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Sample records for actinide complexation kinetics

  1. Kinetics of actinide complexation reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Nash, K.L.; Sullivan, J.C.

    1997-09-01

    Though the literature records extensive compilations of the thermodynamics of actinide complexation reactions, the kinetics of complex formation and dissociation reactions of actinide ions in aqueous solutions have not been extensively investigated. In light of the central role played by such reactions in actinide process and environmental chemistry, this situation is somewhat surprising. The authors report herein a summary of what is known about actinide complexation kinetics. The systems include actinide ions in the four principal oxidation states (III, IV, V, and VI) and complex formation and dissociation rates with both simple and complex ligands. Most of the work reported was conducted in acidic media, but a few address reactions in neutral and alkaline solutions. Complex formation reactions tend in general to be rapid, accessible only to rapid-scan and equilibrium perturbation techniques. Complex dissociation reactions exhibit a wider range of rates and are generally more accessible using standard analytical methods. Literature results are described and correlated with the known properties of the individual ions.

  2. Actinide halide complexes

    SciTech Connect

    Avens, L.R.; Zwick, B.D.; Sattelberger, A.P.; Clark, D.L.; Watkin, J.G.

    1991-02-07

    A compound of the formula MX{sub n}L{sub m} wherein M = Th, Pu, Np,or Am thorium, X = a halide atom, n = 3 or 4, L is a coordinating ligand selected from the group consisting of aprotic Lewis bases having an oxygen-, nitrogen-, sulfur-, or phosphorus-donor, and m is 3 or 4 for monodentate ligands or is 2 for bidentate ligands, where n + m = 7 or 8 for monodentate ligands or 5 or 6 for bidentate ligands, a compound of the formula MX{sub n} wherein M, X, and n are as previously defined, and a process of preparing such actinide metal compounds including admixing the actinide metal in an aprotic Lewis base as a coordinating solvent in the presence of a halogen-containing oxidant, are provided.

  3. Actinide halide complexes

    DOEpatents

    Avens, L.R.; Zwick, B.D.; Sattelberger, A.P.; Clark, D.L.; Watkin, J.G.

    1992-11-24

    A compound is described of the formula MX[sub n]L[sub m] wherein M is a metal atom selected from the group consisting of thorium, plutonium, neptunium or americium, X is a halide atom, n is an integer selected from the group of three or four, L is a coordinating ligand selected from the group consisting of aprotic Lewis bases having an oxygen-, nitrogen-, sulfur-, or phosphorus-donor, and m is an integer selected from the group of three or four for monodentate ligands or is the integer two for bidentate ligands, where the sum of n+m equals seven or eight for monodentate ligands or five or six for bidentate ligands. A compound of the formula MX[sub n] wherein M, X, and n are as previously defined, and a process of preparing such actinide metal compounds are described including admixing the actinide metal in an aprotic Lewis base as a coordinating solvent in the presence of a halogen-containing oxidant.

  4. Actinide halide complexes

    DOEpatents

    Avens, Larry R.; Zwick, Bill D.; Sattelberger, Alfred P.; Clark, David L.; Watkin, John G.

    1992-01-01

    A compound of the formula MX.sub.n L.sub.m wherein M is a metal atom selected from the group consisting of thorium, plutonium, neptunium or americium, X is a halide atom, n is an integer selected from the group of three or four, L is a coordinating ligand selected from the group consisting of aprotic Lewis bases having an oxygen-, nitrogen-, sulfur-, or phosphorus-donor, and m is an integer selected from the group of three or four for monodentate ligands or is the integer two for bidentate ligands, where the sum of n+m equals seven or eight for monodentate ligands or five or six for bidentate ligands, a compound of the formula MX.sub.n wherein M, X, and n are as previously defined, and a process of preparing such actinide metal compounds including admixing the actinide metal in an aprotic Lewis base as a coordinating solvent in the presence of a halogen-containing oxidant, are provided.

  5. Actinide phosphonate complexes in aqueous solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Nash, K.L.

    1993-10-01

    Complexes formed by actinides with carboxylic acids, polycarboxylic acids, and aminopolycarboxylic acids play a central role in both the basic and process chemistry of the actinides. Recent studies of f-element complexes with phosphonic acid ligands indicate that new ligands incorporating doubly ionizable phosphonate groups (-PO{sub 3}H{sub 2}) have many properties which are unique chemically, and promise more efficient separation processes for waste cleanup and environmental restoration. Simple diphosphonate ligands form much stronger complexes than isostructural carboxylates, often exhibiting higher solubility as well. In this manuscript recent studies of the thermodynamics and kinetics of f-element complexation by 1,1 and 1,2 diphosphonic acid ligands are described.

  6. "Computational Modeling of Actinide Complexes"

    SciTech Connect

    Balasubramanian, K

    2007-03-07

    We will present our recent studies on computational actinide chemistry of complexes which are not only interesting from the standpoint of actinide coordination chemistry but also of relevance to environmental management of high-level nuclear wastes. We will be discussing our recent collaborative efforts with Professor Heino Nitsche of LBNL whose research group has been actively carrying out experimental studies on these species. Computations of actinide complexes are also quintessential to our understanding of the complexes found in geochemical, biochemical environments and actinide chemistry relevant to advanced nuclear systems. In particular we have been studying uranyl, plutonyl, and Cm(III) complexes are in aqueous solution. These studies are made with a variety of relativistic methods such as coupled cluster methods, DFT, and complete active space multi-configuration self-consistent-field (CASSCF) followed by large-scale CI computations and relativistic CI (RCI) computations up to 60 million configurations. Our computational studies on actinide complexes were motivated by ongoing EXAFS studies of speciated complexes in geo and biochemical environments carried out by Prof Heino Nitsche's group at Berkeley, Dr. David Clark at Los Alamos and Dr. Gibson's work on small actinide molecules at ORNL. The hydrolysis reactions of urnayl, neputyl and plutonyl complexes have received considerable attention due to their geochemical and biochemical importance but the results of free energies in solution and the mechanism of deprotonation have been topic of considerable uncertainty. We have computed deprotonating and migration of one water molecule from the first solvation shell to the second shell in UO{sub 2}(H{sub 2}O){sub 5}{sup 2+}, UO{sub 2}(H{sub 2}O){sub 5}{sup 2+}NpO{sub 2}(H{sub 2}O){sub 6}{sup +}, and PuO{sub 2}(H{sub 2}O){sub 5}{sup 2+} complexes. Our computed Gibbs free energy(7.27 kcal/m) in solution for the first time agrees with the experiment (7.1 kcal

  7. In pursuit of homoleptic actinide alkyl complexes.

    PubMed

    Seaman, Lani A; Walensky, Justin R; Wu, Guang; Hayton, Trevor W

    2013-04-01

    This Forum Article describes the pursuit of isolable homoleptic actinide alkyl complexes, starting with the pioneering work of Gilman during the Manhattan project. The initial reports in this area suggested that homoleptic uranium alkyls were too unstable to be isolated, but Wilkinson demonstrated that tractable uranium alkyls could be generated by purposeful "ate" complex formation, which serves to saturate the uranium coordination sphere and provide the complexes with greater kinetic stability. More recently, we reported the solid-state molecular structures of several homoleptic uranium alkyl complexes, including [Li(THF)4][U(CH2(t)Bu)5], [Li(TMEDA)]2[UMe6], [K(THF)]3[K(THF)2][U(CH2Ph)6]2, and [Li(THF)4][U(CH2SiMe3)6], by employing Wilkinson's strategy. Herein, we describe our attempts to extend this chemistry to thorium. The treatment of ThCl4(DME)2 with 5 equiv of LiCH2(t)Bu or LiCH2SiMe3 at -25 °C in THF affords [Th(CH2(t)Bu)5] (1) and [Li(DME)2][Th(CH2SiMe3)5 (2), respectively, in moderate yields. Similarly, the treatment of ThCl4(DME)2 with 6 equiv of K(CH2Ph) produces [K(THF)]2[Th(CH2Ph)6] (3), in good yield. Complexes 1-3 have been fully characterized, while the structures of 1 and 3 were confirmed by X-ray crystallography. Additionally, the electronic properties of 1 and 3 were explored by density functional theory.

  8. Complexation of actinides with derivatives of oxydiaceticacid

    SciTech Connect

    Rao, Linfeng; Tian, Guoxin

    2006-01-04

    Complexation of Np(V), U(VI) and Nd(III) with dimethyl-3-oxa-glutaramic acid (DMOGA) and tetramethyl-3-oxa-glutaramide (TMOGA) was studied in comparison with the complexation with oxydiacetic acid (ODA). Stability constants and enthalpy of complexation were determined by potentiometry, spectrophotometry and calorimetry. Thermodynamic parameters, in conjunction with structural information of solid compounds, indicate that DMOGA and TMOGA form tridentate complexes with the ether-oxygen participating in bonding with actinide/lanthanide ions. The trends in the stability constants, enthalpy and entropy of complexation are discussed in terms of the difference in the hydration of the amide groups and carboxylate groups and the difference in the charge density of the metal ions.

  9. Thermally unstable complexants: Stability of lanthanide/actinide complexes, thermal instability of the ligands, and applications in actinide separations

    SciTech Connect

    Nash, K.L.; Rickert, P.G.

    1993-01-01

    Water soluble complexing agents are commonly used in separations to enhance the selectivity of both ion exchange and solvent extraction processes. Applications of this type in the treatment of nuclear wastes using conventional complexing agents have found mixed success due to the nature of the complexants. In addition, the residual solutions containing these species have led to potentially serious complications in waste storage. To overcome some of the limitations of carboxylic acid and aminopolycarboxylate ligands, the authors have initiated a program to investigate the complexing ability, thermal/oxidative instability, and separation potential of a group of water soluble organophosphorus compounds which they call Thermally Unstable Complexants, or simply TUCS. Complexants of this type appear to be superior to conventional analogues in a number of respects. In this report, they summarize their research to date on the actinide/lanthanide complexes with a series of substituted methanediphosphonic acids, the kinetics of their oxidative decomposition, and a few applications which have been developed for their use.

  10. Thermally unstable complexants: Stability of lanthanide/actinide complexes, thermal instability of the ligands, and applications in actinide separations

    SciTech Connect

    Nash, K.L.; Rickert, P.G.

    1991-01-01

    Water soluble complexing agents are commonly used in separations to enhance the selectivity of both ion exchange and solvent extraction processes. Applications of this type in the treatment of nuclear wastes using conventional complexing agents have found mixed success due to the nature of the complexants. In addition, the residual solutions containing these species have led to potentially serious complications in waste storage. To overcome some of the limitations of carboxylic acid and aminopolycarboxylate ligands, we have initiated a program to investigate the complexing ability, thermal/oxidative instability, and separation potential of a group of water soluble organophosphorus compounds which we call Thermally Unstable Complexants, or simply TUCS. Complexants of this type appear to be superior to conventional analogues in a number of respects. In this report, we will summarize our research to date on the actinide/lanthanide complexes with a series of substituted methanediphosphonic acids, the kinetics of their oxidative decomposition, and a few applications which have been developed for their use. 17 refs., 5 figs., 3 tab.

  11. Methyltrihydroborate complexes of the lanthanides and actinides

    SciTech Connect

    Shinomoto, R.S.

    1984-11-01

    Reaction of MC1/sub 4/ (M = Zr, Hf, U, Th, Np) with LiBH/sub 3/CH/sub 3/ in chlorobenzene produces volatile, hexane-soluble M(BH/sub 3/CH/sub 3/)/sub 4/. Crystal structures are monomeric, tetrahedral species. Lewis base adducts prepared include U(BH/sub 3/CH/sub 3/)/sub 4/.THT, Th(BH/sub 3/CH/sub 3/)/sub 4/.L (L = THF (tetrahydrofuran), THT (tetrahydrothiophene), SMe/sub 2/, OMe/sub 2/), U(BH/sub 3/CH/sub 3/)/sub 4/.2L (L = THF, pyridine, NH/sub 3/), Th(BH/sub 3/CH/sub 3/)/sub 4/.2L (L = THF, THT, py, NH/sub 3/), M(BH/sub 3/CH/sub 3/)/sub 4/.L-L (M = U, Th; L-L = dme (1,2-dimethoxyethane), bmte (bis(1,2-methylthio)ethane), tmed (N,N,N',N'-tetramethylethylenediamine), dmpe (1,2-dimethylphosphinoethane)) and Th(BH/sub 3/CH/sub 3/)/sub 4/.1/2 OEt/sub 2/. Reaction of MC1/sub 3/ (M = Ho, Yb, Lu) with LiBH/sub 3/CH/sub 3/ in diethyl ether produces volatile, toluene-soluble M(BH/sub 3/CH/sub 3/)/sub 3/.OEt/sub 2/. Other Lewis base adducts prepared from M(BH/sub 3/CH/sub 3/)/sub 3/.OEt/sub 2/ include Ho(BH/sub 3/CH/sub 3/)/sub 3/.L (L = THT, THF, py), Ho(BH/sub 3/CH/sub 3/)/sub 3/.2L (L = THT, THF, py), Ho(BH/sub 3/CH/sub 3/)/sub 3/.tmed, Ho(BH/sub 3/CH/sub 3/)/sub 3/.3/2 L-L (L-L = dmpe, bmte), Yb(BH/sub 3/CH/sub 3/)/sub 3/.3/2 dmpe, Yb(BH/sub 3/Ch/sub 3/).L (L = THF, dme), Yb(BH/sub 3/CH/sub 3/)/sub 3/.2THF, and Lu(BH/sub 3/CH/sub 3/)/sub 3/.THF. By structural criteria, the bonding in actinide and lanthanide methyltrihydroborate complexes is primarily ionic in character even though they display covalent-like physical properties. Spectroscopic measurements indicate that there is some degree of covalent bonding in U(BH/sub 3/CH/sub 3/)/sub 4/.

  12. Synthesis and characterization of a tetrathiafulvalene-salphen actinide complex.

    PubMed

    Bejger, Christopher; Tian, Yong-Hui; Barker, Beau J; Boland, Kevin S; Scott, Brian L; Batista, Enrique R; Kozimor, Stosh A; Sessler, Jonathan L

    2013-05-21

    A new tetrathiafulvalene-salphen uranyl complex has been prepared. The system was designed to study the electronic coupling between actinides and a redox active ligand framework. Theoretical and experimental methods--including DFT calculations, single crystal X-ray analysis, cyclic voltammetry, NMR and IR spectroscopies--were used to characterize this new uranyl complex.

  13. Kinetics of dissociation of trivalent actinide chelates of TMDTA

    SciTech Connect

    Muscatello, A.C.; Choppin, G.R.; D'Olieslager, W. )

    1989-03-22

    Measurements by a radiotracer technique show that the dissociation of TMDTA (trimethylenediamine-N,N-tetraacetic acid) chelates with Am, Cm, Bk, Cf, and Eu proceeds through an acid-catalyzed pathway. The rates of dissociation of An(TMDTA){sup {minus}} are 2 orders of magnitude faster than those of the corresponding EDTA chelates, presumably due to the greater lability of the nitrogen atom in the six-membered nitrogen-metal-nitrogen ring of TMDTA chelates. The rate of dissociation also decreased with decreasing metal ion radius. A proton-catalyzed mechanism similar to that for dissociation of EDTA complexes of lanthanide and actinide cations is consistent with the rate data. 19 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  14. Complexation of lanthanides and actinides by acetohydroxamic acid

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, R.J.; Sinkov, S.I.; Choppin, G.R.

    2008-07-01

    Acetohydroxamic acid (AHA) has been proposed as a suitable reagent for the complexant-based, as opposed to reductive, stripping of plutonium and neptunium ions from the tributylphosphate solvent phase in advanced PUREX or UREX processes designed for future nuclear-fuel reprocessing. Stripping is achieved by the formation of strong hydrophilic complexes with the tetravalent actinides in nitric acid solutions. To underpin such applications, knowledge of the complexation constants of AHA with all relevant actinide (5f) and lanthanide (4f) ions is therefore important. This paper reports the determination of stability constants of AHA with the heavier lanthanide ions (Dy-Yb) and also U(IV) and Th(IV) ions. Comparisons with our previously published AHA stability-constant data for 4f and 5f ions are made. (authors)

  15. Thermodynamics of actinide complexation in solution at elevated temperatures: application of variable-temperature titration calorimetry.

    PubMed

    Rao, Linfeng

    2007-06-01

    Studies of actinide complexation in solution at elevated temperatures provide insight into the effect of solvation and the energetics of complexation, and help to predict the chemical behavior of actinides in nuclear waste processing and disposal where temperatures are high. This tutorial review summarizes the data on the complexation of actinides at elevated temperatures and describes the methodology for thermodynamic measurements, with the emphasis on variable-temperature titration calorimetry, a highly valuable technique to determine the enthalpy and, under appropriate conditions, the equilibrium constants of complexation as well.

  16. Actinide-specific complexing agents: their structural and solution chemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Raymond, K.N.; Freeman, G.E.; Kappel, M.J.

    1983-07-01

    The synthesis of a series of tetracatecholate ligands designed to be specific for Pu(IV) and other actinide(IV) ions has been achieved. Although these compounds are very effective as in vivo plutonium removal agents, potentiometric and voltammetric data indicate that at neutral pH full complexation of the Pu(IV) ion by all four catecholate groups does not occur. Spectroscopic results indicate that the tetracatecholates, 3,4,3-LICAMS and 3,4,3-LICAMC, complex Am(III). The Am(IV)/(III)-catecholate couple (where catecholate = 3,4,3-LICAMS or 3,4,3-LICAMC) is not observed, but may not be observable due to the large currents associated with ligand oxidation. However, within the potential range where ligand oxidation does not occur, these experiments indicate that the reduction potential of free Am(IV)/(III) is probably greater than or equal to + 2.6 V vs NHE or higher. Proof of the complexation of americium in the trivalent oxidation state by 3,4,3-LICAMS and 3,4,3-LICAMC elimates the possibility of tetracatholates stabilizing Am(IV) in vivo.

  17. Catalysis vs. oxophilicity: Breaking the myth of inactive actinide-oxo complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrea, Tamer; Barnea, Eyal; Wang, Jiaxi; Eisen, Moris S.

    2010-03-01

    For many decades, compounds containing oxygen atoms were excluded from the actinide-catalysis field because of the high oxophilic nature of these complexes. Pursuing the conceptual question about the potential activity of actinide-oxo bonds we were surprised to find that the coupling of aromatic aldehydes catalyzed by Cp*2ThMe2 and Th(NEtMe)4 via thorium-alkoxide intermediates take place in high yields to produce the corresponding esters. Here we present our breakthrough results including comprehensive mechanistic, deuterium labeling, kinetic and thermodynamic studies. In addition, the tetrachloride salt of uranium reacts with one equivalent of Li2[(C5Me4)2SiMe2] in DME to form the complex {[η5-(C5Me4)2SiMe2]UCl2·2LiCl·2DME (13), which reacts with equimolar amounts of water in DME yielding the coordinative unsaturated bridged mono oxide and mono chloride uranium lithium salt complex {[η5-(C5Me4)2SiMe2]UCl}2((μ-O)((μ-Cl)•Li(DME)3•DME (14). The alkylation of complexes 14 with BuLi gives the mono bridged dibutyl complex {[η5-(C5Me4)2SiMe2]UBu}2(μ-O) (16). Complex 16 is an active catalyst for the disproportionation metathesis of TMSC≡CH and the cross-metathesis of TMSC≡CH or TMSC≡CTMS with various terminal alkynes. PhSiH3 reacts with complex 16 producing Ph2SiH2 and SiH4 (caution) indicating the cleavage of the trimethylsilyl group from the phenyl moiety and the formation of uranium-silyl intermediate.

  18. Comparative Study of f-Element Electronic Structure across a Series of Multimetallic Actinide, Lanthanide-Actinide and Lanthanum-Actinide Complexes Possessing Redox-Active Bridging Ligands

    SciTech Connect

    Schelter, Eric J.; Wu, Ruilian; Veauthier, Jacqueline M.; Bauer, Eric D.; Booth, Corwin H.; Thomson, Robert K.; Graves, Christopher R.; John, Kevin D.; Scott, Brian L.; Thompson, Joe D.; Morris, David E.; Kiplinger, Jaqueline L.

    2010-02-24

    A comparative examination of the electronic interactions across a series of trimetallic actinide and mixed lanthanide-actinide and lanthanum-actinide complexes is presented. Using reduced, radical terpyridyl ligands as conduits in a bridging framework to promote intramolecular metal-metal communication, studies containing structural, electrochemical, and X-ray absorption spectroscopy are presented for (C{sub 5}Me{sub 5}){sub 2}An[-N=C(Bn)(tpy-M{l_brace}C{sub 5}Me4R{r_brace}{sub 2})]{sub 2} (where An = Th{sup IV}, U{sup IV}; Bn = CH{sub 2}C{sub 6}H{sub 5}; M = La{sup III}, Sm{sup III}, Yb{sup III}, U{sup III}; R = H, Me, Et) to reveal effects dependent on the identities of the metal ions and R-groups. The electrochemical results show differences in redox energetics at the peripheral 'M' site between complexes and significant wave splitting of the metal- and ligand-based processes indicating substantial electronic interactions between multiple redox sites across the actinide-containing bridge. Most striking is the appearance of strong electronic coupling for the trimetallic Yb{sup III}-U{sup IV}-Yb{sup III}, Sm{sup III}-U{sup IV}-Sm{sup III}, and La{sup III}-U{sup IV}-La{sup III} complexes, [8]{sup -}, [9b]{sup -} and [10b]{sup -}, respectively, whose calculated comproportionation constant K{sub c} is slightly larger than that reported for the benchmark Creutz-Taube ion. X-ray absorption studies for monometallic metallocene complexes of U{sup III}, U{sup IV}, and U{sup V} reveal small but detectable energy differences in the 'white-line' feature of the uranium L{sub III}-edges consistent with these variations in nominal oxidation state. The sum of this data provides evidence of 5f/6d-orbital participation in bonding and electronic delocalization in these multimetallic f-element complexes. An improved, high-yielding synthesis of 4{prime}-cyano-2,2{prime}:6{prime},2{double_prime}-terpyridine is also reported.

  19. Theoretical investigation on multiple bonds in terminal actinide nitride complexes.

    PubMed

    Wu, Qun-Yan; Wang, Cong-Zhi; Lan, Jian-Hui; Xiao, Cheng-Liang; Wang, Xiang-Ke; Zhao, Yu-Liang; Chai, Zhi-Fang; Shi, Wei-Qun

    2014-09-15

    A series of actinide (An) species of L-An-N compounds [An = Pa-Pu, L = [N(CH2CH2NSiPr(i)3)3](3-), Pr(i) = CH(CH3)2] have been investigated using scalar relativistic density functional theory (DFT) without considering spin-orbit coupling effects. The ground state geometric and electronic structures and natural bond orbital (NBO) analysis of actinide compounds were studied systematically in neutral and anionic forms. It was found that with increasing actinide atomic number, the bond length of terminal multiple An-N1 bond decreases, in accordance with the actinide contraction. The Mayer bond order of An-N1 decreases gradually from An = Pa to Pu, which indicates a decrease in bond strength. The terminal multiple bond for L-An-N compounds contains one σ and two π molecular orbitals, and the contributions of the 6d orbital to covalency are larger in magnitude than the 5f orbital based on NBO analysis and topological analysis of electron density. This work may help in understanding of the bonding nature of An-N multiple bonds and elucidating the trends and electronic structure changes across the actinide series. It can also shed light on the construction of novel An-N multiple bonds.

  20. Thermally unstable complexants/phosphate mineralization of actinides

    SciTech Connect

    Nash, K.

    1996-10-01

    In situ immobilization is an approach to isolation of radionuclides from the hydrosphere that is receiving increasing attention. Rather than removing the actinides from contaminated soils, this approach transforms the actinides into intrinsically insoluble mineral phases resistant to leaching by groundwater. The principal advangates of this concept are the low cost and low risk of operator exposure and/or dispersion of the radionuclides to the wider environment. The challenge of this approach is toe accomplish the immobilization without causing collateral damage to the environment (the cure shouldn`t be worse than the disease) and verification of system performance.

  1. Density functional theory investigations of the trivalent lanthanide and actinide extraction complexes with diglycolamides.

    PubMed

    Wang, Cong-Zhi; Lan, Jian-Hui; Wu, Qun-Yan; Zhao, Yu-Liang; Wang, Xiang-Ke; Chai, Zhi-Fang; Shi, Wei-Qun

    2014-06-21

    At present, designing novel ligands for efficient actinide extraction in spent nuclear fuel reprocessing is extremely challenging due to the complicated chemical behaviors of actinides, the similar chemical properties of minor actinides (MA) and lanthanides, and the vulnerability of organic ligands in acidic radioactive solutions. In this work, a quantum chemical study on Am(III), Cm(III) and Eu(III) complexes with N,N,N',N'-tetraoctyl diglycolamide (TODGA) and N,N'-dimethyl-N,N'-diheptyl-3-oxapentanediamide (DMDHOPDA) has been carried out to explore the extraction behaviors of trivalent actinides (An) and lanthanides (Ln) with diglycolamides from acidic media. It has been found that in the 1 : 1 (ligand : metal) and 2 : 1 stoichiometric complexes, the carbonyl oxygen atoms have stronger coordination ability than the ether oxygen atoms, and the interactions between metal cations and organic ligands are substantially ionic. The neutral ML(NO3)3 (M = Am, Cm, Eu) complexes seem to be the most favorable species in the extraction process, and the predicted relative selectivities are in agreement with experimental results, i.e., the diglycolamide ligands have slightly higher selectivity for Am(III) over Eu(III). Such a thermodynamical priority is probably caused by the higher stabilities of Eu(III) hydration species and Eu(III)-L complexes in aqueous solution compared to their analogues. In addition, our thermodynamic analysis from water to organic medium confirms that DMDHOPDA has higher extraction ability for the trivalent actinides and lanthanides than TODGA, which may be due to the steric hindrance of the bulky alkyl groups of TODGA ligands. This work might provide an insight into understanding the origin of the actinide selectivity and a theoretical basis for designing highly efficient extractants for actinide separation.

  2. Development of Biodegradable Isosaccharinate-Containing Foams for Decontamination of Actinides: Thermodynamic and Kinetic Reactions between Isosaccharinate and Actinides on Metal and Concrete Surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Rai, Dhanpat; Rao, Linfeng; Moore, Robert C.; Bontchev, Ranko; Holt, Kathleen

    2004-06-01

    Actinide contamination of steel and concrete surfaces is a major problem within the DOE complex. Almost all current decontamination technologies rely on removal of the contaminated surface layer by mechanical means or by chemical methods using harsh chemicals. Some of the technologies are ineffective. Others are expensive, labor intensive, and hazardous to workers. Still others create secondary mixed wastes that are not environmentally acceptable. This project seeks fundamental information that will lead to the development of a new and more environmentally acceptable technology for decontamination of actinides, especially Pu, on steel and concrete surfaces. The key component of this technology is isosaccharinate (ISA), a degradation product of cellulose materials that is biodegradable. Isosaccharinate will be incorporated into foams/gels for safe and easy use in decontamination of actinides from steel, concrete, and other surfaces. Thermodynamic data are being developed on ISA species as a function of pH and on ISA interactions with actinides and competing metals [e.g., Fe(III) and Ca(II)] under a wide range of conditions relevant to decontamination of steel and concrete. The efficiency of the ISA containing foams/gels/solutions for decontamination is also being tested. This project builds on capabilities at three different national laboratories, and represents a joint effort between PNNL, LBNL, and SNL.

  3. DEVELOPMENT OF BIODEGRADABLE ISOSACCHARINATE-CONTAINING FOAMS FOR DECONTAMINATION OF ACTINIDES: THERMODYNAMIC AND KINETIC REACTIONS BETWEEN ISOSACCHARINATE AND ACTINIDES ON METAL AND CONCRETE SURFACES

    SciTech Connect

    Rai, Dhanpat; Moore, Robert C.; Linfeng, Rao; Tucker, Mark D.

    2003-06-01

    Actinide contamination of steel and concrete surfaces is a major problem within the DOE complex. Almost all current decontamination technologies rely on removal of the contaminated surface layer by mechanical means or by chemical methods, using harsh chemicals. Some of the technologies are ineffective. Others are expensive, labor intensive, and hazardous to workers. Still others create secondary mixed wastes that are not environmentally acceptable. This project seeks fundamental information that will lead to the development of a new and more environmentally acceptable technology for decontamination of actinides, especially Pu, on steel and concrete surfaces. The key component of this technology is isosaccharinate (ISA), a degradation product of cellulose materials that is biodegradable. Isosaccharinate will be incorporated into foams/gels for safe and easy use in decontamination of actinides from steel, concrete, and other surfaces. Thermodynamic data are being developed on the interactions of ISA with actinides and competing metals [e.g., Fe(III) and Ca(II)] under a wide range of conditions relevant to decontamination of steel and concrete. The efficiency of the ISA containing foams/gels/solutions for decontamination is also being tested. This project builds on capabilities at three different national laboratories, and represents a joint effort between PNNL, LBNL, and SNL.

  4. Comparison of covalency in the complexes of trivalent actinide and lanthanide cations.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Mark P; Bond, Andrew H

    2002-08-21

    The complexes of trivalent actinide (Am(III) and Cm(III)) and lanthanide (Nd(III) and Sm(III)) cations with bis(2,4,4-trimethylpentyl)phosphinic acid, bis(2,4,4-trimethylpentyl)monothiophosphinic acid, and bis(2,4,4-trimethylpentyl)dithiophosphinic acid in n-dodecane have been studied by visible absorption spectroscopy and X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) measurements in order to understand the chemical interactions responsible for the great selectivity the dithiophosphinate ligand exhibits for trivalent actinide cations in liquid-liquid extraction. Under the conditions studied, each type of ligand displays a different coordination mode with trivalent f-element cations. The phosphinate ligand coordinates as hydrogen-bonded dimers, forming M(HL2)3. Both the oxygen and the sulfur donor of the monothiophosphinate ligand can bind the cations, affording both bidentate and monodentate ligands. The dithiophosphinate ligand forms neutral bidentate complexes, ML3, with no discernible nitrate or water molecules in the inner coordination sphere. Comparison of the Cm(III), Nd(III), and Sm(III) XAFS shows that the structure and metal-donor atom bond distances are indistinguishable within experimental error for similarly sized trivalent lanthanide and actinide cations, despite the selectivity of bis(2,4,4-trimethylpentyl)dithiophosphinic acid for trivalent actinide cations over trivalent lanthanide cations.

  5. Comparison of covalency in the complexes of trivalent actinide and lanthanide cations.

    SciTech Connect

    Jensen, M. P.; Bond, A. H.; Chemistry

    2002-08-21

    The complexes of trivalent actinide (Am(III) and Cm(III)) and lanthanide (Nd(III) and Sm(III)) cations with bis(2,4,4-trimethylpentyl)phosphinic acid, bis(2,4,4-trimethylpentyl)monothiophosphinic acid, and bis(2,4,4-trimethylpentyl)dithiophosphinic acid in n-dodecane have been studied by visible absorption spectroscopy and X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) measurements in order to understand the chemical interactions responsible for the great selectivity the dithiophosphinate ligand exhibits for trivalent actinide cations in liquid-liquid extraction. Under the conditions studied, each type of ligand displays a different coordination mode with trivalent f-element cations. The phosphinate ligand coordinates as hydrogen-bonded dimers, forming M(HL{sub 2}){sub 3}. Both the oxygen and the sulfur donor of the monothiophosphinate ligand can bind the cations, affording both bidentate and monodentate ligands. The dithiophosphinate ligand forms neutral bidentate complexes, ML{sub 3}, with no discernible nitrate or water molecules in the inner coordination sphere. Comparison of the Cm(III), Nd(III), and Sm(III) XAFS shows that the structure and metal-donor atom bond distances are indistinguishable within experimental error for similarly sized trivalent lanthanide and actinide cations, despite the selectivity of bis(2,4,4-trimethylpentyl)dithiophosphinic acid for trivalent actinide cations over trivalent lanthanide cations.

  6. Actinide chelation: biodistribution and in vivo complex stability of the targeted metal ions.

    PubMed

    Kullgren, Birgitta; Jarvis, Erin E; An, Dahlia D; Abergel, Rebecca J

    2013-01-01

    Because of the continuing use of nuclear fuel sources and heightened threats of nuclear weapon use, the amount of produced and released radionuclides is increasing daily, as is the risk of larger human exposure to fission product actinides. A rodent model was used to follow the in vivo distribution of representative actinides, administered as free metal ions or complexed with chelating agents including diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA) and the hydroxypyridinonate ligands 3,4,3-LI(1,2-HOPO) and 5-LIO(Me-3,2-HOPO). Different metabolic pathways for the different metal ions were evidenced, resulting in intricate ligand- and metal-dependent decorporation mechanisms. While the three studied chelators are known for their unrivaled actinide decorporation efficiency, the corresponding metal complexes may undergo in vivo decomposition and release metal ions in various biological pools. This study sets the basis to further explore the metabolism and in vivo coordination properties of internalized actinides for the future development of viable therapeutic chelating agents.

  7. Actinide immobilization in the subsurface environment by in-situ treatment with a hydrolytically unstable organophosphorus complexant: Uranyl uptake by calcium phytate

    SciTech Connect

    Nash, K.L.; Jensen, M.P.; Schmidt, M.A.

    1997-12-31

    In addition to naturally occurring uranium and thorium, actinide ions exist in the subsurface environment as a result of accidental releases and intentional disposal practices associated with nuclear weapons production. These species present a significant challenge to cost-effective remediation of contaminated environments. An attractive approach to decreasing the probability of actinide migration in the subsurface is to transform the ions into a less mobile form by remote treatment. We have under development a process which relies on a polyfunctional organophosphorus complexant to sequester the mobile metal ions by complexation/cation exchange in the near term, and to subsequently decompose, transforming the actinides into insoluble phosphate mineral forms in the long term. Studies to date include identification of a suitable organophosphorus reagent, profiling of its decomposition kinetics, verification of the formation of phosphate mineral phases upon decomposition of the reagent, and extensive comparison of the actinide uptake ability of the calcium salt of the reagent as compared with hydroxyapatite. In this report, we briefly describe the process with focus on the cation exchange behavior of the calcium salt of the organophosphorus sequestrant.

  8. Circularly polarized luminescence of curium: a new characterization of the 5f actinide complexes.

    PubMed

    Law, Ga-Lai; Andolina, Christopher M; Xu, Jide; Luu, Vinh; Rutkowski, Philip X; Muller, Gilles; Shuh, David K; Gibson, John K; Raymond, Kenneth N

    2012-09-19

    A key distinction between the lanthanide (4f) and the actinide (5f) transition elements is the increased role of f-orbital covalent bonding in the latter. Circularly polarized luminescence (CPL) is an uncommon but powerful spectroscopy which probes the electronic structure of chiral, luminescent complexes or molecules. While there are many examples of CPL spectra for the lanthanides, this report is the first for an actinide. Two chiral, octadentate chelating ligands based on orthoamide phenol (IAM) were used to complex curium(III). While the radioactivity kept the amount of material limited to micromole amounts, spectra of the highly luminescent complexes showed significant emission peak shifts between the different complexes, consistent with ligand field effects previously observed in luminescence spectra.

  9. Circularly Polarized Luminescence of Curium: A New Characterization of the 5f Actinide Complexes

    PubMed Central

    Law, Ga-Lai; Andolina, Christopher M.; Xu, Jide; Luu, Vinh; Rutkowski, Philip X.; Muller, Gilles; Shuh, David K.; Gibson, John K.; Raymond, Kenneth N.

    2012-01-01

    A key distinction between the lanthanide (4f) and actinide (5f) transition elements is the increased role of f-orbital covalent bonding in the latter. Circularly polarized luminescence (CPL) is an uncommon but powerful spectroscopy which probes the electronic structure of chiral, luminescent complexes or molecules. While there are many examples of CPL spectra for the lanthanides, this report is the first for an actinide. Two chiral, octadentate chelating ligands based on orthoamide phenol (IAM) were used to complex curium(III). While the radioactivity kept the amount of material limited to micromole amounts, the spectra of the highly luminescent complexes showed significant emission peak-shifts between the different complexes, consistent with ligand field effects previously observed in luminescence spectra. PMID:22920726

  10. Electronic Structure of Transition Metal Clusters and Actinide Complexes and Their Reactivity

    SciTech Connect

    Balasubramanian, K

    2008-10-06

    Our research in this area since October 2007 has resulted in seven completed publications and more papers of the completed work are in progress. Our work during this period principally focused on actinide complexes with secondary emphasis on spectroscopic properties and electronic structure of metal complexes. As the publications are available online with all of the details of the results, tables and figures, we are providing here only a brief summary of major highlights, in each of the categories.

  11. SURFACE COMPLEXATION OF ACTINIDES WITH IRON OXIDES: IMPLICATIONS FOR RADIONUCLIDE TRANSPORT IN NEAR-SURFACE AQUIFERS

    SciTech Connect

    J.L. Jerden Jr.; A.J. Kropf; Y. Tsai

    2005-08-25

    The surface complexation of actinides with iron oxides plays a key role in actinide transport and retardation in geosphere-biosphere systems. The development of accurate actinide transport models therefore requires a mechanistic understanding of surface complexation reactions (i.e. knowledge of chemical speciation at mineral/fluid interfaces). Iron oxides are particularly important actinide sorbents due to their pH dependent surface charges, relatively high surface areas and ubiquity in oxic and suboxic near-surface systems. In this paper we present results from field and laboratory investigations that elucidate the mechanisms involved in binding uranium and neptunium to iron oxide mineral substrates in near neutral groundwaters. The field study involved sampling and characterizing uranium-bearing groundwaters and solids from a saprolite aquifer overlying an unmined uranium deposit in the Virginia Piedmont. The groundwaters were analyzed by inductively coupled mass spectrometry and ion chromatography and the aquifer solids were analyzed by electron microprobe. The laboratory study involved a series of batch sorption tests in which U(VI) and Np(V) were reacted with goethite, hematite and magnetite in simulated groundwaters. The pH, ionic strength, aging time, and sorbent/sorbate ratios were varied in these experiments. The oxidation state and coordination environment of neptunium in solutions and sorbents from the batch tests were characterized by X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) at the Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory. Results from this work indicate that, in oxidizing near-surface aquifers, the dissolved concentration of uranium may be limited to less than 30 parts per billion due to uptake by iron oxide mineral coatings and the precipitation of sparingly soluble U(VI) phosphate minerals. Results from the batch adsorption tests showed that, in near neutral groundwaters, a significant fraction of the uranium and neptunium adsorbed as strongly

  12. Review of the complexation of tetravalent actinides by ISA and gluconate under alkaline to hyperalkaline conditions.

    PubMed

    Gaona, X; Montoya, V; Colàs, E; Grivé, M; Duro, L

    2008-12-12

    Isosaccharinic (ISA) and gluconic acids (GLU) are polyhydroxy carboxylic compounds showing a high affinity to metal complexation. Both organic ligands are expected in the cementitious environments usually considered for the disposal of low- and intermediate-level radioactive wastes. The hyperalkaline conditions imposed by cementitious materials contribute to the formation of ISA through cellulose degradation, whereas GLU is commonly used as a concrete additive. Despite the high stability attributed to ISA/GLU complexes of tetravalent actinides, the number and reliability of available experimental studies is still limited. This work aims at providing a general and comprehensive overview of the state of the art regarding Th, U(IV), Np(IV), and Pu(IV) complexes with ISA and GLU. In the presence of ISA/GLU concentrations in the range 10(-5)-10(-2) M and absence of calcium, An(IV)(OH)x(L)y complexes (An(IV)=Th, U(IV), Np(IV), Pu(IV); L=ISA, GLU) are expected to dominate the aqueous speciation of tetravalent actinides in the alkaline pH range. There is a moderate agreement among their stability, although the stoichiometry of certain An(IV)-GLU complexes is still ill-defined. Under hyperalkaline conditions and presence of calcium, the species CaTh(OH)4(L)2(aq) has been described for both ISA and GLU, and similar complexes may be expected to form with other tetravalent actinides. In the present work, the available thermodynamic data for An(IV)-ISA/GLU complexes have been reviewed and re-calculated to ensure the internal consistency of the stability constants assessed. Further modelling exercises, estimations based on Linear Free-Energy Relationships (LFER) among tetravalent actinides, as well as direct analogies between ISA and GLU complexes have also been performed. This approach has led to the definition of a speciation scheme for the complexes of Th, U(IV), Np(IV) and Pu(IV) with ISA and GLU forming in alkaline to hyperalkaline pH conditions, both in the absence and

  13. Review of the complexation of tetravalent actinides by ISA and gluconate under alkaline to hyperalkaline conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaona, X.; Montoya, V.; Colàs, E.; Grivé, M.; Duro, L.

    2008-12-01

    Isosaccharinic (ISA) and gluconic acids (GLU) are polyhydroxy carboxylic compounds showing a high affinity to metal complexation. Both organic ligands are expected in the cementitious environments usually considered for the disposal of low- and intermediate-level radioactive wastes. The hyperalkaline conditions imposed by cementitious materials contribute to the formation of ISA through cellulose degradation, whereas GLU is commonly used as a concrete additive. Despite the high stability attributed to ISA/GLU complexes of tetravalent actinides, the number and reliability of available experimental studies is still limited. This work aims at providing a general and comprehensive overview of the state of the art regarding Th, U(IV), Np(IV), and Pu(IV) complexes with ISA and GLU. In the presence of ISA/GLU concentrations in the range 10 - 5 -10 - 2 M and absence of calcium, An(IV)(OH) x(L) y complexes (An(IV) = Th, U(IV), Np(IV), Pu(IV); L = ISA, GLU) are expected to dominate the aqueous speciation of tetravalent actinides in the alkaline pH range. There is a moderate agreement among their stability, although the stoichiometry of certain An(IV)-GLU complexes is still ill-defined. Under hyperalkaline conditions and presence of calcium, the species CaTh(OH) 4(L) 2(aq) has been described for both ISA and GLU, and similar complexes may be expected to form with other tetravalent actinides. In the present work, the available thermodynamic data for An(IV)-ISA/GLU complexes have been reviewed and re-calculated to ensure the internal consistency of the stability constants assessed. Further modelling exercises, estimations based on Linear Free-Energy Relationships (LFER) among tetravalent actinides, as well as direct analogies between ISA and GLU complexes have also been performed. This approach has led to the definition of a speciation scheme for the complexes of Th, U(IV), Np(IV) and Pu(IV) with ISA and GLU forming in alkaline to hyperalkaline pH conditions, both in the

  14. Systematic studies of early actinide complexes: thorium(IV) fluoroketimides.

    PubMed

    Schelter, Eric J; Yang, Ping; Scott, Brian L; Re, Ryan E Da; Jantunen, Kimberly C; Martin, Richard L; Hay, P Jeffrey; Morris, David E; Kiplinger, Jaqueline L

    2007-04-25

    Reaction of (C5Me5)2Th(CH3)2 with 2 equiv of NC-ArF gives the corresponding fluorinated thorium(IV) bis(ketimide) complexes (C5Me5)2Th[-N=C(CH3)(ArF)]2 (where ArF = 3-F-C6H4 (4), 4-F-C6H4 (5), 2-F-C6H4 (6), 3,5-F2-C6H3 (7), 3,4,5-F3-C6H2 (8), 2,6-F2-C6H3 (9), 2,4,6-F3-C6H2 (10), and C6F5 (11)). The complexes have been characterized by a combination of single-crystal X-ray diffraction, cyclic voltammetry and NMR, and UV-visible absorption and low-temperature luminescence spectroscopies. Density functional theory (DFT) and time-dependent DFT (TD-DFT) results are reported for complexes 5, 11, and (C5Me5)2Th[-N=C(Ph)2]2 (1) for comparison with experimental data and to guide in the interpretation of the spectroscopic results. The most significant structural perturbation imparted by the fluorine substitution in these complexes is a rotation of the fluorophenyl group (ArF) out of the plane defined by the N=C(CMe)(Cipso) fragment in complexes 9-11 when the ArF group possesses two ortho fluorine atoms. Excellent agreement is obtained between the optimized ground state DFT calculated structures and crystal structures for 11, which displays the distortion, as well as 5, which does not. In complexes 9-11, the out-of-plane rotation results in large interplanar angles (phi) between the planes formed by ketimide atoms N=C(CMe)(Cipso) and the ketimide aryl groups in the range phi = 49.1-88.8 degrees , while in complexes 5, 7, and 8, phi = 5.7-34.9 degrees . The large distortions in 9-11 are a consequence of an unfavorable steric interaction between one of the two ortho fluorine atoms and the methyl group [-N=C(CH3)] on the ketimide ligand. Excellent agreement is also observed between the experimental electronic spectroscopic data and the TD-DFT predictions that the two lowest lying singlet states are principally of nonbonding nitrogen p orbital to antibonding C=N pi* orbital (pN-->pi*C=N or npi*) character, giving rise to moderately intense transitions in the mid-visible spectral

  15. Redox chemistry of actinide ions in Wells-Dawson heteropolyoxoanion complexes.

    SciTech Connect

    Chiang, M.-H.; Soderholm, L.; Antonio, M. R.; Chemistry

    2003-08-18

    The redox behavior has been characterized for several actinide (An) complexes with the monovacant Wells-Dawson anion, of the form [An{sup n+}({alpha}-2-P{sub 2}W{sub 17}O{sub 61}){sub 2}]{sup n-20} (An = Th{sup 4+}, U{sup 4+}, Np{sup 4+}, Pu{sup 4+}, and Am{sup 3+}). Two complexes, with An = U{sup 4+} and Am{sup 3+}, show redox activity under oxidizing conditions, which is attributed to the actinide oxidation. Am{sup 3+} is oxidized to Am{sup 4+} with an E{sub 1/2} = +1.21{+-}0.01 V, and U{sup 4+} oxidizes to U{sup 5+} with a measured E{sub 1/2} = +0.55{+-}0.01 V vs. Ag/AgCl. Although the cyclic voltammetry (CV) data are consistent with a reversible redox couple, bulk oxidative electrolysis of [U{sup 4+}({alpha}-2-P{sub 2}W{sub 17}O{sub 61}){sub 2}]{sup 16-} results in the decomposition of this complex to produce uranyl acetate and the free monovacant Wells-Dawson anion. In contrast, all of the CV data from the actinide coordination complexes differ from equivalent data obtained from the [{alpha}-2-P{sub 2}W{sub 17}O{sub 61}]{sup 10-} ligand itself. There are two complexed An{sup 4+} ions, Np and Pu, that undergo reduction over the same potential range as the ligands themselves. In situ X-ray spectroelectrochemistry is used to quantify the actinide response. The Np{sup 4+}/Np{sup 3+} redox behavior is a classically single ion process, with a formal potential of -0.84{+-}0.01 V that was determined from a Nernst plot of X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) data. The Pu{sup 4+}/Pu{sup 3+} formal reduction potential in the complex [Pu({alpha}-2-P{sub 2}W{sub 17}O{sub 61}){sub 2}]{sup n-} was determined to be -0.17{+-}0.01 V using the same methodology. However, in this latter case, the slope of the Nernst plot indicates that 0.72{+-}0.03 electrons are involved in the reduction. This is a significant deviation from the 1 electron expected for the Pu couple, and is discussed in terms of the concomitant reduction of the P-W-O framework of the Wells-Dawson anion.

  16. Actinide Spectroscopy Workshop

    SciTech Connect

    Tobin, J.G.; Shuh, D.K.

    2004-12-05

    Actinide materials present an extreme scientific challenge to the materials research community. The complex electronic structures of actinide materials result in many unusual and unique properties that have yet to be fully understood. The difficulties in handling, preparing, and characterizing actinide materials has frequently precluded investigations and has the limited the detailed understanding of these relevant, complex materials. However, modern experiments with actinide materials have the potential to provide key, fundamental information about many long-standing issues concerning actinide materials. This workshop focused on the scientific and technical challenges posed by actinide materials and the potential that synchrotron radiation approaches available at the ALS can contribute to improving the fundamental understanding of actinides materials. Fundamental experimental approaches and results, as well as theoretical modeling and computational simulations, were part of the workshop program.

  17. The inverse-trans-influence in tetravalent lanthanide and actinide bis(carbene) complexes.

    PubMed

    Gregson, Matthew; Lu, Erli; Mills, David P; Tuna, Floriana; McInnes, Eric J L; Hennig, Christoph; Scheinost, Andreas C; McMaster, Jonathan; Lewis, William; Blake, Alexander J; Kerridge, Andrew; Liddle, Stephen T

    2017-02-03

    Across the periodic table the trans-influence operates, whereby tightly bonded ligands selectively lengthen mutually trans metal-ligand bonds. Conversely, in high oxidation state actinide complexes the inverse-trans-influence operates, where normally cis strongly donating ligands instead reside trans and actually reinforce each other. However, because the inverse-trans-influence is restricted to high-valent actinyls and a few uranium(V/VI) complexes, it has had limited scope in an area with few unifying rules. Here we report tetravalent cerium, uranium and thorium bis(carbene) complexes with trans C=M=C cores where experimental and theoretical data suggest the presence of an inverse-trans-influence. Studies of hypothetical praseodymium(IV) and terbium(IV) analogues suggest the inverse-trans-influence may extend to these ions but it also diminishes significantly as the 4f orbitals are populated. This work suggests that the inverse-trans-influence may occur beyond high oxidation state 5f metals and hence could encompass mid-range oxidation state actinides and lanthanides. Thus, the inverse-trans-influence might be a more general f-block principle.

  18. The inverse-trans-influence in tetravalent lanthanide and actinide bis(carbene) complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gregson, Matthew; Lu, Erli; Mills, David P.; Tuna, Floriana; McInnes, Eric J. L.; Hennig, Christoph; Scheinost, Andreas C.; McMaster, Jonathan; Lewis, William; Blake, Alexander J.; Kerridge, Andrew; Liddle, Stephen T.

    2017-02-01

    Across the periodic table the trans-influence operates, whereby tightly bonded ligands selectively lengthen mutually trans metal-ligand bonds. Conversely, in high oxidation state actinide complexes the inverse-trans-influence operates, where normally cis strongly donating ligands instead reside trans and actually reinforce each other. However, because the inverse-trans-influence is restricted to high-valent actinyls and a few uranium(V/VI) complexes, it has had limited scope in an area with few unifying rules. Here we report tetravalent cerium, uranium and thorium bis(carbene) complexes with trans C=M=C cores where experimental and theoretical data suggest the presence of an inverse-trans-influence. Studies of hypothetical praseodymium(IV) and terbium(IV) analogues suggest the inverse-trans-influence may extend to these ions but it also diminishes significantly as the 4f orbitals are populated. This work suggests that the inverse-trans-influence may occur beyond high oxidation state 5f metals and hence could encompass mid-range oxidation state actinides and lanthanides. Thus, the inverse-trans-influence might be a more general f-block principle.

  19. The inverse-trans-influence in tetravalent lanthanide and actinide bis(carbene) complexes

    PubMed Central

    Gregson, Matthew; Lu, Erli; Mills, David P.; Tuna, Floriana; McInnes, Eric J. L.; Hennig, Christoph; Scheinost, Andreas C.; McMaster, Jonathan; Lewis, William; Blake, Alexander J.; Kerridge, Andrew; Liddle, Stephen T.

    2017-01-01

    Across the periodic table the trans-influence operates, whereby tightly bonded ligands selectively lengthen mutually trans metal–ligand bonds. Conversely, in high oxidation state actinide complexes the inverse-trans-influence operates, where normally cis strongly donating ligands instead reside trans and actually reinforce each other. However, because the inverse-trans-influence is restricted to high-valent actinyls and a few uranium(V/VI) complexes, it has had limited scope in an area with few unifying rules. Here we report tetravalent cerium, uranium and thorium bis(carbene) complexes with trans C=M=C cores where experimental and theoretical data suggest the presence of an inverse-trans-influence. Studies of hypothetical praseodymium(IV) and terbium(IV) analogues suggest the inverse-trans-influence may extend to these ions but it also diminishes significantly as the 4f orbitals are populated. This work suggests that the inverse-trans-influence may occur beyond high oxidation state 5f metals and hence could encompass mid-range oxidation state actinides and lanthanides. Thus, the inverse-trans-influence might be a more general f-block principle. PMID:28155857

  20. Probing the chemistry, electronic structure and redox energetics in pentavalent organometallic actinide complexes

    SciTech Connect

    Graves, Christopher R; Vaughn, Anthony E; Morris, David E; Kiplinger, Jaqueline L

    2008-01-01

    Complexes of the early actinides (Th-Pu) have gained considerable prominence in organometallic chemistry as they have been shown to undergo chemistries not observed with their transition- or lanthanide metal counterparts. Further, while bonding in f-element complexes has historically been considered to be ionic, the issue of covalence remains a subject of debate in the area of actinide science, and studies aimed at elucidating key bonding interactions with 5f-orbitals continue to garner attention. Towards this end, our interests have focused on the role that metal oxidation state plays in the structure, reactivity and spectral properties of organouranium complexes. We report our progress in the synthesis of substituted U{sup V}-imido complexes using various routes: (1) Direct oxidation of U{sup IV}-imido complexes with copper(I) salts; (2) Salt metathesis with U{sup V}-imido halides; (3) Protonolysis and insertion of an U{sup V}-imido alkyl or aryl complex with H-N{double_bond}CPh{sub 2} or N{triple_bond}C-Ph, respectively, to form a U{sup V}-imido ketimide complex. Further, we report and compare the crystallographic, electrochemical, spectroscopic and magnetic characterization of the pentavalent uranium (C{sub 5}Me{sub 5}){sub 2}U({double_bond}N-Ar)(Y) series (Y = OTf, SPh, C{triple_bond}C-Ph, NPh{sub 2}, OPh, N{double_bond}CPh{sub 2}) to further interrogate the molecular, electronic, and magnetic structures of this new class of uranium complexes.

  1. Actinide(IV) Deposits on Bone: Potential Role of the Osteopontin-Thorium Complex.

    PubMed

    Creff, Gaëlle; Safi, Samir; Roques, Jérôme; Michel, Hervé; Jeanson, Aurélie; Solari, Pier-Lorenzo; Basset, Christian; Simoni, Eric; Vidaud, Claude; Den Auwer, Christophe

    2016-01-04

    In case of a nuclear event, contamination (broad or limited) of the population or of specific workers might occur. In such a senario, the fate of actinide contaminants may be of first concern, in particular with regard to human target organs like the skeleton. To improve our understanding of the toxicological processes that might take place, a mechanistic approach is necessary. For instance, ∼50% of Pu(IV) is known from biokinetic data to accumulate in bone, but the underlining mechanisms are almost unknown. In this context, and to obtain a better description of the toxicological mechanisms associated with actinides(IV), we have undertaken the investigation, on a molecular scale, of the interaction of thorium(IV) with osteopontin (OPN) a hyperphosphorylated protein involved in bone turnover. Thorium is taken here as a simple model for actinide(IV) chemistry. In addition, we have selected a phosphorylated hexapeptide (His-pSer-Asp-Glu-pSer-Asp-Glu-Val) that is representative of the peptidic sequence involved in the bone interaction. For both the protein and the biomimetic peptide, we have determined the local environment of Th(IV) within the bioactinidic complex, combining isothermal titration calorimetry, attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, theoretical calculations with density functional theory, and extended X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy at the Th LIII edge. The results demonstrate a predominance of interaction of metal with the phosphate groups and confirmed the previous physiological studies that have highlighted a high affinity of Th(IV) for the bone matrix. Data are further compared with those of the uranyl case, representing the actinyl(V) and actinyl(VI) species. Last, our approach shows the importance of developing simplified systems [Th(IV)-peptide] that can serve as models for more biologically relevant systems.

  2. Sulfonate complexes of actinide ions: structural diversity in uranyl complexes with 2-sulfobenzoate.

    PubMed

    Thuéry, Pierre

    2013-01-07

    phosphonates, the actinide complexes of sulfonates in the solid state have been little investigated up to now. The present results show that sulfocarboxylates such as 2-sulfobenzoate, in which sulfonate coordination is promoted by chelate effects, are of interest in the synthesis of uranyl-organic coordination polymers.

  3. Nonaqueous actinide hydride dissolution and production of actinide $beta$- diketonates

    DOEpatents

    Crisler, L.R.

    1975-11-11

    Actinide beta-diketonate complex molecular compounds are produced by reacting a beta-diketone compound with a hydride of the actinide material in a mixture of carbon tetrachloride and methanol. (auth)

  4. Radiolytic Degradation in Lanthanide/Actinide Separation Ligands–NOPOPO: Radical Kinetics and Efficiencies Determinations

    SciTech Connect

    Katy L. Swancutt; Stephen P. Mezyk; Richard D. Tillotson; Sylvie Pailloux; Manab Chakravarty; Robert T. Paine; Leigh R. Martin

    2011-07-01

    Trivalent lanthanide/actinide separations from used nuclear fuel occurs in the presence radiation fields that degrades the extraction ligands and solvents. Here we have investigated the stability of a new ligand for lanthanide/actinide separation; 2,6-bis[(di(2-ethylhexyl)phosphino)methyl] pyridine N,P,P-trioxide, TEH(NOPOPO). The impact of {gamma}-radiolysis on the distribution ratios for actinide (Am) and Lanthanide (Eu) extraction both in the presence and absence of an acidic aqueous phase by TEH(NOPOPO) was determined. Corresponding reaction rate constants for the two major radicals, hydroxyl and nitrate, were determined for TEH(NOPOPO) in the aqueous phase, with room temperature values of (3.49 {+-} 0.10) x 10{sup 9} and (1.95 {+-} 0.15) x 10{sup 8} M{sup -1} s{sup -1}, respectively. The activation energy for this reaction was found to be 30.2 {+-} 4.1 kJ mol{sup -1}. Rate constants for two analogues (2-methylphosphonic acid pyridine N,P-dioxide and 2,6-bis(methylphosphonic acid) pyridine N,P,P-trioxide) were also determined to assist in determining the major reaction pathways.

  5. The first case of actinide triple helices: pH-dependent structural evolution and kinetically-controlled transformation of two supramolecular conformational isomers.

    PubMed

    An, Shu-wen; Mei, Lei; Wang, Cong-zhi; Xia, Chuan-qin; Chai, Zhi-fang; Shi, Wei-qun

    2015-05-28

    The first actinide triple helices, including two supramolecular conformational isomers of uranium(VI), have been synthesized with the aid of a flexible V-shaped ligand and a rigid aromatic base. The isomers exhibit an intriguing pH-dependent structural evolution and a kinetically-controlled transformation via a novel conformational rearrangement of the organic base.

  6. Evidence for the involvement of 5f orbitals in the bonding and reactivity of organometallic actinide compounds: thorium(IV) and uranium(IV) bis(hydrazonato) complexes.

    PubMed

    Cantat, Thibault; Graves, Christopher R; Jantunen, Kimberly C; Burns, Carol J; Scott, Brian L; Schelter, Eric J; Morris, David E; Hay, P Jeffrey; Kiplinger, Jaqueline L

    2008-12-24

    (hydrazonato) zirconium(IV) complex, yielding a higher energy structure. However, the difference in the reactivities of the group 4 metal and actinide complexes does not arise on thermodynamic grounds but is primarily of kinetic origin. Unfavorable steric factors have been ruled out as the sole influence to explain these different behaviors, and electronic factors were shown to govern the reactivity. For the actinides, both the C(5)H(5) and more realistic C(5)Me(5) ligands have been taken into account in computing the energy surface. The reaction profile for the C(5)Me(5) system differs from that with the C(5)H(5) ligand by a uniform shift of approximately 5 kcal/mol in the relative energies of the transition state and products. The insertion of a second diazoalkane molecule into the sole metal-carbon bond in the mono(hydrazonato) complexes involves a high energy barrier (approximately 20 kcal/mol) for the zirconium(IV) system, whereas the actinides can facilitate the approach of the diazoalkane by coordination (formation of an adduct) and its insertion into the An-C bond with a very low barrier on the potential energy surface.

  7. Actinide extraction methods

    DOEpatents

    Peterman, Dean R [Idaho Falls, ID; Klaehn, John R [Idaho Falls, ID; Harrup, Mason K [Idaho Falls, ID; Tillotson, Richard D [Moore, ID; Law, Jack D [Pocatello, ID

    2010-09-21

    Methods of separating actinides from lanthanides are disclosed. A regio-specific/stereo-specific dithiophosphinic acid having organic moieties is provided in an organic solvent that is then contacted with an acidic medium containing an actinide and a lanthanide. The method can extend to separating actinides from one another. Actinides are extracted as a complex with the dithiophosphinic acid. Separation compositions include an aqueous phase, an organic phase, dithiophosphinic acid, and at least one actinide. The compositions may include additional actinides and/or lanthanides. A method of producing a dithiophosphinic acid comprising at least two organic moieties selected from aromatics and alkyls, each moiety having at least one functional group is also disclosed. A source of sulfur is reacted with a halophosphine. An ammonium salt of the dithiophosphinic acid product is precipitated out of the reaction mixture. The precipitated salt is dissolved in ether. The ether is removed to yield the dithiophosphinic acid.

  8. Kinetics of reductive extraction of actinide and lanthanide elements from molten fluoride into liquid bismuth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moriyama, Hirotake; Miyazaki, Masafumi; Asaoka, Yoshiyuki; Moritani, Kimikazu; Oishi, Jun

    1991-06-01

    The rate of reductive extraction of actinide and lanthanide elements was measured in the two-phase system of molten LiF-BeF 2 salt and liquid bismuth at 823-973 K. The effect of temperature, salt composition and reductant concentration was studied. In most cases, it was observed that the solid bismuthides of these elements were formed at the salt-bismuth interface following the addition of reductant. The extraction rate was limited by their solubility in bismuth. The mass transfer coefficient of each element was evaluated by applying a film theory. On the basis of the obtained results, some considerations are made for the development of extraction systems.

  9. Research in actinide chemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Choppin, G.R.

    1993-01-01

    This research studies the behavior of the actinide elements in aqueous solution. The high radioactivity of the transuranium actinides limits the concentrations which can be studied and, consequently, limits the experimental techniques. However, oxidation state analogs (trivalent lanthanides, tetravalent thorium, and hexavalent uranium) do not suffer from these limitations. Behavior of actinides in the environment are a major USDOE concern, whether in connection with long-term releases from a repository, releases from stored defense wastes or accidental releases in reprocessing, etc. Principal goal of our research was expand the thermodynamic data base on complexation of actinides by natural ligands (e.g., OH[sup [minus

  10. Structural study of trivalent lanthanide and actinide complexes formed upon solvent extraction.

    PubMed

    Gannaz, Benoît; Antonio, Mark R; Chiarizia, Renato; Hill, Clément; Cote, Gérard

    2006-10-14

    The coordination of the trivalent 4f ions, Ln = Nd3+, Eu3+ and Yb3+, as well as the trivalent 5f ion, Am3+, with diamide and dialkylphosphoric acid extractants, individually and in combination, was studied by use of X-ray absorption spectroscopy. These studies provide metrical information about the interatomic interactions between the f-ions (M3+) and the ligands, dihexylphosphoric acid (HDHP) and N,N'-dimethyl-N,N'-dioctylhexylethoxymalonamide (DMDOHEMA), that is of practical relevance to the control of metal-ligand binding in liquid-liquid extraction systems for the separation of trivalent actinide ions, An3+, from trivalent lanthanide ions, Ln3+. Through systematic variations of extraction conditions and extractant combinations, we have found that the HDHP complexes with M3+ involve MO6 coordination and distant M...P interactions, whereas the DMDOHEMA complexes with M3+ involve MO8 coordination. The combination of the EXAFS results with ancillary extraction data and IR results facilitates descriptions of the stoichiometries and structures of the molecular species formed in solution upon liquid-liquid extraction and leads to a new understanding of the binary extraction systems in terms of the strength and selectivity of An3+- vs. Ln3+-ligand interactions. This fundamental structure information affords insight into solvent extraction processes that are of contemporary and practical importance in heavy element chemistry and to environmentally related issues arising from the separation and disposal of radioactive materials, particularly actinides and selected fission products, in the field of nuclear waste reprocessing research.

  11. Toward understanding the thermodynamics of TALSPEAK process. Medium effects on actinide complexation

    SciTech Connect

    Peter R Zalupski; Leigh R Martin; Ken Nash; Yoshinobu Nakamura; Masahiko Yamamoto

    2009-07-01

    The ingenious combination of lactate and diethylenetriamine-N,N,N’,N”,N”-pentaacetic acid (DTPA) as an aqueous actinide-complexing medium forms the basis of the successful separation of americium and curium from lanthanides known as the TALSPEAK process. While numerous reports in the prior literature have focused on the optimization of this solvent extraction system, considerably less attention has been devoted to the understanding of the basic thermodynamic features of the complex fluids responsible for the separation. The available thermochemical information of both lactate and DTPA protonation and metal complexation reactions are representative of the behavior of these ions under idealized conditions. Our previous studies of medium effects on lactate protonation suggest that significant departures from the speciation predicted based on reported thermodynamic values should be expected in the TALSPEAK aqueous environment. Thermodynamic parameters describing the separation chemistry of this process thus require further examination at conditions significantly removed from conventional ideal systems commonly employed in fundamental solution chemistry. Such thermodynamic characterization is the key to predictive modelling of TALSPEAK. Improved understanding will, in principle, allow process technologists to more efficiently respond to off-normal conditions during large scale process operation. In this report, the results of calorimetric and potentiometric investigations of the effects of aqueous electrolytes on the thermodynamic parameters for lactate protonation and lactate complexation of americium and neodymium will be presented. Studies on the lactate protonation equilibrium will clearly illustrate distinct thermodynamic variations between strong electrolyte aqueous systems and buffered lactate environment.

  12. Research in actinide chemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    This report contains research results on studies of inorganic and organic complexes of actinide and lanthanide elements. Special attention is given to complexes of humic acids and to spectroscopic studies.

  13. Electronic Structure of Transition Metal Clusters, Actinide Complexes and Their Reactivities

    SciTech Connect

    Krishnan Balasubramanian

    2009-07-18

    This is a continuing DOE-BES funded project on transition metal and actinide containing species, aimed at the electronic structure and spectroscopy of transition metal and actinide containing species. While a long term connection of these species is to catalysis and environmental management of high-level nuclear wastes, the immediate relevance is directly to other DOE-BES funded experimental projects at DOE-National labs and universities. There are a number of ongoing gas-phase spectroscopic studies of these species at various places, and our computational work has been inspired by these experimental studies and we have also inspired other experimental and theoretical studies. Thus our studies have varied from spectroscopy of diatomic transition metal carbides to large complexes containing transition metals, and actinide complexes that are critical to the environment. In addition, we are continuing to make code enhancements and modernization of ALCHEMY II set of codes and its interface with relativistic configuration interaction (RCI). At present these codes can carry out multi-reference computations that included up to 60 million configurations and multiple states from each such CI expansion. ALCHEMY II codes have been modernized and converted to a variety of platforms such as Windows XP, and Linux. We have revamped the symbolic CI code to automate the MRSDCI technique so that the references are automatically chosen with a given cutoff from the CASSCF and thus we are doing accurate MRSDCI computations with 10,000 or larger reference space of configurations. The RCI code can also handle a large number of reference configurations, which include up to 10,000 reference configurations. Another major progress is in routinely including larger basis sets up to 5g functions in thee computations. Of course higher angular momenta functions can also be handled using Gaussian and other codes with other methods such as DFT, MP2, CCSD(T), etc. We have also calibrated our RECP

  14. Speciation and structural characterization of plutonium and actinide-organic complexes in surface and groundwaters. 1998 annual progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Buesseler, K.O.; Repeta, D.J.; Kelley, J.M.

    1998-06-01

    'The authors proposed research is designed to study the association of actinides with dissolved organic complexes in subsurface waters. This study expands considerably on prior work due to the combination of Pu oxidation studies (for Pu speciation/chemical reactivity information), Pu isotope ratio work (for Pu source function information), and the detailed characterization of organic matter in size-fractionated groundwater samples. They have postulated that actinide associations with organic matter may be enhanced due to colloidal biopolymers. This report summarizes work completed after less than 2 years of a 3-year project. Activities thus far have included: (1) the development of sampling techniques to minimize contamination and artifact formation, (2) the separation of Pu isotopes by oxidation state in groundwater, (3) the development of techniques for the separation and identification of organic constituents from natural waters, (4) a study of background Pu and organic carbon concentrations at the proposed study sites, and (5) field work at the Savannah River site (SRS).'

  15. A novel CMPO-functionalized task specific ionic liquid: synthesis, extraction and spectroscopic investigations of actinide and lanthanide complexes.

    PubMed

    Mohapatra, Prasanta K; Kandwal, Pankaj; Iqbal, Mudassir; Huskens, Jurriaan; Murali, Mallekav S; Verboom, Willem

    2013-04-07

    A novel CMPO (carbamoylmethylphosphine oxide) based task specific ionic liquid (TSIL) with an NTf(2)(-) counter anion was synthesized and evaluated for actinide/lanthanide extraction from acidic feed solutions using several room temperature ionic liquids (RTILs). The extraction data were compared with those obtained with CMPO in the same set of RTILs and also in the molecular diluent, n-dodecane. The extracted species were analyzed by the conventional slope analysis method and the extraction followed an ion-exchange mechanism. The nature of bonding in the extracted complexes was investigated by various spectroscopic techniques such as FT-IR and UV-visible spectroscopy.

  16. Actinides-1981

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-09-01

    Abstracts of 134 papers which were presented at the Actinides-1981 conference are presented. Approximately half of these papers deal with electronic structure of the actinides. Others deal with solid state chemistry, nuclear physic, thermodynamic properties, solution chemistry, and applied chemistry.

  17. Rare-earth metal π-complexes of reduced arenes, alkenes, and alkynes: bonding, electronic structure, and comparison with actinides and other electropositive metals.

    PubMed

    Huang, Wenliang; Diaconescu, Paula L

    2015-09-21

    Rare-earth metal complexes of reduced π ligands are reviewed with an emphasis on their electronic structure and bonding interactions. This perspective discusses reduced carbocyclic and acyclic π ligands; in certain categories, when no example of a rare-earth metal complex is available, a closely related actinide analogue is discussed. In general, rare-earth metals have a lower tendency to form covalent interactions with π ligands compared to actinides, mainly uranium. Despite predominant ionic interactions in rare-earth chemistry, covalent bonds can be formed with reduced carbocyclic ligands, especially multiply reduced arenes.

  18. Speciation and structural characterization of plutonium and actinide-organic complexes in surface and groundwaters. 1998 annual progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Buesseler, K.O.; Repeta, D.J.; Kelley, J.M.

    1998-06-01

    'The authors proposed research is designed to study the association of actinides with dissolved organic complexes in subsurface waters. This study expands considerably on prior work due to the combination of Pu oxidation studies (for Pu speciation/chemical reactivity information), Pu isotope ratio work (for Pu source function information), and the detailed characterization of organic matter in size-fractionated groundwater samples. The authors have postulated that actinide associations with organic matter may be enhanced due to colloidal biopolymers. This report summarizes work completed after less than 2 years of a 3-year project. Activities thus far have included: (1) the development of sampling techniques to minimize contamination and artifact formation, (2) the separation of Pu isotopes by oxidation state in groundwater, (3) the development of techniques for the separation and identification of organic constituents from natural waters, (4) a study of background Pu and organic carbon concentrations at the proposed study sites, and (5) field work at the Savannah River Site (SRS).'

  19. Modified diglycol-amides for actinide separation: solvent extraction and time-resolved laser fluorescence spectroscopy complexation studies

    SciTech Connect

    Wilden, A.; Modolo, G.; Lange, S.; Sadowski, F.; Bosbach, D.; Beele, B.B.; Panak, P.J.; Skerencak-Frech, A.; Geist, A.; Iqbal, M.; Verboom, W.

    2013-07-01

    In this work, the back-bone of the diglycolamide-structure of the TODGA extractant was modified by adding one or two methyl groups to the central methylene carbon-atoms. The influence of these structural modifications on the extraction behavior of trivalent actinides and lanthanides and other fission products was studied in solvent extraction experiments. The addition of methyl groups to the central methylene carbon atoms leads to reduced distribution ratios, also for Sr(II). This reduced extraction efficiency for Sr(II) is beneficial for process applications, as the co-extraction of Sr(II) can be avoided, resulting in an easier process design. The use of these modified diglycol-amides in solvent extraction processes is discussed. Furthermore, the complexation of Cm(III) and Eu(III) to the ligands was studied using Time-Resolved-Laser-Fluorescence-Spectroscopy (TRLFS). The complexes were characterized by slope analysis and conditional stability constants were determined.

  20. Computational Tools for Predictive Modeling of Properties in Complex Actinide Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Autschbach, Jochen; Govind, Niranjan; Atta Fynn, Raymond; Bylaska, Eric J.; Weare, John H.; de Jong, Wibe A.

    2015-03-30

    In this chapter we focus on methodological and computational aspects that are key to accurately modeling the spectroscopic and thermodynamic properties of molecular systems containing actinides within the density functional theory (DFT) framework. Our focus is on properties that require either an accurate relativistic all-electron description or an accurate description of the dynamical behavior of actinide species in an environment at finite temperature, or both. The implementation of the methods and the calculations discussed in this chapter were done with the NWChem software suite (Valiev et al. 2010). In the first two sections we discuss two methods that account for relativistic effects, the ZORA and the X2C Hamiltonian. Section 1.2.1 discusses the implementation of the approximate relativistic ZORA Hamiltonian and its extension to magnetic properties. Section 1.3 focuses on the exact X2C Hamiltonian and the application of this methodology to obtain accurate molecular properties. In Section 1.4 we examine the role of a dynamical environment at finite temperature as well as the presence of other ions on the thermodynamics of hydrolysis and exchange reaction mechanisms. Finally, Section 1.5 discusses the modeling of XAS (EXAFS, XANES) properties in realistic environments accounting for both the dynamics of the system and (for XANES) the relativistic effects.

