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Sample records for actin-binding proteins abps

  1. Identification of actin binding protein, ABP-280, as a binding partner of human Lnk adaptor protein.

    PubMed

    He, X; Li, Y; Schembri-King, J; Jakes, S; Hayashi, J

    2000-08-01

    Human Lnk (hLnk) is an adaptor protein with multiple functional domains that regulates T cell activation signaling. In order to identify cellular Lnk binding partners, a yeast two-hybrid screening of human spleen cDNA library was carried out using human hLnk as bait. A polypeptide sequence identical to the C-terminal segment of the actin binding protein (ABP-280) was identified as a hLnk binding protein. The expressed hLnk and the FLAG tagged C-terminal 673 amino acid residues of ABP-280 or the endogenous ABP-280 in COS-7 cells could be co-immunoprecipitated using antibodies either to hLnk, FLAG or ABP-280, respectively. Furthermore, immunofluorescence confocal microscope showed that hLnk and ABP-280 co-localized at the plasma membrane and at juxtanuclear region of COS-7 cells. In Jurkat cells, the endogenous hLnk also associates with the endogenous ABP-280 indicating that the association of these two proteins is physiological. The interacting domains of both proteins were mapped using yeast two-hybrid assays. Our results indicate that hLnk binds to the residues 2006-2454 (repeats 19-23C) of ABP-280. The domain in hLnk that associates with ABP-280 was mapped to an interdomain region of 56 amino acids between pleckstrin homology and Src homology 2 domains. These results suggest that hLnk may exert its regulatory role through its association with ABP-280.

  2. Association of dopamine D(3) receptors with actin-binding protein 280 (ABP-280).

    PubMed

    Li, Ming; Li, Chuanyu; Weingarten, Paul; Bunzow, James R; Grandy, David K; Zhou, Qun Yong

    2002-03-01

    Proteins that bind to G protein-coupled receptors have been identified as regulators of receptor localization and signaling. In our previous studies, a cytoskeletal protein, actin-binding protein 280 (ABP-280), was found to associate with the third cytoplasmic loop of dopamine D(2) receptors. In this study, we demonstrate that ABP-280 also interacts with dopamine D(3) receptors, but not with D(4) receptors. Similar to the dopamine D(2) receptor, the D(3)/ABP-280 association is of signaling importance. In human melanoma M2 cells lacking ABP-280, D(3) receptors were unable to inhibit forskolin-stimulated cyclic AMP (cAMP) production significantly. D(4) receptors, however, exhibited a similar degree of inhibition of forskolin-stimulated cAMP production in ABP-280-deficient M2 cells and ABP-280-replent M2 subclones (A7 cells). Further experiments revealed that the D(3)/ABP-280 interaction was critically dependent upon a 36 amino acid carboxyl domain of the D(3) receptor third loop, which is conserved in the D(2) receptor but not in the D(4) receptor. Our results demonstrate a subtype-specific regulation of dopamine D(2)-family receptor signaling by the cytoskeletal protein ABP-280.

  3. Modulation of dopamine D(2) receptor signaling by actin-binding protein (ABP-280).

    PubMed

    Li, M; Bermak, J C; Wang, Z W; Zhou, Q Y

    2000-03-01

    Proteins that bind to G protein-coupled receptors have recently been identified as regulators of receptor anchoring and signaling. In this study, actin-binding protein 280 (ABP-280), a widely expressed cytoskeleton-associated protein that plays an important role in regulating cell morphology and motility, was found to associate with the third cytoplasmic loop of dopamine D(2) receptors. The specificity of this interaction was originally identified in a yeast two-hybrid screen and confirmed by protein binding. The functional significance of the D(2) receptor-ABP-280 association was evaluated in human melanoma cells lacking ABP-280. D(2) receptor agonists were less potent in inhibiting forskolin-stimulated cAMP production in these cells. Maximal inhibitory responses of D(2) receptor activation were also reduced. Further yeast two-hybrid experiments showed that ABP-280 association is critically dependent on the carboxyl domain of the D(2) receptor third cytoplasmic loop, where there is a potential serine phosphorylation site (S358). Serine 358 was replaced with aspartic acid to mimic the effects of receptor phosphorylation. This mutant (D(2)S358D) displayed compromised binding to ABP-280 and coupling to adenylate cyclase. PKC activation also generated D(2) receptor signaling attenuation, but only in ABP-containing cells, suggesting a PKC regulatory role in D(2)-ABP association. A mechanism for these results may be derived from a role of ABP-280 in the clustering of D(2) receptors, as determined by immunocytochemical analysis in ABP-deficient and replete cells. Our results suggest a new molecular mechanism of modulating D(2) receptor signaling by cytoskeletal protein interaction.

  4. Phosphorylation of actin-binding protein (ABP-280; filamin) by tyrosine kinase p56lck modulates actin filament cross-linking.

    PubMed

    Pal Sharma, C; Goldmann, Wolfgang H

    2004-01-01

    Actin-binding protein (ABP-280; filamin) is a phosphoprotein present in the periphery of the cytoplasm where it can cross-link actin filaments, associate with lipid membranes, and bind to membrane surface receptors. Given its function and localization in the cell, we decided to investigate the possibility of whether it serves as substrate for p56lck, a lymphocyte-specific member of the src family of protein tyrosine kinases associated with cell surface glycoproteins. The interaction of p56lck with membrane glycoproteins is important for cell development and functional activation. Here, we show that purified p56lck interacts and catalyzes in vitro kinase reactions. Tyrosine phosphorylation by p56lck is restricted to a single peptide of labeled ABP-280 shown by protease digest. The addition of phorbol ester to cells results in the inhibition of phosphorylation of ABP-280 by p56lck. These results show a decrease in phosphorylation suggesting conformationally induced regulation. Dynamic light scattering confirmed increased actin filament cross-linking due to phosphorylation of ABP-280 by p56lck.

  5. Structural and Functional Dissection of the Abp1 ADFH Actin-binding Domain Reveals Versatile In Vivo Adapter Functions

    SciTech Connect

    Quintero-Monzon,O.; Rodal, A.; Strokopytov, B.; Almo, S.; Goode, B.

    2005-01-01

    Abp1 is a multidomain protein that regulates the Arp2/3 complex and links proteins involved in endocytosis to the actin cytoskeleton. All of the proposed cellular functions of Abp1 involve actin filament binding, yet the actin binding site(s) on Abp1 have not been identified, nor has the importance of actin binding for Abp1 localization and function in vivo been tested. Here, we report the crystal structure of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae Abp1 actin-binding actin depolymerizing factor homology (ADFH) domain and dissect its activities by mutagenesis. Abp1-ADFH domain and ADF/cofilin structures are similar, and they use conserved surfaces to bind actin; however, there are also key differences that help explain their differential effects on actin dynamics. Using point mutations, we demonstrate that actin binding is required for localization of Abp1 in vivo, the lethality caused by Abp1 overexpression, and the ability of Abp1 to activate Arp2/3 complex. Furthermore, we genetically uncouple ABP1 functions that overlap with SAC6, SLA1, and SLA2, showing they require distinct combinations of activities and interactions. Together, our data provide the first structural and functional view of the Abp1-actin interaction and show that Abp1 has distinct cellular roles as an adapter, linking different sets of ligands for each function.

  6. Actin binding proteins, spermatid transport and spermiation*

    PubMed Central

    Qian, Xiaojing; Mruk, Dolores D.; Cheng, Yan-Ho; Tang, Elizabeth I.; Han, Daishu; Lee, Will M.; Wong, Elissa W. P.; Cheng, C. Yan

    2014-01-01

    The transport of germ cells across the seminiferous epithelium is composed of a series of cellular events during the epithelial cycle essential to the completion of spermatogenesis. Without the timely transport of spermatids during spermiogenesis, spermatozoa that are transformed from step 19 spermatids in the rat testis fail to reach the luminal edge of the apical compartment and enter the tubule lumen at spermiation, thereby entering the epididymis for further maturation. Step 19 spermatids and/or sperms that remain in the epithelium will be removed by the Sertoli cell via phagocytosis to form phagosomes and be degraded by lysosomes, leading to subfertility and/or infertility. However, the biology of spermatid transport, in particular the final events that lead to spermiation remain elusive. Based on recent data in the field, we critically evaluate the biology of spermiation herein by focusing on the actin binding proteins (ABPs) that regulate the organization of actin microfilaments at the Sertoli-spermatid interface, which is crucial for spermatid transport during this event. The hypothesis we put forth herein also highlights some specific areas of research that can be pursued by investigators in the years to come. PMID:24735648

  7. Identification of Actin-Binding Proteins from Maize Pollen

    SciTech Connect

    Staiger, C.J.

    2004-01-13

    Specific Aims--The goal of this project was to gain an understanding of how actin filament organization and dynamics are controlled in flowering plants. Specifically, we proposed to identify unique proteins with novel functions by investigating biochemical strategies for the isolation and characterization of actin-binding proteins (ABPs). In particular, our hunt was designed to identify capping proteins and nucleation factors. The specific aims included: (1) to use F-actin affinity chromatography (FAAC) as a general strategy to isolate pollen ABPs (2) to produce polyclonal antisera and perform subcellular localization in pollen tubes (3) to isolate cDNA clones for the most promising ABPs (4) to further purify and characterize ABP interactions with actin in vitro. Summary of Progress By employing affinity chromatography on F-actin or DNase I columns, we have identified at least two novel ABPs from pollen, PrABP80 (gelsolin-like) and ZmABP30, We have also cloned and expressed recombinant protein, as well as generated polyclonal antisera, for 6 interesting ABPs from Arabidopsis (fimbrin AtFIM1, capping protein a/b (AtCP), adenylyl cyclase-associated protein (AtCAP), AtCapG & AtVLN1). We performed quantitative analyses of the biochemical properties for two of these previously uncharacterized ABPs (fimbrin and capping protein). Our studies provide the first evidence for fimbrin activity in plants, demonstrate the existence of barbed-end capping factors and a gelsolin-like severing activity, and provide the quantitative data necessary to establish and test models of F-actin organization and dynamics in plant cells.

  8. Nuclear actin-binding proteins as modulators of gene transcription.

    PubMed

    Gettemans, Jan; Van Impe, Katrien; Delanote, Veerle; Hubert, Thomas; Vandekerckhove, Joël; De Corte, Veerle

    2005-10-01

    Dynamic transformations in the organization of the cellular microfilament system are the driving force behind fundamental biological processes such as cellular motility, cytokinesis, wound healing and secretion. Eukaryotic cells express a plethora of actin-binding proteins (ABPs) allowing cells to control the organization of the actin cytoskeleton in a flexible manner. These structural proteins were, not surprisingly, originally described as (major) constituents of the cytoplasm. However, in recent years, there has been a steady flow of reports detailing not only translocation of ABPs into and out of the nucleus but also describing their role in the nuclear compartment. This review focuses on recent developments pertaining to nucleocytoplasmic transport of ABPs, including their mode of translocation and nuclear function. In particular, evidence that structurally and functionally unrelated cytoplasmic ABPs regulate transcription activation by various nuclear (steroid hormone) receptors is steadily accruing. Furthermore, the recent finding that actin is a necessary component of the RNA polymerase II-containing preinitiation complex opens up new opportunities for nuclear ABPs in gene transcription regulation.

  9. Actin-Binding Protein Requirement for Cortical Stability and Efficient Locomotion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cunningham, C. Casey; Gorlin, Jed B.; Kwiatkowski, David J.; Hartwig, John H.; Janmey, Paul A.; Randolph Byers, H.; Stossel, Thomas P.

    1992-01-01

    Three unrelated tumor cell lines derived from human malignant melanomas lack actin-binding protein (ABP), which cross-links actin filaments in vitro and connects these filaments to plasma membrane glycoproteins. The ABP-deficient cells have impaired locomotion and display circumferential blebbing of the plasma membrane. Expression of ABP in one of the lines after transfection restored translocational motility and reduced membrane blebbing. These findings establish that ABP functions to stabilize cortical actin in vivo and is required for efficient cell locomotion.

  10. Endothelial actin-binding proteins and actin dynamics in leukocyte transendothelial migration.

    PubMed

    Schnoor, Michael

    2015-04-15

    The endothelium is the first barrier that leukocytes have to overcome during recruitment to sites of inflamed tissues. The leukocyte extravasation cascade is a complex multistep process that requires the activation of various adhesion molecules and signaling pathways, as well as actin remodeling, in both leukocytes and endothelial cells. Endothelial adhesion molecules, such as E-selectin or ICAM-1, are connected to the actin cytoskeleton via actin-binding proteins (ABPs). Although the contribution of receptor-ligand interactions to leukocyte extravasation has been studied extensively, the contribution of endothelial ABPs to the regulation of leukocyte adhesion and transendothelial migration remains poorly understood. This review focuses on recently published evidence that endothelial ABPs, such as cortactin, myosin, or α-actinin, regulate leukocyte extravasation by controlling actin dynamics, biomechanical properties of endothelia, and signaling pathways, such as GTPase activation, during inflammation. Thus, ABPs may serve as targets for novel treatment strategies for disorders characterized by excessive leukocyte recruitment.

  11. Actin-binding proteins take the reins in growth cones.

    PubMed

    Pak, Chi W; Flynn, Kevin C; Bamburg, James R

    2008-02-01

    Higher-order actin-based networks (actin superstructures) are important for growth-cone motility and guidance. Principles for generating, organizing and remodelling actin superstructures have emerged from recent findings in cell-free systems, non-neuronal cells and growth cones. This Review examines how actin superstructures are initiated de novo at the leading-edge membrane and how the spontaneous organization of actin superstructures is driven by ensembles of actin-binding proteins. How the regulation of actin-binding proteins can affect growth-cone turning and axonal regeneration is also discussed.

  12. Actin-binding proteins sensitively mediate F-actin bundle stiffness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Claessens, Mireille M. A. E.; Bathe, Mark; Frey, Erwin; Bausch, Andreas R.

    2006-09-01

    Bundles of filamentous actin (F-actin) form primary structural components of a broad range of cytoskeletal processes including filopodia, sensory hair cell bristles and microvilli. Actin-binding proteins (ABPs) allow the cell to tailor the dimensions and mechanical properties of the bundles to suit specific biological functions. Therefore, it is important to obtain quantitative knowledge on the effect of ABPs on the mechanical properties of F-actin bundles. Here we measure the bending stiffness of F-actin bundles crosslinked by three ABPs that are ubiquitous in eukaryotes. We observe distinct regimes of bundle bending stiffness that differ by orders of magnitude depending on ABP type, concentration and bundle size. The behaviour observed experimentally is reproduced quantitatively by a molecular-based mechanical model in which ABP shearing competes with F-actin extension/compression. Our results shed new light on the biomechanical function of ABPs and demonstrate how single-molecule properties determine mesoscopic behaviour. The bending mechanics of F-actin fibre bundles are general and have implications for cytoskeletal mechanics and for the rational design of functional materials.

  13. In Vitro Biochemical Characterization of Cytokinesis Actin-Binding Proteins.

    PubMed

    Zimmermann, Dennis; Morganthaler, Alisha N; Kovar, David R; Suarez, Cristian

    2016-01-01

    Characterizing the biochemical and biophysical properties of purified proteins is critical to understand the underlying molecular mechanisms that facilitate complicated cellular processes such as cytokinesis. Here we outline in vitro assays to investigate the effects of cytokinesis actin-binding proteins on actin filament dynamics and organization. We describe (1) multicolor single-molecule TIRF microscopy actin assembly assays, (2) "bulk" pyrene actin assembly/disassembly assays, and (3) "bulk" sedimentation actin filament binding and bundling assays.

  14. Regulation of blood-testis barrier by actin binding proteins and protein kinases

    PubMed Central

    Li, Nan; Tang, Elizabeth I.; Cheng, C. Yan

    2016-01-01

    The blood-testis barrier (BTB) is an important ultrastructure in the testis since the onset of spermatogenesis coincides with the establishment of a functional barrier in rodents and humans. It is also noted that a delay in the assembly of a functional BTB following treatment of neonatal rats with drugs such as diethylstilbestrol or adjudin also delays the first wave of spermiation. While the BTB is one of the tightest blood-tissue barriers, it undergoes extensive remodeling, in particular at stage VIII of the epithelial cycle to facilitate the transport of preleptotene spermatocytes connected in clones across the immunological barrier. Without this timely transport of preleptotene spermatocytes derived from type B spermatogonia, meiosis will be arrested, causing aspermatogenesis. Yet the biology and regulation of the BTB remains largely unexplored since the morphological studies in the 1970s. Recent studies, however, have shed new light on the biology of the BTB. Herein, we critically evaluate some of these findings, illustrating that the Sertoli cell BTB is regulated by actin binding proteins (ABPs), likely supported by non-receptor protein kinases, to modulate the organization of actin microfilament bundles at the site. Furthermore, microtubule (MT)-based cytoskeleton is also working in concert with the actin-based cytoskeleton to confer BTB dynamics. This timely review provides an update on the unique biology and regulation of the BTB based on the latest findings in the field, focusing on the role of ABPs and non-receptor protein kinases. PMID:26628556

  15. Regulation of blood-testis barrier by actin binding proteins and protein kinases.

    PubMed

    Li, Nan; Tang, Elizabeth I; Cheng, C Yan

    2016-03-01

    The blood-testis barrier (BTB) is an important ultrastructure in the testis, since the onset of meiosis and spermiogenesis coincides with the establishment of a functional barrier in rodents and humans. It is also noted that a delay in the assembly of a functional BTB following treatment of neonatal rats with drugs such as diethylstilbestrol or adjudin also delays the first wave of spermiation. While the BTB is one of the tightest blood-tissue barriers, it undergoes extensive remodeling, in particular, at stage VIII of the epithelial cycle to facilitate the transport of preleptotene spermatocytes connected in clones across the immunological barrier. Without this timely transport of preleptotene spermatocytes derived from type B spermatogonia, meiosis will be arrested, causing aspermatogenesis. Yet the biology and regulation of the BTB remains largely unexplored since the morphological studies in the 1970s. Recent studies, however, have shed new light on the biology of the BTB. Herein, we critically evaluate some of these findings, illustrating that the Sertoli cell BTB is regulated by actin-binding proteins (ABPs), likely supported by non-receptor protein kinases, to modulate the organization of actin microfilament bundles at the site. Furthermore, microtubule-based cytoskeleton is also working in concert with the actin-based cytoskeleton to confer BTB dynamics. This timely review provides an update on the unique biology and regulation of the BTB based on the latest findings in the field, focusing on the role of ABPs and non-receptor protein kinases.

  16. Resemblance of actin-binding protein/actin gels to covalently crosslinked networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janmey, Paul A.; Hvidt, Søren; Lamb, Jennifer; Stossel, Thomas P.

    1990-05-01

    THE maintainance of the shape of cells is often due to their surface elasticity, which arises mainly from an actin-rich cytoplasmic cortex1,2. On locomotion, phagocytosis or fission, however, these cells become partially fluid-like. The finding of proteins that can bind to actin and control the assembly of, or crosslink, actin filaments, and of intracellular messages that regulate the activities of some of these actin-binding proteins, indicates that such 'gel sol' transformations result from the rearrangement of cortical actin-rich networks3. Alternatively, on the basis of a study of the mechanical properties of mixtures of actin filaments and an Acanthamoeba actin-binding protein, α-actinin, it has been proposed that these transformations can be accounted for by rapid exchange of crosslinks between actin filaments4: the cortical network would be solid when the deformation rate is greater than the rate of crosslink exchange, but would deform or 'creep' when deformation is slow enough to permit crosslinker molecules to rearrange. Here we report, however, that mixtures of actin filaments and actin-binding protein (ABP), an actin crosslinking protein of many higher eukaryotes, form gels Theologically equivalent to covalently crosslinked networks. These gels do not creep in response to applied stress on a time scale compatible with most cell-surface movements. These findings support a more complex and controlled mechanism underlying the dynamic mechanical properties of cortical cytoplasm, and can explain why cells do not collapse under the constant shear forces that often exist in tissues.

  17. On the association of glycoprotein Ib and actin-binding protein in human platelets

    PubMed Central

    1985-01-01

    Glycoprotein (GP) Ib was purified from lysates of human platelets prepared in the presence or absence of inhibitors of the endogenous calcium-activated neutral protease (CANP) by immunoaffinity chromatography, employing the GPIb-specific murine monoclonal antibody, AP1, coupled to Sepharose CL4B. When derived from lysates prepared in the presence of EDTA or leupeptin, the eluate from the AP1-affinity column contained a 240,000-260,000-mol-wt protein in addition to GPIb. In SDS PAGE, this protein was stained by Coomassie Blue R, but not by the periodic acid-Schiff reagent, and it was not labeled with 125I in intact platelets by the lactoperoxidase-catalyzed method. When derived from lysates prepared in the absence of CANP inhibitors, the eluate contained only GPIb and its proteolytic derivative, glycocalicin. A change in the electrophoretic mobility of GPIb consistent with its association with the 240,000-260,000-mol-wt protein was confirmed by crossed immunoelectrophoresis. By an immunoblot technique involving transfer of proteins eluted from the AP1-affinity column and separated by SDS PAGE onto a nitrocellulose membrane, the 240,000-260,000-mol-wt protein bound polyclonal goat antibody raised against rabbit macrophage actin-binding protein (ABP). On the basis of these results, we conclude the GPIb is tightly associated with ABP under conditions in which the endogenous CANP is inhibited, and that this apparent transmembrane complex of GPIb-ABP can be isolated in lysates of nonactivated human platelets. PMID:3155520

  18. Polycystin-2 (TRPP2) Regulation by Ca2+ Is Effected and Diversified by Actin-Binding Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Cantero, María del Rocío; Cantiello, Horacio F.

    2015-01-01

    Calcium regulation of Ca2+-permeable ion channels is an important mechanism in the control of cell function. Polycystin-2 (PC2, TRPP2), a member of the transient receptor potential superfamily, is a nonselective cation channel with Ca2+ permeability. The molecular mechanisms associated with PC2 regulation by Ca2+ remain ill-defined. We recently demonstrated that PC2 from human syncytiotrophoblast (PC2hst) but not the in vitro translated protein (PC2iv), functionally responds to changes in intracellular (cis) Ca2+. In this study we determined the regulatory effect(s) of Ca2+-sensitive and -insensitive actin-binding proteins (ABPs) on PC2iv channel function in a lipid bilayer system. The actin-bundling protein α-actinin increased PC2iv channel function in the presence of cis Ca2+, although instead was inhibitory in its absence. Conversely, filamin that shares actin-binding domains with α-actinin had a strong inhibitory effect on PC2iv channel function in the presence, but no effect in the absence of cis Ca2+. Gelsolin stimulated PC2iv channel function in the presence, but not the absence of cis Ca2+. In contrast, profilin that shares actin-binding domains with gelsolin, significantly increased PC2iv channel function both in the presence and absence of Ca2+. The distinct effect(s) of the ABPs on PC2iv channel function demonstrate that Ca2+ regulation of PC2 is actually mediated by direct interaction(s) with structural elements of the actin cytoskeleton. These data indicate that specific ABP-PC2 complexes would confer distinct Ca2+-sensitive properties to the channel providing functional diversity to the cytoskeletal control of transient receptor potential channel regulation. PMID:25954877

  19. An actin cytoskeleton with evolutionarily conserved functions in the absence of canonical actin-binding proteins

    PubMed Central

    Paredez, Alexander R.; Assaf, Zoe June; Sept, David; Timofejeva, Ljudmilla; Dawson, Scott C.; Wang, Chung-Ju Rachel; Cande, W. Z.

    2011-01-01

    Giardia intestinalis, a human intestinal parasite and member of what is perhaps the earliest-diverging eukaryotic lineage, contains the most divergent eukaryotic actin identified to date and is the first eukaryote known to lack all canonical actin-binding proteins (ABPs). We sought to investigate the properties and functions of the actin cytoskeleton in Giardia to determine whether Giardia actin (giActin) has reduced or conserved roles in core cellular processes. In vitro polymerization of giActin produced filaments, indicating that this divergent actin is a true filament-forming actin. We generated an anti-giActin antibody to localize giActin throughout the cell cycle. GiActin localized to the cortex, nuclei, internal axonemes, and formed C-shaped filaments along the anterior of the cell and a flagella-bundling helix. These structures were regulated with the cell cycle and in encysting cells giActin was recruited to the Golgi-like cyst wall processing vesicles. Knockdown of giActin demonstrated that giActin functions in cell morphogenesis, membrane trafficking, and cytokinesis. Additionally, Giardia contains a single G protein, giRac, which affects the Giardia actin cytoskeleton independently of known target ABPs. These results imply that there exist ancestral and perhaps conserved roles for actin in core cellular processes that are independent of canonical ABPs. Of medical significance, the divergent giActin cytoskeleton is essential and commonly used actin-disrupting drugs do not depolymerize giActin structures. Therefore, the giActin cytoskeleton is a promising drug target for treating giardiasis, as we predict drugs that interfere with the Giardia actin cytoskeleton will not affect the mammalian host. PMID:21444821

  20. An actin cytoskeleton with evolutionarily conserved functions in the absence of canonical actin-binding proteins.

    PubMed

    Paredez, Alexander R; Assaf, Zoe June; Sept, David; Timofejeva, Ljudmilla; Dawson, Scott C; Wang, Chung-Ju Rachel; Cande, W Z

    2011-04-12

    Giardia intestinalis, a human intestinal parasite and member of what is perhaps the earliest-diverging eukaryotic lineage, contains the most divergent eukaryotic actin identified to date and is the first eukaryote known to lack all canonical actin-binding proteins (ABPs). We sought to investigate the properties and functions of the actin cytoskeleton in Giardia to determine whether Giardia actin (giActin) has reduced or conserved roles in core cellular processes. In vitro polymerization of giActin produced filaments, indicating that this divergent actin is a true filament-forming actin. We generated an anti-giActin antibody to localize giActin throughout the cell cycle. GiActin localized to the cortex, nuclei, internal axonemes, and formed C-shaped filaments along the anterior of the cell and a flagella-bundling helix. These structures were regulated with the cell cycle and in encysting cells giActin was recruited to the Golgi-like cyst wall processing vesicles. Knockdown of giActin demonstrated that giActin functions in cell morphogenesis, membrane trafficking, and cytokinesis. Additionally, Giardia contains a single G protein, giRac, which affects the Giardia actin cytoskeleton independently of known target ABPs. These results imply that there exist ancestral and perhaps conserved roles for actin in core cellular processes that are independent of canonical ABPs. Of medical significance, the divergent giActin cytoskeleton is essential and commonly used actin-disrupting drugs do not depolymerize giActin structures. Therefore, the giActin cytoskeleton is a promising drug target for treating giardiasis, as we predict drugs that interfere with the Giardia actin cytoskeleton will not affect the mammalian host.

  1. Control of nuclear organization by F-actin binding proteins.

    PubMed

    Pfisterer, Karin; Jayo, Asier; Parsons, Maddy

    2017-03-04

    The regulation of nuclear shape and deformability is a key factor in controlling diverse events from embryonic development to cancer cell metastasis, but the mechanisms governing this process are still unclear. Our recent study demonstrated an unexpected role for the F-actin bundling protein fascin in controlling nuclear plasticity through a direct interaction with Nesprin-2. Nesprin-2 is a component of the LINC complex that is known to couple the F-actin cytoskeleton to the nuclear envelope. We demonstrated that fascin, which is predominantly associated with peripheral F-actin rich filopodia, binds directly to Nesprin-2 at the nuclear envelope in a range of cell types. Depleting fascin or specifically blocking the fascin-Nesprin-2 complex leads to defects in nuclear polarization, movement and cell invasion. These studies reveal a novel role for an F-actin bundling protein in control of nuclear plasticity and underline the importance of defining nuclear-associated roles for F-actin binding proteins in future.

  2. Structure of the 34 kDa F-actin-bundling protein ABP34 from Dictyostelium discoideum.

    PubMed

    Kim, Min-Kyu; Kim, Ji-Hye; Kim, Ji-Sun; Kang, Sa-Ouk

    2015-09-01

    The crystal structure of the 34 kDa F-actin-bundling protein ABP34 from Dictyostelium discoideum was solved by Ca(2+)/S-SAD phasing and refined at 1.89 Å resolution. ABP34 is a calcium-regulated actin-binding protein that cross-links actin filaments into bundles. Its in vitro F-actin-binding and F-actin-bundling activities were confirmed by a co-sedimentation assay and transmission electron microscopy. The co-localization of ABP34 with actin in cells was also verified. ABP34 adopts a two-domain structure with an EF-hand-containing N-domain and an actin-binding C-domain, but has no reported overall structural homologues. The EF-hand is occupied by a calcium ion with a pentagonal bipyramidal coordination as in the canonical EF-hand. The C-domain structure resembles a three-helical bundle and superposes well onto the rod-shaped helical structures of some cytoskeletal proteins. Residues 216-244 in the C-domain form part of the strongest actin-binding sites (193-254) and exhibit a conserved sequence with the actin-binding region of α-actinin and ABP120. Furthermore, the second helical region of the C-domain is kinked by a proline break, offering a convex surface towards the solvent area which is implicated in actin binding. The F-actin-binding model suggests that ABP34 binds to the side of the actin filament and residues 216-244 fit into a pocket between actin subdomains -1 and -2 through hydrophobic interactions. These studies provide insights into the calcium coordination in the EF-hand and F-actin-binding site in the C-domain of ABP34, which are associated through interdomain interactions.

  3. An actin-binding protein, LlLIM1, mediates calcium and hydrogen regulation of actin dynamics in pollen tubes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Huei-Jing; Wan, Ai-Ru; Jauh, Guang-Yuh

    2008-08-01

    Actin microfilaments are crucial for polar cell tip growth, and their configurations and dynamics are regulated by the actions of various actin-binding proteins (ABPs). We explored the function of a lily (Lilium longiflorum) pollen-enriched LIM domain-containing protein, LlLIM1, in regulating the actin dynamics in elongating pollen tube. Cytological and biochemical assays verified LlLIM1 functioning as an ABP, promoting filamentous actin (F-actin) bundle assembly and protecting F-actin against latrunculin B-mediated depolymerization. Overexpressed LlLIM1 significantly disturbed pollen tube growth and morphology, with multiple tubes protruding from one pollen grain and coaggregation of FM4-64-labeled vesicles and Golgi apparatuses at the subapex of the tube tip. Moderate expression of LlLIM1 induced an oscillatory formation of asterisk-shaped F-actin aggregates that oscillated with growth period but in different phases at the subapical region. These results suggest that the formation of LlLIM1-mediated overstabilized F-actin bundles interfered with endomembrane trafficking to result in growth retardation. Cosedimentation assays revealed that the binding affinity of LlLIM1 to F-actin was simultaneously regulated by both pH and Ca(2+): LlLIM1 showed a preference for F-actin binding under low pH and low Ca(2+) concentration. The potential functions of LlLIM1 as an ABP sensitive to pH and calcium in integrating endomembrane trafficking, oscillatory pH, and calcium circumstances to regulate tip-focused pollen tube growth are discussed.

  4. Technical advance: identification of plant actin-binding proteins by F-actin affinity chromatography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hu, S.; Brady, S. R.; Kovar, D. R.; Staiger, C. J.; Clark, G. B.; Roux, S. J.; Muday, G. K.

    2000-01-01

    Proteins that interact with the actin cytoskeleton often modulate the dynamics or organization of the cytoskeleton or use the cytoskeleton to control their localization. In plants, very few actin-binding proteins have been identified and most are thought to modulate cytoskeleton function. To identify actin-binding proteins that are unique to plants, the development of new biochemical procedures will be critical. Affinity columns using actin monomers (globular actin, G-actin) or actin filaments (filamentous actin, F-actin) have been used to identify actin-binding proteins from a wide variety of organisms. Monomeric actin from zucchini (Cucurbita pepo L.) hypocotyl tissue was purified to electrophoretic homogeneity and shown to be native and competent for polymerization to actin filaments. G-actin, F-actin and bovine serum albumin affinity columns were prepared and used to separate samples enriched in either soluble or membrane-associated actin-binding proteins. Extracts of soluble actin-binding proteins yield distinct patterns when eluted from the G-actin and F-actin columns, respectively, leading to the identification of a putative F-actin-binding protein of approximately 40 kDa. When plasma membrane-associated proteins were applied to these columns, two abundant polypeptides eluted selectively from the F-actin column and cross-reacted with antiserum against pea annexins. Additionally, a protein that binds auxin transport inhibitors, the naphthylphthalamic acid binding protein, which has been previously suggested to associate with the actin cytoskeleton, was eluted in a single peak from the F-actin column. These experiments provide a new approach that may help to identify novel actin-binding proteins from plants.

  5. Plant villin, lily P-135-ABP, possesses G-actin binding activity and accelerates the polymerization and depolymerization of actin in a Ca2+-sensitive manner.

    PubMed

    Yokota, Etsuo; Tominaga, Motoki; Mabuchi, Issei; Tsuji, Yasunori; Staiger, Christopher J; Oiwa, Kazuhiro; Shimmen, Teruo

    2005-10-01

    From germinating pollen of lily, two types of villins, P-115-ABP and P-135-ABP, have been identified biochemically. Ca(2+)-CaM-dependent actin-filament binding and bundling activities have been demonstrated for both villins previously. Here, we examined the effects of lily villins on the polymerization and depolymerization of actin. P-115-ABP and P-135-ABP present in a crude protein extract prepared from germinating pollen bound to a DNase I affinity column in a Ca(2+)-dependent manner. Purified P-135-ABP reduced the lag period that precedes actin filament polymerization from monomers in the presence of either Ca(2+) or Ca(2+)-CaM. These results indicated that P-135-ABP can form a complex with G-actin in the presence of Ca(2+) and this complex acts as a nucleus for polymerization of actin filaments. However, the nucleation activity of P-135-ABP is probably not relevant in vivo because the assembly of G-actin saturated with profilin, a situation that mimics conditions found in pollen, was not accelerated in the presence of P-135-ABP. P-135-ABP also enhanced the depolymerization of actin filaments during dilution-mediated disassembly. Growth from filament barbed ends in the presence of Ca(2+)-CaM was also prevented, consistent with filament capping activity. These results suggested that lily villin is involved not only in the arrangement of actin filaments into bundles in the basal and shank region of the pollen tube, but also in regulating and modulating actin dynamics through its capping and depolymerization (or fragmentation) activities in the apical region of the pollen tube, where there is a relatively high concentration of Ca(2+).

  6. Coactosin-like protein, a human F-actin-binding protein: critical role of lysine-75.

    PubMed Central

    Provost, P; Doucet, J; Stock, A; Gerisch, G; Samuelsson, B; Rådmark, O

    2001-01-01

    Coactosin-like protein (CLP) was recently identified in a yeast two-hybrid screen using 5-lipoxygenase as bait. In the present study, we report the functional characterization of CLP as a human filamentous actin (F-actin)-binding protein. CLP mRNA shows a wide tissue distribution and is predominantly expressed in placenta, lung, kidney and peripheral-blood leucocytes. Endogenous CLP is localized in the cytosol of myeloid cells. Using a two-hybrid approach, actin was identified as a CLP-interacting protein. Binding experiments indicated that CLP associates with F-actin, but does not form a stable complex with globular actin. In transfected mammalian cells, CLP co-localized with actin stress fibres. CLP bound to actin filaments with a stoichiometry of 1:2 (CLP: actin subunits), but could be cross-linked to only one subunit of actin. Site-directed mutagenesis revealed the involvement of Lys(75) of CLP in actin binding, a residue highly conserved in related proteins and supposed to be exposed on the surface of the CLP protein. Our results identify CLP as a new human protein that binds F-actin in vitro and in vivo, and indicate that Lys(75) is essential for this interaction. PMID:11583571

  7. Moesin, ezrin, and p205 are actin-binding proteins associated with neutrophil plasma membranes.

    PubMed Central

    Pestonjamasp, K; Amieva, M R; Strassel, C P; Nauseef, W M; Furthmayr, H; Luna, E J

    1995-01-01

    Actin-binding proteins in bovine neutrophil plasma membranes were identified using blot overlays with 125I-labeled F-actin. Along with surface-biotinylated proteins, membranes were enriched in major actin-binding polypeptides of 78, 81, and 205 kDa. Binding was specific for F-actin because G-actin did not bind. Further, unlabeled F-actin blocked the binding of 125I-labeled F-actin whereas other acidic biopolymers were relatively ineffective. Binding also was specifically inhibited by myosin subfragment 1, but not by CapZ or plasma gelsolin, suggesting that the membrane proteins, like myosin, bind along the sides of the actin filaments. The 78- and 81-kDa polypeptides were identified as moesin and ezrin, respectively, by co-migration on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and immunoprecipitation with antibodies specific for moesin and ezrin. Although not present in detectable amounts in bovine neutrophils, radixin (a third and closely related member of this gene family) also bound 125I-labeled F-actin on blot overlays. Experiments with full-length and truncated bacterial fusion proteins localized the actin-binding site in moesin to the extreme carboxy terminus, a highly conserved sequence. Immunofluorescence micrographs of permeabilized cells and cell "footprints" showed moesin co-localization with actin at the cytoplasmic surface of the plasma membrane, consistent with a role as a membrane-actin-linking protein. Images PMID:7612961

  8. Game of Zones: how actin-binding proteins organize muscle contraction

    PubMed Central

    Butkevich, Eugenia; Klopfenstein, Dieter R.; Schmidt, Christoph F.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Locomotion of C. elegans requires coordinated, efficient transmission of forces generated on the molecular scale by myosin and actin filaments in myocytes to dense bodies and the hypodermis and cuticle enveloping body wall muscles. The complex organization of the acto-myosin scaffold with its accessory proteins provides a fine-tuned machinery regulated by effectors that guarantees that sarcomere units undergo controlled, reversible cycles of contraction and relaxation. Actin filaments in sarcomeres dynamically undergo polymerization and depolymerization. In a recent study, the actin-binding protein DBN-1, the C. elegans ortholog of human drebrin and drebrin-like proteins, was discovered to stabilize actin in muscle cells. DBN-1 reversibly changes location between actin filaments and myosin-rich regions during muscle contraction. Mutations in DBN-1 result in mislocalization of other actin-binding proteins. Here we discuss implications of this finding for the regulation of sarcomere actin stability and the organization of other actin-binding proteins. PMID:27383012

  9. Time-resolved studies of actin organization by multivalent ions and actin-binding proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwee Lai, Ghee; Purdy, Kirstin; Bartles, James R.; Chee Lai Wong, Gerard

    2007-03-01

    Actin is one of the principal components in the eukaryotic cytoskeleton, the architecture of which is highly regulated for a wide range of biological functions. In the presence of multivalent salts or actin-binding proteins, it is known that F-actin can organize into bundles or networks. In this work, we use time-resolved confocal microscopy to study the dynamics of actin bundle growth induced by multivalent ions and by espin, a prototypical actin binding protein that is known to induce bundles. For divalent ion induced bundles, we observe a rapid lateral saturation followed by longitudinal growth of bundles, in sharp contrast to the bundling mechanism of espin, which favors finite length bundles.

  10. Use of a fusion protein between GFP and an actin-binding domain to visualize transient filamentous-actin structures.

    PubMed

    Pang, K M; Lee, E; Knecht, D A

    1998-03-26

    Many important processes in eukaryotic cells involve changes in the quantity, location and the organization of actin filaments [1] [2] [3]. We have been able to visualize these changes in live cells using a fusion protein (GFP-ABD) comprising the green fluorescent protein (GFP) of Aequorea victoria and the 25 kDa highly conserved actin-binding domain (ABD) from the amino terminus of the actin cross-linking protein ABP-120 [4]. In live cells of the soil amoeba Dictyostelium that were expressing GFP-ABD, the three-dimensional architecture of the actin cortex was clearly visualized. The pattern of GFP-ABD fluorescence in these cells coincided with that of rhodamine-phalloidin, indicating that GFP-ABD specifically binds filamentous (F) actin. On the ventral surface of non-polarized vegetative cells, a broad ring of F actin periodically assembled and contracted, whereas in polarized cells there were transient punctate F-actin structures; cells cycled between the polarized and non-polarized morphologies. During the formation of pseudopods, an increase in fluorescence intensity coincided with the initial outward deformation of the membrane. This is consistent with the models of pseudopod extension that predict an increase in the local density of actin filaments. In conclusion, GFP-ABD specifically binds F actin and allows the visualization of F-actin dynamics and cellular behavior simultaneously.

  11. ABP: a novel AMPA receptor binding protein.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, S; Ziff, E B

    1999-04-30

    We review the cloning of a novel AMPA receptor binding protein (ABP) that interacts with GluR2/3 and is homologous to GRIP. ABP is enriched in the PSD with GluR2 and is localized to the PSD by EM. ABP binds GluR2 via the C-terminal VXI motif through a Class I PDZ interaction. ABP and GRIP can also homo- and heteromultimerize. Thus, ABP and GRIP may be involved in AMPA receptor regulation and localization, by linking it to other cytoskeletal or signaling molecules. We suggest that the ABP/GRIP and PSD-95 families form distinct scaffolds that anchor, respectively, AMPA and NMDA receptors. We are currently investigating proteins that bind ABP and that may regulate the AMPA receptor.

  12. Disruption of actin-binding domain-containing Dystonin protein causes dystonia musculorum in mice.

    PubMed

    Horie, Masao; Watanabe, Keisuke; Bepari, Asim K; Nashimoto, Jun-Ichiro; Araki, Kimi; Sano, Hiromi; Chiken, Satomi; Nambu, Atsushi; Ono, Katsuhiko; Ikenaka, Kazuhiro; Kakita, Akiyoshi; Yamamura, Ken-Ichi; Takebayashi, Hirohide

    2014-11-01

    The Dystonin gene (Dst) is responsible for dystonia musculorum (dt), an inherited mouse model of hereditary neuropathy accompanied by progressive motor symptoms such as dystonia and cerebellar ataxia. Dst-a isoforms, which contain actin-binding domains, are predominantly expressed in the nervous system. Although sensory neuron degeneration in the peripheral nervous system during the early postnatal stage is a well-recognised phenotype in dt, the histological characteristics and neuronal circuits in the central nervous system responsible for motor symptoms remain unclear. To analyse the causative neuronal networks and roles of Dst isoforms, we generated novel multipurpose Dst gene trap mice, in which actin-binding domain-containing isoforms are disrupted. Homozygous mice showed typical dt phenotypes with sensory degeneration and progressive motor symptoms. The gene trap allele (Dst(Gt) ) encodes a mutant Dystonin-LacZ fusion protein, which is detectable by X-gal (5-bromo-4-chloro-3-indolyl-β-D-galactoside) staining. We observed wide expression of the actin-binding domain-containing Dystonin isoforms in the central nervous system (CNS) and peripheral nervous system. This raised the possibility that not only secondary neuronal defects in the CNS subsequent to peripheral sensory degeneration but also cell-autonomous defects in the CNS contribute to the motor symptoms. Expression analysis of immediate early genes revealed decreased neuronal activity in the cerebellar-thalamo-striatal pathway in the homozygous brain, implying the involvement of this pathway in the dt phenotype. These novel Dst(Gt) mice showed that a loss-of-function mutation in the actin-binding domain-containing Dystonin isoforms led to typical dt phenotypes. Furthermore, this novel multipurpose Dst(Gt) allele offers a unique tool for analysing the causative neuronal networks involved in the dt phenotype.

  13. Dynamics of the actin-binding protein drebrin in motile cells and definition of a juxtanuclear drebrin-enriched zone.

    PubMed

    Peitsch, Wiebke K; Bulkescher, Jutta; Spring, Herbert; Hofmann, Ilse; Goerdt, Sergij; Franke, Werner W

    2006-08-01

    The actin-binding protein (ABP) drebrin, isoform E2, is involved in remodelling of the actin cytoskeleton and in formation of cell processes, but its role in cell migration has not yet been investigated. Therefore, we have studied the organization of drebrin in motile cultured cells such as murine B16F1 melanoma and human SV80 fibroblast cells, using live cell confocal microscopy. In cells overexpressing DNA constructs encoding drebrin linked to EGFP, numerous long, branched cell processes were formed which slowly retracted and extended, whereas forward movement was halted. In contrast, stably transfected B16F1 cells containing drebrin-EGFP at physiological levels displayed lamellipodia and were able to migrate on laminin. Surprisingly, in such cells, drebrin was absent from anterior lamellipodia but was enriched in a specific juxtanuclear zone, the "drebrin-enriched zone" (DZ), and in the tail. In leading edges of SV80 cells, characterized by pronounced actin microspikes, drebrin was specifically enriched along posterior portions of the microspikes, together with tropomyosin. Drebrin knock-down by small interfering RNAs did not impair movements of SV80 cells. Our results confirm the role of drebrin E2 in the formation of branching processes and further indicate that during cell migration, the protein contributes to retraction of the cell body and the tail but not to lamellipodia formation. In particular, the novel, sizable juxtanuclear DZ structure will have to be characterized in future experiments with respect to its molecular assembly and cell biological functions.

  14. A new Tetrahymena actin-binding protein is localized in the division furrow.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, A; Kurasawa, Y; Watanabe, Y; Numata, O

    1998-04-01

    Using an F-actin affinity column, a 60 kDa fragment of a 71 kDa F-actin-binding protein was partially purified from Tetrahymena pyriformis. After digestion of the 60 kDa fragment with cyanogen bromide, the N-terminal 21-amino acid sequence of one of the resulting peptides was found to show sequence similarity to a region near the actin-binding site (amino acid residues 260-281) of yeast fimbrin. An antibody prepared against a synthesized 21-mer oligopeptide reacted with the 71 kDa proteins in T. pyriformis and T. thermophila cell extracts, suggesting that the 60 kDa fragment was produced from the 71 kDa protein through partial digestion occurring during isolation. The 60 kDa fragment bound to Tetrahymena F-actin as well as to rabbit skeletal muscle F-actin, and induced the bundling of Tetrahymena F-actin. Indirect immunofluorescence revealed colocalization of the 71 kDa protein and actin in the oral apparatus and the deep fiber bundles in T. pyriformis. On the other hand, in T. thermophila, the 71 kDa protein was localized in the oral apparatus and the contractile vacuole pores during the interphase. During cytokinesis, the 71 kDa protein was localized in the division furrow. Therefore, the 71 kDa protein seems to associate with the actin cytoskeleton, and to regulate the actin filament organization during phagocytosis and cytokinesis in Tetrahymena.

  15. Inhibition of tobacco mosaic virus movement by expression of an actin-binding protein.

    PubMed

    Hofmann, Christina; Niehl, Annette; Sambade, Adrian; Steinmetz, André; Heinlein, Manfred

    2009-04-01

    The tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) movement protein (MP) required for the cell-to-cell spread of viral RNA interacts with the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) as well as with the cytoskeleton during infection. Whereas associations of MP with ER and microtubules have been intensely investigated, research on the role of actin has been rather scarce. We demonstrate that Nicotiana benthamiana plants transgenic for the actin-binding domain 2 of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) fimbrin (AtFIM1) fused to green fluorescent protein (ABD2:GFP) exhibit a dynamic ABD2:GFP-labeled actin cytoskeleton and myosin-dependent Golgi trafficking. These plants also support the movement of TMV. In contrast, both myosin-dependent Golgi trafficking and TMV movement are dominantly inhibited when ABD2:GFP is expressed transiently. Inhibition is mediated through binding of ABD2:GFP to actin filaments, since TMV movement is restored upon disruption of the ABD2:GFP-labeled actin network with latrunculin B. Latrunculin B shows no significant effect on the spread of TMV infection in either wild-type plants or ABD2:GFP transgenic plants under our treatment conditions. We did not observe any binding of MP along the length of actin filaments. Collectively, these observations demonstrate that TMV movement does not require an intact actomyosin system. Nevertheless, actin-binding proteins appear to have the potential to exert control over TMV movement through the inhibition of myosin-associated protein trafficking along the ER membrane.

  16. Three-dimensional structure of actin filaments and of an actin gel made with actin-binding protein.

    PubMed

    Niederman, R; Amrein, P C; Hartwig, J

    1983-05-01

    Purified muscle actin and mixtures of actin and actin-binding protein were examined in the transmission electron microscope after fixation, critical point drying, and rotary shadowing. The three-dimensional structure of the protein assemblies was analyzed by a computer-assisted graphic analysis applicable to generalized filament networks. This analysis yielded information concerning the frequency of filament intersections, the filament length between these intersections, the angle at which filaments branch at these intersections, and the concentration of filaments within a defined volume. Purified actin at a concentration of 1 mg/ml assembled into a uniform mass of long filaments which overlap at random angles between 0 degrees and 90 degrees. Actin in the presence of macrophage actin-binding protein assembled into short, straight filaments, organized in a perpendicular branching network. The distance between branch points was inversely related to the molar ratio of actin-binding protein to actin. This distance was what would be predicted if actin filaments grew at right angles off of nucleation sites on the two ends of actin-binding protein dimers, and then annealed. The results suggest that actin in combination with actin-binding protein self-assembles to form a three-dimensional network resembling the peripheral cytoskeleton of motile cells.

  17. F-actin-binding protein drebrin regulates CXCR4 recruitment to the immune synapse.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Martínez, Manuel; Gordón-Alonso, Mónica; Cabrero, José Román; Barrero-Villar, Marta; Rey, Mercedes; Mittelbrunn, María; Lamana, Amalia; Morlino, Giulia; Calabia, Carmen; Yamazaki, Hiroyuki; Shirao, Tomoaki; Vázquez, Jesús; González-Amaro, Roberto; Veiga, Esteban; Sánchez-Madrid, Francisco

    2010-04-01

    The adaptive immune response depends on the interaction of T cells and antigen-presenting cells at the immune synapse. Formation of the immune synapse and the subsequent T-cell activation are highly dependent on the actin cytoskeleton. In this work, we describe that T cells express drebrin, a neuronal actin-binding protein. Drebrin colocalizes with the chemokine receptor CXCR4 and F-actin at the peripheral supramolecular activation cluster in the immune synapse. Drebrin interacts with the cytoplasmic tail of CXCR4 and both proteins redistribute to the immune synapse with similar kinetics. Drebrin knockdown in T cells impairs the redistribution of CXCR4 and inhibits actin polymerization at the immune synapse as well as IL-2 production. Our data indicate that drebrin exerts an unexpected and relevant functional role in T cells during the generation of the immune response.

  18. Creating biomolecular motors based on dynein and actin-binding proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furuta, Akane; Amino, Misako; Yoshio, Maki; Oiwa, Kazuhiro; Kojima, Hiroaki; Furuta, Ken'ya

    2016-11-01

    Biomolecular motors such as myosin, kinesin and dynein are protein machines that can drive directional movement along cytoskeletal tracks and have the potential to be used as molecule-sized actuators. Although control of the velocity and directionality of biomolecular motors has been achieved, the design and construction of novel biomolecular motors remains a challenge. Here we show that naturally occurring protein building blocks from different cytoskeletal systems can be combined to create a new series of biomolecular motors. We show that the hybrid motors—combinations of a motor core derived from the microtubule-based dynein motor and non-motor actin-binding proteins—robustly drive the sliding movement of an actin filament. Furthermore, the direction of actin movement can be reversed by simply changing the geometric arrangement of these building blocks. Our synthetic strategy provides an approach to fabricating biomolecular machines that work along artificial tracks at nanoscale dimensions.

  19. Expression of drebrin, an actin binding protein, in basal cell carcinoma, trichoblastoma and trichoepithelioma.

    PubMed

    Mizutani, Yoko; Iwamoto, Ikuko; Kanoh, Hiroyuki; Seishima, Mariko; Nagata, Koh-ichi

    2014-06-01

    Drebrin, an F-actin binding protein, is known to play important roles in cell migration, synaptogenesis and neural plasticity. Although drebrin was long thought to be specific for neuronal cells, its expression has recently been reported in non-neuronal cells. As for skin-derived cells, drebrin was shown to be enriched at adhering junctions (AJs) in cultured primary keratinocytes and also be highly expressed in basal cell carcinoma (BCC) cells. Since BCC and two types of benign neoplasm, trichoblastoma and trichoepithelioma, are considered to derive from the same origin, follicular germinative cells, it is sometimes difficult to morphologically distinguish BCC from trichoblastoma and trichoepithelioma. In this study, we performed immunohistochemical staining of drebrin in BCC, trichoblastoma and trichoepithelioma, to examine whether drebrin could serve as a biomarker for BCC diagnosis. In western blotting, drebrin was detected highly and moderately in the lysates from a squamous cell carcinoma cell line, DJM-1, and normal human epidermis, respectively. In immunofluorescence analyses, drebrin was colocalized with markers of AJs and tight junctions in DJM-1 cells and detected at cell-cell junction areas of human normal epidermis tissue. We then examined the distribution patterns of drebrin in BCC, trichoblastoma and trichoepithelioma. In BCC tissues, intense and homogeneous drebrin expression was observed mainly at tumor cell-cell boundaries. In contrast, drebrin was stained only weakly and non-homogeneously in trichoblastoma and trichoepthelioma tissue samples. For differential diagnosis of BCC, drebrin may be a novel and useful marker.

  20. Interactions of actin, myosin, and a new actin-binding protein of rabbit pulmonary macrophages. II. Role in cytoplasmic movement and phagocytosis.

    PubMed

    Stossel, T P; Hartwig, J H

    1976-03-01

    Actin and myosin of rabbit pulmonary macrophages are influenced by two other proteins. A protein cofactor is required for the actin activation of macrophage myosin Mg2 ATPase activity, and a high molecular weight actin-binding protein aggregates actin filaments (Stossel T.P., and J.H. Hartwig. 1975. J. Biol. Chem. 250:5706-5711)9 When warmed in 0.34 M sucrose solution containing Mg2-ATP and dithiothreitol, these four proteins interact cooperatively. Acin-binding protein in the presence of actin causes the actin to form a gel, which liquifies when cooled. The myosin contracts the gel into an aggregate, and the rate of aggregation is accelerated by the cofactor. Therefore, we believe that these four proteins also effec the temperature-dependent gelation and aggregation of crude sucrose extracts pulmonary macrophages containing Mg2-ATP and dithiothreitol. The gelled extracts are composed of tangled filaments. Relative to homogenates of resting macrophages, the distribution of actin-binding protein in homogenates of phagocytizing macrophages is altered such that 2-6 times more actin-binding protein is soluble. Sucrose extracts of phagocytizing macrophages gel more rapidly than extracts of resting macrophages. Phagocytosis by pulmonary macrophages involves the formation of peripheral pseudopods containing filaments. The findings suggest that the actin-binding protein initiates a cooperative interaction of contractile proteins to generate cytoplasmic gelation, and that phagocytosis influences the behavior of the actin-binding protein.

  1. Strong morphological defects in conditional Arabidopsis abp1 knock-down mutants generated in absence of functional ABP1 protein

    PubMed Central

    Perrot-Rechenmann, Catherine; Friml, Jiří

    2016-01-01

    The Auxin Binding Protein 1 (ABP1) is one of the most studied proteins in plants. Since decades ago, it has been the prime receptor candidate for the plant hormone auxin with a plethora of described functions in auxin signaling and development. The developmental importance of ABP1 has recently been questioned by identification of Arabidopsis thaliana abp1 knock-out alleles that show no obvious phenotypes under normal growth conditions. In this study, we examined the contradiction between the normal growth and development of the abp1 knock-outs and the strong morphological defects observed in three different ethanol-inducible abp1 knock-down mutants ( abp1-AS, SS12K, SS12S). By analyzing segregating populations of abp1 knock-out vs. abp1 knock-down crosses we show that the strong morphological defects that were believed to be the result of conditional down-regulation of ABP1 can be reproduced also in the absence of the functional ABP1 protein. This data suggests that the phenotypes in  abp1 knock-down lines are due to the off-target effects and asks for further reflections on the biological function of ABP1 or alternative explanations for the missing phenotypic defects in the abp1 loss-of-function alleles. PMID:26925228

  2. Functional characterization of protein 4.1 homolog in amphioxus: defining a cryptic spectrin-actin-binding site.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lixia; Wang, Yuan; Li, Zhaohe; Gao, Zhan; Zhang, Shicui

    2013-10-07

    Vertebrate 4.1 proteins have a spectrin-actin-binding (SAB) domain, which is lacking in all the invertebrate 4.1 proteins indentified so far, and it was therefore proposed that the SAB domain emerged with the advent of vertebrates during evolution. Here we demonstrated for the first time that amphioxus (an invertebrate chordate) protein 4.1, though lacking a recognizable SAB, was able to bind both spectrin and actin, with a binding capacity comparable to that of human protein 4.1. Detailed structure-activity analyses revealed that the unique domain U2/3 was a newly identified SAB-like domain capable of interacting with spectrin and actin, suggesting the presence of a "cryptic" SAB domain in amphioxus 4.1 protein. We also showed that amphioxus 4.1 protein gene was the common ancestor of vertebrate 4.1 protein genes, from which 4.1R, 4.1N, 4.1G, and 4.1B genes originated. This work will encourage further study on the structure-activity of invertebrate 4.1 protein and its interacting proteins.

  3. The enhancement of nuclear receptor transcriptional activation by a mouse actin-binding protein, alpha actinin 2.

    PubMed

    Huang, S M; Huang, C J; Wang, W M; Kang, J C; Hsu, W C

    2004-04-01

    The p160 coactivators, steroid receptor coactivator 1, glucocorticoid receptor interacting protein 1 (GRIP1) and the activator of thyroid and retinoic acid receptor, have two activation domains, AD1 and AD2, which transmit the activation signal from the DNA-bound nuclear receptor to the chromatin and/or transcription machinery. In screening for mammalian proteins that bind the AD2 of GRIP1, we identified a mouse actin-binding protein, alpha actinin 2 (mACTN2). mACTN2 was expressed in the heart, skeletal muscle, lung, brain and testis, but there was no expression in the spleen, liver or kidney. Interestingly, the expression level of mACTN2 in the developing embryo depended on the embryonic stage. We further demonstrated that mACTN2 could enhance two transactivation activities of GRIP1, which in turn could enhance the homodimerization of mACTN2. Importantly, mACTN2 not only served as a primary coactivator for androgen receptor, estrogen receptor and thyroid receptor activities, but also acted synergistically with GRIP1 to enhance these nuclear receptor (NR) functions. However, the NR binding motif, LXXLL, conserved in mACTN2 and other actinin family proteins, might be a dispensable domain for its coactivator roles in NRs. These findings suggested that mACTN2 might play an important role in GRIP1-induced NR coactivator functions.

  4. Cytoskeleton alterations in melanoma: aberrant expression of cortactin, an actin-binding adapter protein, correlates with melanocytic tumor progression

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Xu-Zhi; Garcia, Marileila Varella; Li, Tian-yu; Khor, Li-Yan; Gajapathy, R Sujatha; Spittle, Cindy; Weed, Scott; Lessin, Stuart R; Wu, Hong

    2010-01-01

    Cortactin is a multidomain actin-binding protein important for the functions of cytoskeleton by regulating cortical actin dynamics. It is involved in a diverse array of basic cellular functions. Tumorigenesis and tumor progression involves alterations in actin cytoskeleton proteins. We sought to study the role of cortactin in melanocytic tumor progression using immunohistochemistry on human tissues. The results reveal quantitative differences between benign and malignant lesions. Significantly higher cortactin expression is found in melanomas than in nevi (P<0.0001), with levels greater in metastatic than in invasive melanomas (P<0.05). Qualitatively, tumor tissues often show aberrant cortactin localization at the cell periphery, corresponding to its colocalization with filamentous actin in cell cortex of cultured melanoma cells. This suggests an additional level of protein dysregulation. Furthermore, in patients with metastatic disease, high-level cortactin expression correlates with poor disease-specific survival. Our data, in conjunction with outcome data on several other types of human cancers and experimental data from melanoma cell lines, supports a potential role of aberrant cortactin expression in melanoma tumor progression and a rational for targeting key elements of actin-signaling pathway for developmental therapeutics in melanomas. PMID:19898426

  5. Vitronectin induces phosphorylation of ezrin/radixin/moesin actin-binding proteins through binding to its novel neuronal receptor telencephalin.

    PubMed

    Furutani, Yutaka; Kawasaki, Miwa; Matsuno, Hitomi; Mitsui, Sachiko; Mori, Kensaku; Yoshihara, Yoshihiro

    2012-11-09

    Vitronectin (VN) is an extracellular matrix protein abundantly present in blood and a wide variety of tissues and plays important roles in a number of biological phenomena mainly through its binding to αV integrins. However, its definite function in the brain remains largely unknown. Here we report the identification of telencephalin (TLCN/ICAM-5) as a novel VN receptor on neuronal dendrites. VN strongly binds to TLCN, a unique neuronal member of the ICAM family, which is specifically expressed on dendrites of spiny neurons in the mammalian telencephalon. VN-coated microbeads induce the formation of phagocytic cup-like plasma membrane protrusions on dendrites of cultured hippocampal neurons and trigger the activation of TLCN-dependent intracellular signaling cascade including the phosphorylation of ezrin/radixin/moesin actin-binding proteins and recruitment of F-actin and phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate for morphological transformation of the dendritic protrusions. These results suggest that the extracellular matrix molecule VN and its neuronal receptor TLCN play a pivotal role in the phosphorylation of ezrin/radixin/moesin proteins and the formation of phagocytic cup-like structures on neuronal dendrites.

  6. Unconventional actins and actin-binding proteins in human protozoan parasites.

    PubMed

    Gupta, C M; Thiyagarajan, S; Sahasrabuddhe, A A

    2015-06-01

    Actin and its regulatory proteins play a key role in several essential cellular processes such as cell movement, intracellular trafficking and cytokinesis in most eukaryotes. While these proteins are highly conserved in higher eukaryotes, a number of unicellular eukaryotic organisms contain divergent forms of these proteins which have highly unusual biochemical and structural properties. Here, we review the biochemical and structural properties of these unconventional actins and their core binding proteins which are present in commonly occurring human protozoan parasites.

  7. Isolation and partial characterization of a 110-kD dimer actin-binding protein

    PubMed Central

    1986-01-01

    Two Triton-insoluble fractions were isolated from Acanthamoeba castellanii. The major non-membrane proteins in both fractions were actin (30-40%), myosin II (4-9%), myosin I (1-5%), and a 55-kD polypeptide (10%). The 55-kD polypeptide did not react with antibodies against tubulins from turkey brain, paramecium, or yeast. All of these proteins were much more concentrated in the Triton-insoluble fractions than in the whole homogenate or soluble supernatant. The 55-kD polypeptide was extracted with 0.3 M NaCl, fractionated by ammonium sulfate, and purified to near homogeneity by DEAE-cellulose and hydroxyapatite chromatography. The purified protein had a molecular mass of 110 kD and appeared to be a homodimer by isoelectric focusing. The 110-kD dimer bound to F-actin with a maximal binding stoichiometry of 0.5 mol/mol of actin (1 mol of 55-kD subunit/mol of actin). Although the 110-kD protein enhanced the sedimentation of F-actin, it did not affect the low shear viscosity of F-actin solutions nor was bundling of F-actin observed by electron microscopy. The 110-kD dimer protein inhibited the actin-activated Mg2+-ATPase activities of Acanthamoeba myosin I and myosin II in a concentration-dependent manner. By indirect immunofluorescence, the 110-kD protein was found to be localized in the peripheral cytoplasm near the plasma membrane which is also enriched in F-actin filaments and myosin I. PMID:2942552

  8. An actin-binding protein, CAP, is expressed in a subset of rat taste bud cells.

    PubMed

    Ishimaru, Y; Yasuoka, A; Asano-Miyoshi, M; Abe, K; Emori, Y

    2001-02-12

    Single cell cDNA libraries were constructed from taste bud cells of rat circumvallate papillae. Using three steps of screening, including differential hybridization, sequence analyses and in situ hybridization, a clone encoding a rat homolog of yeast adenylyl cyclase-associated protein (CAP) was identified to be highly expressed in a subset of taste bud cells.

  9. Crystal structure of the actin binding domain of the cyclase-associated protein.

    PubMed

    Dodatko, Tetyana; Fedorov, Alexander A; Grynberg, Marcin; Patskovsky, Yury; Rozwarski, Denise A; Jaroszewski, Lukasz; Aronoff-Spencer, Eliah; Kondraskina, Elena; Irving, Tom; Godzik, Adam; Almo, Steven C

    2004-08-24

    Cyclase-associated protein (CAP or Srv2p) is a modular actin monomer binding protein that directly regulates filament dynamics and has been implicated in a number of complex developmental and morphological processes, including mRNA localization and the establishment of cell polarity. The crystal structure of the C-terminal dimerization and actin monomer binding domain (C-CAP) reveals a highly unusual dimer, composed of monomers possessing six coils of right-handed beta-helix flanked by antiparallel beta-strands. Domain swapping, involving the last two strands of each monomer, results in the formation of an extended dimer with an extensive interface. This structural and biochemical characterization provides new insights into the organization and potential mechanistic properties of the multiprotein assemblies that integrate dynamic actin processes into the overall physiology of the cell. An unanticipated finding is that the unique tertiary structure of the C-CAP monomer provides a structural model for a wide range of molecules, including RP2 and cofactor C, proteins involved in X-linked retinitis pigmentosa and tubulin maturation, respectively, as well as several uncharacterized proteins that exhibit very diverse domain organizations. Thus, the unusual right-handed beta-helical fold present in C-CAP appears to support a wide range of biological functions.

  10. Selection shaped the evolution of mouse androgen-binding protein (ABP) function and promoted the duplication of Abp genes.

    PubMed

    Karn, Robert C; Laukaitis, Christina M

    2014-08-01

    In the present article, we summarize two aspects of our work on mouse ABP (androgen-binding protein): (i) the sexual selection function producing incipient reinforcement on the European house mouse hybrid zone, and (ii) the mechanism behind the dramatic expansion of the Abp gene region in the mouse genome. Selection unifies these two components, although the ways in which selection has acted differ. At the functional level, strong positive selection has acted on key sites on the surface of one face of the ABP dimer, possibly to influence binding to a receptor. A different kind of selection has apparently driven the recent and rapid expansion of the gene region, probably by increasing the amount of Abp transcript, in one or both of two ways. We have shown previously that groups of Abp genes behave as LCRs (low-copy repeats), duplicating as relatively large blocks of genes by NAHR (non-allelic homologous recombination). The second type of selection involves the close link between the accumulation of L1 elements and the expansion of the Abp gene family by NAHR. It is probably predicated on an initial selection for increased transcription of existing Abp genes and/or an increase in Abp gene number providing more transcriptional sites. Either or both could increase initial transcript production, a quantitative change similar to increasing the volume of a radio transmission. In closing, we also provide a note on Abp gene nomenclature.

  11. REM sleep deprivation attenuates actin-binding protein cortactin: a link between sleep and hippocampal plasticity.

    PubMed

    Davis, Christopher J; Meighan, Peter C; Taishi, Ping; Krueger, James M; Harding, Joseph W; Wright, John W

    2006-06-12

    Rapid eye-movement sleep (REMS) is thought to affect synaptic plasticity. Cortactin is a cytoskeletal protein critically involved in the regulation of actin branching and stabilization including the actin backbone of dendritic spines. Hippocampal cortactin levels, phosphorylation, and processing appear to be altered during learning and long-term potentiation (LTP); consistent with a role for cortactin in the dendritic restructuring that accompanies synaptic plasticity. In this study juvenile male Sprague-Dawley rats were selectively REMS-deprived (RD) for 48 h by the flowerpot method. Cage control (CC) and large pedestal control (PC) animals were used for comparison. Animals were euthanized immediately, or 12 h, after removal from the pedestal. The hippocampus was dissected, flash-frozen, and stored for subsequent Western blot or quantitative RT-PCR analysis of cortactin. Cortactin mRNA/cDNA levels initially rose in PC and RD rats but returned to CC levels by 12 h after removal from the pedestal. Predictably cortactin protein levels were initially unchanged but were up-regulated after 12 h. The PC group had more total and tyrosine-phosphorylated cortactin protein expression than the RD and CC groups. This increase in cortactin was likely due to the exposure of the rats to the novel environment of the deprivation chambers thus triggering plasticity events. The lack of REMS, however, severely hampered cortactin protein up-regulation and phosphorylation observed in the PC group suggesting an attenuation of plasticity-related events. Thus, these data support a functional link between REMS and cytoskeletal reorganization in the hippocampus, a process that is essential for synaptic plasticity.

  12. Isolation of an actin-binding protein from membranes of Dictyostelium discoideum

    PubMed Central

    1985-01-01

    We prepared a probe of radiolabeled, glutaraldehyde cross-linked filamentous actin (F-actin) to study binding of actin to membranes of Dictyostelium discoideum. The probe bound to membranes or detergent extracts of membranes with a high affinity and in a saturable manner. The binding could be reduced by boiling of either the actin probe or the membranes, or by addition of excess native F-actin, but not by addition of an equivalent amount of bovine serum albumin, to the assay. The probe labeled several proteins when used to overlay sodium dodecyl sulfate gels of Dictyostelium membranes. One of these labeled proteins was a 24,000-mol-wt protein (p24), which was soluble only in the presence of a high concentration of sodium deoxycholate (5%, wt/vol) at room temperature or above. The p24 was purified by selective detergent extraction and column chromatography. When tested in a novel two-phase binding assay, p24 bound both native monomeric actin (G-actin) and F- actin in a specific manner. In this assay, G-actin bound p24 with a submicromolar affinity. PMID:3972891

  13. F-actin binding protein, anillin, regulates integrity of intercellular junctions in human epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Feygin, Alex; Ivanov, Andrei I.

    2015-01-01

    Tight junctions (TJ) and adherens junctions (AJ) are key morphological features of differentiated epithelial cells that regulate the integrity and permeability of tissue barriers. Structure and remodeling of epithelial junctions depends on their association with the underlying actomyosin cytoskeleton. Anillin is a unique scaffolding protein interacting with different cytoskeletal components, including actin filaments and myosin motors. Its role in the regulation of mammalian epithelial junctions remains unexplored. Downregulation of anillin expression in human prostate, colonic, and lung epithelial cells triggered AJ and TJ disassembly without altering the expression of junctional proteins. This junctional disassembly was accompanied by dramatic disorganization of the perijunctional actomyosin belt; while the general architecture of the actin cytoskeleton, and activation status of non-muscle myosin II, remained unchanged. Furthermore, loss of anillin disrupted the adducin-spectrin membrane skeleton at the areas of cell-cell contact, selectively decreased γ-adducin expression, and induced cytoplasmic aggregation of αII-spectrin. Anillin knockdown activated c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), and JNK inhibition restored AJ and TJ integrity and cytoskeletal organization in anillin-depleted cells. These findings suggest a novel role for anillin in regulating intercellular adhesion in model human epithelia by mechanisms involving the suppression of JNK activity and controlling the assembly of the perijunctional cytoskeleton. PMID:25809162

  14. A single charge in the actin binding domain of fascin can independently tune the linear and non-linear response of an actin bundle network.

    PubMed

    Maier, M; Müller, K W; Heussinger, C; Köhler, S; Wall, W A; Bausch, A R; Lieleg, O

    2015-05-01

    Actin binding proteins (ABPs) not only set the structure of actin filament assemblies but also mediate the frequency-dependent viscoelastic moduli of cross-linked and bundled actin networks. Point mutations in the actin binding domain of those ABPs can tune the association and dissociation dynamics of the actin/ABP bond and thus modulate the network mechanics both in the linear and non-linear response regime. We here demonstrate how the exchange of a single charged amino acid in the actin binding domain of the ABP fascin triggers such a modulation of the network rheology. Whereas the overall structure of the bundle networks is conserved, the transition point from strain-hardening to strain-weakening sensitively depends on the cross-linker off-rate and the applied shear rate. Our experimental results are consistent both with numerical simulations of a cross-linked bundle network and a theoretical description of the bundle network mechanics which is based on non-affine bending deformations and force-dependent cross-link dynamics.

  15. Actin-binding proteins implicated in the formation of the punctate actin foci stimulated by the self-incompatibility response in Papaver.

    PubMed

    Poulter, Natalie S; Staiger, Christopher J; Rappoport, Joshua Z; Franklin-Tong, Vernonica E

    2010-03-01

    The actin cytoskeleton is a key target for signaling networks and plays a central role in translating signals into cellular responses in eukaryotic cells. Self-incompatibility (SI) is an important mechanism responsible for preventing self-fertilization. The SI system of Papaver rhoeas pollen involves a Ca(2+)-dependent signaling network, including massive actin depolymerization as one of the earliest cellular responses, followed by the formation of large actin foci. However, no analysis of these structures, which appear to be aggregates of filamentous (F-)actin based on phalloidin staining, has been carried out to date. Here, we characterize and quantify the formation of F-actin foci in incompatible Papaver pollen tubes over time. The F-actin foci increase in size over time, and we provide evidence that their formation requires actin polymerization. Once formed, these SI-induced structures are unusually stable, being resistant to treatments with latrunculin B. Furthermore, their formation is associated with changes in the intracellular localization of two actin-binding proteins, cyclase-associated protein and actin-depolymerizing factor. Two other regulators of actin dynamics, profilin and fimbrin, do not associate with the F-actin foci. This study provides, to our knowledge, the first insights into the actin-binding proteins and mechanisms involved in the formation of these intriguing structures, which appear to be actively formed during the SI response.

  16. Actin binding domain of filamin distinguishes posterior from anterior actin filaments in migrating Dictyostelium cells

    PubMed Central

    Shibata, Keitaro; Nagasaki, Akira; Adachi, Hiroyuki; Uyeda, Taro Q. P.

    2016-01-01

    Actin filaments in different parts of a cell interact with specific actin binding proteins (ABPs) and perform different functions in a spatially regulated manner. However, the mechanisms of those spatially-defined interactions have not been fully elucidated. If the structures of actin filaments differ in different parts of a cell, as suggested by previous in vitro structural studies, ABPs may distinguish these structural differences and interact with specific actin filaments in the cell. To test this hypothesis, we followed the translocation of the actin binding domain of filamin (ABDFLN) fused with photoswitchable fluorescent protein (mKikGR) in polarized Dictyostelium cells. When ABDFLN-mKikGR was photoswitched in the middle of a polarized cell, photoswitched ABDFLN-mKikGR rapidly translocated to the rear of the cell, even though actin filaments were abundant in the front. The speed of translocation (>3 μm/s) was much faster than that of the retrograde flow of cortical actin filaments. Rapid translocation of ABDFLN-mKikGR to the rear occurred normally in cells lacking GAPA, the only protein, other than actin, known to bind ABDFLN. We suggest that ABDFLN recognizes a certain feature of actin filaments in the rear of the cell and selectively binds to them, contributing to the posterior localization of filamin.

  17. 65-kilodalton protein phosphorylated by interleukin 2 stimulation bears two putative actin-binding sites and two calcium-binding sites

    SciTech Connect

    Zu, Youli; Shigesada, Katsuya; Hanaoka, Masao; Namba, Yuziro ); Nishida, Eisuke ); Kubota, Ichiro ); Kohno, Michiaki )

    1990-09-11

    The authors have previously characterized a 65-kilodalton protein (p65) as an interleukin 2 stimulated phosphoprotein in human T cells and showed that three endopeptide sequences of p65 are present in the sequence of l-plastin. In this paper, they present the complete primary structure of p65 based on the cDNA isolated from a human T lymphocyte (KUT-2) cDNA library. Analysis of p65 sequences and the amino acid composition of cleaved p65 N-terminal peptide indicated that the deduced p65 amino acid sequence exactly coincides with that of l-plastin over the C-terminal 580 residues and has a 57-residue extension at the N-terminus to l-plastin. Computer-assisted structural analysis revealed that p65 is a multidomain molecule involving at least three intriguing functional domains: two putative calcium-binding sites along the N-terminal 80 amino acid residues; a putative calmodulin-binding site following the calcium-binding region; and two tandem repeats of putative actin-binding domains in its middle and C-terminal parts, each containing approximately 240 amino acid residues. These results suggest that p65 belongs to actin-binding proteins.

  18. Two separate functions are encoded by the carboxyl-terminal domains of the yeast cyclase-associated protein and its mammalian homologs. Dimerization and actin binding.

