Negrete-Abascal, Erasmo; Reyes, Magda E; García, Rosa M; Vaca, Sergio; Girón, Jorge A; García, Octavio; Zenteno, Edgar; De La Garza, Mireya
Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae has been considered nonmotile and nonflagellate. In this work, it is demonstrated that A. pleuropneumoniae produces flagella composed of a 65-kDa protein with an N-terminal amino acid sequence that shows 100% identity with those of Escherichia coli, Salmonella, and Shigella flagellins. The DNA sequence obtained through PCR of the fliC gene in A. pleuropneumoniae showed considerable identity (93%) in its 5' and 3' ends with the DNA sequences of corresponding genes in E. coli, Salmonella enterica, and Shigella spp. The motility of A. pleuropneumoniae was observed in tryptic soy or brain heart infusion soft agar media, and it is influenced by temperature. Flagella and motility may be involved in the survival and pathogenesis of A. pleuropneumoniae in pigs.
Negrete-Abascal, Erasmo; Reyes, Magda E.; García, Rosa M.; Vaca, Sergio; Girón, Jorge A.; García, Octavio; Zenteno, Edgar; de la Garza, Mireya
Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae has been considered nonmotile and nonflagellate. In this work, it is demonstrated that A. pleuropneumoniae produces flagella composed of a 65-kDa protein with an N-terminal amino acid sequence that shows 100% identity with those of Escherichia coli, Salmonella, and Shigella flagellins. The DNA sequence obtained through PCR of the fliC gene in A. pleuropneumoniae showed considerable identity (93%) in its 5′ and 3′ ends with the DNA sequences of corresponding genes in E. coli, Salmonella enterica, and Shigella spp. The motility of A. pleuropneumoniae was observed in tryptic soy or brain heart infusion soft agar media, and it is influenced by temperature. Flagella and motility may be involved in the survival and pathogenesis of A. pleuropneumoniae in pigs. PMID:12511514
Fuller, T E; Mulks, M H
In this paper, we report the identification, cloning, and complete nucleotide sequence of four genes from Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae that are involved in riboflavin biosynthesis. The cloned genes can specify production of large amounts of riboflavin in Escherichia coli, can complement several defined genetic mutations in riboflavin biosynthesis in E. coli, and are homologous to riboflavin biosynthetic genes from E. coli, Haemophilus influenzae, and Bacillus subtilis. The genes have been designated A. pleuropneumoniae ribGBAH because of their similarity in both sequence and arrangement to the B. subtilis ribGBAH operon. PMID:8522537
Negrete-Abascal, E; Tenorio, V; García, C; Godínez, D; Serrano, J J; de la Cuadra, J A; de la Garza, M A
Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae is the causal agent of porcine contagious pleuropneumonia (PCP). The infection produces important economic losses in porciculture due to its high morbidity and mortality. Survivors are asymptomatic carriers infectious to other pigs and have low alimentary conversion. The causative agent possesses several virulence factors: adhesion fimbriae, lipopolysaccharide of the outer membrane, capsule, and cytolysins. In addition, our group has reported secretion proteases of a wide pH range of activity. These proteases degrade different substrates such as porcine gelatin, hemoglobin and IgA, and bovine or human hemoglobin. To control PCP dissemination, farmers require serodiagnostic tests which detect carriers and discriminate between vaccinated and infected animals. Bacterines used as immunogens are serotype specific and do not prevent the infection. Genes have been cloned that codify a cohemolysin, cytolysins, and an iron-binding protein. We have cloned A. pleuropneumoniae genes using the expression plasmids pUC19 and Bluescript, in Escherichia coli Q358 and DH5 alpha; the screening for antigen production was made in four groups of pigs (vaccinated, experimentally infected, naturally infected, and from slaughterhouses); two E. coli clones expressed polypeptides recognized by sera from all the groups.
Smits, M A; Briaire, J; Jansen, R; Smith, H E; Kamp, E M; Gielkens, A L
Cytolysin I (ClyI) and cytolysin II (ClyII), which are present in the culture supernatant of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serotype 9, are thought to play an important role in the pathogenesis of pig pleuropneumonia. The purpose of this study was to clone and characterize the genetic determinants of these cytolysins. Cloning was accomplished by the screening of DNA libraries for the presence of cytolytic activity and for the presence of DNA sequences homologous to leukotoxin DNA of Pasteurella haemolytica. Both genetic determinants were found to be members of the RTX cytotoxin family. The ClyII determinant was characterized in more detail. It appeared that ClyII more closely resembled the leukotoxin of P. haemolytica than the alpha-hemolysin of Escherichia coli. The ClyII amino acid sequence was identical to a hemolysin gene sequence of A. pleuropneumoniae serotype 5; this finding indicates that the latter gene also codes for ClyII and not for ClyI, as has previously been suggested. The genetic organization of the ClyII determinant differed from the genetic organization of other RTX determinants. Genes responsible for secretion of ClyII were not contiguous with the toxin gene. Instead, secretion genes were present elsewhere in the genome. These secretion genes, however, belong to the ClyI operon. This indicates that the secretion genes of the ClyI operon are responsible for secretion of ClyI and ClyII. Images PMID:1937809
Loera-Muro, Victor M; Jacques, Mario; Tremblay, Yannick D N; Avelar-González, Francisco J; Loera Muro, Abraham; Ramírez-López, Elsa M; Medina-Figueroa, Alejandra; González-Reynaga, Higinio M; Guerrero-Barrera, Alma L
Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae is the aetiological agent of porcine pleuropneumonia and is normally transmitted by aerosols and direct contact between animals. A. pleuropneumoniae has traditionally been considered an obligate pathogen of pigs and its presence in the environment has yet to be investigated. Here, the presence of A. pleuropneumoniae was detected in drinking water of pig farms in Mexico using a PCR specific for the RTX toxin gene, apxIV. The presence of A. pleuropneumoniae in farm drinking water was confirmed by indirect immunofluorescence using an A. pleuropneumoniae-specific polyclonal antibody and by fluorescent in situ hybridization. Viable bacteria from the farm drinking water were detected using the Live/Dead BacLight stain. Additionally, viable A. pleuropneumoniae was selected and isolated using the cAMP test and the identity of the isolated bacteria were confirmed by Gram staining, a specific polyclonal antibody and an A. pleuropneumoniae-specific PCR. Furthermore, biofilms were observed by scanning electron microscopy in A. pleuropneumoniae-positive samples. In conclusion, our data suggest that viable A. pleuropneumoniae is present in the drinking water of swine farms and may use biofilm as a strategy to survive in the environment.