  1. Aqueous complexation of trivalent lanthanide and actinide cations by N,N,N'{sub 2},N'-tetrakis(2-pyridylmethyl)ethylenediamine.

    SciTech Connect

    Beitz, J. V.; Ensor, D. D.; Jensen, M. P.; Morss, L. R.

    1999-06-16

    The aqueous complexation reactions of trivalent lanthanide and actinide cations with the hexadentate ligand N,N,N{prime},N{prime}-tetrakis(2-pyridylmethyl)ethylenediamine (TPEN), have been characterized using potentiometric and spectroscopic techniques in 0.1 M NaClO{sub 4} At 25 C, the stability constant of Am(TPEN){sup 3+} is two orders of magnitude larger than that of Sm(TPEN){sup 3+}, reflecting the stronger interactions of the trivalent actinide cations with softer ligands as compared to lanthanide cations.

  2. Photochemical route to actinide-transition metal bonds: synthesis, characterization and reactivity of a series of thorium and uranium heterobimetallic complexes

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, Ashleigh; Lukens, Wayne; Lu, Connie; Arnold, John

    2014-04-01

    A series of actinide-transition metal heterobimetallics has been prepared, featuring thorium, uranium and cobalt. Complexes incorporating the binucleating ligand N[-(NHCH2PiPr2)C6H4]3 and Th(IV) (4) or U(IV) (5) with a carbonyl bridged [Co(CO)4]- unit were synthesized from the corresponding actinide chlorides (Th: 2; U: 3) and Na[Co(CO)4]. Irradiation of the isocarbonyls with ultraviolet light resulted in the formation of new species containing actinide-metal bonds in good yields (Th: 6; U: 7); this photolysis method provides a new approach to a relatively rare class of complexes. Characterization by single-crystal X-ray diffraction revealed that elimination of the bridging carbonyl is accompanied by coordination of a phosphine arm from the N4P3 ligand to the cobalt center. Additionally, actinide-cobalt bonds of 3.0771(5) and 3.0319(7) for the thorium and uranium complexes, respectively, were observed. The solution state behavior of the thorium complexes was evaluated using 1H, 1H-1H COSY, 31P and variable-temperature NMR spectroscopy. IR, UV-Vis/NIR, and variable-temperature magnetic susceptibility measurements are also reported.

  3. Complexation of Nd(III) with tetraborate ion and its effect on actinide (III) solubility in WIPP brine

    SciTech Connect

    Borkowski, Marian; Richmann, Michael K; Reed, Donald T; Yongliang, Xiong

    2010-01-01

    The potential importance of tetraborate complexation on lanthanide(III) and actinide(III) solubility is recognized in the literature but a systematic study of f-element complexation has not been performed. In neodymium solubility studies in WIPP brines, the carbonate complexation effect is not observed since tetraborate ions form a moderately strong complex with neodymium(III). The existence of these tetraborate complexes was established for low and high ionic strength solutions. Changes in neodymium(III) concentrations in undersaturation experiments were used to determine the neodymium with tetraborate stability constants as a function of NaCl ionic strength. As very low Nd(III) concentrations have to be measured, it was necessary to use an extraction pre-concentration step combined with ICP-MS analysis to extend the detection limit by a factor of 50. The determined Nd(III) with borate stability constants at infinite dilution and 25 C are equal to log {beta}{sub 1} = 4.55 {+-} 0.06 using the SIT approach, equal to log {beta}{sub 1} = 4.99 {+-} 0.30 using the Pitzer approach, with an apparent log {beta}{sub 1} = 4.06 {+-} 0.15 (in molal units) at I = 5.6 m NaCl. Pitzer ion-interaction parameters for neodymium with tetraborate and SIT interaction coefficients were also determined and reported.

  4. Atomistic Calculations of the Effect of Minor Actinides on Thermodynamic and Kinetic Properties of UO{sub 2{+-}x}

    SciTech Connect

    Deo, Chaitanya; Adnersson, Davis; Battaile, Corbett; uberuaga, Blas

    2012-10-30

    The team will examine how the incorporation of actinide species important for mixed oxide (MOX) and other advanced fuel designs impacts thermodynamic quantities of the host UO{sub 2} nuclear fuel and how Pu, Np, Cm and Am influence oxygen mobility. In many cases, the experimental data is either insufficient or missing. For example, in the case of pure NpO2, there is essentially no experimental data on the hyperstoichiometric form it is not even known if hyperstoichiometry NpO{sub 2{+-}x} is stable. The team will employ atomistic modeling tools to calculate these quantities

  5. Plutonium Futures -- The Science. Topical Conference on Plutonium and Actinides. AIP Conference Proceedings, No. 532 [APCPCS

    SciTech Connect

    Pillay, K.K.S.; Kim, K.C.

    2000-12-31

    Presentations at this conference covered the topics of materials science/nuclear fuels, condensed matter physics, actinides in the environment/separation and analysis, actinides/processing, actinides/TRU wastes, materials science, TRU waste forms, nuclear fuels/isotopes, separations and process chemistry, actinides in the environment, detection and analysis, Pu and Pu compounds, actinide compounds and complexes.

  6. Lanthanide(III) Complexes of Tripodal N-Donor Ligands: Structural Models for the Species Involved in Solvent Extraction of Actinides(III).

    PubMed

    Wietzke, Raphaël; Mazzanti, Marinella; Latour, Jean-Marc; Pécaut, Jacques; Cordier, Pierre-Yves; Madic, Charles

    1998-12-28

    The complexation of lanthanides(III) by the tripodal ligands tpa (tris[(2-pyridyl)methyl]amine) and tpza (tris[(2-pyrazinyl)methyl]amine) has been investigated by solution NMR studies and by X-ray crystallography. The crystallographic studies show that both tpa and the new ligand tpza form complexes with a 1:1 metal:ligand ratio in which the tripodal amine acts as a tetradentate ligand. For the tpa complexes the remaining coordination sites are occupied by chloride counterions to give 7-coordination (Eu, Tb, Lu) or by chloride counterions and a methanol molecule to give 8-coordination (Nd). In [Nd(tpza)(H(2)O)(3)(CH(3)CN)(3)](ClO(4))(3).3H(2)O the remaining coordination sites are occupied by water and acetonitrile molecules to give 10-coordination while the perchlorate counterions remain non coordinating. Tpza complexes have been isolated from acetonitrile solution and dissociate completely in methanol, while the complexes of the more basic tpa can be isolated from methanol and exist in water in equilibrium with the free ligand. Solvent extraction studies of lanthanides(III) and actinides(III) from nitric acid solutions show that the new ligand tpza is, unlike tpa, a selective complexant of actinides(III). Considering their structural analogy, this difference could be explained in terms of the electronic differences between the two ligands resulting in a stronger affinity of actinides(III) for the softer donor tpza.

  7. DISTRIBUTION OF LANTHANIDE AND ACTINIDE ELEMENTS BETWEEN BIS-(2-ETHYLHEXYL)PHOSPHORIC ACID AND BUFFERED LACTATE SOLUTIONS CONTAINING SELECTED COMPLEXANTS

    SciTech Connect

    Rudisill, Tracy S.; Diprete, David P.; Thompson, Major C.

    2013-04-15

    With the renewed interest in the closure of the nuclear fuel cycle, the TALSPEAK process is being considered for the separation of Am and Cm from the lanthanide fission products in a next generation reprocessing plant. However, an efficient separation requires tight control of the pH which likely will be difficult to achieve on a large scale. To address this issue, we measured the distribution of lanthanide and actinide elements between aqueous and organic phases in the presence of complexants which were potentially less sensitive to pH control than the diethylenetriaminepentaacetic (DTPA) used in the process. To perform the extractions, a rapid and accurate method was developed for measuring distribution coefficients based on the preparation of lanthanide tracers in the Savannah River National Laboratory neutron activation analysis facility. The complexants tested included aceto-, benzo-, and salicylhydroxamic acids, N,N,N',N'-tetrakis(2-pyridylmethyl)ethylenediamine (TPEN), and ammonium thiocyanate (NH{sub 4}SCN). The hydroxamic acids were the least effective of the complexants tested. The separation factors for TPEN and NH{sub 4}SCN were higher, especially for the heaviest lanthanides in the series; however, no conditions were identified which resulted in separations factors which consistently approached those measured for the use of DTPA.

  8. Bridging the Gap in the Chemical Thermodynamic Database for Nuclear Waste Repository: Studies of the Effect of Temperature on Actinide Complexation

    SciTech Connect

    Rao, Linfeng; Tian, Guoxin; Xia, Yuanxian; Friese, Judah I.; Zanonato, PierLuigi; Di Bernardo, Plinio

    2009-12-21

    Recent results of thermodynamic studies on the complexation of actinides (UO{sub 2}{sup 2+}, NpO{sub 2}{sup +} and Pu{sup 4+}) with F{sup -}, SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} and H{sub 2}PO{sub 4}{sup -}/HPO{sub 4}{sup 2-} at elevated temperatures are reviewed. The data indicate that, for all systems except the 1:1 complexation of Np(V) with HPO{sub 4}{sup 2-}, the complexation of actinides is enhanced by the increase in temperature. The enhancement is primarily due to the increase in the entropy term (T{Delta}S) that exceeds the increase in the enthalpy ({Delta}H) as the temperature is increased. These data bridge the gaps in the chemical thermodynamic database for nuclear waste repository where the temperature could remain significantly higher than 25 C for a long time after the closure of the repository.

  9. [Kinetics of conformational changes of methemoglobin complexed with liposomes].

    PubMed

    Gorbenko, G P

    1998-01-01

    Kinetics of methemoglobin structural changes in the complex with liposomes composed of phosphatidylcholine and its mixtures with cardiolipin has been studied. The amplitudes and rate constants of the two observed kinetic phases are determined. The fast kinetic phase is attributed to the formation of the unstable intermediate protein form, while the slow one is assumed to reflect dissociation of the heme--globin complex.

  10. Composite polymeric beads containing N,N,N',N'-tetraoctyldiglycolamide for actinide ion uptake from nitric acid feeds: Batch uptake, kinetic modelling and column studies.

    PubMed

    Gujar, R B; Mohapatra, P K; Lakshmi, D Shanthana; Figoli, A

    2015-11-27

    Polyethersulphone (PES) based composite polymeric beads (CPB) containing TODGA (N,N,N',N'-tetraoctyldiglycolamide) as the extractant were prepared by conventional phase inversion technique and were tested for the uptake of actinide ions such as Am(3+), UO2(2+), Pu(4+), Np(4+) and fission product ions such as Eu(3+) and Sr(2+). The CPBs containing 2.5-10wt.% TODGA were characterized by various physical methods and their porosity, size, surface morphology, surface area and the degradation profile by thermogravimetry were analyzed. The batch uptake studies involved kinetics of metal ion sorption, uptake as a function of nitric acid concentration, kinetic modelling and adsorption isotherms and most of the studies involved the Am(3+) ions. The batch saturation sorption capacities for Eu(3+) loading at 3M HNO3 were determined to be 6.6±0.02, 9.1±0.02 and 22.3±0.04mgg(-1) of CRBs with 2.5wt.%, 5wt.% and 10wt.% TODGA, respectively. The sorption isotherm analysis with Langmuir, D-R and Freundlisch isotherms indicated chemisorption monolayer mechanism. Chromatographic studies indicated breakthrough of Eu(3+) (using a solution containing Eu carrier) after about 0.75 bed volume (3.5-4mL). Elution of the loaded Eu was carried out using 0.01M EDTA as the eluent. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Kinetics of wet sodium vapor complex plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Mishra, S. K.; Sodha, M. S.

    2014-04-15

    In this paper, we have investigated the kinetics of wet (partially condensed) Sodium vapor, which comprises of electrons, ions, neutral atoms, and Sodium droplets (i) in thermal equilibrium and (ii) when irradiated by light. The formulation includes the balance of charge over the droplets, number balance of the plasma constituents, and energy balance of the electrons. In order to evaluate the droplet charge, a phenomenon for de-charging of the droplets, viz., evaporation of positive Sodium ions from the surface has been considered in addition to electron emission and electron/ion accretion. The analysis has been utilized to evaluate the steady state parameters of such complex plasmas (i) in thermal equilibrium and (ii) when irradiated; the results have been graphically illustrated. As a significant outcome irradiated, Sodium droplets are seen to acquire large positive potential, with consequent enhancement in the electron density.

  12. Theoretical kinetic computations in complex reacting systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bittker, David A.

    1986-01-01

    Nasa Lewis' studies of complex reacting systems at high temperature are discussed. The changes which occur are the result of many different chemical reactions occurring at the same time. Both an experimental and a theoretical approach are needed to fully understand what happens in these systems. The latter approach is discussed. The differential equations which describe the chemical and thermodynamic changes are given. Their solution by numerical techniques using a detailed chemical mechanism is described. Several different comparisons of computed results with experimental measurements are also given. These include the computation of (1) species concentration profiles in batch and flow reactions, (2) rocket performance in nozzle expansions, and (3) pressure versus time profiles in hydrocarbon ignition processes. The examples illustrate the use of detailed kinetic computations to elucidate a chemical mechanism and to compute practical quantities such as rocket performance, ignition delay times, and ignition lengths in flow processes.

  13. Kinetics of wet sodium vapor complex plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishra, S. K.; Sodha, M. S.

    2014-04-01

    In this paper, we have investigated the kinetics of wet (partially condensed) Sodium vapor, which comprises of electrons, ions, neutral atoms, and Sodium droplets (i) in thermal equilibrium and (ii) when irradiated by light. The formulation includes the balance of charge over the droplets, number balance of the plasma constituents, and energy balance of the electrons. In order to evaluate the droplet charge, a phenomenon for de-charging of the droplets, viz., evaporation of positive Sodium ions from the surface has been considered in addition to electron emission and electron/ion accretion. The analysis has been utilized to evaluate the steady state parameters of such complex plasmas (i) in thermal equilibrium and (ii) when irradiated; the results have been graphically illustrated. As a significant outcome irradiated, Sodium droplets are seen to acquire large positive potential, with consequent enhancement in the electron density.

  14. Nonaqueous method for dissolving lanthanide and actinide metals

    DOEpatents

    Crisler, L.R.

    1975-11-11

    Lanthanide and actinide beta-diketonate complex molecular compounds are produced by reacting a beta-diketone compound with a lanthanide or actinide element in the elemental metallic state in a mixture of carbon tetrachloride and methanol.

  15. Advanced Aqueous Separation Systems for Actinide Partitioning

    SciTech Connect

    Nash, Ken; Martin, Leigh; Lumetta, Gregg

    2015-04-02

    One of the most challenging aspects of advanced processing of used nuclear fuel is the separation of transplutonium actinides from fission product lanthanides. This separation is essential if actinide transmutation options are to be pursued in advanced fuel cycles, as lanthanides compete with actinides for neutrons in both thermal and fast reactors, thus limiting efficiency. The separation is difficult because the chemistry of Am3+ and Cm3+ is nearly identical to that of the trivalent lanthanides (Ln3+). The prior literature teaches that two approaches offer the greatest probability of devising a successful group separation process based on aqueous processes: 1) the application of complexing agents containing ligand donor atoms that are softer than oxygen (N, S, Cl-) or 2) changing the oxidation state of Am to the IV, V, or VI state to increase the essential differences between Am and lanthanide chemistry (an approach utilized in the PUREX process to selectively remove Pu4+ and UO22+ from fission products). The latter approach offers the additional benefit of enabling a separation of Am from Cm, as Cm(III) is resistant to oxidation and so can easily be made to follow the lanthanides. The fundamental limitations of these approaches are that 1) the soft(er) donor atoms that interact more strongly with actinide cations than lanthanides form substantially weaker bonds than oxygen atoms, thus necessitating modification of extraction conditions for adequate phase transfer efficiency, 2) soft donor reagents have been seen to suffer slow phase transfer kinetics and hydro-/radiolytic stability limitations and 3) the upper oxidation states of Am are all moderately strong oxidants, hence of only transient stability in media representative of conventional aqueous separations systems. There are examples in the literature of both approaches having been described. However, it is not clear at present that any extant process is sufficiently robust for application at the scale

  16. Tutorial on the Role of Cyclopentadienyl Ligands in the Discovery of Molecular Complexes of the Rare-Earth and Actinide Metals in New Oxidation States

    DOE PAGES

    Evans, William J.

    2016-09-15

    A fundamental aspect of any element is the range of oxidation states accessible for useful chemistry. This tutorial describes the recent expansion of the number of oxidation states available to the rare-earth and actinide metals in molecular complexes that has resulted through organometallic chemistry involving the cyclopentadienyl ligand. These discoveries demonstrate that the cyclopentadienyl ligand, which has been a key component in the development of organometallic chemistry since the seminal discovery of ferrocene in the 1950s, continues to contribute to the advancement of science. Lastly, we present background information on the rare-earth and actinide elements, as well as the sequencemore » of events that led to these unexpected developments in the oxidation state chemistry of these metals.« less

  17. Physicochemical properties and theoretical modeling of actinide complexes with a para-tert-Butylcalix[6]arene bearing phosphinoyl pendants. Extraction capability of the calixarene toward f elements.

    PubMed

    Ramírez, Flor de María; Varbanov, Sabi; Padilla, Juan; Bünzli, Jean-Claude G

    2008-09-04

    The coordination ability of the hexaphosphinoylated p-tert-butylcalix[6]arene B6bL6 toward actinides is established, as well as its good separation ability of the actinide ions UO2 2+ and Th(IV) over trivalent rare earths such as La(III), Eu(III), and Y(III). Spectrophotometric titration of uranyl with B6bL6 in CH 3CN yields log beta 11 = 7.1 and log beta 12 = 12.5 for the 1:1 and 1:2 (UO2 2+/B 6bL6) species, respectively. Actinide complexes with 1:1 and 1:2 (M/L) stoichiometries are isolated and characterized by elemental analysis, IR, and UV-vis. Compounds 1 and 3 fulfill their CN = 8 just with B 6bL (6), while compounds 2 and 4 require coordinated nitrates and/or water molecules. The luminescence spectra of the uranyl complexes and the parameters such as FWMH, vibronic spacing (upsilon sp), and the U-O bond length, as well as the luminescence lifetimes, permit the understanding of the coordination chemistry of these actinide calixarene complexes. Energy transfer from the B6bL6 ligand to the uranyl ion is demonstrated to be relevant in compound 1 with Q abs = 2.0%. The uranyl complex emission reveals a biexponential decay with tau s from 210 to 220 micros and tau L from 490 to 650 micros for compounds 1 and 3, respectively. The liquid-liquid extraction results demonstrate the good extraction capability of B 6bL (6) toward actinides but not for rare earths at room temperature. The extracted species keeps the 1(cation)/1(calixarene) ratio for the UO2 2+, Th 4+, and Eu 3+ ions. A good capacity of B6bL 6 toward Th4+ ions using aqueous phase 2 containing even up to 0.3 M thorium nitrate and an organic phase of 2.47 x 10 (-4) M B6bL6 in chloroform is found. The spectroscopic properties of the isolated uranyl complexes and the extraction studies reveal a uranophilic nature of B6bL6. The molecular modeling results are in good agreement with the experimental findings.

  18. Actinide Thermodynamics at Elevated Temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Friese, Judah I.; Rao, Linfeng; Xia, Yuanxian; Bachelor, Paula P.; Tian, Guoxin

    2007-11-16

    The postclosure chemical environment in the proposed Yucca Mountain repository is expected to experience elevated temperatures. Predicting migration of actinides is possible if sufficient, reliable thermodynamic data on hydrolysis and complexation are available for these temperatures. Data are scarce and scattered for 25 degrees C, and nonexistent for elevated temperatures. This collaborative project between LBNL and PNNL collects thermodynamic data at elevated temperatures on actinide complexes with inorganic ligands that may be present in Yucca Mountain. The ligands include hydroxide, fluoride, sulfate, phosphate and carbonate. Thermodynamic parameters of complexation, including stability constants, enthalpy, entropy and heat capacity of complexation, are measured with a variety of techniques including solvent extraction, potentiometry, spectrophotometry and calorimetry

  19. Specific sequestering agents for the actinides. VI. Synthetic and structural chemistry of tetrakis(N-alkylalkanehydroxamato)thorium(IV) complexes

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, W.L.; Raymond, K.N.

    1981-06-17

    Hydroxamate complexes of the actinides have been investigated as structural archetypes in the design of actinide-specific sequestering agents. The complexes Th((CH/sub 3/)/sub 2/CHN(O)O(O)R)/sub 4/ have been prepared (R = C(CH/sub 3/)/sub 3/ (1) or CH/sub 2/C(CH/sub 3/)/sub 3/ (2) The uranium(IV) analogue of 1 was also prepared. The tert-butyl groups of 1 dominate the stereochemistry of the complex by assuming a tetrahedral disposition around the metal. The coordination polyhedron of 1, which has 4 (S/sub 4/) crystallographic symmetry, is nearly cubic. The localization of charge on the nitrogen oxygen of the hydroxamate group makes this ligand unsymmetrical, and this gives rise to a 0.14-A difference in R(Th-O/sub N/) (2.357(3) A) and R(Th-O/sub C/) (2.492 (3) A). The sterically less constrained neopentyl derivative 2 shows a more typical eight-coordinate geometry - the D/sub 2d/ trigonal-faced (mmmm) dodecahedron. The average R(Th-O/sub N/) (2.36 (1) A) is again shorter than R(Th-O/sub C/) (2.46 (2) A). There is apparently no sorting of sites by ligand charge, since the O/sub N/ and O/sub C/ atoms are equally distributed between the A and B sites of the dodecahedron. Crystals of 1 conform to space group I4/sub 1//a with a = 17.338 (4) A and c = 12.706 (4) A. For 4 formula units per cell the calculated density d/sub calcd/ is 1.50 g cm/sup -3/ and d/sub obsd/ is 1.50 (1) g cm/sup -3/. Crystals of 2 conform to space group P1 with a = 9.777 (2) A, b = 14.633 (2) A, c = 18.515 (1) A, ..cap alpha.. = 74.061/sub 0/ (8), ..beta.. = 88.41 (1)/sup 0/, and ..gamma.. = 74.71 (2)/sup 0/. For 2 formula units per cell d/sub calcd/ = 1.30 g cm/sup -3/ and d/sub obsd/ = 1.19 g cm/sup -3/. Full-matrix least-squares refinement of both structures using all averaged, independent data with F/sup 2/ > 3sigma(F)/sup 2/ gave for 1 with 1798 data and 117 variables R = 0.027 and R/sub w/ = 0.032 and for 2 with 6978 data and 467 variables R = 0.034, R/sub w/ = 0.042. 10 figures, 11 tables.

  20. Characterization of Actinides Complexed to Nuclear Fuel Constituents Using ESI-MS

    DOE PAGES

    McDonald, Luther W.; Campbell, James A.; Vercouter, Thomas; ...

    2016-03-01

    Electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) was tested for its use in monitoring spent nuclear fuel (SNF) constituents including U, Pu, dibutyl phosphate (DBP), and tributyl phosphate (TBP). Both positive and negative ion modes were used to evaluate the speciation of U and Pu with TBP and DBP. Furthermore, apparent stability constants were determined for U complexed to TBP and DBP. In positive ion mode, TBP produced a strong signal with and without complexation to U or Pu, but, in negative ion mode, no TBP, U-TBP, or Pu-TBP complexes were observed. Apparent stability constants were determined for [UO2(NO3)2(TBP)2], [UO2(NO3)2(H2O)(TBP)2], and [UO2(NO3)2(TBP)3]. Inmore » contrast DBP, U-DBP, and Pu-DBP complexes were observed in both positive and negative ion modes. Apparent stability constants were determined for the species [UO2(DBP)], [UO2(DBP)3], and [UO2(DBP)4]. Analyzing mixtures of U or Pu with TBP and DBP yielded the formation of ternary complexes whose stoichiometry was directly related to the ratio of TBP to DBP. The ESI-MS protocols used in this study will further demonstrate the utility of ESI-MS and its applicability to process control monitoring in SNF reprocessing facilities.« less

  1. Actinide geochemistry: from the molecular level to the real system.

    PubMed

    Geckeis, Horst; Rabung, Thomas

    2008-12-12

    Geochemical processes leading to either mobilization or retention of radionuclides in an aquifer system are significantly influenced by their interaction with rock, sediment and colloid surfaces. Therefore, a sound safety assessment of nuclear waste disposal requires the elucidation and quantification of those processes. State-of-the-art analytical techniques as e.g. laser- and X-ray spectroscopy are increasingly applied to study solid-liquid interface reactions to obtain molecular level speciation insight. We have studied the sorption of trivalent lanthanides and actinides onto aluminium oxides, hydroxides and purified clay minerals by the time-resolved laser fluorescence spectroscopy and X-ray-absorption spectroscopy. Chemical constitution and structure of surface bound actinides are proposed based on spectroscopic information. Open questions still remain with regard to the exact nature of mineral surface ligands and the mineral/water interface. Similarities of spectroscopic data obtained for M(III) sorbed onto gamma-alumina, and clay minerals suggest the formation of very comparable inner-sphere surface complexes such as S-O-An(III)(OH)x(2-x)(H2O)5-x at pH > 5. Those speciation data are found consistent with those predicted by surface complexation modelling. The applicability of data obtained for pure mineral phases to actinide sorption onto heterogeneously composed natural clay rock is examined by experiments and by geochemical modelling. Good agreement of experiment and model calculations is found for U(VI) and trivalent actinide/lanthanide sorption to natural clay rock. The agreement of spectroscopy, geochemical modelling and batch experiments with natural rock samples and purified minerals increases the reliability in model predictions. The assessment of colloid borne actinide migration observed in various laboratory and field studies calls for detailed information on actinide-colloid interaction. Kinetic stabilization of colloid bound actinides can be due

  2. Noble reactions for the actinides: safe gold-based access to organouranium and azide complexes

    SciTech Connect

    Thomson, Robert K; Graves, Christopher R; Scott, Brian L; Kiplinger, Jaqueline L

    2008-01-01

    Gold has had a profound impact on organic chemistry; its compounds are spectacular catalysts for many organic transformations involving the formation of C-C, C-O, C-N and CoS bonds, and have enabled unprecedented pathways for the functionalization of C-H and C-C bonds. In general, gold complexes have not been exploited as reagents in organometallic or inorganic chemistry, although a few gold(l) aryl and alkynyl compounds have been reported to undergo transmetalation with transition metal complexes. We have been developing methods for functionalizing uranium complexes and have shown that Cu(l)-X reagents effect the oxidation of uranium with formation of U-X bonds, providing easy chemical control over uranium in oxidation states ranging from U{sup III}{yields}U{sup VI}. Although a logical approach for the direct generation of U-carbon and U-azide bonds, this Cu-based platform is limited in scope as it only works for pure and isolable copper compounds. This is problematic given the instability of organocuprates and copper azides, which can detonate violently as isolated solids. As such, this route has been confined to the synthesis of select uranium phenylacetylide complexes. Over the past few years, a variety of stable gold(l) alkyl, alkenyl, aryl, alkynyl, and azide complexes have been reported, propelling us to investigate their potential as reagents within the oxidative functionalization platform. Unlike the related CU{sup I} systems, Au{sup I} reagents are easily derivatized, and are safe to handle and isolate. Herein, we report that gold(l)-phosphine compounds can undergo a new class of reaction, and are excellent reagents for the oxidative functionalization of uranium with azide and carbon anions.

  3. Novel Separation of Actinides

    SciTech Connect

    Mariella, R

    2011-02-17

    The separation of actinides and other elements of interest for nuclear forensics and threat reduction is currently performed using decades-old chemistries and ion-exchange columns. We propose to determine the technical feasibility of a novel method for separating actinide ions in solution. This method is based upon isotachophoresis (ITP), which has been applied in the purification of pharmaceuticals and other biochemical applications. This technique has the potential to separate inorganic ions more effectively than existing methods, which is key to analyzing very small samples. We will perform a quantitative assessment of the effectiveness of specific isotachophoretic approaches including predicting the physical and chemical properties, such as ion mobility, of inorganic ions under specific solvent conditions using a combination of ab initio calculations and semi-empirical methods. We expect to obtain a thorough understanding of the analytical systems parameters under which ITP is most effective for the separation of inorganic samples, including the influence of the double layer surrounding actinide ions, the Debye length for different ions and ion complexes, and Debye-Hueckel limits. Inorganic separations are key to nuclear forensics for countering terrorism and nuclear proliferation. If found to be feasible and potentially superior to currently used separation approaches, ITP could provide the conceptual basis for an improved means to separate samples of nuclear explosion debris for nuclear forensic analysis, in support of the Laboratory's missions in homeland and national security.

  4. An improved thermodynamic model for the complexation of trivalent actinides and lanthanide with oxalic acid valid to high ionic strength.

    DOE PAGES

    Xiong, Yongliang; Thakur, Punam; Borkowski, Marian

    2015-07-30

    The dissociation constants of oxalic acid (Ox), and the stability constants of Am3+, Cm3+ and Eu3+ with Ox2– have been determined at 25 °C, over a range of concentration varying from 0.1 to 6.60 m NaClO4 using potentiometric titration and extraction techniques, respectively. The experimental data support the formation of complexes, M(Ox)n3 – 2n, where (M = Am3+, Cm3+ and Eu3+ and n = 1 and 2). The dissociation constant and the stability constant values measured as a function of NaClO4 concentration were used to estimate the Pitzer parameters for the respective interactions of Am3+, Cm3+ and Eu3+ with Ox.more » Furthermore, the stability constants data of Am3+ –Ox measured in NaClO4 and in NaCl solutions from the literature were simultaneously fitted in order to refine the existing actinide–oxalate complexation model that can be used universally in the safety assessment of radioactive waste disposal. The thermodynamic stability constant: log β0101 = 6.30 ± 0.06 and log β0102 = 10.84 ± 0.06 for Am3+ was obtained by simultaneously fitting data in NaCl and NaClO4 media. Additionally, log β0101 = 6.72 ± 0.08 and log β0102 = 11.05 ± 0.09 for the Cm3+ and log β0101 = 6.67 ± 0.08 and log β0102 = 11.15 ± 0.09 for the Eu3+ were calculated by extrapolation of data to zero ionic strength in NaClO4 medium only. For all stability constants, the Pitzer model gives an excellent representation of the data using interaction parameters β(0), β(1), and CΦ determined in this work. The thermodynamic model developed in this work will be useful in accurately modeling the potential solubility of trivalent actinides and early lanthanides to ionic strength of 6.60 m in low temperature environments in the presence of Ox. Furthermore, the work is also applicable to the accurate modeling transport of rare earth elements in various environments under the surface conditions.« less

  5. Complexation behavior of trivalent actinides and lanthanides with 1,10-phenanthroline-2,9-dicarboxylic acid based ligands: insight from density functional theory.

    PubMed

    Manna, Debashree; Ghanty, Tapan K

    2012-08-21

    We have investigated the complexation behavior of preorganized 1,10-phenanthroline-2,9-dicarboxylic acid (PDA) based ligands with trivalent lanthanides and actinides using density functional theory with various GGA type exchange-correlation functionals and different basis sets. New ligands have been designed from PDA through functionalization with soft donor atoms such as sulfur, resulting in mono-thio-dicarboxylic acids (TCA/TCA1) and di-thio-dicarboxylic acid (THIO). It has been found that selectivity in terms of complexation energy of actinides over lanthanides is the maximum with TCA1 where the metal-ligand binding is through the O atoms. This unusual feature where a softer actinide metal ion is bonded strongly with hard donor oxygen atoms has been explained using the popular chemical concepts, viz., Pearson's Hard-Soft-Acid-Base (HSAB) principle and the frontier orbital theory of chemical reactivity as proposed by Fukui. Detailed analysis within the framework of the HSAB principle indicates that the presence of softer nitrogen atoms in the phenanthroline moiety (which also act as donors to the metal ion) has a profound influence in changing the soft nature of the actinide ion, which in turn binds with the hard oxygen atoms in a stronger way as compared to the valence isoelectronic lanthanide ion. Also, the trends in the variation of calculated values of the metal-ligand bond distances and the corresponding complex formation energies have been rationalized using the Fukui reactivity indices corresponding to the metal ions and the donor sites. All the calculations have also been done in the presence of solvent. The "intra-ligand synergistic effect" demonstrated here for PDA or TCA1 with soft and hard donor centers might be very important in designing new ligands for selective extraction of various metal ions in a competitive environment. However, for TCA and THIO ligands with only soft donor centers, "intra-ligand synergism" may not be very efficient although

  6. Speciation and structural characterization of plutonium and actinide-organic complexes in surface and ground waters. Annual progress report, September 1996--September 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Buessler, K.O.; Repeta, D.J.

    1997-01-01

    'The authors proposed research is designed to study the association of actinides with dissolved organic complexes in subsurface waters. Actinide-humic matter associations in natural waters have been investigated previously, but the authors have postulated that much of the actinide binding activity may be supported by colloidal biopolymers. To investigate this, they are developing techniques to sample and identify organic constituents in groundwater, and to measure the Pu associated with different fractions of organic matter. Year 1 activities have focused on: (1) sampling techniques to minimize contamination and artifact formation, and to establish mass balances, (2) separation of Pu isotopes by oxidation state, and (3) analytical development of techniques for separation and identification of organic constituents from natural waters. The authors proposed research calls for field work at the Savannah River and Hanford Sites (SRS and HS, respectively). Towards this, they have been working on establishing protocols for ultra-clean (fg level) cross-flow filtration (CFF) techniques suitable for thermal ionization mass spectrometric (TIMS) analysis. A series of tests have been completed and the results have shown no Pu contamination from the CFF system was observable as long as the system is rigorously cleaned with acid, base and nano-pure water (Table 1). They have also collected a water sample from a pond near the laboratory in Woods Hole, MA to test blank conditions in the field, and to determine system mass balances. Blank levels were found to be satisfactory, and the mass balance is 100 \\261 10% for both {sup 239}Pu and {sup 240}Pu, the only two isotopes measurable in the sample. This is one of the major assurances for the success of the project because CFF will be the major sampling tool the authors will use to study natural Pu-organic complexes. Another important result from the field test is that > 80% of the dissolved Pu (based on the TIMS measurements) is in

  7. Speciation and structural characterization of plutonium and actinide-organic complexes in surface and ground waters. Annual progress report, September 1996--September 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Buessler, K.O.; Repeta, D.J.

    1997-12-31

    'The authors proposed research is designed to study the association of actinides with dissolved organic complexes in subsurface waters. Actinide-humic matter associations in natural waters have been investigated previously, but they have postulated that much of the actinide binding activity may be supported by colloidal biopolymers. To investigate this, they are developing techniques to sample and identify organic constituents in groundwater, and to measure the Pu associated with different fractions of organic matter. Year 1 activities have focused on: (1) sampling techniques to minimize contamination and artifact formation, and to establish mass balances, (2) separation of Pu isotopes by oxidation state, and (3) analytical development of techniques for separation and identification of organic constituents from natural waters. Their proposed research calls for field work at the Savannah River and Hanford Sites (SRS and HS, respectively). Towards this, they have been working on establishing protocols for ultra-clean (fg level) cross-flow filtration (CFF) techniques suitable for thermal ionization mass spectrometric (TIMS) analysis. A series of tests have been completed and the results have shown no Pu contamination from the CFF system was observable as long as the system is rigorously cleaned with acid, base and nano-pure water. They have also collected a water sample from a pond near the laboratory in Woods Hole, MA to test blank conditions in the field, and to determine system mass balances. Blank levels were found to be satisfactory, and the mass balance is 100--210% for both {sup 239}Pu and {sup 240}Pu, the only two isotopes measurable in the sample. This is one of the major assurances for the success of the project because CFF will be the major sampling tool the authors will use to study natural Pu-organic complexes. Another important result from the field test is that > 80 % of the dissolved Pu (based on the TIMS measurements) is in colloidal form.'

  8. Actinide metal processing

    DOEpatents

    Sauer, N.N.; Watkin, J.G.

    1992-03-24

    A process for converting an actinide metal such as thorium, uranium, or plutonium to an actinide oxide material by admixing the actinide metal in an aqueous medium with a hypochlorite as an oxidizing agent for sufficient time to form the actinide oxide material and recovering the actinide oxide material is described together with a low temperature process for preparing an actinide oxide nitrate such as uranyl nitrate. Additionally, a composition of matter comprising the reaction product of uranium metal and sodium hypochlorite is provided, the reaction product being an essentially insoluble uranium oxide material suitable for disposal or long term storage.

  9. Actinide metal processing

    DOEpatents

    Sauer, Nancy N.; Watkin, John G.

    1992-01-01

    A process of converting an actinide metal such as thorium, uranium, or plnium to an actinide oxide material by admixing the actinide metal in an aqueous medium with a hypochlorite as an oxidizing agent for sufficient time to form the actinide oxide material and recovering the actinide oxide material is provided together with a low temperature process of preparing an actinide oxide nitrate such as uranyl nitrte. Additionally, a composition of matter comprising the reaction product of uranium metal and sodium hypochlorite is provided, the reaction product being an essentially insoluble uranium oxide material suitable for disposal or long term storage.

  10. Molecular models for actinide speciation

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, D.L.; Watkin, J.G.; Morris, D.E.; Berg, J.M.

    1994-06-01

    Much effort has been devoted to the development of sensitive spectroscopic techniques for the study of actinide speciation based on the sensitivity of f-f electronic absorption bands to oxidation state and ligation of the actinide ions. These efforts assume that data obtained in such studies will be interpretable in terms of changes in complexation of the metal center. However, the current understanding of 5f electronic structure is based on data from solid state doped single crystals. In those studies, the local coordination geometry about the central actinide ion is maintained in an almost perfect high-symmetry environment and will have little relevance for species in solution where deviations from perfect high symmetry tend to be the rule rather than the exception. The authors have developed a vigorous research program in the systematic preparation and spectroscopic characterization of synthetic actinide complexes (Th, U, Np, and Pu) in which they can control nuclearity, oxidation state, and molecular structure. These complexes have been used to determine how observable electronic transitions are perturbed in response to structural changes in the complex in solution. From the spectra obtained for these model complexes, the authors have found that the f-f transitions naturally fall into obvious groupings by coordination number and symmetry by which they can now differentiate between monomeric, dimeric, and trimeric species in solution. The study of radionuclide speciation is fundamentally important to the determination of radionuclide solubility in the groundwater at Yucca Mountain.

  11. Actinide chemistry in ionic liquids.

    PubMed

    Takao, Koichiro; Bell, Thomas James; Ikeda, Yasuhisa

    2013-04-01

    This Forum Article provides an overview of the reported studies on the actinide chemistry in ionic liquids (ILs) with a particular focus on several fundamental chemical aspects: (i) complex formation, (ii) electrochemistry, and (iii) extraction behavior. The majority of investigations have been dedicated to uranium, especially for the 6+ oxidation state (UO2(2+)), because the chemistry of uranium in ordinary solvents has been well investigated and uranium is the most abundant element in the actual nuclear fuel cycles. Other actinides such as thorium, neptunium, plutonium, americium, and curiumm, although less studied, are also of importance in fully understanding the nuclear fuel engineering process and the safe geological disposal of radioactive wastes.

  12. Diglycolamide-functionalized calix[4]arenes showing unusual complexation of actinide ions in room temperature ionic liquids: role of ligand structure, radiolytic stability, emission spectroscopy, and thermodynamic studies.

    PubMed

    Mohapatra, Prasanta K; Sengupta, Arijit; Iqbal, Mudassir; Huskens, Jurriaan; Verboom, Willem

    2013-03-04

    Diglycolamide-functionalized calix[4]arenes (C4DGAs) with varying structural modifications were evaluated for actinide complexation from their extraction behavior toward actinide ions such as UO2(2+), Pu(4+), PuO2(2+), and Am(3+) in the room temperature ionic liquid (RTIL) 1-n-octyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethane)sulfonamide (C8mimNTf2). The formation constants were calculated for Am(3+) which showed a significant role of ligand structure, nature of substituents, and spacer length. Although the alkyl substituents on the amidic nitrogen increase the extraction efficiency of americium at lower acidity because of the inductive effect of the alkyl groups, at higher acidity the steric crowding around the ligating site determines the extraction efficiency. All C4DGAs formed 1:1 complexes with Am(3+) while for the analogous Eu(3+) complexes no inner sphere water molecules were detected and the asymmetry of the metal ligand complex differed from one another as proved by time-resolved laser induced fluorescence spectroscopy (TRLIFS). Thermodynamic studies indicated that the extraction process, predominant by the Am(3+)-C4DGA complexation reaction, is exothermic. The unique role of the medium on Am(3+) complexation with the C4DGA molecules with varying spacer length, L-IV and L-V, was noticed for the first time with a reversal in the trend observed in the RTIL compared to that seen in a nonpolar molecular diluent like n-dodecane. Various factors leading to a more preorganized structure were responsible for favorable metal ion complexation. The solvent systems show promise to be employed for nuclear waste remediation, and sustainability options were evaluated from radiolytic stability as well as stripping studies.

  13. An improved thermodynamic model for the complexation of trivalent actinides and lanthanide with oxalic acid valid to high ionic strength.

    SciTech Connect

    Xiong, Yongliang; Thakur, Punam; Borkowski, Marian

    2015-07-30

    The dissociation constants of oxalic acid (Ox), and the stability constants of Am3+, Cm3+ and Eu3+ with Ox2– have been determined at 25 °C, over a range of concentration varying from 0.1 to 6.60 m NaClO4 using potentiometric titration and extraction techniques, respectively. The experimental data support the formation of complexes, M(Ox)n3 – 2n, where (M = Am3+, Cm3+ and Eu3+ and n = 1 and 2). The dissociation constant and the stability constant values measured as a function of NaClO4 concentration were used to estimate the Pitzer parameters for the respective interactions of Am3+, Cm3+ and Eu3+ with Ox. Furthermore, the stability constants data of Am3+ –Ox measured in NaClO4 and in NaCl solutions from the literature were simultaneously fitted in order to refine the existing actinide–oxalate complexation model that can be used universally in the safety assessment of radioactive waste disposal. The thermodynamic stability constant: log β0101 = 6.30 ± 0.06 and log β0102 = 10.84 ± 0.06 for Am3+ was obtained by simultaneously fitting data in NaCl and NaClO4 media. Additionally, log β0101 = 6.72 ± 0.08 and log β0102 = 11.05 ± 0.09 for the Cm3+ and log β0101 = 6.67 ± 0.08 and log β0102 = 11.15 ± 0.09 for the Eu3+ were calculated by extrapolation of data to zero ionic strength in NaClO4 medium only. For all stability constants, the Pitzer model gives an excellent representation of the data using interaction parameters β(0), β(1), and CΦ determined in this work. The thermodynamic model developed in this work will be useful in accurately modeling the potential solubility of trivalent

  14. Complex kinetics of fluctuating enzymes: phase diagram characterization of a minimal kinetic scheme.

    PubMed

    Min, Wei; Jiang, Liang; Xie, X Sunney

    2010-05-03

    Enzyme molecules are dynamic entities with stochastic fluctuation in both protein conformation and enzymatic activity. However, such a notion of fluctuating enzymes, best characterized by recent single-molecule experiments, was not considered in the classic Michaelis-Menten (MM) kinetic scheme. Here we incorporate the fluctuation concept into the reversible MM scheme, and solve analytically all the possible kinetics (i.e., substrate concentration dependent enzymatic velocity) for a minimal model of fluctuating enzymes. Such a minimal model is found to display a variety of distinct kinetic behaviors (phases) in addition to the classic MM kinetics; excess substrate inhibition, sigmoidal kinetics, and concave biphasic kinetics. We find that all these kinetic phases are interrelated and unified under the framework of fluctuating enzymes and can be adequately described by a phase diagram that consists of two master parameters. Functionally, substrate inhibition, sigmoidal kinetics, and convex biphasic phases exhibit positive cooperativity, whereas concave biphasic phases display negative cooperativity. Remarkably, all these complex kinetics are produced by fluctuating enzymes with single substrate binding site, but the two conformations are, therefore, fundamentally different from the classic MWC and KNF models that require multiple subunit or binding sites. This model also suggests that, for a given enzyme/substrate pair, the non-MM behaviors could undergo transitions among different kinetic phases induced by varying product concentrations, owing to the fundamental Haldane symmetry in the reversible MM scheme.

  15. Subsurface interactions of actinide species and microorganisms : implications for the bioremediation of actinide-organic mixtures.

    SciTech Connect

    Banaszak, J.E.; Reed, D.T.; Rittmann, B.E.

    1999-02-12

    By reviewing how microorganisms interact with actinides in subsurface environments, we assess how bioremediation controls the fate of actinides. Actinides often are co-contaminants with strong organic chelators, chlorinated solvents, and fuel hydrocarbons. Bioremediation can immobilize the actinides, biodegrade the co-contaminants, or both. Actinides at the IV oxidation state are the least soluble, and microorganisms accelerate precipitation by altering the actinide's oxidation state or its speciation. We describe how microorganisms directly oxidize or reduce actinides and how microbiological reactions that biodegrade strong organic chelators, alter the pH, and consume or produce precipitating anions strongly affect actinide speciation and, therefore, mobility. We explain why inhibition caused by chemical or radiolytic toxicities uniquely affects microbial reactions. Due to the complex interactions of the microbiological and chemical phenomena, mathematical modeling is an essential tool for research on and application of bioremediation involving co-contamination with actinides. We describe the development of mathematical models that link microbiological and geochemical reactions. Throughout, we identify the key research needs.

  16. Predictive Modeling in Actinide Chemistry and Catalysis

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Ping

    2016-05-16

    These are slides from a presentation on predictive modeling in actinide chemistry and catalysis. The following topics are covered in these slides: Structures, bonding, and reactivity (bonding can be quantified by optical probes and theory, and electronic structures and reaction mechanisms of actinide complexes); Magnetic resonance properties (transition metal catalysts with multi-nuclear centers, and NMR/EPR parameters); Moving to more complex systems (surface chemistry of nanomaterials, and interactions of ligands with nanoparticles); Path forward and conclusions.

  17. Actinide-ion sensor

    DOEpatents

    Li, Shelly X; Jue, Jan-fong; Herbst, Ronald Scott; Herrmann, Steven Douglas

    2015-01-13

    An apparatus for the real-time, in-situ monitoring of actinide-ion concentrations. A working electrolyte is positioned within the interior of a container. The working electrolyte is separated from a reference electrolyte by a separator. A working electrode is at least partially in contact with the working electrolyte. A reference electrode is at least partially in contact with the reference electrolyte. A voltmeter is electrically connected to the working electrode and the reference electrode. The working electrolyte comprises an actinide-ion of interest. The separator is ionically conductive to the actinide-ion of interest. The separator comprises an actinide, Zr, and Nb. Preferably, the actinide of the separator is Am or Np, more preferably Pu. In one embodiment, the actinide of the separator is the actinide of interest. In another embodiment, the separator further comprises P and O.

  18. CURRENT AND KINETIC HELICITY OF LONG-LIVED ACTIVITY COMPLEXES

    SciTech Connect

    Komm, Rudolf; Gosain, Sanjay

    2015-01-01

    We study long-lived activity complexes and their current helicity at the solar surface and their kinetic helicity below the surface. The current helicity has been determined from synoptic vector magnetograms from the NSO/SOLIS facility, and the kinetic helicity of subsurface flows has been determined with ring-diagram analysis applied to full-disk Dopplergrams from NSO/GONG and SDO/HMI. Current and kinetic helicity of activity complexes follow the hemispheric helicity rule with mainly positive values (78%; 78%, respectively, with a 95% confidence level of 31%) in the southern hemisphere and negative ones (80%; 93%, respectively, with a 95% confidence level of 22% and 14%, respectively) in the northern hemisphere. The locations with the dominant sign of kinetic helicity derived from Global Oscillation Network Group (GONG) and SDO/HMI data are more organized than those of the secondary sign even if they are not part of an activity complex, while locations with the secondary sign are more fragmented. This is the case for both hemispheres even for the northern one where it is not as obvious visually due to the large amount of magnetic activity present as compared to the southern hemisphere. The current helicity shows a similar behavior. The dominant sign of current helicity is the same as that of kinetic helicity for the majority of the activity complexes (83% with a 95% confidence level of 15%). During the 24 Carrington rotations analyzed here, there is at least one longitude in each hemisphere where activity complexes occur repeatedly throughout the epoch. These ''active'' longitudes are identifiable as locations of strong current and kinetic helicity of the same sign.

  19. Kinetic analysis of complex metabolic networks

    SciTech Connect

    Stephanopoulos, G.

    1996-12-31

    A new methodology is presented for the analysis of complex metabolic networks with the goal of metabolite overproduction. The objective is to locate a small number of reaction steps in a network that have maximum impact on network flux amplification and whose rate can also be increased without functional network derangement. This method extends the concepts of Metabolic Control Analysis to groups of reactions and offers the means for calculating group control coefficients as measures of the control exercised by groups of reactions on the overall network fluxes and intracellular metabolite pools. It is further demonstrated that the optimal strategy for the effective increase of network fluxes, while maintaining an uninterrupted supply of intermediate metabolites, is through the coordinated amplification of multiple (as opposed to a single) reaction steps. Satisfying this requirement invokes the concept of the concentration control to coefficient, which emerges as a critical parameter in the identification of feasible enzymatic modifications with maximal impact on the network flux. A case study of aromatic aminoacid production is provided to illustrate these concepts.

  20. Synthesis of actinide nitrides, phosphides, sulfides and oxides

    DOEpatents

    Van Der Sluys, William G.; Burns, Carol J.; Smith, David C.

    1992-01-01

    A process of preparing an actinide compound of the formula An.sub.x Z.sub.y wherein An is an actinide metal atom selected from the group consisting of thorium, uranium, plutonium, neptunium, and americium, x is selected from the group consisting of one, two or three, Z is a main group element atom selected from the group consisting of nitrogen, phosphorus, oxygen and sulfur and y is selected from the group consisting of one, two, three or four, by admixing an actinide organometallic precursor wherein said actinide is selected from the group consisting of thorium, uranium, plutonium, neptunium, and americium, a suitable solvent and a protic Lewis base selected from the group consisting of ammonia, phosphine, hydrogen sulfide and water, at temperatures and for time sufficient to form an intermediate actinide complex, heating said intermediate actinide complex at temperatures and for time sufficient to form the actinide compound, and a process of depositing a thin film of such an actinide compound, e.g., uranium mononitride, by subliming an actinide organometallic precursor, e.g., a uranium amide precursor, in the presence of an effectgive amount of a protic Lewis base, e.g., ammonia, within a reactor at temperatures and for time sufficient to form a thin film of the actinide compound, are disclosed.

  1. Kinetic theory of partially ionized complex (dusty) plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Tsytovich, V.N.; De Angelis, U.; Ivlev, A.V.; Morfill, G.E.

    2005-08-15

    The general approach to the kinetic theory of complex (dusty) plasmas [Tsytovich and de Angelis, Phys. Plasmas 6, 1093 (1999)], which was formulated with the assumption of a regular (nonfluctuating) source of plasma particles, is reformulated to include ionization by electron impact on neutrals as the plasma source and the effects of collisions of ions and dust particles with neutrals.

  2. Noble gas-actinide complexes of the CUO molecule with multiple Ar, Kr, and Xe atoms in noble-gas matrices.

    PubMed

    Andrews, Lester; Liang, Binyong; Li, Jun; Bursten, Bruce E

    2003-03-12

    Laser-ablated U atoms react with CO in excess argon to produce CUO, which is trapped in a triplet state in solid argon at 7 K, based on agreement between observed and relativistic density functional theory (DFT) calculated isotopic frequencies ((12)C(16)O, (13)C(16)O, (12)C(18)O). This observation contrasts a recent neon matrix investigation, which trapped CUO in a linear singlet state calculated to be about 1 kcal/mol lower in energy. Experiments with krypton and xenon give results analogous to those with argon. Similar work with dilute Kr and Xe in argon finds small frequency shifts in new four-band progressions for CUO in the same triplet states trapped in solid argon and provides evidence for four distinct CUO(Ar)(4-n)(Ng)(n) (Ng = Kr, Xe, n = 1, 2, 3, 4) complexes for each Ng. DFT calculations show that successively higher Ng complexes are responsible for the observed frequency progressions. This work provides the first evidence for noble gas-actinide complexes, and the first example of neutral complexes with four noble gas atoms bonded to one metal center.

  3. Thermodynamics and kinetics of aqueous ferric phosphate complex formation

    SciTech Connect

    Wilhelmy, R.B.; Patel, R.C.; Matijevic, E.

    1985-09-25

    The equilibria and kinetics of complexation of iron(III) with phosphoric acid (at pH < 2) were studied at 25 and 50/sup 0/C at ionic strength ..mu.. = 2.5 M by using spectrophotometric and stopped-flow techniques. The results are consistent with the formation of two complexes, FeH/sub 2/PO/sub 4//sup 2 +/ and Fe(H/sub 2/PO/sub 4/)/sub 2//sup +/. The second species could only be detected by the analysis of kinetic data. The equilibrium constants, extinction coefficients, rate constants, and activation parameters for the formation of these complexes are given. A mechanism is proposed to account for the observed hydrogen ion dependency of the apparent forward rate constants. 35 references, 8 figures, 6 tables.

  4. Overview of actinide chemistry in the WIPP

    SciTech Connect

    Borkowski, Marian; Lucchini, Jean - Francois; Richmann, Michael K; Reed, Donald T; Khaing, Hnin; Swanson, Juliet

    2009-01-01

    The year 2009 celebrates 10 years of safe operations at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), the only nuclear waste repository designated to dispose defense-related transuranic (TRU) waste in the United States. Many elements contributed to the success of this one-of-the-kind facility. One of the most important of these is the chemistry of the actinides under WIPP repository conditions. A reliable understanding of the potential release of actinides from the site to the accessible environment is important to the WIPP performance assessment (PA). The environmental chemistry of the major actinides disposed at the WIPP continues to be investigated as part of the ongoing recertification efforts of the WIPP project. This presentation provides an overview of the actinide chemistry for the WIPP repository conditions. The WIPP is a salt-based repository; therefore, the inflow of brine into the repository is minimized, due to the natural tendency of excavated salt to re-seal. Reducing anoxic conditions are expected in WIPP because of microbial activity and metal corrosion processes that consume the oxygen initially present. Should brine be introduced through an intrusion scenario, these same processes will re-establish reducing conditions. In the case of an intrusion scenario involving brine, the solubilization of actinides in brine is considered as a potential source of release to the accessible environment. The following key factors establish the concentrations of dissolved actinides under subsurface conditions: (1) Redox chemistry - The solubility of reduced actinides (III and IV oxidation states) is known to be significantly lower than the oxidized forms (V and/or VI oxidation states). In this context, the reducing conditions in the WIPP and the strong coupling of the chemistry for reduced metals and microbiological processes with actinides are important. (2) Complexation - For the anoxic, reducing and mildly basic brine systems in the WIPP, the most important

  5. Nonlinear kinetics and new approaches to complex reaction mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Ross, J; Vlad, M O

    1999-01-01

    This paper reviews recent developments in the field of nonlinear chemical kinetics. Five topics are dealt with: (a) new approaches to complex reaction mechanisms, stoichiometric network analysis, classification of chemical oscillators and formulation of their mechanisms by deduction from experiments, and correlation metric construction of reaction pathways from measurements; (b) thermodynamic and stochastic theory of nonequilibrium processes, the eikonal approximation, the evaluation of stochastic potentials, experimental tests of the thermodynamic and stochastic theory of relative stability, and fluctuation-dissipation relations in nonequilibrium chemical systems; (c) chemical kinetics and cellular automata and lattice gas automata; (d) theoretical approaches and experimental studies of stochastic resonance in chemical kinetics; and (e) rate processes in disordered systems, stochastic Liouville equations, stretched exponential relaxation in disordered systems, and universality classes for rate processes in systems with static or dynamic disorder.

  6. Optimizing Complex Kinetics Experiments Using Least-Squares Methods

    PubMed Central

    Fahr, A.; Braun, W.; Kurylo, M. J.

    1993-01-01

    Complex kinetic problems are generally modeled employing numerical integration routines. Our kinetics modeling program, Acuchem, has been modified to fit rate constants and absorption coefficients generically to real or synthesized “laboratory data” via a least-squares iterative procedure written for personal computers. To test the model and method of analysis the self- and cross-combination reactions of HO2 and CH3O2 radicals of importance in atmospheric chemistry are examined. These radicals as well as other species absorb ultraviolet radiation. The resultant absorption signal is measured in the laboratory and compared with a modeled signal to obtain the best-fit to various kinetic parameters. The modified program generates synthetic data with added random noise. An analysis of the synthetic data leads to an optimization of the experimental design and best-values for certain rate constants and absorption coefficients. PMID:28053465

  7. On bias of kinetic temperature measurements in complex plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Kantor, M.; Moseev, D.; Salewski, M.

    2014-02-15

    The kinetic temperature in complex plasmas is often measured using particle tracking velocimetry. Here, we introduce a criterion which minimizes the probability of faulty tracking of particles with normally distributed random displacements in consecutive frames. Faulty particle tracking results in a measurement bias of the deduced velocity distribution function and hence the deduced kinetic temperature. For particles with a normal velocity distribution function, mistracking biases the obtained velocity distribution function towards small velocities at the expense of large velocities, i.e., the inferred velocity distribution is more peaked and its tail is less pronounced. The kinetic temperature is therefore systematically underestimated in measurements. We give a prescription to mitigate this type of error.

  8. Estimation of beech pyrolysis kinetic parameters by Shuffled Complex Evolution.

    PubMed

    Ding, Yanming; Wang, Changjian; Chaos, Marcos; Chen, Ruiyu; Lu, Shouxiang

    2016-01-01

    The pyrolysis kinetics of a typical biomass energy feedstock, beech, was investigated based on thermogravimetric analysis over a wide heating rate range from 5K/min to 80K/min. A three-component (corresponding to hemicellulose, cellulose and lignin) parallel decomposition reaction scheme was applied to describe the experimental data. The resulting kinetic reaction model was coupled to an evolutionary optimization algorithm (Shuffled Complex Evolution, SCE) to obtain model parameters. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first study in which SCE has been used in the context of thermogravimetry. The kinetic parameters were simultaneously optimized against data for 10, 20 and 60K/min heating rates, providing excellent fits to experimental data. Furthermore, it was shown that the optimized parameters were applicable to heating rates (5 and 80K/min) beyond those used to generate them. Finally, the predicted results based on optimized parameters were contrasted with those based on the literature.

  9. Kinetic theory of nonlinear transport phenomena in complex plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Mishra, S. K.; Sodha, M. S.

    2013-03-15

    In contrast to the prevalent use of the phenomenological theory of transport phenomena, a number of transport properties of complex plasmas have been evaluated by using appropriate expressions, available from the kinetic theory, which are based on Boltzmann's transfer equation; in particular, the energy dependence of the electron collision frequency has been taken into account. Following the recent trend, the number and energy balance of all the constituents of the complex plasma and the charge balance on the particles is accounted for; the Ohmic loss has also been included in the energy balance of the electrons. The charging kinetics for the complex plasma comprising of uniformly dispersed dust particles, characterized by (i) uniform size and (ii) the Mathis, Rumpl, and Nordsieck power law of size distribution has been developed. Using appropriate expressions for the transport parameters based on the kinetic theory, the system of equations has been solved to investigate the parametric dependence of the complex plasma transport properties on the applied electric field and other plasma parameters; the results are graphically illustrated.

  10. Actinide recovery process

    DOEpatents

    Muscatello, Anthony C.; Navratil, James D.; Saba, Mark T.

    1987-07-28

    Process for the removal of plutonium polymer and ionic actinides from aqueous solutions by absorption onto a solid extractant loaded on a solid inert support such as polystyrenedivinylbenzene. The absorbed actinides can then be recovered by incineration, by stripping with organic solvents, or by acid digestion. Preferred solid extractants are trioctylphosphine oxide and octylphenyl-N,N-diisobutylcarbamoylmethylphosphine oxide and the like.

  11. Thermodynamic Properties of Actinides and Actinide Compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konings, Rudy J. M.; Morss, Lester R.; Fuger, Jean

    The necessity of obtaining accurate thermodynamic quantities for the actinide elements and their compounds was recognized at the outset of the Manhattan Project, when a dedicated team of scientists and engineers initiated the program to exploit nuclear energy for military purposes. Since the end of World War II, both fundamental and applied objectives have motivated a great deal of further study of actinide thermodynamics. This chapter brings together many research papers and critical reviews on this subject. It also seeks to assess, to systematize, and to predict important properties of the actinide elements, ions, and compounds, especially for species in which there is significant interest and for which there is an experimental basis for the prediction.

  12. ABC of kink kinetics and density in a complex solution

    DOE PAGES

    Chernov, A. A.; DeYoreo, J. J.; Rashkovich, L. N.

    2007-06-14

    This tutorial lecture explains the ways supersaturation in complex solutions may be introduced to be most relevant to describe experimental data on kink and step kinetics. To do so, we express the kink rate via the frequencies of attachment and detachment of the building units and then link these frequencies to the measurable activities of these units in solution. Furthermore, possible reasons for violation of the Gibbs–Thomson law are also briefly discussed with reference to our earlier work.

  13. Method for preparing actinide nitrides

    DOEpatents

    Bryan, G.H.; Cleveland, J.M.; Heiple, C.R.

    1975-12-01

    Actinide nitrides, and particularly plutonium and uranium nitrides, are prepared by reacting an ammonia solution of an actinide compound with an ammonia solution of a reactant or reductant metal, to form finely divided actinide nitride precipitate which may then be appropriately separated from the solution. The actinide nitride precipitate is particularly suitable for forming nuclear fuels.

  14. A uranium (VI) complex: Synthesis, structural and thermal kinetic analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goel, Nidhi

    2016-08-01

    A new complex [UO2(2,6-DNP)2phen] (1) (2,6-DNP = 2,6-dinitrophenol, phen = 1,10-phenanthroline) was synthesized, and identified by elemental analysis, IR, Powder XRD and single crystal X-ray crystallography. Crystal structure provides the abundant information's about the bonding and geometry around the U(VI) metal center. The thermal decomposition was studied by TG-DSC, and the kinetics of thermolysis was investigated by applying model fitting as well as isoconversional methods. Explosion delay measurement (De) was also evaluated to determine the response of this complex under the condition of rapid heating.

  15. Sorption of trivalent lanthanides and actinides onto montmorillonite: Macroscopic, thermodynamic and structural evidence for ternary hydroxo and carbonato surface complexes on multiple sorption sites.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, M Marques; Scheinost, A C; Baeyens, B

    2016-08-01

    The credibility of long-term safety assessments of radioactive waste repositories may be greatly enhanced by a molecular level understanding of the sorption processes onto individual minerals present in the near- and far-fields. In this study we couple macroscopic sorption experiments to surface complexation modelling and spectroscopic investigations, including extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) and time-resolved laser fluorescence spectroscopies (TRLFS), to elucidate the uptake mechanism of trivalent lanthanides and actinides (Ln/An(III)) by montmorillonite in the absence and presence of dissolved carbonate. Based on the experimental sorption isotherms for the carbonate-free system, the previously developed 2 site protolysis non electrostatic surface complexation and cation exchange (2SPNE SC/CE) model needed to be complemented with an additional surface complexation reaction onto weak sites. The fitting of sorption isotherms in the presence of carbonate required refinement of the previously published model by reducing the strong site capacity and by adding the formation of Ln/An(III)-carbonato complexes both on strong and weak sites. EXAFS spectra of selected Am samples and TRLFS spectra of selected Cm samples corroborate the model assumptions by showing the existence of different surface complexation sites and evidencing the formation of Ln/An(III) carbonate surface complexes. In the absence of carbonate and at low loadings, Ln/An(III) form strong inner-sphere complexes through binding to three Al(O,OH)6 octahedra, most likely by occupying vacant sites in the octahedral layers of montmorillonite, which are exposed on {010} and {110} edge faces. At higher loadings, Ln/An(III) binds to only one Al octahedron, forming a weaker, edge-sharing surface complex. In the presence of carbonate, we identified a ternary mono- or dicarbonato Ln/An(III) complex binding directly to one Al(O,OH)6 octahedron, revealing that type-A ternary complexes form with the one

  16. Dissociation kinetics of Mn2+ complexes of NOTA and DOTA.

    PubMed

    Drahoš, Bohuslav; Kubíček, Vojtěch; Bonnet, Célia S; Hermann, Petr; Lukeš, Ivan; Tóth, Éva

    2011-03-07

    The kinetics of transmetallation of [Mn(nota)](-) and [Mn(dota)](2-) was investigated in the presence of Zn(2+) (5-50-fold excess) at variable pH (3.5-5.6) by (1)H relaxometry. The dissociation is much faster for [Mn(nota)](-) than for [Mn(dota)](2-) under both experimental and physiologically relevant conditions (t(½) = 74 h and 1037 h for [Mn(nota)](-) and [Mn(dota)](2-), respectively, at pH 7.4, c(Zn(2+)) = 10(-5) M, 25 °C). The dissociation of the complexes proceeds mainly via spontaneous ([Mn(nota)](-)k(0) = (2.6 ± 0.5) × 10(-6) s(-1); [Mn(dota)](2-)k(0) = (1.8 ± 0.6) × 10(-7) s(-1)) and proton-assisted pathways ([Mn(nota)](-)k(1) = (7.8 ± 0.1) × 10(-1) M(-1) s(-1); [Mn(dota)](2-)k(1) = (4.0 ± 0.6) × 10(-2) M(-1) s(-1), k(2) = (1.6 ± 0.1) × 10(3) M(-2) s(-1)). The observed suppression of the reaction rates with increasing Zn(2+) concentration is explained by the formation of a dinuclear Mn(2+)-L-Zn(2+) complex which is about 20-times more stable for [Mn(dota)](2-) than for [Mn(nota)](-) (K(MnLZn) = 68 and 3.6, respectively), and which dissociates very slowly (k(3)∼10(-5) M(-1) s(-1)). These data provide the first experimental proof that not all Mn(2+) complexes are kinetically labile. The absence of coordinated water makes both [Mn(nota)](-) and [Mn(dota)](2-) complexes inefficient for MRI applications. Nevertheless, the higher kinetic inertness of [Mn(dota)](2-) indicates a promising direction in designing ligands for Mn(2+) complexation.

  17. PREFACE: Actinides 2009

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, Linfeng; Tobin, James G.; Shuh, David K.

    2010-07-01

    This volume of IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering consists of 98 papers that were presented at Actinides 2009, the 8th International Conference on Actinide Science held on 12-17 July 2009 in San Francisco, California, USA. This conference was jointly organized by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. The Actinides conference series started in Baden-Baden, Germany (1975) and this first conference was followed by meetings at Asilomar, CA, USA (1981), Aix-en-Provence, France (1985), Tashkent, USSR (1989), Santa Fe, NM, USA (1993), Baden-Baden, Germany (1997), Hayama, Japan (2001), and Manchester, UK (2005). The Actinides conference series provides a regular venue for the most recent research results on the chemistry, physics, and technology of the actinides and heaviest elements. Actinides 2009 provided a forum spanning a diverse range of scientific topics, including fundamental materials science, chemistry, physics, environmental science, and nuclear fuels. Of particular importance was a focus on the key roles that basic actinide chemistry and physics research play in advancing the worldwide renaissance of nuclear energy. Editors Linfeng Rao Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (lrao@lbl.gov) James G Tobin Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (tobin1@llnl.gov) David K Shuh Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (dkshuh@lbl.gov)

  18. Understanding the complexation of Eu(3+) with potential ligands used for preferential separation of lanthanides and actinides in various stages of nuclear fuel cycle: A luminescence investigation.

    PubMed

    Sengupta, Arijit; Kadam, R M

    2017-02-15

    A systematic photoluminescence based investigation was carried out to understand the complexation of Eu(3+) with different ligands (TBP: tri-n-butyl phosphate, DHOA: di-n-hexyl octanamide, Cyanex 923: tri-n-alkyl phosphine oxide and Cyanex 272: Bis (2,4,4 trimethyl) pentyl phosphinic acid) used for preferential separation of lanthanides and actinides in various stages of nuclear fuel cycle. In case of TBP and DHOA complexes, 3 ligand molecules coordinated in monodentate fashion and 3 nitrate ion in bidentate fashion to Eu(3+) to satisfy the 9 coordination of Eu. In case of Cyanex 923 and Cyanex 272 complexes, 3 ligand molecules, 3 nitrate ion and 3 water molecules coordinated to Eu(3+) in monodentate fashion. The Eu complexes of TBP and DHOA were found to have D3h local symmetry while that for Cyanex 923 and Cyanex 272 were C3h. Judd-Ofelt analysis of these systems revealed that the covalency of EuO bond followed the trend DHOA>TBP>Cyanex 272>Cyanex 923. Different photophysical properties like radiative and non-radiative life time, branching ratio for different transitions, magnetic and electric dipole moment transition probabilities and quantum efficiency were also evaluated and compared for these systems. The magnetic dipole transition probability was found to be almost independent of ligand field perturbation while electric dipole transition probability for (5)D0-(7)F2 transition was found to be hypersensitive with ligand field with a trend DHOA>TBP>Cyanex 272>Cyanex 923. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Understanding the complexation of Eu3 + with potential ligands used for preferential separation of lanthanides and actinides in various stages of nuclear fuel cycle: A luminescence investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sengupta, Arijit; Kadam, R. M.

    2017-02-01

    A systematic photoluminescence based investigation was carried out to understand the complexation of Eu3 + with different ligands (TBP: tri-n-butyl phosphate, DHOA: di-n-hexyl octanamide, Cyanex 923: tri-n-alkyl phosphine oxide and Cyanex 272: Bis (2,4,4 trimethyl) pentyl phosphinic acid) used for preferential separation of lanthanides and actinides in various stages of nuclear fuel cycle. In case of TBP and DHOA complexes, 3 ligand molecules coordinated in monodentate fashion and 3 nitrate ion in bidentate fashion to Eu3 + to satisfy the 9 coordination of Eu. In case of Cyanex 923 and Cyanex 272 complexes, 3 ligand molecules, 3 nitrate ion and 3 water molecules coordinated to Eu3 + in monodentate fashion. The Eu complexes of TBP and DHOA were found to have D3h local symmetry while that for Cyanex 923 and Cyanex 272 were C3h. Judd-Ofelt analysis of these systems revealed that the covalency of Eusbnd O bond followed the trend DHOA > TBP > Cyanex 272 > Cyanex 923. Different photophysical properties like radiative and non-radiative life time, branching ratio for different transitions, magnetic and electric dipole moment transition probabilities and quantum efficiency were also evaluated and compared for these systems. The magnetic dipole transition probability was found to be almost independent of ligand field perturbation while electric dipole transition probability for 5D0-7F2 transition was found to be hypersensitive with ligand field with a trend DHOA > TBP > Cyanex 272 > Cyanex 923. Supplementary Table 2: Determination of inner sphere water molecules from the different empirical formulae reported in the literature.

  20. Actinides in the Geosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Runde, Wolfgang; Neu, Mary P.

    Since the 1950s actinides have been used to benefit industry, science, health, and national security. The largest industrial application, electricity generation from uranium and thorium fuels, is growing worldwide. Thus, more actinides are being mined, produced, used and processed than ever before. The future of nuclear energy hinges on how these increasing amounts of actinides are contained in each stage of the fuel cycle, including disposition. In addition, uranium and plutonium were built up during the Cold War between the United States and the Former Soviet Union for defense purposes and nuclear energy.

  1. Interpretation of biphasic dissociation kinetics for isomeric class II major histocompatibility complex-peptide complexes

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, TG; McConnell, HM

    1999-01-01

    Antigenic peptides bound to class II major histocompatibility complex (MHC) proteins play a key role in the distinction between "self" and "nonself" by the cellular immune system. Although the formation and dissociation of these complexes are often thought of in terms of the simple mechanism MHC + P &rlharr; MHC-P, studies of MHC-peptide dissociation kinetics suggest that multiple interconverting forms of the bound MHC-peptide complex can be formed. However, the precise relationship between observed dissociation data and proposed multiple-complex mechanisms has not been systematically examined. Here we provide a mathematical analysis to fill this gap and attempt to clarify the kinetic behavior that is expected to result from the proposed mechanisms. We also examine multiple-complex dynamics that can be "hidden" in conventional experiments. Although we focus on MHC-peptide interactions, the analysis provided here is fully general and applies to any ligand-receptor system having two distinct bound states. PMID:10545347

  2. Diameter dependent electron transfer kinetics in semiconductor-enzyme complexes.

    PubMed

    Brown, Katherine A; Song, Qing; Mulder, David W; King, Paul W

    2014-10-28

    Excited state electron transfer (ET) is a fundamental step for the catalytic conversion of solar energy into chemical energy. To understand the properties controlling ET between photoexcited nanoparticles and catalysts, the ET kinetics were measured for solution-phase complexes of CdTe quantum dots and Clostridium acetobutylicum [FeFe]-hydrogenase I (CaI) using time-resolved photoluminescence spectroscopy. Over a 2.0-3.5 nm diameter range of CdTe nanoparticles, the observed ET rate (kET) was sensitive to CaI concentration. To account for diameter effects on CaI binding, a Langmuir isotherm and two geometric binding models were created to estimate maximal CaI affinities and coverages at saturating concentrations. Normalizing the ET kinetics to CaI surface coverage for each CdTe diameter led to k(ET) values that were insensitive to diameter, despite a decrease in the free energy for photoexcited ET (ΔGET) with increasing diameter. The turnover frequency (TOF) of CaI in CdTe-CaI complexes was measured at several molar ratios. Normalization for diameter-dependent changes in CaI coverage showed an increase in TOF with diameter. These results suggest that k(ET) and H2 production for CdTe-CaI complexes are not strictly controlled by ΔG(ET) and that other factors must be considered.