    PubMed

    Zelicof, A; Protopopov, V; David, D; Lin, X Y; Lustgarten, V; Gerst, J E

    1996-07-26

    The yeast adenylyl cyclase-associated protein, CAP, was identified as a component of the RAS-activated cyclase complex. CAP consists of two functional domains separated by a proline-rich region. One domain, which localizes to the amino terminus, mediates RAS signaling through adenylyl cyclase, while a domain at the carboxyl terminus is involved in the regulation of cell growth and morphogenesis. Recently, the carboxyl terminus of yeast CAP was shown to sequester actin, but whether this function has been conserved, and is the sole function of this domain, is unclear. Here, we demonstrate that the carboxyl-terminal domains of CAP and CAP homologs have two separate functions. We show that carboxyl-terminals of both yeast CAP and a mammalian CAP homolog, MCH1, bind to actin. We also show that this domain contains a signal for dimerization, allowing both CAP and MCH1 to form homodimers and heterodimers. The properties of actin binding and dimerization are mediated by separate regions on the carboxyl terminus; the last 27 amino acids of CAP being critical for actin binding. Finally, we present evidence that links a segment of the proline-rich region of CAP to its localization in yeast. Together, these results suggest that all three domains of CAP proteins are functional.

  19. Synthetic actin-binding domains reveal compositional constraints for function.

    PubMed

    Lorenzi, Maria; Gimona, Mario

    2008-01-01

    The actin-binding domains of many proteins consist of a canonical type 1/type 2 arrangement of the structurally conserved calponin homology domain. Using the actin-binding domain of alpha-actinin-1 as a scaffold we have generated synthetic actin-binding domains by altering position and composition of the calponin homology domains. We show that the presence of two calponin homology domains alone and in the context of an actin-binding domain is not sufficient for actin-binding, and that both single and homotypic type 2 calponin homology domain tandems fail to bind to actin in vitro and in transfected cells. In contrast, single and tandem type 1 calponin homology domain arrays bind actin directly but result in defective turnover rates on actin filaments, and in aberrant actin bundling when introduced into the full-length alpha-actinin molecule. An actin-binding domain harboring the calponin homology domains in an inverted position, however, functions both in isolation and in the context of the dimeric alpha-actinin molecule. Our data demonstrate that the dynamics and specificity of actin-binding via actin-binding domains requires both the filament binding properties of the type 1, and regulation by type 2 calponin homology domains, and appear independent of their position.

  20. Linking microfilaments to intracellular membranes: the actin-binding and vesicle-associated protein comitin exhibits a mannose-specific lectin activity.

    PubMed Central

    Jung, E; Fucini, P; Stewart, M; Noegel, A A; Schleicher, M

    1996-01-01

    Comitin is a 24 kDa actin-binding protein from Dictyostelium discoideum that is located primarily on Golgi and vesicle membranes. We have probed the molecular basis of comitin's interaction with both actin and membranes using a series of truncation mutants obtained by expressing the appropriate cDNA in Escherichia coli. Comitin dimerizes in solution; its principle actin-binding activity is located between residues 90 and 135. The N-terminal 135 'core' residues of comitin contain a 3-fold sequence repeat that is homologous to several monocotyledon lectins and which retains key residues that determine these lectins' three-dimensional structure and mannose binding. These repeats of comitin appear to mediate its interaction with mannose residues in glycoproteins or glycolipids on the cytoplasmic surface of membrane vesicles from D.discoideum, and comitin can be released from membranes with mannose. Our data indicate that comitin binds to vesicle membranes via mannose residues and, by way of its interaction with actin, links these membranes to the cytoskeleton. Images PMID:8635456

  1. Myocardin-Related Transcription Factor A Activation by Competition with WH2 Domain Proteins for Actin Binding

    PubMed Central

    Weissbach, Julia; Schikora, Franziska; Weber, Anja; Kessels, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The myocardin-related transcription factors (MRTFs) are coactivators of serum response factor (SRF)-mediated gene expression. Activation of MRTF-A occurs in response to alterations in actin dynamics and critically requires the dissociation of repressive G-actin–MRTF-A complexes. However, the mechanism leading to the release of MRTF-A remains unclear. Here we show that WH2 domains compete directly with MRTF-A for actin binding. Actin nucleation-promoting factors, such as N-WASP and WAVE2, as well as isolated WH2 domains, including those of Spire2 and Cobl, activate MRTF-A independently of changes in actin dynamics. Simultaneous inhibition of Arp2-Arp3 or mutation of the CA region only partially reduces MRTF-A activation by N-WASP and WAVE2. Recombinant WH2 domains and the RPEL domain of MRTF-A bind mutually exclusively to cellular and purified G-actin in vitro. The competition by different WH2 domains correlates with MRTF-SRF activation. Following serum stimulation, nonpolymerizable actin dissociates from MRTF-A, and de novo formation of the G-actin–RPEL complex is impaired by a transferable factor. Our work demonstrates that WH2 domains activate MRTF-A and contribute to target gene regulation by a competitive mechanism, independently of their role in actin filament formation. PMID:26976641

  2. Amylase-binding proteins A (AbpA) and B (AbpB) differentially affect colonization of rats' teeth by Streptococcus gordonii.

    PubMed

    Tanzer, J M; Grant, L; Thompson, A; Li, L; Rogers, J D; Haase, E M; Scannapieco, F A

    2003-09-01

    Streptococcus gordonii produces two alpha-amylase-binding proteins, AbpA and AbpB, that have been extensively studied in vitro. Little is known, however, about their significance in oral colonization and cariogenicity (virulence). To clarify these issues, weanling specific pathogen-free Osborne-Mendel rats, TAN : SPFOM(OM)BR, were inoculated either with wild-type strains FAS4-S or Challis-S or with strains having isogenic mutations of abpA, abpB, or both, to compare their colonization abilities and persistence on the teeth. Experiments were done with rats fed a sucrose-rich diet containing low amounts of starch or containing only starch. The mutants and wild-types were quantified in vivo and carious lesions were scored. In 11 experiments, S. gordonii was a prolific colonizer of the teeth when rats were fed the sucrose (with low starch)-supplemented diet, often dominating the flora. Sucrose-fed rats had several-fold higher recoveries of inoculants than those eating the sucrose-free, starch-supplemented diet, regardless of inoculant type. The strain defective in AbpB could not colonize teeth of starch-only-eating rats, but could colonize rats if sucrose was added to the diet. Strains defective in AbpA surprisingly colonized better than their wild-types. A double mutant deficient in both AbpA and AbpB (abpA/abpB) colonized like its wild-type. Wild-types FAS4-S and Challis-S had no more than marginal cariogenicity. Notably, in the absence of AbpA, cariogenicity was slightly augmented. Both the rescue of colonization by the AbpB- mutant and the augmentation of colonization by AbpA- mutant in the presence of dietary sucrose suggested additional amylase-binding protein interactions relevant to colonization. Glucosyltransferase activity was greater in mutants defective in abpA and modestly increased in the abpB mutant. It was concluded that AbpB is required for colonization of teeth of starch-eating rats and its deletion is partially masked if rats eat a sucrose

  3. 1H, 15N and 13C assignments of domain 5 of Dictyostelium discoideum gelation factor (ABP-120) in its native and 8M urea-denatured states.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Shang-Te Danny; Cabrita, Lisa D; Christodoulou, John; Dobson, Christopher M

    2009-06-01

    The gelation factor from Dictyostelium discoideum (ABP-120) is an actin binding protein consisting of six immunoglobulin (Ig) domains in the C-terminal rod domain. We have recently used the pair of domains 5 and 6 of ABP-120 as a model system for studying multi-domain nascent chain folding on the ribosome. Here we present the NMR assignments of domain 5 in its native and 8M urea-denatured states.

  4. A green fluorescent protein fusion to actin-binding domain 2 of Arabidopsis fimbrin highlights new features of a dynamic actin cytoskeleton in live plant cells.

    PubMed

    Sheahan, Michael B; Staiger, Chris J; Rose, Ray J; McCurdy, David W

    2004-12-01

    The actin cytoskeleton coordinates numerous cellular processes required for plant development. The functions of this network are intricately linked to its dynamic arrangement, and thus progress in understanding how actin orchestrates cellular processes relies on critical evaluation of actin organization and turnover. To investigate the dynamic nature of the actin cytoskeleton, we used a fusion protein between green fluorescent protein (GFP) and the second actin-binding domain (fABD2) of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) fimbrin, AtFIM1. The GFP-fABD2 fusion protein labeled highly dynamic and dense actin networks in diverse species and cell types, revealing structural detail not seen with alternative labeling methods, such as the commonly used mouse talin GFP fusion (GFP-mTalin). Further, we show that expression of the GFP-fABD2 fusion protein in Arabidopsis, unlike GFP-mTalin, has no detectable adverse effects on plant morphology or development. Time-lapse confocal microscopy and fluorescence recovery after photobleaching analyses of the actin cytoskeleton labeled with GFP-fABD2 revealed that lateral-filament migration and sliding of individual actin filaments or bundles are processes that contribute to the dynamic and continually reorganizing nature of the actin scaffold. These new observations of the dynamic actin cytoskeleton in plant cells using GFP-fABD2 reveal the value of this probe for future investigations of how actin filaments coordinate cellular processes required for plant development.

  5. Establishment of a mouse Sertoli cell line producing rat androgen-binding protein (ABP).

    PubMed

    Ducray, A; Bloquel, M; Hess, K; Hammond, G L; Gérard, H; Gérard, A

    1998-01-01

    The ultimate goal of this study was to compare the fate of rat testicular germ cells cocultured with mouse Sertoli cells that either do or do not produce rat androgen-binding protein (ABP). As a first step, we stably transfected a rat ABP expression construct into an immortalized mouse Sertoli cell line (TM4), which does not produce ABP when growing on plastic without hormones. The transfection of the pRc/CMV- rat ABP cDNA expression vector containing a neomycin resistance gene was made by either the liposome method (Dotap) or by polyethyleneimine transfection (PEI) into TM4 cell cultures. Neomycin-resistant clones were selected by adding Geneticin to the culture medium for 3 weeks. Analysis of over 25 clones revealed the presence of recombinant rat ABP when cell extracts and culture media were probed with a rabbit polyclonal antibody raised against rat testicular ABP, indicating the translation and secretion of a protein similar to rat testicular ABP. Transfected TM4 cells maintain the secretion of rat ABP for more than 40 days, with immunopositive rat ABP localized within cytoplasmic granules in the Golgi region and along cytoplasmic processes in TM4 transfected with either vector. Electron microscopic study revealed a higher development of cytoplasmic organelles involved in protein secretion.

  6. Identification of regions within the Legionella pneumophila VipA effector protein involved in actin binding and polymerization and in interference with eukaryotic organelle trafficking.

    PubMed

    Bugalhão, Joana N; Mota, Luís Jaime; Franco, Irina S

    2016-02-01

    The Legionella pneumophila effector protein VipA is an actin nucleator that co-localizes with actin filaments and early endosomes in infected macrophages and which interferes with organelle trafficking when expressed in yeast. To identify the regions of VipA involved in its subcellular localization and functions, we ectopically expressed specific VipA mutant proteins in eukaryotic cells. This indicated that the characteristic punctate distribution of VipA depends on its NH2 -terminal (amino acid residues 1-133) and central coiled-coil (amino acid residues 133-206) regions, and suggested a role for the COOH-terminal (amino acid residues 206-339) region in association with actin filaments and for the NH2 -terminal in co-localization with early endosomes. Co-immunoprecipitation and in vitro assays showed that the COOH-terminal region of VipA is necessary and sufficient to mediate actin binding, and is essential but insufficient to induce microfilament formation. Assays in yeast revealed that the NH2 and the COOH-terminal regions, and possibly an NPY motif within the NH2 region of VipA, are necessary for interference with organelle trafficking. Overall, this suggests that subversion of eukaryotic vesicular trafficking by VipA involves both its ability to associate with early endosomes via its NH2 -terminal region and its capacity to bind and polymerize actin through its COOH-terminal region.

  7. Differential palmitoylation directs the AMPA receptor-binding protein ABP to spines or to intracellular clusters.

    PubMed

    DeSouza, Sunita; Fu, Jie; States, Bradley A; Ziff, Edward B

    2002-05-01

    Long-term changes in excitatory synapse strength are thought to reflect changes in synaptic abundance of AMPA receptors mediated by receptor trafficking. AMPA receptor-binding protein (ABP) and glutamate receptor-interacting protein (GRIP) are two similar PDZ (postsynaptic density 95/Discs large/zona occludens 1) proteins that interact with glutamate receptors 2 and 3 (GluR2 and GluR3) subunits. Both proteins have proposed roles during long-term potentiation and long-term depression in the delivery and anchorage of AMPA receptors at synapses. Here we report a variant of ABP-L (seven PDZ form of ABP) called pABP-L that is palmitoylated at a cysteine residue at position 11 within a novel 18 amino acid N-terminal leader sequence encoded through differential splicing. In cultured hippocampal neurons, nonpalmitoylated ABP-L localizes with internal GluR2 pools expressed from a Sindbis virus vector, whereas pABP-L is membrane targeted and associates with surface-localized GluR2 receptors at the plasma membrane in spines. Mutation of Cys-11 to alanine blocks the palmitoylation of pABP-L and targets the protein to intracellular clusters, confirming that targeting the protein to spines is dependent on palmitoylation. Non-palmitoylated GRIP is primarily intracellular, but a chimera with the pABP-L N-terminal palmitoylation sequence linked to the body of the GRIP protein is targeted to spines. We suggest that pABP-L and ABP-L provide, respectively, synaptic and intracellular sites for the anchorage of AMPA receptors during receptor trafficking to and from the synapse.

  8. Role of the actin-binding protein profilin1 in radial migration and glial cell adhesion of granule neurons in the cerebellum.

    PubMed

    Rust, Marco B; Kullmann, Jan A; Witke, Walter

    2012-01-01

    Profilins are small G-actin-binding proteins essential for cytoskeletal dynamics. Of the four mammalian profilin isoforms, profilin1 shows a broad expression pattern, profilin2 is abundant in the brain, and profilin3 and profilin4 are restricted to the testis. In vitro studies on cancer and epithelial cell lines suggested a role for profilins in cell migration and cell-cell adhesion. Genetic studies in mice revealed the importance of profilin1 in neuronal migration, while profilin2 has apparently acquired a specific function in synaptic physiology. We recently reported a mouse mutant line lacking profilin1 in the brain; animals display morphological defects that are typical for impaired neuronal migration. We found that during cerebellar development, profilin1 is specifically required for radial migration and glial cell adhesion of granule neurons. Profilin1 mutants showed cerebellar hypoplasia and aberrant organization of cerebellar cortex layers, with ectopically arranged granule neurons. In this commentary, we briefly introduce the profilin family and summarize the current knowledge on profilin activity in cell migration and adhesion. Employing cerebellar granule cells as a model, we shed some light on the mechanisms by which profilin1 may control radial migration and glial cell adhesion. Finally, a potential implication of profilin1 in human developmental neuropathies is discussed.

  9. Effects of androgen-binding protein (ABP) on spermatid Tnp1 gene expression in vitro.

    PubMed

    Della-Maria, Julie; Gerard, Anne; Franck, Patricia; Gerard, Hubert

    2002-12-30

    In vitro studies were designed to determine whether Sertoli cell-delivered ABP could act on spermatogenetic events, whether such an action could occur via a paracrine or a juxtacrine pathway and whether sex steroids could be involved in this action. ABP delivery to germ cells was achieved using an in vitro model based on recombinant rat ABP-producing mouse Sertoli cells cocultivated with rat spermatids. Using semi-quantitative RT-PCR, the expression of the Tnp 1 gene encoding the Transition Protein 1, involved in the histone to protamine replacement during spermatid nuclear transformation, was analyzed. Our results provide clear evidence that Sertoli cell-derived ABP acts on spermatids by modifying the TP1 mRNA level. This outcome, strictly requiring juxtacrine conditions, is obtained in the absence of sex steroid hormones. To our knowledge this is the first evidence of an effect of ABP itself on male germ cells.

  10. Actin-binding protein coronin 1A controls osteoclastic bone resorption by regulating lysosomal secretion of cathepsin K

    PubMed Central

    Ohmae, Saori; Noma, Naruto; Toyomoto, Masayasu; Shinohara, Masahiro; Takeiri, Masatoshi; Fuji, Hiroaki; Takemoto, Kenji; Iwaisako, Keiko; Fujita, Tomoko; Takeda, Norihiko; Kawatani, Makoto; Aoyama, Mineyoshi; Hagiwara, Masatoshi; Ishihama, Yasushi; Asagiri, Masataka

    2017-01-01

    Osteoclasts degrade bone matrix proteins via the secretion of lysosomal enzymes. However, the precise mechanisms by which lysosomal components are transported and fused to the bone-apposed plasma membrane, termed ruffled border membrane, remain elusive. Here, we identified coronin 1A as a negative regulator of exocytotic release of cathepsin K, one of the most important bone-degrading enzymes in osteoclasts. The modulation of coronin 1A expression did not alter osteoclast differentiation and extracellular acidification, but strongly affected the secretion of cathepsin K and osteoclast bone-resorption activity, suggesting the coronin 1A-mediated regulation of lysosomal trafficking and protease exocytosis. Further analyses suggested that coronin 1A prevented the lipidation-mediated sorting of the autophagy-related protein LC3 to the ruffled border and attenuated lysosome–plasma membrane fusion. In this process, the interactions between coronin 1A and actin were crucial. Collectively, our findings indicate that coronin 1A is a pivotal component that regulates lysosomal fusion and the secretion pathway in osteoclast-lineage cells and may provide a novel therapeutic target for bone diseases. PMID:28300073

  11. Actin-binding protein coronin 1A controls osteoclastic bone resorption by regulating lysosomal secretion of cathepsin K.

    PubMed

    Ohmae, Saori; Noma, Naruto; Toyomoto, Masayasu; Shinohara, Masahiro; Takeiri, Masatoshi; Fuji, Hiroaki; Takemoto, Kenji; Iwaisako, Keiko; Fujita, Tomoko; Takeda, Norihiko; Kawatani, Makoto; Aoyama, Mineyoshi; Hagiwara, Masatoshi; Ishihama, Yasushi; Asagiri, Masataka

    2017-03-16

    Osteoclasts degrade bone matrix proteins via the secretion of lysosomal enzymes. However, the precise mechanisms by which lysosomal components are transported and fused to the bone-apposed plasma membrane, termed ruffled border membrane, remain elusive. Here, we identified coronin 1A as a negative regulator of exocytotic release of cathepsin K, one of the most important bone-degrading enzymes in osteoclasts. The modulation of coronin 1A expression did not alter osteoclast differentiation and extracellular acidification, but strongly affected the secretion of cathepsin K and osteoclast bone-resorption activity, suggesting the coronin 1A-mediated regulation of lysosomal trafficking and protease exocytosis. Further analyses suggested that coronin 1A prevented the lipidation-mediated sorting of the autophagy-related protein LC3 to the ruffled border and attenuated lysosome-plasma membrane fusion. In this process, the interactions between coronin 1A and actin were crucial. Collectively, our findings indicate that coronin 1A is a pivotal component that regulates lysosomal fusion and the secretion pathway in osteoclast-lineage cells and may provide a novel therapeutic target for bone diseases.

  12. Investigation of hippocampal synaptic transmission and plasticity in mice deficient in the actin-binding protein Drebrin

    PubMed Central

    Willmes, Claudia G.; Mack, Till G. A.; Ledderose, Julia; Schmitz, Dietmar; Wozny, Christian; Eickholt, Britta J.

    2017-01-01

    The dynamic regulation of the actin cytoskeleton plays a key role in controlling the structure and function of synapses. It is vital for activity-dependent modulation of synaptic transmission and long-term changes in synaptic morphology associated with memory consolidation. Several regulators of actin dynamics at the synapse have been identified, of which a salient one is the postsynaptic actin stabilising protein Drebrin (DBN). It has been suggested that DBN modulates neurotransmission and changes in dendritic spine morphology associated with synaptic plasticity. Given that a decrease in DBN levels is correlated with cognitive deficits associated with ageing and dementia, it was hypothesised that DBN protein abundance instructs the integrity and function of synapses. We created a novel DBN deficient mouse line. Analysis of gross brain and neuronal morphology revealed no phenotype in the absence of DBN. Electrophysiological recordings in acute hippocampal slices and primary hippocampal neuronal cultures showed that basal synaptic transmission, and both long-term and homeostatic synaptic plasticity were unchanged, suggesting that loss of DBN is not sufficient in inducing synapse dysfunction. We propose that the overall lack of changes in synaptic function and plasticity in DBN deficient mice may indicate robust compensatory mechanisms that safeguard cytoskeleton dynamics at the synapse. PMID:28198431

  13. Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase-Associated Protein (PI3KAP)/XB130 Crosslinks Actin Filaments through Its Actin Binding and Multimerization Properties In Vitro and Enhances Endocytosis in HEK293 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Yamanaka, Daisuke; Akama, Takeshi; Chida, Kazuhiro; Minami, Shiro; Ito, Koichi; Hakuno, Fumihiko; Takahashi, Shin-Ichiro

    2016-01-01

    Actin-crosslinking proteins control actin filament networks and bundles and contribute to various cellular functions including regulation of cell migration, cell morphology, and endocytosis. Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-associated protein (PI3KAP)/XB130 has been reported to be localized to actin filaments (F-actin) and required for cell migration in thyroid carcinoma cells. Here, we show a role for PI3KAP/XB130 as an actin-crosslinking protein. First, we found that the carboxyl terminal region of PI3KAP/XB130 containing amino acid residues 830–840 was required and sufficient for localization to F-actin in NIH3T3 cells, and this region is directly bound to F-actin in vitro. Moreover, actin-crosslinking assay revealed that recombinant PI3KAP/XB130 crosslinked F-actin. In general, actin-crosslinking proteins often multimerize to assemble multiple actin-binding sites. We then investigated whether PI3KAP/XB130 could form a multimer. Blue native-PAGE analysis showed that recombinant PI3KAP/XB130 was detected at 250–1200 kDa although the molecular mass was approximately 125 kDa, suggesting that PI3KAP/XB130 formed multimers. Furthermore, we found that the amino terminal 40 amino acids were required for this multimerization by co-immunoprecipitation assay in HEK293T cells. Deletion mutants of PI3KAP/XB130 lacking the actin-binding region or the multimerizing region did not crosslink actin filaments, indicating that actin binding and multimerization of PI3KAP/XB130 were necessary to crosslink F-actin. Finally, we examined roles of PI3KAP/XB130 on endocytosis, an actin-related biological process. Overexpression of PI3KAP/XB130 enhanced dextran uptake in HEK 293 cells. However, most of the cells transfected with the deletion mutant lacking the actin-binding region incorporated dextran to a similar extent as control cells. Taken together, these results demonstrate that PI3KAP/XB130 crosslinks F-actin through both its actin-binding region and multimerizing region and

  14. Expression of androgen-binding protein (ABP) in human cardiac myocytes.

    PubMed

    Schock, H W; Herbert, Z; Sigusch, H; Figulla, H R; Jirikowski, G F; Lotze, U

    2006-04-01

    Cardiomyocytes are known to be androgen targets. Changing systemic steroid levels are thought to be linked to various cardiac ailments, including dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM). The mode of action of gonadal steroid hormones on the human heart is unknown to date. In the present study, we used high-resolution immunocytochemistry on semithin sections (1 microm thick), IN SITU hybridization, and mass spectrometry to investigate the expression of androgen-binding protein (ABP) in human myocardial biopsies taken from male patients with DCM. We observed distinct cytoplasmic ABP immunoreactivity in a fraction of the myocytes. IN SITU hybridization with synthetic oligonucleotide probes revealed specific hybridization signals in these cells. A portion of the ABP-positive cells contained immunostaining for androgen receptor. With SELDI TOF mass spectrometry of affinity purified tissue extracts of human myocardium, we confirmed the presence of a 50 kDa protein similar to ABP. Our observations provide evidence of an intrinsic expression of ABP in human heart. ABP may be secreted from myocytes in a paracrine manner perhaps to influence the bioavailabity of gonadal steroids in myocardium.

  15. Complementation of the embryo-lethal T-DNA insertion mutant of AUXIN-BINDING-PROTEIN 1 (ABP1) with abp1 point mutated versions reveals crosstalk of ABP1 and phytochromes.

    PubMed

    Effendi, Yunus; Ferro, Noel; Labusch, Corinna; Geisler, Markus; Scherer, Günther F E

    2015-01-01

    The function of the extracytoplasmic AUXIN-BINDING-PROTEIN1 (ABP1) is largely enigmatic. We complemented a homozygous T-DNA insertion null mutant of ABP1 in Arabidopsis thaliana Wassilewskia with three mutated and one wild-type (wt) ABP1 cDNA, all tagged C-terminally with a strepII-FLAG tag upstream the KDEL signal. Based on in silico modelling, the abp1 mutants were predicted to have altered geometries of the auxin binding pocket and calculated auxin binding energies lower than the wt. Phenotypes linked to auxin transport were compromised in these three complemented abp1 mutants. Red light effects, such as elongation of hypocotyls in constant red (R) and far-red (FR) light, in white light supplemented by FR light simulating shade, and inhibition of gravitropism by R or FR, were all compromised in the complemented lines. Using auxin- or light-induced expression of marker genes, we showed that auxin-induced expression was delayed already after 10 min, and light-induced expression within 60 min, even though TIR1/AFB or phyB are thought to act as receptors relevant for gene expression regulation. The expression of marker genes in seedlings responding to both auxin and shade showed that for both stimuli regulation of marker gene expression was altered after 10-20 min in the wild type and phyB mutant. The rapidity of expression responses provides a framework for the mechanics of functional interaction of ABP1 and phyB to trigger interwoven signalling pathways.

  16. Prevalence of the Amylase-Binding Protein A Gene (abpA) in Oral Streptococci

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Alan E.; Rogers, Jeffrey D.; Haase, Elaine M.; Zelasko, Peter M.; Scannapieco, Frank A.

    1999-01-01

    Salivary amylase binds specifically to a number of oral streptococcal species. This interaction may play an important role in dental plaque formation. Recently, a 585-bp gene was cloned and sequenced from Streptococcus gordonii Challis encoding a 20.5-kDa amylase-binding protein (AbpA). The goal of this study was to determine if related genes are present in other species of oral streptococci. Biotinylated abpA was used in Southern blot analysis to screen genomic DNA from several strains representing eight species of oral streptococci. This probe hybridized with a 4.0-kb HindIII restriction fragment from all 13 strains of S. gordonii tested. The probe did not appear to bind to any restriction fragments from other species of amylase-binding oral streptococci including Streptococcus mitis (with the exception of 1 of 14 strains), Streptococcus crista (3 strains), Streptococcus anginosus (1 strain), and Streptococcus parasanguinis (1 strain), or to non-amylase-binding oral streptococci including Streptococcus sanguinis (3 strains), Streptococcus oralis (4 strains), and Streptococcus mutans (1 strain). Primers homologous to sequences within the 3′ and 5′ ends of abpA yielded products of 400 bp following PCR of genomic DNA from the Southern blot-positive strains. Several of these PCR products were cloned and sequenced. The levels of similarity of these cloned products to the abpA of S. gordonii Challis ranged from 91 to 96%. These studies reveal that the abpA gene appears to be specific to S. gordonii and differs from genes encoding amylase-binding proteins from other species of amylase-binding streptococci. PMID:10565935

  17. Rapid bursts of androgen-binding protein (Abp) gene duplication occurred independently in diverse mammals

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Background The draft mouse (Mus musculus) genome sequence revealed an unexpected proliferation of gene duplicates encoding a family of secretoglobin proteins including the androgen-binding protein (ABP) α, β and γ subunits. Further investigation of 14 α-like (Abpa) and 13 β- or γ-like (Abpbg) undisrupted gene sequences revealed a rich diversity of developmental stage-, sex- and tissue-specific expression. Despite these studies, our understanding of the evolution of this gene family remains incomplete. Questions arise from imperfections in the initial mouse genome assembly and a dearth of information about the gene family structure in other rodents and mammals. Results Here, we interrogate the latest 'finished' mouse (Mus musculus) genome sequence assembly to show that the Abp gene repertoire is, in fact, twice as large as reported previously, with 30 Abpa and 34 Abpbg genes and pseudogenes. All of these have arisen since the last common ancestor with rat (Rattus norvegicus). We then demonstrate, by sequencing homologs from species within the Mus genus, that this burst of gene duplication occurred very recently, within the past seven million years. Finally, we survey Abp orthologs in genomes from across the mammalian clade and show that bursts of Abp gene duplications are not specific to the murid rodents; they also occurred recently in the lagomorph (rabbit, Oryctolagus cuniculus) and ruminant (cattle, Bos taurus) lineages, although not in other mammalian taxa. Conclusion We conclude that Abp genes have undergone repeated bursts of gene duplication and adaptive sequence diversification driven by these genes' participation in chemosensation and/or sexual identification. PMID:18269759

  18. YIH1 is an actin-binding protein that inhibits protein kinase GCN2 and impairs general amino acid control when overexpressed.

    PubMed

    Sattlegger, Evelyn; Swanson, Mark J; Ashcraft, Emily A; Jennings, Jennifer L; Fekete, Richard A; Link, Andrew J; Hinnebusch, Alan G

    2004-07-16

    The general amino acid control (GAAC) enables yeast cells to overcome amino acid deprivation by activation of the alpha subunit of translation initiation factor 2 (eIF2alpha) kinase GCN2 and consequent induction of GCN4, a transcriptional activator of amino acid biosynthetic genes. Binding of GCN2 to GCN1 is required for stimulation of GCN2 kinase activity by uncharged tRNA in starved cells. Here we show that YIH1, when overexpressed, dampens the GAAC response (Gcn- phenotype) by suppressing eIF2alpha phosphorylation by GCN2. The overexpressed YIH1 binds GCN1 and reduces GCN1-GCN2 complex formation, and, consistent with this, the Gcn- phenotype produced by YIH1 overexpression is suppressed by GCN2 overexpression. YIH1 interacts with the same GCN1 fragment that binds GCN2, and this YIH1-GCN1 interaction requires Arg-2259 in GCN1 in vitro and in full-length GCN1 in vivo, as found for GCN2-GCN1 interaction. However, deletion of YIH1 does not increase eIF2alpha phosphorylation or derepress the GAAC, suggesting that YIH1 at native levels is not a general inhibitor of GCN2 activity. We discovered that YIH1 normally resides in a complex with monomeric actin, rather than GCN1, and that a genetic reduction in actin levels decreases the GAAC response. This Gcn- phenotype was partially suppressed by deletion of YIH1, consistent with YIH1-mediated inhibition of GCN2 in actin-deficient cells. We suggest that YIH1 resides in a YIH1-actin complex and may be released for inhibition of GCN2 and stimulation of protein synthesis under specialized conditions or in a restricted cellular compartment in which YIH1 is displaced from monomeric actin.

  19. Studies of an Androgen-Binding Protein Knockout Corroborate a Role for Salivary ABP in Mouse Communication.

    PubMed

    Chung, Amanda G; Belone, Phillip M; Vošlajerová Bímová, Barbora; Karn, Robert M; Laukaitis, Christina M

    2017-02-03

    The house mouse Androgen-binding protein (Abp) gene family is comprised of 64 paralogs, 30 Abpa and 34 Abpbg, encoding the alpha (ABPA) and betagamma (ABPBG) protein subunits that are disulfide-bridged to form dimers in secretions. Only 14 Abp genes are expressed in distinct patterns in the lacrimal (11) and submandibular glands (3). We created a knockout mouse line lacking two of the three genes expressed in submandibular glands, Abpa27 and Abpbg27, by replacing them with the neomycin resistance gene. The knockout genotype (-/-) showed no Abpa27 or Abpbg27 transcripts in submandibular gland cDNA libraries and there was a concomitant lack of protein expression of ABPA27 and ABPBG27 in the -/- genotype saliva, shown by elimination of these two proteins from the saliva proteome and the loss of cross-reactive material in the acinar cells of the submandibular glands. We also observed a decrease in BG26 protein in the -/- animals, suggesting monomer instability. Overall, we observed no major phenotypic changes in the -/- genotype, compared with their +/+ and +/- siblings raised in a laboratory setting, including normal growth curves, tissue histology, fecundity and longevity. The only difference is that male and female C57BL/6 mice preferred saliva of the opposite sex containing ABP statistically significantly more than saliva of the opposite sex without ABP in a Y-maze test. These results show for the first time that mice can sense the presence of ABP between saliva targets with and without ABPs, and that they spend more time investigating the target containing ABP.

  20. Actin binding to lipid-inserted alpha-actinin.

    PubMed Central

    Fritz, M; Zimmermann, R M; Bärmann, M; Gaub, H E

    1993-01-01

    The interaction of alpha-actinin with lipid films and actin filaments was investigated. First alpha-actinin was incorporated in lipid films at the air/water interface. Injection of alpha-actinin into the subphase of a lipid monolayer led to a significant increase of the surface pressure only for lipid films consisting of a mixture of a negatively charged lipid with a high proportion of diacylglycerol. These alpha-actinin-containing films were transferred onto silanized quartz slides. Photobleaching experiments in the evanescent field allowed quantification of the lateral number density of the lipid-bound alpha-actinin. In combination with the area increase from the monolayer experiments, the photobleaching measurements suggest that alpha-actinin is incorporated into the lipid film in such a way that actin binding sites are accessible from the bulk phase. Binding experiments confirmed that the alpha-actinin selectively binds actin filaments in this configuration. We also showed that, in contrast to actin filaments which are adsorbed directly onto planar surfaces, the alpha-actinin-bound actin filaments are recognized and cleaved by the actin-severing protein gelsolin. Thus we have constructed an in vitro system which opens new ways for investigations of membrane-associated actin-binding proteins and of the physical behavior of actin filaments in the close neighborhood to membranes. Images FIGURE 1 FIGURE 3 PMID:8298017

  1. Myosin IIIB uses an actin-binding motif in its espin-1 cargo to reach the tips of actin protrusions.

    PubMed

    Merritt, Raymond C; Manor, Uri; Salles, Felipe T; Grati, M'hamed; Dose, Andrea C; Unrath, William C; Quintero, Omar A; Yengo, Christopher M; Kachar, Bechara

    2012-02-21

    Myosin IIIA (MYO3A) targets actin protrusion tips using a motility mechanism dependent on both motor and tail actin-binding activity [1]. We show that myosin IIIB (MYO3B) lacks tail actin-binding activity and is unable to target COS7 cell filopodia tips, yet is somehow able to target stereocilia tips. Strikingly, when MYO3B is coexpressed with espin-1 (ESPN1), a MYO3A cargo protein endogenously expressed in stereocilia [2], MYO3B targets and carries ESPN1 to COS7 filopodia tips. We show that this tip localization is lost when we remove the ESPN1 C terminus actin-binding site. We also demonstrate that, like MYO3A [2], MYO3B can elongate filopodia by transporting ESPN1 to the polymerizing end of actin filaments. The mutual dependence of MYO3B and ESPN1 for tip localization reveals a novel mechanism for the cell to regulate myosin tip localization via a reciprocal relationship with cargo that directly participates in actin binding for motility. Our results are consistent with a novel form of motility for class III myosins that requires both motor and tail domain actin-binding activity and show that the actin-binding tail can be replaced by actin-binding cargo. This study also provides a framework to better understand the late-onset hearing loss phenotype in patients with MYO3A mutations.

  2. UNC-45/CRO1/She4p (UCS) Protein Forms Elongated Dimer and Joins Two Myosin Heads Near Their Actin Binding Region

    SciTech Connect

    H Shi; G Blobel

    2011-12-31

    UNC-45/CRO1/She4p (UCS) proteins have variously been proposed to affect the folding, stability, and ATPase activity of myosins. They are the only proteins known to interact directly with the motor domain. To gain more insight into UCS function, we determined the atomic structure of the yeast UCS protein, She4p, at 2.9 {angstrom} resolution. We found that 16 helical repeats are organized into an L-shaped superhelix with an amphipathic N-terminal helix dangling off the short arm of the L-shaped molecule. In the crystal, She4p forms a 193-{angstrom}-long, zigzag-shaped dimer through three distinct and evolutionary conserved interfaces. We have identified She4p's C-terminal region as a ligand for a 27-residue-long epitope on the myosin motor domain. Remarkably, this region consists of two adjacent, but distinct, binding epitopes localized at the nucleotide-responsive cleft between the nucleotide- and actin-filament-binding sites. One epitope is situated inside the cleft, the other outside the cleft. After ATP hydrolysis and Pi ejection, the cleft narrows at its base from 20 to 12 {angstrom} thereby occluding the inside the cleft epitope, while leaving the adjacent, outside the cleft binding epitope accessible to UCS binding. Hence, one cycle of higher and lower binding affinity would accompany one ATP hydrolysis cycle and a single step in the walk on an actin filament rope. We propose that a UCS dimer links two myosins at their motor domains and thereby functions as one of the determinants for step size of myosin on actin filaments.

  3. Pharmacological characterization of actin-binding (-)-doliculide.

    PubMed

    Foerster, Florian; Braig, Simone; Chen, Tao; Altmann, Karl-Heinz; Vollmar, Angelika M

    2014-09-15

    Natural compounds offer a broad spectrum of potential drug candidates against human malignancies. Several cytostatic drugs, which are in clinical use for decades, derive directly from natural sources or are synthetically optimized derivatives of natural lead structures. An eukaryote target molecule to which many natural derived anti-cancer drugs bind to is the microtubule network. Of similar importance for the cell is the actin cytoskeleton, responsible for cell movements, migration of cells and cytokinesis. Nature provides also a broad range of compounds directed against actin as intracellular target, but none of these actin-targeting compounds has ever been brought to clinical trials. One reason why actin-binding compounds have not yet been considered for further clinical investigations is that little is known about their pharmacological properties in cancer cells. Herein, we focused on the closer characterization of doliculide, an actin binding natural compound of marine origin in the breast cancer cell lines MCF7 and MDA-MB-231. We used fluorescence-recovery-after-photobleaching (FRAP) analysis to determine doliculide's early effects on the actin cytoskeleton and rhodamin-phalloidin staining for long-term effects on the actin CSK. After validating the disruption of the actin network, we further investigated the functional effects of doliculide. Doliculide treatment leads to inhibition of proliferation and impairs the migratory potential. Finally, we could also show that doliculide leads to the induction of apoptosis in both cell lines. Our data for the first time provide a closer characterization of doliculide in breast cancer cells and propagate doliculide for further investigations as lead structure and potential therapeutic option as actin-targeting compound.

  4. Disease-associated mutant alpha-actinin-4 reveals a mechanism for regulating its F-actin-binding affinity.

    PubMed

    Weins, Astrid; Schlondorff, Johannes S; Nakamura, Fumihiko; Denker, Bradley M; Hartwig, John H; Stossel, Thomas P; Pollak, Martin R

    2007-10-09

    Alpha-actinin-4 is a widely expressed protein that employs an actin-binding site with two calponin homology domains to crosslink actin filaments (F-actin) in a Ca(2+)-sensitive manner in vitro. An inherited, late-onset form of kidney failure is caused by point mutations in the alpha-actinin-4 actin-binding domain. Here we show that alpha-actinin-4/F-actin aggregates, observed in vivo in podocytes of humans and mice with disease, likely form as a direct result of the increased actin-binding affinity of the protein. We document that exposure of a buried actin-binding site 1 in mutant alpha-actinin-4 causes an increase in its actin-binding affinity, abolishes its Ca(2+) regulation in vitro, and diverts its normal localization from actin stress fibers and focal adhesions in vivo. Inactivation of this buried actin-binding site returns the affinity of the mutant to that of the WT protein and abolishes aggregate formation in cells. In vitro, actin filaments crosslinked by the mutant alpha-actinin-4 exhibit profound changes of structural and biomechanical properties compared with WT alpha-actinin-4. On a molecular level, our findings elucidate the physiological importance of a dynamic interaction of alpha-actinin with F-actin in podocytes in vivo. We propose that a conformational change with full exposure of actin-binding site 1 could function as a switch mechanism to regulate the actin-binding affinity of alpha-actinin and possibly other calponin homology domain proteins under physiological conditions.

  5. PakB binds to the SH3 domain of Dictyostelium Abp1 and regulates its effects on cell polarity and early development.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yidai; de la Roche, Marc; Crawley, Scott W; Li, Zhihao; Furmaniak-Kazmierczak, Emilia; Côté, Graham P

    2013-07-01

    Dictyostelium p21-activated kinase B (PakB) phosphorylates and activates class I myosins. PakB colocalizes with myosin I to actin-rich regions of the cell, including macropinocytic and phagocytic cups and the leading edge of migrating cells. Here we show that residues 1-180 mediate the cellular localization of PakB. Yeast two-hybrid and pull-down experiments identify two proline-rich motifs in PakB-1-180 that directly interact with the SH3 domain of Dictyostelium actin-binding protein 1 (dAbp1). dAbp1 colocalizes with PakB to actin-rich regions in the cell. The loss of dAbp1 does not affect the cellular distribution of PakB, whereas the loss of PakB causes dAbp1 to adopt a diffuse cytosolic distribution. Cosedimentation studies show that the N-terminal region of PakB (residues 1-70) binds directly to actin filaments, whereas dAbp1 exhibits only a low affinity for filamentous actin. PakB-1-180 significantly enhances the binding of dAbp1 to actin filaments. When overexpressed in PakB-null cells, dAbp1 completely blocks early development at the aggregation stage, prevents cell polarization, and significantly reduces chemotaxis rates. The inhibitory effects are abrogated by the introduction of a function-blocking mutation into the dAbp1 SH3 domain. We conclude that PakB plays a critical role in regulating the cellular functions of dAbp1, which are mediated largely by its SH3 domain.

  6. Plant 115-kDa actin-filament bundling protein, P-115-ABP, is a homologue of plant villin and is widely distributed in cells.

    PubMed

    Yokota, Etsuo; Vidali, Luis; Tominaga, Motoki; Tahara, Hiroshi; Orii, Hidefumi; Morizane, Yosuke; Hepler, Peter K; Shimmen, Teruo

    2003-10-01

    In many cases, actin filaments are arranged into bundles and serve as tracks for cytoplasmic streaming in plant cells. We have isolated an actin-filament bundling protein, which is composed of 115-kDa polypeptide (P-115-ABP), from the germinating pollen of lily, Lilium longiflorum [Nakayasu et al. (1998) BIOCHEM: Biophys. Res. Commun. 249: 61]. P-115-ABP shared similar antigenicity with a plant 135-kDa actin-filament bundling protein (P-135-ABP), a plant homologue of villin. A full-length cDNA clone (ABP115; accession no. AB097407) was isolated from an expression cDNA library of lily pollen by immuno-screening using antisera against P-115-ABP and P-135-ABP. The amino acid sequence of P-115-ABP deduced from this clone showed high homology with those of P-135-ABP and four villin isoforms of Arabidopsis thaliana (AtVLN1, AtVLN2, AtVLN3 and AtVLN4), especially AtVLN4, indicating that P-115-ABP can also be classified as a plant villin. The P-115-ABP isolated biochemically from the germinating lily pollen was able to arrange F-actin filaments with uniform polarity into bundles and this bundling activity was suppressed by Ca2+-calmodulin (CaM), similar to the actin-filament bundling properties of P-135-ABP. The P-115-ABP type of plant villin was widely distributed in plant cells, from algae to land plants. In root hair cells of Hydrocharis dubia, this type of plant villin was co-localized with actin-filament bundles in the transvacuolar strands and the sub-cortical regions. Microinjection of the antiserum against P-115-ABP into living root hair cells caused the disappearance of transvaculor strands and alteration of the route of cytoplasmic streaming. In internodal cells of Chara corallina in which the P-135-ABP type of plant villin is lacking, the P-115-ABP type showed co-localization with actin-filament cables anchored on the intracellular surface of chloroplasts. These results indicated that plant villins are widely distributed and involved in the organization of actin

  7. Association of the AMPA receptor-related postsynaptic density proteins GRIP and ABP with subsets of glutamate-sensitive neurons in the rat retina.

    PubMed

    Gábriel, Robert; de Souza, Sunita; Ziff, Edward B; Witkovsky, Paul

    2002-07-22

    We used specific antibodies against two postsynaptic density proteins, GRIP (glutamate receptor interacting protein) and ABP (AMPA receptor-binding protein), to study their distribution in the rat retina. In the central nervous system, it has been shown that both proteins bind strongly to the AMPA glutamate receptor (GluR) 2/3 subunits, but not other GluRs, through a set of three PDZ domains. Western blots detected a single GRIP protein that was virtually identical in retina and brain, whereas retinal ABP corresponded to only one of three ABP peptides found in brain. The retinal distributions of GluR2/3, GRIP, and ABP immunoreactivity (IR) were similar but not identical. GluR2/3 immunoreactivity (IR) was abundant in both plexiform layers and in large perikarya. ABP IR was concentrated in large perikarya but was sparse in the plexiform layers, whereas GRIP IR was relatively more abundant in the plexiform layers than in perikarya. Immunolabel for these three antibodies consisted of puncta < or = 0.2 microm in diameter. The cellular localization of GRIP and ABP IR was examined by double labeling subclasses of retinal neuron with characteristic marker proteins, e.g., calbindin. GRIP, ABP, and GluR2/3 IR were detected in horizontal cells, dopaminergic and glycinergic AII amacrine cells and large ganglion cells. Immunolabel was absent in rod bipolar and weak or absent in cholinergic amacrine cells. By using the tyramide method of signal amplification, a colocalization of GluR2/3 was found with either GRIP or ABP in horizontal cell terminals, and perikarya of amacrine and ganglion cells. Our results show that ABP and GRIP colocalize with GluR2/3 in particular subsets of retinal neuron, as was previously established for certain neurons in the brain.

  8. The fission yeast CENP-B protein Abp1 prevents pervasive transcription of repetitive DNA elements.

    PubMed

    Daulny, Anne; Mejía-Ramírez, Eva; Reina, Oscar; Rosado-Lugo, Jesus; Aguilar-Arnal, Lorena; Auer, Herbert; Zaratiegui, Mikel; Azorin, Fernando

    2016-10-01

    It is well established that eukaryotic genomes are pervasively transcribed producing cryptic unstable transcripts (CUTs). However, the mechanisms regulating pervasive transcription are not well understood. Here, we report that the fission yeast CENP-B homolog Abp1 plays an important role in preventing pervasive transcription. We show that loss of abp1 results in the accumulation of CUTs, which are targeted for degradation by the exosome pathway. These CUTs originate from different types of genomic features, but the highest increase corresponds to Tf2 retrotransposons and rDNA repeats, where they map along the entire elements. In the absence of abp1, increased RNAPII-Ser5P occupancy is observed throughout the Tf2 coding region and, unexpectedly, RNAPII-Ser5P is enriched at rDNA repeats. Loss of abp1 also results in Tf2 derepression and increased nucleolus size. Altogether these results suggest that Abp1 prevents pervasive RNAPII transcription of repetitive DNA elements (i.e., Tf2 and rDNA repeats) from internal cryptic sites.

  9. Chlamydia trachomatis Tarp harbors distinct G and F actin binding domains that bundle actin filaments.

    PubMed

    Jiwani, Shahanawaz; Alvarado, Stephenie; Ohr, Ryan J; Romero, Adriana; Nguyen, Brenda; Jewett, Travis J

    2013-02-01

    All species of Chlamydia undergo a unique developmental cycle that transitions between extracellular and intracellular environments and requires the capacity to invade new cells for dissemination. A chlamydial protein called Tarp has been shown to nucleate actin in vitro and is implicated in bacterial entry into human cells. Colocalization studies of ectopically expressed enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP)-Tarp indicate that actin filament recruitment is restricted to the C-terminal half of the effector protein. Actin filaments are presumably associated with Tarp via an actin binding alpha helix that is also required for actin nucleation in vitro, but this has not been investigated. Tarp orthologs from C. pneumoniae, C. muridarum, and C. caviae harbor between 1 and 4 actin binding domains located in the C-terminal half of the protein, but C. trachomatis serovar L2 has only one characterized domain. In this work, we examined the effects of domain-specific mutations on actin filament colocalization with EGFP-Tarp. We now demonstrate that actin filament colocalization with Tarp is dependent on two novel F-actin binding domains that endow the Tarp effector with actin-bundling activity. Furthermore, Tarp-mediated actin bundling did not require actin nucleation, as the ability to bundle actin filaments was observed in mutant Tarp proteins deficient in actin nucleation. These data shed molecular insight on the complex cytoskeletal rearrangements required for C. trachomatis entry into host cells.

  10. The evolution of the actin binding NET superfamily

    PubMed Central

    Hawkins, Timothy J.; Deeks, Michael J.; Wang, Pengwei; Hussey, Patrick J.

    2014-01-01

    The Arabidopsis Networked (NET) superfamily are plant-specific actin binding proteins which specifically label different membrane compartments and identify specialized sites of interaction between actin and membranes unique to plants. There are 13 members of the superfamily in Arabidopsis, which group into four distinct clades or families. NET homologs are absent from the genomes of metazoa and fungi; furthermore, in plantae, NET sequences are also absent from the genome of mosses and more ancient extant plant clades. A single family of the NET proteins is found encoded in the club moss genome, an extant species of the earliest vascular plants. Gymnosperms have examples from families 4 and 3, with a hybrid form of NET1 and 2 which shows characteristics of both NET1 and NET2. In addition to NET3 and 4 families, the NET1 and pollen-expressed NET2 families are found only as independent sequences in Angiosperms. This is consistent with the divergence of reproductive actin. The four families are conserved across Monocots and Eudicots, with the numbers of members of each clade expanding at this point, due, in part, to regions of genome duplication. Since the emergence of the NET superfamily at the dawn of vascular plants, they have continued to develop and diversify in a manner which has mirrored the divergence and increasing complexity of land-plant species. PMID:24926301

  11. The evolution of the actin binding NET superfamily.

    PubMed

    Hawkins, Timothy J; Deeks, Michael J; Wang, Pengwei; Hussey, Patrick J

    2014-01-01

    The Arabidopsis Networked (NET) superfamily are plant-specific actin binding proteins which specifically label different membrane compartments and identify specialized sites of interaction between actin and membranes unique to plants. There are 13 members of the superfamily in Arabidopsis, which group into four distinct clades or families. NET homologs are absent from the genomes of metazoa and fungi; furthermore, in plantae, NET sequences are also absent from the genome of mosses and more ancient extant plant clades. A single family of the NET proteins is found encoded in the club moss genome, an extant species of the earliest vascular plants. Gymnosperms have examples from families 4 and 3, with a hybrid form of NET1 and 2 which shows characteristics of both NET1 and NET2. In addition to NET3 and 4 families, the NET1 and pollen-expressed NET2 families are found only as independent sequences in Angiosperms. This is consistent with the divergence of reproductive actin. The four families are conserved across Monocots and Eudicots, with the numbers of members of each clade expanding at this point, due, in part, to regions of genome duplication. Since the emergence of the NET superfamily at the dawn of vascular plants, they have continued to develop and diversify in a manner which has mirrored the divergence and increasing complexity of land-plant species.

  12. The mouse salivary androgen-binding protein (ABP) gene cluster on chromosomes 7: characterization and evolutionary relationships.

    PubMed

    Laukaitis, Christina M; Dlouhy, Stephen R; Karn, Robert C

    2003-10-01

    Mouse salivary androgen-binding protein (ABP) is a pair of dimers, composed of an alpha subunit disulfide bridged to either a beta or a gamma subunit. It has been proposed that each subunit is encoded by a distinct gene: Abpa, Abpb, and Abpg for the alpha, beta, and gamma subunits, respectively. We report here the structures and sequences of the genes that encode these three subunits. Each gene has three exons separated by two introns. Mouse salivary ABP is a member of the secretoglobin family, and we compare the structure of the three ABP subunit genes to those of 18 other mammalian secretoglobins. We map the three genes as a gene cluster located 10 cM from the centromere of Chromosome (Chr) 7 and show that Abpa is the closest of the three to the gene for glucose phosphate isomerase (GPI) and that Abpg is the closest to the centromere, with Abpb mapping between them. Abpa is oriented in the opposite direction to Abpb and Abpg, with its 5' end directed toward their 5' ends. We compare the location of these genes with other secretoglobin genes in the mouse genome and with the known locations of secretoglobin genes in the human genome and present evidence that strong positive selection has driven the divergence of the coding regions of Abpb and Abpg since the putative duplication event that created them.

  13. Lytic Myophage Abp53 Encodes Several Proteins Similar to Those Encoded by Host Acinetobacter baumannii and Phage phiKO2 ▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Chia-Ni; Tseng, Tsai-Tien; Lin, Juey-Wen; Fu, Yung-Chieh; Weng, Shu-Fen; Tseng, Yi-Hsiung

    2011-01-01

    Acinetobacter baumannii is an important Gram-negative opportunistic pathogen causing nosocomial infections. The emergence of multiple-drug-resistant A. baumannii isolates has increased in recent years. Directed toward phage therapy, a lytic phage of A. baumannii, designated Abp53, was isolated from a sputum sample in this study. Abp53 has an isometric head and a contractile tail with tail fibers (belonging to Myoviridae), a latent period of about 10 min, and a burst size of approximately 150 PFU per infected cell. Abp53 could completely lyse 27% of the A. baumannii isolates tested, which were all multiple drug resistant, but not other bacteria. Mg2+ enhanced the adsorption and productivity of, and host lysis by, Abp53. Twenty Abp53 virion proteins were visualized in SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, with a 47-kDa protein being the predicted major capsid protein. Abp53 has a double-stranded DNA genome of 95 kb. Sequence analyses of a 10-kb region revealed 8 open reading frames. Five of the encoded proteins, including 3 tail components and 2 hypothetical proteins, were similar to proteins encoded by A. baumannii strain ACICU. ORF1176 (one of the tail components, 1,176 amino acids [aa]), which is also similar to tail protein gp21 of Klebsiella phage phiKO2, contained repeated domains similar to those within the ACICU_02717 protein of A. baumannii ACICU and gp21. These findings suggest a common ancestry and horizontal gene transfer during evolution. As phages can expand the host range by domain duplication in tail fiber proteins, repeated domains in ORF1176 might have a similar significance in Abp53. PMID:21821767

  14. Identification and characterization of the actin-binding motif of phostensin.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tzu-Fan; Lai, Ning-Sheng; Huang, Kuang-Yung; Huang, Hsien-Lu; Lu, Ming-Chi; Lin, Yu-Shan; Chen, Chun-Yu; Liu, Su-Qin; Lin, Ta-Hsien; Huang, Hsien-Bin

    2012-11-28

    Phostensin, a protein phosphatase 1 F-actin cytoskeleton-targeting subunit encoded by KIAA1949, consists of 165 amino acids and caps the pointed ends of actin filaments. Sequence alignment analyses suggest that the C-terminal region of phostensin, spanning residues 129 to 155, contains a consensus actin-binding motif. Here, we have verified the existence of an actin-binding motif in the C-terminal domain of phostensin using colocalization, F-actin co-sedimentation and single filament binding assays. Our data indicate that the N-terminal region of phostensin (1-129) cannot bind to actin filaments and cannot retard the pointed end elongation of gelsolin-actin seeds. Furthermore, the C-terminal region of phostensin (125-165) multiply bind to the sides of actin filaments and lacks the ability to block the pointed end elongation, suggesting that the actin-binding motif is located in the C-terminal region of the phostensin. Further analyses indicate that phostensin binding to the pointed end of actin filament requires N-terminal residues 35 to 51. These results suggest that phostensin might fold into a rigid structure, allowing the N-terminus to sterically hinder the binding of C-terminus to the sides of actin filament, thus rendering phostensin binding to the pointed ends of actin filaments.

  15. Evidence for physical and functional interactions among two Saccharomyces cerevisiae SH3 domain proteins, an adenylyl cyclase-associated protein and the actin cytoskeleton.

    PubMed Central

    Lila, T; Drubin, D G

    1997-01-01

    In a variety of organisms, a number of proteins associated with the cortical actin cytoskeleton contain SH3 domains, suggesting that these domains may provide the physical basis for functional interactions among structural and regulatory proteins in the actin cytoskeleton. We present evidence that SH3 domains mediate at least two independent functions of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae actin-binding protein Abp1p in vivo. Abp1p contains a single SH3 domain that has recently been shown to bind in vitro to the adenylyl cyclase-associated protein Srv2p. Immunofluorescence analysis of Srv2p subcellular localization in strains carrying mutations in either ABP1 or SRV2 reveals that the Abp1p SH3 domain mediates the normal association of Srv2p with the cortical actin cytoskeleton. We also show that a site in Abp1p itself is specifically bound by the SH3 domain of the actin-associated protein Rvs167p. Genetic analysis provides evidence that Abp1p and Rvs167p have functions that are closely interrelated. Abp1 null mutations, like rvs167 mutations, result in defects in sporulation and reduced viability under certain suboptimal growth conditions. In addition, mutations in ABP1 and RVS167 yield similar profiles of genetic "synthetic lethal" interactions when combined with mutations in genes encoding other cytoskeletal components. Mutations which specifically disrupt the SH3 domain-mediated interaction between Abp1p and Srv2p, however, show none of the shared phenotypes of abp1 and rvs167 mutations. We conclude that the Abp1p SH3 domain mediates the association of Srv2p with the cortical actin cytoskeleton, and that Abp1p performs a distinct function that is likely to involve binding by the Rvs167p SH3 domain. Overall, work presented here illustrates how SH3 domains can integrate the activities of multiple actin cytoskeleton proteins in response to varying environmental conditions. Images PMID:9190214

  16. Evidence for physical and functional interactions among two Saccharomyces cerevisiae SH3 domain proteins, an adenylyl cyclase-associated protein and the actin cytoskeleton.

    PubMed

    Lila, T; Drubin, D G

    1997-02-01

    In a variety of organisms, a number of proteins associated with the cortical actin cytoskeleton contain SH3 domains, suggesting that these domains may provide the physical basis for functional interactions among structural and regulatory proteins in the actin cytoskeleton. We present evidence that SH3 domains mediate at least two independent functions of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae actin-binding protein Abp1p in vivo. Abp1p contains a single SH3 domain that has recently been shown to bind in vitro to the adenylyl cyclase-associated protein Srv2p. Immunofluorescence analysis of Srv2p subcellular localization in strains carrying mutations in either ABP1 or SRV2 reveals that the Abp1p SH3 domain mediates the normal association of Srv2p with the cortical actin cytoskeleton. We also show that a site in Abp1p itself is specifically bound by the SH3 domain of the actin-associated protein Rvs167p. Genetic analysis provides evidence that Abp1p and Rvs167p have functions that are closely interrelated. Abp1 null mutations, like rvs167 mutations, result in defects in sporulation and reduced viability under certain suboptimal growth conditions. In addition, mutations in ABP1 and RVS167 yield similar profiles of genetic "synthetic lethal" interactions when combined with mutations in genes encoding other cytoskeletal components. Mutations which specifically disrupt the SH3 domain-mediated interaction between Abp1p and Srv2p, however, show none of the shared phenotypes of abp1 and rvs167 mutations. We conclude that the Abp1p SH3 domain mediates the association of Srv2p with the cortical actin cytoskeleton, and that Abp1p performs a distinct function that is likely to involve binding by the Rvs167p SH3 domain. Overall, work presented here illustrates how SH3 domains can integrate the activities of multiple actin cytoskeleton proteins in response to varying environmental conditions.

  17. Did Androgen-Binding Protein Paralogs Undergo Neo- and/or Subfunctionalization as the Abp Gene Region Expanded in the Mouse Genome?

    PubMed Central

    Karn, Robert C.; Chung, Amanda G.; Laukaitis, Christina M.

    2014-01-01

    The Androgen-binding protein (Abp) region of the mouse genome contains 30 Abpa genes encoding alpha subunits and 34 Abpbg genes encoding betagamma subunits, their products forming dimers composed of an alpha and a betagamma subunit. We endeavored to determine how many Abp genes are expressed as proteins in tears and saliva, and as transcripts in the exocrine glands producing them. Using standard PCR, we amplified Abp transcripts from cDNA libraries of C57BL/6 mice and found fifteen Abp gene transcripts in the lacrimal gland and five in the submandibular gland. Proteomic analyses identified proteins corresponding to eleven of the lacrimal gland transcripts, all of them different from the three salivary ABPs reported previously. Our qPCR results showed that five of the six transcripts that lacked corresponding proteins are expressed at very low levels compared to those transcripts with proteins. We found 1) no overlap in the repertoires of expressed Abp paralogs in lacrimal gland/tears and salivary glands/saliva; 2) substantial sex-limited expression of lacrimal gland/tear expressed-paralogs in males but no sex-limited expression in females; and 3) that the lacrimal gland/tear expressed-paralogs are found exclusively in ancestral clades 1, 2 and 3 of the five clades described previously while the salivary glands/saliva expressed-paralogs are found only in clade 5. The number of instances of extremely low levels of transcription without corresponding protein production in paralogs specific to tears and saliva suggested the role of subfunctionalization, a derived condition wherein genes that may have been expressed highly in both glands ancestrally were down-regulated subsequent to duplication. Thus, evidence for subfunctionalization can be seen in our data and we argue that the partitioning of paralog expression between lacrimal and salivary glands that we report here occurred as the result of adaptive evolution. PMID:25531410

  18. Did androgen-binding protein paralogs undergo neo- and/or Subfunctionalization as the Abp gene region expanded in the mouse genome?

    PubMed

    Karn, Robert C; Chung, Amanda G; Laukaitis, Christina M

    2014-01-01

    The Androgen-binding protein (Abp) region of the mouse genome contains 30 Abpa genes encoding alpha subunits and 34 Abpbg genes encoding betagamma subunits, their products forming dimers composed of an alpha and a betagamma subunit. We endeavored to determine how many Abp genes are expressed as proteins in tears and saliva, and as transcripts in the exocrine glands producing them. Using standard PCR, we amplified Abp transcripts from cDNA libraries of C57BL/6 mice and found fifteen Abp gene transcripts in the lacrimal gland and five in the submandibular gland. Proteomic analyses identified proteins corresponding to eleven of the lacrimal gland transcripts, all of them different from the three salivary ABPs reported previously. Our qPCR results showed that five of the six transcripts that lacked corresponding proteins are expressed at very low levels compared to those transcripts with proteins. We found 1) no overlap in the repertoires of expressed Abp paralogs in lacrimal gland/tears and salivary glands/saliva; 2) substantial sex-limited expression of lacrimal gland/tear expressed-paralogs in males but no sex-limited expression in females; and 3) that the lacrimal gland/tear expressed-paralogs are found exclusively in ancestral clades 1, 2 and 3 of the five clades described previously while the salivary glands/saliva expressed-paralogs are found only in clade 5. The number of instances of extremely low levels of transcription without corresponding protein production in paralogs specific to tears and saliva suggested the role of subfunctionalization, a derived condition wherein genes that may have been expressed highly in both glands ancestrally were down-regulated subsequent to duplication. Thus, evidence for subfunctionalization can be seen in our data and we argue that the partitioning of paralog expression between lacrimal and salivary glands that we report here occurred as the result of adaptive evolution.

  19. A human β-III-spectrin spinocerebellar ataxia type 5 mutation causes high-affinity F-actin binding

    PubMed Central

    Avery, Adam W.; Crain, Jonathan; Thomas, David D.; Hays, Thomas S.

    2016-01-01

    Spinocerebellar ataxia type 5 (SCA5) is a human neurodegenerative disease that stems from mutations in the SPTBN2 gene encoding the protein β-III-spectrin. Here we investigated the molecular consequence of a SCA5 missense mutation that results in a L253P substitution in the actin-binding domain (ABD) of β-III-spectrin. We report that the L253P substitution in the isolated β-III-spectrin ABD causes strikingly high F-actin binding affinity (Kd = 75.5 nM) compared to the weak F-actin binding affinity of the wild-type ABD (Kd = 75.8 μM). The mutation also causes decreased thermal stability (Tm = 44.6 °C vs 59.5 °C). Structural analyses indicate that leucine 253 is in a loop at the interface of the tandem calponin homology (CH) domains comprising the ABD. Leucine 253 is predicted to form hydrophobic contacts that bridge the CH domains. The decreased stability of the mutant indicates that these bridging interactions are probably disrupted, suggesting that the high F-actin binding affinity of the mutant is due to opening of the CH domain interface. These results support a fundamental role for leucine 253 in regulating opening of the CH domain interface and binding of the ABD to F-actin. This study indicates that high-affinity actin binding of L253P β-III-spectrin is a likely driver of neurodegeneration. PMID:26883385

  20. Structural definition of the F-actin-binding THATCH domain from HIP1R.

    PubMed

    Brett, Tom J; Legendre-Guillemin, Valerie; McPherson, Peter S; Fremont, Daved H

    2006-02-01

    Huntingtin-interacting protein-1 related (HIP1R) has a crucial protein-trafficking role, mediating associations between actin and clathrin-coated structures at the plasma membrane and trans-Golgi network. Here, we characterize the F-actin-binding region of HIP1R, termed the talin-HIP1/R/Sla2p actin-tethering C-terminal homology (THATCH) domain. The 1.9-A crystal structure of the human HIP1R THATCH core reveals a large sequence-conserved surface patch created primarily by residues from the third and fourth helices of a unique five-helix bundle. Point mutations of seven contiguous patch residues produced significant decreases in F-actin binding. We also show that THATCH domains have a conserved C-terminal latch capable of oligomerizing the core, thereby modulating F-actin engagement. Collectively, these results establish a framework for investigating the links between endocytosis and actin dynamics mediated by THATCH domain-containing proteins.

  1. Hydrogen sulfide modulates actin-dependent auxin transport via regulating ABPs results in changing of root development in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Honglei; Hu, Yanfeng; Fan, Tingting; Li, Jisheng

    2015-01-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) signaling has been considered a key regulator of plant developmental processes and defenses. In this study, we demonstrate that high levels of H2S inhibit auxin transport and lead to alterations in root system development. H2S inhibits auxin transport by altering the polar subcellular distribution of PIN proteins. The vesicle trafficking and distribution of the PIN proteins are an actin-dependent process. H2S changes the expression of several actin-binding proteins (ABPs) and decreases the occupancy percentage of F-actin bundles in the Arabidopsis roots. We observed the effects of H2S on F-actin in T-DNA insertion mutants of cpa, cpb and prf3, indicating that the effects of H2S on F-actin are partially removed in the mutant plants. Thus, these data imply that the ABPs act as downstream effectors of the H2S signal and thereby regulate the assembly and depolymerization of F-actin in root cells. Taken together, our data suggest that the existence of a tightly regulated intertwined signaling network between auxin, H2S and actin that controls root system development. In the proposed process, H2S plays an important role in modulating auxin transport by an actin-dependent method, which results in alterations in root development in Arabidopsis. PMID:25652660

  2. Characterization of two forms of mouse salivary androgen-binding protein (ABP): implications for evolutionary relationships and ligand-binding function.

    PubMed

    Karn, Robert C; Laukaitis, Christina M

    2003-06-17

    Mouse salivary androgen-binding protein (ABP) is a member of the secretoglobin family produced in the submaxillary glands of house mice (Mus musculus). We report the cDNA sequences and amino acid sequences of the beta and gamma subunits of ABP from a mouse cDNA library, identifying the two subunits by their pIs and molecular weights. An anomalously high molecular weight of the alpha subunit is likely due to glycosylation at a single site. A phylogenetic comparison of the three subunits of ABP with the chains of other mammalian secretoglobins shows that ABP is most closely related to mouse lachrymal protein and to the major cat allergen Fel dI. An evaluation of the most conserved residues in ABP and the other secretoglobins, in light of structural data reported by others [Callebaut, I., Poupon, A., Bally, R., Demaret, J.-P., Housset, D., Delettre, J., Hossenlopp, P., and Mornon, J.-P. (2000) Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 923, 90-112; Pattabiraman, N., Matthews, J., Ward, K., Mantile-Selvaggi, G., Miele, L., and Mukherjee, A. (2000) Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 923, 113-127], allows us to draw conclusions about the critical residues important in ligand binding by the two different ABP dimers and to assess the importance of ligand binding in the function of the molecule. In addition to the cDNAs, which represent those of the musculus subspecies of Mus musculus, we also report the coding regions of the beta and gamma subunit cDNAs from two other mouse inbred strains which represent the other two subspecies: M. musculus domesticus and M. musculus castaneus. The high nonsynonymous/synonymous substitution rate ratios (K(a)/K(s)) for both the beta and gamma subunits suggest that these two proteins are evolving under strong directional selection, as has been reported for the alpha subunit [Hwang, J., Hofstetter, J., Bonhomme, F., and Karn, R. (1997) J. Hered. 88, 93-97; Karn, R., and Clements, M. (1999) Biochem. Genet. 37, 187-199].

  3. The actin-binding protein Canoe/AF-6 forms a complex with Robo and is required for Slit-Robo signaling during axon pathfinding at the CNS midline.

    PubMed

    Slováková, Jana; Speicher, Stephan; Sánchez-Soriano, Natalia; Prokop, Andreas; Carmena, Ana

    2012-07-18

    Axon guidance is a key process during nervous system development and regeneration. One of the best established paradigms to study the mechanisms underlying this process is the axon decision of whether or not to cross the midline in the Drosophila CNS. An essential regulator of that decision is the well conserved Slit-Robo signaling pathway. Slit guidance cues act through Robo receptors to repel axons from the midline. Despite good progress in our knowledge about these proteins, the intracellular mechanisms associated with Robo function remain poorly defined. In this work, we found that the scaffolding protein Canoe (Cno), the Drosophila orthologue of AF-6/Afadin, is essential for Slit-Robo signaling. Cno is expressed along longitudinal axonal pioneer tracts, and longitudinal Robo/Fasciclin2-positive axons aberrantly cross the midline in cno mutant embryos. cno mutant primary neurons show a significant reduction of Robo localized in growth cone filopodia and Cno forms a complex with Robo in vivo. Moreover, the commissureless (comm) phenotype (i.e., lack of commissures due to constitutive surface presentation of Robo in all neurons) is suppressed in comm, cno double-mutant embryos. Specific genetic interactions between cno, slit, robo, and genes encoding other components of the Robo pathway, such as Neurexin-IV, Syndecan, and Rac GTPases, further confirm that Cno functionally interacts with the Slit-Robo pathway. Our data argue that Cno is a novel regulator of the Slit-Robo signaling pathway, crucial for regulating the subcellular localization of Robo and for transducing its signaling to the actin cytoskeleton during axon guidance at the midline.

  4. Identification of sucrose synthase as an actin-binding protein

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winter, H.; Huber, J. L.; Huber, S. C.; Davies, E. (Principal Investigator)

    1998-01-01

    Several lines of evidence indicate that sucrose synthase (SuSy) binds both G- and F-actin: (i) presence of SuSy in the Triton X-100-insoluble fraction of microsomal membranes (i.e. crude cytoskeleton fraction); (ii) co-immunoprecipitation of actin with anti-SuSy monoclonal antibodies; (iii) association of SuSy with in situ phalloidin-stabilized F-actin filaments; and (iv) direct binding to F-actin, polymerized in vitro. Aldolase, well known to interact with F-actin, interfered with binding of SuSy, suggesting that a common or overlapping binding site may be involved. We postulate that some of the soluble SuSy in the cytosol may be associated with the actin cytoskeleton in vivo.

  5. The crystal structure of the actin binding domain from alpha-actinin in its closed conformation: structural insight into phospholipid regulation of alpha-actinin.

    PubMed

    Franzot, Giacomo; Sjöblom, Björn; Gautel, Mathias; Djinović Carugo, Kristina

    2005-04-22

    Alpha-actinin is the major F-actin crosslinking protein in both muscle and non-muscle cells. We report the crystal structure of the actin binding domain of human muscle alpha-actinin-3, which is formed by two consecutive calponin homology domains arranged in a "closed" conformation. Structural studies and available biochemical data on actin binding domains suggest that two calponin homology domains come in a closed conformation in the native apo-form, and that conformational changes involving the relative orientation of the two calponin homology domains are required for efficient binding to actin filaments. The actin binding activity of muscle isoforms is supposed to be regulated by phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PtdIns(4,5)P2), which binds to the second calponin homology domain. On the basis of structural analysis we propose a distinct binding site for PtdIns(4,5)P2, where the fatty acid moiety would be oriented in a direction that allows it to interact with the linker sequence between the actin binding domain and the first spectrin-like repeat, regulating thereby the binding of the C-terminal calmodulin-like domain to this linker.

  6. Magnesium Modulates Actin Binding and ADP Release in Myosin Motors*

    PubMed Central

    Swenson, Anja M.; Trivedi, Darshan V.; Rauscher, Anna A.; Wang, Yuan; Takagi, Yasuharu; Palmer, Bradley M.; Málnási-Csizmadia, András; Debold, Edward P.; Yengo, Christopher M.

    2014-01-01

    We examined the magnesium dependence of five class II myosins, including fast skeletal muscle myosin, smooth muscle myosin, β-cardiac myosin (CMIIB), Dictyostelium myosin II (DdMII), and nonmuscle myosin IIA, as well as myosin V. We found that the myosins examined are inhibited in a Mg2+-dependent manner (0.3–9.0 mm free Mg2+) in both ATPase and motility assays, under conditions in which the ionic strength was held constant. We found that the ADP release rate constant is reduced by Mg2+ in myosin V, smooth muscle myosin, nonmuscle myosin IIA, CMIIB, and DdMII, although the ADP affinity is fairly insensitive to Mg2+ in fast skeletal muscle myosin, CMIIB, and DdMII. Single tryptophan probes in the switch I (Trp-239) and switch II (Trp-501) region of DdMII demonstrate these conserved regions of the active site are sensitive to Mg2+ coordination. Cardiac muscle fiber mechanic studies demonstrate cross-bridge attachment time is increased at higher Mg2+ concentrations, demonstrating that the ADP release rate constant is slowed by Mg2+ in the context of an activated muscle fiber. Direct measurements of phosphate release in myosin V demonstrate that Mg2+ reduces actin affinity in the M·ADP·Pi state, although it does not change the rate of phosphate release. Therefore, the Mg2+ inhibition of the actin-activated ATPase activity observed in class II myosins is likely the result of Mg2+-dependent alterations in actin binding. Overall, our results suggest that Mg2+ reduces the ADP release rate constant and rate of attachment to actin in both high and low duty ratio myosins. PMID:25006251

  7. The conserved Tarp actin binding domain is important for chlamydial invasion.

    PubMed

    Jewett, Travis J; Miller, Natalie J; Dooley, Cheryl A; Hackstadt, Ted

    2010-07-15

    The translocated actin recruiting phosphoprotein (Tarp) is conserved among all pathogenic chlamydial species. Previous reports identified single C. trachomatis Tarp actin binding and proline rich domains required for Tarp mediated actin nucleation. A peptide antiserum specific for the Tarp actin binding domain was generated and inhibited actin polymerization in vitro and C. trachomatis entry in vivo, indicating an essential role for Tarp in chlamydial pathogenesis. Sequence analysis of Tarp orthologs from additional chlamydial species and C. trachomatis serovars indicated multiple putative actin binding sites. In order to determine whether the identified actin binding domains are functionally conserved, GST-Tarp fusions from multiple chlamydial species were examined for their ability to bind and nucleate actin. Chlamydial Tarps harbored variable numbers of actin binding sites and promoted actin nucleation as determined by in vitro polymerization assays. Our findings indicate that Tarp mediated actin binding and nucleation is a conserved feature among diverse chlamydial species and this function plays a critical role in bacterial invasion of host cells.

  8. Cloning and heterologous expression of the antibiotic peptide (ABP) genes from Rhizopus oligosporus NBRC 8631.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Osamu; Sakamoto, Kazutoshi; Tominaga, Mihoko; Nakayama, Tasuku; Koseki, Takuya; Fujita, Akiko; Akita, Osamu

    2005-03-01

    We carried out protein sequencing of purified Antibiotic Peptide (ABP), and cloned two genes encoding this peptide as abp1 and abp2, from Rhizopus oligosporus NBRC 8631. Both genes contain an almost identical 231-bp segment, with only 3 nucleotide substitutions, encoding a 77 amino acid peptide. The abp gene product comprises a 28 amino acid signal sequence and a 49 amino acid mature peptide. Northern blot analysis showed that at least one of the abp genes is transcribed in R. oligosporus NBRC 8631. A truncated form of abp1 encoding only the mature peptide was fused with the alpha-factor signal peptide and engineered for expression in Pichia pastoris SMD1168H. Culture broth of the recombinant Pichia displayed ABP activity against Bacillus subtilis NBRC 3335 after induction of heterologous gene expression. This result indicates that mature ABP formed the active structure without the aid of other factors from R. oligosporus, and was secreted.