Kamp, E M; Vermeulen, T M; Smits, M A; Haagsma, J
The three Apx toxins of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae have potential value for use in vaccines and diagnostic tests which will be species specific instead of serotype specific, provided that the Apx toxins are species specific and all field strains produce these toxins. We examined 114 A. pleuropneumoniae field strains and found that they secreted either ApxI, ApxII, ApxI and ApxII, or ApxII and ApxIII and secreted no other cytolytic activities. However, proteins similar to ApxI and ApxII were also produced by Actinobacillus suis. Images PMID:8063425
Sassu, Elena L; Frömbling, Janna; Duvigneau, J Catharina; Miller, Ingrid; Müllebner, Andrea; Gutiérrez, Ana M; Grunert, Tom; Patzl, Martina; Saalmüller, Armin; von Altrock, Alexandra; Menzel, Anne; Ganter, Martin; Spergser, Joachim; Hewicker-Trautwein, Marion; Verspohl, Jutta; Ehling-Schulz, Monika; Hennig-Pauka, Isabel
Actinobacillus (A.) pleuropneumoniae is the causative agent of porcine pleuropneumonia and causes significant losses in the pig industry worldwide. Early host immune response is crucial for further progression of the disease. A. pleuropneumoniae is either rapidly eliminated by the immune system or switches to a long-term persistent form. To gain insight into the host-pathogen interaction during the early stages of infection, pigs were inoculated intratracheally with A. pleuropneumoniae serotype 2 and humanely euthanized eight hours after infection. Gene expression studies of inflammatory cytokines and the acute phase proteins haptoglobin, serum amyloid A and C-reactive protein were carried out by RT-qPCR from the lung, liver, tonsils and salivary gland. In addition, the concentration of cytokines and acute phase proteins were measured by quantitative immunoassays in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, serum and saliva. In parallel to the analyses of host response, the impact of the host on the bacterial pathogen was assessed on a metabolic level. For the latter, Fourier-Transform Infrared (FTIR-) spectroscopy was employed. Significant cytokine and acute phase protein gene expression was detected in the lung and the salivary gland however this was not observed in the tonsils. In parallel to the analyses of host response, the impact of the host on the bacterial pathogen was assessed on a metabolic level. For the latter investigations, Fourier-Transform Infrared (FTIR-) spectroscopy was employed. The bacteria isolated from the upper and lower respiratory tract showed distinct IR spectral patterns reflecting the organ-specific acute phase response of the host. In summary, this study implies a metabolic adaptation of A. pleuropneumoniae to the porcine upper respiratory tract already during early infection, which might indicate a first step towards the persistence of A. pleuropneumoniae. Not only in lung, but also in the salivary gland an increased inflammatory gene expression
Li, Lu; Chen, Zhaohui; Bei, Weicheng; Su, Zhipeng; Huang, Qi; Zhang, Liang; Chen, Huanchun; Zhou, Rui
Catecholamines are host stress hormones that can induce the growth of many bacteria by facilitating iron utilization and/or regulate the expression of virulence genes through specific hormone receptors. Whether these two responsive pathways are interconnected is unknown. In our previous study, it was found that catecholamines can regulate the expression of a great number of genes of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, an important swine respiratory pathogen. However, bacterial growth was not affected by catecholamines in rich medium. In this study, it was discovered that catecholamines affected A. pleuropneumoniae growth in chemically defined medium (CDM). We found that serum inhibited A. pleuropneumoniae growth in CDM, while epinephrine, norepinephrine and dopamine promoted A. pleuropneumoniae growth in the CDM containing serum. The known bacterial hormone receptor QseC didn't play roles in this process. Ion-supplementation and transcriptome analysis indicated that serum addition resulted in iron-restricted conditions which were alleviated by the addition of catecholamines. Transferrin, one of the components in serum, inhibited the growth of A. pleuropneumoniae in CDM, an effect reversed by addition of catecholamines in a TonB2-dependent manner. Our data demonstrate that catecholamines promote A. pleuropneumoniae growth by regulating iron-acquisition and metabolism, which is independent of the adrenergic receptor QseC.
Karwacki, Michael T.; Kadouri, Daniel E.; Bendaoud, Meriem; Izano, Era A.; Sampathkumar, Vandana; Inzana, Thomas J.; Kaplan, Jeffrey B.
Cell-free extracts isolated from colony biofilms of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serotype 5 were found to inhibit biofilm formation by Staphylococcus aureus, S. epidermidis and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, but not by A. pleuropneumoniae serotype 5 itself, in a 96-well microtiter plate assay. Physical and chemical analyses indicated that the antibiofilm activity in the extract was due to high-molecular-weight polysaccharide. Extracts isolated from a mutant strain deficient in the production of serotype 5 capsular polysaccharide did not exhibit antibiofilm activity. A plasmid harboring the serotype 5 capsule genes restored the antibiofilm activity in the mutant extract. Purified serotype 5 capsular polysaccharide also exhibited antibiofilm activity against S. aureus. A. pleuropneumoniae wild-type extracts did not inhibit S. aureus growth, but did inhibit S. aureus intercellular adhesion and binding of S. aureus cells to stainless steel surfaces. Furthermore, polystyrene surfaces coated with A. pleuropneumoniae wild-type extracts, but not with capsule-mutant extracts, resisted S. aureus biofilm formation. Our findings suggest that the A. pleuropneumoniae serotype 5 capsule inhibits cell-to-cell and cell-to-surface interactions of other bacteria. A. pleuropneumoniae serotype 5 capsular polysaccharide is one of a growing number of bacterial polysaccharides that exhibit broad-spectrum, nonbiocidal antibiofilm activity. Future studies on these antibiofilm polysaccharides may uncover novel functions for bacterial polysaccharides in nature, and may lead to the development of new classes of antibiofilm agents for industrial and clinical applications. PMID:23691104
Li, Lu; Chen, Zhaohui; Bei, Weicheng; Su, Zhipeng; Huang, Qi; Zhang, Liang; Chen, Huanchun; Zhou, Rui
Catecholamines are host stress hormones that can induce the growth of many bacteria by facilitating iron utilization and/or regulate the expression of virulence genes through specific hormone receptors. Whether these two responsive pathways are interconnected is unknown. In our previous study, it was found that catecholamines can regulate the expression of a great number of genes of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, an important swine respiratory pathogen. However, bacterial growth was not affected by catecholamines in rich medium. In this study, it was discovered that catecholamines affected A. pleuropneumoniae growth in chemically defined medium (CDM). We found that serum inhibited A. pleuropneumoniae growth in CDM, while epinephrine, norepinephrine and dopamine promoted A. pleuropneumoniae growth in the CDM containing serum. The known bacterial hormone receptor QseC didn’t play roles in this process. Ion-supplementation and transcriptome analysis indicated that serum addition resulted in iron-restricted conditions which were alleviated by the addition of catecholamines. Transferrin, one of the components in serum, inhibited the growth of A. pleuropneumoniae in CDM, an effect reversed by addition of catecholamines in a TonB2-dependent manner. Our data demonstrate that catecholamines promote A. pleuropneumoniae growth by regulating iron-acquisition and metabolism, which is independent of the adrenergic receptor QseC. PMID:25849041
García González, Octavio; García, Rosa M; de la Garza, Mireya; Vaca, Sergio; Paniagua, Gloria Luz; Mejía, Ricardo; Tenorio, Víctor R; Negrete-Abascal, Erasmo
The complete amino acid and nucleotide sequence of a secreted metalloprotease produced by Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serotype 1 is reported. A clone showing proteolytic activity in cell-free culture media was selected from a genomic library of A. pleuropneumoniae serotype 1 in pUC 19. The sequence obtained contained an open reading frame encoding a protein with 869 amino acids. This protein was identified as a zinc neutral-metalloprotease belonging to the aminopeptidase family, with a predicted molecular weight of approximately 101 kDa. This sequence showed high homology with other predicted or sequenced aminopeptidases reported for different Gram-negative bacteria. Expression of the protease was observed in lung tissue from pigs that died of porcine pleuropneumonia suggesting a role in pathogenesis.
Jobert, J L; Savoye, C; Cariolet, R; Kobisch, M; Madec, F
In order to demonstrate the possible role of aerosol in the transmission of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, an experiment including 18 specific pathogen-free (SPF), 10-week-old piglets, randomly distributed into 2 adjacent units, was carried out. In these facilities, air was forced through absolute filters to prevent any contact with infectious agents. During the first 6 d post inoculation, the 2 units were connected by a rectangular opening and the air circulation was forced by the ventilation system from unit A (inoculated pigs) to unit B (non-inoculated pigs). The A. pleuropneumoniae strain (biovar 1 serovar 9) was isolated in France from an outbreak of porcine pleuropneumonia. Two different infecting doses, 10(7) cfu/animal and 10(8) cfu/animal, were inoculated by intranasal route in 6 pigs of unit A. The infection spread quickly from the inoculated pigs to the non-inoculated pigs. Clinical signs were acute during the 4 d post inoculation: hyperthermia, respiratory distress and, sometimes, death (6 pigs of the unit A and 2 pigs of the unit B). All pigs seroconverted against A. pleuropneumoniae serovar 9 within 2 weeks. Lung lesions were severe: fibrinous pleurisy and lung hemorrhages in the acute stage, pleural adherences and focal pulmonary necrosis in the chronic stage. Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae was isolated from the tonsils and/or lungs in 16 animals. It could be also isolated from the air of the experimental unit. This study showed that A. pleuropneumoniae was readily transmitted through aerosol over a distance of at least 2.5 m. Images Figure 1. Figure 2. PMID:10680652
Tremblay, Yannick D N; Lévesque, Cynthia; Segers, Ruud P A M; Jacques, Mario
Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae is a Gram-negative bacterium and a member of the Pasteurellaceae family. This bacterium is the causative agent of porcine pleuropneumonia, which is a highly contagious respiratory disease causing important economical losses to the worldwide pig industry. It has been shown that A. pleuropneumoniae can form biofilms on abiotic surfaces (plastic and glass). Although in vitro models are extremely useful to gain information on biofilm formation, these models may not be representative of the conditions found at the mucosal surface of the host, which is the natural niche of A. pleuropneumoniae. In this paper, we describe a method to grow A. pleuropneumoniae biofilms on the SJPL cell line, which represents a biotic surface. A non-hemolytic, non-cytotoxic mutant of A. pleuropneumoniae was used in our assays and this allowed the SJPL cell monolayers to be exposed to A. pleuropneumoniae for longer periods. This resulted in the formation of biofilms on the cell monolayer after incubations of 24 and 48 h. The biofilms can be stained with fluorescent probes, such as a lectin against the polymer of N-acetyl-D-glucosamine present in the biofilm matrix, and easily observed by confocal laser scanning microscopy. This is the first protocol that describes the formation of an A. pleuropneumoniae biofilm on a biotic surface. The advantage of this protocol is that it can be used to study biofilm formation in a context of host-pathogen interactions. The protocol could also be adapted to evaluate biofilm inhibitors or the efficacy of antibiotics in the presence of biofilms.
