inhibition of human kidney Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase activity.

    PubMed

    Perera Córdova, Wilmer H; Leitão, Suzana Guimarães; Cunha-Filho, Geraldino; Bosch, Roberto Alonso; Alonso, Isel Pascual; Pereda-Miranda, Rogelio; Gervou, Rodrigo; Touza, Natália Araújo; Quintas, Luis Eduardo M; Noël, François

    2016-02-01

    Parotoid gland secretions of toad species are a vast reservoir of bioactive molecules with a wide range of biological properties. Herein, for the first time, it is described the isolation by preparative reversed-phase HPLC and the structure elucidation by NMR spectroscopy and/or mass spectrometry of nine major bufadienolides from parotoid gland secretions of the Cuban endemic toad Peltophryne fustiger: ψ-bufarenogin, gamabufotalin, bufarenogin, arenobufagin, 3-(N-suberoylargininyl) marinobufagin, bufotalinin, telocinobufagin, marinobufagin and bufalin. In addition, the secretion was analyzed by UPLC-MS/MS which also allowed the identification of azelayl arginine. The effect of arenobufagin, bufalin and ψ-bufarenogin on Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase activity in a human kidney preparation was evaluated. These bufadienolides fully inhibited the Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase in a concentration-dependent manner, although arenobufagin (IC50 = 28.3 nM) and bufalin (IC50 = 28.7 nM) were 100 times more potent than ψ-bufarenogin (IC50 = 3020 nM). These results provided evidence about the importance of the hydroxylation at position C-14 in the bufadienolide skeleton for the inhibitory activity on the Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase.

  17. Pseudouridines in U2 snRNA stimulate the ATPase activity of Prp5 during spliceosome assembly.

    PubMed

    Wu, Guowei; Adachi, Hironori; Ge, Junhui; Stephenson, David; Query, Charles C; Yu, Yi-Tao

    2016-03-15

    Pseudouridine (Ψ) is the most abundant internal modification identified in RNA, and yet little is understood of its effects on downstream reactions. Yeast U2 snRNA contains three conserved Ψs (Ψ35, Ψ42, and Ψ44) in the branch site recognition region (BSRR), which base pairs with the pre-mRNA branch site during splicing. Here, we show that blocks to pseudouridylation at these positions reduce the efficiency of pre-mRNA splicing, leading to growth-deficient phenotypes. Restoration of pseudouridylation at these positions using designer snoRNAs results in near complete rescue of splicing and cell growth. These Ψs interact genetically with Prp5, an RNA-dependent ATPase involved in monitoring the U2 BSRR-branch site base-pairing interaction. Biochemical analysis indicates that Prp5 has reduced affinity for U2 snRNA that lacks Ψ42 and Ψ44 and that Prp5 ATPase activity is reduced when stimulated by U2 lacking Ψ42 or Ψ44 relative to wild type, resulting in inefficient spliceosome assembly. Furthermore, in vivo DMS probing analysis reveals that pseudouridylated U2, compared to U2 lacking Ψ42 and Ψ44, adopts a slightly different structure in the branch site recognition region. Taken together, our results indicate that the Ψs in U2 snRNA contribute to pre-mRNA splicing by directly altering the binding/ATPase activity of Prp5. PMID:26873591

  18. Deficiency in Na,K-ATPase alpha isoform genes alters spatial learning, motor activity, and anxiety in mice.

    PubMed

    Moseley, Amy E; Williams, Michael T; Schaefer, Tori L; Bohanan, Cynthia S; Neumann, Jon C; Behbehani, Michael M; Vorhees, Charles V; Lingrel, Jerry B

    2007-01-17

    Several disorders have been associated with mutations in Na,K-ATPase alpha isoforms (rapid-onset dystonia parkinsonism, familial hemiplegic migraine type-2), as well as reduction in Na,K-ATPase content (depression and Alzheimer's disease), thereby raising the issue of whether haploinsufficiency or altered enzymatic function contribute to disease etiology. Three isoforms are expressed in the brain: the alpha1 isoform is found in many cell types, the alpha2 isoform is predominantly expressed in astrocytes, and the alpha3 isoform is exclusively expressed in neurons. Here we show that mice heterozygous for the alpha2 isoform display increased anxiety-related behavior, reduced locomotor activity, and impaired spatial learning in the Morris water maze. Mice heterozygous for the alpha3 isoform displayed spatial learning and memory deficits unrelated to differences in cued learning in the Morris maze, increased locomotor activity, an increased locomotor response to methamphetamine, and a 40% reduction in hippocampal NMDA receptor expression. In contrast, heterozygous alpha1 isoform mice showed increased locomotor response to methamphetamine and increased basal and stimulated corticosterone in plasma. The learning and memory deficits observed in the alpha2 and alpha3 heterozygous mice reveal the Na,K-ATPase to be an important factor in the functioning of pathways associated with spatial learning. The neurobehavioral changes seen in heterozygous mice suggest that these mouse models may be useful in future investigations of the associated human CNS disorders.

  19. A pure chloride channel mutant of CLC-5 causes Dent's disease via insufficient V-ATPase activation.

    PubMed

    Satoh, Nobuhiko; Yamada, Hideomi; Yamazaki, Osamu; Suzuki, Masashi; Nakamura, Motonobu; Suzuki, Atsushi; Ashida, Akira; Yamamoto, Daisuke; Kaku, Yoshitsugu; Sekine, Takashi; Seki, George; Horita, Shoko

    2016-07-01

    Dent's disease is characterized by defective endocytosis in renal proximal tubules (PTs) and caused by mutations in the 2Cl(-)/H(+) exchanger, CLC-5. However, the pathological role of endosomal acidification in endocytosis has recently come into question. To clarify the mechanism of pathogenesis for Dent's disease, we examined the effects of a novel gating glutamate mutation, E211Q, on CLC-5 functions and endosomal acidification. In Xenopus oocytes, wild-type (WT) CLC-5 showed outward-rectifying currents that were inhibited by extracellular acidosis, but E211Q and an artificial pure Cl(-) channel mutant, E211A, showed linear currents that were insensitive to extracellular acidosis. Moreover, depolarizing pulse trains induced a robust reduction in the surface pH of oocytes expressing WT CLC-5 but not E211Q or E211A, indicating that the E211Q mutant functions as a pure Cl(-) channel similar to E211A. In HEK293 cells, E211A and E211Q stimulated endosomal acidification and hypotonicity-inducible vacuolar-type H(+)-ATPase (V-ATPase) activation at the plasma membrane. However, the stimulatory effects of these mutants were reduced compared with WT CLC-5. Furthermore, gene silencing experiments confirmed the functional coupling between V-ATPase and CLC-5 at the plasma membrane of isolated mouse PTs. These results reveal for the first time that the conversion of CLC-5 from a 2Cl(-)/H(+) exchanger into a Cl(-) channel induces Dent's disease in humans. In addition, defective endosomal acidification as a result of insufficient V-ATPase activation may still be important in the pathogenesis of Dent's disease.

  20. Effect of vanadium on renal Na+,K+-ATPase activity in diabetic rats: a possible role of leptin.

    PubMed

    Morsy, Mohamed D; Abdel-Razek, Hesham A; Osman, Osama M

    2011-03-01

    Several researches attempt to protect diabetic patients from the development of nephropathy. Involvement of leptin and renal Na+,K+-ATPase enzyme in diabetic nephropathy (DN) development is a recent field for researches. Vanadium, as a trace element with insulin mimetic effect, may act synergistically with insulin to protect against the development of DN. Sixty male Sprague Dawley rats were divided into six groups: control group (C), vanadium control group (CV), streptozotocin-induced diabetic group (D), insulin-treated diabetic group (DI), vanadium-treated diabetic group (DV), and combined insulin and vanadium-treated diabetic group. Six weeks later, systolic blood pressure (SBP) was measured and retro-orbital blood samples were collected to estimate glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA(₁c)), serum sodium (Na+) and creatinine, blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and plasma leptin levels. Preparation of microsomal fraction of renal tissue homogenate for estimation of Na+,K+-ATPase activity was done. The D group showed a significant increase in SBP, HbA(₁c), serum Na+, creatinine, and BUN levels and Na+,K+-ATPase activity in microsomal fraction of renal tissue homogenate while plasma leptin level decreased significantly compared with C and CV groups. Both DI and DV groups showed a significant improvement in all the above measured parameters compared with D group while there were no significant changes between the DI and DV groups. Concomitant treatment with insulin and vanadium resulted in a significant improvement in all the measured parameters compared to each alone. Vanadium in combination with insulin ameliorates DN markers and reduces renal Na+,K+-ATPase overactivity in diabetic rats. An effect that may be partially mediated through correction of hypoleptinemia observed in these animals.

  1. Na,K-ATPase α2 activity in mammalian skeletal muscle T-tubules is acutely stimulated by extracellular K+

    PubMed Central

    Hakimjavadi, Hesamedin; Lingrel, Jerry B.

    2015-01-01

    The Na,K-ATPase α2 isoform is the predominant Na,K-ATPase in adult skeletal muscle and the sole Na,K-ATPase in the transverse tubules (T-tubules). In quiescent muscles, the α2 isozyme operates substantially below its maximal transport capacity. Unlike the α1 isoform, the α2 isoform is not required for maintaining resting ion gradients or the resting membrane potential, canonical roles of the Na,K-ATPase in most other cells. However, α2 activity is stimulated immediately upon the start of contraction and, in working muscles, its contribution is crucial to maintaining excitation and resisting fatigue. Here, we show that α2 activity is determined in part by the K+ concentration in the T-tubules, through its K+ substrate affinity. Apparent K+ affinity was determined from measurements of the K1/2 for K+ activation of pump current in intact, voltage-clamped mouse flexor digitorum brevis muscle fibers. Pump current generated by the α2 Na,K-ATPase, Ip, was identified as the outward current activated by K+ and inhibited by micromolar ouabain. Ip was outward at all potentials studied (−90 to −30 mV) and increased with depolarization in the subthreshold range, −90 to −50 mV. The Q10 was 2.1 over the range of 22–37°C. The K1/2,K of Ip was 4.3 ± 0.3 mM at −90 mV and was relatively voltage independent. This K+ affinity is lower than that reported for other cell types but closely matches the dynamic range of extracellular K+ concentrations in the T-tubules. During muscle contraction, T-tubule luminal K+ increases in proportion to the frequency and duration of action potential firing. This K1/2,K predicts a low fractional occupancy of K+ substrate sites at the resting extracellular K+ concentration, with occupancy increasing in proportion to the frequency of membrane excitation. The stimulation of preexisting pumps by greater K+ site occupancy thus provides a rapid mechanism for increasing α2 activity in working muscles. PMID:26371210

  2. The 70S ribosome modulates the ATPase activity of Escherichia coli YchF

    PubMed Central

    Becker, Marion; Gzyl, Katherine E.; Altamirano, Alvin M.; Vuong, Anthony; Urbahn, Kirstin; Wieden, Hans-Joachim

    2012-01-01

    YchF is one of two universally conserved GTPases with unknown cellular function. As a first step toward elucidating YchF’s cellular role, we performed a detailed biochemical characterization of the protein from Escherichia coli. Our data from fluorescence titrations not only confirmed the surprising finding that YchFE.coli binds adenine nucleotides more efficiently than guanine nucleotides, but also provides the first evidence suggesting that YchF assumes two distinct conformational states (ATP- and ADP-bound) consistent with the functional cycle of a typical GTPase. Based on an in vivo pull-down experiment using a His-tagged variant of YchF from E. coli (YchFE.coli), we were able to isolate a megadalton complex containing the 70S ribosome. Based on this finding, we report the successful reconstitution of a YchF•70S complex in vitro, revealing an affinity (KD) of the YchFE.coli•ADPNP complex for 70S ribosomes of 3 μM. The in vitro reconstitution data also suggests that the identity of the nucleotide-bound state of YchF (ADP or ATP) modulates its affinity for 70S ribosomes. A detailed Michaelis-Menten analysis of YchF’s catalytic activity in the presence and the absence of the 70S ribosome and its subunits revealed for the first time that the 70S ribosome is able to stimulate YchF’s ATPase activity (~10-fold), confirming the ribosome as part of the functional cycle of YchF. Our findings taken together with previously reported data for the human homolog of YchF (hOLA1) indicate a high level of evolutionary conservation in the enzymatic properties of YchF and suggest that the ribosome is the main functional partner of YchF not only in bacteria. PMID:22995830

  3. Effects of type 1 diabetes, sprint training and sex on skeletal muscle sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ uptake and Ca2+-ATPase activity.

    PubMed

    Harmer, A R; Ruell, P A; Hunter, S K; McKenna, M J; Thom, J M; Chisholm, D J; Flack, J R

    2014-02-01

    Calcium cycling is integral to muscle performance during the rapid muscle contraction and relaxation of high-intensity exercise. Ca(2+) handling is altered by diabetes mellitus, but has not previously been investigated in human skeletal muscle. We investigated effects of high-intensity exercise and sprint training on skeletal muscle Ca(2+) regulation among men and women with type 1 diabetes (T1D, n = 8, 3F, 5M) and matched non-diabetic controls (CON, n = 8, 3F, 5M). Secondarily, we examined sex differences in Ca(2+) regulation. Subjects undertook 7 weeks of three times-weekly cycle sprint training. Before and after training, performance was measured, and blood and muscle were sampled at rest and after high-intensity exercise. In T1D, higher Ca(2+)-ATPase activity (+28%) and Ca(2+) uptake (+21%) than in CON were evident across both times and days (P < 0.05), but performance was similar. In T1D, resting Ca(2+)-ATPase activity correlated with work performed until exhaustion (r = 0.7, P < 0.01). Ca(2+)-ATPase activity, but not Ca(2+) uptake, was lower (-24%, P < 0.05) among the women across both times and days. Intense exercise did not alter Ca(2+)-ATPase activity in T1D or CON. However, sex differences were evident: Ca(2+)-ATPase was reduced with exercise among men but increased among women across both days (time × sex interaction, P < 0.05). Sprint training reduced Ca(2+)-ATPase (-8%, P < 0.05), but not Ca(2+) uptake, in T1D and CON. In summary, skeletal muscle Ca(2+) resequestration capacity was increased in T1D, but performance was not greater than CON. Sprint training reduced Ca(2+)-ATPase in T1D and CON. Sex differences in Ca(2+)-ATPase activity were evident and may be linked with fibre type proportion differences.

  4. An optimized micro-assay of myosin II ATPase activity based on the molybdenum blue method and its application in screening natural product inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hong-Lin; Zhao, Jing; Zhang, Guan-Jun; Kou, Jun-Ping; Yu, Bo-Yang

    2016-06-01

    Myosin II plays multiple roles in physiological and pathological functions through its ATPase activity. The present study was designed to optimize a micro-assay of myosin II ATPase activity based on molybdenum blue method, using a known myosin II ATPase inhibitor, blebbistatin. Several parameters were observed in the enzymatic reaction procedure, including the concentrations of the substrate (ATP) and calcium chloride, pH, and the reaction and incubation times. The proportion of coloration agent was also investigated. The sensitivity of this assay was compared with the malachite green method and bioluminescence method. Additionally, 20 natural compounds were studied for myosin II ATPase inhibitory activity using the optimized method. Our results showed that ATP at the concentration of 5 mmol·L(-1) and ammonium molybdate : stannous chloride at the ratio of 15 : 1 could greatly improve the sensitivity of this method. The IC50 of blebbistatin obtained by this method was consistent with literature. Compound 8 was screened with inhibitory activity on myosin II ATPase. The optimized method showed similar accuracy, lower detecting limit, and wider linear range, which could be a promising approach to screening myosin II ATPase inhibitors in vitro. PMID:27473959

  5. A spliceosome intermediate with loosely associated tri-snRNP accumulates in the absence of Prp28 ATPase activity

    PubMed Central

    Boesler, Carsten; Rigo, Norbert; Anokhina, Maria M.; Tauchert, Marcel J.; Agafonov, Dmitry E.; Kastner, Berthold; Urlaub, Henning; Ficner, Ralf; Will, Cindy L.; Lührmann, Reinhard

    2016-01-01

    The precise role of the spliceosomal DEAD-box protein Prp28 in higher eukaryotes remains unclear. We show that stable tri-snRNP association during pre-catalytic spliceosomal B complex formation is blocked by a dominant-negative hPrp28 mutant lacking ATPase activity. Complexes formed in the presence of ATPase-deficient hPrp28 represent a novel assembly intermediate, the pre-B complex, that contains U1, U2 and loosely associated tri-snRNP and is stalled before disruption of the U1/5′ss base pairing interaction, consistent with a role for hPrp28 in the latter. Pre-B and B complexes differ structurally, indicating that stable tri-snRNP integration is accompanied by substantial rearrangements in the spliceosome. Disruption of the U1/5′ss interaction alone is not sufficient to bypass the block by ATPase-deficient hPrp28, suggesting hPrp28 has an additional function at this stage of splicing. Our data provide new insights into the function of Prp28 in higher eukaryotes, and the requirements for stable tri-snRNP binding during B complex formation. PMID:27377154

  6. Two ATPases

    PubMed Central

    Senior, Alan E.

    2012-01-01

    In this article, I reflect on research on two ATPases. The first is F1F0-ATPase, also known as ATP synthase. It is the terminal enzyme in oxidative phosphorylation and famous as a nanomotor. Early work on mitochondrial enzyme involved purification in large amount, followed by deduction of subunit composition and stoichiometry and determination of molecular sizes of holoenzyme and individual subunits. Later work on Escherichia coli enzyme utilized mutagenesis and optical probes to reveal the molecular mechanism of ATP hydrolysis and detailed facets of catalysis. The second ATPase is P-glycoprotein, which confers multidrug resistance, notably to anticancer drugs, in mammalian cells. Purification of the protein in large quantity allowed detailed characterization of catalysis, formulation of an alternating sites mechanism, and recently, advances in structural characterization. PMID:22822068

  7. Effect of diet of varying protein concentrations on the activity of erythrocyte membrane Ca2+Mg2+ ATPase in dogs.

    PubMed

    Adewoye, E O; Ige, A O; Adeyanju, O; Bekibele, E B

    2010-11-25

    Alterations in protein diet have been reported to result in alterations in calcium homeostasis in the body. Ca2+Mg2+ATPase is an ubiquitous enzyme important in calcium homeostasis in the body. The effect of varying protein diet on the activities of Ca2+ pump across cell membranes is however yet to be fully elucidated. In this study, the activity of erythrocyte membrane calcium pump in response to varying protein concentration in diet was therefore studied in the dog. The study was carried out in 24 dogs, randomly divided into 4 groups. The groups were fed with diets containing 30%, 26%, 16% and 0% proteins (high, medium, low and zero) for six weeks respectively. Blood samples were collected from each animal to determine packed cell volumes, hematocrit, blood urea, electrolyte studies and erythrocyte ghost membrane studies. The effects of Ca2+ and ATP on the activity of Ca2+Mg2+ ATPase were determined in the isolated ghost membrane. The result of the study shows that there was a protein diet dependent increase in the activity of Ca2+Mg2+ ATPase in the presence and absence of ATP in all the groups with the highest activity recorded in the high protein diet group and the lowest activity observed in the zero protein group. There was also a protein diet dependent increase in the protein concentration of the membranes in all groups observed with the highest protein concentration recorded in the high protein diet group and the lowest activity observed in the zero protein group. There was a significant decrease in K+ concentration (P <0.05) and a significant increase in urea concentration of animals fed with high protein diet (P <0.05). There was also a significant increase (P <0.05) in HCO3- concentration in the animals fed with medium protein diet and no significant difference in the PCV and heamatocrit values in all groups. This study has shown that high protein diets increase the activity of the Ca2+Mg2+ ATPase in the presence and absence of ATP.

  8. Amyloid beta-peptide impairs ion-motive ATPase activities: evidence for a role in loss of neuronal Ca2+ homeostasis and cell death.

    PubMed

    Mark, R J; Hensley, K; Butterfield, D A; Mattson, M P

    1995-09-01

    The amyloid beta-peptide (A beta) that accumulates as insoluble plaques in the brain in Alzheimer's disease can be directly neurotoxic and can increase neuronal vulnerability to excitotoxic insults. The mechanism of A beta toxicity is unclear but is believed to involve generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and loss of calcium homeostasis. We now report that exposure of cultured rat hippocampal neurons to A beta 1-40 or A beta 25-35 causes a selective reduction in Na+/K(+)-ATPase activity which precedes loss of calcium homeostasis and cell degeneration. Na+/K(+)-ATPase activity was reduced within 30 min of exposure to A beta 25-35 and declined to less than 40% of basal level by 3 hr. A beta did not impair other Mg(2+)-dependent ATPase activities or Na+/Ca2+ exchange. Experiments with ouabain, a specific inhibitor of the Na+/K(+)-ATPase, demonstrated that impairment of this enzyme was sufficient to induce an elevation of [Ca2+]i and neuronal injury. Impairment of Na+/K(+)-ATPase activity appeared to be causally involved in the elevation of [Ca2+]i and neurotoxicity since suppression of Na+ influx significantly reduced A beta- and ouabain-induced [Ca2+]i elevation and neuronal death. Neuronal degeneration induced by ouabain appeared to be of an apoptotic form as indicated by nuclear condensation and DNA fragmentation. The antioxidant free radical scavengers vitamin E and propylgallate significantly attenuated A beta-induced impairment of Na+/K(+)-ATPase activity, elevation of [Ca2+]i and neurotoxicity, suggesting a role for ROS. Finally, exposure of synaptosomes from postmortem human hippocampus to A beta resulted in a significant and specific reduction in Na+/K(+)-ATPase and Ca(2+)-ATPase activities, without affecting other Mg(2+)-dependent ATPase activities or Na+/Ca2+ exchange. These data suggest that impairment of ion-motive ATPases may play a role in the pathogenesis of neuronal injury in Alzheimer's disease. PMID:7666206

  9. A Mutation within the Extended X Loop Abolished Substrate-induced ATPase Activity of the Human Liver ATP-binding Cassette (ABC) Transporter MDR3*

    PubMed Central

    Kluth, Marianne; Stindt, Jan; Dröge, Carola; Linnemann, Doris; Kubitz, Ralf; Schmitt, Lutz

    2015-01-01

    The human multidrug resistance protein 3 (MDR3/ABCB4) belongs to the ubiquitous family of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters and is located in the canalicular membrane of hepatocytes. There it flops the phospholipids of the phosphatidylcholine (PC) family from the inner to the outer leaflet. Here, we report the characterization of wild type MDR3 and the Q1174E mutant, which was identified previously in a patient with progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis type 3 (PFIC-3). We expressed different variants of MDR3 in the yeast Pichia pastoris, purified the proteins via tandem affinity chromatography, and determined MDR3-specific ATPase activity in the presence or absence of phospholipids. The ATPase activity of wild type MDR3 was stimulated 2-fold by liver PC or 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphatidylethanolamine lipids. Furthermore, the cross-linking of MDR3 with a thiol-reactive fluorophore blocked ATP hydrolysis and exhibited no PC stimulation. Similarly, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylserine, and sphingomyelin lipids did not induce an increase of wild type MDR3 ATPase activity. The phosphate analogues beryllium fluoride and aluminum fluoride led to complete inhibition of ATPase activity, whereas orthovanadate inhibited exclusively the PC-stimulated ATPase activity of MDR3. The Q1174E mutation is located in the nucleotide-binding domain in direct proximity of the leucine of the ABC signature motif and extended the X loop, which is found in ABC exporters. Our data on the Q1174E mutant demonstrated basal ATPase activity, but PC lipids were incapable of stimulating ATPase activity highlighting the role of the extended X loop in the cross-talk of the nucleotide-binding domain and the transmembrane domain. PMID:25533467

  10. [Combined effect of diazepam and GABAA-ergic ligands on the activity of Cl(-)-ATPase from plasma membrane of bream brain (Abramis brama L.)].

    PubMed

    Menzikov, S A; Menzikova, O V

    2004-01-01

    We studied the combined effect of diazepam and GABAA-ergic ligands on the activity of Cl- -ATPase from plasma membrane of bream brain. of The membranes were preincubated and incubated with diazepam as well as with other GABAA-ergic ligands at physiological pH (7.4), i.e. under the conditions when Cl- -ATPase activity is undetectable. GABA (0.1-100 microM) induced Cl- -ATPase activity with the maximum effect at 10 microM. Diazepam (0.1 microM) enhanced the effect of low GABA concentrations (0.1-1 microM) on Cl- -ATPase activity but had no effect on the enzyme in the presence of high GABA concentrations (10-100 microM). At the same time, GABA (1 microM) enhanced the effect of low diazepam concentrations (0.1-1 microM) on the enzyme activity but had no effect on it in the presence of high concentrations of the ligand. Blockers of GABAA-ergic receptors, picrotoxin (50 microM) and bicuculline (5 microM), canceled the combined effect of diazepam and GABA on the enzyme activity. The obtained data demonstrate that the combined effect of diazepam and GABAA-ergic ligands on Cl- -ATPase activity at physiological pH is similar to the effect of these ligands on GABAA/benzodiazepine/Cl- channel.

  11. Alterations in activities of acid phosphatase, alkaline phosphatase, ATPase and ATP content in response to seasonally varying Pi status in okra (Abelmoschus esculentus).

    PubMed

    Sen, Supatra; Mukherji, S

    2004-04-01

    Phosphorus (P) is the second most important macronutrient for plant growth. Plants exhibit numerous physiological and metabolic adaptations in response to seasonal variations in phosphorus content. Activities of acid and alkaline phosphatases, ATPase and ATP content were studied in summer, rainy and winter seasons at two different developmental stages (28 and 58 days after sowing) in Okra. Activities of both acid and alkaline phosphatases increased manifold in winter to cope up with low phosphorus content. ATP content and ATPase activity were high in summer signifying an active metabolic period. Phosphorus deficiency is characterized by low ATP content and ATPase activity (which are in turn partly responsible for a drastic reduction in growth and yield) and enhanced activities of acid and alkaline phosphatases which increase the availability of P in P-deficient seasons.

  12. Effect of activators and blockers of ligand-regulated ion channels on the activity of the Cl-stimulated Mg2+-ATPase of the plasma membrane fraction from bream (Abramis brama L.) brain.

    PubMed

    Menzikov, S A; Menzikova, O V

    2002-02-01

    Effects of GABA, glycine, acetylcholine, and glutamate (agonists of the GABAa/benzodiazepine, glycine, choline, and glutamate receptors, respectively) at concentrations in the range 10(-8)-10(-4) M on the activity of "basal" Mg(2+)-ATPase of the plasma membrane fraction from bream brain and on its activation by Cl(-) were investigated. GABA and glycine activated "basal" Mg(2+)-ATPase activity and suppressed its activation by Cl(-). Acetylcholine and glutamate activated "basal" Mg(2+)-ATPase to a lesser extent and did not suppress the activation of the enzyme by Cl(-). The activation of "basal" Mg(2+)-ATPase by neuromediators was decreased by blockers of the corresponding receptors (picrotoxin, strychnine, benztropine mesylate, and D-2-amino-5-phosphonovaleric acid). In addition, picrotoxin and strychnine eliminated the inhibiting effect of GABA and glycine, respectively, on the Cl(-)-stimulated Mg(2+)-ATPase activity. Agonists of the GABAa/benzodiazepine receptor--phenazepam (10(-8)-10(-4) M) and pentobarbital (10(-6)-10(-3) M)--activated the "basal" Mg(2+)-ATPase activity and decreased the Cl(-)-stimulated Mg(2+)-ATPase activity. The dependence of both enzyme activities on ligand concentration is bell-shaped. Moreover, phenazepam and pentobarbital increased the "basal" Mg(2+)-ATPase activity in the presence of 10(-7) M GABA and did not influence it in the presence of 10(-4) M GABA and 10(-6) M glycine. The data suggest that in the fish brain membranes the Cl(-)-stimulated Mg(2+)-ATPase interacts with GABAa/benzodiazepine and glycine receptors but not with m-choline and glutamate receptors.

  13. D1-like dopamine receptors downregulate Na+-K+-ATPase activity and increase cAMP production in the posterior gills of the blue crab Callinectes sapidus.

    PubMed

    Arnaldo, Francis B; Villar, Van Anthony M; Konkalmatt, Prasad R; Owens, Shaun A; Asico, Laureano D; Jones, John E; Yang, Jian; Lovett, Donald L; Armando, Ines; Jose, Pedro A; Concepcion, Gisela P

    2014-09-15

    Dopamine-mediated regulation of Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase activity in the posterior gills of some crustaceans has been reported to be involved in osmoregulation. The dopamine receptors of invertebrates are classified into three groups based on their structure and pharmacology: D1- and D2-like receptors and a distinct invertebrate receptor subtype (INDR). We tested the hypothesis that a D1-like receptor is expressed in the blue crab Callinectes sapidus and regulates Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase activity. RT-PCR, using degenerate primers, showed the presence of D1βR mRNA in the posterior gill. The blue crab posterior gills showed positive immunostaining for a dopamine D5 receptor (D5R or D1βR) antibody in the basolateral membrane and cytoplasm. Confocal microscopy showed colocalization of Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase and D1βR in the basolateral membrane. To determine the effect of D1-like receptor stimulation on Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase activity, intact crabs acclimated to low salinity for 6 days were given an intracardiac infusion of the D1-like receptor agonist fenoldopam, with or without the D1-like receptor antagonist SCH23390. Fenoldopam increased cAMP production twofold and decreased Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase activity by 50% in the posterior gills. This effect was blocked by coinfusion with SCH23390, which had no effect on Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase activity by itself. Fenoldopam minimally decreased D1βR protein expression (10%) but did not affect Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase α-subunit protein expression. This study shows the presence of functional D1βR in the posterior gills of euryhaline crabs chronically exposed to low salinity and highlights the evolutionarily conserved function of the dopamine receptors on sodium homeostasis.

  14. D1-like dopamine receptors downregulate Na+-K+-ATPase activity and increase cAMP production in the posterior gills of the blue crab Callinectes sapidus

    PubMed Central

    Arnaldo, Francis B.; Villar, Van Anthony M.; Konkalmatt, Prasad R.; Owens, Shaun A.; Asico, Laureano D.; Jones, John E.; Yang, Jian; Lovett, Donald L.; Armando, Ines; Concepcion, Gisela P.

    2014-01-01

    Dopamine-mediated regulation of Na+-K+-ATPase activity in the posterior gills of some crustaceans has been reported to be involved in osmoregulation. The dopamine receptors of invertebrates are classified into three groups based on their structure and pharmacology: D1- and D2-like receptors and a distinct invertebrate receptor subtype (INDR). We tested the hypothesis that a D1-like receptor is expressed in the blue crab Callinectes sapidus and regulates Na+-K+-ATPase activity. RT-PCR, using degenerate primers, showed the presence of D1βR mRNA in the posterior gill. The blue crab posterior gills showed positive immunostaining for a dopamine D5 receptor (D5R or D1βR) antibody in the basolateral membrane and cytoplasm. Confocal microscopy showed colocalization of Na+-K+-ATPase and D1βR in the basolateral membrane. To determine the effect of D1-like receptor stimulation on Na+-K+-ATPase activity, intact crabs acclimated to low salinity for 6 days were given an intracardiac infusion of the D1-like receptor agonist fenoldopam, with or without the D1-like receptor antagonist SCH23390. Fenoldopam increased cAMP production twofold and decreased Na+-K+-ATPase activity by 50% in the posterior gills. This effect was blocked by coinfusion with SCH23390, which had no effect on Na+-K+-ATPase activity by itself. Fenoldopam minimally decreased D1βR protein expression (10%) but did not affect Na+-K+-ATPase α-subunit protein expression. This study shows the presence of functional D1βR in the posterior gills of euryhaline crabs chronically exposed to low salinity and highlights the evolutionarily conserved function of the dopamine receptors on sodium homeostasis. PMID:25080496

  15. Interaction of pentobarbital with gabaergic drugs acting on the Cl(-)-ATPase activity of the plasma membranes from bream brain (Abramis brama L.).

    PubMed

    Menzikov, Sergey; Menzikova, Olga

    2002-12-16

    The present study was designed to investigate the role of the interaction of pentobarbital with gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)ergic drugs acting on the Cl(-)-adenosine triphosphate (ATP)ase activity of the plasma membranes fraction of bream brain. The preincubation and then incubation of the membranes with pentobarbital as well as with other GABAergic ligands was conducted at physiologic pH (7.4), i.e. at the condition where the Cl(-)-ATPase activity is not detected. Pentobarbital (1-100 microM) induces Cl(-)-ATPase activity, however at high concentration (1,000 microM) no effect of the ligand was found. In addition pentobarbital (50 microM) enhances the effect of low concentration of GABA (1 microM) on the Cl(-)-ATPase activity, but inhibits the action of high concentration of GABA (100 microM) on the enzyme. Whereas no activating effect of pentobarbital in the presence of baclofen (1 microM) was found. The blocker of GABA(A)-receptors, picrotoxin (50 microM) and bicuculline (5 microM) eliminated the action of pentobarbital on the enzyme. The present results provide evidence for the first time that at physiologic pH in incubation medium the interaction of pentobarbital with GABAergic drugs on the Cl(-)-ATPase activity is similar to the effects of these ligands on the GABA(A)-receptor.

  16. Hypoxia Leads to Na,K-ATPase Downregulation via Ca2+ Release-Activated Ca2+ Channels and AMPK Activation

    PubMed Central

    Gusarova, Galina A.; Trejo, Humberto E.; Dada, Laura A.; Briva, Arturo; Welch, Lynn C.; Hamanaka, Robert B.; Mutlu, Gökhan M.; Chandel, Navdeep S.; Prakriya, Murali; Sznajder, Jacob I.

    2011-01-01

    To maintain cellular ATP levels, hypoxia leads to Na,K-ATPase inhibition in a process dependent on reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the activation of AMP-activated kinase α1 (AMPK-α1). We report here that during hypoxia AMPK activation does not require the liver kinase B1 (LKB1) but requires the release of Ca2+ from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and redistribution of STIM1 to ER-plasma membrane junctions, leading to calcium entry via Ca2+ release-activated Ca2+ (CRAC) channels. This increase in intracellular Ca2+ induces Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent kinase kinase β (CaMKKβ)-mediated AMPK activation and Na,K-ATPase downregulation. Also, in cells unable to generate mitochondrial ROS, hypoxia failed to increase intracellular Ca2+ concentration while a STIM1 mutant rescued the AMPK activation, suggesting that ROS act upstream of Ca2+ signaling. Furthermore, inhibition of CRAC channel function in rat lungs prevented the impairment of alveolar fluid reabsorption caused by hypoxia. These data suggest that during hypoxia, calcium entry via CRAC channels leads to AMPK activation, Na,K-ATPase downregulation, and alveolar epithelial dysfunction. PMID:21730292

  17. Effect of hypoxia on the calcium and magnesium content, lipid peroxidation level, and Ca²⁺-ATPase activity of syncytiotrophoblast plasma membranes from placental explants.

    PubMed

    Chiarello, Delia I; Marín, Reinaldo; Proverbio, Fulgencio; Benzo, Zully; Piñero, Sandy; Botana, Desirée; Abad, Cilia

    2014-01-01

    In the current study the possible relationship between the Ca(2+)/Mg(2+) ratio of human syncytiotrophoblast plasma membranes and their lipid peroxidation and Ca(2+)-ATPase activity was determined. Syncytiotrophoblast plasma membranes of placental explants cultured under hypoxia increased their lipid peroxidation and Ca(2+) content, diminished their Ca(2+)-ATPase activity, and kept their Mg(2+) content unchanged. Membranes preincubated with different concentrations of Ca(2+) increased their Ca(2+) content without changes in their Mg(2+) content. There is a direct relationship between Ca(2+) content and lipid peroxidation of the membranes, as well as an inverse relationship between their Ca(2+) content and Ca(2+)-ATPase activity. On the contrary, preincubation of membranes with different concentrations of Mg(2+) showed a higher Mg(2+) content without changing their lipid peroxidation and Ca(2+)-ATPase activity. Explants cultured under hypoxia in the presence of 4 mM MgSO4 showed similar values of lipid peroxidation and Ca(2+)-ATPase activity of their membranes compared to those of explants cultured under normoxia. Increased Ca(2+) content of the membranes by interacting with negatively charged phospholipids could result in destabilizing effects of the membrane structure, exposing hydrocarbon chains of fatty acids to the action of free radicals. Mg(2+) might exert a stabilizing effect of the membranes, avoiding their exposure to free radicals. PMID:25180187

  18. Influence of cadmium concentration and length of exposure on metabolic rate and gill Na+/K+ ATPase activity of golden shiners (Notemigonus crysoleucas).

    PubMed

    Peles, John D; Pistole, David H; Moffe, Mickey

    2012-06-01

    Although metabolic rate is considered to be useful as a general indicator of the biological effects of exposure to metals, it is seldom measured in conjunction with specific physiological, biochemical or cellular parameters. The purpose of this investigation was to examine the influence of cadmium (Cd) exposure on metabolic rate and gill Na(+)/K(+) ATPase activity in golden shiners (Notemigonus crysoleucas). Shiners were exposed to six levels of Cd (ranging from control to the maximum sublethal concentration) for 24- and 96-h periods. After 24-h, metabolic rate and Na(+)/K(+) ATPase activity of individual fish were strongly correlated. Shiners exposed to the four highest Cd concentrations (500, 800, 1100, and 1400 μg L(-1)) for 24-h exhibited a shock response that was characterized by mean values for metabolic rate and Na(+)/K(+) ATPase activity that were significantly lower compared to the control. Although results for 96-h exposures reflect a repair/recovery phase, there was no significant correlation between metabolic rate and Na(+)/K(+) ATPase activity. Metabolic rate of shiners was significantly elevated (65-100%) at all concentrations compared to the control after 96-h, whereas Na(+)/K(+) ATPase activity did not differ from the control. Elevated metabolic rate after 96-h likely reflects the influence of a variety of energetically demanding processes associated with repair and recovery.

  19. Modulation By K+ Plus NH4+ of Microsomal (Na+, K+)-ATPase Activity in Selected Ontogenetic Stages of the Diadromous River Shrimp Macrobrachium amazonicum (Decapoda, Palaemonidae)

    PubMed Central

    Leone, Francisco A.; Bezerra, Thais M. S.; Garçon, Daniela P.; Lucena, Malson N.; Pinto, Marcelo R.; Fontes, Carlos F. L.; McNamara, John C.

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the synergistic stimulation by K+ plus NH4+ of (Na+, K+)-ATPase activity in microsomal preparations of whole zoea I and decapodid III, and in juvenile and adult river shrimp gills. Modulation of (Na+, K+)-ATPase activity is ontogenetic stage-specific, and particularly distinct between juveniles and adults. Although both gill enzymes exhibit two different sites for K+ and NH4+ binding, in the juvenile enzyme, these two sites are equivalent: binding by both ions results in slightly stimulated activity compared to that of a single ionic species. In the adult enzyme, the sites are not equivalent: when one ion occupies its specific binding site, (Na+, K+)-ATPase activity is stimulated synergistically by ≈50% on binding of the complementary ion. Immunolocalization reveals the enzyme to be distributed predominantly throughout the intralamellar septum in the gill lamellae of juveniles and adults. Western blot analyses demonstrate a single immunoreactive band, suggesting a single (Na+, K+)-ATPase α-subunit isoform that is distributed into different density membrane fractions, independently of ontogenetic stage. We propose a model for the modulation by K+ and NH4+ of gill (Na+, K+)-ATPase activity. These findings suggest that the gill enzyme may be regulated by NH4+ during ontogenetic development in M. amazonicum. PMID:24586919

  20. Effect of Hypoxia on the Calcium and Magnesium Content, Lipid Peroxidation Level, and Ca2+-ATPase Activity of Syncytiotrophoblast Plasma Membranes from Placental Explants

    PubMed Central

    Chiarello, Delia I.; Benzo, Zully; Piñero, Sandy; Botana, Desirée; Abad, Cilia

    2014-01-01

    In the current study the possible relationship between the Ca2+/Mg2+ ratio of human syncytiotrophoblast plasma membranes and their lipid peroxidation and Ca2+-ATPase activity was determined. Syncytiotrophoblast plasma membranes of placental explants cultured under hypoxia increased their lipid peroxidation and Ca2+ content, diminished their Ca2+-ATPase activity, and kept their Mg2+ content unchanged. Membranes preincubated with different concentrations of Ca2+ increased their Ca2+ content without changes in their Mg2+ content. There is a direct relationship between Ca2+ content and lipid peroxidation of the membranes, as well as an inverse relationship between their Ca2+ content and Ca2+-ATPase activity. On the contrary, preincubation of membranes with different concentrations of Mg2+ showed a higher Mg2+ content without changing their lipid peroxidation and Ca2+-ATPase activity. Explants cultured under hypoxia in the presence of 4 mM MgSO4 showed similar values of lipid peroxidation and Ca2+-ATPase activity of their membranes compared to those of explants cultured under normoxia. Increased Ca2+ content of the membranes by interacting with negatively charged phospholipids could result in destabilizing effects of the membrane structure, exposing hydrocarbon chains of fatty acids to the action of free radicals. Mg2+ might exert a stabilizing effect of the membranes, avoiding their exposure to free radicals. PMID:25180187

  1. Structural Insights into the Unusually Strong ATPase Activity of the AAA Domain of the Caenorhabditis elegans Fidgetin-like 1 (FIGL-1) Protein*

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Wentao; Lin, Zhijie; Li, Weirong; Lu, Jing; Shen, Yuequan; Wang, Chunguang

    2013-01-01

    The FIGL-1 (fidgetin like-1) protein is a homolog of fidgetin, a protein whose mutation leads to multiple developmental defects. The FIGL-1 protein contains an AAA (ATPase associated with various activities) domain and belongs to the AAA superfamily. However, the biological functions and developmental implications of this protein remain unknown. Here, we show that the AAA domain of the Caenorhabditis elegans FIGL-1 protein (CeFIGL-1-AAA), in clear contrast to homologous AAA domains, has an unusually high ATPase activity and forms a hexamer in solution. By determining the crystal structure of CeFIGL-1-AAA, we found that the loop linking helices α9 and α10 folds into the short helix α9a, which has an acidic surface and interacts with a positively charged surface of the neighboring subunit. Disruption of this charge interaction by mutagenesis diminishes both the ATPase activity and oligomerization capacity of the protein. Interestingly, the acidic residues in helix α9a of CeFIGL-1-AAA are not conserved in other homologous AAA domains that have relatively low ATPase activities. These results demonstrate that the sequence of CeFIGL-1-AAA has adapted to establish an intersubunit charge interaction, which contributes to its strong oligomerization and ATPase activity. These unique properties of CeFIGL-1-AAA distinguish it from other homologous proteins, suggesting that CeFIGL-1 may have a distinct biological function. PMID:23979136

  2. Cadmium induced inhibition of Na sup + /K sup + ATPase activity in tissues of crab Scylla serrata (Forskal)

    SciTech Connect

    Dhavale, D.M. ); Masurekar, V.B. ); Giridhar, B.A. )

    1988-06-01

    Heavy metals discharged from industries these days are a major source of pollution which has become threat to all forms of life. A measure of metabolism may be a most sensitive parameter since it integrates many factors such as enzyme activity, biochemical contents and physiological response. The ability to accurately characterize enzymes with respect to their distribution and kinetics makes them attractive indices of stress. The concept of Na{sup +}/K{sup +}-ATPase being intimately involved in active transport of ions across biological membranes has gained wide acceptance in recent years. Interference with osmoregulation may restrict the animal's ability to adapt to salinity changes. Several studies have shown that crustacenas are highly sensitive to metal pollutants, particularly when acclimated to low salinities. The present study was initiated to compare the characteristics of Na{sup +}/K{sup +}-ATPase activity in hepatopancreas and gills of crabs Scylla serrata (Forskal) exposed to acute and sublethal concentrations of cadmium chloride for defined periods with those from undosed animals.

  3. Novel ATPase activity of the polyprotein intermediate, Viral Protein genome-linked-Nuclear Inclusion-a protease, of Pepper vein banding potyvirus.

    PubMed

    Mathur, Chhavi; Savithri, Handanahal S

    2012-10-12

    Potyviruses temporally regulate their protein function by polyprotein processing. Previous studies have shown that VPg (Viral Protein genome-linked) of Pepper vein banding virus interacts with the NIa-Pro (Nuclear Inclusion-a protease) domain, and modulates the kinetics of the protease. In the present study, we report for the first time that VPg harbors the Walker motifs A and B, and the presence of NIa-Pro, especially in cis (cleavage site (E191A) VPg-Pro mutant), is essential for manifestation of the ATPase activity. Mutation of Lys47 (Walker motif A) and Asp88:Glu89 (Walker motif B) to alanine in E191A VPg-Pro lead to reduced ATPase activity, confirming that this activity was inherent to VPg. We propose that potyviral VPg, established as an intrinsically disordered domain, undergoes plausible structural alterations upon interaction with globular NIa-Pro which induces the ATPase activity.

  4. Carbofuran induced oxidative stress mediated alterations in Na⁺-K⁺-ATPase activity in rat brain: amelioration by vitamin E.

    PubMed

    Jaiswal, Sunil Kumar; Siddiqi, Nikhat Jamal; Sharma, Bechan

    2014-07-01

    Pesticides cause oxidative stress and adversely influence Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase activity in animals. Since impact of carbofuran has not been properly studied in the mammalian brain, the ability of carbofuran to induce oxidative stress and modulation in Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase activity and its amelioration by vitamin E was performed. The rats divided into six groups received two different doses of carbofuran (15% and 30% LD50) for 15 days. The results suggested that the carbofuran treatment caused a significant elevation in levels of malonaldehyde and reduced glutathione and sharp inhibition in the activities of super oxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione-S-transferase; the effect being dose dependent. Carbofuran at different doses also caused sharp reduction in the activity of Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase. The pretreatment of vitamin E, however, showed a significant recovery in these indices. The pretreatment of rats with vitamin E offered protection from carbofuran-induced oxidative stress.

  5. Identification of a region in the N-terminus of Escherichia coli Lon that affects ATPase, substrate translocation and proteolytic activity.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Iteen; Mikita, Natalie; Fishovitz, Jennifer; Frase, Hilary; Wintrode, Patrick; Lee, Irene

    2012-05-01

    Lon, also known as protease La, is an AAA+ protease machine that contains the ATPase and proteolytic domain within each enzyme subunit. Three truncated Escherichia coli Lon (ELon) mutants were generated based on a previous limited tryptic digestion result and hydrogen-deuterium exchange mass spectrometry analyses performed in this study. Using methods developed for characterizing wild-type (WT) Lon, we compared the ATPase, ATP-dependent protein degradation and ATP-dependent peptidase activities. With the exception of not degrading a putative structured substrate known as CcrM (cell-cycle-regulated DNA methyltransferase), the mutant lacking the first 239 residues behaved like WT ELon. Comparing the activity data of WT and ELon mutants reveals that the first 239 residues are not needed for minimal enzyme catalysis. The mutants lacking the first 252 residues or residues 232-252 displayed compromised ATPase, protein degradation and ATP-dependent peptide translocation abilities but retained WT-like steady-state peptidase activity. The binding affinities of WT and Lon mutants were evaluated by determining the concentration of λ N (K(λN)) needed to achieve 50% maximal ATPase stimulation. Comparing the K(λN) values reveals that the region encompassing 232-252 of ELon could contribute to λ N binding, but the effect is modest. Taken together, results generated from this study reveal that the region constituting residues 240-252 of ELon is important for ATPase activity, substrate translocation and protein degradation.

  6. Rotary ATPases

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, Alastair G.; Sobti, Meghna; Harvey, Richard P.; Stock, Daniela

    2013-01-01

    Rotary ATPases are molecular rotary motors involved in biological energy conversion. They either synthesize or hydrolyze the universal biological energy carrier adenosine triphosphate. Recent work has elucidated the general architecture and subunit compositions of all three sub-types of rotary ATPases. Composite models of the intact F-, V- and A-type ATPases have been constructed by fitting high-resolution X-ray structures of individual subunits or sub-complexes into low-resolution electron densities of the intact enzymes derived from electron cryo-microscopy. Electron cryo-tomography has provided new insights into the supra-molecular arrangement of eukaryotic ATP synthases within mitochondria and mass-spectrometry has started to identify specifically bound lipids presumed to be essential for function. Taken together these molecular snapshots show that nano-scale rotary engines have much in common with basic design principles of man made machines from the function of individual “machine elements” to the requirement of the right “fuel” and “oil” for different types of motors. PMID:23369889

  7. Detailed characterization of the cooperative mechanism of Ca(2+) binding and catalytic activation in the Ca(2+) transport (SERCA) ATPase.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Z; Lewis, D; Strock, C; Inesi, G; Nakasako, M; Nomura, H; Toyoshima, C

    2000-08-01

    Expression of heterologous SERCA1a ATPase in Cos-1 cells was optimized to yield levels that account for 10-15% of the microsomal protein, as revealed by protein staining on electrophoretic gels. This high level of expression significantly improved our characterization of mutants, including direct measurements of Ca(2+) binding by the ATPase in the absence of ATP, and measurements of various enzyme functions in the presence of ATP or P(i). Mutational analysis distinguished two groups of amino acids within the transmembrane domain: The first group includes Glu771 (M5), Thr799 (M6), Asp800 (M6), and Glu908 (M8), whose individual mutations totally inhibit binding of the two Ca(2+) required for activation of one ATPase molecule. The second group includes Glu309 (M4) and Asn796 (M6), whose individual or combined mutations inhibit binding of only one and the same Ca(2+). The effects of mutations of these amino acids were interpreted in the light of recent information on the ATPase high-resolution structure, explaining the mechanism of Ca(2+) binding and catalytic activation in terms of two cooperative sites. The Glu771, Thr799, and Asp800 side chains contribute prominently to site 1, together with less prominent contributions by Asn768 and Glu908. The Glu309, Asn796, and Asp800 side chains, as well as the Ala305 (and possibly Val304 and Ile307) carbonyl oxygen, contribute to site 2. Sequential binding begins with Ca(2+) occupancy of site 1, followed by transition to a conformation (E') sensitive to Ca(2+) inhibition of enzyme phosphorylation by P(i), but still unable to utilize ATP. The E' conformation accepts the second Ca(2+) on site 2, producing then a conformation (E' ') which is able to utilize ATP. Mutations of residues (Asp813 and Asp818) in the M6/M7 loop reduce Ca(2+) affinity and catalytic turnover, suggesting a strong influence of this loop on the correct positioning of the M6 helix. Mutation of Asp351 (at the catalytic site within the cytosolic domain

  8. The effect of juvenile hormone III, methyl farnesoate, and methoprene on Na/K-ATPase activity in larvae of the brine shrimp, Artemia.