  9. Enhanced Antibacterial Activity of Acinetobacter baumannii Bacteriophage ØABP-01 Endolysin (LysABP-01) in Combination with Colistin

    PubMed Central

    Thummeepak, Rapee; Kitti, Thawatchai; Kunthalert, Duangkamol; Sitthisak, Sutthirat

    2016-01-01

    Endolysins are lytic enzymes produced by bacteriophages with their ability to degrade the cell wall of bacterial hosts. Endolysin (LysABP-01) from Acinetobacter baumannii bacteriophage ØABP-01 was cloned, overexpressed and characterized. Endolysin LysABP-01 has a globular structure consisting of lysozyme-like (N-acetyl-β-D-muramidase) catalytic domain. It contains 185 amino acids which correspond to a 21.1 kDa protein. The lytic activity of the recombinant endolysin protein was determined by a plate lysis assay for its ability to lyse the autoclaved cell (crude cell wall) of the different bacterial species. LysABP-01 can degrade the crude cell wall of A. baumannii strains, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa but not of Staphylococcus aureus. The antibacterial activity of LysABP-01 and its synergism with various antibiotics were tested. The results exhibited elevated antibacterial activity in a combination of the sub-MIC LysABP-01 and colistin. The checkerboard assay for measuring antibiotic synergy of LysABP-01 and colistin was performed. This combination was synergistic against various drug-resistant strains of A. baumannii (FIC index < 0.5). In summary, our study highlights the ability of LysABP-01 endolysin to hydrolyze the A. baumannii cell wall and its synergistic interaction with colistin. PMID:27656173

  10. MARCKS actin-binding capacity mediates actin filament assembly during mitosis in human hepatic stellate cells.

    PubMed

    Rombouts, Krista; Mello, Tommaso; Liotta, Francesco; Galli, Andrea; Caligiuri, Alessandra; Annunziato, Francesco; Pinzani, Massimo

    2012-08-15

    Cross-linking between the actin cytoskeleton and plasma membrane actin-binding proteins is a key interaction responsible for the mechanical properties of the mitotic cell. Little is known about the identity, the localization, and the function of actin filament-binding proteins during mitosis in human hepatic stellate cells (hHSC). The aim of the present study was to identify and analyze the cross talk between actin and myristoylated alanine-rich kinase C substrate (MARCKS), an important PKC substrate and actin filament-binding protein, during mitosis in primary hHSC. Confocal analysis and chromosomal fraction analysis of mitotic hHSC demonstrated that phosphorylated (P)-MARCKS displays distinct phase-dependent localizations, accumulates at the perichromosomal layer, and is a centrosomal protein belonging to the chromosomal cytosolic fraction. Aurora B kinase (AUBK), an important mitotic regulator, β-actin, and P-MARCKS concentrate at the cytokinetic midbody during cleavage furrow formation. This localization is critical since MARCKS-depletion in hHSC is characterized by a significant loss in cytosolic actin filaments and cortical β-actin that induces cell cycle inhibition and dislocation of AUBK. A depletion of AUBK in hHSC affects cell cycle, resulting in multinucleation. Quantitative live cell imaging demonstrates that the actin filament-binding capacity of MARCKS is key to regulate mitosis since the cell cycle inhibitory effect in MARCKS-depleted cells caused abnormal cell morphology and an aberrant cytokinesis, resulting in a significant increase in cell cycle time. These findings implicate that MARCKS, an important PKC substrate, is essential for proper cytokinesis and that MARCKS and its partner actin are key mitotic regulators during cell cycle in hHSC.

  11. Embryo-lethal phenotypes in early abp1 mutants are due to disruption of the neighboring BSM gene

    PubMed Central

    Michalko, Jaroslav; Dravecká, Marta; Bollenbach, Tobias; Friml, Jiří

    2015-01-01

    The Auxin Binding Protein1 (ABP1) has been identified based on its ability to bind auxin with high affinity and studied for a long time as a prime candidate for the extracellular auxin receptor responsible for mediating in particular the fast non-transcriptional auxin responses. However, the contradiction between the embryo-lethal phenotypes of the originally described Arabidopsis T-DNA insertional knock-out alleles ( abp1-1 and abp1-1s) and the wild type-like phenotypes of other recently described loss-of-function alleles ( abp1-c1 and abp1-TD1) questions the biological importance of ABP1 and relevance of the previous genetic studies. Here we show that there is no hidden copy of the ABP1 gene in the Arabidopsis genome but the embryo-lethal phenotypes of abp1-1 and abp1-1s alleles are very similar to the knock-out phenotypes of the neighboring gene, BELAYA SMERT ( BSM). Furthermore, the allelic complementation test between bsm and abp1 alleles shows that the embryo-lethality in the abp1-1 and abp1-1s alleles is caused by the off-target disruption of the BSM locus by the T-DNA insertions. This clarifies the controversy of different phenotypes among published abp1 knock-out alleles and asks for reflections on the developmental role of ABP1. PMID:26629335

  12. The Structural Determinants of Macrolide-Actin Binding: In Silico Insights

    PubMed Central

    Melville, James L.; Moal, Iain H.; Baker-Glenn, Charles; Shaw, Peter E.; Pattenden, Gerald; Hirst, Jonathan D.

    2007-01-01

    By the use of x-ray structures and flexible docking, we have developed the first in silico ligand-based view of the structural determinants of the binding of small molecule mimics of gelsolin, natural products bound to actin. Our technique highlights those residues on the actin binding site forming important hydrophobic and hydrogen-bonding interactions with the ligands. Significantly, through the flexible docking of toxin fragments, we have also identified potential residues on the actin binding site that have yet to be exploited. Guided by these observations, we have demonstrated that kabiramide C can be modified to produce a structure with a predicted binding energy increased by 20% while the molecular mass is reduced by 20%, clearly indicating the potential for future elaboration of structures targeting this important component of the cytoskeleton. PMID:17351011

  13. A membrane cytoskeleton from Dictyostelium discoideum. I. Identification and partial characterization of an actin-binding activity

    PubMed Central

    1981-01-01

    Dictyostelium discoideum plasma membranes isolated by each of three procedures bind F-actin. The interactions between these membranes and actin are examined by a novel application of falling ball viscometry. Treating the membranes as multivalent actin-binding particles analogous to divalent actin-gelation factors, we observe large increases in viscosity (actin cross-linking) when membranes of depleted actin and myosin are incubated with rabbit skeletal muscle F-actin. Pre- extraction of peripheral membrane proteins with chaotropes or the inclusion of Triton X-100 during the assay does not appreciably diminish this actin cross-linking activity. Lipid vesicles, heat- denatured membranes, proteolyzed membranes, or membranes containing endogenous actin show minimal actin cross-linking activity. Heat- denatured, but not proteolyzed, membranes regain activity when assayed in the presence of Triton X-100. Thus, integral membrane proteins appear to be responsible for some or all of the actin cross-linking activity of D. discoideum membranes. In the absence of MgATP, Triton X- 100 extraction of isolated D. discoideum membranes results in a Triton- insoluble residue composed of actin, myosin, and associated membrane proteins. The inclusion of MgATP before and during Triton extraction greatly diminishes the amount of protein in the Triton-insoluble residue without appreciably altering its composition. Our results suggest the existence of a protein complex stabilized by actin and/or myosin (membrane cytoskeleton) associated with the D. discoideum plasma membrane. PMID:6894148

  14. Molecular characterization and spatial expression of the sunflower ABP1 gene.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Clément; Meyer, Denise; Wolff, Michel; Himber, Christophe; Alioua, Malek; Steinmetz, André

    2003-07-01

    We have used RT-PCR and low-stringency cDNA library screening to isolate the coding sequence of the sunflower auxin-binding protein (ABP1). All the clones analysed contained the same nucleotide sequence, suggesting that ABP1 is encoded by a single-copy gene in sunflower. The deduced amino acid sequence shows a high degree of similarity with ABP1 proteins from other plant species. Most remarkably, the sunflower protein lacks two cysteine residues present in all other plant ABPs known to date and shown to be involved in a disulfide bridge in the maize protein. Genomic Southern hybridization data support the existence of a single copy of the ABP1 gene in the sunflower genome. Northern hybridization corroborated earlier observations indicating that the steady-state level of ABP1 transcript is higher in actively dividing and growing organs than in the rest of the plant: it is more abundant in the shoot apex, floral buds and immature embryos than in mature leaves, stem, roots and ray flowers. To characterize the tissular ABP1 transcript distribution in sunflower, various organ sections were analysed upon in situ hybridization. Localized accumulation of the ABP1 transcript suggests that its spatial expression is highly regulated at the tissue level. In addition, the transcript preferentially accumulates in tissues having a high rate of cellular division, such as shoot and root apical meristems, leaf primordia and pro-vascular tissues. The ABP1 expression pattern was also studied at a temporal scale during lateral root formation. Real time PCR showed an elevation of the steady state level of the ABP1 transcript in root axes after 36 h of seed germination. In situ hybridization revealed that this global increase is the result of local accumulation of the ABP1 transcript in lateral root primordia, which are known to develop under auxin action. The possibility that a high ABP1 expression level correlates with a high cellular sensitivity to auxin is discussed.

  15. eNOS S-nitrosylates β-actin on Cys374 and regulates PKC-θ at the immune synapse by impairing actin binding to profilin-1.

    PubMed

    García-Ortiz, Almudena; Martín-Cofreces, Noa B; Ibiza, Sales; Ortega, Ángel; Izquierdo-Álvarez, Alicia; Trullo, Antonio; Victor, Víctor M; Calvo, Enrique; Sot, Begoña; Martínez-Ruiz, Antonio; Vázquez, Jesús; Sánchez-Madrid, Francisco; Serrador, Juan M

    2017-04-01

    The actin cytoskeleton coordinates the organization of signaling microclusters at the immune synapse (IS); however, the mechanisms involved remain poorly understood. We show here that nitric oxide (NO) generated by endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) controls the coalescence of protein kinase C-θ (PKC-θ) at the central supramolecular activation cluster (c-SMAC) of the IS. eNOS translocated with the Golgi to the IS and partially colocalized with F-actin around the c-SMAC. This resulted in reduced actin polymerization and centripetal retrograde flow of β-actin and PKC-θ from the lamellipodium-like distal (d)-SMAC, promoting PKC-θ activation. Furthermore, eNOS-derived NO S-nitrosylated β-actin on Cys374 and impaired actin binding to profilin-1 (PFN1), as confirmed with the transnitrosylating agent S-nitroso-L-cysteine (Cys-NO). The importance of NO and the formation of PFN1-actin complexes on the regulation of PKC-θ was corroborated by overexpression of PFN1- and actin-binding defective mutants of β-actin (C374S) and PFN1 (H119E), respectively, which reduced the coalescence of PKC-θ at the c-SMAC. These findings unveil a novel NO-dependent mechanism by which the actin cytoskeleton controls the organization and activation of signaling microclusters at the IS.

  16. The N-terminal tropomyosin- and actin-binding sites are important for leiomodin 2’s function

    PubMed Central

    Ly, Thu; Moroz, Natalia; Pappas, Christopher T.; Novak, Stefanie M.; Tolkatchev, Dmitri; Wooldridge, Dayton; Mayfield, Rachel M.; Helms, Gregory; Gregorio, Carol C.; Kostyukova, Alla S.

    2016-01-01

    Leiomodin is a potent actin nucleator related to tropomodulin, a capping protein localized at the pointed end of the thin filaments. Mutations in leiomodin-3 are associated with lethal nemaline myopathy in humans, and leiomodin-2–knockout mice present with dilated cardiomyopathy. The arrangement of the N-terminal actin- and tropomyosin-binding sites in leiomodin is contradictory and functionally not well understood. Using one-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance and the pointed-end actin polymerization assay, we find that leiomodin-2, a major cardiac isoform, has an N-terminal actin-binding site located within residues 43–90. Moreover, for the first time, we obtain evidence that there are additional interactions with actin within residues 124–201. Here we establish that leiomodin interacts with only one tropomyosin molecule, and this is the only site of interaction between leiomodin and tropomyosin. Introduction of mutations in both actin- and tropomyosin-binding sites of leiomodin affected its localization at the pointed ends of the thin filaments in cardiomyocytes. On the basis of our new findings, we propose a model in which leiomodin regulates actin poly­merization dynamics in myocytes by acting as a leaky cap at thin filament pointed ends. PMID:27307584

  17. Characterization of the genetic locus responsible for the production of ABP-118, a novel bacteriocin produced by the probiotic bacterium Lactobacillus salivarius subsp. salivarius UCC118.

    PubMed

    Flynn, Sarah; van Sinderen, Douwe; Thornton, Gerardine M; Holo, Helge; Nes, Ingolf F; Collins, J Kevin

    2002-04-01

    ABP-118, a small heat-stable bacteriocin produced by Lactobacillus salivarius subsp. salivarius UCC118, a strain isolated from the ileal-caecal region of the human gastrointestinal tract, was purified to homogeneity. Using reverse genetics, a DNA fragment specifying part of ABP-118 was identified on a 10769 bp chromosomal region. Analysis of this region revealed that ABP-118 was a Class IIb two-peptide bacteriocin composed of Abp118alpha, which exhibited the antimicrobial activity, and Abp118beta, which enhanced the antimicrobial activity. The gene conferring strain UCC118 immunity to the action of ABP-118, abpIM, was identified downstream of the abp118beta gene. Located further downstream of abp118beta, several ORFs were identified whose deduced proteins resembled those of proteins involved in bacteriocin regulation and secretion. Heterologous expression of ABP-118 was achieved in Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactococcus lactis and Bacillus cereus. In addition, the abp118 locus encoded an inducing peptide, AbpIP, which was shown to play a role in the regulation of ABP-118 production. This novel bacteriocin is, to the authors' knowledge, the first to be isolated from a known human probiotic bacterium and to be characterized at the genetic level.

  18. The heterozygous abp1/ABP1 insertional mutant has defects in functions requiring polar auxin transport and in regulation of early auxin-regulated genes.

    PubMed

    Effendi, Yunus; Rietz, Steffen; Fischer, Urs; Scherer, Günther F E

    2011-01-01

    AUXIN-BINDING PROTEIN 1 (ABP1) is not easily accessible for molecular studies because the homozygous T-DNA insertion mutant is embryo-lethal. We found that the heterozygous abp1/ABP1 insertion mutant has defects in auxin physiology-related responses: higher root slanting angles, longer hypocotyls, agravitropic roots and hypocotyls, aphototropic hypocotyls, and decreased apical dominance. Heterozygous plants flowered earlier than wild-type plants under short-day conditions. The length of the main root, the lateral root density and the hypocotyl length were little altered in the mutant in response to auxin. Compared to wild-type plants, transcription of early auxin-regulated genes (IAA2, IAA11, IAA13, IAA14, IAA19, IAA20, SAUR9, SAUR15, SAUR23, GH3.5 and ABP1) was less strongly up-regulated in the mutant by 0.1, 1 and 10 μm IAA. Surprisingly, ABP1 was itself an early auxin-up-regulated gene. IAA uptake into the mutant seedlings during auxin treatments was indistinguishable from wild-type. Basipetal auxin transport in young roots was slower in the mutant, indicating a PIN2/EIR1 defect, while acropetal transport was indistinguishable from wild-type. In the eir1 background, three of the early auxin-regulated genes tested (IAA2, IAA13 and ABP1) were more strongly induced by 1 μm IAA in comparison to wild-type, but eight of them were less up-regulated in comparison to wild-type. Similar but not identical disturbances in regulation of early auxin-regulated genes indicate tight functional linkage of ABP1 and auxin transport regulation. We hypothesize that ABP1 is involved in the regulation of polar auxin transport, and thus affects local auxin concentration and early auxin gene regulation. In turn, ABP1 itself is under the transcriptional control of auxin.

  19. αT-Catenin Is a Constitutive Actin-binding α-Catenin That Directly Couples the Cadherin·Catenin Complex to Actin Filaments*

    PubMed Central

    Wickline, Emily D.; Dale, Ian W.; Merkel, Chelsea D.; Heier, Jonathon A.; Stolz, Donna B.

    2016-01-01

    α-Catenin is the primary link between the cadherin·catenin complex and the actin cytoskeleton. Mammalian αE-catenin is allosterically regulated: the monomer binds the β-catenin·cadherin complex, whereas the homodimer does not bind β-catenin but interacts with F-actin. As part of the cadherin·catenin complex, αE-catenin requires force to bind F-actin strongly. It is not known whether these properties are conserved across the mammalian α-catenin family. Here we show that αT (testes)-catenin, a protein unique to amniotes that is expressed predominantly in the heart, is a constitutive actin-binding α-catenin. We demonstrate that αT-catenin is primarily a monomer in solution and that αT-catenin monomer binds F-actin in cosedimentation assays as strongly as αE-catenin homodimer. The β-catenin·αT-catenin heterocomplex also binds F-actin with high affinity unlike the β-catenin·αE-catenin complex, indicating that αT-catenin can directly link the cadherin·catenin complex to the actin cytoskeleton. Finally, we show that a mutation in αT-catenin linked to arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy, V94D, promotes homodimerization, blocks β-catenin binding, and in cardiomyocytes disrupts localization at cell-cell contacts. Together, our data demonstrate that αT-catenin is a constitutively active actin-binding protein that can physically couple the cadherin·catenin complex to F-actin in the absence of tension. We speculate that these properties are optimized to meet the demands of cardiomyocyte adhesion. PMID:27231342

  20. Actin-binding cleft closure in myosin II probed by site-directed spin labeling and pulsed EPR.

    PubMed

    Klein, Jennifer C; Burr, Adam R; Svensson, Bengt; Kennedy, Daniel J; Allingham, John; Titus, Margaret A; Rayment, Ivan; Thomas, David D

    2008-09-02

    We present a structurally dynamic model for nucleotide- and actin-induced closure of the actin-binding cleft of myosin, based on site-directed spin labeling and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) in Dictyostelium myosin II. The actin-binding cleft is a solvent-filled cavity that extends to the nucleotide-binding pocket and has been predicted to close upon strong actin binding. Single-cysteine labeling sites were engineered to probe mobility and accessibility within the cleft. Addition of ADP and vanadate, which traps the posthydrolysis biochemical state, influenced probe mobility and accessibility slightly, whereas actin binding caused more dramatic changes in accessibility, consistent with cleft closure. We engineered five pairs of cysteine labeling sites to straddle the cleft, each pair having one label on the upper 50-kDa domain and one on the lower 50-kDa domain. Distances between spin-labeled sites were determined from the resulting spin-spin interactions, as measured by continuous wave EPR for distances of 0.7-2 nm or pulsed EPR (double electron-electron resonance) for distances of 1.7-6 nm. Because of the high distance resolution of EPR, at least two distinct structural states of the cleft were resolved. Each of the biochemical states tested (prehydrolysis, posthydrolysis, and rigor), reflects a mixture of these structural states, indicating that the coupling between biochemical and structural states is not rigid. The resulting model is much more dynamic than previously envisioned, with both open and closed conformations of the cleft interconverting, even in the rigor actomyosin complex.

  1. In vitro production and antifungal activity of peptide ABP-dHC-cecropin A.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jiaxin; Movahedi, Ali; Xu, Junjie; Wang, Mengyang; Wu, Xiaolong; Xu, Chen; Yin, Tongming; Zhuge, Qiang

    2015-04-10

    The antimicrobial peptide ABP-dHC-cecropin A is a small cationic peptide with potent activity against a wide range of bacterial species. Evidence of antifungal activity has also been suggested; however, testing of this peptide has been limited due to the low expression of cecropin proteins in Escherichia coli. To improve expression of this peptide in E. coli, ABP-dHC-cecropin A was cloned into a pSUMO vector and transformed into E. coli, resulting in the production of a pSUMO-ABP-dHC-cecropin A fusion protein. The soluble form of this protein was then purified by Ni-IDA chromatography, yielding a total of 496-mg protein per liter of fermentation culture. The SUMO-ABP-dHC-cecropin A fusion protein was then cleaved using a SUMO protease and re-purified by Ni-IDA chromatography, yielding a total of 158-mg recombinant ABP-dHC-cecropin A per liter of fermentation culture at a purity of ≥94%, the highest yield reported to date. Antifungal activity assays performed using this purified recombinant peptide revealed strong antifungal activity against both Candida albicans and Neurospora crassa, as well as Rhizopus, Fusarium, Alternaria, and Mucor species. Combined with previous analyses demonstrating strong antibacterial activity against a number of important bacterial pathogens, these results confirm the use of ABP-dHC-cecropin A as a broad-spectrum antimicrobial peptide, with significant therapeutic potential.

  2. Early events of fertilization in sea urchin eggs are sensitive to actin-binding organic molecules.

    PubMed

    Chun, Jong T; Limatola, Nunzia; Vasilev, Filip; Santella, Luigia

    2014-08-01

    We previously demonstrated that many aspects of the intracellular Ca(2+) increase in fertilized eggs of starfish are significantly influenced by the state of the actin cytoskeleton. In addition, the actin cytoskeleton appeared to play comprehensive roles in modulating cortical granules exocytosis and sperm entry during the early phase of fertilization. In the present communication, we have extended our work to sea urchin which is believed to have bifurcated from the common ancestor in the phylogenetic tree some 500 million years ago. To corroborate our earlier findings in starfish, we have tested how the early events of fertilization in sea urchin eggs are influenced by four different actin-binding drugs that promote either depolymerization or stabilization of actin filaments. We found that all the actin drugs commonly blocked sperm entry in high doses and significantly reduced the speed of the Ca(2+) wave. At low doses, however, cytochalasin B and phalloidin increased the rate of polyspermy. Overall, certain aspects of Ca(2+) signaling in these eggs were in line with the morphological changes induced by the actin drugs. That is, the time interval between the cortical flash and the first Ca(2+) spot at the sperm interaction site (the latent period) was significantly prolonged in the eggs pretreated with cytochalasin B or latrunculin A, whereas the Ca(2+) decay kinetics after the peak was specifically attenuated in the eggs pretreated with jasplakinolide or phalloidin. In addition, the sperm interacting with the eggs pretreated with actin drugs often generated multiple Ca(2+) waves, but tended to fail to enter the egg. Thus, our results indicated that generation of massive Ca(2+) waves is neither indicative of sperm entry nor sufficient for cortical granules exocytosis in the inseminated sea urchin eggs, whereas the structure and functionality of the actin cytoskeleton are the major determining factors in the two processes.

  3. Direct actin binding to A- and B-type lamin tails and actin filament bundling by the lamin A tail

    PubMed Central

    Simon, Dan N; Zastrow, Michael S

    2010-01-01

    Nuclear intermediate filament networks formed by A- and B-type lamins are major components of the nucleoskeleton. Lamins have growing links to human physiology and disease including Emery-Dreifuss muscular dystrophy (EDMD), lipodystrophy, cardiomyopathy, neuropathy, cerebellar disorders and segmental accelerated ‘aging’ syndromes. How lamins interact with other nucleoskeletal components, and even the identities of these other components, are open questions. Previous studies suggested lamins might bind actin. We report that the recombinant C-terminal tail domain of human A- and B-type lamins binds directly to purified actin in high-speed pelleting assays. This interaction maps to a conserved Actin Binding site (AB-1) comprising lamin A residues 461–536 in the Ig-fold domain, which are 54% identical in lamin B1. Two EDMD-causing missense mutations (R527P and L530P) in lamin A that are predicted to disrupt the Ig-fold, each reduced F-actin binding by ∼66%, whereas the surface-exposed lipodystrophy-causing R482Q mutation had no significant effect. The lamin A tail was unique among lamins in having a second actin-binding site (AB-2). This second site was mapped to lamin A tail residues 564–608, based on actin-binding results for the lamin C tail and internal deletions in the lamin A tail that cause Hutchinson-Gilford Progeria Syndrome (Δ35, Δ50) or restrictive dermopathy (Δ90). Supporting the presence of two actin-binding sites, recombinant precursor (unmodified) and mature lamin A tails (not C or B1 tails) each bundled F-actin in vitro: furthermore F-actin bundling was reduced 25–40% by the R527P, L530P, Δ35 and Δ50 mutations, and was abolished by Δ90. Unexpectedly, the mature lamin A tail bound F-actin significantly more efficiently than did the prelamin A tail; this suggested unmodified residues 647–664, unique to prelamin A, might auto-inhibit binding to actin (and potentially other partners). These biochemical results suggest direct mechanisms

  4. Actin-binding Protein Drebrin Regulates HIV-1-triggered Actin Polymerization and Viral Infection*

    PubMed Central

    Gordón-Alonso, Mónica; Rocha-Perugini, Vera; Álvarez, Susana; Ursa, Ángeles; Izquierdo-Useros, Nuria; Martinez-Picado, Javier; Muñoz-Fernández, María A.; Sánchez-Madrid, Francisco

    2013-01-01

    HIV-1 contact with target cells triggers F-actin rearrangements that are essential for several steps of the viral cycle. Successful HIV entry into CD4+ T cells requires actin reorganization induced by the interaction of the cellular receptor/co-receptor complex CD4/CXCR4 with the viral envelope complex gp120/gp41 (Env). In this report, we analyze the role of the actin modulator drebrin in HIV-1 viral infection and cell to cell fusion. We show that drebrin associates with CXCR4 before and during HIV infection. Drebrin is actively recruited toward cell-virus and Env-driven cell to cell contacts. After viral internalization, drebrin clustering is retained in a fraction of the internalized particles. Through a combination of RNAi-based inhibition of endogenous drebrin and GFP-tagged expression of wild-type and mutant forms, we establish drebrin as a negative regulator of HIV entry and HIV-mediated cell fusion. Down-regulation of drebrin expression promotes HIV-1 entry, decreases F-actin polymerization, and enhances profilin local accumulation in response to HIV-1. These data underscore the negative role of drebrin in HIV infection by modulating viral entry, mainly through the control of actin cytoskeleton polymerization in response to HIV-1. PMID:23926103

  5. Differential roles for NSF and GRIP/ABP in AMPA receptor cycling.

    PubMed

    Braithwaite, Steven P; Xia, Houhui; Malenka, Robert C

    2002-05-14

    alpha-Amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionic acid receptor (AMPAR) stability and movement at synapses are important factors controlling synaptic strength. Here, we study the roles of proteins [N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive fusion protein (NSF), glutamate receptor AMPAR binding protein (ABP)-interacting protein (GRIP)/(ABP), and protein interacting with C-kinase-1 (PICK1) that interact with the GluR2 subunit in the control of the surface expression and cycling of AMPARs. Epitope-tagged GluR2 formed functional receptors that exhibited targeting to synaptic sites. Constructs in which binding to NSF, PDZ proteins (GRIP/ABP and PICK1), or GRIP/ABP alone was eliminated each exhibited normal surface targeting and constitutive cycling. The lack of NSF binding, however, resulted in receptors that were endocytosed to a greater extent than wild-type receptors in response to application of AMPA or N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA). Conversely, the behavior of the GluR2 mutants incapable of binding to GRIP/ABP suggests that these PDZ proteins play a role in the stabilization of an intracellular pool of AMPARs that have been internalized on stimulation, thus inhibiting their recycling to the synaptic membrane. These results provide further evidence for distinct functional roles of GluR2-interacting proteins in AMPAR trafficking.

  6. High-level SUMO-mediated fusion expression of ABP-dHC-cecropin A from multiple joined genes in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jiaxin; Movahedi, Ali; Wei, Zhiheng; Sang, Ming; Wu, Xiaolong; Wang, Mengyang; Wei, Hui; Pan, Huixin; Yin, Tongming; Zhuge, Qiang

    2016-09-15

    The antimicrobial peptide ABP-dHC-cecropin A is a small cationic peptide with potent activity against a wide range of bacterial species. Evidence of antifungal activity has also been suggested; however, evaluation of this peptide has been limited due to the low expression of cecropin proteins in Escherichia coli. To improve the expression level of ABP-dHC-cecropin A in E. coli, tandem repeats of the ABP-dHC-cecropin A gene were constructed and expressed as fusion proteins (SUMO-nABP-dHC-cecropin, n = 1, 2, 3, 4) via pSUMO-nABP-dHC-cecropin A vectors (n = 1, 2, 3, 4). Comparison of the expression levels of soluble SUMO-nABP-dHC-cecropin A fusion proteins (n = 1, 2, 3, 4) suggested that BL21 (DE3)/pSUMO-3ABP-dHC-cecropin A is an ideal recombinant strain for ABP-dHC-cecropin A production. Under the selected conditions of cultivation and isopropylthiogalactoside (IPTG) induction, the expression level of ABP-dHC-cecropin A was as high as 65 mg/L, with ∼21.3% of the fusion protein in soluble form. By large-scale fermentation, protein production reached nearly 300 mg/L, which is the highest yield of ABP-dHC-cecropin A reported to date. In antibacterial experiments, the efficacy was approximately the same as that of synthetic ABP-dHC-cecropin A. This method provides a novel and effective means of producing large amounts of ABP-dHC-cecropin A.

  7. PICK1 interacts with ABP/GRIP to regulate AMPA receptor trafficking.

    PubMed

    Lu, Wei; Ziff, Edward B

    2005-08-04

    PICK1 and ABP/GRIP bind to the AMPA receptor (AMPAR) GluR2 subunit C terminus. Transfer of the receptor from ABP/GRIP to PICK1, facilitated by GluR2 S880 phosphorylation, may initiate receptor trafficking. Here we report protein interactions that regulate these steps. The PICK1 BAR domain interacts intermolecularly with the ABP/GRIP linker II region and intramolecularly with the PICK1 PDZ domain. Binding of PKCalpha or GluR2 to the PICK1 PDZ domain disrupts the intramolecular interaction and facilitates the PICK1 BAR domain association with ABP/GRIP. Interference with the PICK1-ABP/GRIP interaction impairs S880 phosphorylation of GluR2 by PKC and decreases the constitutive surface expression of GluR2, the NMDA-induced endocytosis of GluR2, and recycling of internalized GluR2. We suggest that the PICK1 interaction with ABP/GRIP is a critical step in controlling GluR2 trafficking.

  8. Auxin-binding pocket of ABP1 is crucial for its gain-of-function cellular and developmental roles.

    PubMed

    Grones, Peter; Chen, Xu; Simon, Sibu; Kaufmann, Walter A; De Rycke, Riet; Nodzyński, Tomasz; Zažímalová, Eva; Friml, Jiří

    2015-08-01

    The plant hormone auxin is a key regulator of plant growth and development. Auxin levels are sensed and interpreted by distinct receptor systems that activate a broad range of cellular responses. The Auxin-Binding Protein1 (ABP1) that has been identified based on its ability to bind auxin with high affinity is a prime candidate for the extracellular receptor responsible for mediating a range of auxin effects, in particular, the fast non-transcriptional ones. Contradictory genetic studies suggested prominent or no importance of ABP1 in many developmental processes. However, how crucial the role of auxin binding to ABP1 is for its functions has not been addressed. Here, we show that the auxin-binding pocket of ABP1 is essential for its gain-of-function cellular and developmental roles. In total, 16 different abp1 mutants were prepared that possessed substitutions in the metal core or in the hydrophobic amino acids of the auxin-binding pocket as well as neutral mutations. Their analysis revealed that an intact auxin-binding pocket is a prerequisite for ABP1 to activate downstream components of the ABP1 signalling pathway, such as Rho of Plants (ROPs) and to mediate the clathrin association with membranes for endocytosis regulation. In planta analyses demonstrated the importance of the auxin binding pocket for all known ABP1-mediated postembryonic developmental processes, including morphology of leaf epidermal cells, root growth and root meristem activity, and vascular tissue differentiation. Taken together, these findings suggest that auxin binding to ABP1 is central to its function, supporting the role of ABP1 as auxin receptor.

  9. A short splice form of Xin-actin binding repeat containing 2 (XIRP2) lacking the Xin repeats is required for maintenance of stereocilia morphology and hearing function.

    PubMed

    Francis, Shimon P; Krey, Jocelyn F; Krystofiak, Evan S; Cui, Runjia; Nanda, Sonali; Xu, Wenhao; Kachar, Bechara; Barr-Gillespie, Peter G; Shin, Jung-Bum

    2015-02-04

    Approximately one-third of known deafness genes encode proteins located in the hair bundle, the sensory hair cell's mechanoreceptive organelle. In previous studies, we used mass spectrometry to characterize the hair bundle's proteome, resulting in the discovery of novel bundle proteins. One such protein is Xin-actin binding repeat containing 2 (XIRP2), an actin-cross-linking protein previously reported to be specifically expressed in striated muscle. Because mutations in other actin-cross-linkers result in hearing loss, we investigated the role of XIRP2 in hearing function. In the inner ear, XIRP2 is specifically expressed in hair cells, colocalizing with actin-rich structures in bundles, the underlying cuticular plate, and the circumferential actin belt. Analysis using peptide mass spectrometry revealed that the bundle harbors a previously uncharacterized XIRP2 splice variant, suggesting XIRP2's role in the hair cell differs significantly from that reported in myocytes. To determine the role of XIRP2 in hearing, we applied clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)/Cas9-mediated genome-editing technology to induce targeted mutations into the mouse Xirp2 gene, resulting in the elimination of XIRP2 protein expression in the inner ear. Functional analysis of hearing in the resulting Xirp2-null mice revealed high-frequency hearing loss, and ultrastructural scanning electron microscopy analyses of hair cells demonstrated stereocilia degeneration in these mice. We thus conclude that XIRP2 is required for long-term maintenance of hair cell stereocilia, and that its dysfunction causes hearing loss in the mouse.

  10. Intracellular expression of a host-selective toxin, ToxA, in diverse plants phenocopies silencing of a ToxA-interacting protein, ToxABP1

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pyrenophora tritici-repentis is a necrotophic, fungal pathogen whose ability to cause tan spot of wheat (Triticum aestivum) is dependent on the production of host-selective toxins. One of these toxins, Ptr ToxA, is a protein that is only toxic to genotypes of wheat carrying the Tsn1 locus. The prot...

  11. Reconstitution and dissection of the 600-kDa Srv2/CAP complex: roles for oligomerization and cofilin-actin binding in driving actin turnover.

    PubMed

    Quintero-Monzon, Omar; Jonasson, Erin M; Bertling, Enni; Talarico, Lou; Chaudhry, Faisal; Sihvo, Maarit; Lappalainen, Pekka; Goode, Bruce L

    2009-04-17

    Srv2/cyclase-associated protein is expressed in virtually all plant, animal, and fungal organisms and has a conserved role in promoting actin depolymerizing factor/cofilin-mediated actin turnover. This is achieved by the abilities of Srv2 to recycle cofilin from ADP-actin monomers and to promote nucleotide exchange (ATP for ADP) on actin monomers. Despite this important and universal role in facilitating actin turnover, the mechanism underlying Srv2 function has remained elusive. Previous studies have demonstrated a critical functional role for the G-actin-binding C-terminal half of Srv2. Here we describe an equally important role in vivo for the N-terminal half of Srv2 in driving actin turnover. We pinpoint this activity to a conserved patch of surface residues on the N-terminal dimeric helical folded domain of Srv2, and we show that this functional site interacts with cofilin-actin complexes. Furthermore, we show that this site is essential for Srv2 acceleration of cofilin-mediated actin turnover in vitro. A cognate Srv2-binding site is identified on a conserved surface of cofilin, suggesting that this function likely extends to other organisms. In addition, our analyses reveal that higher order oligomerization of Srv2 depends on its N-terminal predicted coiled coil domain and that oligomerization optimizes Srv2 function in vitro and in vivo. Based on these data, we present a revised model for the mechanism by which Srv2 promotes actin turnover, in which coordinated activities of its N- and C-terminal halves catalyze sequential steps in recycling cofilin and actin monomers.

  12. A distinct sortase SrtB anchors and processes a streptococcal adhesin AbpA with a novel structural property

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Xiaobo; Liu, Bing; Zhu, Fan; Scannapieco, Frank A.; Haase, Elaine M.; Matthews, Steve; Wu, Hui

    2016-01-01

    Surface display of proteins by sortases in Gram-positive bacteria is crucial for bacterial fitness and virulence. We found a unique gene locus encoding an amylase-binding adhesin AbpA and a sortase B in oral streptococci. AbpA possesses a new distinct C-terminal cell wall sorting signal. We demonstrated that this C-terminal motif is required for anchoring AbpA to cell wall. In vitro and in vivo studies revealed that SrtB has dual functions, anchoring AbpA to the cell wall and processing AbpA into a ladder profile. Solution structure of AbpA determined by NMR reveals a novel structure comprising a small globular α/β domain and an extended coiled-coil heliacal domain. Structural and biochemical studies identified key residues that are crucial for amylase binding. Taken together, our studies document a unique sortase/adhesion substrate system in streptococci adapted to the oral environment rich in salivary amylase. PMID:27492581

  13. Yeast mitochondria contain ATP-sensitive, reversible actin-binding activity.

    PubMed Central

    Lazzarino, D A; Boldogh, I; Smith, M G; Rosand, J; Pon, L A

    1994-01-01

    Sedimentation assays were used to demonstrate and characterize binding of isolated yeast mitochondria to phalloidin-stabilized yeast F-actin. These actin-mitochondrial interactions are ATP sensitive, saturable, reversible, and do not depend upon mitochondrial membrane potential. Protease digestion of mitochondrial outer membrane proteins or saturation of myosin-binding sites on F-actin with the S1 subfragment of skeletal myosin block binding. These observations indicate that a protein (or proteins) on the mitochondrial surface mediates ATP-sensitive, reversible binding of mitochondria to the lateral surface of microfilaments. Actin copurifies with mitochondria during subcellular fractionation and is released from the organelle upon treatment with ATP. Thus, actin-mitochondrial interactions resembling those observed in vitro may also exist in intact yeast cells. Finally, a yeast mutant bearing a temperature-sensitive mutation in the actin-encoding ACT1 gene (act1-3) displays temperature-dependent defects in transfer of mitochondria from mother cells to newly developed buds during yeast cell mitosis. Images PMID:7812049

  14. Novel ABP1-TMK auxin sensing system controls ROP GTPase-mediated interdigitated cell expansion in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jisheng; Yang, Zhenbiao

    2014-06-30

    ROP GTPases (Rho-like GTPase from plants), plant counterparts of animal and fungal Rho-family GTPases, have recently been shown to be key components of a novel signaling pathway activated by the plant hormone auxin. Auxin (indole acetic acid) is a key regulator of virtually every aspect of plant growth and development, yet the molecular mechanisms of auxin responses remain largely unknown. AUXIN BINDING PROTEIN1 (ABP1) is an ancient protein that binds auxin and has been implied as a receptor for a number of auxin responses, but its precise mechanism remains unresolved. A paradox for ABP1's action is that it is predominantly found in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) lumen, while it has been implicated as a cell surface auxin receptor, functionally distinct from the nuclear TIR1/AFB auxin receptor family that regulates transcriptional responses. Since our group reported that ABP1 is required for activating two antagonizing ROP signaling pathways involved in cytoskeletal reorganization and cell shape formation in Arabidopsis leaf pavement cells, we recently further showed that the plasma membrane-localized TMK receptor-like kinases functionally interact in a complex with ABP1 and are required for ABP1-dependent activation of ROP GTPases by auxin. The formation of this cell surface complex is induced by auxin and requires functional ABP1. These exciting findings provide convincing evidence for this novel auxin sensing system on the cell surface and suggest intriguing mechanisms for TMKs being functional partners of ABP1 to transmit extracellular auxin signal to intracellular ROP signaling module during polar cell expansion.

  15. PTP1B-dependent regulation of receptor tyrosine kinase signaling by the actin-binding protein Mena.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Shannon K; Oudin, Madeleine J; Tadros, Jenny; Neil, Jason; Del Rosario, Amanda; Joughin, Brian A; Ritsma, Laila; Wyckoff, Jeff; Vasile, Eliza; Eddy, Robert; Philippar, Ulrike; Lussiez, Alisha; Condeelis, John S; van Rheenen, Jacco; White, Forest; Lauffenburger, Douglas A; Gertler, Frank B

    2015-11-01

    During breast cancer progression, alternative mRNA splicing produces functionally distinct isoforms of Mena, an actin regulator with roles in cell migration and metastasis. Aggressive tumor cell subpopulations express Mena(INV), which promotes tumor cell invasion by potentiating EGF responses. However, the mechanism by which this occurs is unknown. Here we report that Mena associates constitutively with the tyrosine phosphatase PTP1B and mediates a novel negative feedback mechanism that attenuates receptor tyrosine kinase signaling. On EGF stimulation, complexes containing Mena and PTP1B are recruited to the EGFR, causing receptor dephosphorylation and leading to decreased motility responses. Mena also interacts with the 5' inositol phosphatase SHIP2, which is important for the recruitment of the Mena-PTP1B complex to the EGFR. When Mena(INV) is expressed, PTP1B recruitment to the EGFR is impaired, providing a mechanism for growth factor sensitization to EGF, as well as HGF and IGF, and increased resistance to EGFR and Met inhibitors in signaling and motility assays. In sum, we demonstrate that Mena plays an important role in regulating growth factor-induced signaling. Disruption of this attenuation by Mena(INV) sensitizes tumor cells to low-growth factor concentrations, thereby increasing the migration and invasion responses that contribute to aggressive, malignant cell phenotypes.

  16. Cross-Linking Molecules Modify Composite Actin Networks Independently

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmoller, K. M.; Lieleg, O.; Bausch, A. R.

    2008-09-01

    While cells make use of many actin binding proteins (ABPs) simultaneously to tailor the mechanical properties of the cytoskeleton, the detailed interplay of different ABPs is not understood. By a combination of macrorheological measurements and confocal microscopy, we show that the ABPs fascin and filamin modify the structural and viscoelastic properties of composite in vitro actin networks independently. The outnumbering ABP dictates the local network structure and therefore also dominates the macromechanical network response.

  17. Evidence that a synthetic amyloid-ß oligomer-binding peptide (ABP) targets amyloid-ß deposits in transgenic mouse brain and human Alzheimer's disease brain.

    PubMed

    Chakravarthy, Balu; Ito, Shingo; Atkinson, Trevor; Gaudet, Chantal; Ménard, Michel; Brown, Leslie; Whitfield, James

    2014-03-14

    The synthetic ~5 kDa ABP (amyloid-ß binding peptide) consists of a region of the 228 kDa human pericentrioloar material-1 (PCM-1) protein that selectively and avidly binds in vitro Aβ1-42 oligomers, believed to be key co-drivers of Alzheimer's disease (AD), but not monomers (Chakravarthy et al., (2013) [3]). ABP also prevents Aß1-42 from triggering the apoptotic death of cultured human SHSY5Y neuroblasts, likely by sequestering Aß oligomers, suggesting that it might be a potential AD therapeutic. Here we support this possibility by showing that ABP also recognizes and binds Aβ1-42 aggregates in sections of cortices and hippocampi from brains of AD transgenic mice and human AD patients. More importantly, ABP targets Aβ1-42 aggregates when microinjected into the hippocampi of the brains of live AD transgenic mice.

  18. Cross-linking myosin subfragment 1 Cys-697 and Cys-707 modifies ATP and actin binding site interactions.

    PubMed Central

    Kirshenbaum, K.; Papp, S.; Highsmith, S.

    1993-01-01

    Skeletal muscle myosin is an enzyme that interacts allosterically with MgATP and actin to transduce the chemical energy from ATP hydrolysis into work. By modifying myosin structure, one can change this allosteric interaction and gain insight into its mechanism. Chemical cross-linking with N,N'-p-phenylenedimaleimide (pPDM) of Cys-697 to Cys-707 of the myosin-ADP complex eliminates activity and produces a species that resembles myosin with ATP bound (Burke et al., 1976). Nucleotide-free pPDM-modified myosin subfragment 1 (S1) was prepared, and its structural and allosteric properties were investigated by comparing the nucleotide and actin interactions of S1 to those of pPDM-S1. The structural properties of the nucleotide-free pPDM-S1 are different from those of S1 in several respects. pPDM-S1 intrinsic tryptophan fluorescence intensity is reduced 28%, indicating a large increase of an internal quenching reaction (the fluorescence intensity of the related vanadate complex of S1, S1-MgADP-Vi, is reduced by a similar degree). Tryptophan fluorescence anisotropy increases from 0.168 for S1 to 0.192 for pPDM-S1, indicating that the unquenched tryptophan population in pPDM-S1 has reduced local freedom of motion. The actin affinity of pPDM-S1 is over 6,000-fold lower than that of S1, and the absolute value of the product of the net effective electric charges at the acto-S1 interface is reduced from 8.1 esu2 for S1 to 1.6 esu2 for pPDM-S1. In spite of these changes, the structural response of pPDM-S1 to nucleotide and the allosteric communication between its ATP and actin sites remain intact. Compared to pPDM-S1, the fluorescence intensity of pPDM-S1 *MgADP is increased 50%(compared to 8 and 31% increases, respectively, for MgADP and MgATP binding to S1). Compared to acto-pPDM-S1, the absolute value of the product of the net effective electric charge at the actin binding interface of acto-pPDM-S1 *MgADP increases 7.3 esu2 (compared to a 0.9 esu2 decrease and an 11.0 esu2

  19. Molecular structure, chemical synthesis, and antibacterial activity of ABP-dHC-cecropin A from drury (Hyphantria cunea).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jiaxin; Movahedi, Ali; Wang, Xiaoli; Wu, Xiaolong; Yin, Tongming; Zhuge, Qiang

    2015-06-01

    The increasing resistance of bacteria and fungi to currently available antibiotics is a major concern worldwide, leading to enormous efforts to develop new antibiotics with new modes of actions. In this paper, cDNA encoding cecropin A was amplified from drury (Hyphantria cunea) (dHC) pupa fatbody total RNA using RT-PCR. The full-length dHC-cecropin A cDNA encoded a protein of 63 amino acids with a predicted 26-amino acid signal peptide and a 37-amino acid functional domain. We synthesized the antibacterial peptide (ABP) from the 37-amino acid functional domain (ABP-dHC-cecropin A), and amidated it via the C-terminus. Time-of-flight mass spectrometry showed its molecular weight to be 4058.94. The ABP-dHC-cecropin A was assessed in terms of its protein structure using bioinformatics and CD spectroscopy. The protein's secondary structure was predicted to be α-helical. In an antibacterial activity analysis, the ABP-dHC-cecropin A exhibited strong antibacterial activity against E. coli K12D31 and Agrobacterium EHA105.

  20. Expression in Escherichia coli and purification of bioactive antibacterial peptide ABP-CM4 from the Chinese silk worm, Bombyx mori.

    PubMed

    Li, Bao-Cun; Zhang, Shuang-Quan; Dan, Wen-Bing; Chen, Yu-Qing; Cao, Peng

    2007-07-01

    The antibacterial peptide CM4 (ABP-CM4), isolated from Chinese Bombys mori, is a 35-residue cationic, amphipathic alpha-helical peptide that exhibits a broad range of antimicrobial activity. To explore a new approach for the expression of ABP-CM4 in E. coli, the gene ABP-CM4, obtained by recursive PCR (rPCR), was cloned into the vector pET32a to construct a fusion expression plasmid. The fusion protein Trx-CM4 was expressed in soluble form, purified by Ni(2+)-chelating chromatography, and cleaved by formic acid to release recombinant CM4. Purification of rCM4 was achieved by affinity chromatography and reverse-phase HPLC. The purified of recombinant peptide showed antimicrobial activities against E. coli K(12)D(31), Penicillium chrysogenum, Aspergillus niger and Gibberella saubinetii. According to the antimicrobial peptide database (http://aps.unmc.edu/AP/main.html), 116 peptides contain a Met residue, but only 5 peptides contain the AspPro site, indicating a broader application of formic acid than CNBr in cleaving fusion protein. The successful application to the expression of the ABP-CM4 indicates that the system is a low-cost, efficient way of producting milligram quantities of ABP-CM4 that is biologically active.

  1. Crystal growth and optical properties of 4-aminobenzophenone (ABP)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhengdong; Wu, Baichang; Su, Genbo; Huang, Gongfan

    1997-02-01

    Bulk crystals of 4-aminobenzophenone (ABP) were grown from organic solution. The crystal structure was determined by X-ray analysis. The refractive indices were determined by the method of prism minimum deviation. Some effective nonlinear-optical coefficients deff were measured. A blue second-harmonic emission with wavelengths of 433 and 460 nm were observed during laser diode pumping.

  2. Structure-specificity relationships in Abp, a GH27 β-L-arabinopyranosidase from Geobacillus stearothermophilus T6.

    PubMed

    Lansky, Shifra; Salama, Rachel; Solomon, Hodaya V; Feinberg, Hadar; Belrhali, Hassan; Shoham, Yuval; Shoham, Gil

    2014-11-01

    L-Arabinose sugar residues are relatively abundant in plants and are found mainly in arabinan polysaccharides and in other arabinose-containing polysaccharides such as arabinoxylans and pectic arabinogalactans. The majority of the arabinose units in plants are present in the furanose form and only a small fraction of them are present in the pyranose form. The L-arabinan-utilization system in Geobacillus stearothermophilus T6, a Gram-positive thermophilic soil bacterium, has recently been characterized, and one of the key enzymes was found to be an intracellular β-L-arabinopyranosidase (Abp). Abp, a GH27 enzyme, was shown to remove β-L-arabinopyranose residues from synthetic substrates and from the native substrates sugar beet arabinan and larch arabinogalactan. The Abp monomer is made up of 448 amino acids, and based on sequence homology it was suggested that Asp197 is the catalytic nucleophile and Asp255 is the catalytic acid/base. In the current study, the detailed three-dimensional structure of wild-type Abp (at 2.28 Å resolution) and its catalytic mutant Abp-D197A with (at 2.20 Å resolution) and without (at 2.30 Å resolution) a bound L-arabinose product are reported as determined by X-ray crystallography. These structures demonstrate that the three-dimensional structure of the Abp monomer correlates with the general fold observed for GH27 proteins, consisting of two main domains: an N-terminal TIM-barrel domain and a C-terminal all-β domain. The two catalytic residues are located in the TIM-barrel domain, such that their carboxylic functional groups are about 5.9 Å from each other, consistent with a retaining mechanism. An isoleucine residue (Ile67) located at a key position in the active site is shown to play a critical role in the substrate specificity of Abp, providing a structural basis for the high preference of the enzyme towards arabinopyranoside over galactopyranoside substrates. The crystal structure demonstrates that Abp is a tetramer

  3. Theoretical and experimental morphologies of 4-aminobenzophenone (ABP) crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Qingwu; Sheen, D. B.; Shepherd, E. E. A.; Sherwood, J. N.; Simpson, G. S.; Hammond, R. B.

    1997-11-01

    The lattice energy (Elatt), slice energies (Eslice) and attachment energies (Eatt) of the different habit faces of ABP crystals have been calculated using the computer program HABIT. On the basis of the attachment energies of different crystal faces, the morphology was defined as {1 0 0}, {0 0 1}, {1 1 0}, {11bar0} and {1 01bar}. To confirm this theoretical prediction, we have grown ABP films and ABP crystals from the vapour phase. In both cases, the morphologically most important face was defined as {1 0 0} face using X-ray diffraction techniques. The remaining faces of the vapour-grown crystals were defined using a projection method, while the crystallites in the films were morphologically analysed by means of atomic force microscopy (AFM). The experimental morphologies are basically in agreement with the computation. Deviations from the equilibrium morphology can be ascribed to departure from equilibrium conditions during growth. For completeness, the results are compared with those for crystals grown from solutions for which deviations in morphology from the theoretical predictions can be ascribed to interaction between the crystal faces and solvent molecules.

  4. A small molecule inhibitor of tropomyosin dissociates actin binding from tropomyosin-directed regulation of actin dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Bonello, Teresa T.; Janco, Miro; Hook, Jeff; Byun, Alex; Appaduray, Mark; Dedova, Irina; Hitchcock-DeGregori, Sarah; Hardeman, Edna C.; Stehn, Justine R.; Böcking, Till; Gunning, Peter W.

    2016-01-01

    The tropomyosin family of proteins form end-to-end polymers along the actin filament. Tumour cells rely on specific tropomyosin-containing actin filament populations for growth and survival. To dissect out the role of tropomyosin in actin filament regulation we use the small molecule TR100 directed against the C terminus of the tropomyosin isoform Tpm3.1. TR100 nullifies the effect of Tpm3.1 on actin depolymerisation but surprisingly Tpm3.1 retains the capacity to bind F-actin in a cooperative manner. In vivo analysis also confirms that, in the presence of TR100, fluorescently tagged Tpm3.1 recovers normally into stress fibers. Assembling end-to-end along the actin filament is thereby not sufficient for tropomyosin to fulfil its function. Rather, regulation of F-actin stability by tropomyosin requires fidelity of information communicated at the barbed end of the actin filament. This distinction has significant implications for perturbing tropomyosin-dependent actin filament function in the context of anti-cancer drug development. PMID:26804624

  5. Testosterone regulates the autophagic clearance of androgen binding protein in rat Sertoli cells

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Yi; Yang, Hao-Zheng; Xu, Long-Mei; Huang, Yi-Ran; Dai, Hui-Li; Kang, Xiao-Nan

    2015-01-01

    Dysregulation of androgen-binding protein (ABP) is associated with a number of endocrine and andrology diseases. However, the ABP metabolism in Sertoli cells is largely unknown. We report that autophagy degrades ABP in rat Sertoli cells, and the autophagic clearance of ABP is regulated by testosterone, which prolongs the ABP biological half-life by inhibiting autophagy. Further studies identified that the autophagic clearance of ABP might be selectively regulated by testosterone, independent of stress (hypoxia)-induced autophagic degradation. These data demonstrate that testosterone up-regulates ABP expression at least partially by suppressing the autophagic degradation. We report a novel finding with respect to the mechanisms by which ABP is cleared, and by which the process is regulated in Sertoli cells. PMID:25745956

  6. Distribution and change patterns of free IAA, ABP 1 and PM H⁺-ATPase during ovary and ovule development of Nicotiana tabacum L.

    PubMed

    Chen, Dan; Deng, Yingtian; Zhao, Jie

    2012-01-15

    Auxin plays key roles in flower induction, embryogenesis, seed formation and seedling development, but little is known about whether auxin regulates the development of ovaries and ovules before pollination. In the present report, we measured the content of free indole-3-acetic (IAA) in ovaries of Nicotiana tabacum L., and localized free IAA, auxin binding protein 1 (ABP1) and plasma membrane (PM) H⁺-ATPase in the ovaries and ovules. The level of free IAA in the developmental ovaries increased gradually from the stages of ovular primordium to the functional megaspore, but slightly decreased when the embryo sacs formed. Immunoenzyme labeling clearly showed that both IAA and ABP1 were distributed in the ovules, the edge of the placenta, vascular tissues and the ovary wall, while PM H⁺-ATPase was mainly localized in the ovules. By using immunogold labeling, the subcellular distributions of IAA, ABP1 and PM H⁺-ATPase in the ovules were also shown. The results suggest that IAA, ABP1 and PM H⁺-ATPase may play roles in the ovary and ovule initiation, formation and differentiation.

  7. Antifungal mechanism of antibacterial peptide, ABP-CM4, from Bombyx mori against Aspergillus niger.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jie; Wu, Xi; Zhang, Shuang-Quan

    2008-12-01

    Antibacterial peptide, CM4 (ABP-CM4), a 35 amino acid peptide from Chinese silkworm-Bombyx mori, displayed a strong antifungal activity against Aspergillus niger, Trichoderma viride and Gibberella saubinetii. Scanning electron microcopy showed that the morphology of conidia became more irregular and swelled when treated with ABP-CM4 at its minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 8 muM. A cell wall regeneration assay indicated that the plasma membrane was the prime target of ABP-CM4 action. Confocal laser scanning microscopy showed that the cytoskeleton of A. niger was destroyed when treated with ABP-CM4 at 8 muM. Furthermore, transmission electron microscopy showed that the membrane and the cellular organelles of fungus were disrupted and there were many vacuoles in the fungal cellular space after the treatment with ABP-CM4. A gel-retardation assay showed that ABP-CM4 bound the DNA of A. niger. Our results suggest that ABP-CM4 exerts its antifungal activity by disrupting the structure of cell membranes and the cytoskeleton and interacts with the organelles, such as the mitochondrion and with the DNA in the fungal cell, subsequently resulting in cell death.

  8. The actin-binding protein profilin is required for germline stem cell maintenance and germ cell enclosure by somatic cyst cells.

    PubMed

    Shields, Alicia R; Spence, Allyson C; Yamashita, Yukiko M; Davies, Erin L; Fuller, Margaret T

    2014-01-01

    Specialized microenvironments, or niches, provide signaling cues that regulate stem cell behavior. In the Drosophila testis, the JAK-STAT signaling pathway regulates germline stem cell (GSC) attachment to the apical hub and somatic cyst stem cell (CySC) identity. Here, we demonstrate that chickadee, the Drosophila gene that encodes profilin, is required cell autonomously to maintain GSCs, possibly facilitating localization or maintenance of E-cadherin to the GSC-hub cell interface. Germline specific overexpression of Adenomatous Polyposis Coli 2 (APC2) rescued GSC loss in chic hypomorphs, suggesting an additive role of APC2 and F-actin in maintaining the adherens junctions that anchor GSCs to the niche. In addition, loss of chic function in the soma resulted in failure of somatic cyst cells to maintain germ cell enclosure and overproliferation of transit-amplifying spermatogonia.

  9. Revisiting Apoplastic Auxin Signaling Mediated by AUXIN BINDING PROTEIN 1.

    PubMed

    Feng, Mingxiao; Kim, Jae-Yean

    2015-10-01

    It has been suggested that AUXIN BINDING PROTEIN 1 (ABP1) functions as an apoplastic auxin receptor, and is known to be involved in the post-transcriptional process, and largely independent of the already well-known SKP-cullin-F-box-transport inhibitor response (TIR1) /auxin signaling F-box (AFB) (SCF(TIR1/AFB)) pathway. In the past 10 years, several key components downstream of ABP1 have been reported. After perceiving the auxin signal, ABP1 interacts, directly or indirectly, with plasma membrane (PM)-localized transmembrane proteins, transmembrane kinase (TMK) or SPIKE1 (SPK1), or other unidentified proteins, which transfer the signal into the cell to the Rho of plants (ROP). ROPs interact with their effectors, such as the ROP interactive CRIB motif-containing protein (RIC), to regulate the endocytosis/exocytosis of the auxin efflux carrier PIN-FORMED (PIN) proteins to mediate polar auxin transport across the PM. Additionally, ABP1 is a negative regulator of the traditional SCF(TIR1/AFB) auxin signaling pathway. However, Gao et al. (2015) very recently reported that ABP1 is not a key component in auxin signaling, and the famous abp1-1 and abp1-5 mutant Arabidopsis lines are being called into question because of possible additional mutantion sites, making it necessary to reevaluate ABP1. In this review, we will provide a brief overview of the history of ABP1 research.

  10. Kyropoulos method for growth of nonlinear optical organic crystal ABP (4-aminobenzophenone) from the melt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Shoukui; Okano, Y.; Tsunekawa, S.; Fukuda, T.

    1993-03-01

    The Kyropoulus method was used to grow nonlinear optical organic crystals ABP (4-aminobenzophenone). The crystals were characterized by nonlinear optical measurements and had a large effect of frequency doubling.

  11. Detection and quantification of 4-ABP adducts in DNA from bladder cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Zayas, Beatriz; Stillwell, Sara W; Wishnok, John S; Trudel, Laura J; Skipper, Paul; Yu, Mimi C; Tannenbaum, Steven R; Wogan, Gerald N

    2007-02-01

    We analyzed bladder DNA from 27 cancer patients for dG-C8-4-aminobiphenyl (dG-C8-ABP) adducts using the liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry method with a 700 attomol (1 adduct in 10(9) bases) detection limit. Hemoglobin (Hb) 4-aminobiphenyl (4-ABP) adduct levels were measured by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. After isolation of dG-C8-ABP by immunoaffinity chromatography and further purification, deuterated (d9) dG-C8-ABP (MW=443 Da) was added to each sample. Structural evidence and adduct quantification were determined by selected reaction monitoring, based on the expected adduct ion [M+H+]+1, at m/z 435 with fragmentation to the product ion at m/z 319, and monitoring of the transition for the internal standard, m/z 444-->328. The method was validated by analysis of DNA (100 microg each) from calf thymus; livers from ABP-treated and untreated rats; human placentas; and TK6 lymphoblastoid cells. Adduct was detected at femtomol levels in DNA from livers of ABP-treated rats and calf thymus, but not in other controls. The method was applied to 41 DNA samples (200 microg each) from 27 human bladders; 28 from tumor and 14 from surrounding non-tumor tissue. Of 27 tissues analyzed, 44% (12) contained 5-80 dG-C8-ABP adducts per 10(9) bases; only 1 out of 27 (4%) contained adduct in both tumor and surrounding tissues. The Hb adduct was detected in samples from all patients, at levels of 12-1960 pg per gram Hb. There was no correlation between levels of DNA and Hb adducts. The presence of DNA adducts in 44% of the subjects and high levels of Hb adducts in these non-smokers indicate environmental sources of exposure to 4-ABP.

  12. A cationic amphiphilic peptide ABP-CM4 exhibits selective cytotoxicity against leukemia cells.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yu Qing; Min, Cui; Sang, Ming; Han, Yang Yang; Ma, Xiao; Xue, Xiao Qing; Zhang, Shuang Quan

    2010-08-01

    Some cationic antibacterial peptides exhibit a broad spectrum of cytotoxic activity against cancer cells, which could provide a new class of anticancer drugs. In the present study, the anticancer activity of ABP-CM4, an antibacterial peptide from Bombyx mori, against leukemic cell lines THP-1, K562 and U937 was evaluated, and the cytotoxicity compared with the effects on non-cancerous mammalian cells, including peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), HEK-293 and erythrocytes. ABP-CM4 reduced the number of viable cells of the leukemic cell lines after exposure for 24h. The reduction was concentration dependent, and the IC50 values ranged from 14 to 18 microM. Conversely, ABP-CM4, even at 120 microM, exhibited no cytotoxicity toward HEK-293 or PBMCs, indicating that there was no significant effect on these two types of non-cancer cells. ABP-CM4 at a concentration of 200 microM had no hemolytic activity on mammalian erythrocytes. Together, these results suggested a selective cytotoxicity in leukemia cells. Flow cytometry demonstrated that the binding activity of ABP-CM4 to leukemia cells was much higher than that to HEK-293 or PBMCs, and there was almost no binding to erythrocytes. FITC-labeled ABP-CM4 molecules were examined under a confocal microscope and found to be concentrated at the surface of leukemia cells and changes of the cell membrane were determined by a cell permeability assay, which led us to the conclusion that ABP-CM4 could act at the cell membrane for its anticancer activity on leukemia cells. Collectively, our results indicated that ABP-CM4 has the potential for development as a novel antileukemic agent.

  13. Identification of obscure yet conserved actin-associated proteins in Giardia lamblia.

    PubMed

    Paredez, Alexander R; Nayeri, Arash; Xu, Jennifer W; Krtková, Jana; Cande, W Zacheus

    2014-06-01

    Consistent with its proposed status as an early branching eukaryote, Giardia has the most divergent actin of any eukaryote and lacks core actin regulators. Although conserved actin-binding proteins are missing from Giardia, its actin is utilized similarly to that of other eukaryotes and functions in core cellular processes such as cellular organization, endocytosis, and cytokinesis. We set out to identify actin-binding proteins in Giardia using affinity purification coupled with mass spectroscopy (multidimensional protein identification technology [MudPIT]) and have identified >80 putative actin-binding proteins. Several of these have homology to conserved proteins known to complex with actin for functions in the nucleus and flagella. We validated localization and interaction for seven of these proteins, including 14-3-3, a known cytoskeletal regulator with a controversial relationship to actin. Our results indicate that although Giardia lacks canonical actin-binding proteins, there is a conserved set of actin-interacting proteins that are evolutionarily indispensable and perhaps represent some of the earliest functions of the actin cytoskeleton.

  14. Identification of Obscure yet Conserved Actin-Associated Proteins in Giardia lamblia

    PubMed Central

    Nayeri, Arash; Xu, Jennifer W.; Krtková, Jana; Cande, W. Zacheus

    2014-01-01

    Consistent with its proposed status as an early branching eukaryote, Giardia has the most divergent actin of any eukaryote and lacks core actin regulators. Although conserved actin-binding proteins are missing from Giardia, its actin is utilized similarly to that of other eukaryotes and functions in core cellular processes such as cellular organization, endocytosis, and cytokinesis. We set out to identify actin-binding proteins in Giardia using affinity purification coupled with mass spectroscopy (multidimensional protein identification technology [MudPIT]) and have identified >80 putative actin-binding proteins. Several of these have homology to conserved proteins known to complex with actin for functions in the nucleus and flagella. We validated localization and interaction for seven of these proteins, including 14-3-3, a known cytoskeletal regulator with a controversial relationship to actin. Our results indicate that although Giardia lacks canonical actin-binding proteins, there is a conserved set of actin-interacting proteins that are evolutionarily indispensable and perhaps represent some of the earliest functions of the actin cytoskeleton. PMID:24728194

  15. ED 08-3 APPLICATION OF ABP MONITORING IN THE MANAGEMENT OF PEDIATRIC HYPERTENSION.

    PubMed

    Awazu, Midori

    2016-09-01

    ABP is more reliable and reproducible than casual BP, enables computation of the mean, daytime, night-time ABP, and 24-h pulse pressure, detects white coat effect or reversed white coat effect, and provides information regarding diurnal BP pattern as well as BP variability. ABP correlates better with target-organ damage than casual BP. ABPM is now widely used also in children. Increasing age and higher mean BP are factors that improve the success rate of ABPM. There is a guideline from American Heart Association to standardize the use of ABPM in children, including the detailed recommendations for the use of ABPM and for the interpretation of the data. Studies from several countries reported normal values for ABP in children by age and gender. Normal ABP values by height are also available.ABPM is useful when confirming the diagnosis, assessing the target organ damage, and treating and evaluating the effectiveness. While the advantages of ABP are shared by home BP to some extent, nocturnal BP, 24-hour pulse pressure, and short term BP variability can be measured only by ABPM. ABPM in the initial evaluation of suspected childhood HTN was shown to be highly cost-effective.

  16. Normalized power transmission between ABP and ICP in TBI.

    PubMed

    Shahsavari, S; Hallen, T; McKelvey, T; Ritzen, C; Rydenhag, B

    2009-01-01

    A new approach to study the pulse transmission between the cerebrovascular bed and the intracranial space is presented. In the proposed approach, the normalized power transmission between ABP and ICP has got the main attention rather than the actual power transmission. Evaluating the gain of the proposed transfer function at any single frequency can reveal how the percentage of contribution of that specific frequency component has been changed through the cerebrospinal system. The gain of the new transfer function at the fundamental cardiac frequency was utilized to evaluate the state of the brain in three TBI patients. Results were assessed using the reference evaluations achieved by a novel CT scan-based scoring scheme. In all three study cases, the gain of the transfer function showed a good capability to follow the trend of the CT scores and describe the brain state. Comparing the new transfer function with the traditional one and also the index of compensatory reserve, the proposed transfer function was found more informative about the state of the brain in the patients under study.

  17. Ligand Specificity of Bean Leaf Soluble Auxin-binding Protein 1

    PubMed Central

    Wardrop, Alison J.; Polya, Gideon M.

    1980-01-01

    The soluble bean leaf auxin-binding protein (ABP) has a high affinity for a range of auxins including indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), α-napthaleneacetic acid, phenylacetic acid, 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid, and structurally related auxins. A large number of nonauxin compounds that are nevertheless structurally related to auxins do not displace IAA from bean ABP. Bean ABP has a high affinity for auxin transport inhibitors and antiauxins. The specificity of pea ABP for representative auxins is similar to that found for bean ABP. The bean ABP auxin binding site is similar to the corn endoplasmic reticulum auxin-binding sites in specificity for auxins and sensitivity to thiol reagents and azide. Qualitative similarities between the ligand specificity of bean ABP and the specificity of auxin-induced bean leaf hyponasty provide further evidence, albeit circumstantial, that ABP (ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase) can bind auxins in vivo. The high incidence of ABP in bean leaves and the high affinity of this protein for auxins and auxin transport inhibitors suggest possible functions for ABP in auxin transport and/or auxin sequestration. PMID:16661370

  18. The abp gene in Geobacillus stearothermophilus T-6 encodes a GH27 β-L-arabinopyranosidase.

    PubMed

    Salama, Rachel; Alalouf, Onit; Tabachnikov, Orly; Zolotnitsky, Gennady; Shoham, Gil; Shoham, Yuval

    2012-07-30

    In this study we demonstrate that the abp gene in Geobacillus stearothermophilus T-6 encodes a family 27 glycoside hydrolase β-L-arabinopyranosidase. The catalytic constants towards the chromogenic substrate pNP-β-L-arabinopyranoside were 0.8±0.1 mM, 6.6±0.3 s(-1), and 8.2±0.3 s(-1) mM(-1) for K(m), k(cat) and k(cat)/K(m), respectively. (13)C NMR spectroscopy unequivocally showed that Abp is capable of removing β-L-arabinopyranose residues from the natural arabino-polysaccharide, larch arabinogalactan. Most family 27 enzymes are active on galactose and contain a conserved Asp residue, whereas in Abp this residue is Ile67, which shifts the specificity of the enzyme towards arabinopyranoside.

  19. Phosphorus-Based Dendrimer ABP Treats Neuroinflammation by Promoting IL-10-Producing CD4(+) T Cells.

    PubMed

    Hayder, Myriam; Varilh, Marjorie; Turrin, Cédric-Olivier; Saoudi, Abdelhadi; Caminade, Anne-Marie; Poupot, Rémy; Liblau, Roland S

    2015-11-09

    Dendrimers are polyfunctional nano-objects of perfectly defined structure that can provide innovative alternatives for the treatment of chronic inflammatory diseases, including multiple sclerosis (MS). To investigate the efficiency of a recently described amino-bis(methylene phosphonate)-capped ABP dendrimer as a potential drug candidate for MS, we used the classical mouse model of MOG35-55-induced experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). Our study provides evidence that the ABP dendrimer prevents the development of EAE and inhibits the progression of established disease with a comparable therapeutic benefit as the approved treatment Fingolimod. We also show that the ABP dendrimer redirects the pathogenic myelin-specific CD4(+) T cell response toward IL-10 production.

  20. A polysaccharide isolated from Agaricus blazei Murill (ABP-AW1) as a potential Th1 immunity-stimulating adjuvant.

    PubMed

    Cui, Liran; Sun, Yongxu; Xu, Hao; Xu, Huiyu; Cong, Huan; Liu, Jicheng

    2013-10-01

    In the present study, a low molecular weight polysaccharide, ABP-AW1, isolated from Agaricus blazei Murill was assessed for its potential adjuvant activity. ABP-AW1 is considered to create a 'depot' of antigen at a subcutaneous injection site. ICR mice were immunized with 100 μg ovalbumin (OVA) alone or with 100 μg OVA formulated in 0.9% saline containing 200 μg aluminum (alum) or ABP-AW1 (50, 100 and 200 μg) on days 1 and 15. Two weeks after the secondary immunization, splenocyte proliferation, the expression of surface markers, cytokine production and the OVA-specific antibody levels in the serum were determined. The OVA/ABP-AW1 vaccine, in comparison with OVA alone, markedly increased the proliferation of splenic lymphocytes and elicited greater antigen-specific CD4(+) T cell activation, as determined by splenic CD4(+)CD69(+) T cells and Th1 cytokine interferon (IFN)-γ release. The combination of ABP-AW1 and OVA also enhanced IgG2b antibody responses to OVA. In conclusion, these data indicated that ABP-AW1 significantly enhanced the humoral and cellular immune responses against OVA in the mice, suggesting that ABP-AW1 stimulated Th1-type immunity. We suggest that ABP-AW1 may serve as a new adjuvant.

  1. The antibacterial peptide ABP-CM4: the current state of its production and applications.

    PubMed

    Li, Jian Feng; Zhang, Jie; Xu, Xing Zhou; Han, Yang Yang; Cui, Xian Wei; Chen, Yu Qing; Zhang, Shuang Quan

    2012-06-01

    The increasing resistance of bacteria and fungi to currently available antibiotics is a major concern worldwide, leading to enormous efforts to develop new antibiotics with new modes of actions. Antibacterial peptide CM4 (ABP-CM4) is a small cationic peptide with broad-spectrum activities against bacteria, fungi, and tumor cells, which may possibly be used as a promising candidate for a new antibiotic. For pharmaceutical applications, a large quantity of antimicrobial peptides needs to be produced economically. In this communication, the progress in the structural characteristics, heterologous production, and biological evaluation of ABP-CM4 are reviewed.

  2. Relating microstructure to rheology of a bundled and cross-linked F-actin network in vitro

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, J. H.; Gardel, M. L.; Mahadevan, L.; Matsudaira, P.; Weitz, D. A.

    2004-06-01

    The organization of individual actin filaments into higher-order structures is controlled by actin-binding proteins (ABPs). Although the biological significance of the ABPs is well documented, little is known about how bundling and cross-linking quantitatively affect the microstructure and mechanical properties of actin networks. Here we quantify the effect of the ABP scruin on actin networks by using imaging techniques, cosedimentation assays, multiparticle tracking, and bulk rheology. We show how the structure of the actin network is modified as the scruin concentration is varied, and we correlate these structural changes to variations in the resultant network elasticity.

  3. Structure and function of a G-actin sequestering protein with a vital role in malaria oocyst development inside the mosquito vector.

    PubMed

    Hliscs, Marion; Sattler, Julia M; Tempel, Wolfram; Artz, Jennifer D; Dong, Aiping; Hui, Raymond; Matuschewski, Kai; Schüler, Herwig

    2010-04-09

    Cyclase-associated proteins (CAPs) are evolutionary conserved G-actin-binding proteins that regulate microfilament turnover. CAPs have a modular structure consisting of an N-terminal adenylate cyclase binding domain, a central proline-rich segment, and a C-terminal actin binding domain. Protozoan parasites of the phylum Apicomplexa, such as Cryptosporidium and the malaria parasite Plasmodium, express small CAP orthologs with homology to the C-terminal actin binding domain (C-CAP). Here, we demonstrate by reverse genetics that C-CAP is dispensable for the pathogenic Plasmodium blood stages. However, c-cap(-) parasites display a complete defect in oocyst development in the insect vector. By trans-species complementation we show that the Cryptosporidium parvum ortholog complements the Plasmodium gene functions. Purified recombinant C. parvum C-CAP protein binds actin monomers and prevents actin polymerization. The crystal structure of C. parvum C-CAP shows two monomers with a right-handed beta-helical fold intercalated at their C termini to form the putative physiological dimer. Our results reveal a specific vital role for an apicomplexan G-actin-binding protein during sporogony, the parasite replication phase that precedes formation of malaria transmission stages. This study also exemplifies how Plasmodium reverse genetics combined with biochemical and structural analyses of orthologous proteins can offer a fast track toward systematic gene characterization in apicomplexan parasites.

  4. Conditional Repression of AUXIN BINDING PROTEIN1 Reveals That It Coordinates Cell Division and Cell Expansion during Postembryonic Shoot Development in Arabidopsis and Tobacco[W

    PubMed Central

    Braun, Nils; Wyrzykowska, Joanna; Muller, Philippe; David, Karine; Couch, Daniel; Perrot-Rechenmann, Catherine; Fleming, Andrew J.

    2008-01-01

    AUXIN BINDING PROTEIN1 (ABP1) has long been characterized as a potentially important mediator of auxin action in plants. Analysis of the functional requirement for ABP1 during development was hampered because of embryo lethality of the null mutant in Arabidopsis thaliana. Here, we used conditional repression of ABP1 to investigate its function during vegetative shoot development. Using an inducible cellular immunization approach and an inducible antisense construct, we showed that decreased ABP1 activity leads to a severe retardation of leaf growth involving an alteration in cell division frequency, an altered pattern of endocycle induction, a decrease in cell expansion, and a change in expression of early auxin responsive genes. In addition, local repression of ABP1 activity in the shoot apical meristem revealed an additional role for ABP1 in cell plate formation and cell shape. Moreover, cells at the site of presumptive leaf initiation were more sensitive to ABP1 repression than other regions of the meristem. This spatial context-dependent response of the meristem to ABP1 inactivation and the other data presented here are consistent with a model in which ABP1 acts as a coordinator of cell division and expansion, with local auxin levels influencing ABP1 effectiveness. PMID:18952781

  5. Myosin subfragment 1 structures reveal a partially bound nucleotide and a complex salt bridge that helps couple nucleotide and actin binding.