Background Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae is a Gram-negative bacterium and a member of the Pasteurellaceae family. This bacterium is the causative agent of porcine pleuropneumonia, which is a highly contagious respiratory disease causing important economical losses to the worldwide pig industry. It has been shown that A. pleuropneumoniae can form biofilms on abiotic surfaces (plastic and glass). Although in vitro models are extremely useful to gain information on biofilm formation, these models may not be representative of the conditions found at the mucosal surface of the host, which is the natural niche of A. pleuropneumoniae. Results In this paper, we describe a method to grow A. pleuropneumoniae biofilms on the SJPL cell line, which represents a biotic surface. A non-hemolytic, non-cytotoxic mutant of A. pleuropneumoniae was used in our assays and this allowed the SJPL cell monolayers to be exposed to A. pleuropneumoniae for longer periods. This resulted in the formation of biofilms on the cell monolayer after incubations of 24 and 48 h. The biofilms can be stained with fluorescent probes, such as a lectin against the polymer of N-acetyl-D-glucosamine present in the biofilm matrix, and easily observed by confocal laser scanning microscopy. Conclusions This is the first protocol that describes the formation of an A. pleuropneumoniae biofilm on a biotic surface. The advantage of this protocol is that it can be used to study biofilm formation in a context of host-pathogen interactions. The protocol could also be adapted to evaluate biofilm inhibitors or the efficacy of antibiotics in the presence of biofilms. PMID:24139070
Pereira, Monalessa Fábia; Rossi, Ciro César; de Carvalho, Fabíola Marques; de Almeida, Luiz Gonzaga Paula; Souza, Rangel Celso; de Vasconcelos, Ana Tereza Ribeiro
Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae is the causative agent of swine pleuropneumonia, a highly contagious disease associated with pigs of all ages that results in severe economic losses to the industry. Here, we report for the first time six genome sequences of A. pleuropneumoniae clinical isolates of serotype 8, found worldwide. PMID:25745011
Vanni, Michele; Merenda, Marianna; Barigazzi, Giuseppe; Garbarino, Chiara; Luppi, Andrea; Tognetti, Rosalba; Intorre, Luigi
The aim of this retrospective study was to evaluate the antimicrobial resistance rates and the trend in resistance of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae isolated from pigs in Italy from 1994 to 2009. A total of 992 A. pleuropneumoniae isolates were tested for their susceptibility to a panel of antimicrobial agents in a disk diffusion method. Resistance to 7 drugs (amoxicillin, amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, ampicillin, cefquinome, cotrimoxazole, penicillin G and tilmicosin) showed a significant increasing trend over the time, while for 2 drugs (gentamycin and marbofloxacin) a significant decrease was observed. Resistance to the remaining 14 antimicrobial agents tested did not change significantly over the study period. Most of the isolates retained high susceptibility to antimicrobials usually effective against A. pleuropneumoniae such as amphenicols, fluoroquinolones and ceftiofur. However, high rates of resistance were observed for potentiated sulfa drugs, tetracyclines and penicillins which are currently recommended antimicrobials for pig pleuropneumonia therapy. Our results suggest the importance of continued monitoring of A. pleuropneumoniae clinical isolates in order to choose the most appropriate treatment of infections and to control the increase of resistance to currently used antimicrobials. Copyright Â© 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Tascon, R I; Rodriguez-Ferri, E F; Gutierrez-Martin, C B; Rodriguez-Barbosa, I; Berche, P; Vazquez-Boland, J A
A transposon mutagenesis procedure functional in the gram-negative swine pathogen Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae was developed for the first time. The technique involved the use of a suicide conjugative plasmid, pLOF/Km, carrying a mini-Tn10 with an isopropyl-beta-D-thiogalactopyranoside (IPTG)-inducible transposase located outside the mobile element (M. Herrero, V. de Lorenzo, and K. N. Timmis, J. Bacteriol. 172:6557-6567, 1990). The plasmid was mobilized from Escherichia coli to A. pleuropneumoniae through the RP4-mediated broad-host-range conjugal transfer functions provided by the chromosome of the donor strain. When IPTG was present in the mating medium, A. pleuropneumoniae CM5 transposon mutants were obtained at a frequency of 10(-5), while no mutants were detected in the absence of IPTG. Since the frequency of conjugal transfer of the RP4 plasmid from E. coli to A. pleuropneumoniae CM5 was found to be as low as 10(-4), the above result indicated that the expression level of the transposase was a critical factor for obtaining a workable efficiency of transposon mutagenesis. The transposon insertions occurred at random, as determined by Southern blotting of chromosomal DNA of randomly selected mutants and by the ability to generate mutants defective for the selected phenotypes. Almost all the mutants analyzed resulted from a single insertion of the Tn10 element. About 1.2% of the mutants resulted from the cointegration of pLOF/Km into the A. pleuropneumoniae chromosome. The applicability of this transposon mutagenesis system was verified on other A. pleuropneumoniae strains of different serotypes. The usefulness of this transposon mutagenesis system in genetic studies of A. pleuropneumoniae is discussed. Images PMID:8396122
Nadeau, M; Larivière, S; Higgins, R; Martineau, G P
Forty-five isolates of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae were tested for susceptibility to 12 antimicrobial agents using a microdilution method for the minimal inhibitory concentration determinations. These results confirmed the high prevalence of A. pleuropneumoniae strains resistant to antibiotics as reported earlier using the disc diffusion method (Kirby-Bauer method). While 36% of the isolates were resistant to the penicillins, 47% were resistant to chloramphenicol and 68% were resistant to tetracycline. Minimal inhibitory concentrations for the resistant isolates were approximately 32 times higher than those for the susceptible isolates to the above antibacterial agents. The isolates were in general weakly susceptible or resistant to spectinomycin, lincomycin, tiamulin and spiramycin whereas most of them were susceptible to gentamicin, trimethoprim and erythromycin. The susceptibility pattern was similar throughout the 1980 to 1984 period. The 14 serotype 5 isolates were more resistant to tetracycline but less resistant to chloramphenicol and the penicillins than the 28 serotype 1 isolates. PMID:3167716
Li, Lu; Sun, Lili; Song, Yunfeng; Wu, Xinjuan; Zhou, Xuan; Liu, Ziduo; Zhou, Rui
LuxS, a conserved bacterial enzyme involved in the activated methyl cycle, catalyzes S-ribosylhomocysteine (SRH) into homocysteine and AI-2 (the inter-species quorum-sensing signal molecule). This enzyme has been reported to be essential for the survival of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae in its natural host. Therefore, it is a potential drug target against A. pleuropneumoniae, an important swine respiratory pathogen causing great economic losses in the pig industry worldwide. In this study, the enzymatic activity determination method was established using the recombinant LuxS of A. pleuropneumoniae. Thirty-five compounds similar to the shape of SRH were screened from the Specs compound library by the software vROCS and were evaluated for LuxS inhibition. Three compounds could inhibit LuxS activity. Two of them were confirmed to be competitive inhibitors and the third one was uncompetitive. All the three compounds displayed inhibitory effects on the growth of A. pleuropneumoniae and two other important swine pathogens, Haemophilis parasuis and Streptococcus suis, with MIC50 values ranging from 11 to 51 μg/ml. No significant cytotoxic effect of the compounds was detected on porcine PK-15 cells at the concentration which showed inhibitory effect on bacterial growth. These results suggest that LuxS is an ideal target to develop antimicrobials for porcine bacterial pathogens. The three LuxS inhibitors identified in this study can be used as lead compounds for drug design.
