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Sample records for actinide burner core

  1. Evaluation of Fluid Conduction and Mixing within a Subassembly of the Actinide Burner Test Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Cliff B. Davis

    2007-09-01

    The RELAP5-3D code is being considered as a thermal-hydraulic system code to support the development of the sodium-cooled Actinide Burner Test Reactor as part of the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership. An evaluation was performed to determine whether the control system could be used to simulate the effects of non-convective mechanisms of heat transport in the fluid, including axial and radial heat conduction and subchannel mixing, that are not currently represented with internal code models. The evaluation also determined the relative importance of axial and radial heat conduction and fluid mixing on peak cladding temperature for a wide range of steady conditions and during a representative loss-of-flow transient. The evaluation was performed using a RELAP5-3D model of a subassembly in the Experimental Breeder Reactor-II, which was used as a surrogate for the Actinide Burner Test Reactor.

  2. Gas core reactors for actinide transmutation. [uranium hexafluoride

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clement, J. D.; Rust, J. H.; Wan, P. T.; Chow, S.

    1979-01-01

    The preliminary design of a uranium hexafluoride actinide transmutation reactor to convert long-lived actinide wastes to shorter-lived fission product wastes was analyzed. It is shown that externally moderated gas core reactors are ideal radiators. They provide an abundant supply of thermal neutrons and are insensitive to composition changes in the blanket. For the present reactor, an initial load of 6 metric tons of actinides is loaded. This is equivalent to the quantity produced by 300 LWR-years of operation. At the beginning, the core produces 2000 MWt while the blanket generates only 239 MWt. After four years of irradiation, the actinide mass is reduced to 3.9 metric tonnes. During this time, the blanket is becoming more fissile and its power rapidly approaches 1600 MWt. At the end of four years, continuous refueling of actinides is carried out and the actinide mass is held constant. Equilibrium is essentially achieved at the end of eight years. At equilibrium, the core is producing 1400 MWt and the blanket 1600 MWt. At this power level, the actinide destruction rate is equal to the production rate from 32 LWRs.

  3. Analysis of the Gas Core Actinide Transmutation Reactor (GCATR)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clement, J. D.; Rust, J. H.

    1977-01-01

    Design power plant studies were carried out for two applications of the plasma core reactor: (1) As a breeder reactor, (2) As a reactor able to transmute actinides effectively. In addition to the above applications the reactor produced electrical power with a high efficiency. A reactor subsystem was designed for each of the two applications. For the breeder reactor, neutronics calculations were carried out for a U-233 plasma core with a molten salt breeding blanket. A reactor was designed with a low critical mass (less than a few hundred kilograms U-233) and a breeding ratio of 1.01. The plasma core actinide transmutation reactor was designed to transmute the nuclear waste from conventional LWR's. The spent fuel is reprocessed during which 100% of Np, Am, Cm, and higher actinides are separated from the other components. These actinides are then manufactured as oxides into zirconium clad fuel rods and charged as fuel assemblies in the reflector region of the plasma core actinide transmutation reactor. In the equilibrium cycle, about 7% of the actinides are directly fissioned away, while about 31% are removed by reprocessing.

  4. Gas core reactors for actinide transmutation and breeder applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clement, J. D.; Rust, J. H.

    1978-01-01

    This work consists of design power plant studies for four types of reactor systems: uranium plasma core breeder, uranium plasma core actinide transmuter, UF6 breeder and UF6 actinide transmuter. The plasma core systems can be coupled to MHD generators to obtain high efficiency electrical power generation. A 1074 MWt UF6 breeder reactor was designed with a breeding ratio of 1.002 to guard against diversion of fuel. Using molten salt technology and a superheated steam cycle, an efficiency of 39.2% was obtained for the plant and the U233 inventory in the core and heat exchangers was limited to 105 Kg. It was found that the UF6 reactor can produce high fluxes (10 to the 14th power n/sq cm-sec) necessary for efficient burnup of actinide. However, the buildup of fissile isotopes posed severe heat transfer problems. Therefore, the flux in the actinide region must be decreased with time. Consequently, only beginning-of-life conditions were considered for the power plant design. A 577 MWt UF6 actinide transmutation reactor power plant was designed to operate with 39.3% efficiency and 102 Kg of U233 in the core and heat exchanger for beginning-of-life conditions.

  5. Evaluation of the Use of Existing RELAP5-3D Models to Represent the Actinide Burner Test Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    C. B. Davis

    2007-02-01

    The RELAP5-3D code is being considered as a thermal-hydraulic system code to support the development of the sodium-cooled Actinide Burner Test Reactor as part of Global Nuclear Energy Partnership. An evaluation was performed to determine whether the control system could be used to simulate the effects of non-convective mechanisms of heat transport in the fluid that are not currently represented with internal code models, including axial and radial heat conduction in the fluid and subchannel mixing. The evaluation also determined the relative importance of axial and radial heat conduction and fluid mixing on peak cladding temperature for a wide range of steady conditions and during a representative loss-of-flow transient. The evaluation was performed using a RELAP5-3D model of a subassembly in the Experimental Breeder Reactor-II, which was used as a surrogate for the Actinide Burner Test Reactor. An evaluation was also performed to determine if the existing centrifugal pump model could be used to simulate the performance of electromagnetic pumps.

  6. Role of Minor Actinides for Long-Life Reactor Cores

    SciTech Connect

    Saito, M.; Artisyuk, V.; Shmelev, A.; Nikitin, K.; Peryoga, Y

    2002-07-01

    The paper addresses the study on advanced fuel cycles for LWR oriented to high burnup values that exceed 100 GWd/tHM, thus giving the chance to establish the long-life reactor cores without fuel reloading on site. The key element of this approach is a broad involvement of Minor Actinides whose admixture to 20% enriched uranium fuel provides safe release of initial reactivity excess and improved proliferation resistance properties. (authors)

  7. Conceptual design of minor actinides burner with an accelerator-driven subcritical system.

    SciTech Connect

    Cao, Y.; Gohar, Y.

    2011-11-04

    In the environmental impact study of the Yucca Mountain nuclear waste repository, the limit of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) for disposal is assessed at 70,000 metric tons of heavy metal (MTHM), among which 63,000 MTHM are the projected SNF discharge from U.S. commercial nuclear power plants though 2011. Within the 70,000 MTHM of SNF in storage, approximately 115 tons would be minor actinides (MAs) and 585 tons would be plutonium. This study describes the conceptual design of an accelerator-driven subcritical (ADS) system intended to utilize (burn) the 115 tons of MAs. The ADS system consists of a subcritical fission blanket where the MAs fuel will be burned, a spallation neutron source to drive the fission blanket, and a radiation shield to reduce the radiation dose to an acceptable level. The spallation neutrons are generated from the interaction of a 1 GeV proton beam with a lead-bismuth eutectic (LBE) or liquid lead target. In this concept, the fission blanket consists of a liquid mobile fuel and the fuel carrier can be LBE, liquid lead, or molten salt. The actinide fuel materials are dissolved, mixed, or suspended in the liquid fuel carrier. Therefore, fresh fuel can be fed into the fission blanket to adjust its reactivity and to control system power during operation. Monte Carlo analyses were performed to determine the overall parameters of an ADS system utilizing LBE as an example. Steady-state Monte Carlo simulations were studied for three fission blanket configurations that are similar except that the loaded amount of actinide fuel in the LBE is either 5, 7, or 10% of the total volume of the blanket, respectively. The neutron multiplication factor values of the three configurations are all approximately 0.98 and the MA initial inventories are each approximately 10 tons. Monte Carlo burnup simulations using the MCB5 code were performed to analyze the performance of the three conceptual ADS systems. Preliminary burnup analysis shows that all three conceptual ADS

  8. Applicability of RELAP5-3D for Thermal-Hydraulic Analyses of a Sodium-Cooled Actinide Burner Test Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    C. B. Davis

    2006-07-01

    The Actinide Burner Test Reactor (ABTR) is envisioned as a sodium-cooled, fast reactor that will burn the actinides generated in light water reactors to reduce nuclear waste and ease proliferation concerns. The RELAP5-3D computer code is being considered as the thermal-hydraulic system code to support the development of the ABTR. An evaluation was performed to determine the applicability of RELAP5-3D for the analysis of a sodium-cooled fast reactor. The applicability evaluation consisted of several steps, including identifying the important transients and phenomena expected in the ABTR, identifying the models and correlations that affect the code’s calculation of the important phenomena, and evaluating the applicability of the important models and correlations for calculating the important phenomena expected in the ABTR. The applicability evaluation identified code improvements and additional models needed to simulate the ABTR. The accuracy of the calculated thermodynamic and transport properties for sodium was also evaluated.

  9. Georgia Institute of Technology research on the Gas Core Actinide Transmutation Reactor (GCATR)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clement, J. D.; Rust, J. H.; Schneider, A.; Hohl, F.

    1976-01-01

    The program reviewed is a study of the feasibility, design, and optimization of the GCATR. The program is designed to take advantage of initial results and to continue work carried out on the Gas Core Breeder Reactor. The program complements NASA's program of developing UF6 fueled cavity reactors for power, nuclear pumped lasers, and other advanced technology applications. The program comprises: (1) General Studies--Parametric survey calculations performed to examine the effects of reactor spectrum and flux level on the actinide transmutation for GCATR conditions. The sensitivity of the results to neutron cross sections are to be assessed. Specifically, the parametric calculations of the actinide transmutation are to include the mass, isotope composition, fission and capture rates, reactivity effects, and neutron activity of recycled actinides. (2) GCATR Design Studies--This task is a major thrust of the proposed research program. Several subtasks are considered: optimization criteria studies of the blanket and fuel reprocessing, the actinide insertion and recirculation system, and the system integration. A brief review of the background of the GCATR and ongoing research is presented.

  10. Physics studies of higher actinide consumption in an LMR

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, R.N.; Wade, D.C.; Fujita, E.K.; Khalil, H.S.

    1990-01-01

    The core physics aspects of the transuranic burning potential of the Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) are assessed. The actinide behavior in fissile self-sufficient IFR closed cycles of 1200 MWt size is characterized, and the transuranic isotopics and risk potential of the working inventory are compared to those from a once-through LWR. The core neutronic performance effects of rare-earth impurities present in the recycled fuel are addressed. Fuel cycle strategies for burning transuranics from an external source are discussed, and specialized actinide burner designs are described. 4 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  11. Preliminary core design studies for the advanced burner reactor over a wide range of conversion ratios.

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffman, E. A.; Yang, W. S.; Hill, R. N.; Nuclear Engineering Division

    2008-05-05

    A consistent set of designs for 1000 MWt commercial-scale sodium-cooled Advance Burner Reactors (ABR) have been developed for both metal and oxide-fueled cores with conversion ratios from breakeven (CR=1.0) to fertile-free (CR=0.0). These designs are expected to satisfy thermal and irradiation damage limits based on the currently available data. The very low conversion ratio designs require fuel that is beyond the current fuel database, which is anticipated to be qualified by and for the Advanced Burned Test Reactor. Safety and kinetic parameters were calculated, but a safety analysis was not performed. Development of these designs was required to achieve the primary goal of this study, which was to generate representative fuel cycle mass flows for system studies of ABRs as part of the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP). There are slight variations with conversion ratio but the basic ABR configuration consists of 144 fuel assemblies and between 9 and 22 primary control assemblies for both the metal and oxide-fueled cores. Preliminary design studies indicated that it is feasible to design the ABR to accommodate a wide range of conversion ratio by employing different assembly designs and including sufficient control assemblies to accommodate the large reactivity swing at low conversion ratios. The assemblies are designed to fit within the same geometry, but the size and number of fuel pins within each assembly are significantly different in order to achieve the target conversion ratio while still satisfying thermal limits. Current irradiation experience would allow for a conversion ratio of somewhat below 0.75. The fuel qualification for the first ABR should expand this experience to allow for much lower conversion ratios and higher bunrups. The current designs were based on assumptions about the performance of high and very high enrichment fuel, which results in significant uncertainty about the details of the designs. However, the basic fuel cycle performance

  12. On the use of moderating material to enhance the feedback coefficients in SFR cores with high minor actinide content

    SciTech Connect

    Merk, B.; Weiss, F. P.

    2012-07-01

    The use of fine distributed moderating material to enhance the feedback effects and to reduce the sodium void effecting sodium cooled fast reactor cores is described. The influence of the moderating material on the neutron spectrum, the power distribution, and the burnup distribution is shown. The consequences of the use of fine distributed moderating material into fuel assemblies with fuel configurations foreseen for minor actinide transmutation is analyzed and the transmutation efficiency is compared. The degradation of the feedback effects due to the insertion of minor actinides and the compensation by the use of moderating materials is discussed. (authors)

  13. Analysis on fuel breeding capability of FBR core region based on minor actinide recycling doping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Permana, Sidik; Novitrian, Waris, Abdul; Ismail, Suzuki, Mitsutoshi; Saito, Masaki

    2014-09-01

    Nuclear fuel breeding based on the capability of fuel conversion capability can be achieved by convertion rasio of some fertile materials into fissile materials during nuclear reaction processes such as main fissile materials of U-233, U-235, Pu-239 and Pu-241 and for fertile materials of Th-232, U-238, and Pu-240 as well as Pu-238. Minor actinide (MA) loading option which consists of neptunium, americium and curium will gives some additional contribution from converted MA into plutonium such as conversion Np-237 into Pu-238 and it's produced Pu-238 converts to Pu-239 via neutron capture. Increasing composition of Pu-238 can be used to produce fissile material of Pu-239 as additional contribution. Trans-uranium (TRU) fuel (Mixed fuel loading of MOX (U-Pu) and MA composition) and mixed oxide (MOX) fuel compositions are analyzed for comparative analysis in order to show the effect of MA to the plutonium productions in core in term of reactor criticality condition and fuel breeding capability. In the present study, neptunium (Np) nuclide is used as a representative of MAin trans-uranium (TRU) fuel composition as Np-MOX fuel type. It was loaded into the core region gives significant contribution to reduce the excess reactivity in comparing to mixed oxide (MOX) fuel and in the same time it contributes to increase nuclear fuel breeding capability of the reactor. Neptunium fuel loding scheme in FBR core region gives significant production of Pu-238 as fertile material to absorp neutrons for reducing excess reactivity and additional contribution for fuel breeding.

  14. Analysis on fuel breeding capability of FBR core region based on minor actinide recycling doping

    SciTech Connect

    Permana, Sidik; Novitrian,; Waris, Abdul; Ismail; Suzuki, Mitsutoshi; Saito, Masaki

    2014-09-30

    Nuclear fuel breeding based on the capability of fuel conversion capability can be achieved by conversion ratio of some fertile materials into fissile materials during nuclear reaction processes such as main fissile materials of U-233, U-235, Pu-239 and Pu-241 and for fertile materials of Th-232, U-238, and Pu-240 as well as Pu-238. Minor actinide (MA) loading option which consists of neptunium, americium and curium will gives some additional contribution from converted MA into plutonium such as conversion Np-237 into Pu-238 and it's produced Pu-238 converts to Pu-239 via neutron capture. Increasing composition of Pu-238 can be used to produce fissile material of Pu-239 as additional contribution. Trans-uranium (TRU) fuel (Mixed fuel loading of MOX (U-Pu) and MA composition) and mixed oxide (MOX) fuel compositions are analyzed for comparative analysis in order to show the effect of MA to the plutonium productions in core in term of reactor criticality condition and fuel breeding capability. In the present study, neptunium (Np) nuclide is used as a representative of MAin trans-uranium (TRU) fuel composition as Np-MOX fuel type. It was loaded into the core region gives significant contribution to reduce the excess reactivity in comparing to mixed oxide (MOX) fuel and in the same time it contributes to increase nuclear fuel breeding capability of the reactor. Neptunium fuel loading scheme in FBR core region gives significant production of Pu-238 as fertile material to absorp neutrons for reducing excess reactivity and additional contribution for fuel breeding.

  15. Burner (Stinger)

    MedlinePlus

    ... and check your reflexes and the range of motion in your arm. Your doctor will probably order ... recurring burners neck pain or decreased range of motion in the neck symptoms in both arms weakness ...

  16. A Heterogeneous Sodium Fast Reactor Designed to Transmute Minor Actinide Actinide Waste Isotopes into Plutonium Fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Samuel E. Bays

    2011-02-01

    An axial heterogeneous sodium fast reactor design is developed for converting minor actinide waste isotopes into plutonium fuel. The reactor design incorporates zirconium hydride moderating rods in an axial blanket above the active core. The blanket design traps the active core’s axial leakage for the purpose of transmuting Am-241 into Pu-238. This Pu-238 is then co-recycled with the spent driver fuel to make new driver fuel. Because Pu-238 is significantly more fissile than Am-241 in a fast neutron spectrum, the fissile worth of the initial minor actinide material is upgraded by its preconditioning via transmutation in the axial targets. Because, the Am-241 neutron capture worth is significantly stronger in a moderated epithermal spectrum than the fast spectrum, the axial targets serve as a neutron trap which recovers the axial leakage lost by the active core. The sodium fast reactor proposed by this work is designed as an overall transuranic burner. Therefore, a low transuranic conversion ratio is achieved by a degree of core flattening which increases axial leakage. Unlike a traditional “pancake” design, neutron leakage is recovered by the axial target/blanket system. This heterogeneous core design is constrained to have sodium void and Doppler reactivity worth similar to that of an equivalent homogeneous design. Because minor actinides are irradiated only once in the axial target region; elemental partitioning is not required. This fact enables the use of metal targets with electrochemical reprocessing. Therefore, the irradiation environment of both drivers and targets was constrained to ensure applicability of the established experience database for metal alloy sodium fast reactor fuels.

  17. Core-hole effect on XANES and electronic structure of minor actinide dioxides with fluorite structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Chikashi; Nishi, Tsuyoshi; Nakada, Masami; Akabori, Mitsuo; Hirata, Masaru; Kaji, Yoshiyuki

    2012-02-01

    The authors investigated theoretically core-hole effects on X-ray absorption near-edge structures (XANES) of Np and Am LIII in neptunium dioxide (NpO2) and americium dioxide (AmO2) with CaF2-type crystal lattices using the all-electron full-potential linearized augmented plane-wave (FP-LAPW) method. The peak creation mechanism of XANES was shown by examining the electronic structures of these oxides, which indicated that core-hole screening was more marked for AmO2 than for NpO2 because of the difference in the charge transfer between these oxides. Furthermore, the results of charge density analysis suggested that the white line was assigned to the quasi-bound state composed of the localized Np d or Am d components and O components, and that the tail structure was created as a result of delocalized standing waves between the Np or Am atoms.

  18. Actinides-1981

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-09-01

    Abstracts of 134 papers which were presented at the Actinides-1981 conference are presented. Approximately half of these papers deal with electronic structure of the actinides. Others deal with solid state chemistry, nuclear physic, thermodynamic properties, solution chemistry, and applied chemistry.

  19. Characterizing Particle Combustion in a Rijke Burner.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-05-29

    Rijke Burner. rp = NU In( I + BT) PgpCpgdp 3.2 Shrinking Core Model -, Levenspiel (1972) outlines the shrinking core model. In this model the particle...M. E., Numerical Methods and Modeling for Chemical Engineers. John Wiley and Sons (1984) Levenspiel , 0., Chemical Reaction Engineering Second

  20. Assessment of Startup Fuel Options for the GNEP Advanced Burner Reactor (ABR)

    SciTech Connect

    Jon Carmack; Kemal O. Pasamehmetoglu; David Alberstein

    2008-02-01

    The Global Nuclear Energy Program (GNEP) includes a program element for the development and construction of an advanced sodium cooled fast reactor to demonstrate the burning (transmutation) of significant quantities of minor actinides obtained from a separations process and fabricated into a transuranic bearing fuel assembly. To demonstrate and qualify transuranic (TRU) fuel in a fast reactor, an Advanced Burner Reactor (ABR) prototype is needed. The ABR would necessarily be started up using conventional metal alloy or oxide (U or U, Pu) fuel. Startup fuel is needed for the ABR for the first 2 to 4 core loads of fuel in the ABR. Following start up, a series of advanced TRU bearing fuel assemblies will be irradiated in qualification lead test assemblies in the ABR. There are multiple options for this startup fuel. This report provides a description of the possible startup fuel options as well as possible fabrication alternatives available to the program in the current domestic and international facilities and infrastructure.

  1. Micronized coal burner facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calfo, F. D.; Lupton, M. W. (Inventor)

    1984-01-01

    A combustor or burner system in which the ash resulting from burning a coal in oil mixture is of submicron particle size is described. The burner system comprises a burner section, a flame exit nozzle, a fuel nozzle section, and an air tube by which preheated air is directed into the burner section. Regulated air pressure is delivered to a fuel nozzle. Means are provided for directing a mixture of coal particles and oil from a drum to a nozzle at a desired rate and pressure while means returns excess fuel to the fuel drum. Means provide for stable fuel pressure supply from the fuel pump to the fuel nozzle.

  2. Combustor burner vanelets

    DOEpatents

    Lacy, Benjamin [Greer, SC; Varatharajan, Balachandar [Loveland, OH; Kraemer, Gilbert Otto [Greer, SC; Yilmaz, Ertan [Albany, NY; Zuo, Baifang [Simpsonville, SC

    2012-02-14

    The present application provides a burner for use with a combustor of a gas turbine engine. The burner may include a center hub, a shroud, a pair of fuel vanes extending from the center hub to the shroud, and a vanelet extending from the center hub and/or the shroud and positioned between the pair of fuel vanes.

  3. Pulverized coal burner

    DOEpatents

    Sivy, J.L.; Rodgers, L.W.; Koslosy, J.V.; LaRue, A.D.; Kaufman, K.C.; Sarv, H.

    1998-11-03

    A burner is described having lower emissions and lower unburned fuel losses by implementing a transition zone in a low NO{sub x} burner. The improved burner includes a pulverized fuel transport nozzle surrounded by the transition zone which shields the central oxygen-lean fuel devolatilization zone from the swirling secondary combustion air. The transition zone acts as a buffer between the primary and the secondary air streams to improve the control of near-burner mixing and flame stability by providing limited recirculation regions between primary and secondary air streams. These limited recirculation regions transport evolved NO{sub x} back towards the oxygen-lean fuel pyrolysis zone for reduction to molecular nitrogen. Alternate embodiments include natural gas and fuel oil firing. 8 figs.

  4. Pulverized coal burner

    DOEpatents

    Sivy, Jennifer L.; Rodgers, Larry W.; Koslosy, John V.; LaRue, Albert D.; Kaufman, Keith C.; Sarv, Hamid

    1998-01-01

    A burner having lower emissions and lower unburned fuel losses by implementing a transition zone in a low NO.sub.x burner. The improved burner includes a pulverized fuel transport nozzle surrounded by the transition zone which shields the central oxygen-lean fuel devolatilization zone from the swirling secondary combustion air. The transition zone acts as a buffer between the primary and the secondary air streams to improve the control of near-burner mixing and flame stability by providing limited recirculation regions between primary and secondary air streams. These limited recirculation regions transport evolved NO.sub.x back towards the oxygen-lean fuel pyrolysis zone for reduction to molecular nitrogen. Alternate embodiments include natural gas and fuel oil firing.

  5. Interpretation of actinide-distribution data obtained from non-destructive and destructive post-test analyses of an intact-core column of Culebra dolomite.

    PubMed

    Perkins, W G; Lucero, D A

    2001-02-01

    one intact-core column were carried out to determine distribution of these actinides in the rock. Analytical results indicate that the majority of the 241Am remained very near the injection surface of the core (possibly as a precipitate), and that the majority of the 241Pu was dispersed with a very high apparent retardation value. The 241Pu distribution is interpreted using a single-porosity advection-dispersion model, and an approximate retardation value is reported.

  6. Interpretation of actinide-distribution data obtained from non-destructive and destructive post-test analyses of an intact-core column of Culebra dolomite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perkins, W. George; Lucero, Daniel A.

    2001-02-01

    one intact-core column were carried out to determine distribution of these actinides in the rock. Analytical results indicate that the majority of the 241Am remained very near the injection surface of the core (possibly as a precipitate), and that the majority of the 241Pu was dispersed with a very high apparent retardation value. The 241Pu distribution is interpreted using a single-porosity advection-dispersion model, and an approximate retardation value is reported.

  7. Analysis of actinides in an ombrotrophic peat core - evidence of post-depositional migration of fallout radionuclides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quinto, Francesca; Hrnecek, Erich; Krachler, Michael; Shotyk, William; Steier, Peter; Winkler, Stephan R.

    2013-04-01

    Plutonium (239Pu, 240Pu, 241Pu, 242Pu) and uranium (236U, 238U) isotopes were analyzed in an ombrotrophic peat core from the Black Forest, Germany, representing the last 80 years of atmospheric deposition. The reliable determination of these isotopes at ultra-trace levels was possible using ultra-clean laboratory procedures and accelerator mass spectrometry. The 240Pu/239Pu isotopic ratios are constant along the core with a mean value of 0.19 ±0.02 (N = 32). This result is consistent with the acknowledged average 240Pu/239Pu isotopic ratio from global fallout in the Northern Hemisphere. The global fallout origin of Pu is confirmed by the corresponding 241Pu/239Pu (0.0012 ±0.0005) and 242Pu/239Pu (0.004 ± 0.001) isotopic ratios. The identification of the Pu isotopic composition characteristic for global fallout in peat layers pre-dating the period of atmospheric atom bomb testing (AD 1956 - AD 1980) is a clear evidence of the migration of Pu downwards the peat profile. The maximum of global fallout derived 236U is detected in correspondence to the age/depth layer of maximum stratospheric fallout (AD 1963). This finding demonstrates that the 236U bomb peak can be successfully used as an independent chronological marker complementing the 210Pb dating of peat cores. The profiles of the global fallout derived 236U and 239Pu are compared with those of 137Cs and 241Am. As typical of ombrothrophic peat, the temporal fallout pattern of 137Cs is poorly retained. Similarly like for Pu, post-depositional migration of 241Am in peat layers preceding the era of atmospheric nuclear tests is observed.

  8. Ultralean low swirl burner

    DOEpatents

    Cheng, Robert K.

    1998-01-01

    A novel burner and burner method has been invented which burns an ultra lean premixed fuel-air mixture with a stable flame. The inventive burning method results in efficient burning and much lower emissions of pollutants such as oxides of nitrogen than previous burners and burning methods. The inventive method imparts weak swirl (swirl numbers of between about 0.01 to 3.0) on a fuel-air flow stream. The swirl, too small to cause recirculation, causes an annulus region immediately inside the perimeter of the fuel-air flow to rotate in a plane normal to the axial flow. The rotation in turn causes the diameter of the fuel-air flow to increase with concomitant decrease in axial flow velocity. The flame stabilizes where the fuel-air mixture velocity equals the rate of burning resulting in a stable, turbulent flame.

  9. Ultralean low swirl burner

    DOEpatents

    Cheng, R.K.

    1998-04-07

    A novel burner and burner method has been invented which burns an ultra lean premixed fuel-air mixture with a stable flame. The inventive burning method results in efficient burning and much lower emissions of pollutants such as oxides of nitrogen than previous burners and burning methods. The inventive method imparts weak swirl (swirl numbers of between about 0.01 to 3.0) on a fuel-air flow stream. The swirl, too small to cause recirculation, causes an annulus region immediately inside the perimeter of the fuel-air flow to rotate in a plane normal to the axial flow. The rotation in turn causes the diameter of the fuel-air flow to increase with concomitant decrease in axial flow velocity. The flame stabilizes where the fuel-air mixture velocity equals the rate of burning resulting in a stable, turbulent flame. 11 figs.

  10. Bale Burner. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Sloan, R.T.

    1981-01-01

    Osage Plains, Inc. has manufactured and tested prototypes of a Biomass Burner specifically designed to burn large round bales of straw or stover. Osage Plains, Inc. has constructed a scaled down prototype to explore the expanded and more efficient use of the Bale Burner using thermal oils as the heat transfer medium. The main aim was to ascertain the possibility of reaching temperatures above double the boiling point of water while maintaining the safety of operation at atmospheric pressure. Mobil Therm and other proprietary heat transfer oils can be used successfully as heat sinks in the Bale Burner system to transfer temperatures well in excess of 500 degrees farenheit at atmospheric pressure. It was discovered, however, that filtered (used) crankcase oils could be used for the same practical function at much lower cost. The operation of the Bale Burner using Thermal Oils to replace water is practical. However, specific attention must be paid to bearings, seals and pumps included in the plumbing system. All joints must be shielded to prevent operator injury in the event of a leak under pressure and all pipework must be insulated with a non-combustible insulation. This last point is vital because many insulating materials break down or combust at temperatures lower than those at which the heating medium would be transported. Thermal Oils, while very practical, are very expensive costing currently more than two dollars per gallon. A single charge in the full scale Bale Burner would cost in excess of ten thousand dollars. Plumbing for high temperatures is also astronomical, costing more than five times the price of plumbing the same unit for water. One must therefore conclude that, except under very special circumstances, economy dictates that the Bale Burner be operated with water as the Heat Transfer Medium.

  11. Actinide metal processing

    DOEpatents

    Sauer, N.N.; Watkin, J.G.

    1992-03-24

    A process for converting an actinide metal such as thorium, uranium, or plutonium to an actinide oxide material by admixing the actinide metal in an aqueous medium with a hypochlorite as an oxidizing agent for sufficient time to form the actinide oxide material and recovering the actinide oxide material is described together with a low temperature process for preparing an actinide oxide nitrate such as uranyl nitrate. Additionally, a composition of matter comprising the reaction product of uranium metal and sodium hypochlorite is provided, the reaction product being an essentially insoluble uranium oxide material suitable for disposal or long term storage.

  12. Actinide metal processing

    DOEpatents

    Sauer, Nancy N.; Watkin, John G.

    1992-01-01

    A process of converting an actinide metal such as thorium, uranium, or plnium to an actinide oxide material by admixing the actinide metal in an aqueous medium with a hypochlorite as an oxidizing agent for sufficient time to form the actinide oxide material and recovering the actinide oxide material is provided together with a low temperature process of preparing an actinide oxide nitrate such as uranyl nitrte. Additionally, a composition of matter comprising the reaction product of uranium metal and sodium hypochlorite is provided, the reaction product being an essentially insoluble uranium oxide material suitable for disposal or long term storage.

  13. Actinide-ion sensor

    DOEpatents

    Li, Shelly X; Jue, Jan-fong; Herbst, Ronald Scott; Herrmann, Steven Douglas

    2015-01-13

    An apparatus for the real-time, in-situ monitoring of actinide-ion concentrations. A working electrolyte is positioned within the interior of a container. The working electrolyte is separated from a reference electrolyte by a separator. A working electrode is at least partially in contact with the working electrolyte. A reference electrode is at least partially in contact with the reference electrolyte. A voltmeter is electrically connected to the working electrode and the reference electrode. The working electrolyte comprises an actinide-ion of interest. The separator is ionically conductive to the actinide-ion of interest. The separator comprises an actinide, Zr, and Nb. Preferably, the actinide of the separator is Am or Np, more preferably Pu. In one embodiment, the actinide of the separator is the actinide of interest. In another embodiment, the separator further comprises P and O.

  14. Actinide Spectroscopy Workshop

    SciTech Connect

    Tobin, J.G.; Shuh, D.K.

    2004-12-05

    Actinide materials present an extreme scientific challenge to the materials research community. The complex electronic structures of actinide materials result in many unusual and unique properties that have yet to be fully understood. The difficulties in handling, preparing, and characterizing actinide materials has frequently precluded investigations and has the limited the detailed understanding of these relevant, complex materials. However, modern experiments with actinide materials have the potential to provide key, fundamental information about many long-standing issues concerning actinide materials. This workshop focused on the scientific and technical challenges posed by actinide materials and the potential that synchrotron radiation approaches available at the ALS can contribute to improving the fundamental understanding of actinides materials. Fundamental experimental approaches and results, as well as theoretical modeling and computational simulations, were part of the workshop program.

  15. High efficiency gas burner

    DOEpatents

    Schuetz, Mark A.

    1983-01-01

    A burner assembly provides for 100% premixing of fuel and air by drawing the air into at least one high velocity stream of fuel without power assist. Specifically, the nozzle assembly for injecting the fuel into a throat comprises a plurality of nozzles in a generally circular array. Preferably, swirl is imparted to the air/fuel mixture by angling the nozzles. The diffuser comprises a conical primary diffuser followed by a cusp diffuser.

  16. Actinide nuclear data for reactor physics calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Brady, M.C.; Wright, R.Q. ); England, T.R. )

    1991-07-01

    Calculational methodologies and data sources used to predict and recommend fission-product yields and delayed neutron and prompt neutron data for a number of actinide nuclides are presented and discussed. This compilation of nuclear data is the result of a nearly three-year effort under the Japan/US Actinide Program (JUSAP) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory to provide nuclear data supporting the preliminary design of an actinide burner reactor. In this type of reactor, minor actinides are the major components of the fuel. Nuclear data for these minor actinides are, therefore, essential in the design of such reactors. Fission yield, delayed neutron, and prompt neutron data are presented in the report for the following nuclides: Neptumium-237, Plutonium-238, -240, and -242, Americium-241 and -243, and Curium-242, -243, -244, -246, and -248. Additionally, prompt neutron data are also presented for these nuclides (except Plutonium-240, -242 and Curium-242) and for Curium-245 and -247. As in all compilations of nuclear data, the information in this report is subject to change as newer data become available. Most of the data presented here are based on calculational methodologies and should be revised as experimental data become available. The release of Version 6 of the Evaluated Nuclear Data Files (ENDF/B-6) is expected to be completed in 1991 and should replace this evaluation in areas of overlap although no serious discrepancies are expected between this compilation and ENDF/B-6. Because of the large amount of data comprising this compilation and limitations in publishing such a voluminous report, a complete listing of the explicit data is not included in this report. The data are, however, available from the authors on 5 {1/2}-in. high-density (1.2-Mbyte) diskettes. The file contents and formats are described in the text, and examples are given in the appendices. 34 refs., 18 tabs.

  17. Minor Actinides Recycling in PWRs

    SciTech Connect

    Delpech, M.; Golfier, H.; Vasile, A.; Varaine, F.; Boucher, L.; Greneche, D.

    2006-07-01

    Recycling of minor actinides in current and near future PWR is considered as one of the options of the general waste management strategy. This paper presents the analysis of this option both from the core physics and fuel cycle point of view. A first indicator of the efficiency of different neutron spectra for transmutation purposes is the capture to fission cross sections ratio which is less favourable by a factor between 5 to 10 in PWRs compared to fast reactors. Another indicator presented is the production of high ranking isotopes like Curium, Berkelium or Californium in the thermal or epithermal spectrum conditions of PWR cores by successive neutron captures. The impact of the accumulation of this elements on the fabrication process of such PWR fuels strongly penalizes this option. The main constraint on minor actinides loadings in PWR (or fast reactors) fuels are related to their direct impact (or the impact of their transmutation products) on the reactivity coefficients, the reactivity control means and the core kinetics parameters. The main fuel cycle physical parameters like the neutron source, the alpha decay power, the gamma and neutrons dose rate and the criticality aspects are also affected. Recent neutronic calculations based on a reference core of the Evolutionary Pressurized Reactor (EPR), indicates typical maximum values of 1 % loadings. Different fuel design options for minor actinides transmutation purposes in PWRs are presented: UOX and MOX, homogeneous and heterogeneous assemblies. In this later case, Americium loading is concentrated in specific pins of a standard UOX assembly. Recycling of Neptunium in UOX and MOX fuels was also studied to improve the proliferation resistance of the fuel. The impact on the core physics and penalties on Uranium enrichment were underlined in this case. (authors)

  18. Actinide extraction methods

    DOEpatents

    Peterman, Dean R [Idaho Falls, ID; Klaehn, John R [Idaho Falls, ID; Harrup, Mason K [Idaho Falls, ID; Tillotson, Richard D [Moore, ID; Law, Jack D [Pocatello, ID

    2010-09-21

    Methods of separating actinides from lanthanides are disclosed. A regio-specific/stereo-specific dithiophosphinic acid having organic moieties is provided in an organic solvent that is then contacted with an acidic medium containing an actinide and a lanthanide. The method can extend to separating actinides from one another. Actinides are extracted as a complex with the dithiophosphinic acid. Separation compositions include an aqueous phase, an organic phase, dithiophosphinic acid, and at least one actinide. The compositions may include additional actinides and/or lanthanides. A method of producing a dithiophosphinic acid comprising at least two organic moieties selected from aromatics and alkyls, each moiety having at least one functional group is also disclosed. A source of sulfur is reacted with a halophosphine. An ammonium salt of the dithiophosphinic acid product is precipitated out of the reaction mixture. The precipitated salt is dissolved in ether. The ether is removed to yield the dithiophosphinic acid.

  19. Low NOx burner project 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Cook, W.

    1996-11-01

    A 1995 low NO{sub x} burner project is outlined. The following topics are discussed; site logistics, project planning, pre-construction planning, construction phase, post construction, No. 9 economizer, Todd DynaSwirl Burner, and the No. 11 boiler front.

  20. Identifying Dark Matter Burners in the Galactic Center

    SciTech Connect

    Moskalenko, Igor V.; Wai, Lawrence L.

    2007-04-16

    If the supermassive black hole (SMBH) at the center of our Galaxy grew adiabatically, then a dense ''spike'' of dark matter is expected to have formed around it. Assuming that dark matter is composed primarily of weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs), a star orbiting close enough to the SMBH can capture WIMPs at an extremely high rate. The stellar luminosity due to annihilation of captured WIMPs in the stellar core may be comparable to or even exceed the luminosity of the star due to thermonuclear burning. The model thus predicts the existence of unusual stars, i.e. ''WIMP burners'', in the vicinity of an adiabatically grown SMBH. We find that the most efficient WIMP burners are stars with degenerate electron cores, e.g. white dwarfs (WD) or degenerate cores with envelopes. If found, such stars would provide evidence for the existence of particle dark matter and could possibly be used to establish its density profile. In our previous paper we computed the luminosity from WIMP burning for a range of dark matter spike density profiles, degenerate core masses, and distances from the SMBH. Here we compare our results with the observed stars closest to the Galactic center and find that they could be consistent with WIMP burners in the form of degenerate cores with envelopes. We also cross-check the WIMP burner hypothesis with the EGRET observed flux of gamma-rays from the Galactic center, which imposes a constraint on the dark matter spike density profile and annihilation cross-section. We find that the EGRET data is consistent with the WIMP burner hypothesis. New high precision measurements by GLAST will confirm or set stringent limits on a dark matter spike at the Galactic center, which will in turn support or set stringent limits on the existence of WIMP burners at the Galactic center.

  1. Research in actinide chemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Choppin, G.R.

    1993-01-01

    This research studies the behavior of the actinide elements in aqueous solution. The high radioactivity of the transuranium actinides limits the concentrations which can be studied and, consequently, limits the experimental techniques. However, oxidation state analogs (trivalent lanthanides, tetravalent thorium, and hexavalent uranium) do not suffer from these limitations. Behavior of actinides in the environment are a major USDOE concern, whether in connection with long-term releases from a repository, releases from stored defense wastes or accidental releases in reprocessing, etc. Principal goal of our research was expand the thermodynamic data base on complexation of actinides by natural ligands (e.g., OH[sup [minus

  2. Actinide recovery process

    DOEpatents

    Muscatello, Anthony C.; Navratil, James D.; Saba, Mark T.

    1987-07-28

    Process for the removal of plutonium polymer and ionic actinides from aqueous solutions by absorption onto a solid extractant loaded on a solid inert support such as polystyrenedivinylbenzene. The absorbed actinides can then be recovered by incineration, by stripping with organic solvents, or by acid digestion. Preferred solid extractants are trioctylphosphine oxide and octylphenyl-N,N-diisobutylcarbamoylmethylphosphine oxide and the like.

  3. Radial lean direct injection burner

    DOEpatents

    Khan, Abdul Rafey; Kraemer, Gilbert Otto; Stevenson, Christian Xavier

    2012-09-04

    A burner for use in a gas turbine engine includes a burner tube having an inlet end and an outlet end; a plurality of air passages extending axially in the burner tube configured to convey air flows from the inlet end to the outlet end; a plurality of fuel passages extending axially along the burner tube and spaced around the plurality of air passage configured to convey fuel from the inlet end to the outlet end; and a radial air swirler provided at the outlet end configured to direct the air flows radially toward the outlet end and impart swirl to the air flows. The radial air swirler includes a plurality of vanes to direct and swirl the air flows and an end plate. The end plate includes a plurality of fuel injection holes to inject the fuel radially into the swirling air flows. A method of mixing air and fuel in a burner of a gas turbine is also provided. The burner includes a burner tube including an inlet end, an outlet end, a plurality of axial air passages, and a plurality of axial fuel passages. The method includes introducing an air flow into the air passages at the inlet end; introducing a fuel into fuel passages; swirling the air flow at the outlet end; and radially injecting the fuel into the swirling air flow.

  4. Thermodynamic Properties of Actinides and Actinide Compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konings, Rudy J. M.; Morss, Lester R.; Fuger, Jean

    The necessity of obtaining accurate thermodynamic quantities for the actinide elements and their compounds was recognized at the outset of the Manhattan Project, when a dedicated team of scientists and engineers initiated the program to exploit nuclear energy for military purposes. Since the end of World War II, both fundamental and applied objectives have motivated a great deal of further study of actinide thermodynamics. This chapter brings together many research papers and critical reviews on this subject. It also seeks to assess, to systematize, and to predict important properties of the actinide elements, ions, and compounds, especially for species in which there is significant interest and for which there is an experimental basis for the prediction.

  5. Catalyzed Ceramic Burner Material

    SciTech Connect

    Barnes, Amy S., Dr.

    2012-06-29

    Catalyzed combustion offers the advantages of increased fuel efficiency, decreased emissions (both NOx and CO), and an expanded operating range. These performance improvements are related to the ability of the catalyst to stabilize a flame at or within the burner media and to combust fuel at much lower temperatures. This technology has a diverse set of applications in industrial and commercial heating, including boilers for the paper, food and chemical industries. However, wide spread adoption of catalyzed combustion has been limited by the high cost of precious metals needed for the catalyst materials. The primary objective of this project was the development of an innovative catalyzed burner media for commercial and small industrial boiler applications that drastically reduce the unit cost of the catalyzed media without sacrificing the benefits associated with catalyzed combustion. The scope of this program was to identify both the optimum substrate material as well as the best performing catalyst construction to meet or exceed industry standards for durability, cost, energy efficiency, and emissions. It was anticipated that commercial implementation of this technology would result in significant energy savings and reduced emissions. Based on demonstrated achievements, there is a potential to reduce NOx emissions by 40,000 TPY and natural gas consumption by 8.9 TBtu in industries that heavily utilize natural gas for process heating. These industries include food manufacturing, polymer processing, and pulp and paper manufacturing. Initial evaluation of commercial solutions and upcoming EPA regulations suggests that small to midsized boilers in industrial and commercial markets could possibly see the greatest benefit from this technology. While out of scope for the current program, an extension of this technology could also be applied to catalytic oxidation for volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Considerable progress has been made over the course of the grant

  6. Acid gas burner

    SciTech Connect

    Polak, B.

    1991-04-23

    This patent describes a burner for combusting a waste gas. It comprises a throat section; a fire tube downstream from the throat section in communication therewith; an air duct section upstream from the throat section in communication therewith; a centrally located nozzle means for introduction of a fuel in the throat section in a downstream direction toward the fire tube; means upstream from the throat section for forming a downstream directed swirling combustion air stream substantially in an annular ring along the sidewalls of the throat section; and means for introducing a waste gas stream into the throat section downstream of the nozzle means in a forwardly biased but swirling direction opposite to that of the swirling combustion air stream.

  7. Low loss duct burner

    SciTech Connect

    Mar, H. M.; Reider, S. B.

    1985-07-09

    A jet propulsion engine with a fan bypass duct includes a duct burner with a plurality of flame stabilizers therein each mounted to inner case and outer case members through spherical bearings. Each of the stabilizers consists of two blade members having integral arms thereon actuated by fore and aft motion of an external actuating ring to assume an expanded position to increase duct turbulence for mixing air flow therethrough with a fuel supply and into a retracted position against each other to reduce pressure drop under nonafterburning operation. Each of the flame stabilizer blades has a platform that controls communication between a hot air source and a duct for improving fuel vaporization during afterburner operation thereby to increase afterburning limits; the platforms close communication between the hot air source and the duct during nonafterburning operation when flame stabilization is not required.

  8. Method for preparing actinide nitrides

    DOEpatents

    Bryan, G.H.; Cleveland, J.M.; Heiple, C.R.

    1975-12-01

    Actinide nitrides, and particularly plutonium and uranium nitrides, are prepared by reacting an ammonia solution of an actinide compound with an ammonia solution of a reactant or reductant metal, to form finely divided actinide nitride precipitate which may then be appropriately separated from the solution. The actinide nitride precipitate is particularly suitable for forming nuclear fuels.

  9. PREFACE: Actinides 2009

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, Linfeng; Tobin, James G.; Shuh, David K.

    2010-07-01

    This volume of IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering consists of 98 papers that were presented at Actinides 2009, the 8th International Conference on Actinide Science held on 12-17 July 2009 in San Francisco, California, USA. This conference was jointly organized by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. The Actinides conference series started in Baden-Baden, Germany (1975) and this first conference was followed by meetings at Asilomar, CA, USA (1981), Aix-en-Provence, France (1985), Tashkent, USSR (1989), Santa Fe, NM, USA (1993), Baden-Baden, Germany (1997), Hayama, Japan (2001), and Manchester, UK (2005). The Actinides conference series provides a regular venue for the most recent research results on the chemistry, physics, and technology of the actinides and heaviest elements. Actinides 2009 provided a forum spanning a diverse range of scientific topics, including fundamental materials science, chemistry, physics, environmental science, and nuclear fuels. Of particular importance was a focus on the key roles that basic actinide chemistry and physics research play in advancing the worldwide renaissance of nuclear energy. Editors Linfeng Rao Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (lrao@lbl.gov) James G Tobin Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (tobin1@llnl.gov) David K Shuh Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (dkshuh@lbl.gov)

  10. Micronized-Coal Burner Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calfo, F. D.; Lupton, M. W.

    1986-01-01

    Micronized-coal (coal-in-oil mix) burner facility developed to fulfill need to generate erosion/corrosion data on series of superalloy specimens. In order to successfully operate gas turbine using COM, two primary conditions must be met. First, there must be adequate atomization of COM and second, minimization of coking of burner. Meeting these conditions will be achieved only by clean burning and flame stability.

  11. Research in actinide chemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    This report contains research results on studies of inorganic and organic complexes of actinide and lanthanide elements. Special attention is given to complexes of humic acids and to spectroscopic studies.

  12. Burner ignition system

    DOEpatents

    Carignan, Forest J.

    1986-01-21

    An electronic ignition system for a gas burner is battery operated. The battery voltage is applied through a DC-DC chopper to a step-up transformer to charge a capacitor which provides the ignition spark. The step-up transformer has a significant leakage reactance in order to limit current flow from the battery during initial charging of the capacitor. A tank circuit at the input of the transformer returns magnetizing current resulting from the leakage reactance to the primary in succeeding cycles. An SCR in the output circuit is gated through a voltage divider which senses current flow through a flame. Once the flame is sensed, further sparks are precluded. The same flame sensor enables a thermopile driven main valve actuating circuit. A safety valve in series with the main gas valve responds to a control pressure thermostatically applied through a diaphragm. The valve closes after a predetermined delay determined by a time delay orifice if the pilot gas is not ignited.

  13. PRODUCTION OF ACTINIDE METAL

    DOEpatents

    Knighton, J.B.

    1963-11-01

    A process of reducing actinide oxide to the metal with magnesium-zinc alloy in a flux of 5 mole% of magnesium fluoride and 95 mole% of magnesium chloride plus lithium, sodium, potassium, calcium, strontium, or barium chloride is presented. The flux contains at least 14 mole% of magnesium cation at 600-- 900 deg C in air. The formed magnesium-zinc-actinide alloy is separated from the magnesium-oxide-containing flux. (AEC)

  14. Actinide recovery process

    DOEpatents

    Muscatello, A.C.; Navratil, J.D.; Saba, M.T.

    1985-06-13

    Process for the removal of plutonium polymer and ionic actinides from aqueous solutions by absorption onto a solid extractant loaded on a solid inert support such as polystyrene-divinylbenzene. The absorbed actinides can then be recovered by incineration, by stripping with organic solvents, or by acid digestion. Preferred solid extractants are trioctylphosphine oxide and octylphenyl-N,N-diisobutylcarbamoylmethylphosphine oxide and the like. 2 tabs.

  15. Thermochemistry of the actinides

    SciTech Connect

    Kleinschmidt, P.D.

    1993-10-01

    The measurement of equilibria by Knudsen effusion techniques and the enthalpy of formation of the actinide atoms is briefly discussed. Thermochemical data on the sublimation of the actinide fluorides is used to calculate the enthalpies of formation and entropies of the gaseous species. Estimates are made for enthalpies and entropies of the tetrafluorides and trifluorides for those systems where data is not available. The pressure of important species in the tetrafluoride sublimation processes is calculated based on this thermochemical data.

  16. Subsurface Biogeochemistry of Actinides

    SciTech Connect

    Kersting, Annie B.; Zavarin, Mavrik

    2016-06-29

    A major scientific challenge in environmental sciences is to identify the dominant processes controlling actinide transport in the environment. It is estimated that currently, over 2200 metric tons of plutonium (Pu) have been deposited in the subsurface worldwide, a number that increases yearly with additional spent nuclear fuel (Ewing et al., 2010). Plutonium has been shown to migrate on the scale of kilometers, giving way to a critical concern that the fundamental biogeochemical processes that control its behavior in the subsurface are not well understood (Kersting et al., 1999; Novikov et al., 2006; Santschi et al., 2002). Neptunium (Np) is less prevalent in the environment; however, it is predicted to be a significant long-term dose contributor in high-level nuclear waste. Our focus on Np chemistry in this Science Plan is intended to help formulate a better understanding of Pu redox transformations in the environment and clarify the differences between the two long-lived actinides. The research approach of our Science Plan combines (1) Fundamental Mechanistic Studies that identify and quantify biogeochemical processes that control actinide behavior in solution and on solids, (2) Field Integration Studies that investigate the transport characteristics of Pu and test our conceptual understanding of actinide transport, and (3) Actinide Research Capabilities that allow us to achieve the objectives of this Scientific Focus Area (SFA and provide new opportunities for advancing actinide environmental chemistry. These three Research Thrusts form the basis of our SFA Science Program (Figure 1).

  17. Nonaqueous actinide hydride dissolution and production of actinide $beta$- diketonates

    DOEpatents

    Crisler, L.R.

    1975-11-11

    Actinide beta-diketonate complex molecular compounds are produced by reacting a beta-diketone compound with a hydride of the actinide material in a mixture of carbon tetrachloride and methanol. (auth)

  18. Minor Actinide Transmutation Physics for Low Conversion Ratio Sodium Fast Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Mehdi Asgari; Samuel E. Bays; Benoit Forget; Rodolfo Ferrer

    2007-09-01

    The effects of varying the reprocessing strategy used in the closed cycle of a Sodium Fast Reactor (SNF) prototype are presented in this paper. The isotopic vector from the aqueous separation of transuranic (TRU) elements in Light Water Reactor (LWR) spent nuclear fuel (SNF) is assumed to also vary according to the reprocessing strategy of the closed fuel cycle. The decay heat, gamma energy, and neutron emission of the fuel discharge at equilibrium are found to vary depending on the separation strategy. The SFR core used in this study corresponds to a burner configuration with a conversion ratio of ~0.5 based on the Super-PRISM design. The reprocessing strategies stemming from the choice of either metal or oxide fuel for the SFR are found to have a large impact on the equilibrium discharge decay heat, gamma energy, and neutron emission. Specifically, metal fuel SFR with pyroprocessing of the discharge produces the largest amount of TRU consumption (166 kg per Effective Full Power Year or EFPY), but also the highest decay heat, gamma energy, and neutron emission. On the other hand, an oxide fuel SFR with PUREX reprocessing minimizes the decay heat and related parameters of interest to a minimum, even when compared to thermal Mixed Oxide (MOX) or Inert Matrix Fuel (IMF) on a per mass basis. On an assembly basis, however, the metal SFR discharge has a lower decay heat than an equivalent oxide SFR assembly for similar minor actinide consumptions (~160 kg/EFPY.) Another disadvantage in the oxide PUREX reprocessing scenario is that there is no consumption of americium and curium, since PUREX reprocessing separates these minor actinides (MA) and requires them to be disposed of externally.

  19. Uniform-burning matrix burner

    SciTech Connect

    Bohn, Mark S.; Anselmo, Mark

    2001-01-01

    Computer simulation was used in the development of an inward-burning, radial matrix gas burner and heat pipe heat exchanger. The burner and exchanger can be used to heat a Stirling engine on cloudy days when a solar dish, the normal source of heat, cannot be used. Geometrical requirements of the application forced the use of the inward burning approach, which presents difficulty in achieving a good flow distribution and air/fuel mixing. The present invention solved the problem by providing a plenum with just the right properties, which include good flow distribution and good air/fuel mixing with minimum residence time. CFD simulations were also used to help design the primary heat exchanger needed for this application which includes a plurality of pins emanating from the heat pipe. The system uses multiple inlet ports, an extended distance from the fuel inlet to the burner matrix, flow divider vanes, and a ring-shaped, porous grid to obtain a high-temperature uniform-heat radial burner. Ideal applications include dish/Stirling engines, steam reforming of hydrocarbons, glass working, and any process requiring high temperature heating of the outside surface of a cylindrical surface.

  20. Wood fuel in suspension burners

    SciTech Connect

    Wolle, P.C.

    1982-01-01

    Experience and criteria for solid fuel suspension burning is presented based on more than ten years of actual experience with commercially installed projects. Fuel types discussed range from dried wood with less than 15% moisture content, wet basis, to exotic biomass material such as brewed tea leaves and processed coffee grounds. Single burner inputs range from 1,465 kW (5,000 Mbh) to 13,771 kW (47,000 Mbh) as well as multiple burner applications with support burning using fuel oil and/or natural gas. General requirements for self-sustaining combustion will be reviewed as applied to suspension solid fuel burning, together with results of what can happen if these requirements are not met. Solid fuel preparation, sizing, transport, storage, and metering control is essential for proper feed. Combustion chamber volume, combustion air requirements, excess air, and products of combustion are reviewed, together with induced draft fan sizing. (Refs. 7).

  1. Actinide halide complexes

    SciTech Connect

    Avens, L.R.; Zwick, B.D.; Sattelberger, A.P.; Clark, D.L.; Watkin, J.G.

    1991-02-07

    A compound of the formula MX{sub n}L{sub m} wherein M = Th, Pu, Np,or Am thorium, X = a halide atom, n = 3 or 4, L is a coordinating ligand selected from the group consisting of aprotic Lewis bases having an oxygen-, nitrogen-, sulfur-, or phosphorus-donor, and m is 3 or 4 for monodentate ligands or is 2 for bidentate ligands, where n + m = 7 or 8 for monodentate ligands or 5 or 6 for bidentate ligands, a compound of the formula MX{sub n} wherein M, X, and n are as previously defined, and a process of preparing such actinide metal compounds including admixing the actinide metal in an aprotic Lewis base as a coordinating solvent in the presence of a halogen-containing oxidant, are provided.

  2. Environmental behavior of actinides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choppin, G. R.

    2006-01-01

    Since the plutonium concentration in ocean waters is quite low, most of the plutonium deposited in marine waters has been sorbed onto plants and sediments. Actinides in natural waters usually are not in a state of thermodynamic equilibrium for long time periods as their solubility and migration behavior is strongly related to the form in which the nuclides are introduced initially into the aquatic system for long time periods. Their solubility depends on pH (hydrolysis), E H (oxidation state), reaction with complexants (e.g., carbonate, phosphate, humic acid, etc.), sorption to surfaces of minerals and/or colloids, etc. The primary variable is the oxidation state of the actinide cation. Actinides can be present in more than one oxidation state which complicates modeling actinide environmental behavior. Np(V)O 2 + and Pu(V)O 2 + are weakly complexing and resistant to hydrolysis and subsequent precipitation, but both can undergo reduction to the IV oxidation state. The solubility of NpO 2 + can be as high as 10-4M, while that of PuO 2 + is more limited as the very low solubility of Pu(OH)4 promotes reduction to Pu(IV). The solubility of hexavalent UO 2 2+ in sea water is limited by hydrolysis, but has a relatively high concentration due to carbonate complexation. Americium(III) hydroxocarbonate, Am(CO3)(OH), is the limiting species for the solubility of Am(III) in sea water. Thorium has a very low solubility due to the formation of Th(OH)4.

  3. Porous radiant burners having increased radiant output

    DOEpatents

    Tong, Timothy W.; Sathe, Sanjeev B.; Peck, Robert E.

    1990-01-01

    Means and methods for enhancing the output of radiant energy from a porous radiant burner by minimizing the scattering and increasing the adsorption, and thus emission of such energy by the use of randomly dispersed ceramic fibers of sub-micron diameter in the fabrication of ceramic fiber matrix burners and for use therein.

  4. 14 CFR 31.47 - Burners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... emergency operation. (d) The burner system (including the burner unit, controls, fuel lines, fuel cells...) Five hours at the maximum fuel pressure for which approval is sought, with a burn time for each one... intermediate fuel pressure, with a burn time for each one minute cycle of three to ten seconds. An...