    PubMed

    Risal, Dipesh; Gourinath, S; Himmel, Daniel M; Szent-Györgyi, Andrew G; Cohen, Carolyn

    2004-06-15

    Structural studies of myosin have indicated some of the conformational changes that occur in this protein during the contractile cycle, and we have now observed a conformational change in a bound nucleotide as well. The 3.1-A x-ray structure of the scallop myosin head domain (subfragment 1) in the ADP-bound near-rigor state (lever arm =45 degrees to the helical actin axis) shows the diphosphate moiety positioned on the surface of the nucleotide-binding pocket, rather than deep within it as had been observed previously. This conformation strongly suggests a specific mode of entry and exit of the nucleotide from the nucleotide-binding pocket through the so-called "front door." In addition, using a variety of scallop structures, including a relatively high-resolution 2.75-A nucleotide-free near-rigor structure, we have identified a conserved complex salt bridge connecting the 50-kDa upper and N-terminal subdomains. This salt bridge is present only in crystal structures of muscle myosin isoforms that exhibit a strong reciprocal relationship (also known as coupling) between actin and nucleotide affinity.

  6. Overexpression of the Auxin Binding PROTEIN1 Modulates PIN-Dependent Auxin Transport in Tobacco Cells

    PubMed Central

    Čovanová, Milada; Sauer, Michael; Rychtář, Jan; Friml, Jiří; Petrášek, Jan; Zažímalová, Eva

    2013-01-01

    Background Auxin binding protein 1 (ABP1) is a putative auxin receptor and its function is indispensable for plant growth and development. ABP1 has been shown to be involved in auxin-dependent regulation of cell division and expansion, in plasma-membrane-related processes such as changes in transmembrane potential, and in the regulation of clathrin-dependent endocytosis. However, the ABP1-regulated downstream pathway remains elusive. Methodology/Principal Findings Using auxin transport assays and quantitative analysis of cellular morphology we show that ABP1 regulates auxin efflux from tobacco BY-2 cells. The overexpression of ABP1can counterbalance increased auxin efflux and auxin starvation phenotypes caused by the overexpression of PIN auxin efflux carrier. Relevant mechanism involves the ABP1-controlled vesicle trafficking processes, including positive regulation of endocytosis of PIN auxin efflux carriers, as indicated by fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) and pharmacological manipulations. Conclusions/Significance The findings indicate the involvement of ABP1 in control of rate of auxin transport across plasma membrane emphasizing the role of ABP1 in regulation of PIN activity at the plasma membrane, and highlighting the relevance of ABP1 for the formation of developmentally important, PIN-dependent auxin gradients. PMID:23894588

  7. Locomotor proteins in tissues of primary tumors and metastases of ovarian and breast cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kondakova, I. V.; Yunusova, N. V.; Spirina, L. V.; Shashova, E. E.; Kolegova, E. S.; Kolomiets, L. A.; Slonimskaya, E. M.; Villert, A. B.

    2016-08-01

    The paper discusses the capability for active movement in an extracellular matrix, wherein remodeling of the cytoskeleton by actin binding proteins plays a significant role in metastases formation. We studied the expression of actin binding proteins and β-catenin in tissues of primary tumors and metastases of ovarian and breast cancer. Contents of p45 Ser β-catenin and the actin severing protein gelsolin were decreased in metastases of ovarian cancer relative to primary tumors. The level of the cofilin, functionally similar to gelsolin, was significantly higher in metastases compared to primary ovarian and breast tumor tissue. In breast cancer, significant increase in the number of an actin monomer binder protein thymosin-β4 was observed in metastases as compared to primary tumors. The data obtained suggest the involvement of locomotor proteins in metastases formation in ovarian and breast cancer.

  8. Repulsive guidance molecule a blockade exerts the immunoregulatory function in DCs stimulated with ABP and LPS.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xuxu; Gao, Yan; Zhai, Zhiyong; Zhang, Shuo; Shan, Fengping; Feng, Juan

    2016-08-02

    Repulsive guidance molecule a (RGMa) is an axonal guidance molecule that has recently found to exert function in immune system. This study evaluated the function of RGMa in modulation of dendritic cells (DCs) function stimulated with Achyranthes bidentata polysaccharide (ABP) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) using a RGMa-neutralizing antibody. Compared with the Control-IgG/ABP and Control-IgG/LPS groups, DCs in the Anti-RGMa/ABP and Anti-RGMa/LPS groups 1) showed small, round cells with a few cell processes and organelles, and many pinocytotic vesicles; 2) had decreased MHC II, CD86, CD80, and CD40 expression; 3) displayed the decreased IL-12p70, IL-1β and TNF-α levels and increased IL-10 secretion; 4) had a high percentage of FITC-dextran uptake; and 5) displayed a reduced ability to drive T cell proliferation and reinforced T cell polarization toward a Th2 cytokine pattern. We conclude that DCs treated with RGMa-neutralizing antibodies present with tolerogenic and immunoregulatory characteristics, which provides new insights into further understanding of the function of RGMa.

  9. Vehicle detection from very-high-resolution (VHR) aerial imagery using attribute belief propagation (ABP)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yanli; Li, Ying; Zhang, Li; Huang, Yuchun

    2016-10-01

    With the popularity of very-high-resolution (VHR) aerial imagery, the shape, color, and context attribute of vehicles are better characterized. Due to the various road surroundings and imaging conditions, vehicle attributes could be adversely affected so that vehicle is mistakenly detected or missed. This paper is motivated to robustly extract the rich attribute feature for detecting the vehicles of VHR imagery under different scenarios. Based on the hierarchical component tree of vehicle context, attribute belief propagation (ABP) is proposed to detect salient vehicles from the statistical perspective. With the Max-tree data structure, the multi-level component tree around the road network is efficiently created. The spatial relationship between vehicle and its belonging context is established with the belief definition of vehicle attribute. To effectively correct single-level belief error, the inter-level belief linkages enforce consistency of belief assignment between corresponding components at different levels. ABP starts from an initial set of vehicle belief calculated by vehicle attribute, and then iterates through each component by applying inter-level belief passing until convergence. The optimal value of vehicle belief of each component is obtained via minimizing its belief function iteratively. The proposed algorithm is tested on a diverse set of VHR imagery acquired in the city and inter-city areas of the West and South China. Experimental results show that the proposed algorithm can detect vehicle efficiently and suppress the erroneous effectively. The proposed ABP framework is promising to robustly classify the vehicles from VHR Aerial imagery.

  10. A novel inclusion complex (β-CD/ABP-dHC-cecropin A) with antibiotic propertiess for use as an anti-Agrobacterium additive in transgenic poplar rooting medium.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jiaxin; Li, Jianfeng; Movahedi, Ali; Sang, Ming; Xu, Chen; Xu, Junjie; Wei, Zhiheng; Yin, Tongming; Zhuge, Qiang

    2015-12-01

    The increasing resistance of bacteria and fungi to currently available antibiotics is a major concern worldwide, leading to enormous effort to develop novel antibiotics with new modes of action.We recently reported that ABP-dHC-cecropin A exhibited strong antibacterial and antifungal activity, making it a candidate antibiotic substitute. In this study, β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) combined with ABP-dHC-cecropin A enhanced the physical and chemical properties of ABP-dHC-cecropin A but did not significantly decrease its antibacterial activity. Thus, β-CD/ABP-dHC-cecropin A should be considered a novel antibacterial drug. We used β-CD/ABP-dHC-cecropin A as an anti-Agrobacterium compound to supplementtransgenic poplar medium. Sideeffects of the inclusion complex had little impact on plantgrowth. Thus, β-CD/ABP-dHC-cecropin A may be used as traditional antibiotics forpoplar transplantation with greater antibbacterial effects.

  11. Characterization and regulation of an additional actin-filament-binding site in large isoforms of the stereocilia actin-bundling protein espin.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Lili; Beeler, Dina M; Bartles, James R

    2014-03-15

    The espin actin-bundling proteins, which are produced as isoforms of different sizes from a single gene, are required for the growth of hair cell stereocilia. We have characterized an additional actin-filament-binding site present in the extended amino-termini of large espin isoforms. Constitutively active in espin 2, the site increased the size of actin bundles formed in vitro and inhibited actin fluorescence recovery in microvilli. In espin 1, which has an N-terminal ankyrin repeat domain, the site was autoinhibited by binding between the ankyrin repeat domain and a peptide near the actin-binding site. Deletion of this peptide from espin 1 activated its actin-binding site. The peptide resembled tail homology domain I of myosin III, a ligand of the ankyrin repeat domain localized with espin 1 at the tip of stereocilia. A myosin III tail homology domain I peptide, but not scrambled control peptides, inhibited internal binding of the ankyrin repeat domain and released the espin 1 actin-binding site from autoinhibition. Thus, this regulation could result in local activation of the additional actin-binding site of espin 1 by myosin III in stereocilia.

  12. Actin Polymerization is Stimulated by Actin Crosslinking Protein Palladin

    PubMed Central

    Gurung, Ritu; Yadav, Rahul; Brungardt, Joseph G.; Orlova, Albina; Egelman, Edward H.; Beck, Moriah R.

    2016-01-01

    The actin scaffold protein palladin regulates both normal cell migration and invasive cell motility, processes that require the coordinated regulation of actin dynamics. However, the potential effect of palladin on actin dynamics has remained elusive. Here we show that the actin binding immunoglobulin-like domain of palladin, which is directly responsible for both actin binding and bundling, also stimulates actin polymerization in vitro. Palladin eliminated the lag phase that is characteristic of the slow nucleation step of actin polymerization. Furthermore, palladin dramatically reduced depolymerization, slightly enhanced the elongation rate, and did not alter the critical concentration. Microscopy and in vitro crosslinking assays reveal differences in actin bundle architecture when palladin is incubated with actin before or after polymerization. These results suggest a model whereby palladin stimulates a polymerization-competent form of G-actin, akin to metal ions, either through charge neutralization or conformational changes. PMID:26607837

  13. Protein Kinase D Controls Actin Polymerization and Cell Motility through Phosphorylation of Cortactin*

    PubMed Central

    Eiseler, Tim; Hausser, Angelika; De Kimpe, Line; Van Lint, Johan; Pfizenmaier, Klaus

    2010-01-01

    We here identify protein kinase D (PKD) as an upstream regulator of the F-actin-binding protein cortactin and the Arp actin polymerization machinery. PKD phosphorylates cortactin in vitro and in vivo at serine 298 thereby generating a 14-3-3 binding motif. In vitro, a phosphorylation-deficient cortactin-S298A protein accelerated VCA-Arp-cortactin-mediated synergistic actin polymerization and showed reduced F-actin binding, indicative of enhanced turnover of nucleation complexes. In vivo, cortactin co-localized with the nucleation promoting factor WAVE2, essential for lamellipodia extension, in the actin polymerization zone in Heregulin-treated MCF-7 cells. Using a 3-dye FRET-based approach we further demonstrate that WAVE2-Arp and cortactin prominently interact at these structures. Accordingly, cortactin-S298A significantly enhanced lamellipodia extension and directed cell migration. Our data thus unravel a previously unrecognized mechanism by which PKD controls cancer cell motility. PMID:20363754

  14. Localization of androgen-binding protein in proliferating Sertoli cells in culture.

    PubMed

    Kierszenbaum, A L; Feldman, M; Lea, O; Spruill, W A; Tres, L L; Petrusz, P; French, F S

    1980-09-01

    The peroxidase and immunofluorescent localization patterns of androgen-binding protein (ABP), a biological marker of Sertoli cell function, have been examined in cultured Sertoli cells isolated from 20- to 22-day-old rats. ABP immunoreactivity in the form of cytoplasmic granules of variable diameter was observed in Sertoli cells with characteristic lipid droplets and a colony-forming, epithelial-like growth pattern. Incubation of cultures with [3H]thymidine demonstrated that Sertoli cells continue to produce ABP while retaining their capability for synthesizing DNA and undergoing mitosis. A variable number of cultured Sertoli cells became morphologically transformed after exposure to follitropin (follicle-stimulating hormone) and pharmacological agents acting on cyclic nucleotide metabolism. The induced change in Sertoli cell shape coincided with a disappearance of ABP-containing granules from the cytoplasm. These observations demonstrate that localization of ABP by immunological techniques is a valuable tool for the characterization of structural and functional properties of Sertoli cell in culture.

  15. In vivo variation in metabotropic glutamate receptor subtype 5 binding using positron emission tomography and [11C]ABP688

    PubMed Central

    DeLorenzo, Christine; Kumar, J S Dileep; Mann, J John; Parsey, Ramin V

    2011-01-01

    The metabotropic glutamate receptor subtype 5 (mGluR5) has been implicated in the pathophysiology of mood and anxiety disorders. Recently, a positron emission tomography (PET) tracer exhibiting high selectivity and specificity for mGluR5, 3-(6-methyl-pyridin-2-ylethynyl)-cyclohex-2-enone-O-11C-methyl-oxime ([11C]ABP688), was developed. In this work, eight healthy adult male humans were imaged twice to assess within-subject [11C]ABP688 binding variability using PET. In seven of the eight subjects, significantly higher binding was observed during the second (retest) scan. This binding increase could not be definitively explained by differences in ligand injected mass or dose, or changes in metabolism between scans. In addition, this type of systematic binding increase was not observed in a [11C]ABP688 test–retest study performed by our group on anaesthetized baboons. It is therefore possible that the increased binding was because of physiological changes occurring between scans, such as changes in endogenous glutamate levels. If PET imaging with [11C]ABP688 could detect such differences, as preliminary evidence suggests, it could be used to help uncover the role of glutamate in the pathophysiology of brain disorders. However, regardless of its ability to detect endogenous glutamate differences, [11C]ABP688 binding variability could make accurate assessments of drug occupancy or group differences using this ligand difficult. PMID:21792244

  16. Effect of Lactobacillus salivarius bacteriocin Abp118 on the mouse and pig intestinal microbiota.

    PubMed

    Riboulet-Bisson, Eliette; Sturme, Mark H J; Jeffery, Ian B; O'Donnell, Michelle M; Neville, B Anne; Forde, Brian M; Claesson, Marcus J; Harris, Hugh; Gardiner, Gillian E; Casey, Patrick G; Lawlor, Peadar G; O'Toole, Paul W; Ross, R Paul

    2012-01-01

    Lactobacilli are gram-positive bacteria that are a subdominant element in the human gastrointestinal microbiota, and which are commonly used in the food industry. Some lactobacilli are considered probiotic, and have been associated with health benefits. However, there is very little culture-independent information on how consumed probiotic microorganisms might affect the entire intestinal microbiota. We therefore studied the impact of the administration of Lactobacillus salivarius UCC118, a microorganism well characterized for its probiotic properties, on the composition of the intestinal microbiota in two model animals. UCC118 has anti-infective activity due to production of the bacteriocin Abp118, a broad-spectrum class IIb bacteriocin, which we hypothesized could impact the microbiota. Mice and pigs were administered wild-type (WT) L. salivarius UCC118 cells, or a mutant lacking bacteriocin production. The microbiota composition was determined by pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicons from faeces. The data show that L. salivarius UCC118 administration had no significant effect on proportions of major phyla comprising the mouse microbiota, whether the strain was producing bacteriocin or not. However, L. salivarius UCC118 WT administration led to a significant decrease in Spirochaetes levels, the third major phylum in the untreated pig microbiota. In both pigs and mice, L. salivarius UCC118 administration had an effect on Firmicutes genus members. This effect was not observed when the mutant strain was administered, and was thus associated with bacteriocin production. Surprisingly, in both models, L. salivarius UCC118 administration and production of Abp118 had an effect on gram-negative microorganisms, even though Abp118 is normally not active in vitro against this group of microorganisms. Thus L. salivarius UCC118 administration has a significant but subtle impact on mouse and pig microbiota, by a mechanism that seems at least partially bacteriocin-dependent.

  17. The roles of gene duplication, gene conversion and positive selection in rodent Esp and Mup pheromone gene families with comparison to the Abp family.

    PubMed

    Karn, Robert C; Laukaitis, Christina M

    2012-01-01

    Three proteinaceous pheromone families, the androgen-binding proteins (ABPs), the exocrine-gland secreting peptides (ESPs) and the major urinary proteins (MUPs) are encoded by large gene families in the genomes of Mus musculus and Rattus norvegicus. We studied the evolutionary histories of the Mup and Esp genes and compared them with what is known about the Abp genes. Apparently gene conversion has played little if any role in the expansion of the mouse Class A and Class B Mup genes and pseudogenes, and the rat Mups. By contrast, we found evidence of extensive gene conversion in many Esp genes although not in all of them. Our studies of selection identified at least two amino acid sites in β-sheets as having evolved under positive selection in the mouse Class A and Class B MUPs and in rat MUPs. We show that selection may have acted on the ESPs by determining K(a)/K(s) for Exon 3 sequences with and without the converted sequence segment. While it appears that purifying selection acted on the ESP signal peptides, the secreted portions of the ESPs probably have undergone much more rapid evolution. When the inner gene converted fragment sequences were removed, eleven Esp paralogs were present in two or more pairs with K(a)/K(s) >1.0 and thus we propose that positive selection is detectable by this means in at least some mouse Esp paralogs. We compare and contrast the evolutionary histories of all three mouse pheromone gene families in light of their proposed functions in mouse communication.

  18. A Dictyostelium mutant lacking an F-actin cross-linking protein, the 120-kD gelation factor

    PubMed Central

    1990-01-01

    Actin-binding proteins are known to regulate in vitro the assembly of actin into supramolecular structures, but evidence for their activities in living nonmuscle cells is scarce. Amebae of Dictyostelium discoideum are nonmuscle cells in which mutants defective in several actin-binding proteins have been described. Here we characterize a mutant deficient in the 120-kD gelation factor, one of the most abundant F-actin cross- linking proteins of D. discoideum cells. No F-actin cross-linking activity attributable to the 120-kD protein was detected in mutant cell extracts, and antibodies recognizing different epitopes on the polypeptide showed the entire protein was lacking. Under the conditions used, elimination of the gelation factor did not substantially alter growth, shape, motility, or chemotactic orientation of the cells towards a cAMP source. Aggregates of the mutant developed into fruiting bodies consisting of normally differentiated spores and stalk cells. In cytoskeleton preparations a dense network of actin filaments as typical of the cell cortex, and bundles as they extend along the axis of filopods, were recognized. A significant alteration found was an enhanced accumulation of actin in cytoskeletons of the mutant when cells were stimulated with cyclic AMP. Our results indicate that control of cell shape and motility does not require the fine-tuned interactions of all proteins that have been identified as actin-binding proteins by in vitro assays. PMID:1698791

  19. In vivo ketamine-induced changes in [11C]ABP688 binding to metabotropic glutamate receptors subtype 5

    PubMed Central

    DeLorenzo, Christine; DellaGioia, Nicole; Bloch, Michael; Sanacora, Gerard; Nabulsi, Nabeel; Abdallah, Chadi; Yang, Jie; Wen, Ruofeng; Mann, J. John; Krystal, John H.; Parsey, Ramin V.; Carson, Richard E.; Esterlis, Irina

    2014-01-01

    Background At subanesthetic doses, ketamine, an N-Methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) glutamate receptor antagonist, increases glutamate release. Here, we imaged the acute effect of ketamine on brain metabotropic glutamatergic receptors subtype 5 (mGluR5) with a high affinity PET ligand [11C]ABP688 ((E)-3-((6-methylpyridin-2-yl)ethynyl)-cyclohex-2-enone-O-11C-methyl-oxime), a negative allosteric modulator of mGluR5. Methods Ten healthy nonsmoking human volunteers (34±13 years old) received two [11C]ABP688 PET scans on the same day – before (scan 1) and during i.v. ketamine administration (0.23mg/kg over 1min, then 0.58mg/kg over 1h; scan 2). PET data were acquired for 90 min immediately following [11C]ABP688 bolus injection. Input functions were obtained through arterial blood sampling with metabolite analysis. Results A significant reduction in [11C]ABP688 volume of distribution (VT) was observed in scan 2 relative to scan 1 of 21.3 ± 21.4%, on average, in the anterior cingulate, medial prefrontal cortex, orbital prefrontal cortex, ventral striatum, parietal lobe, dorsal putamen, dorsal caudate, amygdala, and hippocampus. There was a significant increase in measurements of dissociative state after ketamine initiation (p<0.05) that resolved after completion of the scan. Discussion This study provides first evidence that ketamine administration decreases [11C]ABP688 binding in vivo in human subjects. Results suggest that [11C]ABP688 binding is sensitive to ketamine-induced effects, although the high individual variation in ketamine response requires further examination. PMID:25156701

  20. Modulation of phenotypic and functional maturation of murine dendritic cells (DCs) by purified Achyranthes bidentata polysaccharide (ABP).

    PubMed

    Zou, Yaxuan; Meng, Jingjuan; Chen, Wenna; Liu, Jingling; Li, Xuan; Li, Weiwei; Lu, Changlong; Shan, Fengping

    2011-08-01

    There are a large number of interactions at molecular and cellular levels between the plant polysaccharides and immune system. Plant polysaccharides present an interesting effects as immunomodulators, particularly in the induction of the cells both in innate and adaptive immune systems. Activation of DCs could improve antitumoral responses usually diminished in cancer patients, and natural adjuvants provide a possibility of inducing this activation. ABP is a purified polysaccharide isolated from Achyranthes bidentata, a traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). The aim of this study is to investigate modulation of phenotypic and functional maturation of murine DCs by ABP. Both phenotypic and functional activities were assessed with use of conventional scanning electronic microscopy (SEM) for the morphology of the DC, transmitted electron microscopy (TEM) for intracellular lysosomes inside the DC, cellular immunohistochemistry for phagocytosis by the DCs, flow cytometry (FCM) for the changes in key surface molecules, bio-assay for the activity of acidic phosphatases (ACP), and ELISA for the production of pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-12. In fact, we found that purified ABP induced phenotypic maturation revealed by increased expression of CD86, CD40, and MHC II. Functional experiments showed the down-regulation of ACP inside DCs (which occurs when phagocytosis of DCs is decreased, and antigen presentation increased with maturation). Finally, ABP increased the production of IL-12. These data reveal that ABP promotes effective activation of murine DCs. This adjuvant-like activity may have therapeutic applications in clinical settings where immune responses need boosting. It is therefore concluded that ABP can exert positive modulation to murine DCs.

  1. The fission yeast homologue of CENP-B, Abp1, regulates directionality of mating-type switching.

    PubMed

    Aguilar-Arnal, Lorena; Marsellach, Francesc-Xavier; Azorín, Fernando

    2008-04-09

    In fission yeast, mating-type switching involves replacing genetic information contained at the expressed mat1 locus by that of either the mat2P or mat3M donor loci. Donor selection is nonrandom, as mat1P cells preferentially use mat3M for switching, whereas mat1M cells use mat2P. Switching directionality is determined by the cell-type-specific distribution of the Swi2-Swi5 complex that, in mat1P cells, localises to mat3M and, only in mat1M cells, spreads to mat2P in a heterochromatin-dependent manner. Mechanisms regulating spreading of Swi2-Swi5 across heterochromatin are not fully understood. Here, we show that the fission yeast homologue of CENP-B, Abp1, binds to the silent domain of the mating-type locus and regulates directionality of switching. Deletion of abp1 prevents utilisation of mat2P, as when heterochromatin is disrupted and spreading of Swi2-Swi5 is impaired. Our results show that, indeed, deletion of abp1 abolishes spreading of Swi2-Swi5 to mat2P. However, in abp1Delta cells, heterochromatin organisation at the mating-type locus is preserved, indicating that Abp1 is actually required for efficient spreading of Swi2-Swi5 through heterochromatin. Cbh1 and Cbh2, which are also homologous to CENP-B, have only a minor contribution to the regulation of directionality of switching, which is in contrast with the strong effects observed for Abp1.

  2. Studies of Second Order Optical Nonlinearities of 4-Aminobenzophenone (ABP) Single Crystal Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhowmik, Achintya; Thakur, Mrinal

    1998-03-01

    Specific organic materials exhibit very high second order optical susceptibilities. Growth of single crystal films of these materials and characterization of nonlinear optical properties are necessary for implementation of device applications. We have grown large-area films ( 1 cm^2 area, 4 μm thick) of ABP by a modification of the shear method. Single crystal nature of the films was confirmed by polarized optical microscopy. X-ray diffraction analysis showed a [100] surface orientation. The absorption spectra revealed transparency from 390 nm to 1940 nm. Significant elements of the second order optical susceptibility tensor were measured by detailed SHG experiments using a Nd:YAG laser (1064 nm, 100 ps, 82 MHz). Second-harmonic power was measured using lock-in detection with carefully selected polarization conditions while the film was rotated about the propagation direction. Using LiNbØas the reference, d-coefficients of ABP were found to be d_23=7.2 pm/V and d_22=0.7 pm/V. Type-I and type-II phase-matching directions were identified on the film by analyzing the optical indicatrix surfaces at fundamental and second-harmonic frequencies.

  3. Structure, dynamics and folding of an immunoglobulin domain of the gelation factor (ABP-120) from Dictyostelium discoideum.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Shang-Te Danny; Cabrita, Lisa D; Fucini, Paola; Dobson, Christopher M; Christodoulou, John

    2009-05-15

    We have carried out a detailed structural and dynamical characterisation of the isolated fifth repeat of the gelation factor (ABP-120) from Dictyostelium discoideum (ddFLN5) by NMR spectroscopy to provide a basis for studies of co-translational folding on the ribosome of this immunoglobulin-like domain. The isolated ddFLN5 can fold autonomously in solution into a structure that resembles very closely the crystal structure of the domain in a construct in which the adjacent sixth repeat (ddFLN6) is covalently linked to its C-terminus in tandem but deviates locally from a second crystal structure in which ddFLN5 is flanked by ddFLN4 and ddFLN6 at both N- and C-termini. Conformational fluctuations were observed via (15)N relaxation methods and are primarily localised in the interstrand loops that encompass the C-terminal hemisphere. These fluctuations are distinct in location from the region where line broadening is observed in ddFLN5 when attached to the ribosome as part of a nascent chain. This observation supports the conclusion that the broadening is associated with interactions with the ribosome surface [Hsu, S. T. D., Fucini, P., Cabrita, L. D., Launay, H., Dobson, C. M. & Christodoulou, J. (2007). Structure and dynamics of a ribosome-bound nascent chain by NMR spectroscopy. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 104, 16516-16521]. The unfolding of ddFLN5 induced by high concentrations of urea shows a low population of a folding intermediate, as inferred from an intensity-based analysis, a finding that differs from that of ddFLN5 as a ribosome-bound nascent chain. These results suggest that interesting differences in detail may exist between the structure of the domain in isolation and when linked to the ribosome and between protein folding in vitro and the folding of a nascent chain as it emerges from the ribosome.

  4. Cross-Linker Unbinding and Self-Similarity in Bundled Cytoskeletal Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lieleg, O.; Bausch, A. R.

    2007-10-01

    The macromechanical properties of purely bundled in vitro actin networks are not only determined by the micromechanical properties of individual bundles but also by molecular unbinding events of the actin-binding protein (ABP) fascin. Under high mechanical load the network elasticity depends on the forced unbinding of individual ABPs in a rate dependent manner. Cross-linker unbinding in combination with the structural self-similarity of the network enables the introduction of a concentration-time superposition principle—broadening the mechanically accessible frequency range over 8 orders of magnitude.

  5. Actin polymerization is stimulated by actin cross-linking protein palladin.

    PubMed

    Gurung, Ritu; Yadav, Rahul; Brungardt, Joseph G; Orlova, Albina; Egelman, Edward H; Beck, Moriah R

    2016-02-15

    The actin scaffold protein palladin regulates both normal cell migration and invasive cell motility, processes that require the co-ordinated regulation of actin dynamics. However, the potential effect of palladin on actin dynamics has remained elusive. In the present study, we show that the actin-binding immunoglobulin-like domain of palladin, which is directly responsible for both actin binding and bundling, also stimulates actin polymerization in vitro. Palladin eliminated the lag phase that is characteristic of the slow nucleation step of actin polymerization. Furthermore, palladin dramatically reduced depolymerization, slightly enhanced the elongation rate, and did not alter the critical concentration. Microscopy and in vitro cross-linking assays reveal differences in actin bundle architecture when palladin is incubated with actin before or after polymerization. These results suggest a model whereby palladin stimulates a polymerization-competent form of globular or monomeric actin (G-actin), akin to metal ions, either through charge neutralization or through conformational changes.

  6. Crystal structure of auxin-binding protein 1 in complex with auxin

    PubMed Central

    Woo, Eui-Jeon; Marshall, Jacqueline; Bauly, James; Chen, Jin-Gui; Venis, Michael; Napier, Richard M.; Pickersgill, Richard W.

    2002-01-01

    The structure of auxin-binding protein 1 (ABP1) from maize has been determined at 1.9 Å resolution, revealing its auxin-binding site. The structure confirms that ABP1 belongs to the ancient and functionally diverse germin/seed storage 7S protein superfamily. The binding pocket of ABP1 is predominantly hydrophobic with a metal ion deep inside the pocket coordinated by three histidines and a glutamate. Auxin binds within this pocket, with its carboxylate binding the zinc and its aromatic ring binding hydrophobic residues including Trp151. There is a single disulfide between Cys2 and Cys155. No conformational rearrangement of ABP1 was observed when auxin bound to the protein in the crystal, but examination of the structure reveals a possible mechanism of signal transduction. PMID:12065401

  7. Functional redundancies, distinct localizations and interactions among three fission yeast homologs of centromere protein-B.

    PubMed Central

    Irelan, J T; Gutkin, G I; Clarke, L

    2001-01-01

    Several members of protein families that are conserved in higher eukaryotes are known to play a role in centromere function in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe, including two homologs of the mammalian centromere protein CENP-B, Abp1p and Cbh1p. Here we characterize a third S. pombe CENP-B homolog, Cbh2p (CENP-B homolog 2). cbh2Delta strains exhibited a modest elevation in minichromosome loss, similar to cbh1Delta or abp1Delta strains. cbh2Delta cbh1Delta strains showed little difference in growth or minichromosome loss rate when compared to single deletion strains. In contrast, cbh2Delta abp1Delta strains displayed dramatic morphological and chromosome segregation defects, as well as enhancement of the slow-growth phenotype of abp1Delta strains, indicating partial functional redundancy between these proteins. Both cbh2Delta abp1Delta and cbh1Delta abp1Delta strains also showed strongly enhanced sensitivity to a microtubule-destabilizing drug, consistent with a mitotic function for these proteins. Cbh2p was localized to the central core and core-associated repeat regions of centromeric heterochromatin, but not at several other centromeric and arm locations tested. Thus, like its mammalian counterpart, Cbh2p appeared to be localized exclusively to a portion of centromeric heterochromatin. In contrast, Abp1p was detected in both centromeric heterochromatin and in chromatin at two of three replication origins tested. Cbh2p and Abp1p homodimerized in the budding yeast two-hybrid assay, but did not interact with each other. These results suggest that indirect cooperation between different CENP-B-like DNA binding proteins with partially overlapping chromatin distributions helps to establish a functional centromere. PMID:11238404

  8. Comparison of rabbit androgen binding protein with testosterone estradiol binding globulin--I. Physical and chemical properties.

    PubMed

    Cheng, S L; Kotite, N; Musto, N A

    1984-12-01

    Rabbit epididymal androgen binding protein (rbABP) and serum testosterone estradiol binding globulin (rbTeBG) were purified and their physicochemical properties compared. Both proteins bound dihydrotestosterone (DHT) with high affinity. Both contained two components, Heavy (H) and Light (L), and their molecular weights and pI values were comparable. rbABP and rbTeBG were different with regard to their ConA-Sepharose binding property. rbABP was not bound by ConA-Sepharose while rbTeBG was found and retained by this lectin; thus, rbABP and rbTeBG differed in their carbohydrate structure. Peptide mapping on SDS-PAGE indicated that the H components of rbABP and rbTeBG were distinct even though they showed a high degree of homology. By contrast, the L components of these two proteins appeared to be identical. The structure of the steroid binding sites of these two proteins was analyzed by peptide mapping of [1,2(3)H]17 beta hydroxy-androsta-4,6-dien-3-one photoaffinity labeled protein. The size distribution of radioactive peptide fragments generated appeared to be identical for these two proteins. However, the distribution of labeled peptides was slightly different when examined by high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC). The observations suggest that the differences between rbABP and rbTeBG might reside not only in carbohydrate moieties but also in their amino acid sequences.

  9. G-actin sequestering protein thymosin-β4 regulates the activity of myocardin-related transcription factor.

    PubMed

    Morita, Tsuyoshi; Hayashi, Ken'ichiro

    2013-08-02

    Myocardin-related transcription factors (MRTFs) are robust coactivators of serum response factor (SRF). MRTFs contain three copies of the RPEL motif at their N-terminus, and they bind to monomeric globular actin (G-actin). Previous studies illustrate that G-actin binding inhibits MRTF activity by preventing the MRTFs nuclear accumulation. In the living cells, the majority of G-actin is sequestered by G-actin binding proteins that prevent spontaneous actin polymerization. Here, we demonstrate that the most abundant G-actin sequestering protein thymosin-β4 (Tβ4) was involved in the regulation of subcellular localization and activity of MRTF-A. Tβ4 competed with MRTF-A for G-actin binding; thus, interfering with G-actin-MRTF-A complex formation. Tβ4 overexpression induced the MRTF-A nuclear accumulation and activation of MRTF-SRF signaling. The activation rate of MRTF-A by the Tβ4 mutant L17A, whose affinity for G-actin is very low, was lower than that by wild-type Tβ4. In contrast, the β-actin mutant 3DA, which has a lower affinity for Tβ4, more effectively suppressed MRTF-A activity than wild-type β-actin. Furthermore, ectopic Tβ4 increased the endogenous expression of SRF-dependent actin cytoskeletal genes. Thus, Tβ4 is an important MRTF regulator that controls the G-actin-MRTFs interaction.

  10. Imaging in vivo glutamate fluctuations with [11C]ABP688: a GLT-1 challenge with ceftriaxone

    PubMed Central

    R Zimmer, Eduardo; Parent, Maxime J; Leuzy, Antoine; Aliaga, Antonio; Aliaga, Arturo; Moquin, Luc; S Schirrmacher, Esther; Soucy, Jean-Paul; Skelin, Ivan; Gratton, Alain; Gauthier, Serge; Rosa-Neto, Pedro

    2015-01-01

    Molecular imaging offers unprecedented opportunities for investigating dynamic changes underlying neuropsychiatric conditions. Here, we evaluated whether [11C]ABP688, a positron emission tomography (PET) ligand that binds to the allosteric site of the metabotropic glutamate receptor type 5 (mGluR5), is sensitive to glutamate fluctuations after a pharmacological challenge. For this, we used ceftriaxone (CEF) administration in rats, an activator of the GLT-1 transporter (EAAT2), which is known to decrease extracellular levels of glutamate. MicroPET [11C]ABP688 dynamic acquisitions were conducted in rats after a venous injection of either saline (baseline) or CEF 200 mg/kg (challenge). Binding potentials (BPND) were obtained using the simplified reference tissue method. Between-condition statistical parametric maps indicating brain regions showing the highest CEF effects guided placement of microdialysis probes for subsequent assessment of extracellular levels of glutamate. The CEF administration increased [11C]ABP688 BPND in the thalamic ventral anterior (VA) nucleus bilaterally. Subsequent microdialysis assessment revealed declines in extracellular glutamate concentrations in the VA. The present results support the concept that availability of mGluR5 allosteric binding sites is sensitive to extracellular concentrations of glutamate. This interesting property of mGluR5 allosteric binding sites has potential applications for assessing the role of glutamate in the pathogenesis of neuropsychiatric conditions. PMID:25806702

  11. The historical (218 ± 14 aBP) explosive eruption of Tutupaca volcano (Southern Peru)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samaniego, Pablo; Valderrama, Patricio; Mariño, Jersy; van Wyk de Vries, Benjamín; Roche, Olivier; Manrique, Nélida; Chédeville, Corentin; Liorzou, Céline; Fidel, Lionel; Malnati, Judicaëlle

    2015-06-01

    The little known Tutupaca volcano (17° 01' S, 70° 21' W), located at the southern end of the Peruvian arc, is a dacitic dome complex that experienced a large explosive eruption during historical times. Based on historic chronicles and our radiometric data, this eruption occurred 218 ± 14 aBP, probably between 1787 and 1802 AD. This eruption was characterised by a large sector collapse that triggered a small debris avalanche (<1 km3) and an associated pyroclastic eruption whose bulk volume was 6.5-7.5 × 107 m3. Both units were emplaced synchronously and spread onto the plain situated to the northeast of Tutupaca volcano. The spatial and temporal relationship between the debris avalanche and the pyroclastic density current deposits, coupled with the petrological similarity between the juvenile fragments in the debris avalanche, the pyroclastic density current deposits and the pre-avalanche domes, indicates that juvenile magma was involved in the sector collapse. Large amounts of hydrothermally altered material are also found in the avalanche deposit. Thus, the ascent of a dacitic magma, coupled with the fact that the Tutupaca dome complex was constructed on top of an older, altered volcanic sequence, probably induced the destabilisation of the hydrothermally active edifice, producing the debris avalanche and its related pyroclastic density currents. This eruption probably represents the youngest debris avalanche in the Andes and was accompanied by one of the larger explosive events to have occurred in Southern Peru during historical times.

  12. Correlative nanoscale imaging of actin filaments and their complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Shivani; Zhu, Huanqi; Grintsevich, Elena E.; Reisler, Emil; Gimzewski, James K.

    2013-06-01

    Actin remodeling is an area of interest in biology in which correlative microscopy can bring a new way to analyze protein complexes at the nanoscale. Advances in EM, X-ray diffraction, fluorescence, and single molecule techniques have provided a wealth of information about the modulation of the F-actin structure and its regulation by actin binding proteins (ABPs). Yet, there are technological limitations of these approaches to achieving quantitative molecular level information on the structural and biophysical changes resulting from ABPs interaction with F-actin. Fundamental questions about the actin structure and dynamics and how these determine the function of ABPs remain unanswered. Specifically, how local and long-range structural and conformational changes result in ABPs induced remodeling of F-actin needs to be addressed at the single filament level. Advanced, sensitive and accurate experimental tools for detailed understanding of ABP-actin interactions are much needed. This article discusses the current understanding of nanoscale structural and mechanical modulation of F-actin by ABPs at the single filament level using several correlative microscopic techniques, focusing mainly on results obtained by Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) analysis of ABP-actin complexes.

  13. Effect of starch and amylase on the expression of amylase-binding protein A in Streptococcus gordonii.

    PubMed

    Nikitkova, A E; Haase, E M; Scannapieco, F A

    2012-08-01

    Streptococcus gordonii is a common oral commensal bacterial species in tooth biofilm (dental plaque) and specifically binds to salivary amylase through the surface exposed amylase-binding protein A (AbpA). When S. gordonii cells are pretreated with amylase, amylase bound to AbpA facilitates growth with starch as a primary nutrition source. The goal of this study was to explore possible regulatory effects of starch, starch metabolites and amylase on the expression of S. gordonii AbpA. An amylase ligand-binding assay was used to assess the expression of AbpA in culture supernatants and on bacterial cells from S. gordonii grown in defined medium supplemented with 1% starch, 0.5 mg ml(-1) amylase, with starch and amylase together, or with various linear malto-oligosaccharides. Transcription of abpA was determined by reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction. AbpA was not detectable in culture supernatants containing either starch alone or amylase alone. In contrast, the amount of AbpA was notably increased when starch and amylase were both present in the medium. The expression of abpA was significantly increased (P < 0.05) following 40 min of incubation in defined medium supplemented with starch and amylase. Similar results were obtained in the presence of maltose and other short-chain malto-oligosacchrides. These results suggest that the products of starch hydrolysis produced from the action of salivary α-amylase, particularly maltose and maltotriose, up-regulate AbpA expression in S. gordonii.

  14. Complex roles of filamin-A mediated cytoskeleton network in cancer progression

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Filamin-A (FLNA), also called actin-binding protein 280 (ABP-280), was originally identified as a non-muscle actin binding protein, which organizes filamentous actin into orthogonal networks and stress fibers. Filamin-A also anchors various transmembrane proteins to the actin cytoskeleton and provides a scaffold for a wide range of cytoplasmic and nuclear signaling proteins. Intriguingly, several studies have revealed that filamin-A associates with multiple non-cytoskeletal proteins of diverse function and is involved in several unrelated pathways. Mutations and aberrant expression of filamin-A have been reported in human genetic diseases and several types of cancer. In this review, we discuss the implications of filamin-A in cancer progression, including metastasis and DNA damage response. PMID:23388158

  15. Specificity of mutagenesis by 4-aminobiphenyl: mutations at G residues in bacteriophage M13 DNA and G-->C transversions at a unique dG(8-ABP) lesion in single-stranded DNA.

    PubMed

    Verghis, S B; Essigmann, J M; Kadlubar, F F; Morningstar, M L; Lasko, D D

    1997-12-01

    Mutagenesis by the human bladder carcinogen 4-aminobiphenyl (ABP) was studied in single-stranded DNA from a bacteriophage M13 cloning vector. In comparison to ABP lesions in double-stranded DNA, lesions in single-stranded DNA were approximately 70-fold more mutagenic and 50-fold more genotoxic. Sequencing analysis of ABP-induced mutations in the lacZ gene revealed exclusively base-pair substitutions, with over 80% of the mutations occurring at G sites; the G at position 6310 accounted for 25% of the observed mutations. Among the sequence changes at G sites, G-->T transversions predominated, followed by G-->C transversions and G-->A transitions. In order to further elucidate the mutagenic mechanism of ABP, an oligonucleotide containing the major DNA adduct, N-(deoxyguanosin-8-yl)-4-aminobiphenyl (dG(8-ABP)), was situated within the PstI site of a single-stranded M13 genome. After in vivo replication of the adduct containing ABP-modified and control (unadducted) genomes, the mutational frequency and mutational specificity of the dG(8-ABP) lesion were determined. The targeted mutational efficiency was approximately 0.01%, and the primary mutation observed was the G-->C transversion. Thus dG(8-ABP), albeit weakly mutagenic at the PstI site, can contribute to the mutational spectrum of ABP lesions.

  16. Singlet CH domain containing human multidomain proteins: an inventory.

    PubMed

    Friedberg, Felix

    2010-03-01

    The actin cytoskeleton presents the basic force in processes such as cytokinesis, endocytosis, vesicular trafficking and cell migration. Here, we list 30 human singlet CH (calpononin homology/actin binding) containing multidomain molecules, each encoded by one gene. We show the domain distributions as given by the SMART program. These mosaic proteins organize geographically the placement of selected proteins in proximity within the cell. In most instances, their precise location, their actin binding capacity by way of the singlet CH (or by other domains?) and their physiological functions need further elucidation. A dendrogram based solely on the relationship for the human singlet CH domains (in terms of AA sequences) for the various molecules that possess the domain, implies that the singlet descended from a common ancestor which in turn sprouted three main branches of protein products. Each branch bifurcated multiple times thus accounting for a cornucopia of products. Wherever, additional (unassigned), highly homologous regions exist in related proteins (e.g., in LIM and LMO7 or in Tangerin and EH/BP1), these unrecognized domain regions await assignment as specific functional domains. Frequently genes coding multidomain proteins duplicated. The varying modular nature within multidomain proteins should have accelerated evolutionary changes to a degree not feasible to achieve by means of mere post-duplication mutational changes.

  17. The PDZ Domain of the LIM Protein Enigma Binds to β-Tropomyosin

    PubMed Central

    Guy, Pamela M.; Kenny, Daryn A.; Gill, Gordon N.

    1999-01-01

    PDZ and LIM domains are modular protein interaction motifs present in proteins with diverse functions. Enigma is representative of a family of proteins composed of a series of conserved PDZ and LIM domains. The LIM domains of Enigma and its most related family member, Enigma homology protein, bind to protein kinases, whereas the PDZ domains of Enigma and family member actin-associated LIM protein bind to actin filaments. Enigma localizes to actin filaments in fibroblasts via its PDZ domain, and actin-associated LIM protein binds to and colocalizes with the actin-binding protein α-actinin-2 at Z lines in skeletal muscle. We show that Enigma is present at the Z line in skeletal muscle and that the PDZ domain of Enigma binds to a skeletal muscle target, the actin-binding protein tropomyosin (skeletal β-TM). The interaction between Enigma and skeletal β-TM was specific for the PDZ domain of Enigma, was abolished by mutations in the PDZ domain, and required the PDZ-binding consensus sequence (Thr-Ser-Leu) at the extreme carboxyl terminus of skeletal β-TM. Enigma interacted with isoforms of tropomyosin expressed in C2C12 myotubes and formed an immunoprecipitable complex with skeletal β-TM in transfected cells. The association of Enigma with skeletal β-TM suggests a role for Enigma as an adapter protein that directs LIM-binding proteins to actin filaments of muscle cells. PMID:10359609

  18. Crystallization and preliminary crystallographic analysis of Abp, a GH27 β-L-arabinopyranosidase from Geobacillus stearothermophilus.

    PubMed

    Lansky, Shifra; Salama, Rachel; Solomon, Vered H; Belrhali, Hassan; Shoham, Yuval; Shoham, Gil

    2013-06-01

    Geobacillus stearothermophilus T-6 is a thermophilic soil bacterium that possesses an extensive system for the utilization of hemicellulose. The bacterium produces a small number of endo-acting extracellular enzymes that cleave high-molecular-weight hemicellulolytic polymers into short decorated oligosaccharides, which are further hydrolysed into the respective sugar monomers by a battery of intracellular glycoside hydrolases. One of these intracellular processing enzymes is β-L-arabinopyranosidase (Abp), which is capable of removing β-L-arabinopyranose residues from naturally occurring arabino-polysaccharides. As arabino-polymers constitute a significant part of the hemicellulolytic content of plant biomass, their efficient enzymatic degradation presents an important challenge for many potential biotechnological applications. This aspect has led to an increasing interest in the biochemical characterization and structural analysis of this and related hemicellulases. Abp from G. stearothermophilus T-6 has recently been cloned, overexpressed, purified, biochemically characterized and crystallized in our laboratory, as part of its complete structure-function study. The best crystals obtained for this enzyme belonged to the primitive orthorhombic space group P2(1)2(1)2(1), with average unit-cell parameters a = 107.7, b = 202.2, c = 287.3 Å. Full diffraction data sets to 2.3 Å resolution have been collected for both the wild-type enzyme and its D197A catalytic mutant from flash-cooled crystals at 100 K, using synchrotron radiation. These data are currently being used for a high-resolution three-dimensional structure determination of Abp.

  19. ASP-56, a new actin sequestering protein from pig platelets with homology to CAP, an adenylate cyclase-associated protein from yeast.

    PubMed

    Gieselmann, R; Mann, K

    1992-02-24

    A new 56 kDa actin-binding protein (ASP-56) was isolated from pig platelet lysate. In falling ball viscosimetry it caused a reduction in viscosity that could be attributed to a decrease in the concentration of polymeric actin. Fluorescence measurements with NBD-labelled actin showed reduction of polymeric actin, too. These results could be explained by sequestering of actin in a non-polymerizable 1:1 ASP-56/actin complex. Sequencing of about 20 tryptic peptides of ASP-56 and comparison with known sequences revealed about 60% homology to the adenylate cyclase-associated protein (CAP) from yeast.

  20. Structural Determination of Biomolecules in Microfluidic Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butler, John C.; Menard, Etienne; Rogers, John A.; Wong, Gerard C. L.

    2004-03-01

    Supramolecular biological complexes are often too large to be crystallized for structural studies. Here, we explore the use of microfluidic arrays to order a model self-assembled cytoskeletal system. Filamentous actin (F-actin) is a negatively charged protein rod and is a key structural component in the eukaryotic cytoskeleton. In this context, F-actin can self-assemble with actin binding proteins (ABP) in a highly regulated manner to dynamically form structures for a wide range of biomechanical functions. In this work, we will systematically study the action of 3 types of actin binding proteins (a-actinin, fimbrin, cofilin) on the self-assembled structures of F-actin that have been aligned in microfluidic arrays.

  1. Structural and viscoelastic properties of actin networks formed by espin or pathologically relevant espin mutants.

    PubMed

    Lieleg, Oliver; Schmoller, Kurt M; Purdy Drew, Kirstin R; Claessens, Mireille M A E; Semmrich, Christine; Zheng, Lili; Bartles, James R; Bausch, Andreas R

    2009-11-09

    The structural organization of the cytoskeleton determines its viscoelastic response which is crucial for the correct functionality of living cells. Both the mechanical response and microstructure of the cytoskeleton are regulated on a microscopic level by the local activation of different actin binding and/or bundling proteins (ABPs). Misregulations in the expression of these ABPs or mutations in their sequence can entail severe cellular dysfunctions and diseases. Here, we study the structural and viscoelastic properties of reconstituted actin networks cross-linked by the ABP espin and compare the obtained network properties to those of other bundled actin networks. Moreover, we quantify the impact of pathologically relevant espin mutations on the viscoelastic properties of these cytoskeletal networks.

  2. Membrane skeleton orchestrates the platelet glycoprotein (GP) Ib-IX complex clustering and signaling.

    PubMed

    Shang, Dan; Zhang, Zuping; Wang, Qian; Ran, Yali; Shaw, Tanner S; Van, John N; Peng, Yuandong

    2016-10-01

    Platelet glycoprotein Ib-IX complex is affixed to the membrane skeleton through interaction with actin binding protein 280 (ABP-280). We find that removal of the ABP-280 binding sites in GP Ibα cytoplasmic tail has little impact on the complex clustering induced by antibody crosslinking. However, large truncation of the GP Ibα cytoplasmic tail allows the formation of larger patches of the complex, suggesting that an ABP-280 independent force may exist. Besides, we observe that the signaling upon GP Ib-IX clustering is elicited in both membrane lipid domain dependent and independent manner, a choice that relies on how the membrane skeleton interacts with the complex. Our findings suggest a more complex mechanism for how the membrane skeleton regulates the GP Ib-IX function. © 2016 IUBMB Life, 68(10):823-829, 2016.

  3. A structural study of F-actin - filamin networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahrens-Braunstein, Ashley; Nguyen, Lam; Hirst, Linda

    2010-03-01

    The cell's ability to move and contract is attributed to the semi-flexible filamentous protein, F -actin, one of the three filaments in the cytoskeleton. Actin bundling can be formed by a cross-linking actin binding protein (ABP) filamin. By examining filamin's cross-linking abilities at different concentrations and molar ratios, we can study the flexibility, structure and multiple network formations created when cross-linking F-actin with this protein. We have studied the phase diagram of this protein system using fluorescence microscopy, analyzing the network structures observed in the context of a coarse grained molecular dynamics simulation carried out by our group.

  4. Drosophilia spectrin. I. Characterization of the purified protein.

    PubMed

    Dubreuil, R; Byers, T J; Branton, D; Goldstein, L S; Kiehart, D P

    1987-11-01

    We purified a protein from Drosophila S3 tissue culture cells that has many of the diagnostic features of spectrin from vertebrate organisms: (a) The protein consists of two equimolar subunits (Mr = 234 and 226 kD) that can be reversibly cross-linked into a complex composed of equal amounts of the two subunits. (b) Electron microscopy of the native molecule reveals two intertwined, elongated strands with a contour length of 180 nm. (c) Antibodies directed against vertebrate spectrin react with the Drosophila protein and, similarly, antibodies to the Drosophila protein react with vertebrate spectrins. One monoclonal antibody has been found to react with both of the Drosophila subunits and with both subunits of vertebrate brain spectrin. (d) The Drosophila protein exhibits both actin-binding and calcium-dependent calmodulin-binding activities. Based on the above criteria, this protein appears to be a bona fide member of the spectrin family of proteins.

  5. Identification of albumin-binding proteins in capillary endothelial cells

    PubMed Central

    1988-01-01

    Isolated fat tissue microvessels and lung, whose capillary endothelia express in situ specific binding sites for albumin, were homogenized and subjected to SDS-gel electrophoresis and electroblotting. The nitrocellulose strips were incubated with either albumin-gold (Alb-Au) and directly visualized, or with [125I]albumin (monomeric or polymeric) and autoradiographed. The extracts of both microvascular endothelium and the lung express albumin-binding proteins (ABPs) represented by two pairs of polypeptides with major components of molecular mass 31 and 18 kD. The ABP peptides have pIs 8.05 to 8.75. Rabbit aortic endothelium, used as control, does not express detectable amounts of ABPs. The ABPs subjected to electrophoresis bind specifically and with high affinity (Kd = approximately 60 X 10(-9)M) both monomeric and polymeric albumin: the binding is saturable at approximately 80 nM concentration and 50% inhibition is reached at 5.5 micrograms/ml albumin concentration. Sulfhydryl-reducing agents beta-mercaptoethanol and dithiothreitol do not markedly affect the ABPs electrophoretic mobility and binding properties. As indicated by cell surface iodination of isolated capillary endothelium followed by electroblotting, autoradiography, and incubation with Alb-Au, the bands specifically stained by this ligand are also labeled with radioiodine. PMID:2839518

  6. Purification of Capping Protein Using the Capping Protein Binding Site of CARMIL as an Affinity Matrix

    PubMed Central

    Remmert, Kirsten; Uruno, Takehito; Hammer, John A.

    2009-01-01

    Capping Protein (CP) is a ubiquitously expressed, heterodimeric actin binding protein that is essential for normal actin dynamics in cells. The existing methods for purifying native CP from tissues and recombinant CP from bacteria are time-consuming processes that involve numerous conventional chromatographic steps and functional assays to achieve a homogeneous preparation of the protein. Here we report the rapid purification of Acanthamoeba CP from amoeba extracts and recombinant mouse CP from E. coli extracts using as an affinity matrix GST fusion proteins containing the CP binding site from Acanthamoeba CARMIL and mouse CARMIL-1, respectively. This improved method for CP purification should facilitate the in vitro analysis of CP structure, function and regulation. PMID:19427903

  7. Purification of capping protein using the capping protein binding site of CARMIL as an affinity matrix.

    PubMed

    Remmert, Kirsten; Uruno, Takehito; Hammer, John A

    2009-10-01

    Capping protein (CP) is a ubiquitously expressed, heterodimeric actin binding protein that is essential for normal actin dynamics in cells. The existing methods for purifying native CP from tissues and recombinant CP from bacteria are time-consuming processes that involve numerous conventional chromatographic steps and functional assays to achieve a homogeneous preparation of the protein. Here, we report the rapid purification of Acanthamoeba CP from amoeba extracts and recombinant mouse CP from E. coli extracts using as an affinity matrix GST-fusion proteins containing the CP binding site from Acanthamoeba CARMIL and mouse CARMIL-1, respectively. This improved method for CP purification should facilitate the in vitro analysis of CP structure, function, and regulation.

  8. Cofilin is an essential component of the yeast cortical cytoskeleton

    PubMed Central

    1993-01-01

    We have biochemically identified the Saccharomyces cerevisiae homologue of the mammalian actin binding protein cofilin. Cofilin and related proteins isolated from diverse organisms are low molecular weight proteins (15-20 kD) that possess several activities in vitro. All bind to monomeric actin and sever filaments, and some can stably associate with filaments. In this study, we demonstrate using viscosity, sedimentation, and actin assembly rate assays that yeast cofilin (16 kD) possesses all of these properties. Cloning and sequencing of the S. cerevisiae cofilin gene (COF1) revealed that yeast cofilin is 41% identical in amino acid sequence to mammalian cofilin and, surprisingly, has homology to a protein outside the family of cofilin- like proteins. The NH2-terminal 16kD of Abp1p, a 65-kD yeast protein identified by its ability to bind to actin filaments, is 23% identical to yeast cofilin. Immunofluorescence experiments showed that, like Abp1p, cofilin is associated with the membrane actin cytoskeleton. A complete disruption of the COF1 gene was created in diploid cells. Sporulation and tetrad analysis revealed that yeast cofilin has an essential function in vivo. Although Abp1p shares sequence similarity with cofilin and has the same distribution as cofilin in the cell, multiple copies of the ABP1 gene cannot compensate for the loss of cofilin. Thus, cofilin and Abp1p are structurally related but functionally distinct components of the yeast membrane cytoskeleton. PMID:8421056

  9. The ADF/cofilin family: actin-remodeling proteins.

    PubMed

    Maciver, Sutherland K; Hussey, Patrick J

    2002-01-01

    The ADF/cofilins are a family of actin-binding proteins expressed in all eukaryotic cells so far examined. Members of this family remodel the actin cytoskeleton, for example during cytokinesis, when the actin-rich contractile ring shrinks as it contracts through the interaction of ADF/cofilins with both monomeric and filamentous actin. The depolymerizing activity is twofold: ADF/cofilins sever actin filaments and also increase the rate at which monomers leave the filament's pointed end. The three-dimensional structure of ADF/cofilins is similar to a fold in members of the gelsolin family of actin-binding proteins in which this fold is typically repeated three or six times; although both families bind polyphosphoinositide lipids and actin in a pH-dependent manner, they share no obvious sequence similarity. Plants and animals have multiple ADF/cofilin genes, belonging in vertebrates to two types, ADF and cofilins. Other eukaryotes (such as yeast, Acanthamoeba and slime moulds) have a single ADF/cofilin gene. Phylogenetic analysis of the ADF/cofilins reveals that, with few exceptions, their relationships reflect conventional views of the relationships between the major groups of organisms.

  10. Evidence for an uncommon alpha-actinin protein in Trichomonas vaginalis.

    PubMed

    Bricheux, G; Coffe, G; Pradel, N; Brugerolle, G

    1998-09-15

    As part of our ongoing project of identification of actin-binding proteins implicated in the cell transition (flagellate to amoeboid/adherent) of Trichomonas vaginalis, we have characterized an alpha-actinin-related protein in this parasite. The protein (P100) has a molecular mass of 100 kDa and an isoelectric point of 5.5. A monoclonal antibody raised against this protein co-localizes with the actin network. P100 gene transcripts are co-expressed with actin throughout the cell cycle. Analysis of the deduced protein sequence reveals three domains: an N-terminal actin-binding region; a central region rich in alpha-helix; and a C-terminal domain with Ca(2+)-binding capacity. Whereas the N- and C-terminal regions are well-conserved as compared to other alpha-actinins, we observe in the central region an atypical distribution of residues in five repeats. The sequence of the repeats does not show any homology with the rod domain of the other alpha-actinins, except for the first repeat which shows some similarity. The four other repeats of T. vaginalis P100 appear to result from a duplication event which is not detectable in the other sequences.

  11. Cyclase-associated proteins: CAPacity for linking signal transduction and actin polymerization.

    PubMed

    Hubberstey, Andrew V; Mottillo, Emilio P

    2002-04-01

    Many extracellular signals elicit changes in the actin cytoskeleton, which are mediated through an array of signaling proteins and pathways. One family of proteins that plays a role in regulating actin remodeling in response to cellular signals are the cyclase-associated proteins (CAPs). CAPs are highly conserved monomeric actin binding proteins present in a wide range of organisms including yeast, fly, plants, and mammals. The original CAP was isolated as a component of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae adenylyl cyclase complex that serves as an effector of Ras during nutritional signaling. CAPs are multifunctional molecules that contain domains involved in actin binding, adenylyl cyclase association in yeast, SH3 binding, and oligomerization. Genetic studies in yeast have implicated CAPs in vesicle trafficking and endocytosis. CAPs play a developmental role in multicellular organisms, and studies of Drosophila have illuminated the importance of the actin cytoskeleton during eye development and in establishing oocyte polarity. This review will highlight the critical structural and functional domains of CAPs, describe recent studies that have implied important roles for these proteins in linking cell signaling with actin polymerization, and highlight their roles in vesicle trafficking and development.

  12. Evolution of the ABPA subunit of androgen-binding protein expressed in the submaxillary glands in New and Old World rodent taxa.

    PubMed

    Vandewege, Michael W; Phillips, Carleton J; Wickliffe, Jeffrey K; Hoffmann, Federico G

    2013-05-01

    The salivary androgen-binding proteins (ABPs) are members of the secretoglobin gene family present in mammals. Each ABP is a heterodimer assembled as an ABPA subunit encoded by an Abpa gene and linked by disulfide bridges to an ABPBG subunit encoded by an Abpbg gene. The ABP dimers are secreted into the saliva of mice and then transferred to the pelage after grooming and subsequently to the environment allowing an animal to mark territory with a biochemical signal. The putative role of the mouse salivary ABPs is that of pheromones mediating mate selection resulting in assortative mating in the Mus musculus species complex. We focused on comparing patterns of molecular evolution between the Abpa genes expressed in the submaxillary glands of species of New World and Old World muroids. We found that in both sets of rodents the Abpa genes expressed in the submaxillary glands appear to be evolving under a similar evolutionary regime, with relatively high nonsynonymous substitution rates, suggesting that ABP might play a similar biological role in both systems. Thus, ABP could be involved with mate recognition and species isolation in New World as well as Old World muroids.

  13. Protein-protein interaction network analysis of cirrhosis liver disease

    PubMed Central

    Safaei, Akram; Rezaei Tavirani, Mostafa; Arefi Oskouei, Afsaneh; Zamanian Azodi, Mona; Mohebbi, Seyed Reza; Nikzamir, Abdol Rahim

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Evaluation of biological characteristics of 13 identified proteins of patients with cirrhotic liver disease is the main aim of this research. Background: In clinical usage, liver biopsy remains the gold standard for diagnosis of hepatic fibrosis. Evaluation and confirmation of liver fibrosis stages and severity of chronic diseases require a precise and noninvasive biomarkers. Since the early detection of cirrhosis is a clinical problem, achieving a sensitive, specific and predictive novel method based on biomarkers is an important task. Methods: Essential analysis, such as gene ontology (GO) enrichment and protein-protein interactions (PPI) was undergone EXPASy, STRING Database and DAVID Bioinformatics Resources query. Results: Based on GO analysis, most of proteins are located in the endoplasmic reticulum lumen, intracellular organelle lumen, membrane-enclosed lumen, and extracellular region. The relevant molecular functions are actin binding, metal ion binding, cation binding and ion binding. Cell adhesion, biological adhesion, cellular amino acid derivative, metabolic process and homeostatic process are the related processes. Protein-protein interaction network analysis introduced five proteins (fibroblast growth factor receptor 4, tropomyosin 4, tropomyosin 2 (beta), lectin, Lectin galactoside-binding soluble 3 binding protein and apolipoprotein A-I) as hub and bottleneck proteins. Conclusion: Our result indicates that regulation of lipid metabolism and cell survival are important biological processes involved in cirrhosis disease. More investigation of above mentioned proteins will provide a better understanding of cirrhosis disease. PMID:27099671

  14. Crystal structure of human coactosin-like protein at 1.9 Å resolution

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xuemei; Liu, Xueqi; Lou, Zhiyong; Duan, Xin; Wu, Hao; Liu, Yiwei; Rao, Zihe

    2004-01-01

    Human coactosin-like protein (CLP) shares high homology with coactosin, a filamentous (F)-actin binding protein, and interacts with 5LO and F-actin. As a tumor antigen, CLP is overexpressed in tumor tissue cells or cell lines, and the encoded epitopes can be recognized by cellular and humoral immune systems. To gain a better understanding of its various functions and interactions with related proteins, the crystal structure of CLP expressed in Escherichia coli has been determined to 1.9 Å resolution. The structure features a central β-sheet surrounded by helices, with two very tight hydrophobic cores on each side of the sheet. CLP belongs to the actin depolymerizing protein superfamily, and is similar to yeast cofilin and actophilin. Based on our structural analysis, we observed that CLP forms a polymer along the crystallographic b axis with the exact same repeat distance as F-actin. A model for the CLP polymer and F-actin binding has therefore been proposed. PMID:15459340

  15. Actin-crosslinking protein regulation of filament movement in motility assays: a theoretical model.

    PubMed Central

    Janson, L W; Taylor, D L

    1994-01-01

    The interaction of single actin filaments on a myosin-coated coverslip has been modeled by several authors. One model adds a component of "frictional drag" by myosin heads that oppose movement of the actin filaments. We have extended this concept by including the resistive drag from actin crosslinking proteins to understand better the relationship among crosslinking number, actin-myosin force generation, and motility. The validity of this model is supported by agreement with the experimental results from a previous study in which crosslinking proteins were added with myosin molecules under otherwise standard motility assay conditions. The theoretical relationship provides a means to determine many physical parameters that characterize the interaction between a single actin filament and a single actin-crosslinking molecule (various types). In particular, the force constant of a single filamin molecule is calculated as 1.105 pN, approximately 3 times less than a driving myosin head (3.4 pN). Knowledge of this parameter and others derived from this model allows a better understanding of the interaction between myosin and the actin/actin-binding protein cytoskeleton and the role of actin-binding proteins in the regulation and modulation of motility. PMID:7811954

  16. Levels of H-ras codon 61 CAA to AAA mutation: response to 4-ABP-treatment and Pms2-deficiency.

    PubMed

    Parsons, Barbara L; Delongchamp, Robert R; Beland, Frederick A; Heflich, Robert H

    2006-01-01

    DNA mismatch repair (MMR) deficiencies result in increased frequencies of spontaneous mutation and tumor formation. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that a chemically-induced mutational response would be greater in a mouse with an MMR-deficiency than in the MMR-proficient mouse models commonly used to assay for chemical carcinogenicity. To accomplish this, the induction of H-ras codon 61 CAA-->AAA mutation was examined in Pms2 knockout mice (Pms2-/-, C57BL/6 background) and sibling wild-type mice (Pms2+/+). Groups of five or six neonatal male mice were treated with 0.3 micromol 4-aminobiphenyl (4-ABP) or the vehicle control, dimethylsulfoxide. Eight months after treatment, liver DNAs were isolated and analysed for levels of H-ras codon 61 CAA-->AAA mutation using allele-specific competitive blocker-PCR. In Pms2-proficient and Pms2-deficient mice, 4-ABP treatment caused an increase in mutant fraction (MF) from 1.65x10(-5) to 2.91x10(-5) and from 3.40x10(-5) to 4.70x10(-5), respectively. Pooling data from 4-ABP-treated and control mice, the approximately 2-fold increase in MF observed in Pms2-deficient as compared with Pms2-proficient mice was statistically significant (P=0.0207) and consistent with what has been reported previously in terms of induction of G:C-->T:A mutation in a Pms2-deficient background. Pooling data from both genotypes, the increase in H-ras MF in 4-ABP-treated mice, as compared with control mice, did not reach the 95% confidence level of statistical significance (P=0.0606). The 4-ABP treatment caused a 1.76-fold and 1.38-fold increase in average H-ras MF in Pms2-proficient and Pms2-deficient mice, respectively. Furthermore, the levels of induced mutation in Pms2-proficient and Pms2-deficient mice were nearly identical (1.26x10(-5) and 1.30x10(-5), respectively). We conclude that Pms2-deficiency does not result in an amplification of the H-ras codon 61 CAA-->AAA mutational response induced by 4-ABP.

  17. An antifungal protein from Ginkgo biloba binds actin and can trigger cell death.

    PubMed

    Gao, Ningning; Wadhwani, Parvesh; Mühlhäuser, Philipp; Liu, Qiong; Riemann, Michael; Ulrich, Anne S; Nick, Peter

    2016-07-01

    Ginkbilobin is a short antifungal protein that had been purified and cloned from the seeds of the living fossil Ginkgo biloba. Homologues of this protein can be detected in all seed plants and the heterosporic fern Selaginella and are conserved with respect to domain structures, peptide motifs, and specific cysteine signatures. To get insight into the cellular functions of these conserved motifs, we expressed green fluorescent protein fusions of full-length and truncated ginkbilobin in tobacco BY-2 cells. We show that the signal peptide confers efficient secretion of ginkbilobin. When this signal peptide is either cleaved or masked, ginkbilobin binds and visualizes the actin cytoskeleton. This actin-binding activity of ginkbilobin is mediated by a specific subdomain just downstream of the signal peptide, and this subdomain can also coassemble with actin in vitro. Upon stable overexpression of this domain, we observe a specific delay in premitotic nuclear positioning indicative of a reduced dynamicity of actin. To elucidate the cellular response to the binding of this subdomain to actin, we use chemical engineering based on synthetic peptides comprising different parts of the actin-binding subdomain conjugated with the cell-penetrating peptide BP100 and with rhodamine B as a fluorescent reporter. Binding of this synthetic construct to actin efficiently induces programmed cell death. We discuss these findings in terms of a working model, where ginkbilobin can activate actin-dependent cell death.

  18. Parametric modelling of cardiac system multiple measurement signals: an open-source computer framework for performance evaluation of ECG, PCG and ABP event detectors.

    PubMed

    Homaeinezhad, M R; Sabetian, P; Feizollahi, A; Ghaffari, A; Rahmani, R

    2012-02-01

    The major focus of this study is to present a performance accuracy assessment framework based on mathematical modelling of cardiac system multiple measurement signals. Three mathematical algebraic subroutines with simple structural functions for synthetic generation of the synchronously triggered electrocardiogram (ECG), phonocardiogram (PCG) and arterial blood pressure (ABP) signals are described. In the case of ECG signals, normal and abnormal PQRST cycles in complicated conditions such as fascicular ventricular tachycardia, rate dependent conduction block and acute Q-wave infarctions of inferior and anterolateral walls can be simulated. Also, continuous ABP waveform with corresponding individual events such as systolic, diastolic and dicrotic pressures with normal or abnormal morphologies can be generated by another part of the model. In addition, the mathematical synthetic PCG framework is able to generate the S4-S1-S2-S3 cycles in normal and in cardiac disorder conditions such as stenosis, insufficiency, regurgitation and gallop. In the PCG model, the amplitude and frequency content (5-700 Hz) of each sound and variation patterns can be specified. The three proposed models were implemented to generate artificial signals with varies abnormality types and signal-to-noise ratios (SNR), for quantitative detection-delineation performance assessment of several ECG, PCG and ABP individual event detectors designed based on the Hilbert transform, discrete wavelet transform, geometric features such as area curve length (ACLM), the multiple higher order moments (MHOM) metric, and the principal components analysed geometric index (PCAGI). For each method the detection-delineation operating characteristics were obtained automatically in terms of sensitivity, positive predictivity and delineation (segmentation) error rms and checked by the cardiologist. The Matlab m-file script of the synthetic ECG, ABP and PCG signal generators are available in the Appendix.

  19. Functional assignment to JEV proteins using SVM

    PubMed Central

    Sahoo, Ganesh Chandra; Dikhit, Manas Ranjan; Das, Pradeep

    2008-01-01

    Identification of different protein functions facilitates a mechanistic understanding of Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) infection and opens novel means for drug development. Support vector machines (SVM), useful for predicting the functional class of distantly related proteins, is employed to ascribe a possible functional class to Japanese encephalitis virus protein. Our study from SVMProt and available JE virus sequences suggests that structural and nonstructural proteins of JEV genome possibly belong to diverse protein functions, are expected to occur in the life cycle of JE virus. Protein functions common to both structural and non-structural proteins are iron-binding, metal-binding, lipid-binding, copper-binding, transmembrane, outer membrane, channels/Pores - Pore-forming toxins (proteins and peptides) group of proteins. Non-structural proteins perform functions like actin binding, zinc-binding, calcium-binding, hydrolases, Carbon-Oxygen Lyases, P-type ATPase, proteins belonging to major facilitator family (MFS), secreting main terminal branch (MTB) family, phosphotransfer-driven group translocators and ATP-binding cassette (ABC) family group of proteins. Whereas structural proteins besides belonging to same structural group of proteins (capsid, structural, envelope), they also perform functions like nuclear receptor, antibiotic resistance, RNA-binding, DNA-binding, magnesium-binding, isomerase (intra-molecular), oxidoreductase and participate in type II (general) secretory pathway (IISP). PMID:19052658

  20. Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Composite Actin Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gardel, Margaret; Shin, Jennifer; Mahadevan, L.; Matsudaira, Paul; Weitz, D. A.

    2003-03-01

    There exits a family of actin-binding proteins (ABPs) and each protein has a distinct function for bundling, networking, gelating, capping, or simply binding to actin. Whether actin serves as a structural or motile component, its mechanical properties are determined by its degree and kinds of association with different ABPs and these properties are often closely related to its functional needs. For instance, in a cell actin is highly crosslinked with multiple ABPs (fimbrin, alpha-actinin, etc.) to generate thrust and strength for locomotion. In the acrosomal reaction of horseshoe crab sperm, actin exists as a bundle of preassembled filaments crosslinked with scruin to form a rigid structure to penetrate into an egg without yielding. We study the effects three different ABPs (scruin,fimbrin and alpha-actinin) have on the rheology and microstructure of actin networks using multiparticle tracking, imaging, and bulk rheology. From these experiments we can deduce how an evolving microstructure affects the bulk rheological properties and the role different concentrations and kinds of ABPs have in these changes.

  1. Modulation of rat and human cytochromes P450 involved in PhIP and 4-ABP activation by an aqueous extract of Phyllanthus orbicularis.

    PubMed

    Ferrer, Mirle; Cristófol, Carles; Sánchez-Lamar, Angel; Fuentes, Jorge Luís; Barbé, Jordi; Llagostera, Montserrat

    2004-02-01

    Phyllanthus orbicularis HBK (Euphorbiaceae) is a medicinal plant, endemic to Cuba, whose aqueous extract has proven antimutagenic effects against hydrogen peroxide and some promutagenic aromatic amines (AAs), in addition to its antiviral properties. In this paper, antimutagenesis of this extract against two carcinogenic AAs, 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) and 4-aminobiphenyl (4-ABP) has been studied. Liver microsomal fractions from both induced rats and humans were used to metabolise both procarcinogenic compounds in the Salmonella assay. The plant extract was effective in reducing the mutagenesis of these AAs, activated by both kinds of fractions. The optimal antimutagenic effect was obtained when both AAs were metabolised by human enzymes, with an almost total reduction of 4-ABP mutagenesis and a decrease of about 75% of PhIP mutagenicity. Mutagenicity of both AAs, activated by induced rat fraction, was only decreased by about 50%. Inhibition by plant extract of alkoxyresorufin O-dealkylation activities, dependent on CYP1A, of both fractions was determined. In accordance with the results obtained, the inhibition or modulation of CYP1A subfamily activities, and possibly of CYP1A2, is thought to be the main mechanism of antimutagenesis of the aqueous extract of Phyllanthus orbicularis against 4-ABP and PhIP.

  2. Structure of amylase-binding protein A of Streptococcus gordonii: a potential receptor for human salivary α-amylase enzyme.

    PubMed

    Sethi, Ashish; Mohanty, Biswaranjan; Ramasubbu, Narayanan; Gooley, Paul R

    2015-06-01

    Amylase-binding protein A (AbpA) of a number of oral streptococci is essential for the colonization of the dental pellicle. We have determined the solution structure of residues 24-195 of AbpA of Streptococcus gordonii and show a well-defined core of five helices in the region of 45-115 and 135-145. (13) Cα/β chemical shift and heteronuclear (15) N-{(1) H} NOE data are consistent with this fold and that the remainder of the protein is unstructured. The structure will inform future molecular experiments in defining the mechanism of human salivary α-amylase binding and biofilm formation by streptococci.

  3. Actin complexes in the cell nucleus: new stones in an old field.

    PubMed

    Castano, E; Philimonenko, V V; Kahle, M; Fukalová, J; Kalendová, A; Yildirim, S; Dzijak, R; Dingová-Krásna, H; Hozák, P

    2010-06-01

    Actin is a well-known protein that has shown a myriad of activities in the cytoplasm. However, recent findings of actin involvement in nuclear processes are overwhelming. Actin complexes in the nucleus range from very dynamic chromatin-remodeling complexes to structural elements of the matrix with single partners known as actin-binding proteins (ABPs). This review summarizes the recent findings of actin-containing complexes in the nucleus. Particular attention is given to key processes like chromatin remodeling, transcription, DNA replication, nucleocytoplasmic transport and to actin roles in nuclear architecture. Understanding the mechanisms involving ABPs will definitely lead us to the principles of the regulation of gene expression performed via concerting nuclear and cytoplasmic processes.