Subashchandrabose, Sargurunathan; Leveque, Rhiannon M.; Kirkwood, Roy N.; Kiupel, Matti
Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae is the etiological agent of porcine pleuropneumonia, an economically important disease of pigs. The hfq gene in A. pleuropneumoniae, encoding the RNA chaperone and posttranscriptional regulator Hfq, is upregulated during infection of porcine lungs. To investigate the role of this in vivo-induced gene in A. pleuropneumoniae, an hfq mutant strain was constructed. The hfq mutant was defective in biofilm formation on abiotic surfaces. The level of pgaC transcript, encoding the biosynthesis of poly-β-1,6-N-acetylglucosamine (PNAG), a major biofilm matrix component, was lower and PNAG content was 10-fold lower in the hfq mutant than in the wild-type strain. When outer membrane proteins were examined, cysteine synthase, implicated in resistance to oxidative stress and tellurite, was not found at detectable levels in the absence of Hfq. The hfq mutant displayed enhanced sensitivity to superoxide generated by methyl viologen and tellurite. These phenotypes were readily reversed by complementation with the hfq gene expressed from its native promoter. The role of Hfq in the fitness of A. pleuropneumoniae was assessed in a natural host infection model. The hfq mutant failed to colonize porcine lungs and was outcompeted by the wild-type strain (median competitive index of 2 × 10−5). Our data demonstrate that the in vivo-induced gene hfq is involved in the regulation of PNAG-dependent biofilm formation, resistance to superoxide stress, and the fitness and virulence of A. pleuropneumoniae in pigs and begin to elucidate the role of an in vivo-induced gene in the pathogenesis of pleuropneumonia. PMID:23732171
Subashchandrabose, Sargurunathan; Leveque, Rhiannon M; Kirkwood, Roy N; Kiupel, Matti; Mulks, Martha H
Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae is the etiological agent of porcine pleuropneumonia, an economically important disease of pigs. The hfq gene in A. pleuropneumoniae, encoding the RNA chaperone and posttranscriptional regulator Hfq, is upregulated during infection of porcine lungs. To investigate the role of this in vivo-induced gene in A. pleuropneumoniae, an hfq mutant strain was constructed. The hfq mutant was defective in biofilm formation on abiotic surfaces. The level of pgaC transcript, encoding the biosynthesis of poly-β-1,6-N-acetylglucosamine (PNAG), a major biofilm matrix component, was lower and PNAG content was 10-fold lower in the hfq mutant than in the wild-type strain. When outer membrane proteins were examined, cysteine synthase, implicated in resistance to oxidative stress and tellurite, was not found at detectable levels in the absence of Hfq. The hfq mutant displayed enhanced sensitivity to superoxide generated by methyl viologen and tellurite. These phenotypes were readily reversed by complementation with the hfq gene expressed from its native promoter. The role of Hfq in the fitness of A. pleuropneumoniae was assessed in a natural host infection model. The hfq mutant failed to colonize porcine lungs and was outcompeted by the wild-type strain (median competitive index of 2 × 10(-5)). Our data demonstrate that the in vivo-induced gene hfq is involved in the regulation of PNAG-dependent biofilm formation, resistance to superoxide stress, and the fitness and virulence of A. pleuropneumoniae in pigs and begin to elucidate the role of an in vivo-induced gene in the pathogenesis of pleuropneumonia.
Labrie, Josée; Pelletier-Jacques, Geneviève; Deslandes, Vincent; Ramjeet, Mahendrasingh; Auger, Eliane; Nash, John H.E.; Jacques, Mario
Biofilm formation is an important virulence trait of many bacterial pathogens. It has been reported in the literature that only two of the reference strains of the swine pathogen Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, representing serotypes 5b and 11, were able to form biofilm in vitro. In this study, we compared biofilm formation by the serotype 1 reference strain S4074 of A. pleuropneumoniae grown in five different culture media. We observed that strain S4074 of A. pleuropneumoniae is able to form biofilms after growth in one of the culture conditions tested brain heart infusion (BHI medium, supplier B). Confocal laser scanning microscopy using a fluorescent probe specific to the poly-N-acetylglucosamine (PGA) polysaccharide further confirmed biofilm formation. In accordance, biofilm formation was susceptible to dispersin B, a PGA hydrolase. Transcriptional profiles of A. pleuropneumoniae S4074 following growth in BHI-B, which allowed a robust biofilm formation, and in BHI-A, in which only a slight biofilm formation was observed, were compared. Genes such as tadC, tadD, genes with homology to autotransporter adhesins as well as genes pgaABC involved in PGA biosynthesis and genes involved in zinc transport were up-regulated after growth in BHI-B. Interestingly, biofilm formation was inhibited by zinc, which was found to be more present in BHI-A (no or slight biofilm) than in BHI-B. We also observed biofilm formation in reference strains representing serotypes 3, 4, 5a, 12 and 14 as well as in 20 of the 37 fresh field isolates tested. Our data indicate that A. pleuropneumoniae has the ability to form biofilms under appropriate growth conditions and transition from a biofilm-positive to a biofilm-negative phenotype was reversible. PMID:19737507
Li, Lu; Xu, Zhuofei; Zhou, Yang; Sun, Lili; Liu, Ziduo; Chen, Huanchun; Zhou, Rui
Bacteria can use mammalian hormones to modulate pathogenic processes that play essential roles in disease development. Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae is an important porcine respiratory pathogen causing great economic losses in the pig industry globally. Stress is known to contribute to the outcome of A. pleuropneumoniae infection. To test whether A. pleuropneumoniae could respond to stress hormone catecholamines, gene expression profiles after epinephrine (Epi) and norepinephrine (NE) treatment were compared with those from untreated bacteria. The microarray results showed that 158 and 105 genes were differentially expressed in the presence of Epi and NE, respectively. These genes were assigned to various functional categories including many virulence factors. Only 18 genes were regulated by both hormones. These genes included apxIA (the ApxI toxin structural gene), pgaB (involved in biofilm formation), APL_0443 (an autotransporter adhesin) and genes encoding potential hormone receptors such as tyrP2, the ygiY-ygiX (qseC-qseB) operon and narQ-narP (involved in nitrate metabolism). Further investigations demonstrated that cytotoxic activity was enhanced by Epi but repressed by NE in accordance with apxIA gene expression changes. Biofilm formation was not affected by either of the two hormones despite pgaB expression being affected. Adhesion to host cells was induced by NE but not by Epi, suggesting that the hormones affect other putative adhesins in addition to APL_0443. This study revealed that A. pleuropneumoniae gene expression, including those encoding virulence factors, was altered in response to both catecholamines. The differential regulation of A. pleuropneumoniae gene expression by the two hormones suggests that this pathogen may have multiple responsive systems for the two catecholamines. PMID:22347439
Frey, J; Meier, R; Gygi, D; Nicolet, J
The DNA sequence of the gene encoding the structural protein of hemolysin I (HlyI) of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serotype 1 strain 4074 was analyzed. The nucleotide sequence shows a 3,072-bp reading frame encoding a protein of 1,023 amino acids with a calculated molecular size of 110.1 kDa. This corresponds to the HlyI protein, which has an apparent molecular size on sodium dodecyl sulfate gels of 105 kDa. The structure of the protein derived from the DNA sequence shows three hydrophobic regions in the N-terminal part of the protein, 13 glycine-rich domains in the second half of the protein, and a hydrophilic C-terminal area, all of which are typical of the cytotoxins of the RTX (repeats in the structural toxin) toxin family. The derived amino acid sequence of HlyI shows 42% homology with the hemolysin of A. pleuropneumoniae serotype 5, 41% homology with the leukotoxin of Pasteurella haemolytica, and 56% homology with the Escherichia coli alpha-hemolysin. The 13 glycine-rich repeats and three hydrophobic areas of the HlyI sequence show more similarity to the E. coli alpha-hemolysin than to either the A. pleuropneumoniae serotype 5 hemolysin or the leukotoxin (while the last two are more similar to each other). Two types of RTX hemolysins therefore seem to be present in A. pleuropneumoniae, one (HlyI) resembling the alpha-hemolysin and a second more closely related to the leukotoxin. Ca(2+)-binding experiments using HlyI and recombinant A. pleuropneumoniae prohemolysin (HlyIA) that was produced in E. coli shows that HlyI binds 45Ca2+, probably because of the 13 glycine-rich repeated domains. Activation of the prohemolysin is not required for Ca2+ binding. Images PMID:1879928
Enríquez-Verdugo, Idalia; Guerrero, Alma L; Serrano, J Jesús; Godínez, Delfino; Rosales, J Luis; Tenorio, Víctor; de la Garza, Mireya
Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serotype 1 adhered to immobilized swine-lung collagen. Bacteria bound to collagen type I, III, IV and V. At 5 min incubation, 30 % of bacteria adhered to collagen, reaching saturation in around 90 min. Treatment of bacteria with divalent-metal chelators diminished their attachment to collagen, and Ca(2+) but not Mg(2+) increased it, suggesting Ca(2+) dependence for adherence. Proteolytic enzymes drastically reduced bacterial adherence to collagen, showing that binding involved bacterial surface proteins. Porcine fibrinogen, haemoglobin and gelatin partially reduced collagen adhesion. A 60 kDa outer-membrane protein of A. pleuropneumoniae recognized the swine collagens by overlay. This membrane protein was apparently involved in adhesion to collagen and fibrinogen, but not to fibronectin and laminin. Antibodies against the 60 kDa protein inhibited the adhesion to collagen by 70 %, whereas pig convalescent-phase antibodies inhibited it by only 40 %. Serotypes 1 and 7 were the most adherent to pig collagen (taken as 100 %); serotypes 6 and 11 were the lowest (approximately 50 %), and neither showed the 60 kDa adhesin to biotinylated collagens. By negative staining, cells were observed initially to associate with collagen fibres in a polar manner, and the adhesin was detected on the bacterial surface. The results suggest that swine-lung collagen is an important target for A. pleuropneumoniae colonization and spreading, and that the attachment to this protein could play a relevant role in pathogenesis.