  5. 14 CFR 31.47 - Burners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... emergency operation. (d) The burner system (including the burner unit, controls, fuel lines, fuel cells...) Five hours at the maximum fuel pressure for which approval is sought, with a burn time for each one... intermediate fuel pressure, with a burn time for each one minute cycle of three to ten seconds. An...

  6. 14 CFR 31.47 - Burners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... emergency operation. (d) The burner system (including the burner unit, controls, fuel lines, fuel cells...) Five hours at the maximum fuel pressure for which approval is sought, with a burn time for each one... intermediate fuel pressure, with a burn time for each one minute cycle of three to ten seconds. An...

  7. 14 CFR 31.47 - Burners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... emergency operation. (d) The burner system (including the burner unit, controls, fuel lines, fuel cells...) Five hours at the maximum fuel pressure for which approval is sought, with a burn time for each one... intermediate fuel pressure, with a burn time for each one minute cycle of three to ten seconds. An...

  8. Computational fluid dynamics in oil burner design

    SciTech Connect

    Butcher, T.A.

    1997-09-01

    In Computational Fluid Dynamics, the differential equations which describe flow, heat transfer, and mass transfer are approximately solved using a very laborious numerical procedure. Flows of practical interest to burner designs are always turbulent, adding to the complexity of requiring a turbulence model. This paper presents a model for burner design.

  9. PROCESS OF PRODUCING ACTINIDE METALS

    DOEpatents

    Magel, T.T.

    1959-07-14

    The preparation of actinide metals in workable, coherent form is described. In general, the objects of the invention are achieved by heating a mixture of an oxide and a halide of an actinide metal such as uranium with an alkali metal on alkaline earth metal reducing agent in the presence of iodine.

  10. Economic Analyiss of "Symbiotic" Light Water Reactor/Fast Burner Reactor Fuel Cycles Proposed as Part of the U.S. Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI)

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, Kent Alan; Shropshire, David E.

    2009-01-01

    A spreadsheet-based 'static equilibrium' economic analysis was performed for three nuclear fuel cycle scenarios, each designed for 100 GWe-years of electrical generation annually: (1) a 'once-through' fuel cycle based on 100% LWRs fueled by standard UO2 fuel assemblies with all used fuel destined for geologic repository emplacement, (2) a 'single-tier recycle' scenario involving multiple fast burner reactors (37% of generation) accepting actinides (Pu,Np,Am,Cm) from the reprocessing of used fuel from the uranium-fueled LWR fleet (63% of generation), and (3) a 'two-tier' 'thermal+fast' recycle scenario where co-extracted U,Pu from the reprocessing of used fuel from the uranium-fueled part of the LWR fleet (66% of generation) is recycled once as full-core LWR MOX fuel (8% of generation), with the LWR MOX used fuel being reprocessed and all actinide products from both UO2 and MOX used fuel reprocessing being introduced into the closed fast burner reactor (26% of generation) fuel cycle. The latter two 'closed' fuel cycles, which involve symbiotic use of both thermal and fast reactors, have the advantages of lower natural uranium requirements per kilowatt-hour generated and less geologic repository space per kilowatt-hour as compared to the 'once-through' cycle. The overall fuel cycle cost in terms of $ per megawatt-hr of generation, however, for the closed cycles is 15% (single tier) to 29% (two-tier) higher than for the once-through cycle, based on 'expected values' from an uncertainty analysis using triangular distributions for the unit costs for each required step of the fuel cycle. (The fuel cycle cost does not include the levelized reactor life cycle costs.) Since fuel cycle costs are a relatively small percentage (10 to 20%) of the overall busbar cost (LUEC or 'levelized unit electricity cost') of nuclear power generation, this fuel cycle cost increase should not have a highly deleterious effect on the competitiveness of nuclear power. If the reactor life cycle

  11. Actinide management with commercial fast reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Ohki, Shigeo

    2015-12-31

    The capability of plutonium-breeding and minor-actinide (MA) transmutation in the Japanese commercial sodium-cooled fast reactor offers one of practical solutions for obtaining sustainable energy resources as well as reducing radioactive toxicity and inventory. The reference core design meets the requirement of flexible breeding ratio from 1.03 to 1.2. The MA transmutation amount has been evaluated as 50-100 kg/GW{sub e}y if the MA content in fresh fuel is 3-5 wt%, where about 30-40% of initial MA can be transmuted in the discharged fuel.

  12. Actinide management with commercial fast reactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohki, Shigeo

    2015-12-01

    The capability of plutonium-breeding and minor-actinide (MA) transmutation in the Japanese commercial sodium-cooled fast reactor offers one of practical solutions for obtaining sustainable energy resources as well as reducing radioactive toxicity and inventory. The reference core design meets the requirement of flexible breeding ratio from 1.03 to 1.2. The MA transmutation amount has been evaluated as 50-100 kg/GWey if the MA content in fresh fuel is 3-5 wt%, where about 30-40% of initial MA can be transmuted in the discharged fuel.

  13. Actinide halide complexes

    DOEpatents

    Avens, L.R.; Zwick, B.D.; Sattelberger, A.P.; Clark, D.L.; Watkin, J.G.

    1992-11-24

    A compound is described of the formula MX[sub n]L[sub m] wherein M is a metal atom selected from the group consisting of thorium, plutonium, neptunium or americium, X is a halide atom, n is an integer selected from the group of three or four, L is a coordinating ligand selected from the group consisting of aprotic Lewis bases having an oxygen-, nitrogen-, sulfur-, or phosphorus-donor, and m is an integer selected from the group of three or four for monodentate ligands or is the integer two for bidentate ligands, where the sum of n+m equals seven or eight for monodentate ligands or five or six for bidentate ligands. A compound of the formula MX[sub n] wherein M, X, and n are as previously defined, and a process of preparing such actinide metal compounds are described including admixing the actinide metal in an aprotic Lewis base as a coordinating solvent in the presence of a halogen-containing oxidant.

  14. Actinide halide complexes

    DOEpatents

    Avens, Larry R.; Zwick, Bill D.; Sattelberger, Alfred P.; Clark, David L.; Watkin, John G.

    1992-01-01

    A compound of the formula MX.sub.n L.sub.m wherein M is a metal atom selected from the group consisting of thorium, plutonium, neptunium or americium, X is a halide atom, n is an integer selected from the group of three or four, L is a coordinating ligand selected from the group consisting of aprotic Lewis bases having an oxygen-, nitrogen-, sulfur-, or phosphorus-donor, and m is an integer selected from the group of three or four for monodentate ligands or is the integer two for bidentate ligands, where the sum of n+m equals seven or eight for monodentate ligands or five or six for bidentate ligands, a compound of the formula MX.sub.n wherein M, X, and n are as previously defined, and a process of preparing such actinide metal compounds including admixing the actinide metal in an aprotic Lewis base as a coordinating solvent in the presence of a halogen-containing oxidant, are provided.

  15. Burners

    MedlinePlus

    ... Pets and Animals myhealthfinder Food and Nutrition Healthy Food Choices Weight Loss and Diet Plans Nutrients and Nutritional ... Pets and Animals myhealthfinder Food and Nutrition Healthy Food Choices Weight Loss and Diet Plans Nutrients and Nutritional ...

  16. 40 CFR 49.127 - Rule for woodwaste burners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... provided by paragraph (c)(3) of this section, the owner or operator of a woodwaste burner must shut down... woodwaste burners are currently operational. Until the woodwaste burner is shut down, visible emissions from...) Until the woodwaste burner is shut down, only wood waste generated on-site may be burned or disposed...

  17. 40 CFR 49.127 - Rule for woodwaste burners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... woodwaste burner must shut down and dismantle the woodwaste burner by no later than two years after the... down, visible emissions from the woodwaste burner must not exceed 20% opacity, averaged over any consecutive six-minute period. (2) Until the woodwaste burner is shut down, only wood waste generated...

  18. Diesel fuel burner for diesel emissions control system

    DOEpatents

    Webb, Cynthia C.; Mathis, Jeffrey A.

    2006-04-25

    A burner for use in the emissions system of a lean burn internal combustion engine. The burner has a special burner head that enhances atomization of the burner fuel. Its combustion chamber is designed to be submersed in the engine exhaust line so that engine exhaust flows over the outer surface of the combustion chamber, thereby providing efficient heat transfer.

  19. Managing Inventories of Heavy Actinides

    SciTech Connect

    Wham, Robert M; Patton, Bradley D

    2011-01-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has stored a limited inventory of heavy actinides contained in irradiated targets, some partially processed, at the Savannah River Site (SRS) and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The 'heavy actinides' of interest include plutonium, americium, and curium isotopes; specifically 242Pu and 244Pu, 243Am, and 244/246/248Cm. No alternate supplies of these heavy actinides and no other capabilities for producing them are currently available. Some of these heavy actinide materials are important for use as feedstock for producing heavy isotopes and elements needed for research and commercial application. The rare isotope 244Pu is valuable for research, environmental safeguards, and nuclear forensics. Because the production of these heavy actinides was made possible only by the enormous investment of time and money associated with defense production efforts, the remaining inventories of these rare nuclear materials are an important part of the legacy of the Nuclear Weapons Program. Significant unique heavy actinide inventories reside in irradiated Mark-18A and Mark-42 targets at SRS and ORNL, with no plans to separate and store the isotopes for future use. Although the costs of preserving these heavy actinide materials would be considerable, for all practical purposes they are irreplaceable. The effort required to reproduce these heavy actinides today would likely cost billions of dollars and encompass a series of irradiation and chemical separation cycles for at least 50 years; thus, reproduction is virtually impossible. DOE has a limited window of opportunity to recover and preserve these heavy actinides before they are disposed of as waste. A path forward is presented to recover and manage these irreplaceable National Asset materials for future use in research, nuclear forensics, and other potential applications.

  20. Actinide science with soft x-ray synchrotron radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shuh, David K.

    2000-07-01

    The primary methods for the experimental investigation of actinide materials in the VUV/soft x-ray region are the complementary photoelectron spectroscopies, near-edge x-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS), and x-ray emission spectroscopy (XES) techniques. Resonant photoemission techniques capable of resolving the 5f electron contributions to actinide bonding along with angle-resolving measurements for band structure and surface structure determinations, have clear and immediate applications. Venerable angle-integrating core and valence band photoelectron spectroscopy are valuable for characterization and analytical purposes. Combined with results from NEXAFS measurements, these techniques will provide the information needed to develop improved understandings of the electronic structure of actinide materials and their surface chemistries/physics.

  1. Nuclear waste forms for actinides.

    PubMed

    Ewing, R C

    1999-03-30

    The disposition of actinides, most recently 239Pu from dismantled nuclear weapons, requires effective containment of waste generated by the nuclear fuel cycle. Because actinides (e.g., 239Pu and 237Np) are long-lived, they have a major impact on risk assessments of geologic repositories. Thus, demonstrable, long-term chemical and mechanical durability are essential properties of waste forms for the immobilization of actinides. Mineralogic and geologic studies provide excellent candidate phases for immobilization and a unique database that cannot be duplicated by a purely materials science approach. The "mineralogic approach" is illustrated by a discussion of zircon as a phase for the immobilization of excess weapons plutonium.

  2. Actinide Burning in CANDU Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Hyland, B.; Dyck, G.R.

    2007-07-01

    Actinide burning in CANDU reactors has been studied as a method of reducing the actinide content of spent nuclear fuel from light water reactors, and thereby decreasing the associated long term decay heat load. In this work simulations were performed of actinides mixed with natural uranium to form a mixed oxide (MOX) fuel, and also mixed with silicon carbide to form an inert matrix (IMF) fuel. Both of these fuels were taken to a higher burnup than has previously been studied. The total transuranic element destruction calculated was 40% for the MOX fuel and 71% for the IMF. (authors)

  3. Laboratory studies of actinide metal-silicate fractionation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, J. H.; Burnett, D. S.

    1980-01-01

    Actinide and Sm partition coefficients between silicate melt and several metallic phases have been measured. Under reducing conditions Si, Th, U and Pu can be reduced to metals from silicate melts and alloyed with a platinum-gold alloy. U and Pu enter a molten Pt-Si alloy with roughly equal affinity but U strongly partitions into the solid Pt. Th behaves qualitatively the same as Pu but is much less readily reduced than U, and Sm appears to remain unreduced. Experiments with Fe metal have shown that the partition coefficients of the actinides between Fe and silicate liquid are extremely low, suggesting a very low actinide concentration in planetary cores. Experiments show that platinum metals can efficiently fractionate actinides and fractionate actinides from lanthanides and this process may be relevant to the condensation behavior of these elements from the solar nebula. Pt-metal grains in Allende Ca-Al-rich inclusions appear to be U-poor, although the sub-class of Zr-bearing Pt metals may have high U contents.

  4. Catalytic reactor with improved burner

    DOEpatents

    Faitani, Joseph J.; Austin, George W.; Chase, Terry J.; Suljak, George T.; Misage, Robert J.

    1981-01-01

    To more uniformly distribute heat to the plurality of catalyst tubes in a catalytic reaction furnace, the burner disposed in the furnace above the tops of the tubes includes concentric primary and secondary annular fuel and air outlets. The fuel-air mixture from the primary outlet is directed towards the tubes adjacent the furnace wall, and the burning secondary fuel-air mixture is directed horizontally from the secondary outlet and a portion thereof is deflected downwardly by a slotted baffle toward the tubes in the center of the furnace while the remaining portion passes through the slotted baffle to another baffle disposed radially outwardly therefrom which deflects it downwardly in the vicinity of the tubes between those in the center and those near the wall of the furnace.

  5. FIELD EVALUATION OF LOW-EMISSION COAL BURNER TECHNOLOGY ON UTILITY BOILERS VOLUME II. SECOND GENERATION LOW-NOX BURNERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report describes tests to evaluate the performance characteristics of three Second Generation Low-NOx burner designs: the Dual Register burner (DRB), the Babcock-Hitachi NOx Reducing (HNR) burner, and the XCL burner. The three represent a progression in development based on t...

  6. Environmental research on actinide elements

    SciTech Connect

    Pinder, J.E. III; Alberts, J.J.; McLeod, K.W.; Schreckhise, R.G.

    1987-08-01

    The papers synthesize the results of research sponsored by DOE's Office of Health and Environmental Research on the behavior of transuranic and actinide elements in the environment. Separate abstracts have been prepared for the 21 individual papers. (ACR)

  7. Actinide transmutation in nuclear reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Ganev, I.K.; Lopatkin, A.V.; Naumov, V.V.; Tocheny, L.V.

    1993-12-31

    Of some interest is the comparison between the actinide nuclide burning up (fission) rates such as americium 241, americium 242, curium 244, and neptunium 237, in the reactors with fast or thermal neutron spectra.

  8. Reverberatory screen for a radiant burner

    DOEpatents

    Gray, Paul E.

    1999-01-01

    The present invention relates to porous mat gas fired radiant burner panels utilizing improved reverberatory screens. The purpose of these screens is to boost the overall radiant output of the burner relative to a burner using no screen and the same fuel-air flow rates. In one embodiment, the reverberatory screen is fabricated from ceramic composite material, which can withstand higher operating temperatures than its metallic equivalent. In another embodiment the reverberatory screen is corrugated. The corrugations add stiffness which helps to resist creep and thermally induced distortions due to temperature or thermal expansion coefficient differences. As an added benefit, it has been unexpectedly discovered that the corrugations further increase the radiant efficiency of the burner. In a preferred embodiment, the reverberatory screen is both corrugated and made from ceramic composite material.

  9. Alzeta porous radiant burner. CRADA final report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-01

    An Alzeta Pyrocore porous radiant burner was tested for the first time at elevated pressures and mass flows. Mapping of the burner`s stability limits (flashback, blowoff, and lean extinction limits) in an outward fired configuration and hot wall environment was carried out at pressures up to 18 atm, firing rates up to 180 kW, and excess air rates up to 100%. A central composite experimental design for parametric testing within the stability limits produced statistically sound correlations of dimensionless burner temperature and NO{sub x} emissions as functions of equivalence ratio, dimensionless firing rate, and reciprocal Reynolds number. The NO{sub x} emissions were below 4 ppmvd at 15% O{sub 2} for all conditions tested, and the CO and unburned hydrocarbon levels were simultaneously low. As a direct result of this cooperative research effort between METC and Alzeta, Solar Turbines has already expressed a strong interest in this novel technology.

  10. Silane-propane ignitor/burner

    DOEpatents

    Hill, Richard W.; Skinner, Dewey F.; Thorsness, Charles B.

    1985-01-01

    A silane propane burner for an underground coal gasification process which is used to ignite the coal and to controllably retract the injection point by cutting the injection pipe. A narrow tube with a burner tip is positioned in the injection pipe through which an oxidant (oxygen or air) is flowed. A charge of silane followed by a supply of fuel, such as propane, is flowed through the tube. The silane spontaneously ignites on contact with oxygen and burns the propane fuel.

  11. Silane-propane ignitor/burner

    DOEpatents

    Hill, R.W.; Skinner, D.F. Jr.; Thorsness, C.B.

    1983-05-26

    A silane propane burner for an underground coal gasification process which is used to ignite the coal and to controllably retract the injection point by cutting the injection pipe. A narrow tube with a burner tip is positioned in the injection pipe through which an oxidant (oxygen or air) is flowed. A charge of silane followed by a supply of fuel, such as propane, is flowed through the tube. The silane spontaneously ignites on contact with oxygen and burns the propane fuel.

  12. Regenerative Burner System for Thermoelectric Power Sources.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-07-01

    of the air—to—air heat exchanger, the smoke level. An exceptionally cisan , smokeless Heat b ases, present in the configuration of this pro— fire is...zero (0) on this scale. A Bacharach number totype heat exchanger, are estimated to be approxi— of 10 is the highest smoke level measured and corre...regenera— and fouling. High reliability burners are normally tive burner system design . The lower fuel requirement adjusted to No. 2 or 3 smoke . Scale

  13. Experimental study of the thermal-acoustic efficiency in a long turbulent diffusion-flame burner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mahan, J. R.

    1983-01-01

    A two-year study of noise production in a long tubular burner is described. The research was motivated by an interest in understanding and eventually reducing core noise in gas turbine engines. The general approach is to employ an acoustic source/propagation model to interpret the sound pressure spectrum in the acoustic far field of the burner in terms of the source spectrum that must have produced it. In the model the sources are assumed to be due uniquely to the unsteady component of combustion heat release; thus only direct combustion-noise is considered. The source spectrum is then the variation with frequency of the thermal-acoustic efficiency, defined as the fraction of combustion heat release which is converted into acoustic energy at a given frequency. The thrust of the research was to study the variation of the source spectrum with the design and operating parameters of the burner.

  14. How ''flat'' is the rich premixed flame produced by your McKenna burner?

    SciTech Connect

    Migliorini, F.; De Iuliis, S.; Cignoli, F.; Zizak, G.

    2008-05-15

    McKenna burners are widely used in the combustion community for producing ''flat'' premixed flames. These flames are considered as standards for the development and calibration of optical techniques. Rich premixed flames produced by McKenna burners are frequently investigated in order to understand soot formation processes both by optical and by sampling techniques. Measurements are normally performed along the axis of the flames, with a uniform distribution of temperature and species concentration assumed in the radial direction. In this work it is shown that the soot radial profiles of rich premixed ethylene-air flames produced by a McKenna burner with a stainless steel porous plug may be far from being ''flat.'' Soot is mainly distributed in an annular region and nonsoot fluorescing species are present in the core of the flames. This surprising result was verified under several working conditions. Furthermore, flames cannot be considered axial-symmetric but present a skewed soot distribution. Another McKenna burner with a bronze porous disk was used to produce flames of the same equivalence ratio and flows. These flames show a completely different soot radial profile, closer to the claimed flat distribution. These results cast doubts about the conclusions drawn in several studies on soot formation performed with a stainless steel McKenna burner. (author)

  15. Burners and combustion apparatus for carbon nanomaterial production

    DOEpatents

    Alford, J. Michael; Diener, Michael D; Nabity, James; Karpuk, Michael

    2013-02-05

    The invention provides improved burners, combustion apparatus, and methods for carbon nanomaterial production. The burners of the invention provide sooting flames of fuel and oxidizing gases. The condensable products of combustion produced by the burners of this invention produce carbon nanomaterials including without limitation, soot, fullerenic soot, and fullerenes. The burners of the invention do not require premixing of the fuel and oxidizing gases and are suitable for use with low vapor pressure fuels such as those containing substantial amounts of polyaromatic hydrocarbons. The burners of the invention can operate with a hot (e.g., uncooled) burner surface and require little, if any, cooling or other forms of heat sinking. The burners of the invention comprise one or more refractory elements forming the outlet of the burner at which a flame can be established. The burners of the invention provide for improved flame stability, can be employed with a wider range of fuel/oxidizer (e.g., air) ratios and a wider range of gas velocities, and are generally more efficient than burners using water-cooled metal burner plates. The burners of the invention can also be operated to reduce the formation of undesirable soot deposits on the burner and on surfaces downstream of the burner.

  16. Burners and combustion apparatus for carbon nanomaterial production

    DOEpatents

    Alford, J. Michael; Diener, Michael D.; Nabity, James; Karpuk, Michael

    2007-10-09

    The invention provides improved burners, combustion apparatus, and methods for carbon nanomaterial production. The burners of the invention provide sooting flames of fuel and oxidizing gases. The condensable products of combustion produced by the burners of this invention produce carbon nanomaterials including without limitation, soot, fullerenic soot, and fullerenes. The burners of the invention do not require premixing of the fuel and oxidizing gases and are suitable for use with low vapor pressure fuels such as those containing substantial amounts of polyaromatic hydrocarbons. The burners of the invention can operate with a hot (e.g., uncooled) burner surface and require little, if any, cooling or other forms of heat sinking. The burners of the invention comprise one or more refractory elements forming the outlet of the burner at which a flame can be established. The burners of the invention provide for improved flame stability, can be employed with a wider range of fuel/oxidizer (e.g., air) ratios and a wider range of gas velocities, and are generally more efficient than burners using water-cooled metal burner plates. The burners of the invention can also be operated to reduce the formation of undesirable soot deposits on the burner and on surfaces downstream of the burner.

  17. Fission-product data analysis from actinide samples exposed in the Dounreay Prototype Fast Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, B.D.; Dickens, J.K.; Walker, R.L.; Newton, T.D.

    1994-12-31

    Since 1979 a cooperative agreement has been in effect between the United States and the United Kingdom to investigate the irradiation of various actinide species placed in the core of the Dounreay Prototype Fast Reactor (PFR). The irradiated species were isotopes of thorium, protactinium, uranium, neptunium, plutonium, americium, and curium. A set of actinide samples (mg quantities) was exposed to about 490 effective full power days (EFPD) of reactor operations. The fission-product results are reported here. The actinide results will be report elsewhere.

  18. Actinides in the Source of Cosmic Rays and the Present Interstellar Medium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lingenfelter, R. E.; Higdon, J. C.; Kratz, K. -L.

    2003-01-01

    The abundances of the actinide elements in the cosmic rays can provide critical constraints on the major sites of their acceleration. Using recent calculations of the r-process yields in core collapse supernovae, we have determined the actinide abundances averaged over various assumed time intervals for their supernova generation and their cosmic-ray acceleration. Using standard Galactic chemical evolution models, we have also determined the expected actinide abundances in the present interstellar medium. From these two components, we have calculated the U/Th and other actinide abundances expected in the supernova-active cores of superbubbles, as a function of their ages and mean metallicity resulting from dilution with interstellar cloud debris. Then, using observations of the fractions of Galactic supernovae that occur in superbubbles and in the rest of the interstellar medium, we calculate the expected actinide abundances in cosmic rays accelerated by Galactic supernovae. We find that the current measurements of actinide/Pt-group and preliminary estimates of the UPuCm/Th ratio in cosmic rays are all consistent with the expected values if superbubble cores have mean metallicities of around 3 times solar. Such metallicities are quite comparable to the superbubble core metallicities inferred from other cosmic-ray observations. Future, more precise measurements of these ratios with experiments such as ECCO are needed to provide a better measure of the mean source metallicity sampled by the local Galactic cosmic rays. Measurements of the cosmic- ray actinide abundances have been favorably compared with the protosolar ratio, inferred from present solar system abundances, to infer that the cosmic rays are accelerated from the general interstellar medium. We suggest, however, that such an inference is not valid because the expected actinide abundances in the present interstellar medium are very different from the protosolar values, which sampled the interstellar medium

  19. Kinetics of actinide complexation reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Nash, K.L.; Sullivan, J.C.

    1997-09-01

    Though the literature records extensive compilations of the thermodynamics of actinide complexation reactions, the kinetics of complex formation and dissociation reactions of actinide ions in aqueous solutions have not been extensively investigated. In light of the central role played by such reactions in actinide process and environmental chemistry, this situation is somewhat surprising. The authors report herein a summary of what is known about actinide complexation kinetics. The systems include actinide ions in the four principal oxidation states (III, IV, V, and VI) and complex formation and dissociation rates with both simple and complex ligands. Most of the work reported was conducted in acidic media, but a few address reactions in neutral and alkaline solutions. Complex formation reactions tend in general to be rapid, accessible only to rapid-scan and equilibrium perturbation techniques. Complex dissociation reactions exhibit a wider range of rates and are generally more accessible using standard analytical methods. Literature results are described and correlated with the known properties of the individual ions.

  20. 33rd Actinide Separations Conference

    SciTech Connect

    McDonald, L M; Wilk, P A

    2009-05-04

    Welcome to the 33rd Actinide Separations Conference hosted this year by the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. This annual conference is centered on the idea of networking and communication with scientists from throughout the United States, Britain, France and Japan who have expertise in nuclear material processing. This conference forum provides an excellent opportunity for bringing together experts in the fields of chemistry, nuclear and chemical engineering, and actinide processing to present and discuss experiences, research results, testing and application of actinide separation processes. The exchange of information that will take place between you, and other subject matter experts from around the nation and across the international boundaries, is a critical tool to assist in solving both national and international problems associated with the processing of nuclear materials used for both defense and energy purposes, as well as for the safe disposition of excess nuclear material. Granlibakken is a dedicated conference facility and training campus that is set up to provide the venue that supports communication between scientists and engineers attending the 33rd Actinide Separations Conference. We believe that you will find that Granlibakken and the Lake Tahoe views provide an atmosphere that is stimulating for fruitful discussions between participants from both government and private industry. We thank the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and the United States Department of Energy for their support of this conference. We especially thank you, the participants and subject matter experts, for your involvement in the 33rd Actinide Separations Conference.

  1. CHP Integrated with Burners for Packaged Boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Castaldini, Carlo; Darby, Eric

    2013-09-30

    The objective of this project was to engineer, design, fabricate, and field demonstrate a Boiler Burner Energy System Technology (BBEST) that integrates a low-cost, clean burning, gas-fired simple-cycle (unrecuperated) 100 kWe (net) microturbine (SCMT) with a new ultra low-NOx gas-fired burner (ULNB) into one compact Combined Heat and Power (CHP) product that can be retrofit on new and existing industrial and commercial boilers in place of conventional burners. The Scope of Work for this project was segmented into two principal phases: (Phase I) Hardware development, assembly and pre-test and (Phase II) Field installation and demonstration testing. Phase I was divided into five technical tasks (Task 2 to 6). These tasks covered the engineering, design, fabrication, testing and optimization of each key component of the CHP system principally, ULNB, SCMT, assembly BBEST CHP package, and integrated controls. Phase I work culminated with the laboratory testing of the completed BBEST assembly prior to shipment for field installation and demonstration. Phase II consisted of two remaining technical tasks (Task 7 and 8), which focused on the installation, startup, and field verification tests at a pre-selected industrial plant to document performance and attainment of all project objectives. Technical direction and administration was under the management of CMCE, Inc. Altex Technologies Corporation lead the design, assembly and testing of the system. Field demonstration was supported by Leva Energy, the commercialization firm founded by executives at CMCE and Altex. Leva Energy has applied for patent protection on the BBEST process under the trade name of Power Burner and holds the license for the burner currently used in the product. The commercial term Power Burner is used throughout this report to refer to the BBEST technology proposed for this project. The project was co-funded by the California Energy Commission and the Southern California Gas Company (SCG), a

  2. New cubic structure compounds as actinide host phases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stefanovsky, S. V.; Yudintsev, S. V.; Livshits, T. S.

    2010-03-01

    Various compounds with fluorite (cubic zirconia) and fluorite-derived (pyrochlore, zirconolite) structures are considered as promising actinide host phases at immobilization of actinide-bearing nuclear wastes. Recently some new cubic compounds — stannate and stannate-zirconate pyrochlores, murataite and related phases, and actinide-bearing garnet structure compounds were proposed as perspective matrices for complex actinide wastes. Zirconate pyrochlore (ideally Gd2Zr2O7) has excellent radiation resistance and high chemical durability but requires high temperatures (at least 1500 °C) to be produced by hot-pressing from sol-gel derived precursor. Partial Sn4+ substitution for Zr4+ reduces production temperature and the compounds REE2ZrSnO7 may be hot-pressed or cold pressed and sintered at ~1400 °C. Pyrochlore, A2B2O7-x (two-fold elementary fluorite unit cell), and murataite, A3B6C2O20-y (three-fold fluorite unit cell), are end-members of the polysomatic series consisting of the phases whose structures are built from alternating pyrochlore and murataite blocks (nano-sized modules) with seven- (2C/3C/2C), five- (2C/3C), eight- (3C/2C/3C) and three-fold (3C — murataite) fluorite unit cells. Actinide content in this series reduces in the row: 2C (pyrochlore) > 7C > 5C > 8C > 3C (murataite). Due to congruent melting murataite-based ceramics may be produced by melting and the firstly segregated phase at melt crystallization is that with the highest fraction of the pyrochlore modules in its structure. The melts containing up to 10 wt. % AnO2 (An = Th, U, Np, Pu) or REE/An fraction of HLW form at crystallization zoned grains composed sequentially of the 5C → 8C → 3C phases with the highest actinide concentration in the core and the lowest — in the rim of the grains. Radiation resistance of the "murataite" is comparable to titanate pyrochlores. One more promising actinide hosts are ferrites with garnet structure. The matrices containing sometime complex fluorite

  3. Nuclear waste forms for actinides

    PubMed Central

    Ewing, Rodney C.

    1999-01-01

    The disposition of actinides, most recently 239Pu from dismantled nuclear weapons, requires effective containment of waste generated by the nuclear fuel cycle. Because actinides (e.g., 239Pu and 237Np) are long-lived, they have a major impact on risk assessments of geologic repositories. Thus, demonstrable, long-term chemical and mechanical durability are essential properties of waste forms for the immobilization of actinides. Mineralogic and geologic studies provide excellent candidate phases for immobilization and a unique database that cannot be duplicated by a purely materials science approach. The “mineralogic approach” is illustrated by a discussion of zircon as a phase for the immobilization of excess weapons plutonium. PMID:10097054

  4. Actinides and Life's Origins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adam, Zachary

    2007-12-01

    There are growing indications that life began in a radioactive beach environment. A geologic framework for the origin or support of life in a Hadean heavy mineral placer beach has been developed, based on the unique chemical properties of the lower-electronic actinides, which act as nuclear fissile and fertile fuels, radiolytic energy sources, oligomer catalysts, and coordinating ions (along with mineralogically associated lanthanides) for prototypical prebiotic homonuclear and dinuclear metalloenzymes. A four-factor nuclear reactor model was constructed to estimate how much uranium would have been required to initiate a sustainable fission reaction within a placer beach sand 4.3 billion years ago. It was calculated that about 1-8 weight percent of the sand would have to have been uraninite, depending on the weight percent, uranium enrichment, and quantity of neutron poisons present within the remaining placer minerals. Radiolysis experiments were conducted with various solvents with the use of uranium- and thorium-rich minerals (metatorbernite and monazite, respectively) as proxies for radioactive beach sand in contact with different carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen reactants. Radiation bombardment ranged in duration of exposure from 3 weeks to 6 months. Low levels of acetonitrile (estimated to be on the order of parts per billion in concentration) were conclusively identified in 2 setups and tentatively indicated in a 3rd by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. These low levels have been interpreted within the context of a Hadean placer beach prebiotic framework to demonstrate the promise of investigating natural nuclear reactors as power production sites that might have assisted the origins of life on young rocky planets with a sufficiently differentiated crust/mantle structure. Future investigations are recommended to better quantify the complex relationships between energy release, radioactive grain size, fissionability, reactant phase, phosphorus

  5. Actinides and Life's Origins.

    PubMed

    Adam, Zachary

    2007-12-01

    There are growing indications that life began in a radioactive beach environment. A geologic framework for the origin or support of life in a Hadean heavy mineral placer beach has been developed, based on the unique chemical properties of the lower-electronic actinides, which act as nuclear fissile and fertile fuels, radiolytic energy sources, oligomer catalysts, and coordinating ions (along with mineralogically associated lanthanides) for prototypical prebiotic homonuclear and dinuclear metalloenzymes. A four-factor nuclear reactor model was constructed to estimate how much uranium would have been required to initiate a sustainable fission reaction within a placer beach sand 4.3 billion years ago. It was calculated that about 1-8 weight percent of the sand would have to have been uraninite, depending on the weight percent, uranium enrichment, and quantity of neutron poisons present within the remaining placer minerals. Radiolysis experiments were conducted with various solvents with the use of uraniumand thorium-rich minerals (metatorbernite and monazite, respectively) as proxies for radioactive beach sand in contact with different carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen reactants. Radiation bombardment ranged in duration of exposure from 3 weeks to 6 months. Low levels of acetonitrile (estimated to be on the order of parts per billion in concentration) were conclusively identified in 2 setups and tentatively indicated in a 3(rd) by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. These low levels have been interpreted within the context of a Hadean placer beach prebiotic framework to demonstrate the promise of investigating natural nuclear reactors as power production sites that might have assisted the origins of life on young rocky planets with a sufficiently differentiated crust/mantle structure. Future investigations are recommended to better quantify the complex relationships between energy release, radioactive grain size, fissionability, reactant phase, phosphorus

  6. Fuel-flexible burner apparatus and method for fired heaters

    DOEpatents

    Zink, Darton J.; Isaacs, Rex K.; Jamaluddin, A. S.; Benson, Charles E.; Pellizzari, Roberto O.; Little, Cody L.; Marty, Seth A.; Imel, K. Parker; Barnes, Jonathon E.; Parker, Chris S.

    2017-03-14

    A burner apparatus for a fired heating system and a method of burner operation. The burner provides stable operation when burning gas fuels having heating values ranging from low to high and accommodates sudden wide changes in the Wobbe value of the fuel delivered to the burner. The burner apparatus includes a plurality of exterior fuel ejectors and has an exterior notch which extends around the burner wall for receiving and combusting a portion of the gas fuel. At least a portion of the hot combustion product gas produced in the exterior notch is delivered through channels formed in the burner wall to the combustion area at the forward end of the burner. As the Wobbe value of the gas fuel decreases, one or more outer series of addition ejectors can be automatically activated as needed to maintain the amount of heat output desired.

  7. Preliminary considerations concerning actinide solubilities

    SciTech Connect

    Newton, T.W.; Bayhurst, B.P.; Daniels, W.R.; Erdal, B.R.; Ogard, A.E.

    1980-01-01

    Work at the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory on the fundamental solution chemistry of the actinides has thus far been confined to preliminary considerations of the problems involved in developing an understanding of the precipitation and dissolution behavior of actinide compounds under environmental conditions. Attempts have been made to calculate solubility as a function of Eh and pH using the appropriate thermodynamic data; results have been presented in terms of contour maps showing lines of constant solubility as a function of Eh and pH. Possible methods of control of the redox potential of rock-groundwater systems by the use of Eh buffers (redox couples) is presented.

  8. Actinide chemistry in ionic liquids.

    PubMed

    Takao, Koichiro; Bell, Thomas James; Ikeda, Yasuhisa

    2013-04-01

    This Forum Article provides an overview of the reported studies on the actinide chemistry in ionic liquids (ILs) with a particular focus on several fundamental chemical aspects: (i) complex formation, (ii) electrochemistry, and (iii) extraction behavior. The majority of investigations have been dedicated to uranium, especially for the 6+ oxidation state (UO2(2+)), because the chemistry of uranium in ordinary solvents has been well investigated and uranium is the most abundant element in the actual nuclear fuel cycles. Other actinides such as thorium, neptunium, plutonium, americium, and curiumm, although less studied, are also of importance in fully understanding the nuclear fuel engineering process and the safe geological disposal of radioactive wastes.

  9. Actinide Thermodynamics at Elevated Temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Friese, Judah I.; Rao, Linfeng; Xia, Yuanxian; Bachelor, Paula P.; Tian, Guoxin

    2007-11-16

    The postclosure chemical environment in the proposed Yucca Mountain repository is expected to experience elevated temperatures. Predicting migration of actinides is possible if sufficient, reliable thermodynamic data on hydrolysis and complexation are available for these temperatures. Data are scarce and scattered for 25 degrees C, and nonexistent for elevated temperatures. This collaborative project between LBNL and PNNL collects thermodynamic data at elevated temperatures on actinide complexes with inorganic ligands that may be present in Yucca Mountain. The ligands include hydroxide, fluoride, sulfate, phosphate and carbonate. Thermodynamic parameters of complexation, including stability constants, enthalpy, entropy and heat capacity of complexation, are measured with a variety of techniques including solvent extraction, potentiometry, spectrophotometry and calorimetry

  10. Industrial Energy Conservation, Forced Internal Recirculation Burner

    SciTech Connect

    Joseph Rabovitser

    2003-06-19

    The overall objective of this research project is to develop and evaluate an industrial low NOx burner for existing and new gas-fired combustion systems for intermediate temperature (1400 degree to 2000 degree F) industrial heating devices such as watertube boilers and process fluid heaters. A multi-phase effort is being pursued with decision points to determine advisability of continuance. The current contract over Phases II and III of this work. The objectives of each phase are as follows. Phase II - to design, fabricate, and evaluate prototype burners based on the Forced Internal Recirculation (FIR) concept. Phase III - to evaluate the performance of an FIR burner under actual operating conditions in a full-scale field test and establish the performance necessary for subsequent commercialization

  11. Improved radiant burner material. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Milewski, J.V.; Shoultz, R.A.; Bourque, M.M.; Milewski, E.B.

    1998-01-01

    Under DOE/ERIP funds were made available to Superkinetic, Inc. for the development of an improved radiant burner material. Three single crystal ceramic fibers were produced and two fiber materials were made into felt for testing as radiant burner screens. The materials were alpha alumina and alpha silicon nitride. These fibers were bonded with a high temperature ceramic and made into a structurally sound trusswork like screen composed of million psi fiber members. These screens were about 5% solid for 95 porosity as needed to permit the flow of combustable natural gas and air mixture. Combustion test proved that they performed very satisfactory and better than the current state of art screen and showed no visable degrade after testing. It is recommended that more time and money be put into expanding this technology and test these new materials for their maximum temperature and durability for production applications that require better burner material.

  12. Low NO.sub.x burner system

    DOEpatents

    Kitto, Jr., John B.; Kleisley, Roger J.; LaRue, Albert D.; Latham, Chris E.; Laursen, Thomas A.

    1993-01-01

    A low NO.sub.x burner system for a furnace having spaced apart front and rear walls, comprises a double row of cell burners on each of the front and rear walls. Each cell burner is either of the inverted type with a secondary air nozzle spaced vertically below a coal nozzle, or the non-inverted type where the coal nozzle is below the secondary air port. The inverted and non-inverted cells alternate or are provided in other specified patterns at least in the lower row of cells. A small percentage of the total air can be also provided through the hopper or hopper throat forming the bottom of the furnace, or through the boiler hopper side walls. A shallow angle impeller design also advances the purpose of the invention which is to reduce CO and H.sub.2 S admissions while maintaining low NO.sub.x generation.

  13. Experimental Evaluation of Actinide Transport in a Fractured Granodiorite

    SciTech Connect

    Dittrich, Timothy M.; Reimus, Paul W.

    2015-03-16

    The objective of this study was to demonstrate and evaluate new experimental methods for quantifying the potential for actinide transport in deep fractured crystalline rock formations. We selected a fractured granodiorite at the Grimsel Test Site (GTS) in Switzerland as a model system because field experiments have already been conducted with uranium and additional field experiments using other actinides are planned at the site. Thus, working on this system provides a unique opportunity to compare lab experiment results with fieldscale observations. Rock cores drilled from the GTS were shipped to Los Alamos National Laboratory, characterized by x-ray diffraction and microscopy, and used in batch sorption and column breakthrough experiments. Solutions with pH 6.8 and 8.8 were tested. Solutions were switched to radionuclide-free synthetic Grimsel groundwater after near-steady actinide/colloid breakthrough occurred in column experiments. We are currently evaluating actinide adsorption/desorption rates as a function of water chemistry (initial focus on pH), with future testing planned to evaluate the influence of carbonate concentrations, flow rates, and mineralogy in solutions and suspensions with bentonite colloids. (auth)

  14. Automatic gas burner block for thermal units

    SciTech Connect

    Kryzhanovskii, K.S.; Senatov, V.I.

    1987-01-01

    The authors describe a new computerized control system and gas burner configuration for natural gas furnaces used for the heat treatment of ceramics and porcelain which is designed to control and monitor combustion and temperature regimes in the furnace and optimize fuel efficiency. The system permits simultaneous operation and thermal load control of up to 12 burners, automatic maintenance of the desired fuel-air ratio over the entire temperature range, and protection of the furnace against overload by the use of a fuel cutoff switch. Specifications on productivity and efficiency and results of performance evaluations are listed.

  15. DESIGN REPORT: LOW-NOX BURNERS FOR PACKAGE BOILERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report describes a low-NOx burner design, presented for residual-oil-fired industrial boilers and boilers cofiring conventional fuels and nitrated hazardous wastes. The burner offers lower NOx emission levels for these applications than conventional commercial burners. The bu...

  16. 30 CFR 57.7803 - Lighting the burner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Lighting the burner. 57.7803 Section 57.7803... Jet Piercing Rotary Jet Piercing-Surface Only § 57.7803 Lighting the burner. A suitable means of protection shall be provided for the employee when lighting the burner....

  17. 30 CFR 56.7803 - Lighting the burner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Lighting the burner. 56.7803 Section 56.7803... Piercing Rotary Jet Piercing § 56.7803 Lighting the burner. A suitable means of protection shall be provided for the employee when lighting the burner....

  18. 30 CFR 57.7803 - Lighting the burner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Lighting the burner. 57.7803 Section 57.7803... Jet Piercing Rotary Jet Piercing-Surface Only § 57.7803 Lighting the burner. A suitable means of protection shall be provided for the employee when lighting the burner....

  19. 30 CFR 56.7803 - Lighting the burner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Lighting the burner. 56.7803 Section 56.7803... Piercing Rotary Jet Piercing § 56.7803 Lighting the burner. A suitable means of protection shall be provided for the employee when lighting the burner....

  20. 30 CFR 57.7803 - Lighting the burner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Lighting the burner. 57.7803 Section 57.7803... Jet Piercing Rotary Jet Piercing-Surface Only § 57.7803 Lighting the burner. A suitable means of protection shall be provided for the employee when lighting the burner....

  1. 30 CFR 57.7803 - Lighting the burner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Lighting the burner. 57.7803 Section 57.7803... Jet Piercing Rotary Jet Piercing-Surface Only § 57.7803 Lighting the burner. A suitable means of protection shall be provided for the employee when lighting the burner....

  2. 30 CFR 56.7803 - Lighting the burner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Lighting the burner. 56.7803 Section 56.7803... Piercing Rotary Jet Piercing § 56.7803 Lighting the burner. A suitable means of protection shall be provided for the employee when lighting the burner....

  3. 30 CFR 56.7803 - Lighting the burner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Lighting the burner. 56.7803 Section 56.7803... Piercing Rotary Jet Piercing § 56.7803 Lighting the burner. A suitable means of protection shall be provided for the employee when lighting the burner....

  4. 30 CFR 56.7803 - Lighting the burner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Lighting the burner. 56.7803 Section 56.7803... Piercing Rotary Jet Piercing § 56.7803 Lighting the burner. A suitable means of protection shall be provided for the employee when lighting the burner....

  5. 30 CFR 57.7803 - Lighting the burner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Lighting the burner. 57.7803 Section 57.7803... Jet Piercing Rotary Jet Piercing-Surface Only § 57.7803 Lighting the burner. A suitable means of protection shall be provided for the employee when lighting the burner....

  6. Visualisation of isothermal large coherent structures in a swirl burner

    SciTech Connect

    Valera-Medina, A.; Syred, N.; Griffiths, A.

    2009-09-15

    Lean premixed combustion using swirl flame stabilisation is widespread amongst gas turbine manufacturers. The use of swirl mixing and flame stabilisation is also prevalent in many other non-premixed systems. Problems that emerge include loss of stabilisation as a function of combustor geometry and thermo-acoustic instabilities. Coherent structures and their relationship with combustion processes have been a concern for decades due to their complex nature. This paper thus adopts an experimental approach to characterise large coherent structures in swirl burners under isothermal conditions so as to reveal the effects of swirl in a number of geometries and cold flow patterns that are relevant in combustion. Aided by techniques such as Hot Wire Anemometry, High Speed Photography and Particle Image Velocimetry, the recognition of several structures was achieved in a 100 kW swirl burner model. Several varied, interacting, structures developed in the field as a consequence of the configurations used. New structures never observed before were identified, the results not only showing the existence of very well defined large structures, but also their dependency on geometrical and flow parameters. The PVC is confirmed to be a semi-helical structure, contrary to previous simulations performed on the system. The appearance of secondary recirculation zones and suppression of the vortical core as a consequence of geometrical constrictions are presented as a mechanism of flow control. The asymmetry of the Central Recirculation Zone in cold flows is observed in all the experiments, with its elongation dependent on Re and swirl number used. (author)

  7. FIELD EVALUATION OF LOW-EMISSION COAL BURNER TECHNOLOGY ON UTILITY BURNERS VOLUME V. BURNER EVALUATION DATA APPENDICES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives a detailed summary of data which were generated during the testing of experimental burners on EPA's Large Watertube Simulator (LWS) test facility. The test data are presented as a series of appendices. Appendix A describe the data quality assurance procedures whi...

  8. Separations of actinides, lanthanides and other metals

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Barbara F.; Jarvinen, Gordon D.; Ensor, Dale D.

    1995-01-01

    An organic extracting solution comprised of a bis(acylpyrazolone or a substituted bis(acylpyrazolone) and an extraction method useful for separating certain elements of the actinide series of the periodic table having a valence of four from one other, and also from one or more of the substances in a group consisting of hexavalent actinides, trivalent actinides, trivalent lanthanides, trivalent iron, trivalent aluminum, divalent metals, and monovalent metals and also from one or more of the substances in a group consisting of hexavalent actinides, trivalent actinides, trivalent lanthanides, trivalent iron, trivalent aluminum, divalent metals, and monovalent metals and also useful for separating hexavalent actinides from one or more of the substances in a group consisting of trivalent actinides, trivalent lanthanides, trivalent iron, trivalent aluminum, divalent metals, and monovalent metals.

  9. Molecular models for actinide speciation

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, D.L.; Watkin, J.G.; Morris, D.E.; Berg, J.M.

    1994-06-01

    Much effort has been devoted to the development of sensitive spectroscopic techniques for the study of actinide speciation based on the sensitivity of f-f electronic absorption bands to oxidation state and ligation of the actinide ions. These efforts assume that data obtained in such studies will be interpretable in terms of changes in complexation of the metal center. However, the current understanding of 5f electronic structure is based on data from solid state doped single crystals. In those studies, the local coordination geometry about the central actinide ion is maintained in an almost perfect high-symmetry environment and will have little relevance for species in solution where deviations from perfect high symmetry tend to be the rule rather than the exception. The authors have developed a vigorous research program in the systematic preparation and spectroscopic characterization of synthetic actinide complexes (Th, U, Np, and Pu) in which they can control nuclearity, oxidation state, and molecular structure. These complexes have been used to determine how observable electronic transitions are perturbed in response to structural changes in the complex in solution. From the spectra obtained for these model complexes, the authors have found that the f-f transitions naturally fall into obvious groupings by coordination number and symmetry by which they can now differentiate between monomeric, dimeric, and trimeric species in solution. The study of radionuclide speciation is fundamentally important to the determination of radionuclide solubility in the groundwater at Yucca Mountain.

  10. COST-EFFECTIVE CONTROL OF NOx WITH INTEGRATED ULTRA LOW-NOx BURNERS AND SNCR

    SciTech Connect

    Hamid Farzan; Jennifer Sivy; Alan Sayre; John Boyle

    2003-07-01

    Under sponsorship of the Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), McDermott Technology, Inc. (MTI), the Babcock & Wilcox Company (B&W), and Fuel Tech teamed together to investigate an integrated solution for NOx control. The system was comprised of B&W's DRB-4Z{trademark} low-NO{sub x} pulverized coal (PC) burner technology and Fuel Tech's NO{sub x}OUT{reg_sign}, a urea-based selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR) technology. The technology's emission target is achieving 0.15 lb NO{sub x}/10{sup 6} Btu for full-scale boilers. Development of the low-NOx burner technology has been a focus in B&W's combustion program. The DRB-4Z{trademark} burner (see Figure 1.1) is B&W's newest low-NO{sub x} burner capable of achieving very low NO{sub x}. The burner is designed to reduce NO{sub x} by diverting air away from the core of the flame, which reduces local stoichiometry during coal devolatilization and, thereby, reduces initial NO{sub x} formation. Figure 1.2 shows the historical NO{sub x} emission levels from different B&W burners. Figure 1.2 shows that based on three large-scale commercial installations of the DRB-4Z{trademark} burners in combination with OFA ports, using Western subbituminous coal, the NO{sub x} emissions ranged from 0.16 to 0.18 lb/10{sup 6} Btu. It appears that with continuing research and development the Ozone Transport Rule (OTR) emission level of 0.15 lb NO{sub x}/10{sup 6} Btu is within the reach of combustion modification techniques for boilers using western U.S. subbituminous coals. Although NO{sub x} emissions from the DRB-4Z{trademark} burner are nearing OTR emission level with subbituminous coals, the utility boiler owners that use bituminous coals can still benefit from the addition of an SNCR and/or SCR system in order to comply with the stringent NO{sub x} emission levels facing them.

  11. Burner modifications for cost effective NO{sub x} control

    SciTech Connect

    Melick, T.A.; Hensley, M.E.; Gustafson, D.A.

    1998-12-31

    The development of commercial Low NO{sub x} Burners has provided Energy and Environmental Research Corporation (EER) with the expertise to modify existing burner equipment to provide the controlled fuel/air mixing conditions required for low NO{sub x} contribution. This approach represents a viable alternative to a full burner retrofit for many applications. EER has modified burners to lower NO{sub x} emissions at Louisville Gas and Electric`s (LG and E) Cane Run Station and at Jamestown Board of Public Utilities (JBPU). This paper discusses the method and results of these burner modifications.

  12. Emissions from gas fired agricultural burners

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Because of the Federal Clean Air Act, the San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District (SJVUAPCD) began defining Best Available Control Technology (BACT) for NOx emissions from cotton gin drying system gas fired burners in its jurisdiction. The NOx emission levels of conventionally used...

  13. Consider PLCs as platforms for burner management

    SciTech Connect

    Anzlovar, R.; Sterle, L.

    1994-07-01

    This article compares the performance of programmable logic controllers (PLC) to that of distributed control systems for retrofitting of burner-management systems (BMSs) with microprocessor based systems. The benefits and operation of each are reviewed. The author concludes that for their application to BMS the performance of the PLC provides more value.

  14. Market assessment for the fan atomized oil burner

    SciTech Connect

    Westphalen, D.

    1996-07-01

    The market potential for the fan atomized burner (FAB) in water and space heating applications was examined. The major findings of the study are as follows. (1). The FAB`s low-input capability allows development of oil-fired room heaters and wall furnaces, a new market area for oil heat. (2). Among conventional oil-fired products, furnaces will benefit most from the burner`s low input capability due to (1) their quick delivery of heat and (2) their more prevalent use in warmer climates and smaller homes. (3). The greatest potential for increased product sales or oil sales exists in the use of the burner with new products (i.e., room heaters). Sales of boilers and direct-fired water heaters are not likely to increase with the use of the burner. (4). Acceptance of the burner will be dependent on proof of reliability. Proof of better reliability than conventional burners would accelerate acceptance.

  15. "Computational Modeling of Actinide Complexes"

    SciTech Connect

    Balasubramanian, K

    2007-03-07

    We will present our recent studies on computational actinide chemistry of complexes which are not only interesting from the standpoint of actinide coordination chemistry but also of relevance to environmental management of high-level nuclear wastes. We will be discussing our recent collaborative efforts with Professor Heino Nitsche of LBNL whose research group has been actively carrying out experimental studies on these species. Computations of actinide complexes are also quintessential to our understanding of the complexes found in geochemical, biochemical environments and actinide chemistry relevant to advanced nuclear systems. In particular we have been studying uranyl, plutonyl, and Cm(III) complexes are in aqueous solution. These studies are made with a variety of relativistic methods such as coupled cluster methods, DFT, and complete active space multi-configuration self-consistent-field (CASSCF) followed by large-scale CI computations and relativistic CI (RCI) computations up to 60 million configurations. Our computational studies on actinide complexes were motivated by ongoing EXAFS studies of speciated complexes in geo and biochemical environments carried out by Prof Heino Nitsche's group at Berkeley, Dr. David Clark at Los Alamos and Dr. Gibson's work on small actinide molecules at ORNL. The hydrolysis reactions of urnayl, neputyl and plutonyl complexes have received considerable attention due to their geochemical and biochemical importance but the results of free energies in solution and the mechanism of deprotonation have been topic of considerable uncertainty. We have computed deprotonating and migration of one water molecule from the first solvation shell to the second shell in UO{sub 2}(H{sub 2}O){sub 5}{sup 2+}, UO{sub 2}(H{sub 2}O){sub 5}{sup 2+}NpO{sub 2}(H{sub 2}O){sub 6}{sup +}, and PuO{sub 2}(H{sub 2}O){sub 5}{sup 2+} complexes. Our computed Gibbs free energy(7.27 kcal/m) in solution for the first time agrees with the experiment (7.1 kcal

  16. PRELIMINARY DATA CALL REPORT ADVANCED BURNER REACTOR START UP FUEL FABRICATION FACILITY

    SciTech Connect

    S. T. Khericha

    2007-04-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide data for preparation of a NEPA Environmental Impact Statement in support the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP). One of the GNEP objectives is to reduce the inventory of long lived actinide from the light water reactor (LWR) spent fuel. The LWR spent fuel contains Plutonium (Pu) -239 and other transuranics (TRU) such as Americium-241. One of the options is to transmute or burn these actinides in fast neutron spectra as well as generate the electricity. A sodium-cooled Advanced Recycling Reactor (ARR) concept has been proposed to achieve this goal. However, fuel with relatively high TRU content has not been used in the fast reactor. To demonstrate the utilization of TRU fuel in a fast reactor, an Advanced Burner Reactor (ABR) prototype of ARR is proposed, which would necessarily be started up using weapons grade (WG) Pu fuel. The WG Pu is distinguished by relatively highest proportions of Pu-239 and lesser amount of other actinides. The WG Pu will be used as the startup fuel along with TRU fuel in lead test assemblies. Because such fuel is not currently being produced in the US, a new facility (or new capability in an existing facility) is being considered for fabrication of WG Pu fuel for the ABR. This report is provided in response to ‘Data Call’ for the construction of startup fuel fabrication facility. It is anticipated that the facility will provide the startup fuel for 10-15 years and will take to 3 to 5 years to construct.

  17. Actinide recovery techniques utilizing electromechanical processes

    SciTech Connect

    Westphal, B.R.; Benedict, R.W.

    1994-01-01

    Under certain conditions, the separation of actinides using electromechanical techniques may be an effective means of residue processing. The separation of granular mixtures of actinides and other materials discussed in this report is based on appreciable differences in the magnetic and electrical properties of the actinide elements. In addition, the high density of actinides, particularly uranium and plutonium, may render a simultaneous separation based on mutually complementary parameters. Both high intensity magnetic separation and electrostatic separation have been investigated for the concentration of an actinide waste stream. Waste stream constituents include an actinide metal alloy and broken quartz shards. The investigation of these techniques is in support of the Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) concept currently being developed at Argonne National Laboratory under the auspices of the Department of Energy.

  18. Actinide Recovery Method for Large Soil Samples

    SciTech Connect

    Maxwell, S.L. III; Nichols, S.

    1998-11-01

    A new Actinide Recovery Method has been developed by the Savannah River Site Central Laboratory to preconcentrate actinides in very large soil samples. Diphonix Resin(r) is used eliminate soil matrix interferences and preconcentrate actinides after soil leaching or soil fusion. A rapid microwave digestion technique is used to remove the actinides from the Diphonix Resin(r). After the resin digestion, the actinides are recovered in a small volume of nitric acid which can be easily loaded onto small extraction-chromatography columns, such as TEVA Resin(r), U-TEVA Resin(r) or TRU Resin(r) (Eichrom Industries). This method enables the application of small, selective extraction-columns to recover actinides from very large soil samples with high selectivity, consistent tracer recoveries and minimal liquid waste.

  19. Process for recovering actinide values

    DOEpatents

    Horwitz, E. Philip; Mason, George W.