  4. Role of the actin bundling protein fascin in growth cone morphogenesis: localization in filopodia and lamellipodia.

    PubMed

    Cohan, C S; Welnhofer, E A; Zhao, L; Matsumura, F; Yamashiro, S

    2001-02-01

    Growth cones at the distal tips of growing nerve axons contain bundles of actin filaments distributed throughout the lamellipodium and that project into filopodia. The regulation of actin bundling by specific actin binding proteins is likely to play an important role in many growth cone behaviors. Although the actin binding protein, fascin, has been localized in growth cones, little information is available on its functional significance. We used the large growth cones of the snail Helisoma to determine whether fascin was involved in temporal changes in actin filaments during growth cone morphogenesis. Fascin localized to radially oriented actin bundles in lamellipodia (ribs) and filopodia. Using a fascin antibody and a GFP fascin construct, we found that fascin incorporated into actin bundles from the beginning of growth cone formation at the cut end of axons. Fascin associated with most of the actin bundle except the proximal 6--12% adjacent to the central domain, which is the region associated with actin disassembly. Later, during growth cone morphogenesis when actin ribs shortened, the proximal fascin-free zone of bundles increased, but fascin was retained in the distal, filopodial portion of bundles. Treatment with tumor promoter 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA), which phosphorylates fascin and decreases its affinity for actin, resulted in loss of all actin bundles from growth cones. Our findings suggest that fascin may be particularly important for the linear structure and dynamics of filopodia and for lamellipodial rib dynamics by regulating filament organization in bundles.

  5. In vitro refolding of heterodimeric CapZ expressed in E. coli as inclusion body protein.

    PubMed

    Remmert, K; Vullhorst, D; Hinssen, H

    2000-02-01

    CapZ is a heterodimeric Ca(2+)-independent actin binding protein which plays an important role in organizing the actin filament lattice of cross-striated muscle cells. It caps the barbed end of actin filaments and promotes nucleation of actin polymerization, thereby regulating actin filament length. Here we report the expression of the two muscle-specific isoforms alpha2 and beta1, from chicken in Escherichia coli as individual subunits using the pQE60 expression vector and the subsequent renaturation of the functional CapZ heterodimer from inclusion bodies. Optimal renaturation conditions were obtained both by simultaneous refolding of urea-solubilized subunits and by rapid dilution into a buffer containing 20% glycerol, 5 mM EGTA, 2 mM DTT, 1 mM PMSF, and 100 mM Tris, pH 7.4. The refolding mixture was incubated for 24 h at 15 degrees C and the protein was concentrated by ultrafiltration. Biochemical characterization of the recombinant heterodimer revealed actin binding activities indistinguishable from those of native CapZ as purified from chicken skeletal muscle. Using the same protocol, we were able to refold the beta1, but not the alpha2 isoform as a single polypeptide, indicating a role for beta1 as a molecular template for the folding of alpha2. The reported recombinant approach leads to high yields of active heterodimer and allows the renaturation and characterization of the beta subunit.

  6. Derivative of Extremophilic 50S Ribosomal Protein L35Ae as an Alternative Protein Scaffold

    PubMed Central

    Lomonosova, Anna V.; Ulitin, Andrei B.; Kazakov, Alexei S.; Mirzabekov, Tajib A.; Permyakov, Eugene A.

    2017-01-01

    Small antibody mimetics, or alternative binding proteins (ABPs), extend and complement antibody functionality with numerous applications in research, diagnostics and therapeutics. Given the superiority of ABPs, the last two decades have witnessed development of dozens of alternative protein scaffolds (APSs) for the design of ABPs. Proteins from extremophiles with their high structural stability are especially favorable for APS design. Here, a 10X mutant of the 50S ribosomal protein L35Ae from hyperthermophilic archaea Pyrococcus horikoshii has been probed as an APS. A phage display library of L35Ae 10X was generated by randomization of its three CDR-like loop regions (repertoire size of 2×108). Two L35Ae 10X variants specific to a model target, the hen egg-white lysozyme (HEL), were isolated from the resulting library using phage display. The affinity of these variants (L4 and L7) to HEL ranges from 0.10 μM to 1.6 μM, according to surface plasmon resonance data. While L4 has 1–2 orders of magnitude lower affinity to HEL homologue, bovine α-lactalbumin (BLA), L7 is equally specific to HEL and BLA. The reference L35Ae 10X is non-specific to both HEL and BLA. L4 and L7 are more resistant to denaturation by guanidine hydrochloride compared to the reference L35Ae 10X (mid-transition concentration is higher by 0.1–0.5 M). Chemical crosslinking experiments reveal an increased propensity of L4 and L7 to multimerization. Overall, the CDR-like loop regions of L35Ae 10X represent a proper interface for generation of functional ABPs. Hence, L35Ae is shown to extend the growing family of protein scaffolds dedicated to the design of novel binding proteins. PMID:28103321

  7. Morphology and viscoelasticity of actin networks formed with the mutually interacting crosslinkers: palladin and alpha-actinin.

    PubMed

    Grooman, Brian; Fujiwara, Ikuko; Otey, Carol; Upadhyaya, Arpita

    2012-01-01

    Actin filaments and associated actin binding proteins play an essential role in governing the mechanical properties of eukaryotic cells. Even though cells have multiple actin binding proteins (ABPs) that exist simultaneously to maintain the structural and mechanical integrity of the cellular cytoskeleton, how these proteins work together to determine the properties of actin networks is not clearly understood. The ABP, palladin, is essential for the maintenance of cell morphology and the regulation of cell movement. Palladin coexists with α-actinin in stress fibers and focal adhesions and binds to both actin and α-actinin. To obtain insight into how mutually interacting actin crosslinking proteins modulate the properties of actin networks, we characterized the micro-structure and mechanics of actin networks crosslinked with palladin and α-actinin. We first showed that palladin crosslinks actin filaments into bundled networks which are viscoelastic in nature. Our studies also showed that composite networks of α-actinin/palladin/actin behave very similar to pure palladin or pure [Formula: see text]-actinin networks. However, we found evidence that palladin and α-actinin synergistically modify network viscoelasticity. To our knowledge, this is the first quantitative characterization of the physical properties of actin networks crosslinked with two mutually interacting crosslinkers.

  8. Involvement of a small GTP binding protein in HIV-1 release

    PubMed Central

    Audoly, Gilles; Popoff, Michel R; Gluschankof, Pablo

    2005-01-01

    Background There is evidence suggesting that actin binding to HIV-1 encoded proteins, or even actin dynamics themselves, might play a key role in virus budding and/or release from the infected cell. A crucial step in the reorganisation of the actin cytoskeleton is the engagement of various different GTP binding proteins. We have thus studied the involvement of GTP-binding proteins in the final steps of the HIV-1 viral replication cycle. Results Our results demonstrate that virus production is abolished when cellular GTP binding proteins involved in actin polymerisation are inhibited with specific toxins. Conclusion We propose a new HIV budding working model whereby Gag interactions with pre-existing endosomal cellular tracks as well as with a yet non identified element of the actin polymerisation pathway are required in order to allow HIV-1 to be released from the infected cell. PMID:16080789

  9. Petrology and geochemistry of ca. 2100-1000 a.B.P. magmas of Augustine volcano, Alaska, based on analysis of prehistoric pumiceous tephra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tappen, Christine M.; Webster, James D.; Mandeville, Charles W.; Roderick, David

    2009-05-01

    Geochemical and textural features of whole-rock samples, phenocrysts, matrix glasses, and silicate melt inclusions from five prehistoric pumiceous tephra units of Augustine volcano, Alaska, were investigated to interpret processes of magma storage and evolution. The bulk-rock compositions of the tephra (designated G, erupted ca. 2100 a.B.P.; I ca. 1700 a.B.P.; H ca. 1400 a.B.P.; and C1 and C2 ca. 1000 a.B.P.) are silicic andesite; they contain rhyolitic matrix glasses and silicate melt inclusions with 74-79 wt.% SiO 2. The rocks are comprised of microlite-bearing matrix glass and phenocrysts of plagioclase, orthopyroxene, clinopyroxene, magnesio-hornblende, titanomagnetite, and ilmenite ± Al-rich amphibole with minor to trace apatite and rare sulfides and quartz. The felsic melt inclusions in plagioclase, pyroxenes, and amphibole are variably enriched in volatile components and contain 1.6-8.0 wt.% H 2O, 2100-5400 ppm Cl, < 40-1330 ppm CO 2, and 30-390 ppm S. Constraints from Fe-Ti oxides imply that magma evolution occurred at 796 ± 6 °C to 896 ± 8 °C and log ƒ O2 of NNO + 2.2 to + 2.6. This is consistent with conditions recorded for 1976, 1986, and 2006 eruptive materials and implies that magmatic and eruptive processes have varied little during the past 2100 years. Prehistoric Augustine magmas represented by these silicic andesites evolved via fractional crystallization, magma mingling and mixing, and/or chemical contamination due to magma-volcanic rock interaction. The occurrence of fractional crystallization is supported by the abundance of normally zoned phenocrysts, the presence of felsic matrix glass and melt inclusions within andesitic rock samples, trace-element data, and by geochemical modeling. The modeling constrains the influence of crystal fractionation on melt differentiation and is consistent with the evolution of the melt phase from felsic andesite to rhyodacite compositions. Magma mixing, mingling, and/or contamination by magma-volcanic rock

  10. Protein transduction assisted by polyethylenimine-cationized carrier proteins.

    PubMed

    Kitazoe, Midori; Murata, Hitoshi; Futami, Junichiro; Maeda, Takashi; Sakaguchi, Masakiyo; Miyazaki, Masahiro; Kosaka, Megumi; Tada, Hiroko; Seno, Masaharu; Huh, Nam-ho; Namba, Masayoshi; Nishikawa, Mitsuo; Maeda, Yoshitake; Yamada, Hidenori

    2005-06-01

    Previously, we have reported that cationized-proteins covalently modified with polyethylenimine (PEI) (direct PEI-cationization) efficiently enter cells and function in the cytosol [Futami et al. (2005) J. Biosci. Bioeng. 99, 95-103]. However, it may be more convenient if a protein could be delivered into cells just by mixing the protein with a PEI-cationized carrier protein having a specific affinity (indirect PEI-cationization). Thus, we prepared PEI-cationized avidin (PEI-avidin), streptavidin (PEI-streptavidin), and protein G (PEI-protein G), and examined whether they could deliver biotinylated proteins and antibodies into living cells. PEI-avidin (and/or PEI-streptavidin) carried biotinylated GFPs into various mammalian cells very efficiently. A GFP variant containing a nuclear localization signal was found to arrive even in the nucleus. The addition of a biotinylated RNase A derivative mixed with PEI-streptavidin to a culture medium of 3T3-SV-40 cells resulted in remarkable cell growth inhibition, suggesting that the biotinylated RNase A derivative entered cells and digested intracellular RNA molecules. Furthermore, the addition of a fluorescein-labeled anti-S100C (beta-actin binding protein) antibody mixed with PEI-protein G to human fibroblasts resulted in the appearance of a fluorescence image of actin-like filamentous structures in the cells. These results indicate that indirect PEI-cationization using non-covalent interaction is as effective as the direct PEI-cationization for the transduction of proteins into living cells and for expression of their functions in the cytosol. Thus, PEI-cationized proteins having a specific affinity for certain molecules such as PEI-streptavidin, PEI-avidin and PEI-protein G are concluded to be widely applicable protein transduction carrier molecules.

  11. Rat androgen-binding protein: evidence for identical subunits and amino acid sequence homology with human sex hormone-binding globulin.

    PubMed

    Joseph, D R; Hall, S H; French, F S

    1987-01-01

    The cDNA for rat androgen-binding protein (ABP) was previously isolated from a bacteriophage lambda gt11 rat testis cDNA library and its identity was confirmed by epitope selection. Hybrid-arrested translation studies have now demonstrated the identity of the isolates. The nucleotide sequence of a near full-length cDNA encodes a 403-amino acid precursor (Mr = 44,539), which agrees in size with the cell-free translation product (Mr = 45,000) of ABP mRNA. Putative sites of N-glycosylation and signal peptide cleavage were identified. Comparison of the predicted amino acid sequence of rat ABP with the amino-terminal amino acid sequence of human sex hormone-binding globulin revealed that 17 of 25 residues are identical. On the basis of the predicted amino acid sequence the molecular weight of the primary translation product, lacking the signal peptide, was 41,183. Hybridization analyses indicated that the two subunits of ABP are coded for by a single gene and a single mRNA species. Our results suggest that ABP consists of two subunits with identical primary sequences and that differences in post-translational processing result in the production of 47,000 and 41,000 molecular weight monomers.

  12. Dietary effects of cotton tissue expressing germin like protein on beet armyworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) growth, survival and pupation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Transgenic cotton lines that ectopically express a cotton germin-like protein (ABP) were screened for resistance/tolerance factors to the beet armyworm (BAW) Spodoptera exigua (Hubner) via feeding assays. The number of BAW eggs that successfully hatched was not statistically different at 72 h observ...

  13. N-WASP, a novel actin-depolymerizing protein, regulates the cortical cytoskeletal rearrangement in a PIP2-dependent manner downstream of tyrosine kinases.

    PubMed Central

    Miki, H; Miura, K; Takenawa, T

    1996-01-01

    Here we identify a 65 kDa protein (N-WASP) from brain that binds the SH3 domains of Ash/Grb2. The sequence is homologous to Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein (WASP). N-WASP has several functional motifs, such as a pleckstrin homology (PH) domain and cofilin-homologous region, through which N-WASP depolymerizes actin filaments. When overexpressed in COS 7 cells, the wild-type N-WASP causes several surface protrusions where N-WASP co-localizes with actin filaments. Epidermal growth factor (EGF) treatment induces the complex formation of EGF receptors and N-WASP, and produces microspikes. On the other hand, two mutants, C38W (a point mutation in the PH domain) and deltaVCA (deletion of the actin binding domain), localize predominantly in the nucleus and do not cause a change in the cytoskeleton, irrespective of EGF treatment. Interestingly, the C38W PH domain binds less effectively to phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2) than the wild-type PH domain. These results suggest the importance of the PIP2 binding ability of the PH domain and the actin binding for retention in membranes. Collectively, we conclude that N-WASP transmits signals from tyrosine kinases to cause a polarized rearrangement of cortical actin filaments dependent on PIP2. Images PMID:8895577

  14. PFA fixation enables artifact-free super-resolution imaging of the actin cytoskeleton and associated proteins

    PubMed Central

    Leyton-Puig, Daniela; Kedziora, Katarzyna M.; Isogai, Tadamoto; van den Broek, Bram; Jalink, Kees

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Super-resolution microscopy (SRM) allows precise localization of proteins in cellular organelles and structures, including the actin cytoskeleton. Yet sample preparation protocols for SRM are rather anecdotal and still being optimized. Thus, SRM-based imaging of the actin cytoskeleton and associated proteins often remains challenging and poorly reproducible. Here, we show that proper paraformaldehyde (PFA)-based sample preparation preserves the architecture of the actin cytoskeleton almost as faithfully as gold-standard glutaraldehyde fixation. We show that this fixation is essential for proper immuno-based localization of actin-binding and actin-regulatory proteins involved in the formation of lamellipodia and ruffles, such as mDia1, WAVE2 and clathrin heavy chain, and provide detailed guidelines for the execution of our method. In summary, proper PFA-based sample preparation increases the multi-color possibilities and the reproducibility of SRM of the actin cytoskeleton and its associated proteins. PMID:27378434

  15. Metabotropic Glutamate Receptor Type 5 (mGluR5) Cortical Abnormalities in Focal Cortical Dysplasia Identified In Vivo With [11C]ABP688 Positron-Emission Tomography (PET) Imaging

    PubMed Central

    DuBois, Jonathan M.; Rousset, Olivier G.; Guiot, Marie-Christine; Hall, Jeffery A.; Reader, Andrew J.; Soucy, Jean-Paul; Rosa-Neto, Pedro; Kobayashi, Eliane

    2016-01-01

    Metabotropic glutamate receptor type 5 (mGluR5) abnormalities have been described in tissue resected from epilepsy patients with focal cortical dysplasia (FCD). To determine if these abnormalities could be identified in vivo, we investigated mGluR5 availability in 10 patients with focal epilepsy and an MRI diagnosis of FCD using positron-emission tomography (PET) and the radioligand [11C]ABP688. Partial volume corrected [11C]ABP688 binding potentials (BPND) were computed using the cerebellum as a reference region. Each patient was compared to homotopic cortical regions in 33 healthy controls using region-of-interest (ROI) and vertex-wise analyses. Reduced [11C]ABP688 BPND in the FCD was seen in 7/10 patients with combined ROI and vertex-wise analyses. Reduced FCD BPND was found in 4/5 operated patients (mean follow-up: 63 months; Engel I), of whom surgical specimens revealed FCD type IIb or IIa, with most balloon cells showing negative or weak mGluR5 immunoreactivity as compared to their respective neuropil and normal neurons at the border of resections. [11C]ABP688 PET shows for the first time in vivo evidence of reduced mGluR5 availability in FCD, indicating focal glutamatergic alterations in malformations of cortical development, which cannot be otherwise clearly demonstrated through resected tissue analyses. PMID:27578494

  16. Cell polarity proteins and spermatogenesis.

    PubMed

    Gao, Ying; Xiao, Xiang; Lui, Wing-Yee; Lee, Will M; Mruk, Dolores; Cheng, C Yan

    2016-11-01

    When the cross-section of a seminiferous tubule from an adult rat testes is examined microscopically, Sertoli cells and germ cells in the seminiferous epithelium are notably polarized cells. For instance, Sertoli cell nuclei are found near the basement membrane. On the other hand, tight junction (TJ), basal ectoplasmic specialization (basal ES, a testis-specific actin-rich anchoring junction), gap junction (GJ) and desmosome that constitute the blood-testis barrier (BTB) are also located near the basement membrane. The BTB, in turn, divides the epithelium into the basal and the adluminal (apical) compartments. Within the epithelium, undifferentiated spermatogonia and preleptotene spermatocytes restrictively reside in the basal compartment whereas spermatocytes and post-meiotic spermatids reside in the adluminal compartment. Furthermore, the heads of elongating/elongated spermatids point toward the basement membrane with their elongating tails toward the tubule lumen. However, the involvement of polarity proteins in this unique cellular organization, in particular the underlying molecular mechanism(s) by which polarity proteins confer cellular polarity in the seminiferous epithelium is virtually unknown until recent years. Herein, we discuss latest findings regarding the role of different polarity protein complexes or modules and how these protein complexes are working in concert to modulate Sertoli cell and spermatid polarity. These findings also illustrate polarity proteins exert their effects through the actin-based cytoskeleton mediated by actin binding and regulatory proteins, which in turn modulate adhesion protein complexes at the cell-cell interface since TJ, basal ES and GJ utilize F-actin for attachment. We also propose a hypothetical model which illustrates the antagonistic effects of these polarity proteins. This in turn provides a unique mechanism to modulate junction remodeling in the testis to support germ cell transport across the epithelium in

  17. Characterization of brain mGluR5 binding in a pilot study of late-life major depressive disorder using positron emission tomography and [11C]ABP688

    PubMed Central

    DeLorenzo, C; Sovago, J; Gardus, J; Xu, J; Yang, J; Behrje, R; Kumar, J S D; Devanand, D P; Pelton, G H; Mathis, C A; Mason, N S; Gomez-Mancilla, B; Aizenstein, H; Mann, J J; Parsey, R V

    2015-01-01

    The metabotropic glutamate receptor subtype 5 (mGluR5) has been implicated in the pathophysiology of mood and anxiety disorders and is a potential treatment target in major depressive disorder (MDD). This study compared brain mGluR5 binding in elderly patients suffering from MDD with that in elderly healthy volunteers using positron emission tomography (PET) and [11C]ABP688. Twenty elderly (mean age: 63.0±6.3) subjects with MDD and twenty-two healthy volunteers in the same age range (mean age: 66.4±7.3) were examined with PET after a single bolus injection of [11C]ABP688, with many receiving arterial sampling. PET images were analyzed on a region of interest and a voxel level to compare mGluR5 binding in the brain between the two groups. Differences in [11C]ABP688 binding between patients with early- and late-onset depression were also assessed. In contrast to a previously published report in a younger cohort, no significant difference in [11C]ABP688 binding was observed between elderly subjects with MDD and healthy volunteers. [11C]ABP688 binding was also similar between subgroups with early- or late-onset depression. We believe this is the first study to examine mGluR5 expression in depression in the elderly. Although future work is required, results suggest potential differences in the pathophysiology of elderly depression versus depression earlier in life. PMID:26645628

  18. Dynamin1 Is a Novel Target for IRSp53 Protein and Works with Mammalian Enabled (Mena) Protein and Eps8 to Regulate Filopodial Dynamics*

    PubMed Central

    Chou, Ai Mei; Sem, Kai Ping; Wright, Graham Daniel; Sudhaharan, Thankiah; Ahmed, Sohail

    2014-01-01

    Filopodia are dynamic actin-based structures that play roles in processes such as cell migration, wound healing, and axonal guidance. Cdc42 induces filopodial formation through IRSp53, an Inverse-Bin-Amphiphysins-Rvs (I-BAR) domain protein. Previous work from a number of laboratories has shown that IRSp53 generates filopodia by coupling membrane protrusion with actin dynamics through its Src homology 3 domain binding partners. Here, we show that dynamin1 (Dyn1), the large guanosine triphosphatase, is an interacting partner of IRSp53 through pulldown and Förster resonance energy transfer analysis, and we explore its role in filopodial formation. In neuroblastoma cells, Dyn1 localizes to filopodia, associated tip complexes, and the leading edge just behind the anti-capping protein mammalian enabled (Mena). Dyn1 knockdown reduces filopodial formation, which can be rescued by overexpressing wild-type Dyn1 but not the GTPase mutant Dyn1-K44A and the loss-of-function actin binding domain mutant Dyn1-K/E. Interestingly, dynasore, an inhibitor of Dyn GTPase, also reduced filopodial number and increased their lifetime. Using rapid time-lapse total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy, we show that Dyn1 and Mena localize to filopodia only during initiation and assembly. Dyn1 actin binding domain mutant inhibits filopodial formation, suggesting a role in actin elongation. In contrast, Eps8, an actin capping protein, is seen most strongly at filopodial tips during disassembly. Taken together, the results suggest IRSp53 partners with Dyn1, Mena, and Eps8 to regulate filopodial dynamics. PMID:25031323

  19. Dynamin1 is a novel target for IRSp53 protein and works with mammalian enabled (Mena) protein and Eps8 to regulate filopodial dynamics.

    PubMed

    Chou, Ai Mei; Sem, Kai Ping; Wright, Graham Daniel; Sudhaharan, Thankiah; Ahmed, Sohail

    2014-08-29

    Filopodia are dynamic actin-based structures that play roles in processes such as cell migration, wound healing, and axonal guidance. Cdc42 induces filopodial formation through IRSp53, an Inverse-Bin-Amphiphysins-Rvs (I-BAR) domain protein. Previous work from a number of laboratories has shown that IRSp53 generates filopodia by coupling membrane protrusion with actin dynamics through its Src homology 3 domain binding partners. Here, we show that dynamin1 (Dyn1), the large guanosine triphosphatase, is an interacting partner of IRSp53 through pulldown and Förster resonance energy transfer analysis, and we explore its role in filopodial formation. In neuroblastoma cells, Dyn1 localizes to filopodia, associated tip complexes, and the leading edge just behind the anti-capping protein mammalian enabled (Mena). Dyn1 knockdown reduces filopodial formation, which can be rescued by overexpressing wild-type Dyn1 but not the GTPase mutant Dyn1-K44A and the loss-of-function actin binding domain mutant Dyn1-K/E. Interestingly, dynasore, an inhibitor of Dyn GTPase, also reduced filopodial number and increased their lifetime. Using rapid time-lapse total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy, we show that Dyn1 and Mena localize to filopodia only during initiation and assembly. Dyn1 actin binding domain mutant inhibits filopodial formation, suggesting a role in actin elongation. In contrast, Eps8, an actin capping protein, is seen most strongly at filopodial tips during disassembly. Taken together, the results suggest IRSp53 partners with Dyn1, Mena, and Eps8 to regulate filopodial dynamics.

  20. Identification of a cyclase-associated protein (CAP) homologue in Dictyostelium discoideum and characterization of its interaction with actin.

    PubMed

    Gottwald, U; Brokamp, R; Karakesisoglou, I; Schleicher, M; Noegel, A A

    1996-02-01

    In search for novel actin binding proteins in Dictyostelium discoideum we have isolated a cDNA clone coding for a protein of approximately 50 kDa that is highly homologous to the class of adenylyl cyclase-associated proteins (CAP). In Saccharomyces cerevisiae the amino-terminal part of CAP is involved in the regulation of the adenylyl cyclase whereas the loss of the carboxyl-terminal domain results in morphological and nutritional defects. To study the interaction of Dictyostelium CAP with actin, the complete protein and its amino-terminal and carboxyl-terminal domains were expressed in Escherichia coli and used in actin binding assays. CAP sequestered actin in a Ca2+ independent way. This activity was localized to the carboxyl-terminal domain. CAP and its carboxyl-terminal domain led to a fluorescence enhancement of pyrene-labeled G-actin up to 50% indicating a direct interaction, whereas the amino-terminal domain did not enhance. In polymerization as well as in viscometric assays the ability of the carboxyl-terminal domain to sequester actin and to prevent F-actin formation was approximately two times higher than that of intact CAP. The sequestering activity of full length CAP could be inhibited by phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2), whereas the activity of the carboxyl-terminal domain alone was not influenced, suggesting that the amino-terminal half of the protein is required for the PIP2 modulation of the CAP function. In profilin-minus cells the CAP concentration is increased by approximately 73%, indicating that CAP may compensate some profilin functions in vivo. In migrating D. discoideum cells CAP was enriched at anterior and posterior plasma membrane regions. Only a weak staining of the cytoplasm was observed. In chemotactically stimulated cells the protein was very prominent in leading fronts. The data suggest an involvement of D. discoideum CAP in microfilament reorganization near the plasma membrane in a PIP2-regulated manner.

  1. Structural features and interfacial properties of WH2, β-thymosin domains and other intrinsically disordered domains in the regulation of actin cytoskeleton dynamics.

    PubMed

    Renault, Louis; Deville, Célia; van Heijenoort, Carine

    2013-11-01

    Many actin-binding proteins (ABPs) use complex multidomain architectures to integrate and coordinate multiple signals and interactions with the dynamic remodeling of actin cytoskeleton. In these proteins, small segments that are intrinsically disordered in their unbound native state can be functionally as important as identifiable folded units. These functional intrinsically disordered regions (IDRs) are however difficult to identify and characterize in vitro. Here, we try to summarize the state of the art in understanding the structural features and interfacial properties of IDRs involved in actin self-assembly dynamics. Recent structural and functional insights into the regulation of widespread, multifunctional WH2/β-thymosin domains, and of other IDRs such as those associated with WASP/WAVE, formin or capping proteins are examined. Understanding the functional versatility of IDRs in actin assembly requires apprehending by multiple structural and functional approaches their large conformational plasticity and dynamics in their interactions. In many modular ABPs, IDRs relay labile interactions with multiple partners and act as interaction hubs in interdomain and protein-protein interfaces. They thus control multiple conformational transitions between the inactive and active states or between various active states of multidomain ABPs, and play an important role to coordinate the high turnover of interactions in actin self-assembly dynamics.

  2. Regulation of the Actin Cytoskeleton by an Interaction of IQGAP Related Protein GAPA with Filamin and Cortexillin I

    PubMed Central

    Rieger, Daniela; Müller, Rolf; Rivero, Francisco; Faix, Jan; Schleicher, Michael; Noegel, Angelika A.

    2010-01-01

    Filamin and Cortexillin are F-actin crosslinking proteins in Dictyostelium discoideum allowing actin filaments to form three-dimensional networks. GAPA, an IQGAP related protein, is required for cytokinesis and localizes to the cleavage furrow during cytokinesis. Here we describe a novel interaction with Filamin which is required for cytokinesis and regulation of the F-actin content. The interaction occurs through the actin binding domain of Filamin and the GRD domain of GAPA. A similar interaction takes place with Cortexillin I. We further report that Filamin associates with Rac1a implying that filamin might act as a scaffold for small GTPases. Filamin and activated Rac associate with GAPA to regulate actin remodelling. Overexpression of filamin and GAPA in the various strains suggests that GAPA regulates the actin cytoskeleton through interaction with Filamin and that it controls cytokinesis through association with Filamin and Cortexillin. PMID:21085675

  3. NMR structural characterization of the N-terminal domain of the adenylyl cyclase-associated protein (CAP) from Dictyostelium discoideum.

    PubMed

    Mavoungou, Chrystelle; Israel, Lars; Rehm, Till; Ksiazek, Dorota; Krajewski, Marcin; Popowicz, Grzegorz; Noegel, Angelika A; Schleicher, Michael; Holak, Tad A

    2004-05-01

    Cyclase-associated proteins (CAPs) are highly conserved, ubiquitous actin binding proteins that are involved in microfilament reorganization. The N-termini of CAPs play a role in Ras signaling and bind adenylyl cyclase; the C-termini bind to G-actin. We report here the NMR characterization of the amino-terminal domain of CAP from Dictyostelium discoideum (CAP(1-226)). NMR data, including the steady state (1)H-(15)N heteronuclear NOE experiments, indicate that the first 50 N-terminal residues are unstructured and that this highly flexible serine-rich fragment is followed by a stable, folded core starting at Ser 51. The NMR structure of the folded core is an alpha-helix bundle composed of six antiparallel helices, in a stark contrast to the recently determined CAP C-terminal domain structure, which is solely built by beta-strands.

  4. Rai14 (retinoic acid induced protein 14) is involved in regulating f-actin dynamics at the ectoplasmic specialization in the rat testis*.

    PubMed

    Qian, Xiaojing; Mruk, Dolores D; Cheng, C Yan

    2013-01-01

    Rai14 (retinoic acid induced protein 14) is an actin binding protein first identified in the liver, highly expressed in the placenta, the testis, and the eye. In the course of studying actin binding proteins that regulate the organization of actin filament bundles in the ectoplasmic specialization (ES), a testis-specific actin-rich adherens junction (AJ) type, Rai14 was shown to be one of the regulatory proteins at the ES. In the rat testis, Rai14 was found to be expressed by Sertoli and germ cells, structurally associated with actin and an actin cross-linking protein palladin. Its expression was the highest at the ES in the seminiferous epithelium of adult rat testes, most notably at the apical ES at the Sertoli-spermatid interface, and expressed stage-specifically during the epithelial cycle in stage VII-VIII tubules. However, Rai14 was also found at the basal ES near the basement membrane, associated with the blood-testis barrier (BTB) in stage VIII-IX tubules. A knockdown of Rai14 in Sertoli cells cultured in vitro by RNAi was found to perturb the Sertoli cell tight junction-permeability function in vitro, mediated by a disruption of F-actin, which in turn led to protein mis-localization at the Sertoli cell BTB. When Rai14 in the testis in vivo was knockdown by RNAi, defects in spermatid polarity and adhesion, as well as spermatid transport were noted mediated via changes in F-actin organization and mis-localization of proteins at the apical ES. In short, Rai14 is involved in the re-organization of actin filaments in Sertoli cells during the epithelial cycle, participating in conferring spermatid polarity and cell adhesion in the testis.

  5. Some properties of caldesmon and calponin and the participation of these proteins in regulation of smooth muscle contraction and cytoskeleton formation.

    PubMed

    Gusev, N B

    2001-10-01

    The interaction of caldesmon with different Ca2+-binding proteins has been analyzed, and it is supposed that one of the conformers of calmodulin might be an endogenous regulator of caldesmon. The arrangement of caldesmon and Ca2+-binding proteins within their complexes has been analyzed by different methods. The central helix of calmodulin is supposed to be located near the single Cys residue in the C-terminal domain of caldesmon. The N-terminal globular domain of calmodulin interacts with sites A and B' of caldesmon, whereas the C-terminal globular domain of calmodulin binds to site B of caldesmon. The complex of calmodulin and caldesmon is very flexible; therefore, both parallel and antiparallel orientation of polypeptide chains of the two proteins is possible in experiments with short fragments of caldesmon and calmodulin. The length, flexibility, and charge of the central helix of calmodulin play an important role in its interaction with caldesmon. Phosphorylation of caldesmon by different protein kinases in vitro has been analyzed. It was shown that phosphorylation catalyzed by casein kinase II of sites located in the N-terminal domain decreases the interaction of caldesmon with myosin and tropomyosin. Caldesmon and calponin may interact with phospholipids. The sites involved in the interaction of these actin-binding proteins with phospholipids have been mapped. It is supposed that the interaction of calponin and caldesmon with phospholipids may play a role in the formation of cytoskeleton. Calponin interacts with 90-kD heat shock protein (hsp90) that may be involved in transportation of calponin and its proper interaction with different elements of cytoskeleton. Calponin, filamin, and alpha-actinin can simultaneously interact with actin filaments. Simultaneous binding of two actin-binding proteins affects the structure of actin bundles and their mechanical properties and may be of great importance in formation of different elements of cytoskeleton.

  6. Arginine 197 of lac repressor contributes significant energy to inducer binding. Confirmation of homology to periplasmic sugar binding proteins.

    PubMed

    Spotts, R O; Chakerian, A E; Matthews, K S

    1991-12-05

    Based on primary sequence homology between the lactose repressor protein and periplasmic sugar-binding proteins (Müller-Hill, B. (1983) Nature 302, 163-164), a hypothetical sugar-binding site for the lac repressor was proposed using the solved x-ray crystallographic structure of the arabinose-binding protein (ABP) (Sams, C. F., Vyas, N. K., Quiocho, F. A., and Matthews, K. S. (1984) Nature 310, 429-430). By analogy to Arg151 in the ABP sugar site, Arg197 is predicted to play an important role in lac repressor binding to inducer sugars. Hydrogen bonding occurs between Arg151 and the ring oxygen and 4-hydroxyl of the sugar ligand, two backbone carbonyls, and a side chain in ABP, and similar interactions in the lac repressor would be anticipated. To test this hypothesis, Arg197 in the lac repressor protein was altered by oligonucleotide-directed site-specific mutagenesis to substitute Gly, Leu, or Lys. Introduction of these substitutions at position 197 had no effect on operator binding parameters of the isolated mutant proteins, whereas the affinity for inducer was dramatically decreased, consistent with in vivo phenotypic behavior obtained by suppression of nonsense mutations at this site (Kleina, L. G., and Miller, J. H. (1990) J. Mol. Biol. 212, 295-318). Inducer binding affinity was reduced approximately 3 orders of magnitude for Leu, Gly, or Lys substitutions, corresponding to a loss of 50% of the free energy of binding. The pH shift characteristic of wild-type repressor is conserved in these mutants. Circular dichroic spectra demonstrated no significant alterations in secondary structure for these mutants. Thus, the primary effect of substitution for Arg197 is a very significant decrease in the affinity for inducer sugars. Arginine is uniquely able to make the multiple contacts found in the ABP sugar site, and we conclude that this residue plays a similar role in sugar binding for lactose repressor protein. These results provide experimental validation for the

  7. MoVrp1, a putative verprolin protein, is required for asexual development and infection in the rice blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Lin; Zhang, Shengpei; Yin, Ziyi; Liu, Muxing; Li, Bing; Zhang, Haifeng; Zheng, Xiaobo; Wang, Ping; Zhang, Zhengguang

    2017-01-01

    Endocytosis is a crucial cellular process in eukaryotic cells which involves clathrin and/or adaptor proteins, lipid kinases, phosphatases and the actin cytoskeleton. Verprolin proteins, such as Vrp1 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, are conserved family proteins that regulate actin binding and endocytosis. Here, we identified and characterized MoVrp1 as the yeast Vrp1 homolog in Magnaporthe oryzae. Deletion of the MoVRP1 gene resulted in defects in vegetative growth, asexual development, and infection of the host plant. The ∆Movrp1 mutants also exhibited decreased extracellular peroxidase and laccase activities and showed defects in colony pigmentation, hyphal surface hydrophobicity, cell wall integrity, autophagy, endocytosis, and secretion of avirulent effector. Our studies provided new evidences that MoVrp1 involved in actin cytoskeleton is important for growth, morphogenesis, cellular trafficking, and fungal pathogenesis. PMID:28117435

  8. Facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy region gene 1 is a dynamic RNA-associated and actin-bundling protein.

    PubMed

    Sun, Chia-Yun Jessica; van Koningsbruggen, Silvana; Long, Steven W; Straasheijm, Kirsten; Klooster, Rinse; Jones, Takako I; Bellini, Michel; Levesque, Lyne; Brieher, William M; van der Maarel, Silvère M; Jones, Peter L

    2011-08-12

    FSHD region gene 1 (FRG1) is a dynamic nuclear and cytoplasmic protein that, in skeletal muscle, shows additional localization to the sarcomere. Maintaining appropriate levels of FRG1 protein is critical for muscular and vascular development in vertebrates; however, its precise molecular function is unknown. This study investigates the molecular functions of human FRG1, along with mouse FRG1 and Xenopus frg1, using molecular, biochemical, and cellular-biological approaches, to provide further insight into its roles in vertebrate development. The nuclear fraction of the endogenous FRG1 is localized in nucleoli, Cajal bodies, and actively transcribed chromatin; however, contrary to overexpressed FRG1, the endogenous FRG1 is not associated with nuclear speckles. We characterize the nuclear and nucleolar import of FRG1, the potential effect of phosphorylation, and its interaction with the importin karyopherin α2. Consistent with a role in RNA biogenesis, human FRG1 is associated with mRNA in vivo and invitro, interacts directly with TAP (Tip-associated protein; the major mRNA export receptor), and is a dynamic nuclear-cytoplasmic shuttling protein supporting a function for FRG1 in mRNA transport. Biochemically, we characterize FRG1 actin binding activity and show that the cytoplasmic pool of FRG1 is dependent on an intact actin cytoskeleton for its localization. These data provide the first biochemical activities (actin binding and RNA binding) for human FRG1 and the characterization of the endogenous human FRG1, together indicating that FRG1 is involved in multiple aspects of RNA biogenesis, including mRNA transport and, potentially, cytoplasmic mRNA localization.

  9. Cytoskeletal proteins in gastric H/sup +/ secretion: cAMP dependent phosphorylation, immunolocalization, and protein blotting

    SciTech Connect

    Cuppoletti, J.; Sachs, G.; Malinowska, D.H.

    1986-05-01

    The rabbit gastric parietal cell is an excellent model for the study of regulation of secretion and the role of cytoskeleton in secretion. Changes in morphology (appearance of expanded secretory canaliculi lined with microvilli) accompany H/sup +/ secretion stimulated by histamine (cAMP mediated). Parietal cells contain immunoreactive tubulin and are highly enriched in F-actin at secretory canaliculi, detected with fluorescently labelled phallacidin. They have previously shown increased protein phosphorylation in histamine-stimulated purified parietal cells concommitant with increases in H/sup +/ secretion. They report here possible functions of the phosphoproteins. Four of these proteins of apparent size on SDS PAGE of 24, 30, 48 and 130 Kd were membrane associated. /sup 125/I-actin binding to three proteins (24, 30 and 48 Kd) was shown using overlays. A 130 Kd protein reacted with anti-vinculin monoclonal antibody on immunoblots, and was immunolocalized at secretory canaliculi. As a working hypothesis, parietal cells possess membrane-associated proteins which change their state of phosphorylation upon stimulation of H/sup +/. These proteins may be cytoskeletal elements involved in regulation of H/sup +/ secretion. The 130 Kd vinculin-like protein may serve a microfilament-membrane linking role.

  10. Mapping of the interaction domains of the Crimean–Congo hemorrhagic fever virus nucleocapsid protein

    PubMed Central

    Macleod, Jesica M. Levingston; Marmor, Hannah; Frias-Staheli, Natalia

    2015-01-01

    Crimean–Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV) is a member of the genus Nairovirus of the family Bunyaviridae, that can cause severe haemorrhagic fever in humans, with mortality rates above 30 %. CCHFV is the most widespread of the tick-borne human viruses and it is endemic in areas of central Asia, the Middle East, Africa and southern Europe. Its viral genome consists of three negative-sense RNA segments. The large segment (L) encodes a viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (L protein), the small segment (S) encodes the nucleocapsid protein (N protein) and the medium segment (M) encodes the envelope proteins. The N protein of bunyaviruses binds genomic RNA, forming the viral ribonucleoprotein (RNP) complex. The L protein interacts with these RNP structures, allowing the initiation of viral replication. The N protein also interacts with actin, although the regions and specific residues involved in these interactions have not yet been described. Here, by means of immunoprecipitation and immunofluorescence assays, we identified the regions within the CCHFV N protein implicated in homo-oligomerization and actin binding. We describe the interaction of the N protein with the CCHFV L protein, and identify the N- and C-terminal regions within the L protein that might be necessary for the formation of these N–L protein complexes. These results may guide the development of potent inhibitors of these complexes that could potentially block CCHFV replication. PMID:25389186

  11. Troponin-like regulation in muscle thin filaments of the mussel Crenomytilus grayanus (Bivalvia: Mytiloida).

    PubMed

    Vyatchin, Ilya G; Shevchenko, Ulyana V; Lazarev, Stanislav S; Matusovsky, Oleg S; Shelud'ko, Nikolay S

    2015-10-01

    Muscles of bivalve molluscs have double calcium regulation--myosin-linked and actin-linked. While the mechanism of myosin-linked regulation is sufficiently studied, there is still no consensus on the mechanism of actin-linked regulation. Earlier we showed a high degree of Ca2+-sensitivity of thin filaments from the adductor muscle of the mussel Crenomytilus grayanus (Mytiloida). In order to elucidate the nature of this regulation, we isolated the fraction of minor proteins from the mussel thin filaments, which confers Ca2+-sensitivity to reconstituted actomyosin-tropomyosin. Proteins of this fraction, ABP-19, ABP-20, and ABP-28, were chromatographically purified and identified. According to the results of mass spectrometry and Western blot analysis, as well as by their functional properties, these mussel actin-binding proteins appeared to correspond to the troponin components from the skeletal muscles of vertebrates (TnC, TnI and TnT). The reconstituted mussel troponin complex confers to actomyosin-tropomyosin more than 80% Ca2+-sensitivity. The in vivo molar ratio of actin/tropomyosin/troponin was calculated to be 7:1:0.5, i.e., the content of troponin in mussel thin filaments is two times lower than in thin filaments of skeletal muscles of vertebrates. These data demonstrate that troponin-like regulation found in the catch muscle of the mussel C. grayanus is present at least in two suborders of bivalves: Pectinoida and Mytiloida.

  12. gCap39 is a nuclear and cytoplasmic protein.

    PubMed

    Onoda, K; Yu, F X; Yin, H L

    1993-01-01

    gCap39 is a newly identified member of the Ca(2+)- and polyphosphoinositide-modulated gelsolin family of actin binding proteins which is different from gelsolin in several important respects: it caps filament ends, it does not sever filaments, it binds reversibly to actin, it is phosphorylated in vivo, and it is also present in the nucleus. gCap39 and gelsolin coexist in a variety of cells. To better understand the roles of gCap39 and gelsolin, we have compared their relative amounts and intracellular distributions. We found that gCap39 is very abundant in macrophages (accounting for 0.6% of total macrophage proteins), and is present in 12-fold molar excess to gelsolin. Both proteins are highly induced during differentiation of the promyelocytic leukemia cell line into macrophages. gCap39 is less abundant in fibroblasts (0.04% total proteins) and is present in equal molar ratio to gelsolin. The two proteins are colocalized in the cytoplasm, but gCap39 is also found in the nucleus while gelsolin is not. Nuclear gCap39 redistributes throughout the cytoplasm during mitosis and is excluded from regions containing chromosomes. Our results demonstrate that gCap39 is a nuclear and cytoplasmic protein which has unique as well as common functions compared with gelsolin.

  13. Cytoplasmic protein methylation is essential for neural crest migration

    PubMed Central

    Vermillion, Katie L.; Lidberg, Kevin A.

    2014-01-01

    As they initiate migration in vertebrate embryos, neural crest cells are enriched for methylation cycle enzymes, including S-adenosylhomocysteine hydrolase (SAHH), the only known enzyme to hydrolyze the feedback inhibitor of trans-methylation reactions. The importance of methylation in neural crest migration is unknown. Here, we show that SAHH is required for emigration of polarized neural crest cells, indicating that methylation is essential for neural crest migration. Although nuclear histone methylation regulates neural crest gene expression, SAHH and lysine-methylated proteins are abundant in the cytoplasm of migratory neural crest cells. Proteomic profiling of cytoplasmic, lysine-methylated proteins from migratory neural crest cells identified 182 proteins, several of which are cytoskeleton related. A methylation-resistant form of one of these proteins, the actin-binding protein elongation factor 1 alpha 1 (EF1α1), blocks neural crest migration. Altogether, these data reveal a novel and essential role for post-translational nonhistone protein methylation during neural crest migration and define a previously unknown requirement for EF1α1 methylation in migration. PMID:24379414

  14. The Genetic Engineering of Motor Proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartz, Rachael M.

    Molecular motors are a remarkable feature within living organisms that are responsible for directional mechanical motion, which is driven by adenosine triphosphate (ATP) hydrolysis. Actin-binding molecular motors are of specific interest in the field of nanotechnology as filamentous actin is capable of carrying cargo, such as quantum dots, while it is translocated along a motor coated surface. The binding regions of motor proteins, which are known to interact with actin, such as Myosin, have been thoroughly examined and identified. Rapid genetic engineering of the ATP-hydrolyzing enzyme, adenosine kinase, to incorporate these binding regions is possible through the use of site- directed mutagenesis. The sequences, which were mutated into the ADK wt gene, were incorporated in an unstructured loop region. During the phosphate transfer, the mutants switch between open and closed conformational states. The binding affinity of the sequences to the actin is altered during this conformational switch, thus causing the motor to move along actin filament. The ADK mutants and their interaction with filamentous actin was monitored by an in vitro motility assay. Two different mutants of ADK were found to have retained enzymatic functionality after the mutagenesis as well as function as actin-based motor proteins.

  15. The Role of the Actin Cytoskeleton in Regulating Drosophila Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Ojelade, Shamsideen A.; Acevedo, Summer F.; Rothenfluh, Adrian

    2014-01-01

    Over the past decade, the function of the cytoskeleton has been extensively studied in developing and in mature neurons. Actin, a major cytoskeletal protein, is indispensable for the structural integrity and plasticity of neurons and their synapses. Disruption of actin dynamics has significant consequence for neurons, neuronal circuits, and the functions they govern. In particular, cell adhesion molecules (CAMs), members of the Rho family of GTPases, and actin binding proteins (ABPs) are important modulators of actin dynamics and neuronal as well as behavioral plasticity. In this review, we discuss recent advances in Drosophila that highlight the importance of actin regulatory proteins in mediating fly behaviors such as circadian rhythm, courtship behavior, learning and memory, and the development of drug addiction. PMID:24077615

  16. Identification of membrane proteins mediating the interaction of human platelets

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, D; Jennings, L; Edwards, H

    1980-01-01

    Membrane glycoproteins that mediate platelet-platelet interactions were investigated by identifying those associated with the cytoskeletal structures from aggregated platelets. The cytoskeletal structures from washed platelets, thrombin-activated platelets (platelets incubated with thrombin in the presence of mM EDTA to prevent aggregation) and thrombin- aggregated platelets (platelets activated in the presence of mM Ca(++) were prepared by first treating platelet suspensions with 1 percent Triton X-100 and 5 mM EGTA and then isolating the insoluble residue by centrifugation. The readily identifiable structures in electron micrographs of the residue from washed platelets had the shape and dimensions of actin filaments. Analysis of this residue from washed platelets had the shape and dimensions of actin filaments. Analysis of this residue by SDS gel electrophoresis showed that it consisted primarily of three proteins: actin (mol wt = 43,000), myosin (mol wt = 200,000) and a high molecular weight polypeptide (mol wt = 255,000) which had properties indentical to actin-binding protein (filamin). When platelets are activated with thrombin in the presence of EDTA to prevent aggregation, there was a marked increase in the amount of insoluble precipitate in the subsequent Triton extraction. Transmission electron microscopy showed that this residue not only contained the random array of actin filaments as seen above, but also organized structures from individual platelets which appeared as balls of electron-dense filamentous material approximately 1mum in diameter. SDS polyacrylamide gel analysis of the Triton residue of activated platelets showed that this preparation contained more actin, myosin and actin-binding protein than that from washed platelets plus polypeptides with mol wt of 56,000 and 90,000 and other minor polypeptides. Thus, thrombin activation appeared to increase polymerization of actin in association with other cytoskeletal proteins into structures that

  17. Mapping cytoskeletal protein function in cells by means of nanobodies.

    PubMed

    Van Audenhove, Isabel; Van Impe, Katrien; Ruano-Gallego, David; De Clercq, Sarah; De Muynck, Kevin; Vanloo, Berlinda; Verstraete, Hanne; Fernández, Luis Á; Gettemans, Jan

    2013-10-01

    Nanobodies or VHHs are single domain antigen binding fragments derived from heavy-chain antibodies naturally occurring in species of the Camelidae. Due to their ease of cloning, high solubility and intrinsic stability, they can be produced at low cost. Their small size, combined with high affinity and antigen specificity, enables recognition of a broad range of structural (undruggable) proteins and enzymes alike. Focusing on two actin binding proteins, gelsolin and CapG, we summarize a general protocol for the generation, cloning and production of nanobodies. Furthermore, we describe multiple ways to characterize antigen-nanobody binding in more detail and we shed light on some applications with recombinant nanobodies. The use of nanobodies as intrabodies is clarified through several case studies revealing new cytoskeletal protein properties and testifying to the utility of nanobodies as intracellular bona fide protein inhibitors. Moreover, as nanobodies can traverse the plasma membrane of eukaryotic cells by means of the enteropathogenic E. coli type III protein secretion system, we show that in this promising way of nanobody delivery, actin pedestal formation can be affected following nanobody injection.

  18. Structure and mechanism of mouse cyclase-associated protein (CAP1) in regulating actin dynamics.

    PubMed

    Jansen, Silvia; Collins, Agnieszka; Golden, Leslie; Sokolova, Olga; Goode, Bruce L

    2014-10-31

    Srv2/CAP is a conserved actin-binding protein with important roles in driving cellular actin dynamics in diverse animal, fungal, and plant species. However, there have been conflicting reports about whether the activities of Srv2/CAP are conserved, particularly between yeast and mammalian homologs. Yeast Srv2 has two distinct functions in actin turnover: its hexameric N-terminal-half enhances cofilin-mediated severing of filaments, while its C-terminal-half catalyzes dissociation of cofilin from ADP-actin monomers and stimulates nucleotide exchange. Here, we dissected the structure and function of mouse CAP1 to better understand its mechanistic relationship to yeast Srv2. Although CAP1 has a shorter N-terminal oligomerization sequence compared with Srv2, we find that the N-terminal-half of CAP1 (N-CAP1) forms hexameric structures with six protrusions, similar to N-Srv2. Further, N-CAP1 autonomously binds to F-actin and decorates the sides and ends of filaments, altering F-actin structure and enhancing cofilin-mediated severing. These activities depend on conserved surface residues on the helical-folded domain. Moreover, N-CAP1 enhances yeast cofilin-mediated severing, and conversely, yeast N-Srv2 enhances human cofilin-mediated severing, highlighting the mechanistic conservation between yeast and mammals. Further, we demonstrate that the C-terminal actin-binding β-sheet domain of CAP1 is sufficient to catalyze nucleotide-exchange of ADP-actin monomers, while in the presence of cofilin this activity additionally requires the WH2 domain. Thus, the structures, activities, and mechanisms of mouse and yeast Srv2/CAP homologs are remarkably well conserved, suggesting that the same activities and mechanisms underlie many of the diverse actin-based functions ascribed to Srv2/CAP homologs in different organisms.

  19. Proteins.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doolittle, Russell F.

    1985-01-01

    Examines proteins which give rise to structure and, by virtue of selective binding to other molecules, make genes. Binding sites, amino acids, protein evolution, and molecular paleontology are discussed. Work with encoding segments of deoxyribonucleic acid (exons) and noncoding stretches (introns) provides new information for hypotheses. (DH)

  20. NMR solution structures of actin depolymerizing factor homology domains

    PubMed Central

    Goroncy, Alexander K; Koshiba, Seizo; Tochio, Naoya; Tomizawa, Tadashi; Sato, Manami; Inoue, Makato; Watanabe, Satoru; Hayashizaki, Yoshihide; Tanaka, Akiko; Kigawa, Takanori; Yokoyama, Shigeyuki

    2009-01-01

    Actin is one of the most conserved proteins in nature. Its assembly and disassembly are regulated by many proteins, including the family of actin-depolymerizing factor homology (ADF-H) domains. ADF-H domains can be divided into five classes: ADF/cofilin, glia maturation factor (GMF), coactosin, twinfilin, and Abp1/drebrin. The best-characterized class is ADF/cofilin. The other four classes have drawn much less attention and very few structures have been reported. This study presents the solution NMR structure of the ADF-H domain of human HIP-55-drebrin-like protein, the first published structure of a drebrin-like domain (mammalian), and the first published structure of GMF β (mouse). We also determined the structures of mouse GMF γ, the mouse coactosin-like domain and the C-terminal ADF-H domain of mouse twinfilin 1. Although the overall fold of the five domains is similar, some significant differences provide valuable insights into filamentous actin (F-actin) and globular actin (G-actin) binding, including the identification of binding residues on the long central helix. This long helix is stabilized by three or four residues. Notably, the F-actin binding sites of mouse GMF β and GMF γ contain two additional β-strands not seen in other ADF-H structures. The G-actin binding site of the ADF-H domain of human HIP-55-drebrin-like protein is absent and distorted in mouse GMF β and GMF γ. PMID:19768801

  1. FERM family proteins and their importance in cellular movements and wound healing (review).

    PubMed

    Bosanquet, David C; Ye, Lin; Harding, Keith G; Jiang, Wen G

    2014-07-01

    Motility is a requirement for a number of biological processes, including embryonic development, neuronal development, immune responses, cancer progression and wound healing. Specific to wound healing is the migration of endothelial cells, fibroblasts and other key cellular players into the wound space. Aberrations in wound healing can result in either chronic wounds or abnormally healed wounds. The protein 4.1R, ezrin, radixin, moesin (FERM) superfamily consists of over 40 proteins all containing a three lobed N-terminal FERM domain which binds a variety of cell-membrane associated proteins and lipids. The C-terminal ends of these proteins typically contain an actin-binding domain (ABD). These proteins therefore mediate the linkage between the cell membrane and the actin cytoskeleton, and are involved in cellular movements and migration. Certain FERM proteins have been shown to promote cancer metastasis via this very mechanism. Herein we review the effects of a number of FERM proteins on wound healing and cancer. We show how these proteins typically aid wound healing through their effects on increasing cellular migration and movements, but also typically promote metastasis in cancer. We conclude that FERM proteins play important roles in cellular migration, with markedly different outcomes in the context of cancer and wound healing.

  2. Analysis of the conformation and function of the Plasmodium falciparum merozoite proteins MTRAP and PTRAMP.

    PubMed

    Uchime, Onyinyechukwu; Herrera, Raul; Reiter, Karine; Kotova, Svetlana; Shimp, Richard L; Miura, Kazutoyo; Jones, Dominique; Lebowitz, Jacob; Ambroggio, Xavier; Hurt, Darrell E; Jin, Albert J; Long, Carole; Miller, Louis H; Narum, David L

    2012-05-01

    Thrombospondin repeat (TSR)-like domains are structures involved with cell adhesion. Plasmodium falciparum proteins containing TSR domains play crucial roles in parasite development. In particular, the preerythrocytic P. falciparum circumsporozoite protein is involved in hepatocyte invasion. The importance of these domains in two other malaria proteins, the merozoite-specific thrombospondin-related anonymous protein (MTRAP) and the thrombospondin-related apical membrane protein (PTRAMP), were assessed using near-full-length recombinant proteins composed of the extracellular domains produced in Escherichia coli. MTRAP is thought to be released from invasive organelles identified as micronemes during merozoite invasion to mediate motility and host cell invasion through an interaction with aldolase, an actin binding protein involved in the moving junction. PTRAMP function remains unknown. In this study, the conformation of recombinant MTRAP (rMTRAP) appeared to be a highly extended protein (2 nm by 33 nm, width by length, respectively), whereas rPTRAMP had a less extended structure. Using an erythrocyte binding assay, rMTRAP but not rPTRAMP bound human erythrocytes; rMTRAP binding was mediated through the TSR domain. MTRAP- and in general PTRAMP-specific antibodies failed to inhibit P. falciparum development in vitro. Altogether, MTRAP is a highly extended bifunctional protein that binds to an erythrocyte receptor and the merozoite motor.

  3. Protein Motions and Folding Investigated by NMR Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palmer, Arthur

    2002-03-01

    NMR spin relaxation spectroscopy is a powerful experimental approach for globally characterizing conformational dynamics of proteins in solution. Laboratory frame relaxation measurements are sensitive to overall rotational diffusion and internal motions on picosecond-nanosecond time scales, while rotating frame relaxation measurements are sensitive to chemical exchange processes on microsecond-millisecond time scales. The former approach is illustrated by ^15N laboratory-frame relaxation experiments as a function of temperature for the helical subdomain HP36 of the F-actin-binding headpiece domain of chicken villin. The data are analyzed using the model-free formalism to characterize order parameters and effective correlation times for intramolecular motions of individual ^15N sites. The latter approach is illustrated by ^13C Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill relaxation measurements for the de novo designed α_2D protein and by ^15N rotating-frame relaxation measurements for the peripheral subunit-binding domain (PSBD) from the dihydrolopoamide acetyltransferase component of the pyruvate dehydrogenase multienzyme complex from Bacillus stearothermophilus. These experiments are used to determine the folding and unfolding kinetic rate constants for the two proteins. The results for HP36, α_2D, and PSBD illustrate the capability of current NMR methods for characterizing dynamic processes on multiple time scales in proteins.

  4. Interaction of actin and the chloroplast protein import apparatus.

    PubMed

    Jouhet, Juliette; Gray, John C

    2009-07-10

    Actin filaments are major components of the cytoskeleton and play numerous essential roles, including chloroplast positioning and plastid stromule movement, in plant cells. Actin is present in pea chloroplast envelope membrane preparations and is localized at the surface of the chloroplasts, as shown by agglutination of intact isolated chloroplasts by antibodies to actin. To identify chloroplast envelope proteins involved in actin binding, we have carried out actin co-immunoprecipitation and co-sedimentation experiments on detergent-solubilized pea chloroplast envelope membranes. Proteins co-immunoprecipitated with actin were identified by mass spectrometry and by Western blotting and included the Toc159, Toc75, Toc34, and Tic110 components of the TOC-TIC protein import apparatus. A direct interaction of actin with Escherichia coli-expressed Toc159, but not Toc33, was shown by co-sedimentation experiments, suggesting that Toc159 is the component of the TOC complex that interacts with actin on the cytosolic side of the outer envelope membrane. The physiological significance of this interaction is unknown, but it may play a role in the import of nuclear-encoded photosynthesis proteins.

  5. Protein

    MedlinePlus

    ... Search for: Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health Email People Departments Calendar Careers Give my.harvard ... Nutrition Source Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health > The Nutrition Source > What Should I Eat? > Protein ...

  6. Protein

    MedlinePlus

    ... Go lean with protein. • Choose lean meats and poultry. Lean beef cuts include round steaks (top loin, ... main dishes. • Use nuts to replace meat or poultry, not in addition to meat or poultry (i. ...

  7. Myofibrillar Z-discs Are a Protein Phosphorylation Hot Spot with Protein Kinase C (PKCα) Modulating Protein Dynamics.

    PubMed

    Reimann, Lena; Wiese, Heike; Leber, Yvonne; Schwäble, Anja N; Fricke, Anna L; Rohland, Anne; Knapp, Bettina; Peikert, Christian D; Drepper, Friedel; van der Ven, Peter F M; Radziwill, Gerald; Fürst, Dieter O; Warscheid, Bettina

    2017-03-01

    The Z-disc is a protein-rich structure critically important for the development and integrity of myofibrils, which are the contractile organelles of cross-striated muscle cells. We here used mouse C2C12 myoblast, which were differentiated into myotubes, followed by electrical pulse stimulation (EPS) to generate contracting myotubes comprising mature Z-discs. Using a quantitative proteomics approach, we found significant changes in the relative abundance of 387 proteins in myoblasts versus differentiated myotubes, reflecting the drastic phenotypic conversion of these cells during myogenesis. Interestingly, EPS of differentiated myotubes to induce Z-disc assembly and maturation resulted in increased levels of proteins involved in ATP synthesis, presumably to fulfill the higher energy demand of contracting myotubes. Because an important role of the Z-disc for signal integration and transduction was recently suggested, its precise phosphorylation landscape further warranted in-depth analysis. We therefore established, by global phosphoproteomics of EPS-treated contracting myotubes, a comprehensive site-resolved protein phosphorylation map of the Z-disc and found that it is a phosphorylation hotspot in skeletal myocytes, underscoring its functions in signaling and disease-related processes. In an illustrative fashion, we analyzed the actin-binding multiadaptor protein filamin C (FLNc), which is essential for Z-disc assembly and maintenance, and found that PKCα phosphorylation at distinct serine residues in its hinge 2 region prevents its cleavage at an adjacent tyrosine residue by calpain 1. Fluorescence recovery after photobleaching experiments indicated that this phosphorylation modulates FLNc dynamics. Moreover, FLNc lacking the cleaved Ig-like domain 24 exhibited remarkably fast kinetics and exceedingly high mobility. Our data set provides research community resource for further identification of kinase-mediated changes in myofibrillar protein interactions

  8. Marked global reduction in mGluR5 receptor binding in smokers and ex-smokers determined by [11C]ABP688 positron emission tomography

    PubMed Central

    Akkus, Funda; Ametamey, Simon M.; Treyer, Valerie; Burger, Cyrill; Johayem, Anass; Umbricht, Daniel; Gomez Mancilla, Baltazar; Sovago, Judit; Buck, Alfred; Hasler, Gregor

    2013-01-01

    Nicotine addiction is a major public health problem, resulting in primary glutamatergic dysfunction. We measured the glutamate receptor binding in the human brain and provided direct evidence for the abnormal glutamate system in smokers. Because antagonism of the metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGluR5) reduced nicotine self-administration in rats and mice, mGluR5 is suggested to be involved in nicotine addiction. mGluR5 receptor binding specifically to an allosteric site was observed by using positron emission tomography with [11C]ABP688. We found a marked global reduction (20.6%; P < 0.0001) in the mGluR5 distribution volume ratio (DVR) in the gray matter of 14 smokers. The most prominent reductions were found in the bilateral medial orbitofrontal cortex. Compared with 14 nonsmokers, 14 ex-smokers had global reductions in the average gray matter mGluR5 DVR (11.5%; P < 0.005), and there was a significant difference in average gray matter mGluR5 DVR between smokers and ex-smokers (9.2%; P < 0.01). Clinical variables reflecting current nicotine consumption, dependence and abstinence were not correlated with mGluR5 DVR. This decrease in mGluR5 receptor binding may be an adaptation to chronic increases in glutamate induced by chronic nicotine administration, and the decreased down-regulation seen in the ex-smokers could be due to incomplete recovery of the receptors, especially because the ex-smokers were abstinent for only 25 wk on average. These results encourage the development and testing of drugs against addiction that directly target the glutamatergic system. PMID:23248277

  9. Analysis of a homologue of the adducin head gene which is a potential target for the Dictyostelium STAT protein Dd-STATa.

    PubMed

    Aoshima, Ryota; Hiraoka, Rieko; Shimada, Nao; Kawata, Takefumi

    2006-01-01

    A Dd-STATa-null mutant, which is defective in expression of a Dictyostelium homologue of the metazoan STAT (signal transducers and activators of transcription) proteins, fails to culminate and this phenotype correlates with the loss of expression of various prestalk (pst) genes. An EST clone, SSK395, encodes a close homologue of the adducin amino-terminal head domain and harbors a putative actin-binding domain. We fused promoter fragments of the cognate gene, ahhA (adducin head homologue A), to a lacZ reporter and determined their expression pattern. The proximal promoter region is necessary for the expression of ahhA at an early (pre-aggregative) stage of development and this expression is Dd-STATa independent. The distal promoter region is necessary for expression at later stages of development in pstA cells, of the slug and in upper cup and pstAB cells during culmination. The distal region is partly Dd-STATa-dependent. The ahhA-null mutant develops almost normally until culmination, but it forms slanting culminants that tend to collapse on to the substratum. The mutant also occasionally forms fruiting bodies with swollen papillae and with constrictions in the prestalk region. The AhhA protein localizes to the stalk tube entrance and also to the upper cup cells and in cells at or near to the constricted region where an F-actin ring is localized. These findings suggest that Dd-STATa regulates culmination and may be necessary for straight downward elongation of the stalk, via the putative actin-binding protein AhhA.

  10. Molecular dynamics simulations of the auxin-binding protein 1 in complex with indole-3-acetic acid and naphthalen-1-acetic acid.

    PubMed

    Grandits, Melanie; Oostenbrink, Chris

    2014-10-01

    Auxin-binding protein 1 (ABP1) is suggested to be an auxin receptor which plays an important role in several processes in green plants. Maize ABP1 was simulated with the natural auxin indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and the synthetic analog naphthalen-1-acetic acid (NAA), to elucidate the role of the KDEL sequence and the helix at the C-terminus. The KDEL sequence weakens the intermolecular interactions between the monomers but stabilizes the C-terminal helix. Conformational changes at the C-terminus occur within the KDEL sequence and are influenced by the binding of the simulated ligands. This observation helps to explain experimental findings on ABP1 interactions with antibodies that are modulated by the presence of auxin, and supports the hypothesis that ABP1 acts as an auxin receptor. Stable hydrogen bonds between the monomers are formed between Glu40 and Glu62, Arg10 and Thr97, Lys39, and Glu62 in all simulations. The amino acids Ile22, Leu25, Trp44, Pro55, Ile130, and Phe149 are located in the binding pocket and are involved in hydrophobic interactions with the ring system of the ligand. Trp151 is stably involved in a face to end interaction with the ligand. The calculated free energy of binding using the linear interaction energy approach showed a higher binding affinity for NAA as compared to IAA. Our simulations confirm the asymmetric behavior of the two monomers, the stronger interaction of NAA than IAA and offers insight into the possible mechanism of ABP1 as an auxin receptor.

  11. Mechanics of composite actin networks: in vitro and cellular perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Upadhyaya, Arpita

    2014-03-01

    Actin filaments and associated actin binding proteins play an essential role in governing the mechanical properties of eukaryotic cells. Even though cells have multiple actin binding proteins (ABPs) that exist simultaneously to maintain the structural and mechanical integrity of the cellular cytoskeleton, how these proteins work together to determine the properties of actin networks is not well understood. The ABP, palladin, is essential for the integrity of cell morphology and movement during development. Palladin coexists with alpha-actinin in stress fibers and focal adhesions and binds to both actin and alpha-actinin. To obtain insight into how mutually interacting actin crosslinking proteins modulate the properties of actin networks, we have characterized the micro-structure and mechanics of actin networks crosslinked with palladin and alpha-actinin. Our studies on composite networks of alpha-actinin/palladin/actin show that palladin and alpha-actinin synergistically determine network viscoelasticity. We have further examined the role of palladin in cellular force generation and mechanosensing. Traction force microscopy revealed that TAFs are sensitive to substrate stiffness as they generate larger forces on substrates of increased stiffness. Contrary to expectations, knocking down palladin increased the forces generated by cells, and also inhibited the ability to sense substrate stiffness for very stiff gels. This was accompanied by significant differences in the actin organization and adhesion dynamics of palladin knock down cells. Perturbation experiments also suggest altered myosin activity in palladin KD cells. Our results suggest that the actin crosslinkers such as palladin and myosin motors coordinate for optimal cell function and to prevent aberrant behavior as in cancer metastasis.

  12. An auxin-binding protein is localized to the plasma membrane of maize coleoptile cells: Identification by photoaffinity labeling and purification of a 23-kDa polypeptide

    SciTech Connect

    Feldwisch, J.; Zettl, R.; Hesse, F.; Schell, J.; Palme, K. )

    1992-01-15

    Plasma membrane vesicles were isolated from maize (Zea mays L.) coleoptile tissue by aqueous two-phase partitioning and assayed for homogeneity by the use of membrane-specific enzymatic assays. Using 5-azido-(7-{sup 3}H)indole-3-acetic acid (({sup 3}H)N{sub 3}IAA), the authors identified several IAA-binding proteins with the molecular masses of 60 kDa (pm60), 58 kDa (pm58), and 23 kDa (pm23). Using Triton X-114, they were able to selectively extract pm23 from the plasma membrane. They show that auxins and functional analogues compete with ({sup 3}H)N{sub 3}IAA for binding to pm23. They found that PAB130, a polyclonal antibody raised against auxin-binding protein 1 (ABP-1), recognized ABP-1 as well as pm23. This suggests that pm23 shares common epitopes with ABP-1. In addition, they identified an auxin-binding protein with a molecular mass of 24 kDa (pm24), which was detected in microsomal but not in plasma membrane vesicle preparations. Like pm23 this protein was extracted from membrane vesicles with Triton X-114. They designed a purification scheme allowing simultaneous purification of pm23 and pm24. Homogeneous pm23 and pm24 were obtained from coleoptile extracts after 7,000-fold purification.

  13. Differential effects of thin and thick filament disruption on zebrafish smooth muscle regulatory proteins

    PubMed Central

    Davuluri, G.; Seiler, C.; Abrams, J.; Soriano, A. J.; Pack, M.

    2013-01-01

    Background The smooth muscle actin binding proteins Caldesmon and Tropomyosin (Tm) promote thin filament assembly by stabilizing actin polymerization, however, whether filament assembly affects either the stability or activation of these and other smooth muscle regulatory proteins is not known. Methods Measurement of smooth muscle regulatory protein levels in wild type zebrafish larvae following antisense knockdown of smooth muscle actin (Acta2) and myosin heavy chain (Myh11) proteins, and in colourless mutants that lack enteric nerves. Comparison of intestinal peristalsis in wild type and colourless larvae. Key Results Knockdown of Acta2 led to reduced levels of phospho-Caldesmon and Tm. Total Caldesmon and phospho-myosin light chain (p-Mlc) levels were unaffected. Knockdown of Myh11 had no effect on the levels of either of these proteins. Phospho-Caldesmon and p-Mlc levels were markedly reduced in colourless mutants that have intestinal motility comparable with wild type larvae. Conclusions & Inferences These in vivo findings provide new information regarding the activation and stability of smooth muscle regulatory proteins in zebrafish larvae and their role in intestinal peristalsis in this model organism. PMID:20591105

  14. Redundant control of migration and adhesion by ERM proteins in vascular smooth muscle cells

    SciTech Connect

    Baeyens, Nicolas; Latrache, Iman; Yerna, Xavier; Noppe, Gauthier; Horman, Sandrine; Morel, Nicole

    2013-11-22

    Highlights: •The three ERM proteins are expressed in vascular smooth muscle cell. •ERM depletion inhibited PDGF-evoked migration redundantly. •ERM depletion increased cell adhesion redundantly. •ERM depletion did not affect PDGF-evoked Ca signal, Rac1 activation, proliferation. •ERM proteins control PDGF-induced migration by regulating adhesion. -- Abstract: Ezrin, radixin, and moesin possess a very similar structure with a C-terminal actin-binding domain and a N-terminal FERM interacting domain. They are known to be involved in cytoskeleton organization in several cell types but their function in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) is still unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of ERM proteins in cell migration induced by PDGF, a growth factor involved in pathophysiological processes like angiogenesis or atherosclerosis. We used primary cultured VSMC obtained from rat aorta, which express the three ERM proteins. Simultaneous depletion of the three ERM proteins with specific siRNAs abolished the effects of PDGF on cell architecture and migration and markedly increased cell adhesion and focal adhesion size, while these parameters were only slightly affected by depletion of ezrin, radixin or moesin alone. Rac1 activation, cell proliferation, and Ca{sup 2+} signal in response to PDGF were unaffected by ERM depletion. These results indicate that ERM proteins exert a redundant control on PDGF-induced VSMC migration by regulating focal adhesion turn-over and cell adhesion to substrate.

  15. Short- and long-term effects of a maternal low-protein diet on ventilation, O₂/CO₂ chemoreception and arterial blood pressure in male rat offspring.

    PubMed

    de Brito Alves, José Luiz; Nogueira, Viviane Oliveira; de Oliveira, Gerliny Bezerra; da Silva, Glauber Santos Ferreira; Wanderley, Almir Gonçalves; Leandro, Carol Góis; Costa-Silva, João Henrique

    2014-02-01

    Maternal undernutrition increases the risk of adult arterial hypertension. The present study investigated the short- and long-term effects of a maternal low-protein diet on respiratory rhythm, O₂/CO₂ chemosensitivity and arterial blood pressure (ABP) of the offspring. Male Wistar rats were divided into two groups according to their mothers' diets during gestation and lactation: control (NP, 17% of casein) and low-protein (LP, 8% of casein) groups. Direct measurements of ABP, respiratory frequency (RF), tidal volume (V T) and ventilation (VE), as well as hypercapnia (7% CO₂) and hypoxia (7% O₂) evoked respiratory responses were recorded from the awake male offspring at the 30th and 90th days of life. Blood samples were collected for the analyses of protein, creatinine and urea concentrations. The LP offspring had impaired body weight and length throughout the experiment. At 30 d of age, the LP rats showed a reduction in the concentrations of total serum protein (approximately 24%). ABP in the LP rats was similar to that in the NP rats at 30 d of age, but it was 20% higher at 90 d of age. With respect to ventilatory parameters, the LP rats showed enhanced RF (approximately 34%) and VE (approximately 34%) at 30 d of age, which was associated with increased ventilatory responses to hypercapnia (approximately 21% in VE) and hypoxia (approximately 82% in VE). At 90 d of age, the VE values and CO₂/O₂ chemosensitivity of the LP rats were restored to the control range, but the RF values remained elevated. The present data show that a perinatal LP diet alters respiratory rhythm and O₂/CO₂ chemosensitivity at early ages, which may be a predisposing factor for increased ABP at adulthood.

  16. An update on cell surface proteins containing extensin-motifs.

    PubMed

    Borassi, Cecilia; Sede, Ana R; Mecchia, Martin A; Salgado Salter, Juan D; Marzol, Eliana; Muschietti, Jorge P; Estevez, Jose M

    2016-01-01

    In recent years it has become clear that there are several molecular links that interconnect the plant cell surface continuum, which is highly important in many biological processes such as plant growth, development, and interaction with the environment. The plant cell surface continuum can be defined as the space that contains and interlinks the cell wall, plasma membrane and cytoskeleton compartments. In this review, we provide an updated view of cell surface proteins that include modular domains with an extensin (EXT)-motif followed by a cytoplasmic kinase-like domain, known as PERKs (for proline-rich extensin-like receptor kinases); with an EXT-motif and an actin binding domain, known as formins; and with extracellular hybrid-EXTs. We focus our attention on the EXT-motifs with the short sequence Ser-Pro(3-5), which is found in several different protein contexts within the same extracellular space, highlighting a putative conserved structural and functional role. A closer understanding of the dynamic regulation of plant cell surface continuum and its relationship with the downstream signalling cascade is a crucial forthcoming challenge.

  17. Synthetic mimetics of actin-binding macrolides: rational design of actin-targeted drugs.

    PubMed

    Perrins, Richard D; Cecere, Giuseppe; Paterson, Ian; Marriott, Gerard

    2008-03-01

    Actin polymerization and dynamics are involved in a wide range of cellular processes such as cell division and migration of tumor cells. At sites of cell lysis, such as those occurring during a stroke or inflammatory lung diseases, actin is released into the serum where it polymerizes, leading to problems with clot dissolution and sputum viscosity. Therefore, drugs that target these actin-mediated processes may provide one mechanism to treat these conditions. Marine-organism-derived macrolides, such as reidispongiolide A, can bind to, sever, and inhibit polymerization of actin. Our studies show that the function of these complex macrolides resides in their tail region, whereas the head group stabilizes the actin-drug complex. Synthetic compounds derived from this tail region could therefore be used as a mimetic of the natural product, providing a range of designer compounds to treat actin-associated diseases or as probes to study actin polymerization.