Deslandes, Vincent; Nash, John HE; Harel, Josée; Coulton, James W; Jacques, Mario
Background To better understand effects of iron restriction on Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae and to identify new potential vaccine targets, we conducted transcript profiling studies using a DNA microarray containing all 2025 ORFs of the genome of A. pleuropneumoniae serotype 5b strain L20. This is the first study involving the use of microarray technology to monitor the transcriptome of A. pleuropneumoniae grown under iron restriction. Results Upon comparing growth of this pathogen in iron-sufficient versus iron-depleted medium, 210 genes were identified as being differentially expressed. Some genes (92) were identified as being up-regulated; many have confirmed or putative roles in iron acquisition, such as the genes coding for two TonB energy-transducing proteins and the hemoglobin receptor HgbA. Transcript profiling also led to identification of some new iron acquisition systems of A. pleuropneumoniae. Genes coding for a possible Yfe system (yfeABCD), implicated in the acquisition of chelated iron, were detected, as well as genes coding for a putative enterobactin-type siderophore receptor system. ORFs for homologs of the HmbR system of Neisseria meningitidis involved in iron acquisition from hemoglobin were significantly up-regulated. Down-regulated genes included many that encode proteins containing Fe-S clusters or that use heme as a cofactor. Supplementation of the culture medium with exogenous iron re-established the expression level of these genes. Conclusion We have used transcriptional profiling to generate a list of genes showing differential expression during iron restriction. This strategy enabled us to gain a better understanding of the metabolic changes occurring in response to this stress. Many new potential iron acquisition systems were identified, and further studies will have to be conducted to establish their role during iron restriction. PMID:17355629
Kang, Shuai; Li, Zhengwen; Yin, Zhongqiong; Jia, Renyong; Song, Xu; Li, Li; Chen, Zhenzhen; Peng, Lianci; Qu, Jing; Hu, Zhiqiang; Lai, Xin; Wang, Guangxi; Liang, Xiaoxia; He, Changliang; Yin, Lizi
This study demonstrated berberine to be a potential natural compound against Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae. Liquid doubling dilution, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), SDS-PAGE and 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) staining were employed to elucidate the antibacterial activity and mechanism of berberine. The minimal inhibitory concentration of berberine was 0.3125 mg/mL, and time-kill curves showed concentration and time dependence. The TEM micrographs displayed damaged cell wall, concentrated cytoplasm, cytoplasmic content leakage and cell death. SDS-PAGE and DAPI assays revealed that berberine can restrain DNA and protein syntheses. Berberine inhibited the synthesis of proteins associated with the growth and cleavage of bacteria and then blocked the division and development of bacteria. The compound ultimately induced cytoplasm pyknosis and bacterial death.
Bossé, J T; MacInnes, J I
The urease gene cluster from the virulent Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serotype 1 strain CM5 was cloned and sequenced. The urease activity was associated with a 6.3-kbp region which contains eight long open reading frames (ORFs). The structural genes, ureABC, are separated from the accessory genes, ureEFGD, by a 615-bp ORF of unknown function, ureX. Homologies were found with the structural and accessory urease gene products of Haemophilus influenzae and, to a lesser extent, with those of other organisms. The urease enzyme subunits had predicted molecular masses of 61.0, 11.3, and 11.0 kDa, and the size of the holoenzyme was estimated to be 337 +/- 13 kDa by gel filtration chromatography. Urease activity was maximal but unstable at 65 degrees C. In cell lysates, the A. pleuropneumoniae urease was stable over a broad pH range (5.0 to 10.6) and the optimal pH for activity was 7.7. The Km was 1.5 +/- 0.1 mM urea when it was assayed at pH 7.7. The low Km suggests that this enzyme would be active in the respiratory tract environment, where urea levels should be similar to those normally found in pig serum (2 to 7 mM). PMID:9353010
Arteaga Blanco, Luis Andrés; Crispim, Josicelli Souza; Fernandes, Kenner Morais; de Oliveira, Leandro Licursi; Pereira, Monalessa Fábia; Bazzolli, Denise Mara Soares; Martins, Gustavo Ferreira
In the present work, we have investigate the cellular immune response of Galleria mellonella larvae against three strains of the gram-negative bacterium Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae: low-virulence (780), high-virulence (1022) and the serotype 8 reference strain (R8). Prohemocytes, plasmatocytes, granulocytes, oenocytoids and spherulocytes were distinguished according to their size and morphology, their molecular markers and dye-staining properties and their role in the immune response. Total hemocyte count, differential hemocyte count, lysosome activity, autophagic response, cell viability and caspase-3 activation were determined in circulating hemocytes of naive and infected larvae. The presence of the autophagosome protein LC3 A/B within the circulating hemocytes of G. mellonella was dependent on and related to the infecting A. pleuropneumoniae strain and duration of infection. Hemocytes treated with the high-virulence strain expressed higher levels of LC3 A/B, whereas treatment with the low-virulence strain induced lower expression levels of this protein in the cells. Moreover, our results showed that apoptosis in circulating hemocytes of G. mellonella larvae after exposure to virulent bacterial strains occurred simultaneously with excessive cell death response induced by stress and subsequent caspase-3 activation.