    1980-01-01

    A process for rendering actinide values recoverable from sodium carbonate scrub waste solutions containing these and other values along with organic compounds resulting from the radiolytic and hydrolytic degradation of neutral organophosphorous extractants such as tri-n butyl phosphate (TBP) and dihexyl-N,N-diethyl carbamylmethylene phosphonate (DHDECAMP) which have been used in the reprocessing of irradiated nuclear reactor fuels. The scrub waste solution is preferably made acidic with mineral acid, to form a feed solution which is then contacted with a water-immiscible, highly polar organic extractant which selectively extracts the degradation products from the feed solution. The feed solution can then be processed to recover the actinides for storage or recycled back into the high-level waste process stream. The extractant is recycled after stripping the degradation products with a neutral sodium carbonate solution.

  20. Actinide abundances in ordinary chondrites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hagee, B.; Bernatowicz, T. J.; Podosek, F. A.; Johnson, M. L.; Burnett, D. S.

    1990-01-01

    Measurements of actinide and light REE (LREE) abundances and of phosphate abundances in equilibrated ordinary chondrites were obtained and were used to define the Pu abundance in the solar system and to determine the degree of variation of actinide and LREE abundances. The results were also used to compare directly the Pu/U ratio with the earlier obtained ratio determined indirectly, as (Pu/Nd)x(Nd/U), assuming that Pu behaves chemically as a LREE. The data, combined with high-accuracy isotope-dilution data from the literature, show that the degree of gram-scale variability of the Th, U, and LREE abundances for equilibrated ordinary chondrites is a factor of 2-3 for absolute abundances and up to 50 percent for relative abundances. The observed variations are interpreted as reflecting the differences in the compositions and/or proportions of solar nebula components accreted to ordinary chondrite parent bodies.

  1. Fuel burner and combustor assembly for a gas turbine engine

    DOEpatents

    Leto, Anthony

    1983-01-01

    A fuel burner and combustor assembly for a gas turbine engine has a housing within the casing of the gas turbine engine which housing defines a combustion chamber and at least one fuel burner secured to one end of the housing and extending into the combustion chamber. The other end of the fuel burner is arranged to slidably engage a fuel inlet connector extending radially inwardly from the engine casing so that fuel is supplied, from a source thereof, to the fuel burner. The fuel inlet connector and fuel burner coact to anchor the housing against axial movement relative to the engine casing while allowing relative radial movement between the engine casing and the fuel burner and, at the same time, providing fuel flow to the fuel burner. For dual fuel capability, a fuel injector is provided in said fuel burner with a flexible fuel supply pipe so that the fuel injector and fuel burner form a unitary structure which moves with the fuel burner.

  2. Refinery burner simulation design architecture summary.

    SciTech Connect

    Pollock, Guylaine M.; McDonald, Michael James; Halbgewachs, Ronald D.

    2011-10-01

    This report describes the architectural design for a high fidelity simulation of a refinery and refinery burner, including demonstrations of impacts to the refinery if errors occur during the refinery process. The refinery burner model and simulation are a part of the capabilities within the Sandia National Laboratories Virtual Control System Environment (VCSE). Three components comprise the simulation: HMIs developed with commercial SCADA software, a PLC controller, and visualization software. All of these components run on different machines. This design, documented after the simulation development, incorporates aspects not traditionally seen in an architectural design, but that were utilized in this particular demonstration development. Key to the success of this model development and presented in this report are the concepts of the multiple aspects of model design and development that must be considered to capture the necessary model representation fidelity of the physical systems.

  3. Experimental and calculational analyses of actinide samples irradiated in EBR-II

    SciTech Connect

    Gilai, D.; Williams, M.L.; Cooper, J.H.; Laing, W.R.; Walker, R.L.; Raman, S.; Stelson, P.H.

    1982-10-01

    Higher actinides influence the characteristics of spent and recycled fuel and dominate the long-term hazards of the reactor waste. Reactor irradiation experiments provide useful benchmarks for testing the evaluated nuclear data for these actinides. During 1967 to 1970, several actinide samples were irradiated in the Idaho EBR-II fast reactor. These samples have now been analyzed, employing mass and alpha spectrometry, to determine the heavy element products. A simple spherical model for the EBR-II core and a recent version of the ORIGEN code with ENDF/B-V data were employed to calculate the exposure products. A detailed comparison between the experimental and calculated results has been made. For samples irradiated at locations near the core center, agreement within 10% was obtained for the major isotopes and their first daughters, and within 20% for the nuclides up the chain. A sensitivity analysis showed that the assumed flux should be increased by 10%.

  4. PULSE DRYING EXPERIMENT AND BURNER CONSTRUCTION

    SciTech Connect

    Robert States

    2006-07-15

    Non steady impingement heat transfer is measured. Impingement heating consumes 130 T-BTU/Yr in paper drying, but is only 25% thermally efficient. Pulse impingement is experimentally shown to enhance heat transfer by 2.8, and may deliver thermal efficiencies near 85%. Experimental results uncovered heat transfer deviations from steady theory and from previous investigators, indicating the need for further study and a better theoretical framework. The pulse burner is described, and its roll in pulse impingement is analyzed.

  5. Coal-water mixture fuel burner

    DOEpatents

    Brown, T.D.; Reehl, D.P.; Walbert, G.F.

    1985-04-29

    The present invention represents an improvement over the prior art by providing a rotating cup burner arrangement for use with a coal-water mixture fuel which applies a thin, uniform sheet of fuel onto the inner surface of the rotating cup, inhibits the collection of unburned fuel on the inner surface of the cup, reduces the slurry to a collection of fine particles upon discharge from the rotating cup, and further atomizes the fuel as it enters the combustion chamber by subjecting it to the high shear force of a high velocity air flow. Accordingly, it is an object of the present invention to provide for improved combustion of a coal-water mixture fuel. It is another object of the present invention to provide an arrangement for introducing a coal-water mixture fuel into a combustion chamber in a manner which provides improved flame control and stability, more efficient combustion of the hydrocarbon fuel, and continuous, reliable burner operation. Yet another object of the present invention is to provide for the continuous, sustained combustion of a coal-water mixture fuel without the need for a secondary combustion source such as natural gas or a liquid hydrocarbon fuel. Still another object of the present invention is to provide a burner arrangement capable of accommodating a coal-water mixture fuel having a wide range of rheological and combustion characteristics in providing for its efficient combustion. 7 figs.

  6. Field testing the prototype BNL fan-atomized oil burner

    SciTech Connect

    McDonald, R.; Celebi, Y.

    1995-04-01

    BNL has developed a new oil burner design referred to as the Fan Atomized burner System. The primary objective of the field study was to evaluate and demonstrate the reliable operation of the Fan Atomized Burner. The secondary objective was to establish and validate the ability of a low firing rate burner (0.3-0.4 gph) to fully satisfy the heating and domestic hot water load demands of an average household in a climate zone with over 5,000 heating-degree-days. The field activity was also used to evaluate the practicality of side-wall venting with the Fan Atomized Burner with a low stack temperature (300F) and illustrate the potential for very high efficiency with an integrated heating system approach based on the Fan Atomized Burner.

  7. Swedish-German actinide migration experiment at ASPO hard rock laboratory.

    PubMed

    Kienzler, B; Vejmelka, P; Römer, J; Fanghänel, E; Jansson, M; Eriksen, T E; Wikberg, P

    2003-03-01

    Within the scope of a bilateral cooperation between Svensk Kärnbränslehantering (SKB) and Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Institut für Nukleare Entsorgung (FZK-INE), an actinide migration experiment is currently being performed at the Aspö Hard Rock Laboratory (HRL) in Sweden. This paper covers laboratory and in situ investigations on actinide migration in single-fractured granite core samples. For the in situ experiment, the CHEMLAB 2 probe developed by SKB was used. The experimental setup as well as the breakthrough of inert tracers and of the actinides Am, Np and Pu are presented. The breakthrough curves of inert tracers were analyzed to determine hydraulic properties of the fractured samples. Postmortem analyses of the solid samples were performed to characterize the flow path and the sorbed actinides. After cutting the cores, the abraded material was analyzed with respect to sorbed actinides. The slices were scanned optically to visualize the flow path. Effective volumes and inner surface areas were measured. In the experiments, only breakthrough of Np(V) was observed. In each experiment, the recovery of Np(V) was < or = 40%. Breakthrough of Am(III) and Pu(IV) as well as of Np(IV) was not observed.

  8. Numerical and experimental investigation of a mild combustion burner

    SciTech Connect

    Galletti, Chiara; Parente, Alessandro; Tognotti, Leonardo

    2007-12-15

    An industrial burner operating in the MILD combustion regime through internal recirculation of exhaust gases has been characterized numerically. To develop a self-sufficient numerical model of the burner, two subroutines are coupled to the CFD solver to model the air preheater section and heat losses from the burner through radiation. The resulting model is validated against experimental data on species concentration and temperature. A 3-dimensional CFD model of the burner is compared to an axisymmetric model, which allows considerable computational saving, but neglects some important burner features such as the presence of recirculation windows. Errors associated with the axisymmetric model are evaluated and discussed, as well as possible simplified procedures for engineering purposes. Modifications of the burner geometry are investigated numerically and suggested in order to enhance its performances. Such modifications are aimed at improving exhaust gases recirculation which is driven by the inlet air jet momentum. The burner is found to produce only 30 ppm{sub v} of NO when operating in MILD combustion mode. For the same air preheating the NO emissions would be of approximately 1000 ppm{sub v} in flame combustion mode. It is also shown that the burner ensures more homogeneous temperature distribution in the outer surfaces with respect to flame operation, and this is attractive for burners used in furnaces devoted to materials' thermal treatment processes. The effect of air excess on the combustion regime is also discussed. (author)

  9. Analysis of large soil samples for actinides

    DOEpatents

    Maxwell, III; Sherrod L.

    2009-03-24

    A method of analyzing relatively large soil samples for actinides by employing a separation process that includes cerium fluoride precipitation for removing the soil matrix and precipitates plutonium, americium, and curium with cerium and hydrofluoric acid followed by separating these actinides using chromatography cartridges.

  10. Prompt fission neutron spectra of actinides

    DOE PAGES

    Capote, R.; Chen, Y. -J.; Hambsch, F. -J.; ...

    2016-01-06

    Here, the energy spectrum of prompt neutrons emitted in fission (PFNS) plays a very important role in nuclear science and technology. A Coordinated Research Project (CRP) "Evaluation of Prompt Fission Neutron Spectra of Actinides" was established by the IAEA Nuclear Data Section in 2009, with the major goal to produce new PFNS evaluations with uncertainties for actinide nuclei.

  11. Prompt fission neutron spectrum of actinides

    SciTech Connect

    Capote, R.; Chen, Y. -J.; Hambsch, F. J.; Jurado, B.; Lestone, J. P.; Litaize, O.; Morillon, B.; Neudecker, D.; Oberstedt, S.; Ohsawa, T.; Otuka, N.; Pronyaev, V. G.; Saxena, A.; Schmidt, K. H.; Shcherbakov, O. A.; Shu, N. -C.; Smith, D. L.; Talou, P.; Trkov, A.; Tudora, A. C.; Vogt, R.; Vorobyev, A. S.

    2016-01-06

    Here, the energy spectrum of prompt neutron emitted in fission (PFNS) plays a very important role in nuclear science and technology. A Coordinated Research Project (CRP) "Evaluation of Prompt Fission Neutron Spectra of Actinides" was established by the IAEA Nuclear Data Section in 2009, with the major goal to produce new PFNS evaluations with uncertainties for actinide nuclei.

  12. Actinide abundances in ordinary chondrites

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hagee, B.; Bernatowicz, T.J.; Podosek, F.A.; Johnson, M.L.; Burnett, D.S.; Tatsumoto, M.

    1990-01-01

    Measurements of 244Pu fission Xe, U, Th, and light REE (LREE) abundances, along with modal petrographic determinations of phosphate abundances, were carried out on equilibrated ordinary chondrites in order to define better the solar system Pu abundance and to determine the degree of variation of actinide and LREE abundances. Our data permit comparison of the directly measured Pu/ U ratio with that determined indirectly as (Pu/Nd) ?? (Nd/U) assuming that Pu behaves chemically as a LREE. Except for Guaren??a, and perhaps H chondrites in general, Pu concentrations are similar to that determined previously for St. Se??verin, although less precise because of higher trapped Xe contents. Trapped 130Xe 136Xe ratios appear to vary from meteorite to meteorite, but, relative to AVCC, all are similar in the sense of having less of the interstellar heavy Xe found in carbonaceous chondrite acid residues. The Pu/U and Pu/Nd ratios are consistent with previous data for St. Se??verin, but both tend to be slightly higher than those inferred from previous data on Angra dos Reis. Although significant variations exist, the distribution of our Th/U ratios, along with other precise isotope dilution data for ordinary chondrites, is rather symmetric about the CI chondrite value; however, actinide/(LREE) ratios are systematically lower than the CI value. Variations in actinide or LREE absolute and relative abundances are interpreted as reflecting differences in the proportions and/or compositions of more primitive components (chondrules and CAI materials?) incorporated into different regions of the ordinary chondrite parent bodies. The observed variations of Th/U, Nd/U, or Ce/U suggest that measurements of Pu/U on any single equilibrated ordinary chondrite specimen, such as St. Se??verin, should statistically be within ??20-30% of the average solar system value, although it is also clear that anomalous samples exist. ?? 1990.

  13. Interactions of microbial exopolymers with actinides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Mitchell T.; Chitwood, Dawn J.; He, Lee; Neu, Mary P.

    2000-07-01

    The development of viable bioremediation strategies for radionuclide contaminated soils, sediments and ground waters at DOE sites is a formidable challenge. Ubiquitous microorganisms can absorb, oxidize, reduce and/or precipitate actinides and thereby affect the speciation, solubility, bioavailability, and migration of these toxic metals. Actinides can interact directly with microorganisms, i.e., via sorption to the cell wall, and indirectly via reaction with their byproducts, such as extracellular polymers. However, very little is known about the fundamental chemistry of any microbial-actinide interactions or their impact on environmental processes. Our goal is to fully characterize specific microbial-actinide interactions and determine how they may be exploited to effect environmental actinide mobility/immobility and remediation efforts.

  14. Actinide ion sensor for pyroprocess monitoring

    DOEpatents

    Jue, Jan-fong; Li, Shelly X.

    2014-06-03

    An apparatus for real-time, in-situ monitoring of actinide ion concentrations which comprises a working electrode, a reference electrode, a container, a working electrolyte, a separator, a reference electrolyte, and a voltmeter. The container holds the working electrolyte. The voltmeter is electrically connected to the working electrode and the reference electrode and measures the voltage between those electrodes. The working electrode contacts the working electrolyte. The working electrolyte comprises an actinide ion of interest. The reference electrode contacts the reference electrolyte. The reference electrolyte is separated from the working electrolyte by the separator. The separator contacts both the working electrolyte and the reference electrolyte. The separator is ionically conductive to the actinide ion of interest. The reference electrolyte comprises a known concentration of the actinide ion of interest. The separator comprises a beta double prime alumina exchanged with the actinide ion of interest.

  15. Exploring actinide materials through synchrotron radiation techniques.

    PubMed

    Shi, Wei-Qun; Yuan, Li-Yong; Wang, Cong-Zhi; Wang, Lin; Mei, Lei; Xiao, Cheng-Liang; Zhang, Li; Li, Zi-Jie; Zhao, Yu-Liang; Chai, Zhi-Fang

    2014-12-10

    Synchrotron radiation (SR) based techniques have been utilized with increasing frequency in the past decade to explore the brilliant and challenging sciences of actinide-based materials. This trend is partially driven by the basic needs for multi-scale actinide speciation and bonding information and also the realistic needs for nuclear energy research. In this review, recent research progresses on actinide related materials by means of various SR techniques were selectively highlighted and summarized, with the emphasis on X-ray absorption spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and scattering spectroscopy, which are powerful tools to characterize actinide materials. In addition, advanced SR techniques for exploring future advanced nuclear fuel cycles dealing with actinides are illustrated as well.

  16. Separation of actinides from lanthanides

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Barbara F.; Jarvinen, Gordon D.; Ryan, Robert R.

    1989-01-01

    An organic extracting solution and an extraction method useful for separating elements of the actinide series of the periodic table from elements of the lanthanide series, where both are in trivalent form. The extracting solution consists of a primary ligand and a secondary ligand, preferably in an organic solvent. The primary ligand is a substituted monothio-1,3-dicarbonyl, which includes a substituted 4-acyl-2-pyrazolin-5-thione, such as 4-benzoyl-2,4-dihydro-5-methyl-2-phenyl-3H-pyrazol-3-thione (BMPPT). The secondary ligand is a substituted phosphine oxide, such as trioctylphosphine oxide (TOPO).

  17. Burner modifications for cost effective NO{sub x} control

    SciTech Connect

    Melick, T.A.; Hensley, M.E.; Gustafson, D.A.

    1998-07-01

    The development of commercial low NO{sub x} burners has provided Energy and Environmental Research Corporation (EER) with the expertise to modify existing burner equipment to provide the controlled fuel/air mixing conditions required for low NO{sub x} combustion. This approach represents a viable lower cost alternative to a full burner retrofit for many applications. EER has modified burners to lower NO{sub x} emissions at Louisville Gas and Electric's (LG and E) Cane Run Station and at Jamestown Board of Public Utilities (JBPU). This paper will discuss the method and results of these burner modifications on a 180 and 170 Mwe boiler for LG and E and four boilers at JBPU. NO{sub x} reductions of greater than 50% have been demonstrated with burner modifications only that have achieved NO{sub x} compliance on these six boilers. EER will also be modifying cell burners for Dayton Power and Light at their JM Stuart Station. Unit {number_sign}3 is a 605 Mwe B and W universal pressure opposed wall fired boiler. EER will retrofit the burners this October through November and results will be available by the first of December. With deregulation of the utility industry approaching, many utilities are looking for lower cost alternatives to satisfy NO{sub x} regulations. Justifying new low NO{sub x} burners on a boiler that is 30 to 40 years old and has limited remaining life is also difficult. Performing modifications to the existing burners provides the utility an option. Modifications are usually 2 to 4 times less expensive than new low NO{sub x} burners.

  18. Development of a Flaring Burner Disposal System.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-05-01

    MATRIX NO. PLANNED TEST ACTUAL TEST COMMENTS 1 No. 2 Fuel Oil No. 2 Diesel A-nozzles, 10 min Oil 2 20 cs Blend 19.5 cs Blend A-nozzles, then change to...the existing engine speed. The test oils were preoared as in the preliminary burner test program, using blends of No. 2 diesel oil and No. 6 fuel oil...21 3.2.4 Air Compressors ................................... 24 3.2.5 Water Pump Module ................................. 25 3.2.6 Diesel Engines

  19. Low NOx gas burner apparatus and methods

    SciTech Connect

    Schwartz, R.E.; Napier, S.O.; Jones, A.P.

    1993-08-24

    An improved gas burner apparatus is described for discharging a mixture of fuel gas and air into a furnace space wherein said mixture is burned and flue gases having low NO[sub x] content are formed therefrom comprising: a housing having an open end attached to said furnace space; means for introducing a controlled flow rate of said air into said housing attached thereto; a refractory burner tile attached to the open end of said housing having a base portion, an opening formed in said base portion for allowing air to pass there through and having a wall portion surrounding said opening which extends into said furnace space, the exterior sides of said wall portion being slanted towards said opening and the interior sides thereof being spaced from the periphery of said opening whereby a ledge is provided within the interior of said wall portion; at least one passage formed in said burner tile for conducting primary fuel gas and flue gases from the exterior of said wall portion to the interior thereof; means for forming a fuel gas jet in said passage and drawing flue gases there through adapted to be connected to a source of fuel gas and positioned with respect to said passage whereby a mixture of primary fuel gas and flue gases from said furnace space is discharged from said passage to within the interior of said wall portion; and at least one nozzle adapted to be connected to a source of fuel gas positioned outside said wall portion of said burner tile adjacent the intersection of an exterior slanted side of said wall portion with the surface of said base portion for discharging secondary fuel gas adjacent said external slanted side of said wall portion whereby said secondary fuel gas mixes with flue gases and air in said furnace space. A method is also described for discharging a mixture of fuel gas and air into a furnace space wherein said mixture is burned and flue gases having low NO[sub x] content are formed therefrom.

  20. DEMONSTRATION BULLETIN: CELLO PULSE COMBUSTION BURNER SYSTEM/SONOTECH INC.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sonotech, Inc. (Sonotech), of Atlanta, GA, the developer of the Cello® pulse combustion burner, claims that its burner system can be beneficial to a variety of combustion processes. The system incorporates a combustor that can be tuned to induce large amplitude sonic pulsation...

  1. Residential oil burners with low input and two stages firing

    SciTech Connect

    Butcher, T.; Krajewski, R.; Leigh, R.

    1997-12-31

    The residential oil burner market is currently dominated by the pressure-atomized, retention head burner. At low firing rates pressure atomizing nozzles suffer rapid fouling of the small internal passages, leading to bad spray patterns and poor combustion performance. To overcome the low input limitations of conventional burners, a low pressure air-atomized burner has been developed watch can operate at fining rates as low as 0.25 gallons of oil per hour (10 kW). In addition, the burner can be operated in a high/low fining rate mode. Field tests with this burner have been conducted at a fixed input rate of 0.35 gph (14 kW) with a side-wall vented boiler/water storage tank combination. At the test home, instrumentation was installed to measure fuel and energy flows and record trends in system temperatures. Laboratory efficiency testing with water heaters and boilers has been completed using standard single purpose and combined appliance test procedures. The tests quantify benefits due to low firing rates and other burner features. A two stage oil burner gains a strong advantage in rated efficiency while maintaining capacity for high domestic hot water and space heating loads.

  2. Combined Heat and Power Integrated with Burners for Packaged Boilers

    SciTech Connect

    2010-10-01

    This factsheet describes a project that will seamlessly integrate a gas-fired simple-cycle 100 kWe microturbine with a new ultra-low NOx gas-fired burner to develop a CHP assembly called the Boiler Burner Energy System Technology.

  3. Experimental studies of actinides in molten salts

    SciTech Connect

    Reavis, J.G.

    1985-06-01

    This review stresses techniques used in studies of molten salts containing multigram amounts of actinides exhibiting intense alpha activity but little or no penetrating gamma radiation. The preponderance of studies have used halides because oxygen-containing actinide compounds (other than oxides) are generally unstable at high temperatures. Topics discussed here include special enclosures, materials problems, preparation and purification of actinide elements and compounds, and measurements of various properties of the molten volts. Property measurements discussed are phase relationships, vapor pressure, density, viscosity, absorption spectra, electromotive force, and conductance. 188 refs., 17 figs., 6 tabs.

  4. Advanced oil burner for residential heating -- development report

    SciTech Connect

    Butcher, T.A.

    1995-07-01

    The development of advanced oil burner concepts has long been a part of Brookhaven National Laboratory`s (BNL) oil heat research program. Generally, goals of this work include: increased system efficiency, reduced emissions of soot and NO{sub x}, and the practical extension of the firing rate range of current burners to lower input rates. The report describes the results of a project at BNL aimed at the development of air atomized burners. Two concepts are discussed. The first is an air atomizer which uses air supplied at pressures ranging from 10 to 20 psi and requiring the integration of an air compressor in the system. The second, more novel, approach involves the use of a low-pressure air atomizing nozzle which requires only 8-14 inches of water air pressure for fuel atomization. This second approach requires the use of a fan in the burner instead of a compressor although the fan pressure is higher than with conventional, pressure atomized retention head burners. In testing the first concept, high pressure air atomization, a conventional retention head burner was modified to accept the new nozzle. In addition, the burner head was modified to reduce the flow area to maintain roughly 1 inch of water pressure drop across the head at a firing rate of 0.25 gallons of oil per hour. The burner ignited easily and could be operated at low excess air levels without smoke. The major disadvantage of this burner approach is the need for the air compressor as part of the system. In evaluating options, a vane-type compressor was selected although the use of a compressor of this type will lead to increased burner maintenance requirements.

  5. Subsurface interactions of actinide species and microorganisms : implications for the bioremediation of actinide-organic mixtures.

    SciTech Connect

    Banaszak, J.E.; Reed, D.T.; Rittmann, B.E.

    1999-02-12

    By reviewing how microorganisms interact with actinides in subsurface environments, we assess how bioremediation controls the fate of actinides. Actinides often are co-contaminants with strong organic chelators, chlorinated solvents, and fuel hydrocarbons. Bioremediation can immobilize the actinides, biodegrade the co-contaminants, or both. Actinides at the IV oxidation state are the least soluble, and microorganisms accelerate precipitation by altering the actinide's oxidation state or its speciation. We describe how microorganisms directly oxidize or reduce actinides and how microbiological reactions that biodegrade strong organic chelators, alter the pH, and consume or produce precipitating anions strongly affect actinide speciation and, therefore, mobility. We explain why inhibition caused by chemical or radiolytic toxicities uniquely affects microbial reactions. Due to the complex interactions of the microbiological and chemical phenomena, mathematical modeling is an essential tool for research on and application of bioremediation involving co-contamination with actinides. We describe the development of mathematical models that link microbiological and geochemical reactions. Throughout, we identify the key research needs.

  6. Actinide removal from spent salts

    DOEpatents

    Hsu, Peter C.; von Holtz, Erica H.; Hipple, David L.; Summers, Leslie J.; Adamson, Martyn G.

    2002-01-01

    A method for removing actinide contaminants (uranium and thorium) from the spent salt of a molten salt oxidation (MSO) reactor is described. Spent salt is removed from the reactor and analyzed to determine the contaminants present and the carbonate concentration. The salt is dissolved in water, and one or more reagents are added to precipitate the thorium as thorium oxide and/or the uranium as either uranium oxide or as a diuranate salt. The precipitated materials are filtered, dried and packaged for disposal as radioactive waste. About 90% of the thorium and/or uranium present is removed by filtration. After filtration, salt solutions having a carbonate concentration >20% can be dried and returned to the reactor for re-use. Salt solutions containing a carbonate concentration <20% require further clean-up using an ion exchange column, which yields salt solutions that contain less than 0.1 ppm of thorium or uranium.

  7. PF-4 actinide disposition strategy

    SciTech Connect

    Margevicius, Robert W

    2010-05-28

    The dwindling amount of Security Category I processing and storage space across the DOE Complex has driven the need for more effective storage of nuclear materials at LANL's Plutonium Facility's (PF-4's) vault. An effort was begun in 2009 to create a strategy, a roadmap, to identify all accountable nuclear material and determine their disposition paths, the PF-4 Actinide Disposition Strategy (PADS). Approximately seventy bins of nuclear materials with similar characteristics - in terms of isotope, chemical form, impurities, disposition location, etc. - were established in a database. The ultimate disposition paths include the material to remain at LANL, disposition to other DOE sites, and disposition to waste. If all the actions described in the document were taken, over half of the containers currently in the PF-4 vault would been eliminated. The actual amount of projected vault space will depend on budget and competing mission requirements, however, clearly a significant portion of the current LANL inventory can be either dispositioned or consolidated.

  8. Advanced Aqueous Separation Systems for Actinide Partitioning

    SciTech Connect

    Nash, Kenneth L.; Clark, Sue; Meier, G Patrick; Alexandratos, Spiro; Paine, Robert; Hancock, Robert; Ensor, Dale

    2012-03-21

    One of the most challenging aspects of advanced processing of spent nuclear fuel is the need to isolate transuranium elements from fission product lanthanides. This project expanded the scope of earlier investigations of americium (Am) partitioning from the lanthanides with the synthesis of new separations materials and a centralized focus on radiochemical characterization of the separation systems that could be developed based on these new materials. The primary objective of this program was to explore alternative materials for actinide separations and to link the design of new reagents for actinide separations to characterizations based on actinide chemistry. In the predominant trivalent oxidation state, the chemistry of lanthanides overlaps substantially with that of the trivalent actinides and their mutual separation is quite challenging.

  9. BWR Assembly Optimization for Minor Actinide Recycling

    SciTech Connect

    G. Ivan Maldonado; John M. Christenson; J.P. Renier; T.F. Marcille; J. Casal

    2010-03-22

    The Primary objective of the proposed project is to apply and extend the latest advancements in LWR fuel management optimization to the design of advanced boiling water reactor (BWR) fuel assemblies specifically for the recycling of minor actinides (MAs).

  10. Overview of actinide chemistry in the WIPP

    SciTech Connect

    Borkowski, Marian; Lucchini, Jean - Francois; Richmann, Michael K; Reed, Donald T; Khaing, Hnin; Swanson, Juliet

    2009-01-01

    The year 2009 celebrates 10 years of safe operations at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), the only nuclear waste repository designated to dispose defense-related transuranic (TRU) waste in the United States. Many elements contributed to the success of this one-of-the-kind facility. One of the most important of these is the chemistry of the actinides under WIPP repository conditions. A reliable understanding of the potential release of actinides from the site to the accessible environment is important to the WIPP performance assessment (PA). The environmental chemistry of the major actinides disposed at the WIPP continues to be investigated as part of the ongoing recertification efforts of the WIPP project. This presentation provides an overview of the actinide chemistry for the WIPP repository conditions. The WIPP is a salt-based repository; therefore, the inflow of brine into the repository is minimized, due to the natural tendency of excavated salt to re-seal. Reducing anoxic conditions are expected in WIPP because of microbial activity and metal corrosion processes that consume the oxygen initially present. Should brine be introduced through an intrusion scenario, these same processes will re-establish reducing conditions. In the case of an intrusion scenario involving brine, the solubilization of actinides in brine is considered as a potential source of release to the accessible environment. The following key factors establish the concentrations of dissolved actinides under subsurface conditions: (1) Redox chemistry - The solubility of reduced actinides (III and IV oxidation states) is known to be significantly lower than the oxidized forms (V and/or VI oxidation states). In this context, the reducing conditions in the WIPP and the strong coupling of the chemistry for reduced metals and microbiological processes with actinides are important. (2) Complexation - For the anoxic, reducing and mildly basic brine systems in the WIPP, the most important

  11. Joint Actinide Shock Physics Experimental Research - JASPER

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    Commonly known as JASPER the Joint Actinide Shock Physics Experimental Research facility is a two stage light gas gun used to study the behavior of plutonium and other materials under high pressures, temperatures, and strain rates.

  12. Joint Actinide Shock Physics Experimental Research - JASPER

    SciTech Connect

    2014-10-31

    Commonly known as JASPER the Joint Actinide Shock Physics Experimental Research facility is a two stage light gas gun used to study the behavior of plutonium and other materials under high pressures, temperatures, and strain rates.

  13. Transmutation of actinides in power reactors.

    PubMed

    Bergelson, B R; Gerasimov, A S; Tikhomirov, G V

    2005-01-01

    Power reactors can be used for partial short-term transmutation of radwaste. This transmutation is beneficial in terms of subsequent storage conditions for spent fuel in long-term storage facilities. CANDU-type reactors can transmute the main minor actinides from two or three reactors of the VVER-1000 type. A VVER-1000-type reactor can operate in a self-service mode with transmutation of its own actinides.

  14. PREPARATION OF ACTINIDE-ALUMINUM ALLOYS

    DOEpatents

    Moore, R.H.

    1962-09-01

    BS>A process is given for preparing alloys of aluminum with plutonium, uranium, and/or thorium by chlorinating actinide oxide dissolved in molten alkali metal chloride with hydrochloric acid, chlorine, and/or phosgene, adding aluminum metal, and passing air and/or water vapor through the mass. Actinide metal is formed and alloyed with the aluminum. After cooling to solidification, the alloy is separated from the salt. (AEC)

  15. Predictive Modeling in Actinide Chemistry and Catalysis

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Ping

    2016-05-16

    These are slides from a presentation on predictive modeling in actinide chemistry and catalysis. The following topics are covered in these slides: Structures, bonding, and reactivity (bonding can be quantified by optical probes and theory, and electronic structures and reaction mechanisms of actinide complexes); Magnetic resonance properties (transition metal catalysts with multi-nuclear centers, and NMR/EPR parameters); Moving to more complex systems (surface chemistry of nanomaterials, and interactions of ligands with nanoparticles); Path forward and conclusions.

  16. Fan Atomized Burner design advances & commercial development progress

    SciTech Connect

    Kamath, B.; Butcher, T.A.

    1996-07-01

    As a part of the Oil Heat Research and Development program, sponsored by the US Department of Energy, Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) has an on-going interest in advanced combustion technologies. This interest is aimed at: improving the initial efficiency of heating equipment, reducing long term fouling and efficiency degradation, reducing air pollutant emissions, and providing practical low-firing rate technologies which may lead to new, high efficiency oil-fired appliances. The Fan-Atomized Burner (FAB) technology is being developed at BNL as part of this general goal. The Fan-Atomized Burner uses a low pressure, air atomizing nozzle in place of the high pressure nozzle used in conventional burners. Because it is air-atomized the burner can operate at low firing rates without the small passages and reliability concerns of low input pressure nozzles. Because it uses a low pressure nozzle the burner can use a fan in place of the small compressor used in other air-atomized burner designs. High initial efficiency of heating equipment is achieved because the burner can operate at very low excess air levels. These low excess air levels also reduce the formation of sulfuric acid in flames. Sulfuric acid is responsible for scaling and fouling of heat exchanger surfaces.

  17. Recent progress in actinide borate chemistry.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shuao; Alekseev, Evgeny V; Depmeier, Wulf; Albrecht-Schmitt, Thomas E

    2011-10-21

    The use of molten boric acid as a reactive flux for synthesizing actinide borates has been developed in the past two years providing access to a remarkable array of exotic materials with both unusual structures and unprecedented properties. [ThB(5)O(6)(OH)(6)][BO(OH)(2)]·2.5H(2)O possesses a cationic supertetrahedral structure and displays remarkable anion exchange properties with high selectivity for TcO(4)(-). Uranyl borates form noncentrosymmetric structures with extraordinarily rich topological relationships. Neptunium borates are often mixed-valent and yield rare examples of compounds with one metal in three different oxidation states. Plutonium borates display new coordination chemistry for trivalent actinides. Finally, americium borates show a dramatic departure from plutonium borates, and there are scant examples of families of actinides compounds that extend past plutonium to examine the bonding of later actinides. There are several grand challenges that this work addresses. The foremost of these challenges is the development of structure-property relationships in transuranium materials. A deep understanding of the materials chemistry of actinides will likely lead to the development of advanced waste forms for radionuclides present in nuclear waste that prevent their transport in the environment. This work may have also uncovered the solubility-limiting phases of actinides in some repositories, and allows for measurements on the stability of these materials.

  18. Actinide recovery method -- Large soil samples

    SciTech Connect

    Maxwell , S.L. III

    2000-04-25

    There is a need to measure actinides in environmental samples with lower and lower detection limits, requiring larger sample sizes. This analysis is adversely affected by sample-matrix interferences, which make analyzing soil samples above five-grams very difficult. A new Actinide-Recovery Method has been developed by the Savannah River Site Central Laboratory to preconcentrate actinides from large-soil samples. Diphonix Resin (Eichrom Industries), a 1994 R and D 100 winner, is used to preconcentrate the actinides from large soil samples, which are bound powerfully to the resin's diphosphonic acid groups. A rapid microwave-digestion technique is used to remove the actinides from the Diphonix Resin, which effectively eliminates interfering matrix components from the soil matrix. The microwave-digestion technique is more effective and less tedious than catalyzed hydrogen peroxide digestions of the resin or digestion of diphosphonic stripping agents such as HEDPA. After resin digestion, the actinides are recovered in a small volume of nitric acid which can be loaded onto small extraction chromatography columns, such as TEVA Resin, U-TEVA Resin or TRU Resin (Eichrom Industries). Small, selective extraction columns do not generate large volumes of liquid waste and provide consistent tracer recoveries after soil matrix elimination.

  19. Rapid determination of actinides in seawater samples

    DOE PAGES

    Maxwell, Sherrod L.; Culligan, Brian K.; Hutchison, Jay B.; ...

    2014-03-09

    A new rapid method for the determination of actinides in seawater samples has been developed at the Savannah River National Laboratory. The actinides can be measured by alpha spectrometry or inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The new method employs novel pre-concentration steps to collect the actinide isotopes quickly from 80 L or more of seawater. Actinides are co-precipitated using an iron hydroxide co-precipitation step enhanced with Ti+3 reductant, followed by lanthanum fluoride co-precipitation. Stacked TEVA Resin and TRU Resin cartridges are used to rapidly separate Pu, U, and Np isotopes from seawater samples. TEVA Resin and DGA Resin were used tomore » separate and measure Pu, Am and Cm isotopes in seawater volumes up to 80 L. This robust method is ideal for emergency seawater samples following a radiological incident. It can also be used, however, for the routine analysis of seawater samples for oceanographic studies to enhance efficiency and productivity. In contrast, many current methods to determine actinides in seawater can take 1–2 weeks and provide chemical yields of ~30–60 %. This new sample preparation method can be performed in 4–8 h with tracer yields of ~85–95 %. By employing a rapid, robust sample preparation method with high chemical yields, less seawater is needed to achieve lower or comparable detection limits for actinide isotopes with less time and effort.« less

  20. Actinide speciation in relation to biological processes.

    PubMed

    Ansoborlo, Eric; Prat, Odette; Moisy, Philippe; Den Auwer, Christophe; Guilbaud, Philippe; Carriere, M; Gouget, Barbara; Duffield, John; Doizi, Denis; Vercouter, Thomas; Moulin, Christophe; Moulin, Valérie

    2006-11-01

    In case of accidental release of radionuclides into the environment, actinides represent a severe health risk to human beings following internal contamination (inhalation, ingestion or wound). For a better understanding of the actinide behaviour in man (in term of metabolism, retention, excretion) and in specific biological systems (organs, cells or biochemical pathways), it is of prime importance to have a good knowledge of the relevant actinide solution chemistry and biochemistry, in particular of the thermodynamic constants needed for computing actinide speciation. To a large extent, speciation governs bioavailability and toxicity of elements and has a significant impact on the mechanisms by which toxics accumulate in cell compartments and organs and by which elements are transferred and transported from cell to cell. From another viewpoint, speciation is the prerequisite for the design and success of potential decorporation therapies. The purpose of this review is to present the state of the art of actinide knowledge within biological media. It is also to discuss how actinide speciation can be determined or predicted and to highlight the areas where information is lacking with the aim to encourage new research efforts.

  1. Recent progress in actinide borate chemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Shuao; Alekseev, Evgeny V.; Depmeier, Wulf; Albrecht-Schmitt, Thomas E.

    2011-01-01

    The use of molten boric acid as a reactive flux for synthesizing actinide borates has been developed in the past two years providing access to a remarkable array of exotic materials with both unusual structures and unprecedented properties. [ThB₅O₆(OH)₆][BO(OH)₂]·2.5H₂O possesses a cationic supertetrahedral structure and displays remarkable anion exchange properties with high selectivity for TcO4- Uranyl borates form noncentrosymmetric structures with extraordinarily rich topological relationships. Neptunium borates are often mixed-valent and yield rare examples of compounds with one metal in three different oxidation states. Plutonium borates display new coordination chemistry for trivalent actinides. Finally, americium borates show a dramatic departure from plutonium borates, and there are scant examples of families of actinides compounds that extend past plutonium to examine the bonding of later actinides. There are several grand challenges that this work addresses. The foremost of these challenges is the development of structure-property relationships in transuranium materials. A deep understanding of the materials chemistry of actinides will likely lead to the development of advanced waste forms for radionuclides present in nuclear waste that prevent their transport in the environment. This work may have also uncovered the solubility-limiting phases of actinides in some repositories, and allows for measurements on the stability of these materials.

  2. Utilization of Minor Actinides as a Fuel Component for Ultra-Long Life Bhr Configurations: Designs, Advantages and Limitations

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Pavel V. Tsvetkov

    2009-05-20

    This project assessed the advantages and limitations of using minor actinides as a fuel component to achieve ultra-long life Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) configurations. Researchers considered and compared the capabilities of pebble-bed and prismatic core designs with advanced actinide fuels to achieve ultra-long operation without refueling. Since both core designs permit flexibility in component configuration, fuel utilization, and fuel management, it is possible to improve fissile properties of minor actinides by neutron spectrum shifting through configuration adjustments. The project studied advanced actinide fuels, which could reduce the long-term radio-toxicity and heat load of high-level waste sent to a geologic repository and enable recovery of the energy contained in spent fuel. The ultra-long core life autonomous approach may reduce the technical need for additional repositories and is capable to improve marketability of the Generation IV VHTR by allowing worldwide deployment, including remote regions and regions with limited industrial resources. Utilization of minor actinides in nuclear reactors facilitates developments of new fuel cycles towards sustainable nuclear energy scenarios.

  3. Advanced burner technology for low volatile coal and anthracite

    SciTech Connect

    Tigges, K.D.; Streffing, M.; Lisauskas, R.; Ake, T.

    1997-12-31

    Today China is one of the countries with the highest coal production. Approximately three quarters of the produced coal is high-volatile and medium-volatile hard coal and only about 20% is anthracite. However the actual portion of the anthracite used in power plants is even lower. The reason for this is not due to the low amount available, but to the difficulty of ensuring stable and reliable ignition and combustion of anthracite. Up to now, the so-called Downshot firing system has been used to fire difficult anthracite coals. The experience gained with this type of firing system is, however, far from satisfactory. The numerous difficulties in the plants of all manufactures have shown that attempts should be made to develop efficient burners to be able to use the simple, service-proved and reliable opposed-burner system. Deutsche Babcock started this work in the early 1980`s and developed a second generation low-NOx burner -- the DS burner -- which is also well suited for the combustion of anthracite. The development is based on state-of-the-art advanced computer simulation and full-scale combustion tests on a wide range of coals. Performance has been evaluated on coals with volatile matter content ranging from 50% down to as low as 5%. DS burners are characterized by extremely reliable and stable ignition which allows operation at low part loads even when firing difficult coal. The excellent flame stability of this burner is the reason why the complex Downshot firing system with its numerous disadvantages is no longer necessary and opposed burner system may be applied even for firing anthracite. The paper describes the development of the burner for difficult coals and explains the full scale combustion tests, the laboratory tests of the ignitability and compares these results with the computer simulation of the DS burner flame.

  4. Atmospheric low swirl burner flow characterization with stereo PIV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Legrand, Mathieu; Nogueira, José; Lecuona, Antonio; Nauri, Sara; Rodríguez, Pedro A.

    2010-05-01

    The lean premixed prevaporized (LPP) burner concept is now used in most of the new generation gas turbines to reduce flame temperature and pollutants by operating near the lean blow-off limit. The common strategy to assure stable combustion is to resort to swirl stabilized flames in the burner. Nevertheless, the vortex breakdown phenomenon in reactive swirling flows is a very complex 3D mechanism, and its dynamics are not yet completely understood. Among the available measurement techniques to analyze such flows, stereo PIV (S-PIV) is now a reliable tool to quantify the instantaneous three velocity components in a plane (2D-3C). It is used in this paper to explore the reactive flow of a small scale, open to atmosphere, LPP burner (50 kW). The burner is designed to produce two distinct topologies (1) that of a conventional high swirl burner and (2) that of a low swirl burner. In addition, the burner produces a lifted flame that allows a good optical access to the whole recirculation zone in both topologies. The flow is studied over a wide range of swirl and Reynolds numbers at different equivalence ratios. Flow statistics are presented for 1,000 S-PIV snapshots at each configuration. In both reactive and cold nonreactive flow, stability diagrams define the domains of the low and high swirl topologies. Due to the relatively simple conception of the physical burner, this information can be easily used for the validation of CFD computations of the burner flow global structure. Near field pressure measurements reveal the presence of peaks in the power spectra, which suggests the presence of periodical coherent features for almost all configurations. Algorithms have been developed to identify and track large periodic traveling coherent structures from the statistically independent S-PIV realizations. Flow temporal evolution is reconstructed with a POD-based method, providing an additional tool for the understanding of flow topologies and numerical codes validation.

  5. Burner rig evaluation of thermal barrier coating

    SciTech Connect

    Gedwill, M.A.

    1981-02-01

    Eight plasma sprayed bond coatings were evaluated for their potential use with ZrO/sub 2/-Y/sub 2/O/sub 3/ thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) which are being developed for coal derived fuel fired gas turbines. Longer TBC lives in cyclic burner rig oxidation to 1050 C were achieved with the more oxidation resistant bond coatings. These were Ni-14.1Cr-13.4A1-0.10Ar, Ni-14.1C4-14.4Al-0.16Y, and Ni-15.8Cr-12.8Al-0.36Y on Rene 41. The TBC systems performed best when 0.015-cm thick bond coatings were employed that were sprayed at 20 kW using argon 3.5v/o hydrogen. Cycling had a more life limiting influence on the TBC than accumulated time at 1050 C.

  6. 33. LOOKING EAST AT SPARE BUTTERFLY VALVE FOR BURNER CONNECTION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    33. LOOKING EAST AT SPARE BUTTERFLY VALVE FOR BURNER CONNECTION ON HOT BLAST STOVES. (Jet Lowe) - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Blast Furnace Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

  7. Low NO[sub x] gas burner apparatus and methods

    SciTech Connect

    Schwartz, R.E.; Napier, S.O.; Jones, A.P.

    1994-01-04

    Improved gas burner apparatus and methods of burning fuel gas-air mixtures are provided whereby flue gases having low NO[sub x] contents are formed. The burner apparatus includes a refractory burner tile having an air discharge opening therein and a wall surrounding the opening which extends into the furnace space and provides a mixing zone therein. At least one passage is formed in the burner tile which opens into the mixing zone and fuel gas is jetted through the passage whereby flue gases are drawn there through and a fuel gas-flue gases mixture is discharged into the mixing zone. The fuel gas-flue gases mixture is swirled in the mixing zone and mixes with air therein, and the resulting mixture is discharged and burned in a primary reaction zone in the furnace space. 11 figs.

  8. Space Experiment Concepts: Cup-Burner Flame Extinguishment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Takahashi, Fumiaki

    2004-01-01

    Space Fire Suppression Processes & Technology. Space experiment concepts of cup-burner flame extinguishment have been conceived to address to the key issues (i.e., organizing questions) in space fire suppression. Cup-burner flame extinguishment experiment can reveal physical and chemical suppression processes and provide agent effectiveness data useful for technology development of space fire suppression systems in various reduced-gravity platforms.

  9. Nonaqueous method for dissolving lanthanide and actinide metals

    DOEpatents

    Crisler, L.R.

    1975-11-11

    Lanthanide and actinide beta-diketonate complex molecular compounds are produced by reacting a beta-diketone compound with a lanthanide or actinide element in the elemental metallic state in a mixture of carbon tetrachloride and methanol.

  10. Design and characterization of a linear Hencken-type burner.

    PubMed

    Campbell, M F; Bohlin, G A; Schrader, P E; Bambha, R P; Kliewer, C J; Johansson, K O; Michelsen, H A

    2016-11-01

    We have designed and constructed a Hencken-type burner that produces a 38-mm-long linear laminar partially premixed co-flow diffusion flame. This burner was designed to produce a linear flame for studies of soot chemistry, combining the benefit of the conventional Hencken burner's laminar flames with the advantage of the slot burner's geometry for optical measurements requiring a long interaction distance. It is suitable for measurements using optical imaging diagnostics, line-of-sight optical techniques, or off-axis optical-scattering methods requiring either a long or short path length through the flame. This paper presents details of the design and operation of this new burner. We also provide characterization information for flames produced by this burner, including relative flow-field velocities obtained using hot-wire anemometry, temperatures along the centerline extracted using direct one-dimensional coherent Raman imaging, soot volume fractions along the centerline obtained using laser-induced incandescence and laser extinction, and transmission electron microscopy images of soot thermophoretically sampled from the flame.

  11. Design and characterization of a linear Hencken-type burner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, M. F.; Bohlin, G. A.; Schrader, P. E.; Bambha, R. P.; Kliewer, C. J.; Johansson, K. O.; Michelsen, H. A.

    2016-11-01

    We have designed and constructed a Hencken-type burner that produces a 38-mm-long linear laminar partially premixed co-flow diffusion flame. This burner was designed to produce a linear flame for studies of soot chemistry, combining the benefit of the conventional Hencken burner's laminar flames with the advantage of the slot burner's geometry for optical measurements requiring a long interaction distance. It is suitable for measurements using optical imaging diagnostics, line-of-sight optical techniques, or off-axis optical-scattering methods requiring either a long or short path length through the flame. This paper presents details of the design and operation of this new burner. We also provide characterization information for flames produced by this burner, including relative flow-field velocities obtained using hot-wire anemometry, temperatures along the centerline extracted using direct one-dimensional coherent Raman imaging, soot volume fractions along the centerline obtained using laser-induced incandescence and laser extinction, and transmission electron microscopy images of soot thermophoretically sampled from the flame.

  12. Numerical predictions of burner performance during pulverized coal combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Zarnescu, V.; Pisupati, S.V.

    1999-07-01

    The performance of four burners in terms of temperature and velocity profiles, residence time and NO{sub x} emissions was predicted using numerical simulations and a two-dimensional model for pulverized coal combustion. Numerical predictions for two burners used in a pilot-scale 0.5 MM Btu/hr (146.5 kW) down-fired combustor (DFC) are presented. Two other burner configurations were evaluated and compared with the ones used with the DFC for attaining lower NO{sub x} levels. Simulations were conducted for both coal and coal-water slurry as primary fuels. A sensitivity analysis of predictions with respect to variations of the model parameters was performed. The results suggest that the higher NO{sub x} reduction with one of the burners used in the DFC is due to the improved near-burner aerodynamics and to better flame attachment. These improved conditions are influenced by a combination of geometric and flow parameters, such as burner dimensions, quart diameter, inlet velocity, inlet temperature and swirl number.

  13. TUCS/phosphate mineralization of actinides

    SciTech Connect

    Nash, K.L.

    1997-10-01

    This program has as its objective the development of a new technology that combines cation exchange and mineralization to reduce the concentration of heavy metals (in particular actinides) in groundwaters. The treatment regimen must be compatible with the groundwater and soil, potentially using groundwater/soil components to aid in the immobilization process. The delivery system (probably a water-soluble chelating agent) should first concentrate the radionuclides then release the precipitating anion, which forms thermodynamically stable mineral phases, either with the target metal ions alone or in combination with matrix cations. This approach should generate thermodynamically stable mineral phases resistant to weathering. The chelating agent should decompose spontaneously with time, release the mineralizing agent, and leave a residue that does not interfere with mineral formation. For the actinides, the ideal compound probably will release phosphate, as actinide phosphate mineral phases are among the least soluble species for these metals. The most promising means of delivering the precipitant would be to use a water-soluble, hydrolytically unstable complexant that functions in the initial stages as a cation exchanger to concentrate the metal ions. As it decomposes, the chelating agent releases phosphate to foster formation of crystalline mineral phases. Because it involves only the application of inexpensive reagents, the method of phosphate mineralization promises to be an economical alternative for in situ immobilization of radionuclides (actinides in particular). The method relies on the inherent (thermodynamic) stability of actinide mineral phases.

  14. Advanced burner test reactor preconceptual design report.

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, Y. I.; Finck, P. J.; Grandy, C.; Cahalan, J.; Deitrich, L.; Dunn, F.; Fallin, D.; Farmer, M.; Fanning, T.; Kim, T.; Krajtl, L.; Lomperski, S.; Moisseytsev, A.; Momozaki, Y.; Sienicki, J.; Park, Y.; Tang, Y.; Reed, C.; Tzanos, C; Wiedmeyer, S.; Yang, W.; Chikazawa, Y.; JAEA

    2008-12-16

    The goals of the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP) are to expand the use of nuclear energy to meet increasing global energy demand, to address nuclear waste management concerns and to promote non-proliferation. Implementation of the GNEP requires development and demonstration of three major technologies: (1) Light water reactor (LWR) spent fuel separations technologies that will recover transuranics to be recycled for fuel but not separate plutonium from other transuranics, thereby providing proliferation-resistance; (2) Advanced Burner Reactors (ABRs) based on a fast spectrum that transmute the recycled transuranics to produce energy while also reducing the long term radiotoxicity and decay heat loading in the repository; and (3) Fast reactor fuel recycling technologies to recover and refabricate the transuranics for repeated recycling in the fast reactor system. The primary mission of the ABR Program is to demonstrate the transmutation of transuranics recovered from the LWR spent fuel, and hence the benefits of the fuel cycle closure to nuclear waste management. The transmutation, or burning of the transuranics is accomplished by fissioning and this is most effectively done in a fast spectrum. In the thermal spectrum of commercial LWRs, some transuranics capture neutrons and become even heavier transuranics rather than being fissioned. Even with repeated recycling, only about 30% can be transmuted, which is an intrinsic limitation of all thermal spectrum reactors. Only in a fast spectrum can all transuranics be effectively fissioned to eliminate their long-term radiotoxicity and decay heat. The Advanced Burner Test Reactor (ABTR) is the first step in demonstrating the transmutation technologies. It directly supports development of a prototype full-scale Advanced Burner Reactor, which would be followed by commercial deployment of ABRs. The primary objectives of the ABTR are: (1) To demonstrate reactor-based transmutation of transuranics as part of an

  15. Ultratrace analysis of transuranic actinides by laser-induced fluorescence

    DOEpatents

    Miller, Steven M.

    1988-01-01

    Ultratrace quantities of transuranic actinides are detected indirectly by their effect on the fluorescent emissions of a preselected fluorescent species. Transuranic actinides in a sample are coprecipitated with a host lattice material containing at least one preselected fluorescent species. The actinide either quenches or enhances the laser-induced fluorescence of the preselected fluorescent species. The degree of enhancement or quenching is quantitatively related to the concentration of actinide in the sample.

  16. Ultratrace analysis of transuranic actinides by laser-induced fluorescence

    DOEpatents

    Miller, S.M.

    1983-10-31

    Ultratrace quantities of transuranic actinides are detected indirectly by their effect on the fluorescent emissions of a preselected fluorescent species. Transuranic actinides in a sample are coprecipitated with a host lattice material containing at least one preselected fluorescent species. The actinide either quenches or enhances the laser-induced fluorescence of the preselected fluorescent species. The degree of enhancement or quenching is quantitatively related to the concentration of actinide in the sample.

  17. Design of an Actinide Burning, Lead-Bismuth Cooled Reactor That Produces Low Cost Electricity

    SciTech Connect

    C. Davis; S. Herring; P. MacDonald; K. McCarthy; V. Shah; K. Weaver; J. Buongiorno; R. Ballinger; K. Doyoung; M. Driscoll; P. Hejzler; M. Kazimi; N. Todreas

    1999-07-01

    The purpose of this project is to investigate the suitability of lead-bismuth cooled fast reactors for producing low-cost electricity as well as for actinide burning. The goal is to identify and analyze the key technical issues in core neutronics, materials, thermal-hydraulics, fuels, and economics associated with the development of this reactor concept. The choice of lead-bismuth for the reactor coolant is an actinide burning fast reactor offers enhanced safety and reliability. The advantages of lead-bismuth over sodium as a coolant are related to the following material characteristics: chemical inertness with air and water; higher atomic number; lower vapor pressure at operating temperatures; and higher boiling temperature. Given the status of the field, it was agreed that the focus of this investigation in the first two years will be on the assessment of approaches to optimize core and plant arrangements in order to provide maximum safety and economic potential in this type of reactor.

  18. Dounreay PFR irradiation history for the joint US/UK actinide sample exposures

    SciTech Connect

    Raman, S.; Murphy, B.D.; Nestor, C.W. Jr.

    1995-07-01

    The operating history of the Dounreay Prototype Fast Reactor is presented to the extent that it is relevant to the irradiation of actinide specimens that were subsequently analyzed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). Three fuel pins with actinide samples were irradiated from July 1982 to July 1988 and returned to ORNL for analysis. They contained isotopes of elements from thorium to curium. The times when each of these fuel pins were in the reactor core are described as are the operating power levels and neutron spectra. The appendices give daily power levels of the reactor as well as six-group neutron energy spectra for various times and axial positions in the core.

  19. The Actinide-Lanthanide Separation Process

    SciTech Connect

    Lumetta, Gregg J.; Gelis, Artem V.; Carter, Jennifer C.; Niver, Cynthia M.; Smoot, Margaret R.

    2014-02-21

    The Actinide-Lanthanide SEParation (ALSEP) process is described. The process uses an extractant phase consisting of either N,N,N',N'-tetraoctyldiglycolamide (TODGA) or N,N,N',N'-tetra(2 ethylhexyl)diglycolamide (T2EHDGA) combined with 2-ethylhexylphosphonic acid mono-2-ethylhexyl ester (HEH[EHP]). The neutral TODGA or T2EHDGA serves to co-extract the trivalent actinide and lanthanide ions from nitric acid media. Switching the aqueous phase chemistry to a citrate buffered diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) solution at pH 2.5 to 4 results in selective transfer of the actinides to the aqueous phase, thus resulting in separation of these two groups of elements.

  20. Actinide Lanthanide Separation Process – ALSEP

    SciTech Connect

    Gelis, Artem V.; Lumetta, Gregg J.