  3. PRODUCTION OF ACTINIDE METAL

    DOEpatents

    Knighton, J.B.

    1963-11-01

    A process of reducing actinide oxide to the metal with magnesium-zinc alloy in a flux of 5 mole% of magnesium fluoride and 95 mole% of magnesium chloride plus lithium, sodium, potassium, calcium, strontium, or barium chloride is presented. The flux contains at least 14 mole% of magnesium cation at 600-- 900 deg C in air. The formed magnesium-zinc-actinide alloy is separated from the magnesium-oxide-containing flux. (AEC)

  4. Actinide recovery process

    DOEpatents

    Muscatello, A.C.; Navratil, J.D.; Saba, M.T.

    1985-06-13

    Process for the removal of plutonium polymer and ionic actinides from aqueous solutions by absorption onto a solid extractant loaded on a solid inert support such as polystyrene-divinylbenzene. The absorbed actinides can then be recovered by incineration, by stripping with organic solvents, or by acid digestion. Preferred solid extractants are trioctylphosphine oxide and octylphenyl-N,N-diisobutylcarbamoylmethylphosphine oxide and the like. 2 tabs.

  5. Thermochemistry of the actinides

    SciTech Connect

    Kleinschmidt, P.D.

    1993-10-01

    The measurement of equilibria by Knudsen effusion techniques and the enthalpy of formation of the actinide atoms is briefly discussed. Thermochemical data on the sublimation of the actinide fluorides is used to calculate the enthalpies of formation and entropies of the gaseous species. Estimates are made for enthalpies and entropies of the tetrafluorides and trifluorides for those systems where data is not available. The pressure of important species in the tetrafluoride sublimation processes is calculated based on this thermochemical data.

  6. Research in actinide chemistry. Progress report, 1990--1993

    SciTech Connect

    Choppin, G.R.

    1993-04-01

    This research studies the behavior of the actinide elements in aqueous solution. The high radioactivity of the transuranium actinides limits the concentrations which can be studied and, consequently, limits the experimental techniques. However, oxidation state analogs (trivalent lanthanides, tetravalent thorium, and hexavalent uranium) do not suffer from these limitations. Behavior of actinides in the environment are a major USDOE concern, whether in connection with long-term releases from a repository, releases from stored defense wastes or accidental releases in reprocessing, etc. Principal goal of our research was expand the thermodynamic data base on complexation of actinides by natural ligands (e.g., OH{sup {minus}}, CO{sub 3}{sup 2{minus}}, PO{sub 4}{sup 3{minus}}, humates). The research undertakes fundamental studies of actinide complexes which can increase understanding of the environmental behavior of these elements.

  7. Plutonium(IV) complexation by diglycolamide ligands--coordination chemistry insight into TODGA-based actinide separations.

    PubMed

    Reilly, Sean D; Gaunt, Andrew J; Scott, Brian L; Modolo, Giuseppe; Iqbal, Mudassir; Verboom, Willem; Sarsfield, Mark J

    2012-10-09

    Complexation of Pu(IV) with TMDGA, TEDGA, and TODGA diglycolamide ligands was followed by vis-NIR spectroscopy. A crystal structure determination reveals that TMDGA forms a 1 : 3 homoleptic Pu(IV) complex with the nitrate anions forced into the outer coordination sphere.

  8. Subsurface Biogeochemistry of Actinides

    SciTech Connect

    Kersting, Annie B.; Zavarin, Mavrik

    2016-06-29

    A major scientific challenge in environmental sciences is to identify the dominant processes controlling actinide transport in the environment. It is estimated that currently, over 2200 metric tons of plutonium (Pu) have been deposited in the subsurface worldwide, a number that increases yearly with additional spent nuclear fuel (Ewing et al., 2010). Plutonium has been shown to migrate on the scale of kilometers, giving way to a critical concern that the fundamental biogeochemical processes that control its behavior in the subsurface are not well understood (Kersting et al., 1999; Novikov et al., 2006; Santschi et al., 2002). Neptunium (Np) is less prevalent in the environment; however, it is predicted to be a significant long-term dose contributor in high-level nuclear waste. Our focus on Np chemistry in this Science Plan is intended to help formulate a better understanding of Pu redox transformations in the environment and clarify the differences between the two long-lived actinides. The research approach of our Science Plan combines (1) Fundamental Mechanistic Studies that identify and quantify biogeochemical processes that control actinide behavior in solution and on solids, (2) Field Integration Studies that investigate the transport characteristics of Pu and test our conceptual understanding of actinide transport, and (3) Actinide Research Capabilities that allow us to achieve the objectives of this Scientific Focus Area (SFA and provide new opportunities for advancing actinide environmental chemistry. These three Research Thrusts form the basis of our SFA Science Program (Figure 1).

  9. Minor Actinides Recycling in PWRs

    SciTech Connect

    Delpech, M.; Golfier, H.; Vasile, A.; Varaine, F.; Boucher, L.; Greneche, D.

    2006-07-01

    Recycling of minor actinides in current and near future PWR is considered as one of the options of the general waste management strategy. This paper presents the analysis of this option both from the core physics and fuel cycle point of view. A first indicator of the efficiency of different neutron spectra for transmutation purposes is the capture to fission cross sections ratio which is less favourable by a factor between 5 to 10 in PWRs compared to fast reactors. Another indicator presented is the production of high ranking isotopes like Curium, Berkelium or Californium in the thermal or epithermal spectrum conditions of PWR cores by successive neutron captures. The impact of the accumulation of this elements on the fabrication process of such PWR fuels strongly penalizes this option. The main constraint on minor actinides loadings in PWR (or fast reactors) fuels are related to their direct impact (or the impact of their transmutation products) on the reactivity coefficients, the reactivity control means and the core kinetics parameters. The main fuel cycle physical parameters like the neutron source, the alpha decay power, the gamma and neutrons dose rate and the criticality aspects are also affected. Recent neutronic calculations based on a reference core of the Evolutionary Pressurized Reactor (EPR), indicates typical maximum values of 1 % loadings. Different fuel design options for minor actinides transmutation purposes in PWRs are presented: UOX and MOX, homogeneous and heterogeneous assemblies. In this later case, Americium loading is concentrated in specific pins of a standard UOX assembly. Recycling of Neptunium in UOX and MOX fuels was also studied to improve the proliferation resistance of the fuel. The impact on the core physics and penalties on Uranium enrichment were underlined in this case. (authors)

  10. Multiscale Model for the Assembly Kinetics of Protein Complexes.

    PubMed

    Xie, Zhong-Ru; Chen, Jiawen; Wu, Yinghao

    2016-02-04

    The assembly of proteins into high-order complexes is a general mechanism for these biomolecules to implement their versatile functions in cells. Natural evolution has developed various assembling pathways for specific protein complexes to maintain their stability and proper activities. Previous studies have provided numerous examples of the misassembly of protein complexes leading to severe biological consequences. Although the research focusing on protein complexes has started to move beyond the static representation of quaternary structures to the dynamic aspect of their assembly, the current understanding of the assembly mechanism of protein complexes is still largely limited. To tackle this problem, we developed a new multiscale modeling framework. This framework combines a lower-resolution rigid-body-based simulation with a higher-resolution Cα-based simulation method so that protein complexes can be assembled with both structural details and computational efficiency. We applied this model to a homotrimer and a heterotetramer as simple test systems. Consistent with experimental observations, our simulations indicated very different kinetics between protein oligomerization and dimerization. The formation of protein oligomers is a multistep process that is much slower than dimerization but thermodynamically more stable. Moreover, we showed that even the same protein quaternary structure can have very diverse assembly pathways under different binding constants between subunits, which is important for regulating the functions of protein complexes. Finally, we revealed that the binding between subunits in a complex can be synergistically strengthened during assembly without considering allosteric regulation or conformational changes. Therefore, our model provides a useful tool to understand the general principles of protein complex assembly.

  11. Preparation of actinides and actinide compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spirlet, J. C.; Vogt, O.

    1982-10-01

    Starting materials for actinide research are commercially available oxides. The metals are synthesized by the metallothermic reduction of oxides, halides or carbides. The metals are further refined by vacuum-melting, distillation, van Arkel process or electrorefining to 99.9% purity. Crystals of the metals and many compounds in mm sizes are grown by specifically adapted classical methods such as solution-growth, chemical transport, flux-growth, mineralization or melt-growth.

  12. TUCS/phosphate mineralization of actinides

    SciTech Connect

    Nash, K.L.

    1997-10-01

    This program has as its objective the development of a new technology that combines cation exchange and mineralization to reduce the concentration of heavy metals (in particular actinides) in groundwaters. The treatment regimen must be compatible with the groundwater and soil, potentially using groundwater/soil components to aid in the immobilization process. The delivery system (probably a water-soluble chelating agent) should first concentrate the radionuclides then release the precipitating anion, which forms thermodynamically stable mineral phases, either with the target metal ions alone or in combination with matrix cations. This approach should generate thermodynamically stable mineral phases resistant to weathering. The chelating agent should decompose spontaneously with time, release the mineralizing agent, and leave a residue that does not interfere with mineral formation. For the actinides, the ideal compound probably will release phosphate, as actinide phosphate mineral phases are among the least soluble species for these metals. The most promising means of delivering the precipitant would be to use a water-soluble, hydrolytically unstable complexant that functions in the initial stages as a cation exchanger to concentrate the metal ions. As it decomposes, the chelating agent releases phosphate to foster formation of crystalline mineral phases. Because it involves only the application of inexpensive reagents, the method of phosphate mineralization promises to be an economical alternative for in situ immobilization of radionuclides (actinides in particular). The method relies on the inherent (thermodynamic) stability of actinide mineral phases.

  13. Sigma Team for Advanced Actinide Recycle FY2015 Accomplishments and Directions

    SciTech Connect

    Moyer, Bruce A.

    2015-09-30

    noncomplexing aqueous solution and submission of this scientific breakthrough as a paper in Science; The first-ever co-crystallization of Am(VI) with UO2(NO3)2 ∙ 6H2O, opening the door to a new approach for separating hexavalent actinides as a group; Results showing that three potentially problematic metals will not present risk in ALSEP; Improvement in ALSEP contactor stripping kinetics to acceptable performance; A comparison of centrifugal contactors vs mixer-settlers showing the former performs better in ALSEP stripping; Synthesis of new mixed N,O-donor extractants with enhanced solubility and strength for selective trivalent actinide extraction; Development of computational methods showing promise in prediction of the selectivity of new extractants for trivalent actinides vs lanthanides; An order-of-magnitude improvement in aqueous Am/Eu complexation selectivity of an alternative macrocyclic stripping agent for ALSEP, potentially enabling an option for an Am product stream free from both Ln and Cm. An alternative aqueous combination of dipicolinate complexant and malonate buffer that may present options for ALSEP and TALSPEAK (Trivalent Actinide-Lanthanide Separations by Phosphorus-reagent Extraction from Aqueous Komplexes) type separations. The ALSEP concept is advancing toward a benchtop flowsheet demonstration planned for FY 2016, and a bench-scale test bed at Idaho National Laboratory (INL) will be employed to demonstrate at least one tandem Am oxidation and separation concept. This report outlines the goals of the STAAR, significance of achieving these goals, STAAR organization around the above aims and questions, recent highlights, and future directions. The report also includes a listing of publications, reports, patents, and dissertations.

  14. Strong correlations in actinide redox reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horowitz, S. E.; Marston, J. B.

    2011-02-01

    Reduction-oxidation (redox) reactions of the redox couples An(VI)/An(V), An(V)/An(IV), and An(IV)/An(III), where An is an element in the family of early actinides (U, Np, and Pu), as well as Am(VI)/Am(V) and Am(V)/Am(III), are modeled by combining density functional theory with a generalized Anderson impurity model that accounts for the strong correlations between the 5f electrons. Diagonalization of the Anderson impurity model yields improved estimates for the redox potentials and the propensity of the actinide complexes to disproportionate.

  15. Strong correlations in actinide redox reactions.

    PubMed

    Horowitz, S E; Marston, J B

    2011-02-14

    Reduction-oxidation (redox) reactions of the redox couples An(VI)/An(V), An(V)/An(IV), and An(IV)/An(III), where An is an element in the family of early actinides (U, Np, and Pu), as well as Am(VI)/Am(V) and Am(V)/Am(III), are modeled by combining density functional theory with a generalized Anderson impurity model that accounts for the strong correlations between the 5f electrons. Diagonalization of the Anderson impurity model yields improved estimates for the redox potentials and the propensity of the actinide complexes to disproportionate.

  16. Actinide-Aluminate Speciation in Alkaline Radioactive Waste

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. David L. Clark; Dr. Alexander M. Fedosseev

    2001-12-21

    Investigation of behavior of actinides in alkaline media containing AL(III) showed that no aluminate complexes of actinides in oxidation states (IIII-VIII) were formed in alkaline solutions. At alkaline precipitation IPH (10-14) of actinides in presence of AL(III) formation of aluminate compounds is not observed. However, in precipitates contained actinides (IIV)<(VI), and to a lesser degree actinides (III), some interference of components takes place that is reflected in change of solid phase properties in comparison with pure components or their mechanical mixture. The interference decreases with rise of precipitation PH and at PH 14 is exhibited very feebly. In the case of NP(VII) the individual compound with AL(III) is obtained, however it is not aluminate of neptunium(VII), but neptunate of aluminium(III) similar to neptunates of other metals obtained earlier.

  17. Actinides and Rare Earths Topical Conference (Code AC)

    SciTech Connect

    Tobin, J G

    2009-11-24

    Actinide and the Rare Earth materials exhibit many unique and diverse physical, chemical and magnetic properties, in large part because of the complexity of their f electronic structure. This Topical Conference will focus upon the chemistry, physics and materials science in Lanthanide and Actinide materials, driven by 4f and 5f electronic structure. Particular emphasis will be placed upon 4f/5f magnetic structure, surface science and thin film properties. For the actinides, fundamental actinide science and its role in resolving technical challenges posed by actinide materials will be stressed. Both basic and applied experimental approaches, including synchrotron-radiation-based investigations, as well as theoretical modeling and computational simulations, are planned to be part of the Topical Conference. Of particular importance are the issues related to the potential renaissance in Nuclear Fuels, including synthesis, oxidation, corrosion, intermixing, stability in extreme environments, prediction of properties via benchmarked simulations, separation science, environmental impact and disposal of waste products.

  18. Uncovering Oscillations, Complexity, and Chaos in Chemical Kinetics Using Mathematica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferreira, M. M. C.; Ferreira, W. C., Jr.; Lino, A. C. S.; Porto, M. E. G.

    1999-06-01

    Unlike reactions with no peculiar temporal behavior, in oscillatory reactions concentrations can rise and fall spontaneously in a cyclic or disorganized fashion. In this article, the software Mathematica is used for a theoretical study of kinetic mechanisms of oscillating and chaotic reactions. A first simple example is introduced through a three-step reaction, called the Lotka model, which exhibits a temporal behavior characterized by damped oscillations. The phase plane method of dynamic systems theory is introduced for a geometric interpretation of the reaction kinetics without solving the differential rate equations. The equations are later numerically solved using the built-in routine NDSolve and the results are plotted. The next example, still with a very simple mechanism, is the Lotka-Volterra model reaction, which oscillates indefinitely. The kinetic process and rate equations are also represented by a three-step reaction mechanism. The most important difference between this and the former reaction is that the undamped oscillation has two autocatalytic steps instead of one. The periods of oscillations are obtained by using the discrete Fourier transform (DFT)-a well-known tool in spectroscopy, although not so common in this context. In the last section, it is shown how a simple model of biochemical interactions can be useful to understand the complex behavior of important biological systems. The model consists of two allosteric enzymes coupled in series and activated by its own products. This reaction scheme is important for explaining many metabolic mechanisms, such as the glycolytic oscillations in muscles, yeast glycolysis, and the periodic synthesis of cyclic AMP. A few of many possible dynamic behaviors are exemplified through a prototype glycolytic enzymatic reaction proposed by Decroly and Goldbeter. By simply modifying the initial concentrations, limit cycles, chaos, and birhythmicity are computationally obtained and visualized.

  19. Classic reaction kinetics can explain complex patterns of antibiotic action

    PubMed Central

    zur Wiesch, P. Abel; Abel, S.; Gkotzis, S.; Ocampo, P.; Engelstädter, J.; Hinkley, T.; Magnus, C.; Waldor, M. K.; Udekwu, K.; Cohen, T.

    2015-01-01

    Finding optimal dosing strategies for treating bacterial infections is extremely difficult, and improving therapy requires costly and time-intensive experiments. To date, an incomplete mechanistic understanding of drug effects has limited our ability to make accurate quantitative predictions of drug-mediated bacterial killing and impeded the rational design of antibiotic treatment strategies. Three poorly understood phenomena complicate predictions of antibiotic activity: post-antibiotic growth suppression, density-dependent antibiotic effects, and persister cell formation. Here, we show that chemical binding kinetics alone are sufficient to explain these three phenomena, using single cell data and time-kill curves of Escherichia coli and Vibrio cholerae exposed to a variety of antibiotics in combination with a theoretical model that links chemical reaction kinetics to bacterial population biology. Our model reproduces existing observations, has a high predictive power across different experimental setups (R2= 0.86), and makes several testable predictions, which we verified in new experiments and by analysing published data from a clinical trial on tuberculosis therapy. While a variety of biological mechanisms have previously been invoked to explain post-antibiotic growth suppression, density-dependent antibiotic effects, and especially persister cell formation, our findings reveal that a simple model which considers only binding kinetics provides a parsimonious and unifying explanation for these three complex, phenotypically distinct behaviours. Current antibiotic and other chemotherapeutic regimens are often based on trial-and-error or expert opinion. Our ‘chemical reaction kinetics’-based approach may inform new strategies, that are based on rational design. PMID:25972005

  20. Determination of solubility products of complex compounds of certain lanthanide and actinide diiodies with 18-crown-6 in tetrahydrofuran

    SciTech Connect

    Mikheev, N.B.; Kamenskaya, A.N.; Kulyukhin, S.A.

    1988-09-01

    The existence of divalent americium in a tetrahydrofuran (THF) solution was proved for the first time. The values of the solubility products (SP) of the complex compounds with the composition of MeI{sub 2}{centered dot}18-crown-6 (Me = Sm, Eu, Yb, Am, Cf, Es, Fm) in the THF solutions were determined by the cocrystallization method. The SP values obtained are within (5.9-7.9){centered dot}10{sup {minus}12} and are close to the SP value for SrI{sub 2}{centered dot}10{sup {minus}12}, which indicates a similarity in the properties of these elements.

  1. Wakes in complex plasmas: A self-consistent kinetic theory.

    PubMed

    Kompaneets, Roman; Morfill, Gregor E; Ivlev, Alexei V

    2016-06-01

    In ground-based experiments with complex (dusty) plasmas, charged microparticles are levitated against gravity by an electric field, which also drives ion flow in the parent gas. Existing analytical approaches to describe the electrostatic interaction between microparticles in such conditions generally ignore the field and ion-neutral collisions, assuming free ion flow with a certain approximation for the ion velocity distribution function (usually a shifted Maxwellian). We provide a comprehensive analysis of our previously proposed self-consistent kinetic theory including the field, ion-neutral collisions, and the corresponding ion velocity distribution. We focus on various limiting cases and demonstrate how the interplay of these factors results in different forms of the shielding potential.

  2. Wakes in complex plasmas: A self-consistent kinetic theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kompaneets, Roman; Morfill, Gregor E.; Ivlev, Alexei V.

    2016-06-01

    In ground-based experiments with complex (dusty) plasmas, charged microparticles are levitated against gravity by an electric field, which also drives ion flow in the parent gas. Existing analytical approaches to describe the electrostatic interaction between microparticles in such conditions generally ignore the field and ion-neutral collisions, assuming free ion flow with a certain approximation for the ion velocity distribution function (usually a shifted Maxwellian). We provide a comprehensive analysis of our previously proposed self-consistent kinetic theory including the field, ion-neutral collisions, and the corresponding ion velocity distribution. We focus on various limiting cases and demonstrate how the interplay of these factors results in different forms of the shielding potential.

  3. Simulating complex ion channel kinetics with IonChannelLab

    PubMed Central

    Covarrubias, Manuel; Sánchez-Rodríguez, Jorge E; Perez-Cornejo, Patricia; Arreola, Jorge

    2010-01-01

    In-silico simulation based on Markov chains is a powerful way to describe and predict the activity of many transport proteins including ion channels. However, modeling and simulation using realistic models of voltage- or ligand-gated ion channels exposed to a wide range of experimental conditions require building complex kinetic schemes and solving complicated differential equations. To circumvent these problems, we developed IonChannelLab a software tool that includes a user-friendly Graphical User Interface and a simulation library. This program supports channels with Ohmic or Goldman-Hodgkin-Katz behavior and can simulate the time-course of ionic and gating currents, single channel behavior and steady-state conditions. The program allows the simulation of experiments where voltage, ligand and ionic concentration are varied independently or simultaneously. PMID:20935453

  4. Preparations and mechanism of hydrolysis of ((8)annulene)actinide compounds. [Uranocene

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, R.M. Jr.

    1985-07-01

    The mechanism of hydrolysis for bis(8)annulene actinide and lanthanide complexes has been studied in detail. The uranium complex, uranocene, decomposes with good pseudo-first order kinetics (in uranocene) in 1 M degassed solutions of H/sub 2/O in THF. Decomposition of a series of aryl-substituted uranocenes demonstrates that the hydrolysis rate is dependent on the electronic nature of the substituent (Hammett rho value = 2.1, r/sup 2/ = 0.999), with electron-withdrawing groups increasing the rate. When D/sub 2/O is substituted for H/sub 2/O, kinetic isotope effects of 8 to 14 are found for a variety of substituted uranocenes. These results suggest a pre-equilibrium involving approach of a water molecule to the central metal, followed by rate determining proton transfer to the eight membered ring and rapid decomposition to products. Each of the four protonations of the complex has a significant isotope effect. The product ratio of cyclooctatriene isomers formed in the hydrolysis varies, depending on the central metal of the complex. However, the general mechanism of hydrolysis, established for uranocene, can be extended to the hydrolysis and alcoholysis of all the (8)annulene complexes of the lanthanides and actinides.

  5. Screening Evaluation of Sodium Nonatitanate for Strontium and Actinide Removal from Alkaline Salt Solution

    SciTech Connect

    Hobbs, D.T.

    2001-02-13

    This report describes results from screening tests evaluating strontium and actinide removal characteristics of a sodium titanate material developed by Clearfield and coworkers at Texas A and M University and offered commercially by Honeywell. Sodium nonatitanate may exhibit improved actinide removal kinetics and filtration characteristics compared to MST and thus merit testing.

  6. Actinides and Life's Origins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adam, Zachary

    2007-12-01

    There are growing indications that life began in a radioactive beach environment. A geologic framework for the origin or support of life in a Hadean heavy mineral placer beach has been developed, based on the unique chemical properties of the lower-electronic actinides, which act as nuclear fissile and fertile fuels, radiolytic energy sources, oligomer catalysts, and coordinating ions (along with mineralogically associated lanthanides) for prototypical prebiotic homonuclear and dinuclear metalloenzymes. A four-factor nuclear reactor model was constructed to estimate how much uranium would have been required to initiate a sustainable fission reaction within a placer beach sand 4.3 billion years ago. It was calculated that about 1-8 weight percent of the sand would have to have been uraninite, depending on the weight percent, uranium enrichment, and quantity of neutron poisons present within the remaining placer minerals. Radiolysis experiments were conducted with various solvents with the use of uranium- and thorium-rich minerals (metatorbernite and monazite, respectively) as proxies for radioactive beach sand in contact with different carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen reactants. Radiation bombardment ranged in duration of exposure from 3 weeks to 6 months. Low levels of acetonitrile (estimated to be on the order of parts per billion in concentration) were conclusively identified in 2 setups and tentatively indicated in a 3rd by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. These low levels have been interpreted within the context of a Hadean placer beach prebiotic framework to demonstrate the promise of investigating natural nuclear reactors as power production sites that might have assisted the origins of life on young rocky planets with a sufficiently differentiated crust/mantle structure. Future investigations are recommended to better quantify the complex relationships between energy release, radioactive grain size, fissionability, reactant phase, phosphorus

  7. Actinides and Life's Origins.

    PubMed

    Adam, Zachary

    2007-12-01

    There are growing indications that life began in a radioactive beach environment. A geologic framework for the origin or support of life in a Hadean heavy mineral placer beach has been developed, based on the unique chemical properties of the lower-electronic actinides, which act as nuclear fissile and fertile fuels, radiolytic energy sources, oligomer catalysts, and coordinating ions (along with mineralogically associated lanthanides) for prototypical prebiotic homonuclear and dinuclear metalloenzymes. A four-factor nuclear reactor model was constructed to estimate how much uranium would have been required to initiate a sustainable fission reaction within a placer beach sand 4.3 billion years ago. It was calculated that about 1-8 weight percent of the sand would have to have been uraninite, depending on the weight percent, uranium enrichment, and quantity of neutron poisons present within the remaining placer minerals. Radiolysis experiments were conducted with various solvents with the use of uraniumand thorium-rich minerals (metatorbernite and monazite, respectively) as proxies for radioactive beach sand in contact with different carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen reactants. Radiation bombardment ranged in duration of exposure from 3 weeks to 6 months. Low levels of acetonitrile (estimated to be on the order of parts per billion in concentration) were conclusively identified in 2 setups and tentatively indicated in a 3(rd) by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. These low levels have been interpreted within the context of a Hadean placer beach prebiotic framework to demonstrate the promise of investigating natural nuclear reactors as power production sites that might have assisted the origins of life on young rocky planets with a sufficiently differentiated crust/mantle structure. Future investigations are recommended to better quantify the complex relationships between energy release, radioactive grain size, fissionability, reactant phase, phosphorus

  8. Lanthanide(III)/actinide(III) differentiation in coordination of azine molecules to tris(cyclopentadienyl) complexes of cerium and uranium.

    PubMed

    Mehdoui, Thouraya; Berthet, Jean-Claude; Thuéry, Pierre; Ephritikhine, Michel

    2004-02-21

    Reaction of azine molecules L with the trivalent metallocenes [M(C5H4R)3](M = Ce, U; R = But, SiMe3) in toluene gave the Lewis base adducts [M(C5H4R)3(L)](L = pyridine, 3-picoline, 3,5-lutidine, 3-chloropyridine, pyridazine, pyrimidine, pyrazine, 3,5-dimethylpyrazine and s-triazine), except in the cases of M = U and L = 3-chloropyridine, pyridazine, pyrazine and s-triazine where oxidation of U(III) was found to occur. In the pairs of analogous compounds of Ce(III) and U(III), i.e.[M(C5H4But)3(L)](L = pyridine, picoline) and [M(C5H4SiMe3)3(L)](L = pyridine, lutidine, pyrimidine and dimethylpyrazine), the M-N and average M-C distances are longer for M = Ce than for M = U; however, within a series of azine adducts of the same metallocene, no significant variation is noted in the M-N and average M-C distances. The equilibria between [M(C5H4R)3], L and [M(C5H4R)3(L)] were studied by 1H NMR spectroscopy. The stability constants of the uranium complexes, KUL, are greater than those of the cerium counterparts, KCeL. The values of KML are much greater for R = SiMe3 than for R = But and a linear correlation is found between the logarithms of KML and the hydrogen-bond basicity pKHB scale of the azines. Thermodynamic parameters indicate that the enthalpy-entropy compensation effect holds for these complexation reactions. Competition reactions of [Ce(C5H4R)3] and [U(C5H4R)3] with L show that the selectivity of L in favour of U(III) increases with the [small pi] donor character of the metallocene and is proportional to the pi accepting ability of the azine molecule, measured by its reduction potential.

  9. STATIC AND KINETIC SITE-SPECIFIC PROTEIN-DNA PHOTOCROSSLINKING: ANALYSIS OF BACTERIAL TRANSCRIPTION INITIATION COMPLEXES

    PubMed Central

    Naryshkin, Nikolai; Druzhinin, Sergei; Revyakin, Andrei; Kim, Younggyu; Mekler, Vladimir; Ebright, Richard H.

    2009-01-01

    Static site-specific protein-DNA photocrosslinking permits identification of protein-DNA interactions within multiprotein-DNA complexes. Kinetic site-specific protein-DNA photocrosslinking--involving rapid-quench-flow mixing and pulsed-laser irradiation--permits elucidation of pathways and kinetics of formation of protein-DNA interactions within multiprotein-DNA complexes. We present detailed protocols for application of static and kinetic site-specific protein-DNA photocrosslinking to bacterial transcription initiation complexes. PMID:19378179

  10. Spectroscopic investigation of actinide speciation in concentrated chloride solution

    SciTech Connect

    Runde, W.; Neu, M.P.; Conradson, S.D.; Clark, D.L.; Palmer, P.D.; Reilly, S.D.; Scott, B.L.; Tait, C.D.

    1997-12-31

    The proposed disposal of nuclear waste in geological salt formations, e.g., the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (USA) and the Gorleben site (Germany), raises a fundamental question: To what degree actinides will be solubilized and mobilized upon interaction with chloride ions? Actinide solubilities in highly concentrated chloride solutions are about one order of magnitude higher than in similar inert electrolyte (NaClO{sub 4}) solutions. This increased solubility is due to interactions between actinide and chloride ions. Contradictory results exist regarding the interaction mechanism between actinide and chloride ions. Specifically, both inner-sphere complex formation and ion pair association have been implicated in the interpretation of spectrophotometric and extraction data. To address this controversy, the authors investigated the interaction between actinide ions in the (III), (IV), (V) and (VI) oxidation states and chloride ions using a multi-method approach. Spectroscopic techniques (TRLFS, Raman, UV-Vis absorption, EXAFS) were used to distinguish between changes in the inner coordination sphere of the actinide ion and effects of ion pairing, X-ray absorption spectroscopy and single crystal X-ray diffraction were used to determine structural details of the actinide chloro complexes formed in solution and solid states.

  11. Simulation of the kinetics of oxygen complexes in crystalline silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joo Lee, Young; von Boehm, J.; Nieminen, R. M.

    2002-10-01

    The formation kinetics of thermal double donors (TDD's) is studied by a general kinetic model with parameters based on accurate ab initio total-energy calculations. The kinetic model includes all relevant association, dissociation, and restructuring processes. The simulated kinetics agrees qualitatively and in most cases quantitatively with the experimentally found consecutive kinetics of TDD's. It also supports our earlier assignments of the ring-type oxygen chains to TDD's [Pesola et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 5343 (2000)]. We demonstrate with the kinetic model that the most common assumption that only the O2 dimer acts as a fast diffusing species would lead to an unrealistic steady increase of the concentration of O3. The neglect of restructuring processes leads to an anomalous increase of oxygen dimers and negligible concentrations of TDD's. The capture of interstitial oxygens by diffusing oxygen chains and the escaping of interstitial oxygens from the chains fully dominate the formation kinetics.

  12. Chemistry of the actinide elements. Second edition

    SciTech Connect

    Katz, J.J.; Seaborg, G.T.; Morss, L.R.

    1987-01-01

    This is an exhaustive, updated discourse on the chemistry of Actinides, Volume 1 contains a systematic coverage of the elements Ac, Th, Pa, U, Np, and Pu, which constitutes Part 1 of the work. The characterization of each element is discussed in terms of its nuclear properties, occurrence, preparation, atomic and metallic properties, chemistry of specific compounds, and solution chemistry. The first part of Volume 2 follows the same format as Volume 1 but is confined to the elements Am, Cm, Bk, Cf, and Es, plus a more condensed coverage of the Transeinsteinium elements (Fm, Md, No, Lw, and 104-109). Part 2 of this volume is devoted to a discussion of the actinide elements in general, with a specific focus on electronic spectra, thermodynamic and magnetic properties, the metallic state, structural chemistry, solution kinetics, organometallic chemistry for /sigma/- and /pi/-bonded compounds, and some concluding remarks on the superheavy elements.

  13. Trivalent Lanthanide/Actinide Separation Using Aqueous-Modified TALSPEAK Chemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Travis S. Grimes; Richard D. Tillotson; Leigh R. Martin

    2014-05-01

    TALSPEAK is a liquid/liquid extraction process designed to separate trivalent lanthanides (Ln3+) from minor actinides (MAs) Am3+ and Cm3+. Traditional TALSPEAK organic phase is comprised of a monoacidic dialkyl bis(2-ethylhexyl)phosphoric acid extractant (HDEHP) in diisopropyl benzene (DIPB). The aqueous phase contains a soluble aminopolycarboxylate diethylenetriamine-N,N,N’,N”,N”-pentaacetic acid (DTPA) in a concentrated (1.0-2.0 M) lactic acid (HL) buffer with the aqueous acidity typically adjusted to pH 3.0. TALSPEAK balances the selective complexation of the actinides by DTPA against the electrostatic attraction of the lanthanides by the HDEHP extractant to achieve the desired trivalent lanthanide/actinide group separation. Although TALSPEAK is considered a successful separations scheme, recent fundamental studies have highlighted complex chemical interactions occurring in the aqueous and organic phases during the extraction process. Previous attempts to model the system have shown thermodynamic models do not accurately predict the observed extraction trends in the p[H+] range 2.5-4.8. In this study, the aqueous phase is modified by replacing the lactic acid buffer with a variety of simple and longer-chain amino acid buffers. The results show successful trivalent lanthanide/actinide group separation with the aqueous-modified TALSPEAK process at pH 2. The amino acid buffer concentrations were reduced to 0.5 M (at pH 2) and separations were performed without any effect on phase transfer kinetics. Successful modeling of the aqueous-modified TALSPEAK process (p[H+] 1.6-3.1) using a simplified thermodynamic model and an internally consistent set of thermodynamic data is presented.

  14. PF-4 actinide disposition strategy

    SciTech Connect

    Margevicius, Robert W

    2010-05-28

    The dwindling amount of Security Category I processing and storage space across the DOE Complex has driven the need for more effective storage of nuclear materials at LANL's Plutonium Facility's (PF-4's) vault. An effort was begun in 2009 to create a strategy, a roadmap, to identify all accountable nuclear material and determine their disposition paths, the PF-4 Actinide Disposition Strategy (PADS). Approximately seventy bins of nuclear materials with similar characteristics - in terms of isotope, chemical form, impurities, disposition location, etc. - were established in a database. The ultimate disposition paths include the material to remain at LANL, disposition to other DOE sites, and disposition to waste. If all the actions described in the document were taken, over half of the containers currently in the PF-4 vault would been eliminated. The actual amount of projected vault space will depend on budget and competing mission requirements, however, clearly a significant portion of the current LANL inventory can be either dispositioned or consolidated.

  15. Extraction of DBP and MBP from actinides: application to the recovery of actinides from TBP-sodium carbonate scrub solutions. [Aralex process

    SciTech Connect

    Horwitz, E.P.; Mason, G.W.; Bloomquist, C.A.A.; Leonard, R.A.; Bernstein, G.J.

    1980-01-01

    A flowsheet for the recovery of actinides from TBP-Na/sub 2/CO/sub 3/ scrub waste solutions has been developed, based on batch extraction data, and tested, using laboratory scale counter-current extraction techniques. The process, called the ARALEX process, utilizes 2-ethyl-1-hexanol (2-EHOH) to extract the TBP degradation products (HDBP and H/sub 2/MBP) from acidified Na/sub 2/CO/sub 3/ scrub waste leaving the actinides in the aqueous phase. Dibutyl and monobutyl phosphoric acids are attached to the 2-EHOH molecules through hydrogen bonds. These hydrogen bonds also diminish the ability of the HDBP and H/sub 2/MBP to complex actinides and thus all actinides remain in the aqueous raffinate. Dilute sodium hydroxide solutions can be used to back-extract the dibutyl and monobutyl phosphoric acid esters as their sodium salts. The 2-EHOH can then be recycled. After extraction of the acidified carbonate waste with 2-EHOH, the actinides may be readily extracted from the raffinate with DHDECMP or, in the case of tetra- and hexavalent actinides, with TBP. The ARALEX process is relatively simple and involves inexpensive and readily available chamicals. The ARALEX process can also be applied to other actinide waste streams which contain appreciable concentrations of polar organic compounds that interfere with conventional actinide ion exchange and liquid-liquid extraction procedures. One such application is the removal of detergents from laundry or clean-up solutions contaminated with actinides.

  16. Complications in complexation kinetics for lanthanides with DTPA using dye probe molecules in aqueous solution

    DOE PAGES

    Larsson, K.; Cullen, T. D.; Mezyk, S. P.; ...

    2017-05-17

    The complexation kinetics for the polyaminopolycarboxylic ligand DTPA to lanthanides in acidic aqueous solution were investigated using the dye ligand displacement technique and stopped-flow spectroscopy. Significant rate differences were obtained for different dye probes used, indicating that the kinetics of the dissociation of the dye molecule significantly impacts the overall measured kinetics when using this common methodology. The conditions of the solution also influenced the dye-lanthanide-DTPA interactions, which reconciled previously disparate data in the literature.

  17. PROCESS OF PRODUCING ACTINIDE METALS

    DOEpatents

    Magel, T.T.

    1959-07-14

    The preparation of actinide metals in workable, coherent form is described. In general, the objects of the invention are achieved by heating a mixture of an oxide and a halide of an actinide metal such as uranium with an alkali metal on alkaline earth metal reducing agent in the presence of iodine.

  18. Electrorecovery of actinides at room temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Stoll, Michael E; Oldham, Warren J; Costa, David A

    2008-01-01

    There are a large number of purification and processing operations involving actinide species that rely on high-temperature molten salts as the solvent medium. One such application is the electrorefining of impure actinide metals to provide high purity material for subsequent applications. There are some drawbacks to the electrodeposition of actinides in molten salts including relatively low yields, lack of accurate potential control, maintaining efficiency in a highly corrosive environment, and failed runs. With these issues in mind we have been investigating the electrodeposition of actinide metals, mainly uranium, from room temperature ionic liquids (RTILs) and relatively high-boiling organic solvents. The RTILs we have focused on are comprised of 1,3-dialkylimidazolium or quaternary ammonium cations and mainly the {sup -}N(SO{sub 2}CF{sub 3}){sub 2} anion [bis(trif1uoromethylsulfonyl)imide {equivalent_to} {sup -}NTf{sub 2}]. These materials represent a class of solvents that possess great potential for use in applications employing electrochemical procedures. In order to ascertain the feasibility of using RTILs for bulk electrodeposition of actinide metals our research team has been exploring the electron transfer behavior of simple coordination complexes of uranium dissolved in the RTIL solutions. More recently we have begun some fundamental electrochemical studies on the behavior of uranium and plutonium complexes in the organic solvents N-methylpyrrolidone (NMP) and dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO). Our most recent results concerning electrodeposition will be presented in this account. The electrochemical behavior of U(IV) and U(III) species in RTILs and the relatively low vapor pressure solvents NMP and DMSO is described. These studies have been ongoing in our laboratory to uncover conditions that will lead to the successful bulk electrodeposition of actinide metals at a working electrode surface at room temperature or slightly elevated temperatures. The RTILs we

  19. Kinetic study of the complexation of gallic acid with Fe(II)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Li-li; Li, Ying-hua; Lu, Xiu-yang

    2009-10-01

    Kinetic study on the complexation of gallic acid with ferrous sulfate was performed using UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy. Under the experimental conditions, the stoichiometric composition of the formed complex is 1:1. The complexation reaction was found to be a second-order one. The influences of temperature, ionic strength and solvents on the complexation reaction were investigated. According to the Arrhenius equation, the apparent activation energy of the complexation reaction was evaluated to be 71.64 kJ × mol -1. A three-step reaction mechanism was proposed, which can well explain the kinetic results obtained.

  20. In-situ mineralization of actinides for groundwater cleanup: Laboratory demonstration with soil from the Fernald Environmental Management Project

    SciTech Connect

    Nash, K.L.; Jensen, M.P.; Schmidt, M.A.

    1997-11-01

    An attractive approach to decreasing the probability of actinide migration in the subsurface is to transform the ions into less mobile forms by remote treatment. The process described herein relies on a polyfunctional organophosphorus complexant to sequester the mobile metal ions by complexation/cation exchange in the near term. The cation exchanger is designed to subsequently decompose, transforming the actinides into insoluble phosphate mineral forms as the medium of stable long-term isolation. This material can be generated in situ in the subsurface thus eliminating the need for excavation to immobilize the actinide ions. Previous investigations have identified a suitable organophosphorus reagent and profiled its decomposition kinetics, verified the formation of phosphate mineral phases upon decomposition of the reagent, determined solubility limits for appropriate metal phosphates under groundwater conditions, and examined the cation exchange behavior of the calcium salt of the organophosphorus reagent. In this report, the focus is on a laboratory-scale demonstration of the concept using a soil sample from the Fernald Environmental Management Plant.

  1. A Computer Simulated Experiment in Complex Order Kinetics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merrill, J. C.; And Others

    1975-01-01

    Describes a computer simulation experiment in which physical chemistry students can determine all of the kinetic parameters of a reaction, such as order of the reaction with respect to each reagent, forward and reverse rate constants for the overall reaction, and forward and reverse activation energies. (MLH)

  2. A Computer Simulated Experiment in Complex Order Kinetics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merrill, J. C.; And Others

    1975-01-01

    Describes a computer simulation experiment in which physical chemistry students can determine all of the kinetic parameters of a reaction, such as order of the reaction with respect to each reagent, forward and reverse rate constants for the overall reaction, and forward and reverse activation energies. (MLH)

  3. MULTISUBSTRATE BIODEGRADATION KINETICS FOR BINARY AND COMPLEX MIXTURES OF POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Biodegradation kinetics were studied for binary and complex mixtures of nine polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs): naphthalene, 1-methylnaphthalene, 2-methylnaphthalene, 2-ethylnaphthalene, phenanthrene, anthracene, pyrene, fluorene and fluoranthene. Discrepancies between the ...

  4. MULTISUBSTRATE BIODEGRADATION KINETICS FOR BINARY AND COMPLEX MIXTURES OF POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Biodegradation kinetics were studied for binary and complex mixtures of nine polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs): naphthalene, 1-methylnaphthalene, 2-methylnaphthalene, 2-ethylnaphthalene, phenanthrene, anthracene, pyrene, fluorene and fluoranthene. Discrepancies between the ...

  5. Kinetic studies of nitrate removal from aqueous solution using granular chitosan-Fe(III) complex.

    PubMed

    Hu, Qili; Chen, Nan; Feng, Chuanping; Zhang, Jing; Hu, Weiwu; Lv, Long

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, a granular chitosan-Fe(III) complex was prepared as a feasible adsorbent for the removal of nitrate from an aqueous solution. There was no significant change in terms of nitrate removal efficiency over a wide pH range of 3-11. Nitrate adsorption on the chitosan-Fe(III) complex followed the Langmuir-Freundlich isotherm model. In order to more accurately reflect adsorption and desorption behaviors at the solid/solution interface, kinetic model I and kinetic model II were proposed to simulate the interfacial process in a batch system. Nitrate adsorption on the chitosan-Fe(III) complex followed the pseudo-first-order kinetic model and kinetic model I. The proposed half-time could provide useful information for optimizing process design. Adsorption and desorption rate constants obtained from kinetic model I and kinetic model II were beneficial to understanding the interfacial process and the extent of adsorption reaction. Kinetic model I and kinetic model II implied that nitrate uptake exponentially approaches a limiting value.

  6. Managing Inventories of Heavy Actinides

    SciTech Connect

    Wham, Robert M; Patton, Bradley D

    2011-01-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has stored a limited inventory of heavy actinides contained in irradiated targets, some partially processed, at the Savannah River Site (SRS) and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The 'heavy actinides' of interest include plutonium, americium, and curium isotopes; specifically 242Pu and 244Pu, 243Am, and 244/246/248Cm. No alternate supplies of these heavy actinides and no other capabilities for producing them are currently available. Some of these heavy actinide materials are important for use as feedstock for producing heavy isotopes and elements needed for research and commercial application. The rare isotope 244Pu is valuable for research, environmental safeguards, and nuclear forensics. Because the production of these heavy actinides was made possible only by the enormous investment of time and money associated with defense production efforts, the remaining inventories of these rare nuclear materials are an important part of the legacy of the Nuclear Weapons Program. Significant unique heavy actinide inventories reside in irradiated Mark-18A and Mark-42 targets at SRS and ORNL, with no plans to separate and store the isotopes for future use. Although the costs of preserving these heavy actinide materials would be considerable, for all practical purposes they are irreplaceable. The effort required to reproduce these heavy actinides today would likely cost billions of dollars and encompass a series of irradiation and chemical separation cycles for at least 50 years; thus, reproduction is virtually impossible. DOE has a limited window of opportunity to recover and preserve these heavy actinides before they are disposed of as waste. A path forward is presented to recover and manage these irreplaceable National Asset materials for future use in research, nuclear forensics, and other potential applications.

  7. Siderocalin-mediated recognition, sensitization, and cellular uptake of actinides

    PubMed Central

    Allred, Benjamin E.; Rupert, Peter B.; Gauny, Stacey S.; An, Dahlia D.; Ralston, Corie Y.; Sturzbecher-Hoehne, Manuel; Strong, Roland K.; Abergel, Rebecca J.

    2015-01-01

    Synthetic radionuclides, such as the transuranic actinides plutonium, americium, and curium, present severe health threats as contaminants, and understanding the scope of the biochemical interactions involved in actinide transport is instrumental in managing human contamination. Here we show that siderocalin, a mammalian siderophore-binding protein from the lipocalin family, specifically binds lanthanide and actinide complexes through molecular recognition of the ligands chelating the metal ions. Using crystallography, we structurally characterized the resulting siderocalin–transuranic actinide complexes, providing unprecedented insights into the biological coordination of heavy radioelements. In controlled in vitro assays, we found that intracellular plutonium uptake can occur through siderocalin-mediated endocytosis. We also demonstrated that siderocalin can act as a synergistic antenna to sensitize the luminescence of trivalent lanthanide and actinide ions in ternary protein–ligand complexes, dramatically increasing the brightness and efficiency of intramolecular energy transfer processes that give rise to metal luminescence. Our results identify siderocalin as a potential player in the biological trafficking of f elements, but through a secondary ligand-based metal sequestration mechanism. Beyond elucidating contamination pathways, this work is a starting point for the design of two-stage biomimetic platforms for photoluminescence, separation, and transport applications. PMID:26240330

  8. Siderocalin-mediated recognition, sensitization, and cellular uptake of actinides.

    PubMed

    Allred, Benjamin E; Rupert, Peter B; Gauny, Stacey S; An, Dahlia D; Ralston, Corie Y; Sturzbecher-Hoehne, Manuel; Strong, Roland K; Abergel, Rebecca J

    2015-08-18

    Synthetic radionuclides, such as the transuranic actinides plutonium, americium, and curium, present severe health threats as contaminants, and understanding the scope of the biochemical interactions involved in actinide transport is instrumental in managing human contamination. Here we show that siderocalin, a mammalian siderophore-binding protein from the lipocalin family, specifically binds lanthanide and actinide complexes through molecular recognition of the ligands chelating the metal ions. Using crystallography, we structurally characterized the resulting siderocalin-transuranic actinide complexes, providing unprecedented insights into the biological coordination of heavy radioelements. In controlled in vitro assays, we found that intracellular plutonium uptake can occur through siderocalin-mediated endocytosis. We also demonstrated that siderocalin can act as a synergistic antenna to sensitize the luminescence of trivalent lanthanide and actinide ions in ternary protein-ligand complexes, dramatically increasing the brightness and efficiency of intramolecular energy transfer processes that give rise to metal luminescence. Our results identify siderocalin as a potential player in the biological trafficking of f elements, but through a secondary ligand-based metal sequestration mechanism. Beyond elucidating contamination pathways, this work is a starting point for the design of two-stage biomimetic platforms for photoluminescence, separation, and transport applications.

  9. Nuclear waste forms for actinides.

    PubMed

    Ewing, R C

    1999-03-30

    The disposition of actinides, most recently 239Pu from dismantled nuclear weapons, requires effective containment of waste generated by the nuclear fuel cycle. Because actinides (e.g., 239Pu and 237Np) are long-lived, they have a major impact on risk assessments of geologic repositories. Thus, demonstrable, long-term chemical and mechanical durability are essential properties of waste forms for the immobilization of actinides. Mineralogic and geologic studies provide excellent candidate phases for immobilization and a unique database that cannot be duplicated by a purely materials science approach. The "mineralogic approach" is illustrated by a discussion of zircon as a phase for the immobilization of excess weapons plutonium.

  10. Actinide Burning in CANDU Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Hyland, B.; Dyck, G.R.

    2007-07-01

    Actinide burning in CANDU reactors has been studied as a method of reducing the actinide content of spent nuclear fuel from light water reactors, and thereby decreasing the associated long term decay heat load. In this work simulations were performed of actinides mixed with natural uranium to form a mixed oxide (MOX) fuel, and also mixed with silicon carbide to form an inert matrix (IMF) fuel. Both of these fuels were taken to a higher burnup than has previously been studied. The total transuranic element destruction calculated was 40% for the MOX fuel and 71% for the IMF. (authors)

  11. Actinide behavior in a freshwater pond

    SciTech Connect

    Trabalka, J.R.; Bogle, M.A.; Scott, T.G.

    1983-01-01

    Long-term investigations of solution chemistry in an alkaline freshwater pond have revealed that actinide oxidation state behavior, particularly that of plutonium, is complex. The Pu(V,VI) fraction was predominant in solution, but it varied over the entire range reported from other natural aquatic environments, in this case, as a result of intrinsic biological and chemical cycles (redox and pH-dependent phenomena). A strong positive correlation between plutonium (Pu), but not uranium (U), and hydroxyl ion over the observation period, especially when both were known to be in higher oxidation states, was particularly notable. Coupled with other examples of divergent U and Pu behavior, this result suggests that Pu(V), or perhaps a mixture of Pu(V,VI), was the prevalent oxidation state in solution. Observations of trivalent actinide sorption behavior during an algal bloom, coupled with the association with a high-molecular weight (nominally 6000 to 10,000 mol wt) organic fraction in solution, indicate that solution-detritus cycling of organic carbon, in turn, may be the primary mechanism in amercium-curium (Am-Cm) cycling. Sorption by sedimentary materials appears to predominate over other factors controlling effective actinide solubility and may explain, at least partially, the absence of an expected strong positive correlation between carbonate and dissolved U. 49 references, 6 figures, 12 tables.

  12. Improved electrodeposited actinide layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ingelbrecht, C.; Moens, A.; Eykens, R.; Dean, A.

    1997-02-01

    Electrodeposition is a relatively simple and high-yielding method for producing actinide layers for nuclear targets. A new design of the cell has been used to deposit U, Pu, Np and Am onto metallic backings from isopropanol and onto carbon-coated polyimide films from isobutanol. The current density was 1-3 mA/cm 2. Deposition yields, determined by low geometry alpha-particle counting, were about 65% for Pu and about 90% for other elements. The same technique was used to investigate thickness homogeneity of 239Pu deposits, and it was observed that targets with mean thickness up to about 100 μg/cm 2 were thicker in the centre than at the edge, but for targets above 100 μg/cm 2, this profile was reversed. Modifications to the electrode shape were made in an attempt to improve the thickness uniformity.

  13. Mathematical modeling of the effects of aerobic and anaerobic chelate bioegradation on actinide speciation.

    SciTech Connect

    Banaszak, J.E.; VanBriesen, J.; Rittmann, B.E.; Reed, D.T.

    1998-03-19

    Biodegradation of natural and anthropogenic chelating agents directly and indirectly affects the speciation, and, hence, the mobility of actinides in subsurface environments. We combined mathematical modeling with laboratory experimentation to investigate the effects of aerobic and anaerobic chelate biodegradation on actinide [Np(IV/V), Pu(IV)] speciation. Under aerobic conditions, nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA) biodegradation rates were strongly influenced by the actinide concentration. Actinide-chelate complexation reduced the relative abundance of available growth substrate in solution and actinide species present or released during chelate degradation were toxic to the organisms. Aerobic bio-utilization of the chelates as electron-donor substrates directly affected actinide speciation by releasing the radionuclides from complexed form into solution, where their fate was controlled by inorganic ligands in the system. Actinide speciation was also indirectly affected by pH changes caused by organic biodegradation. The two concurrent processes of organic biodegradation and actinide aqueous chemistry were accurately linked and described using CCBATCH, a computer model developed at Northwestern University to investigate the dynamics of coupled biological and chemical reactions in mixed waste subsurface environments. CCBATCH was then used to simulate the fate of Np during anaerobic citrate biodegradation. The modeling studies suggested that, under some conditions, chelate degradation can increase Np(IV) solubility due to carbonate complexation in closed aqueous systems.

  14. Actinide (An = Th-Pu) dimetallocenes: promising candidates for metal-metal multiple bonds.

    PubMed

    Wang, Cong-Zhi; Gibson, John K; Lan, Jian-Hui; Wu, Qun-Yan; Zhao, Yu-Liang; Li, Jun; Chai, Zhi-Fang; Shi, Wei-Qun

    2015-10-21

    Synthesis of complexes with direct actinide-actinide (An-An) bonding is an experimental 'holy grail' in actinide chemistry. In this work, a series of actinide dimetallocenes An2Cp (Cp(*) = C5(CH3)5, An = Th-Pu) with An-An multiple bonds have been systematically investigated using quantum chemical calculations. The coaxial Cp(*)-An-An-Cp(*) structures are found to be the most stable species for all the dimetallocenes. A Th-Th triple bond is predicted in the Th2Cp complex, and the calculated An-An bond orders decrease across the actinide series from Pa to Pu. The covalent character of the An-An bonds is analyzed by using natural bond orbitals (NBO), molecular orbitals (MO), the quantum theory of atoms in molecules (QTAIM), and electron density difference (EDD). While Th 6d orbitals dominate the Th-Th bonds in Th2Cp, the An 6d-orbital characters decrease and 5f-orbital characters increase for complexes from Pa2Cp to Pu2Cp. All these actinide dimetallocenes are stable in the gas phase relative to the AnCp(*) reference at room temperature. Based on the reactions of AnCp and An, Th2Cp, Pa2Cp and possibly also U2Cp should be accessible as isolated molecules under suitable synthetic conditions. Our results shed light on the molecular design of ligands for stabilizing actinide-actinide multiple bonds.

  15. Environmental research on actinide elements

    SciTech Connect

    Pinder, J.E. III; Alberts, J.J.; McLeod, K.W.; Schreckhise, R.G.

    1987-08-01

    The papers synthesize the results of research sponsored by DOE's Office of Health and Environmental Research on the behavior of transuranic and actinide elements in the environment. Separate abstracts have been prepared for the 21 individual papers. (ACR)

  16. Actinide transmutation in nuclear reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Ganev, I.K.; Lopatkin, A.V.; Naumov, V.V.; Tocheny, L.V.

    1993-12-31

    Of some interest is the comparison between the actinide nuclide burning up (fission) rates such as americium 241, americium 242, curium 244, and neptunium 237, in the reactors with fast or thermal neutron spectra.

  17. Eigen kinetics in surface complexation of aqueous metal ions.

    PubMed

    van Leeuwen, Herman P

    2008-10-21

    The mechanism of chemisorption of aqueous metal ions at surfaces has long been a topical issue in such fields as soil chemistry and bioenvironmental science. Here it is quantitatively demonstrated for the first time that release of water from the inner hydration shell is the rate-limiting step in inner-sphere surface complexation. The reactive intermediate is an outer-sphere complex between metal ion and surface site, with an electrostatically controlled stability defined by Boltzmann statistics. Using tabulated dehydration rate constants for metal ions, the resulting scheme allows for prediction of rates of sorption of aqueous metal ions at any type of complexing surface.

  18. Selective extraction of trivalent actinides from lanthanides with dithiophosphinic acids and tributylphosphate

    SciTech Connect

    Jarvinen, G.; Barrans, R.; Schroeder, N.; Wade, K.; Jones, M.; Smith, B.F.; Mills, J.; Howard, G.; Freiser, H.; Muralidharan, S.

    1995-01-01

    A variety of chemical systems have been developed to separate trivalent actinides from lanthanides based on the slightly stronger complexation of the trivalent actinides with ligands that contain soft donor atoms. The greater stability of the actinide complexes in these systems has often been attributed to a slightly greater covalent bonding component for the actinide ions relative to the lanthanide ions. The authors have investigated several synergistic extraction systems that use ligands with a combination of oxygen and sulfur donor atoms that achieve a good group separation of the trivalent actinides and lanthanides. For example, the combination of dicyclohexyldithiophosphinic acid and tributylphosphate has shown separation factors of up to 800 for americium over europium in a single extraction stage. Such systems could find application in advanced partitioning schemes for nuclear waste.

  19. Kinetic study on CO2 photoreduction by Re complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ono, Y.; Tsuda, M.; Maruo, Y. Y.; Nakamura, J.

    2012-08-01

    The photoreduction of CO2 using Re(btp)(CO)3Cl (btp: bathophenanthroline) was investigated in a CO2-saturated DMF-triethanolamine solution. CO formation was observed during irradiation with 365-nm light. Meanwhile, UV-vis spectral changes suggested that Re(btp)(CO)3Cl was degraded and its amount decreased during irradiation. The degradation of Re(btp)(CO)3Cl could cause CO formation, and the observed CO amount was the sum of CO produced by CO2 reduction and Re(btp)(CO)3Cl degradation. Thus, in the present paper, we discuss how the net amount of CO produced by CO2 reduction could be determined via a kinetic study during UV irradiation which considers the CO production originating from the Re(btp)(CO)3Cl degradation process.

  20. Intramolecular energy transfer in actinide complexes of 6-methyl-2-(2-pyridyl)-benzimidazole (biz): comparison between Cm{sup 3+} and Tb{sup 3+} systems

    SciTech Connect

    Assefa, Zerihun . E-mail: assefaz@ornl.gov; Yaita, T.; Haire, R.G.; Tachimori, S.

    2005-02-15

    Coordination of the 6-methyl-2-(2-pyridyl)-benzimidazole ligand with actinide and lanthanide species can produce enhanced emission due to increased efficiency of intramolecular energy transfer to metal centers. A comparison between the curium and terbium systems indicates that the position of the ligand's triplet state is critical for the enhanced emission. The energy gap between the ligand's triplet state and the acceptor level in curium is about 1000cm{sup -1}, as compared to a {approx}600cm{sup -1} gap in the terbium system. Due to the larger gap, the back transfer with curium is reduced and the radiative yield is significantly higher. The quantum yield for this 'sensitized' emission increases to 6.2%, compared to the 0.26% value attained for the metal centered excitation prior to ligand addition. In the terbium case, the smaller donor/acceptor gap enhances back transfer and the energy transfer is less efficient than with the curium system.

  1. Solution thermodynamic stability of complexes formed with the octadentate hydroxypyridinonate ligand 3,4,3-LI(1,2-HOPO): A critical feature for efficient chelation of lanthanide(IV) and actinide(IV) ions

    PubMed Central

    Deblonde, Gauthier J-P.; Sturzbecher-Hoehne, Manuel; Abergel, Rebecca J.

    2013-01-01

    The solution thermodynamics of water soluble complexes formed between Ce(III), Ce(IV), Th(IV) and the octadentate chelating agent 3,4,3-LI(1,2-HOPO) were investigated. Several techniques including spectrofluorimetric and automated spectrophotometric titrations were used to overcome the slow spontaneous oxidation of Ce(III) complexes yielding to stability constants of log β110 = 17.4 ± 0.5, log β11-1 = 8.3 ± 0.4 and log β111 = 21.2 ± 0.4 for [Ce(III)(3,4,3-LI(1,2-HOPO))]−, [Ce(III)(3,4,3-LI(1,2-HOPO)(OH)]2− and [Ce(III)(3,4,3-LI(1,2-HOPO)H], respectively. Using the spectral properties of the hydroxypyridinonate chelator in ligand competition titrations against nitrilotriacetic acid, the stability constant log β110 = 41.5 ± 0.5 was determined for [Ce(IV)(3,4,3-LI(1,2-HOPO))]. Finally, the extraordinarily stable complex [Ce(IV)(3,4,3-LI(1,2-HOPO))] was used in Th(IV) competition titrations, resulting in a stability constant of log β110 = 40.1 ± 0.5 for [Th(IV)3,4,3-LI(1,2-HOPO))]. These experimental values are in excellent agreement with previous estimates, they are discussed with respect to the ionic radius and oxidation state of each cationic metal and allow predictions on the stability of other actinide complexes including [U(IV)(3,4,3-LI(1,2-HOPO))], [Np(IV)(3,4,3-LI(1,2-HOPO))] and [Pu(IV)(3,4,3-LI(1,2-HOPO))]. Comparisons with the standard ligand diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA) provide a thermodynamic basis for the observed significantly higher efficacy of 3,4,3-LI(1,2-HOPO) as an in vivo actinide decorporation agent. PMID:23855806

  2. TChem - A Software Toolkit for the Analysis of Complex Kinetic Models

    SciTech Connect

    Safta, Cosmin; Najm, Habib N.; Knio, Omar

    2011-05-01

    The TChem toolkit is a software library that enables numerical simulations using complex chemistry and facilitates the analysis of detailed kinetic models. The toolkit provide capabilities for thermodynamic properties based on NASA polynomials and species production/consumption rates. It incorporates methods that can selectively modify reaction parameters for sensitivity analysis. The library contains several functions that provide analytically computed Jacobian matrices necessary for the efficient time advancement and analysis of detailed kinetic models.

  3. Chemical Speciation of Americium, Curium and Selected Tetravalent Actinides in High Level Waste

    SciTech Connect

    Felmy, Andrew R.

    2006-06-01

    Large volumes of high-level waste (HLW) currently stored in tanks at DOE sites contain both sludges and supernatants. The sludges are composed of insoluble precipitates of actinides, radioactive fission products, and nonradioactive components. The supernatants are alkaline carbonate solutions, which can contain soluble actinides, fission products, metal ions, and high concentrations of major electrolytes including sodium hydroxide, nitrate, nitrite, phosphate, carbonate, aluminate, sulfate, and organic complexants. The organic complexants include several compounds that can form strong aqueous complexes with actinide species and fission products including ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), N-(2-hydroxyethyl)ethylenediaminetriacetic acid (HEDTA), nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA), iminodiacetic acid (IDA), citrate, glycolate, gluconate, and degradation products, formate and oxalate.

  4. Chemical Speciation of Americium, Curium and Selected Tetravalent Actinides in High Level Waste

    SciTech Connect

    Felmy, Andrew R.

    2005-06-01

    Large volumes of high-level waste (HLW) currently stored in tanks at DOE sites contain both sludges and supernatants. The sludges are composed of insoluble precipitates of actinides, radioactive fission products, and nonradioactive components. The supernatants are alkaline carbonate solutions, which can contain soluble actinides, fission products, metal ions, and high concentrations of major electrolytes including sodium hydroxide, nitrate, nitrite, phosphate, carbonate, aluminate, sulfate, and organic complexants. The organic complexants include several compounds that can form strong aqueous complexes with actinide species and fission products including ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), N-(2-hydroxyethyl)ethylenediaminetriacetic acid (HEDTA), nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA), iminodiacetic acid (IDA), citrate, glycolate, gluconate, and degradation products, formate and oxalate.

  5. An Equilibrium and Kinetic Investigation of Salt-Cycloamylose Complexes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-12-08

    Coneinut on reverse aide It necessary and identify by blo * number) Equilibrium constants inorganic anions Rate constants Ultrasonic relaxation Inclusion...The equilibrium constants and rate constants for the formation of inclusion complexes of cycloheptaamylose with small inorganic anions were measured by...of cyclo- amylose chemistry. Recently, equilibrium constants for cyclohexaamylose, sometimes denoted by a-CD, with various Tnorganic salts were

  6. Plutonium complexation by phosphonate-functionalized mesoporous silica

    SciTech Connect

    Parsons-Moss, T; Schwaiger, L K; Hubaud, A; Hu, Y J; Tuysuz, H; Yang, P; Balasubramanian, K; Nitsche, H

    2010-10-27

    MCM-41-type mesoporous silica functionalized with the CMPO-based 'Ac-Phos' silane has been reported in the literature (1) to show good capacity as an acftinide sorbent material, with potential applications in environmental sequestration, aqueous waste separation and/or vitrification, and chemical sensing of actinides in solution. The study explores the complexation of Pu(IV and VI) and other selected actinides and lanthanides by SBA-15 type mesoporous silica functionalized with Ac-Phos. The Pu binding kinetics and binding capacity were determined for both the Ac-Phos functionalized and unmodified SBA-15. They analyzed the binding geometry and redox behavior of Pu(VI) by X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS). They discuss the synthesis and characterization of the functionalized mesoporous material, batch sorption experiments, and the detailed analyses of the actinide complexes that are formed. Structural measurements are paired with high-level quantum mechanical modeling to elucidate the binding mechanisms.

  7. (S)-5-(p-Nitrobenzyl)-PCTA, a Promising Bifunctional Ligand with Advantageous Metal Ion Complexation Kinetics

    PubMed Central

    Tircsó, Gyula; Benyó, Enikő Tircsóné; Suh, Eul Hyun; Jurek, Paul; Kiefer, Garry E.; Sherry, A. Dean; Kovács, Zoltán

    2009-01-01

    A bifunctional version of PCTA (3,6,9,15-tetraazabicyclo[9.3.1]pentadeca-1(15),11,13-triene-3,6,9,-triacetic acid) that exhibits fast complexation kinetics with the trivalent lanthanide(III) ions was synthesized in reasonable yields starting from N, N′, N″-tristosyl-(S)-2-(p-nitrobenzyl)-diethylenetriamine. pH-potentiometric studies showed that the basicities of p-nitrobenzyl-PCTA and the parent ligand PCTA were similar. The stability of M(NO2-Bn-PCTA) (M = Mg2+, Ca2+, Cu2+, Zn2+) complexes was similar to that of the corresponding PCTA complexes while the stability of Ln3+ complexes of the bifunctional ligand is somewhat lower than that of PCTA chelates. The rate of complex formation of Ln(NO2-Bn-PCTA) complexes was found to be quite similar to that of PCTA, a ligand known to exhibit the fastest formation rates among all lanthanide macrocyclic ligand complexes studied to date. The acid catalyzed decomplexation kinetic studies of the selected Ln(NO2-Bn-PCTA) complexes showed that the kinetic inertness of the complexes was comparable to that of Ln(DOTA) chelates making the bifunctional ligand NO2-Bn-PCTA suitable for labeling biological vectors with radioisotopes for nuclear medicine applications. PMID:19220012

  8. (S)-5-(p-nitrobenzyl)-PCTA, a promising bifunctional ligand with advantageous metal ion complexation kinetics.

    PubMed

    Tircsó, Gyula; Benyó, Eniko Tircsóné; Suh, Eul Hyun; Jurek, Paul; Kiefer, Garry E; Sherry, A Dean; Kovács, Zoltán

    2009-03-18

    A bifunctional version of PCTA (3,6,9,15-tetraazabicyclo[9.3.1]pentadeca-1(15),11,13-triene-3,6,9,-triacetic acid) that exhibits fast complexation kinetics with the trivalent lanthanide(III) ions was synthesized in reasonable yields starting from N,N',N''-tristosyl-(S)-2-(p-nitrobenzyl)-diethylenetriamine. pH-potentiometric studies showed that the basicities of p-nitrobenzyl-PCTA and the parent ligand PCTA were similar. The stability of M(NO(2)-Bn-PCTA) (M = Mg(2+), Ca(2+), Cu(2+), Zn(2+)) complexes was similar to that of the corresponding PCTA complexes, while the stability of Ln(3+) complexes of the bifunctional ligand is somewhat lower than that of PCTA chelates. The rate of complex formation of Ln(NO(2)-Bn-PCTA) complexes was found to be quite similar to that of PCTA, a ligand known to exhibit the fastest formation rates among all lanthanide macrocyclic ligand complexes studied to date. The acid-catalyzed decomplexation kinetic studies of the selected Ln(NO(2)-Bn-PCTA) complexes showed that the kinetic inertness of the complexes was comparable to that of Ln(DOTA) chelates making the bifunctional ligand NO(2)-Bn-PCTA suitable for labeling biological vectors with radioisotopes for nuclear medicine applications.

  9. Copper and cobalt complexes of octadentate azamacrocycles: spectrophotometric titration, stopped-flow kinetics and crystallographic study.

    PubMed

    Ozay, Hava; Baran, Yakup; Ishii, Youichi

    2011-12-01

    Details of complex formation kinetics are reported for tetrakis(2-hydroxyethyl) substituted cyclen (L(1)) and cyclam (L(2)) with Cu(II) and Co(II). Stopped-flow kinetics and spectroscopic titration methods were employed for the activation parameters and stability constants, respectively. X-ray studies revealed that the pendant 2-hydroxyethyl groups are not equivalent: two are folded over the macrocycle and maintained by intramolecular hydrogen bonds while the others are extended and pointed away from the macrocyclic cavity. Complex formation kinetics and spectroscopic titration were performed in aqueous acidic buffer solutions. Thermodynamic and kinetic parameters revealed that the ring size of the macrocycles plays an extremely important role for each metal ion studied. Stopped-flow kinetic measurements explained the mechanism of the complex formation process of both Cu(II) and Co(II) which proceed in outer-sphere interactions with ligands. There are two steps in the complex formation of the system studied. The initial step is a second order reaction between the metal ion and macrocycle with a second order rate constant.

  10. Density functional theory investigations of the homoleptic tris(dithiolene) complexes [M(dddt)(3)](-q) (q = 3, 2 ; M = Nd(3+) and U(3+/4+)) related to lanthanide(III)/actinide(III) differentiation.

    PubMed

    Meskaldji, Samir; Belkhiri, Lotfi; Arliguie, Thérèse; Fourmigué, Marc; Ephritikhine, Michel; Boucekkine, Abdou

    2010-04-05

    The structures of the homoleptic lanthanide and actinide tris(dithiolene) complexes [M(dddt)(3)](q-) (q = 3, M = Nd(3+) and q = 3 or 2, M = U(3+/4+)) have been investigated using relativistic Density Functional Theory (DFT) computations including spin-orbit corrections coupled with the COnductor-like Screening Model (COSMO) for a realistic solvation approach. The dithiolene ligands are known to be very efficient at stabilizing metal high oxidation states. The aim of the work is to explain the peculiar symmetric folding of the three Mdddt metallacycles in these complexes, some of them existing under a polymeric form, in relation with the Ln(III)/An(III) differentiation. In the [M(dddt)(3)(py)](q-) species, where an additional pyridine ligand is linked to the metal center, the Mdddt moieties appear to be almost planar. The study brings to light the occurrence of a M...C=C interaction explaining the Mdddt folding of the [U(dddt)(3)](q-) uranium species, the metal 5f electrons playing a driving role. No such interaction appears in the case of the Nd(III) complex, and the folding of the rather flexible dddt ligands in the polymeric structure of this species should be mainly due to steric effects. Moreover, the analysis of the normal modes of vibration shows that the U(III) complex [U(dddt)(3)](3-), which has not yet been isolated, is thermodynamically stable. It appears that the X-ray characterized U(IV) complex [U(dddt)(3)](2-) should be less stable than the calculated U(III) complex in a polar solvent.

  11. Equilibrium and Redox Kinetics of Copper(II)-Thiourea Complexes.

    PubMed

    Doona, Christopher J.; Stanbury, David M.

    1996-05-22

    Stopped-flow spectrophotometric measurements identify and determine equilibrium data for thiourea (tu) complexes of copper(II) formed in aqueous solution. In excess Cu(II), the complex ion [Cu(tu)](2+) has a stability constant beta(1) = 2.3 +/- 0.1 M(-)(1) and molar absorptivity at 340 nm of epsilon(1) = (4.0 +/- 0.2) x 10(3) M(-)(1) cm(-)(1) at 25.0 degrees C, 2.48 mM HClO(4), and &mgr; = 464 mM (NaClO(4)). The fast reduction of Cu(II) by excess tu obeys the rate law -d[Cu(II)]/dt = k'[Cu(II)](2)[tu](7) with a value for the ninth-order rate constant k' = (1.60 +/- 0.18) x 10(14) M(-)(8) s(-)(1), which derives from a rate-determining step involving the bimolecular decomposition of two complexed Cu(II) species. Copper(II) catalyzes the reduction of hexachloroiridate(IV) by tu according to the rate law -d[IrCl(6)(2)(-)]/dt = (k(2,unc)[tu](2) + k(1,cat) [tu](5)[Cu(II)])[IrCl(6)(2)(-)]. Least-squares analysis yields values of k(2,unc) and k(1,cat) equaling 385 +/- 4 M(-)(2) s(-)(1) and (3.7 +/- 0.1) x 10(13) M(-)(6) s(-)(1), respectively, at &mgr; = 115 mM (NaClO(4)). The corresponding mechanism has a rate-determining step that involves the oxidation of [Cu(II)(tu)(5)](2+) by [IrCl(6)](2)(-) rather than the bimolecular reaction of two cupric-tu complexes.