Background Comparative analysis of gene expression among serotypes within a species can provide valuable information on important differences between related genomes. For the pig lung pathogen Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, 15 serotypes with a considerable variation in virulence potential and immunogenicity have been identified. This serotypic diversity can only partly be explained by amount of capsule and differences in the RTX toxin genes in their genomes. Iron acquisition in vivo is an important bacterial function and in pathogenic bacteria, iron-limitation is often a signal for the induction of virulence genes. We used a pan-genomic microarray to study the transcriptional response to iron restriction in vitro in six serotypes of A. pleuropneumoniae (1, 2, 3, 5b, 6, and 7), representing at least two levels of virulence. Results In total, 45 genes were significantly (p < 0.0001) up-regulated and 67 genes significantly down-regulated in response to iron limitation. Not previously observed in A. pleuropneumoniae was the up-regulation of a putative cirA-like siderophore in all six serotypes. Three genes, recently described in A. pleuropneumoniae as possibly coding for haemoglobin-haptoglobin binding proteins, displayed significant serotype related up-regulation to iron limitation. For all three genes, the expression appeared at its lowest in serotype 3, which is generally considered one of the least virulent serotypes of A. pleuropneumoniae. The three genes share homology with the hmbR haemoglobin receptor of Neisseria meningitidis, a possible virulence factor which contributes to bacterial survival in rats. Conclusions By comparative analysis of gene expression among 6 different serotypes of A. pleuropneumoniae we identified a common set of presumably essential core genes, involved in iron regulation. The results support and expand previous observations concerning the identification of new potential iron acquisition systems in A. pleuropneumoniae, showing that
Gómez-Laguna, Jaime; Islas, Armando; Muñoz, Dennis; Ruiz, Alvaro; Villamil, Aura; Carrasco, Librado; Quezada, Manuel
Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, the causative agent of porcine contagious pleuropneumonia (PCP), causes significant economic losses associated mainly with growth stunting of animals. Although serotypes can be distinguished according to their virulence, most of the studies are focused in A. pleuropneumoniae infections with virulent serotypes. There is little information regarding the role of acute phase proteins (APPs) and proinflammatory cytokines in infections with isolates of mild or moderate virulence. Thus, the present study aims to evaluate the kinetics of infection with an A. pleuropneumoniae serotype 6 (Ap6) field isolate of moderate virulence and the changes in the serum concentration of specific antibodies and different APPs and proinflammatory cytokines. Control animals showed no clinical signs or lesions throughout the study. Infected animals showed increased rectal temperature, respiratory distress and depression from 24hpi, and typical gross and microscopic lesions of PCP from 6hpi onwards. Ap6 was isolated from nasal swabs of four out of five inoculated animals at 24hpi, and from nasal swabs, tonsil and lung samples from all inoculated animals at 72hpi. Specific antibodies against Ap6 or changes in the serum concentration of IL-1β, IL-10 and TNF-α were not detected throughout the study. The serum concentration of IL-6 increased from 6hpi as well as serum A amyloid, C-reactive protein and haptoglobin from 24hpi onwards. Our results highlight the onset of the acute phase response after the infection with a field isolate of A. pleuropneumoniae of moderate virulence from 24hpi onwards which may be of interest in the study of the pathogenesis of this disease. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Tobias, T J; Klinkenberg, D; Bouma, A; van den Broek, J; Daemen, A J J M; Wagenaar, J A; Stegeman, J A
Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae causes respiratory disease in pigs and despite the use of preventive measures such as vaccination and antimicrobials clinical outbreaks still occur. At weaning often many piglets are not colonised. If differences in prevalence between litters are large and if factors were known that could explain these differences, this may provide an opportunity to raise groups of A. pleuropneumoniae free piglets. To this end, a cohort study was performed on two endemically infected farrow-to-finish farms. Seventy-six of 133 sows were selected using stratified random selection by parity. Farmers complied with a strict hygiene and animal management protocol to prevent transmission between litters. Tonsil brush and serum samples taken three weeks before parturition were tested for antigen with an apxIVA qPCR and antibodies with Apx and Omp ELISAs, respectively. Three days before weaning tonsil brush samples from all piglets (n=871) were collected and tested for antigen. Whereas all sows tested positive both in serology tests as well as qPCR, 0.41 of the litters tested fully negative and 0.73 of all piglets tested negative. The proportion of positively tested piglets in positive litters ranged from 0.08-1.0 (median=0.36). A grouped logistic regression model with a beta binomial distribution of the probability for piglets to become infected was fitted to the data and associations with explanatory variables were explored. To test the possibility that alternatively the clustering was caused by onwards transmission among the piglets, a transmission model was fitted to the data incorporating sow-piglet and piglet-piglet transmission, but this model did not fit better. The results of this study showed that the number of colonised suckling piglets was highly clustered and mainly attributable to the variability of infectiousness of the dam, but no dam related risk factor for colonisation status of litter or piglets within litters could be identified. Copyright
Yang, Feng; Ma, Qiuyue; Lei, Liancheng; Huang, Jing; Ji, Qun; Zhai, Ruidong; Wang, Lei; Wang, Yu; Li, Linxi; Sun, Changjiang; Feng, Xin; Han, Wenyu
Porcine contagious pleuropneumonia, caused by Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, has a major impact on economics, ecology, and animal welfare in the pig-rearing industry. Propionibacterium acnes, a facultative anaerobic Gram-positive corynebacterium, exists widely in normal healthy adult animals. We have shown previously that P. acnes can prevent A. pleuropneumoniae infections in mice and pigs. To elucidate the mechanism of this effect and to identify novel A. pleuropneumoniae vaccines, the role of anti-P. acnes antibodies in preventing infection was analyzed by indirect immunofluorescence and opsonophagocytosis assays in vitro. The role of the specific humoral immune response induced by P. acnes was confirmed in a B cell depletion mouse model. The survival rates of mice challenged with A. pleuropneumoniae exhibited a highly significant positive rank correlation with the levels of anti-P. acnes antibodies. The specific antibodies induced by P. acnes had the ability to combine with A. pleuropneumoniae and increase opsonization of A. pleuropneumoniae for phagocytosis. Furthermore, analysis in the murine B cell depletion model confirmed that the humoral immune response induced by P. acnes played an important role in resistance to A. pleuropneumoniae infection. In this study, we further elucidated the reasons that P. acnes can prevent A. pleuropneumoniae infection, which provides useful evidence for the development of heterologous vaccines for the control of porcine contagious pleuropneumonia.
Yang, Feng; Ma, Qiuyue; Huang, Jing; Ji, Qun; Zhai, Ruidong; Wang, Lei; Wang, Yu; Li, Linxi; Sun, Changjiang; Feng, Xin; Han, Wenyu
Porcine contagious pleuropneumonia, caused by Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, has a major impact on economics, ecology, and animal welfare in the pig-rearing industry. Propionibacterium acnes, a facultative anaerobic Gram-positive corynebacterium, exists widely in normal healthy adult animals. We have shown previously that P. acnes can prevent A. pleuropneumoniae infections in mice and pigs. To elucidate the mechanism of this effect and to identify novel A. pleuropneumoniae vaccines, the role of anti-P. acnes antibodies in preventing infection was analyzed by indirect immunofluorescence and opsonophagocytosis assays in vitro. The role of the specific humoral immune response induced by P. acnes was confirmed in a B cell depletion mouse model. The survival rates of mice challenged with A. pleuropneumoniae exhibited a highly significant positive rank correlation with the levels of anti-P. acnes antibodies. The specific antibodies induced by P. acnes had the ability to combine with A. pleuropneumoniae and increase opsonization of A. pleuropneumoniae for phagocytosis. Furthermore, analysis in the murine B cell depletion model confirmed that the humoral immune response induced by P. acnes played an important role in resistance to A. pleuropneumoniae infection. In this study, we further elucidated the reasons that P. acnes can prevent A. pleuropneumoniae infection, which provides useful evidence for the development of heterologous vaccines for the control of porcine contagious pleuropneumonia. PMID:24429068
Background Porcine contagious pleuropneumonia (PCP) is a highly contagious disease that is caused by Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae (APP) and characterized by severe fibrinous necrotizing hemorrhagic pleuropneumonia, which is a severe threat to the swine industry. In addition to APP RTX-toxins I (ApxI), APP RTX-toxin II (ApxII), APP RTX-toxin III (ApxIII) and Outer membrane protein (OMP), there may be other useful antigens that can contribute to protection. In the development of an efficacious vaccine against APP, the immunogenicities of multicomponent recombinant subunit vaccines were evaluated. Methods Six major virulent factor genes of APP, i.e., apxI, apxII, apxIII, APP RTX-toxins IV (apxIV), omp and type 4 fimbrial structural (apfa) were expressed. BALB/c mice were immunized with recombinant ApxI ( rApxI), recombinant ApxII (rApxII), recombinant ApxIII (rApxIII) and recombinant OMP (rOMP) (Group I); rApxI, rApxII, rApxIII, recombinant ApxIV (rApxIV), recombinant Apfa (rApfa) and rOMP (Group II); APP serotype 1 (APP1) inactivated vaccine (Group III); or phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) (Control group), respectively. After the first immunization, mice were subjected to two booster immunizations at 2-week intervals, followed by challenge with APP1 Shope 4074 and APP2 S1536. Results The efficacy of the multicomponent recombinant subunit vaccines was evaluated on the basis of antibody titers, survival rates, lung lesions and indirect immunofluorescence (IIF) detection of APP. The antibody level of Group I was significantly higher than those of the other three groups (P < 0.05). The survival rate of Group I was higher than that of Groups II and III (P < 0.05) and the control (P < 0.01). Compared with the other three groups, the lungs of Group I did not exhibit obvious hemorrhage or necrosis, and only showed weak and scattered fluorescent dots by IIF detection. Conclusion The result indicates that the multicomponent recombinant subunit vaccine composed of rApxI, r
Montaraz, J A; Rosales, M E; Bautista, E; Barcenas, G; Lara, V
A novel experimental model to study immune protection to Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae in the rat is described. One-week-old rats born from immunized mothers were challenged intraperitoneally with a suspension of A. pleuropneumoniae serotype 1 and mortality recorded up to 48 h postinfection. Immunization with inactivated whole cells (IWC) or a whole cell extract (WCE) from A. pleuropneumoniae serotype 1 resulted in protection against an homologous challenge, particularly in the case of WCE where protection was observed at the highest challenge dose of approximately 1000 50% lethal doses.