    2014-01-29

    Separation of the minor actinides (Am, Cm) from the lanthanides at an industrial scale remains a significant technical challenge for closing the nuclear fuel cycle. To increase the safety of used nuclear fuel (UNF) reprocessing, as well as reduce associated costs, a novel solvent extraction process has been developed. The process allows for partitioning minor actinides, lanthanides and fission products following uranium/plutonium/neptunium removal; minimizing the number of separation steps, flowsheets, chemical consumption, and waste. This new process, Actinide Lanthanide SEParation (ALSEP), uses an organic solvent consisting of a neutral diglycolamide extractant, either N,N,N',N'-tetra(2 ethylhexyl)diglycolamide (T2EHDGA) or N,N,N',N'-tetraoctyldiglycolamide (TODGA), and an acidic extractant 2-ethylhexylphosphonic acid mono-2-ethylhexyl ester (HEH[EHP]), dissolved in an aliphatic diluent (e.g. n-dodecane). The An/Ln co-extraction is conducted from moderate-to-strong nitric acid, while the selective stripping of the minor actinides from the lanthanides is carried out using a polyaminocarboxylic acid/citrate buffered solution at pH anywhere between 3 and 4.5. The extraction and separation of the actinides from the fission products is very effective in a wide range of HNO3 concentrations and the minimum separation factors for lanthanide/Am exceed 30 for Nd/Am, reaching > 60 for Eu/Am under some conditions. The experimental results presented here demonstrate the great potential for a combined system, consisting of a neutral extractant such as T2EHDGA or TODGA, and an acidic extractant such as HEH[EHP], for separating the minor actinides from the lanthanides.

  1. Enhanced Combustion Low NOx Pulverized Coal Burner

    SciTech Connect

    David Towle; Richard Donais; Todd Hellewell; Robert Lewis; Robert Schrecengost

    2007-06-30

    For more than two decades, Alstom Power Inc. (Alstom) has developed a range of low cost, infurnace technologies for NOx emissions control for the domestic U.S. pulverized coal fired boiler market. This includes Alstom's internally developed TFS 2000{trademark} firing system, and various enhancements to it developed in concert with the U.S. Department of Energy. As of the date of this report, more than 270 units representing approximately 80,000 MWe of domestic coal fired capacity have been retrofit with Alstom low NOx technology. Best of class emissions range from 0.18 lb/MMBtu for bituminous coal to 0.10 lb/MMBtu for subbituminous coal, with typical levels at 0.24 lb/MMBtu and 0.13 lb/MMBtu, respectively. Despite these gains, NOx emissions limits in the U.S. continue to ratchet down for new and existing boiler equipment. On March 10, 2005, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) announced the Clean Air Interstate Rule (CAIR). CAIR requires 25 Eastern states to reduce NOx emissions from the power generation sector by 1.7 million tons in 2009 and 2.0 million tons by 2015. Low cost solutions to meet such regulations, and in particular those that can avoid the need for a costly selective catalytic reduction system (SCR), provide a strong incentive to continue to improve low NOx firing system technology to meet current and anticipated NOx control regulations. The overall objective of the work is to develop an enhanced combustion, low NOx pulverized coal burner, which, when integrated with Alstom's state-of-the-art, globally air staged low NOx firing systems will provide a means to achieve: Less than 0.15 lb/MMBtu NOx emissions when firing a high volatile Eastern or Western bituminous coal, Less than 0.10 lb/MMBtu NOx emissions when firing a subbituminous coal, NOx reduction costs at least 25% lower than the costs of an SCR, Validation of the NOx control technology developed through large (15 MWt) pilot scale demonstration, and Documentation required for economic

  2. Dual-water mixture fuel burner

    DOEpatents

    Brown, Thomas D.; Reehl, Douglas P.; Walbert, Gary F.

    1986-08-05

    A coal-water mixture (CWM) burner includes a conically shaped rotating cup into which fuel comprised of coal particles suspended in a slurry is introduced via a first, elongated inner tube coupled to a narrow first end portion of the cup. A second, elongated outer tube is coaxially positioned about the first tube and delivers steam to the narrow first end of the cup. The fuel delivery end of the inner first tube is provided with a helical slot on its lateral surface for directing the CWM onto the inner surface of the rotating cup in the form of a uniform, thin sheet which, under the influence of the cup's centrifugal force, flows toward a second, open, expanded end portion of the rotating cup positioned immediately adjacent to a combustion chamber. The steam delivered to the rotating cup wets its inner surface and inhibits the coal within the CWM from adhering to the rotating cup. A primary air source directs a high velocity air flow coaxially about the expanded discharge end of the rotating cup for applying a shear force to the CWM in atomizing the fuel mixture for improved combustion. A secondary air source directs secondary air into the combustion chamber adjacent to the outlet of the rotating cup at a desired pitch angle relative to the fuel mixture/steam flow to promote recirculation of hot combustion gases within the ignition zone for increased flame stability.

  3. Strong correlations in actinide redox reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horowitz, S. E.; Marston, J. B.

    2011-02-01

    Reduction-oxidation (redox) reactions of the redox couples An(VI)/An(V), An(V)/An(IV), and An(IV)/An(III), where An is an element in the family of early actinides (U, Np, and Pu), as well as Am(VI)/Am(V) and Am(V)/Am(III), are modeled by combining density functional theory with a generalized Anderson impurity model that accounts for the strong correlations between the 5f electrons. Diagonalization of the Anderson impurity model yields improved estimates for the redox potentials and the propensity of the actinide complexes to disproportionate.

  4. Elevated concentrations of actinides in Mono Lake

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, R.F.; Bacon, M.P.; Brewer, P.G.

    1982-04-30

    Tetravalent thorium, pentavalent protactinium, hexavalent uranium, and plutonium (oxidation state uncertain) are present in much higher concentrations in Mono Lake, a saline, alkaline lake in eastern central California, than in seawater. Low ratios of actinium to protactinium and of americium to plutonium indicate that the concentrations of trivalent actinides are not similarly enhanced. The elevated concentrations of the ordinarily very insoluble actinides are maintained in solution by natural ligands, which inhibit their chemical removal from the water column, rather than by an unusually large rate of supply.

  5. Elevated concentrations of actinides in mono lake.

    PubMed

    Anderson, R F; Bacon, M P; Brewer, P G

    1982-04-30

    Tetravalent thorium, pentavalent protactinium, hexavalent uranium, and plutonium (oxidation state uncertain) are present in much higher concentrations in Mono Lake, a saline, alkaline lake in eastern central California, than in seawater. Low ratios of actinium to protactinium and of americium to plutonium indicate that the concentrations of trivalent actinides are not similarly enhanced. The elevated concentrations of the ordinarily very insoluble actinides are maintained in solution by natural ligands, which inhibit their chemical removal from the water column, rather than by an unusually large rate of supply.

  6. The gastrointestinal absorption of the actinide elements.

    PubMed

    Harrison, J D

    1991-03-01

    The greatest uncertainty in dose estimates for the ingestion of long-lived, alpha-emitting isotopes of the actinide elements is in the values used for their fractional absorption from the gastrointestinal tract (f1 values). Recent years have seen a large increase in the available data on actinide absorption. Human data are reviewed here, together with animal data, to illustrate the effect on absorption of chemical form, incorporation into food materials, fasting and other dietary factors, and age at ingestion. The f1 values recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection, by an Expert Group of the Nuclear Energy Agency and by the National Radiological Protection Board are discussed.

  7. Strong correlations in actinide redox reactions.

    PubMed

    Horowitz, S E; Marston, J B

    2011-02-14

    Reduction-oxidation (redox) reactions of the redox couples An(VI)/An(V), An(V)/An(IV), and An(IV)/An(III), where An is an element in the family of early actinides (U, Np, and Pu), as well as Am(VI)/Am(V) and Am(V)/Am(III), are modeled by combining density functional theory with a generalized Anderson impurity model that accounts for the strong correlations between the 5f electrons. Diagonalization of the Anderson impurity model yields improved estimates for the redox potentials and the propensity of the actinide complexes to disproportionate.

  8. Systematization of actinides using cluster analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Kopyrin, A.A.; Terent`eva, T.N.; Khramov, N.N.

    1994-11-01

    A representation of the actinides in multidimensional property space is proposed for systematization of these elements using cluster analysis. Literature data for their atomic properties are used. Owing to the wide variation of published ionization potentials, medians are used to estimate them. Vertical dendograms are used for classification on the basis of distances between the actinides in atomic-property space. The properties of actinium and lawrencium are furthest removed from the main group. Thorium and mendelevium exhibit individualized properties. A cluster based on the einsteinium-fermium pair is joined by californium.

  9. VUV and soft x-ray spectroscopy of actinides

    SciTech Connect

    Olson, C. G.; Joyce, J. J.; Durakiewicz, T.; Guziewicz, E.

    2004-01-01

    Optical and photoelectron spectroscopies using VUV and Soft X-ray photons are powerful tools for studies of elemental and compound actinides. Large changes in the relative atomic cross sections of the 5f, 6d and sp electrons allow decomposition of the character of the valence bands using photoemission. Resonant enhancement of photoelectrons and Auger electrons at the 5d core threshold further aids the decomposition and gives a measure of elemental specificity. Angle-resolved photoemission can be used to map the momentum dependence of the electronic states. The large changes in relative cross section with photon energy yields further details when the mapping is done at equivalent points in multiple zones. Spectra for well understood rare earth materials will be presented to establish spectral characteristics for known atomic character initial states. These signatures will be applied to the case of USb to investigate f-d hybridization near the Fermi level.

  10. Assessment of sensitivity of neutron-physical parameters of fast neutron reactor to purification of reprocessed fuel from minor actinides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cherny, V. A.; Kochetkov, L. A.; Nevinitsa, A. I.

    2013-12-01

    The work is devoted to computational investigation of the dependence of basic physical parameters of fast neutron reactors on the degree of purification of plutonium from minor actinides obtained as a result of pyroelectrochemical reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel and used for manufacturing MOX fuel to be reloaded into the reactors mentioned. The investigations have shown that, in order to preserve such important parameters of a BN-800 type reactor as the criticality, the sodium void reactivity effect, the Doppler effect, and the efficiency of safety rods, it is possible to use the reprocessed fuel without separation of minor actinides for refueling (recharging) the core.

  11. OPTIMIZATION OF COAL PARTICLE FLOW PATTERNS IN LOW NOX BURNERS

    SciTech Connect

    Jost O.L. Wendt; Gregory E. Ogden; Jennifer Sinclair; Stephanus Budilarto

    2001-09-04

    It is well understood that the stability of axial diffusion flames is dependent on the mixing behavior of the fuel and combustion air streams. Combustion aerodynamic texts typically describe flame stability and transitions from laminar diffusion flames to fully developed turbulent flames as a function of increasing jet velocity. Turbulent diffusion flame stability is greatly influenced by recirculation eddies that transport hot combustion gases back to the burner nozzle. This recirculation enhances mixing and heats the incoming gas streams. Models describing these recirculation eddies utilize conservation of momentum and mass assumptions. Increasing the mass flow rate of either fuel or combustion air increases both the jet velocity and momentum for a fixed burner configuration. Thus, differentiating between gas velocity and momentum is important when evaluating flame stability under various operating conditions. The research efforts described herein are part of an ongoing project directed at evaluating the effect of flame aerodynamics on NO{sub x} emissions from coal fired burners in a systematic manner. This research includes both experimental and modeling efforts being performed at the University of Arizona in collaboration with Purdue University. The objective of this effort is to develop rational design tools for optimizing low NO{sub x} burners. Experimental studies include both cold-and hot-flow evaluations of the following parameters: primary and secondary inlet air velocity, coal concentration in the primary air, coal particle size distribution and flame holder geometry. Hot-flow experiments will also evaluate the effect of wall temperature on burner performance.

  12. Flame quality monitor system for fixed firing rate oil burners

    DOEpatents

    Butcher, Thomas A.; Cerniglia, Philip

    1992-01-01

    A method and apparatus for determining and indicating the flame quality, or efficiency of the air-fuel ratio, in a fixed firing rate heating unit, such as an oil burning furnace, is provided. When the flame brightness falls outside a preset range, the flame quality, or excess air, has changed to the point that the unit should be serviced. The flame quality indicator output is in the form of lights mounted on the front of the unit. A green light indicates that the flame is about in the same condition as when the burner was last serviced. A red light indicates a flame which is either too rich or too lean, and that servicing of the burner is required. At the end of each firing cycle, the flame quality indicator goes into a hold mode which is in effect during the period that the burner remains off. A yellow or amber light indicates that the burner is in the hold mode. In this mode, the flame quality lights indicate the flame condition immediately before the burner turned off. Thus the unit can be viewed when it is off, and the flame condition at the end of the previous firing cycle can be observed.

  13. Advanced Burner Reactor Preliminary NEPA Data Study.

    SciTech Connect

    Briggs, L. L.; Cahalan, J. E.; Deitrich, L. W.; Fanning, T. H.; Grandy, C.; Kellogg, R.; Kim, T. K.; Yang, W. S.; Nuclear Engineering Division

    2007-10-15

    The Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP) is a new nuclear fuel cycle paradigm with the goals of expanding the use of nuclear power both domestically and internationally, addressing nuclear waste management concerns, and promoting nonproliferation. A key aspect of this program is fast reactor transmutation, in which transuranics recovered from light water reactor spent fuel are to be recycled to create fast reactor transmutation fuels. The benefits of these fuels are to be demonstrated in an Advanced Burner Reactor (ABR), which will provide a representative environment for recycle fuel testing, safety testing, and modern fast reactor design and safeguard features. Because the GNEP programs will require facilities which may have an impact upon the environment within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA), preparation of a Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (PEIS) for GNEP is being undertaken by Tetra Tech, Inc. The PEIS will include a section on the ABR. In support of the PEIS, the Nuclear Engineering Division of Argonne National Laboratory has been asked to provide a description of the ABR alternative, including graphics, plus estimates of construction and operations data for an ABR plant. The compilation of this information is presented in the remainder of this report. Currently, DOE has started the process of engaging industry on the design of an Advanced Burner Reactor. Therefore, there is no specific, current, vendor-produced ABR design that could be used for this PEIS datacall package. In addition, candidate sites for the ABR vary widely as to available water, geography, etc. Therefore, ANL has based its estimates for construction and operations data largely on generalization of available information from existing plants and from the environmental report assembled for the Clinch River Breeder Reactor Plant (CRBRP) design [CRBRP, 1977]. The CRBRP environmental report was chosen as a resource because it thoroughly

  14. Trends in actinide processing at Hanford

    SciTech Connect

    Harmon, H.D.

    1993-09-01

    In 1989, the mission at the Hanford Site began a dramatic and sometimes painful transition. The days of production--as we used to know it--are over. Our mission officially has become waste management and environmental cleanup. This mission change didn`t eliminate many jobs--in fact, budgets have grown dramatically to support the new mission. Most all of the same skilled crafts, engineers, and scientists are still required for the new mission. This change has not eliminated the need for actinide processing, but it has certainly changed the focus that our actinide chemists and process engineers have. The focus used to be on such things as increasing capacity, improving separations efficiency, and product purity. Minimizing waste had become a more important theme in recent years and it is still a very important concept in the waste management and environmental cleanup arena. However, at Hanford, a new set of words dominates the actinide process scene as we work to deal with actinides that still reside in a variety of forms at the Hanford Site. These words are repackage, stabilize, remove, store and dispose. Some key activities in each of these areas are described in this report.

  15. Actinide measurements by AMS using fluoride matrices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cornett, R. J.; Kazi, Z. H.; Zhao, X.-L.; Chartrand, M. G.; Charles, R. J.; Kieser, W. E.

    2015-10-01

    Actinides can be measured by alpha spectroscopy (AS), mass spectroscopy or accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). We tested a simple method to separate Pu and Am isotopes from the sample matrix using a single extraction chromatography column. The actinides in the column eluent were then measured by AS or AMS using a fluoride target matrix. Pu and Am were coprecipitated with NdF3. The strongest AMS beams of Pu and Am were produced when there was a large excess of fluoride donor atoms in the target and the NdF3 precipitates were diluted about 6-8 fold with PbF2. The measured concentrations of 239,240Pu and 241Am agreed with the concentrations in standards of known activity and with two IAEA certified reference materials. Measurements of 239,240Pu and 241Am made at A.E. Lalonde AMS Laboratory agree, within their statistical uncertainty, with independent measurements made using the IsoTrace AMS system. This work demonstrated that fluoride targets can produce reliable beams of actinide anions and that the measurement of actinides using fluorides agree with published values in certified reference materials.

  16. Rapid determination of actinides in asphalt samples

    SciTech Connect

    Maxwell, Sherrod L.; Culligan, Brian K.; Hutchison, Jay B.

    2014-01-12

    A new rapid method for the determination of actinides in asphalt samples has been developed that can be used in emergency response situations or for routine analysis If a radiological dispersive device (RDD), Improvised Nuclear Device (IND) or a nuclear accident such as the accident at the Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant in March, 2011 occurs, there will be an urgent need for rapid analyses of many different environmental matrices, including asphalt materials, to support dose mitigation and environmental clean up. The new method for the determination of actinides in asphalt utilizes a rapid furnace step to destroy bitumen and organics present in the asphalt and sodium hydroxide fusion to digest the remaining sample. Sample preconcentration steps are used to collect the actinides and a new stacked TRU Resin + DGA Resin column method is employed to separate the actinide isotopes in the asphalt samples. The TRU Resin plus DGA Resin separation approach, which allows sequential separation of plutonium, uranium, americium and curium isotopes in asphalt samples, can be applied to soil samples as well.

  17. Rapid determination of actinides in asphalt samples

    DOE PAGES

    Maxwell, Sherrod L.; Culligan, Brian K.; Hutchison, Jay B.

    2014-01-12

    A new rapid method for the determination of actinides in asphalt samples has been developed that can be used in emergency response situations or for routine analysis If a radiological dispersive device (RDD), Improvised Nuclear Device (IND) or a nuclear accident such as the accident at the Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant in March, 2011 occurs, there will be an urgent need for rapid analyses of many different environmental matrices, including asphalt materials, to support dose mitigation and environmental clean up. The new method for the determination of actinides in asphalt utilizes a rapid furnace step to destroy bitumen and organicsmore » present in the asphalt and sodium hydroxide fusion to digest the remaining sample. Sample preconcentration steps are used to collect the actinides and a new stacked TRU Resin + DGA Resin column method is employed to separate the actinide isotopes in the asphalt samples. The TRU Resin plus DGA Resin separation approach, which allows sequential separation of plutonium, uranium, americium and curium isotopes in asphalt samples, can be applied to soil samples as well.« less

  18. Semi-empirical models of actinide alloying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibson, John K.; Haire, Richard G.; Ogawa, Toru

    1999-07-01

    Alloys of Np have been studied less than those of the neighboring elements, U and Pu; the higher actinides have received even less attention. Recent interest in 237Np, 241Am and other actinide isotopes as significant, long-lived and highly radiotoxic nuclear waste components, and particularly the roles of metallic materials in new handling/separations and remediation technologies, demands that this paucity of information concerning alloy behaviors be addressed. An additional interest in these materials arises from the possibility of revealing fundamental properties and bonding interactions, which would further characterize the unique electronic structures (e.g., 5f electrons) of the actinide elements. The small empirical knowledge basis presently available for understanding and modeling the alloying behavior of Np is summarized here, with emphasis on our recent results for the Np-Am, Np-Zr and Np-Fe phase diagrams. In view of the limited experimental data base for neptunium and the transplutonium metals, the value of semi-empirical intermetallic bonding models for predicting actinide alloy thermodynamics is evaluated.

  19. Positron Spectroscopy of Hydrothermally Grown Actinide Oxides

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-03-27

    In this method, the powdered material is placed in a solution which contains extremely powerful mineralizers, such as cesium fluoride for actinide...the isotope that acts as a positron source is sodium -22, which has a relatively short half-life (2.6 y) and emits a characteristic gamma photon (at

  20. Slurry burner for mixture of carbonaceous material and water

    DOEpatents

    Nodd, D.G.; Walker, R.J.

    1985-11-05

    The present invention is intended to overcome the limitations of the prior art by providing a fuel burner particularly adapted for the combustion of carbonaceous material-water slurries which includes a stationary high pressure tip-emulsion atomizer which directs a uniform fuel into a shearing air flow as the carbonaceous material-water slurry is directed into a combustion chamber, inhibits the collection of unburned fuel upon and within the atomizer, reduces the slurry to a collection of fine particles upon discharge into the combustion chamber, and regulates the operating temperature of the burner as well as primary air flow about the burner and into the combustion chamber for improved combustion efficiency, no atomizer plugging and enhanced flame stability.

  1. User guide to the Burner Engineering Research Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Fornaciari, N.; Schefer, R.; Paul, P.; Lubeck, C.; Sanford, R.; Claytor, L.

    1994-11-01

    The Burner Engineering Research Laboratory (BERL) was established with the purpose of providing a facility where manufacturers and researchers can study industrial natural gas burners using conventional and laser-based diagnostics. To achieve this goal, an octagonal furnace enclosure with variable boundary conditions and optical access that can accommodate burners with firing rates up to 2.5 MMBtu per hour was built. In addition to conventional diagnostic capabilities like input/output measurements, exhaust gas monitoring, suction pyrometry and in-furnace gas sampling, laser-based diagnostics available at BERL include planar Mie scattering, laser Doppler velocimetry and laser-induced fluorescence. This paper gives an overview of the operation of BERL and a description of the diagnostic capabilities and an estimate of the time required to complete each diagnostic for the potential user who is considering submitting a proposal.

  2. Adventures in Actinide Chemistry: A Year of Exploring Uranium and Thorium in Los Alamos

    SciTech Connect

    Pagano, Justin

    2016-01-08

    The first part of this collection of slides is concerned with considerations when working with actinides. The topics discussed in the document as a whole are the following: Actinide chemistry vs. transition metal chemistry--tools we can use; New synthetic methods to obtain actinide hydrides; Actinide metallacycles: synthesis, structure, and properties; and Reactivity of actinide metallacycles.

  3. Plutonium Futures -- The Science. Topical Conference on Plutonium and Actinides. AIP Conference Proceedings, No. 532 [APCPCS

    SciTech Connect

    Pillay, K.K.S.; Kim, K.C.

    2000-12-31

    Presentations at this conference covered the topics of materials science/nuclear fuels, condensed matter physics, actinides in the environment/separation and analysis, actinides/processing, actinides/TRU wastes, materials science, TRU waste forms, nuclear fuels/isotopes, separations and process chemistry, actinides in the environment, detection and analysis, Pu and Pu compounds, actinide compounds and complexes.

  4. Development of an air-atomized oil burner

    SciTech Connect

    Butcher, T.A.; Celebi, Y.

    1996-06-01

    A new concept for the design of a residential oil burner is presented involving a low pressure, air atomizing nozzle. Advantages of this approach, relative to conventional, pressure atomized burners include: ability to operate at very low excess air levels without smoke, ability to operate at low (and possibly variable) rates, reduced boiler fouling, and low NO{sub x}. The nozzle used is a low pressure, airblast atomizer which can achieve fuel spray drop sizes similar to conventional nozzles and very good combustion performance with air pressure as low as 5 inches of water (1.24 kPa). A burner head has been developed for this nozzle and combustion test results are presented in a wide variety of equipment including cast iron and steel boilers, warm air furnaces, and water heaters over the firing rate range 0.25 gph to 1.0 gph (10 to 41 kW). Beyond the nozzle and combustion head the burner system must be developed and two approaches have been taken. The first involves a small, brushless DC motor/fan combination which uses high fan speed to achieve air pressures from 7 to 9 inches of water (1.74 to 2.24 kPa). Fuel is delivered to the atomizer at less than 1 psig (6.9 kPa) using a solenoid pump and flow metering orifice. At 0.35 gph (14 kW) the electric power draw of this burner is less than 100 watts. In a second configuration a conventional motor is used with a single stage fan which develops 5 to 6 inches of water pressure (1.24 to 1.50 kPa) at similar firing rates. This burner uses a conventional type fuel pump and metering orifice to deliver fuel. The fuel pump is driven by the fan motor, very much like a conventional burner. This second configuration is seen as more attractive to the heating industry and is now being commercialized. Field tests with this burner have been conducted at 0.35 gph (14 kW) with a side-wall vented boiler/water storage tank combination.

  5. FIELD EVALUATION OF LOW-EMISSION COAL BURNER TECHNOLOGY ON UTILITY BOILERS VOLUME III. FIELD EVALUATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of field tests conducted to determine the emission characteristics of a Babcock and Wilcox Circular burner and Dual Register burner (DRB). The field tests were performed at two utility boilers, generally comparable in design and size except for the burner...

  6. 46 CFR 56.50-65 - Burner fuel-oil service systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Burner fuel-oil service systems. 56.50-65 Section 56.50... SYSTEMS AND APPURTENANCES Design Requirements Pertaining to Specific Systems § 56.50-65 Burner fuel-oil service systems. (a) All discharge piping from the fuel oil service pumps to burners must be...

  7. Synthesis of actinide nitrides, phosphides, sulfides and oxides

    DOEpatents

    Van Der Sluys, William G.; Burns, Carol J.; Smith, David C.

    1992-01-01

    A process of preparing an actinide compound of the formula An.sub.x Z.sub.y wherein An is an actinide metal atom selected from the group consisting of thorium, uranium, plutonium, neptunium, and americium, x is selected from the group consisting of one, two or three, Z is a main group element atom selected from the group consisting of nitrogen, phosphorus, oxygen and sulfur and y is selected from the group consisting of one, two, three or four, by admixing an actinide organometallic precursor wherein said actinide is selected from the group consisting of thorium, uranium, plutonium, neptunium, and americium, a suitable solvent and a protic Lewis base selected from the group consisting of ammonia, phosphine, hydrogen sulfide and water, at temperatures and for time sufficient to form an intermediate actinide complex, heating said intermediate actinide complex at temperatures and for time sufficient to form the actinide compound, and a process of depositing a thin film of such an actinide compound, e.g., uranium mononitride, by subliming an actinide organometallic precursor, e.g., a uranium amide precursor, in the presence of an effectgive amount of a protic Lewis base, e.g., ammonia, within a reactor at temperatures and for time sufficient to form a thin film of the actinide compound, are disclosed.

  8. Electrorecovery of actinides at room temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Stoll, Michael E; Oldham, Warren J; Costa, David A

    2008-01-01

    There are a large number of purification and processing operations involving actinide species that rely on high-temperature molten salts as the solvent medium. One such application is the electrorefining of impure actinide metals to provide high purity material for subsequent applications. There are some drawbacks to the electrodeposition of actinides in molten salts including relatively low yields, lack of accurate potential control, maintaining efficiency in a highly corrosive environment, and failed runs. With these issues in mind we have been investigating the electrodeposition of actinide metals, mainly uranium, from room temperature ionic liquids (RTILs) and relatively high-boiling organic solvents. The RTILs we have focused on are comprised of 1,3-dialkylimidazolium or quaternary ammonium cations and mainly the {sup -}N(SO{sub 2}CF{sub 3}){sub 2} anion [bis(trif1uoromethylsulfonyl)imide {equivalent_to} {sup -}NTf{sub 2}]. These materials represent a class of solvents that possess great potential for use in applications employing electrochemical procedures. In order to ascertain the feasibility of using RTILs for bulk electrodeposition of actinide metals our research team has been exploring the electron transfer behavior of simple coordination complexes of uranium dissolved in the RTIL solutions. More recently we have begun some fundamental electrochemical studies on the behavior of uranium and plutonium complexes in the organic solvents N-methylpyrrolidone (NMP) and dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO). Our most recent results concerning electrodeposition will be presented in this account. The electrochemical behavior of U(IV) and U(III) species in RTILs and the relatively low vapor pressure solvents NMP and DMSO is described. These studies have been ongoing in our laboratory to uncover conditions that will lead to the successful bulk electrodeposition of actinide metals at a working electrode surface at room temperature or slightly elevated temperatures. The RTILs we

  9. Actinide Isotopes for the Synthesis of Superheavy Nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberto, J. B.; Alexander, C. W.; Boll, R. A.; Dean, D. J.; Ezold, J. G.; Felker, L. K.; Rykaczewski, K. P.

    2014-09-01

    Recent research resulting in the synthesis of isotopes of new elements 113-118 has demonstrated the importance of actinide targets in superheavy element research. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has unique facilities for the production and processing of actinide target materials, including the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) and the Radiochemical Engineering Development Center (REDC). These facilities have provided actinide target materials that have been used for the synthesis of all superheavy (SHE) elements above Copernicium (element 112). In this paper, the use of actinide targets for SHE research and discovery is described, including recent results for element 117 using 249Bk target material from ORNL. ORNL actinide capabilities are reviewed, including production and separation/purification, availabilities of actinide materials, and future opportunities including novel target materials such as 251Cf.

  10. Burner modifications for very cost effective NO{sub x} control

    SciTech Connect

    Melick, T.A.; Hensley, M.E.; Gustafson, D.A.

    1996-12-31

    The development of commercial Low NO{sub x} Burners has provided Energy and Environmental Research Corporation (EER) with the expertise to modify existing burner equipment to provide the controlled fuel/air mixing conditions required for low NO{sub x} combustion. This approach represents a viable alternative to a full burner retrofit for many applications. EER has modified burners to lower NO{sub x} emissions at Louisville Gas & Electric`s (LG&E) Cane Run Station and at Jamestown Board of Public Utilities (JBPU). This paper will discuss the method and results of these burner modifications.

  11. Burner modifications for very cost effective NO{sub x} control

    SciTech Connect

    Melick, T.A.; Hensley, M.E.; Gustafson, D.A.

    1996-12-31

    The development of commercial Low NO{sub x} Burners has provided Energy and Environmental Research Corporation (EER) with the expertise to modify existing burner equipment to provide the controlled fuel/air mixing conditions required for low NO{sub x} combustion. This approach represents a viable alternative to a full burner retrofit for many applications. EER has modified burners to lower NO{sub x} emissions at Louisville Gas and Electric`s (LG and E) Cane Run Station and at Jamestown Board of Public Utilities (JBPU). This paper will discuss the method and results of these burner modifications.

  12. Microbial Transformations of Actinides and Other Radionuclides

    SciTech Connect

    Francis,A.J.; Dodge, C. J.

    2009-01-07

    Microorganisms can affect the stability and mobility of the actinides and other radionuclides released from nuclear fuel cycle and from nuclear fuel reprocessing plants. Under appropriate conditions, microorganisms can alter the chemical speciation, solubility and sorption properties and thus could increase or decrease the concentrations of radionuclides in solution in the environment and the bioavailability. Dissolution or immobilization of radionuclides is brought about by direct enzymatic action or indirect non-enzymatic action of microorganisms. Although the physical, chemical, and geochemical processes affecting dissolution, precipitation, and mobilization of radionuclides have been extensively investigated, we have only limited information on the effects of microbial processes and biochemical mechanisms which affect the stability and mobility of radionuclides. The mechanisms of microbial transformations of the major and minor actinides U, Pu, Cm, Am, Np, the fission products and other radionuclides such as Ra, Tc, I, Cs, Sr, under aerobic and anaerobic conditions in the presence of electron donors and acceptors are reviewed.

  13. Chemistry of the actinide elements. Second edition

    SciTech Connect

    Katz, J.J.; Seaborg, G.T.; Morss, L.R.

    1987-01-01

    This is an exhaustive, updated discourse on the chemistry of Actinides, Volume 1 contains a systematic coverage of the elements Ac, Th, Pa, U, Np, and Pu, which constitutes Part 1 of the work. The characterization of each element is discussed in terms of its nuclear properties, occurrence, preparation, atomic and metallic properties, chemistry of specific compounds, and solution chemistry. The first part of Volume 2 follows the same format as Volume 1 but is confined to the elements Am, Cm, Bk, Cf, and Es, plus a more condensed coverage of the Transeinsteinium elements (Fm, Md, No, Lw, and 104-109). Part 2 of this volume is devoted to a discussion of the actinide elements in general, with a specific focus on electronic spectra, thermodynamic and magnetic properties, the metallic state, structural chemistry, solution kinetics, organometallic chemistry for /sigma/- and /pi/-bonded compounds, and some concluding remarks on the superheavy elements.

  14. Actinide phosphonate complexes in aqueous solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Nash, K.L.

    1993-10-01

    Complexes formed by actinides with carboxylic acids, polycarboxylic acids, and aminopolycarboxylic acids play a central role in both the basic and process chemistry of the actinides. Recent studies of f-element complexes with phosphonic acid ligands indicate that new ligands incorporating doubly ionizable phosphonate groups (-PO{sub 3}H{sub 2}) have many properties which are unique chemically, and promise more efficient separation processes for waste cleanup and environmental restoration. Simple diphosphonate ligands form much stronger complexes than isostructural carboxylates, often exhibiting higher solubility as well. In this manuscript recent studies of the thermodynamics and kinetics of f-element complexation by 1,1 and 1,2 diphosphonic acid ligands are described.

  15. Oxyhydrogen burner for low-temperature flame fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ueltzen, M.; Brüggenkamp, T.; Franke, M.; Altenburg, H.

    1993-04-01

    An oxyhydrogen burner as described in this article enables the growth of crystals by Verneuil's technique at temperatures of about 1000 °C. The powder fed to the crystal passes along a low-temperature pathway through the flame, so that evaporation of volatile components is prevented. Low-temperature flame fusion of superconducting Y-Ba-cuprate is reported.

  16. Demonstration test of burner liner strain measurement systems: Interim results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stetson, K. A.; Grant, H. P.

    1983-01-01

    Work is in progress to demonstrate two techniques for static strain measurements on a jet engine burner liner. Measurements are being made with a set of resistance strain gages made from Kanthal A-1 wire and via heterodyne speckle photogrammetry. The background of the program is presented along with current results.

  17. Camping Burner-Based Flame Emission Spectrometer for Classroom Demonstrations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ne´el, Bastien; Crespo, Gasto´n A.; Perret, Didier; Cherubini, Thomas; Bakker, Eric

    2014-01-01

    A flame emission spectrometer was built in-house for the purpose of introducing this analytical technique to students at the high school level. The aqueous sample is sprayed through a homemade nebulizer into the air inlet of a consumer-grade propane camping burner. The resulting flame is analyzed by a commercial array spectrometer for the visible…

  18. Demonstration test of burner liner strain measuring system. Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Stetson, K.A.

    1984-06-01

    A demonstration test was conducted for two systems of static strain measurement that had been shown to have potential for application jet engine combustors. A modified JT12D combustor was operated in a jet burner test stand while subjected simultaneously to both systems of instrumentation, i.e., Kanthal A-1 wire strain gages and laser speckle photography. A section of the burner was removed for installation and calibration of the wire gages, and welded back into the burner. The burner test rig was modified to provide a viewing port for the laser speckle photography such that the instrumented section could be observed during operation. Six out of ten wire gages survived testing and showed excellent repeatability. The extensive precalibration procedures were shown to be effective in compensating for the large apparent strains associated with these gages. Although all portions of the speckle photography system operated satisfactorily, a problem was encountered in the form of optical inhomogeneities in the hot, high-pressure gas flowing by the combustor case which generate large and random apparent strain distributions.

  19. 40 CFR 266.102 - Permit standards for burners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... MANAGEMENT FACILITIES Hazardous Waste Burned in Boilers and Industrial Furnaces § 266.102 Permit standards for burners. (a) Applicability—(1) General. Owners and operators of boilers and industrial furnaces... furnaces that burn hazardous waste are subject to the following provisions of part 264 of this...

  20. 40 CFR 266.102 - Permit standards for burners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... MANAGEMENT FACILITIES Hazardous Waste Burned in Boilers and Industrial Furnaces § 266.102 Permit standards for burners. (a) Applicability—(1) General. Owners and operators of boilers and industrial furnaces... furnaces that burn hazardous waste are subject to the following provisions of part 264 of this...

  1. 40 CFR 266.102 - Permit standards for burners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... MANAGEMENT FACILITIES Hazardous Waste Burned in Boilers and Industrial Furnaces § 266.102 Permit standards for burners. (a) Applicability—(1) General. Owners and operators of boilers and industrial furnaces... furnaces that burn hazardous waste are subject to the following provisions of part 264 of this...

  2. 40 CFR 266.102 - Permit standards for burners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... MANAGEMENT FACILITIES Hazardous Waste Burned in Boilers and Industrial Furnaces § 266.102 Permit standards for burners. (a) Applicability—(1) General. Owners and operators of boilers and industrial furnaces... furnaces that burn hazardous waste are subject to the following provisions of part 264 of this...

  3. Demonstration test of burner liner strain measuring system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stetson, K. A.

    1984-01-01

    A demonstration test was conducted for two systems of static strain measurement that had been shown to have potential for application jet engine combustors. A modified JT12D combustor was operated in a jet burner test stand while subjected simultaneously to both systems of instrumentation, i.e., Kanthal A-1 wire strain gages and laser speckle photography. A section of the burner was removed for installation and calibration of the wire gages, and welded back into the burner. The burner test rig was modified to provide a viewing port for the laser speckle photography such that the instrumented section could be observed during operation. Six out of ten wire gages survived testing and showed excellent repeatability. The extensive precalibration procedures were shown to be effective in compensating for the large apparent strains associated with these gages. Although all portions of the speckle photography system operated satisfactorily, a problem was encountered in the form of optical inhomogeneities in the hot, high-pressure gas flowing by the combustor case which generate large and random apparent strain distributions.

  4. How Efficient is a Laboratory Burner in Heating Water?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jansen, Michael P.

    1997-01-01

    Describes an experiment in which chemistry students determine the efficiency of a laboratory burner used to heat water. The reaction is assumed to be the complete combustion of methane, CH4. The experiment is appropriate for secondary school chemistry students familiar with heats of reaction and simple calorimetry. Contains pre-laboratory and…

  5. 6. View, flare and oxygen burner pad near southwest side ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. View, flare and oxygen burner pad near southwest side of Components Test Laboratory (T-27), looking northeast. Uphill and to the left of the flare is the Oxidizer Conditioning Structure (T-28D) and the Long-Term Oxidizer Silo (T-28B). - Air Force Plant PJKS, Systems Integration Laboratory, Waterton Canyon Road & Colorado Highway 121, Lakewood, Jefferson County, CO

  6. A burner for plasma-coal starting of a boiler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peregudov, V. S.

    2008-04-01

    Advanced schemes of a plasma-coal burner with single-and two-stage chambers for thermochemical preparation of fuel are described. The factors causing it becoming contaminated with slag during oil-free starting of a boiler are considered, and methods for preventing this phenomenon are pointed out.

  7. [Burner head with high sensitivity in atomic absorption spectroscopy].

    PubMed

    Feng, X; Yang, Y

    1998-12-01

    This paper presents a burner head with gas-sample separate entrance and double access, which is used for atomic absorption spectroscopy. According to comparison and detection, the device can improve sensitivity by a factor of 1 to 5. In the meantime it has properties of high stability and resistance to interference.

  8. NOx Emissions from a Lobed Fuel Injector/Burner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitchell, M. G.; Smith, L. L.; Karagozian, A. R.; Smith, O. I.

    1996-01-01

    The present experimental study examines the performance of a novel fuel injector/burner configuration with respect to reduction in nitrogen oxide NOx emissions. The lobed injector/burner is a device in which very rapid initial mixing of reactants can occur through strong streamwise vorticity generation, producing high fluid mechanical strain rates which can delay ignition and thus prevent the formation of stoichiometric diffusion flames. Further downstream of the rapid mixing region. this flowfield produces a reduced effective strain rate, thus allowing ignition to occur in a premixed mode, where it is possible for combustion to take place under locally lean conditions. potentially reducing NOx emissions from the burner. The present experiments compare NO/NO2/NOx emissions from a lobed fuel injector configuration with emissions from a straight fuel injector to determine the net effect of streamwise vorticity generation. Preliminary results show that the lobed injector geometry can produce lean premixed flame structures. while for comparable flow conditions, a straight fuel injector geometry produces much longer. sooting diffusion flames or slightly rich pre-mixed flames. NO measurements show that emissions from a lobed fuel injector/burner can be made significantly lower than from a straight fuel injector under comparable flow conditions.

  9. DEMONSTRATION BULLETIN: THE PYRETRON OXYGEN BURNER, AMERICAN COMBUSTION TECHNOLOGIES, INC.

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Pyretron is a burner which is designed to allow for the injection of oxygen into the combustion air stream for the purpose of increasing the efficiency of a hazardous waste incinerator. The SITE demonstration of the Pyretron took place at the U.S. EPA's Combustion Re...

  10. In vitro removal of actinide (IV) ions

    DOEpatents

    Weitl, Frederick L.; Raymond, Kenneth N.

    1982-01-01

    A compound of the formula: ##STR1## wherein X is hydrogen or a conventional electron-withdrawing group, particularly --SO.sub.3 H or a salt thereof; n is 2, 3, or 4; m is 2, 3, or 4; and p is 2 or 3. The present compounds are useful as specific sequestering agents for actinide (IV) ions. Also described is a method for the 2,3-dihydroxybenzamidation of azaalkanes.

  11. Surrogate Reactions in the Actinide Region

    SciTech Connect

    Burke, J T; Bernstein, L A; Scielzo, N D; Bleuel, D L; Lesher, S R; Escher, J; Ahle, L; Dietrich, F S; Hoffman, R D; Norman, E B; Sheets, S A; Phair, L; Fallon, P; Clark, R M; Gibelin, J; Jewett, C; Lee, I Y; Macchiavelli, A O; McMahan, M A; Moretto, L G; Rodriguez-Vieitez, E; Wiedeking, M; Lyles, B F; Beausang, C W; Allmond, J M; Ai, H; Cizewski, J A; Hatarik, R; O'Malley, P D; Swan, T

    2008-01-30

    Over the past three years we have studied various surrogate reactions (d,p), ({sup 3}He,t), ({alpha},{alpha}{prime}) on several uranium isotopes {sup 234}U, {sup 235}U, {sup 236}U, and {sup 238}U. An overview of the STARS/LIBERACE surrogate research program as it pertains to the actinides is discussed. A summary of results to date will be presented along with a discussion of experimental difficulties encountered in surrogate experiments and future research directions.

  12. Separation of Californium from other Actinides

    DOEpatents

    Mailen, J C; Ferris, L M

    1973-09-25

    A method is provided for separating californium from a fused fluoride composition containing californium and at least one element selected from the group consisting of plutonium, americium, curium, uranium, thorium, and protactinium which comprises contacting said fluoride composition with a liquid bismuth phase containing sufficient lithium or thorium to effect transfer of said actinides to the bismuth phase and then contacting the liquid bismuth phase with molten LiCl to effect selective transfer of californium to the chloride phase.

  13. Study of the Effects of Ambient Conditions Upon the Performance of Fan Powered, Infrared Natural Gas Burners

    SciTech Connect

    Clark Atlanta University

    2002-12-02

    The objective of this investigation was to characterize the operation of a fan-powered, infrared burner (IR burner) at various gas compositions and ambient conditions, develop numerical model to simulate the burner performances, and provide design guidelines for appliances containing PIR burners for satisfactory performance.

  14. VARIABLE FIRING RATE OIL BURNER USING PULSE FUEL FLOW CONTROL.

    SciTech Connect

    KRISHNA,C.R.; BUTCHER,T.A.; KAMATH,B.R.

    2004-10-01

    The residential oil burner market is currently dominated by the pressure-atomized retention head burner, which has an excellent reputation for reliability and efficiency. In this burner, oil is delivered to a fuel nozzle at pressures from 100 to 150 psi. In addition, to atomizing the fuel, the small, carefully controlled size of the nozzle exit orifice serves to control the burner firing rate. Burners of this type are currently available at firing rates of more than 0.5 gallons-per-hour (70,000 Btu/hr). Nozzles have been made for lower firing rates, but experience has shown that such nozzles suffer rapid fouling of the necessarily small passages, leading to bad spray patterns and poor combustion performance. Also, traditionally burners and the nozzles are oversized to exceed the maximum demand. Typically, this is figured as follows. The heating load of the house on the coldest day for the location is considered to define the maximum heat load. The contractor or installer adds to this to provide a safety margin and for future expansion of the house. If the unit is a boiler that provides domestic hot water through the use of a tankless heating coil, the burner capacity is further increased. On the contrary, for a majority of the time, the heating system is satisfying a much smaller load, as only rarely do all these demands add up. Consequently, the average output of the heating system has to be much less than the design capacity and this is accomplished by start and stop cycling operation of the system so that the time-averaged output equals the demand. However, this has been demonstrated to lead to overall efficiencies lower than the steady-state efficiency. Therefore, the two main reasons for the current practice of using oil burners much larger than necessary for space heating are the unavailability of reliable low firing rate oil burners and the desire to assure adequate input rate for short duration, high draw domestic hot water loads. One approach to solve this

  15. Actinide behavior in a freshwater pond

    SciTech Connect

    Trabalka, J.R.; Bogle, M.A.; Scott, T.G.

    1983-01-01

    Long-term investigations of solution chemistry in an alkaline freshwater pond have revealed that actinide oxidation state behavior, particularly that of plutonium, is complex. The Pu(V,VI) fraction was predominant in solution, but it varied over the entire range reported from other natural aquatic environments, in this case, as a result of intrinsic biological and chemical cycles (redox and pH-dependent phenomena). A strong positive correlation between plutonium (Pu), but not uranium (U), and hydroxyl ion over the observation period, especially when both were known to be in higher oxidation states, was particularly notable. Coupled with other examples of divergent U and Pu behavior, this result suggests that Pu(V), or perhaps a mixture of Pu(V,VI), was the prevalent oxidation state in solution. Observations of trivalent actinide sorption behavior during an algal bloom, coupled with the association with a high-molecular weight (nominally 6000 to 10,000 mol wt) organic fraction in solution, indicate that solution-detritus cycling of organic carbon, in turn, may be the primary mechanism in amercium-curium (Am-Cm) cycling. Sorption by sedimentary materials appears to predominate over other factors controlling effective actinide solubility and may explain, at least partially, the absence of an expected strong positive correlation between carbonate and dissolved U. 49 references, 6 figures, 12 tables.

  16. Actinide and lanthanide separation process (ALSEP)

    DOEpatents

    Guelis, Artem V.

    2013-01-15

    The process of the invention is the separation of minor actinides from lanthanides in a fluid mixture comprising, fission products, lanthanides, minor actinides, rare earth elements, nitric acid and water by addition of an organic chelating aid to the fluid; extracting the fluid with a solvent comprising a first extractant, a second extractant and an organic diluent to form an organic extractant stream and an aqueous raffinate. Scrubbing the organic stream with a dicarboxylic acid and a chelating agent to form a scrubber discharge. The scrubber discharge is stripped with a simple buffering agent and a second chelating agent in the pH range of 2.5 to 6.1 to produce actinide and lanthanide streams and spent organic diluents. The first extractant is selected from bis(2-ethylhexyl)hydrogen phosphate (HDEHP) and mono(2-ethylhexyl)2-ethylhexyl phosphonate (HEH(EHP)) and the second extractant is selected from N,N,N,N-tetra-2-ethylhexyl diglycol amide (TEHDGA) and N,N,N',N'-tetraoctyl-3-oxapentanediamide (TODGA).

  17. Bidentate organophosphorus solvent extraction process for actinide recovery and partition

    DOEpatents

    Schulz, Wallace W.

    1976-01-01

    A liquid-liquid extraction process for the recovery and partitioning of actinide values from acidic nuclear waste aqueous solutions, the actinide values including trivalent, tetravalent and hexavalent oxidation states is provided and includes the steps of contacting the aqueous solution with a bidentate organophosphorous extractant to extract essentially all of the actinide values into the organic phase. Thereafter the respective actinide fractions are selectively partitioned into separate aqueous solutions by contact with dilute nitric or nitric-hydrofluoric acid solutions. The hexavalent uranium is finally removed from the organic phase by contact with a dilute sodium carbonate solution.

  18. Development of the Actinide-Lanthanide Separation (ALSEP) Process

    SciTech Connect

    Lumetta, Gregg J.; Carter, Jennifer C.; Niver, Cynthia M.; Gelis, Artem V.

    2014-09-30

    Separating the minor actinide elements (Am and Cm) from acidic high-level raffinates arising from the reprocessing of irradiated nuclear fuel is an important step in closing the nuclear fuel cycle. Most proposed approaches to this problem involve two solvent extraction steps: 1) co-extraction of the trivalent lanthanides and actinides, followed by 2) separation of the actinides from the lanthanides. The objective of our work is to develop a single solvent-extraction process for isolating the minor actinide elements. We report here a solvent containing N,N,N',N'-tetra(2 ethylhexyl)diglycolamide (T2EHDGA) combined with 2-ethylhexylphosphonic acid mono-2-ethylhexyl ester (HEH[EHP]) that can be used to separate the minor actinides in a single solvent-extraction process. T2EHDGA serves to co-extract the trivalent actinide and lanthanide ions from nitric acid solution. Switching the aqueous phase chemistry to a citrate buffered solution of N-(2-hydroxyethyl)ethylenediamine-N,N',N'-triacetic acid at pH 2.5 to 4 results in selective transfer of the actinides to the aqueous phase, thus affecting separation of the actinides from the lanthanides. Separation factors between the lanthanides and actinides are approximately 20 in the pH range of 3 to 4, and the distribution ratios are not highly dependent on the pH in this system.

  19. Advanced Aqueous Separation Systems for Actinide Partitioning

    SciTech Connect

    Nash, Ken; Martin, Leigh; Lumetta, Gregg

    2015-04-02

    One of the most challenging aspects of advanced processing of used nuclear fuel is the separation of transplutonium actinides from fission product lanthanides. This separation is essential if actinide transmutation options are to be pursued in advanced fuel cycles, as lanthanides compete with actinides for neutrons in both thermal and fast reactors, thus limiting efficiency. The separation is difficult because the chemistry of Am3+ and Cm3+ is nearly identical to that of the trivalent lanthanides (Ln3+). The prior literature teaches that two approaches offer the greatest probability of devising a successful group separation process based on aqueous processes: 1) the application of complexing agents containing ligand donor atoms that are softer than oxygen (N, S, Cl-) or 2) changing the oxidation state of Am to the IV, V, or VI state to increase the essential differences between Am and lanthanide chemistry (an approach utilized in the PUREX process to selectively remove Pu4+ and UO22+ from fission products). The latter approach offers the additional benefit of enabling a separation of Am from Cm, as Cm(III) is resistant to oxidation and so can easily be made to follow the lanthanides. The fundamental limitations of these approaches are that 1) the soft(er) donor atoms that interact more strongly with actinide cations than lanthanides form substantially weaker bonds than oxygen atoms, thus necessitating modification of extraction conditions for adequate phase transfer efficiency, 2) soft donor reagents have been seen to suffer slow phase transfer kinetics and hydro-/radiolytic stability limitations and 3) the upper oxidation states of Am are all moderately strong oxidants, hence of only transient stability in media representative of conventional aqueous separations systems. There are examples in the literature of both approaches having been described. However, it is not clear at present that any extant process is sufficiently robust for application at the scale

  20. Preparation of higher-actinide burnup and cross section samples. [LMFBR

    SciTech Connect

    Adair, H.L.; Kobisk, E.H.; Quinby, T.C.; Thomas, D.K.; Dailey, J.M.

    1981-01-01

    A joint research program involving the United States and the United Kingdom was instigated about four years ago for the purpose of studying burnup of higher actinides using in-core irradiation in the fast reactor at Dounreay, Scotland. Simultaneously, determination of cross sections of a wide variety of higher actinide isotopes was proposed. Coincidental neutron flux and energy spectral measurements were to be made using vanadium encapsulated dosimetry materials in the immediate region of the burnup and cross section samples. The higher actinide samples chosen for the burnup study were /sup 241/Am and /sup 244/Cm in the forms of Am/sub 2/O/sub 3/, Cm/sub 2/O/sub 3/, and Am/sub 6/ Cm(RE)/sub 7/O/sub 21/, where (RE) represents a mixture of lanthanide sesquioxides. It is the purpose of this paper to describe technology development and its application in the preparation of the fuel specimens and the cross section specimens that are being used in this cooperative program.

  1. Study of actinide chemistry in saturated potassium fluoride solution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, D.; Thalmayer, C. E.

    1969-01-01

    Study concerning the chemistry of actinides in saturated KF solution included work with neptunium, uranium, and americium. Solubilities, absorption spectra, oxidation-reduction reactions, and solid compounds which can be produced in KF solution were examined. The information is used for preparation of various materials from salts of the actinides.

  2. Detailed calculations of minor actinide transmutation in a fast reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Takeda, Toshikazu

    2015-12-31

    The transmutation of minor actinides in a fast reactor is investigated by a new method to investigate the transmutation behavior of individual minor actinides. It is found that Np-237 and Am-241 mainly contributes to the transmutation rate though the transmutation behaviors are very different.

  3. POTENTIAL BENCHMARKS FOR ACTINIDE PRODUCTION IN HANFORD REACTORS

    SciTech Connect

    PUIGH RJ; TOFFER H

    2011-10-19

    A significant experimental program was conducted in the early Hanford reactors to understand the reactor production of actinides. These experiments were conducted with sufficient rigor, in some cases, to provide useful information that can be utilized today in development of benchmark experiments that may be used for the validation of present computer codes for the production of these actinides in low enriched uranium fuel.

  4. Improved method for extracting lanthanides and actinides from acid solutions

    DOEpatents

    Horwitz, E.P.; Kalina, D.G.; Kaplan, L.; Mason, G.W.

    1983-07-26

    A process for the recovery of actinide and lanthanide values from aqueous acidic solutions uses a new series of neutral bi-functional extractants, the alkyl(phenyl)-N,N-dialkylcarbamoylmethylphosphine oxides. The process is suitable for the separation of actinide and lanthanide values from fission product values found together in high-level nuclear reprocessing waste solutions.

  5. Process for making a ceramic composition for immobilization of actinides

    DOEpatents

    Ebbinghaus, Bartley B.; Van Konynenburg, Richard A.; Vance, Eric R.; Stewart, Martin W.; Walls, Philip A.; Brummond, William Allen; Armantrout, Guy A.; Herman, Connie Cicero; Hobson, Beverly F.; Herman, David Thomas; Curtis, Paul G.; Farmer, Joseph

    2001-01-01

    Disclosed is a process for making a ceramic composition for the immobilization of actinides, particularly uranium and plutonium. The ceramic is a titanate material comprising pyrochlore, brannerite and rutile. The process comprises oxidizing the actinides, milling the oxides to a powder, blending them with ceramic precursors, cold pressing the blend and sintering the pressed material.

  6. Human factors and safety issues associated with actinide retrieval from spent light water reactor fuel assemblies

    SciTech Connect

    Spelt, P.F.

    1992-08-01

    A major problem in environmental restoration and waste management is the disposition of used fuel assemblies from the many light water reactors in the United States, which present a radiation hazard to those whose job is to dispose of them, with a similar threat to the general environment associated with long-term storage in fuel repositories around the country. Actinides resident in the fuel pins as a result of their use in reactor cores constitute a significant component of this hazard. Recently, the Department of Energy has initiated an Actinide Recycle Program to study the feasibility of using pyrochemical (molten salt) processes to recover actinides from the spent fuel assemblies of commercial reactors. This project concerns the application of robotics technology to the operation and maintenance functions of a plant whose objective is to recover actinides from spent fuel assemblies, and to dispose of the resulting hardware and chemical components from this process. Such a procedure involves a number of safety and human factors issues. The purpose of the project is to explore the use of robotics and artificial intelligence to facilitate accomplishment of the program goals while maintaining the safety of the humans doing the work and the integrity of the environment. This project will result in a graphic simulation on a Silicon Graphics workstation as a proof of principle demonstration of the feasibility of using robotics along with an intelligent operator interface. A major component of the operator-system interface is a hybrid artificial intelligence system developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, which combines artificial neural networks and an expert system into a hybrid, self-improving computer-based system interface. 10 refs.

  7. Human factors and safety issues associated with actinide retrieval from spent light water reactor fuel assemblies

    SciTech Connect

    Spelt, P.F.

    1992-01-01

    A major problem in environmental restoration and waste management is the disposition of used fuel assemblies from the many light water reactors in the United States, which present a radiation hazard to those whose job is to dispose of them, with a similar threat to the general environment associated with long-term storage in fuel repositories around the country. Actinides resident in the fuel pins as a result of their use in reactor cores constitute a significant component of this hazard. Recently, the Department of Energy has initiated an Actinide Recycle Program to study the feasibility of using pyrochemical (molten salt) processes to recover actinides from the spent fuel assemblies of commercial reactors. This project concerns the application of robotics technology to the operation and maintenance functions of a plant whose objective is to recover actinides from spent fuel assemblies, and to dispose of the resulting hardware and chemical components from this process. Such a procedure involves a number of safety and human factors issues. The purpose of the project is to explore the use of robotics and artificial intelligence to facilitate accomplishment of the program goals while maintaining the safety of the humans doing the work and the integrity of the environment. This project will result in a graphic simulation on a Silicon Graphics workstation as a proof of principle demonstration of the feasibility of using robotics along with an intelligent operator interface. A major component of the operator-system interface is a hybrid artificial intelligence system developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, which combines artificial neural networks and an expert system into a hybrid, self-improving computer-based system interface. 10 refs.

  8. Separation of actinides from lanthanides utilizing molten salt electrorefining

    SciTech Connect

    Grimmett, D.L.; Fusselman, S.P.; Roy, J.J.; Gay, R.L.; Krueger, C.L.; Storvick, T.S.; Inoue, T.; Hijikata, T.; Takahashi, N.

    1996-10-01

    TRUMP-S (TRansUranic Management through Pyropartitioning Separation) is a pyrochemical process being developed to separate actinides form fission products in nuclear waste. A key process step involving molten salt electrorefining to separate actinides from lanthanides has been studied on a laboratory scale. Electrorefining of U, Np, Pu, Am, and lanthanide mixtures from molten cadmium at 450 C to a solid cathode utilizing a molten chloride electrolyte resulted in > 99% removal of actinides from the molten cadmium and salt phases. Removal of the last few percent of actinides is accompanied by lowered cathodic current efficiency and some lanthanide codeposition. Actinide/lanthanide separation ratios on the cathode are ordered U > Np > Pu > Am and are consistent with predictions based on equilibrium potentials.