    PubMed

    Ahl, J S; Brown, J J

    1991-01-01

    1. Ion transport enzyme (Na/K-ATPase) activity in stage III larvae of the brine shrimp, Artemia, remains elevated throughout the stadium when populations are exposed to methoprene in artificial seawater. 2. Infusion of methoprene, juvenile hormone, or methyl farnesoate causes increased Na/K-ATPase activity in homogenates of mid-stadium larvae that would otherwise exhibit low activity. 3. The sensitivity of the enzyme system to extremely low concentrations of the juvenoids suggests that this may be a common mode of action of these compounds. Additionally it suggests that the enzyme may be under the influence of a similar compound present in the larvae. PMID:1682091

  9. Requirement of translocated lysosomal V1 H+-ATPase for activation of membrane acid sphingomyelinase and raft clustering in coronary endothelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Ming; Xia, Min; Li, Xiao-Xue; Han, Wei-Qing; Boini, Krishna M.; Zhang, Fan; Zhang, Yang; Ritter, Joseph K; Li, Pin-Lan

    2012-01-01

    Acid sphingomyelinase (ASM) mediates the formation of membrane raft (MR) redox signalosomes in a process that depends on a local acid microenvironment in coronary arterial endothelial cells (CAECs). However, it is not known how this local acid microenvironment is formed and maintained. The present study hypothesized that lysosomal V1 H+-ATPase provides a hospitable acid microenvironment for activation of ASM when lysosomes traffic and fuse into the cell membrane. Confocal microscopy showed that local pH change significantly affected MRs, with more fluorescent patches under low pH. Correspondingly, the ASM product, ceramide, increased locally in the cell membrane. Electron spin resonance assay showed that local pH increase significantly inhibited NADPH oxidase–mediated production of O2−. in CAECs. Direct confocal microscopy demonstrated that Fas ligand resulted in localized areas of decreased pH around CAEC membranes. The inhibitors of both lysosomal fusion and H+-ATPase apparently attenuated FasL-caused pH decrease. V1 H+-ATPase accumulation and activity on cell membranes were substantially suppressed by the inhibitors of lysosomal fusion or H+-ATPase. These results provide the first direct evidence that translocated lysosomal V1 H+-ATPase critically contributes to the formation of local acid microenvironment to facilitate activation of ASM and consequent MR aggregation, forming MR redox signalosomes and mediating redox signaling in CAECs. PMID:22357614

  10. [Kinetics of inhibitory effect of calix[4]arene C-90 on activity of transporting plasma membrane Ca2+, Mg2+-ATPase of smooth muscle cells].

    PubMed

    Veklich, T O; Shkrabak, O A; Mazur, Iu Iu; Rodik, R V; Kal'chenko, V I; Kosterin, S O

    2014-01-01

    In experiments on the suspension of myometrium cell plasma membrane, processed by 0.1% digitonin, the inhibitory action of calix[4]arene C-90 (5,11,17,23-tetra(threeftor)methyl(phenilsulphonilimino)-methylamino-25,26,27,28-tetrapropoxy-calix[4]arene) on the activity of Ca2+,Mg2+-ATPase was investigated. The authors also examined the influence of calix[4]arene in different concentration on affinity of enzyme (Ca2,Mg2+-ATPase) for the ATP and ions of Mg and Ca, and its influence on cooperative effect and maximum velocity of ATP hydrolysis. It is shown that calix[4]arene does not influence the affinity of Ca2+,Mg2+-ATPase for the ATP, which means that these two compounds have different binding centers. Also calix[4]arene has no influence on affinity and cooperative effect of Ca ions, if it is used in concentration lower than 50 μM. Calix[4]arene slightly increases coefficient of Ca2+,Mg2+-ATPase activation by magnesium chloride. In all three cases, where ATP, Mg and Ca ions are used to test the impact of calix[4]arene, maximum velocity of ATP hydrolysis significantly decreases. All these results clarify that calix[4]arene implements its inhibitory action through mechanism of uncompetitive inhibition of Ca2+,Mg2+-ATPase activity.

  11. Extracellular Na+ levels regulate formation and activity of the NaX/alpha1-Na+/K+-ATPase complex in neuronal cells

    PubMed Central

    Berret, Emmanuelle; Smith, Pascal Y.; Henry, Mélaine; Soulet, Denis; Hébert, Sébastien S.; Toth, Katalin; Mouginot, Didier; Drolet, Guy

    2014-01-01

    MnPO neurons play a critical role in hydromineral homeostasis regulation by acting as sensors of extracellular sodium concentration ([Na+]out). The mechanism underlying Na+-sensing involves Na+-flow through the NaX channel, directly regulated by the Na+/K+-ATPase α1-isoform which controls Na+-influx by modulating channel permeability. Together, these two partners form a complex involved in the regulation of intracellular sodium ([Na+]in). Here we aim to determine whether environmental changes in Na+ could actively modulate the NaX/Na+/K+-ATPase complex activity. We investigated the complex activity using patch-clamp recordings from rat MnPO neurons and Neuro2a cells. When the rats were fed with a high-salt-diet, or the [Na+] in the culture medium was increased, the activity of the complex was up-regulated. In contrast, drop in environmental [Na+] decreased the activity of the complex. Interestingly under hypernatremic condition, the colocalization rate and protein level of both partners were up-regulated. Under hyponatremic condition, only NaX protein expression was increased and the level of NaX/Na+/K+-ATPase remained unaltered. This unbalance between NaX and Na+/K+-ATPase pump proportion would induce a bigger portion of Na+/K+-ATPase-control-free NaX channel. Thus, we suggest that hypernatremic environment increases NaX/Na+/K+-ATPase α1-isoform activity by increasing the number of both partners and their colocalization rate, whereas hyponatremic environment down-regulates complex activity via a decrease in the relative number of NaX channels controlled by the pump. PMID:25538563

  12. The Influence of Fatty Acid Methyl Esters (FAMEs) in the Biochemistry and the Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase Activity of Culex quinquefasciatus Larvae.

    PubMed

    Silva, Lilian N D; Ribeiro-Neto, José A; Valadares, Jéssica M M; Costa, Mariana M; Lima, Luciana A R S; Grillo, Luciano A M; Cortes, Vanessa F; Santos, Herica L; Alves, Stênio N; Barbosa, Leandro A

    2016-08-01

    Culex quinquefasciatus is the main vector of lymphatic filariasis and combating this insect is of great importance to public health. There are reports of insects that are resistant to the products currently used to control this vector, and therefore, the search for new products has increased. In the present study, we have evaluated the effects of fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) that showed larvicidal activity against C. quinquefasciatus, on glucose, total protein, and triacylglycerol contents and Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase activity in mosquito larvae. The exposure of the fourth instar larvae to the compounds caused a decrease in the total protein content and an increase in the activity of the Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase. Furthermore, the direct effect of FAMEs on cell membrane was assessed on purified pig kidney Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase membranes, erythrocyte ghost membranes, and larvae membrane preparation. No modifications on total phospholipids and cholesterol content were found after FAMEs 20 min treatment on larvae membrane preparation, but only 360 µg/mL FAME 2 was able to decrease total phospholipid of erythrocyte ghost membrane. Moreover, only 60 and 360 µg/mL FAME 3 caused an activation of purified Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase, that was an opposite effect of FAMEs treatment in larvae membrane preparation, and caused an inhibition of the pump activity. These data together suggest that maybe FAMEs can modulate the Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase on intact larvae for such mechanisms and not for a direct effect, one time that the direct effect of FAMEs in membrane preparation decreased the activity of Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase. The biochemical changes caused by the compounds were significant and may negatively influence the development and survival of C. quinquefasciatus larvae.

  13. Hydrolytic and pumping activity of H+-ATPase from leaves of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) as affected by salt stress.

    PubMed

    Wakeel, Abdul; Hanstein, Stefan; Pitann, Britta; Schubert, Sven

    2010-06-15

    Cell wall extensibility plays an important role in plant growth. According to the acid-growth theory, lower apoplastic pH allows extension growth by affecting cell wall extensibility. A lowered apoplastic pH is presumed to activate wall-loosening enzymes that control plant growth. Plasma membrane (PM) H(+)-ATPases play a major role in the apoplastic acidification by H(+) transport from cytosol to the apoplast. A salt-induced decrease in H(+)-pumping activity of plasma membrane H(+)-ATPases in salt-sensitive maize plants has previously been found. This led us to formulate the hypothesis that salt-resistant plant species such as sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) may have a mechanism to eliminate the effect of higher salt concentrations on plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase activity. In the present study, sugar beet plants were grown in 1mM NaCl (control) or 150 mM NaCl in hydroponics. H(+)-ATPase hydrolytic and pumping activities were measured in plasma membrane vesicles isolated from sugar beet shoots. We found that plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase hydrolytic and pumping activities were not affected by application of 150 mM NaCl. Moreover, apoplastic pH was also not affected under salt stress. However, a decrease in plant growth was observed. We assume that growth reduction was not due to a decrease in PM-H(+)-ATPase activity, but that other factors may be responsible for growth inhibition of sugar beet plants under salt stress.

  14. Δ²,³-ivermectin ethyl secoester, a conjugated ivermectin derivative with leishmanicidal activity but without inhibitory effect on mammalian P-type ATPases.

    PubMed

    Noël, François; Pimenta, Paulo Henrique Cotrim; Dos Santos, Anderson Rouge; Tomaz, Erick Carlos Loureiro; Quintas, Luis Eduardo Menezes; Kaiser, Carlos Roland; Silva, Claudia Lucia Martins; Férézou, Jean-Pierre

    2011-01-01

    Looking at a new putative target for the large spectrum antiparasitic drug ivermectin, we recently showed that avermectin-derived drugs are active against promastigote and amastigote forms of Leishmania amazonensis at low micromolar concentrations. However, we then reported that at this concentration range ivermectin is also able to inhibit three important mammalian P-type ATPases so that unacceptable adverse effects could occur if this drug were used at such high doses therapeutically. The present work aimed to test the activity of ten ivermectin analogs on these rat ATPases in search of a compound with similar leishmanicidal activity but with no effect on the mammalian (host) ATPases at effective concentrations. We synthesized three new ivermectin analogs for testing on rat SERCA (1a and 1b), Na+, K+-ATPase (α₁ and α₂/α₃ isoforms) and H+/K+-ATPase activity, along with seven analogs already characterized for their leishmanicidal activity. Our main finding is that one of the prepared derivatives, Δ²,³-ivermectin ethyl secoester 8, is equipotent to ivermectin 1 for the in vitro leishmanicidal effects but is nearly without effect on the rat ATPases, indicating that it could have a better therapeutic index in vivo and could serve as a candidate for hit-to-lead progression. This conclusion is further supported by the fact that compound 8 produced only 6% (vs 77% for ivermectin) inhibition of the human kidney enzyme at 5 μM, a concentration corresponding to the IC₅₀ for the activity against L. amazonensis amastigotes. PMID:21088826

  15. Cdc6 ATPase activity disengages Cdc6 from the pre-replicative complex to promote DNA replication

    PubMed Central

    Chang, FuJung; Riera, Alberto; Evrin, Cecile; Sun, Jingchuan; Li, Huilin; Speck, Christian; Weinreich, Michael

    2015-01-01

    To initiate DNA replication, cells first load an MCM helicase double hexamer at origins in a reaction requiring ORC, Cdc6, and Cdt1, also called pre-replicative complex (pre-RC) assembly. The essential mechanistic role of Cdc6 ATP hydrolysis in this reaction is still incompletely understood. Here, we show that although Cdc6 ATP hydrolysis is essential to initiate DNA replication, it is not essential for MCM loading. Using purified proteins, an ATPase-defective Cdc6 mutant ‘Cdc6-E224Q’ promoted MCM loading on DNA. Cdc6-E224Q also promoted MCM binding at origins in vivo but cells remained blocked in G1-phase. If after loading MCM, Cdc6-E224Q was degraded, cells entered an apparently normal S-phase and replicated DNA, a phenotype seen with two additional Cdc6 ATPase-defective mutants. Cdc6 ATP hydrolysis is therefore required for Cdc6 disengagement from the pre-RC after helicase loading to advance subsequent steps in helicase activation in vivo. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.05795.001 PMID:26305410

  16. Cdc6 ATPase activity disengages Cdc6 from the pre-replicative complex to promote DNA replication.

    PubMed

    Chang, FuJung; Riera, Alberto; Evrin, Cecile; Sun, Jingchuan; Li, Huilin; Speck, Christian; Weinreich, Michael

    2015-08-25

    To initiate DNA replication, cells first load an MCM helicase double hexamer at origins in a reaction requiring ORC, Cdc6, and Cdt1, also called pre-replicative complex (pre-RC) assembly. The essential mechanistic role of Cdc6 ATP hydrolysis in this reaction is still incompletely understood. Here, we show that although Cdc6 ATP hydrolysis is essential to initiate DNA replication, it is not essential for MCM loading. Using purified proteins, an ATPase-defective Cdc6 mutant 'Cdc6-E224Q' promoted MCM loading on DNA. Cdc6-E224Q also promoted MCM binding at origins in vivo but cells remained blocked in G1-phase. If after loading MCM, Cdc6-E224Q was degraded, cells entered an apparently normal S-phase and replicated DNA, a phenotype seen with two additional Cdc6 ATPase-defective mutants. Cdc6 ATP hydrolysis is therefore required for Cdc6 disengagement from the pre-RC after helicase loading to advance subsequent steps in helicase activation in vivo.

  17. Regulation by salt of vacuolar H+-ATPase and H+-pyrophosphatase activities and Na+/H+ exchange

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Paulo

    2009-01-01

    Over the last decades several efforts have been carried out to determine the mechanisms of salt homeostasis in plants and, more recently, to identify genes implicated in salt tolerance, with some plants being successfully genetically engineered to improve resistance to salt. It is well established that the efficient exclusion of Na+ excess from the cytoplasm and vacuolar Na+ accumulation are the most important steps towards the maintenance of ion homeostasis inside the cell. Therefore, the vacuole of plant cells plays a pivotal role in the storage of salt. After the identification of the vacuolar Na+/H+ antiporter Nhx1 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the first plant Na+/H+ antiporter, AtNHX1, was isolated from Arabidopsis and its overexpression resulted in plants exhibiting increased salt tolerance. Also, the identification of the plasma membrane Na+/H+ exchanger SOS1 and how it is regulated by a protein kinase SOS2 and a calcium binding protein SOS3 were great achievements in the understanding of plant salt resistance. Both tonoplast and plasma membrane antiporters exclude Na+ from the cytosol driven by the proton-motive force generated by the plasma membrane H+-ATPase and by the vacuolar membrane H+-ATPase and H+-pyrophosphatase and it has been shown that the activity of these proteins responds to salinity. In this review we focus on the transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulation by salt of tonoplast proton pumps and Na+/H+ exchangers and on the signalling pathways involved in salt sensing. PMID:19820346

  18. Structures, chemotaxonomic significance, cytotoxic and Na(+),K(+)-ATPase inhibitory activities of new cardenolides from Asclepias curassavica.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Rong-Rong; Tian, Hai-Yan; Tan, Ya-Fang; Chung, Tse-Yu; Sun, Xiao-Hui; Xia, Xue; Ye, Wen-Cai; Middleton, David A; Fedosova, Natalya; Esmann, Mikael; Tzen, Jason T C; Jiang, Ren-Wang

    2014-11-28

    Five new cardenolide lactates (1–5) and one new dioxane double linked cardenolide glycoside (17) along with 15 known compounds (6–16 and 18–21) were isolated from the ornamental milkweed Asclepias curassavica. Their structures were elucidated by extensive spectroscopic methods (IR, UV, MS, 1D- and 2D-NMR). The molecular structures and absolute configurations of 1–3 and 17 were further confirmed by single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. Simultaneous isolation of dioxane double linked cardenolide glycosides (17–21) and cardenolide lactates (1–5) provided unique chemotaxonomic markers for this genus. Compounds 1–21 were evaluated for the inhibitory activities against DU145 prostate cancer cells. The dioxane double linked cardenolide glycosides showed the most potent cytotoxic effect followed by normal cardenolides and cardenolide lactates, while the C21 steroids were non-cytotoxic. Enzymatic assay established a correlation between the cytotoxic effects in DU145 cancer cells and the Ki for the inhibition of Na(+),K(+)-ATPase. Molecular docking analysis revealed relatively strong H-bond interactions between the bottom of the binding cavity and compounds 18 or 20, and explained why the dioxane double linked cardenolide glycosides possessed higher inhibitory potency on Na(+),K(+)-ATPase than the cardenolide lactate. PMID:25270760

  19. Adaptive responses of Bacillus cereus ATCC14579 cells upon exposure to acid conditions involve ATPase activity to maintain their internal pH

    PubMed Central

    Senouci-Rezkallah, Khadidja; Jobin, Michel P; Schmitt, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the involvement of ATPase activity in the acid tolerance response (ATR) of Bacillus cereus ATCC14579 strain. In the current work, B. cereus cells were grown in anaerobic chemostat culture at external pH (pHe) 7.0 or 5.5 and at a growth rate of 0.2 h−1. Population reduction and internal pH (pHi) after acid shock at pH 4.0 was examined either with or without ATPase inhibitor N,N’-dicyclohexylcarbodiimide (DCCD) and ionophores valinomycin and nigericin. Population reduction after acid shock at pH 4.0 was strongly limited in cells grown at pH 5.5 (acid-adapted cells) compared with cells grown at pH 7.0 (unadapted cells), indicating that B. cereus cells grown at low pHe were able to induce a significant ATR and Exercise-induced increase in ATPase activity. However, DCCD and ionophores had a negative effect on the ability of B. cereus cells to survive and maintain their pHi during acid shock. When acid shock was achieved after DCCD treatment, pHi was markedly dropped in unadapted and acid-adapted cells. The ATPase activity was also significantly inhibited by DCCD and ionophores in acid-adapted cells. Furthermore, transcriptional analysis revealed that atpB (ATP beta chain) transcripts was increased in acid-adapted cells compared to unadapted cells before and after acid shock. Our data demonstrate that B. cereus is able to induce an ATR during growth at low pH. These adaptations depend on the ATPase activity induction and pHi homeostasis. Our data demonstrate that the ATPase enzyme can be implicated in the cytoplasmic pH regulation and in acid tolerance of B. cereus acid-adapted cells. PMID:25740257

  20. pH-Dependent Conformational Changes in the HCV NS3 Protein Modulate Its ATPase and Helicase Activities

    PubMed Central

    Ventura, Gustavo Tavares; da Costa, Emmerson Corrêa Brasil; Capaccia, Anne Miranda; Mohana-Borges, Ronaldo

    2014-01-01

    The hepatitis C virus (HCV) infects 170 to 200 million people worldwide and is, therefore, a major health problem. The lack of efficient treatments that specifically target the viral proteins or RNA and its high chronicity rate make hepatitis C the cause of many deaths and hepatic transplants annually. The NS3 protein is considered an important target for the development of anti-HCV drugs because it is composed of two domains (a serine protease in the N-terminal portion and an RNA helicase/NTPase in the C-terminal portion), which are essential for viral replication and proliferation. We expressed and purified both the NS3 helicase domain (NS3hel) and the full-length NS3 protein (NS3FL) and characterized pH-dependent structural changes associated with the increase in their ATPase and helicase activities at acidic pH. Using intrinsic fluorescence experiments, we have observed that NS3hel was less stable at pH 6.4 than at pH 7.2. Moreover, binding curves using an extrinsic fluorescent probe (bis-ANS) and ATPase assays performed under different pH conditions demonstrated that the hydrophobic clefts of NS3 are significantly more exposed to the aqueous medium at acidic pH. Using fluorescence spectroscopy and anisotropy assays, we have also observed more protein interaction with DNA upon pH acidification, which suggests that the hydrophobic clefts exposure on NS3 might be related to a loss of stability that could lead it to adopt a more open conformation. This conformational change at acidic pH would stimulate both its ATPase and helicase activities, as well as its ability to bind DNA. Taken together, our results indicate that the NS3 protein adopts a more open conformation due to acidification from pH 7.2 to 6.4, resulting in a more active form at a pH that is found near Golgi-derived membranes. This increased activity could better allow NS3 to carry out its functions during HCV replication. PMID:25551442

  1. F{sub o}F{sub 1}-ATPase activity regulated by external links on {beta} subunits

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, Jie; Zhang, Xiao-ai; Shu, Yao-Gen; Yue, Jia-Chang

    2010-01-01

    F{sub o}F{sub 1}-ATPase activity is regulated by external links on {beta} subunits with different molecular weight. It is inhibited when anti-{beta} subunit antibody, streptavidin and H9 antibody link on the {beta} subunits successively, but is activated when virus was binded. Western blotting indicated that the employed anti-{beta} antibody target was on the non-catalytic site of the {beta} subunit. Furthermore, an ESR study of spin-labeled ATP (SL-ATP) showed that the affinity of ATP to the holoenzyme increases with increasing external links on the {beta} subunits. This simple regulation method may have great potential in the design of rapid, free labeled, sensitive and selective biosensors.

  2. Short-Term Treatment with Cell Wall Degrading Enzymes Increases the Activity of the Inositol Phospholipid Kinases and the Vanadate-Sensitive ATPase of Carrot Cells 1

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Qiuyun; Boss, Wendy F.

    1990-01-01

    Treating carrot (Daucus carota L.) suspension culture cells with a mixture of cell wall degrading enzymes, Driselase, resulted in an increase in the percentage of [3H]phosphatidylinositol bisphosphate. Analysis of the lipid kinase activities in the isolated plasma membranes after whole cell treatment indicated that treatment with Driselase (2% weight/volume; the equivalent of 340 units per milliliter of hemicellulase and 400 units per milliliter of cellulase activity) or treatment with hemicellulase (31.7% weight/volume, 20.7 units per milliliter) resulted in an increase in the inositol phospholipid kinase activity. However, treatment with cellulase alone had no effect at 0.5% (weight/volume, 17.2 units per milliliter) or inhibited the kinase activity at 1% (weight/volume, 34.4 units per milliliter). The active stimulus in Driselase was heat sensitive. The plasma membrane vanadate-sensitive ATPase activity also increased when the cells were treated with Driselase. A time course study indicated that both the inositol phospholipid kinases and the plasma membrane vanadate-sensitive ATPase responded to as little as 5 seconds of treatment with 2% Driselase. However, at the lowest concentration of Driselase (0.04%, weight/volume) that resulted in an increase in inositol phospholipid kinase activity, the ATPase activity was not affected. Because inositol phospholipids have been shown to activate the vanadate-sensitive ATPase from plants (AR Memon, Q Chen, WF Boss [1989] Biochem Biophys Res Commun 162: 1295-1301), a stimulus-response pathway involving both the inositol phospholipid kinases and the plasma membrane vanadate-sensitive ATPase activity is discussed. Images Figure 2 Figure 6 PMID:16667922

  3. Modulation of Na-K-ATPase activity in the mouse medullary thick ascending limb of Henle. Effects of mineralocorticoids and sodium.

    PubMed Central

    Grossman, E B; Hebert, S C

    1988-01-01

    This study investigates the effect of variations in mineralocorticoid as well as cell sodium delivery and uptake on Na-K-ATPase activity in the mouse medullary thick ascending limb of Henle (mTALH). Pharmacologic doses of the mineralocorticoid deoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA) resulted in a 28% increase of Na-K-ATPase activity. Furosemide-induced inhibition of sodium uptake by the mTALH cell also resulted in Na-K-ATPase activity reduction (45%). Sodium deprivation did not cause a clear change in enzyme activity, either at 3 d or 2 wk, likely reflecting the result of the opposing influences of decreased sodium delivery and increased endogenous aldosterone. Finally, the behavior of Na-K-ATPase activity at 3 d of sodium deprivation in the mTALH contrasted with a 60% increase in activity observed in the cortical collecting tubule, a nephron segment known to be responsive to mineralocorticoid, and this heterogeneity of response may suggest an important role for the mTALH in maintaining salt homeostasis. PMID:2830316

  4. Role of the D1-D2 Linker of Human VCP/p97 in the Asymmetry and ATPase Activity of the D1-domain

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Wai Kwan; Xia, Di

    2016-01-01

    Human AAA+ protein p97 consists of an N-domain and two tandem ATPase domains D1 and D2, which are connected by the N-D1 and the D1-D2 linkers. Inclusion of the D1-D2 linker, a 22-amino acid peptide, at the end of p97 N-D1 truncate has been shown to activate ATP hydrolysis of its D1-domain, although the mechanism of activation remains unclear. Here, we identify the N-terminal half of this linker, highly conserved from human to fungi, is essential for the ATPase activation. By analyzing available crystal structures, we observed that the D1-D2 linker is capable of inducing asymmetry in subunit association into a p97 hexamer. This observation is reinforced by two new crystal structures, determined in the present work. The effect of D1-D2 linker on the ATPase activity of the D1-domain is correlated to the side-chain conformation of residue R359, a trans-acting arginine-finger residue essential for ATP hydrolysis of the D1-domain. The activation in D1-domain ATPase activity by breaking perfect six-fold symmetry implies functional importance of asymmetric association of p97 subunits, the extent of which can be determined quantitatively by the metric Asymmetric Index. PMID:26818443

  5. Epi-reevesioside F inhibits Na+/K+-ATPase, causing cytosolic acidification, Bak activation and apoptosis in glioblastoma.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Jui-Ling; Liu, Fan-Lun; Hsu, Lih-Ching; Chang, Hsun-Shuo; Leu, Wohn-Jenn; Yu, Chia-Chun; Chang, Wei-Ling; Chen, Ih-Sheng; Kung, Fan-Lu; Guh, Jih-Hwa

    2015-09-15

    Epi-reevesioside F, a new cardiac glycoside isolated from the root of Reevesia formosana, displayed potent activity against glioblastoma cells. Epi-reevesioside F was more potent than ouabain with IC50 values of 27.3±1.7 vs. 48.7±1.8 nM (P < 0.001) and 45.0±3.4 vs. 81.3±4.3 nM (P < 0.001) in glioblastoma T98 and U87 cells, respectively. However, both Epi-reevesioside F and ouabain were ineffective in A172 cells, a glioblastoma cell line with low Na+/K+-ATPase α3 subunit expression. Epi-reevesioside F induced cell cycle arrest at S and G2 phases and apoptosis. It also induced an increase of intracellular concentration of Na+ but not Ca2+, cleavage and exposure of N-terminus of Bak, loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, inhibition of Akt activity and induction of caspase cascades. Potassium supplements significantly inhibited Epi-reevesioside F-induced effects. Notably, Epi-reevesioside F caused cytosolic acidification that was highly correlated with the anti-proliferative activity. In summary, the data suggest that Epi-reevesioside F inhibits Na+/K+-ATPase, leading to overload of intracellular Na+ and cytosolic acidification, Bak activation and loss of mitochondrial membrane potential. The PI3-kinase/Akt pathway is inhibited and caspase-dependent apoptosis is ultimately triggered in Epi-reevesioside F-treated glioblastoma cells.

  6. Effects of different kinds of fluorides on enolase and ATPase activity of a fluoride-sensitive and fluoride-resistant Streptococcus mutans strain.

    PubMed

    van Loveren, C; Hoogenkamp, M A; Deng, D M; ten Cate, J M

    2008-01-01

    Enolase and ATPase are sensitive to fluoride. It is unclear whether this sensitivity differs for F-sensitive and F-resistant cells or for different types of fluoride. Permeabilized cells of the fluoride-sensitive strain Streptococcus mutans C180-2 and its fluoride-resistant mutant strain C180-2 FR were preincubated at pH 7 or 4 with NaF, the amine fluorides Olaflur and Dectaflur and amine chloride controls. After preincubations, enolase and ATPase activities of the cells were assessed. Enolase activity was more inhibited after preincubation at pH 7 with NaF than with Olaflur. Amine chloride stimulated, although not with statistical significance, the enolase activity of both strains. After preincubation at pH 4 the enolases were strongly inactivated, but the fluoride-resistant strain's enolase to a lesser extent. The results suggested that amine acts to protect enolase activity against the detrimental low pH effect. Gene sequencing showed that the enolase genes of the fluoride-resistant and fluoride-sensitive strain were identical. ATPase activity was not reduced after NaF preincubation at either pH 7 or pH 4. The amine fluorides and their chloride controls in the preincubation mixture reduced the ATPase activity significantly at both pH values. In conclusion, our results showed that preincubation with amine fluoride did not inhibit enolase activity more effectively than NaF. The amine part of the molecule may protect enolase activity against preincubations at low pH. ATPase activity was not inhibited by NaF preincubation but was significantly inhibited after preincubation with amine fluorides and amine chlorides.

  7. Novel ATPase activity of the polyprotein intermediate, Viral Protein genome-linked-Nuclear Inclusion-a protease, of Pepper vein banding potyvirus

    SciTech Connect

    Mathur, Chhavi; Savithri, Handanahal S.

    2012-10-12

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Pepper vein banding potyvirus VPg harbors Walker motifs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer VPg exhibits ATPase activity in the presence of NIa-Pro. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Plausible structural and functional interplay between VPg and NIa-Pro. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Functional relevance of prolonged presence of VPg-Pro during infection. -- Abstract: Potyviruses temporally regulate their protein function by polyprotein processing. Previous studies have shown that VPg (Viral Protein genome-linked) of Pepper vein banding virus interacts with the NIa-Pro (Nuclear Inclusion-a protease) domain, and modulates the kinetics of the protease. In the present study, we report for the first time that VPg harbors the Walker motifs A and B, and the presence of NIa-Pro, especially in cis (cleavage site (E191A) VPg-Pro mutant), is essential for manifestation of the ATPase activity. Mutation of Lys47 (Walker motif A) and Asp88:Glu89 (Walker motif B) to alanine in E191A VPg-Pro lead to reduced ATPase activity, confirming that this activity was inherent to VPg. We propose that potyviral VPg, established as an intrinsically disordered domain, undergoes plausible structural alterations upon interaction with globular NIa-Pro which induces the ATPase activity.

  8. Parallel effects of freezing and osmotic stress on the ATPase activity and protein composition of the plasma membrane of winter rye seedlings

    SciTech Connect

    Uemura, Matsuo; Steponkus, P.L. )

    1989-11-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the influence of freezing versus hypertonic stress on the ATPase activity and polypeptide profile of the plasma membrane of nonacclimated winter rye leaves (Secale cereale L. cv Puma). Exposure of leaves to hypertonic sorbitol solutions resulted in a similar extent of injury as did freezing to subzero temperatures that resulted in equivalent osmotic stresses. When isolated with a two-phase partition system of aqueous polymers, the plasma membrane fractions of control, frozen, or hypertonically stressed leaves were of similar purity as judged by the distribution of marker enzyme activities. When assayed in the presence of Triton X-100 (0.05% w/w), ATPase activity was decreased only slightly in plasma membrane fractions isolated from either frozen or hypertonically stressed leaves. In contrast, the specific ATPase activity of the plasma membrane fractions assayed in the absence of Triton X-100 increased following freezing or hypertonic stress. As a result, the Triton X-100 stimulation of the ATPase activity decreased significantly from sixfold in control leaves to threefold in lethally stressed leaves and reflects an increase in the permeability of the plasma membrane vesicles. The increased permeability was also manifested as a decrease in H{sup +}-transport following exposure to freezing or hypertonic stress. Both freezing and hypertonic exposure at subzero temperatures altered the polypeptide profile of the plasma membrane, but with the exception of one polypeptide, there was no difference between the two treatments.

  9. Leishmania amazonensis: heme stimulates (Na(+)+K(+))ATPase activity via phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C/protein kinase C-like (PI-PLC/PKC) signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Almeida-Amaral, Elmo Eduardo; Cardoso, Viviane Carrozino; Francioli, Fernanda Gomes; Meyer-Fernandes, José Roberto

    2010-04-01

    In the present paper we studied the involvement of the phosphatidylinositol-specific PLC (PI-PLC)/protein kinase C (PKC) pathway in (Na(+)+K(+))ATPase stimulation by heme in Leishmania amazonensis promastigotes. Heme stimulated the PKC-like activity with a concentration of 50nM. Interestingly, the maximal stimulation of the PKC-like activity promoted by phorbol ester was of the same magnitude promoted by heme. However, the stimulatory effect of heme is completely abolished by ET-18-OCH(3) and U73122, specific inhibitors of PI-PLC. (Na(+)+K(+))ATPase activity is increased in the presence of increased concentrations of heme, being maximally affected at 50nM. This effect was completely reversed by 10nM calphostin C, an inhibitor of PKC. Thus, the effect of 50nM heme on (Na(+)+K(+))ATPase activity is completely abolished by ET-18-OCH(3) and U73122. Taken together, these results demonstrate that the heme receptor mediates the stimulatory effect of heme on the (Na(+)+K(+))ATPase activity through a PI-PLC/PKC signaling pathway. PMID:20045694

  10. Reconstitution of the Escherichia coli macrolide transporter: the periplasmic membrane fusion protein MacA stimulates the ATPase activity of MacB.

    PubMed

    Tikhonova, Elena B; Devroy, Vishakha K; Lau, Sze Yi; Zgurskaya, Helen I

    2007-02-01

    Periplasmic membrane fusion proteins (MFPs) are essential components of the type I protein secretion systems and drug efflux pumps in Gram-negative bacteria. Previous studies suggested that MFPs connect the inner and outer membrane components of the transport systems and by this means co-ordinate the transfer of substrates across the two membranes. In this study, we purified and reconstituted the macrolide transporter MacAB from Escherichia coli. Here, MacA is a periplasmic MFP and MacB is an ABC-type transporter. Similar to other MFP-dependent transporters from E. coli, the in vivo function of MacAB requires the outer membrane channel TolC. The purified MacB displayed a basal ATPase activity in detergent micelles. This activity conformed to Michaelis-Menten kinetics but was unresponsive to substrates or accessory proteins. Upon reconstitution into proteoliposomes, the ATPase activity of MacB was strictly dependent on MacA. The catalytic efficiency of MacAB ATPase was more than 45-fold higher than the activity of MacB alone. Both the N- and C-terminal regions of MacA were essential for this activity. MacA stimulated MacB ATPase only in phospholipid bilayers and did not need the presence of macrolides. Our results suggest that MacA is a functional subunit of the MacB transporter. PMID:17214741

  11. Electric field strength of membrane lipids from vertebrate species: membrane lipid composition and Na+-K+-ATPase molecular activity.

    PubMed

    Starke-Peterkovic, Thomas; Turner, Nigel; Else, Paul L; Clarke, Ronald J

    2005-03-01

    Intramembrane electric field strength is a very likely determinant of the activity of ion-transporting membrane proteins in living cells. In the absence of any transmembrane electrical potential or surface potential, its magnitude is determined by the dipole potential of the membrane's lipid components and their associated water of hydration. Here we have used a fluorometric method to quantify the dipole potential of vesicles formed from lipids extracted from kidney and brain of 11 different animal species from four different vertebrate classes. The dipole potential was compared with the fatty acid composition and with the Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase molecular activity of each preparation. The magnitude of the dipole potential was found to be relatively constant across all animal species, i.e., 236-334 mV for vesicles prepared from the total membrane lipids and 223-256 mV for phospholipids alone. The significantly lower value for phospholipids alone is potentially related to the removal of cholesterol and/or other common soluble lipid molecules from the membrane. Surprisingly, no significant dependence of the dipole potential on fatty acid composition was found. This may, however, be due to concomitant compensatory variations in lipid head group composition. The molecular activity of the Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase was found to increase with increasing dipole potential. The fact that the dipole potential is maintained at a relatively constant value over a wide range of animal species suggests that it may play a fundamental role in ensuring correct ion pump conformation and function within the membrane.

  12. Fusicoccin-induced catalase inhibitor is produced independently of H+-ATPase activation and behaves as an organic acid.

    PubMed

    Beffagna, Nicoletta; Riva, Marzia Alessandra

    2011-06-01

    The phytotoxin fusicoccin (FC) was found to induce an increase in apoplastic H₂O₂ content in Arabidopsis thaliana cells, apparently linked to the presence of an as yet unidentified catalase inhibitor detectable even in the external medium of FC-treated cells. This study, aimed to further characterize the inhibitor's features, shows that (1) FC-induced H₂O₂ accumulation increases as a function of FC concentration and correlates to the amount of inhibitor released at apoplastic level. The pattern of H+ efflux, conversely, does not fit with that of these two parameters, suggesting that neither the production nor the release of the catalase inhibitor is linked to the main role of FC in activating the plasma membrane (PM) H+-ATPase; (2) treatment with 10 µM erythrosine B (EB) early and totally inhibits net H+ and K+ fluxes across the PM, indicative of the H+ pump activity; nevertheless, also in these conditions a huge FC-induced H₂O₂ accumulation occurs, confirming that this effect is not related to the FC-induced PM H+-ATPase activation; (3) the inhibitor's release increases with time in all conditions tested and is markedly affected by extracellular pH (a higher pH value being associated to a larger efflux), in agreement with a weak acid release; and (4) the inhibitor can be almost completely recovered in a CH₂C₂-soluble fraction extracted from the incubation medium by sequential acid-base partitioning which contains nearly all of the organic acids released. These final results strongly suggest that the metabolite responsible for the FC-induced catalase inhibition belongs to the organic acid class.

  13. XRCC3 ATPase activity is required for normal XRCC3-Rad51C complex dynamics and homologous recombination

    SciTech Connect

    Yamada, N; Hinz, J; Kopf, V L; Segalle, K; Thompson, L

    2004-02-25

    Homologous recombinational repair is a major DNA repair pathway that preserves chromosomal integrity by removing double-strand breaks, crosslinks, and other DNA damage. In eukaryotic cells, the Rad51 paralogs (XRCC2, XRCC3, Rad51B, Rad51C, and Rad51D) are involved in this process, although their exact functions are largely undetermined. All five paralogs contain ATPase motifs, and XRCC3 appears to exist in a single complex with Rad51C. To begin to examine the function of this Rad51C-XRCC3 complex, we generated mammalian expression vectors that produce human wild-type XRCC3 or mutant XRCC3 with either a non-conservative mutation (K113A) or a conservative mutation (K113R) in the GKT Walker A box of the ATPase motif. The three vectors were independently transfected into Xrcc3-deficient irs1SF CHO cells. Wild-type XRCC3 complemented irs1SF cells, albeit to varying degrees, while ATPase mutants had no complementing activity, even when the mutant protein was expressed at comparable levels to that in wild-type-complemented clones. Because of the mutants' dysfunction, we propose that ATP binding and hydrolyzing activities of XRCC3 are essential. We tested in vitro complex formation by wild-type and mutant XRCC3 with His6-tagged Rad51C upon coexpression in bacteria, nickel affinity purification, and western blotting. Wild-type and K113A mutant XRCC3 formed stable complexes with Rad51C and co-purified with Rad51C, while the K113R mutant did not and was predominantly insoluble. Addition of 5 mM ATP, but not ADP, also abolished complex formation by the wild-type proteins. These results suggest that XRCC3 is likely to regulate the dissociation and formation of Rad51C-XRCC3 complex through ATP binding and hydrolysis, with both processes being essential for the complex's ability to participate in HRR.

  14. Fine structure and Ca-ATPase activity of the stratum intermedium cells during odontogenesis in gars, Lepisosteus, Actinopterygii.

    PubMed

    Sasagawa, Ichiro; Ishiyama, Mikio

    2002-01-01

    This is the first report on the stratum intermedium in vertebrates other than mammals. The aim of this study is to elucidate the fine structure and cytochemical features of the stratum intermedium during the stages of enameloid formation in Lepisosteus. Inner dental epithelium, stratum intermedium, stellate reticulum, and outer dental epithelium are consistently present in the tooth germs of Lepisosteus. The stratum intermedium cells are oval in shape, contain elliptical nuclei, and extend many small processes. It is implied that the structure of the enamel organ is different among actinopterygians, and that constitution of the enamel organ in Lepisosteus resembles that in higher vertebrates. Marked Ca-ATPase activity is observed at the cell membrane of the stratum intermedium cells, suggesting that the cells are involved in calcium transport during the stages of enameloid formation.

  15. AMP-activated protein kinase regulates CO2-induced alveolar epithelial dysfunction in rats and human cells by promoting Na,K-ATPase endocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Vadász, István; Dada, Laura A.; Briva, Arturo; Trejo, Humberto E.; Welch, Lynn C.; Chen, Jiwang; Tóth, Péter T.; Lecuona, Emilia; Witters, Lee A.; Schumacker, Paul T.; Chandel, Navdeep S.; Seeger, Werner; Sznajder, Jacob I.

    2008-01-01

    Hypercapnia (elevated CO2 levels) occurs as a consequence of poor alveolar ventilation and impairs alveolar fluid reabsorption (AFR) by promoting Na,K-ATPase endocytosis. We studied the mechanisms regulating CO2-induced Na,K-ATPase endocytosis in alveolar epithelial cells (AECs) and alveolar epithelial dysfunction in rats. Elevated CO2 levels caused a rapid activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) in AECs, a key regulator of metabolic homeostasis. Activation of AMPK was mediated by a CO2-triggered increase in intracellular Ca2+ concentration and Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent kinase kinase-β (CaMKK-β). Chelating intracellular Ca2+ or abrogating CaMKK-β function by gene silencing or chemical inhibition prevented the CO2-induced AMPK activation in AECs. Activation of AMPK or overexpression of constitutively active AMPK was sufficient to activate PKC-ζ and promote Na,K-ATPase endocytosis. Inhibition or downregulation of AMPK via adenoviral delivery of dominant-negative AMPK-α1 prevented CO2-induced Na,K-ATPase endocytosis. The hypercapnia effects were independent of intracellular ROS. Exposure of rats to hypercapnia for up to 7 days caused a sustained decrease in AFR. Pretreatment with a β-adrenergic agonist, isoproterenol, or a cAMP analog ameliorated the hypercapnia-induced impairment of AFR. Accordingly, we provide evidence that elevated CO2 levels are sensed by AECs and that AMPK mediates CO2-induced Na,K-ATPase endocytosis and alveolar epithelial dysfunction, which can be prevented with β-adrenergic agonists and cAMP. PMID:18188452

  16. Paradoxical activation of the sodium chloride cotransporter (NCC) without hypertension in kidney deficient in a regulatory subunit of Na,K-ATPase, FXYD2.

    PubMed

    Arystarkhova, Elena; Ralph, Donna L; Liu, Yi Bessie; Bouley, Richard; McDonough, Alicia A; Sweadner, Kathleen J

    2014-12-01

    Na,K-ATPase generates the driving force for sodium reabsorption in the kidney. Na,K-ATPase functional properties are regulated by small proteins belonging to the FXYD family. In kidney FXYD2 is the most abundant: it is an inhibitory subunit expressed in almost every nephron segment. Its absence should increase sodium pump activity and promote Na(+) retention, however, no obvious renal phenotype was detected in mice with global deletion of FXYD2 (Arystarkhova et al. 2013). Here, increased total cortical Na,K-ATPase activity was documented in the Fxyd2(-/-) mouse, without increased α1β1 subunit expression. We tested the hypothesis that adaptations occur in distal convoluted tubule (DCT), a major site of sodium adjustments. Na,K-ATPase immunoreactivity in DCT was unchanged, and there was no DCT hypoplasia. There was a marked activation of thiazide-sensitive sodium chloride cotransporter (NCC; Slc12a3) in DCT, predicted to increase Na(+) reabsorption in this segment. Specifically, NCC total increased 30% and NCC phosphorylated at T53 and S71, associated with activation, increased 4-6 fold. The phosphorylation of the closely related thick ascending limb (TAL) apical NKCC2 (Slc12a1) increased at least twofold. Abundance of the total and cleaved (activated) forms of ENaC α-subunit was not different between genotypes. Nonetheless, no elevation of blood pressure was evident despite the fact that NCC and NKCC2 are in states permissive for Na(+) retention. Activation of NCC and NKCC2 may reflect an intracellular linkage to elevated Na,K-ATPase activity or a compensatory response to Na(+) loss proximal to the TAL and DCT.

  17. Paradoxical activation of the sodium chloride cotransporter (NCC) without hypertension in kidney deficient in a regulatory subunit of Na,K-ATPase, FXYD2.

    PubMed

    Arystarkhova, Elena; Ralph, Donna L; Liu, Yi Bessie; Bouley, Richard; McDonough, Alicia A; Sweadner, Kathleen J

    2014-12-01

    Na,K-ATPase generates the driving force for sodium reabsorption in the kidney. Na,K-ATPase functional properties are regulated by small proteins belonging to the FXYD family. In kidney FXYD2 is the most abundant: it is an inhibitory subunit expressed in almost every nephron segment. Its absence should increase sodium pump activity and promote Na(+) retention, however, no obvious renal phenotype was detected in mice with global deletion of FXYD2 (Arystarkhova et al. 2013). Here, increased total cortical Na,K-ATPase activity was documented in the Fxyd2(-/-) mouse, without increased α1β1 subunit expression. We tested the hypothesis that adaptations occur in distal convoluted tubule (DCT), a major site of sodium adjustments. Na,K-ATPase immunoreactivity in DCT was unchanged, and there was no DCT hypoplasia. There was a marked activation of thiazide-sensitive sodium chloride cotransporter (NCC; Slc12a3) in DCT, predicted to increase Na(+) reabsorption in this segment. Specifically, NCC total increased 30% and NCC phosphorylated at T53 and S71, associated with activation, increased 4-6 fold. The phosphorylation of the closely related thick ascending limb (TAL) apical NKCC2 (Slc12a1) increased at least twofold. Abundance of the total and cleaved (activated) forms of ENaC α-subunit was not different between genotypes. Nonetheless, no elevation of blood pressure was evident despite the fact that NCC and NKCC2 are in states permissive for Na(+) retention. Activation of NCC and NKCC2 may reflect an intracellular linkage to elevated Na,K-ATPase activity or a compensatory response to Na(+) loss proximal to the TAL and DCT. PMID:25472608

  18. Localisation of calcium ions and calcium-ATPase activity within myelinated nerve fibres of the adult guinea-pig optic nerve.

    PubMed Central

    Maxwell, W L; Watt, C; Pediani, J D; Graham, D I; Adams, J H; Gennarelli, T A

    1991-01-01

    There is no published description of the distribution of free Ca2+, nor of the distribution of Ca(2+)-ATPase activity associated with the maintenance of low axoplasmic Ca2+ concentrations, in normal central myelinated nerve fibres. We have used the oxalate-pyroantimonate technique to localise free Ca2+, together with the lead-citrate technique to localise Ca(2+)-ATPase activity within myelinated fibres from the adult guinea-pig optic nerve. Pyroantimonate precipitate occurred within the axoplasm at nodes of Ranvier and the internode, at areas of myelin disruption, within Schmidt-Lanterman incisures (SLI) and glial paranodal loops. But precipitate was absent from the axoplasm beneath SLI and at the paranode. Ca(2+)-ATPase activity was localised in axonal smooth endoplasmic reticulum (SER), the outer membrane of mitochondria, the nodal axolemma, the glial membranes of the paranodal loops, the SLI and the external aspect of the myelin sheath. We have demonstrated large domains within the axons of CNS fibres where calcium is present or absent. Moreover, we have shown that, where calcium is absent, there is localisation of Ca(2+)-ATPase activity, which would serve to remove calcium from the adjacent axoplasm. Our results are compared with information obtained from PNS fibres and some differences of distribution discussed. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 PMID:1833365

  19. Control of Protein and Sterol Trafficking by Antagonistic Activities of a Type IV P-type ATPase and Oxysterol Binding Protein Homologue

    PubMed Central

    Muthusamy, Baby-Periyanayaki; Raychaudhuri, Sumana; Natarajan, Paramasivam; Abe, Fumiyoshi; Liu, Ke; Prinz, William A.

    2009-01-01

    The oxysterol binding protein homologue Kes1p has been implicated in nonvesicular sterol transport in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Kes1p also represses formation of protein transport vesicles from the trans-Golgi network (TGN) through an unknown mechanism. Here, we show that potential phospholipid translocases in the Drs2/Dnf family (type IV P-type ATPases [P4-ATPases]) are downstream targets of Kes1p repression. Disruption of KES1 suppresses the cold-sensitive (cs) growth defect of drs2Δ, which correlates with an enhanced ability of Dnf P4-ATPases to functionally substitute for Drs2p. Loss of Kes1p also suppresses a drs2-ts allele in a strain deficient for Dnf P4-ATPases, suggesting that Kes1p antagonizes Drs2p activity in vivo. Indeed, Drs2-dependent phosphatidylserine translocase (flippase) activity is hyperactive in TGN membranes from kes1Δ cells and is potently attenuated by addition of recombinant Kes1p. Surprisingly, Drs2p also antagonizes Kes1p activity in vivo. Drs2p deficiency causes a markedly increased rate of cholesterol transport from the plasma membrane to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and redistribution of endogenous ergosterol to intracellular membranes, phenotypes that are Kes1p dependent. These data suggest a homeostatic feedback mechanism in which appropriately regulated flippase activity in the Golgi complex helps establish a plasma membrane phospholipid organization that resists sterol extraction by a sterol binding protein. PMID:19403696

  20. Effect of salinity on hemolymph osmotic pressure, sodium concentration and Na+-K+-ATPase activity of gill of Chinese crab, Eriocheir sinensis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Hongyu; Pan, Luqing; Fu, Lü

    2008-02-01

    The effects of salinity on hemolymph osmotic pressure, Na+ concentration and Na+-K+-ATPase activity of gill of Chinese crab Eriocheir sinensis were studied. The results showed that hemolymph osmotic pressure and Na+ concentration increased significantly ( P<0.05), and the Na+-K+-ATPase activity of gills decreased significantly ( P<0.05) when salinity increased from 0 to 16. The hemolymph osmotic pressure and Na+ concentration in each treatment group rose remarkably at 0.125 d or 0.25 d, while the Na+-K+-ATPase activity of gill reduced gradually with increased experiment time in 3 d. Then the three parameters remained at a constant level after 0.25 d, 0.125 d and 3 d, respectively, and higher hemolymph osmotic pressure, higher Na+ concentration and lower Na+-K+-ATPase activity of gill occurred at higher salinity. The effect of salinity change on protein concentration of hemolymph was indistinct ( P>0.05); However, the protein concentration decreased gradually with the increase of salinity from 0.25 d to 1 d, and then tended to be stable from day 1 to day 15.

  1. Control of protein and sterol trafficking by antagonistic activities of a type IV P-type ATPase and oxysterol binding protein homologue.

    PubMed

    Muthusamy, Baby-Periyanayaki; Raychaudhuri, Sumana; Natarajan, Paramasivam; Abe, Fumiyoshi; Liu, Ke; Prinz, William A; Graham, Todd R

    2009-06-01

    The oxysterol binding protein homologue Kes1p has been implicated in nonvesicular sterol transport in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Kes1p also represses formation of protein transport vesicles from the trans-Golgi network (TGN) through an unknown mechanism. Here, we show that potential phospholipid translocases in the Drs2/Dnf family (type IV P-type ATPases [P4-ATPases]) are downstream targets of Kes1p repression. Disruption of KES1 suppresses the cold-sensitive (cs) growth defect of drs2Delta, which correlates with an enhanced ability of Dnf P4-ATPases to functionally substitute for Drs2p. Loss of Kes1p also suppresses a drs2-ts allele in a strain deficient for Dnf P4-ATPases, suggesting that Kes1p antagonizes Drs2p activity in vivo. Indeed, Drs2-dependent phosphatidylserine translocase (flippase) activity is hyperactive in TGN membranes from kes1Delta cells and is potently attenuated by addition of recombinant Kes1p. Surprisingly, Drs2p also antagonizes Kes1p activity in vivo. Drs2p deficiency causes a markedly increased rate of cholesterol transport from the plasma membrane to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and redistribution of endogenous ergosterol to intracellular membranes, phenotypes that are Kes1p dependent. These data suggest a homeostatic feedback mechanism in which appropriately regulated flippase activity in the Golgi complex helps establish a plasma membrane phospholipid organization that resists sterol extraction by a sterol binding protein.