Wards, B J; Joyce, M A; Carman, M; Hilbink, F; deLisle, G W
Seventeen serotype 7 Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae strains isolated in New Zealand and A. pleuropneumoniae serotypes 1-12 reference strains were typed by restriction endonuclease analysis of chromosomal DNA and plasmid profiling. All serotype 7 strains produced similar DNA cleavage patterns and were significantly different to other reference serotype strains. Minor differences in the cleavage patterns enabled the 17 serotype 7 strains to be grouped into seven profiles. Plasmids were identified in all but three strains but the banding patterns did not account for the differences in the chromosomal profiles. The study showed that restriction endonuclease analysis and plasmid profiling are useful in epidemiological studies of porcine pleuropneumonia.
Foote, Simon J.; Bossé, Janine T.; Bouevitch, Anne B.; Langford, Paul R.; Young, N. Martin; Nash, John H. E.
There are 16 capsule-based serotypes of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, all of which are capable of causing disease in pigs. Here we report the finished and annotated genome sequence of the reference serotype 5b strain L20. This strain has a rough appearance and readily forms biofilms, as is typical for most field isolates (6). PMID:18065534
Bossé, Janine T; Li, Yanwen; Atherton, Tom G; Walker, Stephanie; Williamson, Susanna M; Rogers, Jon; Chaudhuri, Roy R; Weinert, Lucy A; Holden, Matthew T G; Maskell, Duncan J; Tucker, Alexander W; Wren, Brendan W; Rycroft, Andrew N; Langford, Paul R
The complete nucleotide sequence of a 7.7kb mobilisable plasmid (pM3446F), isolated from a florfenicol resistant isolate of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, showed extended similarity to plasmids found in other members of the Pasteurellaceae containing the floR gene as well as replication and mobilisation genes. Mobilisation into other Pasteurellaceae species confirmed that this plasmid can be transferred horizontally.
Swinkels, J M; Pijpers, A; Vernooy, J C; Van Nes, A; Verheijden, J H
The antipyretic effect of the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) ketoprofen (3 mg/kg) and flunixin (2 mg/kg) were studied in pigs. The drugs were administered intramuscularly at 8 and 32 h following endobronchial challenge with Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae. Infected (non-medicated) and non-infected (non-medicated) controls were used. Endobronchial challenge with Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae induced laboured breathing, coughing, fever, reduced food and water consumption and increased white blood cell counts. At autopsy, pleuropneumonia was evident. Ketoprofen showed a highly significant antipyretic effect but flunixin did not. The decrease in food consumption of ketoprofen-treated pigs was significantly less than that of the infected (non-medicated) controls. Blood parameters were not significantly influenced by either NSAID and, at necropsy, gastric and renal side-effects were not observed for either drug.
A cps-based multiplex PCR for typing of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serotypes 1, 2 and 5 was developed. This method should be specific and practical in Japan where more than 88% of isolates are serotypes 1, 2 or 5.
The genetic organization of the gene involved in the capsular polysaccharide (CPS) biosynthesis of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serotype 14 has been determined. The DNA region for the CPS biosynthesis of serotype 14 (cps14) comprised 9 open reading frames, designated as cps14AB1B2B3CDEFG genes, encoding Cps14A to Cps14G protein, respectively. Cps14A was similar to CpsA of A. pleuropneumoniae serotypes 1, 4 and 12; the Cps14B1 and Cps14B2 were similar to CpsB of A. pleuropneumoniae serotypes 1, 4 and 12, suggesting that CPS structure of A. pleuropneumoniae serotype 14 would belong to Group I including A. pleuropneumoniae serotypes 1, 4, 12 and 15. Surprisingly, the overall nucleotide sequence, deduced amino acid sequence, and the genetic organization of the cps14 were nearly identical to those of Actinobacillus suis. This study will provide the molecular basic knowledge for development of diagnostics and vaccine of A. pleuropneumoniae serotype 14. PMID:25648373
The genetic organization of the gene involved in the capsular polysaccharide (CPS) biosynthesis of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serotype 14 has been determined. The DNA region for the CPS biosynthesis of serotype 14 (cps14) comprised 9 open reading frames, designated as cps14AB1B2B3CDEFG genes, encoding Cps14A to Cps14G protein, respectively. Cps14A was similar to CpsA of A. pleuropneumoniae serotypes 1, 4 and 12; the Cps14B1 and Cps14B2 were similar to CpsB of A. pleuropneumoniae serotypes 1, 4 and 12, suggesting that CPS structure of A. pleuropneumoniae serotype 14 would belong to Group I including A. pleuropneumoniae serotypes 1, 4, 12 and 15. Surprisingly, the overall nucleotide sequence, deduced amino acid sequence, and the genetic organization of the cps14 were nearly identical to those of Actinobacillus suis. This study will provide the molecular basic knowledge for development of diagnostics and vaccine of A. pleuropneumoniae serotype 14.
Palacios-Arriaga, J M; Gutierrez-Pabello, J A; Chavez-Gris, G; Hernandez-Castro, R
The efficacy of a florfenicol premix was studied in weaning pigs experimentally inoculated with Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae. Twenty five clinically healthy pigs were distributed into 3 groups; group A non-medicated, groups B and C orally medicated with 20 and 40 ppm of florfenicol respectively. The pigs were fed during 12 consecutive days and on day 5 all the groups were challenged with A. pleuropneumoniae serotype 1. All the animals in Group A developed clinical signs. Most of the pigs in the medicated groups maintained a good health status. Postmortem examination revealed severe pleuropneumonia in pigs from the control group and pneumonic lesions in 40% of the animals treated with 20 ppm of florfenicol. Development of pleuropneumonia was prevented in all the pigs medicated with 40 ppm of florfenicol. Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae was recovered from the lungs of all control animals and from one pig of each of the medicated groups, however, the avidin biotin peroxidase (ABC-P) method detected the presence of the microorganism in all the animals. We demonstrated that medication with feed containing 40 ppm of florfenicol blocked efficiently the signs and lesions caused by A. pleuropneumoniae and increased the daily body weight gain.