  9. Research in actinide chemistry. Progress report, 1990--1993

    SciTech Connect

    Choppin, G.R.

    1993-04-01

    This research studies the behavior of the actinide elements in aqueous solution. The high radioactivity of the transuranium actinides limits the concentrations which can be studied and, consequently, limits the experimental techniques. However, oxidation state analogs (trivalent lanthanides, tetravalent thorium, and hexavalent uranium) do not suffer from these limitations. Behavior of actinides in the environment are a major USDOE concern, whether in connection with long-term releases from a repository, releases from stored defense wastes or accidental releases in reprocessing, etc. Principal goal of our research was expand the thermodynamic data base on complexation of actinides by natural ligands (e.g., OH{sup {minus}}, CO{sub 3}{sup 2{minus}}, PO{sub 4}{sup 3{minus}}, humates). The research undertakes fundamental studies of actinide complexes which can increase understanding of the environmental behavior of these elements.

  10. Actinides and Rare Earths Topical Conference (Code AC)

    SciTech Connect

    Tobin, J G

    2009-11-24

    Actinide and the Rare Earth materials exhibit many unique and diverse physical, chemical and magnetic properties, in large part because of the complexity of their f electronic structure. This Topical Conference will focus upon the chemistry, physics and materials science in Lanthanide and Actinide materials, driven by 4f and 5f electronic structure. Particular emphasis will be placed upon 4f/5f magnetic structure, surface science and thin film properties. For the actinides, fundamental actinide science and its role in resolving technical challenges posed by actinide materials will be stressed. Both basic and applied experimental approaches, including synchrotron-radiation-based investigations, as well as theoretical modeling and computational simulations, are planned to be part of the Topical Conference. Of particular importance are the issues related to the potential renaissance in Nuclear Fuels, including synthesis, oxidation, corrosion, intermixing, stability in extreme environments, prediction of properties via benchmarked simulations, separation science, environmental impact and disposal of waste products.

  11. NUMERICAL SIMULATION OF NATURAL GAS-SWIRL BURNER

    SciTech Connect

    Ala Qubbaj

    2005-03-01

    A numerical simulation of a turbulent natural gas jet diffusion flame at a Reynolds number of 9000 in a swirling air stream is presented. The numerical computations were carried out using the commercially available software package CFDRC. The instantaneous chemistry model was used as the reaction model. The thermal, composition, flow (velocity), as well as stream function fields for both the baseline and air-swirling flames were numerically simulated in the near-burner region, where most of the mixing and reactions occur. The results were useful to interpret the effects of swirl in enhancing the mixing rates in the combustion zone as well as in stabilizing the flame. The results showed the generation of two recirculating regimes induced by the swirling air stream, which account for such effects. The present investigation will be used as a benchmark study of swirl flow combustion analysis as a step in developing an enhanced swirl-cascade burner technology.

  12. Numerical simulation of radiative heat loss in an experimental burner

    SciTech Connect

    Cloutman, L.D.; Brookshaw, L.

    1993-09-01

    We describe the numerical algorithm used in the COYOTE two-dimensional, transient, Eulerian hydrodynamics program to allow for radiative heat losses in simulations of reactive flows. The model is intended primarily for simulations of industrial burners, but it is not confined to that application. It assumes that the fluid is optically thin and that photons created by the fluid immediately escape to free space or to the surrounding walls, depending upon the application. The use of the model is illustrated by simulations of a laboratory-scale experimental burner. We find that the radiative heat losses reduce the local temperature of the combustion products by a modest amount, typically on the order of 50 K. However, they have a significant impact on NO{sub x} production.

  13. The technical and economic impact of minor actinide transmutation in a sodium fast reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Gautier, G. M.; Morin, F.; Dechelette, F.; Sanseigne, E.; Chabert, C.

    2012-07-01

    Within the frame work of the French National Act of June 28, 2006 pertaining to the management of high activity, long-lived radioactive waste, one of the proposed processes consists in transmuting the Minor Actinides (MA) in the radial blankets of a Sodium Fast Reactor (SFR). With this option, we may assess the additional cost of the reactor by comparing two SFR designs, one with no Minor Actinides, and the other involving their transmutation. To perform this exercise, we define a reference design called SFRref, of 1500 MWe that is considered to be representative of the Reactor System. The SFRref mainly features a pool architecture with three pumps, six loops with one steam generator per loop. The reference core is the V2B core that was defined by the CEA a few years ago for the Reactor System. This architecture is designed to meet current safety requirements. In the case of transmutation, for this exercise we consider that the fertile blanket is replaced by two rows of assemblies having either 20% of Minor Actinides or 20% of Americium. The assessment work is performed in two phases. - The first consists in identifying and quantifying the technical differences between the two designs: the reference design without Minor Actinides and the design with Minor Actinides. The main differences are located in the reactor vessel, in the fuel handling system and in the intermediate storage area for spent fuel. An assessment of the availability is also performed so that the impact of the transmutation can be known. - The second consists in making an economic appraisal of the two designs. This work is performed using the CEA's SEMER code. The economic results are shown in relative values. For a transmutation of 20% of MA in the assemblies (S/As) and a hypothesis of 4 kW allowable for the washing device, there is a large external storage demanding a very long cooling time of the S/As. In this case, the economic impact may reach 5% on the capital part of the Levelized Unit

  14. Vapor pressure and thermodynamics of actinide metals

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, J.W.; Kleinschmidt, P.D.; Haire, R.G.; Brown, D.

    1980-01-01

    Precise vapor pressure measurements by target collection/mass spectrometric Knudsen effusion techniques were combined with crystal entropy estimates to produce self-consistent free-enrgy functions, permitting calculation of heats, entropies and free energies from 298/sup 0/K to the highest temperatures of measurement. The vapor pressures and thermodyamics of vaporization of americium, curium, berkelium, and californium are compared in terms of electronic structure and bonding trends in the trans-plutonium elements. These resuslts are contrasted with the behavior of the early actinides, with attention to energy states and possible effects of f-electron bonding. 9 figures, 4 tables.

  15. Status of nuclear data for actinides

    SciTech Connect

    Guzhovskii, B.Y.; Gorelov, V.P.; Grebennikov, A.N.

    1995-10-01

    Nuclear data required for transmutation problem include many actinide nuclei. In present paper the analysis of neutron fission, capture, (n,2n) and (n,3n) reaction cross sections at energy region from thermal point to 14 MeV was carried out for Th, Pa, U, Np, Pu, Am and Cm isotops using modern evaluated nuclear data libraries and handbooks of recommended nuclear data. Comparison of these data indicates on substantial discrepancies in different versions of files, that connect with quality and completeness of original experimental data.

  16. Multicoordinate ligands for actinide/lanthanide separations.

    PubMed

    Dam, Henk H; Reinhoudt, David N; Verboom, Willem

    2007-02-01

    In nuclear waste treatment processes there is a need for improved ligands for the separation of actinides (An(III)) and lanthanides (Ln(III)). Several research groups are involved in the design and synthesis of new An(III) ligands and in the confinement of these and existing An(III) ligands onto molecular platforms giving multicoordinate ligands. The preorganization of ligands considerably improves the An(III) extraction properties, which are largely dependent on the solubility and rigidity of the platform. This tutorial review summarizes the most important An(III) ligands with emphasis on the preorganization strategy using (macrocyclic) platforms.

  17. Actinide removal from nitric acid waste streams

    SciTech Connect

    Muscatello, A.C.; Navratil, J.D.

    1986-01-01

    Actinide separations research at the Rocky Flats Plant (RFP) has found ways to significantly improve plutonium secondary recovery and americium removal from nitric acid waste streams generated by plutonium purification operations. Capacity and breakthrough studies show anion exchange with Dowex 1x4 (50 to 100 mesh) to be superior for secondary recovery of plutonium. Extraction chromatography with TOPO(tri-n-octyl-phosphine oxide) on XAD-4 removes the final traces of plutonium, including hydrolytic polymer. Partial neutralization and solid supported liquid membrane transfer removes americium for sorption on discardable inorganic ion exchangers, potentially allowing for non-TRU waste disposal.

  18. OPTIMIZATION OF COAL PARTICLE FLOW PATTERNS IN LOW NOX BURNERS

    SciTech Connect

    Jost O.L. Wendt; Gregory E. Ogden; Jennifer Sinclair; Caner Yurteri

    2001-08-20

    The proposed research is directed at evaluating the effect of flame aerodynamics on NO{sub x} emissions from coal fired burners in a systematic manner. This fundamental research includes both experimental and modeling efforts being performed at the University of Arizona in collaboration with Purdue University. The objective of this effort is to develop rational design tools for optimizing low NO{sub x} burners to the kinetic emissions limit (below 0.2 lb./MMBTU). Experimental studies include both cold and hot flow evaluations of the following parameters: flame holder geometry, secondary air swirl, primary and secondary inlet air velocity, coal concentration in the primary air and coal particle size distribution. Hot flow experiments will also evaluate the effect of wall temperature on burner performance. Cold flow studies will be conducted with surrogate particles as well as pulverized coal. The cold flow furnace will be similar in size and geometry to the hot-flow furnace but will be designed to use a laser Doppler velocimeter/phase Doppler particle size analyzer. The results of these studies will be used to predict particle trajectories in the hot-flow furnace as well as to estimate the effect of flame holder geometry on furnace flow field. The hot-flow experiments will be conducted in a novel near-flame down-flow pulverized coal furnace. The furnace will be equipped with externally heated walls. Both reactors will be sized to minimize wall effects on particle flow fields. The cold-flow results will be compared with Fluent computation fluid dynamics model predictions and correlated with the hot-flow results with the overall goal of providing insight for novel low NO{sub x} burner geometry's.

  19. Controversy of the year. Biomedical ethics on the front burner.

    PubMed

    2000-12-22

    CONTROVERSY OF THE YEAR: Biomedical Ethics on the Front Burner It was a hot year for debates over research ethics. Controversy erupted in late 1999 after the death of 18-year-old Jesse Gelsinger in a gene-therapy clinical trial at the University of Pennsylvania. Because Penn and one of its clinicians had a financial stake in a gene-therapy company, questions about potential conflicts of interest arose at once.

  20. Downhole burner systems and methods for heating subsurface formations

    DOEpatents

    Farmayan, Walter Farman; Giles, Steven Paul; Brignac, Jr., Joseph Phillip; Munshi, Abdul Wahid; Abbasi, Faraz; Clomburg, Lloyd Anthony; Anderson, Karl Gregory; Tsai, Kuochen; Siddoway, Mark Alan

    2011-05-31

    A gas burner assembly for heating a subsurface formation includes an oxidant conduit, a fuel conduit, and a plurality of oxidizers coupled to the oxidant conduit. At least one of the oxidizers includes a mix chamber for mixing fuel from the fuel conduit with oxidant from the oxidant conduit, an igniter, and a shield. The shield includes a plurality of openings in communication with the oxidant conduit. At least one flame stabilizer is coupled to the shield.

  1. T-Burner Testing of Metallized Solid Propellants

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1974-10-01

    are those associated with velocity coupling and large variations in the measured frequency. To illustrate possible techniques for accounting for these...Standardization of Combustion Insta- bility Measurements in the T-Burner, an ad hoc committee organized by the ICRPG Working Group on Solid Propellant... measurements of the response of a burning solid propellant to sinusoidal oscillations in the near flow field. Besides its place in re- search, it has

  2. Preparation of actinide specimens for the US/UK joint experiment in the Dounreay Prototype Fast Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Quinby, T C; Adair, H L; Kobisk, E H

    1982-05-01

    A joint research program involving the United States and the United Kingdom was initiated about four years ago for the purpose of studying the fuel behavior of higher actinides using in-core irradiation in the fast reactor at Dounreay, Scotland. Simultaneously, determination of integral cross sections of a wide variety of higher actinide isotopes (physics specimens) was proposed. Coincidental neutron flux and energy spectral measurements were to be made using vanadium encapsulated dosimetry materials in the immediate region of the fuel pellets and physics samples. The higher actinide samples chosen for the fuel study were /sup 241/Am and /sup 244/Cm in the forms of Am/sub 2/O/sub 3/, Cm/sub 2/O/sub 3/, and Am/sub 6/Cm(RE)/sub 7/O/sub 21/, where (RE) represents a mixture of lanthanides. Milligram quantities of actinide oxides of /sup 248/Cm, /sup 246/Cm, /sup 244/Cm, /sup 243/Cm, /sup 243/Am, /sup 241/Am, /sup 244/Pu, /sup 242/Pu, /sup 241/Pu, /sup 240/Pu, /sup 239/Pu, /sup 238/Pu, /sup 237/Np, /sup 238/U, /sup 236/U, /sup 235/U, /sup 234/U, /sup 233/U, /sup 232/Th, /sup 230/Th, and /sup 231/Pa were encapsulated to obtain nuclear cross section and reaction rate data for these materials.

  3. The BNL fan-atomized burner system prototype

    SciTech Connect

    Butcher, T.A.; Celebi, Y.

    1995-04-01

    Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) has a continuing interest in the development of advanced oil burners which can provide new capabilities not currently available with pressure atomized, retention head burners. Specifically program goals include: the ability to operate at firing rates as low as 0.25 gph; the ability to operate with very low excess air levels for high steady state efficiency and to minimize formation of sulfuric acid and iron sulfate fouling; low emissions of smoke, CO, and NO{sub x} even at very low excess air levels; and the potential for modulation - either staged firing or continuous modulation. In addition any such advanced burner must have production costs which would be sufficiently attractive to allow commercialization. The primary motivation for all work sponsored by the US DOE is, of course, improved efficiency. With existing boiler and furnace models this can be achieved through down-firing and low excess air operation. Also, with low excess air operation fouling and efficiency degradation due to iron-sulfate scale formation are reduced.

  4. Design and analysis of the federal aviation administration next generation fire test burner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ochs, Robert Ian

    The United States Federal Aviation Administration makes use of threat-based fire test methods for the certification of aircraft cabin materials to enhance the level of safety in the event of an in-flight or post-crash fire on a transport airplane. The global nature of the aviation industry results in these test methods being performed at hundreds of laboratories around the world; in some cases testing identical materials at multiple labs but yielding different results. Maintenance of this standard for an elevated level of safety requires that the test methods be as well defined as possible, necessitating a comprehensive understanding of critical test method parameters. The tests have evolved from simple Bunsen burner material tests to larger, more complicated apparatuses, requiring greater understanding of the device for proper application. The FAA specifies a modified home heating oil burner to simulate the effects of large, intense fires for testing of aircraft seat cushions, cargo compartment liners, power plant components, and thermal acoustic insulation. Recently, the FAA has developed a Next Generation (NexGen) Fire Test burner to replace the original oil burner that has become commercially unavailable. The NexGen burner design is based on the original oil burner but with more precise control of the air and fuel flow rates with the addition of a sonic nozzle and a pressurized fuel system. Knowledge of the fundamental flow properties created by various burner configurations is desired to develop an updated and standardized burner configuration for use around the world for aircraft materials fire testing and airplane certification. To that end, the NexGen fire test burner was analyzed with Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) to resolve the non-reacting exit flow field and determine the influence of the configuration of burner components. The correlation between the measured flow fields and the standard burner performance metrics of flame temperature and

  5. Computational investigations of low-emission burner facilities for char gas burning in a power boiler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roslyakov, P. V.; Morozov, I. V.; Zaychenko, M. N.; Sidorkin, V. T.

    2016-04-01

    Various variants for the structure of low-emission burner facilities, which are meant for char gas burning in an operating TP-101 boiler of the Estonia power plant, are considered. The planned increase in volumes of shale reprocessing and, correspondingly, a rise in char gas volumes cause the necessity in their cocombustion. In this connection, there was a need to develop a burner facility with a given capacity, which yields effective char gas burning with the fulfillment of reliability and environmental requirements. For this purpose, the burner structure base was based on the staging burning of fuel with the gas recirculation. As a result of the preliminary analysis of possible structure variants, three types of early well-operated burner facilities were chosen: vortex burner with the supply of recirculation gases into the secondary air, vortex burner with the baffle supply of recirculation gases between flows of the primary and secondary air, and burner facility with the vortex pilot burner. Optimum structural characteristics and operation parameters were determined using numerical experiments. These experiments using ANSYS CFX bundled software of computational hydrodynamics were carried out with simulation of mixing, ignition, and burning of char gas. Numerical experiments determined the structural and operation parameters, which gave effective char gas burning and corresponded to required environmental standard on nitrogen oxide emission, for every type of the burner facility. The burner facility for char gas burning with the pilot diffusion burner in the central part was developed and made subject to computation results. Preliminary verification nature tests on the TP-101 boiler showed that the actual content of nitrogen oxides in burner flames of char gas did not exceed a claimed concentration of 150 ppm (200 mg/m3).

  6. Evaluation of actinide biosorption by microorganisms

    SciTech Connect

    Happel, A.M.

    1996-06-01

    Conventional methods for removing metals from aqueous solutions include chemical precipitation, chemical oxidation or reduction, ion exchange, reverse osmosis, electrochemical treatment and evaporation. The removal of radionuclides from aqueous waste streams has largely relied on ion exchange methods which can be prohibitively costly given increasingly stringent regulatory effluent limits. The use of microbial cells as biosorbants for heavy metals offers a potential alternative to existing methods for decontamination or recovery of heavy metals from a variety of industrial waste streams and contaminated ground waters. The toxicity and the extreme and variable conditions present in many radionuclide containing waste streams may preclude the use of living microorganisms and favor the use of non-living biomass for the removal of actinides from these waste streams. In the work presented here, we have examined the biosorption of uranium by non-living, non-metabolizing microbial biomass thus avoiding the problems associated with living systems. We are investigating biosorption with the long term goal of developing microbial technologies for the remediation of actinides.

  7. Actinide electronic structure and atomic forces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albers, R. C.; Rudin, Sven P.; Trinkle, Dallas R.; Jones, M. D.

    2000-07-01

    We have developed a new method[1] of fitting tight-binding parameterizations based on functional forms developed at the Naval Research Laboratory.[2] We have applied these methods to actinide metals and report our success using them (see below). The fitting procedure uses first-principles local-density-approximation (LDA) linear augmented plane-wave (LAPW) band structure techniques[3] to first calculate an electronic-structure band structure and total energy for fcc, bcc, and simple cubic crystal structures for the actinide of interest. The tight-binding parameterization is then chosen to fit the detailed energy eigenvalues of the bands along symmetry directions, and the symmetry of the parameterization is constrained to agree with the correct symmetry of the LDA band structure at each eigenvalue and k-vector that is fit to. By fitting to a range of different volumes and the three different crystal structures, we find that the resulting parameterization is robust and appears to accurately calculate other crystal structures and properties of interest.

  8. Core Outlet Temperature Study

    SciTech Connect

    Moisseytsev, A.; Hoffman, E.; Majumdar, S.

    2008-07-28

    It is a known fact that the power conversion plant efficiency increases with elevation of the heat addition temperature. The higher efficiency means better utilization of the available resources such that higher output in terms of electricity production can be achieved for the same size and power of the reactor core or, alternatively, a lower power core could be used to produce the same electrical output. Since any nuclear power plant, such as the Advanced Burner Reactor, is ultimately built to produce electricity, a higher electrical output is always desirable. However, the benefits of the higher efficiency and electricity production usually come at a price. Both the benefits and the disadvantages of higher reactor outlet temperatures are analyzed in this work.

  9. Final Technical Progress Report Long term risk from actinides in the environment: Modes of mobility

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas B. Kirchner

    2002-03-22

    The key source of uncertainty in assessing actinide mobility is the relative importance of transport by: (1) wind erosion, (2) water erosion, and (3) vertical migration. Each of these three processes depends on several environmental factors and they compete with one another. A scientific assessment of the long-term risks associated with actinides in surface soils depends on better quantifying each of these three modes of mobility. The objective from our EMSP study was to quantify the mobility of soil actinides by wind erosion, water erosion, and vertical migration at three semiarid sites where actinide mobility is a key technical, social and legal issue. This EMSP project was the first to evaluate all three factors at a site. The approach has been to investigate both short- and long-term issues based on field and lab studies and model comparisons. Our results demonstrate the importance of incorporating threshold responses into a modeling framework that accounts for environmental factors and natural disturbances that trigger large changes in actinide mobility. The study measured erosional losses of sediment and fallout cesium (an actinide analogue) from field plots located near WIPP in 1998. The results highlight the large effect of burning as a disturbance on contaminant transport and mobility via runoff and erosion. The results show that runoff, erosion, and actinide transport are (1) strongly site specific-differences in radionuclide transport between WIPP and Rocky Flats differed by a factor of twelve because of soil and vegetation differences, and (2) are strongly impacted by disturbances such as fire, which can increase runoff, erosion, and actinide transport by more than an order of magnitude. In addition, a laboratory experiment using soil columns was conducted to investigate the vertical transport of contaminants in sandy soils. Nine columns of soil collected from the vicinity of the WIPP site were prepared. The column consisted of a piece of PVC pipe 20 cm

  10. Premixed burner studies of NO{sub x} formation and control

    SciTech Connect

    Casleton, K.H.; Straub, D.L.; Moran, C.; Stephens, J.W.

    1993-11-01

    One of the primary reasons for using this type of premixed, flat flame burner is that it is essentially one-dimensional (1-D), i.e., that important parameters such as temperature are nearly constant in regions near the central vertical axis of the burner for a fixed height above the burner surface. As a result of this 1-D nature, computer codes such as Sandia National Laboratory`s PREMIX can be used to model the important chemical interactions involved in the combustion processes. These predictions can be compared with experimental measurements to gain valuable insight into the formation of nitrogen oxides. The bulk of the burner experiments performed to date have been focussed primarily toward characterization of burner and the sample extraction and analysis system. All experiments thus far have been for methane/air flames at one atmosphere pressure. Figure 2 shows the burner centerline temperature profile for an equivalence ratio of {Phi} = 0.87. The sharp peak in temperature near 0.3 cm corresponds to the luminous zone of the flame. The high temperature in the luminous zone shows an abrupt decay with increasing height above the burner. The temperature gradient in the non-luminous post-flame zone is much smaller, approximately 2.5{degree}C decrease in temperature for each millimeter increase in height over the range of 1.3 to 4 cm above the burner. Radial temperature profiles have also been measured to assess the onedimensional nature of this burner.

  11. Spectroscopic investigation of actinide speciation in concentrated chloride solution

    SciTech Connect

    Runde, W.; Neu, M.P.; Conradson, S.D.; Clark, D.L.; Palmer, P.D.; Reilly, S.D.; Scott, B.L.; Tait, C.D.

    1997-12-31

    The proposed disposal of nuclear waste in geological salt formations, e.g., the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (USA) and the Gorleben site (Germany), raises a fundamental question: To what degree actinides will be solubilized and mobilized upon interaction with chloride ions? Actinide solubilities in highly concentrated chloride solutions are about one order of magnitude higher than in similar inert electrolyte (NaClO{sub 4}) solutions. This increased solubility is due to interactions between actinide and chloride ions. Contradictory results exist regarding the interaction mechanism between actinide and chloride ions. Specifically, both inner-sphere complex formation and ion pair association have been implicated in the interpretation of spectrophotometric and extraction data. To address this controversy, the authors investigated the interaction between actinide ions in the (III), (IV), (V) and (VI) oxidation states and chloride ions using a multi-method approach. Spectroscopic techniques (TRLFS, Raman, UV-Vis absorption, EXAFS) were used to distinguish between changes in the inner coordination sphere of the actinide ion and effects of ion pairing, X-ray absorption spectroscopy and single crystal X-ray diffraction were used to determine structural details of the actinide chloro complexes formed in solution and solid states.

  12. Separation of actinides from spent nuclear fuel: A review.

    PubMed

    Veliscek-Carolan, Jessica

    2016-11-15

    This review summarises the methods currently available to extract radioactive actinide elements from solutions of spent nuclear fuel. This separation of actinides reduces the hazards associated with spent nuclear fuel, such as its radiotoxicity, volume and the amount of time required for its' radioactivity to return to naturally occurring levels. Separation of actinides from environmental water systems is also briefly discussed. The actinide elements typically found in spent nuclear fuel include uranium, plutonium and the minor actinides (americium, neptunium and curium). Separation methods for uranium and plutonium are reasonably well established. On the other hand separation of the minor actinides from lanthanide fission products also present in spent nuclear fuel is an ongoing challenge and an area of active research. Several separation methods for selective removal of these actinides from spent nuclear fuel will be described. These separation methods include solvent extraction, which is the most commonly used method for radiochemical separations, as well as the less developed but promising use of adsorption and ion-exchange materials.

  13. Thin extractive membrane for monitoring actinides in aqueous streams.

    PubMed

    Chavan, Vivek; Paul, Sumana; Pandey, Ashok K; Kalsi, P C; Goswami, A

    2013-09-15

    Alpha spectrometry and solid state nuclear track detectors (SSNTDs) are used for monitoring ultra-trace amount of alpha emitting actinides in different aqueous streams. However, these techniques have limitations i.e. alpha spectrometry requires a preconcentration step and SSNTDs are not chemically selective. Therefore, a thin polymer inclusion membrane (PIM) supported on silanized glass was developed for preconcentraion and determination of ultra-trace concentration of actinides by α-spectrometry and SSNTDs. PIMs were formed by spin coating on hydrophobic glass slide or solvent casting to form thin and self-supported membranes, respectively. Sorption experiments indicated that uptakes of actinides in the PIM were highly dependent on acidity of solution i.e. Am(III) sorbed up to 0.1 molL(-1) HNO₃, U(VI) up to 0.5 molL(-1) HNO₃ and Pu(IV) from HNO₃ concentration as high as 4 molL(-1). A scheme was developed for selective sorption of target actinide in the PIM by adjusting acidity and oxidation state of actinide. The actinides sorbed in PIMs were quantified by alpha spectrometry and SSNTDs. For SSNTDs, neutron induced fission-fragment tracks and α-particle tracks were registered in Garware polyester and CR-39 for quantifications of natural uranium and α-emitting actinides ((241)Am/(239)Pu/(233)U), respectively. Finally, the membranes were tested to quantify Pu in 4 molL(-1) HNO3 solutions and synthetic urine samples.

  14. Enhancing BWR proliferation resistance fuel with minor actinides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Gray S.

    2009-03-01

    To reduce spent fuel for storage and enhance the proliferation resistance for the intermediate-term, there are two major approaches (a) increase the discharged spent fuel burnup in the advanced light water reactor- LWR (Gen-III Plus), which not only can reduce the spent fuel for storage, but also increase the 238Pu isotopes ratio to enhance the proliferation resistance, and (b) use of transuranic nuclides ( 237Np and 241Am) in the high burnup fuel, which can drastically increase the proliferation resistance isotope ratio of 238Pu/Pu. For future advanced nuclear systems, minor actinides (MA) are viewed more as a resource to be recycled, and transmuted to less hazardous and possibly more useful forms, rather than simply disposed of as a waste stream in an expensive repository facility. As a result, MAs play a much larger part in the design of advanced systems and fuel cycles, not only as additional sources of useful energy, but also as direct contributors to the reactivity control of the systems into which they are incorporated. In the study, a typical boiling water reactor (BWR) fuel unit lattice cell model with UO 2 fuel pins will be used to investigate the effectiveness of minor actinide reduction approach (MARA) for enhancing proliferation resistance and improving the fuel cycle performance in the intermediate-term goal for future nuclear energy systems. To account for the water coolant density variation from the bottom (0.76 g/cm 3) to the top (0.35 g/cm 3) of the core, the axial coolant channel and fuel pin were divided to 24 nodes. The MA transmutation characteristics at different elevations were compared and their impact on neutronics criticality discussed. The concept of MARA, which involves the use of transuranic nuclides ( 237Np and/or 241Am), significantly increases the 238Pu/Pu ratio for proliferation resistance, as well as serves as a burnable absorber to hold-down the initial excess reactivity. It is believed that MARA can play an important role in

  15. Enhancing BWR Proliferation Resistance Fuel with Minor Actinides

    SciTech Connect

    Gray S. Chang

    2009-03-01

    To reduce spent fuel for storage and enhance the proliferation resistance for the intermediate-term, there are two major approaches (a) increase the discharged spent fuel burnup in the advanced light water reactor- LWR (Gen-III Plus), which not only can reduce the spent fuel for storage, but also increase the 238Pu isotopes ratio to enhance the proliferation resistance, and (b) use of transuranic nuclides (237Np and 241Am) in the high burnup fuel, which can drastically increase the proliferation resistance isotope ratio of 238Pu/Pu. For future advanced nuclear systems, minor actinides (MA) are viewed more as a resource to be recycled, and transmuted to less hazardous and possibly more useful forms, rather than simply disposed of as a waste stream in an expensive repository facility. As a result, MAs play a much larger part in the design of advanced systems and fuel cycles, not only as additional sources of useful energy, but also as direct contributors to the reactivity control of the systems into which they are incorporated. In the study, a typical boiling water reactor (BWR) fuel unit lattice cell model with UO2 fuel pins will be used to investigate the effectiveness of minor actinide reduction approach (MARA) for enhancing proliferation resistance and improving the fuel cycle performance in the intermediate-term goal for future nuclear energy systems. To account for the water coolant density variation from the bottom (0.76 g/cm3) to the top (0.35 g/cm3) of the core, the axial coolant channel and fuel pin were divided to 24 nodes. The MA transmutation characteristics at different elevations were compared and their impact on neutronics criticality discussed. The concept of MARA, which involves the use of transuranic nuclides (237Np and/or 241Am), significantly increases the 238Pu/Pu ratio for proliferation resistance, as well as serves as a burnable absorber to hold-down the initial excess reactivity. It is believed that MARA can play an important role in atoms

  16. Chemistry of tetravalent actinide phosphates-Part I

    SciTech Connect

    Brandel, V. . E-mail: vbrandel@neuf.fr; Dacheux, N. . E-mail: dacheux@ipno.in2p3.fr

    2004-12-01

    The chemistry and crystal structure of phosphates of tetravalent cations, including that of actinides was reviewed several times up to 1985. Later, new compounds were synthesized and characterized. In more recent studies, it was found that some of previously reported phases, especially those of thorium, uranium and neptunium, were wrongly identified. In the light of these new facts an update review and classification of the tetravalent actinide phosphates is proposed in the two parts of this paper. Their crystal structure and some chemical properties are also compared to non-actinide cation phosphates.

  17. Engineering-Scale Distillation of Cadmium for Actinide Recovery

    SciTech Connect

    J.C. Price; D. Vaden; R.W. Benedict

    2007-10-01

    During the recovery of actinide products from spent nuclear fuel, cadmium is separated from the actinide products by a distillation process. Distillation occurs in an induction-heated furnace called a cathode processor capable of processing kilogram quantities of cadmium. Operating parameters have been established for sufficient recovery of the cadmium based on mass balance and product purity. A cadmium distillation rate similar to previous investigators has also been determined. The development of cadmium distillation for spent fuel treatment enhances the capabilities for actinide recovery processes.

  18. An emergency bioassay method for actinides in urine.

    PubMed

    Dai, Xiongxin; Kramer-Tremblay, Sheila

    2011-08-01

    A rapid bioassay method has been developed for the sequential measurements of actinides in human urine samples. The method involves actinide separation from a urine matrix by co-precipitation with hydrous titanium oxide (HTiO), followed by anion exchange and extraction chromatography column purification, and final counting by alpha spectrometry after cerium fluoride micro-precipitation. The minimal detectable activities for the method were determined to be 20 mBq L(-1) or less for plutonium, uranium, americium and curium isotopes, with an 8-h sample turn-around time. Spike tests showed that this method would meet the requirements for actinide bioassay following a radiation emergency.

  19. Separating the Minor Actinides Through Advances in Selective Coordination Chemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Lumetta, Gregg J.; Braley, Jenifer C.; Sinkov, Sergey I.; Carter, Jennifer C.

    2012-08-22

    This report describes work conducted at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) in Fiscal Year (FY) 2012 under the auspices of the Sigma Team for Minor Actinide Separation, funded by the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy. Researchers at PNNL and Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) are investigating a simplified solvent extraction system for providing a single-step process to separate the minor actinide elements from acidic high-level liquid waste (HLW), including separating the minor actinides from the lanthanide fission products.

  20. Process to remove actinides from soil using magnetic separation

    DOEpatents

    Avens, Larry R.; Hill, Dallas D.; Prenger, F. Coyne; Stewart, Walter F.; Tolt, Thomas L.; Worl, Laura A.

    1996-01-01

    A process of separating actinide-containing components from an admixture including forming a slurry including actinide-containing components within an admixture, said slurry including a dispersion-promoting surfactant, adjusting the pH of the slurry to within a desired range, and, passing said slurry through a pretreated matrix material, said matrix material adapted to generate high magnetic field gradients upon the application of a strong magnetic field exceeding about 0.1 Tesla whereupon a portion of said actinide-containing components are separated from said slurry and remain adhered upon said matrix material is provided.

  1. NOx reduction in natural gas high-performance burners laboratory burner evaluation and design optimization. Topical report, December 1989-May 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Syska, A.J.; Benson, C.E.; Beer, J.M.; Toqan, M.; Moreland, D.

    1994-09-01

    The report summarizes the results of the first two phases of a program aimed at developing a low NO(x) burner suitable for high temperature industrial applications, where NO(x) emissions can become extremely high. The program was one of two addressing this important objective. The second, a collaboration between Eclipse Combustion and Altex Technologies also has achieved technical success. Each program aimed at slightly different combustion applications, with this burner being well suited for smaller furnace applications while the Eclipse/Altex burner is better suited for large-scale furnaces such as steel reheating.

  2. Separations and Actinide Science -- 2005 Roadmap

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2005-09-01

    The Separations and Actinide Science Roadmap presents a vision to establish a separations and actinide science research (SASR) base composed of people, facilities, and collaborations and provides new and innovative nuclear fuel cycle solutions to nuclear technology issues that preclude nuclear proliferation. This enabling science base will play a key role in ensuring that Idaho National Laboratory (INL) achieves its long-term vision of revitalizing nuclear energy by providing needed technologies to ensure our nation's energy sustainability and security. To that end, this roadmap suggests a 10-year journey to build a strong SASR technical capability with a clear mission to support nuclear technology development. If nuclear technology is to be used to satisfy the expected growth in U.S. electrical energy demand, the once-through fuel cycle currently in use should be reconsidered. Although the once-through fuel cycle is cost-effective and uranium is inexpensive, a once-through fuel cycle requires long-term disposal to protect the environment and public from long-lived radioactive species. The lack of a current disposal option (i.e., a licensed repository) has resulted in accumulation of more than 50,000 metric tons of spent nuclear fuel. The process required to transition the current once-through fuel cycle to full-recycle will require considerable time and significant technical advancement. INL's extensive expertise in aqueous separations will be used to develop advanced separations processes. Computational chemistry will be expanded to support development of future processing options. In the intermediate stage of this transition, reprocessing options will be deployed, waste forms with higher loading densities and greater stability will be developed, and transmutation of long-lived fission products will be explored. SASR will support these activities using its actinide science and aqueous separations expertise. In the final stage, full recycle will be enabled by

  3. Complexation of actinides with derivatives of oxydiaceticacid

    SciTech Connect

    Rao, Linfeng; Tian, Guoxin

    2006-01-04

    Complexation of Np(V), U(VI) and Nd(III) with dimethyl-3-oxa-glutaramic acid (DMOGA) and tetramethyl-3-oxa-glutaramide (TMOGA) was studied in comparison with the complexation with oxydiacetic acid (ODA). Stability constants and enthalpy of complexation were determined by potentiometry, spectrophotometry and calorimetry. Thermodynamic parameters, in conjunction with structural information of solid compounds, indicate that DMOGA and TMOGA form tridentate complexes with the ether-oxygen participating in bonding with actinide/lanthanide ions. The trends in the stability constants, enthalpy and entropy of complexation are discussed in terms of the difference in the hydration of the amide groups and carboxylate groups and the difference in the charge density of the metal ions.

  4. Theoretical atomic volumes of the light actinides

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, M. D.; Boettger, J. C.; Albers, R. C.; Singh, D. J.

    2000-02-15

    The zero-pressure zero-temperature equilibrium volumes and bulk moduli are calculated for the light actinides Th through Pu using two independent all-electron, full-potential, electronic-structure methods: the full-potential linear augmented-plane-wave method and the linear combinations of Gaussian-type orbitals-fitting function method. The results produced by these two distinctly different electronic-structure techniques are in good agreement with each other, but differ significantly from previously published calculations using the full-potential linear muffin-tin-orbital (FP-LMTO) method. The theoretically calculated equilibrium volumes are in some cases nearly 10% larger than the previous FP-LMTO calculations, bringing them much closer to the experimentally observed volumes. We also discuss the anomalous upturn in equilibrium volume seen experimentally for {alpha}-Pu. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society.

  5. Actinides in HD 101065 (Przybylski's Star)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cowley, C. R.; Hubrig, S.; Bord, D. J.

    2003-05-01

    There are many strange things about the abundances in Przybylski's star (HD 101065). The most recent study (MN, 217, 299, 2000) finds that among the elements through copper, the abundances scatter with no apparent pattern. The largest deviations from solar are found for magnesium, which may be deficient by somewhat more than 1 dex, and cobalt, which appears to be in excess by about the same amount. The heavier elements especially those beyond barium, and continuing through the actinides uranium and thorium, show a clear pattern and a remarkable coherence. We plot solar and stellar abundances on a logarithmic plot vs. atomic number Z, and displace the solar points upward by some 3 dex. While individual points do not overlap, there is a remarkable similarity in the overall trends from Z = 58-80, including the maxima caused in the solar case by the third r-process peak. Points for the displaced solar actinides fall near their stellar counterparts. The processes that produced the large enhancements of these heavy elements have not caused large fractionations of adjacent elements. We have new spectra from the ESO UVES spectrograph on UT2. Resolution is 80,000 (blue) and 110,000 (red), with S/N > 300. This material, and new oscillator strengths (AA 381, 1090,2002; AA 382, 368, 2002), allow a more complete analysis of U and Th. We find abundances near +2.5 for both elements (log(H) = 12), but uncertainties at the moment are surely +/- 0.3 dex. We are currently working to improve the accuracy. Current errors preclude the use of these observations for accurate cosmochronometry, even if the chemical differentiation were not relevant. If a U/Th ratio of unity could be taken at face value, it would imply an r-process event some 103 years ago. Thanks to B. Pfeiffer help and advice.

  6. Archetypes for actinide-specific chelating agents

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, W.L.

    1980-01-01

    The complexes of uranium and thorium with monomeric hydroxamic acids can serve as archetypes for an optimized macrochelate designed for tetravalent actinides. The eight-coordinate complexes, Th(i-PrN(O)C(O)R)/sub 4/, where R = tert-butyl or R = neopentyl, have been synthesized and their structures have been determined by x-ray diffraction. The bulky alkyl substituents impart remarkable volatility and hydrocarbon solubility to these complexes, and the steric interactions of these substituents largely determine the structures. When R = tert-butyl, the substituents occupy the corners of a tetrahedron and force the complex into a distorted cubic geometry with crystallographic S/sub 4/ symmetry. Insertion of a methylene group between the carbonyl carbon and the tert-butyl group relaxes the steric requirements, and the coordination polyhedron of the neopentyl derivative is close to the mmmm isomer of the trigonal-faced dodecahedron. Uranium tetrachloride was quantitatively oxidized via an oxygen transfer reaction with two equivalents of N-phenylbenzohydroxamic acid anion (PBHA) in tetrahydrofuran (THF) to form UO/sub 2/ Cl(PBHA)(THF)/sub 2/ and benzanilide. The structure of the uranyl complex has been determined from x-ray diffraction data; the linear uranyl ion is surrounded by a planar pentagonal array composed of two hydroxamate oxygen atoms, a chloride ion and two THF oxygens, such that the chloride ion is opposite the hydroxamate group. That the THF and phenyl rings are twisted from this equatorial plane limits the molecular geometry to that of the C/sub 1/ point group. Some aspects of the chemistry of hydroxamic acids and of their incorporation into molecules that may serve as precursors of tetravalent actinide specific sequestering agents have also been investigated.

  7. Removal of NOx and CO from a burner system.

    PubMed

    Jaafar, Mohammad Nazri Mohd; Ishak, Mohd Shaiful Ashrul; Saharin, Sanisah

    2010-04-15

    This paper presents the development of an emissions-controlling technique for oil burners aimed especially to reduce oxides of nitrogen (NOx). Another emission of interest is carbon monoxide (CO). In this research, a liquid fuel burner is used. In the first part, five different radial air swirler blade angles, 30 degrees , 40 degrees , 45 degrees , 50 degrees , and 60 degrees , respectively, have been investigated using a combustor with 163 mm inside diameter and 280 mm length. Tests were conducted using kerosene as fuel. Fuel was injected at the back plate of the swirler outlet. The swirler blade angles and equivalence ratios were varied. A NOx reduction of more than 28% and CO emissions reduction of more than 40% were achieved for blade angle of 60 degrees compared to the 30 degrees blade angle. The second part of this paper presents the insertion of an orifice plate at the exit plane of the air swirler outlet. Three different orifice plate diameters of 35, 40, and 45 mm were used with a 45 degrees radial air swirler vane angle. The fuel flow rates and orifice plate's sizes were varied. NOx reduction of more than 30% and CO emissions reduction of more than 25% were obtained using the 25 mm diameter orifice plate compared to the test configuration without the orifice plate. The last part of this paper presents tests conducted using the air-staging method. An industrial oil burner system was investigated using the air staging method in order to reduce emission, especially NOx. Emissions reduction of 30% and 16.7% were obtained for NOx and CO emissions, respectively, when using air staging compared to the non-air-staging tests.

  8. Slurry burner for mixture of carbonaceous material and water

    DOEpatents

    Nodd, Dennis G.; Walker, Richard J.

    1987-01-01

    A carbonaceous material-water slurry burner includes a high pressure tip-emulsion atomizer for directing a carbonaceous material-water slurry into a combustion chamber for burning therein without requiring a support fuel or oxygen enrichment of the combustion air. Introduction of the carbonaceous material-water slurry under pressure forces it through a fixed atomizer wherein the slurry is reduced to small droplets by mixing with an atomizing air flow and directed into the combustion chamber. The atomizer includes a swirler located immediately adjacent to where the fuel slurry is introduced into the combustion chamber and which has a single center channel through which the carbonaceous material-water slurry flows into a plurality of diverging channels continuous with the center channel from which the slurry exits the swirler immediately adjacent to an aperture in the combustion chamber. The swirler includes a plurality of slots around its periphery extending the length thereof through which the atomizing air flows and by means of which the atomizing air is deflected so as to exert a maximum shear force upon the carbonaceous material-water slurry as it exits the swirler and enters the combustion chamber. A circulating coolant system or boiler feed water is provided around the periphery of the burner along the length thereof to regulate burner operating temperature, eliminate atomizer plugging, and inhibit the generation of sparklers, thus increasing combustion efficiency. A secondary air source directs heated air into the combustion chamber to promote recirculation of the hot combustion gases within the combustion chamber.

  9. NOx formation in combustion of gaseous fuel in ejection burner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rimár, Miroslav; Kulikov, Andrii

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this work is to prepare model for researching of the formation in combustion of gaseous fuels. NOx formation is one of the main ecological problems nowadays as nitrogen oxides is one of main reasons of acid rains. The ANSYS model was designed according to the calculation to provide full combustion and good mixing of the fuel and air. The current model is appropriate to research NOx formation and the influence of the different principles of NOx reduction method. Applying of designed model should spare both time of calculations and research and also money as you do not need to measure the burner characteristics.

  10. Development of mesoscale burner arrays for gas turbine reheat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Sunyoup

    Mesoscale burner arrays allow combustion to be conducted in a distributed fashion at a millimeter (meso) scale. At this scale, diffusive processes are fast, but not yet dominant, such that numerous advantages over conventional gas turbine combustion can be achieved without giving up the possibility to use fluid inertia to advantage. Since the scale of the reaction zone follows from the scale at which the reactants are mixed, very compact flames result. This compact, distributed form of combustion can provide the opportunity of inter-turbine reheat as well as the potential for lean premixed or highly vitiated combustion to suppress NOx emissions. As a proof-of-concept, a 4x4 array with burner elements on 5-mm centers was fabricated in silicon nitride via assembly mold SDM. Each burner element was designed in a single monolithic unit with its own combination of reactant inlets, fuel plenum and injection nozzles, and swirler to induce flame stabilization. Results using methane, including pressure drop, flame stability, temperature distribution in the burnt gas, and NO emissions are reported for both fully premixed (mixing prior to injection) and nonpremixed (mixing in the array) configurations. These results demonstrate the degree to which premixed performance can be achieved with this design and pointed to ways in which the array design could be improved over this first-generation unit. Given what was learned from the 4x4 array, a next-generation 6x6 array was developed. Major design changes include addition of a bluff-body stabilizer to each burner element to improve stability and use of a multilayer architecture to enhance the degree of reactant mixing. Tests using methane in both operating conditions were performed for two stabilization configurations---with and without the bluff bodies. The results for nonpremixed operation show that nearly complete air/fuel mixing was achieved using the 6x6 design, leading to NO emission levels obtainable under fully premixed

  11. REAL TIME FLAME MONITORING OF GASIFIER BURNER AND INJECTORS

    SciTech Connect

    James Servaites; Serguei Zelepouga; David Rue

    2003-10-01

    This report is submitted to the United States Department of Energy in partial fulfillment of the contractual requirements for Phase I of the project titled, ''Real Time Flame Monitoring of Gasifier Burner and Injectors'', under co-operative agreement number DE-FS26-02NT41585. The project is composed of three one-year budget periods. The work in each year is divided into separate Tasks to facilitate project management, orderly completion of all project objectives, budget control, and critical path application of personnel and equipment. This Topical Report presents results of the Task 1 and 2 work. The 2 D optical sensor was developed to monitor selected UV and visible wavelengths to collect accurate flame characterization information regarding mixing, flame shape, and flame rich/lean characteristic. Flame richness, for example, was determined using OH and CH intensity peaks in the 300 to 500 nanometer range of the UV and visible spectrum. The laboratory burner was operated over a wide range of air to fuel ratio conditions from fuel rich to fuel lean. The sooty oxygen enriched air flames were established to test the sensor ability to characterize flame structures with substantial presence of hot solid particles emitting strong ''black body radiation''. The knowledge gained in these experiments will be very important when the sensor is used for gasifier flame analyses. It is expected that the sensor when installed on the Global Energy gasifier will be exposed to complex radiation patterns. The measured energy will be a combination of spectra emitted by the combusting gases, hot solid particulates, and hot walls of the gasifier chamber. The ability to separate flame emissions from the ''black body emissions'' will allow the sensor to accurately determine flame location relative to the gasifier walls and the injectors, as well as to analyze the flame's structure and condition. Ultimately, this information should enable the gasification processes to be monitored and

  12. Separation of Minor Actinides from Lanthanides by Dithiophosphinic Acid Extractants

    SciTech Connect

    D. R. Peterman; M. R. Greenhalgh; R. D. Tillotson; J. R. Klaehn; M. K. Harrup; T. A. Luther; J. D. Law; L. M. Daniels

    2008-09-01

    The selective extraction of the minor actinides (Am(III) and Cm(III)) from the lanthanides is an important part of advanced reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel. This separation would allow the Am/Cm to be fabricated into targets and recycled to a reactor and the lanthanides to be dispositioned. This separation is difficult to accomplish due to the similarities in the chemical properties of the trivalent actinides and lanthanides. Research efforts at the Idaho National Laboratory have identified an innovative synthetic pathway yielding new regiospecific dithiophosphinic acid (DPAH) extractants. The synthesis provides DPAH derivatives that can address the issues concerning minor actinide separation and extractant stability. For this work, two new symmetric DPAH extractants have been prepared. The use of these extractants for the separation of minor actinides from lanthanides will be discussed.

  13. Actinide targets for the synthesis of super-heavy elements

    SciTech Connect

    Roberto, J.; Alexander, Charles W.; Boll, Rose Ann; Ezold, Julie G.; Felker, Leslie Kevin; Rykaczewski, Krzysztof Piotr; Hogle, Susan L.

    2015-06-18

    Since 2000, six new super-heavy elements with atomic numbers 113 through 118 have been synthesized in hot fusion reactions of 48Ca beams on actinide targets. These target materials, including 242Pu, 244Pu, 243Am, 245Cm, 248Cm, 249Cf, and 249Bk, are available in very limited quantities and require specialized production and processing facilities resident in only a few research centers worldwide. This report describes the production and chemical processing of heavy actinide materials for super-heavy element research, current availabilities of these materials, and related target fabrication techniques. The impact of actinide materials in super-heavy element discovery is reviewed, and strategies for enhancing the production of rare actinides including 249Bk, 251Cf, and 254Es are described.

  14. Actinide targets for the synthesis of super-heavy elements

    DOE PAGES

    Roberto, J.; Alexander, Charles W.; Boll, Rose Ann; ...

    2015-06-18

    Since 2000, six new super-heavy elements with atomic numbers 113 through 118 have been synthesized in hot fusion reactions of 48Ca beams on actinide targets. These target materials, including 242Pu, 244Pu, 243Am, 245Cm, 248Cm, 249Cf, and 249Bk, are available in very limited quantities and require specialized production and processing facilities resident in only a few research centers worldwide. This report describes the production and chemical processing of heavy actinide materials for super-heavy element research, current availabilities of these materials, and related target fabrication techniques. The impact of actinide materials in super-heavy element discovery is reviewed, and strategies for enhancing themore » production of rare actinides including 249Bk, 251Cf, and 254Es are described.« less

  15. Actinide targets for the synthesis of super-heavy elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberto, J. B.; Alexander, C. W.; Boll, R. A.; Burns, J. D.; Ezold, J. G.; Felker, L. K.; Hogle, S. L.; Rykaczewski, K. P.

    2015-12-01

    Since 2000, six new super-heavy elements with atomic numbers 113 through 118 have been synthesized in hot fusion reactions of 48Ca beams on actinide targets. These target materials, including 242Pu, 244Pu, 243Am, 245Cm, 248Cm, 249Cf, and 249Bk, are available in very limited quantities and require specialized production and processing facilities resident in only a few research centers worldwide. This report describes the production and chemical processing of heavy actinide materials for super-heavy element research, current availabilities of these materials, and related target fabrication techniques. The impact of actinide materials in super-heavy element discovery is reviewed, and strategies for enhancing the production of rare actinides including 249Bk, 251Cf, and 254Es are described.

  16. CFCC radiant burner assessment. Final report, April 1, 1992--July 31, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Schweizer, S.; Sullivan, J.

    1994-11-01

    The objective of this work was to identify methods of improving the performance of gas-fired radiant burners through the use of Continuous Fiber Ceramic Composites (CFCCs). Methods have been identified to improve the price and performance characteristics of the porous surface burner. Results are described.

  17. Plasma-assisted combustion technology for NOx reduction in industrial burners.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dae Hoon; Kim, Kwan-Tae; Kang, Hee Seok; Song, Young-Hoon; Park, Jae Eon

    2013-10-01

    Stronger regulations on nitrogen oxide (NOx) production have recently promoted the creation of a diverse array of technologies for NOx reduction, particularly within the combustion process, where reduction is least expensive. In this paper, we discuss a new combustion technology that can reduce NOx emissions within industrial burners to single-digit parts per million levels without employing exhaust gas recirculation or other NOx reduction mechanisms. This new technology uses a simple modification of commercial burners, such that they are able to perform plasma-assisted staged combustion without altering the outer configuration of the commercial reference burner. We embedded the first-stage combustor within the head of the commercial reference burner, where it operated as a reformer that could host a partial oxidation process, producing hydrogen-rich reformate or synthesis gas product. The resulting hydrogen-rich flow then ignited and stabilized the combustion flame apart from the burner rim. Ultimately, the enhanced mixing and removal of hot spots with a widened flame area acted as the main mechanisms of NOx reduction. Because this plasma burner acted as a low NOx burner and was able to reduce NOx by more than half compared to the commercial reference burner, this methodology offers important cost-effective possibilities for NOx reduction in industrial applications.

  18. 16 CFR Figure 4 to Part 1633 - Details of Vertical Burner Head

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Details of Vertical Burner Head 4 Figure 4 to Part 1633 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT...—Details of Vertical Burner Head ER15MR06.003...

  19. 16 CFR Figure 3 to Part 1633 - Details of Horizontal Burner Head

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Details of Horizontal Burner Head 3 Figure 3 to Part 1633 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT...—Details of Horizontal Burner Head ER15MR06.002...

  20. 16 CFR Figure 3 to Part 1633 - Details of Horizontal Burner Head

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Details of Horizontal Burner Head 3 Figure 3 to Part 1633 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT...—Details of Horizontal Burner Head ER15MR06.002...

  1. 16 CFR Figure 3 to Part 1633 - Details of Horizontal Burner Head

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Details of Horizontal Burner Head 3 Figure 3 to Part 1633 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT...—Details of Horizontal Burner Head ER15MR06.002...

  2. 16 CFR Figure 4 to Part 1633 - Details of Vertical Burner Head

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Details of Vertical Burner Head 4 Figure 4 to Part 1633 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT...—Details of Vertical Burner Head ER15MR06.003...

  3. 16 CFR Figure 4 to Part 1633 - Details of Vertical Burner Head

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Details of Vertical Burner Head 4 Figure 4 to Part 1633 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT...—Details of Vertical Burner Head ER15MR06.003...

  4. 16 CFR Figure 4 to Part 1633 - Details of Vertical Burner Head

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Details of Vertical Burner Head 4 Figure 4 to Part 1633 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT...—Details of Vertical Burner Head ER15MR06.003...

  5. 16 CFR Figure 4 to Part 1633 - Details of Vertical Burner Head

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Details of Vertical Burner Head 4 Figure 4 to Part 1633 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT...—Details of Vertical Burner Head ER15MR06.003...

  6. 16 CFR Figure 3 to Part 1633 - Details of Horizontal Burner Head

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Details of Horizontal Burner Head 3 Figure 3 to Part 1633 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT...—Details of Horizontal Burner Head ER15MR06.002...

  7. 16 CFR Figure 3 to Part 1633 - Details of Horizontal Burner Head

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Details of Horizontal Burner Head 3 Figure 3 to Part 1633 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT...—Details of Horizontal Burner Head ER15MR06.002...

  8. Actinide Source Term Program, position paper. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Novak, C.F.; Papenguth, H.W.; Crafts, C.C.; Dhooge, N.J.

    1994-11-15

    The Actinide Source Term represents the quantity of actinides that could be mobilized within WIPP brines and could migrate with the brines away from the disposal room vicinity. This document presents the various proposed methods for estimating this source term, with a particular focus on defining these methods and evaluating the defensibility of the models for mobile actinide concentrations. The conclusions reached in this document are: the 92 PA {open_quotes}expert panel{close_quotes} model for mobile actinide concentrations is not defensible; and, although it is extremely conservative, the {open_quotes}inventory limits{close_quotes} model is the only existing defensible model for the actinide source term. The model effort in progress, {open_quotes}chemical modeling of mobile actinide concentrations{close_quotes}, supported by a laboratory effort that is also in progress, is designed to provide a reasonable description of the system and be scientifically realistic and supplant the {open_quotes}Inventory limits{close_quotes} model.

  9. Analytical screening of low emissions, high performance duct burners for supersonic cruise aircraft engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lohmann, R. A.; Riecke, G. T.

    1977-01-01

    An analytical screening study was conducted to identify duct burner concepts capable of providing low emissions and high performance in advanced supersonic engines. Duct burner configurations ranging from current augmenter technology to advanced concepts such as premix-prevaporized burners were defined. Aerothermal and mechanical design studies provided the basis for screening these configurations using the criteria of emissions, performance, engine compatibility, cost, weight and relative risk. Technology levels derived from recently defined experimental low emissions main burners are required to achieve both low emissions and high performance goals. A configuration based on the Vorbix (Vortex burning and mixing) combustor concept was analytically determined to meet the performance goals and is consistent with the fan duct envelope of a variable cycle engine. The duct burner configuration has a moderate risk level compatible with the schedule of anticipated experimental programs.

  10. Development of the Radiation Stabilized Distributed Flux Burner - Phase III Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    J. D. Sullivan; A. Webb

    1999-12-01

    The development and demonstration of the Radiation Stabilized Burner (RSB) was completed as a project funded by the US Department of Energy Office of Industrial Technologies. The technical goals of the project were to demonstrate burner performance that would meet or exceed emissions targets of 9 ppm NOx, 50 ppm CO, and 9 ppm unburned hydrocarbons (UHC), with all values being corrected to 3 percent stack oxygen, and incorporate the burner design into a new industrial boiler configuration that would achieve ultra-low emissions while maintaining or improving thermal efficiency, operating costs, and maintenance costs relative to current generation 30 ppm low NOx burner installations. Both the ultra-low NOx RSB and the RSB boiler-burner package are now commercially available.

  11. 16 CFR Figure 6 to Part 1633 - Burner Assembly Showing Arms and Pivots (Shoulder Screws), in Relation to, Portable Frame...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Burner Assembly Showing Arms and Pivots (Shoulder Screws), in Relation to, Portable Frame Allowing Burner Height Adjustment 6 Figure 6 to Part 1633... FLAMMABILITY (OPEN FLAME) OF MATTRESS SETS Pt. 1633, Fig. 6 Figure 6 to Part 1633—Burner Assembly Showing...