  2. Effects of intermittent fasting on age-related changes on Na,K-ATPase activity and oxidative status induced by lipopolysaccharide in rat hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Vasconcelos, Andrea Rodrigues; Kinoshita, Paula Fernanda; Yshii, Lidia Mitiko; Marques Orellana, Ana Maria; Böhmer, Ana Elisa; de Sá Lima, Larissa; Alves, Rosana; Andreotti, Diana Zukas; Marcourakis, Tania; Scavone, Cristoforo; Kawamoto, Elisa Mitiko

    2015-05-01

    Chronic neuroinflammation is a common characteristic of neurodegenerative diseases, and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) signaling is linked to glutamate-nitric oxide-Na,K-ATPase isoforms pathway in central nervous system (CNS) and also causes neuroinflammation. Intermittent fasting (IF) induces adaptive responses in the brain that can suppress inflammation, but the age-related effect of IF on LPS modulatory influence on nitric oxide-Na,K-ATPase isoforms is unknown. This work compared the effects of LPS on the activity of α1,α2,3 Na,K-ATPase, nitric oxide synthase gene expression and/or activity, cyclic guanosine monophosphate, 3-nitrotyrosine-containing proteins, and levels of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances in CNS of young and older rats submitted to the IF protocol for 30 days. LPS induced an age-related effect in neuronal nitric oxide synthase activity, cyclic guanosine monophosphate, and levels of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances in rat hippocampus that was linked to changes in α2,3-Na,K-ATPase activity, 3-nitrotyrosine proteins, and inducible nitric oxide synthase gene expression. IF induced adaptative cellular stress-response signaling pathways reverting LPS effects in rat hippocampus of young and older rats. The results suggest that IF in both ages would reduce the risk for deficits on brain function and neurodegenerative disorders linked to inflammatory response in the CNS. PMID:25818175

  3. Regulation by the exogenous polyamine spermidine of Na,K-ATPase activity from the gills of the euryhaline swimming crab Callinectes danae (Brachyura, Portunidae).

    PubMed

    Silva, E C C; Masui, D C; Furriel, R P M; Mantelatto, F L M; McNamara, J C; Barrabin, H; Leone, F A; Scofano, H M; Fontes, C F L

    2008-04-01

    Euryhaline crustaceans rarely hyporegulates and employ the driving force of the Na,K-ATPase, located at the basal surface of the gill epithelium, to maintain their hemolymph osmolality within a range compatible with cell function during hyper-regulation. Since polyamine levels increase during the adaptation of crustaceans to hyperosmotic media, we investigate the effect of exogenous polyamines on Na,K-ATPase activity in the posterior gills of Callinectes danae, a euryhaline swimming crab. Polyamine inhibition was dependent on cation concentration, charge and size in the following order: spermine>spermidine>putrescine. Spermidine affected K(0.5) values for Na(+) with minor alterations in K(0.5) values for K(+) and NH(4)(+), causing a decrease in maximal velocities under saturating Na(+), K(+) and NH(4)(+) concentrations. Phosphorylation measurements in the presence of 20 microM ATP revealed that the Na,K-ATPase possesses a high affinity site for this substrate. In the presence of 10 mM Na(+), both spermidine and spermine inhibited formation of the phosphoenzyme; however, in the presence of 100 mM Na(+), the addition of these polyamines allowed accumulation of the phosphoenzyme. The polyamines inhibited pumping activity, both by competing with Na(+) at the Na(+)-binding site, and by inhibiting enzyme dephosphorylation. These findings suggest that polyamine-induced inhibition of Na,K-ATPase activity may be physiologically relevant during migration to fully marine environments.

  4. Changes of plasma membrane AtPase activity, membrane potential and transmembrane proton gradient in Kandelia candel and Avicennia marina seedlings with various salinities.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Zhong-Qiu; Zheng, Hai-Lei; Zhu, Yong-Guan

    2004-01-01

    The salt-secreting mangrove, Avicennia marina, and non-salt-secreting mangrove, Kandelia candel were cultivated in sand with various salinities(0 per thousand, 10 per thousand, 20 per thousand, 30 per thousand, 40 per thousand) for 60 d. Plasma membrane vesicles of high-purity in leaves and roots of A. marina and K. candel seedlings were obtained by two-phase partitioning. The function of the plasma membranes, the activity of ATPase, membrane potential and transmembrane proton gradient, at various salinities were investigated. The results showed that within a certain range of salinity (A. marina and roots of K. candel: 0-30 per thousand; leaves of K. candel: 0-20 per thousand), the activity of ATPase increased with increasing salinity, while high salinity (above 30 per thousand or 20 per thousand) inhibited ATPase activity. In comparison with A. marina, K. candel appeared to be more sensitive to salinity. The dynamics of membrane potential and transmembrane proton gradient in leaves and roots of A. marina and K. candel seedlings were similar to that of ATPase. When treated directly by NaCl all the indexes were inhibited markedly: there was a little increase within 0-10 per thousand (K. candel) or 0-20 per thousand (A. marina) followed by sharp declining. It indicated that the structure and function of plasma membrane was damaged severely.

  5. Revisiting the mechanisms of copper toxicity to rainbow trout: Time course, influence of calcium, unidirectional Na(+) fluxes, and branchial Na(+), K(+) ATPase and V-type H(+) ATPase activities.

    PubMed

    Chowdhury, M Jasim; Girgis, Mina; Wood, Chris M

    2016-08-01

    In order to resolve uncertainties as to the mechanisms of toxic action of Cu and the protective effects of water [Ca], juvenile rainbow trout were acclimated to baseline soft water (SW, [Na(+)]=0.07, [Ca(2+)]=0.15, [Mg(2+)]=0.05mmolL(-1)) and then exposed to Cu with or without elevated [Ca] but at constant titratable alkalinity (0.27mmolL(-1)). The 96-h LC50 was 7-fold higher (63.8 versus 9.2μgCuL(-1); 1.00 versus 0.14μmolCuL(-1)) at [Ca]=3.0 versus 0.15mmolL(-1). Gill Cu burden increased with exposure concentration, and higher [Ca] attenuated this accumulation. At 24h, the gill Cu load (LA50≈0.58μgCug(-1); 9.13nmolCug(-1)) predictive of 50% mortality by 96h was independent of [Ca], in accord with Biotic Ligand Model (BLM) theory. Cu exposure induced net Na(+) losses (J(Na)net) by increasing unidirectional Na(+) efflux rates (J(Na)out) and inhibiting unidirectional Na(+) uptake rates (J(Na)in). The effect on J(Na)out was virtually immediate, whereas the effect on J(Na)in developed progressively over 24h and was associated with an inhibition of branchial Na(+), K(+) ATPase activity. The J(Na)in inhibition was eventually significant at a lower Cu threshold concentration (15μgCuL(-1)) than the J(Na)out stimulation (100μg Cu L(-1)). Elevated Ca protected against both effects, as well as against the inhibition of Na(+), K(+) ATPase activity. Branchial V-type H(+) ATPase activity was also inhibited by Cu exposure (100μgCuL(-1)), but only after 24h at high [Ca] (3.0mmolL(-1)). These novel results therefore reinforce the applicability of BLM theory to Cu, clarify that whether Na(+) influx or efflux is more sensitive depends on the duration of Cu exposure, show that elevated water [Ca], independent of alkalinity, is protective against both mechanisms of Cu toxicity, and identify V-type H(+)ATPase as a new Cu target for future investigation.

  6. Revisiting the mechanisms of copper toxicity to rainbow trout: Time course, influence of calcium, unidirectional Na(+) fluxes, and branchial Na(+), K(+) ATPase and V-type H(+) ATPase activities.

    PubMed

    Chowdhury, M Jasim; Girgis, Mina; Wood, Chris M

    2016-08-01

    In order to resolve uncertainties as to the mechanisms of toxic action of Cu and the protective effects of water [Ca], juvenile rainbow trout were acclimated to baseline soft water (SW, [Na(+)]=0.07, [Ca(2+)]=0.15, [Mg(2+)]=0.05mmolL(-1)) and then exposed to Cu with or without elevated [Ca] but at constant titratable alkalinity (0.27mmolL(-1)). The 96-h LC50 was 7-fold higher (63.8 versus 9.2μgCuL(-1); 1.00 versus 0.14μmolCuL(-1)) at [Ca]=3.0 versus 0.15mmolL(-1). Gill Cu burden increased with exposure concentration, and higher [Ca] attenuated this accumulation. At 24h, the gill Cu load (LA50≈0.58μgCug(-1); 9.13nmolCug(-1)) predictive of 50% mortality by 96h was independent of [Ca], in accord with Biotic Ligand Model (BLM) theory. Cu exposure induced net Na(+) losses (J(Na)net) by increasing unidirectional Na(+) efflux rates (J(Na)out) and inhibiting unidirectional Na(+) uptake rates (J(Na)in). The effect on J(Na)out was virtually immediate, whereas the effect on J(Na)in developed progressively over 24h and was associated with an inhibition of branchial Na(+), K(+) ATPase activity. The J(Na)in inhibition was eventually significant at a lower Cu threshold concentration (15μgCuL(-1)) than the J(Na)out stimulation (100μg Cu L(-1)). Elevated Ca protected against both effects, as well as against the inhibition of Na(+), K(+) ATPase activity. Branchial V-type H(+) ATPase activity was also inhibited by Cu exposure (100μgCuL(-1)), but only after 24h at high [Ca] (3.0mmolL(-1)). These novel results therefore reinforce the applicability of BLM theory to Cu, clarify that whether Na(+) influx or efflux is more sensitive depends on the duration of Cu exposure, show that elevated water [Ca], independent of alkalinity, is protective against both mechanisms of Cu toxicity, and identify V-type H(+)ATPase as a new Cu target for future investigation. PMID:27262060

  7. Luteolin Exerts Cardioprotective Effects through Improving Sarcoplasmic Reticulum Ca2+-ATPase Activity in Rats during Ischemia/Reperfusion In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Nai, Changsheng; Xuan, Haochen; Zhang, Yingying; Shen, Mengxiao; Xu, Tongda; Pan, Defeng; Zhang, Congwei; Zhang, Yanbin; Li, Dongye

    2015-01-01

    The flavonoid luteolin exists in many types of fruits, vegetables, and medicinal herbs. Our previous studies have demonstrated that luteolin reduced ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury in vitro, which was related with sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase (SERCA2a) activity. However, the effects of luteolin on SERCA2a activity during I/R in vivo remain unclear. To investigate whether luteolin exerts cardioprotective effects and to monitor changes in SERCA2a expression and activity levels in vivo during I/R, we created a myocardial I/R rat model by ligating the coronary artery. We demonstrated that luteolin could reduce the myocardial infarct size, lactate dehydrogenase release, and apoptosis during I/R injury in vivo. Furthermore, we found that luteolin inhibited the I/R-induced decrease in SERCA2a activity in vivo. However, neither I/R nor luteolin altered SERCA2a expression levels in myocardiocytes. Moreover, the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway played a vital role in this mechanism. In conclusion, the present study has confirmed for the first time that luteolin yields cardioprotective effects against I/R injury by inhibiting the I/R-induced decrease in SERCA2a activity partially via the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway in vivo, independent of SERCA2a protein level regulation. SERCA2a activity presents a novel biomarker to assess the progress of I/R injury in experimental research and clinical applications. PMID:26681967

  8. Concerted but Noncooperative Activation of Nucleotide and Actuator Domains of the Ca-ATPase Upon Calcium Binding

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Baowei; Mahaney, James E.; Mayer, M. Uljana; Bigelow, Diana J.; Squier, Thomas C.

    2008-11-25

    Calcium-dependent domain movements of the nucleotide (N) and actuator (A) domains of the SERCA2a isoform of the Ca-ATPase were assessed using constructs containing engineered tetracysteine binding motifs, which were expressed in insect High-Five cells and subsequently labeled with the biarsenical fluorophore 4’,5’-bis(1,3,2-dithoarsolan-2-yl)fluorescein (FlAsH-EDT2). Maximum catalytic function is retained in microsomes isolated from High-Five cells and labeled with FlAsH-EDT2. Distance measurements using the nucleotide analog TNP-ATP, which acts as a fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) acceptor from FlAsH, identify a 2.4 Å increase in the spatial separation between the N- and A-domains induced by high-affinity calcium binding; this structural change is comparable to that observed in crystal structures. No significant distance changes occur across the N-domain between FlAsH and TNP-ATP, indicating that calcium activation induces rigid body domain movements rather than intradomain conformational changes. Calcium-dependent decreases in the fluorescence of FlAsH bound respectively to either the N- or A-domains indicate coordinated and noncooperative domain movements, where both N- and A-domains domains display virtually identical calcium dependencies (i.e., Kd = 4.8 ± 0.4 μM). We suggest that occupancy of a single high-affinity calcium binding site induces the rearrangement of the A- and N-domains of the Ca-ATPase to form an intermediate state, which facilitates ATP utilization upon occupancy of the second high-affinity calcium site to enhance transport efficiency.

  9. Genome segment 6 of Antheraea mylitta cypovirus encodes a structural protein with ATPase activity

    SciTech Connect

    Chavali, Venkata R.M.; Madhurantakam, Chaithanya; Ghorai, Suvankar; Roy, Sobhan; Das, Amit K.; Ghosh, Ananta K.

    2008-07-20

    The genome segment 6 (S6) of the 11 double stranded RNA genomes from Antheraea mylitta cypovirus was converted into cDNA, cloned and sequenced. S6 consisted of 1944 nucleotides with an ORF of 607 amino acids and could encode a protein of 68 kDa, termed P68. Motif scan and molecular docking analysis of P68 showed the presence of two cystathionine beta synthase (CBS) domains and ATP binding sites. The ORF of AmCPV S6 was expressed in E. coli as His-tag fusion protein and polyclonal antibody was raised. Immunoblot analysis of virus infected gut cells and purified polyhedra using raised anti-p68 polyclonal antibody showed that S6 encodes a viral structural protein. Fluorescence and ATPase assay of soluble P68 produced in Sf-9 cells via baculovirus expression system showed its ability to bind and cleave ATP. These results suggest that P68 may bind viral RNA through CBS domains and help in replication and transcription through ATP binding and hydrolysis.

  10. Light induces changes in activities of Na+/K+-ATPase, H+/K+-ATPase and glutamine synthetase in tissues involved directly or indirectly in light-enhanced calcification in the giant clam, Tridacna squamosa

    PubMed Central

    Ip, Yuen K.; Ching, Biyun; Hiong, Kum C.; Choo, Celine Y. L.; Boo, Mel V.; Wong, Wai P.; Chew, Shit F.

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of 12 h of exposure to light, as compared with 12 h of exposure to darkness (control), on enzymatic activities of transporters involved in the transport of NH+4 or H+, and activities of enzymes involved in converting NH+4 to glutamate/glutamine in inner mantle, outer mantle, and ctenidia of the giant clam, Tridacna squamosa. Exposure to light resulted in a significant increase in the effectiveness of NH+4 in substitution for K+ to activate Na+/K+-ATPase (NKA), manifested as a significant increase in the Na+/NH+4-activated-NKA activity in the inner mantle. However, similar phenomena were not observed in the extensible outer mantle, which contained abundant symbiotic zooxanthellae. Hence, during light-enhanced calcification, H+ released from CaCO3 deposition could react with NH3 to form NH+4 in the extrapallial fluid, and NH+4 could probably be transported into the shell-facing inner mantle epithelium through NKA. Light also induced an increase in the activity of glutamine synthetase, which converts NH+4 and glutamate to glutamine, in the inner mantle. Taken together, these results explained observations reported elsewhere that light induced a significant increase in pH and a significant decrease in ammonia concentration in the extrapallial fluid, as well as a significant increase in the glutamine concentration in the inner mantle, of T. squamosa. Exposure of T. squamosa to light also led to a significant decrease in the N-ethylmaleimide (NEM)-sensitive-V-H+-ATPase (VATPase) in the inner mantle, and significant increases in the Na+/K+-activated-NKA, H+/NH+4-activated-H+/K+-ATPase, and NEM-sensitive-VATPase activities in ctenidia, indicating that light-enhanced calcification might perturb Na+ homeostasis and acid/base balance in the hemolymph, and might involve the active uptake of NH+4 from the environment. This is the first report on light having direct enhancing effects on activities of certain transporters

  11. Light induces changes in activities of Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase, H(+)/K(+)-ATPase and glutamine synthetase in tissues involved directly or indirectly in light-enhanced calcification in the giant clam, Tridacna squamosa.

    PubMed

    Ip, Yuen K; Ching, Biyun; Hiong, Kum C; Choo, Celine Y L; Boo, Mel V; Wong, Wai P; Chew, Shit F

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of 12 h of exposure to light, as compared with 12 h of exposure to darkness (control), on enzymatic activities of transporters involved in the transport of NH(+) 4 or H(+), and activities of enzymes involved in converting NH(+) 4 to glutamate/glutamine in inner mantle, outer mantle, and ctenidia of the giant clam, Tridacna squamosa. Exposure to light resulted in a significant increase in the effectiveness of NH(+) 4 in substitution for K(+) to activate Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase (NKA), manifested as a significant increase in the Na(+)/NH(+) 4-activated-NKA activity in the inner mantle. However, similar phenomena were not observed in the extensible outer mantle, which contained abundant symbiotic zooxanthellae. Hence, during light-enhanced calcification, H(+) released from CaCO3 deposition could react with NH3 to form NH(+) 4 in the extrapallial fluid, and NH(+) 4 could probably be transported into the shell-facing inner mantle epithelium through NKA. Light also induced an increase in the activity of glutamine synthetase, which converts NH(+) 4 and glutamate to glutamine, in the inner mantle. Taken together, these results explained observations reported elsewhere that light induced a significant increase in pH and a significant decrease in ammonia concentration in the extrapallial fluid, as well as a significant increase in the glutamine concentration in the inner mantle, of T. squamosa. Exposure of T. squamosa to light also led to a significant decrease in the N-ethylmaleimide (NEM)-sensitive-V-H(+)-ATPase (VATPase) in the inner mantle, and significant increases in the Na(+)/K(+)-activated-NKA, H(+)/NH(+) 4-activated-H(+)/K(+)-ATPase, and NEM-sensitive-VATPase activities in ctenidia, indicating that light-enhanced calcification might perturb Na(+) homeostasis and acid/base balance in the hemolymph, and might involve the active uptake of NH(+) 4 from the environment. This is the first report on light having direct

  12. ATPase activity and ATP/ADP-induced conformational change in the soluble domain of the bacterial protein translocator HlyB.

    PubMed

    Koronakis, V; Hughes, C; Koronakis, E

    1993-06-01

    The haemolysin exporter HlyB and its homologues are central to the unconventional signal-peptide-independent secretion of toxins, proteases and nodulation proteins by bacteria. HlyB is a member of the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) or traffic ATPase superfamily, and resembles closely in structure and function mammalian exporters such as the multidrug-resistance P-glycoprotein, combining both integral membrane and cytosolic domains. Overproduction of the HlyB cytoplasmic domain as a C-terminal peptide fused to glutathione S-transferase allowed the direct affinity purification and concentration of 30-50 mg ml-1 of soluble protein (GST-Bctp) in an apparently dimeric form possessing both transferase and ATPase activity. GST-Bctp bound to ADP-agarose and was eluted specifically by ATP and ADP, affinity behaviour which was confirmed in both the full-length HlyB and the unfused HlyB cytoplasmic domain synthesized in vitro. The stoichiometry of binding to MgATP and MgADP was close to equimolar and both ligands induced substantial conformational change in the protein. Mg(2+)-dependent ATPase activity of GST-Bctp (Vmax 1 mumol min-1 mg-1, Km 0.2 mM) was comparable with the activity of the bacterial importer MalK and human P-glycoprotein reconstituted into proteoliposomes, and over an order of magnitude higher than in vitro measurements of disaggregated MalK purified from inclusion bodies. Activity was unaffected by inhibitors of F- and V-type ATPases, non-hydrolysable ATP analogues, or translocation substrate, but was severely inhibited by inhibitors of E1E2 (P-type) ATPases, and the acidic phospholipid phosphatidyl glycerol. PMID:8361361

  13. Effects of Ouabain on Proliferation of Human Endothelial Cells Correlate with Na+,K+-ATPase Activity and Intracellular Ratio of Na+ and K.

    PubMed

    Tverskoi, A M; Sidorenko, S V; Klimanova, E A; Akimova, O A; Smolyaninova, L V; Lopina, O D; Orlov, S N

    2016-08-01

    Side-by-side with inhibition of the Na+,K+-ATPase ouabain and other cardiotonic steroids (CTS) can affect cell functions by mechanisms other than regulation of the intracellular Na+ and K+ ratio ([Na+]i/[K+]i). Thus, we compared the dose- and time-dependences of the effect of ouabain on intracellular [Na+]i/[K+]i ratio, Na+,K+-ATPase activity, and proliferation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC). Treatment of the cells with 1-3 nM ouabain for 24-72 h decreased the [Na+]i/[K+]i ratio and increased cell proliferation by 20-50%. We discovered that the same ouabain concentrations increased Na+,K+-ATPase activity by 25-30%, as measured by the rate of (86)Rb(+) influx. Higher ouabain concentrations inhibited Na+,K+-ATPase, increased [Na+]i/[K+]i ratio, suppressed cell growth, and caused cell death. When cells were treated with low ouabain concentrations for 48 or 72 h, a negative correlation between [Na+]i/[K+]i ratio and cell growth activation was observed. In cells treated with high ouabain concentrations for 24 h, the [Na+]i/[K+]i ratio correlated positively with proliferation inhibition. These data demonstrate that inhibition of HUVEC proliferation at high CTS concentrations correlates with dissipation of the Na+ and K+ concentration gradients, whereas cell growth stimulation by low CTS doses results from activation of Na+,K+-ATPase and decrease in the [Na+]i/[K+]i ratio. PMID:27677555

  14. Structure–Activity Relationship Study Reveals ML240 and ML241 as Potent and Selective Inhibitors of p97 ATPase

    PubMed Central

    Chou, Tsui-Fen; Li, Kelin; Frankowski, Kevin J; Schoenen, Frank J; Deshaies, Raymond J

    2013-01-01

    To discover more potent p97 inhibitors, we carried out a structure–activity relationship study of the quinazoline scaffold previously identified from our HTS campaigns. Two improved inhibitors, ML240 and ML241, inhibit p97 ATPase with IC50 values of 100 nm. Both compounds inhibited degradation of a p97-dependent but not a p97-independent proteasome substrate in a dual-reporter cell line. They also impaired the endoplasmic-reticulum-associated degradation (ERAD) pathway. Unexpectedly, ML240 potently stimulated accumulation of LC3-II within minutes, inhibited cancer cell growth, and rapidly mobilized the executioner caspases 3 and 7, whereas ML241 did not. The behavior of ML240 suggests that disruption of the protein homeostasis function of p97 leads to more rapid activation of apoptosis than is observed with a proteasome inhibitor. Further characterization revealed that ML240 has broad antiproliferative activity toward the NCI-60 panel of cancer cell lines, but slightly lower activity toward normal cells. ML240 also synergizes with the proteasome inhibitor MG132 to kill multiple colon cancer cell lines. Meanwhile, both probes have low off-target activity toward a panel of protein kinases and central nervous system targets. Our results nominate ML240 as a promising starting point for the development of a novel agent for the chemotherapy of cancer, and provide a rationale for developing pathway-specific p97 inhibitors. PMID:23316025

  15. The uncoupled ATPase activity of the ABC transporter BtuC2D2 leads to a hysteretic conformational change, conformational memory, and improved activity

    PubMed Central

    Livnat-Levanon, Nurit; I. Gilson, Amy; Ben-Tal, Nir; Lewinson, Oded

    2016-01-01

    ABC transporters comprise a large and ubiquitous family of proteins. From bacteria to man they translocate solutes at the expense of ATP hydrolysis. Unlike other enzymes that use ATP as an energy source, ABC transporters are notorious for having high levels of basal ATPase activity: they hydrolyze ATP also in the absence of their substrate. It is unknown what are the effects of such prolonged and constant activity on the stability and function of ABC transporters or any other enzyme. Here we report that prolonged ATP hydrolysis is beneficial to the ABC transporter BtuC2D2. Using ATPase assays, surface plasmon resonance interaction experiments, and transport assays we observe that the constantly active transporter remains stable and functional for much longer than the idle one. Remarkably, during extended activity the transporter undergoes a slow conformational change (hysteresis) and gradually attains a hyperactive state in which it is more active than it was to begin with. This phenomenon is different from stabilization of enzymes by ligand binding: the hyperactive state is only reached through ATP hydrolysis, and not ATP binding. BtuC2D2 displays a strong conformational memory for this excited state, and takes hours to return to its basal state after catalysis terminates. PMID:26905293

  16. Diphenyl diselenide elicits antidepressant-like activity in rats exposed to monosodium glutamate: A contribution of serotonin uptake and Na(+), K(+)-ATPase activity.

    PubMed

    Quines, Caroline B; Rosa, Suzan G; Velasquez, Daniela; Da Rocha, Juliana T; Neto, José S S; Nogueira, Cristina W

    2016-03-15

    Depression is a disorder with symptoms manifested at the psychological, behavioral and physiological levels. Monosodium glutamate (MSG) is the most widely used additive in the food industry; however, some adverse effects induced by this additive have been demonstrated in experimental animals and humans, including functional and behavioral alterations. The aim of this study was to investigate the possible antidepressant-like effect of diphenyl diselenide (PhSe)2, an organoselenium compound with pharmacological properties already documented, in the depressive-like behavior induced by MSG in rats. Male and female newborn Wistar rats were divided in control and MSG groups, which received, respectively, a daily subcutaneous injection of saline (0.9%) or MSG (4g/kg/day) from the 1st to 5th postnatal day. At 60th day of life, animals received (PhSe)2 (10mg/kg, intragastrically) 25min before spontaneous locomotor and forced swimming tests (FST). The cerebral cortices of rats were removed to determine [(3)H] serotonin (5-HT) uptake and Na(+), K(+)-ATPase activity. A single administration of (PhSe)2 was effective against locomotor hyperactivity caused by MSG in rats. (PhSe)2 treatment protected against the increase in the immobility time and a decrease in the latency for the first episode of immobility in the FST induced by MSG. Furthermore, (PhSe)2 reduced the [(3)H] 5-HT uptake and restored Na(+), K(+)-ATPase activity altered by MSG. In the present study a single administration of (PhSe)2 elicited an antidepressant-like effect and decrease the synaptosomal [(3)H] 5-HT uptake and an increase in the Na(+), K(+)-ATPase activity in MSG-treated rats.

  17. Effect of plictran on beef heart mitochondrial ATPases.

    PubMed

    Mehrotra, B D; Prasada Rao, K S; Desaiah, D

    1985-07-01

    The in vitro effects of plictran on oligomycin-sensitive Mg2+-ATPase and Ca2+-ATPase activities in beef heart mitochondria were studied. Beef heart mitochondrial fractions were prepared by the conventional centrifugation method. ATPase activities were measured by determining the inorganic phosphate released by the hydrolysis of ATP. Plictran inhibited both oligomycin-sensitive (o.s.) Mg2+-ATPase and Ca2+ ATPase activities at nanomolar concentrations. However, plictran did not affect the oligomycin-insensitive (o.i.) Mg2+-ATPase activity at any concentration studied. Substrate activation kinetics revealed that plictran inhibited o.s. Mg2+-ATPase uncompetitively and Ca2+-ATPase non-competitively. These results clearly indicate that plictran affects ATP synthesis and calcium ion transport in beef heart mitochondria.

  18. Discovery of Tricyclic Clerodane Diterpenes as Sarco/Endoplasmic Reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPase Inhibitors and Structure-Activity Relationships.

    PubMed

    De Ford, Christian; Calderón, Carlos; Sehgal, Pankaj; Fedosova, Natalya U; Murillo, Renato; Olesen, Claus; Nissen, Poul; Møller, Jesper V; Merfort, Irmgard

    2015-06-26

    Tricyclic clerodane diterpenes (TCDs) are natural compounds that often show potent cytotoxicity for cancer cells, but their mode of action remains elusive. A computationally based similarity search (CDRUG), combined with principal component analysis (ChemGPS-NP) and docking calculations (GOLD 5.2), suggested TCDs to be inhibitors of the sarco/endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPase (SERCA) pump, which is also the target of the sesquiterpene lactone thapsigargin. Biochemical studies were performed with 11 TCDs on purified rabbit skeletal muscle sarcoplasmic reticulum membranes, which are highly enriched with the SERCA1a isoform. Casearborin D (2) exhibited the highest affinity, with a KD value of 2 μM and giving rise to complete inhibition of SERCA1a activity. Structure-activity relationships revealed that functionalization of two acyl side chains (R1 and R4) and the hydrophobicity imparted by the aliphatic chain at C-9, as well as a C-3,C-4 double bond, play crucial roles for inhibitory activity. Docking studies also suggested that hydrophobic interactions in the binding site, especially with Phe256 and Phe834, may be important for a strong inhibitory activity of the TCDs. In conclusion, a novel class of SERCA inhibitory compounds is presented. PMID:25993619

  19. Calcium and cargoes as regulators of myosin 5a activity

    SciTech Connect

    Sellers, James R. Thirumurugan, Kavitha; Sakamoto, Takeshi; Hammer, John A.; Knight, Peter J.

    2008-04-25

    Myosin 5a is a two-headed actin-dependent motor that transports various cargoes in cells. Its enzymology and mechanochemistry have been extensively studied in vitro. It is a processive motor that takes multiple 36 nm steps on actin. The enzymatic activity of myosin 5 is regulated by an intramolecular folding mechanism whereby its lever arms fold back against the coiled-coil tail such that the motor domains directly bind the globular tail domains. We show that the structure seen in individual folded molecules is consistent with electron density map of two-dimensional crystals of the molecule. In this compact state, the actin-activated MgATPase activity of the molecule is markedly inhibited and the molecule cannot move processively on surface bound actin filaments. The actin-activated MgATPase activity of myosin 5a is activated by increasing the calcium concentration or by binding of a cargo-receptor molecule, melanophilin, in vitro. However, calcium binding to the calmodulin light chains results in dissociation of some of the calmodulin which disrupts the ability of myosin 5a to move on actin filaments in vitro. Thus we propose that the physiologically relevant activation pathway in vivo involves binding of cargo-receptor proteins.

  20. Curcumin induces apoptosis by inhibiting sarco/endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ ATPase activity in ovarian cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Seo, Jeong-Ah; Kim, Boyun; Dhanasekaran, Danny N; Tsang, Benjamin K; Song, Yong Sang

    2016-02-01

    Aberrant increase in the expression levels of sarco/endoplasmic reticulum calcium ATPase (SERCA), which regulates Ca(2+) homeostasis, has been observed in ovarian cancers. In this study, we demonstrated that curcumin increases cytosolic Ca(2+) concentration through inhibition of SERCA activity, causing apoptosis in ovarian cancer cells but not in normal cells, including peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and ovarian surface epithelial cells (OSE). Curcumin induced apoptosis in ovarian cancer cells in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. Cytosolic Ca(2+) flux was evident after the curcumin treatment (15 µM). Treatment with Ca(2+) chelator reduced curcumin-induced apoptosis, confirming the possible involvement of increased cytosolic Ca(2+) concentration in this response. Basal mRNA and protein levels of SERCA2 were significantly higher in ovarian cancer cells than in OSE. SERCA activity was suppressed by curcumin, with no effect on protein expression. Forced expression of the SERCA2b gene in ovarian cancer cells prevented curcumin-induced cytosolic Ca(2+) elevation and subsequent apoptosis, supporting an important role of SERCA in curcumin-induced apoptosis of ovarian cancer cells. Taken together, inhibition of SERCA activity by curcumin disrupts the Ca(2+) homeostasis and thereby promotes apoptosis in ovarian cancer cells.

  1. Modulation of sarcoplasmic/endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPase activity and oxidative modification during the development of adjuvant arthritis.

    PubMed

    Strosova, Miriam K; Karlovska, Janka; Zizkova, Petronela; Kwolek-Mirek, Magdalena; Ponist, Silvester; Spickett, Corinne M; Horakova, Lubica

    2011-07-01

    Adjuvant arthritis (AA) was induced by intradermal administration of Mycobacterium butyricum to the tail of Lewis rats. In sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) of skeletal muscles, we investigated the development of AA. SR Ca(2+)-ATPase (SERCA) activity decreased on day 21, suggesting possible conformational changes in the transmembrane part of the enzyme, especially at the site of the calcium binding transmembrane part. These events were associated with an increased level of protein carbonyls, a decrease in cysteine SH groups, and alterations in SR membrane fluidity. There was no alteration in the nucleotide binding site at any time point of AA, as detected by a FITC fluorescence marker. Some changes observed on day 21 appeared to be reversible, as indicated by SERCA activity, cysteine SH groups, SR membrane fluidity, protein carbonyl content and fluorescence of an NCD-4 marker specific for the calcium binding site. The reversibility may represent adaptive mechanisms of AA, induced by higher relative expression of SERCA, oxidation of cysteine, nitration of tyrosine and presence of acidic phospholipids such as phosphatidic acid. Nitric oxide may regulate cytoplasmic Ca(2+) level through conformational alterations of SERCA, and decreasing levels of calsequestrin in SR may also play regulatory role in SERCA activity and expression. PMID:21531199

  2. Modulation of sarcoplasmic/endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPase activity and oxidative modification during the development of adjuvant arthritis.

    PubMed

    Strosova, Miriam K; Karlovska, Janka; Zizkova, Petronela; Kwolek-Mirek, Magdalena; Ponist, Silvester; Spickett, Corinne M; Horakova, Lubica

    2011-07-01

    Adjuvant arthritis (AA) was induced by intradermal administration of Mycobacterium butyricum to the tail of Lewis rats. In sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) of skeletal muscles, we investigated the development of AA. SR Ca(2+)-ATPase (SERCA) activity decreased on day 21, suggesting possible conformational changes in the transmembrane part of the enzyme, especially at the site of the calcium binding transmembrane part. These events were associated with an increased level of protein carbonyls, a decrease in cysteine SH groups, and alterations in SR membrane fluidity. There was no alteration in the nucleotide binding site at any time point of AA, as detected by a FITC fluorescence marker. Some changes observed on day 21 appeared to be reversible, as indicated by SERCA activity, cysteine SH groups, SR membrane fluidity, protein carbonyl content and fluorescence of an NCD-4 marker specific for the calcium binding site. The reversibility may represent adaptive mechanisms of AA, induced by higher relative expression of SERCA, oxidation of cysteine, nitration of tyrosine and presence of acidic phospholipids such as phosphatidic acid. Nitric oxide may regulate cytoplasmic Ca(2+) level through conformational alterations of SERCA, and decreasing levels of calsequestrin in SR may also play regulatory role in SERCA activity and expression.

  3. A small molecule inhibitor for ATPase activity of Hsp70 and Hsc70 enhances the immune response to protein antigens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baek, Kyung-Hwa; Zhang, Haiying; Lee, Bo Ryeong; Kwon, Young-Guen; Ha, Sang-Jun; Shin, Injae

    2015-12-01

    The ATPase activities of Hsp70 and Hsc70 are known to be responsible for regulation of various biological processes. However, little is known about the roles of Hsp70 and Hsc70 in modulation of immune responses to antigens. In the present study, we investigated the effect of apoptozole (Az), a small molecule inhibitor of Hsp70 and Hsc70, on immune responses to protein antigens. The results show that mice administered with both protein antigen and Az produce more antibodies than those treated with antigen alone, showing that Az enhances immune responses to administered antigens. Treatment of mice with Az elicits production of antibodies with a high IgG2c/IgG1 ratio and stimulates the release of Th1 and Th2-type cytokines, suggesting that Az activates the Th1 and Th2 immune responses. The observations made in the present study suggest that inhibition of Hsp70 and Hsc70 activities could be a novel strategy designing small molecule-based adjuvants in protein vaccines.

  4. Curcumin induces apoptosis by inhibiting sarco/endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ ATPase activity in ovarian cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Seo, Jeong-Ah; Kim, Boyun; Dhanasekaran, Danny N; Tsang, Benjamin K; Song, Yong Sang

    2016-02-01

    Aberrant increase in the expression levels of sarco/endoplasmic reticulum calcium ATPase (SERCA), which regulates Ca(2+) homeostasis, has been observed in ovarian cancers. In this study, we demonstrated that curcumin increases cytosolic Ca(2+) concentration through inhibition of SERCA activity, causing apoptosis in ovarian cancer cells but not in normal cells, including peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and ovarian surface epithelial cells (OSE). Curcumin induced apoptosis in ovarian cancer cells in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. Cytosolic Ca(2+) flux was evident after the curcumin treatment (15 µM). Treatment with Ca(2+) chelator reduced curcumin-induced apoptosis, confirming the possible involvement of increased cytosolic Ca(2+) concentration in this response. Basal mRNA and protein levels of SERCA2 were significantly higher in ovarian cancer cells than in OSE. SERCA activity was suppressed by curcumin, with no effect on protein expression. Forced expression of the SERCA2b gene in ovarian cancer cells prevented curcumin-induced cytosolic Ca(2+) elevation and subsequent apoptosis, supporting an important role of SERCA in curcumin-induced apoptosis of ovarian cancer cells. Taken together, inhibition of SERCA activity by curcumin disrupts the Ca(2+) homeostasis and thereby promotes apoptosis in ovarian cancer cells. PMID:26607901

  5. Structural requirements for inhibitory effects of bisphenols on the activity of the sarco/endoplasmic reticulum calcium ATPase

    PubMed Central

    Woeste, Matthew; Steller, Jeffrey; Hofmann, Emily; Kidd, Taylor; Patel, Rahul; Connolly, Kevin; Jayasinghe, Manori; Paula, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    Bisphenols (BPs) are a class of small organic compounds with widespread industrial applications. Previous studies have identified several BPs that interfere with the activity of the ion-translocating enzyme sarco/endoplasmic reticulum calcium ATPase (SERCA). In order to define the molecular determinants of BP-mediated SERCA inhibition, we conducted enzyme activity assays with rabbit SERCA to determine the inhibitory potencies of 27 commercially available BPs, which were the basis for structure-activity relationships. The most potent BPs inhibited SERCA at low micromolar concentrations and carried at their two phenyl rings multiple non-polar substituents, such as small alkyl groups or halides. Furthermore, the presence of methyl groups or a cyclohexyl group at the central carbon atom connecting the two phenyl moieties correlated with good potencies. For a characterization and visualization of inhibitor/enzyme interactions, molecular docking was performed, which suggested that hydrogen bonding with Asp254 and hydrophobic interactions were the major driving forces for BP binding to SERCA. Calcium imaging studies with a selection of BPs showed that these inhibitors were able to increase intracellular calcium levels in living human cells, a behavior consistent with that of a SERCA inhibitor. PMID:23643898

  6. Is the Paracoccus halodenitrificans ATPase a chimeric enzyme?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hochstein, L. I.

    1996-01-01

    Membranes from Paracoccus halodenitrificans contain an ATPase that is most active in the absence of NaCl. The most unusual characteristic of the enzyme is its pattern of sensitivity to various inhibitors. Azide and rhodamine 6G, inhibitors of F1F0-ATPases, inhibit ATP hydrolysis as do bafilomycin A1, concanamycin A (folimycin), N-ethylmaleimide, and p-chloromercuriphenylsulfonate which are inhibitors of vacuolar ATPases. This indiscriminate sensitivity suggests that this ATPase may be a hybrid and that caution should be exercised when using inhibition as a diagnostic for distinguishing between F1F0-ATPases and vacuolar ATPases.

  7. DndEi Exhibits Helicase Activity Essential for DNA Phosphorothioate Modification and ATPase Activity Strongly Stimulated by DNA Substrate with a GAAC/GTTC Motif.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Tao; Jiang, Pan; Cao, Bo; Cheng, Qiuxiang; Kong, Lingxin; Zheng, Xiaoqing; Hu, Qinghai; You, Delin

    2016-01-15

    Phosphorothioate (PT) modification of DNA, in which the non-bridging oxygen of the backbone phosphate group is replaced by sulfur, is governed by the DndA-E proteins in prokaryotes. To better understand the biochemical mechanism of PT modification, functional analysis of the recently found PT-modifying enzyme DndEi, which has an additional domain compared with canonical DndE, from Riemerella anatipestifer is performed in this study. The additional domain is identified as a DNA helicase, and functional deletion of this domain in vivo leads to PT modification deficiency, indicating an essential role of helicase activity in PT modification. Subsequent analysis reveals that the additional domain has an ATPase activity. Intriguingly, the ATPase activity is strongly stimulated by DNA substrate containing a GAAC/GTTC motif (i.e. the motif at which PT modifications occur in R. anatipestifer) when the additional domain and the other domain (homologous to canonical DndE) are co-expressed as a full-length DndEi. These results reveal that PT modification is a biochemical process with DNA strand separation and intense ATP hydrolysis.

  8. Leaf ion homeostasis and plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase activity in Vicia faba change after extra calcium and potassium supply under salinity.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Sherif H; Maity, Pooja Jha; Geilfus, Christoph-Martin; Lindberg, Sylvia; Mühling, Karl Hermann

    2014-09-01

    Salt stress in plants impacts apoplastic ion activities and cytosolic ionic homeostasis. The ameliorating effects exerted by calcium or potassium on compartmentation of ions in leaves under salinity are not fully understood. To clarify how calcium or potassium supply could ameliorate ion homeostasis and ATPase activities under salinity, 5 mM CaSO4 or 10 mM K2SO4 were added with, or without, 100 mM NaCl for 7 d and 21 d to Vicia faba grown in hydroponics. The apoplastic pH was detected with Oregon Green dextran dye in intact second-uppermost leaves by microscopy-based ratio imaging. The cytosolic Ca(2+), Na(+), K(+) activities and pH were detected in protoplasts loaded with the acetoxy methyl-esters of Fura-2, SBFI, PBFI and BCECF, respectively, using epi-fluorescence microscopy. Furthermore, total Ca(2+), Na(+), K(+) concentrations and growth parameters were investigated. The ATPase hydrolyzing activity increased with time, but decreased after long salinity treatment. The activity largely increased in calcium-treated plants, but was depressed in potassium-treated plants after 7 d. The calcium supply increased Vmax, and the ATPase activity increased with salinity in a non-competitive way for 7 d and 21 d. The potassium supply instead decreased activity competitively with Na(+), after 21 d of salinity, with different effects on Km and Vmax. The confirmed higher ATPase activity was related with apoplast acidification, cytosol alkalinization and low cytosolic [Na(+)], and thus, might be an explanation why extra calcium improved shoot and leaf growth.

  9. Herpesviral G protein-coupled receptors activate NFAT to induce tumor formation via inhibiting the SERCA calcium ATPase.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Junjie; He, Shanping; Wang, Yi; Brulois, Kevin; Lan, Ke; Jung, Jae U; Feng, Pinghui

    2015-03-01

    G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) constitute the largest family of proteins that transmit signal to regulate an array of fundamental biological processes. Viruses deploy diverse tactics to hijack and harness intracellular signaling events induced by GPCR. Herpesviruses encode multiple GPCR homologues that are implicated in viral pathogenesis. Cellular GPCRs are primarily regulated by their cognate ligands, while herpesviral GPCRs constitutively activate downstream signaling cascades, including the nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT) pathway. However, the roles of NFAT activation and mechanism thereof in viral GPCR tumorigenesis remain unknown. Here we report that GPCRs of human Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (kGPCR) and cytomegalovirus (US28) shortcut NFAT activation by inhibiting the sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium ATPase (SERCA), which is necessary for viral GPCR tumorigenesis. Biochemical approaches, entailing pharmacological inhibitors and protein purification, demonstrate that viral GPCRs target SERCA2 to increase cytosolic calcium concentration. As such, NFAT activation induced by vGPCRs was exceedingly sensitive to cyclosporine A that targets calcineurin, but resistant to inhibition upstream of ER calcium release. Gene expression profiling identified a signature of NFAT activation in endothelial cells expressing viral GPCRs. The expression of NFAT-dependent genes was up-regulated in tumors derived from tva-kGPCR mouse and human KS. Employing recombinant kGPCR-deficient KSHV, we showed that kGPCR was critical for NFAT-dependent gene expression in KSHV lytic replication. Finally, cyclosporine A treatment diminished NFAT-dependent gene expression and tumor formation induced by viral GPCRs. These findings reveal essential roles of NFAT activation in viral GPCR tumorigenesis and a mechanism of "constitutive" NFAT activation by viral GPCRs.

  10. Active compounds in Chinese herbs and medicinal animal products which promote blood circulation via inhibition of Na+, K+-ATPase.

    PubMed

    Tzen, Jason Tc; Chen, Ronald Jy; Chung, Tse-Yu; Chen, Yi-Ching; Lin, Nan-Hei

    2010-01-01

    The therapeutic effect of cardiac glycosides for congestive heart failure lies in their reversible inhibition on Na+, K+-ATPase located in human myocardium. Several steroid-like compounds containing a core structure similar to cardiac glycosides have been found in many Chinese herbs and medicinal animal products conventionally used to promote blood circulation. They are putatively responsible for the therapeutic effect of those medicinal products via the same mechanism of inhibiting Na+, K+-ATPase. Inhibitory potency on Na+, K+-ATPase by ginsenosides, one of the identified steroid-like compounds, is significantly affected by sugar attachment that might cause steric hindrance of their binding to Na+, K+-ATPase. Ginsenosides with sugar moieties attached only to the C-3 position of the steroid-like structure, equivalent to the sugar position in cardiac glycosides, substantially inhibit Na+, K+-ATPase. However, their inhibitory potency is abolished when sugar moieties are linked to the C-6 or C-20 position of the steroid-like structure. In contrast, no appreciable contents of steroid-like compounds are found in danshen, a well-known Chinese herb traditionally regarded as an effective medicine promoting blood circulation. Instead, magnesium lithospermate B (MLB), the major soluble ingredient in danshen, is assumed to be responsible for the therapeutic effect by inhibiting Na+, K+-ATPase in a manner comparable to cardiac glycosides. Neuroprotective effects of cardiac glycosides, ginsenosides and MLB against ischemic stroke were accordingly observed in a cortical brain slice-based assay model. Whether the neuroprotection is also triggered by inhibition of Na+, K+-ATPase remains to be investigated. Molecular modeling suggests that cardiac glycosides, ginsenosides and MLB presumably bind to the same extracellular pocket of the Na+, K+-ATPase alpha subunit. PMID:20438664

  11. Active compounds in Chinese herbs and medicinal animal products which promote blood circulation via inhibition of Na+, K+-ATPase.

    PubMed

    Tzen, Jason Tc; Chen, Ronald Jy; Chung, Tse-Yu; Chen, Yi-Ching; Lin, Nan-Hei

    2010-01-01

    The therapeutic effect of cardiac glycosides for congestive heart failure lies in their reversible inhibition on Na+, K+-ATPase located in human myocardium. Several steroid-like compounds containing a core structure similar to cardiac glycosides have been found in many Chinese herbs and medicinal animal products conventionally used to promote blood circulation. They are putatively responsible for the therapeutic effect of those medicinal products via the same mechanism of inhibiting Na+, K+-ATPase. Inhibitory potency on Na+, K+-ATPase by ginsenosides, one of the identified steroid-like compounds, is significantly affected by sugar attachment that might cause steric hindrance of their binding to Na+, K+-ATPase. Ginsenosides with sugar moieties attached only to the C-3 position of the steroid-like structure, equivalent to the sugar position in cardiac glycosides, substantially inhibit Na+, K+-ATPase. However, their inhibitory potency is abolished when sugar moieties are linked to the C-6 or C-20 position of the steroid-like structure. In contrast, no appreciable contents of steroid-like compounds are found in danshen, a well-known Chinese herb traditionally regarded as an effective medicine promoting blood circulation. Instead, magnesium lithospermate B (MLB), the major soluble ingredient in danshen, is assumed to be responsible for the therapeutic effect by inhibiting Na+, K+-ATPase in a manner comparable to cardiac glycosides. Neuroprotective effects of cardiac glycosides, ginsenosides and MLB against ischemic stroke were accordingly observed in a cortical brain slice-based assay model. Whether the neuroprotection is also triggered by inhibition of Na+, K+-ATPase remains to be investigated. Molecular modeling suggests that cardiac glycosides, ginsenosides and MLB presumably bind to the same extracellular pocket of the Na+, K+-ATPase alpha subunit.

  12. In vitro evidence that phytanic acid compromises Na(+),K(+)-ATPase activity and the electron flow through the respiratory chain in brain cortex from young rats.

    PubMed

    Busanello, Estela Natacha Brandt; Viegas, Carolina Maso; Moura, Alana Pimentel; Tonin, Anelise Miotti; Grings, Mateus; Vargas, Carmen R; Wajner, Moacir

    2010-09-17

    Phytanic acid (Phyt) tissue concentrations are increased in Refsum disease and other peroxisomal disorders characterized by neurologic damage and brain abnormalities. The present work investigated the in vitro effects of Phyt, at concentrations found in these peroxisomal disorders, on important parameters of energy metabolism in brain cortex of young rats. The parameters analyzed were CO(2) production from labeled acetate and glucose, the activities of the citric acid cycle enzymes citrate synthase, aconitase, isocitrate dehydrogenase, alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase, succinate dehydrogenase, fumarase and malate dehydrogenase, as well as of the respiratory chain complexes I-IV, creatine kinase and Na(+),K(+)-ATPase. Our results show that Phyt did not alter citric acid cycle enzyme activities, or CO(2) production from acetate, reflecting no impairment of the functionality of the citric acid cycle. In contrast, respiratory chain activities were reduced at complexes I, II, I-III, II-III and IV. Membrane synaptical Na(+),K(+)-ATPase activity was also reduced by Phyt, with no alteration of creatine kinase activity. Considering the importance of the electron flow through the respiratory chain for brain energy metabolism (oxidative phosphorylation) and of Na(+),K(+)-ATPase activity for maintaining membrane potential necessary for neurotransmission, the data indicate that Phyt impairs brain bioenergetics at the level of energy formation, as well as neurotransmission. It is presumed that Phyt-induced impairment of these important systems may be involved at least in part in the neurological damage found in patients affected by disorders in which brain Phyt concentrations are increased.

  13. Resveratrol, an activator of SIRT1, upregulates sarcoplasmic calcium ATPase and improves cardiac function in diabetic cardiomyopathy

    PubMed Central

    Sulaiman, M.; Matta, M. J.; Sunderesan, N. R.; Periasamy, M.; Gupta, M.

    2010-01-01

    Reduced sarcoplasmic calcium ATPase (SERCA2a) expression has been shown to play a significant role in the cardiac dysfunction in diabetic cardiomyopathy. The mechanism of SERCA2a repression is, however, not known. This study was designed to examine the effect of resveratrol (RSV), a potent activator of SIRT1, on cardiac function and SERCA2a expression in chronic type 1 diabetes. Adult male mice were injected with streptozotocin (STZ) and fed with either a regular diet or a diet enriched with RSV. STZ administration produced progressive decline in cardiac function, associated with markedly reduced SERCA2a and SIRT1 protein levels and increased collagen deposition; RSV treatment to these mice had a tremendous beneficial effect both in terms of improving SERCA2a expression and on cardiac function. In cultured cardiomyocytes, RSV restored SERCA2 promoter activity, which was otherwise highly repressed in high-glucose media. Protective effects of RSV were found to be dependent on its ability to activate Silent information regulator (SIRT) 1. In cardiomyocytes, overexpression of SIRT1 was found sufficient to activate SERCA2 promoter in a dose-dependent manner. In contrast, pretreatment of cardiomyocytes with SIRT1 antagonist, splitomycin, blocked these beneficial effects of RSV. In addition, SIRT1 knockout (+/−) mice were also found to be more sensitive to STZ-induced decline in SERCA2a mRNA. The data demonstrate that, in chronic diabetes, 1) the enzymatic activity of cardiac SIRT1 is reduced, which contributes to reduced expression of SERCA2a and 2) through activation of SIRT1, RSV enhances expression of SERCA2a and improves cardiac function. PMID:20008278

  14. Angiotensin II AT1 receptor stimulates Na+–K+ ATPase activity through a pathway involving PKC-ζ in rat thyroid cells

    PubMed Central

    Marsigliante, S; Muscella, A; Elia, M G; Greco, S; Storelli, C

    2003-01-01

    Angiotensin II (Ang II) receptor subtype 1, AT1, is expressed by the rat thyroid. A relationship between thyroid function and several components of the renin-angiotensin system has also been established, but the Ang II cellular effects in thyrocytes and its transduction signalling remain undefined. The aim of the present paper was to investigate the modulation of the activity of the Na+-K+ ATPase by Ang II and its intracellular transduction pathway in PC-Cl3 cells, an established epithelial cell line derived from rat thyroid. Here we have demonstrated, by RT-PCR analysis, the expression of mRNA for the Ang II AT1 receptor in PC-Cl3 cells; mRNA for the Ang II AT2 receptor was not detected. Ang II was not able to affect the intracellular Ca2+ concentration in fura-2-loaded cells, but it stimulated the translocation from the cytosol to the plasma membrane of atypical protein kinase C-zeta (PKC-ζ) and -iota (PKC-ι) isoforms with subsequent phosphorylation of the extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2 (ERK1 and 2). Translocated atypical PKCs displayed temporally different activations, the activation of PKC-ζ being the fastest. PC-Cl3 cells stimulated with increasing Ang II concentrations showed dose- and time-dependent activation of the Na+-K+ ATPase activity, which paralleled the PKC-ζ translocation time course. Na+-K+ ATPase activity modulation was dependent on PKC activation since the PKC antagonist staurosporine abolished the stimulatory effect of Ang II. The inhibition of the ERK kinases 1 and 2 (MEK1 and 2) by PD098059 (2′-amino-3′-methoxyflavone) failed to block the effect of Ang II on the Na+-K+ ATPase activity. In conclusion, our results suggest that Ang II modulates Na+-K+ ATPase activity in PC-Cl3 cells through the AT1 receptor via activation of atypical PKC-ζ while the Ang II-activated PKC-ζ appears to have other as yet unknown functions. PMID:12527732

  15. Photosynthetic control of the plasma membrane H+-ATPase in Vallisneria leaves. I. Regulation of activity during light-induced membrane hyperpolarization.