  12. Algorithmic developments of the kinetic activation-relaxation technique: Accessing long-time kinetics of larger and more complex systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trochet, Mickaël; Sauvé-Lacoursière, Alecsandre; Mousseau, Normand

    2017-10-01

    In spite of the considerable computer speed increase of the last decades, long-time atomic simulations remain a challenge and most molecular dynamical simulations are limited to 1 μ s at the very best in condensed matter and materials science. There is a need, therefore, for accelerated methods that can bridge the gap between the full dynamical description of molecular dynamics and experimentally relevant time scales. This is the goal of the kinetic Activation-Relaxation Technique (k-ART), an off-lattice kinetic Monte-Carlo method with on-the-fly catalog building capabilities based on the topological tool NAUTY and the open-ended search method Activation-Relaxation Technique (ART nouveau) that has been applied with success to the study of long-time kinetics of complex materials, including grain boundaries, alloys, and amorphous materials. We present a number of recent algorithmic additions, including the use of local force calculation, two-level parallelization, improved topological description, and biased sampling and show how they perform on two applications linked to defect diffusion and relaxation after ion bombardement in Si.

  13. Structure and kinetics of formation of catechol complexes of ferric soybean lipoxygenase-1

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, M.J.; Brennan, B.A.; Chase, D.B. |

    1995-11-21

    Ferric soybean lipoxygenase forms stable complexes with 4-substituted catechols. The structure of the complex between the enzyme and 3,4-dihydroxybenzonitrile has been studied by resonance Raman, electron paramagnetic resonance, visible, and X-ray spectroscopies. It is a bidentate iron-catecholate complex with at least one water ligand. The kinetics of formation of complexes between lipoxygenase and 3,4-dihydroxybenzonitrile and 3,4-dihydroxyacetophenone have been studied by stopped-flow spectroscopy. The data are consistent with two kinetically distinct, reversible steps. The pH dependence of the first step suggests that the substrate for the reaction is the catechol monoanion. When these results are combined, plausible mechanisms for the complexation reaction are suggested. 51 refs., 12 figs., 2 tabs.

  14. Advancing the scientific basis of trivalent actinide-lanthanide separations

    SciTech Connect

    Nash, K.L.

    2013-07-01

    For advanced fuel cycles designed to support transmutation of transplutonium actinides, several options have been demonstrated for process-scale aqueous separations for U, Np, Pu management and for partitioning of trivalent actinides and fission product lanthanides away from other fission products. The more difficult mutual separation of Am/Cm from La-Tb remains the subject of considerable fundamental and applied research. The chemical separations literature teaches that the most productive alternatives to pursue are those based on ligand donor atoms less electronegative than O, specifically N- and S-containing complexants and chloride ion (Cl{sup -}). These 'soft-donor' atoms have exhibited usable selectivity in their bonding interactions with trivalent actinides relative to lanthanides. In this report, selected features of soft donor reagent design, characterization and application development will be discussed. The roles of thiocyanate, aminopoly-carboxylic acids and lactate in separation processes are detailed. (authors)

  15. Kinetic Analysis of Nanoparticulate Polyelectrolyte Complex Interactions with Endothelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Hartig, Sean M.; Greene, Rachel; Carlesso, Gianluca; Higginbotham, James N.; Khan, Wasif N.; Prokop, Ales; Davidson, Jeffrey M.

    2007-01-01

    A non-toxic, nanoparticulate polyelectrolyte complex (PEC) drug delivery system was formulated to maintain suitable physicochemical properties at physiological pH. Toxicity, binding, and internalization were evaluated in relevant microvascular endothelial cells. PEC were non-toxic, as indicated by cell proliferation studies and propidium iodide staining. Inhibitor studies revealed that PEC were bound, in part, via heparan sulfate proteoglycans and internalized through macropinocytosis. A novel, flow cytometric, Scatchard protocol was established and showed that PEC, in the absence of surface modification, bind cells non-specifically with positive cooperativity, as seen by graphical transformations. PMID:17560645

  16. 33rd Actinide Separations Conference

    SciTech Connect

    McDonald, L M; Wilk, P A

    2009-05-04

    Welcome to the 33rd Actinide Separations Conference hosted this year by the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. This annual conference is centered on the idea of networking and communication with scientists from throughout the United States, Britain, France and Japan who have expertise in nuclear material processing. This conference forum provides an excellent opportunity for bringing together experts in the fields of chemistry, nuclear and chemical engineering, and actinide processing to present and discuss experiences, research results, testing and application of actinide separation processes. The exchange of information that will take place between you, and other subject matter experts from around the nation and across the international boundaries, is a critical tool to assist in solving both national and international problems associated with the processing of nuclear materials used for both defense and energy purposes, as well as for the safe disposition of excess nuclear material. Granlibakken is a dedicated conference facility and training campus that is set up to provide the venue that supports communication between scientists and engineers attending the 33rd Actinide Separations Conference. We believe that you will find that Granlibakken and the Lake Tahoe views provide an atmosphere that is stimulating for fruitful discussions between participants from both government and private industry. We thank the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and the United States Department of Energy for their support of this conference. We especially thank you, the participants and subject matter experts, for your involvement in the 33rd Actinide Separations Conference.

  17. Phytosiderophore Effects on Subsurface Actinide Contaminants: Potential for Phytostabilization and Phytoextraction

    SciTech Connect

    Ruggiero, Christy

    2003-06-01

    This project seeks to determine the potential of phytosiderophore-producing plants for phytostabilization and phytoextraction of actinides and some metal soil contaminants. Phytosiderophores are secreted by graminaceous plants such as barley and wheat for the solubilization, mobilization and uptake of Fe and other essential nutrients from soils. The ability for these phytosiderophores to chelate and absorb actinides using the same uptake system as for Fe is hereby investigated though characterization of actinide-phytosiderophore complexes (independently of plants), and characterization of plant uptake of such complexes.

  18. The role of transferrin in actinide(IV) uptake: comparison with iron(III).

    PubMed

    Jeanson, Aurélie; Ferrand, M; Funke, Harald; Hennig, Christoph; Moisy, Philippe; Solari, Pier Lorenzo; Vidaud, Claude; Den Auwer, Christophe

    2010-01-25

    The impact of actinides on living organisms has been the subject of numerous studies since the 1950s. From a general point of view, these studies show that actinides are chemical poisons as well as radiological hazards. Actinides in plasma are assumed to be mainly complexed to transferrin, the iron carrier protein. This paper casts light on the uptake of actinides(IV) (thorium, neptunium, plutonium) by transferrin, focusing on the pH dependence of the interaction and on a molecular description of the cation binding site in the protein. Their behavior is compared with that of iron(III), the endogenous transferrin cation, from a structural point of view. Complementary spectroscopic techniques (UV/Vis spectrophotometry, microfiltration coupled with gamma spectrometry, and X-ray absorption fine structure) have been combined in order to propose a structural model for the actinide-binding site in transferrin. Comparison of our results with data available on holotransferrin suggests some similarities between the behavior of Fe(III) and Np(IV)/Pu(IV)/ Np(IV) is not complexed at pH <7, whereas at pH approximately 7.4 complexation can be regarded as quantitative. This pH effect is consistent with the in vivo transferrin "cycle". Pu(IV) also appears to be quantitatively bound by apotransferrin at around pH approximately 7.5, whereas Th(IV) was never complexed under our experimental conditions. EXAFS data at the actinide edge have allowed a structural model of the actinide binding site to be elaborated: at least one tyrosine residue could participate in the actinide coordination sphere (two for iron), forming a mixed hydroxo-transferrin complex in which actinides are bound with transferrin both through An-tyrosine and through An--OH bonds. A description of interatomic distances is provided.

  19. Thermodynamic stability and kinetic inertness of a Gd-DTPA bisamide complex grafted onto gold nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Mogilireddy, Vijetha; Déchamps-Olivier, Isabelle; Alric, Christophe; Laurent, Gautier; Laurent, Sophie; Vander Elst, Luce; Muller, Robert; Bazzi, Rana; Roux, Stéphane; Tillement, Olivier; Chuburu, Françoise

    2015-01-01

    Gold nanoparticles coated by gadolinium (III) chelates (Au@DTDTPA) where DTDTPA is a dithiolated bisamide derivative of diethylenetriamine-N,N,N',N'',N''-pentaacetic acid (DTPA), constituted contrast agents for both X-ray computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. In an MRI context, highly stable Gd(3+) complexes are needed for in vivo applications. Thus, knowledge of the thermodynamic stability and kinetic inertness of these chelates, when grafted onto gold nanoparticles, is crucial since bisamide DTPA chelates are usually less suited for Gd(3+) coordination than DTPA. Therefore, these parameters were evaluated by means of potentiometric titrations and relaxivity measurements. The results showed that, when the chelates were grafted onto the nanoparticle, not only their thermodynamic stability but also their kinetic inertness were improved. These positive effects were correlated to the chelate packing at the nanoparticle surface that stabilized the corresponding Gd(3+) complexes and greatly enhanced their kinetic inertness.

  20. Thermodynamic and kinetic hydricity of ruthenium(II) hydride complexes.

    PubMed

    Matsubara, Yasuo; Fujita, Etsuko; Doherty, Mark D; Muckerman, James T; Creutz, Carol

    2012-09-26

    Despite the fundamental importance of the hydricity of a transition metal hydride (ΔG(H–)°(MH) for the reaction M–H → M+ + H–) in a range of reactions important in catalysis and solar energy storage, ours (J. Am. Chem. Soc.2009, 131, 2794) are the only values reported for water solvent, and there has been no basis for comparison of these with the wider range already determined for acetonitrile solvent, in particular. Accordingly, we have used a variety of approaches to determine hydricity values in acetonitrile of Ru(II) hydride complexes previously studied in water. For [Ru(η(6)-C6Me6)(bpy)H]+ (bpy = 2,2′-bipyridine), we used a thermodynamic cycle based on evaluation of the acidity of [Ru(η(6)-C6Me6)(bpy)H]+ pKa = 22.5 ± 0.1 and the [Ru(η(6)-C6Me6)(bpy)(NCCH3)(1/0)](2+/0) electrochemical potential (−1.22 V vs Fc+/Fc). For [Ru(tpy)(bpy)H]+ (tpy = 2,2′:6′,2″-terpyridine) we utilized organic hydride ion acceptors (A+) of characterized hydricity derived from imidazolium cations and pyridinium cations, and determined K for the hydride transfer reaction, S + MH+ + A+ → M(S)2+ + AH (S = CD3CN, MH+ = [Ru(tpy)(bpy)H]+), by 1H NMR measurements. Equilibration of initially 7 mM solutions was slow--on the time scale of a day or more. When E°(H+/H–) is taken as 79.6 kcal/mol vs Fc+/Fc as a reference, the hydricities of [Ru(η(6)-C6Me6)(bpy)H]+ and [Ru(tpy)(bpy)H]+ were estimated as 54 ± 2 and 39 ± 3 kcal/mol, respectively, in acetonitrile to be compared with the values 31 and 22 kcal/mol, respectively, found for aqueous media. The pKa estimated for [Ru(tpy)(bpy)H]+ in acetonitrile is 32 ± 3. UV–vis spectroscopic studies of [Ru(η(6)-C6Me6)(bpy)]0 and [Ru(tpy)(bpy)]0 indicate that they contain reduced bpy and tpy ligands, respectively. These conclusions are supported by DFT electronic structure results. Comparison of the hydricity values for acetonitrile and water reveals a flattening or compression of the hydricity range upon transferring the

  1. Nuclear waste forms for actinides

    PubMed Central

    Ewing, Rodney C.

    1999-01-01

    The disposition of actinides, most recently 239Pu from dismantled nuclear weapons, requires effective containment of waste generated by the nuclear fuel cycle. Because actinides (e.g., 239Pu and 237Np) are long-lived, they have a major impact on risk assessments of geologic repositories. Thus, demonstrable, long-term chemical and mechanical durability are essential properties of waste forms for the immobilization of actinides. Mineralogic and geologic studies provide excellent candidate phases for immobilization and a unique database that cannot be duplicated by a purely materials science approach. The “mineralogic approach” is illustrated by a discussion of zircon as a phase for the immobilization of excess weapons plutonium. PMID:10097054

  2. Kinetics and Regulation of Mammalian NADH-Ubiquinone Oxidoreductase (Complex I)

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xuewen; Qi, Feng; Dash, Ranjan K.; Beard, Daniel A.

    2010-01-01

    NADH-ubiquinone oxidoreductase (Complex I, European Commission No. 1.6.5.3) is one of the respiratory complexes that generate the proton-motive force required for the synthesis of ATP in mitochondria. The catalytic mechanism of Complex I has not been well understood, due to the complicated structure of this enzyme. Here, we develop a kinetic model for Complex I that accounts for electron transfer from NADH to ubiquinone through protein-bound prosthetic groups, which is coupled to the translocation of protons across the inner mitochondrial membrane. The model is derived based on the tri-bi enzyme mechanism combined with a simple model of the conformational changes associated with proton transport. To study the catalytic mechanism, parameter values are estimated by analyzing kinetic data. The model is further validated by independent data sets from additional experiments, effectively explaining the effect of pH on enzyme activity. Results imply that matrix pH significantly affects the enzyme turnover processes. The overall kinetic analysis demonstrates a hybrid ping-pong rapid-equilibrium random bi-bi mechanism, consolidating the characteristics from previously reported kinetic mechanisms and data. PMID:20816054

  3. Kinetic resolution of racemic secondary alcohols catalyzed by chiral diaminodiphosphine-Ir(I) complexes.

    PubMed

    Li, Yan-Yun; Zhang, Xue-Qin; Dong, Zhen-Rong; Shen, Wei-Yi; Chen, Gui; Gao, Jing-Xing

    2006-11-23

    Chiral diaminodiphosphine-Ir(I) complexes were found to efficiently catalyze enantioselective oxidation of racemic secondary alcohols in acetone. In the presence of base, oxidative kinetic resolution of the alcohols proceeded smoothly with excellent enantioselectivity (up to 98% ee) under mild conditions. [reaction: see text].

  4. Revealing Assembly of a Pore-Forming Complex Using Single-Cell Kinetic Analysis and Modeling.

    PubMed

    Bischofberger, Mirko; Iacovache, Ioan; Boss, Daniel; Naef, Felix; van der Goot, F Gisou; Molina, Nacho

    2016-04-12

    Many biological processes depend on the sequential assembly of protein complexes. However, studying the kinetics of such processes by direct methods is often not feasible. As an important class of such protein complexes, pore-forming toxins start their journey as soluble monomeric proteins, and oligomerize into transmembrane complexes to eventually form pores in the target cell membrane. Here, we monitored pore formation kinetics for the well-characterized bacterial pore-forming toxin aerolysin in single cells in real time to determine the lag times leading to the formation of the first functional pores per cell. Probabilistic modeling of these lag times revealed that one slow and seven equally fast rate-limiting reactions best explain the overall pore formation kinetics. The model predicted that monomer activation is the rate-limiting step for the entire pore formation process. We hypothesized that this could be through release of a propeptide and indeed found that peptide removal abolished these steps. This study illustrates how stochasticity in the kinetics of a complex process can be exploited to identify rate-limiting mechanisms underlying multistep biomolecular assembly pathways. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. A generalised enzyme kinetic model for predicting the behaviour of complex biochemical systems

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Martin Kin Lok; Krycer, James Robert; Burchfield, James Geoffrey; James, David Ernest; Kuncic, Zdenka

    2015-01-01

    Quasi steady-state enzyme kinetic models are increasingly used in systems modelling. The Michaelis Menten model is popular due to its reduced parameter dimensionality, but its low-enzyme and irreversibility assumption may not always be valid in the in vivo context. Whilst the total quasi-steady state assumption (tQSSA) model eliminates the reactant stationary assumptions, its mathematical complexity is increased. Here, we propose the differential quasi-steady state approximation (dQSSA) kinetic model, which expresses the differential equations as a linear algebraic equation. It eliminates the reactant stationary assumptions of the Michaelis Menten model without increasing model dimensionality. The dQSSA was found to be easily adaptable for reversible enzyme kinetic systems with complex topologies and to predict behaviour consistent with mass action kinetics in silico. Additionally, the dQSSA was able to predict coenzyme inhibition in the reversible lactate dehydrogenase enzyme, which the Michaelis Menten model failed to do. Whilst the dQSSA does not account for the physical and thermodynamic interactions of all intermediate enzyme-substrate complex states, it is proposed to be suitable for modelling complex enzyme mediated biochemical systems. This is due to its simpler application, reduced parameter dimensionality and improved accuracy. PMID:25859426

  6. Development of Biodegradable Isosaccharinate-Containing Foams for Decontamination of Actinides

    SciTech Connect

    Rai, Dhanpat; Rao, Linfeng; Moore, R.C.; Hess, Nancy J.; Tucker, Mark D.

    2003-09-11

    The objective of this project is to develop fundamental information that will lead to the development of a new, more environmentally acceptable technology for decontaminating Pu and other actinides. The key component of this technology is isosaccharinate (ISA), a degradation product of cellulose materials that is biodegradable and binds strongly with tetravalent actinides. We are developing fundamental constants for (1) the effect of a wide range in pH and Ca concentrations on the speciation and thermodynamic reactions of ISA and (2) thermodynamic and kinetic reactions of ISA with tetravalent actinides and other competing ions such as Fe(III). We have successfully formulated and tested several ISA containing foams and gels for their effectiveness in removing tetravalent actinides from concrete and steel surfaces. These data along with a comprehensive thermodynamic mo del developed for Np(IV) and Ca(II) and applicable to a wide range in pH, ISA concentrations, and ionic strengths, will be presented.

  7. Mechanism of Cooperativity and Nonlinear Release Kinetics in Multivalent Dendrimer-Atropine Complexes.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Jhindan; Wong, Pamela T; Tang, Shengzhuang; Gam, Kristina; Coulter, Alexa; Baker, James R; Choi, Seok Ki

    2015-12-07

    Despite extensive studies on drug delivery using multivalent complexation systems, the biophysical basis for release kinetics remains poorly defined. The present study addresses this aspect involved in the complexation of a fifth generation poly(amidoamine) (PAMAM) dendrimer with atropine, an essential antidote used for treating organophosphate poisoning. First, we designed (1)H NMR titration studies for determining the molecular basis of the drug complexation with a glutarate-modified anionic dendrimer. These provide evidence pointing to a combination of electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions as the driving forces for dendrimer complexation with the alkaloid drug molecule. Second, using LC-MS/MS spectrometry, we determined the dissociation constants (KD) at steady state and also measured the drug release kinetics of atropine complexes with four negatively charged dendrimer types. Each of these dendrimers has a high payload capacity for up to ∼ 100 atropine molecules. However, the affinity of the atropine to the carrier was highly dependent on the drug to dendrimer ratio. Thus, a complex made at a lower loading ratio (≤ 0.1) displayed greater atropine affinity (KD ≈ μM) than other complexes prepared at higher ratios (>10), which showed only mM affinity. This negative cooperative variation in affinity is tightly associated with the nonlinear release kinetics observed for each complex in which drug release occurs more slowly at the later time phase at a lower loading ratio. In summary, the present study provides novel insights on the cooperativity as the mechanistic basis for nonlinear release kinetics observed in multivalent carrier systems.

  8. Preliminary considerations concerning actinide solubilities

    SciTech Connect

    Newton, T.W.; Bayhurst, B.P.; Daniels, W.R.; Erdal, B.R.; Ogard, A.E.

    1980-01-01

    Work at the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory on the fundamental solution chemistry of the actinides has thus far been confined to preliminary considerations of the problems involved in developing an understanding of the precipitation and dissolution behavior of actinide compounds under environmental conditions. Attempts have been made to calculate solubility as a function of Eh and pH using the appropriate thermodynamic data; results have been presented in terms of contour maps showing lines of constant solubility as a function of Eh and pH. Possible methods of control of the redox potential of rock-groundwater systems by the use of Eh buffers (redox couples) is presented.

  9. New cubic structure compounds as actinide host phases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stefanovsky, S. V.; Yudintsev, S. V.; Livshits, T. S.

    2010-03-01

    Various compounds with fluorite (cubic zirconia) and fluorite-derived (pyrochlore, zirconolite) structures are considered as promising actinide host phases at immobilization of actinide-bearing nuclear wastes. Recently some new cubic compounds — stannate and stannate-zirconate pyrochlores, murataite and related phases, and actinide-bearing garnet structure compounds were proposed as perspective matrices for complex actinide wastes. Zirconate pyrochlore (ideally Gd2Zr2O7) has excellent radiation resistance and high chemical durability but requires high temperatures (at least 1500 °C) to be produced by hot-pressing from sol-gel derived precursor. Partial Sn4+ substitution for Zr4+ reduces production temperature and the compounds REE2ZrSnO7 may be hot-pressed or cold pressed and sintered at ~1400 °C. Pyrochlore, A2B2O7-x (two-fold elementary fluorite unit cell), and murataite, A3B6C2O20-y (three-fold fluorite unit cell), are end-members of the polysomatic series consisting of the phases whose structures are built from alternating pyrochlore and murataite blocks (nano-sized modules) with seven- (2C/3C/2C), five- (2C/3C), eight- (3C/2C/3C) and three-fold (3C — murataite) fluorite unit cells. Actinide content in this series reduces in the row: 2C (pyrochlore) > 7C > 5C > 8C > 3C (murataite). Due to congruent melting murataite-based ceramics may be produced by melting and the firstly segregated phase at melt crystallization is that with the highest fraction of the pyrochlore modules in its structure. The melts containing up to 10 wt. % AnO2 (An = Th, U, Np, Pu) or REE/An fraction of HLW form at crystallization zoned grains composed sequentially of the 5C → 8C → 3C phases with the highest actinide concentration in the core and the lowest — in the rim of the grains. Radiation resistance of the "murataite" is comparable to titanate pyrochlores. One more promising actinide hosts are ferrites with garnet structure. The matrices containing sometime complex fluorite

  10. {sup 31}P NMR study of the complexation of TBP with lanthanides and actinides in solution and in a clay matrix

    SciTech Connect

    Hartzell, C.J.

    1994-07-24

    Goal was to use NMR to study TBP/lanthanide complexes in the interlayer or on edge sites of clays. Work in this laboratory yielded details of the complexation of Eu(NO{sub 3}){sub 3} and Pr(NO{sub 3}){sub 3} with TBP in hexane solution; this information is crucial to interpretation of results of NMR studies of the complexes exchanged into clays. The solution {sup 31}P-chemical shift values were improved by repeating the studies on the lanthanide salts dissolved directly into neat TBP. NMR studies of these neat solutions of the Eu(NO{sub 3}){sub 3}{lg_bullet}3TBP-complex and the Pr(NO{sub 3}){sub 3}{lg_bullet}3TBP-complex show that the {sup 31}P chemical shift remains relatively constant for TBP: lanthanide ratios below 3: 1. At higher ratios, the chemical shift approaches that of free TBP, indicating rapid exchange of TBP between the free and complexed state. Exchange of these complexes into the clay hectorite yielded discrete {sup 31}P-NMR signals for the Eu{lg_bullet}TBP complex at -190 ppm and free TBP at -6 ppm. Adsorption of the Pr{lg_bullet}TBP complex yielded broad signals at 76 ppm for the complex and -6 ppm for free TBP. There was no evidence of exchange between the incorporated complex and the free TBP.

  11. SOLUBILIZATION OF ACTINIDE METAL-CONTAINING SLAG

    DOEpatents

    Hopkins, H.H. Jr.

    1959-08-01

    This patent relates to solubilization of the actinide rare earths valves contained in the slag materials resulting from the reduction of actinide salts, such as plutonium tetrafluoride. According to the invention the slag is subjected to a high temperature chloridizing roast, preferably from the reduction of actinide salts, such as plutonium tetrafluoride. According to the invention the slag is subjected to a high temperature chloridizing roast, preferably at about 700 deg C with gaseous hydrogen chloride, until the actinides within the slag are substantially convented to the chlorides. The resultant chlorinated actinides are then leached from the cooled roasted mass by treating with aqueous 0.01 M nitric acid.

  12. Experimental and theoretical comparison of actinide and lanthanide bonding in M[N(EPR(2))(2)](3) complexes (M = U, Pu, La, Ce; E = S, Se, Te; R = Ph, iPr, H).

    PubMed

    Gaunt, Andrew J; Reilly, Sean D; Enriquez, Alejandro E; Scott, Brian L; Ibers, James A; Sekar, Perumal; Ingram, Kieran I M; Kaltsoyannis, Nikolas; Neu, Mary P

    2008-01-07

    Treatment of M[N(SiMe3)2]3 (M = U, Pu (An); La, Ce (Ln)) with NH(EPPh2)2 and NH(EPiPr2)2 (E = S, Se), afforded the neutral complexes M[N(EPR2)2]3 (R = Ph, iPr). Tellurium donor complexes were synthesized by treatment of MI3(sol)4 (M = U, Pu; sol = py and M = La, Ce; sol = thf) with Na(tmeda)[N(TePiPr2)2]. The complexes have been structurally and spectroscopically characterized with concomitant computational modeling through density functional theory (DFT) calculations. The An-E bond lengths are shorter than the Ln-E bond lengths for metal ions of similar ionic radii, consistent with an increase in covalent interactions in the actinide bonding relative to the lanthanide bonding. In addition, the magnitude of the differences in the bonding is slightly greater with increasing softness of the chalcogen donor atom. The DFT calculations for the model systems correlate well with experimentally determined metrical parameters. They indicate that the enhanced covalency in the M-E bond as group 16 is descended arises mostly from increased metal d-orbital participation. Conversely, an increase in f-orbital participation is responsible for the enhancement of covalency in An-E bonds compared to Ln-E bonds. The fundamental and practical importance of such studies of the role of the valence d and f orbitals in the bonding of the f elements is emphasized.

  13. Quest for Environmentally-Benign Ligands for Actinide Separations: Thermodynamic, Spectroscopic, and Structural Characterization of U(VI) Complexes with Oxa-Diamide and Related Ligands

    SciTech Connect

    Advanced Light Source; Tian, Guoxin; Rao, Linfeng; Teat, Simon J.; Liu, Guokui

    2009-01-05

    Complexation of U(VI) with N,N,N{prime},N{prime}-tetramethyl-3-oxa-glutaramide (TMOGA) and N,N-dimethyl-3-oxa-glutaramic acid (DMOGA) was studied in comparison with their dicarboxylate analog, oxydiacetic acid (ODA). Thermodynamic parameters, including stability constants, enthalpy and entropy of complexation, were determined by spectrophotometry, potentiometry and calorimetry. Single-crystal X-ray diffractometry, EXAFS spectroscopy, FT-IR absorption and laser-induced luminescence spectroscopy were used to obtain structural information on the U(VI) complexes. Like ODA, TMOGA and DMOGA form tridentate U(VI) complexes, with three oxygen atoms (the amide, ether and/or carboxylate oxygen) coordinating to the linear UO{sub 2}{sup 2+} cation via the equatorial plane. The stability constants, enthalpy and entropy of complexation all decrease in the order ODA > DMOGA > TMOGA, showing that the complexation is entropy driven and the substitution of a carboxylate group with an amide group reduces the strength of complexation with U(VI) due to the decrease in the entropy of complexation. The trend in the thermodynamic stability of the complexes correlates very well with the structural and spectroscopic data obtained by single crystal XRD, FT-IR and laser-induced luminescence spectroscopy.

  14. The role of multivalency in the association kinetics of patchy particle complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newton, Arthur C.; Groenewold, Jan; Kegel, Willem K.; Bolhuis, Peter G.

    2017-06-01

    Association and dissociation of particles are elementary steps in many natural and technological relevant processes. For many such processes, the presence of multiple binding sites is essential. For instance, protein complexes and regular structures such as virus shells are formed from elementary building blocks with multiple binding sites. Here we address a fundamental question concerning the role of multivalency of binding sites in the association kinetics of such complexes. Using single replica transition interface sampling simulations, we investigate the influence of the multivalency on the binding kinetics and the association mechanism of patchy particles that form polyhedral clusters. When the individual bond strength is fixed, the kinetics naturally is very dependent on the multivalency, with dissociation rate constants exponentially decreasing with the number of bonds. In contrast, we find that when the total bond energy per particle is kept constant, association and dissociation rate constants turn out rather independent of multivalency, although of course still very dependent on the total energy. The association and dissociation mechanisms, however, depend on the presence and nature of the intermediate states. For instance, pathways that visit intermediate states are less prevalent for particles with five binding sites compared to the case of particles with only three bonds. The presence of intermediate states can lead to kinetic trapping and malformed aggregates. We discuss implications for natural forming complexes such as virus shells and for the design of artificial colloidal patchy particles.

  15. Kinetics of acid hydrolysis and reactivity of some antibacterial hydrophilic iron(II) imino-complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaker, Ali Mohamed; Nassr, Lobna Abdel-Mohsen Ebaid; Adam, Mohamed Shaker Saied; Mohamed, Ibrahim Mohamed Abdelhalim

    2015-05-01

    Kinetic study of acid hydrolysis of some hydrophilic Fe(II) Schiff base amino acid complexes with antibacterial properties was performed using spectrophotometry. The Schiff base ligands were derived from sodium 2-hydroxybenzaldehyde-5-sulfonate and glycine, L-alanine, L-leucine, L-isoleucine, DL-methionine, DL-serine, or L-phenylalanine. The reaction was studied in aqueous media under conditions of pseudo-first order kinetics. Moreover, the acid hydrolysis was studied at different temperatures and the activation parameters were calculated. The general rate equation was suggested as follows: rate = k obs [Complex], where k obs = k 2 [H+]. The evaluated rate constants and activation parameters are consistent with the hydrophilicity of the investigated complexes.

  16. Kinetics of the reduction of cobalt(III) amine complexes by 1-hydroxy-1-methylethyl radicals

    SciTech Connect

    Kusaba, K.; Ogino, Hiroshi ); Bakac, A.; Espenon, J.H. )

    1989-03-08

    In order to better understand the rate constants for the reduction of several cobalt complexes by 1-hydroxy-1-methylene radicals ({sup {sm bullet}}C(CH{sub 3}){sub 2}OH), the reactions of {sup {sm bullet}}(CH{sub 3}){sub 2}OH with several cobalt(III) complexes of bidentate amines have been studied. The Marcus-Hush theory was deemed the most appropriate for analysis of the kinetic data. The correlation between the kinetics of the reduction of the Co(III) amines by C(CH{sub 3}){sub 2}OH and the reduction of the first d-d band for Co(III) complexes is discussed. 21 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  17. Separations of actinides, lanthanides and other metals

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Barbara F.; Jarvinen, Gordon D.; Ensor, Dale D.

    1995-01-01

    An organic extracting solution comprised of a bis(acylpyrazolone or a substituted bis(acylpyrazolone) and an extraction method useful for separating certain elements of the actinide series of the periodic table having a valence of four from one other, and also from one or more of the substances in a group consisting of hexavalent actinides, trivalent actinides, trivalent lanthanides, trivalent iron, trivalent aluminum, divalent metals, and monovalent metals and also from one or more of the substances in a group consisting of hexavalent actinides, trivalent actinides, trivalent lanthanides, trivalent iron, trivalent aluminum, divalent metals, and monovalent metals and also useful for separating hexavalent actinides from one or more of the substances in a group consisting of trivalent actinides, trivalent lanthanides, trivalent iron, trivalent aluminum, divalent metals, and monovalent metals.

  18. Phytosiderophore Effects on Subsurface Actinide Contaminants: Potential for Phytostabilization and Phytoextraction

    SciTech Connect

    Ruggiero, Christy

    2004-06-01

    This project seeks to understand the influence of phytosiderophore-producing plants (grasses, including crops such as wheat and barley) on the biogeochemistry of actinide and other metal contaminants in the subsurface environment, and to determine the potential of phytosiderophoreproducing plants for phytostabilization and phytoextraction of actinides and some metal soil contaminants. Phytosiderophores are secreted by graminaceous plants such as barley and wheat for the solubilization, mobilization and uptake of Fe and other essential nutrients from soils. The ability for these phytosiderophores to chelate and absorb actinides using the same uptake system, as for Fe is being investigated though characterization of actinide-phytosiderophore complexes (independently of plants), and characterization of plant uptake of such complexes. We may also show possible harm caused by increased chelation of actinides, which may increase actinide mobilization & migration in the subsurface environment. This information can then be directly applied by either removal of harmful plants, or can be used to develop plant-based soil stabilization/remediation technologies. Such technologies could be the low-cost, low risk solution to many DOE actinide contamination problems.

  19. Phytosiderophore Effects on Subsurface Actinide Contaminants: Potential for Phytostabilization and Phytoextraction

    SciTech Connect

    Ruggiero, Christy

    2005-06-01

    This project seeks to understand the influence of phytosiderophore-producing plants (grasses, including crops such as wheat and barley) on the biogeochemistry of actinide and other metal contaminants in the subsurface environment, and to determine the potential of phytosiderophore-producing plants for phytostabilization and phytoextraction of actinides and some metal soil contaminants. Phytosiderophores are secreted by graminaceous plants such as barley and wheat for the solubilization, mobilization and uptake of Fe and other essential nutrients from soils. The ability for these phytosiderophores to chelate and absorb actinides using the same uptake system as for Fe is being investigated though characterization of actinide-phytosiderophore complexes (independently of plants), and characterization of plant uptake of such complexes. We may also show possible harm caused by these plants through increased chelation of actinides that increase in actinide mobilization & migration in the subsurface environment. This information can then be directly applied by either removal of harmful plants, or can be used to develop plant-based soil stabilization/remediation technologies. Such technologies could be the low-cost, low risk solution to many DOE actinide contamination problems.

  20. Citrate based ``TALSPEAK`` lanthanide-actinide separation process

    SciTech Connect

    Del Cul, G.D.; Bond, W.D.; Toth, L.M.; Davis, G.D.; Dai, S.; Metcalf, D.H.

    1994-09-01

    The potential hazard posed to future generations by long-lived radionuclides such as the transuranic elements (TRU) is perceived as a major problem associated with the use of nuclear power. TRU wastes have to remain isolated from the environment for ``geological`` periods of time. The costs of building, maintaining, and operating a ``geological TRU repository`` can be very high. Therefore, there are significant economical advantages in segregating the relatively low volume of TRU wastes from other nuclear wastes. The chemical behavior of lanthanides and actinides, 4f and 5f elements respectively, is rather similar. As a consequence, the separation of these two groups is difficult. The ``TALSPEAK`` process (Trivalent Actinide Lanthanide Separations by Phosphorus-reagent Extraction from Aqueous Complexes) is one of the few means available to separate the trivalent actinides from the lanthanides. The method is based on the preferential complexation of the trivalent actinides by an aminopolyacetic acid. Cold experiments showed that by using citric acid the deleterious effects produced by impurities such as zirconium are greatly reduced.

  1. Kinetic Intermediates en Route to the Final Serpin-Protease Complex

    PubMed Central

    Maddur, Ashoka A.; Swanson, Richard; Izaguirre, Gonzalo; Gettins, Peter G. W.; Olson, Steven T.

    2013-01-01

    Serpin protein protease inhibitors inactivate their target proteases through a unique mechanism in which a major serpin conformational change, resulting in a 70-Å translocation of the protease from its initial reactive center loop docking site to the opposite pole of the serpin, kinetically traps the acyl-intermediate complex. Although the initial Michaelis and final trapped acyl-intermediate complexes have been well characterized structurally, the intermediate stages involved in this remarkable transformation are not well understood. To better characterize such intermediate steps, we undertook rapid kinetic studies of the FRET and fluorescence perturbation changes of site-specific fluorophore-labeled derivatives of the serpin, α1-protease inhibitor (α1PI), which report the serpin and protease conformational changes involved in transforming the Michaelis complex to the trapped acyl-intermediate complex in reactions with trypsin. Two kinetically resolvable conformational changes were observed in the reactions, ascribable to (i) serpin reactive center loop insertion into sheet A with full protease translocation but incomplete protease distortion followed by, (ii) full conformational distortion and movement of the protease and coupled serpin conformational changes involving the F helix-sheet A interface. Kinetic studies of calcium effects on the labeled α1PI-trypsin reactions demonstrated both inactive and low activity states of the distorted protease in the final complex that were distinct from the intermediate distorted state. These studies provide new insights into the nature of the serpin and protease conformational changes involved in trapping the acyl-intermediate complex in serpin-protease reactions and support a previously proposed role for helix F in the trapping mechanism. PMID:24047901

  2. Correlation between the molecular structure and the kinetics of decomposition of azamacrocyclic copper(ii) complexes.

    PubMed

    Acosta-Rueda, Laura; Delgado-Pinar, Estefanía; Pitarch-Jarque, Javier; Rodríguez, Alexis; Blasco, Salvador; González, Jorge; Basallote, Manuel G; García-España, Enrique

    2015-05-07

    The formation of copper(ii) complexes with symmetrical dinucleating macrocyclic ligands containing two either monomethylated () or trimethylated () diethylenetriamine (Medien or Me3dien) subunits linked by pyridine spacers has been studied by potentiometry. Potentiometric studies show that has larger basicity than as well as higher stability of its mono- and binuclear complexes. The crystal structures of ·6HCl (), [Cu2(L1)Cl2](CF3SO3)2 (), [Cu2(L1)(OH)](ClO4)3·3H2O () and [Cu(L1)](ClO4)2 () show that adopts different coordination modes when bound to copper(ii). Whereas in , each copper(ii) is bound to one Medien subunit and to one pyridine group, in each metal center is coordinated to one 2,6-di(aminomethyl)pyridine moiety (damp) and to one aminomethyl group. The mononuclear complex shows pseudo-octahedral coordination with two weakly coordinated axial nitrogens. Kinetic studies indicate that complex decomposition is strongly dependent on the coordination mode of . Upon addition of an acid excess, all the species except [Cu2(L1)](4+) convert very rapidly to an intermediate that decomposes more slowly to copper(ii) and a protonated ligand. In contrast, [Cu2(L1)](4+) decomposes directly without the formation of any detectable intermediate. These results can be rationalized by considering that the crystal structures are maintained in solution and that the weakest Cu-N bonds are broken first, thus indicating that kinetic measurements on complex decomposition can be used to provide information about structural reorganizations in the complexes. In any case, complete decomposition of the complexes takes place in a maximum of two kinetically resolvable steps. However, minor changes in the structure of the complexes can lead to drastic changes in the kinetics of decomposition and the complexes decompose with polyphasic kinetics in which up to four different steps associated with the successive breaking of the different Cu-N bonds can be resolved.

  3. Archetypes for actinide-specific chelating agents

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, W.L.

    1980-01-01

    The complexes of uranium and thorium with monomeric hydroxamic acids can serve as archetypes for an optimized macrochelate designed for tetravalent actinides. The eight-coordinate complexes, Th(i-PrN(O)C(O)R)/sub 4/, where R = tert-butyl or R = neopentyl, have been synthesized and their structures have been determined by x-ray diffraction. The bulky alkyl substituents impart remarkable volatility and hydrocarbon solubility to these complexes, and the steric interactions of these substituents largely determine the structures. When R = tert-butyl, the substituents occupy the corners of a tetrahedron and force the complex into a distorted cubic geometry with crystallographic S/sub 4/ symmetry. Insertion of a methylene group between the carbonyl carbon and the tert-butyl group relaxes the steric requirements, and the coordination polyhedron of the neopentyl derivative is close to the mmmm isomer of the trigonal-faced dodecahedron. Uranium tetrachloride was quantitatively oxidized via an oxygen transfer reaction with two equivalents of N-phenylbenzohydroxamic acid anion (PBHA) in tetrahydrofuran (THF) to form UO/sub 2/ Cl(PBHA)(THF)/sub 2/ and benzanilide. The structure of the uranyl complex has been determined from x-ray diffraction data; the linear uranyl ion is surrounded by a planar pentagonal array composed of two hydroxamate oxygen atoms, a chloride ion and two THF oxygens, such that the chloride ion is opposite the hydroxamate group. That the THF and phenyl rings are twisted from this equatorial plane limits the molecular geometry to that of the C/sub 1/ point group. Some aspects of the chemistry of hydroxamic acids and of their incorporation into molecules that may serve as precursors of tetravalent actinide specific sequestering agents have also been investigated.

  4. Non-Debye Dielectric Response and non-Arrhenius Kinetics in Complex Systems at Mesoscale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feldman, Yu.; Puzenko, A.; Ryabov, Ya.; Gutina, A.

    2004-04-01

    The paper considers several examples of non-Debye dielectric response in complex heterogeneous media. The percolation phenomenon and Cole-Cole relaxation in disordered matter are discussed in detail. The models enable us to establish the relationship between the parameters of dielectric relaxation broadening, structural properties of the media and transport features of charge carriers in the considered systems. In addition, the origins of "strange kinetic" phenomena and the specific features of relaxation kinetics in systems with different kinds of confinements are discussed in the paper. In contrast to the usual Arrhenius or Vogel-Fulcher-Tammann patterns, a quite unusual non-monotonic dependence of relaxation time versus temperature is observed in such systems. Based on the free volume concept, a model for this type of kinetics was illustrated by several particular examples: water confined in porous glasses and doped ferroelectric crystal.

  5. The separation of lanthanides and actinides in supercritical fluid carbon dioxide

    DOE PAGES

    Mincher, Bruce J.; Wai, Chien M.; Fox, Robert V.; ...

    2015-10-28

    Supercritical fluid carbon dioxide presents an attractive alternative to conventional solvents for recovery of the actinides and lanthanides. Carbon dioxide is a good solvent for fluorine and phosphate-containing ligands, including the traditional tributylphosphate ligand used in process-scale uranium separations. Actinide and lanthanide oxides may even be directly dissolved in carbon dioxide containing the complexes formed between these ligands and mineral acids, obviating the need for large volumes of acids for leaching and dissolution, and the corresponding organic liquid–liquid solvent extraction solutions. As a result, examples of the application of this novel technology for actinide and lanthanide separations are presented.

  6. Generalized fractal kinetics in complex systems (application to biophysics and biotechnology)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brouers, F.; Sotolongo-Costa, O.

    2006-08-01

    We derive a universal function for the kinetics of complex systems characterized by stretched exponential and/or power-law behaviors. This kinetic function unifies and generalizes previous theoretical attempts to describe what has been called “fractal kinetic”. The concentration evolutionary equation is formally similar to the relaxation function obtained in the stochastic theory of relaxation, with two exponents α and n. The first one is due to memory effects and short-range correlations and the second one finds its origin in the long-range correlations and geometrical frustrations which give rise to ageing behavior. These effects can be formally handled by introducing adequate probability distributions for the rate coefficient. We show that the distribution of rate coefficients is the consequence of local variations of the free energy (energy landscape) appearing in the exponent of the Arrhenius formula. The fractal (n,α) kinetic has been applied to a few problems of fundamental and practical importance in particular the sorption of dissolved contaminants in liquid phase. Contrary to the usual practice in that field, we found that the exponent α, which is implicitly equal to 1 in the traditional analysis of kinetic data in terms of first- or second-order reactions, is a relevant and useful parameter to characterize the kinetics of complex systems. It is formally related to the system energy landscape which depends on physical, chemical and biological internal and external factors. We discuss briefly the relation of the (n,α) kinetic formalism with the Tsallis theory of non-extensive systems.

  7. Formation kinetics and mechanism of metastable vacancy-dioxygen complex in neutron irradiated Czochralski silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Peng; Wang, Rong; Yu, Xuegong; Chen, Lin; Ma, Xiangyang; Yang, Deren

    2017-07-01

    We have quantitatively investigated the formation kinetics of metastable vacancy-dioxygen (VO2) complex in a structure of [VO + Oi], where a VO complex is trapped in a next-neighbor position to an interstitial oxygen atom (Oi). It is found that the VO annihilation is accompanied by the generation of metastable [VO + Oi] complex during annealing in the temperature range of 220-250 °C. The activation energy for [VO + Oi] generation appears at around 0.48 eV, which is much lower than the counterpart of stable VO2 complex. This indicates that the formation of [VO + Oi] complex originates from the reaction between VO and Oi. The ab initio calculations show that the formation energy of [VO + Oi] complex is larger than that of VO2 complex, which means that [VO + Oi] complex is thermodynamically unfavorable as compared to VO2 complex. However, the binding energy of [VO + Oi] complex is positive, indicating that [VO + Oi] complex is stable against decomposition of VO and Oi in silicon. It is believed that [VO + Oi] complex serves as the intermediate for VO to VO2 conversion.

  8. Bonding in tris(. eta. sup 5 -cyclopentadienyl) actinide complexes. 5. A comparison of the bonding in Np, Pu, and transplutonium compounds with that in lanthanide compounds and a transition-metal analogue

    SciTech Connect

    Strittmatter, R.J.; Bursten, B.E. )

    1991-01-16

    Cp{sub 3}An (An = U, Np, Pu, Am, Cm, Bk, Cf) compounds have been investigated via X{alpha}-SW molecular orbital calculations with quasi-relativistic corrections. The 5f-orbital energy drops across the series while the 6d-orbital energy rises. Due to the greater radial extension of the 6d orbitals, the metal 6d orbitals are more important in bonding the Cp ligands than the 5f orbitals. Comparison of the actinide compounds with the lanthanide series reveals some minor differences. The 4f orbitals and 6s orbital of the lanthanides are not as effective at bonding the Cp ligands as the 5f orbitals and 7s orbital of the actinides. Also, the semicore 5p orbitals of the lanthanides have a greater antibonding influence on the Cp ligands than do the 6p orbitals of the actinides. Comparison of the actinide compounds with ({eta}{sup 5}-Cp){sub 3}Zr shows some major differences. The 4d orbitals of zirconium are much more effective at bonding the Cp ligands than the 6d orbitals of the actinides.

  9. Monolayer kinetic model of formation of β-cyclodextrin-β-carotene inclusion complex.

    PubMed

    Ivanova, Tz; Mircheva, K; Balashev, K; Panaiotov, I; Boury, F

    2015-11-01

    The carotenoids are sensitive molecules and their chemical integrity must be preserved from pro-oxidant elements which could affect and decrease their physiological benefits. The encapsulation based on the inclusion of the carotenoids into cage molecules is a promising approach for preserving over time of the intrinsic properties of the carotenoids. It is well known that cyclic oligosaccharide β-cyclodextrin (CD) as a cage molecule possesses strong inclusion ability to β-carotene (C) and as a result of the hydrophobic interactions forms an inclusion complex. In the present paper a monolayer kinetic model was established with the notion to extract more information about the influence of the molecular structure and organization to the interfacial interactions between the interacting species as well as about the role of the specific areas, which are often underestimated in previously studied dispersed systems. We developed the monolayer kinetic model for the formation of the inclusion CD-C complex by applying an experimental approach for following the kinetics by means of measuring the decrease of the surface area (ΔA) versus time (t) at constant surface pressure (π) and the decrease of surface pressure (π) versus time (t) at constant surface area (A). We also visualized by AFM the state of the monolayers at the initial and end points of the kinetic process. The values for the degree (d) and constant (Ka) of the association were estimated and compared with those from the studies of dispersed systems.

  10. CarD stabilizes mycobacterial open complexes via a two-tiered kinetic mechanism.

    PubMed

    Rammohan, Jayan; Ruiz Manzano, Ana; Garner, Ashley L; Stallings, Christina L; Galburt, Eric A

    2015-03-31

    CarD is an essential and global transcriptional regulator in mycobacteria. While its biological role is unclear, CarD functions by interacting directly with RNA polymerase (RNAP) holoenzyme promoter complexes. Here, using a fluorescent reporter of open complex, we quantitate RPo formation in real time and show that Mycobacterium tuberculosis CarD has a dramatic effect on the energetics of RNAP bound complexes on the M. tuberculosis rrnAP3 ribosomal RNA promoter. The data reveal that Mycobacterium bovis RNAP exhibits an unstable RPo that is stabilized by CarD and suggest that CarD uses a two-tiered, concentration-dependent mechanism by associating with open and closed complexes with different affinities. Specifically, the kinetics of open-complex formation can be explained by a model where, at saturating concentrations of CarD, the rate of bubble collapse is slowed and the rate of opening is accelerated. The kinetics and open-complex stabilities of CarD mutants further clarify the roles played by the key residues W85, K90 and R25 previously shown to affect CarD-dependent gene regulation in vivo. In contrast to M. bovis RNAP, Escherichia coli RNAP efficiently forms RPo on rrnAP3, suggesting an important difference between the polymerases themselves and highlighting how transcriptional machinery can vary across bacterial genera. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  11. The selectivity of diglycolamide (TODGA) and bis-triazine-bipyridine (BTBP) ligands in actinide/lanthanide complexation and solvent extraction separation - a theoretical approach.

    PubMed

    Narbutt, Jerzy; Wodyński, Artur; Pecul, Magdalena

    2015-02-14

    Theoretical calculations (density functional theory with the scalar relativistic ZORA Hamiltonian) have been performed to obtain the energy and Gibbs free energy of formation of cationic 1 : 3 complexes of americium(iii) and europium(iii) with a tri-O-dentate diglycolamide ligand TEDGA (a model of TODGA extractant), as well as the free energy of their partition between water and an organic diluent. The distribution of electron density over the atoms, bonds, and molecular orbitals was analyzed by means of Mulliken population analysis, the localization procedure of natural bond orbitals, and the Quantum Theory of Atoms-in-Molecules. The stabilities of both [M(TEDGA)(3)](3+) complexes are similar to each other. On the other hand, our recent data for a similar pair of cationic Am/Eu complexes with a softer (HSAB) tetra-N-dentate ligand C2-BTBP show that the [Am(C2-BTBP)(2)](3+) complex is significantly more stable in aqueous solution than its Eu counterpart. The decisive factor stabilizing the Am(3+) complexes over their Eu(3+) analogues is the charge transfer from the ligands, somewhat greater on the 6d(Am(III)) than on 5d(Eu(III)) orbitals. The covalency of M-N bonds in the [M(C2-BTBP)(2)](3+) complexes is greater than that of M-O bonds in [M(TEDGA)(3)](3+), but the latter is not negligible, in particular in the bonds with the oxygen atoms of the amide groups in TEDGA. The analysis of charge distribution over the whole molecules of the complexes shows that the TEDGA molecule is not hard as expected, but a relatively soft Lewis base, only slightly harder than BTBP. This conclusion has been confirmed by the calculation of the chemical hardness of the ligands. Moreover, the comparison of the results of bonding analysis with the calculated energies of complex formation in water and in the gas phase allows us to conclude that the population analysis, QTAIM topological parameters, and SOPT stabilization energy, as well as Wiberg and overlap-weighted NAO indices are the

  12. Enhanced CO2 hydrate formation kinetic under organo-mineral complex environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kyung, D.; Lee, W.

    2012-12-01

    CO2 hydrate formation under marine sediments can be one of the feasible options to mitigate atmospheric concentration of CO2, main source of global warming. For the better application of CO2 sequestration via hydrate form under ocean, it is indispensable to understand the effects of marine environmental factors on hydrate formation kinetic and equilibrium. In this study, we investigated the effect of organo-mineral complex (i.e., Na-montmorillonite (Na-MMT) and glycine complex) on hydrate formation kinetic both experimentally and computationally. Organo-mineral complex suspension showed much more favorable hydrate formation kinetic (2-6 min) than pure water control (48-80 min). TEM image showed that glycine are well distributed and strongly adsorbed on Na-MMT surface and FT/IR results (i.e., increased frequency of N-H stretch) also proved that amine part of glycine can make strong hydrogen bonding with silicon atoms of Na-MMT. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulation was performed to fully understand the CO2 hydrate nucleation on the organo-mineral complex and its result showed that high concentration of CO2 molecules are located near Na-MMT surface and glycine attached on Na-MMT can attract water molecules to form intermediate hydrate structure. This one plays a key role in complete hydrate formation as nucleation seeds and can significantly enhance the hydrate formation kinetic. This fundamental knowledge could provide idea to select proper CO2 storage site under marine sediments and be applied to in-situ swapping technology to recover CH4 from deep sea gas hydrate deposits and sequester the CO2 to CH4 hydrate layer.

  13. The Control Based on Internal Average Kinetic Energy in Complex Environment for Multi-robot System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Mao; Tian, Yantao; Yin, Xianghua

    In this paper, reference trajectory is designed according to minimum energy consumed for multi-robot system, which nonlinear programming and cubic spline interpolation are adopted. The control strategy is composed of two levels, which lower-level is simple PD control and the upper-level is based on the internal average kinetic energy for multi-robot system in the complex environment with velocity damping. Simulation tests verify the effectiveness of this control strategy.

  14. Actinide biocolloid formation in brine by halophilic bacteria

    SciTech Connect

    Gillow, J.B.; Francis, A.J.; Dodge, C.J.; Harris, R.; Beveridge, T.J.; Brady, P.V.; Papenguth, H.W.

    1998-12-31

    The authors examined the ability of a halophilic bacterium (WIPP 1A) isolated from the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) site to accumulate uranium in order to determine the potential for biocolloid facilitated actinide transport. The bacterial cell surface functional groups involved in the complexation of the actinide were determined by titration. Uranium, added as uranyl nitrate, was removed from solution at pH 5 by cells but at pH 7 and 9 very little uranium was removed due to its limited solubility. Although present as soluble species, uranyl citrate at pH 5, 7, and 9, and uranyl carbonate at pH 9 were not removed by the bacterium because they were not bioavailable due to their neutral or negative charge. Addition of uranyl EDTA to brine at pH 5, 7, and 9 resulted in the immediate precipitation of U. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) analysis revealed that uranium was not only associated with the cell surface but also accumulated intracellularly as uranium-enriched granules. Extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) analysis of the bacterial cells indicated the bulk sample contained more than one uranium phase. Nevertheless these results show the potential for the formation of actinide bearing bacterial biocolloids that are strictly regulated by the speciation and bioavailability of the actinide.

  15. Actinide Biocolloid Formation in Brine by Halophilic Bacteria

    SciTech Connect

    Gillow, J.B.; Francis, A.J.; Dodge, C.J.; Harris, R.; Beveridge, T.J.; Brady, P.V.; Papenguth, H.W.

    1999-07-28

    We examined the ability of a halophilic bacterium (WFP 1A) isolated from the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) site to accumulate uranium in order to determine the potential for biocolloid facilitated actinide transport. The bacterial cell Surface functional groups involved in the complexation of the actinide were determined by titration. Uranium, added as uranyl nitrate, was removed from solution at pH 5 by cells but at pH 7 and 9 very little uranium was removed due to its limited volubility. Although present as soluble species, uranyl citrate at pH 5, 7, and 9, and uranyl carbonate at pH 9 were not removed by the bacterium because they were not bioavailable due to their neutral or negative charge. Addition of uranyl EDTA to brine at pH 5, 7, and 9 resulted in the immediate precipitation of U. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) analysis revealed that uranium was not only associated with the cell surface but also accumulated intracellulary as uranium-enriched granules. Extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) analysis, of the bacterial cells indicated the bulk sample contained more than one uranium phase. Nevertheless these results show the potential for the formation of actinide bearing bacterial biocolloids that are strictly regulated by the speciation and bioavailability of the actinide.

  16. ACTINIDE BIOCOLLOID FORMATION IN BRINE BY HALOPHILIC BACTERIA

    SciTech Connect

    GILLOW,J.B.; FRANCIS,A.J.; DODGE,C.J.; HARRIS,R.; BEVERIDGE,T.J.; BRADY,P.B.; PAPENGUTH,H.W.

    1998-11-09

    The authors examined the ability of a halophilic bacterium (WIPP 1A) isolated from the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) site to accumulate uranium in order to determine the potential for biocolloid facilitated actinide transport. The bacterial cell surface functional groups involved in the complexation of the actinide were determined by titration. Uranium, added as uranyl nitrate, was removed from solution at pH 5 by cells but at pH 7 and 9 very little uranium was removed due to its limited solubility. Although present as soluble species, uranyl citrate at pH 5, 7, and 9, and uranyl carbonate at pH 9 were not removed by the bacterium because they were not bioavailable due to their neutral or negative charge. Addition of uranyl EDTA to brine at pH 5, 7, and 9 resulted in the immediate precipitation of U. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) analysis revealed that uranium was not only associated with the cell surface but also accumulated intracellularly as uranium-enriched granules. Extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) analysis of the bacterial cells indicated the bulk sample contained more than one uranium phase. Nevertheless these results show the potential for the formation of actinide bearing bacterial biocolloids that are strictly regulated by the speciation and bioavailability of the actinide.

  17. Tailoring Thermodynamics and Kinetics for Hydrogen Storage in Complex Hydrides towards Applications.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yongfeng; Yang, Yaxiong; Gao, Mingxia; Pan, Hongge

    2016-02-01

    Solid-state hydrogen storage using various materials is expected to provide the ultimate solution for safe and efficient on-board storage. Complex hydrides have attracted increasing attention over the past two decades due to their high gravimetric and volumetric hydrogen densities. In this account, we review studies from our lab on tailoring the thermodynamics and kinetics for hydrogen storage in complex hydrides, including metal alanates, borohydrides and amides. By changing the material composition and structure, developing feasible preparation methods, doping high-performance catalysts, optimizing multifunctional additives, creating nanostructures and understanding the interaction mechanisms with hydrogen, the operating temperatures for hydrogen storage in metal amides, alanates and borohydrides are remarkably reduced. This temperature reduction is associated with enhanced reaction kinetics and improved reversibility. The examples discussed in this review are expected to provide new inspiration for the development of complex hydrides with high hydrogen capacity and appropriate thermodynamics and kinetics for hydrogen storage. © 2015 The Chemical Society of Japan & Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Complexes between ovalbumin nanoparticles and linoleic acid: Stoichiometric, kinetic and thermodynamic aspects.

    PubMed

    Sponton, Osvaldo E; Perez, Adrián A; Carrara, Carlos R; Santiago, Liliana G

    2016-11-15

    Stoichiometric, kinetic and thermodynamic aspects of complex formation between heat-induced aggregates of ovalbumin (ovalbumin nanoparticles, OVAn) and linoleic acid (LA) were evaluated. Extrinsic fluorescence data were fitted to modified Scatchard model yielding the following results: n: 49±2 LA molecules bound per OVA monomer unit and Ka: 9.80±2.53×10(5)M. Kinetic and thermodynamic properties were analyzed by turbidity measurements at different LA/OVA monomer molar ratios (21.5-172) and temperatures (20-40°C). An adsorption approach was used and a pseudo-second-order kinetics was found for LA-OVAn complex formation. This adsorption process took place within 1h. Thermodynamic parameters indicated that LA adsorption on OVAn was a spontaneous, endothermic and entropically-driven process, highlighting the hydrophobic nature of the LA and OVAn interaction. Finally, Atomic Force Microscopy imaging revealed that both OVAn and LA-OVAn complexes have a roughly rounded form with size lower than 100nm.

  19. One-electron physics of the actinides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toropova, A.; Marianetti, C. A.; Haule, K.; Kotliar, G.

    2007-10-01

    We present a detailed analysis of the one-electron physics of the actinides. Various linear muffin-tin orbital basis sets are analyzed in order to determine a robust bare Hamiltonian for the actinides. The hybridization between f and spd states is compared with the f-f hopping in order to understand the Anderson-like and Hubbard-like contributions to itineracy in the actinides. We show that both contributions decrease strongly as one moves from the light actinides to the heavy actinides, while the Anderson-like contribution dominates in all cases. A real-space analysis of the band structure shows that nearest-neighbor hopping dominates the physics in these materials. Finally, we discuss the implications of our results to the delocalization transition as a function of atomic number across the actinide series.

  20. Actinide Recovery Method for Large Soil Samples

    SciTech Connect

    Maxwell, S.L. III; Nichols, S.

    1998-11-01

    A new Actinide Recovery Method has been developed by the Savannah River Site Central Laboratory to preconcentrate actinides in very large soil samples. Diphonix Resin(r) is used eliminate soil matrix interferences and preconcentrate actinides after soil leaching or soil fusion. A rapid microwave digestion technique is used to remove the actinides from the Diphonix Resin(r). After the resin digestion, the actinides are recovered in a small volume of nitric acid which can be easily loaded onto small extraction-chromatography columns, such as TEVA Resin(r), U-TEVA Resin(r) or TRU Resin(r) (Eichrom Industries). This method enables the application of small, selective extraction-columns to recover actinides from very large soil samples with high selectivity, consistent tracer recoveries and minimal liquid waste.

  1. Actinide recovery techniques utilizing electromechanical processes

    SciTech Connect

    Westphal, B.R.; Benedict, R.W.

    1994-01-01

    Under certain conditions, the separation of actinides using electromechanical techniques may be an effective means of residue processing. The separation of granular mixtures of actinides and other materials discussed in this report is based on appreciable differences in the magnetic and electrical properties of the actinide elements. In addition, the high density of actinides, particularly uranium and plutonium, may render a simultaneous separation based on mutually complementary parameters. Both high intensity magnetic separation and electrostatic separation have been investigated for the concentration of an actinide waste stream. Waste stream constituents include an actinide metal alloy and broken quartz shards. The investigation of these techniques is in support of the Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) concept currently being developed at Argonne National Laboratory under the auspices of the Department of Energy.

  2. Infinite kinetic stability against dissociation of supramolecular protein complexes through donor strand complementation.

    PubMed

    Puorger, Chasper; Eidam, Oliv; Capitani, Guido; Erilov, Denis; Grütter, Markus G; Glockshuber, Rudi

    2008-04-01

    Adhesive type 1 pili from uropathogenic Escherichia coli strains are heat and denaturant resistant, filamentous protein complexes. Individual pilus subunits associate through "donor strand complementation," whereby the incomplete immunoglobulin-like fold of each subunit is completed by the N-terminal extension of a neighboring subunit. We show that antiparallel donor strand insertion generally causes nonequilibrium behavior in protein folding and extreme activation energy barriers for dissociation of subunit-subunit complexes. We identify the most kinetically stable, noncovalent protein complex known to date. The complex between the pilus subunit FimG and the donor strand peptide of the subunit FimF shows an extrapolated dissociation half-life of 3 x 10(9) years. The 15 residue peptide forms ideal intermolecular beta sheet H-bonds with FimG over 10 residues, and its hydrophobic side chains strongly interact with the hydrophobic core of FimG. The results show that kinetic stability and nonequilibrium behavior in protein folding confers infinite stability against dissociation in extracellular protein complexes.

  3. Process for recovering actinide values

    DOEpatents

    Horwitz, E. Philip; Mason, George W.

    1980-01-01

    A process for rendering actinide values recoverable from sodium carbonate scrub waste solutions containing these and other values along with organic compounds resulting from the radiolytic and hydrolytic degradation of neutral organophosphorous extractants such as tri-n butyl phosphate (TBP) and dihexyl-N,N-diethyl carbamylmethylene phosphonate (DHDECAMP) which have been used in the reprocessing of irradiated nuclear reactor fuels. The scrub waste solution is preferably made acidic with mineral acid, to form a feed solution which is then contacted with a water-immiscible, highly polar organic extractant which selectively extracts the degradation products from the feed solution. The feed solution can then be processed to recover the actinides for storage or recycled back into the high-level waste process stream. The extractant is recycled after stripping the degradation products with a neutral sodium carbonate solution.

  4. Actinide abundances in ordinary chondrites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hagee, B.; Bernatowicz, T. J.; Podosek, F. A.; Johnson, M. L.; Burnett, D. S.

    1990-01-01

    Measurements of actinide and light REE (LREE) abundances and of phosphate abundances in equilibrated ordinary chondrites were obtained and were used to define the Pu abundance in the solar system and to determine the degree of variation of actinide and LREE abundances. The results were also used to compare directly the Pu/U ratio with the earlier obtained ratio determined indirectly, as (Pu/Nd)x(Nd/U), assuming that Pu behaves chemically as a LREE. The data, combined with high-accuracy isotope-dilution data from the literature, show that the degree of gram-scale variability of the Th, U, and LREE abundances for equilibrated ordinary chondrites is a factor of 2-3 for absolute abundances and up to 50 percent for relative abundances. The observed variations are interpreted as reflecting the differences in the compositions and/or proportions of solar nebula components accreted to ordinary chondrite parent bodies.

  5. MICROBIAL TRANSFORMATIONS OF PLUTONIUM AND OTHER ACTINIDES IN TRANSURANIC AND MIXED WASTES.

    SciTech Connect

    FRANCIS,A.J.

    2003-07-06

    The presence of the actinides Th, U, Np, Pu, and Am in transuranic (TRU) and mixed wastes is a major concern because of their potential for migration from the waste repositories and long-term contamination of the environment. The toxicity of the actinide elements and the long half-lives of their isotopes are the primary causes for concern. In addition to the radionuclides the TRU waste consists a variety of organic materials (cellulose, plastic, rubber, chelating agents) and inorganic compounds (nitrate and sulfate). Significant microbial activity is expected in the waste because of the presence of organic compounds and nitrate, which serve as carbon and nitrogen sources and in the absence of oxygen the microbes can use nitrate and sulfate as alternate electron acceptors. Biodegradation of the TRU waste can result in gas generation and pressurization of containment areas, and waste volume reduction and subsidence in the repository. Although the physical, chemical, and geochemical processes affecting dissolution, precipitation, and mobilization of actinides have been investigated, we have only limited information on the effects of microbial processes. Microbial activity could affect the chemical nature of the actinides by altering the speciation, solubility and sorption properties and thus could increase or decrease the concentrations of actinides in solution. Under appropriate conditions, dissolution or immobilization of actinides is brought about by direct enzymatic or indirect non-enzymatic actions of microorganisms. Dissolution of actinides by microorganisms is brought about by changes in the Eh and pH of the medium, by their production of organic acids, such as citric acid, siderophores and extracellular metabolites. Immobilization or precipitation of actinides is due to changes in the Eh of the environment, enzymatic reductive precipitation (reduction from higher to lower oxidation state), biosorption, bioaccumulation, biotransformation of actinides complexed

  6. Generation kinetics of boron-oxygen complexes in p-type compensated c-Si

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Yichao; Yu, Xuegong Chen, Peng; Chen, Xianzi; Yang, Deren

    2014-03-10

    Kinetics characteristics of boron-oxygen complexes responsible for light-induced degradation in p-type compensated c-Si have been investigated. The generation of B-O complexes is well fitted by a fast-forming process and a slow-forming one. Activation energies of complexes generation during the fast-forming process are determined to be 0.29 and 0.24 eV in compensated and non-compensated c-Si, respectively, and those during the slow-forming process are the same, about 0.44 eV. Moreover, it is found that the pre-exponential factors of complexes generation in compensated c-Si is proportional to the square of the net doping concentration, which suggests that the latent centers should exist.

  7. Fall MRS 2003: Actinides Symposium

    SciTech Connect

    Tobin, J

    2003-11-24

    {lg_bullet} The focus was on fundamental actinide science and its role. {lg_bullet} History- none except the Nuclear Waste Management Symposia {lg_bullet} Joint Sessions- none but we are open to it in the future. {lg_bullet} Tutorials- none but we are open to it in the future. {lg_bullet} 3 days: 16 Invited talks; 36 Contributed Talks; 10 Posters

  8. Kinetics and mechanism of reactions of the drug tiopronin with platinum(IV) complexes.

    PubMed

    Huo, Shuying; Shi, Hongmei; Liu, Dongzhi; Shen, Shigang; Zhang, Jiong; Song, Changying; Shi, Tiesheng

    2013-08-01

    Tiopronin, a synthetic thiol-containing drug being used in treatments of cystinuria and certain types of rare arthritis, is also a hepatoprotective and a detoxifying agent. Many analytical methods have been developed based on its redox chemistry with metal ions/complexes, but the kinetic and mechanistic aspects are poorly understood. In this work, the oxidation of tiopronin by cisplatin prodrug and a model compound, cis-[Pt(NH3)2Cl4] and trans-[PtCl2(CN)4](2-), was investigated. The oxidation kinetics was followed by a stopped-flow spectrophotometer over a wide pH range under the pseudo first-order conditions of [Tiopronin]≫[Pt(IV)]. Time-resolved spectra were also recorded for both Pt(IV) complexes, enabling to establish an overall second-order rate law: -d[Pt(IV)]/dt=k'[Tiopronin][Pt(IV)], where k' pertains to observed second-order rate constants. Under the kinetic conditions, tiopronin was oxidized to form the tiopronin-disulfide exclusively as identified by mass spectrometry. A reaction mechanism was proposed, involving parallel reductions of the Pt(IV) complexes by the three protolytic tiopronin species as rate-determining steps. The rate constants for the rate-determining steps were derived. The fully deprotonated tiopronin is about 4×10(4) more reactive than its corresponding thiol form for both Pt(IV) complexes; the huge reactivity difference orchestrates closely with the fact that the nucleophilicity of thiolate is much higher than the corresponding thiol. Hence, the attack of the sulfur atom in thiol/thiolate of tiopronin on the axially-coordinated chloride in the Pt(IV) complexes is nucleophilic in nature in the rate-determining steps, resulting in a bridge formation and a subsequent bridged electron-transfer. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Thermodynamic stability, kinetic inertness and relaxometric properties of monoamide derivatives of lanthanide(III) DOTA complexes.

    PubMed

    Tei, Lorenzo; Baranyai, Zsolt; Gaino, Luca; Forgács, Attila; Vágner, Adrienn; Botta, Mauro

    2015-03-28

    A complete thermodynamic and kinetic solution study on lanthanide(III) complexes with monoacetamide (DOTAMA, L1) and monopropionamide (DOTAMAP, L2) derivatives of DOTA (DOTA = 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid) was undertaken with the aim to elucidate their stability and inertness in aqueous media. The stability constants of GdL1 and GdL2 are comparable, whereas a more marked difference is found in the kinetic inertness of the two complexes. The formation of the Eu(III) and Ce(III) complexes takes place via the formation of the protonated intermediates which can deprotonate and transform into the final complex through a OH(-) assisted pathway. GdL2 shows faster rates of acid catalysed decomplexation with respect to GdL1, which has a kinetic inertness comparable to GdDOTA. Nevertheless, GdL2 is one order of magnitude more inert than GdDO3A. A novel DOTAMAP-based bifunctional chelating ligand and its deoxycholic acid derivative (L5) were also synthesized. Since the coordinated water molecule in GdL2 is characterized by an exchange rate ca. two orders of magnitude greater than in GdL1, the relaxivity of the macromolecular derivatives of L5 should not be limited by the slow water exchange process. The relaxometric properties of the supramolecular adduct of GdL5 with human serum albumin (HSA) were investigated in aqueous solution by measuring the magnetic field dependence of the (1)H relaxivity which, at 20 MHz and 298 K, shows a 430% increase over that of the unbound GdL5 chelate. Thus, Gd(III) complexes with DOTAMAP macrocyclic ligands can represent good candidates for the development of stable and highly effective bioconjugate systems for molecular imaging applications.

  10. A simple model for complex dissolution kinetics: a case study of norfloxacin.

    PubMed

    Skrdla, Peter J

    2007-10-18

    A new semi-empirical model, particularly useful for studying complex dissolution kinetics, is presented here. It uses only two 'fit parameters', each possessing physically relevant units (in the time domain). The model is based on the idea that dispersion (variation) in the activation energy barrier may arise in certain cases, as a result of (quantized) molecular kinetic energies affecting the speed of the rate-determining step (r.d.s.) of the dissolution event. For such 'dispersive dissolutions', the r.d.s. is assumed to involve 2D denucleation. The author's dispersive kinetic model is shown to be applicable to the dissolution of various formulations of norfloxacin which produce very asymmetric, sigmoidal concentration versus time (C-t) profiles. It is derived by assuming an activation energy distribution having the functional form of the Maxwell-Boltzmann (M-B) distribution, coupled with a first-order rate expression. However, this model can also be reduced to give the same functional form as the classical Noyes-Whitney equation, in order to accurately fit/describe dissolution profiles which appear logarithmic (such profiles are due to dissolution phenomena that are not dispersive; i.e. for cases where the activation energy is essentially single-valued). Thus, the kinetic model presented in this work may potentially find broad applicability to the modeling of various dissolution trends observed in the literature.

  11. A conceptual performance assessment model of the dissolved actinide source term for the WIPP

    SciTech Connect

    Weiner, R.F.; Stockman, C.T.; Wang, Y.; Novak, C.F.

    1996-12-31

    This paper presents a performance assessment model of dissolved actinide concentrations for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). The model assesses the concentration of each actinide oxidation state and combines these concentrations with an oxidation state distribution. The chemical behavior of actinides in the same oxidation state is presumed to be very similar for almost all situations, but exceptions arising from experimental evidence are accommodated. The code BRAGFLO calculates the gas pressure, brine mass, gas volume, and mass of remaining Fe and cellulosics for each time step and computational cell. The total CO{sub 2} in the repository and dissolved Ca(OH){sub 2} is estimated. Lookup tables are constructed for pmH and f(CO{sub 2}) as a function of brine type and volume, moles of CO{sub 2}, and Ca(OH){sub 2}. Amounts of five soluble complexants are considered. A model based on the formulation of Harvie et al. produces tables of solubilities for each actinide oxidation state as a function of pmH, f(CO{sub 2}), brine composition, and complexant. Experimental data yield lookup tables of fractions of Th, U, Np, Pu, and Am in each oxidation state as a function of f(CO{sub 2}) and complexant. The tables are then used to provide a concentration of a particular actinide at particular values of pmH and f(CO{sub 2}). Under steady-state conditions, the oxidation state of each actinide that is most stable in the particular chemical environment controls the concentration of that actinide in solution. In the absence of steady-state conditions, the oxidation state distribution of interest is that of the dissolved actinide, and the oxidation states may be treated as if they were separate compounds.