  12. 16 CFR Figure 6 to Part 1633 - Burner Assembly Showing Arms and Pivots (Shoulder Screws), in Relation to, Portable Frame...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Burner Assembly Showing Arms and Pivots (Shoulder Screws), in Relation to, Portable Frame Allowing Burner Height Adjustment 6 Figure 6 to Part 1633... FLAMMABILITY (OPEN FLAME) OF MATTRESS SETS Pt. 1633, Fig. 6 Figure 6 to Part 1633—Burner Assembly Showing...

  13. 40 CFR 63.6092 - Are duct burners and waste heat recovery units covered by subpart YYYY?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Combustion Turbines What This Subpart Covers § 63.6092 Are duct burners and waste heat recovery units covered by subpart YYYY? No, duct burners and waste heat recovery units are considered steam generating units... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Are duct burners and waste...

  14. 40 CFR 63.6092 - Are duct burners and waste heat recovery units covered by subpart YYYY?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Combustion Turbines What This Subpart Covers § 63.6092 Are duct burners and waste heat recovery units covered by subpart YYYY? No, duct burners and waste heat recovery units are considered steam generating units... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Are duct burners and waste...

  15. 40 CFR 63.6092 - Are duct burners and waste heat recovery units covered by subpart YYYY?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Stationary Combustion Turbines What This Subpart Covers § 63.6092 Are duct burners and waste heat recovery units covered by subpart YYYY? No, duct burners and waste heat recovery units are considered steam... 40 Protection of Environment 13 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Are duct burners and waste...

  16. 40 CFR 63.6092 - Are duct burners and waste heat recovery units covered by subpart YYYY?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Stationary Combustion Turbines What This Subpart Covers § 63.6092 Are duct burners and waste heat recovery units covered by subpart YYYY? No, duct burners and waste heat recovery units are considered steam... 40 Protection of Environment 13 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Are duct burners and waste...

  17. 40 CFR 63.6092 - Are duct burners and waste heat recovery units covered by subpart YYYY?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Stationary Combustion Turbines What This Subpart Covers § 63.6092 Are duct burners and waste heat recovery units covered by subpart YYYY? No, duct burners and waste heat recovery units are considered steam... 40 Protection of Environment 13 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Are duct burners and waste...

  18. 16 CFR Figure 6 to Part 1633 - Burner Assembly Showing Arms and Pivots (Shoulder Screws), in Relation to, Portable Frame...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Burner Assembly Showing Arms and Pivots (Shoulder Screws), in Relation to, Portable Frame Allowing Burner Height Adjustment 6 Figure 6 to Part 1633... and Pivots (Shoulder Screws), in Relation to, Portable Frame Allowing Burner Height...

  19. Comparative studies of actinide and sub-actinide fission cross section calculation from MCNP6 and TALYS

    SciTech Connect

    Perkasa, Y. S.; Waris, A. Kurniadi, R. Su'ud, Z.

    2014-09-30

    Comparative studies of actinide and sub-actinide fission cross section calculation from MCNP6 and TALYS have been conducted. In this work, fission cross section resulted from MCNP6 prediction will be compared with result from TALYS calculation. MCNP6 with its event generator CEM03.03 and LAQGSM03.03 have been validated and verified for several intermediate and heavy nuclides fission reaction data and also has a good agreement with experimental data for fission reaction that induced by photons, pions, and nucleons at energy from several ten of MeV to about 1 TeV. The calculation that induced within TALYS will be focused mainly to several hundred MeV for actinide and sub-actinide nuclides and will be compared with MCNP6 code and several experimental data from other evaluator.

  20. Minor Actinide Recycle in Sodium Cooled Fast Reactors Using Heterogeneous Targets

    SciTech Connect

    Samuel Bays; Pavel Medvedev; Michael Pope; Rodolfo Ferrer; Benoit Forget; Mehdi Asgari

    2009-04-01

    This paper investigates the plausible design of transmutation target assemblies for minor actinides (MA) in Sodium Fast Reactors (SFR). A heterogeneous recycling strategy is investigated, whereby after each reactor pass, un-burned MAs from the targets are blended with MAs produced by the driver fuel and additional MAs from Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF). A design iteration methodology was adopted for customizing the core design, target assembly design and matrix composition design. The overall design was constrained against allowable peak or maximum in-core performances. While respecting these criteria, the overall design was adjusted to reduce the total number of assemblies fabricated per refueling cycle. It was found that an inert metal-hydride MA-Zr-Hx target matrix gave the highest transmutation efficiency, thus allowing for the least number of targets to be fabricated per reactor cycle.

  1. Operational characteristics of a parallel jet MILD combustion burner system

    SciTech Connect

    Szegoe, G.G.; Dally, B.B.; Nathan, G.J.

    2009-02-15

    This study describes the performance and stability characteristics of a parallel jet MILD (Moderate or Intense Low-oxygen Dilution) combustion burner system in a laboratory-scale furnace, in which the reactants and exhaust ports are all mounted on the same wall. Thermal field measurements are presented for cases with and without combustion air preheat, in addition to global temperature and emission measurements for a range of equivalence ratio, heat extraction, air preheat and fuel dilution levels. The present furnace/burner configuration proved to operate without the need for external air preheating, and achieved a high degree of temperature uniformity. Based on an analysis of the temperature distribution and emissions, PSR model predictions, and equilibrium calculations, the CO formation was found to be related to the mixing patterns and furnace temperature rather than reaction quenching by the heat exchanger. The critical equivalence ratio, or excess air level, which maintains low CO emissions is reported for different heat exchanger positions, and an optimum operating condition is identified. Results of CO and NO{sub x} emissions, together with visual observations and a simplified two-dimensional analysis of the furnace aerodynamics, demonstrate that fuel jet momentum controls the stability of this multiple jet system. A stability diagram showing the threshold for stable operation is reported, which is not explained by previous stability criteria. (author)

  2. Fully Premixed Low Emission, High Pressure Multi-Fuel Burner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, Quang-Viet (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A low-emissions high-pressure multi-fuel burner includes a fuel inlet, for receiving a fuel, an oxidizer inlet, for receiving an oxidizer gas, an injector plate, having a plurality of nozzles that are aligned with premix face of the injector plate, the plurality of nozzles in communication with the fuel and oxidizer inlets and each nozzle providing flow for one of the fuel and the oxidizer gas and an impingement-cooled face, parallel to the premix face of the injector plate and forming a micro-premix chamber between the impingement-cooled face and the in injector face. The fuel and the oxidizer gas are mixed in the micro-premix chamber through impingement-enhanced mixing of flows of the fuel and the oxidizer gas. The burner can be used for low-emissions fuel-lean fully-premixed, or fuel-rich fully-premixed hydrogen-air combustion, or for combustion with other gases such as methane or other hydrocarbons, or even liquid fuels.

  3. Isotopic validation for PWR actinide-only burnup credit using Yankee Rowe data

    SciTech Connect

    1997-11-01

    Safety analyses of criticality control systems for transportation packages include an assumption that the spent nuclear fuel (SNF) loaded into the package is fresh or unirradiated. In other words, the spent fuel is assumed to have its original, as-manufactured U-235 isotopic content. The ``fresh fuel`` assumption is very conservative since the potential reactivity of the nuclear fuel is substantially reduced after being irradiated in the reactor core. The concept of taking credit for this reduction in nuclear fuel reactivity due to burnup of the fuel, instead of using the fresh fuel assumption in the criticality safety analysis, is referred to as ``Burnup Credit.`` Burnup credit uses the actual physical composition of the fuel and accounts for the net reduction of fissile material and the buildup of neutron absorbers in the fuel as it is irradiated. Neutron absorbers include actinides and other isotopes generated as a result of the fission process. Using only the change in actinide isotopes in the burnup credit criticality analysis is referred to as ``Actinide-Only Burnup Credit.`` The use of burnup credit in the design of criticality control systems enables more spent fuel to be placed in a package. Increased package capacity results in a reduced number of storage, shipping and disposal containers for a given number of SNF assemblies. Fewer shipments result in a lower risk of accidents associated with the handling and transportation of spent fuel, thus reducing both radiological and nonradiological risk to the public. This paper describes the modeling and the results of comparison between measured and calculated isotopic inventories for a selected number of samples taken from a Yankee Rowe spent fuel assembly.

  4. Process and apparatus for igniting a burner in an inert atmosphere

    SciTech Connect

    Coolidge, Dennis W.; Rinker, Franklin G.

    1994-01-01

    According to this invention there is provided a process and apparatus for the ignition of a pilot burner in an inert atmosphere without substantially contaminating the inert atmosphere. The process includes the steps of providing a controlled amount of combustion air for a predetermined interval of time to the combustor then substantially simultaneously providing a controlled mixture of fuel and air to the pilot burner and to a flame generator. The controlled mixture of fuel and air to the flame generator is then periodically energized to produce a secondary flame. With the secondary flame the controlled mixture of fuel and air to the pilot burner and the combustion air is ignited to produce a pilot burner flame. The pilot burner flame is then used to ignited a mixture of main fuel and combustion air to produce a main burner flame. The main burner flame then is used to ignite a mixture of process derived fuel and combustion air to produce products of combustion for use as an inert gas in a heat treatment process.

  5. Correlation and relativistic effects in actinide ions

    SciTech Connect

    Safronova, U. I.; Safronova, M. S.

    2011-11-15

    Wavelengths, line strengths, and transition rates are calculated for the multipole (E1, M1, E2, M2, E3, and M3) transitions between the excited 6s{sup 2}6p{sup 5}nl and 6s6p{sup 6}nl states and the ground 6s{sup 2}6p{sup 6} state in Ac{sup 3+}, Th{sup 4+}, and U{sup 6+} Rn-like ions. Relativistic many-body perturbation theory (RMBPT), including the Breit interaction, is used to evaluate energies and transition rates for multipole transitions in these hole-particle systems. The RMBPT method agrees with multiconfigurational Dirac-Fock (MCDF) calculations in lowest order, includes all second-order correlation corrections, and includes corrections from negative-energy states. The calculations start from a [Xe]4f{sup 14}5d{sup 10}6s{sup 2}6p{sup 6} Dirac-Fock potential. First-order perturbation theory is used to obtain intermediate-coupling coefficients, and second-order RMBPT is used to determine the matrix elements. Evaluated multipole matrix elements for transitions from excited states to the ground states are used to determine the line strengths, transition rates, and multipole polarizabilities. This work provides a number of yet unmeasured properties of these actinide ions for various applications and for benchmark tests of theory and experiment.

  6. Synthesis of crystalline ceramics for actinide immobilisation

    SciTech Connect

    Burakov, B.; Gribova, V.; Kitsay, A.; Ojovan, M.; Hyatt, N.C.; Stennett, M.C.

    2007-07-01

    Methods for the synthesis of ceramic wasteforms for the immobilization of actinides are common to those for non-radioactive ceramics: hot uniaxial pressing (HUP); hot isostatic pressing (HIP); cold pressing followed by sintering; melting (for some specific ceramics, such as garnet/perovskite composites). Synthesis of ceramics doped with radionuclides is characterized with some important considerations: all the radionuclides should be incorporated into crystalline structure of durable host-phases in the form of solid solutions and no separate phases of radionuclides should be present in the matrix of final ceramic wasteform; all procedures of starting precursor preparation and ceramic synthesis should follow safety requirements of nuclear industry. Synthesis methods that avoid the use of very high temperatures and pressures and are easily accomplished within the environment of a glove-box or hot cell are preferable. Knowledge transfer between the V. G. Khlopin Radium Institute (KRI, Russia) and Immobilisation Science Laboratory (ISL, UK) was facilitated in the framework of a joint project supported by UK Royal Society. In order to introduce methods of precursor preparation and ceramic synthesis we selected well-known procedures readily deployable in radiochemical processing plants. We accounted that training should include main types of ceramic wasteforms which are currently discussed for industrial applications. (authors)

  7. Simulation Modeling of an Enhanced Low-Emission Swirl-Cascade Burner

    SciTech Connect

    Ala Qubbaj

    2004-09-01

    ''Cascade-burners'' is a passive technique to control the stoichiometry of the flame through changing the flow dynamics and rates of mixing in the combustion zone with a set of venturis surrounding the flame. Cascade-burners have shown advantages over other techniques; its reliability, flexibility, safety, and cost makes it more attractive and desirable. On the other hand, the application of ''Swirl-burners'' has shown superiority in producing a stable flame under a variety of operating conditions and fuel types. The basic idea is to impart swirl to the air or fuel stream, or both. This not only helps to stabilize the flame but also enhances mixing in the combustion zone. As a result, nonpremixed (diffusion) swirl burners have been increasingly used in industrial combustion systems such as gas turbines, boilers, and furnaces, due to their advantages of safety and stability. Despite the advantages of cascade and swirl burners, both are passive control techniques, which resulted in a moderate pollutant emissions reduction compared to SCR, SNCR and FGR (active) methods. The present investigation will study the prospects of combining both techniques in what to be named as ''an enhanced swirl-cascade burner''. Natural gas jet diffusion flames in baseline, cascade, swirl, and swirl-cascade burners were numerically modeled using CFDRC package. The thermal, composition, and flow (velocity) fields were simulated. The numerical results showed that swirl and cascade burners have a more efficient fuel/air mixing, a shorter flame, and a lower NOx emission levels, compared to the baseline case. The results also revealed that the optimal configurations of the cascaded and swirling flames have not produced an improved performance when combined together in a ''swirl-cascade burner''. The non-linearity and complexity of the system accounts for such a result, and therefore, all possible combinations, i.e. swirl numbers (SN) versus venturi diameter ratios (D/d), need to be considered.

  8. The OSMOSE program for the qualification of integral cross sections of actinides: Preliminary results in a PWR-UOx spectrum

    SciTech Connect

    Hudelot, J. P.; Antony, M.; Bernard, D.; Fougeras, P.

    2006-07-01

    The need for improved nuclear data for minor actinides has been stressed by various organizations throughout the world - especially for studies relating to plutonium management, waste incineration, transmutation of waste, and Pu burning in future nuclear concepts. Several international programs have indicated a strong desire to obtain accurate integral reaction rate data for improving the major and minor actinides cross sections. Data on major actinides (i.e. {sup 235}U, {sup 236}U, {sup 238}U, {sup 239}Pu, {sup 240}Pu, {sup 241}Pu, {sup 242}Pu and {sup 241}Am) are reasonably well-known and available in the Evaluated Nuclear Data Files (JEFF, JENDL, ENDF-BX However information on the minor actinides (i.e. {sup 232}Th, {sup 233}U, {sup 237}Np, {sup 238}Pu, {sup 242}Am, {sup 243}Am, {sup 243}Cm, {sup 235}Cm, {sup 244}Cm, {sup 245}Cm, {sup 246}Cm and {sup 247}Cm) is less well-known and considered to be relatively poor in some cases, having to rely on model and extrapolation of few data points. In this framework, the ambitious OSMOSE program between the Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique (CEA), Electricite de France (EDF) and the U.S. Dept. of Energy (DOE) has been undertaken with the aim of measuring the integral absorption rate parameters of actinides in the MINERVE experimental facility located at the CEA Cadarache Research Center. The OSMOSE Program (Oscillation in Minerve of isotopes in 'Eupraxic' Spectra) includes a complete analytical program associated with the experimental measurement program and aims at understanding and resolving potential discrepancies between calculated and measured values. In the OSMOSE program, the reactivity worth of samples containing separated actinides are measured in different neutron spectra using an oscillation technique with an overall expected accuracy better than 3%. Reactivity effects of less than 10 pcm (0.0001 or approximately 1.5 cents) are measured and compared with calibrations to determine the differential reactivity

  9. High-temperature burner-duct-recuperator (HTBDR) design modification study: Final report, September 1986-May 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-04-01

    This is a reproduction of a letter report for the design modifications study of a high-temperature burner-duct-recuperator (HTBDR) tested in the Cameron Iron Works, Houston, Texas. The prototype HTBDR was field tested at Cameron, but it was eventually shut down due to the failure of some structural components; not the ceramic heat exchanger tubes. No change was recommended to the original core of the system, i.e., the cruciform (internal fin) silicon carbide tubes. However, the air plenums were changed to a clam-shell configuration that provides higher-pressure sealed manifolds. The various seals between the refractory manifold sections, as well as between the tubes and tube sheets, consist of ceramic fiber sleeves and ropes. The HTBDR was developed by Garret AiResearch under funding from the US Department of Energy, Office of Industrial Programs under Cooperative Agreement No. FC07-81ID12170.

  10. Rapid determination of alpha emitters using Actinide resin.

    PubMed

    Navarro, N; Rodriguez, L; Alvarez, A; Sancho, C

    2004-01-01

    The European Commission has recently published the recommended radiological protection criteria for the clearance of building and building rubble from the dismantling of nuclear installations. Radionuclide specific clearance levels for actinides are very low (between 0.1 and 1 Bq g(-1)). The prevalence of natural radionuclides in rubble materials makes the verification of these levels by direct alpha counting impossible. The capability of Actinide resin (Eichrom Industries, Inc.) for extracting plutonium and americium from rubble samples has been tested in this work. Besides a strong affinity for actinides in the tri, tetra and hexavalent oxidation states, this extraction chromatographic resin presents an easy recovery of absorbed radionuclides. The retention capability was evaluated on rubble samples spiked with certified radionuclide standards (239Pu and 241Am). Samples were leached with nitric acid, passed through a chromatographic column containing the resin and the elution fraction was measured by LSC. Actinide retention varies from 60% to 80%. Based on these results, a rapid method for the verification of clearance levels for actinides in rubble samples is proposed.

  11. Recovery and chemical purification of actinides at JRC, Karlsruhe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bokelund, H.; Apostolidis, C.; Glatz, J.-P.

    1989-07-01

    The application of actinide elements in research and in technology is many times subject to rather stringent purity requirements; often a nuclear grade quality is specified. The additional possible demand for a high isotopic purity is a special feature in the handling of these elements. The amount of actinide elements contained in or adhering to materials declared as waste should be low for safety reasons and out of economic considerations. The release of transuranium elements to the environment must be kept negligible. For these and for other reasons a keen interest in the separation of actinides from various materials exists, either for a re-use through recycling, or for their safe confinement in waste packages. This paper gives a short review of the separation methods used for recovery and purification of actinide elements over the past years in the European Institute for Transuranium Elements. The methods described here involve procedures based on precipitation, ion exchange or solvent extraction; often used in a combination. The extraction methods were preferably applied in a Chromatographie column mode. The actinide elements purified and/or separated from each other by the above methods include uranium, neptunium, plutonium, americium, curium, and californium. For the various elements the work was undertaken with different aims, ranging from reprocessing and fabrication of nuclear fuels on a kilogramme scale, over the procurement of alpha-free waste, to the preparation of neutron sources of milligramme size.

  12. Theoretical investigation on multiple bonds in terminal actinide nitride complexes.

    PubMed

    Wu, Qun-Yan; Wang, Cong-Zhi; Lan, Jian-Hui; Xiao, Cheng-Liang; Wang, Xiang-Ke; Zhao, Yu-Liang; Chai, Zhi-Fang; Shi, Wei-Qun

    2014-09-15

    A series of actinide (An) species of L-An-N compounds [An = Pa-Pu, L = [N(CH2CH2NSiPr(i)3)3](3-), Pr(i) = CH(CH3)2] have been investigated using scalar relativistic density functional theory (DFT) without considering spin-orbit coupling effects. The ground state geometric and electronic structures and natural bond orbital (NBO) analysis of actinide compounds were studied systematically in neutral and anionic forms. It was found that with increasing actinide atomic number, the bond length of terminal multiple An-N1 bond decreases, in accordance with the actinide contraction. The Mayer bond order of An-N1 decreases gradually from An = Pa to Pu, which indicates a decrease in bond strength. The terminal multiple bond for L-An-N compounds contains one σ and two π molecular orbitals, and the contributions of the 6d orbital to covalency are larger in magnitude than the 5f orbital based on NBO analysis and topological analysis of electron density. This work may help in understanding of the bonding nature of An-N multiple bonds and elucidating the trends and electronic structure changes across the actinide series. It can also shed light on the construction of novel An-N multiple bonds.

  13. Siderocalin-mediated recognition, sensitization, and cellular uptake of actinides

    PubMed Central

    Allred, Benjamin E.; Rupert, Peter B.; Gauny, Stacey S.; An, Dahlia D.; Ralston, Corie Y.; Sturzbecher-Hoehne, Manuel; Strong, Roland K.; Abergel, Rebecca J.

    2015-01-01

    Synthetic radionuclides, such as the transuranic actinides plutonium, americium, and curium, present severe health threats as contaminants, and understanding the scope of the biochemical interactions involved in actinide transport is instrumental in managing human contamination. Here we show that siderocalin, a mammalian siderophore-binding protein from the lipocalin family, specifically binds lanthanide and actinide complexes through molecular recognition of the ligands chelating the metal ions. Using crystallography, we structurally characterized the resulting siderocalin–transuranic actinide complexes, providing unprecedented insights into the biological coordination of heavy radioelements. In controlled in vitro assays, we found that intracellular plutonium uptake can occur through siderocalin-mediated endocytosis. We also demonstrated that siderocalin can act as a synergistic antenna to sensitize the luminescence of trivalent lanthanide and actinide ions in ternary protein–ligand complexes, dramatically increasing the brightness and efficiency of intramolecular energy transfer processes that give rise to metal luminescence. Our results identify siderocalin as a potential player in the biological trafficking of f elements, but through a secondary ligand-based metal sequestration mechanism. Beyond elucidating contamination pathways, this work is a starting point for the design of two-stage biomimetic platforms for photoluminescence, separation, and transport applications. PMID:26240330

  14. Siderocalin-mediated recognition, sensitization, and cellular uptake of actinides.

    PubMed

    Allred, Benjamin E; Rupert, Peter B; Gauny, Stacey S; An, Dahlia D; Ralston, Corie Y; Sturzbecher-Hoehne, Manuel; Strong, Roland K; Abergel, Rebecca J

    2015-08-18

    Synthetic radionuclides, such as the transuranic actinides plutonium, americium, and curium, present severe health threats as contaminants, and understanding the scope of the biochemical interactions involved in actinide transport is instrumental in managing human contamination. Here we show that siderocalin, a mammalian siderophore-binding protein from the lipocalin family, specifically binds lanthanide and actinide complexes through molecular recognition of the ligands chelating the metal ions. Using crystallography, we structurally characterized the resulting siderocalin-transuranic actinide complexes, providing unprecedented insights into the biological coordination of heavy radioelements. In controlled in vitro assays, we found that intracellular plutonium uptake can occur through siderocalin-mediated endocytosis. We also demonstrated that siderocalin can act as a synergistic antenna to sensitize the luminescence of trivalent lanthanide and actinide ions in ternary protein-ligand complexes, dramatically increasing the brightness and efficiency of intramolecular energy transfer processes that give rise to metal luminescence. Our results identify siderocalin as a potential player in the biological trafficking of f elements, but through a secondary ligand-based metal sequestration mechanism. Beyond elucidating contamination pathways, this work is a starting point for the design of two-stage biomimetic platforms for photoluminescence, separation, and transport applications.

  15. Crystal growth methods dedicated to low solubility actinide oxalates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamain, C.; Arab-Chapelet, B.; Rivenet, M.; Grandjean, S.; Abraham, F.

    2016-04-01

    Two novel crystal growth syntheses dedicated to low solubility actinide-oxalate systems and adapted to glove box handling are described. These methods based on the use of precursors of either actinide metal or oxalic acid have been optimized on lanthanide systems (analogue of actinides(III)) and then assessed on real actinide systems. They allow the synthesis of several actinide oxalate single crystals, Am2(C2O4)3(H2O)3·xH2O, Th(C2O4)2·6H2O, M2+x[PuIV2-xPuIIIx(C2O4)5]·nH2O and M1-x[PuIII1-xPuIVx(C2O4)2·H2O]·nH2O. It is the first time that these well-known compounds are formed by crystal growth methods, thus enabling direct structural studies on transuranic element systems and acquisition of basic data beyond deductions from isomorphic (or not) lanthanide compounds. Characterizations by X-ray diffraction, UV-visible solid spectroscopy, demonstrate the potentialities of these two crystal growth methods to obtain oxalate compounds.

  16. A Summary of Actinide Enrichment Technologies and Capability Gaps

    SciTech Connect

    Patton, Bradley D.; Robinson, Sharon M.

    2017-01-01

    The evaluation performed in this study indicates that a new program is needed to efficiently provide a national actinide radioisotope enrichment capability to produce milligram-to-gram quantities of unique materials for user communities as summarized in Table 1. This program xiv should leverage past actinide enrichment, the recent advances in stable isotope enrichment, and assessments of the future requirements to cost effectively develop this capability while establishing an experience base for a new generation of researchers in this vital area. Preliminary evaluations indicate that an EMIS device would have the capability to meet the future needs of the user community for enriched actinides. The EMIS technology could be potentially coupled with other enrichment technologies, such as irradiation, as pre-enrichment and/or post-enrichment systems to increase the throughput, reduce losses of material, and/or reduce operational costs of the base EMIS system. Past actinide enrichment experience and advances in the EMIS technology applied in stable isotope separations should be leveraged with this new evaluation information to assist in the establishment of a domestic actinide radioisotope enrichment capability.

  17. Process burner and combustion system hazards: 10 key issues that save lives.

    PubMed

    John R Puskar, P E

    2007-04-11

    Burner and combustion safety is crucial for the safe operation of fuel-fired heaters and boilers at process industry facilities. This paper discusses 10 of the most common burner and combustion system hazards that impact the safe operation of combustion equipment. The paper includes a discussion of three burner related explosion incidents that occurred at plants and how to avoid them. Strategies are also presented for training of maintenance and operations personnel on hazard recognition and avoidance. A protocol for walking down equipment prior to light offs is also presented as an extra safety step.

  18. Advanced Burner Reactor with Breed-and-Burn Thorium Blankets for Improved Economics and Resource Utilization

    SciTech Connect

    Greenspan, Ehud

    2015-11-04

    This study assesses the feasibility of designing Seed and Blanket (S&B) Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor (SFR) to generate a significant fraction of the core power from radial thorium fueled blankets that operate on the Breed-and-Burn (B&B) mode without exceeding the radiation damage constraint of presently verified cladding materials. The S&B core is designed to maximize the fraction of neutrons that radially leak from the seed (or “driver”) into the subcritical blanket and reduce neutron loss via axial leakage. The blanket in the S&B core makes beneficial use of the leaking neutrons for improved economics and resource utilization. A specific objective of this study is to maximize the fraction of core power that can be generated by the blanket without violating the thermal hydraulic and material constraints. Since the blanket fuel requires no reprocessing along with remote fuel fabrication, a larger fraction of power from the blanket will result in a smaller fuel recycling capacity and lower fuel cycle cost per unit of electricity generated. A unique synergism is found between a low conversion ratio (CR) seed and a B&B blanket fueled by thorium. Among several benefits, this synergism enables the very low leakage S&B cores to have small positive coolant voiding reactivity coefficient and large enough negative Doppler coefficient even when using inert matrix fuel for the seed. The benefits of this synergism are maximized when using an annular seed surrounded by an inner and outer thorium blankets. Among the high-performance S&B cores designed to benefit from this unique synergism are: (1) the ultra-long cycle core that features a cycle length of ~7 years; (2) the high-transmutation rate core where the seed fuel features a TRU CR of 0.0. Its TRU transmutation rate is comparable to that of the reference Advanced Burner Reactor (ABR) with CR of 0.5 and the thorium blanket can generate close to 60% of the core power; but requires only one sixth of the reprocessing and

  19. Burner rig alkali salt corrosion of several high temperature alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deadmore, D. L.; Lowell, C. E.

    1977-01-01

    The hot corrosion of five alloys was studied in cyclic tests in a Mach 0.3 burner rig into whose combustion chamber various aqueous salt solutions were injected. Three nickel-based alloys, a cobalt-base alloy, and an iron-base alloy were studied at temperatures of 700, 800, 900, and 1000 C with various salt concentrations and compositions. The relative resistance of the alloys to hot corrosion attack was found to vary with temperature and both concentration and composition of the injected salt solution. Results indicate that the corrosion of these alloys is a function of both the presence of salt condensed as a liquid on the surface and of the composition of the gas phases present.

  20. Deposition stress effects on thermal barrier coating burner rig life

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watson, J. W.; Levine, S. R.

    1984-01-01

    A study of the effect of plasma spray processing parameters on the life of a two layer thermal barrier coating was conducted. The ceramic layer was plasma sprayed at plasma arc currents of 900 and 600 amps onto uncooled tubes, cooled tubes, and solid bars of Waspalloy in a lathe with 1 or 8 passes of the plasma gun. These processing changes affected the residual stress state of the coating. When the specimens were tested in a Mach 0.3 cyclic burner rig at 1130 deg C, a wide range of coating lives resulted. Processing factors which reduced the residual stress state in the coating, such as reduced plasma temperature and increased heat dissipation, significantly increased coating life.

  1. High-Pressure Gaseous Burner (HPGB) Facility Became Operational

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, Quang-Viet

    2003-01-01

    A gas-fueled high-pressure combustion facility with optical access, developed over the last 3 years, is now collecting research data in a production mode. The High-Pressure Gaseous Burner (HPGB) rig at the NASA Glenn Research Center can operate at sustained pressures up to 60 atm with a variety of gaseous fuels and liquid jet fuel. The facility is unique because it is the only continuous-flow, hydrogen-capable 60-atm rig in the world with optical access. It will provide researchers with new insights into flame conditions that simulate the environment inside the ultra-high-pressure-ratio combustion chambers of tomorrow s advanced aircraft engines. The facility provides optical access to the flame zone through four fused-silica optical windows, enabling the calibration of nonintrusive optical diagnostics to measure chemical species and temperature. The data from the HPGB rig enable the validation of numerical codes that simulate gas turbine combustors.

  2. Demonstration of laser speckle system on burner liner cyclic rig

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stetson, K. A.

    1986-01-01

    A demonstration test was conducted to apply speckle photogrammetry to the measurement of strains on a sample of combustor liner material in a cyclic fatigue rig. A system for recording specklegrams was assembled and shipped to the NASA Lewis Research Center, where it was set up and operated during rig tests. Data in the form of recorded specklegrams were sent back to United Technologies Research Center for processing to extract strains. Difficulties were found in the form of warping and bowing of the sample during the tests which degraded the data. Steps were taken by NASA personnel to correct this problem and further tests were run. Final data processing indicated erratic patterns of strain on the burner liner sample.

  3. Burner rig alkali salt corrosion of several high temperature alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deadmore, D.; Lowell, C.

    1977-01-01

    The hot corrosion of five alloys was studied in cyclic tests in a Mach 0.3 burner rig into whose combustion chamber various aqueous salt solutions were injected. Three nickel-base alloys (IN-792, IN-738, and IN-100), a cobalt-base alloy (MM-509), and an iron-base alloy (304 stainless steel) were studied at temperatures of 700, 800, 900, and 1000 C with various salt concentrations and compositions. The relative resistance of the alloys to hot corrosion attack was found to vary with temperature and with both the concentration and composition of the injected salt solution. Results indicate that the corrosion of these alloys is a function of both the presence of salt condensed as a liquid on the surface and of the composition of the gas phases present.

  4. The inverse-trans-influence in tetravalent lanthanide and actinide bis(carbene) complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gregson, Matthew; Lu, Erli; Mills, David P.; Tuna, Floriana; McInnes, Eric J. L.; Hennig, Christoph; Scheinost, Andreas C.; McMaster, Jonathan; Lewis, William; Blake, Alexander J.; Kerridge, Andrew; Liddle, Stephen T.

    2017-02-01

    Across the periodic table the trans-influence operates, whereby tightly bonded ligands selectively lengthen mutually trans metal-ligand bonds. Conversely, in high oxidation state actinide complexes the inverse-trans-influence operates, where normally cis strongly donating ligands instead reside trans and actually reinforce each other. However, because the inverse-trans-influence is restricted to high-valent actinyls and a few uranium(V/VI) complexes, it has had limited scope in an area with few unifying rules. Here we report tetravalent cerium, uranium and thorium bis(carbene) complexes with trans C=M=C cores where experimental and theoretical data suggest the presence of an inverse-trans-influence. Studies of hypothetical praseodymium(IV) and terbium(IV) analogues suggest the inverse-trans-influence may extend to these ions but it also diminishes significantly as the 4f orbitals are populated. This work suggests that the inverse-trans-influence may occur beyond high oxidation state 5f metals and hence could encompass mid-range oxidation state actinides and lanthanides. Thus, the inverse-trans-influence might be a more general f-block principle.

  5. The inverse-trans-influence in tetravalent lanthanide and actinide bis(carbene) complexes

    PubMed Central

    Gregson, Matthew; Lu, Erli; Mills, David P.; Tuna, Floriana; McInnes, Eric J. L.; Hennig, Christoph; Scheinost, Andreas C.; McMaster, Jonathan; Lewis, William; Blake, Alexander J.; Kerridge, Andrew; Liddle, Stephen T.

    2017-01-01

    Across the periodic table the trans-influence operates, whereby tightly bonded ligands selectively lengthen mutually trans metal–ligand bonds. Conversely, in high oxidation state actinide complexes the inverse-trans-influence operates, where normally cis strongly donating ligands instead reside trans and actually reinforce each other. However, because the inverse-trans-influence is restricted to high-valent actinyls and a few uranium(V/VI) complexes, it has had limited scope in an area with few unifying rules. Here we report tetravalent cerium, uranium and thorium bis(carbene) complexes with trans C=M=C cores where experimental and theoretical data suggest the presence of an inverse-trans-influence. Studies of hypothetical praseodymium(IV) and terbium(IV) analogues suggest the inverse-trans-influence may extend to these ions but it also diminishes significantly as the 4f orbitals are populated. This work suggests that the inverse-trans-influence may occur beyond high oxidation state 5f metals and hence could encompass mid-range oxidation state actinides and lanthanides. Thus, the inverse-trans-influence might be a more general f-block principle. PMID:28155857

  6. Premixed burner experiments: Geometry, mixing, and flame structure issues

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, A.K.; Lewis, M.J.; Gupta, M.

    1995-10-01

    This research program is exploring techniques for improved fuel-air mixing, with the aim of achieving combustor operations up to stoichiometric conditions with minimal NO x and maximum efficiency. The experimental studies involve the use of a double-concentric natural gas burner that is operable in either premixed or non-premixed modes, and the system allows systematic variation of equivalence ratio, swirl strength shear length region and flow momentum in each annulus. Flame structures formed with various combinations of swirl strengths, flow throughput and equivalence ratios in premixed mode show the significant impact of swirl flow distribution on flame structure emanating from the mixedness. This impact on flame structure is expected to have a pronounced effect on the heat release rate and the emission of NO{sub x}. Thus, swirler design and configuration remains a key factor in the quest for completely optimized combustion. Parallel numerical studies of the flow and combustion phenomena were carried out, using the RSM and thek-{epsilon} turbulence models. These results have not only indicated the strengths and limitations of CFD in performance and pollutants emission predictions, but have provided guidelines on the size and strength of the recirculation produced and the spatio-temporal structure of the combustion flowfield. The first stage of parametric studies on geometry and operational parameters at Morgan State University have culminated in the completion of a one-dimensional flow code that is integrated with a solid, virtual model of the existing premixed burner. This coupling will provide the unique opportunity to study the impact of geometry on the flowfield and vice-versa, with particular emphasis on concurrent design optimization.

  7. Removal of actinides from nuclear reprocessing wastes: a pilot plant study using non-radioactive simulants

    SciTech Connect

    Maxey, H.R.; McIsaac, L.D.; Chamberlain, D.B.; McManus, G.J.

    1980-01-01

    Nuclear fuel reprocessing wastes generated at the ICPP contain small amounts of actinides, primarily Pu and Am. Removal of these actinides reduces the long term storage hazards of the waste. The development of a flowsheet to remove trivalent actinides is discussed in this paper. Pilot plant studies used actinide simulants. As a result of these studies, the Height of a Transfer Unit (HTU) was selected as the better measure of pulse column separation efficiency.

  8. Enhancing BWR Proliferation Resistance Fuel with Minor Actinides

    SciTech Connect

    Gray S. Chang

    2008-07-01

    reactivity control of the systems into which they are incorporated. In the study, a typical boiling water reactor (BWR) fuel unit lattice cell model with UO2 fuel pins will be used to investigate the effectiveness of minor actinide reduction approach (MARA) for enhancing proliferation resistance and improving the fuel cycle performance in the intermediate term goal for future nuclear energy systems. To account for the water coolant density variation from the bottom (0.76 g/cm3) to the top (0.35 g/cm3) of the core, the axial coolant channel and fuel pin were divided to 24 nodes. The MA transmutation characteristics at different elevations were compared and their impact on neutronics criticality discussed. We concluded that the concept of MARA, which involves the use of transuranic nuclides (237Np and/or 241Am), significantly increases the 238Pu/Pu ratio for proliferation resistance, as well as serves as a burnable absorber to hold-down the initial excess reactivity. It is believed that MARA can play an important role in atoms for peace and the intermediate term of nuclear energy rennaissance.

  9. Prompt Fission Neutron Spectra of Actinides

    SciTech Connect

    Capote, R; Chen, Y J; Hambsch, F J; Kornilov, N V; Lestone, J P; Litaize, O; Morillon, B; Neudecker, D; Oberstedt, S; Ohsawa, T; Smith, D. L.

    2016-01-01

    The energy spectrum of prompt neutrons emitted in fission (PFNS) plays a very important role in nuclear science and technology. A Coordinated Research Project (CRP) “Evaluation of Prompt Fission Neutron Spectra of Actinides”was established by the IAEA Nuclear Data Section in 2009, with the major goal to produce new PFNS evaluations with uncertainties for actinide nuclei. The following technical areas were addressed: (i) experiments and uncertainty quantification (UQ): New data for neutron-induced fission of 233U, 235U, 238U, and 239Pu have been measured, and older data have been compiled and reassessed. There is evidence from the experimental work of this CRP that a very small percentage of neutrons emitted in fission are actually scission neutrons; (ii) modeling: The Los Alamos model (LAM) continues to be the workhorse for PFNS evaluations. Monte Carlo models have been developed that describe the fission phenomena microscopically, but further development is needed to produce PFNS evaluations meeting the uncertainty targets; (iii) evaluation methodologies: PFNS evaluations rely on the use of the least-squares techniques for merging experimental and model data. Considerable insight was achieved on how to deal with the problem of too small uncertainties in PFNS evaluations. The importance of considering that all experimental PFNS data are “shape” data was stressed; (iv) PFNS evaluations: New evaluations, including covariance data, were generated for major actinides including 1) non-model GMA evaluations of the 235U(nth,f), 239Pu(nth,f), and 233U(nth,f) PFNS based exclusively on experimental data (0.02 ≤ E ≤ 10 MeV), which resulted in PFNS average energies E of 2.00±0.01, 2.073±0.010, and 2.030±0.013 MeV, respectively; 2) LAM evaluations of neutron-induced fission spectra on uranium and plutonium targets with improved UQ for incident energies from thermal up to 30 MeV; and 3) Point-by-Point calculations for 232Th, 234U and 237Np targets; and (v) data

  10. Determination of actinides at the radiological and environmental sciences laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, R. L.; Grothaus, G. E.

    1984-06-01

    This article briefly describes some of the techniques and procedures that have been developed at the Radiological and Environmental Sciences Laboratory (RESL) to determine the actinides in environmental and biological samples. Dried or ashed samples are totally decomposed in high temperature fusions or with an acid dissolution method. Actinides of interest are coprecipitated from the sample matrix with barium sulfate, cerium fluoride, or a combination of ferrous phosphate and calcium fluoride precipitations. The precipitates are dissolved in perchloric acid and extracted with bis(2-ethylhexyl)phosphoric acid (HDEHP) or dissolved in acidic aluminum nitrate and extracted with Aliquat-336. Actinides in the stripped fractions are coprecipitated with 50 μg of cerium as cerium fluoride, filtered onto membrane filters and counted by alpha spectrometry. The described procedures enable an experienced analyst to prepare sixteen 1 g soil or twelve 5 g faecal ash samples for alpha spectrometry in 14 to 16 working-hours.

  11. Actinide Dioxides in Water: Interactions at the Interface

    SciTech Connect

    Alexandrov, Vitaly; Shvareva, Tatiana Y.; Hayun, Shmuel; Asta, Mark; Navrotsky, Alexandra

    2011-12-15

    A comprehensive understanding of chemical interactions between water and actinide dioxide surfaces is critical for safe operation and storage of nuclear fuels. Despite substantial previous research, understanding the nature of these interactions remains incomplete. In this work, we combine accurate calorimetric measurements with first-principles computational studies to characterize surface energies and adsorption enthalpies of water on two fluorite-structured compounds, ThO₂ and CeO₂, that are relevant for understanding the behavior of water on actinide oxide surfaces more generally. We determine coverage-dependent adsorption enthalpies and demonstrate a mixed molecular and dissociative structure for the first hydration layer. The results show a correlation between the magnitude of the anhydrous surface energy and the water adsorption enthalpy. Further, they suggest a structural model featuring one adsorbed water molecule per one surface cation on the most stable facet that is expected to be a common structural signature of water adsorbed on actinide dioxide compounds.

  12. Actinide chemistry in Allende Ca-Al-rich inclusions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murrell, M. T.; Burnett, D. S.

    1987-01-01

    Fission track radiography is used to investigate the U and Th microscale distribution in a set of Allende-meteorite Ca-Al-rich inclusions. In the Type B inclusions, the major phases melilite and fassaite are important actinide host phases, and on the rims of Type B inclusions and throughout all other inclusions studied, perovskite is the dominant actinide host phase. Results suggest that neither alteration nor loss or gain of an actinide-rich phase appears to have been an important Th/U fractionation mechanism, and that volatility differences may be the dominant factor. Th/U and rare earth element abundance patterns for the spinel and perovskite rim suggest rim formation by volatilization of interior material, and within the constraints of the brief time scale required for this heating, several mechanisms for spinel-perovskite rim formation are possible.

  13. Actinide chemistry in Allende Ca-Al-rich inclusions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murrell, M. T.; Burnett, D. S.

    1987-04-01

    Fission track radiography is used to investigate the U and Th microscale distribution in a set of Allende-meteorite Ca-Al-rich inclusions. In the Type B inclusions, the major phases melilite and fassaite are important actinide host phases, and on the rims of Type B inclusions and throughout all other inclusions studied, perovskite is the dominant actinide host phase. Results suggest that neither alteration nor loss or gain of an actinide-rich phase appears to have been an important Th/U fractionation mechanism, and that volatility differences may be the dominant factor. Th/U and rare earth element abundance patterns for the spinel and perovskite rim suggest rim formation by volatilization of interior material, and within the constraints of the brief time scale required for this heating, several mechanisms for spinel-perovskite rim formation are possible.

  14. FY2010 Annual Report for the Actinide Isomer Detection Project

    SciTech Connect

    Warren, Glen A.; Francy, Christopher J.; Ressler, Jennifer J.; Erikson, Luke E.; Miller, Erin A.; Hatarik, R.

    2011-01-01

    This project seeks to identify a new signature for actinide element detection in active interrogation. This technique works by exciting and identifying long-lived nuclear excited states (isomers) in the actinide isotopes and/or primary fission products. Observation of isomers in the fission products will provide a signature for fissile material. For the actinide isomers, the decay time and energy of the isomeric state is unique to a particular isotope, providing an unambiguous signature for Special Nuclear Materials (SNM). Future work will include a follow-up measurement scheduled for December 2010 at LBNL. Lessons learned from the July 2010 measurements will be incorporated into these new measurements. Analysis of both the July and December experiments will be completed in a few months. A research paper to be submitted to a peer-reviewed journal will be drafted if the conclusions from the measurements warrant publication.

  15. A new opportunity: coincident spectroscopy in neutron-deficient actinides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gothe, Oliver; Gates, J. M.; Gregorich, K. E.; Baartman, B.; Fallon, P.; Esker, N. E.; Kwarsick, J.; Machiavelli, A. O.; Mudder, P. R.; Olive, D. T.; Pang, G.; Rissanen, J.; Nitsche, H.

    2014-09-01

    Due to high γ-ray background rates heavy element production facilities are usually not sensitive to the electron capture decay of neutron deficient actinides. We have developed new capabilities at the Berkeley Gas Filled Separator (BGS) that allow us to study these isotopes. The highly selective and efficient separation of compound nucleus evaporation residue products using the BGS couple with a rapid delivery to a low-background detector facility, opens up many new possibilities for nuclear decay and structure studies in the neutron deficient actinides. The decay of these actinides produces vacancies in the K-shell resulting in x-rays uniquely identifying the Z of the decay products. We present the first results of this new methodology in studying the nuclear structure of fermium-254 by observing the gamma rays in coincidence with fermium x-rays. Coincident gamma-decay spectroscopy gives us a new tool to study the nuclear structure of previously inaccessible systems.

  16. Systematic view of optical absorption spectra in the actinide series

    SciTech Connect

    Carnall, W.T.

    1985-01-01

    In recent years sufficient new spectra of actinides in their numerous valence states have been measured to encourage a broader scale analysis effort than was attempted in the past. Theoretical modelling in terms of effective operators has also undergone development. Well established electronic structure parameters for the trivalent actinides are being used as a basis for estimating parameters in other valence states and relationships to atomic spectra are being extended. Recent contributions to our understanding of the spectra of 4+ actinides have been particularly revealing and supportive of a developing general effort to progress beyond a preoccupation with modelling structure to consideration of the much broader area of structure-bonding relationships. We summarize here both the developments in modelling electronic structure and the interpretation of apparent trends in bonding. 60 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  17. Advancing the scientific basis of trivalent actinide-lanthanide separations

    SciTech Connect

    Nash, K.L.

    2013-07-01

    For advanced fuel cycles designed to support transmutation of transplutonium actinides, several options have been demonstrated for process-scale aqueous separations for U, Np, Pu management and for partitioning of trivalent actinides and fission product lanthanides away from other fission products. The more difficult mutual separation of Am/Cm from La-Tb remains the subject of considerable fundamental and applied research. The chemical separations literature teaches that the most productive alternatives to pursue are those based on ligand donor atoms less electronegative than O, specifically N- and S-containing complexants and chloride ion (Cl{sup -}). These 'soft-donor' atoms have exhibited usable selectivity in their bonding interactions with trivalent actinides relative to lanthanides. In this report, selected features of soft donor reagent design, characterization and application development will be discussed. The roles of thiocyanate, aminopoly-carboxylic acids and lactate in separation processes are detailed. (authors)

  18. In pursuit of homoleptic actinide alkyl complexes.

    PubMed

    Seaman, Lani A; Walensky, Justin R; Wu, Guang; Hayton, Trevor W

    2013-04-01

    This Forum Article describes the pursuit of isolable homoleptic actinide alkyl complexes, starting with the pioneering work of Gilman during the Manhattan project. The initial reports in this area suggested that homoleptic uranium alkyls were too unstable to be isolated, but Wilkinson demonstrated that tractable uranium alkyls could be generated by purposeful "ate" complex formation, which serves to saturate the uranium coordination sphere and provide the complexes with greater kinetic stability. More recently, we reported the solid-state molecular structures of several homoleptic uranium alkyl complexes, including [Li(THF)4][U(CH2(t)Bu)5], [Li(TMEDA)]2[UMe6], [K(THF)]3[K(THF)2][U(CH2Ph)6]2, and [Li(THF)4][U(CH2SiMe3)6], by employing Wilkinson's strategy. Herein, we describe our attempts to extend this chemistry to thorium. The treatment of ThCl4(DME)2 with 5 equiv of LiCH2(t)Bu or LiCH2SiMe3 at -25 °C in THF affords [Th(CH2(t)Bu)5] (1) and [Li(DME)2][Th(CH2SiMe3)5 (2), respectively, in moderate yields. Similarly, the treatment of ThCl4(DME)2 with 6 equiv of K(CH2Ph) produces [K(THF)]2[Th(CH2Ph)6] (3), in good yield. Complexes 1-3 have been fully characterized, while the structures of 1 and 3 were confirmed by X-ray crystallography. Additionally, the electronic properties of 1 and 3 were explored by density functional theory.

  19. Modeling actinide chemistry with ASPEN PLUS

    SciTech Connect

    Grigsby, C.O.

    1995-12-31

    When chemical engineers think of chemical processing, they often do not include the US government or the national laboratories as significant participants. Compared to the scale of chemical processing in the chemical process, petrochemical and pharmaceutical industries, the government contribution to chemical processing is not large. However, for the past fifty years, the US government has been, heavily involved in chemical processing of some very specialized materials, in particular, uranium and plutonium for nuclear weapons. Individuals and corporations have paid taxes that, in part have been used to construct and to maintain a series of very expensive laboratories and production facilities throughout the country. Even ignoring the ongoing R & D costs, the price per pound of enriched uranium or of plutonium exceeds that of platinum by a wide margin. Now, with the end of the cold war, the government is decommissioning large numbers of nuclear weapons and cleaning up the legacy of radioactive wastes generated over the last fifty years. It is likely that the costs associated with the build-down and clean-up of the nuclear weapons complex will exceed the investment of the past fifty years of production. Los Alamos National Laboratory occupies a special place in the history of nuclear weapons. The first weapons were designed and assembled at Los Alamos using uranium produced in Oak Ridge, Tennessee or plutonium produced in Richland, Washington. Many of the thermophysical and metallurgical properties of actinide elements have been investigated at Los Alamos. The only plutonium processing facility currently operating in the US is in Los Alamos, and the Laboratory is striving to capture and maintain the uranium processing technology applicable to the post-cold war era. Laboratory researchers are actively involved in developing methods for cleaning up the wastes associated with production of nuclear weapons throughout the US.

  20. Actinide consumption: Nuclear resource conservation without breeding

    SciTech Connect

    Hannum, W.H.; Battles, J.E.; Johnson, T.R.; McPheeters, C.C.

    1991-01-01

    A new approach to the nuclear power issue based on a metallic fast reactor fuel and pyrometallurgical processing of spent fuel is showing great potential and is approaching a critical demonstration phase. If successful, this approach will complement and validate the LWR reactor systems and the attendant infrastructure (including repository development) and will alleviate the dominant concerns over the acceptability of nuclear power. The Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) concept is a metal-fueled, sodium-cooled pool-type fast reactor supported by a pyrometallurgical reprocessing system. The concept of a sodium cooled fast reactor is broadly demonstrated by the EBR-II and FFTF in the US; DFR and PFR in the UK; Phenix and SuperPhenix in France; BOR-60, BN-350, BN-600 in the USSR; and JOYO in Japan. The metallic fuel is an evolution from early EBR-II fuels. This fuel, a ternary U-Pu-Zr alloy, has been demonstrated to be highly reliable and fault tolerant even at very high burnup (160-180,000 MWd/MT). The fuel, coupled with the pool type reactor configuration, has been shown to have outstanding safety characteristics: even with all active safety systems disabled, such a reactor can survive a loss of coolant flow, a loss of heat sink, or other major accidents. Design studies based on a small modular approach show not only its impressive safety characteristics, but are projected to be economically competitive. The program to explore the feasibility of actinide recovery from spent LWR fuel is in its initial phase, but it is expected that technical feasibility could be demonstrated by about 1995; DOE has not yet committed funds to achieve this objective. 27 refs.

  1. Measurement of Actinides in Molybdenum-99 Solution Analytical Procedure

    SciTech Connect

    Soderquist, Chuck Z.; Weaver, Jamie L.

    2015-11-01

    This document is a companion report to a previous report, PNNL 24519, Measurement of Actinides in Molybdenum-99 Solution, A Brief Review of the Literature, August 2015. In this companion report, we report a fast, accurate, newly developed analytical method for measurement of trace alpha-emitting actinide elements in commercial high-activity molybdenum-99 solution. Molybdenum-99 is widely used to produce 99mTc for medical imaging. Because it is used as a radiopharmaceutical, its purity must be proven to be extremely high, particularly for the alpha emitting actinides. The sample of 99Mo solution is measured into a vessel (such as a polyethylene centrifuge tube) and acidified with dilute nitric acid. A gadolinium carrier is added (50 µg). Tracers and spikes are added as necessary. Then the solution is made strongly basic with ammonium hydroxide, which causes the gadolinium carrier to precipitate as hydrous Gd(OH)3. The precipitate of Gd(OH)3 carries all of the actinide elements. The suspension of gadolinium hydroxide is then passed through a membrane filter to make a counting mount suitable for direct alpha spectrometry. The high-activity 99Mo and 99mTc pass through the membrane filter and are separated from the alpha emitters. The gadolinium hydroxide, carrying any trace actinide elements that might be present in the sample, forms a thin, uniform cake on the surface of the membrane filter. The filter cake is first washed with dilute ammonium hydroxide to push the last traces of molybdate through, then with water. The filter is then mounted on a stainless steel counting disk. Finally, the alpha emitting actinide elements are measured by alpha spectrometry.

  2. Selection of actinide chemical analogues for WIPP tests

    SciTech Connect

    Villarreal, R.; Spall, D.

    1995-07-05

    The Department of Energy must demonstrate the effectiveness of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) as a permanent repository for the disposal of transuranic (TRU) waste. Performance assessments of the WIPP require that estimates of the transportability and outcome of the radionuclides (actinides) be determined from disposal rooms that may become either partially or completely filled with brine. Federal regulations limit the amount of radioactivity that may be unintentionally released to the accessible environment by any mechanism during the post closure phase up to 10,000 years. Thermodynamic models have been developed to predict the concentrations of actinides in the WIPP disposal rooms under various situations and chemical conditions. These models are based on empirical and theoretical projections of the chemistry that might be present in and around the disposal room zone for both near and long-term periods. The actinides that are known to be present in the TRU wastes (and are included in the model) are Th, U, Np, Pu, and Am. Knowledge of the chemistry that might occur in the disposal rooms when the waste comes in contact with brine is important in understanding the range of oxidation states that might be present under different conditions. There is a need to establish the mechanisms and resultant rate of transport, migration, or effective retardation of actinides beyond the disposal rooms to the boundary of the accessible environment. The influence of the bulk salt rock, clay sediments and other geologic matrices on the transport behavior of actinides must be determined to establish the overall performance and capability of the WIPP in isolating waste from the environment. Tests to determine the capabilities of the WIPP geologic formations in retarding actinide species in several projected oxidation states would provide a means to demonstrate the effectiveness of the WIPP in retaining TRU wastes.

  3. Grouped actinide separation in advanced nuclear fuel cycles

    SciTech Connect

    Glatz, J.P.; Malmbeck, R.; Ougier, M.; Soucek, P.; Murakamin, T.; Tsukada, T.; Koyama, T.

    2013-07-01

    Aiming at cleaner waste streams (containing only the short-lived fission products) a partitioning and transmutation (P-T) scheme can significantly reduce the quantities of long-lived radionuclides consigned to waste. Many issues and options are being discussed and studied at present in view of selecting the optimal route. The choice is between individual treatment of the relevant elements and a grouped treatment of all actinides together. In the European Collaborative Project ACSEPT (Actinide recycling by Separation and Transmutation), grouped separation options derived from an aqueous extraction or from a dry pyroprocessing route were extensively investigated. Successful demonstration tests for both systems have been carried out in the frame of this project. The aqueous process called GANEX (Grouped Actinide Extraction) is composed of 2 cycles, a first one to recover the major part of U followed by a co-extraction of Np, Pu, Am, and Cm altogether. The pyro-reprocessing primarily applicable to metallic fuels such as the U-Pu-Zr alloy originally developed by the Argonne National Laboratory (US) in the mid 1980s, has also been applied to the METAPHIX fuels containing up to 5% of minor actinides and 5% of lanthanides (e.g. U{sub 60}Pu{sub 20}-Zr{sub 10}Am{sub 2}Nd{sub 3.5}Y{sub 0.5}Ce{sub 0.5}Gd{sub 0.5}). A grouped actinide separation has been successfully carried out by electrorefining on solid Al cathodes. At present the recovery of the actinides from the alloy formed with Al upon electrodeposition is under investigation, because an efficient P-T cycle requires multiple re-fabrication and re-irradiation. (authors)

  4. Actinide and metal toxicity to prospective bioremediation bacteria.

    PubMed

    Ruggiero, Christy E; Boukhalfa, Hakim; Forsythe, Jennifer H; Lack, Joseph G; Hersman, Larry E; Neu, Mary P

    2005-01-01

    Bacteria may be beneficial for alleviating actinide contaminant migration through processes such as bioaccumulation or metal reduction. However, sites with radioactive contamination often contain multiple additional contaminants, including metals and organic chelators. Bacteria-based bioremediation requires that the microorganism functions in the presence of the target contaminant, as well as other contaminants. Here, we evaluate the toxicity of actinides, metals and chelators to two different bacteria proposed for use in radionuclide bioremediation, Deinococcus radiodurans and Pseudomonas putida, and the toxicity of Pu(VI) to Shewanella putrefaciens. Growth of D. radiodurans was inhibited at metal concentrations ranging from 1.8 microM Cd(II) to 32 mM Fe(III). Growth of P. putida was inhibited at metal concentrations ranging from 50 microM Ni(II) to 240 mM Fe(III). Actinides inhibited growth at mM concentrations: chelated Pu(IV), U(VI) and Np(V) inhibit D. radiodurans growth at 5.2, 2.5 and 2.1 mM respectively. Chelated U(VI) inhibits P. putida growth at 1.7 mM, while 3.6 mM chelated Pu(IV) inhibits growth only slightly. Pu(VI) inhibits S. putrefaciens growth at 6 mM. These results indicate that actinide toxicity is primarily chemical (not radiological), and that radiation resistance does not ensure radionuclide tolerance. This study also shows that Pu is less toxic than U and that actinides are less toxic than other types of metals, which suggests that actinide toxicity will not impede bioremediation using naturally occurring bacteria.