    PubMed

    Harada, Akiko; Okazaki, Yoshiji; Takagi, Shingo

    2002-04-01

    In mesophyll cells of the aquatic angiosperm Vallisneria gigantea Graebner, red, blue, or blue plus far-red light induced a typical membrane hyperpolarization, whereas far-red light alone had little effect. Both N,N'-dicyclohexylcarbodiimide, a potent inhibitor of H+-ATPase, and carbonylcyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone, an uncoupler, produced a considerable membrane depolarization in the dark-adapted cells and a complete suppression of the light-induced hyperpolarization. Although 3-(3',4'-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea (DCMU), an inhibitor of photosynthetic electron transport, did not affect the membrane potential in darkness, it completely inhibited the light-induced membrane hyperpolarization. In vivo illumination of the leaves with red light caused a substantial decrease in the Km for ATP, not only of the vanadate-sensitive ATP-hydrolyzing activity in leaf homogenate, but also of the ATP-dependent H+-transporting activity in plasma membrane (PM) vesicles isolated from the leaves by aqueous polymer two-phase partitioning methods. The effects of red light were negated by the presence of DCMU during illumination. In vivo illumination with far-red light had no effect on the Km for ATP of H+-transporting activity. These results strongly suggest that an electrogenic component in the membrane potential of the mesophyll cell is generated by the PM H+-ATPase, and that photosynthesis-dependent modulation of the enzymatic activity of the PM H+-ATPase is involved in the light-induced membrane hyperpolarization. PMID:11941462

  16. Short- and long-term, salinity-induced modulation of V-ATPase activity in the posterior gills of the true freshwater crab, Dilocarcinus pagei (Brachyura, Trichodactylidae).

    PubMed

    Firmino, Kelly Cristina Silva; Faleiros, Rogério Oliveira; Masui, Douglas Chodi; McNamara, John Campbell; Furriel, Rosa Prazeres Melo

    2011-09-01

    To better understand the biochemical mechanisms underlying anisosmotic extracellular regulation in the freshwater Brachyura, we kinetically characterized the V-ATPase from the posterior gills of Dilocarcinus pagei, acclimated for 10days to salinities up to 21‰. Specific activity was highest in fresh water (26.5±2.1U mg(-1)), decreasing in 5‰ to 21‰, attaining 3-fold less at 15‰. Apparent affinities for ATP and Mg(2+) respectively increased 3.2- and 2-fold at 10‰, suggesting expression of different isoenzymes. In a 240-h time-course study of exposure to 21‰, maximum specific activity decreased 2.5- to 4-fold within 1 to 24h while apparent affinities for ATP and Mg(2+) respectively increased by 12-fold within 24h and 2.4-fold after 1h, unchanged thereafter. K(I) for bafilomycin A(1) decreased 150-fold after 1h, remaining constant up to 120h. This is the first kinetic analysis of V-ATPase specific activity in crustacean gills during salinity acclimation. Our findings indicate active gill Cl(-) uptake by D. pagei in fresh water, and short- and long-term down-regulation of V-ATPase-driven ion uptake processes during salinity exposure, aiding in comprehension of the biochemical adaptations underpinning the establishment of the Brachyura in fresh water.

  17. Effects of exposure to sublethal propiconazole on the antioxidant defense system and Na+-K+-ATPase activity in brain of rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhi-Hua; Zlabek, Vladimir; Grabic, Roman; Li, Ping; Machova, Jana; Velisek, Josef; Randak, Tomas

    2010-07-01

    Propiconazole (PCZ), a triazole fungicide, is widely present in the aquatic environment, but little is known regarding its chronic toxicity in the fish brain. This study assessed the effects of long-term exposure to PCZ on the antioxidant defense system and Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase activity of rainbow trout brain. Fish were exposed to sublethal concentrations of PCZ (0.2, 50, and 500 microg/l) for 7, 20, and 30 days, respectively. Oxidative stress indices (reactive oxygen species, lipid peroxidation, and carbonyl protein) and antioxidant parameters (superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, and reduced glutathione) were measured, as well as Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase activity. Adaptive responses to PCZ-induced stress were observed at 7 days. With prolonged exposure, significantly higher levels of oxidative indices were indicative of oxidative stress, as also were the significant inhibition of antioxidant enzyme activity and reduced glutathione content. Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase activity was significantly inhibited after prolonged exposure. Chemometrics of all parameters by principal component analysis, enabled the separation of sampled individuals into four groups with 93.39% of total accumulated variance. A low level of oxidative stress can induce the adaptive responses of the antioxidant defense system, while prolonged exposure to PCZ may lead to serious oxidative damage in fish brain. We suggest that selected biochemical markers in fish brain could be used as potential biomarkers for monitoring residual fungicides present in the aquatic environments.

  18. Low frequency and low intensity pulsed electromagnetic field exerts its antiinflammatory effect through restoration of plasma membrane calcium ATPase activity.

    PubMed

    Selvam, Ramasamy; Ganesan, Kalaivani; Narayana Raju, K V S; Gangadharan, Akkalayi Chandrapuram; Manohar, Bhakthavatchalam Murali; Puvanakrishnan, Rengarajulu

    2007-06-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic inflammatory disorder affecting 1% of the population worldwide. Pulsed electromagnetic field (PEMF) has a number of well-documented physiological effects on cells and tissues including antiinflammatory effect. This study aims to explore the antiinflammatory effect of PEMF and its possible mechanism of action in amelioration of adjuvant induced arthritis (AIA). Arthritis was induced by a single intradermal injection of heat killed Mycobacterium tuberculosis at a concentration of 500 microg in 0.1 ml of paraffin oil into the right hind paw of rats. The arthritic animals showed a biphasic response regarding changes in the paw edema volume. During the chronic phase of the disease, arthritic animals showed an elevated level of lipid peroxides and depletion of antioxidant enzymes with significant radiological and histological changes. Besides, plasma membrane Ca(2+) ATPase (PMCA) activity was inhibited while intracellular Ca(2+) level as well as prostaglandin E(2) levels was noticed to be elevated in blood lymphocytes of arthritic rats. Exposure of arthritic rats to PEMF at 5 Hzx4 microT x 90 min, produced significant antiexudative effect resulting in the restoration of the altered parameters. The antiinflammatory effect could be partially mediated through the stabilizing action of PEMF on membranes as reflected by the restoration of PMCA and intracellular Ca(2+) levels in blood lymphocytes subsequently inhibiting PGE(2) biosynthesis. The results of this study indicated that PEMF could be developed as a potential therapy for RA in human beings.

  19. Direct measurement of metal-ion chelation in the active site of the AAA+ ATPase magnesium chelatase.

    PubMed

    Viney, Joanne; Davison, Paul A; Hunter, C Neil; Reid, James D

    2007-11-01

    Magnesium chelatase catalyzes the first committed step in chlorophyll biosynthesis. This complex enzyme has at least three substrates and couples ATP hydrolysis to the insertion of Mg2+ into protoporphyrin IX. We directly observed metal-ion chelation fluorometrically, providing the first data describing the on-enzyme reaction. We describe the transient-state kinetics of magnesium chelatase with direct observation of the evolution of an enzyme-product complex EMgDIX. We demonstrate that MgATP2- binding occurs after the rate-determining step. As nucleotide hydrolysis is essential for the overall reaction this must also occur after the rate-determining step. This provides the first evidence for the synchronization of the ATPase and chelatase pathways and suggests a mechanism where nucleotide binding acts to clamp the chelatase in a product complex. Comparison of rate constants for the slow step in the reaction with further transient kinetics under conditions where multiple turnovers can occur reveals that an additional activation step is required to explain the behavior of magnesium chelatase. These data provide a new view of the sequence of events occurring in the reaction catalyzed by magnesium chelatase.

  20. The Tomato R Gene Products I-2 and Mi-1 Are Functional ATP Binding Proteins with ATPase Activity

    PubMed Central

    Tameling, Wladimir I. L.; Elzinga, Sandra D. J.; Darmin, Patricia S.; Vossen, Jack H.; Takken, Frank L. W.; Haring, Michel A.; Cornelissen, Ben J. C.

    2002-01-01

    Most plant disease resistance (R) genes known today encode proteins with a central nucleotide binding site (NBS) and a C-terminal Leu-rich repeat (LRR) domain. The NBS contains three ATP/GTP binding motifs known as the kinase-1a or P-loop, kinase-2, and kinase-3a motifs. In this article, we show that the NBS of R proteins forms a functional nucleotide binding pocket. The N-terminal halves of two tomato R proteins, I-2 conferring resistance to Fusarium oxysporum and Mi-1 conferring resistance to root-knot nematodes and potato aphids, were produced as glutathione S-transferase fusions in Escherichia coli. In a filter binding assay, purified I-2 was found to bind ATP rather than other nucleoside triphosphates. ATP binding appeared to be fully dependent on the presence of a divalent cation. A mutant I-2 protein containing a mutation in the P-loop showed a strongly reduced ATP binding capacity. Thin layer chromatography revealed that both I-2 and Mi-1 exerted ATPase activity. Based on the strong conservation of NBS domains in R proteins of the NBS-LRR class, we propose that they all are capable of binding and hydrolyzing ATP. PMID:12417711

  1. Mg2+-dependent ATPase activity in cardiac myofibrils from the insulin-resistant JCR:LA-cp rat.

    PubMed

    Misra, T; Russell, J C; Clark, T A; Pierce, G N

    2001-01-01

    There is a great deal of information presently available documenting a cardiomyopathic condition in insulin-deficient models of diabetes. Less information is available documenting a similar status in non insulin-dependent models of diabetes. We have studied the functional integrity of the myofibrils isolated from hearts of JCR:LA rats. The JCR:LA rat is hyperinsulinemic, hyperlipidemic, glucose intolerant and obese. As such, it carries many of the characteristics found in humans with non insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. These animals also have many indications of heart disease. However, it is not clear if the hearts suffer from vascular complications or are cardiomyopathic in nature. We examined Mg2+-dependent myofibrillar ATPase in hearts of JCR:LA-cp/cp rats and their corresponding control animals (+/?) and found no significant differences (P> 0.05). This is in striking contrast to the depression in this activity exhibited by cardiac myofibrils isolated from insulin-deficient models of diabetes. Our data demonstrate that myofibrillar functional integrity is normal in JCR:LA-cp rats and suggest that these hearts are not in a cardiomyopathic state. Insulin status may be critical in generating a cardiomyopathic condition in diabetes.

  2. Uncoupling of attenuated myo-(3H)inositol uptake and dysfunction in Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase pumping activity in hypergalactosemic cultured bovine lens epithelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Cammarata, P.R.; Tse, D.; Yorio, T. )

    1991-06-01

    Attenuation of both the active transport of myo-inositol and Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase pumping activity has been implicated in the onset of sugar cataract and other diabetic complications in cell culture and animal models of the disease. Cultured bovine lens epithelial cells (BLECs) maintained in galactose-free Eagle's minimal essential medium (MEM) or 40 mM galactose with and without sorbinil for up to 5 days were examined to determine the temporal effects of hypergalactosemia on Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase and myo-inositol uptake. The Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase pumping activity after 5 days of continuous exposure to galactose did not change, as demonstrated by 86Rb uptake. The uptake of myo-(3H)inositol was lowered after 20 h of incubation in galactose and remained below that of the control throughout the 5-day exposure period. The coadministration of sorbinil to the galactose medium normalized the myo-(3H)inositol uptake. No significant difference in the rates of passive efflux of myo-(3H)inositol or 86Rb from preloaded galactose-treated and control cultures was observed. Culture-media reversal studies were also carried out to determine whether the galactose-induced dysfunction in myo-inositol uptake could be corrected. BLECs were incubated in galactose for 5 days, then changed to galactose-free physiological medium with and without sorbinil for a 1-day recovery period. myo-Inositol uptake was reduced to 34% of control after 6 days of continuous exposure to galactose. Within 24 h of media reversal, myo-inositol uptake returned to or exceeded control values in BLECs switched to either MEM or MEM with sorbinil.2+ reversible and occurred independently of changes in Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase pumping activity in cultured lens epithelium, indicating that the two parameters are not strictly associated and that the deficit in myo-inositol uptake occurs rapidly during hypergalactosemia.

  3. afsS is a target of AfsR, a transcriptional factor with ATPase activity that globally controls secondary metabolism in Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2).

    PubMed

    Lee, Ping-Chin; Umeyama, Takashi; Horinouchi, Sueharu

    2002-03-01

    AfsR is a pleiotropic, global regulator that controls the production of actinorhodin, undecylprodigiosin and calcium-dependent antibiotic in Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2). AfsR, with 993 amino acids, is phosphorylated on serine and threonine residues by a protein serine/threonine kinase AfsK and contains an OmpR-like DNA-binding fold at its N-terminal portion and A- and B-type nucleotide-binding motifs in the middle of the protein. The DNA-binding domain, in-dependently of the nucleotide-binding domain, contributed the binding of AfsR to the upstream region of afsS that locates immediately 3' to afsR and encodes a 63-amino-acid protein. No transcription of afsS in the DeltaafsR background and restoration of afsS transcription by afsR on a plasmid in the same genetic background indicated that afsR served as a transcriptional activator for afsS. Interestingly, the AfsR binding site overlapped the promoter of afsS, as determined by DNase I protection assay and high-resolution S1 nuclease mapping. The nucleotide-binding domain contributed distinct ATPase and GTPase activity. The phosphorylation of AfsR by AfsK greatly enhanced the DNA-binding activity and modulated the ATPase activity. The DNA-binding ability of AfsR was independent of the ATPase activity. However, the ATPase activity was essential for transcriptional activation of afsS, probably because the energy available from ATP hydrolysis is required for the isomerization of the closed complex between AfsR and RNA polymerase to a transcriptionally competent open complex. Thus, AfsR turns out to be a unique transcriptional factor, in that it is modular, in which DNA-binding and ATPase activities are physically separable, and the two functions are modulated by phosphorylation on serine and threonine residues.

  4. Maintenance of luminal pH and protease activity in lysosomes/late endosomes by vacuolar ATPase in chlorpromazine-treated RAW264 cells accumulating phospholipids.

    PubMed

    Hamaguchi, Ryohei; Haginaka, Jun; Tanimoto, Toshiko; Kuroda, Yukihiro

    2014-02-01

    Cationic amphiphilic drugs (CADs) inhibit phospholipases competitively/uncompetitively. It has also been reported that CADs spontaneously accumulate in acidic organelles and increase their luminal pH, which may lead to deactivation of phospholipid-metabolising enzymes, causing cellular phospholipid accumulation. Recently, however, contradictory results have also been reported in that the luminal pH is not increased by CAD treatment. In this study, we examined whether the lysosomal/late endosomal acidic pH was maintained by vacuolar ATPase (v-ATPase) after treatment with chlorpromazine (CPZ) as a model CAD. The activity of lysosomal protease after CPZ treatment was also measured. Oregon Green-dextran-tetramethylrhodamine conjugate was employed to determine the luminal pH of the lysosomes/late endosomes in RAW264 cells. The luminal pH remained acidic after treatment with CPZ for 23 h, and the lysosomal protease activity was not decreased by 5-min CPZ treatment. Co-treatment with CPZ and bafilomycin A1 (v-ATPase inhibitor) raised the luminal pH. These results suggest that the lysosomal/late endosomal pH is not affected by a 23-h CPZ treatment. In addition, lysosomal enzymes presumably maintain their activity when CPZ accumulates. Our results imply that the pH homeostasis in lysosomes/late endosomes is strictly maintained even after a longer treatment with CADs.

  5. Marked inhibition of Na+, K(+)- ATPase activity and the respiratory chain by phytanic acid in cerebellum from young rats: possible underlying mechanisms of cerebellar ataxia in Refsum disease.

    PubMed

    Busanello, Estela Natacha Brandt; Zanatta, Ângela; Tonin, Anelise Miotti; Viegas, Carolina Maso; Vargas, Carmen Regla; Leipnitz, Guilhian; Ribeiro, César Augusto João; Wajner, Moacir

    2013-02-01

    Refsum disease is an autosomal recessive disorder of peroxisomal metabolism biochemically characterized by highly elevated concentrations of phytanic acid (Phyt) in a variety of tissues including the cerebellum. Reduction of plasma Phyt levels by dietary restriction intake ameliorates ataxia, a common clinical manifestation of this disorder, suggesting a neurotoxic role for this branched-chain fatty acid. Therefore, considering that the underlying mechanisms of cerebellum damage in Refsum disease are poorly known, in the present study we tested the effects of Phyt on important parameters of bioenergetics, such as the activities of the respiratory chain complexes I to IV, creatine kinase and Na(+), K(+)- ATPase in cerebellum preparations from young rats. The activities of complexes I, II, I-III and II-III and Na(+), K(+)- ATPase were markedly inhibited (65-85%) in a dose-dependent manner by Phyt. In contrast, creatine kinase and complex IV activities were not altered by this fatty acid. Therefore, it is presumed that impairment of the electron flow through the respiratory chain and inhibition of Na(+), K(+)- ATPase that is crucial for synaptic function may be involved in the pathophysiology of the cerebellar abnormalities manifested as ataxia in Refsum disease and in other peroxisomal disorders in which brain Phyt accumulates.

  6. A novel C-terminal homologue of Aha1 co-chaperone binds to heat shock protein 90 and stimulates its ATPase activity in Entamoeba histolytica.

    PubMed

    Singh, Meetali; Shah, Varun; Tatu, Utpal

    2014-04-17

    Cytosolic heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) has been shown to be essential for many infectious pathogens and is considered a potential target for drug development. In this study, we have carried out biochemical characterization of Hsp90 from a poorly studied protozoan parasite of clinical importance, Entamoeba histolytica. We have shown that Entamoeba Hsp90 can bind to both ATP and its pharmacological inhibitor, 17-AAG (17-allylamino-17-demethoxygeldanamycin), with Kd values of 365.2 and 10.77 μM, respectively, and it has a weak ATPase activity with a catalytic efficiency of 4.12×10(-4) min(-1) μM(-1). Using inhibitor 17-AAG, we have shown dependence of Entamoeba on Hsp90 for its growth and survival. Hsp90 function is regulated by various co-chaperones. Previous studies suggest a lack of several important co-chaperones in E. histolytica. In this study, we describe the presence of a novel homologue of co-chaperone Aha1 (activator of Hsp90 ATPase), EhAha1c, lacking a canonical Aha1 N-terminal domain. We also show that EhAha1c is capable of binding and stimulating ATPase activity of EhHsp90. In addition to highlighting the potential of Hsp90 inhibitors as drugs against amoebiasis, our study highlights the importance of E. histolytica in understanding the evolution of Hsp90 and its co-chaperone repertoire.

  7. Basic FGF attenuates amyloid beta-peptide-induced oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, and impairment of Na+/K+-ATPase activity in hippocampal neurons.

    PubMed

    Mark, R J; Keller, J N; Kruman, I; Mattson, M P

    1997-05-01

    Basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) exhibits trophic activity for many populations of neurons in the brain, and can protect those neurons against excitotoxic, metabolic and oxidative insults. In Alzheimer's disease (AD), amyloid beta-peptide (A beta) fibrils accumulate in plaques which are associated with degenerating neurons. A beta can be neurotoxic by a mechanism that appears to involve induction of oxidative stress and disruption of calcium homeostasis. Plaques in AD brain contain high levels of bFGF suggesting a possible modulatory role for bFGF in the neurodegenerative process. We now report that bFGF can protect cultured hippocampal neurons against A beta25-35 toxicity by a mechanism that involves suppression of reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation and maintenance of Na+/K+-ATPase activity. A beta25-35 induced lipid peroxidation, accumulation of H2O2, mitochondrial ROS accumulation, and a decrease in mitochondrial transmembrane potential; each of these effects of A beta25-35 was abrogated in cultures pre-treated with bFGF. Na+/K+-ATPase activity was significantly reduced following exposure to A beta25-35 in control cultures, but not in cultures pre-treated with bFGF. bFGF did not protect neurons from death induced by ouabain (a specific inhibitor of the Na+/K+-ATPase) or 4-hydroxynonenal (an aldehydic product of lipid peroxidation) consistent with a site of action of bFGF prior to induction of oxidative stress and impairment of ion-motive ATPases. By suppressing accumulation of oxyradicals, bFGF may slow A beta-induced neurodegenerative cascades. PMID:9187334

  8. The AAA-ATPase molecular chaperone Cdc48/p97 disassembles sumoylated centromeres, decondenses heterochromatin, and activates ribosomal RNA genes

    PubMed Central

    Mérai, Zsuzsanna; Chumak, Nina; García-Aguilar, Marcelina; Hsieh, Tzung-Fu; Nishimura, Toshiro; Schoft, Vera K.; Bindics, János; Ślusarz, Lucyna; Arnoux, Stéphanie; Opravil, Susanne; Mechtler, Karl; Zilberman, Daniel; Fischer, Robert L.; Tamaru, Hisashi

    2014-01-01

    Centromeres mediate chromosome segregation and are defined by the centromere-specific histone H3 variant (CenH3)/centromere protein A (CENP-A). Removal of CenH3 from centromeres is a general property of terminally differentiated cells, and the persistence of CenH3 increases the risk of diseases such as cancer. However, active mechanisms of centromere disassembly are unknown. Nondividing Arabidopsis pollen vegetative cells, which transport engulfed sperm by extended tip growth, undergo loss of CenH3; centromeric heterochromatin decondensation; and bulk activation of silent rRNA genes, accompanied by their translocation into the nucleolus. Here, we show that these processes are blocked by mutations in the evolutionarily conserved AAA-ATPase molecular chaperone, CDC48A, homologous to yeast Cdc48 and human p97 proteins, both of which are implicated in ubiquitin/small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO)-targeted protein degradation. We demonstrate that CDC48A physically associates with its heterodimeric cofactor UFD1-NPL4, known to bind ubiquitin and SUMO, as well as with SUMO1-modified CenH3 and mutations in NPL4 phenocopy cdc48a mutations. In WT vegetative cell nuclei, genetically unlinked ribosomal DNA (rDNA) loci are uniquely clustered together within the nucleolus and all major rRNA gene variants, including those rDNA variants silenced in leaves, are transcribed. In cdc48a mutant vegetative cell nuclei, however, these rDNA loci frequently colocalized with condensed centromeric heterochromatin at the external periphery of the nucleolus. Our results indicate that the CDC48ANPL4 complex actively removes sumoylated CenH3 from centromeres and disrupts centromeric heterochromatin to release bulk rRNA genes into the nucleolus for ribosome production, which fuels single nucleus-driven pollen tube growth and is essential for plant reproduction. PMID:25344531

  9. Mechanism of noradrenaline-induced stimulation of Na-K ATPase activity in the rat brain: implications on REM sleep deprivation-induced increase in brain excitability.

    PubMed

    Mallick, Birendra Nath; Singh, Sudhuman; Singh, Abhishek

    2010-03-01

    Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep is a unique phenomenon expressed in all higher forms of animals. Its quantity varies in different species and with ageing; it is also affected in several psycho-somatic disorders. Several lines of studies showed that after REM sleep loss, the levels of noradrenaline (NA) increase in the brain. The NA in the brain modulates neuronal Na-K ATPase activity, which helps maintaining the brain excitability status. The detailed mechanism of increase in NA level after REM sleep loss and the effect of NA on stimulation of Na-K ATPase in the neurons have been discussed. The findings have been reviewed and discussed with an aim to understand the role of REM sleep in maintaining brain excitability status.

  10. Glucostatic regulation of (+)-(/sup 3/H)amphetamine binding in the hypothalamus: correlation with Na/sup +/, K/sup +/-ATPase activity

    SciTech Connect

    Angel, I.; Hauger, R.L.; Luu, M.D.; Giblin, B.; Skolnick, P.; Paul, S.M.

    1985-09-01

    Preincubation of rat hypothalamic slices in glucose-free Krebs-Ringer buffer (37/sup 0/C) resulted in a time-dependent decrease in specific (+)-(/sup 3/H)amphetamine binding in the crude synaptosomal fraction prepared from these slices. The addition of D-glucose resulted in a dose- and time-dependent stimulation of (+)-(/sup 3/H)amphetamine binding, whereas incubations with L-glucose, 2-deoxy-D-glucose, or 3-O-methyl-D-glucose failed to increase the number of (+)-(/sup 3/H)amphetamine binding sites. Ouabain potently inhibited the glucose-induced stimulation of (+)-(/sup 3/H)amphetamine binding, suggesting the involvement of Na/sup +/, K/sup +/-ATPase. Preincubation of hypothalamic slices with glucose also resulted in an increase in Na/sup +/,K/sup +/-ATPase activity and the number of specific high-affinity binding sites for (/sup 3/H)ouabain, and a good correlation was observed between the glucose-stimulated increase in (+)-(/sup 3/H)amphetamine and (/sup 3/H)ouabain binding. These data suggest that the (+)-(/sup 3/H)amphetamine binding site in hypothalamus, previously linked to the anorectic actions of various phenylethylamines, is regulated both in vitro and in vivo by physiological concentrations of glucose. Glucose and amphetamine appear to interact at common sites in the hypothalamus to stimulate Na/sup +/,K/sup +/-ATPase activity, and the latter may be involved in the glucostatic regulation of appetite.

  11. BAP, a mammalian BiP-associated protein, is a nucleotide exchange factor that regulates the ATPase activity of BiP.

    PubMed

    Chung, Kyung Tae; Shen, Ying; Hendershot, Linda M

    2002-12-01

    We identified a mammalian BiP-associated protein, BAP, using a yeast two-hybrid screen that shared low homology with yeast Sls1p/Sil1p and mammalian HspBP1, both of which regulate the ATPase activity of their Hsp70 partner. BAP encoded an approximately 54-kDa protein with an N-terminal endoplasmic reticulum (ER) targeting sequence, two sites of N-linked glycosylation, and a C-terminal ER retention sequence. Immunofluorescence staining demonstrated that BAP co-localized with GRP94 in the endoplasmic reticulum. BAP was ubiquitously expressed but showed the highest levels of expression in secretory organ tissues, a pattern similar to that observed with BiP. BAP binding was affected by the conformation of the ATPase domain of BiP based on in vivo binding studies with BiP mutants. BAP stimulated the ATPase activity of BiP when added alone or together with the ER DnaJ protein, ERdj4, by promoting the release of ADP from BiP. Together, these data demonstrate that BAP serves as a nucleotide exchange factor for BiP and provide insights into the mechanisms that control protein folding in the mammalian ER.

  12. Full activation of mouse platelets requires ADP secretion regulated by SERCA3 ATPase-dependent calcium stores.

    PubMed

    Elaïb, Ziane; Adam, Frédéric; Berrou, Eliane; Bordet, Jean-Claude; Prévost, Nicolas; Bobe, Régis; Bryckaert, Marijke; Rosa, Jean-Philippe

    2016-08-25

    The role of the sarco-endoplasmic reticulum calcium (Ca(2+)) adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase) 3 (SERCA3) in platelet physiology remains poorly understood. Here, we show that SERCA3 knockout (SERCA3(-/-)) mice exhibit prolonged tail bleeding time and rebleeding. Thrombus formation was delayed both in arteries and venules in an in vivo ferric chloride-induced thrombosis model. Defective platelet adhesion and thrombus growth over collagen was confirmed in vitro. Adenosine 5'-diphosphate (ADP) removal by apyrase diminished adhesion and thrombus growth of control platelets to the level of SERCA3(-/-) platelets. Aggregation, dense granule secretion, and Ca(2+) mobilization of SERCA3(-/-) platelets induced by low collagen or low thrombin concentration were weaker than controls. Accordingly, SERCA3(-/-) platelets exhibited a partial defect in total stored Ca(2+) and in Ca(2+) store reuptake following thrombin stimulation. Importantly ADP, but not serotonin, rescued aggregation, secretion, and Ca(2+) mobilization in SERCA3(-/-) platelets, suggesting specificity. Dense granules appeared normal upon electron microscopy, mepacrine staining, and total serotonin content, ruling out a dense granule defect. ADP induced normal platelet aggregation, excluding a defect in ADP activation pathways. The SERCA3-specific inhibitor 2,5-di-(tert-butyl)-1,4-benzohydroquinone diminished both Ca(2+) mobilization and secretion of control platelets, as opposed to the SERCA2b inhibitor thapsigargin. This confirmed the specific role of catalytically active SERCA3 in ADP secretion. Accordingly, SERCA3-dependent Ca(2+) stores appeared depleted in SERCA3(-/-) platelets. Finally, αIIbβ3 integrin blockade did not affect SERCA3-dependent secretion, therefore proving independent of αIIbβ3 engagement. Altogether, these results show that SERCA3-dependent Ca(2+) stores control a specific ADP secretion pathway required for full platelet secretion induced by agonists at low concentration and independent

  13. Na⁺,K⁺-ATPase activity in the posterior gills of the blue crab, Callinectes ornatus (Decapoda, Brachyura): modulation of ATP hydrolysis by the biogenic amines spermidine and spermine.

    PubMed

    Garçon, Daniela P; Lucena, Malson N; França, Juliana L; McNamara, John C; Fontes, Carlos F L; Leone, Francisco A

    2011-11-01

    We investigated the effect of the exogenous polyamines spermine, spermidine and putrescine on modulation by ATP, K⁺, Na⁺, NH₄⁺ and Mg²⁺ and on inhibition by ouabain of posterior gill microsomal Na⁺,K⁺-ATPase activity in the blue crab, Callinectes ornatus, acclimated to a dilute medium (21‰ salinity). This is the first kinetic demonstration of competition between spermine and spermidine for the cation sites of a crustacean Na⁺,K⁺-ATPase. Polyamine inhibition is enhanced at low cation concentrations: spermidine almost completely inhibited total ATPase activity, while spermine inhibition attained 58%; putrescine had a negligible effect on Na⁺,K⁺-ATPase activity. Spermine and spermidine affected both V and K for ATP hydrolysis but did not affect ouabain-insensitive ATPase activity. ATP hydrolysis in the absence of spermine and spermidine obeyed Michaelis-Menten behavior, in contrast to the cooperative kinetics seen for both polyamines. Modulation of V and K by K⁺, Na⁺, NH₄⁺ and Mg²⁺ varied considerably in the presence of spermine and spermidine. These findings suggest that polyamine inhibition of Na⁺,K⁺-ATPase activity may be of physiological relevance to crustaceans that occupy habitats of variable salinity.

  14. Gill-specific (Na(+), K(+))-ATPase activity and α-subunit mRNA expression during low-salinity acclimation of the ornate blue crab Callinectes ornatus (Decapoda, Brachyura).

    PubMed

    Leone, Francisco A; Garçon, Daniela P; Lucena, Malson N; Faleiros, Rogério O; Azevedo, Sergio V; Pinto, Marcelo R; McNamara, John C

    2015-08-01

    We evaluate (Na(+), K(+))-ATPase activity, and protein and gene expression of the α-subunit in posterior gills 6 and 7 of Callinectes ornatus, a euryhaline crab, during a 10-day acclimation period from seawater (33‰ S) to low salinity (21‰ S). (Na(+), K(+))-ATPase activity decreased within 1h after transfer to 21‰ S, values recovering by 24h and attaining a maximum of ≈180 nmol Pi min(-1) mg(-1) after 10 days (≈2.5-fold increase). (Na(+), K(+))-ATPase activity is ≈1.5-fold greater in gill 6 than in gill 7, independently of salinity. Relative expression of (Na(+), K(+))-ATPase α-subunit mRNA increased in both gills within 1- to 2-h exposure to low salinity, reaching an ≈8-fold maximum after 24-h exposure, decreasing slightly by 10 days acclimation to low salinity. This increase in α-subunit mRNA expression may underpin the increased (Na(+), K(+))-ATPase activity seen after 10 days acclimation to low salinity. Enzyme affinity for ATP was greater in gill 6 than in gill 7, in contrast to ouabain affinity that was greater in gill 7. Western blotting analysis identified a single immunoreactive band against the (Na(+), K(+))-ATPase α-subunit with an Mr of ≈105 kDa, independently of gill number and low salinity acclimation. Despite these differences, gills 6 and 7 appear to perform similar functions in salt uptake from the dilute medium. The partial cDNA sequence obtained for the gill (Na(+), K(+))-ATPase of C. ornatus (GenBank deposit KF056804) showed 97 to 91% identities with similar sequences from other portunid crab gills. The regulation of gill (Na(+), K(+))-ATPase activity during acclimation to low salinity is discussed.

  15. Kinetic analysis of gill (Na⁺,K⁺)-ATPase activity in selected ontogenetic stages of the Amazon River shrimp, Macrobrachium amazonicum (Decapoda, Palaemonidae): interactions at ATP- and cation-binding sites.

    PubMed

    Leone, Francisco Assis; Masui, Douglas Chodi; de Souza Bezerra, Thais Milena; Garçon, Daniela Pereira; Valenti, Wagner Cotroni; Augusto, Alessandra Silva; McNamara, John Campbell

    2012-04-01

    We investigated modulation by ATP, Mg²⁺, Na⁺, K⁺ and NH₄⁺ and inhibition by ouabain of (Na⁺,K⁺)-ATPase activity in microsomal homogenates of whole zoeae I and decapodid III (formerly zoea IX) and whole-body and gill homogenates of juvenile and adult Amazon River shrimps, Macrobrachium amazonicum. (Na⁺,K⁺)-ATPase-specific activity was increased twofold in decapodid III compared to zoea I, juveniles and adults, suggesting an important role in this ontogenetic stage. The apparent affinity for ATP (K(M) = 0.09 ± 0.01 mmol L⁻¹) of the decapodid III (Na⁺,K⁺)-ATPase, about twofold greater than the other stages, further highlights this relevance. Modulation of (Na⁺,K⁺-ATPase activity by K⁺ also revealed a threefold greater affinity for K⁺ (K₀.₅ = 0.91 ± 0.04 mmol L⁻¹) in decapodid III than in other stages; NH₄⁺ had no modulatory effect. The affinity for Na⁺ (K₀.₅ = 13.2 ± 0.6 mmol L⁻¹) of zoea I (Na⁺,K⁺)-ATPase was fourfold less than other stages. Modulation by Na⁺, Mg²⁺ and NH₄⁺ obeyed cooperative kinetics, while K⁺ modulation exhibited Michaelis-Menten behavior. Rates of maximal Mg²⁺ stimulation of ouabain-insensitive ATPase activity differed in each ontogenetic stage, suggesting that Mg²⁺-stimulated ATPases other than (Na⁺,K⁺)-ATPase are present. Ouabain inhibition suggests that, among the various ATPase activities present in the different stages, Na⁺-ATPase may be involved in the ontogeny of osmoregulation in larval M. amazonicum. The NH₄⁺-stimulated, ouabain-insensitive ATPase activity seen in zoea I and decapodid III may reflect a stage-specific means of ammonia excretion since functional gills are absent in the early larval stages.

  16. Physiological Studies on Pea Tendrils. III. ATPase Activity and Contractility Associated with Coiling

    PubMed Central

    Jaffe, M. J.; Galston, A. W.

    1967-01-01

    Extracts of the tendrils of Pisum sativum, Var. Alaska, exhibit adenosine triphosphatase activity which is inversely proportional to the amount the tendrils have coiled. The specific viscosity of the extract decreases when ATP is added. This evidence indicates a possible role of a contractile adenosine triphosphatase in coiling. PMID:16656580

  17. Structural lipid changes and Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase activity of gill cells' basolateral membranes during saltwater acclimation in sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus, L.) juveniles.

    PubMed

    Lança, Maria João; Machado, Maria; Ferreira, Ana Filipa; Quintella, Bernardo Ruivo; de Almeida, Pedro Raposo

    2015-11-01

    Seawater acclimation is a critical period for anadromous species and a process yet to be understood in lampreys. Considering that changes in lipid composition of the gill cells' basolateral membranes may disrupt the major transporter Na(+)K(+)-ATPase, the goal of this study was to detect changes at this level during juvenile sea lamprey seawater acclimation. The results showed that saltwater acclimation has a direct effect on the fatty acid composition of gill cells basolateral membrane's phospholipids. When held in full-strength seawater, the fatty acid profile of basolateral membrane's phospholipids suffered a restructure by increasing either saturation or the ratio between oleic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid. Simultaneously, the activity of Na(+)K(+)-ATPase revealed a significant and positive correlation with basolateral membrane's cholesterol content in the presence of highest salinity. Our results pointed out for lipid adjustments involving the functional transporter present on the gill cell basolateral membranes to ensure the role played by branchial Na(+)K(+)-ATPase in ion transport during saltwater acclimation process. The responses observed contributed to the strategy adopted by gill cell's basolateral membranes to compensate for osmotic and ionic stressors, to ensure the success of the process of seawater acclimation associated with the downstream trophic migration of juvenile sea lamprey.

  18. Stimulation of Na{sup +}/K{sup +} ATPase activity and Na{sup +} coupled glucose transport by {beta}-catenin

    SciTech Connect

    Sopjani, Mentor; Alesutan, Ioana; Wilmes, Jan; Dermaku-Sopjani, Miribane; Lam, Rebecca S.; Jakupi, Muharrem; Foeller, Michael; Lang, Florian

    2010-11-19

    Research highlights: {yields} The oncogenic transcription factor {beta}-catenin stimulates the Na{sup +}/K{sup +}-ATPase. {yields} {beta}-Catenin stimulates SGLT1 dependent Na{sup +}, glucose cotransport. {yields} The effects are independent of transcription. {yields} {beta}-Catenin sensitive transport may contribute to properties of proliferating cells. -- Abstract: {beta}-Catenin is a multifunctional protein stimulating as oncogenic transcription factor several genes important for cell proliferation. {beta}-Catenin-regulated genes include the serum- and glucocorticoid-inducible kinase SGK1, which is known to stimulate a variety of transport systems. The present study explored the possibility that {beta}-catenin influences membrane transport. To this end, {beta}-catenin was expressed in Xenopus oocytes with or without SGLT1 and electrogenic transport determined by dual electrode voltage clamp. As a result, expression of {beta}-catenin significantly enhanced the ouabain-sensitive current of the endogeneous Na{sup +}/K{sup +}-ATPase. Inhibition of vesicle trafficking by brefeldin A revealed that the stimulatory effect of {beta}-catenin on the endogenous Na{sup +}/K{sup +}-ATPase was not due to enhanced stability of the pump protein in the cell membrane. Expression of {beta}-catenin further enhanced glucose-induced current (Ig) in SGLT1-expressing oocytes. In the absence of SGLT1 Ig was negligible irrespective of {beta}-catenin expression. The stimulating effect of {beta}-catenin on both Na{sup +}/K{sup +} ATPase and SGLT1 activity was observed even in the presence of actinomycin D, an inhibitor of transcription. The experiments disclose a completely novel function of {beta}-catenin, i.e. the regulation of transport.

  19. [Effect of naloxone on the activity of Cl(-)-activated Mg(2+)-ATPase from plasma membrane fraction of the common bream brain (Abramis brama L.) in the presence of GABAa-ergic substances].

    PubMed

    Menzikov, S A; Menzikova, O V

    2003-01-01

    We studied the effect of naloxone--an antagonist of the opioid receptors--on sensitivity of Cl(-)-activated Mg(2+)-ATPase from the plasma membrane fraction of bream brain (Abramis brama L.) to GABAa-ergic substances. Preincubation of the plasma membranes with 1-100 microM naloxone increased the basal Mg(2+)-ATPase activity and suppressed its activation by chloride ions. The same effects were observed in the presence of the agonists of GABAa/benzodiazepine receptors: 0.1-100 microM GABA, 1-500 microM pentobarbital, and 0.1-100 microM phenazepam. Naloxone (10 microM) inhibited the activation of the basal Mg(2+)-ATPase by the studied ligands and regenerated the enzyme sensitivity to Cl-. However, the effect of naloxone was not observed in the presence of high concentrations of pentobarbital (500 microM) and phenazepam (100 microM). The obtained data show that naloxone modulates the activity of Cl(-)-activated Mg(2+)-ATPase from the plasma membranes of bream brain and antagonizes the GABAa receptor ligands.

  20. Human Mitochondrial Hsp70 (Mortalin): Shedding Light on ATPase Activity, Interaction with Adenosine Nucleotides, Solution Structure and Domain Organization

    PubMed Central

    Dores-Silva, Paulo R.; Barbosa, Leandro R. S.; Ramos, Carlos H. I.; Borges, Júlio C.

    2015-01-01

    The human mitochondrial Hsp70, also called mortalin, is of considerable importance for mitochondria biogenesis and the correct functioning of the cell machinery. In the mitochondrial matrix, mortalin acts in the importing and folding process of nucleus-encoded proteins. The in vivo deregulation of mortalin expression and/or function has been correlated with age-related diseases and certain cancers due to its interaction with the p53 protein. In spite of its critical biological roles, structural and functional studies on mortalin are limited by its insoluble recombinant production. This study provides the first report of the production of folded and soluble recombinant mortalin when co-expressed with the human Hsp70-escort protein 1, but it is still likely prone to self-association. The monomeric fraction of mortalin presented a slightly elongated shape and basal ATPase activity that is higher than that of its cytoplasmic counterpart Hsp70-1A, suggesting that it was obtained in the functional state. Through small angle X-ray scattering, we assessed the low-resolution structural model of monomeric mortalin that is characterized by an elongated shape. This model adequately accommodated high resolution structures of Hsp70 domains indicating its quality. We also observed that mortalin interacts with adenosine nucleotides with high affinity. Thermally induced unfolding experiments indicated that mortalin is formed by at least two domains and that the transition is sensitive to the presence of adenosine nucleotides and that this process is dependent on the presence of Mg2+ ions. Interestingly, the thermal-induced unfolding assays of mortalin suggested the presence of an aggregation/association event, which was not observed for human Hsp70-1A, and this finding may explain its natural tendency for in vivo aggregation. Our study may contribute to the structural understanding of mortalin as well as to contribute for its recombinant production for antitumor compound screenings

  1. Functional roles of Na+/K+-ATPase in active ammonia excretion and seawater acclimation in the giant mudskipper, Periophthalmodon schlosseri

    PubMed Central

    Chew, Shit F.; Hiong, Kum C.; Lam, Sock P.; Ong, Seow W.; Wee, Wei L.; Wong, Wai P.; Ip, Yuen K.

    2014-01-01

    The giant mudskipper, Periophthalmodon schlosseri, is an amphibious fish that builds burrows in the mudflats. It can actively excrete ammonia through its gills, and tolerate high environmental ammonia. This study aimed to examine the effects of seawater (salinity 30; SW) acclimation and/or environmental ammonia exposure on the kinetic properties of Na+/K+-ATPase (Nka) from, and mRNA expression and protein abundance of nka/Nka α–subunit isoforms in, the gills of P. schlosseri pre-acclimated to slightly brackish water (salinity 3; SBW). Our results revealed that the Nka from the gills of P. schlosseri pre-acclimated to SBW for 2 weeks had substantially higher affinity to (or lower Km for) K+ than NH+4, and its affinity to NH+4 decreased significantly after 6-days exposure to 75 mmol l−1 NH4Cl in SBW. Hence, Nka transported K+ selectively to maintain intracellular K+ homeostasis, instead of transporting NH+4 from the blood into ionocytes during active NH+4 excretion as previously suggested. Two nkaα isoforms, nkaα1 and nkaα3, were cloned and sequenced from the gills of P. schlosseri. Their deduced amino acid sequences had K+ binding sites identical to that of Nkaα1c from Anabas testudineus, indicating that they could effectively differentiate K+ from NH+4. Six days of exposure to 75 mmol l−1 NH4Cl in SBW, or to SW with or without 50 mmol l−1 NH4Cl led to significant increases in Nka activities in the gills of P. schlosseri. However, a significant increase in the comprehensive Nkaα protein abundance was observed only in the gills of fish exposed to 50 mmol l−1 NH4Cl in SW. Hence, post-translational modification could be an important activity modulator of branchial Nka in P. schlosseri. The fast modulation of Nka activity and concurrent expressions of two branchial nkaα isoforms could in part contribute to the ability of P. schlosseri to survive abrupt transfer between SBW and SW or abrupt exposure to ammonia. PMID:24795653

  2. Measurements of Myosin-II Motor Activity During Cytokinesis in Fission Yeast.

    PubMed

    Tang, Qing; Pollard, Luther W; Lord, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    Fission yeast myosin-II (Myo2p) represents the critical actin-based motor protein that drives actomyosin ring assembly and constriction during cytokinesis. We detail three different methods to measure Myo2p motor function. Actin-activated ATPases provide a readout of actomyosin ATPase motor activity in a bulk assay; actin filament motility assays reveal the speed and efficiency of myosin-driven actin filament gliding (when motors are anchored); myosin-bead motility assays reveal the speed and efficiency of myosin ensembles traveling along actin filaments (when actin is anchored). Collectively, these methods allow us to combine the standard in vivo approaches common to fission yeast with in vitro biochemical methods to learn more about the mechanistic action of myosin-II during cytokinesis.

  3. [Effects of cell-binding protein A of Staphylococcus aureus on the level of intracellular calcium ions and actomyosin ATP-ase activity in the smooth muscles].

    PubMed

    Melenevs'ka, N V; Miroshnychenko, M S; Filippov, I B; Artemenko, O Iu; Shuba, M F

    2006-01-01

    Immune-active substance of Staphylococcus aureus, cell-bound protein A (CBPA), enhances the acetylcholine- or hyperpotassium (K+) Krebs solution-evoked excitation in Taenia coli smooth muscles. CBPA increases caffeine- and carbachole-evoked Ca2+ signals in smooth muscle cells suspension, loaded with indo-1, and also caffeine- and acetylcholine-evoked contraction in smooth muscles slices. Against a background of CBPA-suppressed action of sodium nitroprusside, ATP evokes the membrane depolarization. CBPA in small concentrations potentiates ATPase (Mg2+,Ca2+-; Mg2+- and Mg2+- in the presence of EGTA) activity of actomyosin in the smooth muscles.

  4. Effective ATPase activity and moderate chaperonin-cochaperonin interaction are important for the functional single-ring chaperonin system.

    PubMed

    Illingworth, Melissa; Salisbury, Jared; Li, Wenqian; Lin, Donghai; Chen, Lingling

    2015-10-01

    Escherichia coli chaperonin GroEL and its cochaperonin GroES are essential for cell growth as they assist folding of cellular proteins. The double-ring assembly of GroEL is required for the chaperone function, and a single-ring variant GroEL(SR) is inactive with GroES. Mutations in GroEL(SR) (A92T, D115N, E191G, and A399T) have been shown to render GroEL(SR)-GroES functional, but the molecular mechanism of activation is unclear. Here we examined various biochemical properties of these functional GroEL(SR)-GroES variants, including ATP hydrolysis rate, chaperonin-cochaperonin interaction, and in vitro protein folding activity. We found that, unlike the diminished ATPase activity of the inactive GroEL(SR)-GroES, all four single-ring variants hydrolyzed ATP at a level comparable to that of the double-ring GroEL-GroES. The chaperonin-cochaperonin interaction in these single-ring systems was weaker, by at least a 50-fold reduction, than the highly stable inactive GroEL(SR)-GroES. Strikingly, only GroEL(SR)D115N-GroES and GroEL(SR)A399T-GroES assisted folding of malate dehydrogenase (MDH), a commonly used folding substrate. These in vitro results are interesting considering that all four of the single-ring systems were able to substitute GroEL-GroES to support cell growth, suggesting that the precise action of chaperonin on MDH folding may not represent that on the intrinsic cellular substrates. Our findings that both effective ATP hydrolysis rate and moderate chaperonin-cochaperonin interaction are important factors for functional single-ring GroEL(SR)-GroES are reminiscent of the naturally occurring single-ring human mitochondrial chaperonin mtHsp60-mtHsp10. Differences in biochemical properties between the single- and double-ring chaperonin systems may be exploited in designing molecules for selective targeting. PMID:26271593

  5. Environmental stimulation improves performance in the ox-maze task and recovers Na+,K+-ATPase activity in the hippocampus of hypoxic-ischemic rats.

    PubMed

    Rojas, J J; Deniz, B F; Schuch, C P; Carletti, J V; Deckmann, I; Diaz, R; Matté, C; dos Santos, T M; Wyse, A T; Netto, C A; Pereira, L O

    2015-04-16

    In animal models, environmental enrichment (EE) has been found to be an efficient treatment for alleviating the consequences of neonatal hypoxia-ischemia (HI). However the potential for this therapeutic strategy and the mechanisms involved are not yet clear. The aim of present study is to investigate behavioral performance in the ox-maze test and Na+,K+-ATPase, catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities in the hippocampus of rats that suffered neonatal HI and were stimulated in an enriched environment. Seven-day-old rats were submitted to the HI procedure and divided into four groups: control maintained in standard environment (CTSE), control submitted to EE (CTEE), HI in standard environment (HISE) and HI in EE (HIEE). Animals were stimulated with EE for 9 weeks (1 h/day for 6 days/week) and then behavioral and biochemical parameters were evaluated. Present results indicate learning and memory in the ox-maze task were impaired in HI rats and this effect was recovered after EE. Hypoxic-ischemic event did not alter the Na+,K+-ATPase activity in the right hippocampus (ipsilateral to arterial occlusion). However, on the contralateral hemisphere, HI caused a decrease in this enzyme activity that was recovered by EE. The activities of GPx and CAT were not changed by HI in any group evaluated. In conclusion, EE was effective in recovering learning and memory impairment in the ox-maze task and Na+,K+-ATPase activity in the hippocampus caused by HI. The present data provide further support for the therapeutic potential of environmental stimulation after neonatal HI in rats.

  6. Effect of estrogen in relation to dietary vitamin D3 and calcium on activity of intestinal alkaline phosphatase and Ca-ATPase in immature chicks.