  18. Metabolic and evolutionary origin of actin-binding polyketides from diverse organisms.

    PubMed

    Ueoka, Reiko; Uria, Agustinus R; Reiter, Silke; Mori, Tetsushi; Karbaum, Petra; Peters, Eike E; Helfrich, Eric J N; Morinaka, Brandon I; Gugger, Muriel; Takeyama, Haruko; Matsunaga, Shigeki; Piel, Jörn

    2015-09-01

    Actin-targeting macrolides comprise a large, structurally diverse group of cytotoxins isolated from remarkably dissimilar micro- and macroorganisms. In spite of their disparate origins and structures, many of these compounds bind actin at the same site and exhibit structural relationships reminiscent of modular, combinatorial drug libraries. Here we investigate biosynthesis and evolution of three compound groups: misakinolides, scytophycin-type compounds and luminaolides. For misakinolides from the sponge Theonella swinhoei WA, our data suggest production by an uncultivated 'Entotheonella' symbiont, further supporting the relevance of these bacteria as sources of bioactive polyketides and peptides in sponges. Insights into misakinolide biosynthesis permitted targeted genome mining for other members, providing a cyanobacterial luminaolide producer as the first cultivated source for this dimeric compound family. The data indicate that this polyketide family is bacteria-derived and that the unusual macrolide diversity is the result of combinatorial pathway modularity for some compounds and of convergent evolution for others.

  19. Diffusion of GPI-anchored proteins is influenced by the activity of dynamic cortical actin.

    PubMed

    Saha, Suvrajit; Lee, Il-Hyung; Polley, Anirban; Groves, Jay T; Rao, Madan; Mayor, Satyajit

    2015-11-05

    Molecular diffusion at the surface of living cells is believed to be predominantly driven by thermal kicks. However, there is growing evidence that certain cell surface molecules are driven by the fluctuating dynamics of cortical cytoskeleton. Using fluorescence correlation spectroscopy, we measure the diffusion coefficient of a variety of cell surface molecules over a temperature range of 24-37 °C. Exogenously incorporated fluorescent lipids with short acyl chains exhibit the expected increase of diffusion coefficient over this temperature range. In contrast, we find that GPI-anchored proteins exhibit temperature-independent diffusion over this range and revert to temperature-dependent diffusion on cell membrane blebs, in cells depleted of cholesterol, and upon acute perturbation of actin dynamics and myosin activity. A model transmembrane protein with a cytosolic actin-binding domain also exhibits the temperature-independent behavior, directly implicating the role of cortical actin. We show that diffusion of GPI-anchored proteins also becomes temperature dependent when the filamentous dynamic actin nucleator formin is inhibited. However, changes in cortical actin mesh size or perturbation of branched actin nucleator Arp2/3 do not affect this behavior. Thus cell surface diffusion of GPI-anchored proteins and transmembrane proteins that associate with actin is driven by active fluctuations of dynamic cortical actin filaments in addition to thermal fluctuations, consistent with expectations from an "active actin-membrane composite" cell surface.

  20. Comparative proteomic analysis of differentially expressed proteins between peripheral sensory and motor nerves.

    PubMed

    He, Qianru; Man, Lili; Ji, Yuhua; Zhang, Shuqiang; Jiang, Maorong; Ding, Fei; Gu, Xiaosong

    2012-06-01

    Peripheral sensory and motor nerves have different functions and different approaches to regeneration, especially their distinct ability to accurately reinervate terminal nerve pathways. To understand the molecular aspects underlying these differences, the proteomics technique by coupling isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ) with online two-dimensional liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (2D LC-MS/MS) was used to investigate the protein profile of sensory and motor nerve samples from rats. A total of 1472 proteins were identified in either sensory or motor nerve. Of them, 100 proteins showed differential expressions between both nerves, and some of them were validated by quantitative real time RT-PCR, Western blot analysis, and immunohistochemistry. In the light of functional categorization, the differentially expressed proteins in sensory and motor nerves, belonging to a broad range of classes, were related to a diverse array of biological functions, which included cell adhesion, cytoskeleton, neuronal plasticity, neurotrophic activity, calcium-binding, signal transduction, transport, enzyme catalysis, lipid metabolism, DNA-binding, synaptosome function, actin-binding, ATP-binding, extracellular matrix, and commitment to other lineages. The relatively higher expressed proteins in either sensory or motor nerve were tentatively discussed in combination with their specific molecular characteristics. It is anticipated that the database generated in this study will provide a solid foundation for further comprehensive investigation of functional differences between sensory and motor nerves, including the specificity of their regeneration.

  1. Diffusion of GPI-anchored proteins is influenced by the activity of dynamic cortical actin

    PubMed Central

    Saha, Suvrajit; Lee, Il-Hyung; Polley, Anirban; Groves, Jay T.; Rao, Madan; Mayor, Satyajit

    2015-01-01

    Molecular diffusion at the surface of living cells is believed to be predominantly driven by thermal kicks. However, there is growing evidence that certain cell surface molecules are driven by the fluctuating dynamics of cortical cytoskeleton. Using fluorescence correlation spectroscopy, we measure the diffusion coefficient of a variety of cell surface molecules over a temperature range of 24–37°C. Exogenously incorporated fluorescent lipids with short acyl chains exhibit the expected increase of diffusion coefficient over this temperature range. In contrast, we find that GPI-anchored proteins exhibit temperature-independent diffusion over this range and revert to temperature-dependent diffusion on cell membrane blebs, in cells depleted of cholesterol, and upon acute perturbation of actin dynamics and myosin activity. A model transmembrane protein with a cytosolic actin-binding domain also exhibits the temperature-independent behavior, directly implicating the role of cortical actin. We show that diffusion of GPI-anchored proteins also becomes temperature dependent when the filamentous dynamic actin nucleator formin is inhibited. However, changes in cortical actin mesh size or perturbation of branched actin nucleator Arp2/3 do not affect this behavior. Thus cell surface diffusion of GPI-anchored proteins and transmembrane proteins that associate with actin is driven by active fluctuations of dynamic cortical actin filaments in addition to thermal fluctuations, consistent with expectations from an “active actin-membrane composite” cell surface. PMID:26378258

  2. Duplex (or quadruplet) CH domain containing human multidomain proteins: an inventory.

    PubMed

    Friedberg, Felix

    2010-04-01

    In this paper, the inventory presented for singlet CH (calponin homology/actin binding) domain containing human multidomain proteins is extended to several duplex and one quadruplet CH containing forms. Invariably, the duplexes are located at the begin of the molecules. The regions connecting the two CH units suggest amino acid conservations which allows the placing of 18 duplex containing molecules into six groups wherein the gene for one member in each group created the others more recently by gene duplication. The ancient multidomain proteins, possibly, were primarily the result of an exon shuffling (transposition) mechanism that also guided the placing of the CH singlet or duplex domain at the amino end of the newly created proteins. A mechanism that creates pseudogenes could conceivably produce genes that encode multi-domain proteins. Intragenomic duplications (slippage) might have facilitated the occurrence of encoding repeats, thus allowing for the creation of multiple identical domains within one molecule. Gene duplication with subsequent modification and small domain gene recombination which formed multidomain proteins are important forces driving evolution.

  3. Translocation of an 89-kDa periplasmic protein is associated with Holospora infection

    SciTech Connect

    Iwatani, Koichi; Dohra, Hideo; Lang, B. Franz; Burger, Gertraud; Hori, Manabu; Fujishima, Masahiro . E-mail: fujishim@yamaguchi-u.ac.jp

    2005-12-02

    The symbiotic bacterium Holospora obtusa infects the macronucleus of the ciliate Paramecium caudatum. After ingestion by its host, an infectious form of Holospora with an electron-translucent tip passes through the host digestive vacuole and penetrates the macronuclear envelope with this tip. To investigate the underlying molecular mechanism of this process, we raised a monoclonal antibody against the tip-specific 89-kDa protein, sequenced this partially, and identified the corresponding complete gene. The deduced protein sequence carries two actin-binding motifs. Indirect immunofluorescence microscopy shows that during escape from the host digestive vacuole, the 89-kDa proteins translocates from the inside to the outside of the tip. When the bacterium invades the macronucleus, the 89-kDa protein is left behind at the entry point of the nuclear envelope. Transmission electron microscopy shows the formation of fine fibrous structures that co-localize with the antibody-labeled regions of the bacterium. Our findings suggest that the 89-kDa protein plays a role in Holospora's escape from the host digestive vacuole, the migration through the host cytoplasm, and the invasion into the macronucleus.

  4. Actin, actin-related proteins and profilin in diatoms: a comparative genomic analysis.

    PubMed

    Aumeier, Charlotte; Polinski, Ellen; Menzel, Diedrik

    2015-10-01

    Diatoms are heterokont unicellular algae with a widespread distribution throughout all aquatic habitats. Research on diatoms has advanced significantly over the last decade due to available genetic transformation methods and publicly available genome databases. Yet up to now, proteins involved in the regulation of the cytoskeleton in diatoms are largely unknown. Consequently, this work focuses on actin and actin-related proteins (ARPs) encoded in the diatom genomes of Thalassiosira pseudonana, Thalassiosira oceanica, Phaeodactylum tricornutum, Fragilariopsis cylindrus and Pseudo-nitzschia multiseries. Our comparative genomic study revealed that most diatoms possess only a single conventional actin and a small set of ARPs. Among these are the highly conserved cytoplasmic Arp1 protein and the nuclear Arp4 as well as Arp6. Diatom genomes contain genes coding for two structurally different homologues of Arp4 that might serve specific functions. All diatom species examined here lack ARP2 and ARP3 proteins, suggesting that diatoms are not capable of forming the Arp2/3 complex, which is essential in most eukaryotes for actin filament branching and plus-end dynamics. Interestingly, none of the sequenced representatives of the Bacillariophyta phylum code for profilin. Profilin is an essential actin-binding protein regulating the monomer actin pool and is involved in filament plus-end dynamics. This is the first report of organisms not containing profilin.

  5. SH3P7 is a cytoskeleton adapter protein and is coupled to signal transduction from lymphocyte antigen receptors.

    PubMed

    Larbolette, O; Wollscheid, B; Schweikert, J; Nielsen, P J; Wienands, J

    1999-02-01

    Lymphocytes respond to antigen receptor engagement with tyrosine phosphorylation of many cellular proteins, some of which have been identified and functionally characterized. Here we describe SH3P7, a novel substrate protein for Src and Syk family kinases. SH3P7 migrates in sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis as a 55-kDa protein that is preferentially expressed in brain, thymus, and spleen. It contains multiple amino acid sequence motifs, including two consensus tyrosine phosphorylation sites of the YXXP type and one SH3 domain. A region of sequence similarity, which we named SCAD, was found in SH3P7 and three actin-binding proteins. The SCAD region may represent a new type of protein-protein interaction domain that mediates binding to actin. Consistent with this possibility, SH3P7 colocalizes with actin filaments of the cytoskeleton. Altogether, our data implicate SH3P7 as an adapter protein which links antigen receptor signaling to components of the cytoskeleton.

  6. Identification of Arabidopsis cyclase-associated protein 1 as the first nucleotide exchange factor for plant actin.

    PubMed

    Chaudhry, Faisal; Guérin, Christophe; von Witsch, Matthias; Blanchoin, Laurent; Staiger, Christopher J

    2007-08-01

    The actin cytoskeleton powers organelle movements, orchestrates responses to abiotic stresses, and generates an amazing array of cell shapes. Underpinning these diverse functions of the actin cytoskeleton are several dozen accessory proteins that coordinate actin filament dynamics and construct higher-order assemblies. Many actin-binding proteins from the plant kingdom have been characterized and their function is often surprisingly distinct from mammalian and fungal counterparts. The adenylyl cyclase-associated protein (CAP) has recently been shown to be an important regulator of actin dynamics in vivo and in vitro. The disruption of actin organization in cap mutant plants indicates defects in actin dynamics or the regulated assembly and disassembly of actin subunits into filaments. Current models for actin dynamics maintain that actin-depolymerizing factor (ADF)/cofilin removes ADP-actin subunits from filament ends and that profilin recharges these monomers with ATP by enhancing nucleotide exchange and delivery of subunits onto filament barbed ends. Plant profilins, however, lack the essential ability to stimulate nucleotide exchange on actin, suggesting that there might be a missing link yet to be discovered from plants. Here, we show that Arabidopsis thaliana CAP1 (AtCAP1) is an abundant cytoplasmic protein; it is present at a 1:3 M ratio with total actin in suspension cells. AtCAP1 has equivalent affinities for ADP- and ATP-monomeric actin (Kd approximately 1.3 microM). Binding of AtCAP1 to ATP-actin monomers inhibits polymerization, consistent with AtCAP1 being an actin sequestering protein. However, we demonstrate that AtCAP1 is the first plant protein to increase the rate of nucleotide exchange on actin. Even in the presence of ADF/cofilin, AtCAP1 can recharge actin monomers and presumably provide a polymerizable pool of subunits to profilin for addition onto filament ends. In turnover assays, plant profilin, ADF, and CAP act cooperatively to promote flux

  7. Biochemical analysis of potential sites for protein 4.1-mediated anchoring of the spectrin-actin skeleton to the erythrocyte membrane.

    PubMed

    Workman, R F; Low, P S

    1998-03-13

    Erythrocyte protein 4.1 has been hypothesized to link the spectrin-actin junctional complex directly to the cytoplasmic domain of glycophorin C, but this bridging function has never been directly demonstrated. Because an alternative protein-mediated bridge between the junctional complex and the cytoplasmic domain of band 3 is also plausible, we have undertaken to characterize the membrane sites to which protein 4.1 can anchor the spectrin and actin skeleton. We demonstrate that proteolytic removal of the cytoplasmic domain of band 3 has minimal effect on the ability of protein 4.1 to promote 125I-labeled spectrin and actin binding to KI-stripped erythrocyte membrane vesicles. We also show that quantitative blockade of all band 3 sites with either monoclonal or polyclonal antibodies to band 3 is equally ineffective in preventing protein 4.1-mediated association of spectrin and actin with the membrane. In contrast, obstruction of protein 4.1 binding to its docking site on the cytoplasmic pole of glycophorin C is demonstrated to reduce the same protein 4.1 bridging function by approximately 85%. We conclude from these data that (i) glycophorin C contributes the primary anchoring site of the protein 4.1-mediated bridge to the spectrin-actin skeleton; (ii) band 3 is incapable of serving the same function; and (iii) additional minor protein 4.1 bridging sites may exist on the human erythrocyte membrane.

  8. FHOD proteins in actin dynamics--a formin' class of its own.

    PubMed

    Bechtold, Meike; Schultz, Jörg; Bogdan, Sven

    2014-01-01

    Eukaryotic cells have evolved a variety of actin-binding proteins to regulate the architecture and the dynamics of the actin cytoskeleton in time and space. The Diaphanous-related formins (DRF) represent a diverse group of Rho-GTPase-regulated actin regulators that control a range of actin structures composed of tightly-bundled, unbranched actin filaments as found in stress fibers and in filopodia. Under resting conditions, DRFs are auto-inhibited by an intra-molecular interaction between the C-terminal and the N-terminal domains. The auto-inhibition is thought to be released by binding of an activated RhoGTPase to the N-terminal GTPase-binding domain (GBD). However, there is growing evidence for more sophisticated variations from this simplified linear activation model. In this review we focus on the formin homology domain-containing proteins (FHOD), an unconventional group of DRFs. Recent findings on the molecular control and cellular functions of FHOD proteins in vivo are discussed in the light of the phylogeny of FHOD proteins.

  9. Sequence and Comparative Genomic Analysis of Actin-related ProteinsD⃞

    PubMed Central

    Muller, Jean; Oma, Yukako; Vallar, Laurent; Friederich, Evelyne; Poch, Olivier; Winsor, Barbara

    2005-01-01

    Actin-related proteins (ARPs) are key players in cytoskeleton activities and nuclear functions. Two complexes, ARP2/3 and ARP1/11, also known as dynactin, are implicated in actin dynamics and in microtubule-based trafficking, respectively. ARP4 to ARP9 are components of many chromatin-modulating complexes. Conventional actins and ARPs codefine a large family of homologous proteins, the actin superfamily, with a tertiary structure known as the actin fold. Because ARPs and actin share high sequence conservation, clear family definition requires distinct features to easily and systematically identify each subfamily. In this study we performed an in depth sequence and comparative genomic analysis of ARP subfamilies. A high-quality multiple alignment of ∼700 complete protein sequences homologous to actin, including 148 ARP sequences, allowed us to extend the ARP classification to new organisms. Sequence alignments revealed conserved residues, motifs, and inserted sequence signatures to define each ARP subfamily. These discriminative characteristics allowed us to develop ARPAnno (http://bips.u-strasbg.fr/ARPAnno), a new web server dedicated to the annotation of ARP sequences. Analyses of sequence conservation among actins and ARPs highlight part of the actin fold and suggest interactions between ARPs and actin-binding proteins. Finally, analysis of ARP distribution across eukaryotic phyla emphasizes the central importance of nuclear ARPs, particularly the multifunctional ARP4. PMID:16195354

  10. Modulation of cytoskeletal dynamics by mammalian nucleoside diphosphate kinase (NDPK) proteins.

    PubMed

    Snider, Natasha T; Altshuler, Peter J; Omary, M Bishr

    2015-02-01

    Nucleoside diphosphate kinase (NDPK) proteins comprise a family of ten human isoforms that participate in the regulation of multiple cellular processes via enzymatic and nonenzymatic functions. The major enzymatic function of NDPKs is the generation of nucleoside triphosphates, such as guanosine triphosphate (GTP). Mechanisms behind the nonenzymatic NDPK functions are not clear but likely involve context-dependent signaling roles of NDPK within multi-protein complexes. This is most evident for NDPK-A, which is encoded by the human NME1 gene, the first tumor metastasis suppressor gene to be identified. Understanding which protein interactions are most relevant for the biological and metastasis-related functions of NDPK will be important in the potential utilization of NDPK as a disease target. Accumulating evidence suggests that NDPK interacts with and affects various components and regulators of the cytoskeleton, including actin-binding proteins, intermediate filaments, and cytoskeletal attachment structures (adherens junctions, desmosomes, and focal adhesions). We review the existing literature on this topic and highlight outstanding questions and potential future directions that should clarify the impact of NDPK on the different cytoskeletal systems.

  11. Mammalian homolog of the yeast cyclase associated protein, CAP/Srv2p, regulates actin filament assembly.

    PubMed

    Freeman, N L; Field, J

    2000-02-01

    Control of cell shape and motility requires rearrangements of the actin cytoskeleton. One cytoskeletal protein that may regulate actin dynamics is CAP (cyclase associated protein; CAP/Srv2p; ASP-56). CAP was first isolated from yeast as an adenylyl cyclase associated protein required for RAS regulation of cAMP signaling. In addition, CAP also regulates the actin cytoskeleton primarily through an actin monomer binding activity. CAP homologs are found in many eukaryotes, including mammals where they also bind actin, but little is known about their biological function. We, therefore, designed experiments to address CAP1 regulation of the actin cytoskeleton. CAP1 localized to membrane ruffles and actin stress fibers in fixed cells of various types. To address localization in living cells, we constructed GFP-CAP1 fusion proteins and found that fusion proteins lacking the actin-binding region localized like the wild type protein. We also performed microinjection studies with affinity-purified anti-CAP1 antibodies in Swiss 3T3 fibroblasts and found that the antibodies attenuated serum stimulation of stress fibers. Finally, CAP1 purified from platelets through a monoclonal antibody affinity purification step stimulated the formation of stress fiber-like filaments when it was microinjected into serum-starved Swiss 3T3 cells. Taken together, these data suggest that CAP1 promotes assembly of the actin cytoskeleton.

  12. A Balance of Capping Protein and Profilin Functions Is Required to Regulate Actin Polymerization in Drosophila Bristle

    PubMed Central

    Hopmann, Roberta; Miller, Kathryn G.

    2003-01-01

    Profilin is a well-characterized protein known to be important for regulating actin filament assembly. Relatively few studies have addressed how profilin interacts with other actin-binding proteins in vivo to regulate assembly of complex actin structures. To investigate the function of profilin in the context of a differentiating cell, we have studied an instructive genetic interaction between mutations in profilin (chickadee) and capping protein (cpb). Capping protein is the principal protein in cells that caps actin filament barbed ends. When its function is reduced in the Drosophila bristle, F-actin levels increase and the actin cytoskeleton becomes disorganized, causing abnormal bristle morphology. chickadee mutations suppress the abnormal bristle phenotype and associated abnormalities of the actin cytoskeleton seen in cpb mutants. Furthermore, overexpression of profilin in the bristle mimics many features of the cpb loss-of-function phenotype. The interaction between cpb and chickadee suggests that profilin promotes actin assembly in the bristle and that a balance between capping protein and profilin activities is important for the proper regulation of F-actin levels. Furthermore, this balance of activities affects the association of actin structures with the membrane, suggesting a link between actin filament dynamics and localization of actin structures within the cell. PMID:12529431

  13. Fimbrin is a homologue of the cytoplasmic phosphoprotein plastin and has domains homologous with calmodulin and actin gelation proteins.

    PubMed

    de Arruda, M V; Watson, S; Lin, C S; Leavitt, J; Matsudaira, P

    1990-09-01

    Fimbrin is an actin-bundling protein found in intestinal microvilli, hair cell stereocilia, and fibroblast filopodia. The complete protein sequence (630 residues) of chicken intestine fimbrin has been determined from two full-length cDNA clones. The sequence encodes a small amino-terminal domain (115 residues) that is homologous with two calcium-binding sites of calmodulin and a large carboxy-terminal domain (500 residues) consisting of a fourfold-repeated 125-residue sequence. This repeat is homologous with the actin-binding domain of alpha-actinin and the amino-terminal domains of dystrophin, actin-gelation protein, and beta-spectrin. The presence of this duplicated domain in fimbrin links actin bundling proteins and gelation proteins into a common family of actin cross-linking proteins. Fimbrin is also homologous in sequence with human L-plastin and T-plastin. L-plastin is found in only normal or transformed leukocytes where it becomes phosphorylated in response to IL 1 or phorbol myristate acetate. T-plastin is found in cells of solid tissues where it does not become phosphorylated. Neoplastic cells derived from solid tissues express both isoforms. The differences in expression, sequence, and phosphorylation suggest possible functional differences between fimbrin isoforms.

  14. Identification of a cyclase-associated protein (CAP) homologue in Dictyostelium discoideum and characterization of its interaction with actin.

    PubMed Central

    Gottwald, U; Brokamp, R; Karakesisoglou, I; Schleicher, M; Noegel, A A

    1996-01-01

    In search for novel actin binding proteins in Dictyostelium discoideum we have isolated a cDNA clone coding for a protein of approximately 50 kDa that is highly homologous to the class of adenylyl cyclase-associated proteins (CAP). In Saccharomyces cerevisiae the amino-terminal part of CAP is involved in the regulation of the adenylyl cyclase whereas the loss of the carboxyl-terminal domain results in morphological and nutritional defects. To study the interaction of Dictyostelium CAP with actin, the complete protein and its amino-terminal and carboxyl-terminal domains were expressed in Escherichia coli and used in actin binding assays. CAP sequestered actin in a Ca2+ independent way. This activity was localized to the carboxyl-terminal domain. CAP and its carboxyl-terminal domain led to a fluorescence enhancement of pyrene-labeled G-actin up to 50% indicating a direct interaction, whereas the amino-terminal domain did not enhance. In polymerization as well as in viscometric assays the ability of the carboxyl-terminal domain to sequester actin and to prevent F-actin formation was approximately two times higher than that of intact CAP. The sequestering activity of full length CAP could be inhibited by phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2), whereas the activity of the carboxyl-terminal domain alone was not influenced, suggesting that the amino-terminal half of the protein is required for the PIP2 modulation of the CAP function. In profilin-minus cells the CAP concentration is increased by approximately 73%, indicating that CAP may compensate some profilin functions in vivo. In migrating D. discoideum cells CAP was enriched at anterior and posterior plasma membrane regions. Only a weak staining of the cytoplasm was observed. In chemotactically stimulated cells the protein was very prominent in leading fronts. The data suggest an involvement of D. discoideum CAP in microfilament reorganization near the plasma membrane in a PIP2-regulated manner. Images PMID

  15. Computer simulation of protein—carbohydrate complexes: application to arabinose-binding protein and pea lectin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, V. S. R.; Biswas, Margaret; Mukhopadhyay, Chaitali; Balaji, P. V.

    1989-03-01

    The CCEM method (Contact Criteria and Energy Minimisation) has been developed and applied to study protein-carbohydrate interactions. The method uses available X-ray data even on the native protein at low resolution (above 2.4 Å) to generate realistic models of a variety of proteins with various ligands. The two examples discussed in this paper are arabinose-binding protein (ABP) and pea lectin. The X-ray crystal structure data reported on ABP-β- L-arabinose complex at 2.8, 2.4 and 1.7 Å resolution differ drastically in predicting the nature of the interactions between the protein and ligand. It is shown that, using the data at 2.4 Å resolution, the CCEM method generates complexes which are as good as the higher (1.7 Å) resolution data. The CCEM method predicts some of the important hydrogen bonds between the ligand and the protein which are missing in the interpretation of the X-ray data at 2.4 Å resolution. The theoretically predicted hydrogen bonds are in good agreement with those reported at 1.7 Å resolution. Pea lectin has been solved only in the native form at 3 Å resolution. Application of the CCEM method also enables us to generate complexes of pea lectin with methyl-α- D-glucopyranoside and methyl-2,3-dimethyl-α- D-glucopyranoside which explain well the available experimental data in solution.

  16. Relations between a novel, reliable, and rapid index of arterial compliance (PP-HDI) and well-established inidices of arterial blood pressure (ABP) in a sample of hypertensive elderly subjects.

    PubMed

    Bergamini, L; Finelli, M E; Bendini, C; Ferrari, E; Veschi, M; Neviani, F; Manni, B; Pelosi, A; Rioli, G; Neri, M

    2009-01-01

    Hypertension is a risk factor for a long-lasting arterial wall-remodelling leading to stiffness. The rapid method measuring the pulse pressure (PP) by means of the tool of Hypertension Diagnostic Instruments (HDI) called PP-HDI, overcomes some of the problems arising with more-time consuming methods, like ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM), and give information about the elasticity of the arterial walls. We studied the relationship between the PP-HDI, the large artery compliance (LA-C) and small artery compliance (SA-C) and few well-established indices of arterial blood pressure (ABP) in a sample of 75 hypertensive subjects, aged 65 years and over. Significant correlations between LA-C and heart rate (HR), PP-ABPM and PP-HDI were found. SA-C relates with HR and systolic blood pressure (SBP) measured in lying and standing positions. Applying a stepwise regression analysis, we found that LA-C variance stems from PP-HDI and HR, while SA-C variance stems from SBP in lying position. Receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curves for thresholds of PP showed that PP-HDI reached levels of sensitivity/specificity similar to PP-ABPM. In conclusion, surveillance of ABP through hemo-dynamic indices, in particular of SBP, is essential, nevertheless the advantage of this control is not known in an elderly population where the organ damage is already evident. PP needs necessarily an instrumental measurement. The PP-HDI result is similar in reliability with respect to PPABPM, but is more rapid and well applicable in an elderly population.

  17. Arabidopsis microtubule-destabilizing protein 25 functions in pollen tube growth by severing actin filaments.

    PubMed

    Qin, Tao; Liu, Xiaomin; Li, Jiejie; Sun, Jingbo; Song, Leina; Mao, Tonglin

    2014-01-01

    The formation of distinct actin filament arrays in the subapical region of pollen tubes is crucial for pollen tube growth. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the organization and dynamics of the actin filaments in this region remain to be determined. This study shows that Arabidopsis thaliana MICROTUBULE-DESTABILIZING PROTEIN25 (MDP25) has the actin filament-severing activity of an actin binding protein. This protein negatively regulated pollen tube growth by modulating the organization and dynamics of actin filaments in the subapical region of pollen tubes. MDP25 loss of function resulted in enhanced pollen tube elongation and inefficient fertilization. MDP25 bound directly to actin filaments and severed individual actin filaments, in a manner that was dramatically enhanced by Ca(2+), in vitro. Analysis of a mutant that bears a point mutation at the Ca(2+) binding sites demonstrated that the subcellular localization of MDP25 was determined by cytosolic Ca(2+) level in the subapical region of pollen tubes, where MDP25 was disassociated from the plasma membrane and moved into the cytosol. Time-lapse analysis showed that the F-actin-severing frequency significantly decreased and a high density of actin filaments was observed in the subapical region of mdp25-1 pollen tubes. This study reveals a mechanism whereby calcium enhances the actin filament-severing activity of MDP25 in the subapical region of pollen tubes to modulate pollen tube growth.

  18. Mammalian verprolin CR16 acts as a modulator of ITSN scaffold proteins association with actin.

    PubMed

    Kropyvko, Sergii; Gryaznova, Tetyana; Morderer, Dmytro; Rynditch, Alla

    2017-03-18

    Actin cytoskeleton rearrangements are required for normal cell functioning, and their deregulation leads to various pathologies. Members of two mammalian protein families - ITSNs (ITSN1 and ITSN2) and verprolins (WIP, CR16 and WIRE) are involved in Cdc42/N-WASP/Arp2/3 signaling pathway-mediated remodeling of the actin cytoskeleton. Recently we demonstrated that ITSNs interact with the actin-regulating protein WIP. Here, we show that other member of verprolin family, CR16, also forms complexes with ITSN1 and ITSN2 in human cell lines. The actin-binding protein CR16 modulates ITSN/β-actin association. Moreover, overexpressed CR16 promoted co-localization of ITSN1 with F-actin in MCF-7 breast cancer cells. Our data demonstrated that CR16 mRNA is expressed in glioblastoma and breast tumors. These findings provide the basis for further functional investigations of the ITSN/CR16 complex that may play an important role in actin remodeling and cellular invasion.

  19. Divergent Evolution of CHD3 Proteins Resulted in MOM1 Refining Epigenetic Control in Vascular Plants

    PubMed Central

    Čaikovski, Marian; Yokthongwattana, Chotika; Habu, Yoshiki; Nishimura, Taisuke; Mathieu, Olivier; Paszkowski, Jerzy

    2008-01-01

    Arabidopsis MOM1 is required for the heritable maintenance of transcriptional gene silencing (TGS). Unlike many other silencing factors, depletion of MOM1 evokes transcription at selected loci without major changes in DNA methylation or histone modification. These loci retain unusual, bivalent chromatin properties, intermediate to both euchromatin and heterochromatin. The structure of MOM1 previously suggested an integral nuclear membrane protein with chromatin-remodeling and actin-binding activities. Unexpected results presented here challenge these presumed MOM1 activities and demonstrate that less than 13% of MOM1 sequence is necessary and sufficient for TGS maintenance. This active sequence encompasses a novel Conserved MOM1 Motif 2 (CMM2). The high conservation suggests that CMM2 has been the subject of strong evolutionary pressure. The replacement of Arabidopsis CMM2 by a poplar motif reveals its functional conservation. Interspecies comparison suggests that MOM1 proteins emerged at the origin of vascular plants through neo-functionalization of the ubiquitous eukaryotic CHD3 chromatin remodeling factors. Interestingly, despite the divergent evolution of CHD3 and MOM1, we observed functional cooperation in epigenetic control involving unrelated protein motifs and thus probably diverse mechanisms. PMID:18725928

  20. Divergent evolution of CHD3 proteins resulted in MOM1 refining epigenetic control in vascular plants.

    PubMed

    Caikovski, Marian; Yokthongwattana, Chotika; Habu, Yoshiki; Nishimura, Taisuke; Mathieu, Olivier; Paszkowski, Jerzy

    2008-08-22

    Arabidopsis MOM1 is required for the heritable maintenance of transcriptional gene silencing (TGS). Unlike many other silencing factors, depletion of MOM1 evokes transcription at selected loci without major changes in DNA methylation or histone modification. These loci retain unusual, bivalent chromatin properties, intermediate to both euchromatin and heterochromatin. The structure of MOM1 previously suggested an integral nuclear membrane protein with chromatin-remodeling and actin-binding activities. Unexpected results presented here challenge these presumed MOM1 activities and demonstrate that less than 13% of MOM1 sequence is necessary and sufficient for TGS maintenance. This active sequence encompasses a novel Conserved MOM1 Motif 2 (CMM2). The high conservation suggests that CMM2 has been the subject of strong evolutionary pressure. The replacement of Arabidopsis CMM2 by a poplar motif reveals its functional conservation. Interspecies comparison suggests that MOM1 proteins emerged at the origin of vascular plants through neo-functionalization of the ubiquitous eukaryotic CHD3 chromatin remodeling factors. Interestingly, despite the divergent evolution of CHD3 and MOM1, we observed functional cooperation in epigenetic control involving unrelated protein motifs and thus probably diverse mechanisms.

  1. A Study of the Spatial Protein Organization of the Postsynaptic Density Isolated from Porcine Cerebral Cortex and Cerebellum

    PubMed Central

    Yun-Hong, Yen; Chih-Fan, Chuang; Chia-Wei, Chang; Yen-Chung, Chang

    2011-01-01

    Postsynaptic density (PSD) is a protein supramolecule lying underneath the postsynaptic membrane of excitatory synapses and has been implicated to play important roles in synaptic structure and function in mammalian central nervous system. Here, PSDs were isolated from two distinct regions of porcine brain, cerebral cortex and cerebellum. SDS-PAGE and Western blotting analyses indicated that cerebral and cerebellar PSDs consisted of a similar set of proteins with noticeable differences in the abundance of various proteins between these samples. Subsequently, protein localization in these PSDs was analyzed by using the Nano-Depth-Tagging method. This method involved the use of three synthetic reagents, as agarose beads whose surface was covalently linked with a fluorescent, photoactivable, and cleavable chemical crosslinker by spacers of varied lengths. After its application was verified by using a synthetic complex consisting of four layers of different proteins, the Nano-Depth-Tagging method was used here to yield information concerning the depth distribution of various proteins in the PSD. The results indicated that in both cerebral and cerebellar PSDs, glutamate receptors, actin, and actin binding proteins resided in the peripheral regions within ∼10 nm deep from the surface and that scaffold proteins, tubulin subunits, microtubule-binding proteins, and membrane cytoskeleton proteins found in mammalian erythrocytes resided in the interiors deeper than 10 nm from the surface in the PSD. Finally, by using the immunoabsorption method, binding partner proteins of two proteins residing in the interiors, PSD-95 and α-tubulin, and those of two proteins residing in the peripheral regions, elongation factor-1α and calcium, calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II α subunit, of cerebral and cerebellar PSDs were identified. Overall, the results indicate a striking similarity in protein organization between the PSDs isolated from porcine cerebral cortex and cerebellum. A

  2. 12S-lipoxygenase protein associates with {alpha}-actin fibers in human umbilical artery vascular smooth muscle cells

    SciTech Connect

    Weisinger, Gary . E-mail: gary_w@tasmc.health.gov.il; Limor, Rona; Marcus-Perlman, Yonit; Knoll, Esther; Kohen, Fortune; Schinder, Vera; Firer, Michael; Stern, Naftali

    2007-05-11

    The current study sets out to characterize the intracellular localization of the platelet-type 12S-lipoxygenase (12-LO), an enzyme involved in angiotensin-II induced signaling in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC). Immunohistochemical analysis of VSMC in vitro or human umbilical arteries in vivo showed a clear cytoplasmic localization. On immunogold electron microscopy, 12-LO was found primarily associated with cytoplasmic VSMC muscle fibrils. Upon angiotensin-II treatment of cultured VSMC, immunoprecipitated 12-LO was found bound to {alpha}-actin, a component of the cytoplasmic myofilaments. 12-LO/{alpha}-actin binding was blocked by VSMC pretreatment with the 12-LO inhibitors, baicalien or esculetine and the protein synthesis inhibitor, cycloheximide. Moreover, the binding of 12-LO to {alpha}-actin was not associated with 12-LO serine or tyrosine phosphorylation. These observations suggest a previously unrecognized angiotensin-II dependent protein interaction in VSMC through which 12-LO protein may be trafficked, for yet undiscovered purposes towards the much more abundantly expressed cytoskeletal protein {alpha}-actin.

  3. Does Fluoride Affect Serum Testosterone and Androgen Binding Protein with Age-Specificity? A Population-Based Cross-Sectional Study in Chinese Male Farmers.

    PubMed

    Duan, Leizhen; Zhu, Jingyuan; Wang, Keyan; Zhou, Guoyu; Yang, Yuejin; Cui, Liuxin; Huang, Hui; Cheng, Xuemin; Ba, Yue

    2016-12-01

    Many studies have demonstrated that exposure to excess fluoride was associated with a variety of diseases. Little is known about the variation of testosterone (T) levels caused by fluoride exposure. The aim of this study is to explore the association of fluoride exposure and age with serum T and androgen-binding protein (ABP) levels in male farmers. A cross-sectional study was conducted in a county of Henan Province, China, including high fluoride exposure from drinking water villages and control villages. Male farmers aged 18-55 years old who lived in these villages were recruited by cluster sampling and divided into a higher fluoride exposure group (HFG) and a lower fluoride exposure group (LFG) according to the level of urinary fluoride. Levels of T and ABP in serum were measured using chemiluminescence immunoassay (CLIA) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) respectively. Markedly lower T levels were observed in male farmers from the HFG than in those from the LFG (t = 2.496, P < 0.05). Furthermore, younger farmers, 18-29 and 30-39 years old, may be the most likely to have lower T levels when exposed to fluoride (P < 0.05). No significant differences were observed in serum ABP levels in all male farmers between the two groups with different fluoride exposure. These results supported that excess fluoride exposure decreased serum T levels of male farmers with age-specificity.

  4. New host factors important for respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) replication revealed by a novel microfluidics screen for interactors of matrix (M) protein.

    PubMed

    Kipper, Sarit; Hamad, Samar; Caly, Leon; Avrahami, Dorit; Bacharach, Eran; Jans, David A; Gerber, Doron; Bajorek, Monika

    2015-03-01

    Although human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the most common cause of bronchiolitis and pneumonia in infants and elderly worldwide, there is no licensed RSV vaccine or effective drug treatment available. The RSV Matrix protein plays key roles in virus life cycle, being found in the nucleus early in infection in a transcriptional inhibitory role, and later localizing in viral inclusion bodies before coordinating viral assembly and budding at the plasma membrane. In this study, we used a novel, high throughput microfluidics platform and custom human open reading frame library to identify novel host cell binding partners of RSV matrix. Novel interactors identified included proteins involved in host transcription regulation, the innate immunity response, cytoskeletal regulation, membrane remodeling, and cellular trafficking. A number of these interactions were confirmed by immunoprecipitation and cellular colocalization approaches. Importantly, the physiological significance of matrix interaction with the actin-binding protein cofilin 1, caveolae protein Caveolin 2, and the zinc finger protein ZNF502 was confirmed. siRNA knockdown of the host protein levels resulted in reduced RSV virus production in infected cells. These results have important implications for future antiviral strategies aimed at targets of RSV matrix in the host cell.

  5. Identification of cofilin and LIM-domain-containing protein kinase 1 as novel interaction partners of 14-3-3 zeta.

    PubMed Central

    Birkenfeld, Jörg; Betz, Heinrich; Roth, Dagmar

    2003-01-01

    Proteins of the 14-3-3 family have been implicated in various physiological processes, and are thought to function as adaptors in various signal transduction pathways. In addition, 14-3-3 proteins may contribute to the reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton by interacting with as yet unidentified actin-binding proteins. Here we show that the 14-3-3 zeta isoform interacts with both the actin-depolymerizing factor cofilin and its regulatory kinase, LIM (Lin-11/Isl-1/Mec-3)-domain-containing protein kinase 1 (LIMK1). In both yeast two-hybrid assays and glutathione S-transferase pull-down experiments, these proteins bound efficiently to 14-3-3 zeta. Deletion analysis revealed consensus 14-3-3 binding sites on both cofilin and LIMK1. Furthermore, the C-terminal region of 14-3-3 zeta inhibited the binding of cofilin to actin in co-sedimentation experiments. Upon co-transfection into COS-7 cells, 14-3-3 zeta-specific immunoreactivity was redistributed into characteristic LIMK1-induced actin aggregations. Our data are consistent with 14-3-3-protein-induced changes to the actin cytoskeleton resulting from interactions with cofilin and/or LIMK1. PMID:12323073

  6. Gel-sol transition of the cytoplasm and its regulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janmey, Paul A.

    1991-05-01

    The cytoplasm of motile cells contains a dynamic system of filamentous protein polymers that endow the cell with elasticity permitting it to maintain its shape in the presence of mechanical forces encountered in vivo. Part of this cytoskeleton is composed of filaments of polymerized actin. Remodeling of this network is required for cell motility and cytoplasmic restructuring, and the reversible polymerization of actin per se has been suggested to cause morphologic changes such as cell ruffling and pseudopd extension. Changes in the degree of polymerization of acting and in the association of actin filaments into supramolecular structures are often associated with cell activation. Such activation is initiated by extracellular signals that bind to receptors which are often coupled by G-proteins to the production of intracellular second messangers. Cytoplasmic gel-sol transitions therefore can occur by formation and dissolution of actin networks, mediated by a variety of actin-binding proteins which are regulated by intracellular signalling molecules such as Ca2+ and polyphosphoinositides. The effects of three actin binding proteins: profilin, gelsolin and ABP (Tilamin) on the polymerization of actin and the viscoelasticity of the resulting networks measured in vitro suggest possible roles of these proteins in vivo. In particular, gelsolin, which activated by Ca2+ to sever and cap actin filaments, and released from filament ends by PIP2, appears to be a likely candidate for regulation of gel-sol transitions in response to cell activation. Recent results demonstrate that the hydrolysis of ATP that occurs following actin polymerization also influences the structure of the resulting filament. In addition being regulated by acting-binding proteins, the viscoelasticity of actin networks is also affected by the presence of the other two classes of cytoplasmic protein polymers, microtubules and intermediate filaments.

  7. Accommodation of structural rearrangements in the huntingtin-interacting protein 1 coiled-coil domain

    SciTech Connect

    Wilbur, Jeremy D.; Hwang, Peter K.; Brodsky, Frances M.; Fletterick, Robert J.

    2010-03-01

    Variable packing interaction related to the conformational flexibility within the huntingtin-interacting protein 1 coiled coil domain. Huntingtin-interacting protein 1 (HIP1) is an important link between the actin cytoskeleton and clathrin-mediated endocytosis machinery. HIP1 has also been implicated in the pathogenesis of Huntington’s disease. The binding of HIP1 to actin is regulated through an interaction with clathrin light chain. Clathrin light chain binds to a flexible coiled-coil domain in HIP1 and induces a compact state that is refractory to actin binding. To understand the mechanism of this conformational regulation, a high-resolution crystal structure of a stable fragment from the HIP1 coiled-coil domain was determined. The flexibility of the HIP1 coiled-coil region was evident from its variation from a previously determined structure of a similar region. A hydrogen-bond network and changes in coiled-coil monomer interaction suggest that the HIP1 coiled-coil domain is uniquely suited to allow conformational flexibility.

  8. Regulation of cargo-selective endocytosis by dynamin 2 GTPase-activating protein girdin.

    PubMed

    Weng, Liang; Enomoto, Atsushi; Miyoshi, Hiroshi; Takahashi, Kiyofumi; Asai, Naoya; Morone, Nobuhiro; Jiang, Ping; An, Jian; Kato, Takuya; Kuroda, Keisuke; Watanabe, Takashi; Asai, Masato; Ishida-Takagishi, Maki; Murakumo, Yoshiki; Nakashima, Hideki; Kaibuchi, Kozo; Takahashi, Masahide

    2014-09-17

    In clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME), specificity and selectivity for cargoes are thought to be tightly regulated by cargo-specific adaptors for distinct cellular functions. Here, we show that the actin-binding protein girdin is a regulator of cargo-selective CME. Girdin interacts with dynamin 2, a GTPase that excises endocytic vesicles from the plasma membrane, and functions as its GTPase-activating protein. Interestingly, girdin depletion leads to the defect in clathrin-coated pit formation in the center of cells. Also, we find that girdin differentially interacts with some cargoes, which competitively prevents girdin from interacting with dynamin 2 and confers the cargo selectivity for CME. Therefore, girdin regulates transferrin and E-cadherin endocytosis in the center of cells and their subsequent polarized intracellular localization, but has no effect on integrin and epidermal growth factor receptor endocytosis that occurs at the cell periphery. Our results reveal that girdin regulates selective CME via a mechanism involving dynamin 2, but not by operating as a cargo-specific adaptor.

  9. Dictyostelium mutants lacking the cytoskeletal protein coronin are defective in cytokinesis and cell motility

    PubMed Central

    1993-01-01

    Coronin is an actin-binding protein in Dictyostelium discoideum that is enriched at the leading edge of the cells and in projections of the cell surface called crowns. The polypeptide sequence of coronin is distinguished by its similarities to the beta-subunits of trimeric G proteins (E. L. de Hostos, B. Bradtke, F. Lottspeich, R. Guggenheim, and G. Gerisch, 1991. EMBO (Eur. Mol. Biol. Organ.) J. 10:4097-4104). To elucidate the in vivo function of coronin, null mutants have been generated by gene replacement. The mutant cells lacking coronin grow and migrate more slowly than wild-type cells. When these cor- cells grow in liquid medium they become multinucleate, indicating a role of coronin in cytokinesis. To explore this role, coronin has been localized in mitotic wild-type cells by immunofluorescence labeling. During separation of the daughter cells, coronin is strongly accumulated at their distal portions including the leading edges. This contrasts with the localization of myosin II in the cleavage furrow and suggests that coronin functions independently of the conventional myosin in facilitating cytokinesis. PMID:8380174

  10. Evidence for Critical Role of Lymphocyte Cytosolic Protein 1 in Oral Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Koide, Nao; Kasamatsu, Atsushi; Endo-Sakamoto, Yosuke; Ishida, Sho; Shimizu, Toshihiro; Kimura, Yasushi; Miyamoto, Isao; Yoshimura, Shusaku; Shiiba, Masashi; Tanzawa, Hideki; Uzawa, Katsuhiro

    2017-01-01

    Lymphocyte cytosolic protein 1 (LCP1), a member of actin-binding protein of the plastin family, has been identified in several malignant tumors of non-hematopoietic sites, such as the colon, prostate, and breast. However, little is known about the roles of LCP1 in oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCCs). This present study sought to clarify the clinical relevance of LCP1 in OSCCs and investigate possible clinical applications for treating OSCCs by regulating LCP1 expression. We found up-regulation of LCP1in OSCCs compared with normal counterparts using real-time quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR), immunoblotting, and immunohistochemistry (P < 0.05). We used shRNA models for LCP1 (shLCP1) and enoxacin (ENX), a fluoroquinolone antibiotic drug, as a regulator of LCP1 expression. In addition to the LCP1 knockdown experiments in which shLCP1 cells showed several depressed functions, including cellular proliferation, invasiveness, and migratory activities, ENX-treated cells also had attenuated functions. Consistent with our hypothesis from our in vitro data, LCP1-positive OSCC samples were correlated closely with the primary tumoral size and regional lymph node metastasis. These results suggested that LCP1 is a useful biomarker for determining progression of OSCCs and that ENX might be a new therapeutic agent for treating OSCCs by controlling LCP1 expression. PMID:28230172

  11. VLN2 Regulates Plant Architecture by Affecting Microfilament Dynamics and Polar Auxin Transport in Rice[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Shengyang; Xie, Yurong; Guo, Xiuping; Sheng, Peike; Wang, Juan; Wu, Chuanyin; Wang, Haiyang; Wan, Jianmin

    2015-01-01

    As a fundamental and dynamic cytoskeleton network, microfilaments (MFs) are regulated by diverse actin binding proteins (ABPs). Villins are one type of ABPs belonging to the villin/gelsolin superfamily, and their function is poorly understood in monocotyledonous plants. Here, we report the isolation and characterization of a rice (Oryza sativa) mutant defective in VILLIN2 (VLN2), which exhibits malformed organs, including twisted roots and shoots at the seedling stage. Cellular examination revealed that the twisted phenotype of the vln2 mutant is mainly caused by asymmetrical expansion of cells on the opposite sides of an organ. VLN2 is preferentially expressed in growing tissues, consistent with a role in regulating cell expansion in developing organs. Biochemically, VLN2 exhibits conserved actin filament bundling, severing and capping activities in vitro, with bundling and stabilizing activity being confirmed in vivo. In line with these findings, the vln2 mutant plants exhibit a more dynamic actin cytoskeleton network than the wild type. We show that vln2 mutant plants exhibit a hypersensitive gravitropic response, faster recycling of PIN2 (an auxin efflux carrier), and altered auxin distribution. Together, our results demonstrate that VLN2 plays an important role in regulating plant architecture by modulating MF dynamics, recycling of PIN2, and polar auxin transport. PMID:26486445

  12. Transient Binding and Viscous Dissipation in Semi-flexible Polymer Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lieleg, Oliver; Claessens, Mireille; Bausch, Andreas

    2008-03-01

    Nature specifically chooses from a myriad of actin binding proteins (ABPs) to tailor the cytoskeletal microstructure. Herein, cells rely on the dynamics of the cytoskeleton as its structural and mechanical adaptability is crucial to allow for dynamic processes. A molecular understanding of such biological complexity calls for an in vitro system with well-defined structural rearrangements and cross-linker dynamics to elucidate the physical origin of the unique viscoelastic properties of cells. As we present here, the frequency-dependent viscoelastic response of cross-linked in vitro actin networks is determined by the binding kinetics of cross-linking molecules. Independent from the particular network structure, the viscous dissipation (loss modulus) exhibits a pronounced minimum in an intermediate frequency which is dominated by elasticity. We show that in this frequency regime the molecular origin of the viscoelastic response is given by the non-static nature of actin/ABP bonds as they are subjugated to chemical on/off kinetics. The time scale of the resulting stress release is set by the lifetime distribution of the cross-linking molecule and therefore can be tuned independently from other relaxation mechanisms. We speculate that unbinding of distinct cross-links might be the molecular mechanism employed by cells for mechanosensing.

  13. Structure and ligand-binding properties of the biogenic amine-binding protein from the saliva of a blood-feeding insect vector of Trypanosoma cruzi

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Xueqing; Chang, Bianca W.; Ribeiro, Jose M. C.; Andersen, John F.

    2013-01-01

    Biogenic amine-binding proteins mediate the anti-inflammatory and antihemostatic activities of blood-feeding insect saliva. The structure of the amine-binding protein from R. prolixus reveals the interaction of biogenic amine ligands with the protein. Proteins that bind small-molecule mediators of inflammation and hemostasis are essential for blood-feeding by arthropod vectors of infectious disease. In ticks and triatomine insects, the lipocalin protein family is greatly expanded and members have been shown to bind biogenic amines, eicosanoids and ADP. These compounds are potent mediators of platelet activation, inflammation and vascular tone. In this paper, the structure of the amine-binding protein (ABP) from Rhodnius prolixus, a vector of the trypanosome that causes Chagas disease, is described. ABP binds the biogenic amines serotonin and norepinephrine with high affinity. A complex with tryptamine shows the presence of a binding site for a single ligand molecule in the central cavity of the β-barrel structure. The cavity contains significant additional volume, suggesting that this protein may have evolved from the related nitrophorin proteins, which bind a much larger heme ligand in the central cavity.

  14. Adenylyl cyclase-associated protein 1 in metastasis of squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck and non-small cell lung cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kakurina, G. V.; Kolegova, E. S.; Cheremisina, O. V.; Zavyalov, A. A.; Shishkin, D. A.; Kondakova, I. V.; Choinzonov, E. L.

    2016-08-01

    Progression of tumors and metastasis in particular is one of the main reasons of the high mortality rate among cancer patients. The primary role in developing metastases plays cell locomotion which requires remodeling of the actin cytoskeleton. Form, dynamics, localization and mechanical properties of the actin cytoskeleton are regulated by a variety of actin-binding proteins, which include the adenylyl cyclase-associated protein 1 (CAP1). The study is devoted to the investigation of CAP1 level depending on the presence or absence of metastases in patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (SCCHN) and non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The results show the contribution of CAP1 to SCCHN and NSCLC progression. We detected the connection between the tissue protein CAP1 level and the stage of NSCLC and SCCHN disease. Also the levels of the CAP1 protein in tissues of primary tumors and metastases in lung cancer were different. Our data showed that CAP is important in the development of metastases, which suggests further perspectives in the study of this protein for projecting metastasis of NSCLC and SCCHN.

  15. Identification of detergent-resistant plasma membrane microdomains in dictyostelium: enrichment of signal transduction proteins.

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Z; Devreotes, P N

    1997-01-01

    Unlike most other cellular proteins, the chemoattractant receptor, cAR1, of Dictyostelium is resistant to extraction by the zwitterionic detergent, CHAPS. We exploited this property to isolate a subcellular fraction highly enriched in cAR1 by flotation of CHAPS lysates of cells in sucrose density gradients. Immunogold electron microscopy studies revealed a homogeneous preparation of membrane bilayer sheets. This preparation, designated CHAPS-insoluble floating fraction (CHIEF), also contained a defined set of 20 other proteins and a single uncharged lipid. Cell surface biotinylation and preembedding immunoelectron microscopy both confirmed the plasma membrane origin of this preparation. The cell surface phosphodiesterase (PDE) and a downstream effector of cAR1, adenylate cyclase (ACA), were specifically localized in these structures, whereas the cell adhesion molecule gp80, most of the major cell surface membrane proteins, cytoskeletal components, the actin-binding integral membrane protein ponticulin, and G-protein alpha- and beta-subunits were absent. Overall, CHIFF represents about 3-5% of cell externally exposed membrane proteins. All of these results indicate that CHIFF is derived from specialized microdomains of the plasma membrane. The method of isolation is analogous to that of caveolae. However, we were unable to detect distinct caveolae-like structures on the cell surface associated with cAR1, which showed a diffuse staining profile. The discovery of CHIFF facilitates the purification of cAR1 and related signaling proteins and the biochemical characterization of receptor-mediated processes such as G-protein activation and desensitization. It also has important implications for the "fluid mosaic" model of the plasma membrane structures. Images PMID:9168471

  16. Arabidopsis Microtubule-Destabilizing Protein 25 Functions in Pollen Tube Growth by Severing Actin Filaments[W

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Tao; Liu, Xiaomin; Li, Jiejie; Sun, Jingbo; Song, Leina; Mao, Tonglin

    2014-01-01

    The formation of distinct actin filament arrays in the subapical region of pollen tubes is crucial for pollen tube growth. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the organization and dynamics of the actin filaments in this region remain to be determined. This study shows that Arabidopsis thaliana MICROTUBULE-DESTABILIZING PROTEIN25 (MDP25) has the actin filament–severing activity of an actin binding protein. This protein negatively regulated pollen tube growth by modulating the organization and dynamics of actin filaments in the subapical region of pollen tubes. MDP25 loss of function resulted in enhanced pollen tube elongation and inefficient fertilization. MDP25 bound directly to actin filaments and severed individual actin filaments, in a manner that was dramatically enhanced by Ca2+, in vitro. Analysis of a mutant that bears a point mutation at the Ca2+ binding sites demonstrated that the subcellular localization of MDP25 was determined by cytosolic Ca2+ level in the subapical region of pollen tubes, where MDP25 was disassociated from the plasma membrane and moved into the cytosol. Time-lapse analysis showed that the F-actin-severing frequency significantly decreased and a high density of actin filaments was observed in the subapical region of mdp25-1 pollen tubes. This study reveals a mechanism whereby calcium enhances the actin filament–severing activity of MDP25 in the subapical region of pollen tubes to modulate pollen tube growth. PMID:24424096

  17. Microaggregate-associated protein involved in invasion of epithelial cells by Mycobacterium avium subsp. hominissuis

    PubMed Central

    Babrak, Lmar; Danelishvili, Lia; Rose, Sasha J; Bermudez, Luiz E

    2015-01-01

    The environmental opportunistic pathogen Mycobacterium avium subsp hominissuis (MAH), a member of the nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) cluster, causes respiratory as well as disseminated disease in patients such as those with chronic respiratory illnesses or AIDS. Currently, there is no effective method to prevent NTM respiratory infections. The formation of mycobacterial microaggregates comprises of phenotypic changes that lead to efficient adherence and invasion of the respiratory mucosa in vitro and in vivo. Microaggregate adhesion to the respiratory epithelium is mediated in part through the mycobacterial protein, MAV_3013 (MBP-1). Through DNA microarray analysis, the small hypothetical gene MAV_0831 (Microaggregate Invasion Protein-1, MIP-1) was identified as being upregulated during microaggregate formation. When MIP-1 was overexpressed in poorly-invasive Mycobacterium smegmatis, it provided the bacterium the ability to bind and enter epithelial cells. In addition, incubating microaggregates with recombinant MIP-1 protein enhanced the ability of microaggregates to invade HEp-2 cells, and exposure to anti-MIP-1 immune serum reduced the invasion of the host epithelium. Through protein-protein interaction assays, MIP-1 was found to bind to the host protein filamin A, a cytoskeletal actin-binding protein integral to the modulation of host cell shape and migration. As visualized by immunofluorescence, filamin A was able to co-localize with microaggregates and to a lesser extent planktonic bacteria. Invasion of HEp-2 cells by microaggregates and planktonic bacteria was also inhibited by the addition of anti-filamin A antibody suggesting that filamin A plays an important role during infection. In addition, at earlier time points binding and invasion assay results suggest that MBP-1 participates significantly during the first interactions with the host cell while MIP-1 becomes important once the bacteria adhere to the host epithelium. In summary, we have unveiled

  18. Neutron and x-ray scattering studies of the interactions between Ca{sup 2+}-binding proteins and their regulatory targets: Comparisons of troponin C and calmodulin

    SciTech Connect

    Trewhella, J.; Olah, G.A.

    1993-11-01

    The regulatory proteins calmodulin and troponin C share a strikingly unusual overall structure. Their crystal structures show each protein consists of two structurally homologous globular domains connected by an extended, solvent exposed alpha-helix of = 8 turns. Calmodulin regulates a variety of enzymes that show remarkable functional and structural diversity. This diversity extends to the amino acid sequences of the calmodulin-binding domains in the target enzymes. In contrast with calodulin, troponin C appears to have a single very specialized function. It is an integral part of the troponin complex, and Ca{sup 2+} binding to troponin c results in the release of the inhibitory function of troponin I, which eventually leads to actin-binding to myosin and the triggering of muscle contraction. Small-angle scattering has been particularly useful for studying the dumbbell shaped proteins because the technique is very sensitive to changes in the relative dispositions of the two globular domains. Small-angle scattering, using x-rays or neutrons, gives information on the overall shapes of proteins in solution. Small-angle scattering studies of calmodulin and its complexes with calmodulin-binding domains from various target enzymes have played an important role in helping us understand the functional role of its unusual solvent exposed helix. Likewise, small-angle scattering has been used to study troponin C with various peptides, to shed light on the similarities and differences between calmodulin and troponin C.

  19. Arabidopsis actin capping protein (AtCP) subunits have different expression patterns, and downregulation of AtCPB confers increased thermotolerance of Arabidopsis after heat shock stress.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jue; Qian, Dong; Fan, Tingting; Jia, Honglei; An, Lizhe; Xiang, Yun

    2012-09-01

    As a heterodimer actin-binding protein, capping protein is composed of α and β subunits, and can stabilize the actin filament cytoskeleton by binding to F-actin ends to inhibit G-actin addition or loss from that end. Until now, studies on plant capping protein have focused on biochemical functions in vitro, and so the expression patterns and physiological functions of actin capping protein in Arabidopsis (AtCP) are poorly understood. In the present study, real-time quantitative PCR and Western blot analysis showed that although AtCP α and β subunits (i.e. AtCPA and AtCPB) were expressed in various tissues, their expression patterns were significantly different. GUS staining further indicated they were present in different parts of the same organs. We also demonstrated that the expression levels of both subunits were induced by heat shock stress. However, only the atcpβ-mutant showed enhanced thermotolerance, and confocal microscopy showed that the actin filaments of the atcpβ-mutant were much more complete than that in the wild-type and the atcpα-mutant after heat treatment at 45 °C for 40 and 45 min. In conclusion, these results demonstrated that AtCPA and AtCPB showed distinct expression patterns in vivo, and that downregulation of AtCPB conferred increased plant thermotolerance after heat shock stress.

  20. Caenorhabditis elegans Kettin, a Large Immunoglobulin-like Repeat Protein, Binds to Filamentous Actin and Provides Mechanical Stability to the Contractile Apparatuses in Body Wall Muscle

    PubMed Central

    Ono, Kanako; Yu, Robinson; Mohri, Kurato

    2006-01-01

    Kettin is a large actin-binding protein with immunoglobulin-like (Ig) repeats, which is associated with the thin filaments in arthropod muscles. Here, we report identification and functional characterization of kettin in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. We found that one of the monoclonal antibodies that were raised against C. elegans muscle proteins specifically reacts with kettin (Ce-kettin). We determined the entire cDNA sequence of Ce-kettin that encodes a protein of 472 kDa with 31 Ig repeats. Arthropod kettins are splice variants of much larger connectin/titin-related proteins. However, the gene for Ce-kettin is independent of other connectin/titin-related genes. Ce-kettin localizes to the thin filaments near the dense bodies in both striated and nonstriated muscles. The C-terminal four Ig repeats and the adjacent non-Ig region synergistically bind to actin filaments in vitro. RNA interference of Ce-kettin caused weak disorganization of the actin filaments in body wall muscle. This phenotype was suppressed by inhibiting muscle contraction by a myosin mutation, but it was enhanced by tetramisole-induced hypercontraction. Furthermore, Ce-kettin was involved in organizing the cytoplasmic portion of the dense bodies in cooperation with α-actinin. These results suggest that kettin is an important regulator of myofibrillar organization and provides mechanical stability to the myofibrils during contraction. PMID:16597697

  1. The Disruption of the Cytoskeleton during Semaphorin 3A induced Growth Cone Collapse Correlates with Differences in Actin Organization and Associated Binding Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Jacquelyn A; Bridgman, Paul C

    2010-01-01

    Repulsive guidance cues induce growth cone collapse or collapse and retraction. Collapse results from disruption and loss of the actin cytoskeleton. Actin rich regions of growth cones contain binding proteins that influence filament organization, such as Arp2/3, cortactin, and fascin, but little is known about the role that these proteins play in collapse. Here we show that Semaphorin 3A (Sema 3A), which is repulsive to mouse dorsal root ganglion neurons, has unequal effects on actin binding proteins and their associated filaments. The immunofluorescence staining intensity of Arp-2 and cortactin decreases relative to total protein, while in unextracted growth cones fascin increases. Fascin and myosin IIB staining redistribute and show increased overlap. The degree of actin filament loss during collapse correlates with filament superstructures detected by rotary shadow electron microscopy. Collapse results in the loss of branched f-actin meshworks, while actin bundles are partially retained to varying degrees. Taken together with the known affects of Sema 3A on actin, this suggests a model for collapse that follows a sequence; depolymerization of actin meshworks followed by partial depolymerization of fascin associated actin bundles and their movement to the neurite to complete collapse. The relocated fascin associated actin bundles may provide the substrate for actomyosin contractions that produce retraction. PMID:19513995

  2. Drebrin-like protein DBN-1 is a sarcomere component that stabilizes actin filaments during muscle contraction.

    PubMed

    Butkevich, Eugenia; Bodensiek, Kai; Fakhri, Nikta; von Roden, Kerstin; Schaap, Iwan A T; Majoul, Irina; Schmidt, Christoph F; Klopfenstein, Dieter R

    2015-07-06

    Actin filament organization and stability in the sarcomeres of muscle cells are critical for force generation. Here we identify and functionally characterize a Caenorhabditis elegans drebrin-like protein DBN-1 as a novel constituent of the muscle contraction machinery. In vitro, DBN-1 exhibits actin filament binding and bundling activity. In vivo, DBN-1 is expressed in body wall muscles of C. elegans. During the muscle contraction cycle, DBN-1 alternates location between myosin- and actin-rich regions of the sarcomere. In contracted muscle, DBN-1 is accumulated at I-bands where it likely regulates proper spacing of α-actinin and tropomyosin and protects actin filaments from the interaction with ADF/cofilin. DBN-1 loss of function results in the partial depolymerization of F-actin during muscle contraction. Taken together, our data show that DBN-1 organizes the muscle contractile apparatus maintaining the spatial relationship between actin-binding proteins such as α-actinin, tropomyosin and ADF/cofilin and possibly strengthening actin filaments by bundling.

  3. Involvement of hepatocellular carcinoma biomarker, cyclase-associated protein 2 in zebrafish body development and cancer progression.

    PubMed

    Effendi, Kathryn; Yamazaki, Ken; Mori, Taisuke; Masugi, Yohei; Makino, Shinji; Sakamoto, Michiie

    2013-01-01

    Cyclase-associated protein 2 (CAP2) is a conserved protein that is found up-regulated in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). By using zebrafish, combined with HCC cell lines, we further investigated the role of CAP2. The zebrafish CAP2 sequence was 60% identical to human CAP2 with 77% homology in the C-terminal actin-binding domain, and 58% in the N-terminal cyclase-binding domain. CAP2 expression was observed during zebrafish development and was preferentially expressed in the skeletal muscle and heart. Knockdown using two different morpholinos against CAP2 resulted in a short-body morphant zebrafish phenotype with pericardial edema. CAP2 was observed co-localized with actin in zebrafish skeletal muscle, and in the leading edge of lamellipodium in HCC cell lines. CAP2 silencing resulted in a defect in lamellipodium formation and decreased cell motility in HCC cell lines. Strongly positive expression of CAP2 was observed in 10 of 16 (63%) poorly, 30 of 68 (44%) moderately, and 2 of 21 (10%) well differentiated HCC. CAP2 expression was significantly associated with tumor size, poor differentiation, portal vein invasion, and intrahepatic metastasis. Our results indicate that an important conserved function of CAP2 in higher vertebrates may be associated with the process of skeletal muscle development. CAP2 also played an important role in enhancing cell motility, which may promote a more invasive behavior in the progression of HCC. These findings highlight the link between development and cancer.

  4. Structural evidence for variable oligomerization of the N-terminal domain of cyclase-associated protein (CAP).

    PubMed

    Yusof, Adlina Mohd; Hu, Nien-Jen; Wlodawer, Alexander; Hofmann, Andreas

    2005-02-01

    Cyclase-associated protein (CAP) is a highly conserved and widely distributed protein that links the nutritional response signaling to cytoskeleton remodeling. In yeast, CAP is a component of the adenylyl cyclase complex and helps to activate the Ras-mediated catalytic cycle of the cyclase. While the N-terminal domain of CAP (N-CAP) provides a binding site for adenylyl cyclase, the C-terminal domain (C-CAP) possesses actin binding activity. Our attempts to crystallize full-length recombinant CAP from Dictyostelium discoideum resulted in growth of orthorhombic crystals containing only the N-terminal domain (residues 42-227) due to auto-proteolytic cleavage. The structure was solved by molecular replacement with data at 2.2 A resolution. The present crystal structure allows the characterization of a head-to-tail N-CAP dimer in the asymmetric unit and a crystallographic side-to-side dimer. Comparison with previously published structures of N-CAP reveals variable modes of dimerization of this domain, but the presence of a common interface for the side-to-side dimer.

  5. The integral membrane protein, ponticulin, acts as a monomer in nucleating actin assembly

    PubMed Central

    1993-01-01

    Ponticulin, an F-actin binding transmembrane glycoprotein in Dictyostelium plasma membranes, was isolated by detergent extraction from cytoskeletons and purified to homogeneity. Ponticulin is an abundant membrane protein, averaging approximately 10(6) copies/cell, with an estimated surface density of approximately 300 per microns2. Ponticulin solubilized in octylglucoside exhibited hydrodynamic properties consistent with a ponticulin monomer in a spherical or slightly ellipsoidal detergent micelle with a total molecular mass of 56 +/- 6 kD. Purified ponticulin nucleated actin polymerization when reconstituted into Dictyostelium lipid vesicles, but not when a number of commercially available lipids and lipid mixtures were substituted for the endogenous lipid. The specific activity was consistent with that expected for a protein comprising 0.7 +/- 0.4%, by mass, of the plasma membrane protein. Ponticulin in octylglucoside micelles bound F- actin but did not nucleate actin assembly. Thus, ponticulin-mediated nucleation activity was sensitive to the lipid environment, a result frequently observed with transmembrane proteins. At most concentrations of Dictyostelium lipid, nucleation activity increased linearly with increasing amounts of ponticulin, suggesting that the nucleating species is a ponticulin monomer. Consistent with previous observations of lateral interactions between actin filaments and Dictyostelium plasma membranes, both ends of ponticulin-nucleated actin filaments appeared to be free for monomer assembly and disassembly. Our results indicate that ponticulin is a major membrane protein in Dictyostelium and that, in the proper lipid matrix, it is sufficient for lateral nucleation of actin assembly. To date, ponticulin is the only integral membrane protein known to directly nucleate actin polymerization. PMID:8432731

  6. Viscum album agglutinin-I (VAA-I) increases cell surface expression of cytoskeletal proteins in apoptotic human neutrophils: moesin and ezrin are two novel targets of VAA-I.

    PubMed

    Simon, M M; Simard, J C; Girard, D

    2013-10-01

    Viscum album agglutinin-I (VAA-I) is a plant lectin, which possesses anti-inflammatory properties, including the ability to induce neutrophil apoptosis by a mechanism that is not completely understood. Among the three actin-binding membrane-anchoring proteins ezrin/radixin/moesin (ERM), neutrophils are known to express ezrin and moesin. The behavior of these proteins in apoptotic neutrophils is not well established. In the present study, the expression and localization of ezrin and moesin by Western blot and immunofluorescence revealed a clear degradation and relocalization of both the proteins during VAA-I-induced apoptosis. Also, flow cytometry analysis revealed that VAA-I markedly and significantly induced the cell surface expression of ezrin and moesin and this was reversed when cells were pretreated with the Syk inhibitor piceatannol. The expression of ezrin and moesin on the cell surface of apoptotic neutrophils may represent a mechanism responsible for the appearance of autoantibodies directed against ERM proteins, which have been found in the serum of patients suffering from autoimmune diseases. Therefore, the ability of VAA-I to increase cell surface expression of cytoskeletal proteins in apoptotic neutrophils provides important insight into a possible toxic mechanism of this plant lectin and this has to be considered for its potential utilization for in vivo treatment.

  7. Sequence and domain organization of scruin, an actin-cross-linking protein in the acrosomal process of Limulus sperm

    PubMed Central

    1995-01-01

    The acrosomal process of Limulus sperm is an 80-microns long finger of membrane supported by a crystalline bundle of actin filaments. The filaments in this bundle are crosslinked by a 102-kD protein, scruin present in a 1:1 molar ratio with actin. Recent image reconstruction of scruin decorated actin filaments at 13-A resolution shows that scruin is organized into two equally sized domains bound to separate actin subunits in the same filament. We have cloned and sequenced the gene for scruin from a Limulus testes cDNA library. The deduced amino acid sequence of scruin reflects the domain organization of scruin: it consists of a tandem pair of homologous domains joined by a linker region. The domain organization of scruin is confirmed by limited proteolysis of the purified acrosomal process. Three different proteases cleave the native protein in a 5-kD Protease-sensitive region in the middle of the molecule to generate an NH2-terminal 47-kD and a COOH-terminal 56-kD protease-resistant domains. Although the protein sequence of scruin has no homology to any known actin-binding protein, it has similarities to several proteins, including four open reading frames of unknown function in poxviruses, as well as kelch, a Drosophila protein localized to actin-rich ring canals. All proteins that show homologies to scruin are characterized by the presence of an approximately 50-amino acid residue motif that is repeated between two and seven times. Crystallographic studies reveal this motif represents a four beta-stranded fold that is characteristic of the "superbarrel" structural fold found in the sialidase family of proteins. These results suggest that the two domains of scruin seen in EM reconstructions are superbarrel folds, and they present the possibility that other members of this family may also bind actin. PMID:7822422

  8. kakapo, a gene required for adhesion between and within cell layers in Drosophila, encodes a large cytoskeletal linker protein related to plectin and dystrophin.

    PubMed

    Gregory, S L; Brown, N H

    1998-11-30

    Mutations in kakapo were recovered in genetic screens designed to isolate genes required for integrin-mediated adhesion in Drosophila. We cloned the gene and found that it encodes a large protein (>5,000 amino acids) that is highly similar to plectin and BPAG1 over the first 1,000-amino acid region, and contains within this region an alpha-actinin type actin-binding domain. A central region containing dystrophin-like repeats is followed by a carboxy domain that is distinct from plectin and dystrophin, having neither the intermediate filament-binding domain of plectin nor the dystroglycan/syntrophin-binding domain of dystrophin. Instead, Kakapo has a carboxy terminus similar to the growth arrest-specific protein Gas2. Kakapo is strongly expressed late during embryogenesis at the most prominent site of position-specific integrin adhesion, the muscle attachment sites. It is concentrated at apical and basal surfaces of epidermal muscle attachment cells, at the termini of the prominent microtubule bundles, and is required in these cells for strong attachment to muscles. Kakapo is also expressed more widely at a lower level where it is essential for epidermal cell layer stability. These results suggest that the Kakapo protein forms essential links among integrins, actin, and microtubules.

  9. Pathophysiology of protein aggregation and extended phenotyping in filaminopathy

    PubMed Central

    Serdaroglu-Oflazer, Piraye; Leber, Yvonne; Odgerel, Zagaa; van der Ven, Peter F. M.; Olivé, Montse; Ferrer, Isidro; Onipe, Adekunle; Mihaylov, Mariya; Bilbao, Juan M.; Lee, Hee S.; Höhfeld, Jörg; Djinović-Carugo, Kristina; Kong, Kester; Tegenthoff, Martin; Peters, Sören A.; Stenzel, Werner; Vorgerd, Matthias; Goldfarb, Lev G.; Fürst, Dieter O.

    2012-01-01

    Mutations in FLNC cause two distinct types of myopathy. Disease associated with mutations in filamin C rod domain leading to expression of a toxic protein presents with progressive proximal muscle weakness and shows focal destructive lesions of polymorphous aggregates containing desmin, myotilin and other proteins in the affected myofibres; these features correspond to the profile of myofibrillar myopathy. The second variant associated with mutations in the actin-binding domain of filamin C is characterized by weakness of distal muscles and morphologically by non-specific myopathic features. A frameshift mutation in the filamin C rod domain causing haploinsufficiency was also found responsible for distal myopathy with some myofibrillar changes but no protein aggregation typical of myofibrillar myopathies. Controversial data accumulating in the literature require re-evaluation and comparative analysis of phenotypes associated with the position of the FLNC mutation and investigation of the underlying disease mechanisms. This is relevant and necessary for the refinement of diagnostic criteria and developing therapeutic approaches. We identified a p.W2710X mutation in families originating from ethnically diverse populations and re-evaluated a family with a p.V930_T933del mutation. Analysis of the expanded database allows us to refine clinical and myopathological characteristics of myofibrillar myopathy caused by mutations in the rod domain of filamin C. Biophysical and biochemical studies indicate that certain pathogenic mutations in FLNC cause protein misfolding, which triggers aggregation of the mutant filamin C protein and subsequently involves several other proteins. Immunofluorescence analyses using markers for the ubiquitin–proteasome system and autophagy reveal that the affected muscle fibres react to protein aggregate formation with a highly increased expression of chaperones and proteins involved in proteasomal protein degradation and autophagy. However

  10. The Cell Signaling Adaptor Protein EPS-8 Is Essential for C. elegans Epidermal Elongation and Interacts with the Ankyrin Repeat Protein VAB-19

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Mei; King, Ryan S.; Berry, Emily C.; Wang, Ying; Hardin, Jeff; Chisholm, Andrew D.

    2008-01-01

    Background The epidermal cells of the C. elegans embryo undergo coordinated cell shape changes that result in the morphogenetic process of elongation. The cytoskeletal ankyrin repeat protein VAB-19 is required for cell shape changes and localizes to cell-matrix attachment structures. The molecular functions of VAB-19 in this process are obscure, as no previous interactors for VAB-19 have been described. Methodology/Principal Findings In screens for VAB-19 binding proteins we identified the signaling adaptor EPS-8. Within C. elegans epidermal cells, EPS-8 and VAB-19 colocalize at cell-matrix attachment structures. The central domain of EPS-8 is necessary and sufficient for its interaction with VAB-19. eps-8 null mutants, like vab-19 mutants, are defective in epidermal elongation and in epidermal-muscle attachment. The eps-8 locus encodes two isoforms, EPS-8A and EPS-8B, that appear to act redundantly in epidermal elongation. The function of EPS-8 in epidermal development involves its N-terminal PTB and central domains, and is independent of its C-terminal SH3 and actin-binding domains. VAB-19 appears to act earlier in the biogenesis of attachment structures and may recruit EPS-8 to these structures. Conclusions/Significance EPS-8 and VAB-19 define a novel pathway acting at cell-matrix attachments to regulate epithelial cell shape. This is the first report of a role for EPS-8 proteins in cell-matrix attachments. The existence of EPS-8B-like isoforms in Drosophila suggests this function of EPS-8 proteins could be conserved among other organisms. PMID:18833327

  11. Expression of PiABP19, Picdc2 and PiSERK3 during induction of somatic embryogenesis in leaflets of Prunus incisa (Thunb.).