  5. Magnetic exchange coupling in actinide-containing molecules.

    PubMed

    Rinehart, Jeffrey D; Harris, T David; Kozimor, Stosh A; Bartlett, Bart M; Long, Jeffrey R

    2009-04-20

    Recent progress in the assembly of actinide-containing coordination clusters has generated systems in which the first glimpses of magnetic exchange coupling can be recognized. Such systems are of interest owing to the prospects for involving 5f electrons in stronger magnetic exchange than has been observed for electrons in the more contracted 4f orbitals of the lanthanide elements. Here, we survey the actinide-containing molecules thought to exhibit magnetic exchange interactions, including multiuranium, uranium-lanthanide, uranium-transition metal, and uranium-radical species. Interpretation of the magnetic susceptibility data for compounds of this type is complicated by the combination of spin-orbit coupling and ligand-field effects arising for actinide ions. Nevertheless, for systems where analogues featuring diamagnetic replacement components for the non-actinide spin centers can be synthesized, a data subtraction approach can be utilized to probe the presence of exchange coupling. In addition, methods have been developed for employing the resulting data to estimate lower and upper bounds for the exchange constant. Emphasis is placed on evaluation of the linear clusters (cyclam)M[(mu-Cl)U(Me(2)Pz)(4)](2) (M = Co, Ni, Cu, Zn; cyclam = 1,4,8,11-tetraazacyclotetradecane; Me(2)Pz(-) = 3,5-dimethylpyrazolate), for which strong ferromagnetic exchange with 15 cm(-1) < or = J < or = 48 cm(-1) is observed for the Co(II)-containing species. Owing to the modular synthetic approach employed, this system in particular offers numerous opportunities for adjusting the strength of the magnetic exchange coupling and the total number of unpaired electrons. To this end, the prospects of such modularity are discussed through the lens of several new related clusters. Ultimately, it is hoped that this research will be of utility in the development of electronic structure models that successfully describe the magnetic behavior of actinide compounds and will perhaps even lead to new

  6. Continuous Liquid-Sample Introduction for Bunsen Burner Atomic Emission Spectrometry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Gregory D.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Describes a laboratory-constructed atomic emission spectrometer with modular instrumentation components and a simple Bunsen burner atomizer with continuous sample introduction. A schematic diagram and sample data are provided. (DDR)

  7. FMC Chemicals: Burner Management System Upgrade Improves Performance and Saves Energy at a Chemical Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2004-07-01

    FMC Chemicals Corporation increased the efficiency of two large coal-fired boilers at its soda ash mine in Green River, Wyoming, by upgrading the burner management system. The project yields annual energy savings of 250,000 MMBtu.

  8. SITE PROGRAM EVALUATION OF THE SONOTECH PULSE COMBUSTION BURNER TECHNOLOGY - TECHNICAL RESULTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A series of demonstration tests was performed at the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) Incineration Research Facility (IRF) under the Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) program. These tests, twelve in all, evaluated a pulse combustion burner technology dev...

  9. Full scale demonstration of low-NO sub x cell burner retrofit

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-08-09

    The overall objective of the Full-Scale Demonstration of Low-NO{sub x} Cell Burner Retrofit project is to demonstrate the cost-effective reduction of NO{sub x} generated by a large based-loaded (70% capacity factor or greater), coal-fired utility boiler. Specific objectives include: (1) At least 50% NO{sub x} reduction over standard two-nozzle cell burners, without degradation of boiler performance or life; (2) Acquire and evaluate emission and boiler performance data before and after the retrofit to determine NO{sub x} reduction and impact on overall boiler performance; (3) Demonstrate that the retrofit of Low-NO{sub x} Cell Burners in boilers currently equipped with cell burners, is a cost-effective alternative to any other emerging, or commercially-available, NO{sub x} control technology.

  10. Full scale demonstration of low-NO{sub x} cell burner retrofit. Public design report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-08-09

    The overall objective of the Full-Scale Demonstration of Low-NO{sub x} Cell Burner Retrofit project is to demonstrate the cost-effective reduction of NO{sub x} generated by a large based-loaded (70% capacity factor or greater), coal-fired utility boiler. Specific objectives include: (1) At least 50% NO{sub x} reduction over standard two-nozzle cell burners, without degradation of boiler performance or life; (2) Acquire and evaluate emission and boiler performance data before and after the retrofit to determine NO{sub x} reduction and impact on overall boiler performance; (3) Demonstrate that the retrofit of Low-NO{sub x} Cell Burners in boilers currently equipped with cell burners, is a cost-effective alternative to any other emerging, or commercially-available, NO{sub x} control technology.

  11. Demonstration test of burner liner strain measurements using resistance strain gages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grant, H. P.; Anderson, W. L.

    1984-01-01

    A demonstration test of burner liner strain measurements using resistance strain gages as well as a feasibility test of an optical speckle technique for strain measurement are presented. The strain gage results are reported. Ten Kanthal A-1 wire strain gages were used for low cycle fatigue strain measurements to 950 K and .002 apparent strain on a JT12D burner can in a high pressure (10 atmospheres) burner test. The procedure for use of the strain gages involved extensive precalibration and postcalibration to correct for cooling rate dependence, drift, and temperature effects. Results were repeatable within + or - .0002 to .0006 strain, with best results during fast decels from 950 K. The results agreed with analytical prediction based on an axisymmetric burner model, and results indicated a non-uniform circumferential distribution of axial strain, suggesting temperature streaking.

  12. Initial experience in operation of furnace burners with adjustable flame parameters

    SciTech Connect

    Garzanov, A.L.; Dolmatov, V.L.; Saifullin, N.R.

    1995-07-01

    The designs of burners currently used in tube furnaces (CP, FGM, GMG, GIK, GNF, etc.) do not have any provision for adjusting the heat-transfer characteristics of the flame, since the gas and air feed systems in these burners do not allow any variation of the parameters of mixture formation, even though this process is critical in determining the length, shape, and luminosity of the flame and also the furnace operating conditions: efficiency, excess air coefficient, flue gas temperature at the bridgewall, and other indexes. In order to provide the controlling the heat-transfer characteristics of the flame, the Elektrogorsk Scientific-Research Center (ENITs), on the assignment of the Novo-Ufa Petroleum Refinery, developed a burner with diffusion regulation of the flame. The gas nozzle of the burner is made up of two coaxial gas chambers 1 and 2, with independent feed of gas from a common line through two supply lines.

  13. Design and calibration of a flat-flame burner using line-reversal techniques. Technical note

    SciTech Connect

    Snelling, D.R.; Fischer, M.

    1985-04-01

    A premixed methane/air flat-flame burner is described. The burner was designed to have a central flame that can be seeded with sodium, and an annular guard flame that ensured a flat-temperature profile in the seeded region. The burner produced a well-behaved flat flame for linear gas velocities of 20 to 30 cm/s and air-to-fuel ratios within 15% of stoichiometric. The temperature distribution in the flame was measured for a range of operating conditions using the sodium line-reversal technique. The temperatures measured were within the range 2000-2100 K, slightly lower than the adiabatic methane/air flame temperature. This burner will be used as a calibration tool in the development of CARS (Coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy).

  14. Method for extracting lanthanides and actinides from acid solutions

    DOEpatents

    Horwitz, E. Philip; Kalina, Dale G.; Kaplan, Louis; Mason, George W.

    1985-01-01

    A process for the recovery of actinide and lanthanide values from aqueous acidic solutions with an organic extractant having the formula: ##STR1## where .phi. is phenyl, R.sup.1 is a straight or branched alkyl or alkoxyalkyl containing from 6 to 12 carbon atoms and R.sup.2 is an alkyl containing from 3 to 6 carbon atoms. The process is suitable for the separation of actinide and lanthanide values from fission product values found together in high level nuclear reprocessing waste solutions.

  15. Analogue Study of Actinide Transport at Sites in Russia

    SciTech Connect

    Novikov, A P; Simmons, A M; Halsey, W G

    2003-02-12

    The U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS) are engaged in a three-year cooperative study to observe the behavior of actinides in the natural environment at selected disposal sites and/or contamination sites in Russia. The purpose is to develop experimental data and models for actinide speciation, mobilization and transport processes in support of geologic repository design, safety and performance analyses. Currently at the mid-point of the study, the accomplishments to date include: evaluation of existing data and data needs, site screening and selection, initial data acquisition, and development of preliminary conceptual models.

  16. SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESS FOR SEPARATING ACTINIDE AND LANTHANIDE METAL VALUES

    DOEpatents

    Hildebrandt, R.A.; Hyman, H.H.; Vogler, S.

    1962-08-14

    A process of countercurrently extracting an aqueous mineral acid feed solution for the separation of actinides from lanthanides dissolved therern is described. The feed solution is made acid-defrcient with alkali metal hydroxide prior to.contact with acid extractant; during extraction, however, acid is transferred from organic to aqueous solution and the aqueous solution gradually becomes acid. The acid-deficient phase ' of the process promotes the extraction of the actinides, while the latter acid phase'' of the process improves retention of the lanthanides in the aqueous solution. This provides for an improved separation. (AEC)

  17. Thermally unstable complexants/phosphate mineralization of actinides

    SciTech Connect

    Nash, K.

    1996-10-01

    In situ immobilization is an approach to isolation of radionuclides from the hydrosphere that is receiving increasing attention. Rather than removing the actinides from contaminated soils, this approach transforms the actinides into intrinsically insoluble mineral phases resistant to leaching by groundwater. The principal advangates of this concept are the low cost and low risk of operator exposure and/or dispersion of the radionuclides to the wider environment. The challenge of this approach is toe accomplish the immobilization without causing collateral damage to the environment (the cure shouldn`t be worse than the disease) and verification of system performance.

  18. Actinide geochemistry: from the molecular level to the real system.

    PubMed

    Geckeis, Horst; Rabung, Thomas

    2008-12-12

    Geochemical processes leading to either mobilization or retention of radionuclides in an aquifer system are significantly influenced by their interaction with rock, sediment and colloid surfaces. Therefore, a sound safety assessment of nuclear waste disposal requires the elucidation and quantification of those processes. State-of-the-art analytical techniques as e.g. laser- and X-ray spectroscopy are increasingly applied to study solid-liquid interface reactions to obtain molecular level speciation insight. We have studied the sorption of trivalent lanthanides and actinides onto aluminium oxides, hydroxides and purified clay minerals by the time-resolved laser fluorescence spectroscopy and X-ray-absorption spectroscopy. Chemical constitution and structure of surface bound actinides are proposed based on spectroscopic information. Open questions still remain with regard to the exact nature of mineral surface ligands and the mineral/water interface. Similarities of spectroscopic data obtained for M(III) sorbed onto gamma-alumina, and clay minerals suggest the formation of very comparable inner-sphere surface complexes such as S-O-An(III)(OH)x(2-x)(H2O)5-x at pH > 5. Those speciation data are found consistent with those predicted by surface complexation modelling. The applicability of data obtained for pure mineral phases to actinide sorption onto heterogeneously composed natural clay rock is examined by experiments and by geochemical modelling. Good agreement of experiment and model calculations is found for U(VI) and trivalent actinide/lanthanide sorption to natural clay rock. The agreement of spectroscopy, geochemical modelling and batch experiments with natural rock samples and purified minerals increases the reliability in model predictions. The assessment of colloid borne actinide migration observed in various laboratory and field studies calls for detailed information on actinide-colloid interaction. Kinetic stabilization of colloid bound actinides can be due

  19. Density functional theory studies of actinide(III) motexafins (An-Motex2+, An = Ac, Cm, Lr). Structure, stability, and comparison with lanthanide(III) motexafins.

    PubMed

    Cao, Xiaoyan; Li, Quansong; Moritz, Anna; Xie, Zhizhong; Dolg, Michael; Chen, Xuebo; Fang, Weihai

    2006-04-17

    Newly developed relativistic energy-consistent 5f-in-core actinide pseudopotentials and corresponding (7s6p5d1f)/[5s4p3d1f] basis sets in the segmented contraction scheme, combined with density functional theory methods, have been used to study the molecular structure and chemical properties of selected actinide(III) motexafins (An-Motex2+, An = Ac, Cm, Lr). Structure and stability are discussed, and a comparison to the lanthanide(III) motexafins (Ln-Motex2+, Ln = La, Gd, Lu) is made. The actinide element is found to reside above the mean N5 motexafin plane, and the larger the cation, the greater the observed out-of-plane displacement. It is concluded that the actinium(III), curium(III), and lawrencium(III) cations are tightly bound to the macrocyclic skeleton, yielding stable structures. However, the calculated metal-ligand gas-phase binding energy for An-Motex2+ is about 1-2 eV lower than that of Ln-Motex2+, implying a lower stability of An-Motex2+ compared to Ln-Motex2+. Results including solvent effects imply that Ac-Motex2+ is the most stable complex in aqueous solution and should be the best candidate for experimentalists to get stable actinide(III) motexafin complexes.

  20. Low-Emissions Burner Technology using Biomass-Derived Liquid Fuels

    SciTech Connect

    2010-07-01

    The University of Alabama will develop fuel-flexible, low-emissions burner technology for the metal processing industry that is capable of using biomass-derived liquid fuels, such as glycerin or fatty acids, as a substitute for natural gas. By replacing a fossil fuel with biomass fuels, this new burner will enable a reduction in energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions and an increase in fuel flexibility.

  1. Evaluation of Homogeneous Options: Effects of Minor Actinide Exclusion from Single and Double Tier Recycle in Sodium Fast Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    R. M. Ferrer; S. Bays; M. Pope

    2008-03-01

    The Systems Analysis Campaign under the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP) has requested the fuel cycle analysis group at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) to analyze and provide isotopic data for four scenarios in which different strategies for Minor Actinides (MA) management are investigated. A 1000 MWth commercial-scale Sodium Fast Reactor (SFR) design was selected as the baseline in this scenario study. Two transuranic (TRU) conversion ratios, defined as the ratio of the amount of TRU produced over the TRU destroyed in the reactor core, along with different fuel-types were investigated.

  2. Thermodynamic constants for actinide oxides and oxyhydroxides relevant to actinide volatility calculations for thermal oxidation processes

    SciTech Connect

    Ebbinghaus, B.B.; Krikorian, O.H.

    1993-10-27

    The purpose of this report is to provide input of thermodynamic data on actinide volatilities to EERC for use in their computer code for modeling of metal volatilities in incinerators. It is also anticipated that the data may be documented later in an EPA sponsored ``Metals Bible.`` It should be noted that only upper limits for the volatility of PuO{sub 2}(s) due to PuO{sub 3}(g) and PuO{sub 2}(OH){sub 2}(g) and the volatility of AmO{sub 2} in PuO{sub 2}(s) due to AmO{sub 3}(g) and AmO{sub 2}(OH){sub 2}(g) could be set. The data on the americium vapor species are intended for calculations where AmO{sub 2} is present as a solid solution in PuO{sub 2}(s).

  3. Rotrix `vortex breakdown` burner turbulence-stabilized combustion of heating oil

    SciTech Connect

    Hofbauer, P.

    1995-04-01

    For the past two years, the Viessmann MatriX radiant burner has been setting the standard for low emission combustion of gas. Now, with the RotriX burner, Viessmann has succeeded in drastically reducing nitrogenoxide emissions in the combustoin of oil. After a successful test period, the RotriX burner is now being introduced to the market. The RotriX oil burner consequently takes into account the mechanisms in the creation of harmful emissions in the combustion of heating oil No. 2, and guarantees stable combustion under any operating conditions. The burner has the following features: heating oil is combusted only after complete vaporization and mixing with combustion air and recirculated flue gases; the flame is not stabilized with a turbulator disk, but a strong turbulating current is created by means of the Vortex Breakdown phenomenon, which develops a very stable flame under any operating conditions; and high internal flue gas recirculation rates lower the flame temperature to the point where thermal NO formation is reduced to the same low level as in the combustion of gas. The new burner has extremely low emissions of NOx < 60 mg/kWh, and CO < 5 mg/kWh at a CO{sub 2} concentraiton of 14%.

  4. Burner Rig with an Unattached Duct for Evaluating the Erosion Resistance of Thermal Barrier Coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Robert A.; Kuczmarski, Maria A.; Zhu, Dongming

    2011-01-01

    Extensive computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling backed by experimental observation has demonstrated the feasibility of using an unattached duct to increase the velocity and spatial spread of erodent particles exiting from a burner rig. It was shown that gas velocity and temperature are mostly retained if the inner diameter of the unattached duct equaled the exit diameter of the burner rig nozzle. For particles having a mean diameter of 550 millimeters, the modeled velocity attained at a distance 2.0 in. (50.8 millimeters) beyond the exit of a 12 in. (305 millimeters) long duct was approximately twice as large as the velocity the same distance from the nozzle when the duct was not present. For finer particles, the relative enhancement was somewhat less approximately 1.5 times greater. CFD modeling was also used to guide the construction of a device for slowing down the velocity of the particles being injected into the burner rig. This device used a simple 45 degree fitting to slow the particle velocity in the feed line from 20 meters per second, which is in the range needed to convey the particles, to about 3 meters per second just as they are injected into the burner. This lower injection velocity would lessen the severity of the collision of large particles with the wall of the burner liner opposite the injection port, thereby reducing potential damage to the burner liner by high-velocity particles.

  5. The Radian Rapid Mix Burner{trademark} for ultra-low NO{sub x} emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Christman, R.C.; Bortz, S.J.; Shore, D.E.; Brecker, M.

    1996-01-01

    Radian Corporation together with its licensee, Todd Combustion, has developed, demonstrated, and commercially implemented the Radian-Rapid Mix Burner{trademark} (R-RMB{trademark}) that is capable of producing ultra-low NO{sub x} levels for natural gas firing. NO{sub x} levels under 10 ppm, simultaneously with CO levels of a similar magnitude, have been achieved over the load ranges of several forced-draft industrial boilers. These emission levels have been achieved while maintaining excellent flame quality and boiler performance. The paper gives an overview of the RMB{trademark}`s design features. A review is provided of its performance characteristics established during its development phase in a 4 MBtu/hr firetube test boiler. Data illustrating the burner`s sub-10 ppm NO{sub x} performance with and without air preheat, and for circular and rectangular (for tangential firing) burner configurations are presented. Sub-10 ppm NO{sub x} data for commercial installations in two 5 MBtu/hr firetube boilers, a 26 MBtu/hr watertube boiler, and a 130 MBtu/hr watertube boiler are presented. Data reviewing the burner`s performance for oil firing, and plans for its demonstration in a utility boiler are summarized.

  6. Low NOx Burner Design and Analysis for Conceptual Design of Oxygen-Based PC Boiler

    SciTech Connect

    Andrew Seltzer

    2005-05-01

    The objective of the low NOx burner design and analysis task of the Conceptual Design of Oxygen-Based PC Boiler study is to optimize the burner design to ensure stable ignition, to provide safe operation, and to minimize pollutant formation. The burners were designed and analyzed using the Fluent computer program. Four burner designs were developed: (1) with no over-fire gas (OFG) and 65% flue gas recycle, (2) with 20% OFG and 65% flue gas recycle, (3) with no OFG and 56% flue gas recycle and (4) with 20% OFG and 56% flue gas recycle. A 3-D Fluent simulation was made of a single wall-fired burner and horizontal portion of the furnace from the wall to the center. Without primary gas swirl, coal burnout was relatively small, due to the low oxygen content of the primary gas stream. Consequently, the burners were modified to include primary gas swirl to bring the coal particles in contact with the secondary gas. An optimal primary gas swirl was chosen to achieve sufficient burnout.

  7. Low No sub x /SO sub x burner retrofit for utility cyclone boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, K.; Martin, L.; Smith, J.

    1991-05-01

    The Low NO{sub x}/SO{sub x} (LNS) Burner Retrofit for Utility Cyclone Boilers program consists of the retrofit and subsequent demonstration of the technology at Southern Illinois Power Cooperative's (SIPC's) 33-MW unit 1 cyclone boiler located near Marion, Illinois. The LNS Burner employs a simple innovative combustion process burning high-sulfur Illinois coal to provide substantial SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} control within the burner. A complete series of boiler performance and characterization tests, called the baseline tests, was conducted in October 1990 on unit 1 of SIPC's Marion Station. The primary objective of the baseline test was to collect data from the existing plant that could provide a comparison of performance after the LNS Burner retrofit. These data could confirm the LNS Burner's SO{sub x} and NO{sub x} emissions control and any effect on boiler operation. Further, these tests would provide to the project experience with the operating characteristics of the host unit as well as engineering design information to minimize technical uncertainties in the application of the LNS Burner technology.

  8. Literature review of intrinsic actinide colloids related to spent fuel waste package release rates

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, P.; Steward, S.A.

    1997-01-01

    Existence of actinide colloids provides an important mechanism in the migration of radionuclides and will be important in performance of a geologic repository for high-level nuclear waste. Actinide colloids have been formed during long-term unsaturated dissolution of spent fuel by groundwater. This article summarizes a literature search of actinide colloids. This report emphasizes the formation of intrinsic actinide colloids, because they would have the opportunity to form soon after groundwater contact with the spent fuel and before actinide-bearing groundwater reaches the surrounding geologic formations.

  9. Computational Chemistry for Nuclear Waste Characterization and Processing: Relativistic Quantum Chemistry of Actinides

    SciTech Connect

    Harrison, Robert J.; Bernholdt, David E.; Bursten, Bruce E.; De Jong, Wibe A.; Dixon, David A.; Dyall, Kenneth G.; Ermler, Walter V.; Fann, George I.; Hay, P. J.; Ismail Buchner, Nina; Kendall, Ricky A.; Li, Jun; Marino, Maria M.; Marsden, Colin J.; Martin, Richard L.; Minkoff, Michael; Nichols, Jeffrey A.; Nieplocha, Jarek; Pitzer, Russell M.; Pratt, Lawrence R.; Schreckenbach, Hans Georg; Seth, Michael C.; Shepard, Ron; Stevens, Rick L.; Tilson, Jeffrey L.; Wagner, Albert F.; Wang, Qi; Windus, Theresa L.; Wong, Adrian; Zhang, Zhiyong

    2002-08-02

    In the course of the 3 years we have conducted calculations on molecular structures containing actinides, lanthanides, and other heavy elements. Our calculations were done at the relativistically-correct, all-electron, 4-component calculations (DHF, MP2, and CCSD(T)), using density functional theory (DFT) with relativistic effective core potentials (RECPs), and various other methodologies. We studied the ground- and excited state structures, energetics, vibrational frequencies, and NMR, excitation and ionization spectra. In addition a considerable amount of codes and methodologies have been developed during the GC3 period, enabling us to do the extensive research described in this final report, and providing researchers worldwide with new computational chemistry tools. In this section we will give a brief overview of our activities and accomplishments, grouped by each research institution. A more extensive overview can be found in the appendices containing the full yearly reports.

  10. Electronic, structural and transport properties of (almost) rare-earth-like actinide hydrides

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, J.W.; Cort, B.; Goldstone, J.A.; Lawson, A.C.; Cox, L.E. ); Haire, R.G. )

    1990-01-01

    By the virtue of broad-band, hybridized 5f-electron behavior, the hydride systems for Pa and U exhibit unique properties and structures, the actinide metal atoms existing in different states. A sudden change at Np to more rare-earth-like behavior implies a major change in electronic structure. There are both many parallels but also enigmas for the Np + H and Pu + H systems. Electrical resistivities are large and complex with temperature. Low-temperature structural transitions as studied by neutron diffraction help elucidate some of these effects. Phonon spectra are quite rare-earth-like, and XPS data imply a metal atom with mostly d-screened core levels. Then it is at americium, where fully localized and corelike 5f electrons are found, that we look finally for true rare-earth-like behavior, which should include a large drop in electrical resistivity. 33 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  11. Method for recovery of actinides from actinide-bearing scrap and waste nuclear material using O/sub 2/F/sub 2/

    DOEpatents

    Asprey, L.B.; Eller, P.G.

    1984-09-12

    Method for recovery of actinides from nuclear waste material containing sintered and other oxides thereof and from scrap materials containing the metal actinides using O/sub 2/F/sub 2/ to generate the hexafluorides of the actinides present therein. The fluorinating agent, O/sub 2/F/sub 2/, has been observed to perform the above-described tasks at sufficiently low temperatures that there is virtually no damage to the containment vessels. Moreover, the resulting actinide hexafluorides are not detroyed by high temperature reactions with the walls of the reaction vessel. Dioxygen difluoride is readily prepared, stored and transferred to the place of reaction.

  12. Extraction of DBP and MBP from actinides: application to the recovery of actinides from TBP-sodium carbonate scrub solutions. [Aralex process

    SciTech Connect

    Horwitz, E.P.; Mason, G.W.; Bloomquist, C.A.A.; Leonard, R.A.; Bernstein, G.J.

    1980-01-01

    A flowsheet for the recovery of actinides from TBP-Na/sub 2/CO/sub 3/ scrub waste solutions has been developed, based on batch extraction data, and tested, using laboratory scale counter-current extraction techniques. The process, called the ARALEX process, utilizes 2-ethyl-1-hexanol (2-EHOH) to extract the TBP degradation products (HDBP and H/sub 2/MBP) from acidified Na/sub 2/CO/sub 3/ scrub waste leaving the actinides in the aqueous phase. Dibutyl and monobutyl phosphoric acids are attached to the 2-EHOH molecules through hydrogen bonds. These hydrogen bonds also diminish the ability of the HDBP and H/sub 2/MBP to complex actinides and thus all actinides remain in the aqueous raffinate. Dilute sodium hydroxide solutions can be used to back-extract the dibutyl and monobutyl phosphoric acid esters as their sodium salts. The 2-EHOH can then be recycled. After extraction of the acidified carbonate waste with 2-EHOH, the actinides may be readily extracted from the raffinate with DHDECMP or, in the case of tetra- and hexavalent actinides, with TBP. The ARALEX process is relatively simple and involves inexpensive and readily available chamicals. The ARALEX process can also be applied to other actinide waste streams which contain appreciable concentrations of polar organic compounds that interfere with conventional actinide ion exchange and liquid-liquid extraction procedures. One such application is the removal of detergents from laundry or clean-up solutions contaminated with actinides.

  13. Substructure of the inner core of the Earth.

    PubMed Central

    Herndon, J M

    1996-01-01

    The rationale is disclosed for a substructure within the Earth's inner core, consisting of an actinide subcore at the center of the Earth, surrounded by a subshell composed of the products of nuclear fission and radioactive decay. Estimates are made as to possible densities, physical dimensions, and chemical compositions. The feasibility for self-sustaining nuclear fission within the subcore is demonstrated, and implications bearing on the structure and geodynamic activity of the inner core are discussed. PMID:11607625

  14. RAPID SEPARATION OF ACTINIDES AND RADIOSTRONTIUM IN VEGETATION SAMPLES

    SciTech Connect

    Maxwell, S.

    2010-06-01

    A new rapid method for the determination of actinides and radiostrontium in vegetation samples has been developed at the Savannah River Site Environmental Lab (Aiken, SC, USA) that can be used in emergency response situations or for routine analysis. The actinides in vegetation method utilizes a rapid sodium hydroxide fusion method, a lanthanum fluoride matrix removal step, and a streamlined column separation process with stacked TEVA, TRU and DGA Resin cartridges. Lanthanum was separated rapidly and effectively from Am and Cm on DGA Resin. Alpha emitters are prepared using rare earth microprecipitation for counting by alpha spectrometry. The purified {sup 90}Sr fractions are mounted directly on planchets and counted by gas flow proportional counting. The method showed high chemical recoveries and effective removal of interferences. The actinide and {sup 90}Sr in vegetation sample analysis can be performed in less than 8 h with excellent quality for emergency samples. The rapid fusion technique is a rugged sample digestion method that ensures that any refractory actinide particles or vegetation residue after furnace heating is effectively digested.

  15. Chemistry of the heaviest actinides: fermium, mendelevium, nobelium, and lawrencium

    SciTech Connect

    Hulet, E.K.

    1980-01-01

    Conclusions regarding these shifts toward greater stabilization of 5f orbitals with increasing atomic number are mainly supported by the appearance of the divalent oxidation state well before the end of the actinide series and the predominance of the divalent state in the next to last element in the series. These conclusions and the underlying experimental evidence are the main subject of this review.

  16. Colloid-borne forms of tetravalent actinides: a brief review.

    PubMed

    Zänker, Harald; Hennig, Christoph

    2014-02-01

    Tetravalent actinides, An(IV), are usually assumed to be little mobile in near-neutral environmental waters because of their low solubility. However, there are certain geochemical scenarios during which mobilization of An(IV) in a colloid-borne (waterborne) form cannot be ruled out. A compilation of colloid-borne forms of tetravalent actinides described so far for laboratory experiments together with several examples of An(IV) colloids observed in field experiments and real-world scenarios are given. They are intended to be a knowledge base and a tool for those who have to interpret actinide behavior under environmental conditions. Synthetic colloids containing structural An(IV) and synthetic colloids carrying adsorbed An(IV) are considered. Their behavior is compared with the behavior of An(IV) colloids observed after the intentional or unintentional release of actinides into the environment. A list of knowledge gaps as to the behavior of An(IV) colloids is provided and items which need further research are highlighted.

  17. Synthesis and characterization of a tetrathiafulvalene-salphen actinide complex.

    PubMed

    Bejger, Christopher; Tian, Yong-Hui; Barker, Beau J; Boland, Kevin S; Scott, Brian L; Batista, Enrique R; Kozimor, Stosh A; Sessler, Jonathan L

    2013-05-21

    A new tetrathiafulvalene-salphen uranyl complex has been prepared. The system was designed to study the electronic coupling between actinides and a redox active ligand framework. Theoretical and experimental methods--including DFT calculations, single crystal X-ray analysis, cyclic voltammetry, NMR and IR spectroscopies--were used to characterize this new uranyl complex.

  18. Actinide biocolloid formation in brine by halophilic bacteria

    SciTech Connect

    Gillow, J.B.; Francis, A.J.; Dodge, C.J.; Harris, R.; Beveridge, T.J.; Brady, P.V.; Papenguth, H.W.

    1998-12-31

    The authors examined the ability of a halophilic bacterium (WIPP 1A) isolated from the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) site to accumulate uranium in order to determine the potential for biocolloid facilitated actinide transport. The bacterial cell surface functional groups involved in the complexation of the actinide were determined by titration. Uranium, added as uranyl nitrate, was removed from solution at pH 5 by cells but at pH 7 and 9 very little uranium was removed due to its limited solubility. Although present as soluble species, uranyl citrate at pH 5, 7, and 9, and uranyl carbonate at pH 9 were not removed by the bacterium because they were not bioavailable due to their neutral or negative charge. Addition of uranyl EDTA to brine at pH 5, 7, and 9 resulted in the immediate precipitation of U. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) analysis revealed that uranium was not only associated with the cell surface but also accumulated intracellularly as uranium-enriched granules. Extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) analysis of the bacterial cells indicated the bulk sample contained more than one uranium phase. Nevertheless these results show the potential for the formation of actinide bearing bacterial biocolloids that are strictly regulated by the speciation and bioavailability of the actinide.

  19. Actinide Biocolloid Formation in Brine by Halophilic Bacteria

    SciTech Connect

    Gillow, J.B.; Francis, A.J.; Dodge, C.J.; Harris, R.; Beveridge, T.J.; Brady, P.V.; Papenguth, H.W.

    1999-07-28

    We examined the ability of a halophilic bacterium (WFP 1A) isolated from the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) site to accumulate uranium in order to determine the potential for biocolloid facilitated actinide transport. The bacterial cell Surface functional groups involved in the complexation of the actinide were determined by titration. Uranium, added as uranyl nitrate, was removed from solution at pH 5 by cells but at pH 7 and 9 very little uranium was removed due to its limited volubility. Although present as soluble species, uranyl citrate at pH 5, 7, and 9, and uranyl carbonate at pH 9 were not removed by the bacterium because they were not bioavailable due to their neutral or negative charge. Addition of uranyl EDTA to brine at pH 5, 7, and 9 resulted in the immediate precipitation of U. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) analysis revealed that uranium was not only associated with the cell surface but also accumulated intracellulary as uranium-enriched granules. Extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) analysis, of the bacterial cells indicated the bulk sample contained more than one uranium phase. Nevertheless these results show the potential for the formation of actinide bearing bacterial biocolloids that are strictly regulated by the speciation and bioavailability of the actinide.

  20. ACTINIDE BIOCOLLOID FORMATION IN BRINE BY HALOPHILIC BACTERIA

    SciTech Connect

    GILLOW,J.B.; FRANCIS,A.J.; DODGE,C.J.; HARRIS,R.; BEVERIDGE,T.J.; BRADY,P.B.; PAPENGUTH,H.W.

    1998-11-09

    The authors examined the ability of a halophilic bacterium (WIPP 1A) isolated from the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) site to accumulate uranium in order to determine the potential for biocolloid facilitated actinide transport. The bacterial cell surface functional groups involved in the complexation of the actinide were determined by titration. Uranium, added as uranyl nitrate, was removed from solution at pH 5 by cells but at pH 7 and 9 very little uranium was removed due to its limited solubility. Although present as soluble species, uranyl citrate at pH 5, 7, and 9, and uranyl carbonate at pH 9 were not removed by the bacterium because they were not bioavailable due to their neutral or negative charge. Addition of uranyl EDTA to brine at pH 5, 7, and 9 resulted in the immediate precipitation of U. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) analysis revealed that uranium was not only associated with the cell surface but also accumulated intracellularly as uranium-enriched granules. Extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) analysis of the bacterial cells indicated the bulk sample contained more than one uranium phase. Nevertheless these results show the potential for the formation of actinide bearing bacterial biocolloids that are strictly regulated by the speciation and bioavailability of the actinide.

  1. Experimental Investigation of Performance and Operating Characterisitics of a Tail-Pipe Burner for a Turbojet Engine

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1947-10-30

    NACA RM No. E7G03 - -- .1 0 - Burner- inlet gas temperature, TB (°F) o 1100 x , ~looo 950 ~ ’750 550 n x A...with inlet -velocity pressure at several burner- inlet gas temperatures for tail-pipe burner Q. . . gFlmTl_Gy- . . . . . NACA RM NO. E7G03 Flg. 9 . a al...WAStiINGTUN --: October 30, 1947 .: .,1 tlFllFWEHTIAlm . .- . . NACA RM No. E7G03 &==Q! -. . . .. .: .. ,,,---.. r. ..,.,. NATIONKL ADVISORY

  2. High temperature burner-duct-recuperator system evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Parks, W.P. Jr.; DeBellis, C.L.

    1989-08-01

    The Babcock Wilcox Company (B W) has completed a program to design, construct, install, and field test a ceramic-based high-temperature burner-duct-recuperator (HTBDR) in an industrial setting. The unit was capable of operating in corrosive, high temperature (2250{degree}F) flue gas streams. The HTBDR was successfully tested in a steel soaking pit at B W's Tubular Products Division in Koppel, PA. During the 1400 hour operation prior to plant closing, the ceramic stage performed well with no material related problems or air-to-flue leakage. The maximum preheat air produced was 1425{degree}F with a flue gas temperature of 2170{degree}F. Measured fuel savings of 17--24% were obtained over the previous recuperated (metallic heat exchanger) system. This projects to savings of 41% for an unrecuperated furnace. A simple payback analysis indicated acceptable payback for installation in unrecuperated furnaces but unacceptable payback for recuperated furnaces at today's low gas prices. In both cases return on investment is high over a ten year projected life expectancy. 14 refs., 67 figs., 16 tabs.

  3. Thermal barrier coatings: Burner rig hot corrosion test results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hodge, P. E.; Stecura, S.; Gedwill, M. A.; Zaplatynsky, I.; Levine, S. R.

    1978-01-01

    A Mach 0.3 burner rig test program was conducted to examine the sensitivity of thermal barrier coatings to Na and V contaminated combustion gases simulating potential utility gas turbine environments. Coating life of the standard ZrO2-12Y2O3/Ni-16.2Cr-5.6Al-0.6Y NASA thermal barrier coating system which was developed for aircraft gas turbines was significantly reduced in such environments. Two thermal barrier coating systems, Ca2SiO4/Ni-16.2Cr-5.6Al-0.6Y and ZrO2-8Y2O3/Ni-16.4Cr-5.1Al-0.15Y and a less insulative cermet coating system, 50 volume percent MgO-50 volume percent Ni-19.6Cr-17.1Al-0.97Y/Ni-16.2Cr-5.6Al-0.6Y, were identified as having much improved corrosion resistance compared to the standard coating.

  4. Preliminary safety evaluation of the advanced burner test reactor.

    SciTech Connect

    Dunn, F. E.; Fanning, T. H.; Cahalan, J. E.; Nuclear Engineering Division

    2006-09-15

    Results of a preliminary safety evaluation of the Advanced Burner Test Reactor (ABTR) pre-conceptual design are reported. The ABTR safety design approach is described. Traditional defense-in-depth design features are supplemented with passive safety performance characteristics that include natural circulation emergency decay heat removal and reactor power reduction by inherent reactivity feedbacks in accidents. ABTR safety performance in design-basis and beyond-design-basis accident sequences is estimated based on analyses. Modeling assumptions and input data for safety analyses are presented. Analysis results for simulation of simultaneous loss of coolant pumping power and normal heat rejection are presented and discussed, both for the case with reactor scram and the case without reactor scram. The analysis results indicate that the ABTR pre-conceptual design is capable of undergoing bounding design-basis and beyond-design-basis accidents without fuel cladding failures. The first line of defense for protection of the public against release of radioactivity in accidents remains intact with significant margin. A comparison and evaluation of general safety design criteria for the ABTR conceptual design phase are presented in an appendix. A second appendix presents SASSYS-1 computer code capabilities and modeling enhancements implemented for ABTR analyses.

  5. Combustion Characteristics of Biofuels in Porous-Media Burners

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barajas, Pablo E.; Parthasarathy, R. N.; Gollahalli, S. R.

    2010-05-01

    Biofuels, such as canola methyl ester (CME) and soy methyl ester (SME) derived from vegetable oil are alternative sources of energy that have been developed to reduce the dependence on petroleum-based fuels. In the present study, CME, SME, commercial Jet-A fuel were tested in a porous-media burner. The measured combustion characteristics at an initial equivalence ratio of 0.8 included NOx and CO emission indices, radiative fractions of heat release, and axial temperatures. The effects of fuel on the injector and porous media durability were also documented. The NOx emission index was higher for the SME and CME flames than that of the Jet-A flame. Furthermore, the axial temperature profiles were similar for all the flames. The prolonged use of CME and SME resulted in the solid-particle deposition on the metal walls of the injector and within the structure of the porous medium, thereby increasing the restriction to the fuel/air flow.

  6. Development of a lean premixed burner for hydrogen utilization

    SciTech Connect

    Keller, J.O.

    1996-10-01

    The long-term mandate of the hydrogen program is to develop the technologies needed to establish a hydrogen economy. Although a hydrogen fueled automobile has been established as a demonstration project, there are at least three other end use sectors that are recognized by the H{sub 2} program and that are addressed by this project. These end uses are: (1) power generation from stationary turbines, (2) generation of process heat or steam, and (3) commercial and residential direct use applications. Eliminating carbon from the fuel will remove carbon containing species from the emissions, however, NO{sub x} resulting from thermal NO production cannot be ignored. Thermal NO production is minimized by reducing the peak combustion temperature and the residence time at the peak temperature. NO can be reduced to extremely low levels (a few ppm) by operating sufficiently lean to reduce the peak combustion temperatures below 1700 to 1800 K. The objectives for this project are to: (1) develop an environmentally benign and safe burner operating on hydrogen in a lean premixed mode, (2) provide a facility in which fundamental investigations can be performed to support other programs.

  7. Thermal barrier coatings - Burner rig hot corrosion test results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hodge, P. E.; Stecura, S.; Gedwill, M. A.; Zaplatynsky, I.; Levine, S. R.

    1980-01-01

    A Mach 0.3 burner rig test program was conducted to examine the sensitivity of thermal barrier coatings to Na- and V-contaminated combustion gases simulating potential utility gas turbine environments. Coating life of the standard ZrO2-12Y2O3/Ni-16.2Cr-5.6Al-0.6Y (composition in wt %) NASA thermal barrier coating system which was developed for aircraft gas turbines was significantly reduced in such environments. Two thermal barrier coating systems, Ca2SiO4/Ni-16.2Cr-5.6Al-0.6Y and ZrO2-8Y2O3/Ni-16.4Cr-5.1Al-0.15Y and a less insulative cermet coating system, 50 vol % MgO-50 vol % Ni-19.6Cr-17.1Al-0.97Y/Ni-16.2Cr-5.6Al-0.6Y, were identified as having much improved corrosion resistance compared to the standard coating.

  8. Fat burners: nutrition supplements that increase fat metabolism.

    PubMed

    Jeukendrup, A E; Randell, R

    2011-10-01

    The term 'fat burner' is used to describe nutrition supplements that are claimed to acutely increase fat metabolism or energy expenditure, impair fat absorption, increase weight loss, increase fat oxidation during exercise, or somehow cause long-term adaptations that promote fat metabolism. Often, these supplements contain a number of ingredients, each with its own proposed mechanism of action and it is often claimed that the combination of these substances will have additive effects. The list of supplements that are claimed to increase or improve fat metabolism is long; the most popular supplements include caffeine, carnitine, green tea, conjugated linoleic acid, forskolin, chromium, kelp and fucoxanthin. In this review the evidence for some of these supplements is briefly summarized. Based on the available literature, caffeine and green tea have data to back up its fat metabolism-enhancing properties. For many other supplements, although some show some promise, evidence is lacking. The list of supplements is industry-driven and is likely to grow at a rate that is not matched by a similar increase in scientific underpinning.

  9. The INE-Beamline for actinide science at ANKA

    SciTech Connect

    Rothe, J.; Dardenne, K.; Denecke, M. A.; Kienzler, B.; Loeble, M.; Metz, V.; Steppert, M.; Vitova, T.; Geckeis, H.; Butorin, S.; Seibert, A.; Walther, C.

    2012-04-15

    Since its inauguration in 2005, the INE-Beamline for actinide research at the synchrotron source ANKA (KIT North Campus) provides dedicated instrumentation for x-ray spectroscopic characterization of actinide samples and other radioactive materials. R and D work at the beamline focuses on various aspects of nuclear waste disposal within INE's mission to provide the scientific basis for assessing long-term safety of a final nuclear waste repository. The INE-Beamline is accessible for the actinide and radiochemistry community through the ANKA proposal system and the European Union Integrated Infrastructure Initiative ACTINET-I3. Experiments with activities up to 1 x 10{sup +6} times the European exemption limit are feasible within a safe but flexible containment concept. Measurements with monochromatic radiation are performed at photon energies varying between {approx}2.1 keV (P K-edge) and {approx}25 keV (Pd K-edge), including the lanthanide L-edges and the actinide M- and L3-edges up to Cf. The close proximity of the INE-Beamline to INE controlled area labs offers infrastructure unique in Europe for the spectroscopic and microscopic characterization of actinide samples. The modular beamline design enables sufficient flexibility to adapt sample environments and detection systems to many scientific questions. The well-established bulk techniques x-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) spectroscopy in transmission and fluorescence mode have been augmented by advanced methods using a microfocused beam, including (confocal) XAFS/x-ray fluorescence detection and a combination of (micro-)XAFS and (micro-)x-ray diffraction. Additional instrumentation for high energy-resolution x-ray emission spectroscopy has been successfully developed and tested.

  10. Lauriston S. Taylor Lecture: the quest for therapeutic actinide chelators.

    PubMed

    Durbin, Patricia W

    2008-11-01

    All of the actinides are radioactive. Taken into the body, they damage and induce cancer in bone and liver, and in the lungs if inhaled, and U(VI) is a chemical kidney poison. Containment of radionuclides is fundamental to radiation protection, but if it is breached accidentally or deliberately, decontamination of exposed persons is needed to reduce the consequences of radionuclide intake. The only known way to reduce the health risks of internally deposited actinides is to accelerate their excretion with chelating agents. Ethylendiaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) and diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) were introduced in the 1950's. DTPA is now clinically accepted, but its oral activity is low, it must be injected as a Ca(II) or Zn(II) chelate to avoid toxicity, and it is structurally unsuitable for chelating U(VI) or Np(V). Actinide penetration into the mammalian iron transport and storage systems suggested that actinide ions would form stable complexes with the Fe(III)-binding units found in potent selective natural iron chelators (siderophores). Testing of that biomimetic approach began in the late 1970's with the design, production, and assessment for in vivo Pu(IV) chelation of synthetic multidentate ligands based on the backbone structures and Fe(III)-binding groups of siderophores. New efficacious actinide chelators have emerged from that program, in particular, octadentate 3,4,3-LI(1,2-HOPO) and tetradentate 5-LIO(Me-3,2-HOPO) have potential for clinical acceptance. Both are much more effective than CaNa3-DTPA for decorporation of Pu(IV), Am(III), U(VI), and Np(IV,V), they are orally active, and toxicity is acceptably low at effective dosage.

  11. Sequestering agents for the removal of actinides from waste streams

    SciTech Connect

    Raymond, K.N.; White, D.J.; Xu, Jide; Mohs, T.R.

    1997-10-01

    The goal of this project is to take a biomimetic approach toward developing new separation technologies for the removal of radioactive elements from contaminated DOE sites. To achieve this objective, the authors are investigating the fundamental chemistry of naturally occurring, highly specific metal ion sequestering agents and developing them into liquid/liquid and solid supported actinide extraction agents. Nature produces sideophores (e.g., Enterobactin and Desferrioxamine B) to selectivity sequester Lewis acidic metal ions, in particular Fe(III), from its surroundings. These chelating agents typically use multiple catechols or hydroxamic acids to form polydentate ligands that chelate the metal ion forming very stable complexes. The authors are investigating and developing analogous molecules into selective chelators targeting actinide(IV) ions, which display similar properties to Fe(III). By taking advantage of differences in charge, preferred coordination number, and pH stability range, the transition from nature to actinide sequestering agents has been applied to the development of new and highly selective actinide extraction technologies. Additionally, the authors have shown that these chelating ligands are versatile ligands for chelating U(VI). In particular, they have been studying their coordination chemistry and fundamental interactions with the uranyl ion [UO{sub 2}]{sup 2+}, the dominant form of uranium found in aqueous media. With an understanding of this chemistry, and results obtained from in vivo uranium sequestration studies, it should be possible to apply these actinide(IV) extraction technologies to the development of new extraction agents for the removal of uranium from waste streams.

  12. MINIMIZATION OF NO EMISSIONS FROM MULTI-BURNER COAL-FIRED BOILERS

    SciTech Connect

    E.G. Eddings; A. Molina; D.W. Pershing; A.F. Sarofim; T.H. Fletcher; H. Zhang; K.A. Davis; M. Denison; H. Shim

    2002-01-01

    The focus of this program is to provide insight into the formation and minimization of NO{sub x} in multi-burner arrays, such as those that would be found in a typical utility boiler. Most detailed studies are performed in single-burner test facilities, and may not capture significant burner-to-burner interactions that could influence NO{sub x} emissions. Thus, investigations of such interactions were made by performing a combination of single and multiple burner experiments in a pilot-scale coal-fired test facility at the University of Utah, and by the use of computational combustion simulations to evaluate full-scale utility boilers. In addition, fundamental studies on nitrogen release from coal were performed to develop greater understanding of the physical processes that control NO formation in pulverized coal flames--particularly under low NO{sub x} conditions. A CO/H{sub 2}/O{sub 2}/N{sub 2} flame was operated under fuel-rich conditions in a flat flame reactor to provide a high temperature, oxygen-free post-flame environment to study secondary reactions of coal volatiles. Effects of temperature, residence time and coal rank on nitrogen evolution and soot formation were examined. Elemental compositions of the char, tar and soot were determined by elemental analysis, gas species distributions were determined using FTIR, and the chemical structure of the tar and soot was analyzed by solid-state {sup 13}C NMR spectroscopy. A laminar flow drop tube furnace was used to study char nitrogen conversion to NO. The experimental evidence and simulation results indicated that some of the nitrogen present in the char is converted to nitric oxide after direct attack of oxygen on the particle, while another portion of the nitrogen, present in more labile functionalities, is released as HCN and further reacts in the bulk gas. The reaction of HCN with NO in the bulk gas has a strong influence on the overall conversion of char-nitrogen to nitric oxide; therefore, any model that

  13. Design of "model-friendly" turbulent non-premixed jet burners for C2+ hydrocarbon fuels.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jiayao; Shaddix, Christopher R; Schefer, Robert W

    2011-07-01

    Experimental measurements in laboratory-scale turbulent burners with well-controlled boundary and flow configurations can provide valuable data for validating models of turbulence-chemistry interactions applicable to the design and analysis of practical combustors. This paper reports on the design of two canonical nonpremixed turbulent jet burners for use with undiluted gaseous and liquid hydrocarbon fuels, respectively. Previous burners of this type have only been developed for fuels composed of H(2), CO, and/or methane, often with substantial dilution. While both new burners are composed of concentric tubes with annular pilot flames, the liquid-fuel burner has an additional fuel vaporization step and an electrically heated fuel vapor delivery system. The performance of these burners is demonstrated by interrogating four ethylene flames and one flame fueled by a simple JP-8 surrogate. Through visual observation, it is found that the visible flame lengths show good agreement with standard empirical correlations. Rayleigh line imaging demonstrates that the pilot flame provides a spatially homogeneous flow of hot products along the edge of the fuel jet. Planar imaging of OH laser-induced fluorescence reveals a lack of local flame extinction in the high-strain near-burner region for fuel jet Reynolds numbers (Re) less than 20,000, and increasingly common extinction events for higher jet velocities. Planar imaging of soot laser-induced incandescence shows that the soot layers in these flames are relatively thin and are entrained into vortical flow structures in fuel-rich regions inside of the flame sheet.

  14. Laboratory actinide partitioning - Whitlockite/liquid and influence of actinide concentration levels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benjamin, T. M.; Jones, J. H.; Heuser, W. R.; Burnett, D. S.

    1983-01-01

    The partition coefficients between synthetic whitlockite (beta Ca-phosphate) and coexisting silicate melts are determined for the actinide elements Th, U and Pu. Experiments were performed at 1 bar pressure and 1250 C at oxygen fugacities from 10 to the -8.5 to 10 to the -0.7 bars, and partitioning was determined from trace element radiography combined with conventional electron microprobe analysis. Results show Pu to be more readily incorporated into crystalline phases than U or Th under reducing conditions, which is attributed to the observation that Pu exists primarily in the trivalent state, while U and Th are tetravalent. Corrected partition coefficients for whitlockite of 3.6, less than or equal to 0.6, 1.2, 0.5 and less than or equal to 0.002 are estimated for Pu(+3), Pu(+4), Th(+4), U(+4) and U(+6), respectively. Experiments performed at trace levels and percent levels of UO2 indicate that Si is involved in U substitution in whitlockite, and show a reduced partition coefficient at higher concentrations of U that can be explained by effects on melt structure or the fraction of tetravalent U.

  15. A critical review of noise production models for turbulent, gas-fueled burners

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahan, J. R.

    1984-06-01

    The combustion noise literature for the period between 1952 and early 1984 is critically reviewed. Primary emphasis is placed on past theoretical and semi-empirical attempts to predict or explain observed direct combustion noise characteristics of turbulent, gas-fueled burners; works involving liquid-fueled burners are reviewed only when ideas equally applicable to gas-fueled burners are pesented. The historical development of the most important contemporary direct combustion noise theories is traced, and the theories themselves are compared and criticized. While most theories explain combustion noise production by turbulent flames in terms of randomly distributed acoustic monopoles produced by turbulent mixing of products and reactants, none is able to predict the sound pressure in the acoustic farfield of a practical burner because of the lack of a proven model which relates the combustion noise source strenght at a given frequency to the design and operating parameters of the burner. Recommendations are given for establishing a benchmark-quality data base needed to support the development of such a model.

  16. Monitoring near burner slag deposition with a hybrid neural network system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, C. K.; Wilcox, S. J.; Ward, J.; Lewitt, M.

    2003-07-01

    This paper is concerned with the development of a system to detect and monitor slag growth in the near burner region in a pulverized-fuel (pf) fired combustion rig. These slag deposits are commonly known as 'eyebrows' and can markedly affect the stability of the burner. The study thus involved a series of experiments with two different coals over a range of burner conditions using a 150 kW pf burner fitted with simulated eyebrows. These simulated eyebrows consisted of annular refractory inserts mounted immediately in front of the original burner quarl. Data obtained by monitoring the infra-red radiation and sound emitted by the flame were processed to yield time and frequency-domain features, which were then used to train and test a hybrid neural network. This hybrid 'intelligent' system was based on self organizing map and radial-basis-function neural networks. This system was able to classify different sized eyebrows with a success rate of at least 99.5%. Consequently, it is possible not only to detect the presence of an eyebrow by monitoring the flame, but also the network can provide an estimate of the size of the deposit, over a reasonably large range of conditions.

  17. Recovery of burner acoustic source structure from far-field sound spectra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mahan, J. R.; Jones, J. D.

    1984-01-01

    A method is presented that permits the thermal-acoustic efficiency spectrum in a long turbulent burner to be recovered from the corresponding far-field sound spectrum. An acoustic source/propagation model is used based on the perturbation solution of the equations describing the unsteady one-dimensional flow of an inviscid ideal gas with a distributed heat source. The technique is applied to a long cylindrical hydrogen-flame burner operating over power levels of 4.5-22.3 kW. The results show that the thermal-acoustic efficiency at a given frequency, defined as the fraction of the total burner power converted to acoustic energy at that frequency, is rather insensitive to burner power, having a maximum value on the order of 10 to the -4th at 150 Hz and rolling off steeply with increasing frequency. Evidence is presented that acoustic agitation of the flame at low frequencies enhances the mixing of the unburned fuel and air with the hot products of combustion. The paper establishes the potential of the technique as a useful tool for characterizing the acoustic source structure in any burner, such as a gas turbine combustor, for which a reasonable acoustic propagation model can be postulated.

  18. A critical review of noise production models for turbulent, gas-fueled burners

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mahan, J. R.

    1984-01-01

    The combustion noise literature for the period between 1952 and early 1984 is critically reviewed. Primary emphasis is placed on past theoretical and semi-empirical attempts to predict or explain observed direct combustion noise characteristics of turbulent, gas-fueled burners; works involving liquid-fueled burners are reviewed only when ideas equally applicable to gas-fueled burners are pesented. The historical development of the most important contemporary direct combustion noise theories is traced, and the theories themselves are compared and criticized. While most theories explain combustion noise production by turbulent flames in terms of randomly distributed acoustic monopoles produced by turbulent mixing of products and reactants, none is able to predict the sound pressure in the acoustic farfield of a practical burner because of the lack of a proven model which relates the combustion noise source strenght at a given frequency to the design and operating parameters of the burner. Recommendations are given for establishing a benchmark-quality data base needed to support the development of such a model.

  19. One-group fission cross sections for plutonium and minor actinides inserted in calculated neutron spectra of fast reactor cooled with lead-208 or lead-bismuth eutectic

    SciTech Connect

    Khorasanov, G. L.; Blokhin, A. I.

    2012-07-01

    The paper is dedicated to one-group fission cross sections of Pu and MA in LFRs spectra with the aim to increase these values by choosing a coolant which hardens neutron spectra. It is shown that replacement of coolant from Pb-Bi with Pb-208 in the fast reactor RBEC-M, designed in Russia, leads to increasing the core mean neutron energy. As concerns fuel Pu isotopes, their one-group fission cross sections become slightly changed, while more dramatically Am-241 one-group fission cross section is changed. Another situation occurs in the lateral blanket containing small quantities of minor actinides. It is shown that as a result of lateral blanket mean neutron energy hardening the one-group fission cross sections of Np-237, Am-241 and Am-243 increases up to 8-11%. This result allows reducing the time of minor actinides burning in FRs. (authors)

  20. Study of the effects of ambient conditions upon the performance of fan powered, infrared, natural gas burners. Quarterly technical progress report, October 1, 1995--December 31, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Bai, Tiejun; Yeboah, Y.D.; Sampath, R.

    1996-01-01

    Infrared burner is a surface combustor that elevates the temperature of the burner head to a radiant condition. Applications of radiant burners includes boilers, air heaters, deep fat fryers, process heaters, and immersion heaters. On reason for the present interest in this type of burner is its low NO{sub x} emissions, which is attributed to the fact that a large proportion of the combustion heat is given out as radiation from the burner surface, which results in relatively low gas temperature in the combustion zone compared to that of a conventional free-flame burner. As a consequence, such burners produce less NO{sub x}, mainly by the so-called prompt-NO mechanism. A porous radiant burner testing facility was built, consisting of spectral radiance as well as flue gas composition measurements. Measurement capabilities were tested using methane; results were consistent with literature.

  1. Solar r-process-constrained actinide production in neutrino-driven winds of supernovae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goriely, S.; Janka, H.-Th.