    PubMed

    Qin, X; Klandorf, H

    1993-06-01

    The interaction between 17 beta-estradiol (E2), vitamin D3 (D3), and dietary Ca on the activities of Ca-ATPase and alkaline phosphatase (AP) was determined in the intestine of young female chicks. Chicks (n = 36) were assigned to two groups, one of which was transferred to a low Ca (0.2%) diet and the other maintained on a regular diet. One week later, each group was further divided into three subgroups and given daily injections of 0(oil), 0.25, or 0.5 mg E2/kg body wt for 14 days. E2 treatment as well as low dietary Ca significantly increased AP activity (P < 0.05), whereas the highest E2 dose decreased jejunal Ca-ATPase (P < 0.05). In a separate study, day-old chicks (n = 40) fed a purified diet supplemented with or without D3 for 24 days were divided into two subgroups and administered daily injections of either 0 or 0.25 mg estrogen 3-benzoate/kg body wt for 5 days. E2 alone or in combination with D3 failed to change Ca-ATPase activity in either the duodenum or the jejunum. However, E2 enhanced the D3-stimulated AP activity measured in the supernatant of duodenum (D3, P < 0.001; E2, P > 0.05; E2 x D3, P < 0.05) and jejunum (D3, P < 0.001; E2, P > 0.05; E2 x D3, P = 0.06). Daily injections of 0.5 mg E2/kg body wt for 6 days to 6-week-old D3-adequate chicks (n = 16) significantly increased AP activity in jejunum but not in liver and kidney (P < 0.05). In conclusion, E2 treatment enhanced the activity of intestinal AP but not Ca-ATPase. This enhancement was independent of dietary Ca, but was D3-dependent and tissue specific. The results suggest that the pubertal increase in plasma E2 can affect Ca absorption from the intestine by increasing the activity of AP.

  7. Nitric oxide stress and activation of AMP-activated protein kinase impair β-cell sarcoendoplasmic reticulum calcium ATPase 2b activity and protein stability

    PubMed Central

    Tong, X; Kono, T; Evans-Molina, C

    2015-01-01

    The sarcoendoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ ATPase 2b (SERCA2b) pump maintains a steep Ca2+ concentration gradient between the cytosol and ER lumen in the pancreatic β-cell, and the integrity of this gradient has a central role in regulated insulin production and secretion, maintenance of ER function and β-cell survival. We have previously demonstrated loss of β-cell SERCA2b expression under diabetic conditions. To define the mechanisms underlying this, INS-1 cells and rat islets were treated with the proinflammatory cytokine interleukin-1β (IL-1β) combined with or without cycloheximide or actinomycin D. IL-1β treatment led to increased inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) gene and protein expression, which occurred concurrently with the activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). IL-1β led to decreased SERCA2b mRNA and protein expression, whereas time-course experiments revealed a reduction in protein half-life with no change in mRNA stability. Moreover, SERCA2b protein but not mRNA levels were rescued by treatment with the NOS inhibitor l-NMMA (NG-monomethyl l-arginine), whereas the NO donor SNAP (S-nitroso-N-acetyl-d,l-penicillamine) and the AMPK activator AICAR (5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide ribonucleotide) recapitulated the effects of IL-1β on SERCA2b protein stability. Similarly, IL-1β-induced reductions in SERCA2b expression were rescued by pharmacological inhibition of AMPK with compound C or by transduction of a dominant-negative form of AMPK, whereas β-cell death was prevented in parallel. Finally, to determine a functional relationship between NO and AMPK signaling and SERCA2b activity, fura-2/AM (fura-2-acetoxymethylester) Ca2+ imaging experiments were performed in INS-1 cells. Consistent with observed changes in SERCA2b expression, IL-1β, SNAP and AICAR increased cytosolic Ca2+ and decreased ER Ca2+ levels, suggesting congruent modulation of SERCA activity under these conditions. In aggregate, these results show that SERCA2b protein

  8. Sodium ions, acting at high-affinity extracellular sites, inhibit sodium-ATPase activity of the sodium pump by slowing dephosphorylation.

    PubMed Central

    Beaugé, L A; Glynn, I M

    1979-01-01

    1. It is known that extracellular Na+ ions, in low concentrations, inhibit Na+-ATPase activity in resealed red cell ghosts and that this inhibition is reversed by high concentrations of extracellular Na+. We have attempted to elucidate these actions of extracellular Na+ by investigating the dependence on Na+ concentration of (a) ATP-ADP exchange and Na+-ATPase activity both in native and in N-ethylmaleimide (NEM)-treated (Na+ + K+)-ATPase from pig kidney, and (b) the rate of hydrolysis of the phosphorylated kidney enzyme in the absence of K+ ions. 2. With the native enzyme, ATP-ADP exchange and Na+-ATPase activity showed similar responses to changes in Na+ concentration: a steep but S-shaped rise between 0 and 2.5 mM, a slight fall (exchange) or a plateau (ATPase) between 2.5 and 10 mM, and a roughly linear rise between 10 and 150 mM. With NEM-treated enzyme, the ATP-ADP exchange, which was greatly accelerated, showed no sign either of inhibition at intermediate Na+ concentrations or of the reversal of that inhibition at higher concentrations. The exchange rate increased with Na+ concentration in a smooth curve and was half-maximal at about 7 mM. 3. The effects, on ATP-ADP exchange, of changing the concentrations of ATP, ADP and Mg have also been investigated. With both native and NEM-treated enzyme, the interactions of ATP, ADP and Mg are complicated; they show that, for the reaction leading to ATP formation, either free ADP rather than MgADP is the substrate, or Mg2+ ions are inhibitory (or both). 4. Since NEM, in the conditions in which we have used it, is believed to act by inhibiting the conversion of an ADP-sensitive form of the phosphoenzyme (E1P) to an ADP-insensitive form (E2P), the absence of Na+ inhibition of ATP-ADP exchange in NEM-treated enzyme, together with the parallel effects of Na+ ions on the ATP-ADP exchange activity and on the Na+-ATPase activity of native enzyme, suggests that the inhibitory effect of external Na+ occurs after the conversion

  9. Activation of α7 Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor Decreases On-site Mortality in Crush Syndrome through Insulin Signaling-Na/K-ATPase Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Bo-Shi; Zhang, En-Hui; Wu, Miao; Guo, Jin-Min; Su, Ding-Feng; Liu, Xia; Yu, Jian-Guang

    2016-01-01

    On-site mortality in crush syndrome remains high due to lack of effective drugs based on definite diagnosis. Anisodamine (Ani) is widely used in China for treatment of shock, and activation of α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7nAChR) mediates such antishock effect. The present work was designed to test whether activation of α7nAChR with Ani decreased mortality in crush syndrome shortly after decompression. Sprague-Dawley rats and C57BL/6 mice with crush syndrome were injected with Ani (20 mg/kg and 28 mg/kg respectively, i.p.) 30 min before decompression. Survival time, serum potassium, insulin, and glucose levels were observed shortly after decompression. Involvement of α7nAChR was verified with methyllycaconitine (selective α7nAChR antagonist) and PNU282987 (selective α7nAChR agonist), or in α7nAChR knockout mice. Effect of Ani was also appraised in C2C12 myotubes. Ani reduced mortality and serum potassium and enhanced insulin sensitivity shortly after decompression in animals with crush syndrome, and PNU282987 exerted similar effects. Such effects were counteracted by methyllycaconitine or in α7nAChR knockout mice. Mortality and serum potassium in rats with hyperkalemia were also reduced by Ani. Phosphorylation of Na/K-ATPase was enhanced by Ani in C2C12 myotubes. Inhibition of tyrosine kinase on insulin receptor, phosphoinositide 3-kinase, mammalian target of rapamycin, signal transducer and activator of transcription 3, and Na/K-ATPase counteracted the effect of Ani on extracellular potassium. These findings demonstrated that activation of α7nAChR could decrease on-site mortality in crush syndrome, at least in part based on the decline of serum potassium through insulin signaling-Na/K-ATPase pathway. PMID:27065867

  10. Phospholemman is not required for the acute stimulation of Na⁺-K⁺-ATPase α₂-activity during skeletal muscle fatigue.

    PubMed

    Manoharan, Palanikumar; Radzyukevich, Tatiana L; Hakim Javadi, Hesamedin; Stiner, Cory A; Landero Figueroa, Julio A; Lingrel, Jerry B; Heiny, Judith A

    2015-12-15

    The Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase α2-isoform in skeletal muscle is rapidly stimulated during muscle use and plays a critical role in fatigue resistance. The acute mechanisms that stimulate α2-activity are not completely known. This study examines whether phosphorylation of phospholemman (PLM/FXYD1), a regulatory subunit of Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase, plays a role in the acute stimulation of α2 in working muscles. Mice lacking PLM (PLM KO) have a normal content of the α2-subunit and show normal exercise capacity, in contrast to the greatly reduced exercise capacity of mice that lack α2 in the skeletal muscles. Nerve-evoked contractions in vivo did not induce a change in total PLM or PLM phosphorylated at Ser63 or Ser68, in either WT or PLM KO. Isolated muscles of PLM KO mice maintain contraction and resist fatigue as well as wild type (WT). Rb(+) transport by the α2-Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase is stimulated to the same extent in contracting WT and contracting PLM KO muscles. Phosphorylation of sarcolemmal membranes prepared from WT but not PLM KO skeletal muscles stimulates the activity of both α1 and α2 in a PLM-dependent manner. The stimulation occurs by an increase in Na(+) affinity without significant change in Vmax and is more effective for α1 than α2. These results demonstrate that phosphorylation of PLM is capable of stimulating the activity of both isozymes in skeletal muscle; however, contractile activity alone is not sufficient to induce PLM phosphorylation. Importantly, acute stimulation of α2, sufficient to support exercise and oppose fatigue, does not require PLM or its phosphorylation.

  11. Orexin/hypocretin activates mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1) via an Erk/Akt-independent and calcium-stimulated lysosome v-ATPase pathway.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhiqiang; Liu, Shimeng; Kakizaki, Miyo; Hirose, Yuuki; Ishikawa, Yukiko; Funato, Hiromasa; Yanagisawa, Masashi; Yu, Yonghao; Liu, Qinghua

    2014-11-14

    The lack of the neuropeptide orexin, also known as hypocretin, results in narcolepsy, a chronic sleep disorder characterized by frequent sleep/cataplexy attacks and rapid eye movement sleep abnormalities. However, the downstream pathways of orexin signaling are not clearly understood. Here, we show that orexin activates the mTOR pathway, a central regulator of cell growth and metabolism, in the mouse brain and multiple recombinant cell lines that express the G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), orexin 1 receptor (OX1R) or orexin 2 receptor (OX2R). This orexin/GPCR-stimulated mTOR activation is sensitive to rapamycin, an inhibitor of mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1) but is independent of two well known mTORC1 activators, Erk and Akt. Rather, our studies indicate that orexin activates mTORC1 via extracellular calcium influx and the lysosome pathway involving v-ATPase and Rag GTPases. Moreover, a cytoplasmic calcium transient is sufficient to mimic orexin/GPCR signaling to mTORC1 activation in a v-ATPase-dependent manner. Together, our studies suggest that the mTORC1 pathway functions downstream of orexin/GPCR signaling, which plays a crucial role in many physiological and metabolic processes.

  12. Intramolecular cross-linking of domains at the active site links A1 and B subfragments of the Ca2+-ATPase of sarcoplasmic reticulum.

    PubMed

    Ross, D C; McIntosh, D B

    1987-02-15

    Glutaraldehyde treatment of sarcoplasmic reticulum vesicles results in formation of cross-linked Ca2+-ATPase oligomers. Under limiting reaction conditions, where minimal interpolypeptide cross-linking occurs, hydrodynamic properties of the monomer are altered, such that, on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide electrophoresis, the enzyme migrates with an apparent molecular weight of 125,000 (E(125], as compared to the native enzyme (E(110]. The E(125) species was also formed following reaction with other cross-linking bis-aldehydes, with formaldehyde and with a bissuccinimidyl ester. Derivitization resulted in inactivation of ATPase activity and of phosphoprotein formation from Pi. E(125) formation was inhibited by ATP, ADP, AMPPCP, and orthovanadate, and by specific modification of active site Lys-514 with fluorescein-5'-isothiocyanate. Tryptic cleavage patterns of the glutaraldehyde-modified enzyme were consistent with covalent linkage of A1 and B fragments that have been postulated to comprise the phosphorylation and nucleotide-binding domains (MacLennan, D. H., Brandt, C. J., Korczak, B., and Green, N. M. (1985) Nature 316, 696-700). The denaturing detergent, sodium dodecyl sulfate, prevented cross-link formation. Interdomain cross-linking was inhibited by prior modification with either 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonate, phenylglyoxal, or pyridoxal-5'-phosphate but was unaffected by thiol group modification with iodoacetate or N-ethylmaleimide, suggesting involvement of lysine residues. These findings indicate that intramolecular cross-linking at the active site of the Ca2+-ATPase involves phosphorylation- and ATP-binding domains that are widely separated in the linear sequence. PMID:2950084

  13. Activity of the Na,K-ATPase alpha4 isoform is important for membrane potential, intracellular Ca2+, and pH to maintain motility in rat spermatozoa.

    PubMed

    Jimenez, Tamara; Sánchez, Gladis; Wertheimer, Eva; Blanco, Gustavo

    2010-05-01

    While the function of the ubiquitous Na,K-ATPase alpha1 subunit has been well documented, the role of the sperm-specific alpha4 isoform of this ion transporter is less known. We have explored the importance of alpha4 in rat sperm physiology by taking advantage of the high sensitivity of this isoform for the inhibitor ouabain. Using concentrations that selectively block alpha4 activity, we found ouabain to reduce not only sperm total motility, but also multiple parameters of sperm movement, including progressive motility, straight line, curvilinear, and average path velocities, lateral head displacement, beat cross frequency, and linearity. According to a direct role of alpha4 in Na(+) transport, ouabain inhibition of alpha4 increased [Na(+)](i) in the male gametes. In addition, interference of alpha4 activity with ouabain produced cell membrane depolarization, diminished pH, and increased [Ca(2)(+)](i) in spermatozoa. Inhibition of alpha4 was sufficient to cause all these effects and additional blockage of alpha1, the other Na,K-ATPase alpha isoform expressed in sperm, and higher doses of ouabain did not result in further changes in the cell parameters studied. These results show that alpha4 is the Na,K-ATPase isoform primarily involved in controlling the transmembrane Na(+) gradient in sperm, and that alpha4 activity is necessary for maintaining membrane potential, [Ca(2)(+)](i), and [H(+)](i) in the cells. The high dependence of sperm motility on membrane excitability, [Ca(2)(+)](i), and acid-base balance suggests that their regulation is the mechanism by which alpha4 maintains motility of the male gametes.

  14. Detailed search for protein kinase(s) involved in plasma membrane H+-ATPase activity regulation of yeast cells.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Renata R; Castanheira, Diogo; Teixeira, Janaina A; Bouillet, Leoneide E M; Ribeiro, Erica M C; Trópia, Maria M J; Alvarez, Florencia; Correa, Lygia F M; Mota, Bruno E F; Conceição, Luis Eduardo F R; Castro, Ieso M; Brandão, Rogelio L

    2015-03-01

    This study displays a screening using yeast strains deficient in protein kinases known to exist in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. From 95 viable single mutants, 20 mutants appear to be affected in the glucose-induced extracellular acidification. The mutants that are unaffected in calcium signaling were tested for their sensitivity to hygromycin B. Furthermore, we verified whether the remaining mutants produced enzymes that are appropriately incorporated at plasma membrane. Finally, we measure the kinetic properties of the enzyme in purified plasma membranes from glucose-starved as well as glucose-fermenting cells. We confirmed the kinase Ptk2 involvement in H(+)-ATPase regulation (increase of affinity for ATP). However, the identification of the kinase(s) responsible for phosphorylation that leads to an increase in Vmax appears to be more complex. Complementary experiments were performed to check how those protein kinases could be related to the control of the plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase and/or the potential membrane. In summary, our results did not permit us to identify the protein kinase(s) involved in regulating the catalytic efficiency of the plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase. Therefore, our results indicate that the current regulatory model based on the phosphorylation of two different sites located in the C-terminus tail of the enzyme could be inappropriate.

  15. The amino-terminal 200 amino acids of the plasma membrane Na+,K+-ATPase alpha subunit confer ouabain sensitivity on the sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPase.

    PubMed Central

    Ishii, T; Takeyasu, K

    1993-01-01

    Cardiac glycosides such as G-strophanthin (ouabain) bind to and inhibit the plasma membrane Na+,K(+)-ATPase but not the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca(2+)-ATPase, whereas thapsigargin specifically blocks the SR Ca(2+)-ATPase. The chimera [n/c]CC, in which the amino-terminal amino acids Met1 to Asp162 of the SR Ca(2+)-ATPase (SERCA1) were replaced with the corresponding portion of the Na+,K(+)-ATPase alpha 1 subunit (Met1 to Asp200), retained thapsigargin- and Ca(2+)-sensitive ATPase activity, although the activity was lower than that of the wild-type SR Ca(2+)-ATPase. Moreover, this Ca(2+)-sensitive ATPase activity was inhibited by ouabain. The chimera NCC, in which Met1-Gly354 of the SR Ca(2+)-ATPase were replaced with the corresponding portion of the Na+,K(+)-ATPase, lost the thapsigargin-sensitive Ca(2+)-ATPase activity seen in CCC and [n/c]CC. [3H]Ouabain binding to [n/c]CC and NCC demonstrated that the affinity for this inhibitor seen in the wild-type chicken Na+,K(+)-ATPase was restored in these chimeric molecules. Thus, the ouabain-binding domains are distinct from the thapsigargin sites; ouabain binds to the amino-terminal portion (Met1 to Asp200) of the Na+,K(+)-ATPase alpha 1 subunit, whereas thapsigargin interacts with the regions after Asp162 of the Ca(2+)-ATPase. Moreover, the amino-terminal 200 amino acids of the Na+,K(+)-ATPase alpha 1 subunit are sufficient to exert ouabain-dependent inhibition even after incorporation into the corresponding portion of the Ca(2+)-ATPase, and the segment Ile163 to Gly354 of the SR Ca(2+)-ATPase is critical for thapsigargin- and Ca(2+)-sensitive ATPase activity. Images Fig. 5 PMID:8415625

  16. [Modulation of S-1 conformation and inhibition of the skeletal muscle S-1-ATPase by calponin of the mussel].

    PubMed

    Sirenko, V V; Simonian, A O; Dobrzhanskaia, A V; Shelud'ko, N S; Borovikov, Iu S

    2014-01-01

    A novel 40 kDa protein has been detected in native thin filaments from catch muscles of the mussel Crenomytilus grayanus. In this study, using skeletal muscle actin and S-1, we investigated the effects of the mussel 40-kDa actin-binding protein on the acto · S-1 ATPase activity. On increasing the 40-kDa actin-binding protein (CaP-40) concentration, the actin-activated ATPase activity decreased, and was inhibited 80% at a CaP-40 to actin ratio of 0.5. Polarized fluorimetry technique and glycerinated muscle fibers were used to study effects of CaP-40 on the orientation and mobility of fluorescent label 1.5-IAEDANS specifically bound to CyS-707 of myosin subfragment-1 in the absence of nucleotide, and in the presence of MgADP or MgATP. We have concluded that CaP-40 binding to actin affects the strong binding of myosin to actin but has no effect on the weak binding. Thus, the influence of the CaP-40 on the formation of strong actomyosin binding forms A · M and A · M · ADP manifests itself by a decrease in the relative content of myosin cross-bridges strongly bound with actin, which probably results in a decrease in the relative content of "switch on" actin monomers in thin filaments. This suggests that, as calponin CaP-40 selects its target the phase of strong actomyosin binding binding which preceded by a phase generating power stroke.

  17. Hemolymph ionic regulation and adjustments in gill (Na+, K+)-ATPase activity during salinity acclimation in the swimming crab Callinectes ornatus (Decapoda, Brachyura).

    PubMed

    Garçon, Daniela P; Masui, Douglas C; Mantelatto, Fernando L M; Furriel, Rosa P M; McNamara, John C; Leone, Francisco A

    2009-09-01

    We evaluate hemolymph osmotic and ionic regulatory abilities and characterize a posterior gill microsomal (Na+, K+)-ATPase from the marine swimming crab, Callinectes ornatus, acclimated to 21 per thousand or 33 per thousand salinity. C. ornatus is isosmotic after acclimation to 21 per thousand but is hyposmotic at 33 per thousand salinity; hemolymph ions do not recover initial levels on acclimation to 21 per thousand salinity but are anisoionic compared to ambient concentrations, revealing modest regulatory ability. NH4+ modulates enzyme affinity for K+, which increases 187-fold in crabs acclimated to 33 per thousand salinity. The (Na+, K+)-ATPase redistributes into membrane fractions of different densities, suggesting that altered membrane composition results from salinity acclimation. ATP was hydrolyzed at maximum rates of 182.6 +/- 7.1 nmol Pi min(-1) mg(-1) (21 per thousand) and 76.2 +/- 3.5 nmol Pi min(-1) mg(-1) (33 per thousand), with little change in KM values (approximately 50 micromol L(-1)). K+ together with NH4+ synergistically stimulated activity to maximum rates of approximately 240 nmol Pi min(-1) mg(-1). KI values for ouabain inhibition (approximately 110 micromol L(-1)) decreased to 44.9 +/- 1.0 micromol L(-1) (21 per thousand) and 28.8 +/- 1.3 micromol L(-1) (33 per thousand) in the presence of both K+ and NH4+. Assays employing various inhibitors suggest the presence of mitochondrial F0F1-, and K+- and V-ATPase activities in the gill microsomes.

  18. Rapid regulation of the plasma membrane H+-ATPase activity is essential to salinity tolerance in two halophyte species, Atriplex lentiformis and Chenopodium quinoa

    PubMed Central

    Bose, Jayakumar; Rodrigo-Moreno, Ana; Lai, Diwen; Xie, Yanjie; Shen, Wenbiao; Shabala, Sergey

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims The activity of H+-ATPase is essential for energizing the plasma membrane. It provides the driving force for potassium retention and uptake through voltage-gated channels and for Na+ exclusion via Na+/H+ exchangers. Both of these traits are central to plant salinity tolerance; however, whether the increased activity of H+-ATPase is a constitutive trait in halophyte species and whether this activity is upregulated at either the transcriptional or post-translation level remain disputed. Methods The kinetics of salt-induced net H+, Na+ and K+ fluxes, membrane potential and AHA1/2/3 expression changes in the roots of two halophyte species, Atriplex lentiformis (saltbush) and Chenopodium quinoa (quinoa), were compared with data obtained from Arabidopsis thaliana roots. Key Results Intrinsic (steady-state) membrane potential values were more negative in A. lentiformis and C. quinoa compared with arabidopsis (−144 ± 3·3, −138 ± 5·4 and −128 ± 3·3 mV, respectively). Treatment with 100 mm NaCl depolarized the root plasma membrane, an effect that was much stronger in arabidopsis. The extent of plasma membrane depolarization positively correlated with NaCl-induced stimulation of vanadate-sensitive H+ efflux, Na+ efflux and K+ retention in roots (quinoa > saltbush > arabidopsis). NaCl-induced stimulation of H+ efflux was most pronounced in the root elongation zone. In contrast, H+-ATPase AHA transcript levels were much higher in arabidopsis compared with quinoa plants, and 100 mm NaCl treatment led to a further 3-fold increase in AHA1 and AHA2 transcripts in arabidopsis but not in quinoa. Conclusions Enhanced salinity tolerance in the halophyte species studied here is not related to the constitutively higher AHA transcript levels in the root epidermis, but to the plant’s ability to rapidly upregulate plasma membrane H+-ATPase upon salinity treatment. This is necessary for assisting plants to maintain highly negative

  19. Inactivation of mitochondrial ATPase by ultraviolet light

    SciTech Connect

    Chavez, E.; Cuellar, A.

    1984-05-01

    The present work describes experiments that show that far-ultraviolet irradiation induce the inhibition of ATPase activity in both membrane-bound and soluble F1. It was also found that ultraviolet light promotes the release of tightly bound adenine nucleotides from F1-ATPase. Experiments carried out with submitochondrial particles indicate that succinate partially protects against these effects of ultraviolet light. Titration of sulfhydryl groups in both irradiated submitochondrial particles and soluble F1-ATPase indicates that a conformational change induced by photochemical modifications of amino acid residues appears involved in the inactivation of the enzyme. Finally, experiments are described which show that the tyrosine residue located in the active site of F1-ATPase is modified by ultraviolet irradiation.

  20. Variation of Photosynthesis, Fatty Acid Composition, ATPase and Acid Phosphatase Activities, and Anatomical Structure of Two Tea (Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze) Cultivars in Response to Fluoride

    PubMed Central

    Wang, L. X.; Tang, J. H.; Xiao, B.; Yang, Y. J.; Liu, J.

    2013-01-01

    The changes of photosynthetic parameters, water use efficiency (WUE), fatty acid composition, chlorophyll (Chl) content, malondialdehyde (MDA) content, ATPase and acid phosphatase activities, fluoride (F) content, and leaf anatomical structure of two tea cultivars, “Pingyangtezao” (PY) and “Fudingdabai” (FD), after F treatments were investigated. The results show that net photosynthetic rate (Pn), stomatal conductance (gs), and transpiration rate (E) significantly decreased in both cultivars after 0.3 mM F treatment, but FD had higher Pn, gs, and WUE and lower E than PY. Chl content in PY significantly decreased after 0.2 and 0.3 mM F treatments, while no significant changes were observed in FD. The proportions of shorter chain and saturated fatty acids increased and those of longer chain and unsaturated fatty acids decreased in both cultivars under F treatments. The contents of MDA increased after F treatments but were higher in PY than in FD. In addition, F treatments decreased the activities of ATPase and acid phosphatase and increased F content in both cultivars; however, compared with PY, FD showed higher enzymatic activities and lower F content in roots and leaves. Leaf anatomical structure in FD indicated that cells in leaf midrib region were less injured by F than in PY. PMID:24023526

  1. Variation of photosynthesis, fatty acid composition, ATPase and acid phosphatase activities, and anatomical structure of two tea (Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze) cultivars in response to fluoride.

    PubMed

    Wang, L X; Tang, J H; Xiao, B; Yang, Y J; Liu, J

    2013-01-01

    The changes of photosynthetic parameters, water use efficiency (WUE), fatty acid composition, chlorophyll (Chl) content, malondialdehyde (MDA) content, ATPase and acid phosphatase activities, fluoride (F) content, and leaf anatomical structure of two tea cultivars, "Pingyangtezao" (PY) and "Fudingdabai" (FD), after F treatments were investigated. The results show that net photosynthetic rate (P(n)), stomatal conductance (g(s)), and transpiration rate (E) significantly decreased in both cultivars after 0.3 mM F treatment, but FD had higher P(n), g(s), and WUE and lower E than PY. Chl content in PY significantly decreased after 0.2 and 0.3 mM F treatments, while no significant changes were observed in FD. The proportions of shorter chain and saturated fatty acids increased and those of longer chain and unsaturated fatty acids decreased in both cultivars under F treatments. The contents of MDA increased after F treatments but were higher in PY than in FD. In addition, F treatments decreased the activities of ATPase and acid phosphatase and increased F content in both cultivars; however, compared with PY, FD showed higher enzymatic activities and lower F content in roots and leaves. Leaf anatomical structure in FD indicated that cells in leaf midrib region were less injured by F than in PY.

  2. Ouabain Stimulates a Na+/K+-ATPase-Mediated SFK-Activated Signalling Pathway That Regulates Tight Junction Function in the Mouse Blastocyst

    PubMed Central

    Giannatselis, Holly; Calder, Michele; Watson, Andrew J.

    2011-01-01

    The Na+/K+-ATPase plays a pivotal role during preimplantation development; it establishes a trans-epithelial ionic gradient that facilitates the formation of the fluid-filled blastocyst cavity, crucial for implantation and successful pregnancy. The Na+/K+-ATPase is also implicated in regulating tight junctions and cardiotonic steroid (CTS)-induced signal transduction via SRC. We investigated the expression of SRC family kinase (SFK) members, Src and Yes, during preimplantation development and determined whether SFK activity is required for blastocyst formation. Embryos were collected following super-ovulation of CD1 or MF1 female mice. RT-PCR was used to detect SFK mRNAs encoding Src and Yes throughout preimplantation development. SRC and YES protein were localized throughout preimplantation development. Treatment of mouse morulae with the SFK inhibitors PP2 and SU6656 for 18 hours resulted in a reversible blockade of progression to the blastocyst stage. Blastocysts treated with 10−3 M ouabain for 2 or 10 minutes and immediately immunostained for phosphorylation at SRC tyr418 displayed reduced phosphorylation while in contrast blastocysts treated with 10−4 M displayed increased tyr418 fluorescence. SFK inhibition increased and SFK activation reduced trophectoderm tight junction permeability in blastocysts. The results demonstrate that SFKs are expressed during preimplantation development and that SFK activity is required for blastocyst formation and is an important mediator of trophectoderm tight junction permeability. PMID:21901128

  3. Formation of a Trimeric Xpo1-Ran[GTP]-Ded1 Exportin Complex Modulates ATPase and Helicase Activities of Ded1

    PubMed Central

    Hauk, Glenn; Bowman, Gregory D.

    2015-01-01

    The DEAD-box RNA helicase Ded1, which is essential in yeast and known as DDX3 in humans, shuttles between the nucleus and cytoplasm and takes part in several basic processes including RNA processing and translation. A key interacting partner of Ded1 is the exportin Xpo1, which together with the GTP-bound state of the small GTPase Ran, facilitates unidirectional transport of Ded1 out of the nucleus. Here we demonstrate that Xpo1 and Ran[GTP] together reduce the RNA-stimulated ATPase and helicase activities of Ded1. Binding and inhibition of Ded1 by Xpo1 depend on the affinity of the Ded1 nuclear export sequence (NES) for Xpo1 and the presence of Ran[GTP]. Association with Xpo1/Ran[GTP] reduces RNA-stimulated ATPase activity of Ded1 by increasing the apparent KM for the RNA substrate. Despite the increased KM, the Ded1:Xpo1:Ran[GTP] ternary complex retains the ability to bind single stranded RNA, suggesting that Xpo1/Ran[GTP] may modulate the substrate specificity of Ded1. These results demonstrate that, in addition to transport, exportins such as Xpo1 also have the capability to alter enzymatic activities of their cargo. PMID:26120835

  4. Diglyceride kinase activity of microtubules. Characterization and comparison with the protein kinase and ATPase activities associated with vinblastine-isolated tubulin of chick embryonic muscles.

    PubMed

    Daleo, G R; Piras, M M; Piras, R

    1976-09-15

    Vinblastine-isolated microtubule protein from chick embryonic muscles has an enzymatic activity which catalyzes the formation of phosphatidic acid from diglycerides and ATP. The pH optimum (6.4), sedimentation on sucrose gradients (Mr = 85 000), and sensitivity to ions of this diglyceride kinase activity are different to those of a similar enzymatic activity present in 150 000 X g supernatants of chick embryonic muscle homogenates, suggesting that it is a different species which is associated specifically with the microtubules. The reaction requires a divalent ion (e.g. 0.4 mM Mg2+ gives half-maximal stimulation), and GTP can replace ATP rather effectively, especially at nucleotide concentrations lower than 50 muM. The sedimentation of the diglyceride kinase on sucrose gradients coincides with that of the microtubules-associated protein kinase (Mr = 75 000); the heat-stability and sensivitity to proteolysis of both activities are also very similar. Stimulation of one reaction by the addition of the corresponding exogenous substrate does not impair the phosphorylation of the other, and no radioactivity is lost from phosphatidic acid or the protein moiety upon incubation of pre-labelled microtubules with a large excess of unlabelled ATP or GTP. In addition to diglyceride and protein kinase activities (0.2 and 0.3 nmol 32P-transferred X min-1 X mg-1 microtubular protein, respectively), microtubules also contain an associated ATPase (2.8 nmol X min-1 X mg-1), which requires either Mg2+ or Ca2+, can hydrolyze GTP quite effectively, and sediments with a molecular weight of 95000. The results obtained are discussed in connection with the possible relationships existing among these enzymatic activities, as well as their probable role in microtubular functions.

  5. An Afg2/Spaf-related Cdc48-like AAA ATPase regulates the stability and activity of the C. elegans Aurora B kinase AIR-2

    PubMed Central

    Heallen, Todd R.; Adams, Henry P.; Furuta, Tokiko; Verbrugghe, Koen J.; Schumacher, Jill M.

    2008-01-01

    SUMMARY The Aurora B kinase is the enzymatic core of the chromosomal passenger complex, which is a critical regulator of mitosis. To identify novel regulators of Aurora B, we performed a genome-wide screen for suppressors of a temperature-sensitive lethal allele of the C. elegans Aurora B kinase AIR-2. This screen uncovered a member of the Afg2/Spaf subfamily of Cdc48-like AAA ATPases as an essential inhibitor of AIR-2 stability and activity. Depletion of CDC-48.3 restores viability to air-2 mutant embryos and leads to abnormally high AIR-2 levels at the late telophase/G1 transition. Furthermore, CDC-48.3 binds directly to AIR-2 and inhibits its kinase activity from metaphase through telophase. While canonical p97/Cdc48 proteins have been assigned contradictory roles in the regulation of Aurora B, our results are the first to identify a member of the Afg2/Spaf AAA ATPases as a critical in vivo inhibitor of this kinase during embryonic development. PMID:18854144

  6. A Screen for Modulators of Large T Antigen's ATPase Activity Uncovers Novel Inhibitors of Simian Virus 40 and BK Virus Replication

    PubMed Central

    Seguin, Sandlin P.; Ireland, Alex W.; Gupta, Tushar; Wright, Christine M.; Miyata, Yoshinari; Wipf, Peter; Pipas, James M.; Gestwicki, Jason E.; Brodsky, Jeffrey L.

    2012-01-01

    New polyomaviruses are continually being identified, and it is likely that links between this virus family and disease will continue to emerge. Unfortunately, a specific treatment for polyomavirus-associated disease is lacking. Because polyomaviruses express large Tumor Antigen, TAg, we hypothesized that small molecule inhibitors of the essential ATPase activity of TAg would inhibit viral replication. Using a new screening platform, we identified inhibitors of TAg's ATPase activity. Lead compounds were moved into a secondary assay, and ultimately two FDA approved compounds, bithionol and hexachlorophene, were identified as the most potent TAg inhibitors known to date. Both compounds inhibited Simian Virus 40 replication as assessed by plaque assay and quantitative PCR. Moreover, these compounds inhibited BK virus, which causes BKV Associated Nephropathy. In neither case was host cell viability compromised at these concentrations. Our data indicate that directed screening for TAg inhibitors is a viable method to identify polyomavirus inhibitors, and that bithionol and hexachlorophene represent lead compounds that may be further modified and/or ultimately used to combat diseases associated with polyomavirus infection. PMID:22898086

  7. The THERMOSENSITIVE MALE STERILE 1 Interacts with the BiPs via DnaJ Domain and Stimulates Their ATPase Enzyme Activities in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Ma, Zhao-Xia; Leng, Ya-Jun; Chen, Guang-Xia; Zhou, Peng-Min; Ye, De; Chen, Li-Qun

    2015-01-01

    The Arabidopsis TMS1 encodes a heat shock protein identical to the Hsp40 protein AtERdj3A and plays important roles in the thermotolerance of pollen tubes and other plant tissues. Despite its importance to plant growth and reproduction, little has been known about its mechanisms underlying thermotolerance of plants. In this study, the relationship between TMS1 and the Hsp70 proteins, Binding Immunoglobulin Proteins (BiPs) was explored to understand the molecular mechanisms of TMS1 in thermotolerance of plants. The expression of TMS1 was induced not only by heat shock, but also by dithiothreitol (DTT) and L-azetidine-2-carboxylic acid (AZC), similarly to the three BiP genes, indicating that TMS1 may be involved in unfolded protein response (UPR). The firefly luciferase complementary imaging (LCI), GST pull-down and ATPase enzyme activity assays demonstrated that the DnaJ domain of TMS1 could interact with BiP1 and BiP3, and could stimulate their ATPase enzyme activities. In addition, the expression level of TMS1 was reduced in the bzip28 bzip60 double mutant. These results suggest that TMS1 may function at the downstream of bZIP28 and bZIP60 and be involved in termotolerance of plants, possibly by participating in refolding or degradation of unfolded and misfolded proteins through interaction with the BiPs. PMID:26186593

  8. Phospholemman-dependent regulation of the cardiac Na/K-ATPase activity is modulated by inhibitor-1 sensitive type-1 phosphatase.

    PubMed

    El-Armouche, Ali; Wittköpper, Katrin; Fuller, William; Howie, Jacqueline; Shattock, Michael J; Pavlovic, Davor

    2011-12-01

    Cardiac Na/K-ATPase (NKA) is regulated by its accessory protein phospholemman (PLM). Whereas kinase-induced PLM phosphorylation has been shown to mediate NKA stimulation, the role of endogenous phosphatases is presently unknown. We investigated the role of protein phosphatase-1 (PP-1) on PLM phosphorylation and NKA activity in rat cardiomyocytes and failing human hearts. Incubation of rat cardiomyocytes with the chemical PP-1/PP-2A inhibitor okadaic acid or the specific PP-1-inhibitor peptide (I-1ct) identified PLM phosphorylation at Ser-68 as the main substrate for PP-1. Moreover, myocytes adenovirally overexpressing PP-1 inhibitor-1 protein (I-1,Ad-I-1/eGFP) showed a 70% increase in PLM Ser-68 phosphorylation and 65% increase in NKA current, compared with enhanced green fluorescence protein (eGFP)-infected controls (Ad-eGFP), using Western blotting and voltage clamping, respectively. Notably, in left ventricular myocardium from patients with heart failure, PLM Ser-68 phosphorylation was ≈ 50% lower (n=7) than in nonfailing controls (n=7). We provide the first physiological and biochemical evidence that PLM phosphorylation and cardiac Na/K-ATPase activity are negatively regulated by PP-1 and that this regulatory mechanism could be counteracted by I-1. This novel mechanism is markedly perturbed in failing hearts favoring PLM dephosphorylation and NKA deactivation and thus may contribute to maladaptive hypertrophy and arrhythmogenesis via chronically higher intracellular Na and Ca concentrations.

  9. Oncogenesis caused by loss of the SNF5 tumor suppressor is dependent on activity of BRG1, the ATPase of the SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complex.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xi; Sansam, Courtney G; Thom, Christopher S; Metzger, Daniel; Evans, Julia A; Nguyen, Phuong T L; Roberts, Charles W M

    2009-10-15

    Alterations in chromatin play an important role in oncogenic transformation, although the underlying mechanisms are often poorly understood. The SWI/SNF complex contributes to epigenetic regulation by using the energy of ATP hydrolysis to remodel chromatin and thus regulate transcription of target genes. SNF5, a core subunit of the SWI/SNF complex, is a potent tumor suppressor that is specifically inactivated in several types of human cancer. However, the mechanism by which SNF5 mutation leads to cancer and the role of SNF5 within the SWI/SNF complex remain largely unknown. It has been hypothesized that oncogenesis in the absence of SNF5 occurs due to a loss of function of the SWI/SNF complex. Here, we show, however, distinct effects for inactivation of Snf5 and the ATPase subunit Brg1 in primary cells. Further, using both human cell lines and mouse models, we show that cancer formation in the absence of SNF5 does not result from SWI/SNF inactivation but rather that oncogenesis is dependent on continued presence of BRG1. Collectively, our results show that cancer formation in the absence of SNF5 is dependent on the activity of the residual BRG1-containing SWI/SNF complex. These findings suggest that, much like the concept of oncogene addiction, targeted inhibition of SWI/SNF ATPase activity may be an effective therapeutic approach for aggressive SNF5-deficient human tumors.

  10. The stimulating role of subunit F in ATPase activity inside the A1-complex of the Methanosarcina mazei Gö1 A1AO ATP synthase.

    PubMed

    Singh, Dhirendra; Sielaff, Hendrik; Sundararaman, Lavanya; Bhushan, Shashi; Grüber, Gerhard

    2016-02-01

    A1AO ATP synthases couple ion-transport of the AO sector and ATP synthesis/hydrolysis of the A3B3-headpiece via their stalk subunits D and F. Here, we produced and purified stable A3B3D- and A3B3DF-complexes of the Methanosarcina mazei Gö1 A-ATP synthase as confirmed by electron microscopy. Enzymatic studies with these complexes showed that the M. mazei Gö1 A-ATP synthase subunit F is an ATPase activating subunit. The maximum ATP hydrolysis rates (Vmax) of A3B3D and A3B3DF were determined by substrate-dependent ATP hydrolysis experiments resulting in a Vmax of 7.9 s(-1) and 30.4 s(-1), respectively, while the KM is the same for both. Deletions of the N- or C-termini of subunit F abolished the effect of ATP hydrolysis activation. We generated subunit F mutant proteins with single amino acid substitutions and demonstrated that the subunit F residues S84 and R88 are important in stimulating ATP hydrolysis. Hybrid formation of the A3B3D-complex with subunit F of the related eukaryotic V-ATPase of Saccharomyces cerevisiae or subunit ε of the F-ATP synthase from Mycobacterium tuberculosis showed that subunit F of the archaea and eukaryotic enzymes are important in ATP hydrolysis.

  11. Acidic pH generated by H+-ATPase pumps triggers the activity of a fusogenic protein associated with rat liver endoplasmic reticulum.

    PubMed

    Monni, M; Roberti, R; Corazzi, L

    2001-04-01

    Fusogenic protein (FP) is a glycoprotein ( approximately 50 kDa), previously purified by us from rat liver endoplasmic reticulum, which explicates fusogenic activity at acidic pH in vitro. To suggest a possible role of FP in membrane fusion, the topology of the protein in the membrane and the conditions in which FP is operating in microsomes have been investigated. Anti-FP polyclonal antibodies inhibited pure FP activity, but not the protein activity in microsomes, suggesting interaction of antibodies with a part of FP concealed in intact membranes. FP activity in microsomes was lost after treatment with Pronase. Western blot analysis of Pronase-treated microsomes showed that the proteolysis removed a fragment ( approximately 5 kDa). This fragment is exposed on the outer surface of microsomes and involved in fusogenic activity, whereas the largest part of FP is embedded in microsomal vesicles. Therefore, FP can be affected by modifications on the cytosolic and luminal sides of microsomal membranes. Indeed, when microsomal lumen was acidified by H+-ATPase activity, binding and fusion of fluorescent labelled liposomes to microsomes occurred. Direct involvement of FP in the fusogenic event was observed by reconstituting pure FP in liposomes with a preformed H+ gradient. FP triggered a fusion process in response to the acidic interior of liposomes, despite an exterior 7.4 pH unable to promote fusogenic protein activity. As intracellular membrane fusion occurs at neutral pH involving the cytosolic sides of membranes, FP may participate in this event by exploiting the acidic pH formed in the lumen of endoplasmic reticulum through H+-translocating ATPase activity.

  12. Regulation of V-ATPase assembly and function of V-ATPases in tumor cell invasiveness.

    PubMed

    McGuire, Christina; Cotter, Kristina; Stransky, Laura; Forgac, Michael

    2016-08-01

    V-ATPases are ATP-driven proton pumps that function within both intracellular compartments and the plasma membrane in a wide array of normal physiological and pathophysiological processes. V-ATPases are composed of a peripheral V(1) domain that hydrolyzes ATP and an integral V(0) domain that transports protons. Regulated assembly of the V-ATPase represents an important mechanism of regulating V-ATPase activity in response to a number of environmental cues. Our laboratory has demonstrated that glucose-dependent assembly of the V-ATPase complex in yeast is controlled by the Ras/cAMP/PKA pathway. By contrast, increased assembly of the V-ATPase during dendritic cell maturation involves the PI-3 kinase and mTORC1 pathways. Recently, we have shown that amino acids regulate V-ATPase assembly in mammalian cells, possibly as a means to maintain adequate levels of amino acids upon nutrient starvation. V-ATPases have also been implicated in cancer cell survival and invasion. V-ATPases are targeted to different cellular membranes by isoforms of subunit a, with a3 targeting V-ATPases to the plasma membrane of osteoclasts. We have shown that highly invasive human breast cancer cell lines express higher levels of the a3 isoform than poorly invasive lines and that knockdown of a3 reduces both expression of V-ATPases at the plasma membrane and in vitro invasion of breast tumor cells. Moreover, overexpression of a3 in a non-invasive breast epithelial line increases both plasma membrane V-ATPases and in vitro invasion. Finally, specific ablation of plasma membrane V-ATPases in highly invasive human breast cancer cells using either an antibody or small molecule approach inhibits both in vitro invasion and migration. These results suggest that plasma membrane and a3-containing V-ATPases represent a novel and important target in the development of therapeutics to limit breast cancer metastasis. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'EBEC 2016: 19th European Bioenergetics

  13. Preparation of Na+,K+-ATPase with near maximal specific activity and phosphorylation capacity: evidence that the reaction mechanism involves all of the sites.

    PubMed

    Martin, D W; Sachs, J R

    1999-06-01

    The phosphorylation capacity of Na+,K+-ATPase preparations in common use is much less than expected on the basis of the molecular weight of the enzyme deduced from cDNA sequences. This has led to the popularity of half-of-the-sites or flip-flop models for the enzyme reaction mechanism. We have prepared Na+,K+-ATPase from nasal salt glands of salt-adapted ducks which has a phosphorylation capacity and specific activity near the theoretical maxima. Preparations with specific activities of >60 micromol (mg of protein)-1 min-1 at 37 degrees C had phosphorylation capacities of >60 nmol/mg of protein, and the rate of turnover of the enzyme was 9690 min-1, within the range reported for the enzyme from other sources. The fraction of the maximal specific activity of the enzyme compared well with the fraction of the protein on SDS-PAGE which was alpha and beta chains, especially at the highest specific activity which indicates that all of the alphabeta protomers are active. The gels of the most reactive preparations contained only alpha and beta chains, but less active preparations contained a number of extraneous proteins. The major contaminant was actin. The preparation did not contain any protein which migrated in the molecular weight range of the gamma subunit. The subunit composition of the enzyme was alpha1 and beta1 only. This is the first report of a pure, homogeneous, fully active preparation of the protein. Reaction models which incorporate a half-of-the-sites or flip-flop mechanism do not apply to this enzyme.

  14. Cyclopiazonic acid, an inhibitor of calcium-dependent ATPases with antiviral activity against human respiratory syncytial virus.

    PubMed

    Cui, Rui; Wang, Yizhuo; Wang, Liu; Li, Guiming; Lan, Ke; Altmeyer, Ralf; Zou, Gang

    2016-08-01

    Human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a common cause of lower respiratory tract infections in infants and young children worldwide, yet no vaccine or effective antiviral treatment is available. To search for new anti-RSV agents, we developed a cell-based assay that measures inhibition of RSV-induced cytopathic effect (CPE) and identified cyclopiazonic acid (CPA), an intracellular calcium ATPase inhibitor as a RSV inhibitor (EC50 values 4.13 μM) by screening of natural product library. CPA inhibited the replication of RSV strains belonging to both A and B subgroups and human parainfluenza virus type 3, but not Enterovirus 71. Mechanism of action study by time-of-addition assay and minigenome assay revealed that CPA acts at the step of virus genome replication and/or transcription. Moreover, two other calcium ATPase inhibitors (Thapsigargin and BHQ) and calcium ionophores (A23187 and ionomycin), but not calcium channel blockers (nifedipine, nimodipine, and tetrandrine), also had similar effect. These results indicate that an increase in intracellular calcium concentration is detrimental to RSV replication. Thus, our findings provide a new strategy for anti-RSV therapy via increasing intracellular calcium concentration. PMID:27210812

  15. Inhibition of the hepatitis C virus helicase-associated ATPase activity by the combination of ADP, NaF, MgCl2, and poly(rU). Two ADP binding sites on the enzyme-nucleic acid complex.

    PubMed

    Porter, D J

    1998-03-27

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) helicase has an intrinsic ATPase activity and a nucleic acid (poly(rU))-stimulated ATPase activity. The poly(rU)-stimulated ATPase activity was inhibited by F- in a time-dependent manner during ATP hydrolysis. Inhibition was the result of trapping an enzyme-bound ADP-poly(rU) ternary complex generated during the catalytic cycle and was not the result of generating enzyme-free ADP that subsequently inhibited the enzyme. However, catalysis was not required for efficient inhibition by F-. The stimulated and the intrinsic ATPase activities were also inhibited by treatment of the enzyme with F-, ADP, and poly(rU). The inhibited enzyme slowly recovered (t1/2 = 23 min) ATPase activity after a 2000-fold dilution into assay buffer. The onset of inhibition by 500 microM ADP and 15 mM F- in the absence of nucleic acid was very slow (t1/2 > 40 min). However, the sequence of addition of poly(rU) to a diluted solution of ADP/NaF-treated enzyme had a profound effect on the extent of inhibition. If the ADP/NaF-treated enzyme was diluted into an assay that lacked poly(rU) and the assay was subsequently initiated with poly(rU), the treated enzyme was not inhibited. Alternatively, if the treated enzyme was diluted into an assay containing poly(rU), the enzyme was inhibited. ATP protected the enzyme from inhibition by ADP/NaF. The stoichiometry between ADP and enzyme monomer in the inhibited enzyme complex was 2, as determined from titration of the ATPase activity ([ADP]/[E] = 2.2) and from the number of radiolabeled ADP bound to the inhibited enzyme ([ADP]/[E] = 1.7) in the presence of excess NaF, MgCl2, and poly(rU). The Hill coefficient for titration of ATPase activity with F- (n = 2.8) or MgCl2 (n = 2.1) in the presence of excess ADP and poly(rU) suggested that multiple F- and Mg2+ were involved in forming the inhibited enzyme complex. The stoichiometry between (dU)18, a defined oligomeric nucleic acid substituting for poly(rU), and enzyme monomer in the

  16. Expression and activity of V-H+ -ATPase in gill and kidney of marbled eel Anguilla marmorata in response to salinity challenge.

    PubMed

    Li, L; Jia, Y; Li, P; Yin, S; Zhang, G; Wang, X; Wang, Y; Wang, X; Zang, X; Ding, Y

    2015-07-01

    The full-length complementary (c)DNA of vacuolar-type-H(+) -ATPase B1 gene (vhab1) in marbled eel Anguilla marmorata with 1741 base pairs (bp) was identified. It contained a 1512 bp open reading frame encoding a polypeptide with 503 amino acids (55·9 kDa), an 83 bp 5'-untranslated region (UTR) and a 146 bp 3'-UTR. The expression levels of A. marmorata vhab1 in gill and kidney of A. marmorata were evaluated at different intervals during the exposure to various salinities (0, 10 and 25). The results indicated that the expression levels of A. marmorata vhab1 messenger (m)RNA in gill and kidney had a significant increase and reached the highest level at 1 h in brackish water (BW, salinity 10) group and 6 h in seawater (SW, salinity 25) group. Therefore, salinity did affect the relative expression level of A. marmorata vhab1 mRNA in gills, which exhibited the enhancement by c. 44 times in SW group when compared with that in fresh water. No remarkable difference in the expression of A. marmorata vhab1 mRNA was observed after 15 days of SW exposure (P > 0·05). V-H(+) -ATPase activity exhibited an increase by two- to three-fold when compared with that in gill and kidney from the control group. The consequence primarily suggested that A. marmorata vhab1 gene product in elvers from A. marmorata plays an important role in adaptation response to SW.

  17. C-terminal fragment of amebin promotes actin filament bundling, inhibits acto-myosin ATPase activity and is essential for amoeba migration.