  12. Sequestering agents for the removal of actinides from waste streams

    SciTech Connect

    Raymond, K.N.; White, D.J.; Xu, Jide; Mohs, T.R.

    1997-10-01

    The goal of this project is to take a biomimetic approach toward developing new separation technologies for the removal of radioactive elements from contaminated DOE sites. To achieve this objective, the authors are investigating the fundamental chemistry of naturally occurring, highly specific metal ion sequestering agents and developing them into liquid/liquid and solid supported actinide extraction agents. Nature produces sideophores (e.g., Enterobactin and Desferrioxamine B) to selectivity sequester Lewis acidic metal ions, in particular Fe(III), from its surroundings. These chelating agents typically use multiple catechols or hydroxamic acids to form polydentate ligands that chelate the metal ion forming very stable complexes. The authors are investigating and developing analogous molecules into selective chelators targeting actinide(IV) ions, which display similar properties to Fe(III). By taking advantage of differences in charge, preferred coordination number, and pH stability range, the transition from nature to actinide sequestering agents has been applied to the development of new and highly selective actinide extraction technologies. Additionally, the authors have shown that these chelating ligands are versatile ligands for chelating U(VI). In particular, they have been studying their coordination chemistry and fundamental interactions with the uranyl ion [UO{sub 2}]{sup 2+}, the dominant form of uranium found in aqueous media. With an understanding of this chemistry, and results obtained from in vivo uranium sequestration studies, it should be possible to apply these actinide(IV) extraction technologies to the development of new extraction agents for the removal of uranium from waste streams.

  13. Lauriston S. Taylor Lecture: the quest for therapeutic actinide chelators.

    PubMed

    Durbin, Patricia W

    2008-11-01

    All of the actinides are radioactive. Taken into the body, they damage and induce cancer in bone and liver, and in the lungs if inhaled, and U(VI) is a chemical kidney poison. Containment of radionuclides is fundamental to radiation protection, but if it is breached accidentally or deliberately, decontamination of exposed persons is needed to reduce the consequences of radionuclide intake. The only known way to reduce the health risks of internally deposited actinides is to accelerate their excretion with chelating agents. Ethylendiaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) and diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) were introduced in the 1950's. DTPA is now clinically accepted, but its oral activity is low, it must be injected as a Ca(II) or Zn(II) chelate to avoid toxicity, and it is structurally unsuitable for chelating U(VI) or Np(V). Actinide penetration into the mammalian iron transport and storage systems suggested that actinide ions would form stable complexes with the Fe(III)-binding units found in potent selective natural iron chelators (siderophores). Testing of that biomimetic approach began in the late 1970's with the design, production, and assessment for in vivo Pu(IV) chelation of synthetic multidentate ligands based on the backbone structures and Fe(III)-binding groups of siderophores. New efficacious actinide chelators have emerged from that program, in particular, octadentate 3,4,3-LI(1,2-HOPO) and tetradentate 5-LIO(Me-3,2-HOPO) have potential for clinical acceptance. Both are much more effective than CaNa3-DTPA for decorporation of Pu(IV), Am(III), U(VI), and Np(IV,V), they are orally active, and toxicity is acceptably low at effective dosage.

  14. Kinetics of third-order nonlinear optical susceptibilities in alkynyl ruthenium complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Migalska-Zalas, A.; Luc, J.; Sahraoui, B.; Kityk, I. V.

    2006-07-01

    Kinetics of third-order optical susceptibilities obtained for a new series of alkynyl ruthenium complexes was investigated in using pump-dependent transmission experiment and the degenerate four-wave mixing (DFWM) technique. We investigate electron rich σ-acetylide ruthenium complexes in which the d-transition metal is incorporated in the same plane as the π-system of formyl alkynyl ligands. The obtained results show that the presence of a bilaterally ligands leads to substantial increase of the χ<3>. The maximally achieved third optical susceptibility was χ<3> = 0.9 × 10 -20 m 2 V -2 at λ = 0.53 μm for chloroform solution concentration 0.4 mol l -1. The value of second-order optical hyperpolarizabilities γ for the investigated compounds were four orders of magnitude larger compared to the known values of CS 2. The quasi-periodic relaxation time kinetics of the DFWM with period about 7 ns was found after switching off the pumping beams. Such kinetics of the DFWM is explained by tunnelling between the occupied d-transition metal levels and electron-phonon trapping levels after interruption of the pumping signals.

  15. Multiplicity of 3-hexulosephosphate synthase from bacterium MB 58. 2. Generation of complex kinetic characteristics.

    PubMed

    Müller, R; Babel, W

    1981-01-01

    3-hexulosephosphate synthase (HPS) from the facultative methanol-utilizing Bacterium MB 58 exhibits a complex kinetic behaviour characterized by intermediary plateau regions. This feature could be related to the existence of multiple enzyme forms. With the aid of gel chromatography or isoelectric focusing purified HPS has partially been separated into at least four fractions. The individual enzyme forms are characterized by different kinetic properties exhibiting either hyperbolic or sigmoidal response to substrate saturation. In the sum of their action these forms generate the complex shape of the kinetic characteristics. Furthermore, these forms were found to be interconvertible. After partial separation a new equilibrium between the conformers is established in each case. The multiplicity of HPS can be demonstrated in qualitatively the same manner with the purified enzyme and with freshly prepared crude extracts. Proteolytic modifications on the enzyme as a cause for the multiplicity could be ruled out. The multiple character of the enzyme is also evident at different pH-values showing two optima. At different temperatures, anomalies in the Arrhenius plot depending on the substrate concentration were observed. From the present data a qualitative model of regulating HPS in the methylotrophic metabolism is proposed. Accordingly, several stable states of the metabolism should be realized.

  16. A simple and fast kinetic assay for phytases using phytic acid-protein complex as substrate.

    PubMed

    Tran, Thuy Thi; Hatti-Kaul, Rajni; Dalsgaard, Søren; Yu, Shukun

    2011-03-15

    Phytase (EC 3.1.3.-) hydrolyzes phytate (IP(6)) present in cereals and grains to release inorganic phosphate (P(i)), thereby making it bioavailable. The most commonly used method to assay phytase, developed nearly a century ago, measures the P(i) liberated from IP(6). This traditional endpoint assay is time-consuming and well known for its cumbersomeness in addition to requiring extra caution for handling the toxic regents used. This article reports a simple, fast, and nontoxic kinetic method adaptable for high throughput for assaying phytase using IP(6)-lysozyme as a substrate. The assay is based on the principle that IP(6) forms stable turbid complexes with positively charged lysozyme in a wide pH range, and hydrolysis of the IP(6) in the complex is accompanied by a decrease in turbidity monitored at 600 nm. The turbidity decrease correlates well to the released P(i) from IP(6). This kinetic method was found to be useful in assaying histidine acid phytases, including 3- and 6-phytases, a class representing all commercial phytases, and alkaline β-propeller phytase from Bacillus sp. The influences of temperature, pH, phosphate, and other salts on the kinetic assay were examined. All salts, including NaCl, CaCl(2), and phosphate, showed a concentration-dependent interference.

  17. Fish gelatin/Laponite biohybrid elastic coacervates: a complexation kinetics-structure relationship study.

    PubMed

    Karimi, Fatemeh; Taheri Qazvini, Nader; Namivandi-Zangeneh, Rashin

    2013-10-01

    Complex coacervation in exfoliated Laponite nanoplatelets and fish gelatin mixtures was studied as a function of four key parameters: pH, ionic strength, gelatin/Laponite weight ratio, and total weight. The aim was to understand how these parameters influence phase separation kinetics, composition, internal structure, and viscoelastic properties of coacervates. By careful experimental design and turbidity measurements, the optimum conditions for coacervation were obtained. Thermogravimetric analysis revealed an outstanding heat-resistance for gelatin/nanoclay coacervates. Finally, structure of the coacervate phase was characterized by oscillatory shear experiments. The storage modulus data was observed to follow a power-law behavior and it was confirmed that under the optimum conditions, the coacervate phase was dense and structured with a characteristic length scale (ξrheol) of ~8.25 nm. Regardless of the physicochemical condition at which complexation occurred, it was shown that the equilibrium structure of the coacervates is related to the kinetics of intermediate and late stages of phase separation; as the new defined kinetics parameter K was observed to be inversely proportional to ξrheol that quantifies the compactness of the coacervate networks. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Kinetics of bulk and surface mass transport in complex metal hydrides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gunaydin, Hakan

    2009-03-01

    Metal hydrides can be used to store hydrogen in high gravimetric and volumetric densities. However, the kinetics of hydrogen release and uptake are slow in complex metal hydrides. Clarification of the mechanism of hydrogen release and uptake in complex metal hydrides can aid in a rational design of new hydrogen storage materials with fast kinetics or catalysts that will catalyze the rate of hydrogen release from the existing materials. The release of hydrogen in metal hydrides requires the transport of hydrogen and/or heavier species. The kinetics of such mass transport in metal hydrides can be the rate-limiting process for the release of hydrogen. For example, the rate-determining step for the release of hydrogen from NaAlH4 is the creation and diffusion of neutral AlH3 defects in NaAlH4. The release of hydrogen from LiH destabilized LiNH2 also proceeds via the creation of neutral point defects. The mechanism of mass transport in prototypical hydrogen storage materials such as NaAlH4 and LiNH2 and the mechanism of hydrogen diffusion in aluminum will be discussed.

  19. Complex Cure Kinetics of the Hydroxyl-Epoxide Reaction in DGEBA Epoxy Hardened with Diethanolamine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ancipink, Windy; McCoy, John; Kropka, Jamie; Celina, Mathias

    The curing of a diglycidyl ether of bisphenol-A Epoxy (Epon 828) with diethanolamine (DEA) involves a fast amine-epoxide reaction followed by a slower hydroxyl-epoxide reaction. At curing temperatures below 100°C, the time scales of these two reactions are well separated, and the hydroxyl addition can be studied as an ''isolated'' reaction. The hydroxyl-epoxide reaction is of great interest due to the complex kinetics involved, which are brought about by competing reactions. The reaction kinetics are believed to be tertiary amine catalyzed and are well fit to a modified form of the Kamal-type equation. Here we study the complex long term reaction kinetics at various temperatures, by using isothermal modulated differential scanning calorimetry, micro calorimetry, and infrared spectroscopy. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under Contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  20. A literature review of actinide-carbonate mineral interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Stout, D.L.; Carroll, S.A.

    1993-10-01

    Chemical retardation of actinides in groundwater systems is a potentially important mechanism for assessing the performance of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), a facility intended to demonstrate safe disposal of transuranic waste. Rigorous estimation of chemical retardation during transport through the Culebra Dolomite, a water-bearing unit overlying the WIPP, requires a mechanistic understanding of chemical reactions between dissolved elements and mineral surfaces. This report represents a first step toward this goal by examining the literature for pertinent experimental studies of actinide-carbonate interactions. A summary of existing models is given, along with the types of experiments on which these models are based. Articles pertaining to research into actinide interactions with carbonate minerals are summarized. Select articles involving trace element-carbonate mineral interactions are also reviewed and may serve as templates for future research. A bibliography of related articles is included. Americium(III), and its nonradioactive analog neodymium(III), partition strongly from aqueous solutions into carbonate minerals. Recent thermodynamic, kinetic, and surface studies show that Nd is preferentially removed from solution, forming a Nd-Ca carbonate solid solution. Neptunium(V) is rapidly removed from solution by carbonates. Plutonium incorporation into carbonates is complicated by multiple oxidation states. Little research has been done on the radium(H) and thorium(IV) carbonate systems. Removal of uranyl ion from solution by calcite is limited to monolayer surface coverage.

  1. Pulsed photothermal spectroscopy applied to lanthanide and actinide speciation

    SciTech Connect

    Berg, J.M.; Morris, D.E.; Clark, D.L.; Tait, C.D.; Woodruff, W.H. ); Ven Der Sluys, W.G. . Dept. of Chemistry)

    1991-01-01

    Several key elements important for the application of laser-based photothermal spectroscopies to the study of the complexation chemistry of lanthanides and actinides in solution have been demonstrated. The sensitivity of f-f electronic transition energies and band intensities to subtle changes in complexation was illustrated through comparison of visible and near infra-red absorption spectra of well-characterized U(IV) dimers with alkoxide ligands. Significant improvements in spectroscopic band resolution and energy measurement precision for solution species were shown to be achievable through work in frozen glasses at 77 K using a very simple cryogenic apparatus. A pulsed-laser photothermal spectroscopy apparatus was constructed and shown to be sensitive to optical density changes of 10{sup {minus}5} in an aqueous Nd{sup 3+} solution. In addition, the capability of obtaining photothermal lensing spectra of dilute actinide solutions in frozen glasses at 77 K was demonstrated. 6 refs., 5 figs.

  2. Kinetics of thermolysis of some transition metal nitrate complexes with 1,6-diaminohexane ligand.

    PubMed

    Singh, Gurdip; Singh, Chandra Prakash; Mannan, S M

    2006-07-31

    Metal nitrate complexes of general formula [M(dah)(2)](NO(3))(2) (where M=Zn, Cu and Ni; dah=1,6-diaminohexane) have been prepared and characterized by elemental analysis, infrared spectroscopy (IR) and gravimetric method. The thermal decomposition has been studied using thermogravimetry (TG). Simultaneous thermogravimetry-differential thermogravimetry-differential thermal analysis (TG-DTG-DTA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) were done in N(2) atmosphere. Isothermal TG of initial decomposition of all these complexes, have been carried out to evaluate the kinetics of early thermolysis. Both, model fitting and isoconversional method have been used for the evaluation of the kinetics of thermal decomposition. Model fitting method have given the single value of activation energy (E) whereas, isoconversional method yields a series of E-value, which vary with extent of conversion. Ignition of the complexes was measured to see the response towards rapid heating with varying amounts. The thermal stability of the complexes was found to be in the order as [Zn(dah)(2)](NO(3))(2)>[Cu(dah)(2)](NO(3))(2) approximately [Ni(dah)(2)](NO(3))(2).

  3. Final Report: Understanding the Chemistry of the Actinides in High Level Waste Tank Systems: The Impact of Temperature on Hydrolysis and Complexation with Organics

    SciTech Connect

    Scott A. Wood

    2005-05-05

    The solubility of CeO2 and ThO2 in aqueous NaNO3 solutions was studied as a function of pH and ionic strength, and the concentration of the organic ligands: citrate, EDTA, and oxalate. The main findings of the study are that these organic ligands increase the solubility of CeO2 markedly via the formation of complexes. On the other hand, the solubility of ThO2 was not affected by the presence of these ligands at levels of several hundred micromolar. These results have implications for the behavior of Pu(IV), for which Ce(IV) and Th(IV) are analogues.

  4. Complexation facilitated reduction of aromatic N-oxides by aqueous Fe(II)-tiron complex: reaction kinetics and mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yiling; Zhang, Huichun

    2013-10-01

    Rapid reduction of carbadox (CDX), olaquindox and several other aromatic N-oxides were investigated in aqueous solution containing Fe(II) and tiron. Consistent with previous work, the 1:2 Fe(II)-tiron complex, FeL2(6-), is the dominant reactive species as its concentration linearly correlates with the observed rate constant kobs under various conditions. The N-oxides without any side chains were much less reactive, suggesting direct reduction of the N-oxides is slow. UV-vis spectra suggest FeL2(6-) likely forms 5- or 7-membered rings with CDX and olaquindox through the N and O atoms on the side chain. The formed inner-sphere complexes significantly facilitated electron transfer from FeL2(6-) to the N-oxides. Reduction products of the N-oxides were identified by HPLC/QToF-MS to be the deoxygenated analogs. QSAR analysis indicated neither the first electron transfer nor N-O bond cleavage is the rate-limiting step. Calculations of the atomic spin densities of the anionic N-oxides confirmed the extensive delocalization between the aromatic ring and the side chain, suggesting complex formation can significantly affect the reduction kinetics. Our results suggest the complexation facilitated N-oxide reduction by Fe(II)-tiron involves a free radical mechanism, and the subsequent deoxygenation might also benefit from the weak complexation of Fe(II) with the N-oxide O atom.

  5. Kinetic analyses reveal multiple steps in forming TonB-FhuA complexes from Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Khursigara, Cezar M; De Crescenzo, Gregory; Pawelek, Peter D; Coulton, James W

    2005-03-08

    FhuA, an outer membrane receptor of Escherichia coli, facilitates transport of hydroxamate siderophores and siderophore-antibiotic conjugates. The cytoplasmic membrane complex TonB-ExbB-ExbD provides energy for transport via the proton motive force. This energy is transduced by protein-protein interactions between TonB and FhuA, but the molecular determinants of these interactions remain uncharacterized. Our analyses of FhuA and two recombinant TonB species by surface plasmon resonance revealed that TonB undergoes a kinetically limiting rearrangement upon initial interaction with FhuA: an intermediate TonB-FhuA complex of 1:1 stoichiometry was detected. The intermediate then recruits a second TonB protein. Addition of ferricrocin, a FhuA-specific ligand, enhanced amounts of the 2:1 complex but was not essential for its formation. To assess the role of the cork domain of FhuA in forming a 2:1 TonB-FhuA complex, we tested a FhuA deletion (residues 21-128) for its ability to interact with TonB. Analytical ultracentrifugation demonstrated that deletion of this region of the cork domain resulted in a 1:1 complex. Furthermore, the high-affinity 2:1 complex requires the N-terminal region of TonB. Together these in vitro experiments establish that TonB-FhuA interactions require sequential steps of kinetically limiting rearrangements. Additionally, domains that contribute to complex formation were identified in TonB and in FhuA.

  6. DNA content, kinetic complexity, and the ploidy question in Candida albicans

    SciTech Connect

    Riggsby, W.S.; Torres-Bauza, L.J.; Wills, J.W.; Townes, T.M.

    1982-07-01

    Candida albicans is a dimorphic fungus that is pathogenic for humans. No sexual cycle has been reported for this fungus, and earlier reports have differed on whether typical strains of C. albicans are haploid or diploid. Previous estimates of the DNA content of C. albicans varied by one order of magnitude. The authors used three independent methods to measure the kinetic complexity of the single-copy DNA from a typical strain of C. albicans (strain H317) to determine the DNA content per haploid genote; they obtained values of 15 and 20 fg per cell by using S1 nuclease and hydroxyapatite assays, respectively. Optical assays for DNA reassociation kinetics, although not definitive in themselves, yielded values in this range. Chemical measurements of the DNA content of several typical strains, including strain H317, yielded values clustered about a mean of 37 fg per cell. They concluded that these strains are diploid.

  7. DNA content, kinetic complexity, and the ploidy question in Candida albicans.

    PubMed Central

    Riggsby, W S; Torres-Bauza, L J; Wills, J W; Townes, T M

    1982-01-01

    Candida albicans is a dimorphic fungus that is pathogenic for humans. No sexual cycle has been reported for this fungus, and earlier reports have differed on whether typical strains of C. albicans are haploid or diploid. Previous estimates of the DNA content of C. albicans varied by one order of magnitude. We used three independent methods to measure the kinetic complexity of the single-copy DNA from a typical strain of C. albicans (strain H317) to determine the DNA content per haploid genote; we obtained values of 15 and 20 fg per cell by using S1 nuclease and hydroxyapatite assays, respectively. Optical assays for DNA reassociation kinetics, although not definitive in themselves, yielded values in this range. Chemical measurements of the DNA content of several typical strains, including strain H317, yielded values clustered about a mean of 37 fg per cell. We concluded that these strains are diploid. PMID:6765567

  8. Effect of Grain Size on Uranium(VI) Surface Complexation Kinetics and Adsorption Additivity

    SciTech Connect

    Shang, Jianying; Liu, Chongxuan; Wang, Zheming; Zachara, John M.

    2011-07-27

    Laboratory experiments were performed to investigate the contribution of variable grain sizes to uranium adsorption/desorption in a sediment collected from the US DOE Hanford site. The sediment was wet-sieved into four size fractions: coarse sand (1-2 mm), medium sand (0.2-1 mm), fine sand (0.05-0.2 mm), and clay/silt fraction (< 0.05mm). For each size fraction and their composite (sediment), batch experiments were performed to determine uranium adsorption isotherms, and stirred flow-cell experiments were conducted to derive kinetic data of uranium adsorption and subsequent desorption. The results showed that uranium adsorption isotherms and adsorption/desorption kinetics were size-specific, reflecting the effects of size-specific adsorption site concentration and kinetic rate constants. The larger-size fraction had a larger mass percentage in the sediment, but with a smaller adsorption site concentration and generally a slower uranium adsorption/desorption rate. The same equilibrium surface complexation reaction and reaction constant could describe uranium adsorption isotherms for all size fractions and the composite after accounting for the effect of adsorption site concentration. Mass-weighted, linear additivity was observed for both uranium adsorption isotherms and adsorption/desorption kinetics in the composite. Our analysis also showed that uranium adsorption site concentration estimated from the adsorption isotherms was 3 orders of magnitude less than a site concentration estimated from sediment surface area and generic site density. One important implication of this study is that grain size distribution may be used to estimate uranium adsorption site, and adsorption/desorption kinetic rates in heterogeneous sediments from a common location.

  9. CHARACTERIZATION OF ACTINIDES IN SIMULATED ALKALINE TANK WASTE SLUDGES AND LEACHATES

    SciTech Connect

    Nash, Kenneth L.

    2008-11-20

    In this project, both the fundamental chemistry of actinides in alkaline solutions (relevant to those present in Hanford-style waste storage tanks), and their dissolution from sludge simulants (and interactions with supernatants) have been investigated under representative sludge leaching procedures. The leaching protocols were designed to go beyond conventional alkaline sludge leaching limits, including the application of acidic leachants, oxidants and complexing agents. The simulant leaching studies confirm in most cases the basic premise that actinides will remain in the sludge during leaching with 2-3 M NaOH caustic leach solutions. However, they also confirm significant chances for increased mobility of actinides under oxidative leaching conditions. Thermodynamic data generated improves the general level of experiemental information available to predict actinide speciation in leach solutions. Additional information indicates that improved Al removal can be achieved with even dilute acid leaching and that acidic Al(NO3)3 solutions can be decontaminated of co-mobilized actinides using conventional separations methods. Both complexing agents and acidic leaching solutions have significant potential to improve the effectiveness of conventional alkaline leaching protocols. The prime objective of this program was to provide adequate insight into actinide behavior under these conditions to enable prudent decision making as tank waste treatment protocols develop.

  10. Relaxation Kinetic Study of Eudragit® NM30D Film Based on Complex Modulus Formalism.

    PubMed

    Penumetcha, Sai Sumana; Byrn, Stephen R; Morris, Kenneth R

    2015-10-01

    This study is aimed at resolving and characterizing the primary (α) and secondary relaxations (β) in Eudragit® NM30D film based on apparent activation energies derived from complex modulus formalism using dielectric analysis (DEA). The glass transition (T g) of the film was determined using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The α relaxation corresponding to T g and the β relaxations occurring below T g were probed using DEA. The occurrence of α and β relaxations in Eudragit® NM30D film was elucidated using the complex modulus of the dielectric response employing loss modulus and permittivity data. Activation energies of these relaxations and the fundamental frequency so determined support the assignment of the relaxation pattern in the Eudragit® NM30D film. DEA methodology of the complex modulus formalism is a useful tool for differentiating the α and β relaxation kinetics in Eudragits® not easily studied using traditional thermal methods such as DSC. The kinetics associated with α and β relaxations so determined will provide formulation design support for solid orals that incorporate Eudragit® polymers. As mobility changes can affect stability and diffusion, the dipolar α and β relaxations revealed through DEA analysis may enable a better correlation to functionality of Eudragit® based pharmaceutical dosage forms.

  11. Measuring Force-Induced Dissociation Kinetics of Protein Complexes Using Single-Molecule Atomic Force Microscopy.

    PubMed

    Manibog, K; Yen, C F; Sivasankar, S

    2017-01-01

    Proteins respond to mechanical force by undergoing conformational changes and altering the kinetics of their interactions. However, the biophysical relationship between mechanical force and the lifetime of protein complexes is not completely understood. In this chapter, we provide a step-by-step tutorial on characterizing the force-dependent regulation of protein interactions using in vitro and in vivo single-molecule force clamp measurements with an atomic force microscope (AFM). While we focus on the force-induced dissociation of E-cadherins, a critical cell-cell adhesion protein, the approaches described here can be readily adapted to study other protein complexes. We begin this chapter by providing a brief overview of theoretical models that describe force-dependent kinetics of biomolecular interactions. Next, we present step-by-step methods for measuring the response of single receptor-ligand bonds to tensile force in vitro. Finally, we describe methods for quantifying the mechanical response of single protein complexes on the surface of living cells. We describe general protocols for conducting such measurements, including sample preparation, AFM force clamp measurements, and data analysis. We also highlight critical limitations in current technologies and discuss solutions to these challenges. © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Analysis of large soil samples for actinides

    DOEpatents

    Maxwell, III; Sherrod, L [Aiken, SC

    2009-03-24

    A method of analyzing relatively large soil samples for actinides by employing a separation process that includes cerium fluoride precipitation for removing the soil matrix and precipitates plutonium, americium, and curium with cerium and hydrofluoric acid followed by separating these actinides using chromatography cartridges.

  13. Prompt fission neutron spectra of actinides

    SciTech Connect

    Capote, R.; Chen, Y. -J.; Hambsch, F. -J.; Kornilov, N. V.; Lestone, J. P.; Litaize, O.; Morillon, B.; Neudecker, D.; Oberstedt, S.; Ohsawa, T.; Otuka, N.; Pronyaev, V. G.; Saxena, A.; Serot, O.; Shcherbakov, O. A.; Shu, N. -C.; Smith, D. L.; Talou, P.; Trkov, A.; Tudora, A. C.; Vogt, R.; Vorobyev, A. S.

    2016-01-06

    Here, the energy spectrum of prompt neutrons emitted in fission (PFNS) plays a very important role in nuclear science and technology. A Coordinated Research Project (CRP) "Evaluation of Prompt Fission Neutron Spectra of Actinides" was established by the IAEA Nuclear Data Section in 2009, with the major goal to produce new PFNS evaluations with uncertainties for actinide nuclei.

  14. Prompt fission neutron spectra of actinides

    DOE PAGES

    Capote, R.; Chen, Y. -J.; Hambsch, F. -J.; ...

    2016-01-06

    Here, the energy spectrum of prompt neutrons emitted in fission (PFNS) plays a very important role in nuclear science and technology. A Coordinated Research Project (CRP) "Evaluation of Prompt Fission Neutron Spectra of Actinides" was established by the IAEA Nuclear Data Section in 2009, with the major goal to produce new PFNS evaluations with uncertainties for actinide nuclei.

  15. Prompt fission neutron spectrum of actinides

    SciTech Connect

    Capote, R.; Chen, Y. -J.; Hambsch, F. J.; Jurado, B.; Lestone, J. P.; Litaize, O.; Morillon, B.; Neudecker, D.; Oberstedt, S.; Ohsawa, T.; Otuka, N.; Pronyaev, V. G.; Saxena, A.; Schmidt, K. H.; Shcherbakov, O. A.; Shu, N. -C.; Smith, D. L.; Talou, P.; Trkov, A.; Tudora, A. C.; Vogt, R.; Vorobyev, A. S.

    2016-01-06

    Here, the energy spectrum of prompt neutron emitted in fission (PFNS) plays a very important role in nuclear science and technology. A Coordinated Research Project (CRP) "Evaluation of Prompt Fission Neutron Spectra of Actinides" was established by the IAEA Nuclear Data Section in 2009, with the major goal to produce new PFNS evaluations with uncertainties for actinide nuclei.

  16. Multi-podant diglycolamides and room temperature ionic liquid impregnated resins: An excellent combination for extraction chromatography of actinides.

    PubMed

    Gujar, R B; Ansari, S A; Verboom, W; Mohapatra, P K

    2016-05-27

    Extraction chromatography resins, prepared by impregnating two multi-podant diglycolamide ligands, viz. diglycolamide-functionalized calix[4]arene (C4DGA) and tripodal diglycolamide (T-DGA) dissolved in the room temperature ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)amide (RTIL: C4mimTf2N) on Chromosorb-W (an inert solid support), gave excellent results for the removal of trivalent actinides from acidic waste solutions. Distribution coefficient measurements on several metal ions showed selective sorption of Am(III) over hexavalent uranyl ions and other fission product elements such as strontium and cesium. The sorbed metal ions could be efficiently desorbed with a complexing solution containing guanidine carbonate and EDTA buffer. The sorption of Am(III) on both resins followed pseudo-second order rate kinetics with rate constants of 1.37×10(-6) and 6.88×10(-7)g/cpmmin for T-DGA and C4DGA resins, respectively. The metal sorption on both resins indicated the Langmuir monolayer chemisorption phenomenon with Eu(III) sorption capacities of 4.83±0.21 and 0.52±0.05mg per g of T-DGA and C4DGA resins, respectively. The results of column studies show that these resins are of interest for a possible application for the recovery of hazardous trivalent actinides from dilute aqueous solutions.

  17. Actinide ion sensor for pyroprocess monitoring

    DOEpatents

    Jue, Jan-fong; Li, Shelly X.

    2014-06-03

    An apparatus for real-time, in-situ monitoring of actinide ion concentrations which comprises a working electrode, a reference electrode, a container, a working electrolyte, a separator, a reference electrolyte, and a voltmeter. The container holds the working electrolyte. The voltmeter is electrically connected to the working electrode and the reference electrode and measures the voltage between those electrodes. The working electrode contacts the working electrolyte. The working electrolyte comprises an actinide ion of interest. The reference electrode contacts the reference electrolyte. The reference electrolyte is separated from the working electrolyte by the separator. The separator contacts both the working electrolyte and the reference electrolyte. The separator is ionically conductive to the actinide ion of interest. The reference electrolyte comprises a known concentration of the actinide ion of interest. The separator comprises a beta double prime alumina exchanged with the actinide ion of interest.

  18. Interactions of microbial exopolymers with actinides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Mitchell T.; Chitwood, Dawn J.; He, Lee; Neu, Mary P.

    2000-07-01

    The development of viable bioremediation strategies for radionuclide contaminated soils, sediments and ground waters at DOE sites is a formidable challenge. Ubiquitous microorganisms can absorb, oxidize, reduce and/or precipitate actinides and thereby affect the speciation, solubility, bioavailability, and migration of these toxic metals. Actinides can interact directly with microorganisms, i.e., via sorption to the cell wall, and indirectly via reaction with their byproducts, such as extracellular polymers. However, very little is known about the fundamental chemistry of any microbial-actinide interactions or their impact on environmental processes. Our goal is to fully characterize specific microbial-actinide interactions and determine how they may be exploited to effect environmental actinide mobility/immobility and remediation efforts.

  19. Exploring actinide materials through synchrotron radiation techniques.

    PubMed

    Shi, Wei-Qun; Yuan, Li-Yong; Wang, Cong-Zhi; Wang, Lin; Mei, Lei; Xiao, Cheng-Liang; Zhang, Li; Li, Zi-Jie; Zhao, Yu-Liang; Chai, Zhi-Fang

    2014-12-10

    Synchrotron radiation (SR) based techniques have been utilized with increasing frequency in the past decade to explore the brilliant and challenging sciences of actinide-based materials. This trend is partially driven by the basic needs for multi-scale actinide speciation and bonding information and also the realistic needs for nuclear energy research. In this review, recent research progresses on actinide related materials by means of various SR techniques were selectively highlighted and summarized, with the emphasis on X-ray absorption spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and scattering spectroscopy, which are powerful tools to characterize actinide materials. In addition, advanced SR techniques for exploring future advanced nuclear fuel cycles dealing with actinides are illustrated as well. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Actinide abundances in ordinary chondrites

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hagee, B.; Bernatowicz, T.J.; Podosek, F.A.; Johnson, M.L.; Burnett, D.S.; Tatsumoto, M.

    1990-01-01

    Measurements of 244Pu fission Xe, U, Th, and light REE (LREE) abundances, along with modal petrographic determinations of phosphate abundances, were carried out on equilibrated ordinary chondrites in order to define better the solar system Pu abundance and to determine the degree of variation of actinide and LREE abundances. Our data permit comparison of the directly measured Pu/ U ratio with that determined indirectly as (Pu/Nd) ?? (Nd/U) assuming that Pu behaves chemically as a LREE. Except for Guaren??a, and perhaps H chondrites in general, Pu concentrations are similar to that determined previously for St. Se??verin, although less precise because of higher trapped Xe contents. Trapped 130Xe 136Xe ratios appear to vary from meteorite to meteorite, but, relative to AVCC, all are similar in the sense of having less of the interstellar heavy Xe found in carbonaceous chondrite acid residues. The Pu/U and Pu/Nd ratios are consistent with previous data for St. Se??verin, but both tend to be slightly higher than those inferred from previous data on Angra dos Reis. Although significant variations exist, the distribution of our Th/U ratios, along with other precise isotope dilution data for ordinary chondrites, is rather symmetric about the CI chondrite value; however, actinide/(LREE) ratios are systematically lower than the CI value. Variations in actinide or LREE absolute and relative abundances are interpreted as reflecting differences in the proportions and/or compositions of more primitive components (chondrules and CAI materials?) incorporated into different regions of the ordinary chondrite parent bodies. The observed variations of Th/U, Nd/U, or Ce/U suggest that measurements of Pu/U on any single equilibrated ordinary chondrite specimen, such as St. Se??verin, should statistically be within ??20-30% of the average solar system value, although it is also clear that anomalous samples exist. ?? 1990.

  1. Separation of actinides from lanthanides

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Barbara F.; Jarvinen, Gordon D.; Ryan, Robert R.

    1989-01-01

    An organic extracting solution and an extraction method useful for separating elements of the actinide series of the periodic table from elements of the lanthanide series, where both are in trivalent form. The extracting solution consists of a primary ligand and a secondary ligand, preferably in an organic solvent. The primary ligand is a substituted monothio-1,3-dicarbonyl, which includes a substituted 4-acyl-2-pyrazolin-5-thione, such as 4-benzoyl-2,4-dihydro-5-methyl-2-phenyl-3H-pyrazol-3-thione (BMPPT). The secondary ligand is a substituted phosphine oxide, such as trioctylphosphine oxide (TOPO).

  2. Separation of actinides from lanthanides

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, B.F.; Jarvinen, G.D.; Ryan, R.R.

    1989-09-19

    This patent describes an organic extracting solution and an extraction method useful for separating elements of the actinide series of the periodic table from elements of the lanthanide series, where both are in trivalent form. The extracting solution consists of a primary ligand and a secondary ligand, preferably in an organic solvent. The primary ligand is a substituted monothio-1,3-dicarbonyl, which include a substituted 4-acyl-2-pyrazolin-5-thione, such as 4-benzoyl-2,4-dihydro-5-methyl-2-phenyl-3H-pyrazol-3-thione (BMPPT). The secondary ligand is a substituted phosphine oxide, such as trioctylphosphine oxide (TOPO).

  3. Separation of actinides from lanthanides

    DOEpatents

    Smith, B.F.; Jarvinen, G.D.; Ryan, R.R.

    1988-03-31

    An organic extracting solution and an extraction method useful for separating elements of the actinide series of the periodic table from elements of the lanthanide series, where both are in trivalent form is described. The extracting solution consists of a primary ligand and a secondary ligand, preferably in an organic solvent. The primary ligand is a substituted monothio-1,3-dicarbonyl, which includes a substituted 4-acyl-2-pyrazolin-5-thione, such as 4-benzoyl-2,4- dihydro-5-methyl-2-phenyl-3H-pyrazol-3-thione (BMPPT). The secondary ligand is a substituted phosphine oxide, such as trioctylphosphine oxide (TOPO).

  4. Loading Actinides in Multilayered Structures for Nuclear Waste Treatment: The First Case Study of Uranium Capture with Vanadium Carbide MXene.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lin; Yuan, Liyong; Chen, Ke; Zhang, Yujuan; Deng, Qihuang; Du, Shiyu; Huang, Qing; Zheng, Lirong; Zhang, Jing; Chai, Zhifang; Barsoum, Michel W; Wang, Xiangke; Shi, Weiqun

    2016-06-29

    Efficient nuclear waste treatment and environmental management are important hurdles that need to be overcome if nuclear energy is to become more widely used. Herein, we demonstrate the first case of using two-dimensional (2D) multilayered V2CTx nanosheets prepared by HF etching of V2AlC to remove actinides from aqueous solutions. The V2CTx material is found to be a highly efficient uranium (U(VI)) sorbent, evidenced by a high uptake capacity of 174 mg g(-1), fast sorption kinetics, and desirable selectivity. Fitting of the sorption isotherm indicated that the sorption followed a heterogeneous adsorption model, most probably due to the presence of heterogeneous adsorption sites. Density functional theory calculations, in combination with X-ray absorption fine structure characterizations, suggest that the uranyl ions prefer to coordinate with hydroxyl groups bonded to the V-sites of the nanosheets via forming bidentate inner-sphere complexes.

  5. Selection of Actinide Chemical Analogues for WIPP Tests: Potential Nonradioactive Sorbing and Nonsorbing Tracers for Study of Ion Transport in the Environment

    SciTech Connect

    Dale Spall; Robert Villarreal

    1998-08-01

    Chemical characteristics of the actinides (Th, U, Np, Pu, Am) have been studied relative to nonradioactive chemical elements that have similar characteristics in an attempt to identify a group of actinide chemical analogues that are nonradioactive. In general, the chemistries of the actinides, especially U, Np, Pu, and Am, are very complex and attempts to identify a single chemical analogue for each oxidation state were not successful. However, the rationale for selecting a group of chemical analogues that would mimic the actinides as a group is provided. The categorization of possible chemical analogues (tracers) with similar chemical properties was based on the following criteria. Categorization was studied according.

  6. Kinetic and Thermochemical Studies of Weakly-Bound HO2 Complexes with Carboxylic acids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Z.; Nicovich, J. M.; McKee, M. L.; Wine, P. H.

    2008-12-01

    Numerous theoretical and experimental studies have suggested that HO2 radicals are able to form strong hydrogen bonds with some closed-shell species, which can potentially influence our understanding of HO2 chemistry in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere. In this study, a laser flash photolysis-tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy technique has been employed to study the formation of HO2 complexes with formic and acetic acids. At low temperatures, equilibration kinetics have been observed, allowing adduct formation and dissociation rate coefficients to be obtained and adduct binding enthalpies to be determined. This is the first experimental study of the HO2-carboxylic acid complexes and the binding energies are in good agreement with the most recent theoretical estimates. The potential role of HO2-RC(O)OH adducts in atmospheric chemistry will be discussed.

  7. Model-based analysis for kinetic complexation study of Pizda and Cu(II)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vosough, M.; Maeder, M.; Jalali-Heravi, M.; Norman, S. E.

    2008-08-01

    In the present work, the multivariate kinetic complexation of a new synthesized ligand, 1-(2″-hydroxyl cyclohexyl)-3'-[aminopropyl]-4-[3'-aminopropyl]piperazine (Pizda) and Cu 2+ in 50% ethanol-water solution is investigated using the UV-vis stopped-flow technique and state-of-the-art multi-wavelength numerical analysis. Model-based least squares fitting analysis or hard modeling is a specific part of chemometrics which is based on mathematical relationships for describing the measurements. Some recent developments include the incorporation of the effects of non-ideal experimental conditions into the fitting algorithm so it can substantially simplify experimental procedures. In this study no buffers are required because pH changes are taken into computations. Some 21 multi-wavelength kinetic measurements, taken at various initial concentrations of [H +] were analyzed globally, i.e. simultaneously applying an all inclusive reaction mechanism and a common set of species spectra. Using numerical analysis, the pH of the experimental solutions was allowed to vary as a consequence of the proceeding reactions. This enabled the complete kinetic analysis of the formation and dissociation of Cu(Pizda) n+ . Here protonation equilibria have been directly incorporated into the rate law, so thus variable pH values have been allowed during each measurement. Using the independently estimated stability constants (from spectrophotometric and potentiometric measurements) for the Cu(Pizda) n+ complexes, a total of six rate constants and one protonation constant could be elucidated. The results of the analysis include the concentration distribution and spectra of all chemical species involved in the reaction. A low standard deviation and residual profiles obtained validate the results.

  8. Model-based analysis for kinetic complexation study of Pizda and Cu(II).

    PubMed

    Vosough, M; Maeder, M; Jalali-Heravi, M; Norman, S E

    2008-08-01

    In the present work, the multivariate kinetic complexation of a new synthesized ligand, 1-(2''-hydroxyl cyclohexyl)-3'-[aminopropyl]-4-[3'-aminopropyl]piperazine (Pizda) and Cu(2+) in 50% ethanol-water solution is investigated using the UV-vis stopped-flow technique and state-of-the-art multi-wavelength numerical analysis. Model-based least squares fitting analysis or hard modeling is a specific part of chemometrics which is based on mathematical relationships for describing the measurements. Some recent developments include the incorporation of the effects of non-ideal experimental conditions into the fitting algorithm so it can substantially simplify experimental procedures. In this study no buffers are required because pH changes are taken into computations. Some 21 multi-wavelength kinetic measurements, taken at various initial concentrations of [H(+)] were analyzed globally, i.e. simultaneously applying an all inclusive reaction mechanism and a common set of species spectra. Using numerical analysis, the pH of the experimental solutions was allowed to vary as a consequence of the proceeding reactions. This enabled the complete kinetic analysis of the formation and dissociation of Cu(Pizda)(n+). Here protonation equilibria have been directly incorporated into the rate law, so thus variable pH values have been allowed during each measurement. Using the independently estimated stability constants (from spectrophotometric and potentiometric measurements) for the Cu(Pizda)(n+) complexes, a total of six rate constants and one protonation constant could be elucidated. The results of the analysis include the concentration distribution and spectra of all chemical species involved in the reaction. A low standard deviation and residual profiles obtained validate the results.

  9. A kinetic study of nickel complexation in model systems by adsorptive cathodic stripping voltammetry.

    PubMed

    Celo, V; Murimboh, J; Salam, M S; Chakrabarti, C L

    2001-03-15

    Adsorptive cathodic stripping voltammetry (AdCSV) in conjunction with the competing ligand-exchange method (CLEM) was investigated as a tool for measuring dissociation rate coefficients of nickel complexes in model systems. Dimethylglyoxime (DMG) was used as the competing ligand. Citric acid (CA) and a well-characterized fulvic acid (FA) were used as model ligands. The rate coefficients were calculated, and the consistency of equilibrium and kinetic data was discussed. The contributions of the disjunctive pathway (proceeding by the dissociation of the initial complex) and the adjunctive pathway (proceeding by the formation of an intermediate complex as a result of direct attack of the competing ligand on the initial complex) on the overall reactions were investigated. The reactions of Ni-CA or Ni-FA complexes with DMG were demonstrated to proceed by both disjunctive and adjunctive pathways. The predominant pathway for the overall reaction depends on the nickel-to-initial ligand and the DMG-to-initial ligand ratios. The reactions follow predominantly the disjunctive pathway for [DMG] > or = 3 mM and Ni-to-dissolved organic carbon (DOC) ratios greater than 10 nM Ni 2+/g of DOC. Since free nickel ion in freshwaters is reported to be toxic, its rate and pathway of formation are of environmental concern.

  10. Kinetic and Thermodynamic Stabilization of Metal Complexes by Introverted Coordination in a Calix[6]azacryptand.

    PubMed

    Inthasot, Alex; Brunetti, Emilio; Lejeune, Manuel; Menard, Nicolas; Prangé, Thierry; Fusaro, Luca; Bruylants, Gilles; Reinaud, Olivia; Luhmer, Michel; Jabin, Ivan; Colasson, Benoit

    2016-03-24

    The Huisgen thermal reaction between an organic azide and an acetylene was employed for the selective monofunctionalization of a X6 -azacryptand ligand bearing a tren coordinating unit [X6 stands for calix[6]arene and tren for tris(2-aminoethyl)amine]. Supramolecular assistance, originating from the formation of a host-guest inclusion complex between the reactants, greatly accelerates the reaction while self-inhibition affords a remarkable selectivity. The new ligand possesses a single amino-leg appended at the large rim of the calixarene core and the corresponding Zn(2+) complex was characterized both in solution and in the solid state. The coordination of Zn(2+) not only involves the tren cap but also the introverted amino-leg, which locks the metal ion in the cavity. Compared with the parent ligand deprived of the amino-leg, the affinity of the new monofunctionalized X6 tren ligand 6 for Zn(2+) is found to have a 10-fold increase in DMSO, which is a very competitive solvent, and with an enhancement of at least three orders of magnitude in CDCl3 /CD3 OD (1:1, v/v). In strong contrast with the fast binding kinetics, decoordination of Zn(2+) as well as transmetallation appeared to be very slow processes. The monofunctionalized X6 tren ligand 6 fully protects the metal ion from the external medium thanks to the combination of a cavity and a closed coordination sphere, leading to greater thermodynamic and kinetic stabilities.

  11. Differential scanning fluorimetry based assessments of the thermal and kinetic stability of peptide-MHC complexes.

    PubMed

    Hellman, Lance M; Yin, Liusong; Wang, Yuan; Blevins, Sydney J; Riley, Timothy P; Belden, Orrin S; Spear, Timothy T; Nishimura, Michael I; Stern, Lawrence J; Baker, Brian M

    2016-05-01

    Measurements of thermal stability by circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy have been widely used to assess the binding of peptides to MHC proteins, particularly within the structural immunology community. Although thermal stability assays offer advantages over other approaches such as IC50 measurements, CD-based stability measurements are hindered by large sample requirements and low throughput. Here we demonstrate that an alternative approach based on differential scanning fluorimetry (DSF) yields results comparable to those based on CD for both class I and class II complexes. As they require much less sample, DSF-based measurements reduce demands on protein production strategies and are amenable for high throughput studies. DSF can thus not only replace CD as a means to assess peptide/MHC thermal stability, but can complement other peptide-MHC binding assays used in screening, epitope discovery, and vaccine design. Due to the physical process probed, DSF can also uncover complexities not observed with other techniques. Lastly, we show that DSF can also be used to assess peptide/MHC kinetic stability, allowing for a single experimental setup to probe both binding equilibria and kinetics. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Theoretical Studies of the Electronic Structure of the Compounds of the Actinide Elements

    SciTech Connect

    Kaltsoyannis, Nikolas; Hay, P. Jeffrey; Li, Jun; Blaudeau, Jean-Philippe; Bursten, Bruce E.

    2006-02-02

    In this chapter, we will present an overview of the theoretical and computational developments that have increased our understanding of the electronic structure of actinide-containing molecules and ions. The application of modern electronic structure methodologies to actinide systems remains one of the great challenges in quantum chemistry; indeed, as will be discussed below, there is no other portion of the periodic table that leads to the confluence of complexity with respect to the calculation of ground- and excited-state energies, bonding descriptions, and molecular properties. But there is also no place in the periodic table in which effective computational modeling of electronic structure can be more useful. The difficulties in creating, isolating, and handling many of the actinide elements provide an opportunity for computational chemistry to be an unusually important partner in developing the chemistry of these elements. The importance of actinide electronic structure begins with the earliest studies of uranium chemistry and predates the discovery of quantum mechanics. The fluorescence of uranyl compounds was observed as early as 1833 (Jørgensen and Reisfeld, 1983), a presage of the development of actinometry as a tool for measuring photochemical quantum yields. Interest in nuclear fuels has stimulated tremendous interest in understanding the properties, including electronic properties, of small actinide-containing molecules and ions, especially the oxides and halides of uranium and plutonium. The synthesis of uranocene in 1968 (Streitwieser and Mu¨ ller-Westerhoff, 1968) led to the flurry of activity in the organometallic chemistry of the actinides that continues today. Actinide organometallics (or organoactinides) are nearly always molecular systems and are often volatile, which makes them amenable to an arsenal of experimental probes of molecular and electronic structure (Marks and Fischer, 1979). Theoretical and computational studies of the electronic

  13. Actinide production in /sup 136/Xe bombardments of /sup 249/Cf

    SciTech Connect

    Gregorich, K.E.

    1985-08-01

    The production cross sections for the actinide products from /sup 136/Xe bombardments of /sup 249/Cf at energies 1.02, 1.09, and 1.16 times the Coulomb barrier were determined. Fractions of the individual actinide elements were chemically separated from recoil catcher foils. The production cross sections of the actinide products were determined by measuring the radiations emitted from the nuclides within the chemical fractions. The chemical separation techniques used in this work are described in detail, and a description of the data analysis procedure is included. The actinide production cross section distributions from these /sup 136/Xe + /sup 249/Cf bombardments are compared with the production cross section distributions from other heavy ion bombardments of actinide targets, with emphasis on the comparison with the /sup 136/Xe + /sup 248/Cm reaction. A technique for modeling the final actinide cross section distributions has been developed and is presented. In this model, the initial (before deexcitation) cross section distribution with respect to the separation energy of a dinuclear complex and with respect to the Z of the target-like fragment is given by an empirical procedure. It is then assumed that the N/Z equilibration in the dinuclear complex occurs by the transfer of neutrons between the two participants in the dinuclear complex. The neutrons and the excitation energy are statistically distributed between the two fragments using a simple Fermi gas level density formalism. The resulting target-like fragment initial cross section distribution with respect to Z, N, and excitation energy is then allowed to deexcite by emission of neutrons in competition with fission. The result is a final cross section distribution with respect to Z and N for the actinide products. 68 refs., 33 figs., 6 tabs.

  14. Lanthanide(III) complexes of some natural siderophores: a thermodynamic, kinetic and relaxometric study.

    PubMed

    Tircsó, Gyula; Garda, Zoltán; Kálmán, Ferenc K; Baranyai, Zsolt; Pócsi, István; Balla, György; Tóth, Imre

    2013-10-01

    Stability constants of the complexes formed between the natural trihydroxamic acids desferrioxamine B (DFB) and desferricoprogen (DFC) with Nd(III), Gd(III) and Yb(III) ions were determined using pH-potentiometry. The equilibrium in these systems can be described by models containing mononuclear protonated (Ln(HL), Ln(H2L) and Ln(H3L)), deprotonated (LnL) and ternary hydroxo Ln(H-1L) complexes, but for both ligands dinuclear complexes of low stability were also detected. The stability constants for the Ln(HDFB)(+) complexes are 11.95 (Nd(III)), 13.16 (Gd(III)) and 14.67 (Yb(III)), while these values of the Ln(DFC) complexes are considerably higher (14.42 (Nd(III)), 15.14 (Gd(III)) and 16.49 (Yb(III))). The stability constants of the complexes of DFB and DFC are much lower than those of the Ln(L)3 complexes formed with some aromatic hydroxamic acids indicating that the relatively long spacer between the hydroxamic acid moieties in DFB and DFC is unfavorable for Ln(III) complexation. The relaxometric study conducted for the Gd(HDFB)(+) species revealed an interesting pH dependence of the relaxivity associated with a large hydration number (bishydrated complex) and fast water exchange (kex=(29.9±0.4)×10(6)s(-1)), which would be favorable for CA use. However the dissociation of Gd(HDFB)(+) is fairly fast (<2ms) under all conditions employed in the present work thus the kinetically labile Gd(HDFB)(+) is not suitable for in vivo CA applications. Some low stability ternary complexes were also detected with K(Gd(HDFB)(HCO3))=17.5±1.9 and K(Gd(HDFB)(Lactate))=8.4±3.2 but in the presence of citrate and phosphate ions the Gd(HDFB)(+) complex was found to dissociate.

  15. Kinetic and spectral investigation of allosteric interaction of coenzymes with 2-oxo acid dehydrogenase complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strumiło, S.; Czygier, M.; Kondracikowska, J.; Dobrzyń, P.; Czerniecki, J.

    2002-09-01

    The possible role of thiamine pyrophosphate (TPP) in the regulation of both multienzyme pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC) and 2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase complex (OGDC) has been investigated by kinetic and spectral methods. The purified PDC and OGDC from animal heart muscle were near saturated with endogenous TPP. The PDC containing the bound coenzyme showed hysteretic behaviour manifested in a lag phase of the catalysed reaction after the contact of PDC with substrates. Exogenous TPP added to the full reaction medium led to a disappearance of the lag phase and to strong reduction of the Michaelis constant ( Km) value for pyruvate, and more moderate decrease of Km for both coenzyme A and NAD. In the case of OGDC exogenous TPP also decreased S 0.5 ( Km) for substrate 2-oxoglutarate. In addition, exogenous TPP changed both the UV and circular dichroism spectra of PDC and last one of OGDC, and lowered the fluorescence emission of the multienzyme complexes containing bound molecules of endogenous coenzyme in their active sites. Thiamine pyrophosphate seems to play, besides its coenzyme function, the role of positive allosteric effector which causes conformational changes of the multienzyme complexes and increases their affinity to substrates.

  16. Formic acid dehydrogenation with bioinspired iridium complexes: a kinetic isotope effect study and mechanistic insight.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wan-Hui; Xu, Shaoan; Manaka, Yuichi; Suna, Yuki; Kambayashi, Hide; Muckerman, James T; Fujita, Etsuko; Himeda, Yuichiro

    2014-07-01

    Highly efficient hydrogen generation from dehydrogenation of formic acid is achieved by using bioinspired iridium complexes that have hydroxyl groups at the ortho positions of the bipyridine or bipyrimidine ligand (i.e., OH in the second coordination sphere of the metal center). In particular, [Ir(Cp*)(TH4BPM)(H2 O)]SO4 (TH4BPM: 2,2',6,6'-tetrahydroxyl-4,4'-bipyrimidine; Cp*: pentamethylcyclopentadienyl) has a high turnover frequency of 39 500 h(-1) at 80 °C in a 1 M aqueous solution of HCO2 H/HCO2 Na and produces hydrogen and carbon dioxide without carbon monoxide contamination. The deuterium kinetic isotope effect study clearly indicates a different rate-determining step for complexes with hydroxyl groups at different positions of the ligands. The rate-limiting step is β-hydrogen elimination from the iridium-formate intermediate for complexes with hydroxyl groups at ortho positions, owing to a proton relay (i.e., pendent-base effect), which lowers the energy barrier of hydrogen generation. In contrast, the reaction of iridium hydride with a proton to liberate hydrogen is demonstrated to be the rate-determining step for complexes that do not have hydroxyl groups at the ortho positions. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Pb(2+) complexes of small-cavity azamacrocyclic ligands: thermodynamic and kinetic studies.

    PubMed

    Liberato, A; Aguinaco, A; Clares, M P; Delgado-Pinar, E; Pitarch-Jarque, J; Blasco, S; Basallote, M G; García-España, E; Verdejo, B

    2017-05-23

    The synthesis, acid-base behavior and Pb(2+) coordination chemistry of the new aza-scorpiand like ligand 5-[2-(N-2-fluorenyl)ethylamino]-2,5,8-triaza[9]-2,6-pyridinophane (L1) have been studied by potentiometry, NMR and spectrofluorimetric titrations, and the results are compared with those obtained for the related compounds L2, lacking the fluorenyl group, and L3, the macrocycle lacking the pendant arm. The crystal structures obtained for complexes [PbL1][PbL1Cl](NO3)Cl2·4H2O (1) and [PbL3](ClO4)2 (2) reveal that the metal ion is located over the plane defined by the nitrogen atoms of the macrocyclic core due to its inability to accommodate the large Pb(2+) ion in the macrocyclic cavity. For L1, the secondary amino group of the pendant arm is implicated in the coordination of the metal ion, although the stereoactive lone pair of Pb(2+) prevents the closed conformation associated with the coordination of metal ions in aza-scorpiand derivatives. The kinetics of the acid-promoted dissociation of the ligand from the Pb(2+) complexes with the three ligands have been studied using stopped-flow with simultaneous absorbance and fluorescence detection. The results indicate that in spite of their similarity, the dissociation of the metal ion occurs with very different rates in the three complexes. During the course of the kinetic studies evidence was obtained for the occurrence of a photochemical process that leads to ligand degradation with the unexpected elimination of one CH2CH2 fragment from the macrocyclic core.

  18. A QUANTITATIVE KINETIC SCHEME FOR 70S TRANSLATION INITIATION COMPLEX FORMATION

    PubMed Central

    Grigoriadou, Christina; Marzi, Stefano; Kirillov, Stanislas; Gualerzi, Claudio O.; Cooperman, Barry S.

    2007-01-01

    SUMMARY Association of the 30S initiation complex (30SIC) and the 50S ribosomal subunit, leading to formation of the 70S initiation complex (70SIC), is a critical step of the translation initiation pathway. The 70SIC contains initiator tRNA, fMet-tRNAfMet, bound in the P (peptidyl)-site in response to the AUG start codon. We have formulated a quantitative kinetic scheme for the formation of an active 70SIC from 30SIC and 50S subunits on the basis of parallel rapid kinetics measurements of GTP hydrolysis, Pi release, light scattering, and changes in fluorescence intensities of fluorophore-labeled IF2 and fMet-tRNAfMet. According to this scheme, an initially formed labile 70S complex, which promotes rapid IF2-dependent GTP hydrolysis, either dissociates reversibly into 30S and 50S subunits or is converted to a more stable form, leading to 70SIC formation. The latter process takes place with intervening conformational changes of ribosome-bound IF2 and fMet-tRNAfMet, which are monitored by spectral changes of fluorescent derivatives of IF2 and fMet-tRNAfMet. The availability of such a scheme provides a useful framework for precisely elucidating the mechanisms by which substituting the nonhydrolyzable analogue GDPCP for GTP or adding thiostrepton inhibit formation of a productive 70SIC. GDPCP does not affect stable 70S formation, but perturbs fMet-tRNAfMet positioning in the P-site. In contrast, thiostrepton severely retards stable 70S formation, but allows normal binding of fMet-tRNAfMet(prf20) to the P-site. PMID:17868692

  19. Kinetics of Ga(NOTA) formation from weak Ga-citrate complexes.

    PubMed

    Morfin, Jean-François; Tóth, Éva

    2011-10-17

    Gallium complexes are gaining increasing importance in biomedical imaging thanks to the practical advantages of the (68)Ga isotope in Positron Emission Tomography (PET) applications. (68)Ga has a short half-time (t(1/2) = 68 min); thus the (68)Ga complexes have to be prepared in a limited time frame. The acceleration of the formation reaction of gallium complexes with macrocyclic ligands for application in PET imaging represents a significant coordination chemistry challenge. Here we report a detailed kinetic study of the formation reaction of the highly stable Ga(NOTA) from the weak citrate complex (H(3)NOTA = 1,4,7-triazacyclononane-1,4,7- triacetic acid). The transmetalation has been studied using (71)Ga NMR over a large pH range (pH = 2.01-6.00). The formation of Ga(NOTA) is a two-step process. First, a monoprotonated intermediate containing coordinated citrate, GaHNOTA(citrate)*, forms in a rapid equilibrium step. The rate-determining step of the reaction is the deprotonation and slow rearrangement of the intermediate accompanied by the citrate release. The observed reaction rate shows an unusual pH dependency with a minimum at pH 5.17. In contrast to the typical formation reactions of poly(amino carboxylate) complexes, the Ga(NOTA) formation from the weak citrate complex becomes considerably faster with increasing proton concentration below pH 5.17. We explain this unexpected tendency by the role of protons in the decomposition of the GaHNOTA(citrate)* intermediate which proceeds via the protonation of the coordinated citrate ion and its subsequent decoordination to yield the final product Ga(NOTA). The stability constant of this intermediate, log K(GaHNOTA(citrate)*) = 15.6, is remarkably high compared to the corresponding values reported for the formation of macrocyclic lanthanide(III)-poly(amino carboxylates). These kinetic data do not only give mechanistic insight into the formation reaction of Ga(NOTA), but might also contribute to establish optimal

  20. Equilibrium and kinetic studies on complex formation and decomposition and the movement of Cu(2+)metal ions within polytopic receptors.

    PubMed

    Castillo, Carmen Ester; González-García, Jorge; Llinares, José M; Máñez, M Angeles; Jimenez, Hermas R; García-España, Enrique; Basallote, Manuel G

    2013-05-07

    Potentiometric studies carried out on the interaction of two tritopic double-scorpiand receptors in which two equivalent 5-(2-aminoethyl)-2,5,8-triaza[9]-(2,6)-pyridinophane moieties are linked with 2,9-dimethylphenanthroline (L1) and 2,6-dimethylpyridine (L2) establish the formation of mono-, bi- and trinuclear Cu(2+) complexes. The values of the stability constants and paramagnetic (1)H NMR studies permit one to infer the most likely coordination modes of the various complexes formed. Kinetic studies on complex formation and decomposition have also been carried out. Complex formation occurs with polyphasic kinetics for both receptors, although a significant difference is found between both ligands with respect to the relative values of the rate constants for the metal coordination steps and the structural reorganizations following them. Complex decomposition occurs with two separate kinetic steps, the first one being so fast that it occurs within the stopped-flow mixing time, whereas the second one is slow enough to allow kinetic studies using a conventional spectrophotometer. As a whole, the kinetic experiments also provide information about the movement of the metal ion within the receptors. The differences observed between the different receptors can be interpreted in terms of changes in the network of hydrogen bonds formed in the different species.

  1. Rapid-reaction kinetic characterization of the pathway of streptokinase-plasmin catalytic complex formation.

    PubMed

    Verhamme, Ingrid M; Bock, Paul E

    2008-09-19

    Binding of the fibrinolytic proteinase plasmin (Pm) to streptokinase (SK) in a tight stoichiometric complex transforms Pm into a potent proteolytic activator of plasminogen. SK binding to the catalytic domain of Pm, with a dissociation constant of 12 pm, is assisted by SK Lys(414) binding to a Pm kringle, which accounts for a 11-20-fold affinity decrease when Pm lysine binding sites are blocked by 6-aminohexanoic acid (6-AHA) or benzamidine. The pathway of SK.Pm catalytic complex formation was characterized by stopped-flow kinetics of SK and the Lys(414) deletion mutant (SKDeltaK414) binding to Pm labeled at the active site with 5-fluorescein ([5F]FFR-Pm) and the reverse reactions by competitive displacement of [5F]FFR-Pm with active site-blocked Pm. The rate constants for the biexponential fluorescence quenching caused by SK and SKDeltaK414 binding to [5F]FFR-Pm were saturable as a function of SK concentration, reporting encounter complex affinities of 62-110 nm in the absence of lysine analogs and 4900-6500 and 1430-2200 nm in the presence of 6-AHA and benzamidine, respectively. The encounter complex with SKDeltaK414 was approximately 10-fold weaker in the absence of lysine analogs but indistinguishable from that of native SK in the presence of 6-AHA and benzamidine. The studies delineate for the first time the sequence of molecular events in the formation of the SK.Pm catalytic complex and its regulation by kringle ligands. Analysis of the forward and reverse reactions supports a binding mechanism in which SK Lys(414) binding to a Pm kringle accompanies near-diffusion-limited encounter complex formation followed by two slower, tightening conformational changes.

  2. Application of kinetic theory to the analysis of high-temperature creep rupture of metals under complex stress (review)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lokoshchenko, A. M.

    2012-07-01

    This paper gives an analytical review of the results obtained using the kinetic theory of creep and creep rupture to analyze the creep rupture of metals under complex stress. Special note is made of the outstanding contribution of Soviet scientists L. M. Kachanov and Yu. N. Rabotnov, who introduced the concept of material damage and developed the fundamentals of the kinetic theory. Different versions of this theory are used in studies of Russian and foreign scientists. The possibility of applying the kinetic theory to model the deformation and fracture of metals under creep conditions using scalar, vector, and tensor damage parameters and their combinations is considered.

  3. Experimental studies of actinides in molten salts

    SciTech Connect

    Reavis, J.G.

    1985-06-01

    This review stresses techniques used in studies of molten salts containing multigram amounts of actinides exhibiting intense alpha activity but little or no penetrating gamma radiation. The preponderance of studies have used halides because oxygen-containing actinide compounds (other than oxides) are generally unstable at high temperatures. Topics discussed here include special enclosures, materials problems, preparation and purification of actinide elements and compounds, and measurements of various properties of the molten volts. Property measurements discussed are phase relationships, vapor pressure, density, viscosity, absorption spectra, electromotive force, and conductance. 188 refs., 17 figs., 6 tabs.

  4. Supercritical Fluid Extraction and Separation of Uranium from Other Actinides

    SciTech Connect

    Donna L. Quach; Bruce J. Mincher; Chien M. Wai

    2014-06-01

    This paper investigates the feasibility of separating uranium from other actinides by using supercritical fluid carbon dioxide (sc-CO2) as a solvent modified with tri-n-butylphosphate (TBP) for the development of an extraction and counter current stripping technique, which would be a more efficient and environmentally benign technology for used nuclear fuel reprocessing compared to traditional solvent extraction. Several actinides (U(VI), Np(VI), Pu(IV), and Am(III)) were extracted in sc-CO2 modified with TBP over a range of nitric acid concentrations and then the actinides were exposed to reducing and complexing agents to suppress their extractability. According to this study, the separation of uranium from plutonium in sc-CO2 modified with TBP was successful at nitric acid concentrations of less than 3 M in the presence of acetohydroxamic acid or oxalic acid, and the separation of uranium from neptunium was successful at nitric acid concentrations of less than 1 M in the presence of acetohydroxamic acid, oxalic acid, or sodium nitrite.

  5. Computational Modeling of Actinide Ions in Aqueous Solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atta-Fynn, Raymond

    2014-03-01

    Unraveling the chemical behavior of actinide species is difficult owing to the complex electronic structure of these species, the fact that many of these species can occur in multiple oxidation states, and the difficulties encountered in their experimental studies. First principles dynamical modeling, although computationally costly, allows us to gain rich insights into the behavior of actinide species. In this talk, we present results of the hydration shell structure and x-ray absorption spectra of aqueous actinides in different oxidation states including U(VI), U(V), U(IV), and Cm(III) using relativistic ab initiomolecular dynamics at 300 K. We also probed the thermodynamics of hydrolysis by calculating the first acidity constant for uranium in all three oxidation states (IV, V, and VI). We predicted, for the first time, that UO2+ is a weak acid in solution with a pKa value of 8.5. This result is particularly important since no thermodynamic data are available for hydrolyzed species of U(V). In our most recent work on concentrated Cm(III) solutions, we showed that counter-ions can strengthen or weaken the solvent structure itself rather than just the water coordination number. These new results are better explained in terms of the hydrogen bond lifetimes of the solvents.

  6. Method of loading organic materials with group III plus lanthanide and actinide elements

    DOEpatents

    Bell, Zane W.; Huei-Ho, Chuen; Brown, Gilbert M.; Hurlbut, Charles

    2003-04-08

    Disclosed is a composition of matter comprising a tributyl phosphate complex of a group 3, lanthanide, actinide, or group 13 salt in an organic carrier and a method of making the complex. These materials are suitable for use in solid or liquid organic scintillators, as in x-ray absorption standards, x-ray fluorescence standards, and neutron detector calibration standards.

  7. Vitrification of actinide solutions in SRS separations facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Minichan, R.L.; Ramsey, W.G.

    1995-09-01

    The actinide vitrification system being developed at SRS provides the capability to convert specialized or unique forms of nuclear material into a stable solid glass product that can be safely shipped, stored or reprocessed according to the DOE complex mission. This project is an application of technology developed through funds from the Office of Technology Development (OTD). This technology is ideally suited for vitrifying relatively small quantities of fissile or special nuclear material since it is designed to be critically safe. Successful demonstration of this system to safely vitrify radioactive material could open up numerous opportunities for transferring this technology to applications throughout the DOE complex.

  8. The first experimental confirmation of the fractional kinetics containing the complex-power-law exponents: Dielectric measurements of polymerization reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nigmatullin, R. R.; Arbuzov, A. A.; Salehli, F.; Giz, A.; Bayrak, I.; Catalgil-Giz, H.

    2007-01-01

    For the first time we achieved incontestable evidence that the real process of dielectric relaxation during the polymerization reaction of polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) is described in terms of the fractional kinetic equations containing complex-power-law exponents. The possibility of the existence of the fractional kinetics containing non-integer complex-power-law exponents follows from the general theory of dielectric relaxation that has been suggested recently by one of the authors (R.R.N). Based on the physical/geometrical meaning of the fractional integral with complex exponents there is a possibility to develop a general theory of dielectric relaxation based on the self-similar (fractal) character of the reduced (averaged) microprocesses that take place in the mesoscale region. This theory contains some essential predictions related to existence of the non-integer power-law kinetics and the results of this paper can be considered as the first confirmation of existence of the kinetic phenomena that are described by fractional derivatives with complex-power-law exponents. We want to stress here that with the help of a new complex fitting function for the complex permittivity it becomes possible to describe the whole process for real and imaginary parts simultaneously throughout the admissible frequency range (30 Hz-13 MHz). The fitting parameters obtained for the complex permittivity function for three temperatures (70, 90 and 110 °C) confirm in general the picture of reaction that was known qualitatively before. They also reveal some new features, which improve the interpretation of the whole polymerization process. We hope that these first results obtained in the paper will serve as a good stimulus for other researches to find the traces of the existence of new fractional kinetics in other relaxation processes unrelated to the dielectric relaxation. These results should lead to the reconsideration and generalization of irreversibility and kinetic phenomena that

  9. Thermostatted kinetic equations as models for complex systems in physics and life sciences.

    PubMed

    Bianca, Carlo

    2012-12-01

    Statistical mechanics is a powerful method for understanding equilibrium thermodynamics. An equivalent theoretical framework for nonequilibrium systems has remained elusive. The thermodynamic forces driving the system away from equilibrium introduce energy that must be dissipated if nonequilibrium steady states are to be obtained. Historically, further terms were introduced, collectively called a thermostat, whose original application was to generate constant-temperature equilibrium ensembles. This review surveys kinetic models coupled with time-reversible deterministic thermostats for the modeling of large systems composed both by inert matter particles and living entities. The introduction of deterministic thermostats allows to model the onset of nonequilibrium stationary states that are typical of most real-world complex systems. The first part of the paper is focused on a general presentation of the main physical and mathematical definitions and tools: nonequilibrium phenomena, Gauss least constraint principle and Gaussian thermostats. The second part provides a review of a variety of thermostatted mathematical models in physics and life sciences, including Kac, Boltzmann, Jager-Segel and the thermostatted (continuous and discrete) kinetic for active particles models. Applications refer to semiconductor devices, nanosciences, biological phenomena, vehicular traffic, social and economics systems, crowds and swarms dynamics.

  10. Thermostatted kinetic equations as models for complex systems in physics and life sciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bianca, Carlo

    2012-12-01

    Statistical mechanics is a powerful method for understanding equilibrium thermodynamics. An equivalent theoretical framework for nonequilibrium systems has remained elusive. The thermodynamic forces driving the system away from equilibrium introduce energy that must be dissipated if nonequilibrium steady states are to be obtained. Historically, further terms were introduced, collectively called a thermostat, whose original application was to generate constant-temperature equilibrium ensembles. This review surveys kinetic models coupled with time-reversible deterministic thermostats for the modeling of large systems composed both by inert matter particles and living entities. The introduction of deterministic thermostats allows to model the onset of nonequilibrium stationary states that are typical of most real-world complex systems. The first part of the paper is focused on a general presentation of the main physical and mathematical definitions and tools: nonequilibrium phenomena, Gauss least constraint principle and Gaussian thermostats. The second part provides a review of a variety of thermostatted mathematical models in physics and life sciences, including Kac, Boltzmann, Jager-Segel and the thermostatted (continuous and discrete) kinetic for active particles models. Applications refer to semiconductor devices, nanosciences, biological phenomena, vehicular traffic, social and economics systems, crowds and swarms dynamics.

  11. Kinetics and mechanism of the oxidation of arsine by halide complexes of copper(II)

    SciTech Connect

    Dorfman, Y.A.; Abdreimova, R.R.; Emel'yanova, V.S.; Kel'man, I.V.; Polimbetova, G.S.

    1985-11-01

    This paper studies the kinetics of the oxidation of arsine by copper (II) halides. It is shown that within the investigated region of concentrations of the components of the system CuX/sub 2/-HX-LiX-H/sub 2/O, /SUB C/ the oxidation of AsH/sub 3/ proceeds to As(O). First order with respect to /SUB Cu/ X/sub 2/ is observed; the order with respect to C /SUB As/ H/sub 3/ is close to first. With regard to activity in the reaction with arsine, copper(II) halides are distributed in the series. CuCl /SUB 3aq/ -complexes, the effective charges of the atoms and the populations of the bonds were calculated by the MWH method. The kinetic activity proved to be directly correlated with the decrease in the negative charge of the halogen and the positive charge of arsine, leading to activation of the AsH/sub 3/ molecule. A mechanism of the reaction is proposed.

  12. Simultaneous Measurement of Amyloid Fibril Formation by Dynamic Light Scattering and Fluorescence Reveals Complex Aggregation Kinetics

    PubMed Central

    Streets, Aaron M.; Sourigues, Yannick; Kopito, Ron R.; Melki, Ronald; Quake, Stephen R.