    2016-07-01

    Long-lived radioactive nuclei play an important role as nucleo-cosmochronometers and as cosmic tracers of nucleosynthetic source activity. In particular, nuclei in the actinide region like thorium, uranium, and plutonium can testify to the enrichment of an environment by the still enigmatic astrophysical sources that are responsible for the production of neutron-rich nuclei by the rapid neutron-capture process (r-process). Supernovae and merging neutron-star (NS) or NS-black hole binaries are considered as most likely sources of the r-nuclei. But arguments in favour of one or the other or both are indirect and make use of assumptions; they are based on theoretical models with remaining simplifications and shortcomings. An unambiguous observational determination of a production event is still missing. In order to facilitate searches in this direction, e.g. by looking for radioactive tracers in stellar envelopes, the interstellar medium or terrestrial reservoirs, we provide improved theoretical estimates and corresponding uncertainty ranges for the actinide production (232Th, 235, 236, 238U, 237Np, 244Pu, and 247Cm) in neutrino-driven winds of core-collapse supernovae. Since state-of-the-art supernova models do not yield r-process viable conditions - but still lack, for example, the effects of strong magnetic fields - we base our investigation on a simple analytical, Newtonian, adiabatic and steady-state wind model and consider the superposition of a large number of contributing components, whose nucleosynthesis-relevant parameters (mass weight, entropy, expansion time-scale, and neutron excess) are constrained by the assumption that the integrated wind nucleosynthesis closely reproduces the Solar system distribution of r-process elements. We also test the influence of uncertain nuclear physics.

  2. Benchmark of Advanced Burner Test Reactor Model Using MCNPX 2.6.0 and ERANOS 2.1

    SciTech Connect

    Kenneth Allen; Travis Knight; Samuel Bays

    2011-08-01

    Significant research is currently being performed whereby fast reactor cores have been designed to burn transuranic materials reducing the volume and long-term radiotoxicity of spent nuclear fuel. These core and depletion models depend on various computer codes. This research used MCNPX 2.6.0 and ERANOS 2.1 to model a standard 250MWt Advanced Burner Test Reactor (ABTR) core. The intent was to benchmark criticality and burnup results from a stochastic Monte Carlo code and a deterministic depletion code using a standard ABTR model created by Argonne National Laboratory. Because each of these codes solve the transport and burnup problem differently, there is a need to benchmark the core models in order to verify results and identify root causes for significant differences in results between codes. Flux calculations in ERANOS were performed using diffusion theory, Legendre polynomial approximations (using the VARIANT module) and discrete ordinates methods. The k-effective for the higher-order transport models remained within 1000 pcm of the MCNPX model. The difference between the total heavy nuclide mass balance in ERANOS using the various flux calculations and the MCNPX depletion model was less than 0.4% out to a burnup of 1095 days (67.45 GWd/MTHM). For individual heavy nuclides, the depletion models closely matched (< 5.0 % difference) throughout the depletion for isotopes of Uranium, Neptunium and Plutonium and most of the higher transuranics. Notable exceptions were 242Am, 242Cm, 243Cm and 246Cm where differences ranged from 0.1 – 0.2% after 26 days and increased to 11 - 136% at 1095 days.

  3. Superabsorbing gel for actinide, lanthanide, and fission product decontamination

    SciTech Connect

    Kaminski, Michael D.; Mertz, Carol J.

    2016-06-07

    The present invention provides an aqueous gel composition for removing actinide ions, lanthanide ions, fission product ions, or a combination thereof from a porous surface contaminated therewith. The composition comprises a polymer mixture comprising a gel forming cross-linked polymer and a linear polymer. The linear polymer is present at a concentration that is less than the concentration of the cross-linked polymer. The polymer mixture is at least about 95% hydrated with an aqueous solution comprising about 0.1 to about 3 percent by weight (wt %) of a multi-dentate organic acid chelating agent, and about 0.02 to about 0.6 molar (M) carbonate salt, to form a gel. When applied to a porous surface contaminated with actinide ions, lanthanide ions, and/or other fission product ions, the aqueous gel absorbs contaminating ions from the surface.

  4. Investigating Actinide Molecular Adducts From Absorption Edge Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Den Auwer, C.; Conradson, S.D.; Guilbaud, P.; Moisy, P.; Mustre de Leon, J.; Simoni, E.; /SLAC, SSRL

    2006-10-27

    Although Absorption Edge Spectroscopy has been widely applied to the speciation of actinide elements, specifically at the L{sub III} edge, understanding and interpretation of actinide edge spectra are not complete. In that sense, semi-quantitative analysis is scarce. In this paper, different aspects of edge simulation are presented, including semi-quantitative approaches. Comparison is made between various actinyl (U, Np) aquo or hydroxy compounds. An excursion into transition metal osmium chemistry allows us to compare the structurally related osmyl and uranyl hydroxides. The edge shape and characteristic features are discussed within the multiple scattering picture and the role of the first coordination sphere as well as contributions from the water solvent are described.

  5. Chemistry of the heaviest actinides: fermium, mendelevium, nobelium, and lawrencium

    SciTech Connect

    Hulet, E.K.

    1980-01-01

    The chemical properties of the heavy actinides systematically deviate from those of their lanthanide counterparts. The differences between the later elements of the 4f and 5f series can be generally interpreted on the basis of subtle changes in electronic structure. The most important change is a lowering of the 5f energy levels with respect to the Fermi level and a wider separation between the 5f ground states and the first excited states in the 6d or 7p levels. It was concluded that these shifts toward greater stabilization of 5f orbitals with increasing atomic number are mainly supported by the appearance of the divalent oxidation state well before the end of the actinide series and the predominance of the divalent state in the next to last element in the series. The chemistry of fermium, mendelevium, nobelium, and lawrencium was discussed. 8 figures 4 tables. (DP)

  6. Actinide-specific sequestering agents and decontamination applications

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, William L.; Raymond, Kenneth N.

    1981-04-07

    With the commercial development of nuclear reactors, the actinides have become very important industrial elements. A major concern of the nuclear industry is the biological hazard associated with nuclear fuels and their wastes. The acute chemical toxicity of tetravalent actinides, as exemplified by Th(IV), is similar to Cr(III) or Al(III). However, the acute toxicity of 239Pu(IV) is similar to strychnine, which is much more toxic than any of the non-radioactive metals such as mercury. Although the more radioactive isotopes of the transuranium elements are more acutely toxic by weight than plutonium, the acute toxicities of 239Pu, 241Am, and 244Cm are nearly identical in radiation dose, ~100 μCi/kg in rodents. Finally and thus, the extreme acute toxicity of 239Pu is attributed to its high specific activity of alpha emission.

  7. Pulsed photothermal spectroscopy applied to lanthanide and actinide speciation

    SciTech Connect

    Berg, J.M.; Morris, D.E.; Clark, D.L.; Tait, C.D.; Woodruff, W.H. ); Ven Der Sluys, W.G. . Dept. of Chemistry)

    1991-01-01

    Several key elements important for the application of laser-based photothermal spectroscopies to the study of the complexation chemistry of lanthanides and actinides in solution have been demonstrated. The sensitivity of f-f electronic transition energies and band intensities to subtle changes in complexation was illustrated through comparison of visible and near infra-red absorption spectra of well-characterized U(IV) dimers with alkoxide ligands. Significant improvements in spectroscopic band resolution and energy measurement precision for solution species were shown to be achievable through work in frozen glasses at 77 K using a very simple cryogenic apparatus. A pulsed-laser photothermal spectroscopy apparatus was constructed and shown to be sensitive to optical density changes of 10{sup {minus}5} in an aqueous Nd{sup 3+} solution. In addition, the capability of obtaining photothermal lensing spectra of dilute actinide solutions in frozen glasses at 77 K was demonstrated. 6 refs., 5 figs.

  8. Development of a remote bushing for actinide vitrification

    SciTech Connect

    Schumacher, R.F.; Ramsey, W.G.; Johnson, F.M.

    1996-12-31

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) and the Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) are combining their existing experience in handling highly radioactive, special nuclear materials with commercial glass fiberization technology in order to assemble a small vitrification system for radioactive actinide solutions. The vitrification system or {open_quotes}brushing{close_quotes}, is fabricated from platinum-rhodium alloy and is based on early marble remelt fiberization technology. Advantages of this unique system include its relatively small size, reliable operation, geometrical safety (nuclear criticality), and high temperature capability. The bushing design should be capable of vitrifying a number of the actinide nuclear materials, including solutions of americium/curium, neptunium, and possibly plutonium. State of the art, mathematical and oil model studies are being combined with basic engineering evaluations to verify and improve the thermal and mechanical design concepts.

  9. The pentavalent actinide solution chemistry in the environment.

    PubMed

    Topin, Sylvain; Aupiais, Jean

    2016-03-01

    With regard to environmental monitoring of certain nuclear facilities, pentavalent actinides, in particular neptunium and plutonium, play a key role, as the chief soluble, mobile forms of actinides. In the past five years, investigations carried out by hyphenating capillary electrophoresis to ICP-MS (CE-ICP-MS) have allowed a number of hitherto unknown thermodynamic data to be determined for Np(V) and Pu(V) interactions with the chief environmentally abundant anions. For the first time, data were provided for Pu(V) interactions with carbonate, sulfate, oxalate, chloride, and nitrate ions, allowing the Np(V)/Pu(V) analogy to be verified experimentally. Knowledge of Np(V) chemistry, especially in carbonate, and sulfate media, was also refined. These CE-ICP-MS studies, combined with some earlier findings, have brought about a renewal in the knowledge of An(V) chemistry in solution.

  10. Radioanalytical determination of actinides and fission products in Belarus soils.

    PubMed

    Michel, H; Gasparro, J; Barci-Funel, G; Dalmasso, J; Ardisson, G; Sharovarov, G

    1999-04-01

    Alpha emitting actinides such as plutonium, americium or curium were measured by alpha-spectrometry after radiochemical separation. The short range of alpha-particles within matter requires, after a pre-concentration process, a succession of isolation and purification steps based on the valence states modification of the researched elements. For counting, actinides were electrodeposited in view to obtain the mass-less source necessary to avoid self-absorption of the emitted radiations. Activity concentrations of gamma-emitting fission products were calculated after measurement with high purity germanium detectors (HPGe). These different methods were used to analyse soils sampled in the Republic of Belarus, not far from the Chernobyl nuclear plant.

  11. Development and certification of the innovative pioneer oil burner for residential heating appliances

    SciTech Connect

    Kamath, B.

    1997-09-01

    The Pioneer burner represents another important milestone for the oil heat industry. It is the first practical burner design that is designated for use in small capacity heating appliances matching the needs of modern energy efficient home designs. Firing in the range of 0.3 GPH to 0.65 GPH (40,000-90,000 Btu/hr) it allows for new oil heating appliance designs to compete with the other major fuel choices in the small design load residential market. This market includes energy efficient single family houses, town-houses, condominiums, modular units, and mobile homes. The firing range also is wide enough to cover a large percentage of more conventional heating equipment and home designs as well. Having recently passed Underwriters Laboratory certification tests the burner in now being field tested in several homes and samples are being made available to interested boiler and furnace manufacturers for product development and application testing.

  12. Investigation of lean combustion stability and pressure drop in porous media burners

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sobhani, Sadaf; Haley, Bret; Bartz, David; Dunnmon, Jared; Sullivan, John; Ihme, Matthias

    2016-11-01

    The stability and thermal durability of combustion in porous media burners (PMBs) is examined experimentally and computationally. For this, two burner concepts are considered, which consist of different pore topologies, porous materials, and matrix arrangements. Long-term material durability tests at constant and cycled on-off conditions are performed, along with a characterization of combustion stability, pressure drop and pollutant emissions for a range of equivalence ratios and mass flow rates. Experimental thermocouple temperature measurements and pressure drop data are presented and compared to results obtained from one-dimensional volume-averaged simulations. Experimental and model results show reasonable agreement for temperature profiles and pressure drop evaluated using Ergun's equations. Enhanced flame stability is illustrated for burners with Yttria-stabilized Zirconia Alumina upstream and Silicon Carbide in the downstream combustion zone. Results reinforce concepts in PMB design and optimization, and demonstrate the potential of PMBs to overcome technological barriers associated with conventional free-flame combustion technologies.

  13. Technology gap analysis on sodium-cooled reactor fuel handling system supporting advanced burner reactor development.

    SciTech Connect

    Chikazawa, Y.; Farmer, M.; Grandy, C.; Nuclear Engineering Division

    2009-03-01

    The goals of the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP) are to expand the use of nuclear energy to meet increasing global energy demand in an environmentally sustainable manner, to address nuclear waste management issues without making separated plutonium, and to address nonproliferation concerns. The advanced burner reactor (ABR) is a fast reactor concept which supports the GNEP fuel cycle system. Since the integral fast reactor (IFR) and advanced liquid-metal reactor (ALMR) projects were terminated in 1994, there has been no major development on sodium-cooled fast reactors in the United States. Therefore, in support of the GNEP fast reactor program, the history of sodium-cooled reactor development was reviewed to support the initiation of this technology within the United States and to gain an understanding of the technology gaps that may still remain for sodium fast reactor technology. The fuel-handling system is a key element of any fast reactor design. The major functions of this system are to receive, test, store, and then load fresh fuel into the core; unload from the core; then clean, test, store, and ship spent fuel. Major requirements are that the system must be reliable and relatively easy to maintain. In addition, the system should be designed so that it does not adversely impact plant economics from the viewpoints of capital investment or plant operations. In this gap analysis, information on fuel-handling operating experiences in the following reactor plants was carefully reviewed: EBR-I, SRE, HNPF, Fermi, SEFOR, FFTF, CRBR, EBR-II, DFR, PFR, Rapsodie, Phenix, Superphenix, KNK, SNR-300, Joyo, and Monju. The results of this evaluation indicate that a standardized fuel-handling system for a commercial fast reactor is yet to be established. However, in the past sodium-cooled reactor plants, most major fuel-handling components-such as the rotatable plug, in-vessel fuel-handling machine, ex-vessel fuel transportation cask, ex-vessel sodium-cooled storage

  14. 41 CFR 101-26.602-3 - Procurement of gasoline, fuel oil (diesel and burner), kerosene, and solvents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Procurement of gasoline... § 101-26.602-3 Procurement of gasoline, fuel oil (diesel and burner), kerosene, and solvents. (a... capability to procure locally. Item Minimum annual requirement (gallons) Gasoline 10,000 Burner fuel oil...

  15. 41 CFR 101-26.602-3 - Procurement of gasoline, fuel oil (diesel and burner), kerosene, and solvents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2014-07-01 2012-07-01 true Procurement of gasoline... § 101-26.602-3 Procurement of gasoline, fuel oil (diesel and burner), kerosene, and solvents. (a... capability to procure locally. Item Minimum annual requirement (gallons) Gasoline 10,000 Burner fuel oil...

  16. 41 CFR 101-26.602-3 - Procurement of gasoline, fuel oil (diesel and burner), kerosene, and solvents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Procurement of gasoline... § 101-26.602-3 Procurement of gasoline, fuel oil (diesel and burner), kerosene, and solvents. (a... capability to procure locally. Item Minimum annual requirement (gallons) Gasoline 10,000 Burner fuel oil...

  17. Comparative Study of f-Element Electronic Structure across a Series of Multimetallic Actinide, Lanthanide-Actinide and Lanthanum-Actinide Complexes Possessing Redox-Active Bridging Ligands

    SciTech Connect

    Schelter, Eric J.; Wu, Ruilian; Veauthier, Jacqueline M.; Bauer, Eric D.; Booth, Corwin H.; Thomson, Robert K.; Graves, Christopher R.; John, Kevin D.; Scott, Brian L.; Thompson, Joe D.; Morris, David E.; Kiplinger, Jaqueline L.

    2010-02-24

    A comparative examination of the electronic interactions across a series of trimetallic actinide and mixed lanthanide-actinide and lanthanum-actinide complexes is presented. Using reduced, radical terpyridyl ligands as conduits in a bridging framework to promote intramolecular metal-metal communication, studies containing structural, electrochemical, and X-ray absorption spectroscopy are presented for (C{sub 5}Me{sub 5}){sub 2}An[-N=C(Bn)(tpy-M{l_brace}C{sub 5}Me4R{r_brace}{sub 2})]{sub 2} (where An = Th{sup IV}, U{sup IV}; Bn = CH{sub 2}C{sub 6}H{sub 5}; M = La{sup III}, Sm{sup III}, Yb{sup III}, U{sup III}; R = H, Me, Et) to reveal effects dependent on the identities of the metal ions and R-groups. The electrochemical results show differences in redox energetics at the peripheral 'M' site between complexes and significant wave splitting of the metal- and ligand-based processes indicating substantial electronic interactions between multiple redox sites across the actinide-containing bridge. Most striking is the appearance of strong electronic coupling for the trimetallic Yb{sup III}-U{sup IV}-Yb{sup III}, Sm{sup III}-U{sup IV}-Sm{sup III}, and La{sup III}-U{sup IV}-La{sup III} complexes, [8]{sup -}, [9b]{sup -} and [10b]{sup -}, respectively, whose calculated comproportionation constant K{sub c} is slightly larger than that reported for the benchmark Creutz-Taube ion. X-ray absorption studies for monometallic metallocene complexes of U{sup III}, U{sup IV}, and U{sup V} reveal small but detectable energy differences in the 'white-line' feature of the uranium L{sub III}-edges consistent with these variations in nominal oxidation state. The sum of this data provides evidence of 5f/6d-orbital participation in bonding and electronic delocalization in these multimetallic f-element complexes. An improved, high-yielding synthesis of 4{prime}-cyano-2,2{prime}:6{prime},2{double_prime}-terpyridine is also reported.

  18. Benefits of actinide-only burnup credit for shutdown PWRs

    SciTech Connect

    Lancaster, D.; Fuentes, E.; Kang, C.; Rivard, D.

    1998-02-01

    Owners of PWRs that are shutdown prior to resolution of interim storage or permanent disposal issues have to make difficult decisions on what to do with their spent fuel. Maine Yankee is currently evaluating multiple options for spent fuel storage. Their spent fuel pool has 1,434 assemblies. In order to evaluate the value to a utility of actinide-only burnup credit, analysis of the number of canisters required with and without burnup credit was made. In order to perform the analysis, loading curves were developed for the Holtec Hi-Star 100/MPC-32. The MPC-32 is hoped to be representative of future burnup credit designs from many vendors. The loading curves were generated using the actinide-only burnup credit currently under NRC review. The canister was analyzed for full loading (32 assemblies) and with partial loadings of 30 and 28 assemblies. If no burnup credit is used the maximum capacity was assumed to be 24 assemblies. this reduced capacity is due to the space required for flux traps which are needed to sufficiently reduce the canister reactivity for the fresh fuel assumption. Without burnup credit the 1,343 assemblies would require 60 canisters. If all the fuel could be loaded into the 32 assembly canisters only 45 canisters would be required. Although the actinide-only burnup credit approach is very conservative, the total number of canisters required is only 47 which is only two short of the minimum possible number of canisters. The utility is expected to buy the canister and the storage overpack. A reasonable cost estimate for the canister plus overpack is $500,000. Actinide-only burnup credit would save 13 canisters and overpacks which is a savings of about $6.5 million. This savings is somewhat reduced since burnup credit requires a verification measurement of burnup. The measurement costs for these assemblies can be estimated as about $1 million. The net savings would be $5.5 million.

  19. Determination of actinides in urine and fecal samples

    SciTech Connect

    McKibbin, T.T.

    1992-12-31

    A method of determining the radioactivity of specific actinides that are carried in urine or fecal sample material is disclosed. The samples are ashed in a muffle furnace, dissolved in an acid, and then treated in a series of steps of reduction, oxidation, dissolution, and precipitation, including a unique step of passing a solution through a chloride form anion exchange resin for separation of uranium and plutonium from americium.

  20. Future nuclear fuel cycles: Prospect and challenges for actinide recycling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warin, Dominique

    2010-03-01

    The global energy context pleads in favour of a sustainable development of nuclear energy since the demand for energy will likely increase, whereas resources will tend to get scarcer and the prospect of global warming will drive down the consumption of fossil fuel. In this context, nuclear power has the worldwide potential to curtail the dependence on fossil fuels and thereby to reduce the amount of greenhouse gas emissions while promoting energy independence. How we deal with nuclear radioactive waste is crucial in this context. In France, the public's concern regarding the long-term waste management made the French Governments to prepare and pass the 1991 and 2006 Acts, requesting in particular the study of applicable solutions for still minimizing the quantity and the hazardousness of final waste. This necessitates High Active Long Life element (such as the Minor Actinides MA) recycling, since the results of fuel cycle R&D could significantly change the challenges for the storage of nuclear waste. HALL recycling can reduce the heat load and the half-life of most of the waste to be buried to a couple of hundred years, overcoming the concerns of the public related to the long-life of the waste and thus aiding the "burying approach" in securing a "broadly agreed political consensus" of waste disposal in a geological repository. This paper presents an overview of the recent R and D results obtained at the CEA Atalante facility on innovative actinide partitioning hydrometallurgical processes. For americium and curium partitioning, these results concern improvements and possible simplifications of the Diamex-Sanex process, whose technical feasibility was already demonstrated in 2005. Results on the first tests of the Ganex process (grouped actinide separation for homogeneous recycling) are also discussed. In the coming years, next steps will involve both better in-depth understanding of the basis of these actinide partitioning processes and, for the new promising

  1. Chemical properties of the heavier actinides and transactinides

    SciTech Connect

    Hulet, E.K.

    1981-01-01

    The chemical properties of each of the elements 99 (Es) through 105 are reviewed and their properties correlated with the electronic structure expected for 5f and 6d elements. A major feature of the heavier actinides, which differentiates them from the comparable lanthanides, is the increasing stability of the divalent oxidation state with increasing atomic number. The divalent oxidation state first becomes observable in the anhydrous halides of californium and increases in stability through the series to nobelium, where this valency becomes predominant in aqueous solution. In comparison with the analogous 4f electrons, the 5f electrons in the latter part of the series are more tightly bound. Thus, there is a lowering of the 5f energy levels with respect to the Fermi level as the atomic number increases. The metallic state of the heavier actinides has not been investigated except from the viewpoint of the relative volatility among members of the series. In aqueous solutions, ions of these elements behave as a normal trivalent actinides and lanthanides (except for nobelium). Their ionic radii decrease with increasing nuclear charge which is moderated because of increased screening of the outer 6p electrons by the 5f electrons. The actinide series of elements is completed with the element lawrencium (Lr) in which the electronic configuration is 5f/sup 14/7s/sup 2/7p. From Mendeleev's periodicity and Dirac-Fock calculations, the next group of elements is expected to be a d-transition series corresponding to the elements Hf through Hg. The chemical properties of elements 104 and 105 only have been studied and they indeed appear to show the properties expected of eka-Hf and eka-Ta. However, their nuclear lifetimes are so short and so few atoms can be produced that a rich variety of chemical information is probably unobtainable.

  2. Determination of actinides in urine and fecal samples

    DOEpatents

    McKibbin, T.T.

    1993-03-02

    A method of determining the radioactivity of specific actinides that are carried in urine or fecal sample material is disclosed. The samples are ashed in a muffle furnace, dissolved in an acid, and then treated in a series of steps of reduction, oxidation, dissolution, and precipitation, including a unique step of passing a solution through a chloride form anion exchange resin for separation of uranium and plutonium from americium.

  3. Determination of actinides in urine and fecal samples

    DOEpatents

    McKibbin, Terry T.

    1993-01-01

    A method of determining the radioactivity of specific actinides that are carried in urine or fecal sample material is disclosed. The samples are ashed in a muffle furnace, dissolved in an acid, and then treated in a series of steps of reduction, oxidation, dissolution, and precipitation, including a unique step of passing a solution through a chloride form anion exchange resin for separation of uranium and plutonium from americium.

  4. Relativistic effects on the thermal expansion of the actinide elements

    SciTech Connect

    Soederlind, P.; Nordstroem, L.; Lou Yongming; Johansson, B. )

    1990-09-01

    The room-temperature linear thermal-expansion coefficient is calculated for the light actinides thorium, protactinium, uranium, neptunium, and plutonium for the fcc crystal structure. The relativistic spin-orbit interaction is included in these calculations. We show that the spin-orbit splitting of the 5{ital f} band gives rise to a considerable increase of the thermal expansion and to a large extent explains the observed anomalously large thermal expansion for the neptunium and plutonium metals.

  5. Molecular Characterization of Actinide Oxocations from Protactinium to Plutonium

    SciTech Connect

    Den Auwer, C.; Guilbaud, P.; Guillaumont, D.; Moisy, P.; Hennig, C.; Scheinost, A.; Conradson, S. D.

    2007-02-02

    This presentation addresses the structural characterization by EXAFS of actinide cations at oxidation states (V) and (VI) as one walks across the periodic table from Z = 91 (protactinium) to Z = 94 (plutonium). A structural comparison between Pa, U, Np and Pu oxocations in aqueous solution at formal oxidation states (V) and (VI) is carried out. These results are corroborated by quantum chemical and molecular dynamics calculations.

  6. Chemical and Ceramic Methods Toward Safe Storage of Actinides

    SciTech Connect

    P.E.D. Morgan; R.M. Housley; J.B. Davis; M.L. DeHaan

    2005-08-19

    A very import, extremely-long-term, use for monazite as a radwaste encapsulant has been proposed. THe use of ceramic La-monazite for sequestering actinides (isolating them from the environment), especially plutonium and some other radioactive elements )e.g., fission-product rare earths), had been especially championed by Lynn Boatner of ORNL. Monazite may be used alone or, copying its compatibility with many other minerals in nature, may be used in diverse composite combinations.

  7. Method for the concentration and separation of actinides from biological and environmental samples

    DOEpatents

    Horwitz, E.P.; Dietz, M.L.

    1989-05-30

    A method and apparatus for the quantitative recover of actinide values from biological and environmental sample by passing appropriately prepared samples in a mineral acid solution through a separation column of a dialkyl(phenyl)-N,N-dialylcarbamoylmethylphosphine oxide dissolved in tri-n-butyl phosphate on an inert substrate which selectively extracts the actinide values. The actinide values can be eluted either as a group or individually and their presence quantitatively detected by alpha counting. 3 figs.

  8. Method for the concentration and separation of actinides from biological and environmental samples

    DOEpatents

    Horwitz, E. Philip; Dietz, Mark L.

    1989-01-01

    A method and apparatus for the quantitative recover of actinide values from biological and environmental sample by passing appropriately prepared samples in a mineral acid solution through a separation column of a dialkyl(phenyl)-N,N-dialylcarbamoylmethylphosphine oxide dissolved in tri-n-butyl phosphate on an inert substrate which selectively extracts the actinide values. The actinide values can be eluted either as a group or individually and their presence quantitatively detected by alpha counting.

  9. Design of unique pins for irradiation of higher actinides in a fast reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Basmajian, J.A.; Birney, K.R.; Weber, E.T.; Adair, H.L.; Quinby, T.C.; Raman, S.; Butler, J.K.; Bateman, B.C.; Swanson, K.M.

    1982-03-01

    The actinides produced by transmutation reactions in nuclear reactor fuels are a significant factor in nuclear fuel burnup, transportation and reprocessing. Irradiation testing is a primary source of data of this type. A segmented pin design was developed which provides for incorporation of multiple specimens of actinide oxides for irradiation in the UK's Prototype Fast Reactor (PFR) at Dounreay Scotland. Results from irradiation of these pins will extend the basic neutronic and material irradiation behavior data for key actinide isotopes.

  10. On-line Monitoring of Actinide Concentrations in Molten Salt Electrolyte

    SciTech Connect

    Curtis W. Johnson; Mary Lou Dunzik-Gougar; Shelly X. Li

    2006-11-01

    Pyroprocessing, a treatment method for spent nuclear fuel (SNF), is currently being studied at the Idaho National Laboratory. The key operation of pyroprocessing which takes place in an electrorefiner is the electrochemical separation of actinides from other constituents in spent fuel. Efficient operation of the electrorefiner requires online monitoring of actinide concentrations in the molten salt electrolyte. Square-wave voltammetry (SWV) and normal pulse voltammetry (NPV) are being investigated to assess their applicability to the measurement of actinide concentrations in the electrorefiner.

  11. RAPID SEPARATION METHOD FOR ACTINIDES IN EMERGENCY SOIL SAMPLES

    SciTech Connect

    Maxwell, S.; Culligan, B.; Noyes, G.

    2009-11-09

    A new rapid method for the determination of actinides in soil and sediment samples has been developed at the Savannah River Site Environmental Lab (Aiken, SC, USA) that can be used for samples up to 2 grams in emergency response situations. The actinides in soil method utilizes a rapid sodium hydroxide fusion method, a lanthanum fluoride soil matrix removal step, and a streamlined column separation process with stacked TEVA, TRU and DGA Resin cartridges. Lanthanum was separated rapidly and effectively from Am and Cm on DGA Resin. Vacuum box technology and rapid flow rates are used to reduce analytical time. Alpha sources are prepared using cerium fluoride microprecipitation for counting by alpha spectrometry. The method showed high chemical recoveries and effective removal of interferences. This new procedure was applied to emergency soil samples received in the NRIP Emergency Response exercise administered by the National Institute for Standards and Technology (NIST) in April, 2009. The actinides in soil results were reported within 4-5 hours with excellent quality.

  12. A literature review of actinide-carbonate mineral interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Stout, D.L.; Carroll, S.A.

    1993-10-01

    Chemical retardation of actinides in groundwater systems is a potentially important mechanism for assessing the performance of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), a facility intended to demonstrate safe disposal of transuranic waste. Rigorous estimation of chemical retardation during transport through the Culebra Dolomite, a water-bearing unit overlying the WIPP, requires a mechanistic understanding of chemical reactions between dissolved elements and mineral surfaces. This report represents a first step toward this goal by examining the literature for pertinent experimental studies of actinide-carbonate interactions. A summary of existing models is given, along with the types of experiments on which these models are based. Articles pertaining to research into actinide interactions with carbonate minerals are summarized. Select articles involving trace element-carbonate mineral interactions are also reviewed and may serve as templates for future research. A bibliography of related articles is included. Americium(III), and its nonradioactive analog neodymium(III), partition strongly from aqueous solutions into carbonate minerals. Recent thermodynamic, kinetic, and surface studies show that Nd is preferentially removed from solution, forming a Nd-Ca carbonate solid solution. Neptunium(V) is rapidly removed from solution by carbonates. Plutonium incorporation into carbonates is complicated by multiple oxidation states. Little research has been done on the radium(H) and thorium(IV) carbonate systems. Removal of uranyl ion from solution by calcite is limited to monolayer surface coverage.

  13. Disposition of actinides released from high-level waste glass

    SciTech Connect

    Ebert, W.L.; Bates, J.K.; Buck, E.C.; Gong, M.; Wolf, S.F.

    1994-05-01

    A series of static leach tests was conducted using glasses developed for vitrifying tank wastes at the Savannah River Site to monitor the disposition of actinide elements upon corrosion of the glasses. In these tests, glasses produced from SRL 131 and SRL 202 frits were corroded at 90{degrees}C in a tuff groundwater. Tests were conducted using crushed glass at different glass surface area-to-solution volume (S/V) ratios to assess the effect of the S/V on the solution chemistry, the corrosion of the glass, and the disposition of actinide elements. Observations regarding the effects of the S/V on the solution chemistry and the corrosion of the glass matrix have been reported previously. This paper highlights the solution analyses performed to assess how the S/V used in a static leach test affects the disposition of actinide elements between fractions that are suspended or dissolved in the solution, and retained by the altered glass or other materials.

  14. Crystalline matrices for the immobilization of plutonium and actinides

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, E.B.; Burakov, E.E.; Galkin, Ya.B.; Starchenko, V.A.; Vasiliev, V.G.

    1996-05-01

    The management of weapon plutonium, disengaged as a result of conversion, is considered together with the problem of the actinide fraction of long-lived high level radioactive wastes. It is proposed to use polymineral ceramics based on crystalline host-phases: zircon ZrSiO{sub 4} and zirconium dioxide ZrO{sub 2}, for various variants of the management of plutonium and actinides (including the purposes of long-term safe storage or final disposal from the human activity sphere). It is shown that plutonium and actinides are able to form with these phases on ZrSiO{sub 4} and ZrO{sub 2} was done on laboratory level by the hot pressing method, using the plasmochemical calcination technology. To incorporate simulators of plutonium into the structure of ZrSiO{sub 4} and ZrO{sub 2} in the course of synthesis, an original method developed by the authors as a result of studying the high-uranium zircon (Zr,U) SiO{sub 4} form Chernobyl {open_quotes}lavas{close_quotes} was used.

  15. Computational Modeling of Actinide Ions in Aqueous Solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atta-Fynn, Raymond

    2014-03-01

    Unraveling the chemical behavior of actinide species is difficult owing to the complex electronic structure of these species, the fact that many of these species can occur in multiple oxidation states, and the difficulties encountered in their experimental studies. First principles dynamical modeling, although computationally costly, allows us to gain rich insights into the behavior of actinide species. In this talk, we present results of the hydration shell structure and x-ray absorption spectra of aqueous actinides in different oxidation states including U(VI), U(V), U(IV), and Cm(III) using relativistic ab initiomolecular dynamics at 300 K. We also probed the thermodynamics of hydrolysis by calculating the first acidity constant for uranium in all three oxidation states (IV, V, and VI). We predicted, for the first time, that UO2+ is a weak acid in solution with a pKa value of 8.5. This result is particularly important since no thermodynamic data are available for hydrolyzed species of U(V). In our most recent work on concentrated Cm(III) solutions, we showed that counter-ions can strengthen or weaken the solvent structure itself rather than just the water coordination number. These new results are better explained in terms of the hydrogen bond lifetimes of the solvents.

  16. RAPID SEPARATION METHOD FOR ACTINIDES IN EMERGENCY AIR FILTER SAMPLES

    SciTech Connect

    Maxwell, S.; Noyes, G.; Culligan, B.

    2010-02-03

    A new rapid method for the determination of actinides and strontium in air filter samples has been developed at the Savannah River Site Environmental Lab (Aiken, SC, USA) that can be used in emergency response situations. The actinides and strontium in air filter method utilizes a rapid acid digestion method and a streamlined column separation process with stacked TEVA, TRU and Sr Resin cartridges. Vacuum box technology and rapid flow rates are used to reduce analytical time. Alpha emitters are prepared using cerium fluoride microprecipitation for counting by alpha spectrometry. The purified {sup 90}Sr fractions are mounted directly on planchets and counted by gas flow proportional counting. The method showed high chemical recoveries and effective removal of interferences. This new procedure was applied to emergency air filter samples received in the NRIP Emergency Response exercise administered by the National Institute for Standards and Technology (NIST) in April, 2009. The actinide and {sup 90}Sr in air filter results were reported in {approx}4 hours with excellent quality.

  17. The EBR-II X501 Minor Actinide Burning Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Jon Carmack; S. L. Hayes; M. K. Meyer; H. Tsai

    2008-06-01

    The X501 experiment was conducted in EBR-II as part of the IFR (Integral Fast Reactor) program to demonstrate minor actinide burning through the use of a homogeneous recycle scheme. The X501 subassembly contained two metallic fuel elements loaded with relatively small quantities of americium and neptunium. Interest in the behavior of minor actinides (MA) during fuel irradiation has prompted further examination of existing X501 data, and generation of new data where needed in support of the U.S. waste transmutation effort. The X501 experiment is one of the few minor actinide-bearing fuel irradiation tests conducted worldwide and knowledge can be gained by understanding the changes in fuel behavior due to addition of MA’s. Of primary interest are the affect of the MA’s on fuel-cladding-chemical-interaction, and the redistribution behavior of americium. The quantity of helium gas release from the fuel and any effects of helium on fuel performance are also of interest. It must be stressed that information presented at this time is based on the limited PIE conducted in 1995-1996, and currently represents a set of observations rather than a complete understanding of fuel behavior.

  18. Redox response of actinide materials to highly ionizing radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tracy, Cameron L.; Lang, Maik; Pray, John M.; Zhang, Fuxiang; Popov, Dmitry; Park, Changyong; Trautmann, Christina; Bender, Markus; Severin, Daniel; Skuratov, Vladimir A.; Ewing, Rodney C.

    2015-01-01

    Energetic radiation can cause dramatic changes in the physical and chemical properties of actinide materials, degrading their performance in fission-based energy systems. As advanced nuclear fuels and wasteforms are developed, fundamental understanding of the processes controlling radiation damage accumulation is necessary. Here we report oxidation state reduction of actinide and analogue elements caused by high-energy, heavy ion irradiation and demonstrate coupling of this redox behaviour with structural modifications. ThO2, in which thorium is stable only in a tetravalent state, exhibits damage accumulation processes distinct from those of multivalent cation compounds CeO2 (Ce3+ and Ce4+) and UO3 (U4+, U5+ and U6+). The radiation tolerance of these materials depends on the efficiency of this redox reaction, such that damage can be inhibited by altering grain size and cation valence variability. Thus, the redox behaviour of actinide materials is important for the design of nuclear fuels and the prediction of their performance.

  19. Redox response of actinide materials to highly ionizing radiation.

    PubMed

    Tracy, Cameron L; Lang, Maik; Pray, John M; Zhang, Fuxiang; Popov, Dmitry; Park, Changyong; Trautmann, Christina; Bender, Markus; Severin, Daniel; Skuratov, Vladimir A; Ewing, Rodney C

    2015-01-27

    Energetic radiation can cause dramatic changes in the physical and chemical properties of actinide materials, degrading their performance in fission-based energy systems. As advanced nuclear fuels and wasteforms are developed, fundamental understanding of the processes controlling radiation damage accumulation is necessary. Here we report oxidation state reduction of actinide and analogue elements caused by high-energy, heavy ion irradiation and demonstrate coupling of this redox behaviour with structural modifications. ThO2, in which thorium is stable only in a tetravalent state, exhibits damage accumulation processes distinct from those of multivalent cation compounds CeO2 (Ce(3+) and Ce(4+)) and UO3 (U(4+), U(5+) and U(6+)). The radiation tolerance of these materials depends on the efficiency of this redox reaction, such that damage can be inhibited by altering grain size and cation valence variability. Thus, the redox behaviour of actinide materials is important for the design of nuclear fuels and the prediction of their performance.

  20. Supercritical Fluid Extraction and Separation of Uranium from Other Actinides

    SciTech Connect

    Donna L. Quach; Bruce J. Mincher; Chien M. Wai

    2014-06-01

    This paper investigates the feasibility of separating uranium from other actinides by using supercritical fluid carbon dioxide (sc-CO2) as a solvent modified with tri-n-butylphosphate (TBP) for the development of an extraction and counter current stripping technique, which would be a more efficient and environmentally benign technology for used nuclear fuel reprocessing compared to traditional solvent extraction. Several actinides (U(VI), Np(VI), Pu(IV), and Am(III)) were extracted in sc-CO2 modified with TBP over a range of nitric acid concentrations and then the actinides were exposed to reducing and complexing agents to suppress their extractability. According to this study, the separation of uranium from plutonium in sc-CO2 modified with TBP was successful at nitric acid concentrations of less than 3 M in the presence of acetohydroxamic acid or oxalic acid, and the separation of uranium from neptunium was successful at nitric acid concentrations of less than 1 M in the presence of acetohydroxamic acid, oxalic acid, or sodium nitrite.

  1. Correlation consistent basis sets for actinides. I. The Th and U atoms.

    PubMed

    Peterson, Kirk A

    2015-02-21

    New correlation consistent basis sets based on both pseudopotential (PP) and all-electron Douglas-Kroll-Hess (DKH) Hamiltonians have been developed from double- to quadruple-zeta quality for the actinide atoms thorium and uranium. Sets for valence electron correlation (5f6s6p6d), cc - pV nZ - PP and cc - pV nZ - DK3, as well as outer-core correlation (valence + 5s5p5d), cc - pwCV nZ - PP and cc - pwCV nZ - DK3, are reported (n = D, T, Q). The -PP sets are constructed in conjunction with small-core, 60-electron PPs, while the -DK3 sets utilized the 3rd-order Douglas-Kroll-Hess scalar relativistic Hamiltonian. Both series of basis sets show systematic convergence towards the complete basis set limit, both at the Hartree-Fock and correlated levels of theory, making them amenable to standard basis set extrapolation techniques. To assess the utility of the new basis sets, extensive coupled cluster composite thermochemistry calculations of ThFn (n = 2 - 4), ThO2, and UFn (n = 4 - 6) have been carried out. After accurately accounting for valence and outer-core correlation, spin-orbit coupling, and even Lamb shift effects, the final 298 K atomization enthalpies of ThF4, ThF3, ThF2, and ThO2 are all within their experimental uncertainties. Bond dissociation energies of ThF4 and ThF3, as well as UF6 and UF5, were similarly accurate. The derived enthalpies of formation for these species also showed a very satisfactory agreement with experiment, demonstrating that the new basis sets allow for the use of accurate composite schemes just as in molecular systems composed only of lighter atoms. The differences between the PP and DK3 approaches were found to increase with the change in formal oxidation state on the actinide atom, approaching 5-6 kcal/mol for the atomization enthalpies of ThF4 and ThO2. The DKH3 atomization energy of ThO2 was calculated to be smaller than the DKH2 value by ∼1 kcal/mol.

  2. Correlation consistent basis sets for actinides. I. The Th and U atoms

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, Kirk A.

    2015-02-21

    New correlation consistent basis sets based on both pseudopotential (PP) and all-electron Douglas-Kroll-Hess (DKH) Hamiltonians have been developed from double- to quadruple-zeta quality for the actinide atoms thorium and uranium. Sets for valence electron correlation (5f6s6p6d), cc − pV nZ − PP and cc − pV nZ − DK3, as well as outer-core correlation (valence + 5s5p5d), cc − pwCV nZ − PP and cc − pwCV nZ − DK3, are reported (n = D, T, Q). The -PP sets are constructed in conjunction with small-core, 60-electron PPs, while the -DK3 sets utilized the 3rd-order Douglas-Kroll-Hess scalar relativistic Hamiltonian. Both series of basis sets show systematic convergence towards the complete basis set limit, both at the Hartree-Fock and correlated levels of theory, making them amenable to standard basis set extrapolation techniques. To assess the utility of the new basis sets, extensive coupled cluster composite thermochemistry calculations of ThF{sub n} (n = 2 − 4), ThO{sub 2}, and UF{sub n} (n = 4 − 6) have been carried out. After accurately accounting for valence and outer-core correlation, spin-orbit coupling, and even Lamb shift effects, the final 298 K atomization enthalpies of ThF{sub 4}, ThF{sub 3}, ThF{sub 2}, and ThO{sub 2} are all within their experimental uncertainties. Bond dissociation energies of ThF{sub 4} and ThF{sub 3}, as well as UF{sub 6} and UF{sub 5}, were similarly accurate. The derived enthalpies of formation for these species also showed a very satisfactory agreement with experiment, demonstrating that the new basis sets allow for the use of accurate composite schemes just as in molecular systems composed only of lighter atoms. The differences between the PP and DK3 approaches were found to increase with the change in formal oxidation state on the actinide atom, approaching 5-6 kcal/mol for the atomization enthalpies of ThF{sub 4} and ThO{sub 2}. The DKH3 atomization energy of ThO{sub 2} was calculated to be smaller than the DKH2

  3. Polonium release from an ATW burner system with liquid lead-bismuth coolant

    SciTech Connect

    Li, N.; Yefimov, E.; Pankratov, D.

    1998-04-01

    The authors analyzed polonium release hazards in a conceptual pool-type ATW burner with liquid lead-bismuth eutectic (LBE) coolant. Simplified quantitative models are used based on experiments and real NPP experience. They found little Po contamination outside the burner under normal operating conditions with nominal leakage from the gas system. In sudden gas leak and/or coolant spill accidents, the P contamination level can reach above the regulation limit but short exposure would not lead to severe health consequences. They are evaluating and developing mitigation methods.

  4. Experimental verification of vapor deposition model in Mach 0.3 burner rigs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gokoglu, S. A.

    1984-01-01

    A comprehensive theoretical framework of deposition from combustion gases was developed covering the spectrum of various mass delivery mechanisms including vapor, thermophoretically enhanced small particle, and inertially impacting large particle deposition. Rational yet simple correlations were provided to facilitate engineering surface arrival rate predictions. Experimental verification of the deposition theory was validated using burner rigs. Toward this end, a Mach 0.3 burner rig apparatus was designed to measure deposition rates from salt-seeded combustion gases on an internally cooled cylindrical collector.

  5. Separation of actinides using capillary extraction chromatography-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Peterson, Dominic S; Montoya, Velma M

    2009-08-01

    Trace levels of actinides have been separated on capillary extraction chromatography columns. Detection of the actinides was achieved using an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer, which was coupled with the extraction chromatography system. In this study, we compare 30-cm long, 4.6 mm i.d. columns to capillary columns (750 microm i.d.) with lengths from 30 cm up to 150 cm. The columns that were tested were packed with TRU resin. We were able to separate a mixture of five actinides ((232)Th, (238)U, (237)Np, (239)Pu, and (241)Am). This work has application to rapid bioassay as well as automated separations of actinide materials.

  6. Flowsheet report for baseline actinide blanket processing for accelerator transmutation of waste

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, R.B.

    1992-04-08

    We provide a flowsheet analysis of the chemical processing of actinide and fission product materials form the actinide blanket of an accelerator-based transmutation concept. An initial liquid ion exchange step is employed to recover unburned plutonium and neptunium, so that it can be returned quickly to the transmitter. The remaining materials, consisting of fission products and trivalent actinides (americium, curium), is processed after a cooling period. A reverse Talspeak process is employed to separate these trivalent actinides from lanthanides and other fission products.

  7. 16 CFR Figure 6 to Part 1633 - Burner Assembly Showing Arms and Pivots (Shoulder Screws) in Relation to, Portable Frame Allowing...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Burner Assembly Showing Arms and Pivots (Shoulder Screws) in Relation to, Portable Frame Allowing Burner Height Adjustment 6 Figure 6 to Part 1633... FLAMMABILITY (OPEN FLAME) OF MATTRESS SETS Pt.1633, Fig. 6 Figure 6 to Part 1633—Burner Assembly Showing...

  8. 16 CFR Figure 6 to Part 1633 - Burner Assembly Showing Arms and Pivots (Shoulder Screws) in Relation to Portable Frame Allowing...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Burner Assembly Showing Arms and Pivots (Shoulder Screws) in Relation to Portable Frame Allowing Burner Height Adjustment 6 Figure 6 to Part 1633... FLAMMABILITY (OPEN FLAME) OF MATTRESS SETS Pt.1633, Fig. 6 Figure 6 to Part 1633—Burner Assembly Showing...

  9. 40 CFR Appendix A to Part 76 - Phase I Affected Coal-Fired Utility Units With Group 1 or Cell Burner Boilers

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Units With Group 1 or Cell Burner Boilers A Appendix A to Part 76 Protection of Environment... 1 or Cell Burner Boilers Table 1—Phase I Tangentially Fired Units State Plant Unit Operator ALABAMA... Vertically fired boiler. 2 Arch-fired boiler. Table 3—Phase I Cell Burner Technology Units State Plant...

  10. 40 CFR Appendix A to Part 76 - Phase I Affected Coal-Fired Utility Units With Group 1 or Cell Burner Boilers

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Units With Group 1 or Cell Burner Boilers A Appendix A to Part 76 Protection of Environment... 1 or Cell Burner Boilers Table 1—Phase I Tangentially Fired Units State Plant Unit Operator ALABAMA... Vertically fired boiler. 2 Arch-fired boiler. Table 3—Phase I Cell Burner Technology Units State Plant...

  11. 40 CFR Appendix A to Part 76 - Phase I Affected Coal-Fired Utility Units With Group 1 or Cell Burner Boilers

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Units With Group 1 or Cell Burner Boilers A Appendix A to Part 76 Protection of Environment... 1 or Cell Burner Boilers Table 1—Phase I Tangentially Fired Units State Plant Unit Operator ALABAMA... Vertically fired boiler. 2 Arch-fired boiler. Table 3—Phase I Cell Burner Technology Units State Plant...

  12. 40 CFR Appendix A to Part 76 - Phase I Affected Coal-Fired Utility Units With Group 1 or Cell Burner Boilers

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Units With Group 1 or Cell Burner Boilers A Appendix A to Part 76 Protection of Environment... 1 or Cell Burner Boilers Table 1—Phase I Tangentially Fired Units State Plant Unit Operator ALABAMA... Vertically fired boiler. 2 Arch-fired boiler. Table 3—Phase I Cell Burner Technology Units State Plant...

  13. Preliminary calculational analysis of the actinide samples from FP-4 exposed in the Dounreay Prototype Fast Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, B.D.; Raman, S.; Newton, T.D.

    1996-12-01

    This report discusses the current status of results from an extensive experiment on the irradiation of selected actinides in a fast reactor. These actinides ranged from thorium to curium. They were irradiated in the core of the Dounreay Prototype Fast Reactor. Rates for depletion, transmutation, and fission-product generation were experimentally measured, and, in turn, were calculated using current cross-section and fission-yield data. Much of the emphasis is on the comparison between experimental and calculated values for both actinide and fission-product concentrations. Some of the discussion touches on the adequacy of current cross-section and fission-yield data. However, the main purposes of the report are: to collect in one place the most recent yield data, to discuss the comparisons between the experimental and calculated results, to discuss each sample that was irradiated giving details of any adjustments needed or specific problems encountered, and to give a chronology of the analysis as it pertained to the set of samples (referred to as FP-4 samples) that constitutes the most extensively irradiated and final set. The results and trends reported here, together with those discussions touching on current knowledge about cross sections and fission yields, are intended to serve as a starting point for further analysis. In general, these results are encouraging with regard to the adequacy of much of the currently available nuclear data in this region of the periodic table. But there are some cases where adjustments and improvements can be suggested. However, the application of these results in consolidating current cross-section and fission-yield data must await further analysis.

  14. Fission fragment angular distributions in pre-actinide nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banerjee, Tathagata; Nath, S.; Jhingan, A.; Kaur, Gurpreet; Dubey, R.; Yadav, Abhishek; Laveen, P. V.; Shamlath, A.; Shareef, M.; Gehlot, J.; Saneesh, N.; Prasad, E.; Sugathan, P.; Pal, Santanu

    2016-10-01

    Background: Complete fusion of two nuclei leading to formation of a heavy compound nucleus (CN) is known to be hindered by various fission-like processes, in which the composite system reseparates after capture of the target and the projectile inside the potential barrier. As a consequence of these non-CN fission (NCNF) processes, fusion probability (PCN) starts deviating from unity. Despite substantial progress in understanding, the onset and the experimental signatures of NCNF and the degree of its influence on fusion have not yet been unambiguously identified. Purpose: This work aims to investigate the presence of NCNF, if any, in pre-actinide nuclei by systematic study of fission angular anisotropies and fission cross sections (σfis) in a number of nuclear reactions carried out at and above the Coulomb barrier (VB) . Method: Fission fragment angular distributions were measured for six 28Si-induced reactions involving isotopically enriched targets of 169Tm,176Yb,175Lu,180Hf,181Ta, and 182W leading to probable formation of CN in the pre-actinide region, at a laboratory energy (Elab) range of 129-146 MeV. Measurements were performed with large angular coverage (θlab=41∘ -170∘) in which fission fragments (FFs) were detected by nine hybrid telescope (E -Δ E ) detectors. Extracted fission angular anisotropies and σfis were compared with statistical model (SM) predictions. Results: Barring two reactions involving targets with large non-zero ground state spin (J ) , viz., 175Lu(7/2+) and 181Ta(7/2+) , experimental fission angular anisotropies were found to be higher in comparison with predictions of the statistical saddle point model (SSPM), at Ec .m . near VB. Comparison of present results with those from neighboring systems revealed that experimental anisotropies increasingly deviated from SSPM predictions as one moved from pre-actinide to actinide nuclei. For reactions involving targets with large nonzero J , this deviation was subdued. Comparison between

  15. Advanced Extraction Methods for Actinide/Lanthanide Separations

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, M.J.

    2005-12-01

    The separation of An(III) ions from chemically similar Ln(III) ions is perhaps one of the most difficult problems encountered during the processing of nuclear waste. In the 3+ oxidation states, the metal ions have an identical charge and roughly the same ionic radius. They differ strictly in the relative energies of their f- and d-orbitals, and to separate these metal ions, ligands will need to be developed that take advantage of this small but important distinction. The extraction of uranium and plutonium from nitric acid solution can be performed quantitatively by the extraction with the TBP (tributyl phosphate). Commercially, this process has found wide use in the PUREX (plutonium uranium extraction) reprocessing method. The TRUEX (transuranium extraction) process is further used to coextract the trivalent lanthanides and actinides ions from HLLW generated during PUREX extraction. This method uses CMPO [(N, N-diisobutylcarbamoylmethyl) octylphenylphosphineoxide] intermixed with TBP as a synergistic agent. However, the final separation of trivalent actinides from trivalent lanthanides still remains a challenging task. In TRUEX nitric acid solution, the Am(III) ion is coordinated by three CMPO molecules and three nitrate anions. Taking inspiration from this data and previous work with calix[4]arene systems, researchers on this project have developed a C3-symmetric tris-CMPO ligand system using a triphenoxymethane platform as a base. The triphenoxymethane ligand systems have many advantages for the preparation of complex ligand systems. The compounds are very easy to prepare. The steric and solubility properties can be tuned through an extreme range by the inclusion of different alkoxy and alkyl groups such as methyoxy, ethoxy, t-butoxy, methyl, octyl, t-pentyl, or even t-pentyl at the ortho- and para-positions of the aryl rings. The triphenoxymethane ligand system shows promise as an improved extractant for both tetravalent and trivalent actinide recoveries form

  16. DEVELOPMENT AND DEMONSTRATION OF NOVEL LOW-NOx BURNERS IN THE STEEL INDUSTRY

    SciTech Connect

    Cygan, David

    2006-12-28

    Gas Technology Institute (GTI), together with Hamworthy Peabody Combustion Incorporated (formerly Peabody Engineering Corporation), the University of Utah, and Far West Electrochemical have developed and demonstrated an innovative combustion system suitable for natural gas and coke-oven gas firing within the steel industry. The combustion system is a simple, low-cost, energy-efficient burner that can reduce NOx by more than 75%. The U.S. steel industry needs to address NOx control at its steelmaking facilities. A significant part of NOx emissions comes from gas-fired boilers. In steel plants, byproduct gases – blast furnace gas (BFG) and coke-oven gas (COG) – are widely used together with natural gas to fire furnaces and boilers. In steel plants, natural gas can be fired together with BFG and COG, but, typically, the addition of natural gas raises NOx emissions, which can already be high because of residual fuel-bound nitrogen in COG. The Project Team has applied its expertise in low-NOx burners to lower NOx levels for these applications by combining advanced burner geometry and combustion staging with control strategies tailored to mixtures of natural gas and byproduct fuel gases. These methods reduce all varieties of NOx – thermal NOx produced by high flame temperatures, prompt NOx produced by complex chain reactions involving radical hydrocarbon species and NOx from fuel-bound nitrogen compounds such as ammonia found in COG. The Project Team has expanded GTI’s highly successful low-NOx forced internal recirculation (FIR) burner, previously developed for natural gas-fired boilers, into facilities that utilize BFG and COG. For natural gas firing, these burners have been shown to reduce NOx emissions from typical uncontrolled levels of 80-100 vppm to single-digit levels (9 vppm). This is done without the energy efficiency penalties incurred by alternative NOx control methods, such as external flue gas recirculation (FGR), water injection, and selective non

  17. Social Studies (Still) on the Back Burner: Perceptions and Practices of K-5 Social Studies Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lintner, Timothy

    2006-01-01

    In 1995, Neil Houser concluded that social studies in Delaware was "on the back burner." Some ten years later, the same can be said concerning social studies in South Carolina. With a continued emphasis being placed on the more "pressing" fields such as math and language arts, coupled with the inclusion of social studies on…

  18. Alternative solutions for reducing NO{sub x} emissions from cell burner boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Mali, E.; Laursen, T.; Piepho, J.

    1996-01-01

    Standard, tightly-spaced cell burners were developed by Babcock & Wilcox during the 1960s in response to economic demands for highly efficient burner designs. However, the downside of this 1960s design is the production of elevated levels of nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) emissions which negatively impact the environment. Cell-fired units have been designated as Phase II, Group II boilers under Title IV, Acid Rain Control, of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 for NO{sub x} control. This paper will discuss one technology developed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy`s Clean Coal Technology program for pulverized coal, cell-fired units - namely, the Low NO{sub x} Cell burner (LNCB{reg_sign}) technology. The body of this paper will describe the development of Low NO{sub x} Cell burner technology and examine six follow-on commercial contracts. The purpose of the paper is to identify similarities and differences in design, fuels, costs and performance results when compared against the Clean Coal Technology prototype.

  19. Experimental verification of vapor deposition rate theory in high velocity burner rigs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gokoglu, Suleyman A.; Santoro, Gilbert J.

    1985-01-01

    The main objective has been the experimental verification of the corrosive vapor deposition theory in high-temperature, high-velocity environments. Towards this end a Mach 0.3 burner-rig appartus was built to measure deposition rates from salt-seeded (mostly Na salts) combustion gases on the internally cooled cylindrical collector. Deposition experiments are underway.

  20. Integration of an Inter Turbine Burner to a Jet Turbine Engine

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-03-01

    whether for electrical systems or increased thrust, improved engine efficiency must be found. An Ultra-Compact Combustor (UCC) is a proposed...apparatus for accomplishing this task by burning in the circumferential direction as a main combustor or an Inter-Turbine Burner (ITB). In order for the...1 1.1 Ultra-Compact Combustor