    PubMed

    Jóźwiak, Jolanta; Rzhepetskyy, Yuriy; Sobczak, Magdalena; Kocik, Elżbieta; Skórzewski, Radosław; Kłopocka, Wanda; Rędowicz, Maria Jolanta

    2011-02-01

    Amebin [formerly termed as ApABP-FI; Sobczak et al. (2007) Biochem. Cell Biol. 85] is encoded in Amoeba proteus by two transcripts, 2672-nt and 1125-nt. A product of the shorter transcript (termed as C-amebin), comprising C-terminal 375 amino-acid-residue fragment of amebin, has been expressed and purified as the recombinant GST-fusion protein. GST-C-amebin bound both to monomeric and filamentous actin. The binding was Ca(2+)-independent and promoted filament bundling, as revealed with the transmission electron microscopy. GST-C-amebin significantly decreased MgATPase activity of rabbit skeletal muscle acto-S1. Removal with endoproteinase ArgC of a positively charged C-terminal region of GST-amebin containing KLASMWEQ sequence abolished actin-binding and bundling as well as the ATPase-inhibitory effect of C-amebin, indicating that this protein region was involved in the interaction with actin. Microinjection of amoebae with antibody against C-terminus of amebin significantly affected amoebae morphology, disturbed cell polarization and transport of cytoplasmic granules as well as blocked migration. These data indicate that amebin may be one of key regulators of the actin-cytoskeleton dynamics and actin-dependent motility in A. proteus.

  18. The PriA Replication Restart Protein Blocks Replicase Access Prior to Helicase Assembly and Directs Template Specificity through Its ATPase Activity*

    PubMed Central

    Manhart, Carol M.; McHenry, Charles S.

    2013-01-01

    The PriA protein serves as an initiator for the restart of DNA replication on stalled replication forks and as a checkpoint protein that prevents the replicase from advancing in a strand displacement reaction on forks that do not contain a functional replicative helicase. We have developed a primosomal protein-dependent fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) assay using a minimal fork substrate composed of synthetic oligonucleotides. We demonstrate that a self-loading reaction, which proceeds at high helicase concentrations, occurs by threading of a preassembled helicase over free 5′-ends, an event that can be blocked by attaching a steric block to the 5′-end or coating DNA with single-stranded DNA binding protein. The specificity of PriA for replication forks is regulated by its intrinsic ATPase. ATPase-defective PriA K230R shows a strong preference for substrates that contain no gap between the leading strand and the duplex portion of the fork, as demonstrated previously. Wild-type PriA prefers substrates with larger gaps, showing maximal activity on substrates on which PriA K230R is inactive. We demonstrate that PriA blocks replicase function on forks by blocking its binding. PMID:23264623

  19. Changes in carboxypeptidase A, dipeptidase and Na+/K+ ATPase activities in the intestine of rats orally exposed to different doses of cadmium.

    PubMed

    Eriyamremu, G E; Asagba, S O; Onyeneke, E C; Adaikpoh, M A

    2005-02-01

    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effect of cadmium on some protein digestive and absorption enzymes in rats. Thirty-six rats were grouped into three groups of 12 animals each; one group received deionised water and acted as control. One group received 445 microM Cd and the last group received 890 microM Cd in their drinking water for a period of one month. The results obtained indicate that increasing the level of cadmium from 445 microM to 890 microM in the drinking water of the rats led to 29% and 23% increase in accumulated cadmium in the proximal and distal small intestine respectively. The body weight gain of rats exposed to 445 microM and 890 microM Cd was decreased by about 24% and 43% respectively when compared with the control. The activities of carboxypeptidase A, dipeptidase and Na+/K+ ATPase were reduced in the mucosa of the proximal end of the small intestine of cadmium exposed rats. The reduction was dose dependent; with the 890 microM Cd exposed rats displaying the least activities. In the distal small intestine, the activities of these enzymes were restored in the 445 microM Cd exposed rats to levels that were not statistically different (P > 0.05) from those observed in the controls. In the 890 microM Cd exposed rats, dipeptidase activity improved by about 80% compared with the activity of the enzyme in the proximal small intestine. Likewise, Na+/K+ ATPase activity increased by about 125% compared with the observed level in the proximal small intestine. The study suggests that cadmium given to rats in drinking water compromise protein digestion and absorption of nutrients particularly in the proximal region of small intestine and could account for weight reduction associated with cadmium toxicity.

  20. A new set of regulatory molecules in plants: A plant phospholipid similar to platelet-activating factor stimulates protein kinase and proton-translocating ATPase in membrane vesicles.

    PubMed

    Scherer, G F; Martiny-Baron, G; Stoffel, B

    1988-08-01

    1-O-alkyl-2-acetyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine, an ether phospholipid from mammals known as platelet-activating factor (PAF), specifically stimulates proton transport in zucchini (Cucurbita pepo L.) microsomes (G.F.E. Scherer, 1985, Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commm. 133, 1160-1167). When plant lipids were analyzed by two-dimensional thin-layer chromatography a lipid was found with chromatographic properties very similar to the PAF (G.F.E. Scherer and B. Stoffel, 1987, Planta, 172, 127-130). This lipid was isolated from zucchini hypocotyls, red beet root, lupin root, maize seedlings and crude soybean phospholipids. It had biological activity similar to that of the PAF, based on phosphorus content, and stimulated the steady-state ΔpH in zucchini hypocotyl microsomes about twofold. Other phospholipids, monoglyceride, diglyceride, triglyceride, oleic acid, phorbol ester, and 1-O-alkylglycerol did not stimulate proton transport. When microsomes were washed the PAF was ineffective but when soluble protein was added the PAF stimulation of H(+) transport was reconstituted. The soluble protein responsible for the PAF-dependent stimulation of transport activity could be partially purified by diethylaminoethyl Sephacel column chromatography. In the same fractions where the PAF-dependent transport-stimulatory protien was found, a protein kinase was active. This protein kinase was stimulated twofold either by the PAF or by Ca(2+). When Ca(2+) was present the PAF did not stimulate protein-kinase activity. When either the PAF, protein kinase, or both were added to membranes isolated on a linear sucrose gradient, ATPase activity was stimulated up to 30%. Comparison with marker enzymes indicated the possibility that tonoplast and plasma-membrane H(+)-ATPase might be stimulated by the PAF and protein kinase. We speculate that a PAF-dependent protein kinase is involved in the regulation of proton transport in plants in vitro and in vivo.

  1. Modulation of gill Na+,K+-ATPase activity by ammonium ions: Putative coupling of nitrogen excretion and ion uptake in the freshwater shrimp Macrobrachium olfersii.

    PubMed

    Furriel, Rosa Prazeres Melo; Masui, Douglas Chodi; McNamara, John Campbell; Leone, Francisco Assis

    2004-01-01

    The effect of NH4+ ions on (Na+,K+)-ATPase hydrolytic activity was examined in a gill microsomal fraction from M. olfersii. In the absence of NH4+ ions, K+ ions stimulated ATP hydrolysis, exhibiting cooperative kinetics (nH=0.8), to a maximal specific activity of V=556.1+/-22.2 nmol.min(-1).mg(-1) with K(0.5)=2.4+/-0.1 mmol.L(-1). No further stimulation by K+ ions was observed in the presence of 50 mmol.L(-1) NH4+ ions. ATP hydrolysis was also stimulated by NH4+ ions obeying Michaelian kinetics to a maximal specific activity of V=744.8+/-22.3 nmol.min(-1).mg(-1) and KM=8.4+/-0.2 mmol.L(-1). In the presence of 10 mmol.L(-1) K+ ions, ATP hydrolysis was synergistically stimulated by NH4+ ions to V=689.8+/-13.8 nmol.min(-1).mg(-1) and K(0.5)=6.6+/-0.1 mmol.L(-1), suggesting that NH4+ ions bind to different sites than K+ ions. PNPP hydrolysis was also stimulated cooperatively by K+ or NH4+ ions to maximal values of V= 235.5+/-11.8 nmol.min(-1).mg(-1) and V=234.8+/-7.0 nmol.min(-1).mg(-1), respectively. In contrast to ATP hydrolysis, K(+)-phosphatase activity was not synergistically stimulated by NH4+ and K+ ions. These data suggest that at high NH4+ ion concentrations, the (Na+, K+)-ATPase exposes a new site; the subsequent binding of NH4+ ions stimulates ATP hydrolysis to rates higher than those for K+ ions alone. This is the first demonstration that (Na+, K+)-ATPase activity in a freshwater shrimp gill is modulated by ammonium ions, independently of K+ ions, an effect that may constitute a fine-tuning mechanism of physiological relevance to osmoregulatory and excretory processes in palaemonid shrimps.

  2. Trypsin digestion for determining orientation of ATPase in Halobacterium saccharovorum membrane vesicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kristjansson, H.; Hochstein, L. I.

    1986-01-01

    Membranes prepared by low pressure disruption of cells exhibited no ATPase activity in the absence of Triton X-100, although 43% of the total menadione reductase activity was detected. Trypsin digestion reduced menadione reductase activity by 45% whereas ATPase activity was not affected. Disruption of the membrane fraction at higher pressure solubilized about 45% of the ATPase activity. The soluble activity was still enhanced by Triton X-100, suggesting that the detergent, besides disrupting membrane vesicles, also activated the ATPase. The discrepancy in localization of menadione reductase and ATPase activities raised questions regarding the reliability of using a single marker enzyme as an indicator of vesicle orientation.

  3. Mutant p97 exhibits species-specific changes of its ATPase activity and compromises the UBXD9-mediated monomerisation of p97 hexamers.

    PubMed

    Rijal, Ramesh; Arhzaouy, Khalid; Strucksberg, Karl-Heinz; Cross, Megan; Hofmann, Andreas; Schröder, Rolf; Clemen, Christoph S; Eichinger, Ludwig

    2016-01-01

    p97 (VCP) is a homo-hexameric triple-A ATPase that exerts a plethora of cellular processes. Heterozygous missense mutations of p97 cause at least five human neurodegenerative disorders. However, the specific molecular consequences of p97 mutations are hitherto widely unknown. Our in silico structural models of human and Dictyostelium p97 showed that the disease-causing human R93C, R155H, and R155C as well as Dictyostelium R154C, E219K, R154C/E219K p97 mutations constitute variations in surface-exposed locations. In-gel ATPase activity measurements of p97 monomers and hexamers revealed significant mutation- and species-specific differences. While all human p97 mutations led to an increase in ATPase activity, no changes could be detected for the Dictyostelium R154C mutant, which is orthologous to human R155C. The E219K mutation led to an almost complete loss of activity, which was partially recuperated in the R154C/E219K double-mutant indicating p97 inter-domain communication. By means of co-immunoprecipitation experiments we identified an UBX-domain containing Dictyostelium protein as a novel p97 interaction partner. We categorized all UBX-domain containing Dictyostelium proteins and named the interaction partner UBXD9. Pull-down assays and surface plasmon resonance analyses of Dictyostelium UBXD9 or the human orthologue TUG/ASPL/UBXD9 demonstrated direct interactions with p97 as well as species-, mutation- and ATP-dependent differences in the binding affinities. Sucrose density gradient assays revealed that both human and Dictyostelium UBXD9 proteins very efficiently disassembled wild-type, but to a lesser extent mutant p97 hexamers into monomers. Our results are consistent with a scenario in which p97 point mutations lead to differences in enzymatic activities and molecular interactions, which in the long-term result in a late-onset and progressive multisystem disease. PMID:27132113

  4. Novel phenolic inhibitors of the sarco/endoplasmic reticulum calcium ATPase: identification and characterization by quantitative structure-activity relationship modeling and virtual screening.

    PubMed

    Paula, Stefan; Hofmann, Emily; Burden, John; Stanton, David T

    2015-02-01

    Inhibitors of the sarco/endoplasmic reticulum calcium ATPase (SERCA) are valuable research tools and hold promise as a new generation of anti-prostate cancer agents. Based on previously determined potencies of phenolic SERCA inhibitors, we created quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) models using three independent development strategies. The obtained QSAR models facilitated virtual screens of several commercial compound collections for novel inhibitors. Sixteen compounds were subsequently evaluated in SERCA activity inhibition assays and 11 showed detectable potencies in the micro- to millimolar range. The experimental results were then incorporated into a comprehensive master QSAR model, whose physical interpretation by partial least squares analysis revealed that properly positioned substituents at the central phenyl ring capable of forming hydrogen bonds and of undergoing hydrophobic interactions were prerequisites for effective SERCA inhibition. The established SAR was in good agreement with findings from previous structural studies, even though it was obtained independently using standard QSAR methodologies.

  5. P2C-Type ATPases and Their Regulation.

    PubMed

    Retamales-Ortega, Rocío; Vio, Carlos P; Inestrosa, Nibaldo C

    2016-03-01

    P2C-type ATPases are a subfamily of P-type ATPases comprising Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase and H(+)/K(+)-ATPase. Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase is ubiquitously expressed and has been implicated in several neurological diseases, whereas H(+)/K(+)-ATPase is found principally in the colon, stomach, and kidney. Both ATPases have two subunits, α and β, but Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase also has a regulatory subunit called FXYD, which has an important role in cancer. The most important functions of these ATPases are homeostasis, potassium regulation, and maintaining a gradient in different cell types, like epithelial cells. Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase has become a center of attention ever since it was proposed that it might play a crucial role in neurological disorders such as bipolar disorder, mania, depression, familial hemiplegic migraine, rapid-onset dystonia parkinsonism, chronic stress, epileptogenesis, and Alzheimer's disease. On the other hand, it has been reported that lithium could have a neuroprotective effect against ouabain, which is the best known Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase inhibitor, but and high concentrations of lithium could affect negatively H(+)/K(+)-ATPase activity, that has a key role in regulating acidosis and potassium deficiencies. Finally, potassium homeostasis regulation is composed of two main mechanisms, extrarenal and renal. Extrarenal mechanism controls plasma levels, shifting potassium from the extracellular to the intracellular, whereas renal mechanism concerns with body balance and is influenced by potassium intake and its urinary excretion. In this article, we discuss the functions, isoforms, and localization of P2C-type ATPases, describe some of their modulators, and discuss their implications in some diseases.

  6. P2C-Type ATPases and Their Regulation.

    PubMed

    Retamales-Ortega, Rocío; Vio, Carlos P; Inestrosa, Nibaldo C

    2016-03-01

    P2C-type ATPases are a subfamily of P-type ATPases comprising Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase and H(+)/K(+)-ATPase. Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase is ubiquitously expressed and has been implicated in several neurological diseases, whereas H(+)/K(+)-ATPase is found principally in the colon, stomach, and kidney. Both ATPases have two subunits, α and β, but Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase also has a regulatory subunit called FXYD, which has an important role in cancer. The most important functions of these ATPases are homeostasis, potassium regulation, and maintaining a gradient in different cell types, like epithelial cells. Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase has become a center of attention ever since it was proposed that it might play a crucial role in neurological disorders such as bipolar disorder, mania, depression, familial hemiplegic migraine, rapid-onset dystonia parkinsonism, chronic stress, epileptogenesis, and Alzheimer's disease. On the other hand, it has been reported that lithium could have a neuroprotective effect against ouabain, which is the best known Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase inhibitor, but and high concentrations of lithium could affect negatively H(+)/K(+)-ATPase activity, that has a key role in regulating acidosis and potassium deficiencies. Finally, potassium homeostasis regulation is composed of two main mechanisms, extrarenal and renal. Extrarenal mechanism controls plasma levels, shifting potassium from the extracellular to the intracellular, whereas renal mechanism concerns with body balance and is influenced by potassium intake and its urinary excretion. In this article, we discuss the functions, isoforms, and localization of P2C-type ATPases, describe some of their modulators, and discuss their implications in some diseases. PMID:25631710

  7. Nitrate transport in cucumber leaves is an inducible process involving an increase in plasma membrane H+-ATPase activity and abundance

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The mechanisms by which nitrate is transported into the roots have been characterized both at physiological and molecular levels. It has been demonstrated that nitrate is taken up in an energy-dependent way by a four-component uptake machinery involving high- and low- affinity transport systems. In contrast very little is known about the physiology of nitrate transport towards different plant tissues and in particular at the leaf level. Results The mechanism of nitrate uptake in leaves of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L. cv. Chinese long) plants was studied and compared with that of the root. Net nitrate uptake by roots of nitrate-depleted cucumber plants proved to be substrate-inducible and biphasic showing a saturable kinetics with a clear linear non saturable component at an anion concentration higher than 2 mM. Nitrate uptake by leaf discs of cucumber plants showed some similarities with that operating in the roots (e.g. electrogenic H+ dependence via involvement of proton pump, a certain degree of induction). However, it did not exhibit typical biphasic kinetics and was characterized by a higher Km with values out of the range usually recorded in roots of several different plant species. The quantity and activity of plasma membrane (PM) H+-ATPase of the vesicles isolated from leaf tissues of nitrate-treated plants for 12 h (peak of nitrate foliar uptake rate) increased with respect to that observed in the vesicles isolated from N-deprived control plants, thus suggesting an involvement of this enzyme in the leaf nitrate uptake process similar to that described in roots. Molecular analyses suggest the involvement of a specific isoform of PM H+-ATPase (CsHA1) and NRT2 transporter (CsNRT2) in root nitrate uptake. At the leaf level, nitrate treatment modulated the expression of CsHA2, highlighting a main putative role of this isogene in the process. Conclusions Obtained results provide for the first time evidence that a saturable and substrate

  8. Fe(III) and Fe(II) ions different effects on Enterococcus hirae cell growth and membrane-associated ATPase activity

    SciTech Connect

    Vardanyan, Zaruhi; Trchounian, Armen

    2012-01-06

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Fe{sup 3+} stimulates but Fe{sup 2+} suppresses Enterococcus hirae wild-type and atpD mutant growth. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Fe ions change oxidation-reduction potential drop during cell growth. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Fe{sup 3+} and Fe{sup 2+} have opposite effects on a membrane-associated ATPase activity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer These effects are either in the presence of F{sub 0}F{sub 1} inhibitor or non-functional F{sub 0}F{sub 1}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Fe ions decrease protons and coupled potassium ions fluxes across the membrane. -- Abstract: Enterococcus hirae is able to grow under anaerobic conditions during glucose fermentation (pH 8.0) which is accompanied by acidification of the medium and drop in its oxidation-reduction potential (E{sub h}) from positive values to negative ones (down to {approx}-200 mV). In this study, iron (III) ions (Fe{sup 3+}) have been shown to affect bacterial growth in a concentration-dependent manner (within the range of 0.05-2 mM) by decreasing lag phase duration and increasing specific growth rate. While iron(II) ions (Fe{sup 2+}) had opposite effects which were reflected by suppressing bacterial growth. These ions also affected the changes in E{sub h} values during bacterial growth. It was revealed that ATPase activity with and without N,N Prime -dicyclohexylcarbodiimide (DCCD), an inhibitor of the F{sub 0}F{sub 1}-ATPase, increased in the presence of even low Fe{sup 3+} concentration (0.05 mM) but decreased in the presence of Fe{sup 2+}. It was established that Fe{sup 3+} and Fe{sup 2+} both significantly inhibited the proton-potassium exchange of bacteria, but stronger effects were in the case of Fe{sup 2+} with DCCD. Such results were observed with both wild-type ATCC9790 and atpD mutant (with defective F{sub 0}F{sub 1}) MS116 strains but they were different with Fe{sup 3+} and Fe{sup 2+}. It is suggested that the effects of Fe{sup 3+} might be due to

  9. [Electrogenic activity of Na-K-ATPase and calcium ions in m. soleus fibers of rats and Mongolian gerbil during simulation of gravitational unloading].

    PubMed

    Kravtsova, V V; Ogneva, I V; Altaeva, E G; Razgovorova, I A; Tiapkina, O V; Nikol'skiĭ, E E; Shenkman, B S; Krivoĭ, I I

    2010-01-01

    Some of the electrophysiological parameters of m. soleus of rat and Mongolian gerbil, and Ca ions content in fiber myoplasm were compared in different periods of gravitational unloading simulated by tail-suspension. No difference was found between the control animals as for membrane potential at rest, electrogenic activities of Na-K-ATPase and its isoforms, and input resistance of m. soleus fibers. At the same time, unlike rats, gerbils exhibited a substantial Ca decrease in myoplasm. From day one to 14 of gravitational unloading the pace of electrophysiological changes in gerbil's m. soleus was noticeably slower than of rat's, whereas Ca ions depositing in myoplasm was observed in both species already at the beginning ofsuspension. Analysis of the results suggests that adaptive changes in m. soleus of Mongolian gerbil and rat during simulated gravitational unloading are fundamentally different due to, probably, peculiar water-electrolyte metabolism, type of locomotion, and other factors which are still unclear. PMID:20799658

  10. Chloroplast ATPase in Acetabularia acetabulum: purification and characterization of chloroplast F1-ATPase.

    PubMed

    Satoh, S; Moritani, C; Ohhashi, T; Konishi, K; Ikeda, M

    1994-03-01

    ATPases were isolated from chloroplasts of the unicellular marine alga Acetabularia acetabulum. Two preparations of ATPase, a chloroplast-enriched fraction and an alpha beta gamma-complex were compared. The alpha beta gamma-complex was released into an EDTA solution and purified by anion-exchange chromatography, hydrophobic chromatography, and gel permeation chromatography. The subunit composition of this enzyme appeared to be 52-53 (alpha), 51 (beta), and 40 (gamma) kDa from SDS-PAGE. ATPase activity was enriched about 260-fold to a specific activity of approximate 4.1 U.mg protein-1. The catalytic properties of the alpha beta gamma-complex were as follows: pH optimum at 7.5; substrate specificity, ATP > ITP, GTP > UTP = CTP (Km for ATP 0.2 mM); divalent cation requirement, Mg2+ = Mn2+ = Co2+ > Zn2+ > Ni2+ > Ca2+; ATPase activity was inhibited by monovalent anions (NO3-, SCN-), while monovalent cations had neither inhibitory nor stimulatory effect. Orthovanadate had no inhibitory effect on the enzyme activity of alpha beta gamma-complex. Azide was the most effective inhibitor of the alpha beta gamma-complex. N-Terminal amino acid sequences of the alpha and beta subunits were not obtained and appeared to be blocked. The gamma subunit gave a sequence of AGLKEMKD-XIGSVXNTKKI, which showed 60% similarity to the gamma subunits of spinach and Chlamydomonas reinhardtii CF1-ATPase and EF1-ATPase.

  11. Exogenous NO depletes Cd-induced toxicity by eliminating oxidative damage, re-establishing ATPase activity, and maintaining stress-related hormone equilibrium in white clover plants.

    PubMed

    Liu, S L; Yang, R J; Pan, Y Z; Wang, M H; Zhao, Y; Wu, M X; Hu, J; Zhang, L L; Ma, M D

    2015-11-01

    Various nitric oxide (NO) regulators [including the NO donor sodium nitroprusside (SNP), the NO scavenger 2-(4-carboxyphenyl)-4,4,5,5-tetramethylimidazoline-1-oxyl-3-oxide (cPTIO), the NO-synthase inhibitor N (G)-nitro-L-Arg-methyl ester (L-NAME), and the SNP analogues sodium nitrite/nitrate and sodium ferrocyanide] were investigated to elucidate the role of NO in white clover (Trifolium repens L.) plants after long-term (5 days) exposure to cadmium (Cd). A dose of 100 μM Cd stress significantly restrained plant growth and decreased the concentrations of chlorophyll and NO in vivo, whereas it disrupted the balance of stress-related hormones and enhanced the accumulation of Cd, thereby inducing reactive oxygen species (ROS) burst. However, the inhibition of plant growth was relieved by 50 μM SNP through its stimulation of ROS-scavenging compounds (ascorbic acid, ascorbate peroxidase, catalase, glutathione reductase, non-protein thiol, superoxide dismutase, and total glutathione), regulation of H(+)-ATPase activity of proton pumps, and increasing jasmonic acid and proline but decreasing ethylene in plant tissues. Even so, the alleviating effect of SNP on plant growth was counteracted by cPTIO and L-NAME and was not observed with SNP analogues, suggesting that the protective roles of SNP are related to the induction of NO. These results suggest that NO may improve the Cd tolerance of white clover plants by eliminating oxidative damage, re-establishing ATPase activity, and maintaining hormone equilibrium. Improving our understanding of the role of NO in white clover plants is key to expanding the plantations to various regions and the recovery of pasture species in the future.

  12. Triterpene 3β, 6β, 16β trihidroxilup-20(29)-ene protects against excitability and oxidative damage induced by pentylenetetrazol: the role of Na(+),K(+)-ATPase activity.

    PubMed

    Della-Pace, Iuri Domingues; Rambo, Leonardo Magno; Ribeiro, Leandro Rodrigo; Saraiva, André Luis Lopes; de Oliveira, Sara Marchesan; Silva, Cássia Regina; Villarinho, Jardel Gomes; Rossato, Mateus Fortes; Ferreira, Juliano; de Carvalho, Leandro M; de Oliveira Lima, Fernanda; Furian, Ana Flavia; Oliveria, Mauro Schneider; Santos, Adair Roberto Soares; Facundo, Valdir A; Fighera, Michele Rechia; Royes, Luiz Fernando Freire

    2013-04-01

    Administration of the compound triterpene 3β, 6β, 16β-trihidroxilup-20(29)-ene (TTHL) resulted in antinociceptive activity in several pain models in mice. Because pain and epilepsy have common mechanisms, and several anticonvulsants are clinically used to treat painful disorders, we investigated the anticonvulsant potential of TTHL. Behavioral and electrographic recordings revealed that pretreatment with TTHL (30 mg/kg; i.g.) increased the latencies to the first clonic seizure to the tonic-clonic and reduced the duration of the generalized seizures induced by the GABA(A) receptor antagonist PTZ (80 g; i.p.). The TTHL pretreatment also protected against PTZ-induced deleterious effects, as characterized by protein carbonylation, lipid peroxidation, [(3)H] glutamate uptake and the inhibition of Na(+),K(+)-ATPase (subunits α(1) and α(2)/α(3)). Although TTHL did not exhibit DPPH, ABTS radical scavenging activity per se and does not alter the binding of [(3)H]flunitrazepam to the benzodiazepinic site of the GABA(A) receptor, this compound was effective in preventing behavioral and EEG seizures, as well as the inhibition of Na(+),K(+)-ATPase induced by ouabain. These results suggest that the protection against PTZ-induced seizures elicited by TTHL is due to Na(+),K(+)-ATPase activity maintenance. In fact, experiments in homogenates of the cerebral cortex revealed that PTZ (10 mM) reduced Na(+),K(+)-ATPase activity and that previous incubation with TTHL (10 μM) protected against this inhibition. Collectively, these data indicate that the protection exerted by TTHL in this model of convulsion is not related to antioxidant activity or GABAergic activity. However, these results demonstrated that the effective protection of Na(+),K(+)-ATPase elicited by this compound protects against the damage due to neuronal excitability and oxidation that is induced by PTZ.

  13. Chemical modification of thiol groups of mitochondrial F1-ATPase from the yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe. Involvement of alpha- and gamma-subunits in the enzyme activity

    SciTech Connect

    Falson, P.; Di Pietro, A.; Gautheron, D.C.

    1986-06-05

    Mitochondrial F1-ATPase from the yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe has been prepared under a stable form and in relatively high amounts by an improved purification procedure. Specific chemical modification of the enzyme by the thiol reagent N-ethylmaleimide (NEM) at pH 6.8 leads to complete inactivation characterized by complex kinetics and pH dependence, indicating that several thiols are related to the enzyme activity. A complete protection against NEM effect is afforded by low concentrations of nucleotides in the presence of Mg/sup 2 +/, with ADP and ATP being more efficient than GTP. A total binding of 5 mol of (/sup 14/C)NEM/mol of F1-ATPase is obtained when the enzyme is 85% inactivated: 3 mol of the label are located on the alpha-subunits and 2 on the gamma-subunit. Two out of the 3 mol on the alpha-subunits bind very rapidly before any inactivation occurs. Complete protection by ATP against inactivation by NEM prevents the modification of three essential thiols out of the group of five thiols labeled in the absence of ATP: one is located on a alpha-subunit and two on the gamma-subunit. These two essential thiols of the gamma-subunit can be differentiated by modification with 6,6'-dithiodinicotinic acid (CPDS), another specific thiol reagent. A maximal binding of 4 mol of (/sup 14/C)CPDS/mol of enzyme is obtained, concomitant to a 25% inhibition. Sequential modification of the enzyme by CPDS and (/sup 14/C)NEM leads to the same final deep inactivation as that obtained with (/sup 14/C)NEM alone. One out of the two thiols of the gamma-subunit is no longer accessible to (/sup 14/C)NEM after CPDS treatment. When incubated at pH 6.8 with (/sup 3/H)ATP in the presence of Mg/sup 2 +/, F1-ATPase is able to bind 3, largely exchangeable, mol of nucleotide/mol of enzyme. Modification of the three essential thiols by NEM dramatically decreases the binding of /sup 3/H-nucleotide down to about 1 mol/mol of enzyme.

  14. Relationship of proton motive force and the F(0)F (1)-ATPase with bio-hydrogen production activity of Rhodobacter sphaeroides: effects of diphenylene iodonium, hydrogenase inhibitor, and its solvent dimethylsulphoxide.

    PubMed

    Hakobyan, Lilit; Gabrielyan, Lilit; Trchounian, Armen

    2012-08-01

    Rhodobacter sphaeroides MDC 6521 was able to produce bio-hydrogen (H(2)) in anaerobic conditions under illumination. In this study the effects of the hydrogenase inhibitor-diphenylene iodonium (Ph(2)I) and its solvent dimethylsulphoxide (DMSO) on growth characteristics and H(2) production by R. sphaeroides were investigated. The results point out the concentration dependent DMSO effect: in the presence of 10 mM DMSO H(2) yield was ~6 fold lower than that of the control. The bacterium was unable to produce H(2) in the presence of Ph(2)I. In order to examine the mediatory role of proton motive force (∆p) or the F(0)F(1)-ATPase in H(2) production by R. sphaeroides, the effects of Ph(2)I and DMSO on ∆p and its components (membrane potential (∆ψ) and transmembrane pH gradient), and ATPase activity were determined. In these conditions ∆ψ was of -98 mV and the reversed ∆pH was +30 mV, resulting in ∆p of -68 mV. Ph(2)I decreased ∆ψ in concentrations of 20 μM and higher; lower concentrations of Ph(2)I as DMSO had no valuable effect on ∆ψ. The R. sphaeroides membrane vesicles demonstrated significant ATPase activity sensitive to N,N'-dicyclohexylcarbodiimide. The 10-20 μM Ph(2)I did not affect the ATPase activity, whereas 40 μM Ph(2)I caused a marked inhibition (~2 fold) in ATPase activity. The obtained results provide novel evidence on the involvement of hydrogenase and the F(0)F(1)-ATPase in H(2) production by R. sphaeroides. Moreover, these data indicate the role of hydrogenase and the F(0)F(1)-ATPase in ∆p generation. In addition, DMSO might increase an interaction of nitrogenase with CO(2), decreasing nitrogenase activity and affecting H(2) production.

  15. Intracerebroventricular administration of ouabain, a Na/K-ATPase inhibitor, activates mTOR signal pathways and protein translation in the rat frontal cortex.

    PubMed

    Kim, Se Hyun; Yu, Hyun-Sook; Park, Hong Geun; Ha, Kyooseob; Kim, Yong Sik; Shin, Soon Young; Ahn, Yong Min

    2013-08-01

    Intracerebroventricular (ICV) injection of ouabain, a specific Na/K-ATPase inhibitor, induces behavioral changes in rats in a putative animal model of mania. The binding of ouabain to Na/K-ATPase affects signaling molecules in vitro, including ERK1/2 and Akt, which promote protein translation. We have also reported that ERK1/2 and Akt in the brain are involved in the ouabain-induced hyperactivity of rats. In this study, rats were given an ICV injection of ouabain, and then their frontal cortices were examined to determine the effects of ouabain on the mTOR/p70S6K/S6 signaling pathway and protein translation, which are important in modifications of neural circuits and behavior. Rats showed ouabain-induced hyperactivity up to 8h following injection, and increased phosphorylation levels of mTOR, p70S6K, S6, eIF4B, and 4E-BP at 1, 2, 4, and 8h following ouabain injection. Immunohistochemical analyses revealed that increased p-S6 immunoreactivity in the cytoplasm of neurons by ouabain was evident in the prefrontal, cingulate, and orbital cortex. These findings suggested increased translation initiation in response to ouabain. The rate of protein synthesis was measured as the amount of [(3)H]-leucine incorporation in the cell-free extracts of frontal cortical tissues, and showed a significant increase at 8h after ouabain injection. These results suggest that ICV injection of ouabain induced activation of the protein translation initiation pathway regulated by ERK1/2 and Akt, and prolonged hyperactivity in rats. In conclusion, protein translation pathway could play an important role in ouabain-induced hyperactivity in a rodent model of mania. PMID:23643758

  16. Spectrophotometric assay of renal ouabain-resistant Na(+)-ATPase and its regulation by leptin and dietary-induced obesity.

    PubMed

    Bełtowski, Jerzy; Jamroz-Wiśniewska, Anna; Nazar, Jarosław; Wójcicka, Grazyna

    2004-01-01

    Apart from Na(+),K(+)-ATPase, a second sodium pump, Na(+)-stimulated, K(+)-independent ATPase (Na(+)-ATPase) is expressed in proximal convoluted tubule of the mammalian kidney. The aim of this study was to develop a method of Na(+)-ATPase assay based on the method previously used by us to measure Na(+),K(+)-ATPase activity. The ATPase activity was assayed as the amount of inorganic phosphate liberated from ATP by isolated microsomal fraction. Na(+)-ATPase activity was calculated as the difference between the activities measured in the presence and in the absence of 50 mM NaCl. Na(+)-ATPase activity was detected in the renal cortex (3.5 +/- 0.2 mumol phosphate/h per mg protein), but not in the renal medulla. Na(+)-ATPase was not inhibited by ouabain or an H(+),K(+)-ATPase inhibitor, Sch 28080, but was almost completely blocked by 2 mM furosemide. Leptin administered intraperitoneally (1 mg/kg) decreased the Na(+),K(+)-ATPase activity in the renal medulla at 0.5 and 1 h by 22.1% and 27.1%, respectively, but had no effect on Na(+)-ATPase in the renal cortex. Chronic hyperleptinemia induced by repeated subcutaneous leptin injections (0.25 mg/kg twice daily for 7 days) increased cortical Na(+),K(+)-ATPase, medullary Na(+),K(+)-ATPase and cortical Na(+)-ATPase by 32.4%, 84.2% and 62.9%, respectively. In rats with dietary-induced obesity, the Na(+),K(+)- ATPase activity was higher in the renal cortex and medulla by 19.7% and 34.3%, respectively, but Na(+)-ATPase was not different from control. These data indicate that both renal Na(+)-dependent ATPases are separately regulated and that up-regulation of Na(+)-ATPase may contribute to Na(+) retention and arterial hypertension induced by chronic hyperleptinemia.

  17. Purification and Properties of an ATPase from Sulfolobus solfataricus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hochstein, Lawrence I.; Stan-Lotter, Helga

    1992-01-01

    A sulfite-activated ATPase isolated from Sulfolobus solfataricus had a relative molecular mass of 370,000. It was composed of three subunits whose relative molecular masses were 63,000, 48,000, and 24,000. The enzyme was inhibited by the vacuolar ATPase inhibitors nitrate and N-ethylmaleimide; 4-chloro-7-nitrobenzo-furazan (NBD-Cl) was also inhibitory. N-Ethylmaleimide was predominately bound to the largest subunit while NBD-CL was bound to both subunits. ATPase activity was inhibited by low concentrations of p-chloromercuri-phenyl sulfonate and the inhibition was reversed by cysteine which suggested that thiol groups were essential for activity. While the ATPase from S. solfataricus shared several properties with the ATPase from S. acidocaldarius there were significant differences. The latter enzyme was activated by sulfate and chloride and was unaffected by N-ethylmaleimide, whereas the S. solfataricus ATPase was inhibited by these anions as well as N-ethyimaleimide. These differences as well as differences that occur in other vacuolar-like ATPases isolated from the methanogenic and the extremely halophilic bacteria suggest the existence of several types of archaeal ATPases, none of which have been demonstrated to synthesize ATP.

  18. The effect of vitamin D₃ supplementation on intracellular calcium and plasma membrane calcium ATPase activity in early stages of chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Morvová, M; Lajdová, I; Spustová, V; Zvarík, M; Šikurová, L

    2014-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is associated with increased concentration of intracellular calcium, which is pathological and may lead to irreversible damage of cell functions and structures. The aim of our study was to investigate the impact of 6 months vitamin D(3) supplementation (14 000 IU/week) on free cytosolic calcium concentration ([Ca(2+)](i)) and on the plasma membrane calcium ATPase (PMCA) activity of patients with CKD stage 2-3. PMCA activity of patients was also compared to that of healthy volunteers. Vitamin D(3) supplementation of CKD patients resulted in the decrease of [Ca(2+)](i) (119.79+/-5.87 nmol/l vs. 105.36+/-3.59 nmol/l, n=14, P<0.001), whereas PMCA activity of CKD patients (38.75+/-22.89 nmol P(i)/mg/h) remained unchanged after vitamin D(3) supplementation (40.96+/-17.74 nmol P(i)/mg/h, n=14). PMCA activity of early stage CKD patients before supplementation of vitamin D(3), was reduced by 34 % (42.01+/-20.64 nmol P(i)/mg/h) in comparison to healthy volunteers (63.68+/-20.32 nmol P(i)/mg/h, n=28, P<0.001). These results indicate that vitamin D(3) supplementation had a lowering effect on [Ca(2+)](i) and negligible effect on PMCA activity in CKD patients.

  19. ATPases, ion exchangers and human sperm motility.

    PubMed

    Peralta-Arias, Rubén D; Vívenes, Carmen Y; Camejo, María I; Piñero, Sandy; Proverbio, Teresa; Martínez, Elizabeth; Marín, Reinaldo; Proverbio, Fulgencio

    2015-05-01

    Human sperm has several mechanisms to control its ionic milieu, such as the Na,K-ATPase (NKA), the Ca-ATPase of the plasma membrane (PMCA), the Na(+)/Ca(2) (+)-exchanger (NCX) and the Na(+)/H(+)-exchanger (NHE). On the other hand, the dynein-ATPase is the intracellular motor for sperm motility. In this work, we evaluated NKA, PMCA, NHE, NCX and dynein-ATPase activities in human sperm and investigated their correlation with sperm motility. Sperm motility was measured by Computer Assisted Semen Analysis. It was found that the NKA activity is inhibited by ouabain with two Ki (7.9 × 10(-9) and 9.8 × 10(-5) M), which is consistent with the presence of two isoforms of α subunit of the NKA in the sperm plasma membranes (α1 and α4), being α4 more sensitive to ouabain. The decrease in NKA activity is associated with a reduction in sperm motility. In addition, sperm motility was evaluated in the presence of known inhibitors of NHE, PMCA and NCX, such as amiloride, eosin, and KB-R7943, respectively, as well as in the presence of nigericin after incubation with ouabain. Amiloride, eosin and KB-R7943 significantly reduced sperm motility. Nigericin reversed the effect of ouabain and amiloride on sperm motility. Dynein-ATPase activity was inhibited by acidic pH and micromolar concentrations of Ca(2) (+). We explain our results in terms of inhibition of the dynein-ATPase in the presence of higher cytosolic H(+) and Ca(2) (+), and therefore inhibition of sperm motility. PMID:25820902

  20. Vacuolar-type H+-ATPase-mediated proton transport in the rat parietal cell.

    PubMed

    Kopic, Sascha; Wagner, Maximilian E H; Griessenauer, Christoph; Socrates, Thenral; Ritter, Markus; Geibel, John P

    2012-03-01

    The vacuolar-type H-ATPase (V-ATPase) plays an important role in the active acidification of intracellular organelles. In certain specialized cells, such as the renal intercalated cell, apical V-ATPase can also function as a proton secretion pathway. In the parietal cells of the stomach, it has been thought that acid secretion is controlled solely via the H,K-ATPase. However, recent observations suggest that functional V-ATPase is necessary for acid secretion to take place. This study aimed to investigate and characterize the role of V-ATPase in parietal cell proton transport. Individual rat gastric glands were incubated with the pH-sensitive dye (BCECF) to monitor changes in intracellular pH in real time. Parietal cell V-ATPase activity was measured by quantifying the rate of intracellular alkalinization (ΔpH/minute) following an acid load, while excluding the contribution of non-V-ATPase proton transport mechanisms through pharmacological inhibition or ion substitution. Expression of V-ATPase was confirmed by immunohistochemistry. We observed concanamycin A-sensitive V-ATPase activity in rat parietal cells following intracellular acidification and H,K-ATPase inhibition. Furthermore, V-ATPase-mediated proton transport could be abolished by inhibiting trafficking mechanisms with paclitaxel and by stimulating H,K-ATPase with acid secretagogues. Our results propose that parietal cells contain a functional V-ATPase that can be mobilized using a microtubule network. V-ATPase may function as an auxiliary acid secretion or proton-buffering pathway in parietal cells, which is inactive during H,K-ATPase activity. Our findings may have important implications for patients experiencing acid breakthrough under proton pump inhibitor therapy.

  1. Purification and properties of an ATPase from Sulfolobus solfataricus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hochstein, Lawrence I.; Stan-Lotter, Helga

    1992-01-01

    The paper reports properties of a sulfite-activated ATPase from Sulfolobus solfataricus, purified using ammonium sulfate precipitation, column chromatography on UltraGel and Sepharose 6B, and SDS-PAGE. The 92-fold purified enzyme had a relative molecular mass of 370,000. It could be dissociated into three subunits with respective molecular masses of 63,000, 48,000, and 24,000. The ATPase activity was found to be inhibitable by nitrate, N-ethylmaleimide (which bound predominantly to the largest subunit), and 4-chloro 7-nitrobenzofurazan, but not by azide, quercetin, or vanadate. While the ATPase from S. solfataricus shared a number of properties with the S. acidocaldarius ATPase, there were also significant differences suggesting the existence of several types of archaeal ATPases.

  2. Activation of K{sup +} channels and Na{sup +}/K{sup +} ATPase prevents aortic endothelial dysfunction in 7-day lead-treated rats

    SciTech Connect

    Fiorim, Jonaina; Ribeiro Júnior, Rogério Faustino; Azevedo, Bruna Fernades; Simões, Maylla Ronacher; Padilha, Alessandra Simão; Stefanon, Ivanita; Alonso, Maria Jesus; Salaices, Mercedes; Vassallo, Dalton Valentim

    2012-07-01

    Seven day exposure to a low concentration of lead acetate increases nitric oxide bioavailability suggesting a putative role of K{sup +} channels affecting vascular reactivity. This could be an adaptive mechanism at the initial stages of toxicity from lead exposure due to oxidative stress. We evaluated whether lead alters the participation of K{sup +} channels and Na{sup +}/K{sup +}-ATPase (NKA) on vascular function. Wistar rats were treated with lead (1st dose 4 μg/100 g, subsequent doses 0.05 μg/100 g, im, 7 days) or vehicle. Lead treatment reduced the contractile response of aortic rings to phenylephrine (PHE) without changing the vasodilator response to acetylcholine (ACh) or sodium nitroprusside (SNP). Furthermore, this treatment increased basal O{sub 2}{sup −} production, and apocynin (0.3 μM), superoxide dismutase (150 U/mL) and catalase (1000 U/mL) reduced the response to PHE only in the treated group. Lead also increased aortic functional NKA activity evaluated by K{sup +}-induced relaxation curves. Ouabain (100 μM) plus L-NAME (100 μM), aminoguanidine (50 μM) or tetraethylammonium (TEA, 2 mM) reduced the K{sup +}-induced relaxation only in lead-treated rats. When aortic rings were precontracted with KCl (60 mM/L) or preincubated with TEA (2 mM), 4-aminopyridine (4-AP, 5 mM), iberiotoxin (IbTX, 30 nM), apamin (0.5 μM) or charybdotoxin (0.1 μM), the ACh-induced relaxation was more reduced in the lead-treated rats. Additionally, 4-AP and IbTX reduced the relaxation elicited by SNP more in the lead-treated rats. Results suggest that lead treatment promoted NKA and K{sup +} channels activation and these effects might contribute to the preservation of aortic endothelial function against oxidative stress. -- Highlights: ► Increased free radicals production ► Increased Na{sup +}/K{sup +} ATPase activity ► Promotes activation of the K{sup +} channels and reduced vascular reactivity ► These effects preserve endothelial function against oxidative

  3. Lycopene protects against atrazine-induced hepatic ionic homeostasis disturbance by modulating ion-transporting ATPases.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jia; Zhao, Hua-Shan; Xiang, Li-Run; Xia, Jun; Wang, Li-Li; Li, Xue-Nan; Li, Jin-Long; Zhang, Ying

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the possible chemoprotective role of lycopene (LYC) against atrazine (ATR)-induced ionic disorder and hepatotoxicity in mice. Male kunming mice were treated with LYC (5mg/kg) and/or ATR (50mg/kg or 200mg/kg) by lavage administration for 21days. Ionic disorder was assessed by determining the Na(+), K(+) and Ca(2+) content and the alteration in ATP enzymes (ATPases) including Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase, Ca(2+)-ATPase, Mg(2+)-ATPase and Ca(2+)-Mg(2+)-ATPase and the mRNA levels of ATPase's subunits in liver. ATR caused the increases of alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase activities and histological changes. LYC pretreatment significantly protected liver against ATR-caused alternation. The significant effect of ATR and LYC on the K(+) and Mg(2+) content in liver was not observed, but ATR increased hepatic Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase activity and decreased Mg(2+)-ATPase and Ca(2+)-Mg(2+)-ATPase activity. The mRNA expressions of Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase subunits were regulated significantly by ATR. A significant increase of Ca(2+) content and seven down-regulated mRNA expressions of Ca(2+)-ATPase subunits and a decrease of Ca(2+)-ATPase activity were observed in the ATR-treated mice. Notably, LYC modulated these ATR-induced alterations of ATPase activity and mRNA expression of their subunits. These results suggest that ATR presents hepatotoxicity via regulating hepatic ATPase's activities and their subunit transcriptions and inducing ionic disorder. LYC protects liver against ATR-induced hepatotoxicity, significantly. LYC modulated hepatic ionic homeostasis disturbance via regulation of ATPase activities and their subunits' (1a1, 1b3, 1b4 and 2b4) transcriptions. In summary, these effects play a critical role of LYC-mediated chemoprevention against ATR-induced hepatotoxicity.

  4. The phage growth limitation system in Streptomyces coelicolor A(3)2 is a toxin/antitoxin system, comprising enzymes with DNA methyltransferase, protein kinase and ATPase activity.

    PubMed

    Hoskisson, Paul A; Sumby, Paul; Smith, Margaret C M

    2015-03-01

    The phage growth limitation system of Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2) is an unusual bacteriophage defence mechanism. Progeny ϕC31 phage from an initial infection are thought to be modified such that subsequent infections are attenuated in a Pgl(+) host but normal in a Pgl(-) strain. Earlier work identified four genes required for phage resistance by Pgl. Here we demonstrate that Pgl is an elaborate and novel phage restriction system that, in part, comprises a toxin/antitoxin system where PglX, a DNA methyltransferase is toxic in the absence of a functional PglZ. In addition, the ATPase activity of PglY and a protein kinase activity in PglW are shown to be essential for phage resistance by Pgl. We conclude that on infection of a Pgl(+) cell by bacteriophage ϕC31, PglW transduces a signal, probably via phosphorylation, to other Pgl proteins resulting in the activation of the DNA methyltransferase, PglX and this leads to phage restriction.

  5. Myosin II ATPase activity mediates the long-term potentiation-induced exodus of stable F-actin bound by drebrin A from dendritic spines.

    PubMed

    Mizui, Toshiyuki; Sekino, Yuko; Yamazaki, Hiroyuki; Ishizuka, Yuta; Takahashi, Hideto; Kojima, Nobuhiko; Kojima, Masami; Shirao, Tomoaki

    2014-01-01

    The neuronal actin-binding protein drebrin A forms a stable structure with F-actin in dendritic spines. NMDA receptor activation causes an exodus of F-actin bound by drebrin A (DA-actin) from dendritic spines, suggesting a pivotal role for DA-actin exodus in synaptic plasticity. We quantitatively assessed the extent of DA-actin localization to spines using the spine-dendrite ratio of drebrin A in cultured hippocampal neurons, and found that (1) chemical long-term potentiation (LTP) stimulation induces rapid DA-actin exodus and subsequent DA-actin re-entry in dendritic spines, (2) Ca(2+) influx through NMDA receptors regulates the exodus and the basal accumulation of DA-actin, and (3) the DA-actin exodus is blocked by myosin II ATPase inhibitor, but is not blocked by myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) or Rho-associated kinase (ROCK) inhibitors. These results indicate that myosin II mediates the interaction between NMDA receptor activation and DA-actin exodus in LTP induction. Furthermore, myosin II seems to be activated by a rapid actin-linked mechanism rather than slow MLC phosphorylation. Thus the myosin-II mediated DA-actin exodus might be an initial event in LTP induction, triggering actin polymerization and spine enlargement.

  6. Myosin II ATPase Activity Mediates the Long-Term Potentiation-Induced Exodus of Stable F-Actin Bound by Drebrin A from Dendritic Spines

    PubMed Central

    Mizui, Toshiyuki; Sekino, Yuko; Yamazaki, Hiroyuki; Ishizuka, Yuta; Takahashi, Hideto; Kojima, Nobuhiko; Kojima, Masami; Shirao, Tomoaki

    2014-01-01

    The neuronal actin-binding protein drebrin A forms a stable structure with F-actin in dendritic spines. NMDA receptor activation causes an exodus of F-actin bound by drebrin A (DA-actin) from dendritic spines, suggesting a pivotal role for DA-actin exodus in synaptic plasticity. We quantitatively assessed the extent of DA-actin localization to spines using the spine-dendrite ratio of drebrin A in cultured hippocampal neurons, and found that (1) chemical long-term potentiation (LTP) stimulation induces rapid DA-actin exodus and subsequent DA-actin re-entry in dendritic spines, (2) Ca2+ influx through NMDA receptors regulates the exodus and the basal accumulation of DA-actin, and (3) the DA-actin exodus is blocked by myosin II ATPase inhibitor, but is not blocked by myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) or Rho-associated kinase (ROCK) inhibitors. These results indicate that myosin II mediates the interaction between NMDA receptor activation and DA-actin exodus in LTP induction. Furthermore, myosin II seems to be activated by a rapid actin-linked mechanism rather than slow MLC phosphorylation. Thus the myosin-II mediated DA-actin exodus might be an initial event in LTP induction, triggering actin polymerization and spine enlargement. PMID:24465547

  7. Dicyclohexylcarbodiimide-sensitive ATPase in Halobacterium saccharovorum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kristjansson, H.; Hochstein, L. I.

    1985-01-01

    Membranes from Halobacterium saccharovorum contained a cryptic ATPase which required Mg(2+) or Mn(2+) and was activated by Triton X-100. The optimal pH for ATP hydrolysis was 9-10. ATP or GTP were hydrolyzed at the same rate while ITP, CTP, and UTP were hydrolyzed at about half that rate. The products of ATP hydrolysis were ADP and phosphate. The ATPase required high concentrations (3.5 M) of NaCl for maximum activity. ADP was a competitive inhibitor of the activity, with an apparent Ki of 50 micro-M. Dicyclohexylcarbodiimide (DCCD) inhibited ATP hydrolysis. The inhibition was marginal at the optimum pH of the enzyme. When the ATPase was preincubated with DCCD at varying pH values, but assayed at the optimal pH for activity, DCCD inhibition was observed to increase with increasing acidity of the preincubation medium. DCCD inhibition was also dependent on time of preincubation, and protein and DCCD concentrations. When preincubated at pH 6.0 for 4 h at a protein:DCCD ratio of 40 (w/w), ATPase activity was inhibited 90 percent.

  8. Influence of N-dodecyl-N,N-dimethylamine N-oxide on the activity of sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-transporting ATPase reconstituted into diacylphosphatidylcholine vesicles: efects of bilayer physical parameters.