    2013-01-01

    An apparatus that combines dynamic light scattering and Thioflavin T fluorescence detection is used to simultaneously probe fibril formation in polyglutamine peptides, the aggregating subunit associated with Huntington's disease, in vitro. Huntington's disease is a neurodegenerative disorder in a class of human pathologies that includes Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease. These pathologies are all related by the propensity of their associated protein or polypeptide to form insoluble, β-sheet rich, amyloid fibrils. Despite the wide range of amino acid sequence in the aggregation prone polypeptides associated with these diseases, the resulting amyloids display strikingly similar physical structure, an observation which suggests a physical basis for amyloid fibril formation. Thioflavin T fluorescence reports β-sheet fibril content while dynamic light scattering measures particle size distributions. The combined techniques allow elucidation of complex aggregation kinetics and are used to reveal multiple stages of amyloid fibril formation. PMID:23349924

  13. Microscopic Mechanism and Kinetics of Ice Formation at Complex Interfaces: Zooming in on Kaolinite

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Most ice in nature forms because of impurities which boost the exceedingly low nucleation rate of pure supercooled water. However, the microscopic details of ice nucleation on these substances remain largely unknown. Here, we have unraveled the molecular mechanism and the kinetics of ice formation on kaolinite, a clay mineral playing a key role in climate science. We find that the formation of ice at strong supercooling in the presence of this clay is about 20 orders of magnitude faster than homogeneous freezing. The critical nucleus is substantially smaller than that found for homogeneous nucleation and, in contrast to the predictions of classical nucleation theory (CNT), it has a strong two-dimensional character. Nonetheless, we show that CNT describes correctly the formation of ice at this complex interface. Kaolinite also promotes the exclusive nucleation of hexagonal ice, as opposed to homogeneous freezing where a mixture of cubic and hexagonal polytypes is observed. PMID:27269363

  14. Microscopic Mechanism and Kinetics of Ice Formation at Complex Interfaces: Zooming in on Kaolinite.

    PubMed

    Sosso, Gabriele C; Li, Tianshu; Donadio, Davide; Tribello, Gareth A; Michaelides, Angelos

    2016-07-07

    Most ice in nature forms because of impurities which boost the exceedingly low nucleation rate of pure supercooled water. However, the microscopic details of ice nucleation on these substances remain largely unknown. Here, we have unraveled the molecular mechanism and the kinetics of ice formation on kaolinite, a clay mineral playing a key role in climate science. We find that the formation of ice at strong supercooling in the presence of this clay is about 20 orders of magnitude faster than homogeneous freezing. The critical nucleus is substantially smaller than that found for homogeneous nucleation and, in contrast to the predictions of classical nucleation theory (CNT), it has a strong two-dimensional character. Nonetheless, we show that CNT describes correctly the formation of ice at this complex interface. Kaolinite also promotes the exclusive nucleation of hexagonal ice, as opposed to homogeneous freezing where a mixture of cubic and hexagonal polytypes is observed.

  15. Complex kinetics and significant influences of bromine removal in ferroin-bromate-metol reaction.

    PubMed

    Li, Jun; Wang, Jichang

    2011-09-14

    This study presents a new bromate-based chemical oscillator that employs metol as the organic substrate. Complex reaction behaviors were observed when the system was subjected to bromine removal and oxygen exposure. Transitions from simple to sequential oscillations took place as a function of the age of the metol stock solution. MS spectroscopy measurements and parallel kinetic experiments with a mixture of metol and hydroquinone suggest that the decomposition of metol to hydroquinone was responsible for the observed influence of oxygen and the age of the metol solution. GS/MS and NMR measurements revealed that 1,4-benzoquinone and bromobenzoquinones were the major final products, regardless of the presence of oxygen and bromine removal. Preliminary exploration in a capillary tube showed some interesting propagating pulse behavior. This journal is © the Owner Societies 2011

  16. Kinetics and Photochemistry of Ruthenium Bisbipyridine Diacetonitrile Complexes: An Interdisciplinary Inorganic and Physical Chemistry Laboratory Exercise.

    PubMed

    Rapp, Teresa L; Phillips, Susan R; Dmochowski, Ivan J

    2016-12-13

    The study of ruthenium polypyridyl complexes can be widely applied across disciplines in the undergraduate curriculum. Ruthenium photochemistry has advanced many fields including dye-sensitized solar cells, photoredox catalysis, light-driven water oxidation, and biological electron transfer. Equally promising are ruthenium polypyridyl complexes that provide a sterically bulky, photolabile moiety for transiently "caging" biologically active molecules. Photouncaging involves the use of visible (1-photon) or near-IR (2-photon) light to break one or more bonds between ruthenium and coordinated ligand(s), which can occur on short time scales and in high quantum yields. In this work we demonstrate the use of a model "caged" acetonitrile complex, Ru(2,2'-bipyridine)2(acetonitrile)2, or RuMeCN in an advanced synthesis and physical chemistry laboratory. Students made RuMeCN in an advanced synthesis laboratory course and performed UV-vis spectroscopy and electrochemistry. The following semester students investigated RuMeCN photolysis kinetics in a physical chemistry laboratory. These two exercises may also be combined to create a 2-week module in an advanced undergraduate laboratory course.

  17. Actinide removal from spent salts

    DOEpatents

    Hsu, Peter C.; von Holtz, Erica H.; Hipple, David L.; Summers, Leslie J.; Adamson, Martyn G.

    2002-01-01

    A method for removing actinide contaminants (uranium and thorium) from the spent salt of a molten salt oxidation (MSO) reactor is described. Spent salt is removed from the reactor and analyzed to determine the contaminants present and the carbonate concentration. The salt is dissolved in water, and one or more reagents are added to precipitate the thorium as thorium oxide and/or the uranium as either uranium oxide or as a diuranate salt. The precipitated materials are filtered, dried and packaged for disposal as radioactive waste. About 90% of the thorium and/or uranium present is removed by filtration. After filtration, salt solutions having a carbonate concentration >20% can be dried and returned to the reactor for re-use. Salt solutions containing a carbonate concentration <20% require further clean-up using an ion exchange column, which yields salt solutions that contain less than 0.1 ppm of thorium or uranium.

  18. Kinetic Analysis of the Conversion of Nonheme Alkylperoxoiron(III) Species to Iron(IV) Complexes

    PubMed Central

    Jensen, Michael P.; Payeras, Antoni Mairata i; Fiedler, Adam T.; Costas, Miquel; Kaizer, József; Stubna, Audria; Münck, Eckard; Que, Lawrence

    2008-01-01

    Low-spin mononuclear alkylperoxoiron(III) complexes decompose by peroxide O-O bond homolysis to form iron(IV) species. We examined the kinetics of previously reported homolysis reactions for alkylperoxoiron(III) intermediates supported by TPA (tris-(2-pyridylmethyl)amine) in CH3CN solution and promoted by pyridine-N-oxide, by BPMCN (N,N-bis(2-pyridylmethyl)-N,N-dimethyl-trans-1,2-diaminocyclohexane) in its cis-β configuration in CH3CN and CH2Cl2, as well as for the previously unreported chemistry of TPA and 5-Me3TPA intermediates in acetone. Each of these reactions forms an oxoiron(IV) complex, except for the β-BPMCN reaction in CH2Cl2 that yields a novel (hydroxo)alkylperoxoiron(IV) product. Temperature-dependent rate measurements suggest a common reaction trajectory for each of these reactions, and verify previous theoretical estimates of a ca. 60 kJ/mole enthalpic barrier to homolysis. However, both the tetradentate supporting ligand and exogenous ligands in the sixth octahedral coordination site significantly perturb the homolyses, such that observed rates can vary over two orders of magnitude at a given temperature. This is manifested as a compensation effect in which increasing activation enthalpy is offset by increasingly favorable activation entropy. Moreover, the applied kinetic model is consistent with geometric isomerism in the low-spin alkylperoxoiron(III) intermediates, wherein the alkylperoxo ligand is coordinated in either of the inequivalent cis sites afforded by the non-heme ligands. PMID:17326618

  19. Oxygen and superoxide-mediated redox kinetics of iron complexed by humic substances in coastal seawater.

    PubMed

    Fujii, Manabu; Rose, Andrew L; Waite, T David; Omura, Tatsuo

    2010-12-15

    Complexes with terrestrially derived humic substances represent one of the most reactive pools of dissolved Fe in natural waters. In this work, redox kinetics of Fe-humic substance complexes (FeL) in simulated coastal seawater were investigated using chemiluminescence techniques with particular attention given to interactions with dioxygen (O2) and superoxide (O2•-). Although rate constants of FeIIL oxidation by O2 (5.6-52 M-1 · s-1) were 4-5 orders of magnitude less than those for O2•- (6.9-23 × 105 M-1 · s-1),O2 is likely to outcompete O2•- for FeIIL oxidation in coastal seawaters where steady-state O2•- concentrations are generally subnanomolar. Rate constants for FeIIIL reduction by O2•- of 1.8-5.6 × 104 M-1 · s-1 were also determined. From the balance of FeIIL oxidation rates and O2•- -mediated FeIIIL reduction rates, steady-state FeIIL concentrations were estimated to be in the subpicomolar to picomolar range, which is generally lower than measured in situ Fe(II) concentrations under relevant conditions. This suggests that (i) processes other than O2•- -mediated reduction (such as photochemical ligand-to-metal charge transfer) may be responsible for Fe(II) formation, (ii) the in situ ligands differ significantly from the humic substances used in this work, and/ or (iii) the influence of other environmental factors such as pH and temperature on Fe redox kinetics may have to be considered.

  20. BWR Assembly Optimization for Minor Actinide Recycling

    SciTech Connect

    G. Ivan Maldonado; John M. Christenson; J.P. Renier; T.F. Marcille; J. Casal

    2010-03-22

    The Primary objective of the proposed project is to apply and extend the latest advancements in LWR fuel management optimization to the design of advanced boiling water reactor (BWR) fuel assemblies specifically for the recycling of minor actinides (MAs).

  1. Joint Actinide Shock Physics Experimental Research - JASPER

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    Commonly known as JASPER the Joint Actinide Shock Physics Experimental Research facility is a two stage light gas gun used to study the behavior of plutonium and other materials under high pressures, temperatures, and strain rates.

  2. Joint Actinide Shock Physics Experimental Research - JASPER

    SciTech Connect

    2014-10-31

    Commonly known as JASPER the Joint Actinide Shock Physics Experimental Research facility is a two stage light gas gun used to study the behavior of plutonium and other materials under high pressures, temperatures, and strain rates.

  3. Advanced Aqueous Separation Systems for Actinide Partitioning

    SciTech Connect

    Nash, Kenneth L.; Clark, Sue; Meier, G Patrick; Alexandratos, Spiro; Paine, Robert; Hancock, Robert; Ensor, Dale

    2012-03-21

    One of the most challenging aspects of advanced processing of spent nuclear fuel is the need to isolate transuranium elements from fission product lanthanides. This project expanded the scope of earlier investigations of americium (Am) partitioning from the lanthanides with the synthesis of new separations materials and a centralized focus on radiochemical characterization of the separation systems that could be developed based on these new materials. The primary objective of this program was to explore alternative materials for actinide separations and to link the design of new reagents for actinide separations to characterizations based on actinide chemistry. In the predominant trivalent oxidation state, the chemistry of lanthanides overlaps substantially with that of the trivalent actinides and their mutual separation is quite challenging.

  4. Emergence of californium as the second transitional element in the actinide series

    SciTech Connect

    Cary, Samantha K.; Vasiliu, Monica; Baumbach, Ryan E.; Stritzinger, Jared T.; Green, Thomas D.; Diefenbach, Kariem; Cross, Justin N.; Knappenberger, Kenneth L.; Liu, Guokui; Silver, Mark A.; DePrince, A. Eugene; Polinski, Matthew J.; Van Cleve, Shelley M.; House, Jane H.; Kikugawa, Naoki; Gallagher, Andrew; Arico, Alexandra A.; Dixon, David A.; Albrecht-Schmitt, Thomas E.

    2015-04-16

    A break in periodicity occurs in the actinide series between plutonium and americium as the result of the localization of 5f electrons. The subsequent chemistry of later actinides is thought to closely parallel lanthanides in that bonding is expected to be ionic and complexation should not substantially alter the electronic structure of the metal ions. Here we demonstrate that ligation of californium(III) by a pyridine derivative results in significant deviations in the properties of the resultant complex with respect to that predicted for the free ion. We expand on this by characterizing the americium and curium analogues for comparison, and show that these pronounced effects result from a second transition in periodicity in the actinide series that occurs, in part, because of the stabilization of the divalent oxidation state. As a result, the metastability of californium(II) is responsible for many of the unusual properties of californium including the green photoluminescence.

  5. Emergence of californium as the second transitional element in the actinide series.

    PubMed

    Cary, Samantha K; Vasiliu, Monica; Baumbach, Ryan E; Stritzinger, Jared T; Green, Thomas D; Diefenbach, Kariem; Cross, Justin N; Knappenberger, Kenneth L; Liu, Guokui; Silver, Mark A; DePrince, A Eugene; Polinski, Matthew J; Van Cleve, Shelley M; House, Jane H; Kikugawa, Naoki; Gallagher, Andrew; Arico, Alexandra A; Dixon, David A; Albrecht-Schmitt, Thomas E

    2015-04-16

    A break in periodicity occurs in the actinide series between plutonium and americium as the result of the localization of 5f electrons. The subsequent chemistry of later actinides is thought to closely parallel lanthanides in that bonding is expected to be ionic and complexation should not substantially alter the electronic structure of the metal ions. Here we demonstrate that ligation of californium(III) by a pyridine derivative results in significant deviations in the properties of the resultant complex with respect to that predicted for the free ion. We expand on this by characterizing the americium and curium analogues for comparison, and show that these pronounced effects result from a second transition in periodicity in the actinide series that occurs, in part, because of the stabilization of the divalent oxidation state. The metastability of californium(II) is responsible for many of the unusual properties of californium including the green photoluminescence.

  6. Emergence of californium as the second transitional element in the actinide series

    DOE PAGES

    Cary, Samantha K.; Vasiliu, Monica; Baumbach, Ryan E.; ...

    2015-04-16

    A break in periodicity occurs in the actinide series between plutonium and americium as the result of the localization of 5f electrons. The subsequent chemistry of later actinides is thought to closely parallel lanthanides in that bonding is expected to be ionic and complexation should not substantially alter the electronic structure of the metal ions. Here we demonstrate that ligation of californium(III) by a pyridine derivative results in significant deviations in the properties of the resultant complex with respect to that predicted for the free ion. We expand on this by characterizing the americium and curium analogues for comparison, andmore » show that these pronounced effects result from a second transition in periodicity in the actinide series that occurs, in part, because of the stabilization of the divalent oxidation state. As a result, the metastability of californium(II) is responsible for many of the unusual properties of californium including the green photoluminescence.« less

  7. Emergence of californium as the second transitional element in the actinide series

    PubMed Central

    Cary, Samantha K.; Vasiliu, Monica; Baumbach, Ryan E.; Stritzinger, Jared T.; Green, Thomas D.; Diefenbach, Kariem; Cross, Justin N.; Knappenberger, Kenneth L.; Liu, Guokui; Silver, Mark A.; DePrince, A. Eugene; Polinski, Matthew J.; Van Cleve, Shelley M.; House, Jane H.; Kikugawa, Naoki; Gallagher, Andrew; Arico, Alexandra A.; Dixon, David A.; Albrecht-Schmitt, Thomas E.

    2015-01-01

    A break in periodicity occurs in the actinide series between plutonium and americium as the result of the localization of 5f electrons. The subsequent chemistry of later actinides is thought to closely parallel lanthanides in that bonding is expected to be ionic and complexation should not substantially alter the electronic structure of the metal ions. Here we demonstrate that ligation of californium(III) by a pyridine derivative results in significant deviations in the properties of the resultant complex with respect to that predicted for the free ion. We expand on this by characterizing the americium and curium analogues for comparison, and show that these pronounced effects result from a second transition in periodicity in the actinide series that occurs, in part, because of the stabilization of the divalent oxidation state. The metastability of californium(II) is responsible for many of the unusual properties of californium including the green photoluminescence. PMID:25880116

  8. Research in actinide chemistry. Final report, March 1, 1993--February 28, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Choppin, G R

    1997-01-01

    The present three-year grant period has been a fruitful one for the laboratory as research entered some new areas while continuing in others in which the group has been successful. As in past grant periods, the principal focus has been on complexation of actinide elements with inorganic and organic ligands. The ligands to study have been chosen for their value (known or potential) in actinide separations or for their potential role in environmental behavior of the actinides. Since the radioactivity of some actinides limits the variety of techniques which can be used in their study, we have used {open_quotes}oxidation state analogs{close_quotes}. These analogs have the same oxidation state and very similar chemical behavior but are stable or very long-lived. Also, the analogs are chosen for their redox stability to avoid uncertainties in interpretation of systems in which several oxidations may coexist (e.g., in the case of Pu). Examples of such analogs which we have used are: Nd(III), Eu(III) for Pu(III), Am(III), Cm(III); Th(IV) for U(IV), Pu(IV); NpO{sub 2}{sup +} for PuO{sub 2}{sup +}; UO{sub 2}{sup 2+} for NpO{sub 2}{sup 2+}, PuO{sub 2}{sup 2+}. These analogs have allowed use of techniques which can increase significantly our understanding of actinide complexation.

  9. PREPARATION OF ACTINIDE-ALUMINUM ALLOYS

    DOEpatents

    Moore, R.H.

    1962-09-01

    BS>A process is given for preparing alloys of aluminum with plutonium, uranium, and/or thorium by chlorinating actinide oxide dissolved in molten alkali metal chloride with hydrochloric acid, chlorine, and/or phosgene, adding aluminum metal, and passing air and/or water vapor through the mass. Actinide metal is formed and alloyed with the aluminum. After cooling to solidification, the alloy is separated from the salt. (AEC)

  10. Transmutation of actinides in power reactors.

    PubMed

    Bergelson, B R; Gerasimov, A S; Tikhomirov, G V

    2005-01-01

    Power reactors can be used for partial short-term transmutation of radwaste. This transmutation is beneficial in terms of subsequent storage conditions for spent fuel in long-term storage facilities. CANDU-type reactors can transmute the main minor actinides from two or three reactors of the VVER-1000 type. A VVER-1000-type reactor can operate in a self-service mode with transmutation of its own actinides.

  11. Recent progress in actinide borate chemistry.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shuao; Alekseev, Evgeny V; Depmeier, Wulf; Albrecht-Schmitt, Thomas E

    2011-10-21

    The use of molten boric acid as a reactive flux for synthesizing actinide borates has been developed in the past two years providing access to a remarkable array of exotic materials with both unusual structures and unprecedented properties. [ThB(5)O(6)(OH)(6)][BO(OH)(2)]·2.5H(2)O possesses a cationic supertetrahedral structure and displays remarkable anion exchange properties with high selectivity for TcO(4)(-). Uranyl borates form noncentrosymmetric structures with extraordinarily rich topological relationships. Neptunium borates are often mixed-valent and yield rare examples of compounds with one metal in three different oxidation states. Plutonium borates display new coordination chemistry for trivalent actinides. Finally, americium borates show a dramatic departure from plutonium borates, and there are scant examples of families of actinides compounds that extend past plutonium to examine the bonding of later actinides. There are several grand challenges that this work addresses. The foremost of these challenges is the development of structure-property relationships in transuranium materials. A deep understanding of the materials chemistry of actinides will likely lead to the development of advanced waste forms for radionuclides present in nuclear waste that prevent their transport in the environment. This work may have also uncovered the solubility-limiting phases of actinides in some repositories, and allows for measurements on the stability of these materials.

  12. Rapid determination of actinides in seawater samples

    DOE PAGES

    Maxwell, Sherrod L.; Culligan, Brian K.; Hutchison, Jay B.; ...

    2014-03-09

    A new rapid method for the determination of actinides in seawater samples has been developed at the Savannah River National Laboratory. The actinides can be measured by alpha spectrometry or inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The new method employs novel pre-concentration steps to collect the actinide isotopes quickly from 80 L or more of seawater. Actinides are co-precipitated using an iron hydroxide co-precipitation step enhanced with Ti+3 reductant, followed by lanthanum fluoride co-precipitation. Stacked TEVA Resin and TRU Resin cartridges are used to rapidly separate Pu, U, and Np isotopes from seawater samples. TEVA Resin and DGA Resin were used tomore » separate and measure Pu, Am and Cm isotopes in seawater volumes up to 80 L. This robust method is ideal for emergency seawater samples following a radiological incident. It can also be used, however, for the routine analysis of seawater samples for oceanographic studies to enhance efficiency and productivity. In contrast, many current methods to determine actinides in seawater can take 1–2 weeks and provide chemical yields of ~30–60 %. This new sample preparation method can be performed in 4–8 h with tracer yields of ~85–95 %. By employing a rapid, robust sample preparation method with high chemical yields, less seawater is needed to achieve lower or comparable detection limits for actinide isotopes with less time and effort.« less

  13. Rapid determination of actinides in seawater samples

    SciTech Connect

    Maxwell, Sherrod L.; Culligan, Brian K.; Hutchison, Jay B.; Utsey, Robin C.; McAlister, Daniel R.

    2014-03-09

    A new rapid method for the determination of actinides in seawater samples has been developed at the Savannah River National Laboratory. The actinides can be measured by alpha spectrometry or inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The new method employs novel pre-concentration steps to collect the actinide isotopes quickly from 80 L or more of seawater. Actinides are co-precipitated using an iron hydroxide co-precipitation step enhanced with Ti+3 reductant, followed by lanthanum fluoride co-precipitation. Stacked TEVA Resin and TRU Resin cartridges are used to rapidly separate Pu, U, and Np isotopes from seawater samples. TEVA Resin and DGA Resin were used to separate and measure Pu, Am and Cm isotopes in seawater volumes up to 80 L. This robust method is ideal for emergency seawater samples following a radiological incident. It can also be used, however, for the routine analysis of seawater samples for oceanographic studies to enhance efficiency and productivity. In contrast, many current methods to determine actinides in seawater can take 1–2 weeks and provide chemical yields of ~30–60 %. This new sample preparation method can be performed in 4–8 h with tracer yields of ~85–95 %. By employing a rapid, robust sample preparation method with high chemical yields, less seawater is needed to achieve lower or comparable detection limits for actinide isotopes with less time and effort.

  14. Recent progress in actinide borate chemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Shuao; Alekseev, Evgeny V.; Depmeier, Wulf; Albrecht-Schmitt, Thomas E.

    2011-01-01

    The use of molten boric acid as a reactive flux for synthesizing actinide borates has been developed in the past two years providing access to a remarkable array of exotic materials with both unusual structures and unprecedented properties. [ThB₅O₆(OH)₆][BO(OH)₂]·2.5H₂O possesses a cationic supertetrahedral structure and displays remarkable anion exchange properties with high selectivity for TcO4- Uranyl borates form noncentrosymmetric structures with extraordinarily rich topological relationships. Neptunium borates are often mixed-valent and yield rare examples of compounds with one metal in three different oxidation states. Plutonium borates display new coordination chemistry for trivalent actinides. Finally, americium borates show a dramatic departure from plutonium borates, and there are scant examples of families of actinides compounds that extend past plutonium to examine the bonding of later actinides. There are several grand challenges that this work addresses. The foremost of these challenges is the development of structure-property relationships in transuranium materials. A deep understanding of the materials chemistry of actinides will likely lead to the development of advanced waste forms for radionuclides present in nuclear waste that prevent their transport in the environment. This work may have also uncovered the solubility-limiting phases of actinides in some repositories, and allows for measurements on the stability of these materials.

  15. Actinide recovery method -- Large soil samples

    SciTech Connect

    Maxwell , S.L. III

    2000-04-25

    There is a need to measure actinides in environmental samples with lower and lower detection limits, requiring larger sample sizes. This analysis is adversely affected by sample-matrix interferences, which make analyzing soil samples above five-grams very difficult. A new Actinide-Recovery Method has been developed by the Savannah River Site Central Laboratory to preconcentrate actinides from large-soil samples. Diphonix Resin (Eichrom Industries), a 1994 R and D 100 winner, is used to preconcentrate the actinides from large soil samples, which are bound powerfully to the resin's diphosphonic acid groups. A rapid microwave-digestion technique is used to remove the actinides from the Diphonix Resin, which effectively eliminates interfering matrix components from the soil matrix. The microwave-digestion technique is more effective and less tedious than catalyzed hydrogen peroxide digestions of the resin or digestion of diphosphonic stripping agents such as HEDPA. After resin digestion, the actinides are recovered in a small volume of nitric acid which can be loaded onto small extraction chromatography columns, such as TEVA Resin, U-TEVA Resin or TRU Resin (Eichrom Industries). Small, selective extraction columns do not generate large volumes of liquid waste and provide consistent tracer recoveries after soil matrix elimination.

  16. Actinide speciation in relation to biological processes.

    PubMed

    Ansoborlo, Eric; Prat, Odette; Moisy, Philippe; Den Auwer, Christophe; Guilbaud, Philippe; Carriere, M; Gouget, Barbara; Duffield, John; Doizi, Denis; Vercouter, Thomas; Moulin, Christophe; Moulin, Valérie

    2006-11-01

    In case of accidental release of radionuclides into the environment, actinides represent a severe health risk to human beings following internal contamination (inhalation, ingestion or wound). For a better understanding of the actinide behaviour in man (in term of metabolism, retention, excretion) and in specific biological systems (organs, cells or biochemical pathways), it is of prime importance to have a good knowledge of the relevant actinide solution chemistry and biochemistry, in particular of the thermodynamic constants needed for computing actinide speciation. To a large extent, speciation governs bioavailability and toxicity of elements and has a significant impact on the mechanisms by which toxics accumulate in cell compartments and organs and by which elements are transferred and transported from cell to cell. From another viewpoint, speciation is the prerequisite for the design and success of potential decorporation therapies. The purpose of this review is to present the state of the art of actinide knowledge within biological media. It is also to discuss how actinide speciation can be determined or predicted and to highlight the areas where information is lacking with the aim to encourage new research efforts.

  17. Kinetic Fractionation Of Heavy Stable Isotopes At Earth Surface Temperatures: Complexity And Systematics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, T.

    2003-04-01

    Many applications of heavy stable isotopes are aimed at the oceans, ground water and surface water. In these environments, Cr, Fe, Cu, Zn, Se, and Mo isotope variations have been observed, and in most cases are generated by kinetic isotope effects (KIE's). Whereas equilibrium isotope effects are thermodynamic quantities that are insensitive to reaction mechanisms, KIE's depend strongly on reaction mechanisms and conditions. For example, the rates of reactions, the speciation of dissolved elements, and transient effects can all greatly affect the sizes of KIE's. Accurate interpretations of measured heavy stable isotope variations thus depend on sufficient understanding of variability in KIE's. Complexity in KIE's arises when they are induced by reactions consisting of multiple reaction steps arranged in series and possibly with branches. Paradoxically, a reaction can have a small KIE even though a single step within it has a large KIE. The key to understanding this, as explained in the carbon and sulfur isotope literature, is to consider the sizes and isotopic compositions of the intermediate species between steps. Intermediates consumed by relatively fast steps have low concentrations and short residence times, and tend to become strongly enriched in heavier isotopes. This reduces the size of the overall KIE. However, this situation takes some time to be established, and in the very early stages of reactions, "start-up effects" may be observed, with anomalously large KIE's. In the face of such complexity, laboratory and field experiments are both needed to develop understanding of KIE systematics. Simple laboratory experiments provide insight into the likely dependence of KIE's on reaction mechanisms and conditions. More complex laboratory experiments (e.g., sediment microcosms) can mimic natural conditions somewhat and provide estimates of naturally relevant KIE's. Finally, in-situ measurement of KIE's in natural settings are needed to determine naturally relevant

  18. Equilibrium and Formation/Dissociation Kinetics of some Lanthanide(III)-PCTA complexes

    PubMed Central

    Tircsó, Gyula; Kovács, Zoltán; Sherry, A. Dean

    2008-01-01

    The protonation constants (KiH) of 3,6,9,15-tetraazabicyclo[9.3.1]pentadeca-1(15),11,13-triene-3,6,9,-triacetic acid (PCTA) and stability constants of complexes formed between this pyridine containing macrocycle and several different metal ions have been determined in 1.0 M KCl, 25°C and compared to previous literature values. The first protonation constant was found to be 0.5-0.6 log units higher than the value reported previously and a total five protonation steps were detected (log KiH = 11.36, 7.35, 3.83, 2.12 and 1.29). The stability constants of complexes formed between PCTA and Mg2+, Ca2+, Cu2+ and Zn2+ were also somewhat higher than those previously reported but this difference could be largely attributed to the higher first protonation constant of the ligand. Stability constants of complexes formed between PCTA and the Ln3+ series of ions and Y3+ were determined by using an “out-of-cell” potentiometric method. These values ranged from log K = 18.15 for Ce(PCTA) to log K = 20.63 for Yb(PCTA), increasing along the lanthanide series in proportion to decreasing Ln3+ cation size. The rates of complex formation for Ce(PCTA), Eu(PCTA), Y(PCTA) and Yb(PCTA) were followed by conventional UV-VIS spectroscopy in the pH range pH=3.5 - 4.4. First order rate constants (saturation kinetics) obtained for different ligand / metal ion ratios were consistent with rapid formation of a diprotonated intermediate, Ln(H2PCTA)2+. The stabilities of the intermediates as determined from the kinetic data were 2.81, 3.12, 2.97 and 2.69 log K units for Ce(H2PCTA), Eu(H2PCTA), Y(H2PCTA) and Yb(H2PCTA), respectively. Rearrangement of these intermediates to the fully chelated complexes was the rate determining step and the rate constant (kr) for this process was found to be inversely proportional to the proton concentration. The formation rates (kOH) increased with a decrease in lanthanide ion size (9.68×107 M-1s-1, 1.74×108 M-1s-1, 1.13×108 M-1s-1 and 1.11×109 M-1s-1 for Ce

  19. Equilibrium and formation/dissociation kinetics of some Ln(III)PCTA complexes.

    PubMed

    Tircsó, Gyula; Kovacs, Zoltan; Sherry, A Dean

    2006-11-13

    The protonation constants () of 3,6,9,15-tetraazabicyclo[9.3.1]pentadeca-1(15),11,13-triene-3,6,9-triacetic acid (PCTA) and stability constants of complexes formed between this pyridine-containing macrocycle and several different metal ions have been determined in 1.0 M KCl at 25 degrees C and compared to previous literature values. The first protonation constant was found to be 0.5-0.6 log units higher than the value reported previously, and a total of five protonation steps were detected (log = 11.36, 7.35, 3.83, 2.12, and 1.29). The stability constants of complexes formed between PCTA and Mg2+, Ca2+, Cu2+, and Zn2+ were also somewhat higher than those previously reported, but this difference could be largely attributed to the higher first protonation constant of the ligand. Stability constants of complexes formed between PCTA and the Ln3+ series of ions and Y3+ were determined by using an "out-of-cell" potentiometric method. These values ranged from log K = 18.15 for Ce(PCTA) to log K = 20.63 for Yb(PCTA), increasing along the Ln series in proportion to decreasing Ln3+ cation size. The rates of complex formation for Ce(PCTA), Eu(PCTA), Y(PCTA), and Yb(PCTA) were followed by conventional UV-vis spectroscopy in the pH range 3.5-4.4. First-order rate constants (saturation kinetics) obtained for different ligand-to-metal ion ratios were consistent with the rapid formation of a diprotonated intermediate, Ln(H(2)PCTA)(2+). The stabilities of the intermediates as determined from the kinetic data were 2.81, 3.12, 2.97, and 2.69 log K units for Ce(H(2)PCTA), Eu(H(2)PCTA), Y(H(2)PCTA), and Yb(H(2)PCTA), respectively. Rearrangement of these intermediates to the fully chelated complexes was the rate-determining step, and the rate constant (k(r)) for this process was found to be inversely proportional to the proton concentration. The formation rates (k(OH)) increased with a decrease in the lanthanide ion size [9.68 x 10(7), 1.74 x 10(8), 1.13 x 10(8), and 1.11 x 10(9) M(-1

  20. Comparative kinetics of Qi site inhibitors of cytochrome bc1 complex: picomolar antimycin and micromolar cyazofamid.

    PubMed

    Li, Hui; Zhu, Xiao-Lei; Yang, Wen-Chao; Yang, Guang-Fu

    2014-01-01

    Antimycin and cyazofamid are specific inhibitors of the mitochondrial respiratory chain and bind to the Qi site of the cytochrome bc1 complex. With the aim to understand the detailed molecular inhibition mechanism of Qi inhibitors, we performed a comparative investigation of the inhibitory kinetics of them against the porcine bc1 complex. The results showed that antimycin is a slow tight-binding inhibitor of succinate-cytochrome c reductase (SCR) with Ki  = 0.033 ± 0.00027 nm and non-competitive inhibition with respect to cytochrome c. Cyazofamid is a classical inhibitor of SCR with Ki  = 12.90 ± 0.91 μm and a non-competitive inhibitor with respect to cytochrome c. Both of them show competitive inhibition with respect to substrate DBH2 . Further molecular docking and quantum mechanics calculations were performed. The results showed that antimycin underwent significant conformational change upon the binding. The energy barrier between the conformations in the crystal and in the binding pocket is ~13.63 kcal/mol. Antimycin formed an H-bond with Asp228 and two water-bridged H-bonds with Lys227 and His201, whereas cyazofamid formed only one H-bond with Asp228. The conformational change and the different hydrogen bonding network might account for why antimycin is a slow tight-binding inhibitor, whereas cyazofamid is a classic inhibitor.

  1. The parsley plastocyanin-turnip cytochrome f complex: a structurally distorted but kinetically functional acidic patch.

    PubMed Central

    Crowley, Peter B; Hunter, David M; Sato, Katsuko; McFarlane, William; Dennison, Christopher

    2004-01-01

    In general, inter-protein electron transfer proceeds via the formation of transient complexes. The initial stage of the interaction between plastocyanin (PCu) and cytochrome f (cyt f ) from plants is mediated by complementary electrostatics. Given the diffuse nature of its acidic patch, parsley PCu is an atypical example of a plant PCu. The interaction of this PCu with turnip cyt f was investigated by stopped-flow kinetics, NMR spectroscopy and protein-docking simulations. We show that, despite the altered acidic patch, parsley PCu is as efficient as spinach PCu in accepting electrons from cyt f, over the physiological range of ionic strength. At high ionic strength, the rate constant for the reaction of cyt f with parsley PCu is twice that of the spinach protein. This difference in reactivity is attributed to variations in the hydrophobic patch of parsley PCu. The results of NMR studies and protein-docking simulations indicate that parsley PCu and its spinach analogue adopt different orientations in their complexes with cyt f. PMID:14585099

  2. Microbial transformations of actinides in the environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Livens, F. R.; Al-Bokari, M.; Fomina, M.; Gadd, G. M.; Geissler, A.; Lloyd, J. R.; Renshaw, J. C.; Vaughan, D. J.

    2010-03-01

    The diversity of microorganisms is still far from understood, although many examples of the microbial biotransformation of stable, pollutant and radioactive elements, involving Bacteria, Archaea and Fungi, are known. In estuarine sediments from the Irish Sea basin, which have been labelled by low level effluent discharges, there is evidence of an annual cycle in Pu solubility, and microcosm experiments have demonstrated both shifts in the bacterial community and changes in Pu solubility as a result of changes in redox conditions. In the laboratory, redox transformation of both U and Pu by Geobacter sulfurreducens has been demonstrated and EXAFS spectroscopy has been used to understand the inability of G. sufurreducens to reduce Np(V). Fungi promote corrosion of metallic U alloy through production of a range of carboxylic acid metabolites, and are capable of translocating the dissolved U before precipitating it externally to the hyphae, as U(VI) phosphate phases. These examples illustrate the far-reaching but complex effects which microorganisms can have on actinide behaviour.

  3. Kinetic hybrid models composed of mechanistic and simplified enzymatic rate laws--a promising method for speeding up the kinetic modelling of complex metabolic networks.

    PubMed

    Bulik, Sascha; Grimbs, Sergio; Huthmacher, Carola; Selbig, Joachim; Holzhütter, Hermann G

    2009-01-01

    Kinetic modelling of complex metabolic networks - a central goal of computational systems biology - is currently hampered by the lack of reliable rate equations for the majority of the underlying biochemical reactions and membrane transporters. On the basis of biochemically substantiated evidence that metabolic control is exerted by a narrow set of key regulatory enzymes, we propose here a hybrid modelling approach in which only the central regulatory enzymes are described by detailed mechanistic rate equations, and the majority of enzymes are approximated by simplified(non mechanistic) rate equations (e.g. mass action, LinLog, Michaelis-Menten and power law) capturing only a few basic kinetic features and hence containing only a small number of parameters to be experimentally determined. To check the reliability of this approach, we have applied it to two different metabolic networks, the energy and redox metabolism of red blood cells, and the purine metabolism of hepatocytes, using in both cases available comprehensive mechanistic models as reference standards. Identification of the central regulatory enzymes was performed by employing only information on network topology and the metabolic data for a single reference state of the network [Grimbs S, Selbig J, Bulik S, Holzhutter HG & Steuer R (2007) Mol Syst Biol 3, 146, doi:10.1038/msb4100186].Calculations of stationary and temporary states under various physiological challenges demonstrate the good performance of the hybrid models. We propose the hybrid modelling approach as a means to speed up the development of reliable kinetic models for complex metabolic networks.

  4. Minimal Model of Quantum Kinetic Clusters for the Energy-Transfer Network of a Light-Harvesting Protein Complex.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jianlan; Tang, Zhoufei; Gong, Zhihao; Cao, Jianshu; Mukamel, Shaul

    2015-04-02

    The energy absorbed in a light-harvesting protein complex is often transferred collectively through aggregated chromophore clusters. For population evolution of chromophores, the time-integrated effective rate matrix allows us to construct quantum kinetic clusters quantitatively and determine the reduced cluster-cluster transfer rates systematically, thus defining a minimal model of energy-transfer kinetics. For Fenna-Matthews-Olson (FMO) and light-havrvesting complex II (LCHII) monomers, quantum Markovian kinetics of clusters can accurately reproduce the overall energy-transfer process in the long-time scale. The dominant energy-transfer pathways are identified in the picture of aggregated clusters. The chromophores distributed extensively in various clusters can assist a fast and long-range energy transfer.

  5. Characterization of the relation between energy landscape and the time evolution of complex materials using kinetic ART

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    N'tsouaglo, Kokou; Joly, Jean-Francois; Beland, Laurent; Brommer, Peter; Mousseau, Normand

    2013-03-01

    In the last two decades, there has been a considerable interest in the development of accelerated numerical methods for sampling the energy landscape of complex materials. Many of these methods are based on the kinetic Monte Carlo (KMC) algorithm introduced 40 years ago. This is the case of kinetic ART, for example, which uses a very efficient transition-state searching method, ART nouveau, coupled with a topological tool, NAUTY, to offer an off-lattice KMC method with on-the-fly catalog building to study complex systems, such as ion-bombarded and amorphous materials, on timescales of a second or more. Looking at two systems, vacancy aggregation in Fe and energy relaxation in ion-bombarded c-Si, we characterize the changes in the energy landscape and the relation to its time evolution with kinetic ART and its correspondence with the well-known Bell-Evans-Polanyi principle used in chemistry.

  6. The Kinetics of Dissociations of Aluminum - Oxygen Bonds in Aqueous Complexes - An NMR Study

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. William Casey

    2003-09-03

    OAK B262 The Kinetics of Dissociations of Aluminum--Oxygen Bonds in Aqueous Complexes--An NMR Study. In this project we determined rates and mechanisms of Al(III)-O bond rupture at mineral surfaces and in dissolved aluminum complexes. We then compared the experimental results to simulations in an attempt to predict rate coefficients. Most of the low-temperature reactions that are geochemically important involve a bonded atom or molecule that is replaced with another. We probe these reactions at the most fundamental level in order to establish a model to predict rates for the wide range of reactions that cannot be experimentally studied. The chemistry of small aluminum cluster (Figure) provides a window into the hydrolytic processes that control rates of mineral formation and the transformation of adsorbates into extended structures. The molecule shown below as an example exposes several types of oxygens to the bulk solution including seven structurally distinct sets of bridging hydroxyls. This molecule is a rich model for the aqueous interface of aluminum (hydr)oxide minerals, since it approaches colloidal dimensions in size, yet is a dissolved complex with +18 charge. We have conducted both {sup 17}O- {sup 27}Al- and {sup 19}F-NMR experiments to identify the reactive sites and to determine the rates of isotopic exchange between these sites and the bulk solution. The research was enormously successful and led to a series of papers that are being used as touchstones for assessing the accuracy of computer models of bond ruptures in water.

  7. Effect of caffeine complexation on the photolysis of riboflavin in aqueous solution: a kinetic study.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Iqbal; Ahmed, Sofia; Sheraz, Muhammad Ali; Aminuddin, Muhammad; Vaid, Faiyaz Hussain Madni

    2009-12-01

    The effect of caffeine complexation with riboflavin on the kinetics of riboflavin photolysis in the pH range 2.0-10.5 has been studied. The photolysis of riboflavin solutions (5x10(-5) M) was carried out in the presence of caffeine (0.5-2.5x10(-4) M) using a visible radiation source. A specific multicomponent spectrophotometric method was used for the determination of riboflavin and photoproducts in photolysed solutions. The apparent first-order rate constants (k) for the photolysis reactions range from 2.71x10(-4) to 4.26x10(-2) min(-1). The values of the rate constants decrease with increasing concentrations of caffeine indicating its inhibitory effect on the reactions. The second-order rate constants (k') for the caffeine inhibited reactions lie in the range of 0.13 to 5.10x10(-3) M(-1) min(-1). The log k-pH profiles for the photolysis reactions at various caffeine concentrations involve multiple steps indicating a gradual increase in the rate up to pH 10. The lower rates at pH 2.0 and 10.5 are due to the ionization of riboflavin as evident from fluorescence measurements. The k'-pH profile for the interaction of riboflavin with caffeine represents a bell-shaped curve in the pH range 3-6 followed by a sigmoid curve in the pH range 7-10. The inhibition of photolysis of riboflavin in the presence of caffeine is a result of the monomeric interaction and complex formation of caffeine with riboflavin. The photochemical interaction of riboflavin with caffeine suggests that a pH around 6 is most appropriate for the stabilization of the vitamin. At this pH the complex shows the highest stability constant.

  8. Determining the Desorption Kinetics of U(VI) from Contaminated Sediments Under Complex and Changing Solution Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hay, M. B.; Curtis, G. P.; Johnson, K. J.; Greskowiak, J.; Davis, J. A.

    2009-12-01

    Uranium(VI) transport in contaminated sediments is strongly controlled by the thermodynamics and kinetics of adsorption on mineral surfaces. Many studies on natural sediments and synthetic mineral phases have demonstrated the dependence of U(VI) sorption equilibrium on aqueous chemical conditions, with alkalinity, pH, ionic strength, and Ca concentration of particular importance in many natural systems. Desorption of U(VI) from contaminated sediments from DOE sites in Hanford, WA, Rifle, CO, and Naturita, CO also exhibits a significant kinetic limitation, with timescales of several weeks to months required to reach desorption equilibrium in some cases. This kinetic limitation is believed to be due to diffusion in intragranular pore space, which includes small fractures within grains and pores within clay aggregates and grain coatings. Development of appropriate reactive transport models that can be applied to predict the fate and transport of U(VI) in contaminated aquifers relies on accurately quantifying sorption equilibrium and kinetics at the grain scale, which vary from site to site based on sediment characteristics. This analysis typically involves laboratory batch- and column-scale adsorption/desorption experiments performed under a variety of chemical conditions to fully constrain surface complexation and kinetic models, requiring a constant set of chemical conditions over the duration of the experiment. In practice, however, this can be difficult in experiments aiming to quantify long-term kinetics (weeks to months time scale), due to slow ion exchange, mineral dissolution/precipitation, and redox processes. Long-term changes in solution conditions affect U(VI) sorption equilibrium, making it necessary to determine model parameters for U(VI) surface complexation, diffusion kinetics, and chemical weathering/ion exchange processes simultaneously from a given data set. We will present kinetic surface complexation model results obtained for size

  9. CO2 hydrate nucleation kinetics enhanced by an organo-mineral complex formed at the montmorillonite-water interface.

    PubMed

    Kyung, Daeseung; Lim, Hyung-Kyu; Kim, Hyungjun; Lee, Woojin

    2015-01-20

    In this study, we investigated experimentally and computationally the effect of organo-mineral complexes on the nucleation kinetics of CO2 hydrate. These complexes formed via adsorption of zwitter-ionic glycine (Gly-zw) onto the surface of sodium montmorillonite (Na-MMT). The electrostatic attraction between the −NH3(+) group of Gly-zw, and the negatively charged Na-MMT surface, provides the thermodynamic driving force for the organo-mineral complexation. We suggest that the complexation of Gly-zw on the Na-MMT surface accelerates CO2 hydrate nucleation kinetics by increasing the mineral–water interfacial area (thus increasing the number of effective hydrate-nucleation sites), and also by suppressing the thermal fluctuation of solvated Na(+) (a well-known hydrate formation inhibitor) in the vicinity of the mineral surface by coordinating with the −COO(–) groups of Gly-zw. We further confirmed that the local density of hydrate-forming molecules (i.e., reactants of CO2 and water) at the mineral surface (regardless of the presence of Gly-zw) becomes greater than that of bulk phase. This is expected to promote the hydrate nucleation kinetics at the surface. Our study sheds new light on CO2 hydrate nucleation kinetics in heterogeneous marine environments, and could provide knowledge fundamental to successful CO2 sequestration under seabed sediments.

  10. Dynamics of Critical Dedicated Cores for Minor Actinide Transmutation

    SciTech Connect

    Massara, S.; Tommasi, J.; Vanier, M.; Koeberl, O.

    2005-02-15

    Fast spectrum minor actinide (MA) burner designs, with high minor actinide loads and consumptions, have been assessed. As reactivity and kinetic coefficients are poor in such cores (low delayed neutron fraction and Doppler feedback, high coolant void coefficient), special attention has been paid to their dynamic behavior during transient conditions. A dynamics code, MAT4 DYN, has been expressly developed to study loss-of-flow, reactivity insertion, and loss-of-coolant accidents. It takes into account two fuel geometries (cylindrical and spherical) and two thermal-hydraulics models for the coolant (incompressible for liquid metals and compressible for helium).Three nitride-fuel configurations are analyzed according to their coolant: sodium and lead (both with pin fuel) and helium (with particle fuel). Dynamics calculations show that if the fuel nature is appropriately chosen, with sufficient margins during transients, then this can counterbalance the poor reactivity coefficients for liquid-metal-cooled cores, thus proving the interest of this kind of concept. On the other hand, the gas-cooled core dynamics is very badly affected by the high value of the helium void coefficient in a hard spectrum, this effect being amplified by the very low thermal inertia of the fuel particles. Hence, concepts other than a particle-bed fuel should be investigated for a helium-cooled fast-spectrum MA burner.

  11. Application of chemical structure and bonding of actinide oxide materials for forensic science

    SciTech Connect

    Wilkerson, Marianne Perry

    2010-01-01

    We are interested in applying our understanding of actinide chemical structure and bonding to broaden the suite of analytical tools available for nuclear forensic analyses. Uranium- and plutonium-oxide systems form under a variety of conditions, and these chemical species exhibit some of the most complex behavior of metal oxide systems known. No less intriguing is the ability of AnO{sub 2} (An: U, Pu) to form non-stoichiometric species described as AnO{sub 2+x}. Environmental studies have shown the value of utilizing the chemical signatures of these actinide oxide materials to understand transport following release into the environment. Chemical speciation of actinide-oxide samples may also provide clues as to the age, source, or process history of the material. The scientific challenge is to identify, measure and understand those aspects of speciation of actinide analytes that carry information about material origin and history most relevant to forensics. Here, we will describe our efforts in material synthesis and analytical methods development that we will use to provide the fundamental science to characterize actinide oxide molecular structures for forensic science. Structural properties and initial results to measure structural variability of uranium oxide samples using synchrotron-based X-ray Absorption Fine Structure will be discussed.

  12. Technical requirements for the actinide source-term waste test program

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, M.L.F.; Molecke, M.A.

    1993-10-01

    This document defines the technical requirements for a test program designed to measure time-dependent concentrations of actinide elements from contact-handled transuranic (CH TRU) waste immersed in brines similar to those found in the underground workings of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). This test program wig determine the influences of TRU waste constituents on the concentrations of dissolved and suspended actinides relevant to the performance of the WIPP. These influences (which include pH, Eh, complexing agents, sorbent phases, and colloidal particles) can affect solubilities and colloidal mobilization of actinides. The test concept involves fully inundating several TRU waste types with simulated WIPP brines in sealed containers and monitoring the concentrations of actinide species in the leachate as a function of time. The results from this program will be used to test numeric models of actinide concentrations derived from laboratory studies. The model is required for WIPP performance assessment with respect to the Environmental Protection Agency`s 40 CFR Part 191B.

  13. Lithium actinide recycle process demonstration

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, G.K.; Pierce, R.D.; McPheeters, C.C.

    1995-10-01

    Several pyrochemical processes have been developed in the Chemical Technology Division of Argonne Laboratory for recovery of actinide elements from LWR spent fuel. The lithium process was selected as the reference process from among the options. In this process the LWR oxide spent fuel is reduced by lithium at 650{degrees}C in the presence of molten LiCl. The Li{sub 2}O formed during the reduction process is soluble in the salt. The spent salt and lithium are recycled after the Li{sub 2}O is electrochemically reduced. The oxygen is liberated as CO{sub 2} at a carbon anode or oxygen at an inert anode. The reduced metal components of the LWR spent fuel are separated from the LiCL salt phase and introduced into an electrorefiner. The electrorefining step separates the uranium and transuranium (TRU) elements into two product streams. The uranium product, which comprises about 96% of the LWR spent fuel mass, may be enriched for recycle into the LWR fuel cycle, stored for future use in breeder reactors, or converted to a suitable form for disposal as waste. The TRU product can be recycled as fast reactor fuel or can be alloyed with constituents of the LWR cladding material to produce a stable waste form.

  14. Actinide recovery from pyrochemical residues

    SciTech Connect

    Avens, L.R.; Clifton, D.G.; Vigil, A.R.

    1985-05-01

    We demonstrated a new process for recovering plutonium and americium from pyrochemical waste. The method is based on chloride solution anion exchange at low acidity, or acidity that eliminates corrosive HCl fumes. Developmental experiments of the process flow chart concentrated on molten salt extraction (MSE) residues and gave >95% plutonium and >90% americium recovery. The recovered plutonium contained <500 ppM americium and <2500 ppM magnesium. The process operates by sorbing PuCl/sub 6//sup 2 -/ from high-chloride low-acid solution. Americium and other metals are washed from the ion exchange column with lN HNO/sub 3/-4.8M NaCl. After elution, plutonium is recovered by hydroxide precipitation, and americium is recovered by NaHCO/sub 3/ precipitation. All filtrates from the process can be discardable as low-level contaminated waste. Production-scale experiments are in progress for MSE residues. Flow charts for actinide recovery from electro-refining and direct oxide reduction residues are presented and discussed.

  15. Extraction of lanthanides and actinides from H. A. Waste by calix[4]arenes bearing CMPO units

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dozol, J. F.; Carrera, A. Garcia; Rouquette, H.

    2000-07-01

    The decategorisation of radioactive liquid waste by removal of 90Sr, 137Cs and actinides (allowing the waste to be sent to a surface disposal after conditioning) or the separation of these long lived nuclides from solutions arising from the PUREX process (in order to destroy them by transmutation or to isolate them in high integrity matrixes) need very specific extractants. Carbamoylmethyl phosphine oxides are excellent extractants for actinides, especially the (N, N-di-isobutylcarbamoylmethyl) octyl phenyl phosphine oxide used in the TRUEX process. The species extracted contains three CMPO molecules per actinide cation. Thus, it seemed interesting to attach, in a suitable way and on an appropriate platform, three (or more) functional groups of the CMPO type, to better complex the trivalent cations.

  16. Chemical Speciation of Americium, Curium and Selected Tetravalent Actinides in High Level Waste

    SciTech Connect

    Felmy, Andrew R.

    2004-06-01

    Large volumes of high-level waste (HLW) currently stored in tanks at DOE sites contain both sludges and supernatants. The sludges are composed of insoluble precipitates of actinides, radioactive fission products, and nonradioactive components. The supernatants are alkaline carbonate solutions, which can contain soluble actinides, fission products, metal ions, and high concentrations of major electrolytes including sodium hydroxide, nitrate, nitrite, phosphate, carbonate, aluminate, sulfate, and organic complexants. The organic complexants include several compounds that can form strong aqueous complexes with actinide species and fission products including ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), N-(2-hydroxyethyl)ethylenediaminetriacetic acid (HEDTA), nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA), iminodiacetic acid (IDA), citrate, glycolate, gluconate, and degradation products, formate and oxalate. The goal of this project is to determine the effects of hydrolysis, carbonate complexation, and metal ion displacement on trivalent and selected tetravalent actinide speciation in the presence of organic chelates present in tank waste and to use these data to develop accurate predictive thermodynamic models for use in chemical engineering applications at Hanford and other DOE sites.

  17. NMR of α-synuclein–polyamine complexes elucidates the mechanism and kinetics of induced aggregation

    PubMed Central

    Fernández, Claudio O; Hoyer, Wolfgang; Zweckstetter, Markus; Jares-Erijman, Elizabeth A; Subramaniam, Vinod; Griesinger, Christian; Jovin, Thomas M

    2004-01-01

    The aggregation of α-synuclein is characteristic of Parkinson's disease (PD) and other neurodegenerative synucleinopathies. The 140-aa protein is natively unstructured; thus, ligands binding to the monomeric form are of therapeutic interest. Biogenic polyamines promote the aggregation of α-synuclein and may constitute endogenous agents modulating the pathogenesis of PD. We characterized the complexes of natural and synthetic polyamines with α-synuclein by NMR and assigned the binding site to C-terminal residues 109–140. Dissociation constants were derived from chemical shift perturbations. Greater polyamine charge (+2 → +5) correlated with increased affinity and enhancement of fibrillation, for which we propose a simple kinetic mechanism involving a dimeric nucleation center. According to the analysis, polyamines increase the extent of nucleation by ∼104 and the rate of monomer addition ∼40-fold. Significant secondary structure is not induced in monomeric α-synuclein by polyamines at 15°C. Instead, NMR reveals changes in a region (aa 22–93) far removed from the polyamine binding site and presumed to adopt the β-sheet conformation characteristic of fibrillar α-synuclein. We conclude that the C-terminal domain acts as a regulator of α-synuclein aggregation. PMID:15103328

  18. Deconvolution of complex differential scanning calorimetry profiles for protein transitions under kinetic control.

    PubMed

    Toledo-Núñez, Citlali; Vera-Robles, L Iraís; Arroyo-Maya, Izlia J; Hernández-Arana, Andrés

    2016-09-15

    A frequent outcome in differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) experiments carried out with large proteins is the irreversibility of the observed endothermic effects. In these cases, DSC profiles are analyzed according to methods developed for temperature-induced denaturation transitions occurring under kinetic control. In the one-step irreversible model (native → denatured) the characteristics of the observed single-peaked endotherm depend on the denaturation enthalpy and the temperature dependence of the reaction rate constant, k. Several procedures have been devised to obtain the parameters that determine the variation of k with temperature. Here, we have elaborated on one of these procedures in order to analyze more complex DSC profiles. Synthetic data for a heat capacity curve were generated according to a model with two sequential reactions; the temperature dependence of each of the two rate constants involved was determined, according to the Eyring's equation, by two fixed parameters. It was then shown that our deconvolution procedure, by making use of heat capacity data alone, permits to extract the parameter values that were initially used. Finally, experimental DSC traces showing two and three maxima were analyzed and reproduced with relative success according to two- and four-step sequential models.

  19. Kinetic determination of the GTPase activity of Ras proteins by means of a luminescent terbium complex.

    PubMed

    Spangler, Christian; Spangler, Corinna M; Spoerner, Michael; Schäferling, Michael

    2009-06-01

    Guanine nucleotide binding proteins, such as Ras proteins, play a pivotal role in maintaining the regular life cycle of cells. The involvement of Ras mutants in the progress of cancer has attracted many efforts to find detection methods for Ras activity. In this study we present a luminescent microwell plate assay for monitoring GTPase activity of Ras proteins. The luminescence intensity of the Tb-norfloxacin complex is influenced by nucleoside phosphates as well as by inorganic phosphates. Real-time kinetics of the GTPase activity of wild-type Ras and Ras mutants can be monitored online. The effect of a GTPase activating protein as well as of a downstream effector (Ras-binding domain of human Raf-1) on the GTPase activity of different Ras mutants is examined. In contrast to other methods, this assay does not require the use of radioactively labeled substrates or chromatographic separation steps. Moreover, the application of fluorescently labeled GTP substrates which often interfere with enzymatic activity can be avoided. This in vitro assay can serve as a model system for the screening of regulators affecting the GTPase activity of Ras proteins.

  20. Merging for Particle-Mesh Complex Particle Kinetic Modeling of the Multiple Plasma Beams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lipatov, Alexander S.

    2011-01-01

    We suggest a merging procedure for the Particle-Mesh Complex Particle Kinetic (PMCPK) method in case of inter-penetrating flow (multiple plasma beams). We examine the standard particle-in-cell (PIC) and the PMCPK methods in the case of particle acceleration by shock surfing for a wide range of the control numerical parameters. The plasma dynamics is described by a hybrid (particle-ion-fluid-electron) model. Note that one may need a mesh if modeling with the computation of an electromagnetic field. Our calculations use specified, time-independent electromagnetic fields for the shock, rather than self-consistently generated fields. While a particle-mesh method is a well-verified approach, the CPK method seems to be a good approach for multiscale modeling that includes multiple regions with various particle/fluid plasma behavior. However, the CPK method is still in need of a verification for studying the basic plasma phenomena: particle heating and acceleration by collisionless shocks, magnetic field reconnection, beam dynamics, etc.

  1. Stability of HAMLET--a kinetically trapped alpha-lactalbumin oleic acid complex.

    PubMed

    Fast, Jonas; Mossberg, Ann-Kristin; Svanborg, Catharina; Linse, Sara

    2005-02-01

    The stability toward thermal and urea denaturation was measured for HAMLET (human alpha-lactalbumin made lethal to tumor cells) and alpha-lactalbumin, using circular dichroism and fluorescence spectroscopy as well as differential scanning calorimetry. Under all conditions examined, HAMLET appears to have the same or lower stability than alpha-lactalbumin. The largest difference is seen for thermal denaturation of the calcium free (apo) forms, where the temperature at the transition midpoint is 15 degrees C lower for apo HAMLET than for apo alpha-lactalbumin. The difference becomes progressively smaller as the calcium concentration increases. Denaturation of HAMLET was found to be irreversible. Samples of HAMLET that have been renatured after denaturation have lost the specific biological activity toward tumor cells. Three lines of evidence indicate that HAMLET is a kinetic trap: (1) It has lower stability than alpha-lactalbumin, although it is a complex of alpha-lactalbumin and oleic acid; (2) its denaturation is irreversible and HAMLET is lost after denaturation; (3) formation of HAMLET requires a specific conversion protocol.

  2. Merging for Particle-Mesh Complex Particle Kinetic Modeling of the Multiple Plasma Beams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lipatov, Alexander S.

    2011-01-01

    We suggest a merging procedure for the Particle-Mesh Complex Particle Kinetic (PMCPK) method in case of inter-penetrating flow (multiple plasma beams). We examine the standard particle-in-cell (PIC) and the PMCPK methods in the case of particle acceleration by shock surfing for a wide range of the control numerical parameters. The plasma dynamics is described by a hybrid (particle-ion-fluid-electron) model. Note that one may need a mesh if modeling with the computation of an electromagnetic field. Our calculations use specified, time-independent electromagnetic fields for the shock, rather than self-consistently generated fields. While a particle-mesh method is a well-verified approach, the CPK method seems to be a good approach for multiscale modeling that includes multiple regions with various particle/fluid plasma behavior. However, the CPK method is still in need of a verification for studying the basic plasma phenomena: particle heating and acceleration by collisionless shocks, magnetic field reconnection, beam dynamics, etc.

  3. Lattice based Kinetic Monte Carlo Simulations of a complex chemical reaction network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danielson, Thomas; Savara, Aditya; Hin, Celine

    Lattice Kinetic Monte Carlo (KMC) simulations offer a powerful alternative to using ordinary differential equations for the simulation of complex chemical reaction networks. Lattice KMC provides the ability to account for local spatial configurations of species in the reaction network, resulting in a more detailed description of the reaction pathway. In KMC simulations with a large number of reactions, the range of transition probabilities can span many orders of magnitude, creating subsets of processes that occur more frequently or more rarely. Consequently, processes that have a high probability of occurring may be selected repeatedly without actually progressing the system (i.e. the forward and reverse process for the same reaction). In order to avoid the repeated occurrence of fast frivolous processes, it is necessary to throttle the transition probabilities in such a way that avoids altering the overall selectivity. Likewise, as the reaction progresses, new frequently occurring species and reactions may be introduced, making a dynamic throttling algorithm a necessity. We present a dynamic steady-state detection scheme with the goal of accurately throttling rate constants in order to optimize the KMC run time without compromising the selectivity of the reaction network. The algorithm has been applied to a large catalytic chemical reaction network, specifically that of methanol oxidative dehydrogenation, as well as additional pathways on CeO2(111) resulting in formaldehyde, CO, methanol, CO2, H2 and H2O as gas products.

  4. Kinetics of the electronically stimulated formation of a boron-oxygen complex in crystalline silicon

    SciTech Connect

    Palmer, Derek W.; Bothe, Karsten; Schmidt, Jan

    2007-07-15

    We present experimental data relating to the slow stage of the illumination-induced or electron-injection-induced generation, in crystalline p-type silicon, of the carrier-recombination center believed to be the defect complex (B{sub s}O{sub 2i}){sup +} formed by diffusion of oxygen interstitial dimers O{sub 2i}{sup ++} to substitutional boron atoms B{sub s}{sup -} and, taking account of those data, we consider a detailed theoretical model for the kinetics of the diffusion reaction. The model proposes that the generation rate of the (B{sub s}O{sub 2i}){sup +} defects is controlled by the capture of a majority-carrier hole by the dimer following the capture of a minority-carrier electron and by the Coulomb attraction of the O{sub 2i}{sup ++} to the B{sub s}{sup -} atom, and leads to predictions for the defect generation rate that are in excellent quantitative agreement with experiment.

  5. Kinetics of the methylation of a platinum(II) diimine dithiolate complex

    SciTech Connect

    Stace, Justin J.; Ball, P. J.; Shingade, Vikas; Chatterjee, Sayandev; Shiveley, Amber; Fleeman, Wendi L.; Staniszewski, Aaron J.; Krause, Jeanette A.; Connick, William B.

    2016-06-01

    Pt(dbbpy)(bdt) and Pt(tmphen)(bdt) (dbbpy = 4,4'-di-t-butyl-2,2'-bipyridine; tmphen = 3,4,7,8-tetramethyl-1,10-phenanthroline; bdt2- = 1,2-benzenedithiolate) are reported. Pt(dbbpy)(bdt) reacts with one equivalent of methyl iodide to give the S-methylated product, [Pt(dbbpy)(CH3bdt)]I. The reaction follows second order kinetics with a rate constant of 1.3×10 2 M-1s-1 at 311 K. The accumulated data are consistent with direct nucleophilic attack by the coordinated bdt2- ligand sulfur atom on the carbon atom of the methyl iodide. Variable-temperature experiments yield an Arrhenius activation energy of 51 ± 3 kJ/mol. Activated complex reaction theory yields an enthalpy and entropy of activation of 48 ± 2 kJ/mol and 125 ± 7 J/(mol K), respectively, consistent with an SN2 reaction mechanism. The structure of the monosulfinate adduct, Pt(dbbpy)(bdtO2), also is reported. The fluid-solution luminescence of Pt(tmphen)(bdt) is concentration dependent and characterized by a 1591 ± 41 ns lifetime and 2.6 ± 0.2% quantum yield at infinite dilution.

  6. Complex RNA Folding Kinetics Revealed by Single-Molecule FRET and Hidden Markov Models

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    We have developed a hidden Markov model and optimization procedure for photon-based single-molecule FRET data, which takes into account the trace-dependent background intensities. This analysis technique reveals an unprecedented amount of detail in the folding kinetics of the Diels–Alderase ribozyme. We find a multitude of extended (low-FRET) and compact (high-FRET) states. Five states were consistently and independently identified in two FRET constructs and at three Mg2+ concentrations. Structures generally tend to become more compact upon addition of Mg2+. Some compact structures are observed to significantly depend on Mg2+ concentration, suggesting a tertiary fold stabilized by Mg2+ ions. One compact structure was observed to be Mg2+-independent, consistent with stabilization by tertiary Watson–Crick base pairing found in the folded Diels–Alderase structure. A hierarchy of time scales was discovered, including dynamics of 10 ms or faster, likely due to tertiary structure fluctuations, and slow dynamics on the seconds time scale, presumably associated with significant changes in secondary structure. The folding pathways proceed through a series of intermediate secondary structures. There exist both compact pathways and more complex ones, which display tertiary unfolding, then secondary refolding, and, subsequently, again tertiary refolding. PMID:24568646

  7. Kinetics of oxidation of bilirubin and its protein complex by hydrogen peroxide in aqueous solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solomonov, A. V.; Rumyantsev, E. V.; Antina, E. V.

    2010-12-01

    A comparative study of oxidation reactions of bilirubin and its complex with albumin was carried out in aqueous solutions under the action of hydrogen peroxide and molecular oxygen at different pH values. Free radical oxidation of the pigment in both free and bound forms at pH 7.4 was shown not to lead to the formation of biliverdin, but to be associated with the decomposition of the tetrapyrrole chromophore into monopyrrolic products. The effective and true rate constants of the reactions under study were determined. It was assumed that one possible mechanism of the oxidation reaction is associated with the interaction of peroxyl radicals and protons of the NH groups of bilirubin molecules at the limiting stage with the formation of a highly reactive radical intermediate. The binding of bilirubin with albumin was found to result in a considerable reduction in the rate of the oxidation reaction associated with the kinetic manifestation of the protein protection effect. It was found that the autoxidation of bilirubin by molecular oxygen with the formation of biliverdin at the intermediate stage can be observed with an increase in the pH of solutions.

  8. Oxygen kinetic isotope effects upon catalytic water oxidation by a monomeric ruthenium complex.

    PubMed

    Angeles-Boza, Alfredo M; Roth, Justine P

    2012-04-16

    Oxygen isotope fractionation is applied for the first time to probe the catalytic oxidation of water using a widely studied ruthenium complex, [Ru(II)(tpy)(bpy)(H(2)O)](ClO(4))(2) (bpy = 2,2'-bipyridine; tpy = 2,2';6",2"-terpyridine). Competitive oxygen-18 kinetic isotope effects ((18)O KIEs) derived from the ratio of (16,16)O(2) to (16,18)O(2) formed from natural-abundance water vary from 1.0132 ± 0.0005 to 1.0312 ± 0.0004. Experiments were conducted with cerium(IV) salts at low pH and a photogenerated ruthenium(III) tris(bipyridine) complex at neutral pH as the oxidants. The results are interpreted within the context of catalytic mechanisms using an adiabatic formalism to ensure the highest barriers for electron-transfer and proton-coupled electron-transfer steps. In view of these contributions, O-O bond formation is predicted to be irreversible and turnover-limiting. The reaction with the largest (18)O KIE exhibits the greatest degree of O-O coupling in the transition state. Smaller (18)O KIEs are observed due to multiple rate-limiting steps or transition-state structures which do not involve significant O-O motion. These findings provide benchmarks for systematizing mechanisms of O-O bond formation, the critical step in water oxidation by natural and synthetic catalysts. In addition, the measurements introduce a new tool for calibrating computational studies using relevant experimental data.

  9. Specific sequestering agents for iron and the actinides

    SciTech Connect

    Raymond, K.N.

    1983-06-01

    The transuranium actinide ions represent one unique environmental hazard associated with the waste of the nuclear power industry. A major component associated with that waste and a potential hazard is plutonium. The synthesis of metal-ion-specific complexing agents for ions such as Pu(IV) potentially represents a powerful new approach to many of the problems posed by waste treatment. This document is a progress report of a rational approach to the synthesis of such chelating agents based on the similarities of Pu(IV) and Fe(III), the structures of naturally-occurring complexing agents which are highly specific for Fe(III), and the incorporation of the same kinds of ligating groups present in the iron complexes to make octadentate complexes highly specific for plutonium. Both thermodynamic and animal test results indicate that a relatively high degree of success has already been achieved in this aim.

  10. Ultratrace analysis of transuranic actinides by laser-induced fluorescence

    DOEpatents

    Miller, Steven M.

    1988-01-01

    Ultratrace quantities of transuranic actinides are detected indirectly by their effect on the fluorescent emissions of a preselected fluorescent species. Transuranic actinides in a sample are coprecipitated with a host lattice material containing at least one preselected fluorescent species. The actinide either quenches or enhances the laser-induced fluorescence of the preselected fluorescent species. The degree of enhancement or quenching is quantitatively related to the concentration of actinide in the sample.

  11. Ultratrace analysis of transuranic actinides by laser-induced fluorescence

    DOEpatents

    Miller, S.M.

    1983-10-31

    Ultratrace quantities of transuranic actinides are detected indirectly by their effect on the fluorescent emissions of a preselected fluorescent species. Transuranic actinides in a sample are coprecipitated with a host lattice material containing at least one preselected fluorescent species. The actinide either quenches or enhances the laser-induced fluorescence of the preselected fluorescent species. The degree of enhancement or quenching is quantitatively related to the concentration of actinide in the sample.

  12. Kinetic study of the complex reaction between copper(II) and 2-(2'-hydroxy-3'-methoxyphenyl)benzothiazole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freinbichler, Wolfhardt; Soliman, Ahmed; Jameson, Reginald F.; Jameson, Guy N. L.; Linert, Wolfgang

    2009-09-01

    2-(2'-Hydroxy-3'-methoxyphenyl)benzothiazole reacts with copper(II) in an ethanol/water mixture to form an O,S chelate which exhibits the remarkable property of changing the chelation site above a pH of ca. 5.0, to the O,N site. The detailed kinetics of this reaction in an ethanol/water mixture (3:1) at a temperature of 25 °C was investigated using a stopped-flow spectrophotometric technique employing a wavelength of 400 nm. The initial complex, Cu(O,S), is formed via a fast, reversible second-order complex formation step whereupon the formation of the Cu (O,N) follows first order kinetics. The Cu(O,N) complex is, however, unstable towards internal electron exchange and after the reaction is complete, a black polymeric material very slowly precipitates out of solution. Rate and equilibrium constants for the postulated reactions are presented and discussed.

  13. Actinide Sequestration Using Self-Assembled Monolayers on Mesoporous Supports

    SciTech Connect

    Fryxell, Glen E.; Lin, Yuehe; Fiskum, Sandra K.; Birnbaum, Jerome C.; Wu, Hong; Kemner, K. M.; Kelly, Shelley

    2005-03-01

    Surfactant templated synthesis of mesoporous ceramics provides a versatile foundation upon which to create high efficiency environmental sorbents. These nanoporous ceramic oxides condense a huge amount of surface area into a very small volume. The ceramic oxide interface is receptive to surface functionalization through molecular self-assembly. The marriage of mesoporous ceramics with self-assembled monolayer chemistry creates a powerful new class of environmental sorbent materials called self-assembled monolayers on mesoporous supports (SAMMS). These SAMMS materials are highly efficient sorbents, whose interfacial chemistry can be fine-tuned to selectively sequester a specific target species, such as heavy metals, tetrahedral oxometallate anions and radionuclides. Details addressing the design, synthesis and characterization of SAMMS materials specifically designed to sequester actinides, of central importance to the environmental clean-up necessary after 40 years of weapons grade plutonium production, as well as evaluation of their binding affinities and kinetics are presented.

  14. Actinide sequestration using self-assembled monolayers on mesoporous supports.

    PubMed

    Fryxell, Glen E; Lin, Yuehe; Fiskum, Sandy; Birnbaum, Jerome C; Wu, Hong; Kemner, Ken; Kelly, Shelley

    2005-03-01

    Surfactant templated synthesis of mesoporous ceramics provides a versatile foundation upon which to create high efficiency environmental sorbents. These nanoporous ceramic oxides condense a huge amount of surface area into a very small volume. The ceramic oxide interface is receptive to surface functionalization through molecular self-assembly. The marriage of mesoporous ceramics with self-assembled monolayer chemistry creates a powerful new class of environmental sorbent materials called self-assembled monolayers on mesoporous supports (SAMMS). These SAMMS materials are highly efficient sorbents whose interfacial chemistry can be fine-tuned to selectively sequester a specific target species, such as heavy metals, tetrahedral oxometalate anions, and radionuclides. Details addressing the design, synthesis, and characterization of SAMMS materials specifically designed to sequester actinides, of central importance to the environmental cleanup necessary after 40 years of weapons-grade plutonium production, as well as evaluation of their binding affinities and kinetics are presented.

  15. RECOVERY OF ACTINIDES FROM AQUEOUS NITRIC ACID SOLUTIONS

    DOEpatents

    Ader, M.

    1963-11-19

    A process of recovering actinides is presented. Tetravalent actinides are extracted from rare earths in an aqueous nitric acid solution with a ketone and back-extracted from the ketone into an aqueous medium. The aqueous actinide solution thus obtained, prior to concentration by boiling, is sparged with steam to reduce its ketone to a maximum content of 3 grams per liter. (AEC)

  16. The Actinide-Lanthanide Separation Process

    SciTech Connect

    Lumetta, Gregg J.; Gelis, Artem V.; Carter, Jennifer C.; Niver, Cynthia M.; Smoot, Margaret R.