    PubMed

    Ben Mahmoud, Kaouther; Delporte, Fabienne; Muhovski, Yordan; Elloumi, Nadhra; Jemmali, Ahmed; Druart, Philippe

    2013-02-01

    Somatic embryogenesis is a useful tool of plant breeding. In this context, a procedure for inducing somatic embryogenesis in Prunus incisa leaf explants had been previously developed. The original in vitro protocol relies on picloram treatments and exposure to darkness as inductive conditions, the best frequency of embryogenesis being obtained on the second leaf (F(2)) exposed to 4 μM picloram during 30 days. The morphological and biochemical changes observed during somatic embryogenesis occur in response to alterations in gene expression regulation patterns. A molecular study was conducted in order to provide deeper insight into the fundamental biological factors involved in the induction of this process using a gene candidate strategy and semi-quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction analysis. So far, no sequence data related to somatic embryogenesis has been available in cherry. In the present study, we cloned and sequenced cDNA fragments of putative genes encoding auxin-binding protein, cell cycle regulator and somatic embryogenesis receptor kinase. Time-course differential transcript accumulations were observed for all investigated genes in leaves or derived callus tissues during the observation period (first month of culture). Their possible involvement in the sequential steps of the embryogenic pathway (dedifferentiation, cell proliferation, differentiation through somatic embryogenesis) is presented and discussed.

  12. Growth-Arrest-Specific Protein 2 Inhibits Cell Division in Xenopus Embryos

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Tong; Dayanandan, Bama; Rouiller, Isabelle; Lawrence, Elizabeth J.; Mandato, Craig A.

    2011-01-01

    Background Growth-arrest-specific 2 gene was originally identified in murine fibroblasts under growth arrest conditions. Furthermore, serum stimulation of quiescent, non-dividing cells leads to the down-regulation of gas2 and results in re-entry into the cell cycle. Cytoskeleton rearrangements are critical for cell cycle progression and cell division and the Gas2 protein has been shown to co-localize with actin and microtubules in interphase mammalian cells. Despite these findings, direct evidence supporting a role for Gas2 in the mechanism of cell division has not been reported. Methodology and Principal Findings To determine whether the Gas2 protein plays a role in cell division, we over-expressed the full-length Gas2 protein and Gas2 truncations containing either the actin-binding CH domain or the tubulin-binding Gas2 domain in Xenopus laevis embryos. We found that both the full-length Gas2 protein and the Gas2 domain, but not the CH domain, inhibited cell division and resulted in multinucleated cells. The observation that Gas2 domain alone can arrest cell division suggests that Gas2 function is mediated by microtubule binding. Gas2 co-localized with microtubules at the cell cortex of Gas2-injected Xenopus embryos using cryo-confocal microscopy and co-sedimented with microtubules in cytoskeleton co-sedimentation assays. To investigate the mechanism of Gas2-induced cell division arrest, we showed, using a wound-induced contractile array assay, that Gas2 stabilized microtubules. Finally, electron microscopy studies demonstrated that Gas2 bundled microtubules into higher-order structures. Conclusion and Significance Our experiments show that Gas2 inhibits cell division in Xenopus embryos. We propose that Gas2 function is mediated by binding and bundling microtubules, leading to cell division arrest. PMID:21931817

  13. Functional manipulation of a calcium-binding protein from Entamoeba histolytica guided by paramagnetic NMR.

    PubMed

    Rout, Ashok K; Patel, Sunita; Somlata; Shukla, Manish; Saraswathi, Deepa; Bhattacharya, Alok; Chary, Kandala V R

    2013-08-09

    EhCaBP1, one of the calcium-binding proteins from Entamoeba histolytica, is a two-domain EF-hand protein. The two domains of EhCaBP1 are structurally and functionally different from each other. However, both domains are required for structural stability and a full range of functional diversity. Analysis of sequence and structure of EhCaBP1 and other CaBPs indicates that the C-terminal domain of EhCaBP1 possesses a unique structure compared with other family members. This had been attributed to the absence of a Phe-Phe interaction between highly conserved Phe residues at the -4 position in EF-hand III (F[-4]; Tyr(81)) and at the 13th position in EF-hand IV (F[+13]; Phe(129)) of the C-terminal domain. Against this backdrop, we mutated the Tyr residue at the -4th position of EF III to the Phe residue (Y81F), to bring in the Phe-Phe interaction and understand the nature of structural and functional changes in the protein by NMR spectroscopy, molecular dynamics (MD) simulation, isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC), and biological assays, such as imaging and actin binding. The Y81F mutation in EhCaBP1 resulted in a more compact structure for the C-terminal domain of the mutant as in the case of calmodulin and troponin C. The compact structure is favored by the presence of a π-π interaction between Phe(81) and Phe(129) along with several hydrophobic interactions of Phe(81), which are not seen in the wild-type protein. Furthermore, the biological assays reveal preferential membrane localization of the mutant, loss of its colocalization with actin in the phagocytic cups, whereas retaining its ability to bind G- and F-actin.

  14. Desmoglein 3 promotes cancer cell migration and invasion by regulating activator protein 1 and protein kinase C-dependent-Ezrin activation.

    PubMed

    Brown, L; Waseem, A; Cruz, I N; Szary, J; Gunic, E; Mannan, T; Unadkat, M; Yang, M; Valderrama, F; O'Toole, E A; Wan, H

    2014-05-01

    Desmoglein 3 (Dsg3), the pemphigus vulgaris antigen, has recently been shown to be upregulated in squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and has been identified as a good tumor-specific marker for clinical staging of cervical sentinel lymph nodes in head and neck SCC. However, little is known about its biological function in cancer. The actin-binding protein Ezrin and the activator protein 1 (AP-1) transcription factor are implicated in cancer progression and metastasis. Here, we report that Dsg3 regulates the activity of c-Jun/AP-1 as well as protein kinase C (PKC)-mediated phosphorylation of Ezrin-Thr567, which contributes to the accelerated motility of cancer cells. Ectopic expression of Dsg3 in cancer cell lines caused enhanced phosphorylation at Ezrin-Thr567 with concomitant augmented membrane protrusions, cell spreading and invasive phenotype. We showed that Dsg3 formed a complex with Ezrin at the plasma membrane that was required for its proper function of interacting with F-actin and CD44 as Dsg3 knockdown impaired these associations. The increased Ezrin phosphorylation in Dsg3-overexpressing cells could be abrogated substantially by various pharmacological inhibitors for Ser/Thr kinases, including PKC and Rho kinase that are known to activate Ezrin. Furthermore, a marked increase in c-Jun S63 phosphorylation, among others, was found in Dsg3-overexpressing cells and the activation of c-Jun/AP-1 was further supported by a luciferase reporter assay. Taken together, our study identifies a novel Dsg3-mediated c-Jun/AP-1 regulatory mechanism and PKC-dependent Ezrin phosphorylation that could be responsible for Dsg3-associated cancer metastasis.

  15. RBFOX2 Promotes Protein 4.1R Exon 16 Selection via U1 snRNP Recruitment

    PubMed Central

    Ou, Alexander C.; Park, Jennie; Yu, Faye; Yu, Brian; Lee, Angela; Yang, Guang; Zhou, Anyu; Benz, Edward J.

    2012-01-01

    The erythroid differentiation-specific splicing switch of protein 4.1R exon 16, which encodes a spectrin/actin-binding peptide critical for erythrocyte membrane stability, is modulated by the differentiation-induced splicing factor RBFOX2. We have now characterized the mechanism by which RBFOX2 regulates exon 16 splicing through the downstream intronic element UGCAUG. Exon 16 possesses a weak 5′ splice site (GAG/GTTTGT), which when strengthened to a consensus sequence (GAG/GTAAGT) leads to near-total exon 16 inclusion. Impaired RBFOX2 binding reduces exon 16 inclusion in the context of the native weak 5′ splice site, but not the engineered strong 5′ splice site, implying that RBFOX2 achieves its effect by promoting utilization of the weak 5′ splice site. We further demonstrate that RBFOX2 increases U1 snRNP recruitment to the weak 5′ splice site through direct interaction between its C-terminal domain (CTD) and the zinc finger region of U1C and that the CTD is required for the effect of RBFOX2 on exon 16 splicing. Our data suggest a novel mechanism for exon 16 5′ splice site activation in which the binding of RBFOX2 to downstream intronic splicing enhancers stabilizes the pre-mRNA–U1 snRNP complex through interactions with U1C. PMID:22083953

  16. Following the Viterbi Path to Deduce Flagellar Actin-Interacting Proteins of Leishmania spp.: Report on Cofilins and Twinfilins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pacheco, Ana Carolina L.; Araújo, Fabiana F.; Kamimura, Michel T.; Medeiros, Sarah R.; Viana, Daniel A.; Oliveira, Fátima de Cássia E.; Filho, Raimundo Araújo; Costa, Marcília P.; Oliveira, Diana M.

    2007-11-01

    For performing vital cellular processes, such as motility, eukaryotic cells rely on the actin cytoskeleton, whose structure and dynamics are tightly controlled by a large number of actin-interacting (AIP) or actin-related/regulating (ARP) proteins. Trypanosomatid protozoa, such as Leishmania, rely on their flagellum for motility and sensory reception, which are believed to allow parasite migration, adhesion, invasion and even persistence on mammalian host tissues to cause disease. Actin can determine cell stiffness and transmit force during mechanotransduction, cytokinesis, cell motility and other cellular shape changes, while the identification and analyses of AIPs can help to improve understanding of their mechanical properties on physiological architectures, such as the present case regarding Leishmania flagellar apparatus. This work conveniently apply bioinformatics tools in some refined pattern recognition techniques (such as hidden Markov models (HMMs) through the Viterbi algorithm/path) in order to improve the recognition of actin-binding/interacting activity through identification of AIPs in genomes, transcriptomes and proteomes of Leishmania species. We here report cofilin and twinfilin as putative components of the flagellar apparatus, a direct bioinformatics contribution in the secondary annotation of Leishmania and trypanosomatid genomes.

  17. AB175. Girdin protein is a novel prognosis predictor for patients with non-muscle invasive bladder cancer

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Zhouliang; Hu, Hailong; Zhang, Yu; Zhang, Bo; Zhao, Wenlu; Tian, Dawei; Wu, Changli

    2016-01-01

    Objective This study aimed to determine the expression status of actin-binding protein Girdin in non-muscle invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) tissues, and to explore the relationships between Girdin expression and the clinicopathological characteristics of bladder carcinoma. Methods This study included 160 patients with NMIBC who underwent surgery from January 2006 to January 2011 at Second Hospital of Tianjin Medical University. The correlations between Girdin expression and the clinicopathological parameters were examined by Chi-square test. Recurrence-free survival (RFS) and progression-free survival (PFS) were analyzed using Kaplan-Meier method. The prognostic significance of Girdin expression was assessed using univariate and multivariate Cox regression analysis models. Results Girdin positivity was more frequently seen in high-grade tumors than in low-grade tumors (P=0.019), and in undifferentiated tumors than in differentiated tumors (P=0.028). In Kaplan-Meier analysis, expression of Girdin was significantly associated with lower RFS (P=0.007) and PFS (P=0.024) rates. The univariate analysis revealed that Girdin expression was a risk factor for both recurrence and progression of NMIBC. Further multivariate analysis identified Girdin as an independent predictor of tumor recurrence [hazard ratio (HR) 2.056, 95% CI, 1.213–3.483, P=0.007]. Conclusions The present study suggests that Girdin is differentially expressed in bladder tumors and may represent an independent predictor of prognosis for patients with NMIBC.

  18. Proteomic analysis of secretagogue-stimulated neutrophils implicates a role for actin and actin-interacting proteins in Rac2-mediated granule exocytosis

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Neutrophils are abundant leukocytes that play a primary role in defence against pathogens. Neutrophils enter sites of infection where they eliminate pathogens via phagocytosis and the release of antimicrobial mediators via degranulation. Rho GTPases, particularly Rac2, play a key role in neutrophil degranulation. The purpose of this study was to identify Rac2-dependent changes in protein abundance in stimulated neutrophils. Methods We performed a proteomic analysis on secretagogue-stimulated bone marrow neutrophils that were isolated from wild-type and Rac2-/- mice. Protein abundance was analyzed by 2-dimensional SDS-PAGE of fluorescently labelled samples which allowed the detection ~3500 proteins. Results We identified 22 proteins that showed significant changes in abundance after secretagogue-stimulation of wild-type neutrophils, which did not occur in neutrophils isolated from Rac2-/- mice. As expected, the abundance of several granule proteins was reduced in wild-type cells; this did not occur in Rac2-/- neutrophils which confirms the requirement for Rac2 in degranulation. We also found changes in abundance of many actin remodelling proteins including coronin-1A, β-actin and the F-actin capping protein, (CapZ-β). Coronin-1A showed elevated levels of several isoforms after stimulation of neutrophils from wild-type, but not from Rac2-/- mice. These isoforms were immunoreactive with anti-phospho-threonine antibodies, suggesting that neutrophil stimulation triggers a Rac2-dependent kinase cascade that results in the phosphorylation of coronin-1A. Conclusion The control of Rac2-mediated degranulation in neutrophils likely functions through actin remodelling via activation of several actin-binding proteins. We found coronin-1A to be a novel downstream effector protein of this pathway that is threonine phosphorylated in response to secretagogue stimulation. PMID:22081935

  19. Structure and function analysis of the CMS/CIN85 protein family identifies actin-bundling properties and heterotypic-complex formation.

    PubMed

    Gaidos, Gabriel; Soni, Shefali; Oswald, Duane J; Toselli, Paul A; Kirsch, Kathrin H

    2007-07-15

    Members of the CMS/CIN85 protein family participate in clathrin-mediated endocytosis and play a crucial role in maintaining the kidney filtration barrier. The CMS protein structure includes three Src homology 3 (SH3) domains and a proline-rich (PR) region that is connected by a 'linker' sequence to a coiled-coil (CC) domain. We show that CMS is a component of special actin-rich adhesion structures--podosomes--and demonstrate specific actin-binding properties of CMS. We have found that the entire C-terminal half of CMS is necessary for efficient binding to filamentous actin (F-actin). CMS and CIN85 can crosslink F-actin into bundles, a function that depends on the PR region and the CC domain. Removal of these domains reduces migration. CMS can also form heterotypic complexes with CIN85. CIN85 is expressed as multiple isoforms that share the CC domain, suggesting that heterotypic interactions with CMS provides a mechanism to regulate CMS binding to F-actin and thus for modulating dynamic rearrangements of the cytoskeleton.

  20. A high-affinity interaction with ADP-actin monomers underlies the mechanism and in vivo function of Srv2/cyclase-associated protein.

    PubMed

    Mattila, Pieta K; Quintero-Monzon, Omar; Kugler, Jamie; Moseley, James B; Almo, Steven C; Lappalainen, Pekka; Goode, Bruce L

    2004-11-01

    Cyclase-associated protein (CAP), also called Srv2 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, is a conserved actin monomer-binding protein that promotes cofilin-dependent actin turnover in vitro and in vivo. However, little is known about the mechanism underlying this function. Here, we show that S. cerevisiae CAP binds with strong preference to ADP-G-actin (Kd 0.02 microM) compared with ATP-G-actin (Kd 1.9 microM) and competes directly with cofilin for binding ADP-G-actin. Further, CAP blocks actin monomer addition specifically to barbed ends of filaments, in contrast to profilin, which blocks monomer addition to pointed ends of filaments. The actin-binding domain of CAP is more extensive than previously suggested and includes a recently solved beta-sheet structure in the C-terminus of CAP and adjacent sequences. Using site-directed mutagenesis, we define evolutionarily conserved residues that mediate binding to ADP-G-actin and demonstrate that these activities are required for CAP function in vivo in directing actin organization and polarized cell growth. Together, our data suggest that in vivo CAP competes with cofilin for binding ADP-actin monomers, allows rapid nucleotide exchange to occur on actin, and then because of its 100-fold weaker binding affinity for ATP-actin compared with ADP-actin, allows other cellular factors such as profilin to take the handoff of ATP-actin and facilitate barbed end assembly.

  1. Creating Anti-icing Surfaces via the Direct Immobilization of Antifreeze Proteins on Aluminum

    PubMed Central

    Gwak, Yunho; Park, Ji-in; Kim, Minjae; Kim, Hong Suk; Kwon, Myong Jong; Oh, Seung Jin; Kim, Young-Pil; Jin, EonSeon

    2015-01-01

    Cryoprotectants such as antifreeze proteins (AFPs) and sugar molecules may provide a solution for icing problems. These anti-icing substances protect cells and tissues from freezing by inhibiting ice formation. In this study, we developed a method for coating an industrial metal material (aluminum, Al) with AFP from the Antarctic marine diatom, Chaetoceros neogracile (Cn-AFP), to prevent or delay ice formation. To coat Al with Cn-AFP, we used an Al-binding peptide (ABP) as a conjugator and fused it with Cn-AFP. The ABP bound well to the Al and did not considerably change the functional properties of AFP. Cn-AFP-coated Al (Cn-AFP-Al) showed a sufficiently low supercooling point. Additional trehalose coating of Cn-AFP-Al considerably delayed AFP denaturation on the Al without affecting its antifreeze activity. This metal surface–coating method using trehalose-fortified AFP can be applied to other metals important in the aircraft and cold storage fields where anti-icing materials are critical. PMID:26153855

  2. Creating Anti-icing Surfaces via the Direct Immobilization of Antifreeze Proteins on Aluminum.

    PubMed

    Gwak, Yunho; Park, Ji-in; Kim, Minjae; Kim, Hong Suk; Kwon, Myong Jong; Oh, Seung Jin; Kim, Young-Pil; Jin, EonSeon

    2015-07-08

    Cryoprotectants such as antifreeze proteins (AFPs) and sugar molecules may provide a solution for icing problems. These anti-icing substances protect cells and tissues from freezing by inhibiting ice formation. In this study, we developed a method for coating an industrial metal material (aluminum, Al) with AFP from the Antarctic marine diatom, Chaetoceros neogracile (Cn-AFP), to prevent or delay ice formation. To coat Al with Cn-AFP, we used an Al-binding peptide (ABP) as a conjugator and fused it with Cn-AFP. The ABP bound well to the Al and did not considerably change the functional properties of AFP. Cn-AFP-coated Al (Cn-AFP-Al) showed a sufficiently low supercooling point. Additional trehalose coating of Cn-AFP-Al considerably delayed AFP denaturation on the Al without affecting its antifreeze activity. This metal surface-coating method using trehalose-fortified AFP can be applied to other metals important in the aircraft and cold storage fields where anti-icing materials are critical.

  3. Maternal protein restriction induced-hypertension is associated to oxidative disruption at transcriptional and functional levels in the medulla oblongata.

    PubMed

    de Brito Alves, José L; de Oliveira, Jéssica M D; Ferreira, Diorginis J S; Barros, Monique A de V; Nogueira, Viviane O; Alves, Débora S; Vidal, Hubert; Leandro, Carol G; Lagranha, Cláudia J; Pirola, Luciano; da Costa-Silva, João H

    2016-12-01

    Maternal protein restriction during pregnancy and lactation predisposes the adult offspring to sympathetic overactivity and arterial hypertension. Although the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood, dysregulation of the oxidative balance has been proposed as a putative trigger of neural-induced hypertension. The aim of the study was to evaluate the association between the oxidative status at transcriptional and functional levels in the medulla oblongata and maternal protein restriction induced-hypertension. Wistar rat dams were fed a control (normal protein; 17% protein) or a low protein ((Lp); 8% protein) diet during pregnancy and lactation, and male offspring was studied at 90 days of age. Direct measurements of baseline arterial blood pressure (ABP) and heart rate (HR) were recorded in awakened offspring. In addition, quantitative RT-PCR was used to assess the mRNA expression of superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) and 2 (SOD2), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), Glutamatergic receptors (Grin1, Gria1 and Grm1) and GABA(A)-receptor-associated protein like 1 (Gabarapl1). Malondialdehyde (MDA) levels, CAT and SOD activities were examined in ventral and dorsal medulla. Lp rats exhibited higher ABP. The mRNA expression levels of SOD2, GPx and Gabarapl1 were down regulated in medullary tissue of Lp rats (P<.05, t test). In addition, we observed that higher MDA levels were associated to decreased SOD (approximately 45%) and CAT (approximately 50%) activities in ventral medulla. Taken together, our data suggest that maternal protein restriction induced-hypertension is associated with medullary oxidative dysfunction at transcriptional level and with impaired antioxidant capacity in the ventral medulla.

  4. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay identifies vitamin D binding protein (Gc-globulin) in human, rat, and mouse sera.

    PubMed

    Tang, W X; Bazaraa, H M; Magiera, H; Cooke, N E; Haddad, J G

    1996-06-01

    Serum vitamin D binding protein (DBP, also known as Gc-globulin) is a multifunctional protein capable of binding both vitamin D metabolites and actin. DBP can be visualized when analyzed by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis followed by staining. Confirmation of its identity had previously required immunoprecipitation with specific anti-DBP antisera or occupancy of the protein with radioactive vitamin D sterols. We present studies showing that preincubation of G-actin with mammalian sera produced a discernible DBP protein band shift on native gel electrophoresis. Addition of DNaseI, a 33-kDa intracellular protein with an avid actin-binding site, to the incubations resulted in a supershift of DBP-actin complexes to an even more cathodal region of the gels. Following incubations with human, rat, and murine sera the same actin shift occurred as did the actin plus DNaseI supershift. The migrations of each complex were correlated with purified DBP migrations under identical conditions. It was confirmed that the supershifted bands contained DBP by Western blotting and detection of DBP by binding of 25-OH[3H]D3. After intravenous G-actin injections into living mice, a serum DBP-actin complex could be detected on native gels as the uncomplexed DBP band decreased in intensity. This simple, direct-staining technique appears to be suitable for identifying DBP/Gc phenotypes in human populations as well as for semiquantitatively monitoring the plasma actin-scavenger system in vivo in animal models or in human diseases.

  5. Expression of DIAPH1 is up-regulated in colorectal cancer and its down-regulation strongly reduces the metastatic capacity of colon carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yuan-Na; Izbicki, Jakob R; König, Alexandra; Habermann, Jens K; Blechner, Christine; Lange, Tobias; Schumacher, Udo; Windhorst, Sabine

    2014-04-01

    In most cases, metastatic colorectal cancer is not curable, thus new approaches are necessary to identify novel targets for colorectal cancer therapy. Actin-binding-proteins (ABPs) directly regulate motility of metastasising tumor cells, and for cortactin an association with colon cancer metastasis has been already shown. However, as its depletion only incompletely inhibits metastasis, additional, more suitable cellular targets have to be identified. Here we analyzed expression of the ABPs, DIAPH1, VASP, N-WASP, and fascin in comparison with cortactin and found that, besides cortactin, DIAPH1 was expressed with the highest frequency (63%) in colorectal cancer. As well as cortactin, DIAPH1 was not detectable in normal colon tissue and expression of both proteins was positively correlated with metastasis of colorectal cancer. To analyse the mechanistic role of DIAPH1 for metastasis of colon carcinoma cells in comparison with cortactin, expression of the proteins was stably down-regulated in the human colon carcinoma cell lines HT-29, HROC-24 and HCT-116. Analysis of metastasis of colon carcinoma cells in SCID mice revealed that depletion of DIAPH1 reduced metastasis 60-fold and depletion of cortactin 16-fold as compared with control cells. Most likely the stronger effect of DIAPH1 depletion on colon cancer metastasis is due to the fact that in vitro knock down of DIAPH1 impaired all steps of metastasis; adhesion, invasion and migration while down-regulation of cortactin only reduced adhesion and invasion. This very strong reducing effect of DIAPH1 depletion on colon carcinoma cell metastasis makes the protein a promising therapeutic target for individualized colorectal cancer therapy.

  6. Chloroplast outer envelope protein CHUP1 is essential for chloroplast anchorage to the plasma membrane and chloroplast movement.

    PubMed

    Oikawa, Kazusato; Yamasato, Akihiro; Kong, Sam-Geun; Kasahara, Masahiro; Nakai, Masato; Takahashi, Fumio; Ogura, Yasunobu; Kagawa, Takatoshi; Wada, Masamitsu

    2008-10-01

    Chloroplasts change their intracellular distribution in response to light intensity. Previously, we isolated the chloroplast unusual positioning1 (chup1) mutant of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). This mutant is defective in normal chloroplast relocation movement and shows aggregation of chloroplasts at the bottom of palisade mesophyll cells. The isolated gene encodes a protein with an actin-binding motif. Here, we used biochemical analyses to determine the subcellular localization of full-length CHUP1 on the chloroplast outer envelope. A CHUP1-green fluorescent protein (GFP) fusion, which was detected at the outermost part of mesophyll cell chloroplasts, complemented the chup1 phenotype, but GFP-CHUP1, which was localized mainly in the cytosol, did not. Overexpression of the N-terminal hydrophobic region (NtHR) of CHUP1 fused with GFP (NtHR-GFP) induced a chup1-like phenotype, indicating a dominant-negative effect on chloroplast relocation movement. A similar pattern was found in chloroplast OUTER ENVELOPE PROTEIN7 (OEP7)-GFP transformants, and a protein containing OEP7 in place of NtHR complemented the mutant phenotype. Physiological analyses of transgenic Arabidopsis plants expressing truncated CHUP1 in a chup1 mutant background and cytoskeletal inhibitor experiments showed that the coiled-coil region of CHUP1 anchors chloroplasts firmly on the plasma membrane, consistent with the localization of coiled-coil GFP on the plasma membrane. Thus, CHUP1 localization on chloroplasts, with the N terminus inserted into the chloroplast outer envelope and the C terminus facing the cytosol, is essential for CHUP1 function, and the coiled-coil region of CHUP1 prevents chloroplast aggregation and participates in chloroplast relocation movement.

  7. Pilocarpine-Induced Status Epilepticus Is Associated with Changes in the Actin-Modulating Protein Synaptopodin and Alterations in Long-Term Potentiation in the Mouse Hippocampus

    PubMed Central

    Lenz, Maximilian; Ben Shimon, Marina; Deller, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Epilepsy is a complex neurological disorder which can severely affect neuronal function. Some patients may experience status epilepticus, a life-threatening state of ongoing seizure activity associated with postictal cognitive dysfunction. However, the molecular mechanisms by which status epilepticus influences brain function beyond seizure activity remain not well understood. Here, we addressed the question of whether pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus affects synaptopodin (SP), an actin-binding protein, which regulates the ability of neurons to express synaptic plasticity. This makes SP an interesting marker for epilepsy-associated alterations in synaptic function. Indeed, single dose intraperitoneal pilocarpine injection (250 mg/kg) in three-month-old male C57BL/6J mice leads to a rapid reduction in hippocampal SP-cluster sizes and numbers (in CA1 stratum radiatum of the dorsal hippocampus; 90 min after injection). In line with this observation (and previous work using SP-deficient mice), a defect in the ability to induce long-term potentiation (LTP) of Schaffer collateral-CA1 synapses is observed. Based on these findings we propose that status epilepticus could exert its aftereffects on cognition at least in part by perturbing SP-dependent mechanisms of synaptic plasticity. PMID:28154762

  8. Memo is a cofilin-interacting protein that influences PLCgamma1 and cofilin activities, and is essential for maintaining directionality during ErbB2-induced tumor-cell migration.

    PubMed

    Meira, Maria; Masson, Régis; Stagljar, Igor; Lienhard, Susanne; Maurer, Francisca; Boulay, Anne; Hynes, Nancy E

    2009-03-15

    Heregulin (HRG) activates ErbB2-ErbB3 heterodimers thereby stimulating many cellular responses, including motility. Memo and PLCgamma1 interact with ErbB2 autophosphorylation sites and are essential for HRG-induced chemotaxis. By tracing HRG-stimulated cell migration in Dunn chambers, we found that Memo- or PLCgamma1 knockdown (KD) strongly impairs cell directionality. Memo has no obvious enzymatic activity and was discovered via its ability to complex with ErbB2. Using the yeast two-hybrid approach to gain insight into Memo function, an interaction between Memo and cofilin, a regulator of actin dynamics, was uncovered. The interaction was confirmed in vitro using recombinant proteins and in vivo in co-immunoprecipitation experiments where Memo was detected in complexes with cofilin, ErbB2 and PLCgamma1. Interestingly, in Memo KD cells, HRG-induced PLCgamma1 phosphorylation was decreased, suggesting that Memo regulates PLCgamma1 activation. Furthermore, HRG-induced recruitment of GFP-cofilin to lamellipodia is impaired in Memo and in PLCgamma1 KD cells, suggesting that both proteins lie upstream of cofilin in models of ErbB2-driven tumor-cell migration. Finally, in vitro F-actin binding and depolymerization assays showed that Memo enhances cofilin depolymerizing and severing activity. In summary, these data indicate that Memo also regulates actin dynamics by interacting with cofilin and enhancing its function.

  9. A 27,000-D core of the Dictyostelium 34,000-D protein retains Ca(2+)- regulated actin cross-linking but lacks bundling activity

    PubMed Central

    1993-01-01

    Actin cross-linking proteins are important for formation of isotropic F- actin networks and anisotropic bundles of filaments in the cytoplasm of eucaryotic cells. A 34,000-D protein from the cellular slime mold Dictyostelium discoideum mediates formation of actin bundles in vitro, and is specifically incorporated into filopodia. The actin cross- linking activity of this protein is inhibited by the presence of micromolar calcium. A 27,000-D fragment obtained by digestion with alpha-chymotrypsin lacks the amino-terminal six amino acids and the carboxyl-terminal 7,000 D of the intact polypeptide. The 27,000-D fragment retains F-actin binding activity assessed by cosedimentation assays and by 125I-[F-actin] blot overlay technique, F-actin cross- linking activity as assessed by viscometry, and calcium binding activity. Ultrastructural analyses indicate that the 27,000-D fragment is deficient in the bundling activity characteristic of the intact 34,000-D protein. Actin filaments are aggregated into microdomains but not bundle in the presence of the 27,000-D fragment. A polarized light scattering assay was used to demonstrate that the 34,000-D protein increases the orientational correlation among F-actin filaments. The 27,000-D fragment does not increase the orientation of the actin filaments as assessed by this technique. A terminal segment(s) of the 34,000-D protein, lacking in the 27,000-D fragment, contributes significantly to the ability to cross-link actin filaments into bundles. PMID:8436589

  10. A conserved proline-rich region of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae cyclase-associated protein binds SH3 domains and modulates cytoskeletal localization.

    PubMed Central

    Freeman, N L; Lila, T; Mintzer, K A; Chen, Z; Pahk, A J; Ren, R; Drubin, D G; Field, J

    1996-01-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae cyclase-associated protein (CAP or Srv2p) is multifunctional. The N-terminal third of CAP binds to adenylyl cyclase and has been implicated in adenylyl cyclase activation in vivo. The widely conserved C-terminal domain of CAP binds to monomeric actin and serves an important cytoskeletal regulatory function in vivo. In addition, all CAP homologs contain a centrally located proline-rich region which has no previously identified function. Recently, SH3 (Src homology 3) domains were shown to bind to proline-rich regions of proteins. Here we report that the proline-rich region of CAP is recognized by the SH3 domains of several proteins, including the yeast actin-associated protein Abp1p. Immunolocalization experiments demonstrate that CAP colocalizes with cortical actin-containing structures in vivo and that a region of CAP containing the SH3 domain binding site is required for this localization. We also demonstrate that the SH3 domain of yeast Abp1p and that of the yeast RAS protein guanine nucleotide exchange factor Cdc25p complex with adenylyl cyclase in vitro. Interestingly, the binding of the Cdc25p SH3 domain is not mediated by CAP and therefore may involve direct binding to adenylyl cyclase or to an unidentified protein which complexes with adenylyl cyclase. We also found that CAP homologous from Schizosaccharomyces pombe and humans bind SH3 domains. The human protein binds most strongly to the SH3 domain from the abl proto-oncogene. These observations identify CAP as an SH3 domain-binding protein and suggest that CAP mediates interactions between SH3 domain proteins and monomeric actin. PMID:8552082

  11. A conserved proline-rich region of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae cyclase-associated protein binds SH3 domains and modulates cytoskeletal localization.

    PubMed

    Freeman, N L; Lila, T; Mintzer, K A; Chen, Z; Pahk, A J; Ren, R; Drubin, D G; Field, J

    1996-02-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae cyclase-associated protein (CAP or Srv2p) is multifunctional. The N-terminal third of CAP binds to adenylyl cyclase and has been implicated in adenylyl cyclase activation in vivo. The widely conserved C-terminal domain of CAP binds to monomeric actin and serves an important cytoskeletal regulatory function in vivo. In addition, all CAP homologs contain a centrally located proline-rich region which has no previously identified function. Recently, SH3 (Src homology 3) domains were shown to bind to proline-rich regions of proteins. Here we report that the proline-rich region of CAP is recognized by the SH3 domains of several proteins, including the yeast actin-associated protein Abp1p. Immunolocalization experiments demonstrate that CAP colocalizes with cortical actin-containing structures in vivo and that a region of CAP containing the SH3 domain binding site is required for this localization. We also demonstrate that the SH3 domain of yeast Abp1p and that of the yeast RAS protein guanine nucleotide exchange factor Cdc25p complex with adenylyl cyclase in vitro. Interestingly, the binding of the Cdc25p SH3 domain is not mediated by CAP and therefore may involve direct binding to adenylyl cyclase or to an unidentified protein which complexes with adenylyl cyclase. We also found that CAP homologous from Schizosaccharomyces pombe and humans bind SH3 domains. The human protein binds most strongly to the SH3 domain from the abl proto-oncogene. These observations identify CAP as an SH3 domain-binding protein and suggest that CAP mediates interactions between SH3 domain proteins and monomeric actin.

  12. Binding of a C-terminal fragment (residues 369 to 435) of vitamin D-binding protein to actin.

    PubMed

    Buch, Stefan; Gremm, Dagmar; Wegner, Albrecht; Mannherz, Hans Georg

    2002-10-01

    The vitamin D-binding protein (DBP) binds to monomeric actin with high affinity. The variation in DBP isoforms is due to genetic polymorphism and varying glycosylation. To obtain a homogeneous preparation, the cDNA for human DBP and truncations thereof were cloned and various systems were applied for heterologous bacterial and yeast expression. The full-length protein and the N- and C-terminal halves of DBP remained insoluble probably because the protein did not fold to its native three-dimensional structure due to formation of accidental intra- and inter-molecular disulfide bonds during expression in bacteria or yeast. This problem was overcome by cloning of a C-terminal fragment comprising residues 369 to 435 that did not contain disulfide bonds and was completely soluble. Binding of the C-terminal fragment to monomeric actin was demonstrated by comigration with actin during native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and surface plasmon resonance, however, at considerably lower affinity than full-length DBP. This suggests that in addition to the C-terminal amino acid sequence other parts (amino acid residues or sugar moieties) of DBP participate in actin binding. The C-terminal fragment was found to inhibit denaturation of actin and to decrease the rate of actin polymerisation both at the barbed and at the pointed end in a concentration-dependent manner. According to a quantitative analysis of the polymerisation kinetics, association of actin monomers to nucleate filaments was not prevented by binding of the C-terminal fragment to actin. These data suggest that the sites on the surface of actin that are involved in actin nucleation and elongation are different.

  13. Alternative splicing for members of human mosaic domain superfamilies. I. The CH and LIM domains containing group of proteins.

    PubMed

    Friedberg, Felix

    2009-05-01

    In this paper we examine (restricted to homo sapiens) the products resulting from gene duplication and the subsequent alternative splicing for the members of a multidomain group of proteins which possess the evolutionary conserved calponin homology CH domain, i.e. an "actin binding domain", as a singlet and which, in addition, contain the conserved cysteine rich double Zn finger possessing Lim domain, also as a singlet. Seven genes, resulting from gene duplications, were identified that code for seven group members for which pre-mRNAs appear to have undergone multiple alternative splicing: Mical 1, 2 and 3 are located on chromosomes 6q21, 11p15 and 22q11, respectively. The LMO7 gene is present on chromosome 13q22 and the LIMCH1 gene on chromosome 4p13. Micall1 is mapped to chromosome 22q13 and Micall2 to chromosome 7p22. Translated Gen/Bank ESTs suggest the existence of multiple products alternatively spliced from the pre-mRNAs encoded by these genes. Characteristic indicators of such splicing among the proteins derived from one gene must include containment of some common extensive 100% identical regions. In some instances only one exon might be partly or completely eliminated. Sometimes alternative splicing is also associated with an increased frequency of creation of an exon or part of an exon from an intron. Not only coding regions for the body of the protein but also for its N- or -C ends could be affected by the splicing. If created forms are merely beginning at different starting points but remain identical in sequence thereafter, their existence as products of alternate splicing must be questioned. In the splicings, described in this paper, multiple isoforms rather than a single isoform appear as products during the gene expression.

  14. Annexin-I as a potential target for green tea extract induced actin remodeling.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Gui-Shan; Jin, Yu-Sheng; Lu, Qing-Yi; Zhang, Zuo-Feng; Belldegrun, Arie; Figlin, Robert; Pantuck, Allan; Yen, Yun; Li, Frederick; Rao, Jianyu

    2007-01-01

    Using a multistep human urothelial model, we previously showed that green tea extract (GTE) selectively modulates actin remodeling in transformed cells (MC-T11), which resulted in increased cell adhesion and reduced cell motility (Lu et al., Clin Cancer Res 2005;11:1675-83). This study further analyzed which actin binding proteins (ABPs) might be involved in this process. Proteomic profiles of GTE treated and untreated MC-T11 cells using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis coupled with liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) and matrix-assisted laser desorption and ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) identified 20 GTE-induced proteins. Among them, 3 were ABPs (tropomodulin, cofilin and annexin-I), and only annexin-I showed a dose- and time-dependent expression. The increased annexin-I correlated with actin remodeling, and was the result of transcription level up-regulation, as determined by RT-PCR, pull-down immunoblot and siRNA analyses. 5-Azacytidine, a DNA methylation inhibitor, exhibited no effect on annexin-I expression when used alone, but had an additive effect for GTE-induced annexin-I expression. Immunohistochemistry of bladder cancer tissue array showed a decrease of annexin-I expression in carcinoma in situ and low grade papillary carcinoma (n = 32, 0% positive) compared to nontumor urothelium (n = 18, 89% positive) (p < 0.001 by Fisher exact test), but increased in some (6 of 15, 40%) high-grade tumors. Together, GTE induced annexin-I expression plays a role in regulating actin remodeling and decreased annexin-I expression is a common event in early stage of bladder cancer development.

  15. Dephosphorylation of cofilin in stimulated platelets: roles for a GTP-binding protein and Ca2+.

    PubMed Central

    Davidson, M M; Haslam, R J

    1994-01-01

    In human platelets, thrombin not only stimulates the phosphorylation of pleckstrin (P47) and of myosin P-light chains, but also induces the dephosphorylation of an 18-19 kDa phosphoprotein (P18) [Imaoka, Lynham and Haslam (1983) J. Biol. Chem. 258, 11404-11414]. We have now studied this protein in detail. The thrombin-induced dephosphorylation reaction did not begin until the phosphorylation of myosin P-light chains and the secretion of dense-granule 5-hydroxytryptamine were nearly complete, but did parallel the later stages of platelet aggregation. Experiments with ionophore A23187 and phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate indicated that dephosphorylation of P18 was stimulated by Ca2+, but not by protein kinase C. Two-dimensional analysis of platelet proteins, using non-equilibrium pH gradient electrophoresis followed by SDS/PAGE, showed that thrombin decreased the amount of phosphorylated P18 in platelets by up to 70% and slightly increased the amount of a more basic unlabelled protein that was present in 3-fold excess of P18 in unstimulated platelets. These two proteins were identified as the phosphorylated and non-phosphorylated forms of the pH-sensitive actin-depolymerizing protein, cofilin, by sequencing of peptide fragments and immunoblotting with a monoclonal antibody specific for cofilin. The molar concentration of cofilin in platelets was approx. 10% that of actin. Platelet cofilin was phosphorylated exclusively on serine. Experiments with electropermeabilized platelets showed that dephosphorylation of cofilin could be stimulated by guanosine 5'-[gamma-thio]triphosphate (GTP[S]) in the absence of Ca2+ or by a free Ca2+ concentration of 10 microM. This GTP[S]-induced dephosphorylation reaction was inhibited by 1-naphthyl phosphate, but not by okadaic acid. Our results add cofilin to the actin-binding proteins that may regulate the platelet cytoskeleton, and suggest that platelet cofilin can be activated by dephosphorylation reactions initiated either by a GTP

  16. Screens for Extragenic Mutations That Fail to Complement Act1 Alleles Identify Genes That Are Important for Actin Function in Saccharomyces Cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Welch, M. D.; Vinh, DBN.; Okamura, H. H.; Drubin, D. G.

    1993-01-01

    Null mutations in SAC6 and ABP1, genes that encode actin-binding proteins, failed to complement the temperature-sensitive phenotype caused by a mutation in the ACT1 gene. To identify novel genes whose protein products interact with actin, mutations that fail to complement act1-1 or act1-4, two temperature-sensitive alleles of ACT1, were isolated. A total of 14 extragenic noncomplementing mutations and 12 new alleles of ACT1 were identified in two independent screens. The 14 extragenic noncomplementing mutations represent alleles of at least four different genes, ANC1, ANC2, ANC3 and ANC4 (Actin NonComplementing). Mutations in the ANC1 gene were shown to cause osmosensitivity and defects in actin organization; phenotypes that are similar to those caused by act1 mutations. We conclude that the ANC1 gene product plays an important role in actin cytoskeletal function. The 12 new alleles of ACT1 will be useful for further elucidation of the functions of actin in yeast. PMID:8243992

  17. C-terminal fragment of amebin promotes actin filament bundling, inhibits acto-myosin ATPase activity and is essential for amoeba migration.

    PubMed

    Jóźwiak, Jolanta; Rzhepetskyy, Yuriy; Sobczak, Magdalena; Kocik, Elżbieta; Skórzewski, Radosław; Kłopocka, Wanda; Rędowicz, Maria Jolanta

    2011-02-01

    Amebin [formerly termed as ApABP-FI; Sobczak et al. (2007) Biochem. Cell Biol. 85] is encoded in Amoeba proteus by two transcripts, 2672-nt and 1125-nt. A product of the shorter transcript (termed as C-amebin), comprising C-terminal 375 amino-acid-residue fragment of amebin, has been expressed and purified as the recombinant GST-fusion protein. GST-C-amebin bound both to monomeric and filamentous actin. The binding was Ca(2+)-independent and promoted filament bundling, as revealed with the transmission electron microscopy. GST-C-amebin significantly decreased MgATPase activity of rabbit skeletal muscle acto-S1. Removal with endoproteinase ArgC of a positively charged C-terminal region of GST-amebin containing KLASMWEQ sequence abolished actin-binding and bundling as well as the ATPase-inhibitory effect of C-amebin, indicating that this protein region was involved in the interaction with actin. Microinjection of amoebae with antibody against C-terminus of amebin significantly affected amoebae morphology, disturbed cell polarization and transport of cytoplasmic granules as well as blocked migration. These data indicate that amebin may be one of key regulators of the actin-cytoskeleton dynamics and actin-dependent motility in A. proteus.

  18. Burkholderia pseudomallei type III secreted protein BipC: role in actin modulation and translocation activities required for the bacterial intracellular lifecycle

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Wen Tyng; Vellasamy, Kumutha Malar; Rajamani, Lakshminarayanan; Beuerman, Roger W.

    2016-01-01

    Melioidosis, an infection caused by the facultative intracellular pathogen Burkholderia pseudomallei, has been classified as an emerging disease with the number of patients steadily increasing at an alarming rate. B. pseudomalleipossess various virulence determinants that allow them to invade the host and evade the host immune response, such as the type III secretion systems (TTSS). The products of this specialized secretion system are particularly important for the B. pseudomallei infection. Lacking in one or more components of the TTSS demonstrated different degrees of defects in the intracellular lifecycle of B. pseudomallei. Further understanding the functional roles of proteins involved in B. pseudomallei TTSS will enable us to dissect the enigma of B. pseudomallei-host cell interaction. In this study, BipC (a translocator), which was previously reported to be involved in the pathogenesis of B. pseudomallei, was further characterized using the bioinformatics and molecular approaches. The bipCgene, coding for a putative invasive protein, was first PCR amplified from B. pseudomallei K96243 genomic DNA and cloned into an expression vector for overexpression in Escherichia coli. The soluble protein was subsequently purified and assayed for actin polymerization and depolymerization. BipC was verified to subvert the host actin dynamics as demonstrated by the capability to polymerize actin in vitro. Homology modeling was also attempted to predict the structure of BipC. Overall, our findings identified that the protein encoded by the bipC gene plays a role as an effector involved in the actin binding activity to facilitate internalization of B. pseudomalleiinto the host cells. PMID:28028452

  19. Structural Insights into the Inhibition of Actin-Capping Protein by Interactions with Phosphatidic Acid and Phosphatidylinositol (4,5)-Bisphosphate

    PubMed Central

    Pleskot, Roman; Pejchar, Přemysl; Žárský, Viktor; Staiger, Christopher J.; Potocký, Martin

    2012-01-01

    The actin cytoskeleton is a dynamic structure that coordinates numerous fundamental processes in eukaryotic cells. Dozens of actin-binding proteins are known to be involved in the regulation of actin filament organization or turnover and many of these are stimulus-response regulators of phospholipid signaling. One of these proteins is the heterodimeric actin-capping protein (CP) which binds the barbed end of actin filaments with high affinity and inhibits both addition and loss of actin monomers at this end. The ability of CP to bind filaments is regulated by signaling phospholipids, which inhibit the activity of CP; however, the exact mechanism of this regulation and the residues on CP responsible for lipid interactions is not fully resolved. Here, we focus on the interaction of CP with two signaling phospholipids, phosphatidic acid (PA) and phosphatidylinositol (4,5)-bisphosphate (PIP2). Using different methods of computational biology such as homology modeling, molecular docking and coarse-grained molecular dynamics, we uncovered specific modes of high affinity interaction between membranes containing PA/phosphatidylcholine (PC) and plant CP, as well as between PIP2/PC and animal CP. In particular, we identified differences in the binding of membrane lipids by animal and plant CP, explaining previously published experimental results. Furthermore, we pinpoint the critical importance of the C-terminal part of plant CPα subunit for CP–membrane interactions. We prepared a GST-fusion protein for the C-terminal domain of plant α subunit and verified this hypothesis with lipid-binding assays in vitro. PMID:23133367

  20. Comparative Proteomics of Mouse Tears and Saliva: Evidence from Large Protein Families for Functional Adaptation

    PubMed Central

    Karn, Robert C.; Laukaitis, Christina M.

    2015-01-01

    We produced a tear proteome of the genome mouse, C57BL/6, that contained 139 different protein identifications: 110 from a two-dimensional (2D) gel with subsequent trypsin digestion, 19 from a one-dimensional (1D) gel with subsequent trypsin digestion and ten from a 1D gel with subsequent Asp-N digestion. We compared this tear proteome with a C57BL/6 mouse saliva proteome produced previously. Sixteen of the 139 tear proteins are shared between the two proteomes, including six proteins that combat microbial growth. Among the 123 other tear proteins, were members of four large protein families that have no counterparts in humans: Androgen-binding proteins (ABPs) with different members expressed in the two proteomes, Exocrine secreted peptides (ESPs) expressed exclusively in the tear proteome, major urinary proteins (MUPs) expressed in one or both proteomes and the mouse-specific Kallikreins (subfamily b KLKs) expressed exclusively in the saliva proteome. All four families have members with suggested roles in mouse communication, which may influence some aspect of reproductive behavior. We discuss this in the context of functional adaptation involving tear and saliva proteins in the secretions of mouse lacrimal and salivary glands, respectively.

  1. Drosophila small heat shock protein CryAB ensures structural integrity of developing muscles, and proper muscle and heart performance.

    PubMed

    Wójtowicz, Inga; Jabłońska, Jadwiga; Zmojdzian, Monika; Taghli-Lamallem, Ouarda; Renaud, Yoan; Junion, Guillaume; Daczewska, Malgorzata; Huelsmann, Sven; Jagla, Krzysztof; Jagla, Teresa

    2015-03-01

    Molecular chaperones, such as the small heat shock proteins (sHsps), maintain normal cellular function by controlling protein homeostasis in stress conditions. However, sHsps are not only activated in response to environmental insults, but also exert developmental and tissue-specific functions that are much less known. Here, we show that during normal development the Drosophila sHsp CryAB [L(2)efl] is specifically expressed in larval body wall muscles and accumulates at the level of Z-bands and around myonuclei. CryAB features a conserved actin-binding domain and, when attenuated, leads to clustering of myonuclei and an altered pattern of sarcomeric actin and the Z-band-associated actin crosslinker Cheerio (filamin). Our data suggest that CryAB and Cheerio form a complex essential for muscle integrity: CryAB colocalizes with Cheerio and, as revealed by mass spectrometry and co-immunoprecipitation experiments, binds to Cheerio, and the muscle-specific attenuation of cheerio leads to CryAB-like sarcomeric phenotypes. Furthermore, muscle-targeted expression of CryAB(R120G), which carries a mutation associated with desmin-related myopathy (DRM), results in an altered sarcomeric actin pattern, in affected myofibrillar integrity and in Z-band breaks, leading to reduced muscle performance and to marked cardiac arrhythmia. Taken together, we demonstrate that CryAB ensures myofibrillar integrity in Drosophila muscles during development and propose that it does so by interacting with the actin crosslinker Cheerio. The evidence that a DRM-causing mutation affects CryAB muscle function and leads to DRM-like phenotypes in the fly reveals a conserved stress-independent role of CryAB in maintaining muscle cell cytoarchitecture.

  2. The yeast dynamin-like protein Vps1:vps1 mutations perturb the internalization and the motility of endocytic vesicles and endosomes via disorganization of the actin cytoskeleton.

    PubMed

    Nannapaneni, Srikant; Wang, Daobing; Jain, Sandhya; Schroeder, Blake; Highfill, Chad; Reustle, Lindsay; Pittsley, Delilah; Maysent, Adam; Moulder, Shawn; McDowell, Ryan; Kim, Kyoungtae

    2010-07-01

    Mammalian dynamin is responsible for scission of endocytic vesicles from the plasma membrane. A previous study showed that Vps1, a yeast dynamin-like protein, plays an important role in pheromone receptor internalization (Yu and Cai, 2004; J. Cell Sci. 117, 3839-3853). However, the details of how Vps1 acts in various phases of endocytosis including early internalization of the endocytic vesicle are poorly understood. To investigate the potential roles of Vps1 in both endocytic vesicle formation/maturation on the plasma membrane and endocytic vesicle internalization, time-lapse fluorescent images of GFP-tagged endocytic markers in live cells were analyzed using a particle tracking software. The loss of Vps1 leads to a robust increase in the lifespan of newly forming cortical endocytic vesicles carrying Las17-GFP, Ede1-GFP, Sla1-GFP, and Abp1-GFP, indicating that Vps1 is required for the proper assembly and maturation of endocytic vesicles. Particle track analysis revealed that Abp1-GFP vesicles in vps1 null cells moved a relatively short distance away from the cell membrane due to their non-directional movement. Furthermore, we found that the GTPase and the GED domains of Vps1 are required for the proper endocytic function of Vps1. Our tracking analysis data also revealed that the post-internalized vesicle motility en route to the vacuole was decreased significantly, perhaps due to severe disruption of the actin cables in Vps1 mutant cells.

  3. Interactions among a Fimbrin, a Capping Protein, and an Actin-depolymerizing Factor in Organization of the Fission Yeast Actin Cytoskeleton

    PubMed Central

    Nakano, Kentaro; Satoh, Kazuomi; Morimatsu, Akeshi; Ohnuma, Masaaki; Mabuchi, Issei

    2001-01-01

    We report studies of the fission yeast fimbrin-like protein Fim1, which contains two EF-hand domains and two actin-binding domains (ABD1 and ABD2). Fim1 is a component of both F-actin patches and the F-actin ring, but not of F-actin cables. Fim1 cross-links F-actin in vitro, but a Fim1 protein lacking either EF-hand domains (Fim1A12) or both the EF-hand domains and ABD1 (Fim1A2) has no actin cross-linking activity. Overexpression of Fim1 induced the formation of F-actin patches throughout the cell cortex, whereas the F-actin patches disappear in cells overexpressing Fim1A12 or Fim1A2. Thus, the actin cross-linking activity of Fim1 is probably important for the formation of F-actin patches. The overexpression of Fim1 also excluded the actin-depolymerizing factor Adf1 from the F-actin patches and inhibited the turnover of actin in these structures. Thus, Fim1 may function in stabilizing the F-actin patches. We also isolated the gene encoding Acp1, a subunit of the heterodimeric F-actin capping protein. fim1 acp1 double null cells showed more severe defects in the organization of the actin cytoskeleton than those seen in each single mutant. Thus, Fim1 and Acp1 may function in a similar manner in the organization of the actin cytoskeleton. Finally, genetic studies suggested that Fim1 may function in cytokinesis in cooperation with Cdc15 (PSTPIP) and Rng2 (IQGAP), respectively. PMID:11694585

  4. ATP-dependent regulation of actin monomer-filament equilibrium by cyclase-associated protein and ADF/cofilin.

    PubMed

    Nomura, Kazumi; Ono, Shoichiro

    2013-07-15

    CAP (cyclase-associated protein) is a conserved regulator of actin filament dynamics. In the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, CAS-1 is an isoform of CAP that is expressed in striated muscle and regulates sarcomeric actin assembly. In the present study, we report that CAS-2, a second CAP isoform in C. elegans, attenuates the actin-monomer-sequestering effect of ADF (actin depolymerizing factor)/cofilin to increase the steady-state levels of actin filaments in an ATP-dependent manner. CAS-2 binds to actin monomers without a strong preference for either ATP- or ADP-actin. CAS-2 strongly enhances the exchange of actin-bound nucleotides even in the presence of UNC-60A, a C. elegans ADF/cofilin that inhibits nucleotide exchange. UNC-60A induces the depolymerization of actin filaments and sequesters actin monomers, whereas CAS-2 reverses the monomer-sequestering effect of UNC-60A in the presence of ATP, but not in the presence of only ADP or the absence of ATP or ADP. A 1:100 molar ratio of CAS-2 to UNC-60A is sufficient to increase actin filaments. CAS-2 has two independent actin-binding sites in its N- and C-terminal halves, and the C-terminal half is necessary and sufficient for the observed activities of the full-length CAS-2. These results suggest that CAS-2 (CAP) and UNC-60A (ADF/cofilin) are important in the ATP-dependent regulation of the actin monomer-filament equilibrium.

  5. A protein phosphatase 2A catalytic subunit modulates blue light-induced chloroplast avoidance movements through regulating actin cytoskeleton in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Wen, Feng; Wang, Jinqian; Xing, Da

    2012-08-01

    Chloroplast avoidance movements mediated by phototropin 2 (phot2) are one of most important physiological events in the response to high-fluence blue light (BL), which reduces damage to the photosynthetic machinery under excess light. Protein phosphatase 2A-2 (PP2A-2) is an isoform of the catalytic subunit of PP2A, which regulates a number of developmental processes. To investigate whether PP2A-2 was involved in high-fluence BL-induced chloroplast avoidance movements, we first analyzed chloroplast migration in the leaves of the pp2a-2 mutant in response to BL. The data showed that PP2A-2 might act as a positive regulator in phot2-mediated chloroplast avoidance movements, but not in phot1-mediated chloroplast accumulation movements. Then, the effect of okadaic acid (OA) and cantharidin (selective PP2A inhibitors) on high-fluence BL response was further investigated in Arabidopsis thaliana mesophyll cells. Within a certain concentration range, exogenously applied OA or cantharidin inhibited the high-fluence BL-induced chloroplast movements in a concentration-dependent manner. Actin depolymerizing factor (ADF)/cofilin phosphorylation assays demonstrated that PP2A-2 can activate/dephosphorylate ADF/cofilin, an actin-binding protein, in Arabidopsis mesophyll cells. Consistent with this observation, the experiments showed that OA could inhibit ADF1 binding to the actin and suppress the reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton after high-fluence BL irradiation. The adf1 and adf3 mutants also exhibited reduced high-fluence BL-induced chloroplast avoidance movements. In conclusion, we identified that PP2A-2 regulated the activation of ADF/cofilin, which, in turn, regulated actin cytoskeleton remodeling and was involved in phot2-mediated chloroplast avoidance movements.

  6. Actin-Interacting Protein 1 Contributes to Intranuclear Rod Assembly in Dictyostelium discoideum

    PubMed Central

    Ishikawa-Ankerhold, Hellen C.; Daszkiewicz, Wioleta; Schleicher, Michael; Müller-Taubenberger, Annette

    2017-01-01

    Intranuclear rods are aggregates consisting of actin and cofilin that are formed in the nucleus in consequence of chemical or mechanical stress conditions. The formation of rods is implicated in a variety of pathological conditions, such as certain myopathies and some neurological disorders. It is still not well understood what exactly triggers the formation of intranuclear rods, whether other proteins are involved, and what the underlying mechanisms of rod assembly or disassembly are. In this study, Dictyostelium discoideum was used to examine appearance, stages of assembly, composition, stability, and dismantling of rods. Our data show that intranuclear rods, in addition to actin and cofilin, are composed of a distinct set of other proteins comprising actin-interacting protein 1 (Aip1), coronin (CorA), filactin (Fia), and the 34 kDa actin-bundling protein B (AbpB). A finely tuned spatio-temporal pattern of protein recruitment was found during formation of rods. Aip1 is important for the final state of rod compaction indicating that Aip1 plays a major role in shaping the intranuclear rods. In the absence of both Aip1 and CorA, rods are not formed in the nucleus, suggesting that a sufficient supply of monomeric actin is a prerequisite for rod formation. PMID:28074884

  7. Single Molecule Science for Personalized Nanomedicine: Atomic Force Microscopy of Biopolymer-Protein Interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsueh, Carlin

    Nanotechnology has a unique and relatively untapped utility in the fields of medicine and dentistry at the level of single-biopolymer and -molecule diagnostics. In recent years atomic force microscopy (AFM) has garnered much interest due to its ability to obtain atomic-resolution of molecular structures and probe biophysical behaviors of biopolymers and proteins in a variety of biologically significant environments. The work presented in this thesis focuses on the nanoscale manipulation and observation of biopolymers to develop an innovative technology for personalized medicine while understanding complex biological systems. These studies described here primarily use AFM to observe biopolymer interactions with proteins and its surroundings with unprecedented resolution, providing a better understanding of these systems and interactions at the nanoscale. Transcriptional profiling, the measure of messenger RNA (mRNA) abundance in a single cell, is a powerful technique that detects "behavior" or "symptoms" at the tissue and cellular level. We have sought to develop an alternative approach, using our expertise in AFM and single molecule nanotechnology, to achieve a cost-effective high throughput method for sensitive detection and profiling of subtle changes in transcript abundance. The technique does not require amplification of the mRNA sample because the AFM provides three-dimensional views of molecules with unprecedented resolution, requires minimal sample preparation, and utilizes a simple tagging chemistry on cDNA molecules. AFM images showed collagen polymers in teeth and of Drebrin-A remodeling of filamentous actin structure and mechanics. AFM was used to image collagen on exposed dentine tubules and confirmed tubule occlusion with a desensitizing prophylaxis paste by Colgate-Palmolive. The AFM also superseded other microscopy tools in resolving F-actin helix remodeling and possible cooperative binding by a neuronal actin binding protein---Drebrin-A, an

  8. Structural Basis for a Ribofuranosyl Binding Protein: Insights into the Furanose Specific Transport

    SciTech Connect

    A Bagaria; D Kumaran; S Burley; S Swaminathan

    2011-12-31

    The APT-binding cassette transporters (ABC-transporters) are members of one of the largest protein superfamilies, with representatives in all extant phyla. These integral membrane proteins utilize the energy of ATP hydrolysis to carry out certain biological processes, including translocation of various substrates across membranes and nontransport related processes such as translation of RNA and DNA repair. typically, such transport systems in bacteria consist of an ATP binding component, a transmembrane permease, and a periplasmic receptor or binding protein. Soluble proteins found in the periplasm of gram-negative bacteria serve as the primary receptors for transport of many compounds, such as sugars, small peptides, and some ions. Ligand binding activates these periplasmic components, permitting recognition by the membrane spanning domain, which supports for transport, and, in some cases, chemotaxis. Transport and chemotaxis processes appear to be independent of one another, and a few mutants of bifunctional periplasmic components reveal the absence of one or the other function. Previously published high-resolution X-ray structures of various periplasmic ligand binding proteins include Arabinose binding protein (ABP), Allose binding protein (ALBP), Glucose-galactose binding protein (GBP), and Ribose binding protein (RBP). Each of these proteins consits of two structurally similar domains connected by a three-stranded hinge region, with ligand buried between the domains. Upon ligand binding and release, various conformational changes have been observed. For RBP, open (apo) and closed (ligand bound) conformations hafve been reported and so for MBP. The closed/active form of the protein interacts with the ingral membrane component of the system in both transport and chemotaxis. Herein, they report 1.9 {angstrom} resolution X-ray structure of the R{sub f}BP periplasmic component of an ABC-type sugar transport system from Hahella chejuensis (UniProt Id Q2S7D2) bound

  9. Structural Basis for a Ribofuranosyl Binding Protein: Insights into the Furanose Specific Transport

    SciTech Connect

    Bagaria, A.; Swaminathan, S.; Kumaran, D.; Burley, S. K.

    2011-04-01

    The ATP-binding cassette transporters (ABC-transporters) are members of one of the largest protein superfamilies, with representatives in all extant phyla. These integral membrane proteins utilize the energy of ATP hydrolysis to carry out certain biological processes, including translocation of various substrates across membranes and non-transport related processes such as translation of RNA and DNA repair. Typically, such transport systems in bacteria consist of an ATP binding component, a transmembrane permease, and a periplasmic receptor or binding protein. Soluble proteins found in the periplasm of gram-negative bacteria serve as the primary receptors for transport of many compounds, such as sugars, small peptides, and some ions. Ligand binding activates these periplasmic components, permitting recognition by the membrane spanning domain, which supports for transport and, in some cases, chemotaxis. Transport and chemotaxis processes appear to be independent of one another, and a few mutants of bifunctional periplasmic components reveal the absence of one or the other function. Previously published high-resolution X-ray structures of various periplasmic ligand binding proteins include Arabinose binding protein (ABP), Allose binding protein (ALBP), Glucose-galactose binding protein (GBP) and Ribose binding protein (RBP). Each of these proteins consists of two structurally similar domains connected by a three-stranded hinge region, with ligand buried between the domains. Upon ligand binding and release, various conformational changes have been observed. For RBP, open (apo) and closed (ligand bound) conformations have been reported and so for MBP. The closed/active form of the protein interacts with the integral membrane component of the system in both transport and chemotaxis. Herein, we report 1.9{angstrom} resolution X-ray structure of the R{sub f}BP periplasmic component of an ABC-type sugar transport system from Hahella chejuensis (UniProt Id Q2S7D2) bound to

  10. A J-modulated protonless NMR experiment characterizes the conformational ensemble of the intrinsically disordered protein WIP.

    PubMed

    Rozentur-Shkop, Eva; Goobes, Gil; Chill, Jordan H

    2016-12-01

    Intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs) are multi-conformational polypeptides that lack a single stable three-dimensional structure. It has become increasingly clear that the versatile IDPs play key roles in a multitude of biological processes, and, given their flexible nature, NMR is a leading method to investigate IDP behavior on the molecular level. Here we present an IDP-tailored J-modulated experiment designed to monitor changes in the conformational ensemble characteristic of IDPs by accurately measuring backbone one- and two-bond J((15)N,(13)Cα) couplings. This concept was realized using a unidirectional (H)NCO (13)C-detected experiment suitable for poor spectral dispersion and optimized for maximum coverage of amino acid types. To demonstrate the utility of this approach we applied it to the disordered actin-binding N-terminal domain of WASp interacting protein (WIP), a ubiquitous key modulator of cytoskeletal changes in a range of biological systems. One- and two-bond J((15)N,(13)Cα) couplings were acquired for WIP residues 2-65 at various temperatures, and in denaturing and crowding environments. Under native conditions fitted J-couplings identified in the WIP conformational ensemble a propensity for extended conformation at residues 16-23 and 45-60, and a helical tendency at residues 28-42. These findings are consistent with a previous study of the based upon chemical shift and RDC data and confirm that the WIP(2-65) conformational ensemble is biased towards the structure assumed by this fragment in its actin-bound form. The effects of environmental changes upon this ensemble were readily apparent in the J-coupling data, which reflected a significant decrease in structural propensity at higher temperatures, in the presence of 8 M urea, and under the influence of a bacterial cell lysate. The latter suggests that crowding can cause protein unfolding through protein-protein interactions that stabilize the unfolded state. We conclude that J-couplings are

  11. Synthetic lethality screen identifies a novel yeast myosin I gene (MYO5): myosin I proteins are required for polarization of the actin cytoskeleton

    PubMed Central

    1996-01-01

    The organization of the actin cytoskeleton plays a critical role in cell physiology in motile and nonmotile organisms. Nonetheless, the function of the actin based motor molecules, members of the myosin superfamily, is not well understood. Deletion of MYO3, a yeast gene encoding a "classic" myosin I, has no detectable phenotype. We used a synthetic lethality screen to uncover genes whose functions might overlap with those of MYO3 and identified a second yeast myosin 1 gene, MYO5. MYO5 shows 86 and 62% identity to MYO3 across the motor and non- motor regions. Both genes contain an amino terminal motor domain, a neck region containing two IQ motifs, and a tail domain consisting of a positively charged region, a proline-rich region containing sequences implicated in ATP-insensitive actin binding, and an SH3 domain. Although myo5 deletion mutants have no detectable phenotype, yeast strains deleted for both MYO3 and MYO5 have severe defects in growth and actin cytoskeletal organization. Double deletion mutants also display phenotypes associated with actin disorganization including accumulation of intracellular membranes and vesicles, cell rounding, random bud site selection, sensitivity to high osmotic strength, and low pH as well as defects in chitin and cell wall deposition, invertase secretion, and fluid phase endocytosis. Indirect immunofluorescence studies using epitope-tagged Myo5p indicate that Myo5p is localized at actin patches. These results indicate that MYO3 and MYO5 encode classical myosin I proteins with overlapping functions and suggest a role for Myo3p and Myo5p in organization of the actin cytoskeleton of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. PMID:8682864

  12. Phosphorylation of ezrin on Thr567 is required for the synergistic activation of cell spreading by EPAC1 and protein kinase A in HEK293T cells

    PubMed Central

    Parnell, Euan; Koschinski, Andreas; Zaccolo, Manuela; Cameron, Ryan T.; Baillie, George S.; Baillie, Gemma L.; Porter, Alison; McElroy, Stuart P.; Yarwood, Stephen J.

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated that the actin binding protein, ezrin, and the cAMP-sensor, EPAC1, cooperate to induce cell spreading in response to elevations in intracellular cAMP. To investigate the mechanisms underlying these effects we generated a model of EPAC1-dependent cell spreading based on the stable transfection of EPAC1 into HEK293T (HEK293T–EPAC1) cells. We found that direct activation of EPAC1 with the EPAC-selective analogue, 8-pCPT-2′-O-Me-cAMP (007), promoted cell spreading in these cells. In addition, co-activation of EPAC1 and PKA, with a combination of the adenylate cyclase activator, forskolin, and the cAMP phosphodiesterase inhibitor, rolipram, was found to synergistically enhance cell spreading, in association with cortical actin bundling and mobilisation of ezrin to the plasma membrane. PKA activation was also associated with phosphorylation of ezrin on Thr567, as detected by an electrophoretic band mobility shift during SDS-PAGE. Inhibition of PKA activity blocked ezrin phosphorylation and reduced the cell spreading response to cAMP elevation to levels induced by EPAC1-activation alone. Transfection of HEK293T–EPAC1 cells with inhibitory ezrin mutants lacking the key PKA phosphorylation site, ezrin-Thr567Ala, or the ability to associate with actin, ezrin-Arg579Ala, promoted cell arborisation and blocked the ability of EPAC1 and PKA to further promote cell spreading. The PKA phospho-mimetic mutants of ezrin, ezrin-Thr567Asp had no effect on EPAC1-driven cell spreading. Our results indicate that association of ezrin with the actin cytoskeleton and phosphorylation on Thr567 are required, but not sufficient, for PKA and EPAC1 to synergistically promote cell spreading following elevations in intracellular cAMP. PMID:25913012

  13. The Cyclase-associated protein Cap1 is important for proper regulation of infection-related morphogenesis in Magnaporthe oryzae.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xiaoying; Zhang, Haifeng; Li, Guotian; Shaw, Brian; Xu, Jin-Rong

    2012-09-01

    Surface recognition and penetration are critical steps in the infection cycle of many plant pathogenic fungi. In Magnaporthe oryzae, cAMP signaling is involved in surface recognition and pathogenesis. Deletion of the MAC1 adenylate cyclase gene affected appressorium formation and plant infection. In this study, we used the affinity purification approach to identify proteins that are associated with Mac1 in vivo. One of the Mac1-interacting proteins is the adenylate cyclase-associated protein named Cap1. CAP genes are well-conserved in phytopathogenic fungi but none of them have been functionally characterized. Deletion of CAP1 blocked the effects of a dominant RAS2 allele and resulted in defects in invasive growth and a reduced intracellular cAMP level. The Δcap1 mutant was defective in germ tube growth, appressorium formation, and formation of typical blast lesions. Cap1-GFP had an actin-like localization pattern, localizing to the apical regions in vegetative hyphae, at the periphery of developing appressoria, and in circular structures at the base of mature appressoria. Interestingly, Cap1, similar to LifeAct, did not localize to the apical regions in invasive hyphae, suggesting that the apical actin cytoskeleton differs between vegetative and invasive hyphae. Domain deletion analysis indicated that the proline-rich region P2 but not the actin-binding domain (AB) of Cap1 was responsible for its subcellular localization. Nevertheless, the AB domain of Cap1 must be important for its function because CAP1(ΔAB) only partially rescued the Δcap1 mutant. Furthermore, exogenous cAMP induced the formation of appressorium-like structures in non-germinated conidia in CAP1(ΔAB) transformants. This novel observation suggested that AB domain deletion may result in overstimulation of appressorium formation by cAMP treatment. Overall, our results indicated that CAP1 is important for the activation of adenylate cyclase, appressorium morphogenesis, and plant infection in M

  14. The association of myosin IB with actin waves in dictyostelium requires both the plasma membrane-binding site and actin-binding region in the myosin tail.

    PubMed

    Brzeska, Hanna; Pridham, Kevin; Chery, Godefroy; Titus, Margaret A; Korn, Edward D

    2014-01-01

    F-actin structures and their distribution are important determinants of the dynamic shapes and functions of eukaryotic cells. Actin waves are F-actin formations that move along the ventral cell membrane driven by actin polymerization. Dictyostelium myosin IB is associated with actin waves but its role in the wave is unknown. Myosin IB is a monomeric, non-filamentous myosin with a globular head that binds to F-actin and has motor activity, and a non-helical tail comprising a basic region, a glycine-proline-glutamine-rich region and an SH3-domain. The basic region binds to acidic phospholipids in the plasma membrane through a short basic-hydrophobic site and the Gly-Pro-Gln region binds F-actin. In the current work we found that both the basic-hydrophobic site in the basic region and the Gly-Pro-Gln region of the tail are required for the association of myosin IB with actin waves. This is the first evidence that the Gly-Pro-Gln region is required for localization of myosin IB to a specific actin structure in situ. The head is not required for myosin IB association with actin waves but binding of the head to F-actin strengthens the association of myosin IB with waves and stabilizes waves. Neither the SH3-domain nor motor activity is required for association of myosin IB with actin waves. We conclude that myosin IB contributes to anchoring actin waves to the plasma membranes by binding of the basic-hydrophobic site to acidic phospholipids in the plasma membrane and binding of the Gly-Pro-Gln region to F-actin in the wave.

  15. The Association of Myosin IB with Actin Waves in Dictyostelium Requires Both the Plasma Membrane-Binding Site and Actin-Binding Region in the Myosin Tail

    PubMed Central

    Brzeska, Hanna; Pridham, Kevin; Chery, Godefroy; Titus, Margaret A.; Korn, Edward D.

    2014-01-01

    F-actin structures and their distribution are important determinants of the dynamic shapes and functions of eukaryotic cells. Actin waves are F-actin formations that move along the ventral cell membrane driven by actin polymerization. Dictyostelium myosin IB is associated with actin waves but its role in the wave is unknown. Myosin IB is a monomeric, non-filamentous myosin with a globular head that binds to F-actin and has motor activity, and a non-helical tail comprising a basic region, a glycine-proline-glutamine-rich region and an SH3-domain. The basic region binds to acidic phospholipids in the plasma membrane through a short basic-hydrophobic site and the Gly-Pro-Gln region binds F-actin. In the current work we found that both the basic-hydrophobic site in the basic region and the Gly-Pro-Gln region of the tail are required for the association of myosin IB with actin waves. This is the first evidence that the Gly-Pro-Gln region is required for localization of myosin IB to a specific actin structure in situ. The head is not required for myosin IB association with actin waves but binding of the head to F-actin strengthens the association of myosin IB with waves and stabilizes waves. Neither the SH3-domain nor motor activity is required for association of myosin IB with actin waves. We conclude that myosin IB contributes to anchoring actin waves to the plasma membranes by binding of the basic-hydrophobic site to acidic phospholipids in the plasma membrane and binding of the Gly-Pro-Gln region to F-actin in the wave. PMID:24747353

  16. Protein Condensation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gunton, James D.; Shiryayev, Andrey; Pagan, Daniel L.

    2007-09-01

    Preface; 1. Introduction; 2. Globular protein structure; 3. Experimental methods; 4. Thermodynamics and statistical mechanics; 5. Protein-protein interactions; 6. Theoretical studies of equilibrium; 7. Nucleation theory; 8. Experimental studies of nucleation; 9. Lysozyme; 10. Some other globular proteins; 11. Membrane proteins; 12. Crystallins and cataracts; 13. Sickle hemoglobin and sickle cell anemia; 14, Alzheimer's disease; Index.

  17. Protein Condensation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gunton, James D.; Shiryayev, Andrey; Pagan, Daniel L.

    2014-07-01

    Preface; 1. Introduction; 2. Globular protein structure; 3. Experimental methods; 4. Thermodynamics and statistical mechanics; 5. Protein-protein interactions; 6. Theoretical studies of equilibrium; 7. Nucleation theory; 8. Experimental studies of nucleation; 9. Lysozyme; 10. Some other globular proteins; 11. Membrane proteins; 12. Crystallins and cataracts; 13. Sickle hemoglobin and sickle cell anemia; 14, Alzheimer's disease; Index.

  18. Red light-regulated growth. I. Changes in the abundance of indoleacetic acid and a 22-kilodalton auxin-binding protein in the maize mesocotyl.