    PubMed

    Karlovská, J; Uhríková, D; Kucerka, N; Teixeira, J; Devínsky, F; Lacko, I; Balgavý, P

    2006-01-01

    Sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca-transporting ATPase (EC 3.6.1.38) was isolated from rabbit white muscle, purified and reconstituted into vesicles of synthetic diacylphosphatidylcholines with monounsaturated acyl chains using the cholate dilution method. In fluid bilayers at 37 degrees C, the specific activity of ATPase displays a maximum (31.5+/-0.8 IU/mg) for dioleoylphosphatidylcholine (diC18:1PC) and decreases progressively for both shorter and longer acyl chain lengths. Besides the hydrophobic mismatch between protein and lipid bilayer, changes in the bilayer hydration and lateral interactions detected by small angle neutron scattering (SANS) can contribute to this acyl chain length dependence. When reconstituted into dierucoylphosphatidylcholine (diC22:1PC), the zwitterionic surfactant N-dodecyl-N,N-dimethylamine N-oxide (C12NO) stimulates the ATPase activity from 14.2+/-0.6 to 32.5+/-0.8 IU/mg in the range of molar ratios C12NO:diC22:1PC=0/1.2. In dilauroylphosphatidylcholines (diC12:0PC) and diC18:1PC, the effect of C12NO is twofold-the ATPase activity is stimulated at low and inhibited at high C12NO concentrations. In diC18:1PC, it is observed an increase of activity induced by C12NO in the range of molar ratios C12NO:diC18:1PC< or =1.3 in bilayers, where the bilayer thickness estimated by SANS decreases by 0.4+/-0.1 nm. In this range, the 31P-NMR chemical shift anisotropy increases indicating an effect of C12NO on the orientation of the phosphatidylcholine dipole N(+)-P- accompanied by a variation of the local membrane dipole potential. A decrease of the ATPase activity is observed in the range of molar ratios C12NO:diC18:1PC=1.3/2.5, where mixed tubular micelles are detected by SANS in C12NO+diC18:1PC mixtures. It is concluded that besides hydrophobic thickness changes, the changes in dipole potential and curvature frustration of the bilayer could contribute as well to C12NO effects on Ca(2+)-ATPase activity. PMID:16223561

  9. Myocardial Na,K-ATPase: Clinical aspects

    PubMed Central

    Kjeldsen, Keld

    2003-01-01

    The specific binding of digitalis glycosides to Na,K-ATPase is used as a tool for Na,K-ATPase quantification with high accuracy and precision. In myocardial biopsies from patients with heart failure, total Na,K-ATPase concentration is decreased by around 40%; a correlation exists between a decrease in heart function and a decrease in Na,K-ATPase concentration. During digitalization, around 30% of remaining pumps are occupied by digoxin. Myocardial Na,K-ATPase is also influenced by other drugs used for the treatment of heart failure. Thus, potassium loss during diuretic therapy has been found to reduce myocardial Na,K-ATPase, whereas angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors may stimulate Na,K pump activity. Furthermore, hyperaldosteronism induced by heart failure has been found to decrease Na,K-ATPase activity. Accordingly, treatment with the aldosterone antagonist, spironolactone, may also influence Na,K-ATPase activity. The importance of Na,K pump modulation with heart disease, inhibition in digitalization and other effects of medication should be considered in the context of sodium, potassium and calcium regulation. It is recommended that digoxin be administered to heart failure patients who, after institution of mortality-reducing therapy, still have heart failure symptoms, and that the therapy be continued if symptoms are revealed or reduced. Digitalis glycosides are the only safe inotropic drugs for oral use that improve hemodynamics in heart failure. An important aspect of myocardial Na,K pump affection in heart disease is its influence on extracellular potassium (Ke) homeostasis. Two important aspects should be considered: potassium handling among myocytes, and effects of potassium entering the extracellular space of the heart via the bloodstream. It should be noted that both of these aspects of Ke homeostasis are affected by regulatory aspects, eg, regulation of the Na,K pump by physiological and pathophysiological conditions, as well as by medical

  10. FXYD11 mediated modulation of Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase activity in gills of the brackish medaka (Oryzias dancena) when transferred to hypoosmotic or hyperosmotic environments.

    PubMed

    Chang, Chia-Hao; Yang, Wen-Kai; Lin, Chia-Hao; Kang, Chao-Kai; Tang, Cheng-Hao; Lee, Tsung-Han

    2016-04-01

    FXYD proteins regulate Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase (NKA), which is a primary active pump that provides the driving force that triggers osmoregulatory systems in teleosts. To explore the regulatory mechanisms between FXYD and NKA in euryhaline teleosts, the expression of NKA (mRNA, protein, and activity) and FXYD11 and their interaction were examined in the gills of brackish medaka (Oryzias dancena) when transferred from brackish water (BW; 15‰) to fresh water (FW) or seawater (SW; 35‰). The mRNA expression of Odfxyd11 and Odnka-α was elevated 48h post-hypoosmotic transfer. Moreover, FXYD11 protein and NKA activity were upregulated 12h after transfer to FW. When transferred to SW, the protein abundance of FXYD11 and the NKA α-subunit did not show apparent changes, while Odfxyd11 and Odnka-α mRNA expression and NKA activity increased significantly 12h and 1h post-transfer, respectively. To clarify the FXYD11 mechanisms involved in modulating NKA activity via their interaction, co-immunoprecipitation was further applied to O. dancena gills. The results revealed that the levels of protein-protein interaction between branchial NKA and FXYD11 increased acutely 12h after the transfer from BW to FW. However, immediate upregulation of NKA activity 1h following post-exposure to SW, without the elevation of protein-protein interaction levels, was found. Hence, branchial NKA activity of O. dancena was suggested to be rapidly regulated by FXYD11 interaction with NKA when acclimated to hypoosmotic environments. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study that focuses on the efficacy of interactions between FXYD11 and NKA in the gills of euryhaline teleosts.

  11. Characterization of the ATPase activity of RecG and RuvAB proteins on model fork structures reveals insight into stalled DNA replication fork repair.

    PubMed

    Abd Wahab, Syafiq; Choi, Meerim; Bianco, Piero R

    2013-09-13

    RecG and RuvAB are proposed to act at stalled DNA replication forks to facilitate replication restart. To clarify the roles of these proteins in fork regression, we used a coupled spectrophotometric ATPase assay to determine how these helicases act on two groups of model fork substrates: the first group mimics nascent stalled forks, whereas the second mimics regressed fork structures. The results show that RecG is active on the substrates in group 1, whereas these are poor substrates for RuvAB. In addition, in the presence of group 1 forks, the single-stranded DNA-binding protein (SSB) enhances the activity of RecG and enables it to compete with excess RuvA. In contrast, SSB inhibits the activity of RuvAB on these substrates. Results also show that the preferred regressed fork substrate for RuvAB is a Holliday junction, not a forked DNA. The active form of the enzyme on the Holliday junction contains a single RuvA tetramer. In contrast, although the enzyme is active on a regressed fork structure, RuvB loading by a single RuvA tetramer is impaired, and full activity requires the cooperative binding of two forked DNA substrate molecules. Collectively, the data support a model where RecG is responsible for stalled DNA replication fork regression. SSB ensures that if the nascent fork has single-stranded DNA character RuvAB is inhibited, whereas the activity of RecG is preferentially enhanced. Only once the fork has been regressed and the DNA is relaxed can RuvAB bind to a RecG-extruded Holliday junction.

  12. Potato virus Y HC-Pro Reduces the ATPase Activity of NtMinD, Which Results in Enlarged Chloroplasts in HC-Pro Transgenic Tobacco.

    PubMed

    Tu, Yayi; Zhang, Zhenqian; Li, Daofeng; Li, Heng; Dong, Jiangli; Wang, Tao

    2015-01-01

    Potato virus Y (PVY) is an important plant virus and causes great losses every year. Viral infection often leads to abnormal chloroplasts. The first step of chloroplast division is the formation of FtsZ ring (Z-ring), and the placement of Z-ring is coordinated by the Min system in both bacteria and plants. In our lab, the helper-component proteinase (HC-Pro) of PVY was previously found to interact with the chloroplast division protein NtMinD through a yeast two-hybrid screening assay and a bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC) assay in vivo. Here, we further investigated the biological significance of the NtMinD/HC-Pro interaction. We purified the NtMinD and HC-Pro proteins using a prokaryotic protein purification system and tested the effect of HC-Pro on the ATPase activity of NtMinD in vitro. We found that the ATPase activity of NtMinD was reduced in the presence of HC-Pro. In addition, another important chloroplast division related protein, NtMinE, was cloned from the cDNA of Nicotiana tabacum. And the NtMinD/NtMinE interaction site was mapped to the C-terminus of NtMinD, which overlaps the NtMinD/HC-Pro interaction site. Yeast three-hybrid assay demonstrated that HC-Pro competes with NtMinE for binding to NtMinD. HC-Pro was previously reported to accumulate in the chloroplasts of PVY-infected tobacco and we confirmed this result in our present work. The NtMinD/NtMinE interaction is very important in the regulation of chloroplast division. To demonstrate the influence of HC-Pro on chloroplast division, we generated HC-Pro transgenic tobacco with a transit peptide to retarget HC-Pro to the chloroplasts. The HC-Pro transgenic plants showed enlarged chloroplasts. Our present study demonstrated that the interaction between HC-Pro and NtMinD interfered with the function of NtMinD in chloroplast division, which results in enlarged chloroplasts in HC-Pro transgenic tobacco. The HC-Pro/NtMinD interaction may cause the formation of abnormal chloroplasts in PVY

  13. Potato virus Y HC-Pro Reduces the ATPase Activity of NtMinD, Which Results in Enlarged Chloroplasts in HC-Pro Transgenic Tobacco.

    PubMed

    Tu, Yayi; Zhang, Zhenqian; Li, Daofeng; Li, Heng; Dong, Jiangli; Wang, Tao

    2015-01-01

    Potato virus Y (PVY) is an important plant virus and causes great losses every year. Viral infection often leads to abnormal chloroplasts. The first step of chloroplast division is the formation of FtsZ ring (Z-ring), and the placement of Z-ring is coordinated by the Min system in both bacteria and plants. In our lab, the helper-component proteinase (HC-Pro) of PVY was previously found to interact with the chloroplast division protein NtMinD through a yeast two-hybrid screening assay and a bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC) assay in vivo. Here, we further investigated the biological significance of the NtMinD/HC-Pro interaction. We purified the NtMinD and HC-Pro proteins using a prokaryotic protein purification system and tested the effect of HC-Pro on the ATPase activity of NtMinD in vitro. We found that the ATPase activity of NtMinD was reduced in the presence of HC-Pro. In addition, another important chloroplast division related protein, NtMinE, was cloned from the cDNA of Nicotiana tabacum. And the NtMinD/NtMinE interaction site was mapped to the C-terminus of NtMinD, which overlaps the NtMinD/HC-Pro interaction site. Yeast three-hybrid assay demonstrated that HC-Pro competes with NtMinE for binding to NtMinD. HC-Pro was previously reported to accumulate in the chloroplasts of PVY-infected tobacco and we confirmed this result in our present work. The NtMinD/NtMinE interaction is very important in the regulation of chloroplast division. To demonstrate the influence of HC-Pro on chloroplast division, we generated HC-Pro transgenic tobacco with a transit peptide to retarget HC-Pro to the chloroplasts. The HC-Pro transgenic plants showed enlarged chloroplasts. Our present study demonstrated that the interaction between HC-Pro and NtMinD interfered with the function of NtMinD in chloroplast division, which results in enlarged chloroplasts in HC-Pro transgenic tobacco. The HC-Pro/NtMinD interaction may cause the formation of abnormal chloroplasts in PVY

  14. Potato virus Y HC-Pro Reduces the ATPase Activity of NtMinD, Which Results in Enlarged Chloroplasts in HC-Pro Transgenic Tobacco

    PubMed Central

    Tu, Yayi; Zhang, Zhenqian; Li, Daofeng; Li, Heng; Dong, Jiangli; Wang, Tao

    2015-01-01

    Potato virus Y (PVY) is an important plant virus and causes great losses every year. Viral infection often leads to abnormal chloroplasts. The first step of chloroplast division is the formation of FtsZ ring (Z-ring), and the placement of Z-ring is coordinated by the Min system in both bacteria and plants. In our lab, the helper-component proteinase (HC-Pro) of PVY was previously found to interact with the chloroplast division protein NtMinD through a yeast two-hybrid screening assay and a bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC) assay in vivo. Here, we further investigated the biological significance of the NtMinD/HC-Pro interaction. We purified the NtMinD and HC-Pro proteins using a prokaryotic protein purification system and tested the effect of HC-Pro on the ATPase activity of NtMinD in vitro. We found that the ATPase activity of NtMinD was reduced in the presence of HC-Pro. In addition, another important chloroplast division related protein, NtMinE, was cloned from the cDNA of Nicotiana tabacum. And the NtMinD/NtMinE interaction site was mapped to the C-terminus of NtMinD, which overlaps the NtMinD/HC-Pro interaction site. Yeast three-hybrid assay demonstrated that HC-Pro competes with NtMinE for binding to NtMinD. HC-Pro was previously reported to accumulate in the chloroplasts of PVY-infected tobacco and we confirmed this result in our present work. The NtMinD/NtMinE interaction is very important in the regulation of chloroplast division. To demonstrate the influence of HC-Pro on chloroplast division, we generated HC-Pro transgenic tobacco with a transit peptide to retarget HC-Pro to the chloroplasts. The HC-Pro transgenic plants showed enlarged chloroplasts. Our present study demonstrated that the interaction between HC-Pro and NtMinD interfered with the function of NtMinD in chloroplast division, which results in enlarged chloroplasts in HC-Pro transgenic tobacco. The HC-Pro/NtMinD interaction may cause the formation of abnormal chloroplasts in PVY

  15. Monoclonal Antibodies to the [alpha]- and [beta]-Subunits of the Plant Mitochondrial F1-ATPase.

    PubMed Central

    Luethy, M. H.; Horak, A.; Elthon, T. E.

    1993-01-01

    We have generated nine monoclonal antibodies against subunits of the maize (Zea mays L.) mitochondrial F1-ATPase. These monoclonal antibodies were generated by immunizing mice against maize mitochondrial fractions and randomly collecting useful hybridomas. To prove that these monoclonal antibodies were directed against ATPase subunits, we tested their cross-reactivity with purified F1-ATPase from pea cotyledon mitochondria. One of the antibodies ([alpha]-ATPaseD) cross-reacted with the pea F1-ATPase [alpha]-subunit and two ([beta]-ATPaseD and [beta]-ATPaseE) cross-reacted with the pea F1-ATPase [beta]-subunit. This established that, of the nine antibodies, four react with the maize [alpha]-ATPase subunit and the other five react with the maize [beta]-ATPase subunit. Most of the monoclonal antibodies cross-react with the F1-ATPase from a wide range of plant species. Each of the four monoclonal antibodies raised against the [alpha]-subunit recognizes a different epitope. Of the five [beta]-subunit antibodies, at least three different epitopes are recognized. Direct incubation of the monoclonal antibodies with the F1-ATPase failed to inhibit the ATPase activity. The monoclonal antibodies [alpha]-ATPaseD and [beta]-ATPaseD were bound to epoxide-glass QuantAffinity beads and incubated with a purified preparation of pea F1-ATPase. The ATPase activity was not inhibited when the antibodies bound the ATPase. The antibodies were used to help map the pea F1-ATPase subunits on a two-dimensional map of whole pea cotyledon mitochondrial protein. In addition, the antibodies have revealed antigenic similarities between various isoforms observed for the [alpha]- and [beta]-subunits of the purified F1-ATPase. The specificity of these monoclonal antibodies, along with their cross-species recognition and their ability to bind the F1-ATPase without inhibiting enzymic function, makes these antibodies useful and invaluable tools for the further purification and characterization of plant

  16. Phenolic indeno[1,2-b]indoles as ABCG2-selective potent and non-toxic inhibitors stimulating basal ATPase activity.

    PubMed

    Gozzi, Gustavo Jabor; Bouaziz, Zouhair; Winter, Evelyn; Daflon-Yunes, Nathalia; Honorat, Mylène; Guragossian, Nathalie; Marminon, Christelle; Valdameri, Glaucio; Bollacke, Andre; Guillon, Jean; Pinaud, Noël; Marchivie, Mathieu; Cadena, Silvia M; Jose, Joachim; Le Borgne, Marc; Di Pietro, Attilio

    2015-01-01

    Ketonic indeno[1,2-b]indole-9,10-dione derivatives, initially designed as human casein kinase II (CK2) inhibitors, were recently shown to be converted into efficient inhibitors of drug efflux by the breast cancer resistance protein ABCG2 upon suited substitutions including a N (5)-phenethyl on C-ring and hydrophobic groups on D-ring. A series of ten phenolic and seven p-quinonic derivatives were synthesized and screened for inhibition of both CK2 and ABCG2 activities. The best phenolic inhibitors were about threefold more potent against ABCG2 than the corresponding ketonic derivatives, and showed low cytotoxicity. They were selective for ABCG2 over both P-glycoprotein and MRP1 (multidrug resistance protein 1), whereas the ketonic derivatives also interacted with MRP1, and they additionally displayed a lower interaction with CK2. Quite interestingly, they strongly stimulated ABCG2 ATPase activity, in contrast to ketonic derivatives, suggesting distinct binding sites. In contrast, the p-quinonic indenoindoles were cytotoxic and poor ABCG2 inhibitors, whereas a partial inhibition recovery could be reached upon hydrophobic substitutions on D-ring, similarly to the ketonic derivatives.

  17. Phenolic indeno[1,2-b]indoles as ABCG2-selective potent and non-toxic inhibitors stimulating basal ATPase activity

    PubMed Central

    Gozzi, Gustavo Jabor; Bouaziz, Zouhair; Winter, Evelyn; Daflon-Yunes, Nathalia; Honorat, Mylène; Guragossian, Nathalie; Marminon, Christelle; Valdameri, Glaucio; Bollacke, Andre; Guillon, Jean; Pinaud, Noël; Marchivie, Mathieu; Cadena, Silvia M; Jose, Joachim; Le Borgne, Marc; Di Pietro, Attilio

    2015-01-01

    Ketonic indeno[1,2-b]indole-9,10-dione derivatives, initially designed as human casein kinase II (CK2) inhibitors, were recently shown to be converted into efficient inhibitors of drug efflux by the breast cancer resistance protein ABCG2 upon suited substitutions including a N5-phenethyl on C-ring and hydrophobic groups on D-ring. A series of ten phenolic and seven p-quinonic derivatives were synthesized and screened for inhibition of both CK2 and ABCG2 activities. The best phenolic inhibitors were about threefold more potent against ABCG2 than the corresponding ketonic derivatives, and showed low cytotoxicity. They were selective for ABCG2 over both P-glycoprotein and MRP1 (multidrug resistance protein 1), whereas the ketonic derivatives also interacted with MRP1, and they additionally displayed a lower interaction with CK2. Quite interestingly, they strongly stimulated ABCG2 ATPase activity, in contrast to ketonic derivatives, suggesting distinct binding sites. In contrast, the p-quinonic indenoindoles were cytotoxic and poor ABCG2 inhibitors, whereas a partial inhibition recovery could be reached upon hydrophobic substitutions on D-ring, similarly to the ketonic derivatives. PMID:26170632

  18. C-peptide, Na+,K+-ATPase, and Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Coste, T. C.; Jannot, M. F.; Raccah, D.; Tsimaratos, M.

    2004-01-01

    Na+,K+-ATPase is an ubiquitous membrane enzyme that allows the extrusion of three sodium ions from the cell and two potassium ions from the extracellular fluid. Its activity is decreased in many tissues of streptozotocin-induced diabetic animals. This impairment could be at least partly responsible for the development of diabetic complications. Na+,K+-ATPase activity is decreased in the red blood cell membranes of type 1 diabetic individuals, irrespective of the degree of diabetic control. It is less impaired or even normal in those of type 2 diabetic patients. The authors have shown that in the red blood cells of type 2 diabetic patients, Na+,K+-ATPase activity was strongly related to blood C-peptide levels in non–insulin-treated patients (in whom C-peptide concentration reflects that of insulin) as well as in insulin-treated patients. Furthermore, a gene-environment relationship has been observed. The alpha-1 isoform of the enzyme predominant in red blood cells and nerve tissue is encoded by the ATP1A1 gene.Apolymorphism in the intron 1 of this gene is associated with lower enzyme activity in patients with C-peptide deficiency either with type 1 or type 2 diabetes, but not in normal individuals. There are several lines of evidence for a low C-peptide level being responsible for low Na+,K+-ATPase activity in the red blood cells. Short-term C-peptide infusion to type 1 diabetic patients restores normal Na+,K+-ATPase activity. Islet transplantation, which restores endogenous C-peptide secretion, enhances Na+,K+-ATPase activity proportionally to the rise in C-peptide. This C-peptide effect is not indirect. In fact, incubation of diabetic red blood cells with C-peptide at physiological concentration leads to an increase of Na+,K+-ATPase activity. In isolated proximal tubules of rats or in the medullary thick ascending limb of the kidney, C-peptide stimulates in a dose-dependent manner Na+,K+-ATPase activity. This impairment in Na+,K+-ATPase activity, mainly

  19. Synthesis and assembly of functional mammalian Na,K-ATPase in yeast.

    PubMed

    Horowitz, B; Eakle, K A; Scheiner-Bobis, G; Randolph, G R; Chen, C Y; Hitzeman, R A; Farley, R A

    1990-03-15

    The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae was investigated as an in vivo protein expression system for mammalian Na,K-ATPase. Unlike animal cells, yeast cells lack endogenous Na,K-ATPase. Expression of high affinity ouabain binding sites, ouabain-sensitive ATPase activity, or ouabain-sensitive p-nitrophenylphosphatase activity in membrane fractions of yeast cells was observed to require the expression of both alpha subunit and beta subunit polypeptides of Na,K-ATPase in the same cell. High affinity ouabain binding sites are also expressed at the cell surface of intact yeast cells containing both the alpha subunit and the beta subunit of Na,K-ATPase. These observations demonstrate that both the alpha subunit and the beta subunit of Na,K-ATPase are required for the expression of functional Na,K-ATPase activity and that yeast cells can correctly assemble this oligomeric membrane protein and transport it to the cell surface. PMID:1689721

  20. Thioredoxin redox regulates ATPase activity of magnesium chelatase CHLI subunit and modulates redox-mediated signaling in tetrapyrrole biosynthesis and homeostasis of reactive oxygen species in pea plants.

    PubMed

    Luo, Tao; Fan, Tingting; Liu, Yinan; Rothbart, Maxi; Yu, Jing; Zhou, Shuaixiang; Grimm, Bernhard; Luo, Meizhong

    2012-05-01

    The chloroplast thioredoxins (TRXs) function as messengers of redox signals from ferredoxin to target enzymes. In this work, we studied the regulatory impact of pea (Pisum sativum) TRX-F on the magnesium (Mg) chelatase CHLI subunit and the enzymatic activation of Mg chelatase in vitro and in vivo. In vitro, reduced TRX-F activated the ATPase activity of pea CHLI and enhanced the activity of Mg chelatase reconstituted from the three recombinant subunits CHLI, CHLD, and CHLH in combination with the regulator protein GENOMES UNCOUPLED4 (GUN4). Yeast two-hybrid and bimolecular fluorescence complementation assays demonstrated that TRX-F physically interacts with CHLI but not with either of the other two subunits or GUN4. In vivo, virus-induced TRX-F gene silencing (VIGS-TRX-F) in pea plants did not result in an altered redox state of CHLI. However, simultaneous silencing of the pea TRX-F and TRX-M genes (VIGS-TRX-F/TRX-M) resulted in partially and fully oxidized CHLI in vivo. VIGS-TRX-F/TRX-M plants demonstrated a significant reduction in Mg chelatase activity and 5-aminolevulinic acid synthesizing capacity as well as reduced pigment content and lower photosynthetic capacity. These results suggest that, in vivo, TRX-M can compensate for a lack of TRX-F and that both TRXs act as important redox regulators of Mg chelatase. Furthermore, the silencing of TRX-F and TRX-M expression also affects gene expression in the tetrapyrrole biosynthesis pathway and leads to the accumulation of reactive oxygen species, which may also serve as an additional signal for the transcriptional regulation of photosynthesis-associated nuclear genes.

  1. Intracerebroventricular administration of ouabain, a Na/K-ATPase inhibitor, activates tyrosine hydroxylase through extracellular signal-regulated kinase in rat striatum.

    PubMed

    Yu, Hyun Sook; Kim, Se Hyun; Park, Hong Geun; Kim, Yong Sik; Ahn, Yong Min

    2011-11-01

    Alteration in dopamine neurotransmission has been reported to be involved in the mania of bipolar disorder. Tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) is the rate-limiting enzyme that is crucial for dopamine biosynthesis, and its activity is tightly regulated by phosphorylation at multiple N-terminal serine residues. Previously, we have reported that intracerebroventricular (ICV) injection of ouabain, a selective Na/K-ATPase inhibitor, induces hyperactivity in rats that mimics manic symptoms related to the activation of extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase1/2 (ERK1/2), which plays crucial roles in the modulation of TH phosphorylation. In this study, we investigated the effects of ICV injection of ouabain on TH phosphorylation in rat striatum and the involvement of ERK1/2 in ouabain-induced TH activation. ICV ouabain induced an acute dose-dependent increase in locomotor activity and in TH phosphorylation in rat striatum. TH phosphorylation at Ser19 was significantly increased with 100, 500, and 1000μM ouabain, and phosphorylation at Ser31 and Ser40 was significantly increased with 500 and 1000μM. We also found that ICV pretreatment with U0126, a specific MEK1/2 inhibitor, attenuated the 1000μM ouabain-induced increase in TH phosphorylation at Ser19, Ser31, and Ser40, as well as the hyperactivity of rats. Moreover, the increased phosphorylation of TH (Ser19, Ser31, and Ser40) was maintained until 8h after single administration ouabain was accompanied by increased phosphorylation of ERK1/2 (Thr202/Tyr204) and p90RSK (Thr359/Ser363). These findings imply that TH activation of the ERK1/2 signal pathway could play an important role in ouabain-induced hyperactivity of rats, a mania model. PMID:21871514

  2. Epitope mapping of monoclonal antibodies to the Escherichia coli F1 ATPase alpha subunit in relation to activity effects and location in the enzyme complex based on cryoelectron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Aggeler, R; Capaldi, R A; Dunn, S; Gogol, E P

    1992-08-01

    The interaction of Escherichia coli F1 ATPase (ECF1) with several different monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) specific for the alpha subunit has been examined. The epitopes for each of the mAbs have been localized by using molecular biological approaches to generate fragments of the alpha subunit. The binding of several of the mAbs has also been examined by cryoelectron microscopy of ECF1 Fab complexes. One of the mAbs, alpha II, bound in the region Asn 109-Val 153 without affecting ATPase activity. Most of the mAbs bound in the C-terminal third of the alpha subunit. MAb alpha 1 bound between residues Gln 443 and Trp 513. This mAb activated ATPase activity and was visualized in cryoelectron microscopy, superimposed on the alpha subunit, indicating that the epitope was on the top or bottom of ECF1 in the hexagonal projection. Other mAbs to the C-terminus, including alpha D which also activated the enzyme, reacted between Gly 371 and Trp 513 but failed to bind to small overlapping fragments within this sequence. The epitopes for these mAbs are probably formed by the folded polypeptide which occurs only in Western analysis when long stretches of the alpha subunit are present, suggesting that the C-terminus of alpha is a self-folding domain. In cryoelectron microscopy, Fab fragments for alpha D were seen extending from the sides of the ECF1 complex in hexagonal projection. PMID:1378717

  3. Control of copper homeostasis in Escherichia coli by a P-type ATPase, CopA, and a MerR-like transcriptional activator, CopR.

    PubMed

    Petersen, C; Møller, L B

    2000-12-31

    We have isolated and characterized a copper sensitive Escherichia coli mutant that is deficient in the copper transporting P-type ATPase encoded by the copA gene (previously ybaR). Measurements of uptake and efflux of 64Cu by wild-type and mutant cells implicated the CopA protein in copper efflux from the cytoplasm, and further demonstrated that cell-associated copper in intact E. coli cells is distributed between two kinetically distinguishable pools, the ratio of which was dramatically disturbed by the copA mutation. Using a copA-lacZ gene fusion the copA promoter was found to be specifically induced by copper, and this induction was shown to be dependent on a MerR-like transcriptional activator encoded by a previously uncharacterized gene, copR (previously ybbI). In the copA deficient background the copA-lacZ fusion was super induced to very high levels even in the absence of copper addition to the medium, and this induction was dependent on CopR. These results indicated that the cytoplasmic copper concentration was dramatically increased in the copA mutant, in agreement with the 64Cu uptake experiments. Moreover, they implied, that the copper concentration in wild type cells is determined primarily by the CopA efflux pump, while copper is taken up by an essentially constitutive mechanism. PMID:11167016

  4. SufD and SufC ATPase activity are required for iron acquisition during in vivo Fe-S cluster formation on SufB

    PubMed Central

    Saini, Avneesh; Mapolelo, Daphne T.; Chahal, Harsimranjit K.; Johnson, Michael K.; Outten, F. Wayne

    2010-01-01

    In vivo biogenesis of Fe-S cluster cofactors requires complex biosynthetic machinery to limit release of iron and sulfide, to protect the Fe-S cluster from oxidation, and to target the Fe-S cluster to the correct apo-enzyme. The SufABCDSE pathway for Fe-S cluster assembly in E. coli accomplishes these tasks under iron starvation and oxidative stress conditions that disrupt Fe-S cluster metabolism. Although SufB, SufC, and SufD are all required for in vivo Suf function, their exact roles are unclear. Here we show that SufB, SufC, and SufD, co-expressed with the SufS-SufE sulfur transfer pair, purify as two distinct complexes (SufBC2D and SufB2C2) that contain Fe-S clusters and FADH2. These studies also show that SufC and SufD are required for in vivo Fe-S cluster formation on SufB. Furthermore, while SufD is dispensable for in vivo sulfur transfer, it is absolutely required for in vivo iron acquisition. Finally, we demonstrate for the first time that the ATPase activity of SufC is necessary for in vivo iron acquisition during Fe-S cluster assembly. PMID:20857974

  5. Acute ethanol intoxication shows no effect on Ca sup 2+ -uptake of Ca sup 2+ -dependent ATPase activity in myocardial sarcoplasmic reticulum vesicles

    SciTech Connect

    McAllister, K.P.; Horton, J.W.; Kaufman, T.M.; White, D.J. )

    1989-02-09

    We have previously shown that acute ethanolism impairs left ventricular (LV) function. We hypothesized that cardiac dysfunction may be related to altered Ca{sup 2+} pump function by the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR). In this study, LV function (in isolated perfused hearts) was compared to Ca{sup 2+} transport in SR vesicles isolated from nonperfused hearts in control (C) and acutely intoxicated (ETOH, 2.5 ml/kg IV) guinea pigs. Compared to control hearts, ETOH hearts had significantly lower LV systolic pressure maximal rate of LV pressure rise and fall. Ca{sup 2+}-ATPase activity was not significantly different in either group of animals. Although maximum Ca{sup 2+} uptake tended to be slightly lower in ETOH compared to control hearts coupling ratios (mol Ca{sup 2+} transported/mol ATP hydrolyzed) were not significantly different. We conclude that changes in SR Ca{sup 2+} pump function are not responsible for the depressed LV function seen in acute ethanolism.

  6. How ‘arm-twisting’ by the inducer triggers activation of the MalT transcription factor, a typical signal transduction ATPase with numerous domains (STAND)

    PubMed Central

    Danot, Olivier

    2015-01-01

    Signal transduction ATPases with numerous domains (STAND) get activated through inducer-dependent assembly into multimeric platforms. This switch relies on the conversion of their nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain (NOD) from a closed, ADP-bound form to an open, ATP-bound form. The NOD closed form is stabilized by contacts with the arm, a domain that connects the NOD to the inducer-binding domain called the sensor. How the inducer triggers NOD opening remains unclear. Here, I pinpointed the NOD-arm interface of the MalT STAND transcription factor, and I generated a MalT variant in which this interface can be covalently locked on demand, thereby trapping the NOD in the closed state. By characterizing this locked variant, I found that the inducer is recognized in two steps: it first binds to the sole sensor with low affinity, which then triggers the recruitment of the arm to form a high-affinity arm-sensor inducer-binding site. Strikingly, this high-affinity binding step was incompatible with arm-NOD contacts maintaining the NOD closed. Through this toggling between two mutually exclusive states reminiscent of a single-pole double-throw switch, the arm couples inducer binding to NOD opening, shown here to precede nucleotide exchange. This scenario likely holds for other STANDs like mammalian NLR innate immunity receptors. PMID:25740650

  7. Ecological risk assessment of silicon dioxide nanoparticles in a freshwater fish Labeo rohita: Hematology, ionoregulation and gill Na(+)/K(+) ATPase activity.

    PubMed

    Krishna Priya, K; Ramesh, M; Saravanan, M; Ponpandian, N

    2015-10-01

    The fate and effect of nanomaterials in the environment has raised concern about their environmental risk to aquatic organisms. Silica nanoparticles (SiO2-NPs) find its uses in various fields and are inevitably released into the environment. However, the ecotoxicological effects of SiO2-NPs on the freshwater fish remain poorly understood. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of different concentrations (1, 5 and 25mgL(-1)) of SiO2-NPs on certain hematological, ionoregulatory and enzymological profiles of a freshwater teleost fish Labeo rohita. Hematological parameters such as hemoglobin (Hb), hematocrit (Hct), red blood cells (RBC), white blood cells (WBC), mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH) and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC) values were altered in SiO2-NPs treated groups. Likewise, plasma electrolytes such as plasma sodium (Na(+)), potassium (K(+)) and chloride (Cl(-)) levels and Na(+)/K(+) ATPase activity in gill of SiO2-NPs treated groups were altered in all concentrations throughout the study period (96h). The alterations of these parameters were found to be dependent on dose and exposure period. The results of the present study indicate that the alterations of these parameters may relate to physiological stress system to SiO2-NPs toxicity and also demonstrate that manufactured metal oxide NPs in aquatic environment may affect the health condition of the aquatic organisms.

  8. Effects of anthropogenic sound on digging behavior, metabolism, Ca2+/Mg2+ ATPase activity, and metabolism-related gene expression of the bivalve Sinonovacula constricta

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Chao; Zhao, Xinguo; Liu, Saixi; Shi, Wei; Han, Yu; Guo, Cheng; Jiang, Jingang; Wan, Haibo; Shen, Tiedong; Liu, Guangxu

    2016-01-01

    Anthropogenic sound has increased significantly in the past decade. However, only a few studies to date have investigated its effects on marine bivalves, with little known about the underlying physiological and molecular mechanisms. In the present study, the effects of different types, frequencies, and intensities of anthropogenic sounds on the digging behavior of razor clams (Sinonovacula constricta) were investigated. The results showed that variations in sound intensity induced deeper digging. Furthermore, anthropogenic sound exposure led to an alteration in the O:N ratios and the expression of ten metabolism-related genes from the glycolysis, fatty acid biosynthesis, tryptophan metabolism, and Tricarboxylic Acid Cycle (TCA cycle) pathways. Expression of all genes under investigation was induced upon exposure to anthropogenic sound at ~80 dB re 1 μPa and repressed at ~100 dB re 1 μPa sound. In addition, the activity of Ca2+/Mg2+-ATPase in the feet tissues, which is directly related to muscular contraction and subsequently to digging behavior, was also found to be affected by anthropogenic sound intensity. The findings suggest that sound may be perceived by bivalves as changes in the water particle motion and lead to the subsequent reactions detected in razor clams. PMID:27063002

  9. Effects of anthropogenic sound on digging behavior, metabolism, Ca2+/Mg2+ ATPase activity, and metabolism-related gene expression of the bivalve Sinonovacula constricta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Chao; Zhao, Xinguo; Liu, Saixi; Shi, Wei; Han, Yu; Guo, Cheng; Jiang, Jingang; Wan, Haibo; Shen, Tiedong; Liu, Guangxu

    2016-04-01

    Anthropogenic sound has increased significantly in the past decade. However, only a few studies to date have investigated its effects on marine bivalves, with little known about the underlying physiological and molecular mechanisms. In the present study, the effects of different types, frequencies, and intensities of anthropogenic sounds on the digging behavior of razor clams (Sinonovacula constricta) were investigated. The results showed that variations in sound intensity induced deeper digging. Furthermore, anthropogenic sound exposure led to an alteration in the O:N ratios and the expression of ten metabolism-related genes from the glycolysis, fatty acid biosynthesis, tryptophan metabolism, and Tricarboxylic Acid Cycle (TCA cycle) pathways. Expression of all genes under investigation was induced upon exposure to anthropogenic sound at ~80 dB re 1 μPa and repressed at ~100 dB re 1 μPa sound. In addition, the activity of Ca2+/Mg2+-ATPase in the feet tissues, which is directly related to muscular contraction and subsequently to digging behavior, was also found to be affected by anthropogenic sound intensity. The findings suggest that sound may be perceived by bivalves as changes in the water particle motion and lead to the subsequent reactions detected in razor clams.

  10. The C-terminal 165 amino acids of the plasma membrane Ca(2+)-ATPase confer Ca2+/calmodulin sensitivity on the Na+,K(+)-ATPase alpha-subunit.

    PubMed Central

    Ishii, T; Takeyasu, K

    1995-01-01

    The C-terminal 165 amino acids of the rat brain plasma membrane (PM) Ca(2+)-ATPase II containing the calmodulin binding auto-inhibitory domain was connected to the C-terminus of the ouabain sensitive chicken Na+,K(+)-ATPase alpha 1 subunit. Expression of this chimeric molecule in ouabain resistant mouse L cells was assured by the high-affinity binding of [3H]ouabain. In the presence of Ca2+/calmodulin, this chimeric molecule exhibited ouabain inhibitable Na+,K(+)-ATPase activity; the putative chimeric ATPase activity was absent in the absence of Ca2+/calmodulin and activated by Ca2+/calmodulin in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, this chimeric molecule could bind monoclonal IgG 5 specific to the chicken Na+,K(+)-ATPase alpha 1 subunit only in the presence of Ca2+/calmodulin, suggesting that the epitope for IgG 5 in this chimera is masked in the absence of Ca2+/calmodulin and uncovered in their presence. These results propose a direct interaction between the calmodulin binding auto-inhibitory domain of the PM Ca(2+)-ATPase and the specific regions of the Na+,K(+)-ATPase alpha 1 subunit that are structurally homologous to the PM Ca(2+)-ATPase. A comparison of the deduced amino acid sequences revealed several possible regions within the Na+,K(+)-ATPase that might interact with the auto-inhibitory domain of the PM Ca(2+)-ATPase. Images PMID:7828596

  11. Focal cerebral ischaemia induces a decrease in activity and a shift in ouabain affinity of Na+, K+-ATPase isoforms without modifications in mRNA and protein expression.

    PubMed

    Jamme, I; Barbey, O; Trouvé, P; Charlemagne, D; Maixent, J M; MacKenzie, E T; Pellerin, L; Nouvelot, A

    1999-02-20

    In a mouse model of focal cerebral ischaemia, we observed after 1 h of ischaemia, that the total Na+, K+-ATPase activity was decreased by 39.4%, and then did not vary significantly up to 6 h post-occlusion. In the sham group, the dose-response curves for ouabain disclosed three inhibitory sites of low (LA), high (HA) and very high (VHA) affinity. In ischaemic animals, we detected the presence of only two inhibitory sites for ouabain. After 1 h of permanent occlusion, the first site exhibited a low affinity while the second site presented an affinity intermediate between those of HA and VHA sites, which evolved after 3 h and 6 h of occlusion towards that of the VHA site. The presence of only two ouabain sites for Na+, K+-ATPase after ischaemia could result from a change in ouabain affinity of both HA and VHA sites (alpha2 and alpha3 isoforms, respectively) to form a unique component. Irrespective of the duration of ischaemia, the smaller activity of this second site accounted entirely for the loss in total activity. Surprisingly, no modifications in protein and mRNA expression of any alpha or beta isoforms of the enzyme were observed, thus suggesting that ischaemia could induce intrinsic modifications of the Na+, K+-ATPase. PMID:10082868

  12. Cerebral Oedema, Blood-Brain Barrier Breakdown and the Decrease in Na(+),K(+)-ATPase Activity in the Cerebral Cortex and Hippocampus are Prevented by Dexamethasone in an Animal Model of Maple Syrup Urine Disease.

    PubMed

    Rosa, Luciana; Galant, Leticia S; Dall'Igna, Dhébora M; Kolling, Janaina; Siebert, Cassiana; Schuck, Patrícia F; Ferreira, Gustavo C; Wyse, Angela T S; Dal-Pizzol, Felipe; Scaini, Giselli; Streck, Emilio L

    2016-08-01

    Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) is a rare metabolic disorder associated with acute and chronic brain dysfunction. This condition has been shown to lead to macroscopic cerebral alterations that are visible on imaging studies. Cerebral oedema is widely considered to be detrimental for MSUD patients; however, the mechanisms involved are still poorly understood. Therefore, we investigated whether acute administration of branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) causes cerebral oedema, modifies the Na(+),K(+)-ATPase activity, affects the permeability of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and alters the levels of cytokines in the hippocampus and cerebral cortex of 10-day-old rats. Additionally, we investigated the influence of concomitant administration of dexamethasone on the alterations caused by BCAA. Our results showed that the animals submitted to the model of MSUD exhibited an increase in the brain water content, both in the cerebral cortex and in the hippocampus. By investigating the mechanism of cerebral oedema, we discovered an association between H-BCAA and the Na(+),K(+)-ATPase activity and the permeability of the BBB to small molecules. Moreover, the H-BCAA administration increases Il-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α levels in the hippocampus and cerebral cortex, whereas IL-10 levels were decreased in the hippocampus. Interestingly, we showed that the administration of dexamethasone successfully reduced cerebral oedema, preventing the inhibition of Na(+),K(+)-ATPase activity, BBB breakdown and the increase in the cytokines levels. In conclusion, these findings suggest that dexamethasone can improve the acute cerebral oedema and brain injury associated with high levels of BCAA, either through a direct effect on brain capillary Na(+),K(+)-ATPase or through a generalized effect on the permeability of the BBB to all compounds. PMID:26133302

  13. Cerebral Oedema, Blood-Brain Barrier Breakdown and the Decrease in Na(+),K(+)-ATPase Activity in the Cerebral Cortex and Hippocampus are Prevented by Dexamethasone in an Animal Model of Maple Syrup Urine Disease.

    PubMed

    Rosa, Luciana; Galant, Leticia S; Dall'Igna, Dhébora M; Kolling, Janaina; Siebert, Cassiana; Schuck, Patrícia F; Ferreira, Gustavo C; Wyse, Angela T S; Dal-Pizzol, Felipe; Scaini, Giselli; Streck, Emilio L

    2016-08-01

    Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) is a rare metabolic disorder associated with acute and chronic brain dysfunction. This condition has been shown to lead to macroscopic cerebral alterations that are visible on imaging studies. Cerebral oedema is widely considered to be detrimental for MSUD patients; however, the mechanisms involved are still poorly understood. Therefore, we investigated whether acute administration of branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) causes cerebral oedema, modifies the Na(+),K(+)-ATPase activity, affects the permeability of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and alters the levels of cytokines in the hippocampus and cerebral cortex of 10-day-old rats. Additionally, we investigated the influence of concomitant administration of dexamethasone on the alterations caused by BCAA. Our results showed that the animals submitted to the model of MSUD exhibited an increase in the brain water content, both in the cerebral cortex and in the hippocampus. By investigating the mechanism of cerebral oedema, we discovered an association between H-BCAA and the Na(+),K(+)-ATPase activity and the permeability of the BBB to small molecules. Moreover, the H-BCAA administration increases Il-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α levels in the hippocampus and cerebral cortex, whereas IL-10 levels were decreased in the hippocampus. Interestingly, we showed that the administration of dexamethasone successfully reduced cerebral oedema, preventing the inhibition of Na(+),K(+)-ATPase activity, BBB breakdown and the increase in the cytokines levels. In conclusion, these findings suggest that dexamethasone can improve the acute cerebral oedema and brain injury associated with high levels of BCAA, either through a direct effect on brain capillary Na(+),K(+)-ATPase or through a generalized effect on the permeability of the BBB to all compounds.

  14. Spreading depolarization in the brain of Drosophila is induced by inhibition of the Na+/K+-ATPase and mitigated by a decrease in activity of protein kinase G.

    PubMed

    Spong, Kristin E; Rodríguez, Esteban C; Robertson, R Meldrum

    2016-09-01

    Spreading depolarization (SD) is characterized by a massive redistribution of ions accompanied by an arrest in electrical activity that slowly propagates through neural tissue. It has been implicated in numerous human pathologies, including migraine, stroke, and traumatic brain injury, and thus the elucidation of control mechanisms underlying the phenomenon could have many health benefits. Here, we demonstrate the occurrence of SD in the brain of Drosophila melanogaster, providing a model system, whereby cellular mechanisms can be dissected using molecular genetic approaches. Propagating waves of SD were reliably induced by disrupting the extracellular potassium concentration ([K(+)]o), either directly or by inhibition of the Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase with ouabain. The disturbance was monitored by recording the characteristic surges in [K(+)]o using K(+)-sensitive microelectrodes or by monitoring brain activity by measuring direct current potential. With the use of wild-type flies, we show that young adults are more resistant to SD compared with older adults, evidenced by shorter bouts of SD activity and attenuated [K(+)]o disturbances. Furthermore, we show that the susceptibility to SD differs between wild-type flies and w1118 mutants, demonstrating that our ouabain model is influenced by genetic strain. Lastly, flies with low levels of protein kinase G (PKG) had increased latencies to onset of both ouabain-induced SD and anoxic depolarization compared with flies with higher levels. Our findings implicate the PKG pathway as a modulator of SD in the fly brain, and given the conserved nature of the signaling pathway, it could likely play a similar role during SD in the mammalian central nervous system. PMID:27358319

  15. Purification and characterization of a membrane-bound ATPase from Acetabularia cliftonii that corresponds to a Cl(-)-translocating ATPase in Acetabularia acetabulum.

    PubMed

    Moritani, C; Ohhashi, T; Satoh, S; Oesterhelt, D; Ikeda, M

    1994-11-01

    A Mg(2+)-ATPase was solubilized from membranes of Acetabularia cliftonii using nonanoyl-N-methylgluconamide and purified by ion-exchange and gel permeation chromatography. One active ATPase fraction after Mono Q chromatography had a specific activity of 10 units/mg of protein. Judged from subunit composition [54 (a), 50 (b) with a fainter band around 40 kDa], catalytic properties, and N-terminal amino acid sequence of the b subunit, the isolated enzyme was comparable to the Cl(-)-ATPase of Acetabularia acetabulum. Immunological characterization of both subunits showed significant similarity to the F type of ATPase. Cl(-)-transport activity was observed by reconstitution studies into liposomes.

  16. Regulation of vacuolar H(+)-ATPase in microglia by RANKL.

    PubMed

    Serrano, Eric M; Ricofort, Ryan D; Zuo, Jian; Ochotny, Noelle; Manolson, Morris F; Holliday, L Shannon

    2009-11-01

    Vacuolar H(+)-ATPases (V-ATPases) are large electrogenic proton pumps composed of numerous subunits that play vital housekeeping roles in the acidification of compartments of the endocytic pathway. Additionally, V-ATPases play specialized roles in certain cell types, a capacity that is linked to cell type selective expression of isoforms of some of the subunits. We detected low levels of the a3 isoform of the a-subunit in mouse brain extracts. Examination of various brain-derived cell types by immunoblotting showed a3 was expressed in the N9 microglia cell line and in primary microglia, but not in other cell types. The expression of a3 in osteoclasts requires stimulation by Receptor Activator of Nuclear Factor kappaB-ligand (RANKL). We found that Receptor Activator of Nuclear Factor kappaB (RANK) was expressed by microglia. Stimulation of microglia with RANKL triggered increased expression of a3. V-ATPases in microglia were shown to bind microfilaments, and stimulation with RANKL increased the proportion of V-ATPase associated with the detergent-insoluble cytoskeletal fraction and with actin. In summary, microglia express the a3-subunit of V-ATPase. The expression of a3 and the interaction between V-ATPases and microfilaments was modulated by RANKL. These data suggest a novel molecular pathway for regulating microglia.

  17. Regulation of Vacuolar H+-ATPase in Microglia by RANKL

    PubMed Central

    Serrano, Eric M.; Ricofort, Ryan D.; Zuo, Jian; Ochotny, Noelle; Manolson, Morris F.; Holliday, L. Shannon

    2009-01-01

    Vacuolar H+-ATPases (V-ATPases) are large electrogenic proton pumps composed of numerous subunits that play vital housekeeping roles in the acidification of compartments of the endocytic pathway. Additionally, V-ATPase play specialized roles in certain cell types, a capacity that is linked to cell type selective expression of isoforms of some of the subunits. We detected low levels of the a3 isoform of the a-subunit in mouse brain extracts. Examination of various brain-derived cell types by immunoblotting showed a3 was expressed in the N9 microglia cell line and in primary microglia, but not in other cell types. The expression of a3 in osteoclasts requires stimulation by Receptor Activator of Nuclear Factor κ B -ligand (RANKL). We found that Receptor Activator of Nuclear Factor κ B (RANK) was expressed by microglia. Stimulation of microglia with RANKL triggered increased expression of a3. V-ATPases in microglia were shown to bind microfilaments, and stimulation with RANKL increased the proportion of V-ATPase associated with the detergent-insoluble cytoskeletal fraction and with actin. In summary, microglia express the a3-subunit of V-ATPase. The expression of a3 and the interaction between V-ATPases and microfilaments was modulated by RANKL. These data suggest a novel molecular pathway for regulating microglia. PMID:19715671

  18. AlF4- reversibly inhibits 'P'-type cation-transport ATPases, possibly by interacting with the phosphate-binding site of the ATPase.

    PubMed

    Missiaen, L; Wuytack, F; De Smedt, H; Vrolix, M; Casteels, R

    1988-08-01

    The only known cellular action of AlF4- is to stimulate the G-proteins. The aim of the present work is to demonstrate that AlF4- also inhibits 'P'-type cation-transport ATPases. NaF plus AlCl3 completely and reversibly inhibits the activity of the purified (Na+ + K+)-ATPase (Na+- and K+-activated ATPase) and of the purified plasmalemmal (Ca2+ + Mg2+)-ATPase (Ca2+-stimulated and Mg2+-dependent ATPase). It partially inhibits the activity of the sarcoplasmic-reticulum (Ca2+ + Mg2+)-ATPase, whereas it does not affect the mitochondrial H+-transporting ATPase. The inhibitory substances are neither F- nor Al3+ but rather fluoroaluminate complexes. Because AlF4- still inhibits the ATPase in the presence of guanosine 5'-[beta-thio]diphosphate, and because guanosine 5'-[beta gamma-imido]triphosphate does not inhibit the ATPase, it is unlikely that the inhibition could be due to the activation of an unknown G-protein. The time course of inhibition and the concentrations of NaF and AlCl3 required for this inhibition differ for the different ATPases. AlF4- inhibits the (Na+ + K+)-ATPase and the plasmalemmal (Ca2+ + Mg2+)-ATPase noncompetitively with respect to ATP and to their respective cationic substrates, Na+ and Ca2+. AlF4- probably binds to the phosphate-binding site of the ATPase, as the Ki for inhibition of the (Na+ + K+)-ATPase and of the plasmalemmal (Ca2+ + Mg2+)-ATPase is shifted in the presence of respectively 5 and 50 mM-Pi to higher concentrations of NaF. Moreover, AlF4- inhibits the K+-activated p-nitrophenylphosphatase of the (Na+ + K+)-ATPase competitively with respect to p-nitrophenyl phosphate. This AlF4- -induced inhibition of 'P'-type cation-transport ATPases warns us against explaining all the effects of AlF4- on intact cells by an activation of G-proteins.