    2014-02-21

    The Actinide-Lanthanide SEParation (ALSEP) process is described. The process uses an extractant phase consisting of either N,N,N',N'-tetraoctyldiglycolamide (TODGA) or N,N,N',N'-tetra(2 ethylhexyl)diglycolamide (T2EHDGA) combined with 2-ethylhexylphosphonic acid mono-2-ethylhexyl ester (HEH[EHP]). The neutral TODGA or T2EHDGA serves to co-extract the trivalent actinide and lanthanide ions from nitric acid media. Switching the aqueous phase chemistry to a citrate buffered diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) solution at pH 2.5 to 4 results in selective transfer of the actinides to the aqueous phase, thus resulting in separation of these two groups of elements.

  17. Complex kinetics of a Landolt-type reaction: the later phase of the thiosulfate-iodate reaction.

    PubMed

    Varga, Dénes; Nagypál, István; Horváth, Attila K

    2010-05-13

    The thiosulfate-iodate reaction has been studied spectrophotometrically in slightly acidic medium at 25.0 +/- 0.1 degrees C in acetate/acetic acid buffer by monitoring the absorbance at 468 nm at the isosbestic point of iodine-triiodide ion system. The formation of iodine after the Landolt time follows a rather complex kinetic behavior depending on the pH and on the concentration of the reactants as well. It is shown that the key intermediate of the reaction is I(2)O(2), its equilibrium formation from the well-known Dushman reaction along with their further reactions followed by subsequent reactions of HOI, HIO(2), S(2)O(3)OH(-), and S(2)O(3)I(-) adequately accounts for all the experimentally measured characteristics of the kinetic curves. A 19-step kinetic model is proposed and discussed with 13 fitted and 7 fixed parameters in detail.

  18. Actinide Lanthanide Separation Process – ALSEP

    SciTech Connect

    Gelis, Artem V.; Lumetta, Gregg J.

    2014-01-29

    Separation of the minor actinides (Am, Cm) from the lanthanides at an industrial scale remains a significant technical challenge for closing the nuclear fuel cycle. To increase the safety of used nuclear fuel (UNF) reprocessing, as well as reduce associated costs, a novel solvent extraction process has been developed. The process allows for partitioning minor actinides, lanthanides and fission products following uranium/plutonium/neptunium removal; minimizing the number of separation steps, flowsheets, chemical consumption, and waste. This new process, Actinide Lanthanide SEParation (ALSEP), uses an organic solvent consisting of a neutral diglycolamide extractant, either N,N,N',N'-tetra(2 ethylhexyl)diglycolamide (T2EHDGA) or N,N,N',N'-tetraoctyldiglycolamide (TODGA), and an acidic extractant 2-ethylhexylphosphonic acid mono-2-ethylhexyl ester (HEH[EHP]), dissolved in an aliphatic diluent (e.g. n-dodecane). The An/Ln co-extraction is conducted from moderate-to-strong nitric acid, while the selective stripping of the minor actinides from the lanthanides is carried out using a polyaminocarboxylic acid/citrate buffered solution at pH anywhere between 3 and 4.5. The extraction and separation of the actinides from the fission products is very effective in a wide range of HNO3 concentrations and the minimum separation factors for lanthanide/Am exceed 30 for Nd/Am, reaching > 60 for Eu/Am under some conditions. The experimental results presented here demonstrate the great potential for a combined system, consisting of a neutral extractant such as T2EHDGA or TODGA, and an acidic extractant such as HEH[EHP], for separating the minor actinides from the lanthanides.

  19. Synthesis and Characterization of DOTA-(amide)4 Derivatives: Equilibrium and Kinetic Behavior of Their Lanthanide(III) Complexes

    PubMed Central

    Pasha, Azhar; Benyó, Enikő Tircsóné; Brücher, Ernő

    2009-01-01

    Lanthanide complexes of tetraamide derivatives of DOTA are of interest today because of their application as chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) agents for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The protonation constants of some simple tetraamide derivatives of DOTA and the stability constants of the complexes formed with some endogenous metal ions, namely Mg2+, Ca2+, Cu2+, Zn2+, and lanthanide(III) ions, have been studied. These complexes were found to be considerably less stable than the corresponding [M(DOTA)]2− complexes, largely due to the lower basicity of the tetraamide ligands. The Mg2+ and Ca2+ complexes are well described by formation of only ML species at equilibrium while the Zn2+ and Cu2+ complexes exhibit one and two additional deprotonation steps above a pH of around 6, respectively. The extra deprotonation that occurs at high pH for the [Zn{DOTA-(amide)4}]2+ complexes has been assigned to an amide deprotonation by 1H NMR spectroscopy. The first deprotonation step for the Cu2+ complexes was traced to formation of the ternary hydroxo complexes ML(OH) (by UV/Vis spectrophotometry) while the second step corresponds to deprotonation of an amide group to form ML(OH)H−1-type complexes. The trends in the stability constants of the [Ln{DOTA-(amide)4}]3+ complexes follow similar trends with respect to ion size as those reported previously for the corresponding [Ln(DOTA)]− complexes, but again, the stability constants are about 10–11 orders of magnitude lower. A kinetic analysis of complex formation has shown that complexes are directly formed between a Ln3+ cation and fully deprotonated L without formation of a protonated intermediate. [Ln{DOTA-(MeAm)4}]3+ complex formation occurs at a rate that is two to three orders of magnitude slower than those of the corresponding [Ln(DOTA)]− complexes, while the variation in complex formation rates with Ln3+ ion size is opposite to that observed for the corresponding [Ln(DOTA)]− complexes. The Ce3+ and

  20. Quantitative calculations of fluorescence polarization and absorption anisotropy kinetics of double- and triple-chromophore complexes with energy transfer.

    PubMed Central

    Demidov, A A

    1994-01-01

    A new method is presented for calculation of the fluorescence depolarization and kinetics of absorption anisotropy for molecular complexes with a limited number of chromophores. The method considers absorption and emission of light by both chromophores, and also energy transfer between them, with regard to their mutual orientations. The chromophores in each individual complex are rigidly positioned. The complexes are randomly distributed and oriented in space, and there is no energy transfer between them. The new "practical" formula for absorption anisotropy and fluorescence depolarization kinetics, P(t) = [3B(t) - 1 + 2A(t)]/[3 + B(t) + 4A(t)], is derived both for double- and triple-chromophore complexes with delta-pulse excitation. The parameter B(t) is given by (a) B(t) = cos2(theta) for double-chromophore complexes, and (b) B(t) = q12(t)cos2(theta 12) + q13(t)-cos2(theta 13) + q23(t)cos2(theta 23) for triple-chromophore complexes, where q12(t) + q13(t) + q23(t) = 1. Here theta ij are the angles between the chromophore transition dipole moments in the individual molecular complex. The parameters qij(t) and A(t) are dependent on chromophore spectroscopic features and on the rates of energy transfer. PMID:7696461

  1. Elevated concentrations of actinides in mono lake.

    PubMed

    Anderson, R F; Bacon, M P; Brewer, P G

    1982-04-30

    Tetravalent thorium, pentavalent protactinium, hexavalent uranium, and plutonium (oxidation state uncertain) are present in much higher concentrations in Mono Lake, a saline, alkaline lake in eastern central California, than in seawater. Low ratios of actinium to protactinium and of americium to plutonium indicate that the concentrations of trivalent actinides are not similarly enhanced. The elevated concentrations of the ordinarily very insoluble actinides are maintained in solution by natural ligands, which inhibit their chemical removal from the water column, rather than by an unusually large rate of supply.

  2. Systematization of actinides using cluster analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Kopyrin, A.A.; Terent`eva, T.N.; Khramov, N.N.

    1994-11-01

    A representation of the actinides in multidimensional property space is proposed for systematization of these elements using cluster analysis. Literature data for their atomic properties are used. Owing to the wide variation of published ionization potentials, medians are used to estimate them. Vertical dendograms are used for classification on the basis of distances between the actinides in atomic-property space. The properties of actinium and lawrencium are furthest removed from the main group. Thorium and mendelevium exhibit individualized properties. A cluster based on the einsteinium-fermium pair is joined by californium.

  3. The gastrointestinal absorption of the actinide elements.

    PubMed

    Harrison, J D

    1991-03-01

    The greatest uncertainty in dose estimates for the ingestion of long-lived, alpha-emitting isotopes of the actinide elements is in the values used for their fractional absorption from the gastrointestinal tract (f1 values). Recent years have seen a large increase in the available data on actinide absorption. Human data are reviewed here, together with animal data, to illustrate the effect on absorption of chemical form, incorporation into food materials, fasting and other dietary factors, and age at ingestion. The f1 values recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection, by an Expert Group of the Nuclear Energy Agency and by the National Radiological Protection Board are discussed.

  4. Elevated concentrations of actinides in Mono Lake

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, R.F.; Bacon, M.P.; Brewer, P.G.

    1982-04-30

    Tetravalent thorium, pentavalent protactinium, hexavalent uranium, and plutonium (oxidation state uncertain) are present in much higher concentrations in Mono Lake, a saline, alkaline lake in eastern central California, than in seawater. Low ratios of actinium to protactinium and of americium to plutonium indicate that the concentrations of trivalent actinides are not similarly enhanced. The elevated concentrations of the ordinarily very insoluble actinides are maintained in solution by natural ligands, which inhibit their chemical removal from the water column, rather than by an unusually large rate of supply.

  5. The cellular environment regulates in situ kinetics of T-cell receptor interaction with peptide major histocompatibility complex.

    PubMed

    Liu, Baoyu; Chen, Wei; Natarajan, Kannan; Li, Zhenhai; Margulies, David H; Zhu, Cheng

    2015-07-01

    T cells recognize antigens at the two-dimensional (2D) interface with antigen-presenting cells (APCs), which trigger T-cell effector functions. T-cell functional outcomes correlate with 2D kinetics of membrane-embedded T-cell receptors (TCRs) binding to surface-tethered peptide-major histocompatibility complex molecules (pMHCs). However, most studies have measured TCR-pMHC kinetics for recombinant TCRs in 3D by surface plasmon resonance, which differs drastically from 2D measurements. Here, we compared pMHC dissociation from native TCR on the T-cell surface to recombinant TCR immobilized on glass surface or in solution. Force on TCR-pMHC bonds regulated their lifetimes differently for native than recombinant TCRs. Perturbing the cellular environment suppressed 2D on-rates but had no effect on 2D off-rate regardless of whether force was applied. In contrast, for the TCR interacting with its monoclonal antibody, the 2D on-rate was insensitive to cellular perturbations and the force-dependent off-rates were indistinguishable for native and recombinant TCRs. These data present novel features of TCR-pMHC kinetics that are regulated by the cellular environment, underscoring the limitations of 3D kinetics in predicting T-cell functions and calling for further elucidation of the underlying molecular and cellular mechanisms that regulate 2D kinetics in physiological settings.

  6. DIAMIDE DERIVATIVES OF DIPICOLINIC ACID AS ACTINIDE AND LANTHANIDE EXTRACTANTS IN A VARIATION OF THE UNEX PROCESS

    SciTech Connect

    D. R. Peterman; R. S. Herbst; J. D. Law; R. D. Tillotson; T. G. Garn; T. A. Todd; V. N. Romanovskiy; V. A. Babain; M. Yu. Alyapyshev; I. V. Smirnov

    2007-09-01

    The Universal Extraction (UNEX) process has been developed for simultaneous extraction of cesium, strontium, and actinides from acidic solutions. This process utilizes an extractant consisting of 0.08 M chlorinated cobalt dicarbollide (HCCD), 0.007-0.02 M polyethylene glycol (PEG-400), and 0.02 M diphenyl-N,N-di-n-butylcarbamoylmethylphosphine oxide (Ph2CMPO) in the diluent trifluoromethylphenyl sulfone (CF3C6H5SO2, designated FS-13) and provides simultaneous extraction of Cs, Sr, actinides, and lanthanides from HNO3 solutions. The UNEX process is of limited utility for processing acidic solutions containing large quantities of lanthanides and/or actinides, such as dissolved spent nuclear fuel solutions. These constraints are primarily attributed to the limited concentrations of CMPO (a maximum of ~0.02 M) in the organic phase and limited solubility of the CMPO-metal complexes. As a result, alternative actinide and lanthanide extractants are being investigated for use with HCCD as an improvement for waste processing and for applications where higher concentrations of the metals are present. Our preliminary results indicate that diamide derivatives of dipicolinic acid may function as efficient actinide and lanthanide extractants. The results to be presented indicate that, of the numerous diamides studied to date, the tetrabutyldiamide of dipicolinic acid, TBDPA, shows the most promise as an alternative actinide/lanthanide extractant in the UNEX process.

  7. MINOR ACTINIDE SEPARATIONS USING ION EXCHANGERS OR IONIC LIQUIDS

    SciTech Connect

    Hobbs, D.; Visser, A.; Bridges, N.

    2011-09-20

    This project seeks to determine if (1) inorganic-based ion exchange materials or (2) electrochemical methods in ionic liquids can be exploited to provide effective Am and Cm separations. Specifically, we seek to understand the fundamental structural and chemical factors responsible for the selectivity of inorganic-based ion-exchange materials for actinide and lanthanide ions. Furthermore, we seek to determine whether ionic liquids can serve as the electrolyte that would enable formation of higher oxidation states of Am and other actinides. Experiments indicated that pH, presence of complexants and Am oxidation state exhibit significant influence on the uptake of actinides and lanthanides by layered sodium titanate and hybrid zirconium and tin phosphonate ion exchangers. The affinity of the ion exchangers increased with increasing pH. Greater selectivity among Ln(III) ions with sodium titanate materials occurs at a pH close to the isoelectric potential of the ion exchanger. The addition of DTPA decreased uptake of Am and Ln, whereas the addition of TPEN generally increases uptake of Am and Ln ions by sodium titanate. Testing confirmed two different methods for producing Am(IV) by oxidation of Am(III) in ionic liquids (ILs). Experimental results suggest that the unique coordination environment of ionic liquids inhibits the direct electrochemical oxidation of Am(III). The non-coordinating environment increases the oxidation potential to a higher value, while making it difficult to remove the inner coordination of water. Both confirmed cases of Am(IV) were from the in-situ formation of strong chemical oxidizers.

  8. Modeling actinide chemistry with ASPEN PLUS

    SciTech Connect

    Grigsby, C.O.

    1995-12-31

    When chemical engineers think of chemical processing, they often do not include the US government or the national laboratories as significant participants. Compared to the scale of chemical processing in the chemical process, petrochemical and pharmaceutical industries, the government contribution to chemical processing is not large. However, for the past fifty years, the US government has been, heavily involved in chemical processing of some very specialized materials, in particular, uranium and plutonium for nuclear weapons. Individuals and corporations have paid taxes that, in part have been used to construct and to maintain a series of very expensive laboratories and production facilities throughout the country. Even ignoring the ongoing R & D costs, the price per pound of enriched uranium or of plutonium exceeds that of platinum by a wide margin. Now, with the end of the cold war, the government is decommissioning large numbers of nuclear weapons and cleaning up the legacy of radioactive wastes generated over the last fifty years. It is likely that the costs associated with the build-down and clean-up of the nuclear weapons complex will exceed the investment of the past fifty years of production. Los Alamos National Laboratory occupies a special place in the history of nuclear weapons. The first weapons were designed and assembled at Los Alamos using uranium produced in Oak Ridge, Tennessee or plutonium produced in Richland, Washington. Many of the thermophysical and metallurgical properties of actinide elements have been investigated at Los Alamos. The only plutonium processing facility currently operating in the US is in Los Alamos, and the Laboratory is striving to capture and maintain the uranium processing technology applicable to the post-cold war era. Laboratory researchers are actively involved in developing methods for cleaning up the wastes associated with production of nuclear weapons throughout the US.

  9. Reaction of dimethyl ether with hydroxyl radicals: kinetic isotope effect and prereactive complex formation.

    PubMed

    Bänsch, Cornelie; Kiecherer, Johannes; Szöri, Milan; Olzmann, Matthias

    2013-09-05

    The kinetic isotope effect of the reactions OH + CH3OCH3 (DME) and OH + CD3OCD3 (DME-d6) was experimentally and theoretically studied. Experiments were carried out in a slow-flow reactor at pressures between 5 and 21 bar (helium as bath gas) with production of OH by laser flash photolysis of HNO3 and time-resolved detection of OH by laser-induced fluorescence. The temperature dependences of the rate coefficients obtained can be described by the following modified Arrhenius expressions: k(OH+DME) = (4.5 ± 1.3) × 10(-16) (T/K)(1.48) exp(66.6 K/T) cm(3) s(-1) (T = 292-650 K, P = 5.9-20.9 bar) and k(OH+DME-d6) = (7.3 ± 2.2) × 10(-23) (T/K)(3.57) exp(759.8 K/T) cm(3) s(-1) (T = 387-554 K, P = 13.0-20.4 bar). A pressure dependence of the rate coefficients was not observed. The agreement of our experimental results for k(OH+DME) with values from other authors is very good, and from a fit to all available literature data, we derived the following modified Arrhenius expression, which reproduces the values obtained in the temperature range T = 230-1500 K at pressures between 30 mbar and 21 bar to better than within ±20%: k(OH+DME) = 8.45 × 10(-18) (T/K)(2.07) exp(262.2 K/T) cm(3) s(-1). For k(OH+DME-d6), to the best of our knowledge, this is the first experimental study. For the analysis of the reaction pathway and the kinetic isotope effect, potential energy diagrams were calculated by using three different quantum chemical methods: (I) CCSD(T)/cc-pV(T,Q)Z//MP2/6-311G(d,p), (II) CCSD(T)/cc-pV(T,Q)Z//CCSD/cc-pVDZ, and (III) CBS-QB3. In all three cases, the reaction is predicted to proceed via a prereaction OH-ether complex with subsequent intramolecular hydrogen abstraction and dissociation to give the methoxymethyl radical and water. Overall rate coefficients were calculated by assuming a thermal equilibrium between the reactants and the prereaction complex and by calculating the rate coefficients of the hydrogen abstraction step from canonical transition state theory

  10. Room temperature electrodeposition of actinides from ionic solutions

    DOEpatents

    Hatchett, David W.; Czerwinski, Kenneth R.; Droessler, Janelle; Kinyanjui, John

    2017-04-25

    Uranic and transuranic metals and metal oxides are first dissolved in ozone compositions. The resulting solution in ozone can be further dissolved in ionic liquids to form a second solution. The metals in the second solution are then electrochemically deposited from the second solutions as room temperature ionic liquid (RTIL), tri-methyl-n-butyl ammonium n-bis(trifluoromethansulfonylimide) [Me.sub.3N.sup.nBu][TFSI] providing an alternative non-aqueous system for the extraction and reclamation of actinides from reprocessed fuel materials. Deposition of U metal is achieved using TFSI complexes of U(III) and U(IV) containing the anion common to the RTIL. TFSI complexes of uranium were produced to ensure solubility of the species in the ionic liquid. The methods provide a first measure of the thermodynamic properties of U metal deposition using Uranium complexes with different oxidation states from RTIL solution at room temperature.

  11. Learning reduced kinetic Monte Carlo models of complex chemistry from molecular dynamics

    DOE PAGES

    Yang, Qian; Sing-Long, Carlos A.; Reed, Evan J.

    2017-06-19

    Here, we propose a novel statistical learning framework for automatically and efficiently building reduced kinetic Monte Carlo (KMC) models of large-scale elementary reaction networks from data generated by a single or few molecular dynamics simulations (MD). Existing approaches for identifying species and reactions from molecular dynamics typically use bond length and duration criteria, where bond duration is a fixed parameter motivated by an understanding of bond vibrational frequencies. Conversely, we show that for highly reactive systems, bond duration should be a model parameter that is chosen to maximize the predictive power of the resulting statistical model. We demonstrate our methodmore » on a high temperature, high pressure system of reacting liquid methane, and show that the learned KMC model is able to extrapolate more than an order of magnitude in time for key molecules. Additionally, our KMC model of elementary reactions enables us to isolate the most important set of reactions governing the behavior of key molecules found in the MD simulation. We develop a new data-driven algorithm to reduce the chemical reaction network which can be solved either as an integer program or efficiently using L1 regularization, and compare our results with simple count-based reduction. For our liquid methane system, we discover that rare reactions do not play a significant role in the system, and find that less than 7% of the approximately 2000 reactions observed from molecular dynamics are necessary to reproduce the molecular concentration over time of methane. Furthermore, we describe a framework in this work that paves the way towards a genomic approach to studying complex chemical systems, where expensive MD simulation data can be reused to contribute to an increasingly large and accurate genome of elementary reactions and rates.« less

  12. Structural investigation of oxovanadium(IV) Schiff base complexes: X-ray crystallography, electrochemistry and kinetic of thermal decomposition.

    PubMed

    Asadi, Mozaffar; Asadi, Zahra; Savaripoor, Nooshin; Dusek, Michal; Eigner, Vaclav; Shorkaei, Mohammad Ranjkesh; Sedaghat, Moslem

    2015-02-05

    A series of new VO(IV) complexes of tetradentate N2O2 Schiff base ligands (L(1)-L(4)), were synthesized and characterized by FT-IR, UV-vis and elemental analysis. The structure of the complex VOL(1)⋅DMF was also investigated by X-ray crystallography which revealed a vanadyl center with distorted octahedral coordination where the 2-aza and 2-oxo coordinating sites of the ligand were perpendicular to the "-yl" oxygen. The electrochemical properties of the vanadyl complexes were investigated by cyclic voltammetry. A good correlation was observed between the oxidation potentials and the electron withdrawing character of the substituents on the Schiff base ligands, showing the following trend: MeOcomplexes and kinetic aspects of their thermal decomposition. The formation constants with various substituents on the aldehyde ring follow the trend 5-OMe>5-H>5-Br>5-Cl. Furthermore, the kinetic parameters of thermal decomposition were calculated by using the Coats-Redfern equation. According to the Coats-Redfern plots the kinetics of thermal decomposition of studied complexes is of the first-order in all stages, the free energy of activation for each following stage is larger than the previous one and the complexes have good thermal stability. The preparation of VOL(1)⋅DMF yielded also another compound, one kind of vanadium oxide [VO]X, with different habitus of crystals, (platelet instead of prisma) and without L(1) ligand, consisting of a V10O28 cage, diaminium moiety and dimethylamonium as a counter ions. Because its crystal structure was also new, we reported it along with the targeted complex. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Structural investigation of oxovanadium(IV) Schiff base complexes: X-ray crystallography, electrochemistry and kinetic of thermal decomposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asadi, Mozaffar; Asadi, Zahra; Savaripoor, Nooshin; Dusek, Michal; Eigner, Vaclav; Shorkaei, Mohammad Ranjkesh; Sedaghat, Moslem

    2015-02-01

    A series of new VO(IV) complexes of tetradentate N2O2 Schiff base ligands (L1-L4), were synthesized and characterized by FT-IR, UV-vis and elemental analysis. The structure of the complex VOL1ṡDMF was also investigated by X-ray crystallography which revealed a vanadyl center with distorted octahedral coordination where the 2-aza and 2-oxo coordinating sites of the ligand were perpendicular to the "-yl" oxygen. The electrochemical properties of the vanadyl complexes were investigated by cyclic voltammetry. A good correlation was observed between the oxidation potentials and the electron withdrawing character of the substituents on the Schiff base ligands, showing the following trend: MeO < H < Br < Cl. We also studied the thermodynamics of formation of the complexes and kinetic aspects of their thermal decomposition. The formation constants with various substituents on the aldehyde ring follow the trend 5-OMe > 5-H > 5-Br > 5-Cl. Furthermore, the kinetic parameters of thermal decomposition were calculated by using the Coats-Redfern equation. According to the Coats-Redfern plots the kinetics of thermal decomposition of studied complexes is of the first-order in all stages, the free energy of activation for each following stage is larger than the previous one and the complexes have good thermal stability. The preparation of VOL1ṡDMF yielded also another compound, one kind of vanadium oxide [VO]X, with different habitus of crystals, (platelet instead of prisma) and without L1 ligand, consisting of a V10O28 cage, diaminium moiety and dimethylamonium as a counter ions. Because its crystal structure was also new, we reported it along with the targeted complex.

  14. New Dihydro OO'Bis(Salicylidene) 2,2' Aminobenzothiazolyl Borate Complexes: Kinetic and Voltammetric Studies of Dimethyltin Copper Complex with Guanine, Adenine, and Calf Thymus DNA.

    PubMed

    Arjmand, Farukh; Mohani, Bhawana; Parveen, Shamima

    2006-01-01

    The newly synthesized ligand, dihydro OO'bis(salicylidene) 2,2' aminobenzothiazolyl borate (2), was derived from the reaction of Schiff base of 2-aminobenzothiazole and salicylaldehyde with KBH(4). Cu(II) (3) and Zn(II) (4) complexes of (2) were synthesized and further metallated with dimethyltindichloride to yield heterobimetallic complexes (5) and (6). All complexes have been thoroughly characterized by elemental analysis, and IR, NMR, EPR, and UV-Vis spectroscopy and conductance measurements. The spectroscopic data support square planar environment around the Cu(II) atom, while the Sn(IV) atom acquires pentacoordinate geometry. The interaction of complex (5) with guanine, adenine, and calf thymus DNA was studied by spectrophotometric, electrochemical, and kinetic methods. The absorption spectra of complex (5) exhibit a remarkable "hyperchromic effect" in the presence of guanine and calf thymus DNA. Indicative of strong binding of the complex to calf thymus DNA preferentially binds through N(7) position of guanine base, while the adenine shows binding to a lesser extent. The kinetic data were obtained from the rate constants, k(obs), values under pseudo-first-order conditions. Cyclic voltammetry was employed to study the interaction of complex (5) with guanine, adenine, and calf thymus DNA. The CV of complex (5) in the absence and in the presence of guanine and calf thymus DNA altered drastically, with a positive shift in formal peak potential E(pa) and E(pc) values and a significant increase in peak current. The positive shift in formal potentials with increase in peak current favours strong interaction of complex (5) with calf thymus DNA. The net shift in E(1/2) has been used to estimate the ratio of equilibrium constants for the binding of Cu(II) and Cu(I) complexes to calf thymus DNA.

  15. New Dihydro OO′Bis(Salicylidene) 2,2′ Aminobenzothiazolyl Borate Complexes: Kinetic and Voltammetric Studies of Dimethyltin Copper Complex with Guanine, Adenine, and Calf Thymus DNA

    PubMed Central

    Arjmand, Farukh; Mohani, Bhawana; Parveen, Shamima

    2006-01-01

    The newly synthesized ligand, dihydro OO′bis(salicylidene) 2,2′ aminobenzothiazolyl borate (2), was derived from the reaction of Schiff base of 2-aminobenzothiazole and salicylaldehyde with KBH4. CuII (3) and ZnII (4) complexes of (2) were synthesized and further metallated with dimethyltindichloride to yield heterobimetallic complexes (5) and (6). All complexes have been thoroughly characterized by elemental analysis, and IR, NMR, EPR, and UV-Vis spectroscopy and conductance measurements. The spectroscopic data support square planar environment around the CuII atom, while the SnIV atom acquires pentacoordinate geometry. The interaction of complex (5) with guanine, adenine, and calf thymus DNA was studied by spectrophotometric, electrochemical, and kinetic methods. The absorption spectra of complex (5) exhibit a remarkable “hyperchromic effect” in the presence of guanine and calf thymus DNA. Indicative of strong binding of the complex to calf thymus DNA preferentially binds through N7 position of guanine base, while the adenine shows binding to a lesser extent. The kinetic data were obtained from the rate constants, kobs, values under pseudo-first-order conditions. Cyclic voltammetry was employed to study the interaction of complex (5) with guanine, adenine, and calf thymus DNA. The CV of complex (5) in the absence and in the presence of guanine and calf thymus DNA altered drastically, with a positive shift in formal peak potential Epa and Epc values and a significant increase in peak current. The positive shift in formal potentials with increase in peak current favours strong interaction of complex (5) with calf thymus DNA. The net shift in E 1/2 has been used to estimate the ratio of equilibrium constants for the binding of Cu(II) and Cu(I) complexes to calf thymus DNA. PMID:17497007

  16. A dynamic phase-field model for structural transformations and twinning: Regularized interfaces with transparent prescription of complex kinetics and nucleation. Part II: Two-dimensional characterization and boundary kinetics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agrawal, Vaibhav; Dayal, Kaushik

    2015-12-01

    A companion paper presented the formulation of a phase-field model - i.e., a model with regularized interfaces that do not require explicit numerical tracking - that allows for easy and transparent prescription of complex interface kinetics and nucleation. The key ingredients were a re-parametrization of the energy density to clearly separate nucleation from kinetics; and an evolution law that comes from a conservation statement for interfaces. This enables clear prescription of nucleation through the source term of the conservation law and of kinetics through an interfacial velocity field. This model overcomes an important shortcoming of existing phase-field models, namely that the specification of kinetics and nucleation is both restrictive and extremely opaque. In this paper, we present a number of numerical calculations - in one and two dimensions - that characterize our formulation. These calculations illustrate (i) highly-sensitive rate-dependent nucleation; (ii) independent prescription of the forward and backward nucleation stresses without changing the energy landscape; (iii) stick-slip interface kinetics; (iii) the competition between nucleation and kinetics in determining the final microstructural state; (iv) the effect of anisotropic kinetics; and (v) the effect of non-monotone kinetics. These calculations demonstrate the ability of this formulation to precisely prescribe complex nucleation and kinetics in a simple and transparent manner. We also extend our conservation statement to describe the kinetics of the junction lines between microstructural interfaces and boundaries. This enables us to prescribe an additional kinetic relation for the boundary, and we examine the interplay between the bulk kinetics and the junction kinetics.

  17. Kinetic control over pathway complexity in supramolecular polymerization through modulating the energy landscape by rational molecular design.

    PubMed

    Ogi, Soichiro; Fukui, Tomoya; Jue, Melinda L; Takeuchi, Masayuki; Sugiyasu, Kazunori

    2014-12-22

    Far-from-equilibrium thermodynamic systems that are established as a consequence of coupled equilibria are the origin of the complex behavior of biological systems. Therefore, research in supramolecular chemistry has recently been shifting emphasis from a thermodynamic standpoint to a kinetic one; however, control over the complex kinetic processes is still in its infancy. Herein, we report our attempt to control the time evolution of supramolecular assembly in a process in which the supramolecular assembly transforms from a J-aggregate to an H-aggregate over time. The transformation proceeds through a delicate interplay of these two aggregation pathways. We have succeeded in modulating the energy landscape of the respective aggregates by a rational molecular design. On the basis of this understanding of the energy landscape, programming of the time evolution was achieved through adjusting the balance between the coupled equilibria. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Kinetic differentiation between enzyme inactivation involving complex-formation with the inactivator and that involving a conformation-change step.

    PubMed Central

    Liu, C; Tsou, C L

    1992-01-01

    It has been suggested that the complexing type of inactivation in which the inactivator binds reversibly with the enzyme before inactivation cannot be differentiated kinetically from that a slow enzyme conformation change is involved as a first step [Rakitzis (1986) J. Theor. Biol. 122, 247-249]. The kinetics of the substrate reaction during modification of enzyme activity previously described [Tsou (1988) Adv. Enzymol. Relat. Areas Mol. Biol. 61, 381-436] have now been applied to this problem and equations derived to show that the slow-conformational-change type can be differentiated from the complexing type by plotting the final concentration of product formed, [P]infinity, against the reciprocal of inactivator concentration. The reaction of hexokinase with 2-chloromercuri-4-nitrophenol has been shown to involve a conformational change of the enzyme before inactivation. PMID:1546965

  19. Effect of germanium doping on the formation kinetics of vacancy-dioxygen complexes in high dose neutron irradiated crystalline silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Peng; Yu, Xuegong; Chen, Lin; Ma, Xiangyang; Yang, Deren

    2017-09-01

    The effect of germanium (Ge) doping on the formation kinetics of vacancy-dioxygen (VO2) complexes in high dose neutron irradiated crystalline silicon (c-Si) has been quantitatively investigated using infrared spectroscopy at 10 K. It is observed that Ge doping of 1019 cm-3 enhances the formation of vacancy-oxygen (VO) complexes by ˜15% during neutron irradiation and slightly suppresses the conversion of VO into VO2 complexes. By studying the generation kinetics of VO2 complexes in the temperature range of 300-345 °C, it is found that the activation energies of VO2 generation are determined to be 1.52 and 1.71 eV in the reference and Ge-doped c-Si, respectively. According to the theory for diffusion limited reactions, it is suggested that Ge doping can retard the VO diffusion in c-Si and therefore reduce the capture probability of Oi for VO complexes. This may be attributed to the temporary trapping of vacancies by Ge atoms. Hence, the formation of VO2 complexes in c-Si is slightly suppressed by Ge doping.

  20. Development of a Flow Solver with Complex Kinetics on the Graphic Processing Units

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-09-22

    Physics 109, 11 (2011), 113308. [9] Klockner, A., Warburton, T., Bridge, J., and Hesthaven, J. Nodal Discontinuous Galerkin Methods on Graphics...Graphic Processing Units ( GPU ) to model reactive gas mixture with detailed chemical kinetics. The solver incorporates high-order finite volume methods...method. We explored different approaches in implementing a fast kinetics solver on the GPU . The detail of the implementation is discussed in the

  1. Deviations from Michaelis-Menten kinetics. Computation of the probabilities of obtaining complex curves from simple kinetic schemes.

    PubMed Central

    Solano-Muñoz, F; McGinlay, P B; Woolfson, R; Bardsley, W G

    1981-01-01

    1. It is possible to calculate the intrinsic probability associated with any curve shape that is allowed for rational functions of given degree when the coefficients are independent or dependent random variables with known probability distributions. 2. Computations of such probabilities are described when the coefficients of the rational function are generated according to several probability distribution functions and in particular when rate constants are varied randomly for several simple model mechanisms. 3. It is concluded that each molecular mechanism is associated with a specific set of curve-shape probabilities, and this could be of value in discriminating between model mechanisms. 4. It is shown how a computer program can be used to estimate the probability of new complexities such as extra inflexions and turning points as the degree of rate equations increases. 5. The probability of 3 : 3 rate equations giving 2 : 2 curve shapes is discussed for unrestricted coefficients and also for the substrate-modifier mechanisms. 6. The probability associated with the numerical values of coefficients in rate equations is also calculated for this mechanism, and a possible method for determining the approximate magnitude of product-release steps is given. 7. The computer programs used in the computations have been deposited as Supplement SUP 50113 (21 pages) with the British Library Lending Division, Boston Spa, Wetherby, West Yorkshire LS23 7BQ, U.K., from whom copies can be obtained on the terms indicated in Biochem, J. (1978) 169, 5. PMID:7305929

  2. Positron Spectroscopy of Hydrothermally Grown Actinide Oxides

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-03-27

    In this method, the powdered material is placed in a solution which contains extremely powerful mineralizers, such as cesium fluoride for actinide...the isotope that acts as a positron source is sodium -22, which has a relatively short half-life (2.6 y) and emits a characteristic gamma photon (at

  3. Rapid determination of actinides in asphalt samples

    DOE PAGES

    Maxwell, Sherrod L.; Culligan, Brian K.; Hutchison, Jay B.

    2014-01-12

    A new rapid method for the determination of actinides in asphalt samples has been developed that can be used in emergency response situations or for routine analysis If a radiological dispersive device (RDD), Improvised Nuclear Device (IND) or a nuclear accident such as the accident at the Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant in March, 2011 occurs, there will be an urgent need for rapid analyses of many different environmental matrices, including asphalt materials, to support dose mitigation and environmental clean up. The new method for the determination of actinides in asphalt utilizes a rapid furnace step to destroy bitumen and organicsmore » present in the asphalt and sodium hydroxide fusion to digest the remaining sample. Sample preconcentration steps are used to collect the actinides and a new stacked TRU Resin + DGA Resin column method is employed to separate the actinide isotopes in the asphalt samples. The TRU Resin plus DGA Resin separation approach, which allows sequential separation of plutonium, uranium, americium and curium isotopes in asphalt samples, can be applied to soil samples as well.« less

  4. Semi-empirical models of actinide alloying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibson, John K.; Haire, Richard G.; Ogawa, Toru

    1999-07-01

    Alloys of Np have been studied less than those of the neighboring elements, U and Pu; the higher actinides have received even less attention. Recent interest in 237Np, 241Am and other actinide isotopes as significant, long-lived and highly radiotoxic nuclear waste components, and particularly the roles of metallic materials in new handling/separations and remediation technologies, demands that this paucity of information concerning alloy behaviors be addressed. An additional interest in these materials arises from the possibility of revealing fundamental properties and bonding interactions, which would further characterize the unique electronic structures (e.g., 5f electrons) of the actinide elements. The small empirical knowledge basis presently available for understanding and modeling the alloying behavior of Np is summarized here, with emphasis on our recent results for the Np-Am, Np-Zr and Np-Fe phase diagrams. In view of the limited experimental data base for neptunium and the transplutonium metals, the value of semi-empirical intermetallic bonding models for predicting actinide alloy thermodynamics is evaluated.

  5. Actinide measurements by AMS using fluoride matrices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cornett, R. J.; Kazi, Z. H.; Zhao, X.-L.; Chartrand, M. G.; Charles, R. J.; Kieser, W. E.

    2015-10-01

    Actinides can be measured by alpha spectroscopy (AS), mass spectroscopy or accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). We tested a simple method to separate Pu and Am isotopes from the sample matrix using a single extraction chromatography column. The actinides in the column eluent were then measured by AS or AMS using a fluoride target matrix. Pu and Am were coprecipitated with NdF3. The strongest AMS beams of Pu and Am were produced when there was a large excess of fluoride donor atoms in the target and the NdF3 precipitates were diluted about 6-8 fold with PbF2. The measured concentrations of 239,240Pu and 241Am agreed with the concentrations in standards of known activity and with two IAEA certified reference materials. Measurements of 239,240Pu and 241Am made at A.E. Lalonde AMS Laboratory agree, within their statistical uncertainty, with independent measurements made using the IsoTrace AMS system. This work demonstrated that fluoride targets can produce reliable beams of actinide anions and that the measurement of actinides using fluorides agree with published values in certified reference materials.

  6. Rapid determination of actinides in asphalt samples

    SciTech Connect

    Maxwell, Sherrod L.; Culligan, Brian K.; Hutchison, Jay B.

    2014-01-12

    A new rapid method for the determination of actinides in asphalt samples has been developed that can be used in emergency response situations or for routine analysis If a radiological dispersive device (RDD), Improvised Nuclear Device (IND) or a nuclear accident such as the accident at the Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant in March, 2011 occurs, there will be an urgent need for rapid analyses of many different environmental matrices, including asphalt materials, to support dose mitigation and environmental clean up. The new method for the determination of actinides in asphalt utilizes a rapid furnace step to destroy bitumen and organics present in the asphalt and sodium hydroxide fusion to digest the remaining sample. Sample preconcentration steps are used to collect the actinides and a new stacked TRU Resin + DGA Resin column method is employed to separate the actinide isotopes in the asphalt samples. The TRU Resin plus DGA Resin separation approach, which allows sequential separation of plutonium, uranium, americium and curium isotopes in asphalt samples, can be applied to soil samples as well.

  7. Trends in actinide processing at Hanford

    SciTech Connect

    Harmon, H.D.

    1993-09-01

    In 1989, the mission at the Hanford Site began a dramatic and sometimes painful transition. The days of production--as we used to know it--are over. Our mission officially has become waste management and environmental cleanup. This mission change didn`t eliminate many jobs--in fact, budgets have grown dramatically to support the new mission. Most all of the same skilled crafts, engineers, and scientists are still required for the new mission. This change has not eliminated the need for actinide processing, but it has certainly changed the focus that our actinide chemists and process engineers have. The focus used to be on such things as increasing capacity, improving separations efficiency, and product purity. Minimizing waste had become a more important theme in recent years and it is still a very important concept in the waste management and environmental cleanup arena. However, at Hanford, a new set of words dominates the actinide process scene as we work to deal with actinides that still reside in a variety of forms at the Hanford Site. These words are repackage, stabilize, remove, store and dispose. Some key activities in each of these areas are described in this report.

  8. Lower ligand denticity leading to improved thermodynamic and kinetic stability of the Gd3+ complex: the strange case of OBETA.

    PubMed

    Baranyai, Zsolt; Botta, Mauro; Fekete, Marianna; Giovenzana, Giovanni B; Negri, Roberto; Tei, Lorenzo; Platas-Iglesias, Carlos

    2012-06-18

    OBETA, OBETA, you bet: Thermodynamic and kinetic measurements show an apparent paradox. The stability of complexes of lanthanide trivalent ions is higher with the heptadentate ligand OBETA (ethylene glycol-bis(2-aminoethyl ether)-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid) than with its octadentate homologue EGTA (2,2'-oxybis(ethylamine)-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid). The unusual properties of Gd(OBETA)(-) (see structure), combined with the presence of two fast exchanging coordinated water molecules, candidates this complex as an MRI contrast agent. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Copper(II) complexes of quinoline polyazamacrocyclic scorpiand-type ligands: X-ray, equilibrium and kinetic studies.

    PubMed

    Castillo, Carmen E; Angeles Máñez, M; Basallote, Manuel G; Paz Clares, M; Blasco, Salvador; García-España, Enrique

    2012-05-14

    The formation of Cu(II) complexes with two isomeric quinoline-containing scorpiand-type ligands has been studied. The ligands have a tetraazapyridinophane core appended with an ethylamino tail including 2-quinoline (L1) or 4-quinoline (L2) functionalities. Potentiometric studies indicate the formation of stable CuL(2+) species with both ligands, the L1 complex being 3-4 log units more stable than the L2 complex. The crystal structure of [Cu(L1)](ClO(4))(2)·H(2)O shows that the coordination geometry around the Cu(2+) ions is distorted octahedral with significant axial elongation; the four Cu-N distances in the equatorial plane vary from 1.976 to 2.183 Å, while the axial distances are of 2.276 and 2.309 Å. The lower stability of the CuL2(2+) complex and its capability of forming protonated and hydroxo complexes suggest a penta-dentate coordination of the ligand, in agreement with the type of substitution at the quinoline ring. Kinetic studies on complex formation can be interpreted by considering that initial coordination of L1 and L2 takes place through the nitrogen atom in the quinoline ring. This is followed by coordination of the remaining nitrogen atoms, in a process that is faster in the L1 complex probably because substitution at the quinoline ring facilitates the reorganization. Kinetic studies on complex decomposition provide clear evidence on the occurrence of the molecular motion typical of scorpiands in the case of the L2 complex, for which decomposition starts with a very fast process (sub-millisecond timescale) that involves a shift in the absorption band from 643 to 690 nm.

  10. Enzyme Kinetics for Complex System Enables Accurate Determination of Specificity Constants of Numerous Substrates in a Mixture by Proteomics Platform.

    PubMed

    Deng, Zhenzhen; Mao, Jiawei; Wang, Yan; Zou, Hanfa; Ye, Mingliang

    2017-01-01

    Many important experiments in proteomics including protein digestion, enzyme substrate screening, enzymatic labeling, etc., involve the enzymatic reactions in a complex system where numerous substrates coexists with an enzyme. However, the enzyme kinetics in such a system remains unexplored and poorly understood. Herein, we derived and validated the kinetics equations for the enzymatic reactions in complex system. We developed an iteration approach to depict the enzymatic reactions in complex system. It was validated by 630 time-course points from 24 enzymatic reaction experiments and was demonstrated to be a powerful tool to simulate the reactions in the complex system. By applying this approach, we found that the ratio of substrate depletion is independent of other coexisted substrates under specific condition. This observation was then validated by experiments. Based on this striking observation, a simplified model was developed to determine the catalytic efficiencies of numerous competing substrates presented in the complex enzyme reaction system. When coupled with high-throughput quantitative proteomics technique, this simplified model enabled the accurate determination of catalytic efficiencies for 2369 peptide substrates of a protease by using only one enzymatic reaction experiment. Thus, this study provided, in the first time, a validated model for the large scale determination of specificity constants which could enable the enzyme substrate screening approach turned from a qualitative method of identifying substrates to a quantitative method of identifying and prioritizing substrates. Data are available via ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD004665. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  11. Effect of kinetics of complexation by humic acid on toxicity of copper to Ceriodaphnia dubia

    SciTech Connect

    Ma, H.; Kim, S.D.; Cha, D.K.; Allen, H.E.

    1999-05-01

    The rate of reaction of trace metal ions is an important consideration when studying the chemistry of trace metals in natural waters. The application of speciation models to natural water systems requires knowledge of kinetics if reactions are slow. Most bioassay and toxicity tests conducted in static and flow-through systems have not taken reaction kinetics into account. Therefore, results from these studies may overestimate the toxicity in the receiving waters. In the present study, the kinetics of the interaction of Cu(II) with humic acid (HA) and its influence on the toxicity of copper to Ceriodaphnia dubia were investigated by both chemical kinetic studies using a copper ion selective electrode and bioassay tests using a continuous flow-through bioassay system. A two-ligand site, with fist-order rate constants, model gave a very good description of experimental kinetic data of the change of free Cu{sup 2+} concentration. Average k{sub 1} was 1.85/h and average k{sub 2} was 0.094/h. Bioassay tests indicated that different reaction times of copper with HA solution produced different toxic effects to organisms. The authors determined the hydrodynamic characteristics of the bioassay chambers to better describe the exposure of the organisms to free Cu{sup 2+}. The bioassays supported the free ion activity model that the bioavailability and therefore toxicity of copper was directly correlated to the free Cu{sup 2+} concentration rather than to the total copper concentration. It was further shown that conventional chemical kinetics can be used to predict the toxicity of copper in these bioassays. This study supports the importance of considering reaction kinetics when studying the chemistry of trace metals in natural waters.

  12. Actinide nuclear data for reactor physics calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Brady, M.C.; Wright, R.Q. ); England, T.R. )

    1991-07-01

    Calculational methodologies and data sources used to predict and recommend fission-product yields and delayed neutron and prompt neutron data for a number of actinide nuclides are presented and discussed. This compilation of nuclear data is the result of a nearly three-year effort under the Japan/US Actinide Program (JUSAP) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory to provide nuclear data supporting the preliminary design of an actinide burner reactor. In this type of reactor, minor actinides are the major components of the fuel. Nuclear data for these minor actinides are, therefore, essential in the design of such reactors. Fission yield, delayed neutron, and prompt neutron data are presented in the report for the following nuclides: Neptumium-237, Plutonium-238, -240, and -242, Americium-241 and -243, and Curium-242, -243, -244, -246, and -248. Additionally, prompt neutron data are also presented for these nuclides (except Plutonium-240, -242 and Curium-242) and for Curium-245 and -247. As in all compilations of nuclear data, the information in this report is subject to change as newer data become available. Most of the data presented here are based on calculational methodologies and should be revised as experimental data become available. The release of Version 6 of the Evaluated Nuclear Data Files (ENDF/B-6) is expected to be completed in 1991 and should replace this evaluation in areas of overlap although no serious discrepancies are expected between this compilation and ENDF/B-6. Because of the large amount of data comprising this compilation and limitations in publishing such a voluminous report, a complete listing of the explicit data is not included in this report. The data are, however, available from the authors on 5 {1/2}-in. high-density (1.2-Mbyte) diskettes. The file contents and formats are described in the text, and examples are given in the appendices. 34 refs., 18 tabs.

  13. Actinide production from xenon bombardments of curium-248

    SciTech Connect

    Welch, R.B.

    1985-01-01

    Production cross sections for many actinide nuclides formed in the reaction of /sup 129/Xe and /sup 132/Xe with /sup 248/Cm at bombarding energies slightly above the coulomb barrier were determined using radiochemical techniques to isolate these products. These results are compared with cross sections from a /sup 136/Xe + /sup 248/Cm reaction at a similar energy. When compared to the reaction with /sup 136/Xe, the maxima in the production cross section distributions from the more neutron deficient projectiles are shifted to smaller mass numbers, and the total cross section increases for the production of elements with atomic numbers greater than that of the target, and decreases for lighter elements. These results can be explained by use of a potential energy surface (PES) which illustrates the effect of the available energy on the transfer of nucleons and describes the evolution of the di-nuclear complex, an essential feature of deep-inelastic reactions (DIR), during the interaction. The other principal reaction mechanism is the quasi-elastic transfer (QE). Analysis of data from a similar set of reactions, /sup 129/Xe, /sup 132/Xe, and /sup 136/Xe with /sup 197/Au, aids in explaining the features of the Xe + Cm product distributions, which are additionally affected by the depletion of actinide product yields due to deexcitation by fission. The PES is shown to be a useful tool to predict the general features of product distributions from heavy ion reactions.

  14. APPLICATION OF ABSORPTION SPECTROSCOPY TO ACTINIDE PROCESS ANALYSIS AND MONITORING

    SciTech Connect

    Lascola, R.; Sharma, V.

    2010-06-03

    The characteristic strong colors of aqueous actinide solutions form the basis of analytical techniques for actinides based on absorption spectroscopy. Colorimetric measurements of samples from processing activities have been used for at least half a century. This seemingly mature technology has been recently revitalized by developments in chemometric data analysis. Where reliable measurements could formerly only be obtained under well-defined conditions, modern methods are robust with respect to variations in acidity, concentration of complexants and spectral interferents, and temperature. This paper describes two examples of the use of process absorption spectroscopy for Pu analysis at the Savannah River Site, in Aiken, SC. In one example, custom optical filters allow accurate colorimetric measurements of Pu in a stream with rapid nitric acid variation. The second example demonstrates simultaneous measurement of Pu and U by chemometric treatment of absorption spectra. The paper concludes with a description of the use of these analyzers to supplement existing technologies in nuclear materials monitoring in processing, reprocessing, and storage facilities.

  15. Supercritical fluid extraction and separation of uranium from other actinides.

    PubMed

    Quach, Donna L; Mincher, Bruce J; Wai, Chien M

    2014-06-15

    The feasibility of separating U from nitric acid solutions of mixed actinides using tri-n-butylphosphate (TBP)-modified supercritical fluid carbon dioxide (sc-CO2) was investigated. The actinides U, Np, Pu, and Am were extracted into sc-CO2 modified with TBP from a range of nitric acid concentrations, in the absence of, or in the presence of, a number of traditional reducing and/or complexing agents to demonstrate the separation of these metals from U under sc-CO2 conditions. The separation of U from Pu using sc-CO2 was successful at nitric acid concentrations of less than 3M in the presence of acetohydroxamic acid (AHA) or oxalic acid (OA) to mitigate Pu extraction, and the separation of U from Np was successful at nitric acid concentrations of less than 1M in the presence of AHA, OA, or sodium nitrite to mitigate Np extraction. Americium was not well extracted under any condition studied. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Kinetic analyses of the magnesium chelatase provide insights into the mechanism, structure, and formation of the complex.

    PubMed

    Sawicki, Artur; Willows, Robert D

    2008-11-14

    The metabolic pathway known as (bacterio)chlorophyll biosynthesis is initiated by magnesium chelatase (BchI, BchD, BchH). This first step involves insertion of magnesium into protoporphyrin IX (proto), a process requiring ATP hydrolysis. Structural information shows that the BchI and BchD subunits form a double hexameric enzyme complex, whereas BchH binds proto and can be purified as BchH-proto. We utilized the Rhodobacter capsulatus magnesium chelatase subunits using continuous magnesium chelatase assays and treated the BchD subunit as the enzyme with both BchI and BchH-proto as substrates. Michaelis-Menten kinetics was observed with the BchI subunit, whereas the BchH subunit exhibited sigmoidal kinetics (Hill coefficient of 1.85). The BchI.BchD complex had intrinsic ATPase activity, and addition of BchH greatly increased ATPase activity. This was concentration-dependent and gave sigmoidal kinetics, indicating there is more than one binding site for the BchH subunit on the BchI.BchD complex. ATPase activity was approximately 40-fold higher than magnesium chelatase activity and continued despite cessation of magnesium chelation, implying one or more secondary roles for ATP hydrolysis and possibly an as yet unknown switch required to terminate ATPase activity. One of the secondary roles for BchH-stimulated ATP hydrolysis by a BchI.BchD complex is priming of BchH to facilitate correct binding of proto to BchH in a form capable of participating in magnesium chelation. This porphyrin binding is the rate-limiting step in catalysis. These data suggest that ATP hydrolysis by the BchI.BchD complex causes a series of conformational changes in BchH to effect substrate binding, magnesium chelation, and product release.

  17. New mechanism of kinetic exchange interaction induced by strong magnetic anisotropy

    PubMed Central

    Iwahara, Naoya; Chibotaru, Liviu F.

    2016-01-01

    It is well known that the kinetic exchange interaction between single-occupied magnetic orbitals (s-s) is always antiferromagnetic, while between single- and double-occupied orbitals (s-d) is always ferromagnetic and much weaker. Here we show that the exchange interaction between strongly anisotropic doublets of lanthanides, actinides and transition metal ions with unquenched orbital momentum contains a new s-d kinetic contribution equal in strength with the s-s one. In non-collinear magnetic systems, this s-d kinetic mechanism can cause an overall ferromagnetic exchange interaction which can become very strong for transition metal ions. These findings are fully confirmed by DFT based analysis of exchange interaction in several Ln3+ complexes. PMID:27098292

  18. Adventures in Actinide Chemistry: A Year of Exploring Uranium and Thorium in Los Alamos

    SciTech Connect

    Pagano, Justin

    2016-01-08

    The first part of this collection of slides is concerned with considerations when working with actinides. The topics discussed in the document as a whole are the following: Actinide chemistry vs. transition metal chemistry--tools we can use; New synthetic methods to obtain actinide hydrides; Actinide metallacycles: synthesis, structure, and properties; and Reactivity of actinide metallacycles.

  19. Synthesis and Optimization of the Sintering Kinetics of Actinide Nitrides

    SciTech Connect

    Drryl P. Butt; Brian Jaques

    2009-03-31

    Research conducted for this NERI project has advanced the understanding and feasibility of nitride nuclear fuel processing. In order to perform this research, necessary laboratory infrastructure was developed; including basic facilities and experimental equipment. Notable accomplishments from this project include: the synthesis of uranium, dysprosium, and cerium nitrides using a novel, low-cost mechanical method at room temperature; the synthesis of phase pure UN, DyN, and CeN using thermal methods; and the sintering of UN and (Ux, Dy1-x)N (0.7 ≤ X ≤ 1) pellets from phase pure powder that was synthesized in the Advanced Materials Laboratory at Boise State University.

  20. Drug Release Kinetics and Front Movement in Matrix Tablets Containing Diltiazem or Metoprolol/λ-Carrageenan Complexes

    PubMed Central

    Bonferoni, Maria Cristina; Colombo, Paolo; Zanelotti, Laura; Caramella, Carla

    2014-01-01

    In this work we investigated the moving boundaries and the associated drug release kinetics in matrix tablets prepared with two complexes between λ-carrageenan and two soluble model drugs, namely, diltiazem HCl and metoprolol tartrate aiming at clarifying the role played by drug/polymer interaction on the water uptake, swelling, drug dissolution, and drug release performance of the matrix. The two studied complexes released the drug with different mechanism indicating two different drug/polymer interaction strengths. The comparison between the drug release behaviour of the complexes and the relevant physical mixtures indicates that diltiazem gave rise to a less soluble and more stable complex with carrageenan than metoprolol. The less stable metoprolol complex afforded an erodible matrix, whereas the stronger interaction between diltiazem and carrageenan resulted in a poorly soluble, slowly dissolving matrix. It was concluded that the different stability of the studied complexes affords two distinct drug delivery systems: in the case of MTP, the dissociation of the complex, as a consequence of the interaction with water, affords a classical soluble matrix type delivery system; in the case of DTZ, the dissolving/diffusing species is the complex itself because of the very strong interaction between the drug and the polymer. PMID:25045689

  1. Kinetics and Mechanism for Formation of Olefin Complexes in the Reaction between Palladium(II) and Maleic Acid.

    PubMed

    Shi, Tiesheng; Elding, Lars I.

    1998-10-19

    Complex formation between Pd(H(2)O)(4)(2+) and maleic acid (H(2)A) has been studied at 25 degrees C and 2.00 M ionic strength in acidic aqueous solution. Reaction takes place with 1:1 stoichiometry. The kinetics has been followed by use of stopped-flow spectrophotometry under pseudo-first-order conditions with maleic acid in excess. In the concentration ranges 0.01 kinetic traces are biphasic. The biphasic kinetics and the dependence of reaction rate on pH and maleic acid concentration are rationalized in terms of a complex reaction mechanism of the type A right arrow over left arrow B --> C where, in addition, both steps contain contributions from parallel reactions. The amplitude of the first phase increases with increasing [H(2)A](tot) and with decreasing [H(+)]. Multiwavelength global analysis of the kinetic traces and the UV-vis spectral changes suggest that a monodentate oxygen-bonded hydrogen maleate complex, [Pd(H(2)O)(3)OOCCH=CHCOOH](+), B, with stability constant K(2) = 205 +/- 40 M(-)(1) is formed as an intermediate in this first step via two parallel reversible reactions in which Pd(H(2)O)(4)(2+) reacts with maleic acid and hydrogen maleate, respectively. In the following step, B --> C, slow intramolecular ring closure with a rate constant of 0.8 +/- 0.1 s(-)(1) at 25 degrees C gives the reaction product C, which is concluded to be a 4.5-membered olefin-carboxylato chelate complex on the basis of stoichiometry and UV-vis/NMR spectra. Parallel and irreversible attack by maleic acid and hydrogen maleate acting as olefins on the intermediate B also leads to formation of C. C is stable for at least 20 h for concentrations of

  2. Effect of ionic strength on ligand exchange kinetics between a mononuclear ferric citrate complex and siderophore desferrioxamine B

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ito, Hiroaki; Fujii, Manabu; Masago, Yoshifumi; Waite, T. David; Omura, Tatsuo

    2015-04-01

    The effect of ionic strength (I) on the ligand exchange reaction between a mononuclear ferric citrate complex and the siderophore, desferrioxamine B (DFB), was examined in the NaCl concentration range of 0.01-0.5 M, particularly focusing on the kinetics and mechanism of ligand exchange under environmentally relevant conditions. Overall ligand exchange rate constants were determined by spectrophotometrically measuring the time course of ferrioxamine B formation at a water temperature of 25 °C, pH 8.0, and citrate/Fe molar ratios of 500-5000. The overall ligand exchange rate decreased by 2-11-fold (depending on the citrate/Fe molar ratios) as I increased from approximately 0.01 to 0.5 M. In particular, a relatively large decrease was observed at lower I (<0.1 M). A ligand exchange model describing the effect of I on the ligand exchange rate via disjunctive and adjunctive pathways was developed by considering the pseudo-equilibration of ferric citrate complexes and subsequent ferrioxamine formation on the basis of the Eigen-Wilkins metal-ligand complexation theory. The model and experimental data consistently suggest that the adjunctive pathway (i.e., direct association of DFB with ferric mono- and di-citrate complexes following dissociation of citrate from the parent complexes) dominates in ferrioxamine formation under the experimental conditions used. The model also predicts that the higher rate of ligand exchange at lower I is associated with the decrease in the ferric dicitrate complex stability because of the relatively high electrical repulsion between ferric monocitrate and free citrate at lower I (note that the reactivity of ferric dicitrate with DFB is smaller than that for the monocitrate complex). Overall, the findings of this study contribute to the understanding of the potential effect of I on ligand exchange kinetics in natural waters and provide fundamental knowledge on iron transformation and bioavailability.

  3. Thermodynamics of the formation of cerium(IV) malonate complex and the kinetics of its redox decomposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voskresenskaya, O. O.; Skorik, N. A.; Yuzhakova, Yu. V.

    2017-04-01

    Thermodynamic and kinetic characteristics of cerium(IV) malonate complex formed in the first stage of cerium(IV) oxidation by malonic acid H2Mal are studied using a spectrophotometer, a photometer, and a pH-meter at a ionic strength of I = 2 in the pH region of 0.3-1.6 in a sulfuric acid medium at a temperature of 296.8 K. Its composition is found to be CeOHMal+. The form of organic ligand is Mal2-; the thermodynamic parameters of its formation and kinetic parameters of its intramolecular redox decomposition are determined. The most likely scheme of the initial stages of redox proceeding in the Ce4+-SO 4 2- -H2Mal system is discussed, and a quantitative model of it is proposed.

  4. Quantitative evaluation of dynamic precipitation kinetics in a complex Nb-Ti-V microalloyed steel using electrical resistivity measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Jae-Gil; Bae, Jin-Ho; Lee, Young-Kook

    2013-09-01

    The kinetics of dynamic precipitation in austenite of a complex Nb-Ti-V microalloyed steel during hot compression at 900 °C with a strain rate of 6.7 s-1 was quantitatively investigated through electrical resistivity measurements. The dynamic precipitation in the Nb-Ti-V microalloyed steel started at a strain of 0.15. The amount of tiny Nb-rich (Nb,Ti,V)C carbides, which were precipitated at crystal defects gradually increased up to 0.02 wt% at a maximum strain of 0.67. The electrical resistivity was successfully applied to the quantitative evaluation of dynamic precipitation kinetics in microalloyed steel by excluding the effects of crystal defects and interstitial atoms on the electrical resistivity.

  5. Exploiting kinetics and thermodynamics to grow phase-pure complex oxides by molecular-beam epitaxy under continuous codeposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Eva H.; Ihlefeld, Jon F.; Heikes, Colin A.; Paik, Hanjong; Nie, Yuefeng; Adamo, Carolina; Heeg, Tassilo; Liu, Zi-Kui; Schlom, Darrell G.

    2017-07-01

    We report the growth of PbTiO3 thin films by molecular-beam epitaxy utilizing continuous codeposition. In addition to the requirements from thermodynamics, whether the resulting film is single-phase PbTiO3 or not at a particular temperature depends strongly on the film growth rate and the incident fluxes of all species, including titanium. We develop a simple theory for the kinetics of lead oxidation on the growing film surface and find that it qualitatively explains the manner in which the adsorption-controlled growth window of PbTiO3 depends on lead flux, oxidant flux, and titanium flux. We successfully apply the kinetic theory to the dependence of the growth of BiFeO3 on oxidant type and surmise that the theory may be generally applicable to the adsorption-controlled growth of complex oxides by MBE.

  6. Evaluation and testing of sequestering agents for the removal of actinides from waste streams

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffman, D.C.; Romanovski, V.V.; Veeck, A.C.

    1997-10-01

    The purpose of this project is to evaluate and test the complexing ability of a variety of promising new complexing agents synthesized by Professor Kenneth Raymond`s group at the University of California, Berkeley (ESP-CP TTP Number SF16C311). Some of these derivatives have already shown the potential for selectivity binding Pu(IV) in a wide range of solutions in the presence of other metals. Professor Raymond`s group uses molecular modeling to design and synthesize ligands based on modification of natural siderophores, or their analogs, for chelation of actinides. The ligands are then modified for use as liquid/liquid and solid/liquid extractants. The authors` group at the Glenn T. Seaborg Institute for Transactinium Science (ITS) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory determines the complex formation constants between the ligands and actinide ions, the capacity and time dependence for uptake on the resins, and the effect of other metal ions and pH.

  7. Self-repairing complex helical columns generated via kinetically controlled self-assembly of dendronized perylene bisimides.

    PubMed

    Percec, Virgil; Hudson, Steven D; Peterca, Mihai; Leowanawat, Pawaret; Aqad, Emad; Graf, Robert; Spiess, Hans W; Zeng, Xiangbing; Ungar, Goran; Heiney, Paul A

    2011-11-16

    The dendronized perylene 3,4:9,10-tetracarboxylic acid bisimide (PBI), (3,4,5)12G1-3-PBI, was recently reported to self-assemble in complex helical columns containing tetramers of PBI as basic repeat unit. These tetramers contain a pair of two molecules arranged side-by-side and another pair in the next stratum of the column turned upside-down and rotated around the column axis. Intra- and intertetramer rotation angles and stacking distances are different. At high temperature, (3,4,5)12G1-3-PBI self-assembles via a thermodynamically controlled process in a 2D hexagonal columnar phase while at low temperature in a 3D orthorhombic columnar array via a kinetically controlled process. Here, we report the synthesis and structural analysis, by a combination of differential scanning calorimetry, X-ray and electron diffraction, and solid-state NMR performed at different temperatures, on the supramolecular structures generated by a library of (3,4,5)nG1-3-PBI with n = 14-4. For n = 11-8, the kinetically controlled self-assembly from low temperature changes in a thermodynamically controlled process, while the orthorhombic columnar array for n = 9 and 8 transforms from the thermodynamic product into the kinetic product. The new thermodynamic product at low temperature for n = 9, 8 is a self-repaired helical column with an intra- and intertetramer distance of 3.5 Å forming a 3D monoclinic periodic array via a kinetically controlled self-assembly process. The complex dynamic process leading to this reorganization was elucidated by solid-state NMR and X-ray diffraction. This discovery is important for the field of self-assembly and for the molecular design of supramolecular electronics and solar cell.

  8. Microwave gallium-68 radiochemistry for kinetically stable bis(thiosemicarbazone) complexes: structural investigations and cellular uptake under hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Alam, Israt S; Arrowsmith, Rory L; Cortezon-Tamarit, Fernando; Twyman, Frazer; Kociok-Köhn, Gabriele; Botchway, Stanley W; Dilworth, Jonathan R; Carroll, Laurence; Aboagye, Eric O; Pascu, Sofia I

    2016-01-07

    We report the microwave synthesis of several bis(thiosemicarbazones) and the rapid gallium-68 incorporation to give the corresponding metal complexes. These proved kinetically stable under 'cold' and 'hot' biological assays and were investigated using laser scanning confocal microscopy, flow cytometry and radioactive cell retention studies under normoxia and hypoxia. (68)Ga complex retention was found to be 34% higher in hypoxic cells than in normoxic cells over 30 min, further increasing to 53% at 120 min. Our data suggests that this class of gallium complexes show hypoxia selectivity suitable for imaging in living cells and in vivo tests by microPET in nude athymic mice showed that they are excreted within 1 h of their administration.

  9. Kinetically Stable Lanthanide Complexes Displaying Exceptionally High Quantum Yields upon Long-Wavelength Excitation: Synthesis, Photophysical Properties, and Solution Speciation.

    PubMed

    Routledge, Jack D; Jones, Michael W; Faulkner, Stephen; Tropiano, Manuel

    2015-04-06

    We demonstrate how highly emissive, kinetically stable complexes can be prepared using the macrocyclic scaffold of DO3A bearing coordinating aryl ketones as highly effective sensitizing chromophores. In the europium complexes, high quantum yields (up to 18% in water) can be combined with long-wavelength excitation (370 nm). The behavior in solution upon variation of pH, studied by means of UV-vis absorption, emission, and NMR spectroscopies, reveals that the nature of the chromophore can give rise to pH-dependent behavior as a consequence of deprotonation adjacent to the carbonyl group. Knowledge of the molecular speciation in solution is therefore critical when assessing the luminescence properties of such complexes.

  10. Neptunium Binding Kinetics with Arsenazo(III)

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, Leigh R.; Johnson, Aaron T.; Mezyk, Stephen P.

    2014-08-01

    This document has been prepared to meet FCR&D level 2 milestone M2FT-14IN0304021, “Report on the results of actinide binding kinetics with aqueous phase complexants” This work was carried out under the auspices of the Thermodynamics and Kinetics of Advanced Separations Systems FCR&D work package. The report details kinetics experiments that were performed to measure rates of aqueous phase complexation for pentavalent neptunium with the chromotropic dye Arsenazo III (AAIII). The studies performed were designed to determine how pH, ionic strength and AAIII concentration may affect the rate of the reaction. A brief comparison with hexavalent neptunium is also made. It was identified that as pH was increased the rate of reaction also increased, however increasing the ionic strength and concentration of AAIII had the opposite effect. Interestingly, the rate of reaction of Np(VI) with AAIII was found to be slower than that of the Np(V) reaction.

  11. Actinide Isotopes for the Synthesis of Superheavy Nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberto, J. B.; Alexander, C. W.; Boll, R. A.; Dean, D. J.; Ezold, J. G.; Felker, L. K.; Rykaczewski, K. P.

    2014-09-01

    Recent research resulting in the synthesis of isotopes of new elements 113-118 has demonstrated the importance of actinide targets in superheavy element research. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has unique facilities for the production and processing of actinide target materials, including the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) and the Radiochemical Engineering Development Center (REDC). These facilities have provided actinide target materials that have been used for the synthesis of all superheavy (SHE) elements above Copernicium (element 112). In this paper, the use of actinide targets for SHE research and discovery is described, including recent results for element 117 using 249Bk target material from ORNL. ORNL actinide capabilities are reviewed, including production and separation/purification, availabilities of actinide materials, and future opportunities including novel target materials such as 251Cf.

  12. Microbial Transformations of Actinides and Other Radionuclides

    SciTech Connect

    Francis,A.J.; Dodge, C. J.

    2009-01-07

    Microorganisms can affect the stability and mobility of the actinides and other radionuclides released from nuclear fuel cycle and from nuclear fuel reprocessing plants. Under appropriate conditions, microorganisms can alter the chemical speciation, solubility and sorption properties and thus could increase or decrease the concentrations of radionuclides in solution in the environment and the bioavailability. Dissolution or immobilization of radionuclides is brought about by direct enzymatic action or indirect non-enzymatic action of microorganisms. Although the physical, chemical, and geochemical processes affecting dissolution, precipitation, and mobilization of radionuclides have been extensively investigated, we have only limited information on the effects of microbial processes and biochemical mechanisms which affect the stability and mobility of radionuclides. The mechanisms of microbial transformations of the major and minor actinides U, Pu, Cm, Am, Np, the fission products and other radionuclides such as Ra, Tc, I, Cs, Sr, under aerobic and anaerobic conditions in the presence of electron donors and acceptors are reviewed.

  13. Kinetics of temperature response of PEO-b-PNIPAM-b-PAA triblock terpolymer aggregates and of their complexes with lysozyme

    SciTech Connect

    Papagiannopoulos, Aristeidis; Meristoudi, Anastasia; Hong, Kunlun; Pispas, Stergios

    2015-12-18

    We present the kinetics of temperature response of a PEO-b-PNIPAM-b-PAA triblock terpolymer and of its complexes with lysozyme in aqueous solution. It is found that during the coil-to-globule transition of PNIPAM new bonds within the polymer aggregates are created, making the transition of the aggregates partially irreversible. This effect is also found for the protein loaded PEO-b-PNIPAM-b-PAA aggregates whereas in this case protein globules appear to enhance the formation of bonds, making the transition totally irreversible. The internal dynamics of both aggregates and complexes are “frozen” once the temperature is increased upon PINIPAM's LCST in water and remain so even when the temperature drops below LCST. As a result, we investigate the complexation kinetics of lysozyme and PEO-b-PNIPAM-b-PAA and observe that it occurs in two stages, one where protein globules adsorb on single pre-formed aggregates and one where protein globules cause inter-aggregate clustering.

  14. Kinetics of temperature response of PEO-b-PNIPAM-b-PAA triblock terpolymer aggregates and of their complexes with lysozyme

    DOE PAGES

    Papagiannopoulos, Aristeidis; Meristoudi, Anastasia; Hong, Kunlun; ...

    2015-12-18

    We present the kinetics of temperature response of a PEO-b-PNIPAM-b-PAA triblock terpolymer and of its complexes with lysozyme in aqueous solution. It is found that during the coil-to-globule transition of PNIPAM new bonds within the polymer aggregates are created, making the transition of the aggregates partially irreversible. This effect is also found for the protein loaded PEO-b-PNIPAM-b-PAA aggregates whereas in this case protein globules appear to enhance the formation of bonds, making the transition totally irreversible. The internal dynamics of both aggregates and complexes are “frozen” once the temperature is increased upon PINIPAM's LCST in water and remain so evenmore » when the temperature drops below LCST. As a result, we investigate the complexation kinetics of lysozyme and PEO-b-PNIPAM-b-PAA and observe that it occurs in two stages, one where protein globules adsorb on single pre-formed aggregates and one where protein globules cause inter-aggregate clustering.« less

  15. Cation-limited kinetic model for microbial extracellular electron transport via an outer membrane cytochrome C complex

    PubMed Central

    Okamoto, Akihiro; Tokunou, Yoshihide; Saito, Junki

    2016-01-01

    Outer-membrane c-type cytochrome (OM c-Cyt) complexes in several genera of iron-reducing bacteria, such as Shewanella and Geobacter, are capable of transporting electrons from the cell interior to extracellular solids as a terminal step of anaerobic respiration. The kinetics of this electron transport has implications for controlling the rate of microbial electron transport during bioenergy or biochemical production, iron corrosion, and natural mineral cycling. Herein, we review the findings from in-vivo and in-vitro studies examining electron transport kinetics through single OM c-Cyt complexes in Shewanella oneidensis MR-1. In-vitro electron flux via a purified OM c-Cyt complex, comprised of MtrA, B, and C proteins from S. oneidensis MR-1, embedded in a proteoliposome system is reported to be 10- to 100-fold faster compared with in-vivo estimates based on measurements of electron flux per cell and OM c-Cyts density. As the proteoliposome system is estimated to have 10-fold higher cation flux via potassium channels than electrons, we speculate that the slower rate of electron-coupled cation transport across the OM is responsible for the significantly lower electron transport rate that is observed in-vivo. As most studies to date have primarily focused on the energetics or kinetics of interheme electron hopping in OM c-Cyts in this microbial electron transport mechanism, the proposed model involving cation transport provides new insight into the rate detemining step of EET, as well as the role of self-secreted flavin molecules bound to OM c-Cyt and proton management for energy conservation and production in S. oneidensis MR-1. PMID:27924259

  16. Preparation, properties, and some recent studies of the actinide metals

    SciTech Connect

    Haire, R.G.