    PubMed

    Jones, A M; Cochran, D S; Lamerson, P M; Evans, M L; Cohen, J D

    1991-01-01

    We examined the changes in the levels of indoleacetic acid (IAA), IAA esters, and a 22-kilodalton subunit auxin-binding protein (ABP1) in apical mesocotyl tissue of maize (Zea mays L.) during continuous red light (R) irradiation. These changes were compared with the kinetics of R-induced growth inhibition in the same tissue. Upon the onset of continuous irradiation, growth decreased in a continuous manner following a brief lag period. The decrease in growth continued for 5 hours, then remained constant at 25% of the dark rate. The abundance of ABP1 and the level of free IAA both decreased in the mesocotyl. Only the kinetics of the decrease in IAA within the apical mesocotyl correlated with the initial change in growth, although growth continued to decrease even after IAA content reached its final level, 50% of the dark control. This decrease in IAA within the mesocotyl probably occurs primarily by a change in its transport within the shoot since auxin applied as a pulse move basipetally in R-irradiated tissue at the same rate but with half the area as dark control tissue. In situ localization of auxin in etiolated maize shoots revealed that R-irradiated shoots contained less auxin in the epidermis than the dark controls. Irradiated mesocotyl grew 50% less than the dark controls even when incubated in an optimal level of auxin. However, irradiated and dark tissue contained essentially the same amount of radioactivity after incubation in [14C]IAA indicating that the light treatment does not affect the uptake into the tissue through the cut end, although it is possible that a small subset of cells within the mesocotyl is affected. These observations support the hypothesis that R causes a decrease in the level of auxin in epidermal cells of the mesocotyl, consequently constraining the growth of the entire mesocotyl.

  19. Red light-regulated growth. I. Changes in the abundance of indoleacetic acid and a 22-kilodalton auxin-binding protein in the maize mesocotyl

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, A. M.; Cochran, D. S.; Lamerson, P. M.; Evans, M. L.; Cohen, J. D.

    1991-01-01

    We examined the changes in the levels of indoleacetic acid (IAA), IAA esters, and a 22-kilodalton subunit auxin-binding protein (ABP1) in apical mesocotyl tissue of maize (Zea mays L.) during continuous red light (R) irradiation. These changes were compared with the kinetics of R-induced growth inhibition in the same tissue. Upon the onset of continuous irradiation, growth decreased in a continuous manner following a brief lag period. The decrease in growth continued for 5 hours, then remained constant at 25% of the dark rate. The abundance of ABP1 and the level of free IAA both decreased in the mesocotyl. Only the kinetics of the decrease in IAA within the apical mesocotyl correlated with the initial change in growth, although growth continued to decrease even after IAA content reached its final level, 50% of the dark control. This decrease in IAA within the mesocotyl probably occurs primarily by a change in its transport within the shoot since auxin applied as a pulse move basipetally in R-irradiated tissue at the same rate but with half the area as dark control tissue. In situ localization of auxin in etiolated maize shoots revealed that R-irradiated shoots contained less auxin in the epidermis than the dark controls. Irradiated mesocotyl grew 50% less than the dark controls even when incubated in an optimal level of auxin. However, irradiated and dark tissue contained essentially the same amount of radioactivity after incubation in [14C]IAA indicating that the light treatment does not affect the uptake into the tissue through the cut end, although it is possible that a small subset of cells within the mesocotyl is affected. These observations support the hypothesis that R causes a decrease in the level of auxin in epidermal cells of the mesocotyl, consequently constraining the growth of the entire mesocotyl.

  20. HS1 deficiency impairs neutrophil recruitment in vivo and activation of the small GTPases Rac1 and Rap1.

    PubMed

    Latasiewicz, Joanna; Artz, Annette; Jing, Ding; Blanco, Mariana Pacheco; Currie, Silke M; Avila, Martha Velázquez; Schnoor, Michael; Vestweber, Dietmar

    2017-01-25

    Neutrophil extravasation is a critical step of the innate immune system's response to inflammation. This multistep process is tightly regulated by adhesion and signaling molecules in the endothelium and neutrophils. Activation of the β2 integrin LFA-1 is critical for adhesion of leukocytes to postcapillary venules. This step requires coordinated activation of signaling pathways in chemokine-stimulated neutrophils, including GTPase activation and cytoskeletal remodeling, leading to conformational changes in LFA-1. Hematopoietic cell-specific lyn substrate 1 (HS1) is a cortactin-related and leukocyte-specific actin-binding protein (ABP) that regulates several processes in various immune cells. It has been shown in vitro that HS1 is important for neutrophil chemotaxis and transendothelial migration of NK cells, but its role in neutrophil extravasation in vivo has not been investigated yet. Intravital microscopy of CXCL1-stimulated cremaster venules revealed an increased rolling velocity and reduced neutrophil adhesion and transmigration in HS1 knockout (KO) mice. CXCL1-induced rapid neutrophil arrest in vivo and adhesion under flow conditions in vitro were also reduced significantly. Whereas random motility of neutrophils was unaffected, chemotaxis toward a CXCL1 gradient was reduced in the absence of HS1. Further analysis of the underlying mechanisms demonstrated that HS1 controls CXCL1-induced activation of the small GTPases Ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 1 (Rac1) and Ras-related protein 1 (Rap1), thus supporting LFA-1-mediated neutrophil adhesion. Importantly, with the use of Rac1 KO neutrophils, we could show that Rac1 acts upstream of Rap1. Our results establish HS1 as an important regulator of proper Rac1 and Rap1 activation and neutrophil extravasation.

  1. Convergent domestication of pogo-like transposases into centromere-binding proteins in fission yeast and mammals

    PubMed Central

    Casola, Claudio; Hucks, Donald; Feschotte, Cédric

    2007-01-01

    The mammalian centromeric protein CENP-B shares significant sequence similarity with three proteins in fission yeast (Abp1, Cbh1 and Cbh2) that also bind centromeres and have essential function for chromosome segregation and centromeric heterochromatin formation. Each of these proteins displays extensive sequence similarity with pogo-like transposases, which have been previously identified in the genomes of various insects and vertebrates, in the protozoan Entamoeba and in plants. Based on this distribution, it has been proposed that the mammalian and fission yeast centromeric proteins are derived from ‘domesticated’ pogo-like transposons. Here we took advantage of the vast amount of sequence information that has become recently available for a wide range of fungal and animal species to investigate the origin of the mammalian CENP-B and yeast CENP-B-like genes. A highly conserved ortholog of CENP-B was detected in 31 species of mammals, including opossum and platypus, but was absent from all non-mammalian species represented in the databases. Similarly, no ortholog of the fission yeast centromeric proteins was identified in any of the various fungal genomes currently available. In contrast, we discovered a plethora of novel pogo-like transposons in diverse invertebrates and vertebrates and in several filamentous fungi. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the mammalian and fission yeast CENP-B proteins fall into two distinct monophyletic clades, each of which includes a different set of pogo-like transposons. These results are most parsimoniously explained by independent domestication events of pogo-like transposases into centromeric proteins in the mammalian and fission yeast lineages, a case of ‘convergent domestication’. These findings highlight the propensity of transposases to give rise to new host proteins and the potential of transposons as sources of genetic innovation. PMID:17940212

  2. NDR proteins

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Alan M

    2010-01-01

    N-myc downregulated (NDR) genes were discovered more than fifteen years ago. Indirect evidence support a role in tumor progression and cellular differentiation, but their biochemical function is still unknown. Our detailed analyses on Arabidopsis NDR proteins (deisgnated NDR-like, NDL) show their involvement in altering auxin transport, local auxin gradients and expression level of auxin transport proteins. Animal NDL proteins may be involved in membrane recycling of E-cadherin and effector for the small GTPase. In light of these findings, we hypothesize that NDL proteins regulate vesicular trafficking of auxin transport facilitator PIN proteins by biochemically alterating the local lipid environment of PIN proteins. PMID:20724844

  3. Proteins (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... is an important nutrient that builds muscles and bones and provides energy. Protein can help with weight control because it helps you feel full and satisfied from your meals. The healthiest proteins are the leanest. This means ...

  4. Passive and active microrheology for cross-linked F-actin networks in vitro.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyungsuk; Ferrer, Jorge M; Nakamura, Fumihiko; Lang, Matthew J; Kamm, Roger D

    2010-04-01

    Actin filament (F-actin) is one of the dominant structural constituents in the cytoskeleton. Orchestrated by various actin-binding proteins (ABPs), F-actin is assembled into higher-order structures such as bundles and networks that provide mechanical support for the cell and play important roles in numerous cellular processes. Although mechanical properties of F-actin networks have been extensively studied, the underlying mechanisms for network elasticity are not fully understood, in part because different measurements probe different length and force scales. Here, we developed both passive and active microrheology techniques using optical tweezers to estimate the mechanical properties of F-actin networks at a length scale comparable to cells. For the passive approach we tracked the motion of a thermally fluctuating colloidal sphere to estimate the frequency-dependent complex shear modulus of the network. In the active approach, we used an optical trap to oscillate an embedded microsphere and monitored the response in order to obtain network viscoelasticity over a physiologically relevant force range. While both active and passive measurements exhibit similar results at low strain, the F-actin network subject to high strain exhibits non-linear behavior which is analogous to the strain-hardening observed in macroscale measurements. Using confocal and total internal reflection fluorescent microscopy, we also characterize the microstructure of reconstituted F-actin networks in terms of filament length, mesh size and degree of bundling. Finally, we propose a model of network connectivity by investigating the effect of filament length on the mechanical properties and structure.

  5. Protein Structure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asmus, Elaine Garbarino

    2007-01-01

    Individual students model specific amino acids and then, through dehydration synthesis, a class of students models a protein. The students clearly learn amino acid structure, primary, secondary, tertiary, and quaternary structure in proteins and the nature of the bonds maintaining a protein's shape. This activity is fun, concrete, inexpensive and…

  6. Therapeutic proteins.

    PubMed

    Dimitrov, Dimiter S

    2012-01-01

    Protein-based therapeutics are highly successful in clinic and currently enjoy unprecedented recognition of their potential. More than 100 genuine and similar number of modified therapeutic proteins are approved for clinical use in the European Union and the USA with 2010 sales of US$108 bln; monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) accounted for almost half (48%) of the sales. Based on their pharmacological activity, they can be divided into five groups: (a) replacing a protein that is deficient or abnormal; (b) augmenting an existing pathway; (c) providing a novel function or activity; (d) interfering with a molecule or organism; and (e) delivering other compounds or proteins, such as a radionuclide, cytotoxic drug, or effector proteins. Therapeutic proteins can also be grouped based on their molecular types that include antibody-based drugs, Fc fusion proteins, anticoagulants, blood factors, bone morphogenetic proteins, engineered protein scaffolds, enzymes, growth factors, hormones, interferons, interleukins, and thrombolytics. They can also be classified based on their molecular mechanism of activity as (a) binding non-covalently to target, e.g., mAbs; (b) affecting covalent bonds, e.g., enzymes; and (c) exerting activity without specific interactions, e.g., serum albumin. Most protein therapeutics currently on the market are recombinant and hundreds of them are in clinical trials for therapy of cancers, immune disorders, infections, and other diseases. New engineered proteins, including bispecific mAbs and multispecific fusion proteins, mAbs conjugated with small molecule drugs, and proteins with optimized pharmacokinetics, are currently under development. However, in the last several decades, there are no conceptually new methodological developments comparable, e.g., to genetic engineering leading to the development of recombinant therapeutic proteins. It appears that a paradigm change in methodologies and understanding of mechanisms is needed to overcome major

  7. Three-dimensional solution structure of Acanthamoeba profilin-I

    PubMed Central

    1993-01-01

    We have determined a medium resolution three-dimensional solution structure of Acanthamoeba profilin-I by multidimensional nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. This 13-kD actin binding protein consists of a five stranded antiparallel beta sheet flanked by NH2- and COOH-terminal helices on one face and by a third helix and a two stranded beta sheet on the other face. Data from actin-profilin cross- linking experiments and the localization of conserved residues between profilins in different phyla indicate that actin binding occurs on the molecular face occupied by the terminal helices. The other face of the molecule contains the residues that differ between Acanthamoeba profilins-I and II and may be important in determining the difference in polyphosphoinositide binding between these isoforms. This suggests that lipids and actin bind to different faces of the molecule. PMID:8397216

  8. Whey Protein

    MedlinePlus

    ... inflammation (polymyalgia rheumatica). Taking whey protein in a dairy product twice daily for 8 weeks does not improve muscle function, walking speed, or other movement tests in people with polymyalgia rheumatica. Other conditions. More evidence is needed to rate whey protein for these uses.

  9. Total protein

    MedlinePlus

    ... 2016:chap 215. Read More Agammaglobulinemia Albumin - blood (serum) test Amino acids Antibody Burns Chronic Congenital nephrotic syndrome Fibrinogen blood test Glomerulonephritis Hemoglobin Liver disease Malabsorption Multiple myeloma Polycythemia vera Protein in diet ...

  10. How to build a molecular shock absorber.

    PubMed

    McGough, A

    1999-12-02

    Newly determined structures of the alpha-helical repeats that make up the key 'rod' domains of spectrin and alpha-actinin - which serve as spacers between their actin-binding domains - have provided important insights into how these proteins function as molecular shock absorbers in cells.

  11. Molecular and cellular characterization of the tomato pollen profilin, LePro1

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Profilin is an actin-binding protein involved in the dynamic turnover and restructuring of the actin cytoskeleton in all eukaryotic cells. We previously cloned a profilin gene, designated as LePro1 from tomato pollen. To investigate its biological role, in the present study, We investigated the tem...

  12. Protein Crystallizability.

    PubMed

    Smialowski, Pawel; Wong, Philip

    2016-01-01

    Obtaining diffracting quality crystals remains a major challenge in protein structure research. We summarize and compare methods for selecting the best protein targets for crystallization, construct optimization and crystallization condition design. Target selection methods are divided into algorithms predicting the chance of successful progression through all stages of structural determination (from cloning to solving the structure) and those focusing only on the crystallization step. We tried to highlight pros and cons of different approaches examining the following aspects: data size, redundancy and representativeness, overfitting during model construction, and results evaluation. In summary, although in recent years progress was made and several sequence properties were reported to be relevant for crystallization, the successful prediction of protein crystallization behavior and selection of corresponding crystallization conditions continue to challenge structural researchers.

  13. Protein Crystallization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chernov, Alexander A.

    2005-01-01

    Nucleation, growth and perfection of protein crystals will be overviewed along with crystal mechanical properties. The knowledge is based on experiments using optical and force crystals behave similar to inorganic crystals, though with a difference in orders of magnitude in growing parameters. For example, the low incorporation rate of large biomolecules requires up to 100 times larger supersaturation to grow protein, rather than inorganic crystals. Nucleation is often poorly reproducible, partly because of turbulence accompanying the mixing of precipitant with protein solution. Light scattering reveals fluctuations of molecular cluster size, its growth, surface energies and increased clustering as protein ages. Growth most often occurs layer-by-layer resulting in faceted crystals. New molecular layer on crystal face is terminated by a step where molecular incorporation occurs. Quantitative data on the incorporation rate will be discussed. Rounded crystals with molecularly disordered interfaces will be explained. Defects in crystals compromise the x-ray diffraction resolution crucially needed to find the 3D atomic structure of biomolecules. The defects are immobile so that birth defects stay forever. All lattice defects known for inorganics are revealed in protein crystals. Contribution of molecular conformations to lattice disorder is important, but not studied. This contribution may be enhanced by stress field from other defects. Homologous impurities (e.g., dimers, acetylated molecules) are trapped more willingly by a growing crystal than foreign protein impurities. The trapped impurities induce internal stress eliminated in crystals exceeding a critical size (part of mni for ferritin, lysozyme). Lesser impurities are trapped from stagnant, as compared to the flowing, solution. Freezing may induce much more defects unless quickly amorphysizing intracrystalline water.

  14. Lithium increases synaptic GluA2 in hippocampal neurons by elevating the δ-catenin protein.

    PubMed

    Farooq, Mobeen; Kim, Seonil; Patel, Sunny; Khatri, Latika; Hikima, Takuya; Rice, Margaret E; Ziff, Edward B

    2017-02-01

    Lithium (Li(+)) is a drug widely employed for treating bipolar disorder, however the mechanism of action is not known. Here we study the effects of Li(+) in cultured hippocampal neurons on a synaptic complex consisting of δ-catenin, a protein associated with cadherins whose mutation is linked to autism, and GRIP, an AMPA receptor (AMPAR) scaffolding protein, and the AMPAR subunit, GluA2. We show that Li(+) elevates the level of δ-catenin in cultured neurons. δ-catenin binds to the ABP and GRIP proteins, which are synaptic scaffolds for GluA2. We show that Li(+) increases the levels of GRIP and GluA2, consistent with Li(+)-induced elevation of δ-catenin. Using GluA2 mutants, we show that the increase in surface level of GluA2 requires GluA2 interaction with GRIP. The amplitude but not the frequency of mEPSCs was also increased by Li(+) in cultured hippocampal neurons, confirming a functional effect and consistent with AMPAR stabilization at synapses. Furthermore, animals fed with Li(+) show elevated synaptic levels of δ-catenin, GRIP, and GluA2 in the hippocampus, also consistent with the findings in cultured neurons. This work supports a model in which Li(+) stabilizes δ-catenin, thus elevating a complex consisting of δ-catenin, GRIP and AMPARs in synapses of hippocampal neurons. Thus, the work suggests a mechanism by which Li(+) can alter brain synaptic function that may be relevant to its pharmacologic action in treatment of neurological disease.

  15. In vivo analysis of the domains of yeast Rvs167p suggests Rvs167p function is mediated through multiple protein interactions.

    PubMed Central

    Colwill, K; Field, D; Moore, L; Friesen, J; Andrews, B

    1999-01-01

    Morphological changes during cell division in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae are controlled by cell-cycle regulators. The Pcl-Pho85p kinase complex has been implicated in the regulation of the actin cytoskeleton at least in part through Rvs167p. Rvs167p consists of three domains called BAR, GPA, and SH3. Using a two-hybrid assay, we demonstrated that each region of Rvs167p participates in protein-protein interactions: the BAR domain bound the BAR domain of another Rvs167p protein and that of Rvs161p, the GPA region bound Pcl2p, and the SH3 domain bound Abp1p. We identified Rvs167p as a Las17p/Bee1p-interacting protein in a two-hybrid screen and showed that Las17p/Bee1p bound the SH3 domain of Rvs167p. We tested the extent to which the Rvs167p protein domains rescued phenotypes associated with deletion of RVS167: salt sensitivity, random budding, and endocytosis and sporulation defects. The BAR domain was sufficient for full or partial rescue of all rvs167 mutant phenotypes tested but not required for the sporulation defect for which the SH3 domain was also sufficient. Overexpression of Rvs167p inhibits cell growth. The BAR domain was essential for this inhibition and the SH3 domain had only a minor effect. Rvs167p may link the cell cycle regulator Pcl-Pho85p kinase and the actin cytoskeleton. We propose that Rvs167p is activated by phosphorylation in its GPA region by the Pcl-Pho85p kinase. Upon activation, Rvs167p enters a multiprotein complex, making critical contacts in its BAR domain and redundant or minor contacts with its SH3 domain. PMID:10388809

  16. Probing the flexibility of tropomyosin and its binding to filamentous actin using molecular dynamics simulations.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Wenjun; Barua, Bipasha; Hitchcock-DeGregori, Sarah E

    2013-10-15

    Tropomyosin (Tm) is a coiled-coil protein that binds to filamentous actin (F-actin) and regulates its interactions with actin-binding proteins like myosin by moving between three positions on F-actin (the blocked, closed, and open positions). To elucidate the molecular details of Tm flexibility in relation to its binding to F-actin, we conducted extensive molecular dynamics simulations for both Tm alone and Tm-F-actin complex in the presence of explicit solvent (total simulation time >400 ns). Based on the simulations, we systematically analyzed the local flexibility of the Tm coiled coil using multiple parameters. We found a good correlation between the regions with high local flexibility and a number of destabilizing regions in Tm, including six clusters of core alanines. Despite the stabilization by F-actin binding, the distribution of local flexibility in Tm is largely unchanged in the absence and presence of F-actin. Our simulations showed variable fluctuations of individual Tm periods from the closed position toward the open position. In addition, we performed Tm-F-actin binding calculations based on the simulation trajectories, which support the importance of Tm flexibility to Tm-F-actin binding. We identified key residues of Tm involved in its dynamic interactions with F-actin, many of which have been found in recent mutational studies to be functionally important, and the rest of which will make promising targets for future mutational experiments.

  17. Recombinant protein production technology

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recombinant protein production is an important technology for antibody production, biochemical activity study, and structural determination during the post-genomic era. Limiting factors in recombinant protein production include low-level protein expression, protein precipitation, and loss of protein...

  18. A role for the yeast CLIP170 ortholog, the plus-end-tracking protein Bik1, and the Rho1 GTPase in Snc1 trafficking

    PubMed Central

    Loeillet, Sophie; Kurzawa, Laetitia; Denarier, Eric; Aubry, Laurence

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The diversity of microtubule functions is dependent on the status of tubulin C-termini. To address the physiological role of the C-terminal aromatic residue of α-tubulin, a tub1-Glu yeast strain expressing an α-tubulin devoid of its C-terminal amino acid was used to perform a genome-wide-lethality screen. The identified synthetic lethal genes suggested links with endocytosis and related processes. In the tub1-Glu strain, the routing of the v-SNARE Snc1 was strongly impaired, with a loss of its polarized distribution in the bud, and Abp1, an actin patch or endocytic marker, developed comet-tail structures. Snc1 trafficking required dynamic microtubules but not dynein and kinesin motors. Interestingly, deletion of the microtubule plus-end-tracking protein Bik1 (a CLIP170 ortholog), which is preferentially recruited to the C-terminal residue of α-tubulin, similarly resulted in Snc1 trafficking defects. Finally, constitutively active Rho1 rescued both Bik1 localization at the microtubule plus-ends in tub1-Glu strain and a correct Snc1 trafficking in a Bik1-dependent manner. Our results provide the first evidence for a role of microtubule plus-ends in membrane cargo trafficking in yeast, through Rho1- and Bik1-dependent mechanisms, and highlight the importance of the C-terminal α-tubulin amino acid in this process. PMID:27466378

  19. Protein inference: A protein quantification perspective.

    PubMed

    He, Zengyou; Huang, Ting; Liu, Xiaoqing; Zhu, Peijun; Teng, Ben; Deng, Shengchun

    2016-08-01

    In mass spectrometry-based shotgun proteomics, protein quantification and protein identification are two major computational problems. To quantify the protein abundance, a list of proteins must be firstly inferred from the raw data. Then the relative or absolute protein abundance is estimated with quantification methods, such as spectral counting. Until now, most researchers have been dealing with these two processes separately. In fact, the protein inference problem can be regarded as a special protein quantification problem in the sense that truly present proteins are those proteins whose abundance values are not zero. Some recent published papers have conceptually discussed this possibility. However, there is still a lack of rigorous experimental studies to test this hypothesis. In this paper, we investigate the feasibility of using protein quantification methods to solve the protein inference problem. Protein inference methods aim to determine whether each candidate protein is present in the sample or not. Protein quantification methods estimate the abundance value of each inferred protein. Naturally, the abundance value of an absent protein should be zero. Thus, we argue that the protein inference problem can be viewed as a special protein quantification problem in which one protein is considered to be present if its abundance is not zero. Based on this idea, our paper tries to use three simple protein quantification methods to solve the protein inference problem effectively. The experimental results on six data sets show that these three methods are competitive with previous protein inference algorithms. This demonstrates that it is plausible to model the protein inference problem as a special protein quantification task, which opens the door of devising more effective protein inference algorithms from a quantification perspective. The source codes of our methods are available at: http://code.google.com/p/protein-inference/.

  20. Spectrin-dependent and -independent association of F-actin with the erythrocyte membrane.

    PubMed

    Cohen, C M; Foley, S F

    1980-08-01

    Binding of F-actin to spectrin-actin-depleted erythrocyte membrane inside-out vesicles was measured using [3H]F-actin. F-actin binding to vesicles at 25 degrees C was stimulated 5-10 fold by addition of spectrin dimers or tetramers to vesicles. Spectrin tetramer was twice as effective as dimer in stimulating actin binding, but neither tetramer nor dimer stimulated binding at 4 degrees C. The addition of purified erythrocyte membrane protein band 4.1 to spectrin-reconstituted vesicles doubled their actin-binding capacity. Trypsinization of unreconstituted vesicles that contain < 10% of the spectrin but nearly all of the band 4.1, relative to ghosts, decreased their F-actin-binding capacity by 70%. Whereas little or none of the residual spectrin was affected by trypsinization, band 4.1 was significantly degraded. Our results show that spectrin can anchor actin filaments to the cytoplasmic surface of erythrocyte membranes and suggest that band 4.1 may be importantly involved in the association.

  1. Complex Enzyme-Assisted Extraction, Purification, and Antioxidant Activity of Polysaccharides from the Button Mushroom, Agaricus bisporus (Higher Basidiomycetes).

    PubMed

    Yin, Xiulian; You, Qinghong; Zhou, Xinghai

    2015-01-01

    Agaricus bisporus polysaccharides (ABP) were extracted by complex enzyme-assisted extraction methodology. The following were optimal conditions for the extraction of crude ABP: complex enzyme amount, 2.2%; temperature, 62°C; time, 3 h; and pH, 4. Under these conditions, the experimental yield of crude ABP was 6.87%. The crude ABP was purified by diethylaminoethyl-cellulose 52 chromatography and Sephadex G-100 chromatography, and one fraction-namely, ABP-1-was produced. The ABP-1 contained 93.67% carbohydrate, 1.46% protein, and 0.62% uronic acid. The constituent monosaccharides were predominantly glucose, galactose, mannose, and xylose. The antioxidant activities of ABP-1 were investigated by measuring its scavenging ability on 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl and hydroxyl radicals, its ferric-reducing activity power, and the reducing power assay. At a concentration of 1.2 mg/mL, ABP-1 seemed to possess good free radical scavenging activity, with a scavenging value of about 56%. The results indicate that ABP-1 has good antioxidant activity.

  2. Learning about Proteins

    MedlinePlus

    ... What Happens in the Operating Room? Learning About Proteins KidsHealth > For Kids > Learning About Proteins A A ... the foods you eat. continue Different Kinds of Protein Protein from animal sources, such as meat and ...

  3. Protein Microarray Technology

    PubMed Central

    Hall, David A.; Ptacek, Jason

    2007-01-01

    Protein chips have emerged as a promising approach for a wide variety of applications including the identification of protein-protein interactions, protein-phospholipid interactions, small molecule targets, and substrates of proteins kinases. They can also be used for clinical diagnostics and monitoring disease states. This article reviews current methods in the generation and applications of protein microarrays. PMID:17126887

  4. Length, protein protein interactions, and complexity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Taison; Frenkel, Daan; Gupta, Vishal; Deem, Michael W.

    2005-05-01

    The evolutionary reason for the increase in gene length from archaea to prokaryotes to eukaryotes observed in large-scale genome sequencing efforts has been unclear. We propose here that the increasing complexity of protein-protein interactions has driven the selection of longer proteins, as they are more able to distinguish among a larger number of distinct interactions due to their greater average surface area. Annotated protein sequences available from the SWISS-PROT database were analyzed for 13 eukaryotes, eight bacteria, and two archaea species. The number of subcellular locations to which each protein is associated is used as a measure of the number of interactions to which a protein participates. Two databases of yeast protein-protein interactions were used as another measure of the number of interactions to which each S. cerevisiae protein participates. Protein length is shown to correlate with both number of subcellular locations to which a protein is associated and number of interactions as measured by yeast two-hybrid experiments. Protein length is also shown to correlate with the probability that the protein is encoded by an essential gene. Interestingly, average protein length and number of subcellular locations are not significantly different between all human proteins and protein targets of known, marketed drugs. Increased protein length appears to be a significant mechanism by which the increasing complexity of protein-protein interaction networks is accommodated within the natural evolution of species. Consideration of protein length may be a valuable tool in drug design, one that predicts different strategies for inhibiting interactions in aberrant and normal pathways.

  5. EDITORIAL: Precision proteins Precision proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demming, Anna

    2010-06-01

    Since the birth of modern day medicine, during the times of Hippocrates in ancient Greece, the profession has developed from the rudimentary classification of disease into a rigorous science with an inspiring capability to treat and cure. Scientific methodology has distilled clinical diagnostic tools from the early arts of prognosis, which used to rely as much on revelation and prophecy, as intuition and judgement [1]. Over the past decade, research into the interactions between proteins and nanosystems has provided some ingenious and apt techniques for delving into the intricacies of anatomical systems. In vivo biosensing has emerged as a vibrant field of research, as much of medical diagnosis relies on the detection of substances or an imbalance in the chemicals in the body. The inherent properties of nanoscale structures, such as cantilevers, make them well suited to biosensing applications that demand the detection of molecules at very low concentrations. Measurable deflections in cantilevers functionalised with antibodies provide quantitative indicators of the presence of specific antigens when the two react. Such developments have roused mounting interest in the interactions of proteins with nanostructures, such as carbon nanotubes [3], which have demonstrated great potential as generic biomarkers. Plasmonic properties are also being exploited in sensing applications, such as the molecular sentinel recently devised by researchers in the US. The device uses the plasmonic properties of a silver nanoparticle linked to a Raman labelled hairpin DNA probe to signal changes in the probe geometry resulting from interactions with substances in the environment. Success stories so far include the detection of two specific genes associated with breast cancer [4]. A greater understanding of how RNA interference regulates gene expression has highlighted the potential of using this natural process as another agent for combating disease in personalized medicine. However, the

  6. Probing the effects of calcium on gelsolin.

    PubMed

    Pope, B J; Gooch, J T; Weeds, A G

    1997-12-16

    Gelsolin is a calcium-regulated actin severing and capping protein that binds two calcium ions and has three sites for actin; two recognize monomeric actin and one attaches to the sides of filaments. It contains six repeating sequence segments (G1-6). Here, we have analyzed the effects of calcium ions on (i) limited proteolysis of bacterially expressed human gelsolin by plasmin and (ii) dynamic light scattering and circular dichroism of gelsolin and various of its subdomains. Following cleavage of gelsolin in the absence of calcium between Lys150 and His151 (the junction between G1 and G2), the molecule does not fall apart, nor does it bind actin without added calcium. This same molecule can be reconstituted by mixing an excess of G1 with G2-6 in EGTA. The noncovalently linked form of gelsolin shows three actin binding sites in calcium and requires 3 microM calcium for 50% activation of actin binding. Measurements of light scattering and circular dichroism revealed structural changes in response to calcium for intact gelsolin and a number of its actin-binding subdomains. Many of these changes occurred at calcium concentrations below 100 nM. These results are discussed in relation to the calcium control of gelsolin function and its three-dimensional structure (Burtnick et al.(1997) Cell 90, 661-670). Nanomolar concentrations of calcium initiate the unlatching of structural constraints that maintain the inaccessibility of the actin binding sites, but actin binding occurs only after additional micromolar calcium sites in both the N-terminal and C-terminal halves of the molecule are occupied.

  7. Shotgun protein sequencing.

    SciTech Connect

    Faulon, Jean-Loup Michel; Heffelfinger, Grant S.

    2009-06-01

    A novel experimental and computational technique based on multiple enzymatic digestion of a protein or protein mixture that reconstructs protein sequences from sequences of overlapping peptides is described in this SAND report. This approach, analogous to shotgun sequencing of DNA, is to be used to sequence alternative spliced proteins, to identify post-translational modifications, and to sequence genetically engineered proteins.

  8. Protein Crystal Based Nanomaterials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bell, Jeffrey A.; VanRoey, Patrick

    2001-01-01

    This is the final report on a NASA Grant. It concerns a description of work done, which includes: (1) Protein crystals cross-linked to form fibers; (2) Engineering of protein to favor crystallization; (3) Better knowledge-based potentials for protein-protein contacts; (4) Simulation of protein crystallization.

  9. Bordetella pertussis FbpA binds both unchelated iron and iron siderophore complexes.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Sambuddha; Weerasinghe, Aruna J; Parker Siburt, Claire J; Kreulen, R Timothy; Armstrong, Sandra K; Brickman, Timothy J; Lambert, Lisa A; Crumbliss, Alvin L

    2014-06-24

    Bordetella pertussis is the causative agent of whooping cough. This pathogenic bacterium can obtain the essential nutrient iron using its native alcaligin siderophore and by utilizing xeno-siderophores such as desferrioxamine B, ferrichrome, and enterobactin. Previous genome-wide expression profiling identified an iron repressible B. pertussis gene encoding a periplasmic protein (FbpABp). A previously reported crystal structure shows significant similarity between FbpABp and previously characterized bacterial iron binding proteins, and established its iron-binding ability. Bordetella growth studies determined that FbpABp was required for utilization of not only unchelated iron, but also utilization of iron bound to both native and xeno-siderophores. In this in vitro solution study, we quantified the binding of unchelated ferric iron to FbpABp in the presence of various anions and importantly, we demonstrated that FbpABp binds all the ferric siderophores tested (native and xeno) with μM affinity. In silico modeling augmented solution data. FbpABp was incapable of iron removal from ferric xeno-siderophores in vitro. However, when FbpABp was reacted with native ferric-alcaligin, it elicited a pronounced change in the iron coordination environment, which may signify an early step in FbpABp-mediated iron removal from the native siderophore. To our knowledge, this is the first time the periplasmic component of an iron uptake system has been shown to bind iron directly as Fe(3+) and indirectly as a ferric siderophore complex.

  10. Bordetella pertussis FbpA Binds Both Unchelated Iron and Iron Siderophore Complexes

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Bordetella pertussis is the causative agent of whooping cough. This pathogenic bacterium can obtain the essential nutrient iron using its native alcaligin siderophore and by utilizing xeno-siderophores such as desferrioxamine B, ferrichrome, and enterobactin. Previous genome-wide expression profiling identified an iron repressible B. pertussis gene encoding a periplasmic protein (FbpABp). A previously reported crystal structure shows significant similarity between FbpABp and previously characterized bacterial iron binding proteins, and established its iron-binding ability. Bordetella growth studies determined that FbpABp was required for utilization of not only unchelated iron, but also utilization of iron bound to both native and xeno-siderophores. In this in vitro solution study, we quantified the binding of unchelated ferric iron to FbpABp in the presence of various anions and importantly, we demonstrated that FbpABp binds all the ferric siderophores tested (native and xeno) with μM affinity. In silico modeling augmented solution data. FbpABp was incapable of iron removal from ferric xeno-siderophores in vitro. However, when FbpABp was reacted with native ferric-alcaligin, it elicited a pronounced change in the iron coordination environment, which may signify an early step in FbpABp-mediated iron removal from the native siderophore. To our knowledge, this is the first time the periplasmic component of an iron uptake system has been shown to bind iron directly as Fe3+ and indirectly as a ferric siderophore complex. PMID:24873326

  11. Protein-losing enteropathy

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007338.htm Protein-losing enteropathy To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Protein-losing enteropathy is an abnormal loss of protein ...

  12. Protein in diet

    MedlinePlus

    ... basic structure of protein is a chain of amino acids. You need protein in your diet to help ... Protein foods are broken down into parts called amino acids during digestion. The human body needs a number ...

  13. Protein splicing: selfish genes invade cellular proteins.

    PubMed

    Neff, N F

    1993-12-01

    Protein splicing is a series of enzymatic events involving intramolecular protein breakage, rejoining and intron homing, in which introns are able to promote the recombinative transposition of their own coding sequences. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic spliced proteins have conserved similar gene structure, but little amino acid identity. The genes coding for these spliced proteins contain internal in-frame introns that encode polypeptides that apparently self-excise from the resulting host protein sequences. Excision of the 'protein intron' is coupled with joining of the two flanking protein regions encoded by exons of the host gene. Some introns of this type encode DNA endonucleases, related to Group I RNA intron gene products, that stimulate gene conversion and self-transmission.

  14. PREFACE: Protein protein interactions: principles and predictions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nussinov, Ruth; Tsai, Chung-Jung

    2005-06-01

    Proteins are the `workhorses' of the cell. Their roles span functions as diverse as being molecular machines and signalling. They carry out catalytic reactions, transport, form viral capsids, traverse membranes and form regulated channels, transmit information from DNA to RNA, making possible the synthesis of new proteins, and they are responsible for the degradation of unnecessary proteins and nucleic acids. They are the vehicles of the immune response and are responsible for viral entry into the cell. Given their importance, considerable effort has been centered on the prediction of protein function. A prime way to do this is through identification of binding partners. If the function of at least one of the components with which the protein interacts is known, that should let us assign its function(s) and the pathway(s) in which it plays a role. This holds since the vast majority of their chores in the living cell involve protein-protein interactions. Hence, through the intricate network of these interactions we can map cellular pathways, their interconnectivities and their dynamic regulation. Their identification is at the heart of functional genomics; their prediction is crucial for drug discovery. Knowledge of the pathway, its topology, length, and dynamics may provide useful information for forecasting side effects. The goal of predicting protein-protein interactions is daunting. Some associations are obligatory, others are continuously forming and dissociating. In principle, from the physical standpoint, any two proteins can interact, but under what conditions and at which strength? The principles of protein-protein interactions are general: the non-covalent interactions of two proteins are largely the outcome of the hydrophobic effect, which drives the interactions. In addition, hydrogen bonds and electrostatic interactions play important roles. Thus, many of the interactions observed in vitro are the outcome of experimental overexpression. Protein disorder

  15. Protein sequence comparison and protein evolution

    SciTech Connect

    Pearson, W.R.

    1995-12-31

    This tutorial was one of eight tutorials selected to be presented at the Third International Conference on Intelligent Systems for Molecular Biology which was held in the United Kingdom from July 16 to 19, 1995. This tutorial examines how the information conserved during the evolution of a protein molecule can be used to infer reliably homology, and thus a shared proteinfold and possibly a shared active site or function. The authors start by reviewing a geological/evolutionary time scale. Next they look at the evolution of several protein families. During the tutorial, these families will be used to demonstrate that homologous protein ancestry can be inferred with confidence. They also examine different modes of protein evolution and consider some hypotheses that have been presented to explain the very earliest events in protein evolution. The next part of the tutorial will examine the technical aspects of protein sequence comparison. Both optimal and heuristic algorithms and their associated parameters that are used to characterize protein sequence similarities are discussed. Perhaps more importantly, they survey the statistics of local similarity scores, and how these statistics can both be used to improve the selectivity of a search and to evaluate the significance of a match. They them examine distantly related members of three protein families, the serine proteases, the glutathione transferases, and the G-protein-coupled receptors (GCRs). Finally, the discuss how sequence similarity can be used to examine internal repeated or mosaic structures in proteins.

  16. Minimization of diauxic growth lag-phase for high-efficiency biogas production.

    PubMed

    Kim, Min Jee; Kim, Sang Hun

    2017-02-01

    The objective of this study was to develop a minimization method of a diauxic growth lag-phase for the biogas production from agricultural by-products (ABPs). Specifically, the effects of proximate composition on the biogas production and degradation rates of the ABPs were investigated, and a new method based on proximate composition combinations was developed to minimize the diauxic growth lag-phase. Experiments were performed using biogas potential tests at a substrate loading of 2.5 g VS/L and feed to microorganism ratio (F/M) of 0.5 under the mesophilic condition. The ABPs were classified based on proximate composition (carbohydrate, protein, and fat etc.). The biogas production patterns, lag phase, and times taken for 90% biogas production (T90) were used for the evaluation of the biogas production with biochemical methane potential (BMP) test. The high- or medium-carbohydrate and low-fat ABPs (cheese whey, cabbage, and skim milk) showed a single step digestion process and low-carbohydrate and high-fat ABPs (bean curd and perilla seed) showed a two-step digestion process. The mixture of high-fat ABPs and high-carbohydrate ABPs reduced the lag-phase and increased the biogas yield more than that from single ABP by 35-46%.

  17. Whey protein fractionation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Concentrated whey protein products from cheese whey, such as whey protein concentrate (WPC) and whey protein isolate (WPI), contain more than seven different types of proteins: alpha-lactalbumin (alpha-LA), beta-lactoglobulin (beta-LG), bovine serum albumin (BSA), immunoglobulins (Igs), lactoferrin ...

  18. Protein- protein interaction detection system using fluorescent protein microdomains

    DOEpatents

    Waldo, Geoffrey S.; Cabantous, Stephanie

    2010-02-23

    The invention provides a protein labeling and interaction detection system based on engineered fragments of fluorescent and chromophoric proteins that require fused interacting polypeptides to drive the association of the fragments, and further are soluble and stable, and do not change the solubility of polypeptides to which they are fused. In one embodiment, a test protein X is fused to a sixteen amino acid fragment of GFP (.beta.-strand 10, amino acids 198-214), engineered to not perturb fusion protein solubility. A second test protein Y is fused to a sixteen amino acid fragment of GFP (.beta.-strand 11, amino acids 215-230), engineered to not perturb fusion protein solubility. When X and Y interact, they bring the GFP strands into proximity, and are detected by complementation with a third GFP fragment consisting of GFP amino acids 1-198 (strands 1-9). When GFP strands 10 and 11 are held together by interaction of protein X and Y, they spontaneous association with GFP strands 1-9, resulting in structural complementation, folding, and concomitant GFP fluorescence.

  19. Soluble guanylyl cyclase-activated cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinase inhibits arterial smooth muscle cell migration independent of VASP-serine 239 phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Holt, Andrew W; Martin, Danielle N; Shaver, Patti R; Adderley, Shaquria P; Stone, Joshua D; Joshi, Chintamani N; Francisco, Jake T; Lust, Robert M; Weidner, Douglas A; Shewchuk, Brian M; Tulis, David A

    2016-09-01

    Coronary artery disease (CAD) accounts for over half of all cardiovascular disease-related deaths. Uncontrolled arterial smooth muscle (ASM) cell migration is a major component of CAD pathogenesis and efforts aimed at attenuating its progression are clinically essential. Cyclic nucleotide signaling has long been studied for its growth-mitigating properties in the setting of CAD and other vascular disorders. Heme-containing soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC) synthesizes cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) and maintains vascular homeostasis predominantly through cGMP-dependent protein kinase (PKG) signaling. Considering that reactive oxygen species (ROS) can interfere with appropriate sGC signaling by oxidizing the cyclase heme moiety and so are associated with several CVD pathologies, the current study was designed to test the hypothesis that heme-independent sGC activation by BAY 60-2770 (BAY60) maintains cGMP levels despite heme oxidation and inhibits ASM cell migration through phosphorylation of the PKG target and actin-binding vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein (VASP). First, using the heme oxidant ODQ, cGMP content was potentiated in the presence of BAY60. Using a rat model of arterial growth, BAY60 significantly reduced neointima formation and luminal narrowing compared to vehicle (VEH)-treated controls. In rat ASM cells BAY60 significantly attenuated cell migration, reduced G:F actin, and increased PKG activity and VASP Ser239 phosphorylation (pVASP·S239) compared to VEH controls. Site-directed mutagenesis was then used to generate overexpressing full-length wild type VASP (FL-VASP/WT), VASP Ser239 phosphorylation-mimetic (FL-VASP/239D) and VASP Ser239 phosphorylation-resistant (FL-VASP/239A) ASM cell mutants. Surprisingly, FL-VASP/239D negated the inhibitory effects of FL-VASP/WT and FL-VASP/239A cells on migration. Furthermore, when FL-VASP mutants were treated with BAY60, only the FL-VASP/239D group showed reduced migration compared to its VEH controls

  20. Molecular modelling of protein-protein/protein-solvent interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luchko, Tyler

    The inner workings of individual cells are based on intricate networks of protein-protein interactions. However, each of these individual protein interactions requires a complex physical interaction between proteins and their aqueous environment at the atomic scale. In this thesis, molecular dynamics simulations are used in three theoretical studies to gain insight at the atomic scale about protein hydration, protein structure and tubulin-tubulin (protein-protein) interactions, as found in microtubules. Also presented, in a fourth project, is a molecular model of solvation coupled with the Amber molecular modelling package, to facilitate further studies without the need of explicitly modelled water. Basic properties of a minimally solvated protein were calculated through an extended study of myoglobin hydration with explicit solvent, directly investigating water and protein polarization. Results indicate a close correlation between polarization of both water and protein and the onset of protein function. The methodology of explicit solvent molecular dynamics was further used to study tubulin and microtubules. Extensive conformational sampling of the carboxy-terminal tails of 8-tubulin was performed via replica exchange molecular dynamics, allowing the characterisation of the flexibility, secondary structure and binding domains of the C-terminal tails through statistical analysis methods. Mechanical properties of tubulin and microtubules were calculated with adaptive biasing force molecular dynamics. The function of the M-loop in microtubule stability was demonstrated in these simulations. The flexibility of this loop allowed constant contacts between the protofilaments to be maintained during simulations while the smooth deformation provided a spring-like restoring force. Additionally, calculating the free energy profile between the straight and bent tubulin configurations was used to test the proposed conformational change in tubulin, thought to cause microtubule

  1. Surface Mediated Protein Disaggregation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radhakrishna, Mithun; Kumar, Sanat K.

    2014-03-01

    Preventing protein aggregation is of both biological and industrial importance. Biologically these aggregates are known to cause amyloid type diseases like Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease. Protein aggregation leads to reduced activity of the enzymes in industrial applications. Inter-protein interactions between the hydrophobic residues of the protein are known to be the major driving force for protein aggregation. In the current paper we show how surface chemistry and curvature can be tuned to mitigate these inter-protein interactions. Our results calculated in the framework of the Hydrophobic-Polar (HP) lattice model show that, inter-protein interactions can be drastically reduced by increasing the surface hydrophobicity to a critical value corresponding to the adsorption transition of the protein. At this value of surface hydrophobicity, proteins lose inter-protein contacts to gain surface contacts and thus the surface helps in reducing the inter-protein interactions. Further, we show that the adsorption of the proteins inside hydrophobic pores of optimal sizes are most efficient both in reducing inter-protein contacts and simultaneously retaining most of the native-contacts due to strong protein-surface interactions coupled with stabilization due to the confinement. Department of Energy (Grant No DE-FG02-11ER46811).

  2. A missense mutation in the dystrophin gene in a Duchenne muscular dystrophy patient.

    PubMed

    Prior, T W; Papp, A C; Snyder, P J; Burghes, A H; Bartolo, C; Sedra, M S; Western, L M; Mendell, J R

    1993-08-01

    About two thirds of Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) patients have either gene deletions or duplications. The other DMD cases are most likely the result of point mutations that cannot be easily identified by current strategies. Utilizing a heteroduplex technique and direct sequencing of amplified products, we screened our nondeletion/duplication DMD population for point mutations. We now describe what we believe to be the first dystrophin missense mutation in a DMD patient. The mutation results in the substitution of an evolutionarily conserved leucine to arginine in the actin-binding domain. The patient makes a dystrophin protein which is properly localized and is present at a higher level than is observed in DMD patients. This suggests that an intact actin-binding domain is necessary for protein stability and essential for function.

  3. Comparative RNAi screening identifies a conserved core metazoan actinome by phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Sims, David; Liu, Tao; Fedorova, Marina; Schöck, Frieder; Dopie, Joseph; Vartiainen, Maria K.; Kiger, Amy A.; Perrimon, Norbert

    2011-01-01

    Although a large number of actin-binding proteins and their regulators have been identified through classical approaches, gaps in our knowledge remain. Here, we used genome-wide RNA interference as a systematic method to define metazoan actin regulators based on visual phenotype. Using comparative screens in cultured Drosophila and human cells, we generated phenotypic profiles for annotated actin regulators together with proteins bearing predicted actin-binding domains. These phenotypic clusters for the known metazoan “actinome” were used to identify putative new core actin regulators, together with a number of genes with conserved but poorly studied roles in the regulation of the actin cytoskeleton, several of which we studied in detail. This work suggests that although our search for new components of the core actin machinery is nearing saturation, regulation at the level of nuclear actin export, RNA splicing, ubiquitination, and other upstream processes remains an important but unexplored frontier of actin biology. PMID:21893601

  4. Physics of protein motility and motor proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolomeisky, Anatoly B.

    2013-09-01

    Motor proteins are enzymatic molecules that transform chemical energy into mechanical motion and work. They are critically important for supporting various cellular activities and functions. In the last 15 years significant progress in understanding the functioning of motor proteins has been achieved due to revolutionary breakthroughs in single-molecule experimental techniques and strong advances in theoretical modelling. However, microscopic mechanisms of protein motility are still not well explained, and the collective efforts of many scientists are needed in order to solve these complex problems. In this special section the reader will find the latest advances on the difficult road to mapping motor proteins dynamics in various systems. Recent experimental developments have allowed researchers to monitor and to influence the activity of single motor proteins with a high spatial and temporal resolution. It has stimulated significant theoretical efforts to understand the non-equilibrium nature of protein motility phenomena. The latest results from all these advances are presented and discussed in this special section. We would like to thank the scientists from all over the world who have reported their latest research results for this special section. We are also grateful to the staff and editors of Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter for their invaluable help in handling all the administrative and refereeing activities. The field of motor proteins and protein motility is fast moving, and we hope that this collection of articles will be a useful source of information in this highly interdisciplinary area. Physics of protein motility and motor proteins contents Physics of protein motility and motor proteinsAnatoly B Kolomeisky Identification of unique interactions between the flexible linker and the RecA-like domains of DEAD-box helicase Mss116 Yuan Zhang, Mirkó Palla, Andrew Sun and Jung-Chi Liao The load dependence of the physical properties of a molecular motor

  5. Loss of cargo binding in the human myosin VI deafness mutant (R1166X) leads to increased actin filament binding

    PubMed Central

    Arden, Susan D.; Tumbarello, David A.; Butt, Tariq; Kendrick-Jones, John; Buss, Folma

    2016-01-01

    Mutations in myosin VI have been associated with autosomal-recessive (DFNB37) and autosomal-dominant (DFNA22) deafness in humans. Here, we characterise an myosin VI nonsense mutation (R1166X) that was identified in a family with hereditary hearing loss in Pakistan. This mutation leads to the deletion of the C-terminal 120 amino acids of the myosin VI cargo-binding domain, which includes the WWY-binding motif for the adaptor proteins LMTK2, Tom1 as well as Dab2. Interestingly, compromising myosin VI vesicle-binding ability by expressing myosin VI with the R1166X mutation or with single point mutations in the adaptor-binding sites leads to increased F-actin binding of this myosin in vitro and in vivo. As our results highlight the importance of cargo attachment for regulating actin binding to the motor domain, we perform a detailed characterisation of adaptor protein binding and identify single amino acids within myosin VI required for binding to cargo adaptors. We not only show that the adaptor proteins can directly interact with the cargo-binding tail of myosin VI, but our in vitro studies also suggest that multiple adaptor proteins can bind simultaneously to non-overlapping sites in the myosin VI tail. In conclusion, our characterisation of the human myosin VI deafness mutant (R1166X) suggests that defects in cargo binding may leave myosin VI in a primed/activated state with an increased actin-binding ability. PMID:27474411

  6. Identification and immunolocalization of actin cytoskeletal components in light- and dark-adapted octopus retinas.

    PubMed

    De Velasco, B; Martinez, J M; Ochoa, G H; Miller, A M; Clark, Y M; Matsumoto, B; Robles, L J

    1999-06-01

    Photoreceptors in the octopus retina are of the rhabdomeric type, with rhabdomeres arising from the plasma membrane on opposite sides of the cylindrical outer segment. Each rhabdomere microvillus has an actin filament core, but other actin-binding proteins have not been identified. We used immunoblotting techniques to identify actin-binding proteins in octopus retinal extracts and immunofluorescence microscopy to localize the same proteins in fixed tissue. Antibodies directed against alpha-actinin and vinculin recognized single protein bands on immunoblots of octopus retinal extract with molecular weights comparable to the same proteins in other tissues. Anti-filamin identified two closely spaced bands similar in molecular weight to filamin in other species. Antibodies to the larger of the Drosophila ninaC gene products, p174, identified two bands lower in molecular weight than p174. Anti-villin localized a band that was significantly less in molecular weight than villin found in other cells. Epifluorescence and confocal microscopy were used to map the location of the same actin-binding proteins in dark- and light-adapted octopus photoreceptors and other retinal cells. Antibodies to most of the actin-binding proteins showed heavy staining of the photoreceptor proximal/supportive cell region accompanied by rhabdom membrane and rhabdom tip staining, although subtle differences were detected with individual antibodies. In dark-adapted retinas anti-alpha-actinin stained the photoreceptor proximal/supportive cell region where an extensive junctional complex joins these two cell types, but in the light, immunoreactivity extended above the junctional complex into the rhabdom bases. Most antibodies densely stained the rhabdom tips but anti-villin exhibited a striated pattern of localization at the tips. We believe that the actin-binding proteins identified in the octopus retina may play a significant role in the formation of new rhabdomere microvilli in the dark. We

  7. The Role of Drosophila Merlin in the Control of Mitosis Exit and Development

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-07-01

    like ancestors within the vertebrate clade that occurred after its separation 11 from Urochordata ( Ciona intestinalis ). Amino acid sequence alignment... Ciona intestinalis ). Amino-acid sequence alignment reveals the absence of an actin-binding site at the C- terminal domain of all merlin proteins...observed the expansion of the ERM-like ancestors within the vertebrate clade that occurred after its separation from Urochordata ( Ciona intestinalis

  8. Investigating the Mechanism of MenaINV-Driven Metastasis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-02-01

    Regulation of receptor tyrosine kinase signaling by the actin binding protein Mena, Molecular Biology of the Cell, Sep 2. pii: mbc.E15-06-0442, Epub...haptotaxis, Molecular Biology of the Cell, in preparation 2. Presentations Selected speaker, AACR Tumor Metastasis Workshop Dec 2015...Department of Biology , Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge,Massachusetts 02139, USA; 2Department of Pathology, Tufts University School ofMedicine

  9. What is in a filopodium? Starfish versus hedgehogs.

    PubMed

    Passey, S; Pellegrin, S; Mellor, H

    2004-12-01

    Many cell types can generate thin actin-based protrusive structures, which are often classified under the general term of 'filopodia'. However, a range of filopodia-like structures exists that differ both morphologically and functionally. In this brief review, we discuss the different types of filopodial structures, together with the actin-binding proteins and signalling pathways involved in their formation. Specifically, we highlight the differences between the filopodial extensions induced by the Rho GTPases Cdc42 and Rif.

  10. Protein C blood test

    MedlinePlus

    ... a normal substance in the body that prevents blood clotting. A blood test can be done to see ... history of blood clots. Protein C helps control blood clotting. A lack of this protein or problem with ...

  11. Protein S blood test

    MedlinePlus

    ... a normal substance in your body that prevents blood clotting. A blood test can be done to see ... family history of blood clots. Protein S helps control blood clotting. A lack of this protein or problem with ...

  12. Learning about Proteins

    MedlinePlus

    ... body, and protecting you from disease. All About Amino Acids When you eat foods that contain protein, the ... called amino (say: uh-MEE-no) acids. The amino acids then can be reused to make the proteins ...

  13. In vivo effects of human adipose-derived stem cells reseeding on acellular bovine pericardium in nude mice

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Miao; Xu, Peirong; Hou, Min; Teng, Yincheng; Feng, Jie

    2015-01-01

    Tissue-engineered biologic products may be a viable option in the reconstruction of pelvic organ prolapse (POP). This study was based on the hypothesis that human adipose-derived stem cells (hASCs) are viable in acellular bovine pericardium (ABP), when reseeded by two different techniques, and thus, aid in the reconstruction. To investigate the reseeding of hASCs on ABP grafts by using non-invasive bioluminescence imaging (BLI), and to identify the effective hASCs–scaffold combinations that enabled regeneration. Thirty female athymic nude mice were randomly divided into three groups: In the VIVO group, ABPs were implanted in the subcutaneous pockets and enhanced green fluorescent protein luciferase (eGFP·Luc)-hASCs (1 × 106 cells/50 µL) were injected on the ABP at the same time. In the VITRO group, the mice were implanted with grafts that ABP were co-cultured with eGFP·Luc-hASCs in vitro. The BLANK group mice were implanted with ABP only. The eGFP·Luc-hASCs reseeded on ABP were analyzed by BLI, histology, and immunohistochemistry. The eGFP·Luc-hASCs reseeded on ABP could be visualized at 12 weeks in vivo. Histology revealed that the VIVO group displayed the highest cell ingrowths, small vessels, and percent of collagen content per unit area. Desmin and α-smooth muscle actin were positive at the same site in the VIVO group cells. However, few smooth muscles were observed in the VITRO and BLANK groups. These results suggest that hASCs reseeded on ABP in vivo during surgery may further enhance the properties of ABP and may promote regeneration at the recipient site, resulting in a promising treatment option for POP. PMID:26253192

  14. In vivo effects of human adipose-derived stem cells reseeding on acellular bovine pericardium in nude mice.

    PubMed

    Wu, Qingkai; Dai, Miao; Xu, Peirong; Hou, Min; Teng, Yincheng; Feng, Jie

    2016-01-01

    Tissue-engineered biologic products may be a viable option in the reconstruction of pelvic organ prolapse (POP). This study was based on the hypothesis that human adipose-derived stem cells (hASCs) are viable in acellular bovine pericardium (ABP), when reseeded by two different techniques, and thus, aid in the reconstruction. To investigate the reseeding of hASCs on ABP grafts by using non-invasive bioluminescence imaging (BLI), and to identify the effective hASCs-scaffold combinations that enabled regeneration. Thirty female athymic nude mice were randomly divided into three groups: In the VIVO group, ABPs were implanted in the subcutaneous pockets and enhanced green fluorescent protein luciferase (eGFP·Luc)-hASCs (1 × 10(6) cells/50 µL) were injected on the ABP at the same time. In the VITRO group, the mice were implanted with grafts that ABP were co-cultured with eGFP·Luc-hASCs in vitro. The BLANK group mice were implanted with ABP only. The eGFP·Luc-hASCs reseeded on ABP were analyzed by BLI, histology, and immunohistochemistry. The eGFP·Luc-hASCs reseeded on ABP could be visualized at 12 weeks in vivo. Histology revealed that the VIVO group displayed the highest cell ingrowths, small vessels, and percent of collagen content per unit area. Desmin and α-smooth muscle actin were positive at the same site in the VIVO group cells. However, few smooth muscles were observed in the VITRO and BLANK groups. These results suggest that hASCs reseeded on ABP in vivo during surgery may further enhance the properties of ABP and may promote regeneration at the recipient site, resulting in a promising treatment option for POP.

  15. Modeling Protein Self Assembly

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, William P.; Jones, Carleton Buck; Hull, Elizabeth

    2004-01-01

    Understanding the structure and function of proteins is an important part of the standards-based science curriculum. Proteins serve vital roles within the cell and malfunctions in protein self assembly are implicated in degenerative diseases. Experience indicates that this topic is a difficult one for many students. We have found that the concept…

  16. CSF total protein

    MedlinePlus

    CSF total protein is a test to determine the amount of protein in your spinal fluid, also called cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). ... The normal protein range varies from lab to lab, but is typically about 15 to 60 milligrams per deciliter (mg/dL) ...

  17. Modeling Protein Domain Function

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, William P.; Jones, Carleton "Buck"; Hull, Elizabeth

    2007-01-01

    This simple but effective laboratory exercise helps students understand the concept of protein domain function. They use foam beads, Styrofoam craft balls, and pipe cleaners to explore how domains within protein active sites interact to form a functional protein. The activity allows students to gain content mastery and an understanding of the…

  18. Destabilized bioluminescent proteins

    DOEpatents

    Allen, Michael S.; Rakesh, Gupta; Gary, Sayler S.

    2007-07-31

    Purified nucleic acids, vectors and cells containing a gene cassette encoding at least one modified bioluminescent protein, wherein the modification includes the addition of a peptide sequence. The duration of bioluminescence emitted by the modified bioluminescent protein is shorter than the duration of bioluminescence emitted by an unmodified form of the bioluminescent protein.

  19. Texturized dairy proteins

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dairy proteins are amenable to structural modifications induced by high temperature, shear and moisture; in particular, whey proteins can change conformation to new unfolded states. The change in protein state is a basis for creating new foods. The dairy products, nonfat dried milk (NDM), whey prote...

  20. Overview of Protein Microarrays

    PubMed Central

    Reymond Sutandy, FX; Qian, Jiang; Chen, Chien-Sheng; Zhu, Heng

    2013-01-01

    Protein microarray is an emerging technology that provides a versatile platform for characterization of hundreds of thousands of proteins in a highly parallel and high-throughput way. Two major classes of protein microarrays are defined to describe their applications: analytical and functional protein microarrays. In addition, tissue or cell lysates can also be fractionated and spotted on a slide to form a reverse-phase protein microarray. While the fabrication technology is maturing, applications of protein microarrays, especially functional protein microarrays, have flourished during the past decade. Here, we will first review recent advances in the protein microarray technologies, and then present a series of examples to illustrate the applications of analytical and functional protein microarrays in both basic and clinical research. The research areas will include detection of various binding properties of proteins, study of protein posttranslational modifications, analysis of host-microbe interactions, profiling antibody specificity, and identification of biomarkers in autoimmune diseases. As a powerful technology platform, it would not be surprising if protein microarrays will become one of the leading technologies in proteomic and diagnostic fields in the next decade. PMID:23546620

  1. The E5 Proteins

    PubMed Central

    DiMaio, Daniel; Petti, Lisa

    2013-01-01

    The E5 proteins are short transmembrane proteins encoded by many animal and human papillomaviruses. These proteins display transforming activity in cultured cells and animals, and they presumably also play a role in the productive virus life cycle. The E5 proteins are thought to act by modulating the activity of cellular proteins. Here, we describe the biological activities of the best-studied E5 proteins and discuss the evidence implicating specific protein targets and pathways in mediating these activities. The primary target of the 44-amino acid BPV1 E5 is the PDGF β receptor, whereas the EGF receptor appears to be an important target of the 83-amino acid HPV16 E5 protein. Both E5 proteins also bind to the vacuolar ATPase and affect MHC class I expression and cell-cell communication. Continued studies of the E5 proteins will elucidate important aspects of transmembrane protein-protein interactions, cellular signal transduction, cell biology, virus replication, and tumorigenesis. PMID:23731971

  2. Solution structure and dynamics of ADF from Toxoplasma gondii.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Rahul; Pathak, Prem Prakash; Shukla, Vaibhav Kumar; Jain, Anupam; Srivastava, Shubhra; Tripathi, Sarita; Krishna Pulavarti, S V S R; Mehta, Simren; Sibley, L David; Arora, Ashish

    2011-10-01

    Toxoplasma gondii ADF (TgADF) belongs to a functional subtype characterized by strong G-actin sequestering activity and low F-actin severing activity. Among the characterized ADF/cofilin proteins, TgADF has the shortest length and is missing a C-terminal helix implicated in F-actin binding. In order to understand its characteristic properties, we have determined the solution structure of TgADF and studied its backbone dynamics from ¹⁵N-relaxation measurements. TgADF has conserved ADF/cofilin fold consisting of a central mixed β-sheet comprised of six β-strands that are partially surrounded by three α-helices and a C-terminal helical turn. The high G-actin sequestering activity of TgADF relies on highly structurally and dynamically optimized interactions between G-actin and G-actin binding surface of TgADF. The equilibrium dissociation constant for TgADF and rabbit muscle G-actin was 23.81 nM, as measured by ITC, which reflects very strong affinity of TgADF and G-actin interactions. The F-actin binding site of TgADF is partially formed, with a shortened F-loop that does not project out of the ellipsoid structure and a C-terminal helical turn in place of the C-terminal helix α4. Yet, it is more rigid than the F-actin binding site of Leishmania donovani cofilin. Experimental observations and structural features do not support the interaction of PIP2 with TgADF, and PIP2 does not affect the interaction of TgADF with G-actin. Overall, this study suggests that conformational flexibility of G-actin binding sites enhances the affinity of TgADF for G-actin, while conformational rigidity of F-actin binding sites of conventional ADF/cofilins is necessary for stable binding to F-actin.

  3. Protopia: a protein-protein interaction tool

    PubMed Central

    Real-Chicharro, Alejandro; Ruiz-Mostazo, Iván; Navas-Delgado, Ismael; Kerzazi, Amine; Chniber, Othmane; Sánchez-Jiménez, Francisca; Medina, Miguel Ángel; Aldana-Montes, José F

    2009-01-01

    Background Protein-protein interactions can be considered the basic skeleton for living organism self-organization and homeostasis. Impressive quantities of experimental data are being obtained and computational tools are essential to integrate and to organize this information. This paper presents Protopia, a biological tool that offers a way of searching for proteins and their interactions in different Protein Interaction Web Databases, as a part of a multidisciplinary initiative of our institution for the integration of biological data . Results The tool accesses the different Databases (at present, the free version of Transfac, DIP, Hprd, Int-Act and iHop), and results are expressed with biological protein names or databases codes and can be depicted as a vector or a matrix. They can be represented and handled interactively as an organic graph. Comparison among databases is carried out using the Uniprot codes annotated for each protein. Conclusion The tool locates and integrates the current information stored in the aforementioned databases, and redundancies among them are detected. Results are compatible with the most important network analysers, so that they can be compared and analysed by other world-wide known tools and platforms. The visualization possibilities help to attain this goal and they are especially interesting for handling multiple-step or complex networks. PMID:19828077

  4. Protein-protein interactions in multienzyme megasynthetases.

    PubMed

    Weissman, Kira J; Müller, Rolf

    2008-04-14

    The multienzyme polyketide synthases (PKSs), nonribosomal polypeptide synthetases (NRPSs), and their hybrids are responsible for the construction in bacteria of numerous natural products of clinical value. These systems generate high structural complexity by using a simple biosynthetic logic--that of the assembly line. Each of the individual steps in building the metabolites is designated to an independently folded domain within gigantic polypeptides. The domains are clustered into functional modules, and the modules are strung out along the proteins in the order in which they act. Every metabolite results, therefore, from the successive action of up to 100 individual catalysts. Despite the conceptual simplicity of this division-of-labor organization, we are only beginning to decipher the molecular details of the numerous protein-protein interactions that support assembly-line biosynthesis, and which are critical to attempts to re-engineer these systems as a tool in drug discovery. This review aims to summarize the state of knowledge about several aspects of protein-protein interactions, including current architectural models for PKS and NRPS systems, the central role of carrier proteins, and the structural basis for intersubunit recognition.

  5. Highly thermostable fluorescent proteins

    DOEpatents

    Bradbury, Andrew M [Santa Fe, NM; Waldo, Geoffrey S [Santa Fe, NM; Kiss, Csaba [Los Alamos, NM

    2012-05-01

    Thermostable fluorescent proteins (TSFPs), methods for generating these and other stability-enhanced proteins, polynucleotides encoding such proteins, and assays and method for using the TSFPs and TSFP-encoding nucleic acid molecules are provided. The TSFPs of the invention show extremely enhanced levels of stability and thermotolerance. In one case, for example, a TSFP of the invention is so stable it can be heated to 99.degree. C. for short periods of time without denaturing, and retains 85% of its fluorescence when heated to 80.degree. C. for several minutes. The invention also provides a method for generating stability-enhanced variants of a protein, including but not limited to fluorescent proteins.

  6. Highly thermostable fluorescent proteins

    DOEpatents

    Bradbury, Andrew M.; Waldo, Geoffrey S.; Kiss, Csaba

    2011-03-22

    Thermostable fluorescent proteins (TSFPs), methods for generating these and other stability-enhanced proteins, polynucleotides encoding such proteins, and assays and method for using the TSFPs and TSFP-encoding nucleic acid molecules are provided. The TSFPs of the invention show extremely enhanced levels of stability and thermotolerance. In one case, for example, a TSFP of the invention is so stable it can be heated to 99.degree. C. for short periods of time without denaturing, and retains 85% of its fluorescence when heated to 80.degree. C. for several minutes. The invention also provides a method for generating stability-enhanced variants of a protein, including but not limited to fluorescent proteins.

  7. Highly thermostable fluorescent proteins

    DOEpatents

    Bradbury, Andrew M [Santa Fe, NM; Waldo, Geoffrey S [Santa Fe, NM; Kiss, Csaba [Los Alamos, NM

    2011-11-29

    Thermostable fluorescent proteins (TSFPs), methods for generating these and other stability-enhanced proteins, polynucleotides encoding such proteins, and assays and method for using the TSFPs and TSFP-encoding nucleic acid molecules are provided. The TSFPs of the invention show extremely enhanced levels of stability and thermotolerance. In one case, for example, a TSFP of the invention is so stable it can be heated to 99.degree. C. for short periods of time without denaturing, and retains 85% of its fluorescence when heated to 80.degree. C. for several minutes. The invention also provides a method for generating stability-enhanced variants of a protein, including but not limited to fluorescent proteins.

  8. Protein crystallization with paper

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuoka, Miki; Kakinouchi, Keisuke; Adachi, Hiroaki; Maruyama, Mihoko; Sugiyama, Shigeru; Sano, Satoshi; Yoshikawa, Hiroshi Y.; Takahashi, Yoshinori; Yoshimura, Masashi; Matsumura, Hiroyoshi; Murakami, Satoshi; Inoue, Tsuyoshi; Mori, Yusuke; Takano, Kazufumi

    2016-05-01

    We developed a new protein crystallization method that incorporates paper. A small piece of paper, such as facial tissue or KimWipes, was added to a drop of protein solution in the traditional sitting drop vapor diffusion technique, and protein crystals grew by incorporating paper. By this method, we achieved the growth of protein crystals with reducing osmotic shock. Because the technique is very simple and the materials are easy to obtain, this method will come into wide use for protein crystallization. In the future, it could be applied to nanoliter-scale crystallization screening on a paper sheet such as in inkjet printing.

  9. Direct binding of F actin to the cytoplasmic domain of the alpha 2 integrin chain in vitro

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kieffer, J. D.; Plopper, G.; Ingber, D. E.; Hartwig, J. H.; Kupper, T. S.

    1995-01-01

    The transmembrane integrins have been shown to interact with the cytoskeleton via noncovalent binding between cytoplasmic domains (CDs) of integrin beta chains and various actin binding proteins within the focal adhesion complex. Direct or indirect integrin alpha chain CD binding to the actin cytoskeleton has not been reported. We show here that actin, as an abundant constituent of focal adhesion complex proteins isolated from fibroblasts, binds strongly and specifically to alpha 2 CD, but not to alpha 1 CD peptide. Similar specific binding to alpha 2 CD peptide was seen for highly purified F actin, free of putative actin-binding proteins. The bound complex of actin and peptide was visualized directly by coprecipitation, and actin binding was abrogated by removal of a five amino acid sequence from the alpha 2 CD peptide. Our findings may explain the earlier observation that, while integrins alpha 2 beta 1 and alpha 1 beta 1 both bind to collagen, only alpha 2 beta 1 can mediate contraction of extracellular collagen matrices.

  10. [Atypical ubiquitination of proteins].

    PubMed

    Buneeva, O A; Medvedev, A E

    2016-07-01

    Ubiquitination is a type of posttranslational modification of intracellular proteins characterized by covalent attachment of one (monoubiquitination) or several (polyubiquitination) of ubiquitin molecules to target proteins. In the case of polyubiquitination, linear or branched polyubiquitin chains are formed. Their formation involves various lysine residues of monomeric ubiquitin. The best studied is Lys48-polyubiquitination, which targets proteins for proteasomal degradation. In this review we have considered examples of so-called atypical polyubiquitination, which mainly involves other lysine residues (Lys6, Lys11, Lys27, Lys29, Lys33, Lys63) and also N-terminal methionine. The considered examples convincingly demonstrate that polyubiquitination of proteins not necessarily targets proteins for their proteolytic degradation in proteasomes. Atypically polyubiquitinated proteins are involved in regulation of various processes and altered polyubiquitination of certain proteins is crucial for development of serious diseases.

  11. Protein and vegetarian diets.

    PubMed

    Marsh, Kate A; Munn, Elizabeth A; Baines, Surinder K

    2013-08-19

    A vegetarian diet can easily meet human dietary protein requirements as long as energy needs are met and a variety of foods are eaten. Vegetarians should obtain protein from a variety of plant sources, including legumes, soy products, grains, nuts and seeds. Eggs and dairy products also provide protein for those following a lacto-ovo-vegetarian diet. There is no need to consciously combine different plant proteins at each meal as long as a variety of foods are eaten from day to day, because the human body maintains a pool of amino acids which can be used to complement dietary protein. The consumption of plant proteins rather than animal proteins by vegetarians may contribute to their reduced risk of chronic diseases such as diabetes and heart disease.

  12. Protein solubility modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Agena, S. M.; Pusey, M. L.; Bogle, I. D.

    1999-01-01

    A thermodynamic framework (UNIQUAC model with temperature dependent parameters) is applied to model the salt-induced protein crystallization equilibrium, i.e., protein solubility. The framework introduces a term for the solubility product describing protein transfer between the liquid and solid phase and a term for the solution behavior describing deviation from ideal solution. Protein solubility is modeled as a function of salt concentration and temperature for a four-component system consisting of a protein, pseudo solvent (water and buffer), cation, and anion (salt). Two different systems, lysozyme with sodium chloride and concanavalin A with ammonium sulfate, are investigated. Comparison of the modeled and experimental protein solubility data results in an average root mean square deviation of 5.8%, demonstrating that the model closely follows the experimental behavior. Model calculations and model parameters are reviewed to examine the model and protein crystallization process. Copyright 1999 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  13. Predictions of Protein-Protein Interfaces within Membrane Protein Complexes

    PubMed Central

    Asadabadi, Ebrahim Barzegari; Abdolmaleki, Parviz

    2013-01-01

    Background Prediction of interaction sites within the membrane protein complexes using the sequence data is of a great importance, because it would find applications in modification of molecules transport through membrane, signaling pathways and drug targets of many diseases. Nevertheless, it has gained little attention from the protein structural bioinformatics community. Methods In this study, a wide variety of prediction and classification tools were applied to distinguish the residues at the interfaces of membrane proteins from those not in the interfaces. Results The tuned SVM model achieved the high accuracy of 86.95% and the AUC of 0.812 which outperforms the results of the only previous similar study. Nevertheless, prediction performances obtained using most employed models cannot be used in applied fields and needs more effort to improve. Conclusion Considering the variety of the applied tools in this study, the present investigation could be a good starting point to develop more efficient tools to predict the membrane protein interaction site residues. PMID:23919118

  14. Modeling Protein Expression and Protein Signaling Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Telesca, Donatello; Müller, Peter; Kornblau, Steven M.; Suchard, Marc A.; Ji, Yuan

    2015-01-01

    High-throughput functional proteomic technologies provide a way to quantify the expression of proteins of interest. Statistical inference centers on identifying the activation state of proteins and their patterns of molecular interaction formalized as dependence structure. Inference on dependence structure is particularly important when proteins are selected because they are part of a common molecular pathway. In that case, inference on dependence structure reveals properties of the underlying pathway. We propose a probability model that represents molecular interactions at the level of hidden binary latent variables that can be interpreted as indicators for active versus inactive states of the proteins. The proposed approach exploits available expert knowledge about the target pathway to define an informative prior on the hidden conditional dependence structure. An important feature of this prior is that it provides an instrument to explicitly anchor the model space to a set of interactions of interest, favoring a local search approach to model determination. We apply our model to reverse-phase protein array data from a study on acute myeloid leukemia. Our inference identifies relevant subpathways in relation to the unfolding of the biological process under study. PMID:26246646

  15. Protein kinesis: The dynamics of protein trafficking and stability

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-31

    The purpose of this conference is to provide a multidisciplinary forum for exchange of state-of-the-art information on protein kinesis. This volume contains abstracts of papers in the following areas: protein folding and modification in the endoplasmic reticulum; protein trafficking; protein translocation and folding; protein degradation; polarity; nuclear trafficking; membrane dynamics; and protein import into organelles.

  16. Protein flexibility as a biosignal.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Qinyi

    2010-01-01

    Dynamic properties of a protein are crucial for all protein functions, and those of signaling proteins are closely related to the biological function of living beings. The protein flexibility signal concept can be used to analyze this relationship. Protein flexibility controls the rate of protein conformational change and influences protein function. The modification of protein flexibility results in a change of protein activity. The logical nature of protein flexibility cannot be explained by applying the principles of protein three-dimensional structure theory or conformation concept. Signaling proteins show high protein flexibility. Many properties of signaling can be traced back to the dynamic natures of signaling protein. The action mechanism of volatile anesthetics and universal cellular reactions are related to flexibility in the change of signaling proteins. We conclude that protein dynamics is an enzyme-enhanced process, called dynamicase.

  17. Antimicrobial proteins: From old proteins, new tricks.

    PubMed

    Smith, Valerie J; Dyrynda, Elisabeth A

    2015-12-01

    This review describes the main types of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) synthesised by crustaceans, primarily those identified in shrimp, crayfish, crab and lobster. It includes an overview of their range of microbicidal activities and the current landscape of our understanding of their gene expression patterns in different body tissues. It further summarises how their expression might change following various types of immune challenges. The review further considers proteins or protein fragments from crustaceans tha