  19. Crystal structure, mutational analysis and RNA-dependent ATPase activity of the yeast DEAD-box pre-mRNA splicing factor Prp28

    SciTech Connect

    Jacewicz, Agata; Schwer, Beate; Smith, Paul; Shuman, Stewart

    2014-10-10

    Yeast Prp28 is a DEAD-box pre-mRNA splicing factor implicated in displacing U1 snRNP from the 5' splice site. Here we report that the 588-aa Prp28 protein consists of a trypsin-sensitive 126-aa N-terminal segment (of which aa 1–89 are dispensable for Prp28 function in vivo) fused to a trypsin-resistant C-terminal catalytic domain. Purified recombinant Prp28 and Prp28-(127–588) have an intrinsic RNA-dependent ATPase activity, albeit with a low turnover number. The crystal structure of Prp28-(127–588) comprises two RecA-like domains splayed widely apart. AMPPNP•Mg2+ is engaged by the proximal domain, with proper and specific contacts from Phe194 and Gln201 (Q motif) to the adenine nucleobase. The triphosphate moiety of AMPPNP•Mg2+ is not poised for catalysis in the open domain conformation. Guided by the Prp28•AMPPNP structure, and that of the Drosophila Vasa•AMPPNP•Mg2+•RNA complex, we targeted 20 positions in Prp28 for alanine scanning. ATP-site components Asp341 and Glu342 (motif II) and Arg527 and Arg530 (motif VI) and RNA-site constituent Arg476 (motif Va) are essential for Prp28 activity in vivo. Synthetic lethality of double-alanine mutations highlighted functionally redundant contacts in the ATP-binding (Phe194-Gln201, Gln201-Asp502) and RNA-binding (Arg264-Arg320) sites. As a result, overexpression of defective ATP-site mutants, but not defective RNA-site mutants, elicited severe dominant-negative growth defects.

  20. Crystal structure, mutational analysis and RNA-dependent ATPase activity of the yeast DEAD-box pre-mRNA splicing factor Prp28

    DOE PAGES

    Jacewicz, Agata; Schwer, Beate; Smith, Paul; Shuman, Stewart

    2014-10-10

    Yeast Prp28 is a DEAD-box pre-mRNA splicing factor implicated in displacing U1 snRNP from the 5' splice site. Here we report that the 588-aa Prp28 protein consists of a trypsin-sensitive 126-aa N-terminal segment (of which aa 1–89 are dispensable for Prp28 function in vivo) fused to a trypsin-resistant C-terminal catalytic domain. Purified recombinant Prp28 and Prp28-(127–588) have an intrinsic RNA-dependent ATPase activity, albeit with a low turnover number. The crystal structure of Prp28-(127–588) comprises two RecA-like domains splayed widely apart. AMPPNP•Mg2+ is engaged by the proximal domain, with proper and specific contacts from Phe194 and Gln201 (Q motif) to themore » adenine nucleobase. The triphosphate moiety of AMPPNP•Mg2+ is not poised for catalysis in the open domain conformation. Guided by the Prp28•AMPPNP structure, and that of the Drosophila Vasa•AMPPNP•Mg2+•RNA complex, we targeted 20 positions in Prp28 for alanine scanning. ATP-site components Asp341 and Glu342 (motif II) and Arg527 and Arg530 (motif VI) and RNA-site constituent Arg476 (motif Va) are essential for Prp28 activity in vivo. Synthetic lethality of double-alanine mutations highlighted functionally redundant contacts in the ATP-binding (Phe194-Gln201, Gln201-Asp502) and RNA-binding (Arg264-Arg320) sites. As a result, overexpression of defective ATP-site mutants, but not defective RNA-site mutants, elicited severe dominant-negative growth defects.« less

  1. Potassium inhibits nitric oxide and adenosine arteriolar vasodilatation via K(IR) and Na(+)/K(+) ATPase: implications for redundancy in active hyperaemia.

    PubMed

    Lamb, Iain R; Murrant, Coral L

    2015-12-01

    Redundancy, in active hyperaemia, where one vasodilator can compensate for another if the first is missing, would require that one vasodilator inhibits the effects of another; therefore, if the first vasodilator is inhibited, its inhibitory influence on the second vasodilator is removed and the second vasodilator exerts a greater vasodilatory effect. We aimed to determine whether vasodilators relevant to skeletal muscle contraction [potassium chloride (KCl), adenosine (ADO) and nitric oxide] inhibit one another and, in addition, to investigate the mechanisms for this interaction. We used the hamster cremaster muscle and intravital microscopy to directly visualize 2A arterioles when exposed to a range of concentrations of one vasodilator [10(-8) to 10(-5) M S-nitroso-N-acetyl penicillamine (SNAP), 10(-8) to 10(-5) M ADO, 10 and 20 mM KCl] in the absence and then in the presence of a second vasodilator (10(-7) M ADO, 10(-7) M SNAP, 10 mM KCl). We found that KCl significantly attenuated SNAP-induced vasodilatations by ∼65.8% and vasodilatations induced by 10(-8) to 10(-6) M ADO by ∼72.8%. Furthermore, we observed that inhibition of KCl vasodilatation, by antagonizing either Na(+)/K(+) ATPase using ouabain or inward rectifying potassium channels using barium chloride, could restore the SNAP-induced vasodilatation by up to ∼53.9% and 30.6%, respectively, and also restore the ADO-induced vasodilatations by up to ∼107% and 76.7%, respectively. Our data show that vasodilators relevant to muscle contraction can interact in a way that alters the effectiveness of other vasodilators. These data suggest that active hyperaemia may be the result of complex interactions between multiple vasodilators via a redundant control paradigm.

  2. Mode of Cell Death Induction by Pharmacological Vacuolar H+-ATPase (V-ATPase) Inhibition*

    PubMed Central

    von Schwarzenberg, Karin; Wiedmann, Romina M.; Oak, Prajakta; Schulz, Sabine; Zischka, Hans; Wanner, Gerhard; Efferth, Thomas; Trauner, Dirk; Vollmar, Angelika M.

    2013-01-01

    The vacuolar H+-ATPase (V-ATPase), a multisubunit proton pump, has come into focus as an attractive target in cancer invasion. However, little is known about the role of V-ATPase in cell death, and especially the underlying mechanisms remain mostly unknown. We used the myxobacterial macrolide archazolid B, a potent inhibitor of the V-ATPase, as an experimental drug as well as a chemical tool to decipher V-ATPase-related cell death signaling. We found that archazolid induced apoptosis in highly invasive tumor cells at nanomolar concentrations which was executed by the mitochondrial pathway. Prior to apoptosis induction archazolid led to the activation of a cellular stress response including activation of the hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF1α) and autophagy. Autophagy, which was demonstrated by degradation of p62 or fusion of autophagosomes with lysosomes, was induced at low concentrations of archazolid that not yet increase pH in lysosomes. HIF1α was induced due to energy stress shown by a decline of the ATP level and followed by a shutdown of energy-consuming processes. As silencing HIF1α increases apoptosis, the cellular stress response was suggested to be a survival mechanism. We conclude that archazolid leads to energy stress which activates adaptive mechanisms like autophagy mediated by HIF1α and finally leads to apoptosis. We propose V-ATPase as a promising drugable target in cancer therapy caught up at the interplay of apoptosis, autophagy, and cellular/metabolic stress. PMID:23168408

  3. Conserved V-ATPase c subunit plays a role in plant growth by influencing V-ATPase-dependent endosomal trafficking.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Aimin; Bu, Yuanyuan; Takano, Tetsuo; Zhang, Xinxin; Liu, Shenkui

    2016-01-01

    In plant cells, the vacuolar-type H(+)-ATPases (V-ATPase) are localized in the tonoplast, Golgi, trans-Golgi network and endosome. However, little is known about how V-ATPase influences plant growth, particularly with regard to the V-ATPase c subunit (VHA-c). Here, we characterized the function of a VHA-c gene from Puccinellia tenuiflora (PutVHA-c) in plant growth. Compared to the wild-type, transgenic plants overexpressing PutVHA-c in Arabidopsis thaliana exhibit better growth phenotypes in root length, fresh weight, plant height and silique number under the normal and salt stress conditions due to noticeably higher V-ATPase activity. Consistently, the Arabidopsis atvha-c5 mutant shows reduced V-ATPase activity and retarded plant growth. Furthermore, confocal and immunogold electron microscopy assays demonstrate that PutVHA-c is mainly localized to endosomal compartments. The treatment of concanamycin A (ConcA), a specific inhibitor of V-ATPases, leads to obvious aggregation of the endosomal compartments labelled with PutVHA-c-GFP. Moreover, ConcA treatment results in the abnormal localization of two plasma membrane (PM) marker proteins Pinformed 1 (AtPIN1) and regulator of G protein signalling-1 (AtRGS1). These findings suggest that the decrease in V-ATPase activity blocks endosomal trafficking. Taken together, our results strongly suggest that the PutVHA-c plays an important role in plant growth by influencing V-ATPase-dependent endosomal trafficking.

  4. Do Src Kinase and Caveolin Interact Directly with Na,K-ATPase?

    PubMed

    Yosef, Eliyahu; Katz, Adriana; Peleg, Yoav; Mehlman, Tevie; Karlish, Steven J D

    2016-05-27

    Much evidence points to a role of Na,K-ATPase in ouabain-dependent signal transduction. Based on experiments with different cell lines and native tissue membranes, a current hypothesis postulates direct interactions between the Na,K-ATPase and Src kinase (non-receptor tyrosine kinase). Na,K-ATPase is proposed to bind Src kinase and inhibit its activity, whereas ouabain, the specific Na,K-ATPase inhibitor, binds and stabilizes the E2 conformation, thus exposing the Src kinase domain and its active site Tyr-418 for activation. Ouabain-dependent signaling is thought to be mediated within caveolae by a complex consisting of Na,K-ATPase, caveolin, and Src kinase. In the current work, we have looked for direct interactions utilizing purified recombinant Na,K-ATPase (human α1β1FXYD1 or porcine α1D369Nβ1FXYD1) and purified human Src kinase and human caveolin 1 or interactions between these proteins in native membrane vesicles isolated from rabbit kidney. By several independent criteria and techniques, no stable interactions were detected between Na,K-ATPase and purified Src kinase. Na,K-ATPase was found to be a substrate for Src kinase phosphorylation at Tyr-144. Clear evidence for a direct interaction between purified human Na,K-ATPase and human caveolin was obtained, albeit with a low molar stoichiometry (1:15-30 caveolin 1/Na,K-ATPase). In native renal membranes, a specific caveolin 14-5 oligomer (95 kDa) was found to be in direct interaction with Na,K-ATPase. We inferred that a small fraction of the renal Na,K-ATPase molecules is in a ∼1:1 complex with a caveolin 14-5 oligomer. Thus, overall, whereas a direct caveolin 1/Na,K-ATPase interaction is confirmed, the lack of direct Src kinase/Na,K-ATPase binding requires reassessment of the mechanism of ouabain-dependent signaling.

  5. Cholinergic synaptic vesicles contain a V-type and a P-type ATPase.

    PubMed

    Yamagata, S K; Parsons, S M

    1989-11-01

    Fifty to eighty-five percent of the ATPase activity in different preparations of cholinergic synaptic vesicles isolated from Torpedo electric organ was half-inhibited by 7 microM vanadate. This activity is due to a recently purified phosphointermediate, or P-type, ATPase, Acetylcholine (ACh) active transport by the vesicles was stimulated about 35% by vanadate, demonstrating that the P-type enzyme is not the proton pump responsible for ACh active transport. Nearly all of the vesicle ATPase activity was inhibited by N-ethylmaleimide. The P-type ATPase could be protected from N-ethylmaleimide inactivation by vanadate, and subsequently reactivated by complexation of vanadate with deferoxamine. The inactivation-protection pattern suggests the presence of a vanadate-insensitive, N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive ATPase consistent with a vacuolar, or V-type, activity expected to drive ACh active transport. ACh active transport was half-inhibited by 5 microM N-ethylmaleimide, even in the presence of vanadate. The presence of a V-type ATPase was confirmed by Western blots using antisera raised against three separate subunits of chromaffin granule vacuolar ATPase I. Both ATPase activities, the P-type polypeptides, and the 38-kilodalton polypeptide of the V-type ATPase precisely copurify with the synaptic vesicles. Solubilization of synaptic vesicles in octaethyleneglycol dodecyl ether detergent results in several-fold stimulation of the P-type activity and inactivation of the V-type activity, thus explaining why the V-type activity was not detected previously during purification of the P-type ATPase. It is concluded that cholinergic vesicles contain a P-type ATPase of unknown function and a V-type ATPase which is the proton pump. PMID:2552014

  6. Vacuolar-ATPase (V-ATPase) Mediates Progesterone-Induced Uterine Fluid Acidification in Rats.

    PubMed

    Karim, Kamarulzaman; Giribabu, Nelli; Muniandy, Sekaran; Salleh, Naguib

    2016-04-01

    We hypothesized that progesterone-induced decrease in uterine fluid pH involves V-ATPase. In this study, expression and functional activity of V-ATPase in uterus were investigated under progesterone influence. Ovariectomized adult female rats received subcutaneous injection of estradiol-17β (1 µg/kg/day) or progesterone (20 mg/kg/day) for 3 days or 3 days estradiol-17β followed by 3 days vehicle, progesterone, or estradiol-17β plus progesterone. Mifepristone, a progesterone receptor blocker, was concomitantly given to the rats which received progesterone. A day after last injection, rate of uterine fluid secretion, its HCO3 (-) concentration, and pH were determined via in vivo uterine perfusion in rats under anesthesia. V-ATPase inhibitor, bafilomycin, was introduced into the perfusion buffer, and changes in these parameters were observed. Expression of V-ATPase A1 and B1/2 proteins and mRNAs in uterus were quantified by Western blotting and real-time PCR, respectively. Distribution of these proteins was observed by immunohistochemistry. Our findings showed that under progesterone influence, uterine fluid secretion rate, HCO3 (-) concentration, and pH were significantly reduced. Administration of bafilomycin did not cause significant changes in fluid secretion rate; however, HCO3 (-) concentration and pH were significantly elevated. In parallel with these changes, expression of V-ATPase A1 and B1/2 proteins and mRNAs were significantly increased with these proteins highly distributed in uterine luminal and glandular epithelia. In conclusion, increased expression and functional activity of V-ATPase were most likely responsible for the decreased in uterine fluid pH observed under progesterone influence.

  7. Vacuolar-ATPase (V-ATPase) Mediates Progesterone-Induced Uterine Fluid Acidification in Rats.

    PubMed

    Karim, Kamarulzaman; Giribabu, Nelli; Muniandy, Sekaran; Salleh, Naguib

    2016-04-01

    We hypothesized that progesterone-induced decrease in uterine fluid pH involves V-ATPase. In this study, expression and functional activity of V-ATPase in uterus were investigated under progesterone influence. Ovariectomized adult female rats received subcutaneous injection of estradiol-17β (1 µg/kg/day) or progesterone (20 mg/kg/day) for 3 days or 3 days estradiol-17β followed by 3 days vehicle, progesterone, or estradiol-17β plus progesterone. Mifepristone, a progesterone receptor blocker, was concomitantly given to the rats which received progesterone. A day after last injection, rate of uterine fluid secretion, its HCO3 (-) concentration, and pH were determined via in vivo uterine perfusion in rats under anesthesia. V-ATPase inhibitor, bafilomycin, was introduced into the perfusion buffer, and changes in these parameters were observed. Expression of V-ATPase A1 and B1/2 proteins and mRNAs in uterus were quantified by Western blotting and real-time PCR, respectively. Distribution of these proteins was observed by immunohistochemistry. Our findings showed that under progesterone influence, uterine fluid secretion rate, HCO3 (-) concentration, and pH were significantly reduced. Administration of bafilomycin did not cause significant changes in fluid secretion rate; however, HCO3 (-) concentration and pH were significantly elevated. In parallel with these changes, expression of V-ATPase A1 and B1/2 proteins and mRNAs were significantly increased with these proteins highly distributed in uterine luminal and glandular epithelia. In conclusion, increased expression and functional activity of V-ATPase were most likely responsible for the decreased in uterine fluid pH observed under progesterone influence. PMID:26403527

  8. Enhancement in cellular Na+K+ATPase activity by low doses of peroxynitrite in mouse renal tissue and in cultured HK2 cells.

    PubMed

    Maiti, Arpan K; Islam, Mohammed T; Satou, Ryousuke; Majid, Dewan S A

    2016-04-01

    In the normal condition, endogenous formation of peroxynitrite (ONOO-) from the interaction of nitric oxide and superoxide has been suggested to play a renoprotective role. However, the exact mechanism associated with renoprotection by this radical compound is not yet clearly defined. AlthoughONOO- usually inhibits renal tubular Na(+)K(+)ATPase (NKA) activity at high concentrations (micromolar to millimolar range [μM-mM], achieved in pathophysiological conditions), the effects at lower concentrations (nanomolar range [nM], relevant in normal condition) remain unknown. To examine the direct effect ofONOO- onNKAactivity, preparations of cellular membrane fraction from mouse renal tissue and from culturedHK2 cells (human proximal tubular epithelial cell lines) were incubated for 10 and 30 min each with different concentrations ofONOO- (10 nmol/L-200 μmol/L).NKAactivity in these samples (n = 5 in each case) was measured via a colorimetric assay capable of detecting inorganic phosphate. At high concentrations (1-200 μmol/L),ONOO- caused dose-dependent inhibition ofNKAactivity (-3.0 ± 0.6% and -36.4 ± 1.4%). However,NKAactivity remained unchanged at 100 and 500 nmol/LONOO- concentration, but interestingly, at lower concentrations (10 and 50 nmol/L),ONOO- caused small but significant increases in theNKAactivity (3.3 ± 1.1% and 3.1 ± 0.6%). Pretreatment with aONOO- scavenger, mercaptoethylguanidine (MEG; 200 μmol/L), prevented these biphasic responses toONOO-. This dose-dependent biphasic action ofONOO(-)onNKAactivity may implicate that this radical compound helps to maintain sodium homeostasis either by enhancing tubular sodium reabsorption under normal conditions or by inhibiting it during oxidative stress conditions. PMID:27081160

  9. A noncanonical bromodomain in the AAA ATPase protein Yta7 directs chromosomal positioning and barrier chromatin activity.

    PubMed

    Gradolatto, Angeline; Smart, Sherri K; Byrum, Stephanie; Blair, Lauren P; Rogers, Richard S; Kolar, Elizabeth A; Lavender, Heather; Larson, Signe K; Aitchison, John D; Taverna, Sean D; Tackett, Alan J

    2009-09-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae Yta7 is a barrier active protein that modulates transcriptional states at the silent mating locus, HMR. Additionally, Yta7 regulates histone gene transcription and has overlapping functions with known histone chaperones. This study focused on deciphering the functional role of the noncanonical Yta7 bromodomain. By use of genetic and epistasis analyses, the Yta7 bromodomain was shown to be necessary for barrier activity at HMR and to have overlapping functions with histone regulators (Asf1 and Spt16). Canonical bromodomains can bind to acetylated lysines on histones; however, the Yta7 bromodomain showed an association with histones that was independent of posttranslational modification. Further investigation showed that regions of Yta7 other than the bromodomain conferred histone association. Chromatin immunoprecipitation-chip analyses revealed that the Yta7 bromodomain was not solely responsible for histone association but was also necessary for proper chromosomal positioning of Yta7. This work demonstrates that the Yta7 bromodomain engages histones for certain cellular functions like barrier chromatin maintenance and particular Spt16/Asf1 cellular pathways of chromatin regulation.

  10. A novel multigene cloning method for the production of a motile ATPase.

    PubMed

    Jang, Min Su; Song, Woo Chul; Shin, Seung Won; Park, Kyung Soo; Kim, Jinseok; Kim, Dong-Ik; Kim, Byung Woo; Um, Soong Ho

    2015-08-10

    With the advent of nanotechnology, new functional modules (e.g., nanomotors, nanoprobes) have become essential in several medical fields. Generally, mechanical modulators systems are the principal components of most cutting-edge technologies in modern biomedical applications. However, the in vivo use of motile probes has raised many concerns due to their low sensitivity and non-biocompatibility. As an alternative, biological enzymatic engines have received increased attention. In particular, ATPases, which belong to a class of motile enzymes that catalyze chemical metabolic reactions, have emerged as a promising motor due to their improved biocompatibility and performance. However, ATPases usually suffer from lower functional activity and are difficult to express recombinantly in bacteria relative to their conventional and synthetic competitors. Here, we report a novel functional modified ATPase with both a simple purification protocol and enhanced motile activity. For this mutant ATPase, a new bacterial subcloning method was established. The ATPase-encoding sequence was redesigned so that the mutant ATPase could be easily produced in an Escherichia coli system. The modified thermophilic F1-ATPase (mTF1-ATPase) demonstrated 17.8unit/mg ATPase activity. We propose that derivatives of our ATPase may enable the development of novel in vitro and in vivo synthetic medical diagnostics, as well as therapeutics.

  11. Calcium efflux activity of plasma membrane Ca2+ ATPase-4 (PMCA4) mediates cell cycle progression in vascular smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Afroze, Talat; Yang, Ge; Khoshbin, Amir; Tanwir, Mansoor; Tabish, Taha; Momen, Abdul; Husain, Mansoor

    2014-03-01

    We explored the role played by plasma membrane calcium ATPase-4 (PMCA4) and its alternative splice variants in the cell cycle of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC). A novel variant (PMCA4e) was discovered. Quantitative real-time-PCR-quantified PMCA4 splice variant proportions differed in specific organs. The PMCA4a:4b ratio in uninjured carotid arteries (∼1:1) was significantly reduced by wire denudation injury (to ∼1:3) by modulation of alternative splicing, as confirmed by novel antibodies against PMCA4a/e and PMCA4b. Laser capture microdissection localized this shift to the media and adventitia. Primary carotid VSMC from PMCA4 knock-out (P4KO) mice showed impaired [(3)H]thymidine incorporation and G1 phase arrest as compared with wild type (P4WT). Electroporation of expression constructs encoding PMCA4a, PMCA4b, and a PMCA4b mutant lacking PDZ binding rescued this phenotype of P4KO cells, whereas a mutant with only 10% of normal Ca(2+) efflux activity could not. Microarray of early G1-synchronized VSMC showed 39-fold higher Rgs16 (NFAT (nuclear factor of activated T-cells) target; MAPK inhibitor) and 69-fold higher Decorin (G1 arrest marker) expression in P4KO versus P4WT. Validation by Western blot also revealed decreased levels of Cyclin D1 and NFATc3 in P4KO. Microarrays of P4KO VSMC rescued by PMCA4a or PMCA4b expression showed reversal of perturbed Rgs16, Decorin, and NFATc3 expression levels. However, PMCA4a rescue caused a 44-fold reduction in AP-2β, a known anti-proliferative transcription factor, whereas PMCA4b rescue resulted in a 50-fold reduction in p15 (Cyclin D1/Cdk4 inhibitor). We conclude that Ca(2+) efflux activity of PMCA4 underlies G1 progression in VSMC and that PMCA4a and PMCA4b differentially regulate specific downstream mediators. PMID:24448801

  12. Hippocampal levels and activity of the sodium/potassium transporting ATPase subunit α-3 (AT1A3) are paralleling memory training in the multiple T-maze in the C57BL/6J mouse.

    PubMed

    Heo, Seok; Csaszar, Edina; Jung, Gangsoo; Beuk, Tamara; Höger, Harald; Lubec, Gert

    2012-10-01

    Although the sodium/potassium transporting ATPase subunit alpha-3 (AT1A3) has been linked to memory mechanisms in rodents, regulation of this ATPase in terms of activity and complex levels by memory performance in a land maze has not been shown so far. It was therefore the aim of the study to link memory retrieval in the multiple T-Maze (MTM) to AT1A3 protein levels and activity. C57BL/6J mice were trained in the MTM and euthanized 6h following memory retrieval. Hippocampal membrane proteins were prepared by ultracentrifugation and run on blue native gel electrophoresis (BN-PAGE). Enzyme activity was evaluated using an in-gel method. AT1A3 protein was characterized using mass spectrometry (nano-LC-ESI-MS/MS). On BN-PAGE a single band was observed at 240 kDa, which corresponds to the dimeric form of the enzyme. Higher levels of AT1A3 complex were seen in trained mice. Also ATPase activity was higher in trained mice, and was observed both at 110 and at 240 kDa. Mass spectrometry unambiguously identified AT1A3 with 98.91% sequence coverage. A series of novel AT1A3 phosphorylation sites were detected. Taken together, it was shown that increased AT1A3 protein levels for the dimer as well as AT1A3 activity represented by the monomer and the dimer were paralleling memory training in the MTM. This may be relevant for understanding the role of the catalytic hydrolysis of ATP coupled with the exchange of sodium and potassium ions across the plasma membrane that generates the electrochemical gradient of sodium and potassium ions. Herein, we provide evidence for a possible role of AT1A3 in memory mechanisms and support previous findings using different animal models for memory formation.

  13. ATPaseTb2, a Unique Membrane-bound FoF1-ATPase Component, Is Essential in Bloodstream and Dyskinetoplastic Trypanosomes

    PubMed Central

    Šubrtová, Karolína; Panicucci, Brian; Zíková, Alena

    2015-01-01

    In the infectious stage of Trypanosoma brucei, an important parasite of humans and livestock, the mitochondrial (mt) membrane potential (Δψm) is uniquely maintained by the ATP hydrolytic activity and subsequent proton pumping of the essential FoF1-ATPase. Intriguingly, this multiprotein complex contains several trypanosome-specific subunits of unknown function. Here, we demonstrate that one of the largest novel subunits, ATPaseTb2, is membrane-bound and localizes with monomeric and multimeric assemblies of the FoF1-ATPase. Moreover, RNAi silencing of ATPaseTb2 quickly leads to a significant decrease of the Δψm that manifests as a decreased growth phenotype, indicating that the FoF1-ATPase is impaired. To further explore the function of this protein, we employed a trypanosoma strain that lacks mtDNA (dyskinetoplastic, Dk) and thus subunit a, an essential component of the proton pore in the membrane Fo-moiety. These Dk cells generate the Δψm by combining the hydrolytic activity of the matrix-facing F1-ATPase and the electrogenic exchange of ATP4- for ADP3- by the ATP/ADP carrier (AAC). Surprisingly, in addition to the expected presence of F1-ATPase, the monomeric and multimeric FoF1-ATPase complexes were identified. In fact, the immunoprecipitation of a F1-ATPase subunit demonstrated that ATPaseTb2 was a component of these complexes. Furthermore, RNAi studies established that the membrane-bound ATPaseTb2 subunit is essential for maintaining normal growth and the Δψm of Dk cells. Thus, even in the absence of subunit a, a portion of the FoF1-ATPase is assembled in Dk cells. PMID:25714685

  14. Engineering a Prototypic P-type ATPase Listeria monocytogenes Ca(2+)-ATPase 1 for Single-Molecule FRET Studies.

    PubMed

    Dyla, Mateusz; Andersen, Jacob Lauwring; Kjaergaard, Magnus; Birkedal, Victoria; Terry, Daniel S; Altman, Roger B; Blanchard, Scott C; Nissen, Poul; Knudsen, Charlotte R

    2016-09-21

    Approximately 30% of the ATP generated in the living cell is utilized by P-type ATPase primary active transporters to generate and maintain electrochemical gradients across biological membranes. P-type ATPases undergo large conformational changes during their functional cycle to couple ATP hydrolysis in the cytoplasmic domains to ion transport across the membrane. The Ca(2+)-ATPase from Listeria monocytogenes, LMCA1, was found to be a suitable model of P-type ATPases and was engineered to facilitate single-molecule FRET studies of transport-related structural changes. Mutational analyses of the endogenous cysteine residues in LMCA1 were performed to reduce background labeling without compromising activity. Pairs of cysteines were introduced into the optimized low-reactivity background, and labeled with maleimide derivatives of Cy3 and Cy5 resulting in site-specifically double-labeled protein with moderate activity. Ensemble and confocal single-molecule FRET studies revealed changes in FRET distribution related to structural changes during the transport cycle, consistent with those observed by X-ray crystallography for the sarco/endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) ATPase (SERCA). Notably, the cytosolic headpiece of LMCA1 was found to be distinctly more compact in the E1 state than in the E2 state. Thus, the established experimental system should allow future real-time FRET studies of the structural dynamics of LMCA1 as a representative P-type ATPase. PMID:27501274

  15. Engineering a Prototypic P-type ATPase Listeria monocytogenes Ca(2+)-ATPase 1 for Single-Molecule FRET Studies.

    PubMed

    Dyla, Mateusz; Andersen, Jacob Lauwring; Kjaergaard, Magnus; Birkedal, Victoria; Terry, Daniel S; Altman, Roger B; Blanchard, Scott C; Nissen, Poul; Knudsen, Charlotte R

    2016-09-21

    Approximately 30% of the ATP generated in the living cell is utilized by P-type ATPase primary active transporters to generate and maintain electrochemical gradients across biological membranes. P-type ATPases undergo large conformational changes during their functional cycle to couple ATP hydrolysis in the cytoplasmic domains to ion transport across the membrane. The Ca(2+)-ATPase from Listeria monocytogenes, LMCA1, was found to be a suitable model of P-type ATPases and was engineered to facilitate single-molecule FRET studies of transport-related structural changes. Mutational analyses of the endogenous cysteine residues in LMCA1 were performed to reduce background labeling without compromising activity. Pairs of cysteines were introduced into the optimized low-reactivity background, and labeled with maleimide derivatives of Cy3 and Cy5 resulting in site-specifically double-labeled protein with moderate activity. Ensemble and confocal single-molecule FRET studies revealed changes in FRET distribution related to structural changes during the transport cycle, consistent with those observed by X-ray crystallography for the sarco/endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) ATPase (SERCA). Notably, the cytosolic headpiece of LMCA1 was found to be distinctly more compact in the E1 state than in the E2 state. Thus, the established experimental system should allow future real-time FRET studies of the structural dynamics of LMCA1 as a representative P-type ATPase.

  16. Proteasomal Degradation of γ-Aminobutyric AcidB Receptors Is Mediated by the Interaction of the GABAB2 C Terminus with the Proteasomal ATPase Rtp6 and Regulated by Neuronal Activity*

    PubMed Central

    Zemoura, Khaled; Benke, Dietmar

    2014-01-01

    Regulation of cell surface expression of neurotransmitter receptors is crucial for determining synaptic strength and plasticity, but the underlying mechanisms are not well understood. We previously showed that proteasomal degradation of GABAB receptors via the endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-associated protein degradation (ERAD) machinery determines the number of cell surface GABAB receptors and thereby GABAB receptor-mediated neuronal inhibition. Here, we show that proteasomal degradation of GABAB receptors requires the interaction of the GABAB2 C terminus with the proteasomal AAA-ATPase Rpt6. A mutant of Rpt6 lacking ATPase activity prevented degradation of GABAB receptors but not the removal of Lys48-linked ubiquitin from GABAB2. Blocking ERAD activity diminished the interaction of Rtp6 with GABAB receptors resulting in increased total as well as cell surface expression of GABAB receptors. Modulating neuronal activity affected proteasomal activity and correspondingly the interaction level of Rpt6 with GABAB2. This resulted in altered cell surface expression of the receptors. Thus, neuronal activity-dependent proteasomal degradation of GABAB receptors by the ERAD machinery is a potent mechanism regulating the number of GABAB receptors available for signaling and is expected to contribute to homeostatic neuronal plasticity. PMID:24482233

  17. The Role of the Plasma Membrane H+-ATPase in Plant–Microbe Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Elmore, James Mitch; Coaker, Gitta

    2011-01-01

    Plasma membrane (PM) H+-ATPases are the primary pumps responsible for the establishment of cellular membrane potential in plants. In addition to regulating basic aspects of plant cell function, these enzymes contribute to signaling events in response to diverse environmental stimuli. Here, we focus on the roles of the PM H+-ATPase during plant–pathogen interactions. PM H+-ATPases are dynamically regulated during plant immune responses and recent quantitative proteomics studies suggest complex spatial and temporal modulation of PM H+-ATPase activity during early pathogen recognition events. Additional data indicate that PM H+-ATPases cooperate with the plant immune signaling protein RIN4 to regulate stomatal apertures during bacterial invasion of leaf tissue. Furthermore, pathogens have evolved mechanisms to manipulate PM H+-ATPase activity during infection. Thus, these ubiquitous plant enzymes contribute to plant immune responses and are targeted by pathogens to increase plant susceptibility. PMID:21300757

  18. Hormonal regulation of Na -K -ATPase in cultured epithelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, J.P.; Jones, D.; Wiesmann, W.P.

    1986-08-01

    Aldosterone and insulin stimulate Na transport through mechanisms involving protein synthesis. Na -K -ATPase has been implicated in the action of both hormones. The authors examined the effect of aldosterone and insulin on Na -K -ATPase in epithelial cells in culture derived from toad urinary bladder (TB6C) and toad kidney (A6). Aldosterone, but not insulin, increases short-circuit current (I/sub sc/) in TB6C cells. Aldosterone increases Na -K -(TSP)ATPase activity after 18 h of incubation, but no effect can be seen at 3 and 6 h. Amiloride, which inhibits aldosterone-induced increases in I/sub sc/, has no effect on either basal or aldosterone stimulated enzyme activity. Both aldosterone and insulin increase I/sub sc/ in A6 cells and when added together are synergistic. Aldosterone stimulates enzyme activity in A6 cells, but insulin alone has no effect. However, aldosterone and insulin together stimulate enzyme activity more than aldosterone alone. It appears that stimulation of Na -K -ATPase activity is involved in aldosterone action in both cell lines but does not appear to be due to increased Na entry, since enhanced enzyme activity is not inhibited by amiloride. In contrast, insulin alone has no direct effect on Na -K -ATPase, although the increased enzyme activity following both agents in combination may explain their synergism on I/sub sc/.

  19. Kinesin ATPase: Rate-limiting ADP release

    SciTech Connect

    Hackney, D.D.

    1988-09-01

    The ATPase rate of kinesin isolated from bovine brain by the method of S.A. Kuznetsov and V.I. Gelfand is stimulated 1000-fold by interaction with tubulin. The tubulin-stimulated reaction exhibits no extra incorporation of water-derived oxygens over a wide range of ATP and tubulin concentrations, indicating that P/sub i/ release is faster than the reversal of hydrolysis. ADP release, however, is slow for the basal reaction and its release is rate limiting as indicated by the very tight ADP binding (K/sub i/ < 5 nM), the retention of a stoichiometric level of bound ADP through ion-exchange chromatography and dialysis, and the reversible labeling of a bound ADP by (/sup 14/C)ATP at the steady-state ATPase rate as shown by centrifuge gel filtration and inaccessibility to pyruvate kinase. Tubulin accelerates the release of the bound ADP consistent with its activation of the net ATPase reaction. The detailed kinetics of ADP release in the presence of tubulin are biphasic indicating apparent heterogeneity with a fraction of the kinesin active sites being unaffected by tubulin.

  20. Kinesin ATPase: Rate-Limiting ADP Release

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hackney, David D.

    1988-09-01

    The ATPase rate of kinesin isolated from bovine brain by the method of S. A. Kuznetsov and V. I. Gelfand [(1986) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 83, 8530-8534)] is stimulated 1000-fold by interaction with tubulin (turnover rate per 120-kDa peptide increases from ≈ 0.009 sec-1 to 9 sec-1). The tubulin-stimulated reaction exhibits no extra incorporation of water-derived oxygens over a wide range of ATP and tubulin concentrations, indicating that Pi release is faster than the reversal of hydrolysis. ADP release, however, is slow for the basal reaction and its release is rate limiting as indicated by the very tight ADP binding (Ki < 5 nM), the retention of a stoichiometric level of bound ADP through ion-exchange chromatography and dialysis, and the reversible labeling of a bound ADP by [14C]ATP at the steady-state ATPase rate as shown by centrifuge gel filtration and inaccessibility to pyruvate kinase. Tubulin accelerates the release of the bound ADP consistent with its activation of the net ATPase reaction. The detailed kinetics of ADP release in the presence of tubulin are biphasic indicating apparent heterogeneity with a fraction of the kinesin active sites being unaffected by tubulin.

  1. Low Resolution Structural Studies Indicate that the Activator of Hsp90 ATPase 1 (Aha1) of Leishmania braziliensis Has an Elongated Shape Which Allows Its Interaction with Both N- and M-Domains of Hsp90

    PubMed Central

    Seraphim, Thiago V.; Alves, Marina M.; Silva, Indjara M.; Gomes, Francisco E. R.; Silva, Kelly P.; Murta, Silvane M. F.; Barbosa, Leandro R. S.; Borges, Júlio C.

    2013-01-01

    The Hsp90 molecular chaperone is essential for protein homeostasis and in the maturation of proteins involved with cell-cycle control. The low ATPase activity of Hsp90 is critical to drive its functional cycle, which is dependent on the Hsp90 cochaperones. The Activator of Hsp90 ATPase-1 (Aha1) is a protein formed by two domains, N- and C-terminal, that stimulates the Hsp90 ATPase activity by several folds. Although the relevance of Aha1 for Hsp90 functions has been proved, as well as its involvement in the desensitization to inhibitors of the Hsp90, the knowledge on its overall structure and behavior in solution is limited. In this work we present the functional and structural characterization of Leishmania braziliensis Aha1 (LbAha1). This protozoan is the causative agent of cutaneous and mucocutaneous leishmaniasis, a neglected disease. The recombinant LbAha1 behaves as an elongated monomer and is organized into two folded domains interconnected by a flexible linker. Functional experiments showed that LbAha1 interacts with L. braziliensis Hsp90 (LbHsp90) with micromolar dissociation constant in a stoichiometry of 2 LbAha1 to 1 LbHsp90 dimer and stimulates 10-fold the LbHsp90 ATPase activity showing positive cooperativity. Furthermore, the LbHsp90::LbAha1 complex is directed by enthalphy and opposed by entropy, probably due to the spatial freedom restrictions imposed by the proteins’ interactions. Small-angle X-ray scattering data allowed the reconstruction of low resolution models and rigid body simulations of LbAha1, indicating its mode of action on LbHsp90. Western blot experiments allowed Aha1 identification (as well as Hsp90) in three Leishmania species at two temperatures, suggesting that Aha1 is a cognate protein. All these data shed light on the LbAha1 mechanism of action, showing that it has structural dimensions and flexibility that allow interacting with both N-terminal and middle domains of the LbHsp90. PMID:23826147

  2. Low resolution structural studies indicate that the activator of Hsp90 ATPase 1 (Aha1) of Leishmania braziliensis has an elongated shape which allows its interaction with both N- and M-domains of Hsp90.

    PubMed

    Seraphim, Thiago V; Alves, Marina M; Silva, Indjara M; Gomes, Francisco E R; Silva, Kelly P; Murta, Silvane M F; Barbosa, Leandro R S; Borges, Júlio C

    2013-01-01

    The Hsp90 molecular chaperone is essential for protein homeostasis and in the maturation of proteins involved with cell-cycle control. The low ATPase activity of Hsp90 is critical to drive its functional cycle, which is dependent on the Hsp90 cochaperones. The Activator of Hsp90 ATPase-1 (Aha1) is a protein formed by two domains, N- and C-terminal, that stimulates the Hsp90 ATPase activity by several folds. Although the relevance of Aha1 for Hsp90 functions has been proved, as well as its involvement in the desensitization to inhibitors of the Hsp90, the knowledge on its overall structure and behavior in solution is limited. In this work we present the functional and structural characterization of Leishmania braziliensis Aha1 (LbAha1). This protozoan is the causative agent of cutaneous and mucocutaneous leishmaniasis, a neglected disease. The recombinant LbAha1 behaves as an elongated monomer and is organized into two folded domains interconnected by a flexible linker. Functional experiments showed that LbAha1 interacts with L. braziliensis Hsp90 (LbHsp90) with micromolar dissociation constant in a stoichiometry of 2 LbAha1 to 1 LbHsp90 dimer and stimulates 10-fold the LbHsp90 ATPase activity showing positive cooperativity. Furthermore, the LbHsp90::LbAha1 complex is directed by enthalphy and opposed by entropy, probably due to the spatial freedom restrictions imposed by the proteins' interactions. Small-angle X-ray scattering data allowed the reconstruction of low resolution models and rigid body simulations of LbAha1, indicating its mode of action on LbHsp90. Western blot experiments allowed Aha1 identification (as well as Hsp90) in three Leishmania species at two temperatures, suggesting that Aha1 is a cognate protein. All these data shed light on the LbAha1 mechanism of action, showing that it has structural dimensions and flexibility that allow interacting with both N-terminal and middle domains of the LbHsp90. PMID:23826147

  3. Regulation of Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase by neuron-specific transcription factor Sp4: implication in the tight coupling of energy production, neuronal activity and energy consumption in neurons.

    PubMed

    Johar, Kaid; Priya, Anusha; Wong-Riley, Margaret T T

    2014-02-01

    A major source of energy demand in neurons is the Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase pump that restores the ionic gradient across the plasma membrane subsequent to depolarizing neuronal activity. The energy comes primarily from mitochondrial oxidative metabolism, of which cytochrome c oxidase (COX) is a key enzyme. Recently, we found that all 13 subunits of COX are regulated by specificity (Sp) factors, and that the neuron-specific Sp4, but not Sp1 or Sp3, regulates the expression of key glutamatergic receptor subunits as well. The present study sought to test our hypothesis that Sp4 also regulates Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase subunit genes in neurons. By means of multiple approaches, including in silico analysis, electrophoretic mobility shift and supershift assays, chromatin immunoprecipitation, promoter mutational analysis, over-expression, and RNA interference studies, we found that Sp4, with minor contributions from Sp1 and Sp3, functionally regulate the Atp1a1, Atp1a3, and Atp1b1 subunit genes of Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase in neurons. Transcripts of all three genes were up-regulated by depolarizing KCl stimulation and down-regulated by the impulse blocker tetrodotoxin (TTX), indicating that their expression was activity-dependent. Silencing of Sp4 blocked the up-regulation of these genes induced by KCl, whereas over-expression of Sp4 rescued them from TTX-induced suppression. The effect of silencing or over-expressing Sp4 on primary neurons was much greater than those of Sp1 or Sp3. The binding sites of Sp factors on these genes are conserved among mice, rats and humans. Thus, Sp4 plays an important role in the transcriptional coupling of energy generation and energy consumption in neurons.

  4. Effect of polygodial on the mitochondrial ATPase of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Lunde, C S; Kubo, I

    2000-07-01

    The fungicidal mechanism of a naturally occurring sesquiterpene dialdehyde, polygodial, was investigated in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In an acidification assay, polygodial completely suppressed the glucose-induced decrease in external pH at 3.13 microgram/ml, the same as the fungicidal concentration. Acidification occurs primarily through the proton-pumping action of the plasma membrane ATPase, Pma1p. Surprisingly, this ATPase was not directly inhibited by polygodial. In contrast, the two other membrane-bound ATPases in yeast were found to be susceptible to the compound. The mitochondrial ATPase was inhibited by polygodial in a dose-dependent manner at concentrations similar to the fungicidal concentration, whereas the vacuolar ATPase was only slightly inhibited. Cytoplasmic petite mutants, which lack mitochondrial DNA and are respiration deficient, were significantly less susceptible to polygodial than the wild type, as was shown in time-kill curves. A pet9 mutant which lacks a functional ADP-ATP translocator and is therefore respiration dependent was rapidly inhibited by polygodial. The results of these susceptibility assays link enzyme inhibition to physiological effect. Previous studies have reported that plasma membrane disruption is the mechanism of polygodial-induced cell death; however, these results support a more complex picture of its effect. A major target of polygodial in yeast is mitochondrial ATP synthase. Reduction of the ATP supply leads to a suppression of Pma1 ATPase activity and impairs adaptive responses to other facets of polygodial's cellular inhibition.

  5. Phosphorylation of the Plant Immune Regulator RPM1-INTERACTING PROTEIN4 Enhances Plant Plasma Membrane H+-ATPase Activity and Inhibits Flagellin-Triggered Immune Responses in Arabidopsis[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Lee, DongHyuk; Bourdais, Gildas; Yu, Gang; Robatzek, Silke; Coaker, Gitta

    2015-01-01

    The Pseudomonas syringae effector AvrB targets multiple host proteins during infection, including the plant immune regulator RPM1-INTERACTING PROTEIN4 (RIN4) and RPM1-INDUCED PROTEIN KINASE (RIPK). In the presence of AvrB, RIPK phosphorylates RIN4 at Thr-21, Ser-160, and Thr-166, leading to activation of the immune receptor RPM1. Here, we investigated the role of RIN4 phosphorylation in susceptible Arabidopsis thaliana genotypes. Using circular dichroism spectroscopy, we show that RIN4 is a disordered protein and phosphorylation affects protein flexibility. RIN4 T21D/S160D/T166D phosphomimetic mutants exhibited enhanced disease susceptibility upon surface inoculation with P. syringae, wider stomatal apertures, and enhanced plasma membrane H+-ATPase activity. The plasma membrane H+-ATPase AHA1 is highly expressed in guard cells, and its activation can induce stomatal opening. The ripk knockout also exhibited a strong defect in pathogen-induced stomatal opening. The basal level of RIN4 Thr-166 phosphorylation decreased in response to immune perception of bacterial flagellin. RIN4 Thr166D lines exhibited reduced flagellin-triggered immune responses. Flagellin perception did not lower RIN4 Thr-166 phosphorylation in the presence of strong ectopic expression of AvrB. Taken together, these results indicate that the AvrB effector targets RIN4 in order to enhance pathogen entry on the leaf surface as well as dampen responses to conserved microbial features. PMID:26198070

  6. Long-term exposure of the freshwater shrimp Macrobrachium olfersii to elevated salinity: effects on gill (Na+,K+)-ATPase alpha-subunit expression and K+-phosphatase activity.

    PubMed

    Mendonça, N N; Masui, D C; McNamara, J C; Leone, F A; Furriel, R P M

    2007-04-01

    The kinetic properties of a microsomal gill (Na+,K+)-ATPase from the freshwater shrimp, Macrobrachium olfersii, acclimated to 21 per thousand salinity for 10 days were investigated using the substrate p-nitrophenylphosphate. The enzyme hydrolyzed this substrate obeying cooperative kinetics at a rate of 123.6+/-4.9 U mg-1 and K0.5=1.31+/-0.05 mmol L-1. Stimulation of K+-phosphatase activity by magnesium (Vmax=125.3+/-7.5 U mg-1; K0.5=2.09+/-0.06 mmol L-1), potassium (Vmax=134.2+/-6.7 U mg-1; K0.5=1.33+/-0.06 mmol L-1) and ammonium ions (Vmax=130.1+/-5.9 U mg-1; K0.5=11.4+/-0.5 mmol L-1) was also cooperative. While orthovanadate abolished p-nitrophenylphosphatase activity, ouabain inhibition reached 80% (KI=304.9+/-18.3 micromol L-1). The kinetic parameters estimated differ significantly from those for freshwater-acclimated shrimps, suggesting expression of different isoenzymes during salinity adaptation. Despite the approximately 2-fold reduction in K+-phosphatase specific activity, Western blotting analysis revealed similar alpha-subunit expression in gill tissue from shrimps acclimated to 21 per thousand salinity or fresh water, although expression of phosphate-hydrolyzing enzymes other than (Na+,K+)-ATPase was stimulated by high salinity acclimation.

  7. Gramicidin A directly inhibits mammalian Na(+)/K (+)-ATPase.

    PubMed

    Takada, Yohei; Matsuo, Kentaro; Kataoka, Takao

    2008-12-01

    The linear pentadecapeptide gramicidin A forms an ion channel in the lipid bilayer to selectively transport monovalent cations. Nevertheless, we have surprisingly found that gramicidin A directly inhibits mammalian Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase. Gramicidin A inhibited ATP hydrolysis by Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase from porcine cerebral cortex at the IC(50) value of 8.1 microM, while gramicidin S was approximately fivefold less active. The synthetic gramicidin A analog lacking N-terminal formylation and C-terminal ethanolamine exhibited a weaker inhibitory effect on the ATP-hydrolyzing activity of Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase than gramicidin A, indicating that these end modifications are necessary for gramicidin A to inhibit Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase activity. Moreover, Lineweaver-Burk analysis showed that gramicidin A exhibits a mixed type of inhibition. In addition to the most well-studied ionophore activity, our present study has disclosed a novel biological function of gramicidin A as a direct inhibitor of mammalian Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase activity.

  8. V-type ATPase proton pump expression during enamel formation.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, Juni; Wen, Xin; Simanian, Emil J; Paine, Michael L

    2016-01-01

    Several diseases such as proximal and distal renal tubular acidosis and osteoporosis are related to intracellular pH dysregulation resulting from mutations in genes coding for ion channels, including proteins comprising the proton-pumping V-type ATPase. V-type ATPase is a multi-subunit protein complex expressed in enamel forming cells. V-type ATPase plays a key role in enamel development, specifically lysosomal acidification, yet our understanding of the relationship between the endocytotic activities and dental health and disease is limited. The objective of this study is to better understand the ameloblast-associated pH regulatory networks essential for amelogenesis. Quantitative RT-PCR was performed on tissues from secretory-stage and maturation-stage enamel organs to determine which of the V-type ATPase subunits are most highly upregulated during maturation-stage amelogenesis: a time when ameloblast endocytotic activity is highest. Western blot analyses, using specific antibodies to four of the V-type ATPase subunits (Atp6v0d2, Atp6v1b2, Atp6v1c1 and Atp6v1e1), were then applied to validate much of the qPCR data. Immunohistochemistry using these same four antibodies was also performed to identify the spatiotemporal expression profiles of individual V-type ATPase subunits. Our data show that cytoplasmic V-type ATPase is significantly upregulated in enamel organ cells during maturation-stage when compared to secretory-stage. These data likely relate to the higher endocytotic activities, and the greater need for lysosomal acidification, during maturation-stage amelogenesis. It is also apparent from our immunolocalization data, using antibodies against two of the V-type ATPase subunits (Atp6v1c1 and Atp6v1e1), that significant expression is seen at the apical membrane of maturation-stage ameloblasts. Others have also identified this V-type ATPase expression profile at the apical membrane of maturation ameloblasts. Collectively, these data better define the

  9. The Chromodomains of the Chd1 Chromatin Remodeler Regulate DNA Access to the ATPase Motor

    SciTech Connect

    Hauk, G.; McKnight, J; Nodelman, I; Bowman, G

    2010-01-01

    Chromatin remodelers are ATP-driven machines that assemble, slide, and remove nucleosomes from DNA, but how the ATPase motors of remodelers are regulated is poorly understood. Here we show that the double chromodomain unit of the Chd1 remodeler blocks DNA binding and activation of the ATPase motor in the absence of nucleosome substrates. The Chd1 crystal structure reveals that an acidic helix joining the chromodomains can pack against a DNA-binding surface of the ATPase motor. Disruption of the chromodomain-ATPase interface prevents discrimination between nucleosomes and naked DNA and reduces the reliance on the histone H4 tail for nucleosome sliding. We propose that the chromodomains allow Chd1 to distinguish between nucleosomes and naked DNA by physically gating access to the ATPase motor, and we hypothesize that related ATPase motors may employ a similar strategy to discriminate among DNA-containing substrates.

  10. Review: The HSP90 molecular chaperone—an enigmatic ATPase

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The HSP90 molecular chaperone is involved in the activation and cellular stabilization of a range of ‘client’ proteins, of which oncogenic protein kinases and nuclear steroid hormone