    1985-01-01

    The actinide elements form a unique series of metals. The variation in their physial properties combined with the varying availability of the different elements offers a challenge to the preparative scientist. This article provides a brief review of selected methods used for preparing ..mu..g to kg amounts of the actinide metals and the properties of these metals. In addition, some recent studies on selected actinide metals are discussed. 62 refs.

  17. In vitro removal of actinide (IV) ions

    DOEpatents

    Weitl, Frederick L.; Raymond, Kenneth N.

    1982-01-01

    A compound of the formula: ##STR1## wherein X is hydrogen or a conventional electron-withdrawing group, particularly --SO.sub.3 H or a salt thereof; n is 2, 3, or 4; m is 2, 3, or 4; and p is 2 or 3. The present compounds are useful as specific sequestering agents for actinide (IV) ions. Also described is a method for the 2,3-dihydroxybenzamidation of azaalkanes.

  18. Separation of Californium from other Actinides

    DOEpatents

    Mailen, J C; Ferris, L M

    1973-09-25

    A method is provided for separating californium from a fused fluoride composition containing californium and at least one element selected from the group consisting of plutonium, americium, curium, uranium, thorium, and protactinium which comprises contacting said fluoride composition with a liquid bismuth phase containing sufficient lithium or thorium to effect transfer of said actinides to the bismuth phase and then contacting the liquid bismuth phase with molten LiCl to effect selective transfer of californium to the chloride phase.

  19. Surrogate Reactions in the Actinide Region

    SciTech Connect

    Burke, J T; Bernstein, L A; Scielzo, N D; Bleuel, D L; Lesher, S R; Escher, J; Ahle, L; Dietrich, F S; Hoffman, R D; Norman, E B; Sheets, S A; Phair, L; Fallon, P; Clark, R M; Gibelin, J; Jewett, C; Lee, I Y; Macchiavelli, A O; McMahan, M A; Moretto, L G; Rodriguez-Vieitez, E; Wiedeking, M; Lyles, B F; Beausang, C W; Allmond, J M; Ai, H; Cizewski, J A; Hatarik, R; O'Malley, P D; Swan, T

    2008-01-30

    Over the past three years we have studied various surrogate reactions (d,p), ({sup 3}He,t), ({alpha},{alpha}{prime}) on several uranium isotopes {sup 234}U, {sup 235}U, {sup 236}U, and {sup 238}U. An overview of the STARS/LIBERACE surrogate research program as it pertains to the actinides is discussed. A summary of results to date will be presented along with a discussion of experimental difficulties encountered in surrogate experiments and future research directions.

  20. Surrogate Reactions in the Actinide Region

    SciTech Connect

    Burke, J. T.; Bernstein, L. A.; Scielzo, N. D.; Bleuel, D. L.; Lesher, S. R.; Escher, J.; Ahle, L.; Dietrich, F. S.; Hoffman, R. D.; Norman, E. B.; Sheets, S. A.; Phair, L.; Fallon, P.; Clark, R. M.; Gibelin, J.; Jewett, C.; Lee, I. Y.; Macchiavelli, A. O.; McMahan, M. A.; Moretto, L. G.

    2008-04-17

    Over the past three years we have studied various surrogate reactions (d,p), ({sup 3}He,t), ({alpha},{alpha}{sup '}) on several uranium isotopes {sup 234}U, {sup 235}U, {sup 236}U, and {sup 238}U. An overview of the STARS/LIBERACE surrogate research program as it pertains to the actinides is discussed. A summary of results to date will be presented along with a discussion of experimental difficulties encountered in surrogate experiments and future research directions.

  1. A total quasi-steady-state formulation of substrate uptake kinetics in complex networks and an example application to microbial litter decomposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, J. Y.; Riley, W. J.

    2013-12-01

    We demonstrate that substrate uptake kinetics in any consumer-substrate network subject to the total quasi-steady-state assumption can be formulated as an equilibrium chemistry (EC) problem. If the consumer-substrate complexes equilibrate much faster than other metabolic processes, then the relationships between consumers, substrates, and consumer-substrate complexes are in quasi-equilibrium and the change of a given total substrate (free plus consumer-bounded) is determined by the degradation of all its consumer-substrate complexes. In this EC formulation, the corresponding equilibrium reaction constants are the conventional Michaelis-Menten (MM) substrate affinity constants. When all of the elements in a given network are either consumer or substrate (but not both), we derived a first-order accurate EC approximation (ECA). The ECA kinetics is compatible with almost every existing extension of MM kinetics. In particular, for microbial organic matter decomposition modeling, ECA kinetics explicitly predicts a specific microbe's uptake for a specific substrate as a function of the microbe's affinity for the substrate, other microbes' affinity for the substrate, and the shielding effect on substrate uptake by environmental factors, such as mineral surface adsorption. By taking the EC solution as a reference, we evaluated MM and ECA kinetics for their abilities to represent several differently configured enzyme-substrate reaction networks. In applying the ECA and MM kinetics to microbial models of different complexities, we found (i) both the ECA and MM kinetics accurately reproduced the EC solution when multiple microbes are competing for a single substrate; (ii) ECA outperformed MM kinetics in reproducing the EC solution when a single microbe is feeding on multiple substrates; (iii) the MM kinetics failed, while the ECA kinetics succeeded, in reproducing the EC solution when multiple consumers (i.e., microbes and mineral surfaces) were competing for multiple

  2. A total quasi-steady-state formulation of substrate uptake kinetics in complex networks and an example application to microbial litter decomposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, J. Y.; Riley, W. J.

    2013-06-01

    We demonstrate that substrate uptake kinetics in any consumer-substrate network subject to the total quasi-steady-state assumption can be formulated as an equilibrium chemistry (EC) problem. If the consumer-substrate complexes equilibrate much faster than other metabolic processes, then the relationships between consumers, substrates, and consumer-substrate complexes are in quasi-equilibrium and the change of a given total substrate (free plus consumer-bounded) is determined by the degradation of all its consumer-substrate complexes. In this EC formulation, the corresponding equilibrium reaction constants are the conventional Michaelis-Menten (MM) substrate affinity constants. When all of the elements in a given network are either consumer or substrate (but not both), we derived a first-order accurate EC approximation (ECA). The ECA kinetics is compatible with almost every existing extension of MM kinetics. In particular, for microbial organic matter decomposition modeling, ECA kinetics explicitly predicts a specific microbe's uptake for a specific substrate as a function of the microbe's affinity for the substrate, other microbes' affinity for the substrate, and the shielding effect on substrate uptake by environmental factors, such as mineral surface adsorption. By taking the EC solution as a reference, we evaluated MM and ECA kinetics for their abilities to represent several differently configured enzyme-substrate reaction networks. In applying the ECA and MM kinetics to microbial models of different complexities, we found (i) both the ECA and MM kinetics accurately reproduced the EC solution when multiple microbes are competing for a single substrate; (ii) ECA outperformed MM kinetics in reproducing the EC solution when a single microbe is feeding on multiple substrates; (iii) the MM kinetics failed, while the ECA kinetics succeeded, in reproducing the EC solution when multiple consumers (i.e., microbes and mineral surfaces) were competing for multiple

  3. [Effect of phenobarbital on the kinetics of the change in the level of paramagnetic metalloprotein complexes in dinitrophenol poisoning].

    PubMed

    Luk'ianchuk, V D

    1985-01-01

    EPR spectroscopy was used to study phenobarbital influence on the kinetics of paramagnetic complexes variability of metal proteins--cytochrome P-450 and iron-sulfur proteins of rat liver in acute oral poisoning with the dinitrophenol pesticides DNOK and dinoseb. It was proved experimentally that the barbiturate favoured marked prevention of the decrease of the content of cytochrome P-450 and iron-sulfur proteins, thereby protecting the detoxifying and energy liver system from dinitrophenol-induced injuries. It is discussed that phenobarbital may act both as an inducer of cytochrome P-450 and iron-sulfur proteins involved in electron transport of the mitochondria.

  4. On the complexity of kinetics and the mechanism of the thiosulfate-periodate reaction.

    PubMed

    Rauscher, Evelin; Cseko, György; Horváth, Attila K

    2011-06-20

    The thiosulfate-periodate reaction has been studied spectrophotometrically in a slightly acidic medium at 25.0 ± 0.1 °C in an acetate/acetic acid buffer by monitoring the absorbance in the 250-600 nm wavelength range at a constant ionic strength adjusted by the buffer component sodium acetate. In agreement with a previous study, we found that the reaction cannot be described by a single stoichiometric equation, tetrathionate and sulfate are simultaneously formed, and its ratio strongly depends on the pH. As expected at certain initial concentration ratios of the reactants, the reaction behaves as a clock reaction, but after its appearance, iodine is slowly consumed mainly because of the moderate tetrathionate-iodine reaction. It is also enlightened that the initial rate of the reaction is completely independent of the pH, which apparently contradicts a previous study, which postulates a "supercatalytic" behavior of the hydrogen ion on the title reaction. Significant buffer assistance that may change the absorbance-time profiles was also observed. On the basis of the kinetic data, a robust 28-step kinetic model with 22 fitted parameters is proposed and discussed to explain adequately all of the important characteristics of the kinetic curves.

  5. Actinide and lanthanide separation process (ALSEP)

    DOEpatents

    Guelis, Artem V.

    2013-01-15

    The process of the invention is the separation of minor actinides from lanthanides in a fluid mixture comprising, fission products, lanthanides, minor actinides, rare earth elements, nitric acid and water by addition of an organic chelating aid to the fluid; extracting the fluid with a solvent comprising a first extractant, a second extractant and an organic diluent to form an organic extractant stream and an aqueous raffinate. Scrubbing the organic stream with a dicarboxylic acid and a chelating agent to form a scrubber discharge. The scrubber discharge is stripped with a simple buffering agent and a second chelating agent in the pH range of 2.5 to 6.1 to produce actinide and lanthanide streams and spent organic diluents. The first extractant is selected from bis(2-ethylhexyl)hydrogen phosphate (HDEHP) and mono(2-ethylhexyl)2-ethylhexyl phosphonate (HEH(EHP)) and the second extractant is selected from N,N,N,N-tetra-2-ethylhexyl diglycol amide (TEHDGA) and N,N,N',N'-tetraoctyl-3-oxapentanediamide (TODGA).

  6. Kinetics and thermodynamics of irreversible inhibition of matrix metalloproteinase 2 by a Co(III) Schiff base complex

    PubMed Central

    Harney, Allison S.; Sole, Laura B.

    2012-01-01

    Cobalt(III) Schiff base complexes have been used as potent inhibitors of protein function through the coordination to histidine residues essential for activity. The kinetics and thermodynamics of the binding mechanism of Co(acacen)(NH3)2Cl [Co(acacen); where H2acacen is bis(acetylacetone)ethylenediimine] enzyme inhibition has been examined through the inactivation of matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP-2) protease activity. Co(acacen) is an irreversible inhibitor that exhibits time- and concentration-dependent inactivation of MMP-2. Co(acacen) inhibition of MMP-2 is temperature-dependent, with the inactivation increasing with temperature. Examination of the formation of the transition state for the MMP-2/Co(acacen) complex was determined to have a positive entropy component indicative of greater disorder in the MMP-2/Co(acacen) complex than in the reactants. With further insight into the mechanism of Co(acacen) complexes, Co(III) Schiff base complex protein inactivators can be designed to include features regulating activity and protein specificity. This approach is widely applicable to protein targets that have been identified to have clinical significance, including matrix metalloproteinases. The mechanistic information elucidated here further emphasizes the versatility and utility of Co(III) Schiff base complexes as customizable protein inhibitors. PMID:22729838

  7. Bidentate organophosphorus solvent extraction process for actinide recovery and partition

    DOEpatents

    Schulz, Wallace W.

    1976-01-01

    A liquid-liquid extraction process for the recovery and partitioning of actinide values from acidic nuclear waste aqueous solutions, the actinide values including trivalent, tetravalent and hexavalent oxidation states is provided and includes the steps of contacting the aqueous solution with a bidentate organophosphorous extractant to extract essentially all of the actinide values into the organic phase. Thereafter the respective actinide fractions are selectively partitioned into separate aqueous solutions by contact with dilute nitric or nitric-hydrofluoric acid solutions. The hexavalent uranium is finally removed from the organic phase by contact with a dilute sodium carbonate solution.

  8. Development of the Actinide-Lanthanide Separation (ALSEP) Process

    SciTech Connect

    Lumetta, Gregg J.; Carter, Jennifer C.; Niver, Cynthia M.; Gelis, Artem V.

    2014-09-30

    Separating the minor actinide elements (Am and Cm) from acidic high-level raffinates arising from the reprocessing of irradiated nuclear fuel is an important step in closing the nuclear fuel cycle. Most proposed approaches to this problem involve two solvent extraction steps: 1) co-extraction of the trivalent lanthanides and actinides, followed by 2) separation of the actinides from the lanthanides. The objective of our work is to develop a single solvent-extraction process for isolating the minor actinide elements. We report here a solvent containing N,N,N',N'-tetra(2 ethylhexyl)diglycolamide (T2EHDGA) combined with 2-ethylhexylphosphonic acid mono-2-ethylhexyl ester (HEH[EHP]) that can be used to separate the minor actinides in a single solvent-extraction process. T2EHDGA serves to co-extract the trivalent actinide and lanthanide ions from nitric acid solution. Switching the aqueous phase chemistry to a citrate buffered solution of N-(2-hydroxyethyl)ethylenediamine-N,N',N'-triacetic acid at pH 2.5 to 4 results in selective transfer of the actinides to the aqueous phase, thus affecting separation of the actinides from the lanthanides. Separation factors between the lanthanides and actinides are approximately 20 in the pH range of 3 to 4, and the distribution ratios are not highly dependent on the pH in this system.

  9. Isotherms and Kinetics of Water Vapor Sorption/Desorption for Surface Films of Polyion-Surfactant Ion Complex Salts.

    PubMed

    Gustavsson, Charlotte; Piculell, Lennart

    2016-07-14

    Thin films of "complex salts" (CS = ionic surfactants with polymeric counterions) have recently been shown to respond to humidity changes in ambient air by changing their liquid crystalline structure. We here report isotherms and kinetics of water sorption/desorption for ∼10-100 μm films of alkyltrimethylammonium polyacrylate CS, measured in a dynamic gravimetric vapor sorption instrument over a 0-95% relative humidity (RH) range. The sorption per ion pair was similar to that observed for common ionomers. A kinetic model for the water exchange is presented, assuming that the "external" transport between the vapor reservoir and the film surface is rate-determining. The model predicts that the water content, after a small stepwise change of the reservoir RH, should vary exponentially with time, with a time constant proportional to both the slope of the sorption isotherm and the film thickness. These predictions were confirmed for our films over large RH ranges, and the external mass transfer coefficient in our setup was calculated from the experimental data. Expressions derived for the Biot number (ratio of characteristic times for internal and external water transport) for the considered limiting case strongly indicate that external water transport should quite generally affect, or even dominate, the measured kinetics for similarly thin hydrated films.

  10. Advanced Extraction Methods for Actinide/Lanthanide Separations

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, M.J.

    2005-12-01

    The separation of An(III) ions from chemically similar Ln(III) ions is perhaps one of the most difficult problems encountered during the processing of nuclear waste. In the 3+ oxidation states, the metal ions have an identical charge and roughly the same ionic radius. They differ strictly in the relative energies of their f- and d-orbitals, and to separate these metal ions, ligands will need to be developed that take advantage of this small but important distinction. The extraction of uranium and plutonium from nitric acid solution can be performed quantitatively by the extraction with the TBP (tributyl phosphate). Commercially, this process has found wide use in the PUREX (plutonium uranium extraction) reprocessing method. The TRUEX (transuranium extraction) process is further used to coextract the trivalent lanthanides and actinides ions from HLLW generated during PUREX extraction. This method uses CMPO [(N, N-diisobutylcarbamoylmethyl) octylphenylphosphineoxide] intermixed with TBP as a synergistic agent. However, the final separation of trivalent actinides from trivalent lanthanides still remains a challenging task. In TRUEX nitric acid solution, the Am(III) ion is coordinated by three CMPO molecules and three nitrate anions. Taking inspiration from this data and previous work with calix[4]arene systems, researchers on this project have developed a C3-symmetric tris-CMPO ligand system using a triphenoxymethane platform as a base. The triphenoxymethane ligand systems have many advantages for the preparation of complex ligand systems. The compounds are very easy to prepare. The steric and solubility properties can be tuned through an extreme range by the inclusion of different alkoxy and alkyl groups such as methyoxy, ethoxy, t-butoxy, methyl, octyl, t-pentyl, or even t-pentyl at the ortho- and para-positions of the aryl rings. The triphenoxymethane ligand system shows promise as an improved extractant for both tetravalent and trivalent actinide recoveries form

  11. Kinetics and mechanisms of the reactions of alkyl radicals with oxygen and with complexes of Co(III), Ru(III), and Ni(III)

    SciTech Connect

    Kelley, D.

    1990-10-08

    The kinetics of the reactions of C{sub 2}H{sub 5} radical with Co(NH{sub 3}){sub 5}X{sup 2+}, Ru(NH{sub 3}){sub 5}X{sup 2+}, and Co(dmgH){sub 2} (X) (Y) (X = Br, Cl, N{sub 3}, SCN; Y = H{sub 2}O, CH{sub 3}CN) complexes were studied using laser flash photolysis of ethylcobalt complexes. The kinetics were obtained by the kinetic probe method. Some relative rate constants were also determined by a competition method based on ethyl halide product ratios. The kinetics of colligation reactions of a series of alkyl radicals with {beta}-Ni(cyclam){sup 2+} were studied using flaser flash photolysis of alkylcobalt complexes. Again, the kinetics were obtained by employing the kinetic probe competition method. The kinetics of the unimolecular homolysis of a series of RNi(cyclam)H{sub 2}O{sup 2+} were studied. Activation parameters were obtained for the unimolecular homolysis of C{sub 2}H{sub 5}Ni(cyclam)H{sub 2}O{sup 2+}. Kinetic and thermodynamic data obtained from these reactions were compared with those for the {sigma}-bonded organometallic complexes. The kinetics of the unimolecular homolysis of a series of RNi(cyclam)H{sub 2}O{sup 2+} complexes were studied by monitoring the formation of the oxygen insertion product RO{sub 2}Ni(cyclam)H{sub 2}O{sup 2+}. The higher rate constants for the reactions of alkyl radicals with oxygen in solution, as compared with those measured in the gas phase, were discussed. 30 refs.

  12. Skin absorption of actinides: influence of solvents or chelates on skin penetration ex vivo.

    PubMed

    Tazrart, Anissa; Bolzinger, Marie-Alexandrine; Coudert, Sylvie; Lamart, Stephanie; Miller, Brian W; Angulo, Jaime F; Briançon, Stéphanie; Griffiths, Nina M

    2017-06-01

    To evaluate skin penetration and retention of americium (Am) and plutonium (Pu), in different chemical forms relevant to the nuclear industry and to treatment by chelation. Percutaneous penetration of different Am and Pu forms were evaluated using viable pig skin with the Franz cell diffusion system. The behavior of the complex Pu-tributyl phosphate (Pu-TBP), Am or Pu complexed to the chelator Diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA) and the effect of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) was assessed. Radioactivity was measured in skin and receiver compartments. Three approaches were used to visualize activity in skin including the recent iQID technique for quantification. Transfer of Am was 24-fold greater than Pu and Pu-TBP complex penetration was enhanced by 500-fold. Actinide-DTPA transfer was greater than the Am or Pu alone (17-fold and 148-fold, respectively). The stratum corneum retained the majority of activity in all cases and both DMSO and TBP enhanced skin retention of Am and Pu, respectively. Histological and bioimaging data confirmed these results and the iQID camera allowed the quantification of skin activity. Skin penetration and fixation profiles are different depending on the chemical actinide form. Altered behavior of Pu-TBP and actinide-DTPA complexes reinforces the need to address decontamination protocols.

  13. Actinide ion extraction using room temperature ionic liquids: opportunities and challenges for nuclear fuel cycle applications.

    PubMed

    Mohapatra, Prasanta Kumar

    2017-02-14

    Studies on the extraction of actinide ions from radioactive feeds have great relevance in nuclear fuel cycle activities, mainly in the back end processes focused on reprocessing and waste management. Room temperature ionic liquid (RTIL) based diluents are becoming increasingly popular due to factors such as more efficient extraction vis-à-vis molecular diluents, higher metal loading, higher radiation resistance, etc. The fascinating chemistry of the actinide ions in RTIL based solvent systems due to complex extraction mechanisms makes it a challenging area of research. By the suitable tuning of the cationic and anionic parts of the ionic liquids, their physical properties such as density, dielectric constant and viscosity can be changed which are considered key parameters in metal ion extraction. Aqueous solubility of the RTILs, which can lead to significant loss in the solvent inventory, can be avoided by appending the extractant moieties onto the ionic liquid. While the low vapour pressure and non-flammability of the ionic liquids make them appear as 'green' diluents, their aqueous solubility raises concerns of environmental hazards. The present article gives a summary of studies carried out on actinide ion extraction and presents perspectives of its applications in the nuclear fuel cycle. The article discusses various extractants used for actinide ion extraction and at many places, comparison is made vis-à-vis molecular diluents which includes the nature of the extracted species and the mechanism of extraction. Results of studies on rare earth elements are also included in view of their similarities with the trivalent minor actinides.

  14. Solvent extraction separation of trivalent lanthanide and actinide ions using an aqueous aminomethanediphosphonic acid.

    SciTech Connect

    Jensen, M. P.

    1998-10-14

    The possibility of separating the trivalent lanthanides, represented by EU{sup 3+}, and actinides, represented by Cf{sup 3+}, using HDEHP in toluene and an aqueous phase containing N-piperidinomethane-1,1-diphosphotic acid, PMDPA, has been investigated. This modified aqueous phase offers potential advantages over the diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid based TALSPEAK process because of the improved complexation properties of PMDPA in acidic solutions, and the ability to decompose PMDPA before disposal. Extraction experiments were conducted at 25 C in 2 M NaClO{sub 4} between -log [H{sup +}] 1 and 2. The studies enabled us to derive the aqueous phase speciation, the stability constants of the aqueous complexes, and the Cf/Eu separation factors. Despite the presence of an amino group in PMDPA that should favor the retention of the actinides in the aqueous phase, the Cf/Eu separation factors are near unity under the conditions studied.

  15. Density functional theory calculations of the redox potentials of actinide(VI)/actinide(V) couple in water.

    PubMed

    Steele, Helen M; Guillaumont, Dominique; Moisy, Philippe

    2013-05-30

    The measured redox potential of an actinide at an electrode surface involves the transfer of a single electron from the electrode surface on to the actinide center. Before electron transfer takes place, the complexing ligands and molecules of solvation need to become structurally arranged such that the electron transfer is at its most favorable. Following the electron transfer, there is further rearrangement to obtain the minimum energy structure for the reduced state. As such, there are three parts to the total energy cycle required to take the complex from its ground state oxidized form to its ground state reduced form. The first part of the energy comes from the structural rearrangement and solvation energies of the actinide species before the electron transfer or charge transfer process; the second part, the energy of the electron transfer; the third part, the energy required to reorganize the ligands and molecules of solvation around the reduced species. The time resolution of electrochemical techniques such as cyclic voltammetry is inadequate to determine to what extent bond and solvation rearrangement occurs before or after electron transfer; only for a couple to be classed as reversible is it fast in terms of the experimental time. Consequently, the partitioning of the energy theoretically is of importance to obtain good experimental agreement. Here we investigate the magnitude of the instantaneous charge transfer through calculating the fast one electron reduction energies of AnO2(H2O)n(2+), where An = U, Np, and Pu, for n = 4-6, in solution without inclusion of the structural optimization energy of the reduced form. These calculations have been performed using a number of DFT functionals, including the recently developed functionals of Zhao and Truhlar. The results obtained for calculated electron affinities in the aqueous phase for the AnO2(H2O)5(2+/+) couples are within 0.04 V of accepted experimental redox potentials, nearly an order of magnitude

  16. Kinetic and physical-chemical study of the inclusion complex of β-cyclodextrin containing carvacrol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menezes, Paula dos Passos; Serafini, Mairim Russo; de Carvalho, Yasmim Maria Barbosa Gomes; Soares Santana, Dayanne Valéria; Lima, Bruno Santos; Quintans-Júnior, Lucindo José; Marreto, Ricardo Neves; de Aquino, Thiago Mendonça; Sabino, Adilson Rodrigues; Scotti, Luciana; Scotti, Marcus Tullius; Grangeiro-Júnior, Severino; de Souza Araújo, Adriano Antunes

    2016-12-01

    Carvacrol is a good natural antimicrobial and antioxidant agent; however, its poor aqueous solubility and high volatility limit its application in food systems. Different methods of complexation have been used to preserve aromas in food products and complexation in cyclodextrins (CDs) is among the most efficient ways. In the present study, we investigated the complexation efficiency of carvacrol in β-CD using methods different from those already reported in the literature for this compound. The supramolecular structure of the carvacrol/β-CD complex was investigated by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD), Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), docking, complexation efficiency, thermogravimetry/derivate thermogravimetry (TG/DTG) and Karl Fischer titration. Results clearly showed the formation of a supramolecular complex in which the guest molecule, carvacrol, was entrapped inside the cavity of the host, β-CD mainly by slurry method. These results contribute to other studies involving this type of system.

  17. Automated Discovery of Complex Reaction Networks: Reaction Topology, Thermochemistry and Kinetics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-07-08

    AFRL-OSR-VA-TR-2015-0165 Automated Discovery of Complex Reaction Networks Reaction Walter Pfaendtner UNIVERSITY OF WASHINGTON Final Report 07/08/2015...01-04-2012 to 31-03-2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Automated Discovery of Complex Reaction Networks Reaction 5a.  CONTRACT NUMBER 5b.  GRANT NUMBER...incoming airflow, short lifetime of intermediates, the complexity of combustion reaction networks, and the difficulty to identify important reaction

  18. Coarse-grained kinetic Monte Carlo models: Complex lattices, multicomponent systems, and homogenization at the stochastic level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collins, Stuart D.; Chatterjee, Abhijit; Vlachos, Dionisios G.

    2008-11-01

    On-lattice kinetic Monte Carlo (KMC) simulations have extensively been applied to numerous systems. However, their applicability is severely limited to relatively short time and length scales. Recently, the coarse-grained MC (CGMC) method was introduced to greatly expand the reach of the lattice KMC technique. Herein, we extend the previous spatial CGMC methods to multicomponent species and/or site types. The underlying theory is derived and numerical examples are presented to demonstrate the method. Furthermore, we introduce the concept of homogenization at the stochastic level over all site types of a spatially coarse-grained cell. Homogenization provides a novel coarsening of the number of processes, an important aspect for complex problems plagued by the existence of numerous microscopic processes (combinatorial complexity). As expected, the homogenized CGMC method outperforms the traditional KMC method on computational cost while retaining good accuracy.

  19. Kinetics of formation for lanthanide (III) complexes of DTPA-(Me-Trp)2 used as imaging agent.

    PubMed

    Tiwari, Anjani K; Sinha, Deepa; Datta, Anupama; Kakkar, Dipti; Mishra, Anil K

    2011-05-01

    Diethlenetriamine-N,N,N'N''N''-pentaacetic acid (DTPA)-bis (amide) analogs have been synthesized and evaluated as a potential biomedical imaging agents. Imaging and biodistribution studies were performed in mice that showed a significant accumulation of DTPA analogs in brain. The stability and protonation constants of the complexes formed between the ligand [DTPA-(Me-Trp)(2)] and Gd(3+), Eu(3+), and Cu(2+) have been determined by pH potentiometry (Gd(3+), Eu(3+)) and spectrophotometry (Cu(2+)) at 25 °C and at constant ionic strength maintained by 0.10 M KCl. The kinetic inertness of Gd [DTPA-(Me-Trp)(2)] was characterized by the rates of exchange reactions with Zn(2+) and Eu(3+). In the Eu(3+) exchange, a second-order [H(+)] dependence was found for the pseudo-first-order rate constant [k(0) = (4.5 ± 1.2) × 10(-6)/s; k(1) = 0.58 ± 0.1 /M/s, k(2) = (6.6 ± 0.2) × 10(4) /M(2)/s, k(3) = (4.8 ± 0.8) × 10(-4) /M/s]. In the Eu(3+) exchange, at pH <5.0, the rate decreases with increasing concentration of the exchanging ion. At physiological pH, the kinetic inertness of [DTPA-(Me-Trp)(2)] is more inert than GdDTPA(2-), the most commonly used MRI contrast agent (t(1/2) = 127 h). High kinetic stability is an important requirement for the Gd complexes used as contrast enhancement agents in magnetic resonance imaging. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  20. Synthesis, spectral characterization and study of thermal behavior kinetics by thermogravimetric analysis of metal complexes derived from salicylaldehyde and alkylamine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouzerafa, Brahim; Aggoun, Djouhra; Ouennoughi, Yasmina; Ourari, Ali; Ruiz-Rosas, Ramiro; Morallon, Emilia; Mubarak, Mohammad S.

    2017-08-01

    Cobalt(III)- and copper(II)-Schiff base complexes have been prepared by reaction of the bidentate Schiff base ligand (HL: 2-(4-methoxyphenyl)-1-iminosalicylidenethane) with cobalt(II) and copper(II) chlorides. Structures of the synthesized complexes have been characterized by various physicochemical techniques, such as IR and UV-Vis spectroscopy, mass spectrometry, thermogravimetric analysis (TG/DTG), and by elemental analysis. Additionally, the redox behavior of the cobalt(III) and copper(II) complexes has been examined by cyclic voltammetry at a glassy carbon electrode in DMF solutions. Thermogravimetric analysis has been employed to evaluate the thermal stability of the prepared complexes CoIII(L)3·1/2H2O, CuII(L)2, in addition to the previously synthesized HL and NiII(L)2. Furthermore, activation energies of the thermal decomposition were calculated using Kissinger, Ozawa and Coats-Redfern methods. The calculated activation energies were also useful to evaluate kinetic and thermodynamic parameters of the ligand and the corresponding metal complexes including ΔS, ΔH and ΔG. Calculated activation energies follow the order: Ea(NiII(L)2) > Ea(CuII(L)2) > Ea(CoIII(L)3·1/2H2O).

  1. Polyoxometalate complexes for oxidative kinetic resolution of secondary alcohols: unique effects of chiral environment, immobilization and aggregation.

    PubMed

    Shi, Lei; Wang, Yizhan; Li, Bao; Wu, Lixin

    2014-06-28

    In this paper, the chiral surfactants bearing two long alkyl chains with hydroxyl groups at their terminals were synthesized and employed to encapsulate a catalytically efficient polyoxometalate through electrostatic interaction. The obtained chiral surfactant-encapsulated polyoxometalate complexes, in which a defined chiral microenvironment surrounds the inorganic cluster, were covalently immobilized into the silica matrix via a sol-gel process. Kinetic resolution of racemic aromatic alcohols was selected as the model reaction to evaluate the chiral supramolecular hybrid catalysts. Up to 89% enantiomeric excess was obtained by varying the reaction conditions. Importantly, the change of loading values of the chiral surfactant-encapsulated polyoxometalates leads to mutative inner microstructures ranging from uniform dispersion to subsequent formation of nanocrystalline domains in the silica matrix. Such a structural evolution differentiates the density and stability of the chiral microenvironment, resulting in a regular change of enantioselectivity of the prepared asymmetric catalysts. Moreover, the fixation of the chiral microenvironment surrounding the polyoxometalates by covalent immobilization was proved to have a promoting effect on enantioselectivity. The present research uncovers the unique effect of immobilization on the kinetic resolution. The strategy helps to understand the influencing factors of enantioselectivity, and provides a convenient and efficient approach for the construction of supramolecular asymmetric catalysts based on chiral surfactant-encapsulated polyoxometalate complexes.

  2. Kinetics and mechanism of the stepwise complex formation of Cu(II) with tren-centered tris-macrocycles.

    PubMed

    Soibinet, Matthieu; Gusmeroli, Deborah; Siegfried, Liselotte; Kaden, Thomas A; Palivan, Cornelia; Schweiger, Arthur

    2005-06-21

    The stepwise complexation kinetics of Cu2+ with three tetratopic ligands L1, L2 and L3, tren-centred macrocycles with different bridges connecting the 14-membered macrocycles with the tren unit, have been measured by stopped-flow photodiode array techniques at 25 degrees C, I= 0.5 M (KNO3), and pH = 4.96. The reaction between the first Cu2+ and the ligand consists of several steps. In a rapid reaction Cu2+ first binds to the flexible and more reactive tren-unit. In this intermediate a translocation from the tren unit to the macrocyclic ring, which forms the thermodynamic more stable complex, takes place. This species can react further with a second Cu2+ to give a heterotopic dinuclear species with one Cu2+ bound by the tren-unit and the other coordinated by the macrocycle. A further translocation occurs to give the homoditopic species with two Cu2+ in the macrocycles. Finally a slow rearrangement of the dinuclear complex gives the final species. The rates of the translocation are dependent on the length and rigidity of the bridge, whereas the complexation rates with the tren unit are little affected by it. VIS spectra of the species obtained by fitting the kinetic results, EPR-spectra taken during the reaction, and ES mass spectra of the products confirm the proposed mechanism. The addition of a second, third and fourth equivalent of Cu2+ proceeds in an analogous way, but is complicated by the fact that we start and end with a mixture of species. These steps were evaluated in a qualitative way only.

  3. Kinetic benefits and thermal stability of orotate phosphoribosyltransferase and orotidine 5'-monophosphate decarboxylase enzyme complex in human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum.

    PubMed

    Kanchanaphum, Panan; Krungkrai, Jerapan

    2009-12-11

    We have previously shown that orotate phosphoribosyltransferase (OPRT) and orotidine 5'-monophosphate decarboxylase (OMPDC) in human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum form an enzyme complex, containing two subunits each of OPRT and OMPDC. To enable further characterization, we expressed and purified P. falciparum OPRT-OMPDC enzyme complex in Escherichia coli. The OPRT and OMPDC activities of the enzyme complex co-eluted in the chromatographic columns used during purification. Kinetic parameters (K(m), k(cat) and k(cat)/K(m)) of the enzyme complex were 5- to 125-folds higher compared to the monofunctional enzyme. Interestingly, pyrophosphate was a potent inhibitor to the enzyme complex, but had a slightly inhibitory effect for the monofunctional enzyme. The enzyme complex resisted thermal inactivation at higher temperature than the monofunctional OPRT and OMPDC. The result suggests that the OPRT-OMPDC enzyme complex might have kinetic benefits and thermal stability significantly different from the monofunctional enzyme.

  4. Monopropionate analogues of DOTA4- and DTPA5-: kinetics of formation and dissociation of their lanthanide(III) complexes.

    PubMed

    Balogh, Edina; Tripier, Raphaël; Fousková, Petra; Reviriego, Felipe; Handel, Henri; Tóth, Eva

    2007-08-28

    The replacement of an acetate function of the macrocyclic DOTA4-(DO3A-Nprop4-) or the acyclic DTPA5- in terminal position (DTTA-Nprop5-) has been recently shown to result in a significant increase of the water exchange rate on the Gd3+ complexes, which makes these chelates potential contrast agents for MRI applications. Here, two novel and straightforward synthetic routes to H4DO3A-Nprop are described. Protonation constants of DO3A-Nprop4- and stability constants with several alkaline earth and transition metal ions have been determined by potentiometry. For each metal, the thermodynamic stability constant is decreased in comparison to the DOTA chelates. The formation reaction of LnDO3A-Nprop- complexes (Ln=Ce, Gd and Yb) proceeds via the rapid formation of a diprotonated intermediate and its subsequent deprotonation and rearrangement in a slow, OH- catalyzed process. The stability of the LnH2DO3A-Nprop* intermediates is similar to those reported for the corresponding DOTA analogues. The rate constants of the OH- catalyzed deprotonation step increase with decreasing lanthanide ion size, and are slightly higher than for DOTA complexes. The kinetic inertness of GdDTTA-Nprop2- was characterized by the rates of its exchange reactions with Zn2+ and Eu3+. The rate of the reaction between GdDTTA-Nprop2- and Zn2+ increases with Zn2+ concentration, while it is independent of pH, implying that the exchange takes place predominantly via direct attack of the metal ion on the complex. In the Eu3+ exchange, the rate decreases with increasing concentration of the exchanging ion which is accounted for by the transitional formation of a dinuclear GdDTTA-NpropEu+ species. The kinetic inertness of the monopropionate GdDTTA-Nprop2- is decreased in comparison to GdDTPA2-: all rate constants, characterizing the dissociation reaction via either proton- or metal-catalyzed pathways being higher by 1-2 orders of magnitude. Similarly, a study of the acid-catalyzed dissociation of the

  5. Actinide transport across cell membranes.

    PubMed

    Bulman, R A; Griffin, R J

    1980-01-01

    Protactinium uptake into the normal liver does not exceed 3%, but when the phospholipid levels in the liver are elevated by administration of thioacetamide this uptake increases to 31%. Phosphatidic acid, which is absent from the normal liver, has been shown to extract protactinium into organic solvents. However, phosphatidylserine, a component of normal liver cell membranes, does not extract protactinium. It might be conjectured that this is why so little protactinium is taken up by the normal liver. The hypothesis is advanced that phosphatidylserine, which is known to complex plutonium, americium and curium, may regulate the uptake of these elements by liver.

  6. Kinetics of flavin semiquinone reduction of the components of the cytochrome c-cytochrome b5 complex.

    PubMed

    Eltis, L; Mauk, A G; Hazzard, J T; Cusanovich, M A; Tollin, G

    1988-07-26

    The kinetics of flavin semiquinone reduction of the components of the 1:1 complex formed by cytochrome c with either cytochrome b5 or a derivative of cytochrome b5 in which the heme propionates are esterified (DME-cytochrome b5) have been studied. The rate constant for the reduction of horse heart cytochrome c by the electrostatically neutral lumiflavin semiquinone (LfH) is unaffected by complexation with native cytochrome b5 at pH 7. However, complex formation with DME-cytochrome b5 (pH 7) decreases by 35% the rate constant for cytochrome c reduction by LfH. At pH 8, complex formation with native cytochrome b5 decreases the rate constant for cytochrome c reduction by LfH markedly, whereas the rate constant for cytochrome c reduction, either unbound or in the complex formed with DME-cytochrome b5, is increased 2-fold relative to pH 7. These results indicate that the accessibility of the cytochrome c heme is not the same in the complexes formed with the two cytochrome b5 derivatives and that the docking geometry of the complex formed by the two native cytochromes is pH dependent. Binding of horse heart and tuna cytochromes c to native and DME-cytochromes b5 decreases the rate constants for reduction of cytochrome c by the negatively charged flavin mononucleotide semiquinone (FMNH) by approximately 30% and approximately 40%, respectively. This finding is attributed to substantial neutralization of the positive electrostatic potential surface of cytochrome c that occurs when it binds to either form of cytochrome b5.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  7. Spectral, thermal, kinetic, molecular modeling and eukaryotic DNA degradation studies for a new series of albendazole (HABZ) complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Metwaly, Nashwa M.; Refat, Moamen S.

    2011-01-01

    This work represents the elaborated investigation for the ligational behavior of the albendazole ligand through its coordination with, Cu(II), Mn(II), Ni(II), Co(II) and Cr(III) ions. Elemental analysis, molar conductance, magnetic moment, spectral studies (IR, UV-Vis and ESR) and thermogravimetric analysis (TG and DTG) have been used to characterize the isolated complexes. A deliberate comparison for the IR spectra reveals that the ligand coordinated with all mentioned metal ions by the same manner as a neutral bidentate through carbonyl of ester moiety and NH groups. The proposed chelation form for such complexes is expected through out the preparation conditions in a relatively acidic medium. The powder XRD study reflects the amorphous nature for the investigated complexes except Mn(II). The conductivity measurements reflect the non-electrolytic feature for all complexes. In comparing with the constants for the magnetic measurements as well as the electronic spectral data, the octahedral structure was proposed strongly for Cr(III) and Ni(II), the tetrahedral for Co(II) and Mn(II) complexes but the square-pyramidal for the Cu(II) one. The thermogravimetric analysis confirms the presence or absence of water molecules by any type of attachments. Also, the kinetic parameters are estimated from DTG and TG curves. ESR spectrum data for Cu(II) solid complex confirms the square-pyramidal state is the most fitted one for the coordinated structure. The albendazole ligand and its complexes are biologically investigated against two bacteria as well as their effective effect on degradation of calf thymus DNA.

  8. Process for making a ceramic composition for immobilization of actinides

    DOEpatents

    Ebbinghaus, Bartley B.; Van Konynenburg, Richard A.; Vance, Eric R.; Stewart, Martin W.; Walls, Philip A.; Brummond, William Allen; Armantrout, Guy A.; Herman, Connie Cicero; Hobson, Beverly F.; Herman, David Thomas; Curtis, Paul G.; Farmer, Joseph

    2001-01-01

    Disclosed is a process for making a ceramic composition for the immobilization of actinides, particularly uranium and plutonium. The ceramic is a titanate material comprising pyrochlore, brannerite and rutile. The process comprises oxidizing the actinides, milling the oxides to a powder, blending them with ceramic precursors, cold pressing the blend and sintering the pressed material.

  9. Improved method for extracting lanthanides and actinides from acid solutions

    DOEpatents

    Horwitz, E.P.; Kalina, D.G.; Kaplan, L.; Mason, G.W.

    1983-07-26

    A process for the recovery of actinide and lanthanide values from aqueous acidic solutions uses a new series of neutral bi-functional extractants, the alkyl(phenyl)-N,N-dialkylcarbamoylmethylphosphine oxides. The process is suitable for the separation of actinide and lanthanide values from fission product values found together in high-level nuclear reprocessing waste solutions.

  10. Process for Making a Ceramic Composition for Immobilization of Actinides

    SciTech Connect

    Ebbinghaus, Bartley B.; Van Konynenburg, Richard A.; Vance, Eric R.; Stewart, Martin W.; Walls, Philip A.; Brummond, William Allen; Armantrout, Guy A.; Curtis, Paul G.; Hobson, Beverly F.; Farmer, Joseph; Herman, Connie Cicero; Herman, David Thomas

    1999-06-22

    Disclosed is a process for making a ceramic composition for the immobilization of actinides, particularly uranium and plutonium. The ceramic is a titanate material comprising pyrochlore, brannerite and rutile. The process comprises oxidizing the actinides, milling the oxides to a powder, blending them with ceramic precursors, cold pressing the blend and sintering the pressed material.

  11. Study of actinide chemistry in saturated potassium fluoride solution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, D.; Thalmayer, C. E.

    1969-01-01

    Study concerning the chemistry of actinides in saturated KF solution included work with neptunium, uranium, and americium. Solubilities, absorption spectra, oxidation-reduction reactions, and solid compounds which can be produced in KF solution were examined. The information is used for preparation of various materials from salts of the actinides.

  12. Detailed calculations of minor actinide transmutation in a fast reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Takeda, Toshikazu

    2015-12-31

    The transmutation of minor actinides in a fast reactor is investigated by a new method to investigate the transmutation behavior of individual minor actinides. It is found that Np-237 and Am-241 mainly contributes to the transmutation rate though the transmutation behaviors are very different.

  13. POTENTIAL BENCHMARKS FOR ACTINIDE PRODUCTION IN HANFORD REACTORS

    SciTech Connect

    PUIGH RJ; TOFFER H

    2011-10-19

    A significant experimental program was conducted in the early Hanford reactors to understand the reactor production of actinides. These experiments were conducted with sufficient rigor, in some cases, to provide useful information that can be utilized today in development of benchmark experiments that may be used for the validation of present computer codes for the production of these actinides in low enriched uranium fuel.

  14. Protein conformational plasticity and complex ligand-binding kinetics explored by atomistic simulations and Markov models

    PubMed Central

    Plattner, Nuria; Noé, Frank

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the structural mechanisms of protein–ligand binding and their dependence on protein sequence and conformation is of fundamental importance for biomedical research. Here we investigate the interplay of conformational change and ligand-binding kinetics for the serine protease Trypsin and its competitive inhibitor Benzamidine with an extensive set of 150 μs molecular dynamics simulation data, analysed using a Markov state model. Seven metastable conformations with different binding pocket structures are found that interconvert at timescales of tens of microseconds. These conformations differ in their substrate-binding affinities and binding/dissociation rates. For each metastable state, corresponding solved structures of Trypsin mutants or similar serine proteases are contained in the protein data bank. Thus, our wild-type simulations explore a space of conformations that can be individually stabilized by adding ligands or making suitable changes in protein sequence. These findings provide direct evidence of conformational plasticity in receptors. PMID:26134632

  15. Selective Media for Actinide Collection and Pre-Concentration: Results of FY 2006 Studies

    SciTech Connect

    Lumetta, Gregg J.; Addleman, Raymond S.; Hay, Benjamin P.; Hubler, Timothy L.; Levitskaia, Tatiana G.; Sinkov, Sergey I.; Snow, Lanee A.; Warner, Marvin G.; Latesky, Stanley L.

    2006-11-17

    3] > 0.3 M. Preliminary results suggest that the Kl?ui resins can separate Pu(IV) from sample solutions containing high concentrations of competing ions. Conceptual protocols for recovery of the Pu from the resin for subsequent analysis have been proposed, but further work is needed to perfect these techniques. Work on this subject will be continued in FY 2007. Automated laboratory equipment (in conjunction with Task 3 of the NA-22 Automation Project) will be used in FY 2007 to improve the efficiency of these experiments. The sorption of actinide ions on self-assembled monolayer on mesoporous supports materials containing diphosphonate groups was also investigated. These materials also showed a very high affinity for tetravalent actinides, and they also sorbed U(VI) fairly strongly. Computational Ligand Design An extended MM3 molecular mechanics model was developed for calculating the structures of Kl?ui ligand complexes. This laid the groundwork necessary to perform the computer-aided design of bis-Kl?ui architectures tailored for Pu(IV) complexation. Calculated structures of the Kl?ui ligand complexes [Pu(Kl?ui)2(OH2)2]2+ and [Fe(Kl?ui)2]+ indicate a ''bent'' sandwich arrangement of the Kl?ui ligands in the Pu(IV) complex, whereas the Fe(III) complex prefers a ''linear'' octahedral arrangement of the two Kl?ui ligands. This offers the possibility that two Kl?ui ligands can be tethered together to form a material with very high binding affinity for Pu(IV) over Fe(III). The next step in the design process is to use de novo molecule building software (HostDesigner) to identify potential candidate architectures.

  16. Separation of actinides from lanthanides utilizing molten salt electrorefining

    SciTech Connect

    Grimmett, D.L.; Fusselman, S.P.; Roy, J.J.; Gay, R.L.; Krueger, C.L.; Storvick, T.S.; Inoue, T.; Hijikata, T.; Takahashi, N.

    1996-10-01

    TRUMP-S (TRansUranic Management through Pyropartitioning Separation) is a pyrochemical process being developed to separate actinides form fission products in nuclear waste. A key process step involving molten salt electrorefining to separate actinides from lanthanides has been studied on a laboratory scale. Electrorefining of U, Np, Pu, Am, and lanthanide mixtures from molten cadmium at 450 C to a solid cathode utilizing a molten chloride electrolyte resulted in > 99% removal of actinides from the molten cadmium and salt phases. Removal of the last few percent of actinides is accompanied by lowered cathodic current efficiency and some lanthanide codeposition. Actinide/lanthanide separation ratios on the cathode are ordered U > Np > Pu > Am and are consistent with predictions based on equilibrium potentials.

  17. Actinide covalency measured by pulsed electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Formanuik, Alasdair; Ariciu, Ana-Maria; Ortu, Fabrizio; Beekmeyer, Reece; Kerridge, Andrew; Tuna, Floriana; McInnes, Eric J. L.; Mills, David P.

    2017-06-01

    Our knowledge of actinide chemical bonds lags far behind our understanding of the bonding regimes of any other series of elements. This is a major issue given the technological as well as fundamental importance of f-block elements. Some key chemical differences between actinides and lanthanides—and between different actinides—can be ascribed to minor differences in covalency, that is, the degree to which electrons are shared between the f-block element and coordinated ligands. Yet there are almost no direct measures of such covalency for actinides. Here we report the first pulsed electron paramagnetic resonance spectra of actinide compounds. We apply the hyperfine sublevel correlation technique to quantify the electron-spin density at ligand nuclei (via the weak hyperfine interactions) in molecular thorium(III) and uranium(III) species and therefore the extent of covalency. Such information will be important in developing our understanding of the chemical bonding, and therefore the reactivity, of actinides.

  18. Chemistry of lower valent actinide halides

    SciTech Connect

    Lau, K.H.; Hildenbrand, D.L.

    1992-01-01

    This research effort was concerned almost entirely with the first two members of the actinide series, thorium and uranium, although the work was later extended to some aspects of the neptunium-fluorine system in a collaborative program with Los Alamos National Laboratory. Detailed information about the lighter actinides will be helpful in modeling the properties of the heavier actinide compounds, which will be much more difficult to study experimentally. In this program, thermochemical information was obtained from high temperature equilibrium measurements made by effusion-beam mass spectrometry and by effusion-pressure techniques. Data were derived primarily from second-law analysis so as to avoid potential errors in third-law calculations resulting from uncertainties in spectroscopic and molecular constants. This approach has the additional advantage of yielding reaction entropies that can be checked for consistency with various molecular constant assignments for the species involved. In the U-F, U-Cl, and U-Br systems, all of the gaseous species UX, UX{sub 2}, UX{sub 3}, UX{sub 4}, and UX{sub 5}, where X represents the halogen, were identified and characterized; the corresponding species ThX, ThX{sub 2}, ThX{sub 3}, and ThX{sub 4} were studied in the Th-F, Th-Cl, and Th-Br systems. A number of oxyhalide species in the systems U-0-F, U-0-Cl, Th-0-F, and Th-O-Cl were studied thermochemically. Additionally, the sublimation thermodynamics of NpF{sub 4}(s) and NpO{sub 2}F{sub 2}(s) were studied by mass spectrometry.

  19. Status of nuclear data for actinides

    SciTech Connect

    Guzhovskii, B.Y.; Gorelov, V.P.; Grebennikov, A.N.

    1995-10-01

    Nuclear data required for transmutation problem include many actinide nuclei. In present paper the analysis of neutron fission, capture, (n,2n) and (n,3n) reaction cross sections at energy region from thermal point to 14 MeV was carried out for Th, Pa, U, Np, Pu, Am and Cm isotops using modern evaluated nuclear data libraries and handbooks of recommended nuclear data. Comparison of these data indicates on substantial discrepancies in different versions of files, that connect with quality and completeness of original experimental data.

  20. Actinide management with commercial fast reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Ohki, Shigeo

    2015-12-31

    The capability of plutonium-breeding and minor-actinide (MA) transmutation in the Japanese commercial sodium-cooled fast reactor offers one of practical solutions for obtaining sustainable energy resources as well as reducing radioactive toxicity and inventory. The reference core design meets the requirement of flexible breeding ratio from 1.03 to 1.2. The MA transmutation amount has been evaluated as 50-100 kg/GW{sub e}y if the MA content in fresh fuel is 3-5 wt%, where about 30-40% of initial MA can be transmuted in the discharged fuel.

  1. Actinide management with commercial fast reactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohki, Shigeo

    2015-12-01

    The capability of plutonium-breeding and minor-actinide (MA) transmutation in the Japanese commercial sodium-cooled fast reactor offers one of practical solutions for obtaining sustainable energy resources as well as reducing radioactive toxicity and inventory. The reference core design meets the requirement of flexible breeding ratio from 1.03 to 1.2. The MA transmutation amount has been evaluated as 50-100 kg/GWey if the MA content in fresh fuel is 3-5 wt%, where about 30-40% of initial MA can be transmuted in the discharged fuel.

  2. Vapor pressure and thermodynamics of actinide metals

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, J.W.; Kleinschmidt, P.D.; Haire, R.G.; Brown, D.

    1980-01-01

    Precise vapor pressure measurements by target collection/mass spectrometric Knudsen effusion techniques were combined with crystal entropy estimates to produce self-consistent free-enrgy functions, permitting calculation of heats, entropies and free energies from 298/sup 0/K to the highest temperatures of measurement. The vapor pressures and thermodyamics of vaporization of americium, curium, berkelium, and californium are compared in terms of electronic structure and bonding trends in the trans-plutonium elements. These resuslts are contrasted with the behavior of the early actinides, with attention to energy states and possible effects of f-electron bonding. 9 figures, 4 tables.

  3. Actinide removal from nitric acid waste streams

    SciTech Connect

    Muscatello, A.C.; Navratil, J.D.

    1986-01-01

    Actinide separations research at the Rocky Flats Plant (RFP) has found ways to significantly improve plutonium secondary recovery and americium removal from nitric acid waste streams generated by plutonium purification operations. Capacity and breakthrough studies show anion exchange with Dowex 1x4 (50 to 100 mesh) to be superior for secondary recovery of plutonium. Extraction chromatography with TOPO(tri-n-octyl-phosphine oxide) on XAD-4 removes the final traces of plutonium, including hydrolytic polymer. Partial neutralization and solid supported liquid membrane transfer removes americium for sorption on discardable inorganic ion exchangers, potentially allowing for non-TRU waste disposal.

  4. Multicoordinate ligands for actinide/lanthanide separations.

    PubMed

    Dam, Henk H; Reinhoudt, David N; Verboom, Willem

    2007-02-01

    In nuclear waste treatment processes there is a need for improved ligands for the separation of actinides (An(III)) and lanthanides (Ln(III)). Several research groups are involved in the design and synthesis of new An(III) ligands and in the confinement of these and existing An(III) ligands onto molecular platforms giving multicoordinate ligands. The preorganization of ligands considerably improves the An(III) extraction properties, which are largely dependent on the solubility and rigidity of the platform. This tutorial review summarizes the most important An(III) ligands with emphasis on the preorganization strategy using (macrocyclic) platforms.

  5. Advancing Chemistry with the Lanthanide and Actinide Elements: Final Report, September 2013

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, William John

    2013-09-11

    The objective of this research is to use the unique chemistry available from complexes of the lanthanides and actinides, as well as related heavy metals such as scandium, yttrium, and bismuth to advance chemistry in energy-related areas. The lanthanides and actinides have a combination of properties in terms of size, charge, electropositive character, and f valence orbitals that provides special opportunities to probe reactivity and catalysis in ways not possible with the other metals in the periodic table. We seek to discover reaction pathways and structural types that reveal new options in reaction chemistry related to energy. Identification of new paradigms in structure and reactivity should stimulate efforts to develop new types of catalytic processes that at present are not under consideration because either the transformation or the necessary intermediates are unknown.

  6. Bidentate organophosphorus compound management of actinide and lanthanide extraction by changing structure and diluent parameter

    SciTech Connect

    Rozen, A.M.; Volk, V.I.; Zakharkin, B.S.; Nikolotova, Z.I.; Kartasheva, N.A.; Bochvar, A.A.

    1995-12-31

    Extraction of actinides and lanthanides by bidentate organophosphorus compounds (diphosphine dioxides and carbamoylphosphine oxides) can be managed by varying the polarity of diluent DP* in the range of 2--5 and by introducing aryl groups (tolyl) into an extractant molecule which results in improved extraction ability due to bidentate coordination and effect of the anomalous aryl strengthening (AAS) of the complexes. Disappearance of AAS effect upon carbamoylphosphine oxide extraction at the lower polarity of diluent (not observed toy diphosphine dioxides) is explained by an increase of the solvate number to three and transfer from bidentate coordination to monodentate one. Due to AAS effect the above mentioned extractants can be used for deep purification of waste to remove actinides without any preliminary conditioning of solutions.

  7. f-state luminescence of lanthanide and actinide ions in solution

    SciTech Connect

    Beitz, J.V.

    1993-09-01

    Detailed studies of the luminescence of aquated Am{sup 3+} are presented in the context of prior lanthanide and actinide ion work. The luminescing state of aquated Am{sup 3+} is confirmed to be {sup 5}D{sub l} based on observed emission and excitation spectra. The luminescence lifetime of Am{sup 3+} in H{sub 2}O solution is (22 {plus_minus} 3) ns and (155 {plus_minus} 4) ns in D{sub 2}O solution at 295 K. Judd-Ofelt transition intensity theory qualitatively describes the observed Am{sup 3+} relative integrated fluorescence intensities. Recent luminescence studies on complexed trivalent f-element ions in solution are reviewed as to the similarities and differences between lanthanide ion 4f state and actinide ion 5f state properties.

  8. PROXiMATE: a database of mutant protein-protein complex thermodynamics and kinetics.

    PubMed

    Jemimah, Sherlyn; Yugandhar, K; Michael Gromiha, M

    2017-09-01

    We have developed PROXiMATE, a database of thermodynamic data for more than 6000 missense mutations in 174 heterodimeric protein-protein complexes, supplemented with interaction network data from STRING database, solvent accessibility, sequence, structural and functional information, experimental conditions and literature information. Additional features include complex structure visualization, search and display options, download options and a provision for users to upload their data. The database is freely available at http://www.iitm.ac.in/bioinfo/PROXiMATE/ . The website is implemented in Python, and supports recent versions of major browsers such as IE10, Firefox, Chrome and Opera. gromiha@iitm.ac.in. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

  9. Excitation functions for production of heavy actinides from interactions of /sup 18/O with /sup 248/Cm and /sup 249/Cf

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, D.; Moody, K.J.; Nurmia, M.J.; Seaborg, G.T.; von Gunten, H.R.; Hoffman, D.C.

    1983-06-01

    Excitation functions have been measured for the production of isotopes of Bk through Fm in bombardments of /sup 248/Cm with 97- to 122-MeV /sup 18/O ions and of isotopes of Bk through No in bombardments of /sup 249/Cf with 91- to 150-MeV /sup 18/O ions. The cross sections and widths of the mass distributions for the actinides produced in these reactions are very similar for transfer of the same numbers of nucleons. A semiquantitative comparison of the experimental results with calculations based on a simple model shows that calculations of this type are helpful in selection of projectile-target systems and optimum energies for production of specific actinide isotopes and for synthesis of as yet unknown heavy isotopes and elements. Comparisons of experimental results with calculations show that, in general, about half of the kinetic energy of the projectile is transferred to the actinide product.

  10. Complexation of κ-carrageenan with gelatin in the aqueous phase analysed by (1)H NMR kinetics and relaxation.

    PubMed

    Voron'ko, Nicolay G; Derkach, Svetlana R; Vovk, Mikhail A; Tolstoy, Peter M

    2017-08-01

    The (1)H NMR spectroscopy is used to study the kinetics of gelation in the aqueous mixtures of κ-carrageenan with gelatin. The time dependence of NMR signals intensities shows that the kinetics of gel formation consists of classical 'fast' (rate constant k≈6h(-1)) and 'slow' (k≈1h(-1)) periods, corresponding to a coil→helix transition and subsequent aggregation of helices. Upon increase of the κ-carrageenan/gelatin (w/w) ratio Z the rate of the fast process slows down by a factor of 1.6-2.4. Further analysis was done by studying the dependence of spin-spin relaxation times of protons of gelatin on Z in the aqueous phase. A qualitative scheme describing hydrogel formation in the complex solution is given. It is hypothesized that at higher concentration of PECs the hydrogel structure network is stabilized by three types of nodes: triple helices of gelatin and intra-/inter-molecular double helices of κ-carrageenan. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Deacylation Mechanism and Kinetics of Acyl-Enzyme Complex of Class C β-Lactamase and Cephalothin.

    PubMed

    Tripathi, Ravi; Nair, Nisanth N

    2016-03-17

    Understanding the molecular details of antibiotic resistance by the bacterial enzymes β-lactamases is vital for the development of novel antibiotics and inhibitors. In this spirit, the detailed mechanism of deacylation of the acyl-enzyme complex formed by cephalothin and class C β-lactamase is investigated here using hybrid quantum-mechanical/molecular-mechanical molecular dynamics methods. The roles of various active-site residues and substrate in the deacylation reaction are elucidated. We identify the base that activates the hydrolyzing water molecule and the residue that protonates the catalytic serine (Ser64). Conformational changes in the active sites and proton transfers that potentiate the efficiency of the deacylation reaction are presented. We have also characterized the oxyanion holes and other H-bonding interactions that stabilize the reaction intermediates. Together with the kinetic and mechanistic details of the acylation reaction, we analyze the complete mechanism and the overall kinetics of the drug hydrolysis. Finally, the apparent rate-determining step in the drug hydrolysis is scrutinized.

  12. Kinetics and equilibria for the formation of a new DNA metal-intercalator: the cyclic polyamine Neotrien/copper(II) complex.

    PubMed

    Biver, Tarita; Secco, Fernando; Tinè, Maria Rosaria; Venturini, Marcella

    2004-01-01

    A study has been performed of the kinetics and equilibria involved in complex formation between the macrocyclic polyamine 2,5,8,11-tetraaza[12]-[12](2,9)[1,10]-phenanthrolinophane (Neotrien) and Cu(II) in acidic aqueous solution and ionic strength 0.5 M (NaCl), by means of the stopped-flow method and UV spectrophotometry. Spectrophotometric titrations and kinetic experiments revealed that the binding of Cu(II) to Neotrien gives rise to several 1:1 complexes differing in their degree of protonation. Under the experimental hydrogen ion concentration range investigated, complexation occurs by two parallel paths: (a) M2+ + (H4L)4+ <==> (MH4L)6+ and (b) M2+ + (H3L)3+ <==> (MH3L)5+. The rate constants values found for complex formation, by paths (a) and (b), are much lower than the values expected from water exchange at copper(II) and other amine/Cu(II) complexation kinetic constants. Kinetic experiments at different NaCl concentrations indicated that this finding was not due to chloride ion competition in complex formation with Neotrien, but it was related to a ring rigidity effect. As the phenanthroline moiety could, in principle, interact with nucleic acids by intercalation or external binding, some preliminary measurements concerned with the possible interactions occurring between the Cu(II)/Neotrien complex and calf thymus DNA (CT-DNA) have also been carried out. The absorption spectra of the Cu(II)/Neotrien complex change upon addition of CT-DNA at pH 7.0, revealing the occurrence of complex-nucleic acid interactions. Moreover, fluorescence titrations, carried out by adding the Cu(II)/Neotrien complex to CT-DNA, previously saturated with ethidium bromide (EB), show that the Cu(II)/Neotrien complex is able to displace EB from DNA, suggesting the complex is able to intercalate into the polynucleotide and then to cleave the phosphodiester bond of DNA.

  13. Kinetics and Photochemistry of Ruthenium Bisbipyridine Diacetonitrile Complexes: An Interdisciplinary Inorganic and Physical Chemistry Laboratory Exercise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rapp, Teresa L.; Phillips, Susan R.; Dmochowski, Ivan J.

    2016-01-01

    The study of ruthenium polypyridyl complexes can be widely applied across disciplines in the undergraduate curriculum. Ruthenium photochemistry has advanced many fields including dye-sensitized solar cells, photoredox catalysis, lightdriven water oxidation, and biological electron transfer. Equally promising are ruthenium polypyridyl complexes…

  14. Protein Kinase A Governs Oxidative Phosphorylation Kinetics and Oxidant Emitting Potential at Complex I

    PubMed Central

    Lark, Daniel S.; Reese, Lauren R.; Ryan, Terence E.; Torres, Maria J.; Smith, Cody D.; Lin, Chien-Te; Neufer, P. Darrell

    2015-01-01

    The mitochondrial electron transport system (ETS) is responsible for setting and maintaining both the energy and redox charges throughout the cell. Reversible phosphorylation of mitochondrial proteins, particularly via the soluble adenylyl cyclase (sAC)/cyclic AMP (cAMP)/Protein kinase A (PKA) axis, has recently been revealed as a potential mechanism regulating the ETS. However, the governance of cAMP/PKA signaling and its implications on ETS function are incompletely understood. In contrast to prior reports using exogenous bicarbonate, we provide evidence that endogenous CO2 produced by increased tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle flux is insufficient to increase mitochondrial cAMP levels, and that exogenous addition of membrane permeant 8Br-cAMP does not enhance mitochondrial respiratory capacity. We also report important non-specific effects of commonly used inhibitors of sAC which preclude their use in studies of mitochondrial function. In isolated liver mitochondria, inhibition of PKA reduced complex I-, but not complex II-supported respiratory capacity. In permeabilized myofibers, inhibition of PKA lowered both the Km and Vmax for complex I-supported respiration as well as succinate-supported H2O2 emitting potential. In summary, the data provided here improve our understanding of how mitochondrial cAMP production is regulated, illustrate a need for better tools to examine the impact of sAC activity on mitochondrial biology, and suggest that cAMP/PKA signaling contributes to the governance of electron flow through complex I of the ETS. PMID:26635618

  15. Protein Kinase A Governs Oxidative Phosphorylation Kinetics and Oxidant Emitting Potential at Complex I.

    PubMed

    Lark, Daniel S; Reese, Lauren R; Ryan, Terence E; Torres, Maria J; Smith, Cody D; Lin, Chien-Te; Neufer, P Darrell

    2015-01-01

    The mitochondrial electron transport system (ETS) is responsible for setting and maintaining both the energy and redox charges throughout the cell. Reversible phosphorylation of mitochondrial proteins, particularly via the soluble adenylyl cyclase (sAC)/cyclic AMP (cAMP)/Protein kinase A (PKA) axis, has recently been revealed as a potential mechanism regulating the ETS. However, the governance of cAMP/PKA signaling and its implications on ETS function are incompletely understood. In contrast to prior reports using exogenous bicarbonate, we provide evidence that endogenous CO2 produced by increased tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle flux is insufficient to increase mitochondrial cAMP levels, and that exogenous addition of membrane permeant 8Br-cAMP does not enhance mitochondrial respiratory capacity. We also report important non-specific effects of commonly used inhibitors of sAC which preclude their use in studies of mitochondrial function. In isolated liver mitochondria, inhibition of PKA reduced complex I-, but not complex II-supported respiratory capacity. In permeabilized myofibers, inhibition of PKA lowered both the K m and V max for complex I-supported respiration as well as succinate-supported H2O2 emitting potential. In summary, the data provided here improve our understanding of how mitochondrial cAMP production is regulated, illustrate a need for better tools to examine the impact of sAC activity on mitochondrial biology, and suggest that cAMP/PKA signaling contributes to the governance of electron flow through complex I of the ETS.

  16. Kinetics and Photochemistry of Ruthenium Bisbipyridine Diacetonitrile Complexes: An Interdisciplinary Inorganic and Physical Chemistry Laboratory Exercise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rapp, Teresa L.; Phillips, Susan R.; Dmochowski, Ivan J.

    2016-01-01

    The study of ruthenium polypyridyl complexes can be widely applied across disciplines in the undergraduate curriculum. Ruthenium photochemistry has advanced many fields including dye-sensitized solar cells, photoredox catalysis, lightdriven water oxidation, and biological electron transfer. Equally promising are ruthenium polypyridyl complexes…

  17. Equilibria, Kinetics, and Mechanism for Rapid Substitution Reactions Trans to Triphenylsilyl in Platinum(II) Complexes.

    PubMed

    Wendt, Ola F.; Elding, Lars I.

    1997-12-17

    Fast substitution of chloride for bromide and iodide trans to triphenylsilyl in trans-PtCl(SiPh(3))(PMe(2)Ph)(2) has been studied by stopped-flow spectrophotometry in acetonitrile solution. Substitution is reversible with an observable solvent path via the solvento complex trans-[Pt(SiPh(3))(MeCN)(PMe(2)Ph)(2)](+), which has also been synthesized and characterized in solution. Rate constants for the forward and reverse direct substitution pathways are 2900 +/- 100 and 7500 +/- 300 for bromide and 14300 +/- 1100 and 81000 +/- 11000 M(-)(1) s(-)(1) for iodide as nucleophile. The solvento complex reacts ca. 10(3) times faster with iodide than the parent chloride complex, and its reactivity is some 2 orders of magnitude higher than the most reactive solvento species of platinum(II) studied so far. Halide substitution occurs with negative volumes and entropies of activation, but the nucleophilic discrimination is low, and the leaving ligand plays the most important role in the activation process, indicating an I(d) mechanism. Triphenylsilyl has a very high trans effect, comparable to that of ethene and methylisocyanide, due to extensive bond-weakening in the ground state, probably enforced by pi-acception in the transition state. Due to electronic and solvational effects the platinum(II) silyl moiety acts as a hard or borderline metal center in acetonitrile, the thermodynamic stability sequence of its halide complexes being Cl > Br > I, i.e. the reverse of what is usually observed for platinum(II) complexes.

  18. Kinetic analysis of complex training rest interval effect on vertical jump performance.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Randall L; Ebben, William P

    2003-05-01

    Complex training has been recommended as a method of incorporating plyometrics with strength training. Some research suggests that plyometric performance is enhanced when performed 3-4 minutes after the strength training set, whereas other studies have failed to find any complex training advantage when plyometrics are performed immediately after the strength training portion of the complex. The purpose of this study was to determine if there is an ergogenic advantage associated with complex training and if there is an optimal time for performing plyometrics after the strength training set. Subjects were 21 NCAA Division I athletes who performed a countermovement vertical jump, a set of 5 repetitions maximum (5 RM) squats, and 5 trials of countermovement vertical jump at intervals of 10 seconds and 1, 2, 3, and 4 minutes after the squat. Jump height and peak ground reaction forces were acquired via a force platform. The pre-squat jump performance was compared with the post-squat jumps. Repeated measures ANOVA determined a difference (p 0.05) was found comparing subsequent jumps (0.72-0.76 m) to the pre-squat condition (0.74 m). When comparing high to low strength individuals, there was no effect on jump performance following the squat (p > 0.05). In conclusion, complex training does not appear to enhance jumping performance significantly and actually decreases it when the jump is performed immediately following the strength training set; however, a nonsignificant trend toward improvement seemed to be present. Therefore to optimize jump performance it appears that athletes should not perform jumps immediately following resistance training. It may be possible that beyond 4 minutes of recovery performance could be enhanced; however, that was not within the scope of the current study.

  19. Complex kinetic pathway of furfuryl alcohol polymerization catalyzed by green montmorillonite clays.

    PubMed

    Zavaglia, Raffaele; Guigo, Nathanael; Sbirrazzuoli, Nicolas; Mija, Alice; Vincent, Luc

    2012-07-19

    Furfuryl alcohol (FA) which is derived from lignocellulosic biomass polymerizes into poly(furfuryl alcohol) (PFA) under acidic catalysis. A greener and more sustainable catalytic route was proposed in order to replace hazardous acidic catalysts. Organically modified montmorillonite (Org-MMT) and, in comparison, sodium MMT (Na-MMT) are used to evaluate the catalytic effect on the FA polymerization. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electronic microscopy (TEM) show that clay layers have been exfoliated during polymerization. Additional FTIR spectroscopy measurements confirm that furanic oligomers have intercalated between clay layers by cation exchange. An original combination between chemorheological and model-free kinetic analysis allows highlighting the influence of MMT on the overall polymerization pathway. The octadecyl ammonium cation (ODA) was also used as homogeneous acidic catalyst to highlight the specific role of this interlayer cation present in Org-MMT. Interestingly, FA/Org-MMT polymerizes more rapidly than FA/ODA but initiation of polymerization is slightly shifted to higher temperature due to initial intercalation between MMT layers. Then, the dual acidic character (Lewis + Brönsted) of Org-MMT leads to gelation at early stage of polymerization. The results clearly show that exfoliation of MMT layers increases the efficiency of collisions.

  20. Cs{sup +} ion exchange kinetics in complex electrolyte solutions using hydrous crystalline silicotitanates

    SciTech Connect

    Gu, D.; Nguyen, L.; Philip, C.V.; Huckman, M.E.; Anthony, R.G.; Miller, J.E.; Trudell, D.E.

    1997-12-01

    TAM-5 is a hydrous crystalline sodium silicotitanate inorganic ion exchanger with a high selectivity for Cs{sup +}. The kinetics of Cs{sup +}-Na{sup +} ion exchange using TAM-5 in multicomponent electrolyte solutions were determined using batch experiments. For the powder, which is composed of crystals, a single-phase, homogeneous model fit the data best. For the granules, which were prepared from the powder, a two-phase, heterogeneous model resulted in an excellent fit of the data. Macropore and crystal diffusivities were determined by fitting the model to experimental data collected on the powder and the granules. Intracrystalline diffusivities were concentration dependent and were on the order of 10{sup {minus}19} m{sup 2}/s. Macropore diffusivities were on the order of 10{sup {minus}10} m{sup 2}/s. Resistance to diffusion in the macropores was not significant for granules with diameters less than 15 {micro}m. A two-phase, homogeneous model, where liquid within the pores is in equilibrium with the solid, was also evaluated for the granules. Surprisingly, for the granules, an excellent fit of the data was obtained; however, the effective macropore diffusivity was 1.1 {times} 10{sup {minus}11} m{sup 2}/s, an order of magnitude smaller than the macropore diffusivity found using the two-phase, heterogeneous model.