ITO, Hiroya; SUEYOSHI, Masuo
Nucleotide sequence determination and analysis of the cps gene involved in the capsular polysaccharide biosynthesis of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serotype 15 revealed the presence of three open reading frames, designated as cps15ABC genes. At the protein level, Cps15A and Cps15B showed considerably high homology to CpsA (67.0 to 68.7%) and CpsB (31.7 to 36.8%), respectively, of A. pleuropneumoniae serotypes 1, 4 and 12, revealing the common genetic organization of the cps among serotypes 1, 4, 12 and 15. However, Cps15C showed no homology to any proteins of A. pleuropneumoniae serotypes, indicating that cps15C may be specific to serotype 15. This study will provide the basic molecular knowledge necessary for the development of diagnostics and a vaccine for A. pleuropneumoniae serotype 15. PMID:25502540
Ito, Hiroya; Sueyoshi, Masuo
Nucleotide sequence determination and analysis of the cps gene involved in the capsular polysaccharide biosynthesis of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serotype 15 revealed the presence of three open reading frames, designated as cps15ABC genes. At the protein level, Cps15A and Cps15B showed considerably high homology to CpsA (67.0 to 68.7%) and CpsB (31.7 to 36.8%), respectively, of A. pleuropneumoniae serotypes 1, 4 and 12, revealing the common genetic organization of the cps among serotypes 1, 4, 12 and 15. However, Cps15C showed no homology to any proteins of A. pleuropneumoniae serotypes, indicating that cps15C may be specific to serotype 15. This study will provide the basic molecular knowledge necessary for the development of diagnostics and a vaccine for A. pleuropneumoniae serotype 15.
Hennessy, K J; Iandolo, J J; Fenwick, B W
Rapid and accurate determination of the Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serotype involved in a disease outbreak is important both in limiting the severity of an outbreak and for tracing the source of the infecting organism. This study describes the use of arbitrarily primed polymerase chain reaction (AP-PCR) as a rapid, precise, and genetically based procedure to identify A. pleuropneumoniae. AP-PCR amplification of bacterial genomic DNA results in specific DNA profiles, which can be used to differentiate currently recognized serotypes. This technique is especially useful for identifying previously nontypeable and serologically cross-reactive A. pleuropneumoniae field isolates. Consecutive passages of isolates on different media, freezing, and subsequent infection of pigs did not alter the AP-PCR genomic profile. We propose the use of M13 and T3-T7 oligodeoxynucleotide primers for diagnostic and epidemiological identification of A. pleuropneumoniae by AP-PCR techniques. Images PMID:8501215
Serrano-Rubio, Luis E; Tenorio-Gutiérrez, Víctor; Suárez-Güemes, Francisco; Reyes-Cortés, Ruth; Rodríguez-Mendiola, Martha; Arias-Castro, Carlos; Godínez-Vargas, Delfino; de la Garza, Mireya
Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae causes swine pleuropneumonia worldwide. Previously, we described a gene sequence of approximately 800bp in A. pleuropneumoniae serotype 1 that encodes a metalloprotease of 24kDa, (Genbank accession no. AY217757). We selected primers carrying the forward and reverse 5'-terminal sequences of this region of the gene for the development of a species-specific PCR assay. The primers amplified an 800bp sequence from isolated DNA and lysed bacteria of the 13 A. pleuropneumoniae biovar 1 serotypes, with the exception of subtype 1b. The primers also amplified the sequence in nasal secretion cultures from pigs with chronic and acute experimental pleuropneumonia. No PCR products were detected when A. pleuropneumoniae serotypes of biovar 2 were used. Internal primers from this gene sequence detected biovar 2 and subtype 1b, leading to the production of a 350bp PCR product. The primers did not amplify DNA from other related species from the Pasteurellaceae family. The 800bp PCR assay was sensitive in vitro, with a detection limit of 5.5pg of extracted DNA, and an average of 120CFU. The specificity and sensitivity of this PCR assay make it a useful method for the rapid identification and diagnosis of A. pleuropneumoniae.
Reiner, Gerald; Bertsch, Natalie; Hoeltig, Doris; Selke, Martin; Willems, Hermann; Gerlach, Gerald Friedrich; Tuemmler, Burkhard; Probst, Inga; Herwig, Ralf; Drungowski, Mario; Waldmann, Karl Heinz
Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae is among the most important pathogens worldwide in pig production. The agent can cause severe economic losses due to decreased performance, acute or chronic pleuropneumonia and an increased incidence of death. Therapeutics cannot be used in a sustainable manner, and vaccination is not always available, but discovering more about host defence and disease mechanisms might lead to new methods of prophylaxis. The aim of the present study was to detect quantitative trait loci (QTL) associated with resistance/susceptibility to A. pleuropneumoniae. Under controlled conditions, 170 F2 animals of a Hampshire/Landrace family, with known differences in founder populations regarding A. pleuropneumoniae resistance, were challenged with an A. pleuropneumoniae serotype 7 aerosol followed by a detailed clinical, radiographic, ultrasonographic, pathological and bacteriological examination. F2 pigs were genotyped with 159 microsatellite markers. Significant QTL were identified on Sus scrofa chromosomes (SSC) 2, 6, 12, 13, 16, 17 and 18. They explained 6-22% of phenotypic variance. One QTL on SSC2 reached significance on a genome-wide level for five associated phenotypic traits. A multiple regression analysis revealed a combinatory effect of markers SWR345 (SSC2) and S0143 (SSC12) on Respiratory Health Score, Clinical Score and the occurrence of death. The results indicate the genetic background of A. pleuropneumoniae resistance in swine and provide new insights into the genetic architecture of resistance/susceptibility to porcine pleuropneumonia. The results will be helpful in identifying the underlying genes and mechanisms.
Pereira, Monalessa Fábia; Rossi, Ciro César; de Queiroz, Marisa Vieira; Martins, Gustavo Ferreira; Isaac, Clement; Bossé, Janine T; Li, Yanwen; Wren, Brendan W; Terra, Vanessa Sofia; Cuccui, Jon; Langford, Paul R; Bazzolli, Denise Mara Soares
Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae is responsible for swine pleuropneumonia, a respiratory disease that causes significant global economic loss. Its virulence depends on many factors, such as capsular polysaccharides, RTX toxins and iron-acquisition systems. Analysis of virulence may require easy-to-use models that approximate mammalian infection and avoid ethical issues. Here, we investigate the potential use of the wax moth Galleria mellonella as an informative model for A. pleuropneumoniae infection. Genotypically distinct A. pleuropneumoniae clinical isolates were able to kill larvae at 37 °C but had different LD50 values, ranging from 10(4) to 10(7) c.f.u. per larva. The most virulent isolate (1022) was able to persist and replicate within the insect, while the least virulent (780) was rapidly cleared. We observed a decrease in haemocyte concentration, aggregation and DNA damage post-infection with isolate 1022. Melanization points around bacterial cells were observed in the fat body and pericardial tissues of infected G. mellonella, indicating vigorous cell and humoral immune responses close to the larval dorsal vessel. As found in pigs, an A. pleuropneumoniae hfq mutant was significantly attenuated for infection in the G. mellonella model. Additionally, the model could be used to assess the effectiveness of several antimicrobial agents against A. pleuropneumoniae in vivo. G. mellonella is a suitable inexpensive alternative infection model that can be used to study the virulence of A. pleuropneumoniae, as well as assess the effectiveness of antimicrobial agents against this pathogen. © 2015 The Authors.
Herrera, L; Montiel, E; Rosales, M E; Bárcenas, G; Lara, A V; Montaraz, J A
Using an experimental model of passive immunity in the rat, the immunizing effect of live cells of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serotypes 1, 3, 5, 7, 9 and 12 was tested against a challenge with serotype 1. It was observed that serotypes 5, 7 and 9 induced polyvalent immunity. Additionally, agglutinating antibodies to the homologous and heterologous serotype were titrated in the sera of immunized mothers; the results indicated that groups immunized with serotypes 5, 7 and 9 had higher titers against serotype 1.
Yang, Xi; Cheng, Yu-Ting; Tan, Mei-Fang; Zhang, Hua-Wei; Liu, Wan-Quan; Zou, Geng; Zhang, Liang-Sheng; Zhang, Chun-Yan; Deng, Si-Min; Yu, Lei; Hu, Xue-Ying; Li, Lu; Zhou, Rui
To reduce the need for antibiotics in animal production, alternative approaches are needed to control infection. We hypothesized that overexpression of native defensin genes will provide food animals with enhanced resistance to bacterial infections. In this study, recombinant porcine beta-defensin 2 (PBD-2) was overexpressed in stably transfected PK-15 porcine kidney cells. PBD-2 antibacterial activities against Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, an important respiratory pathogen causing porcine contagious pleuropneumonia, were evaluated on agar plates. Transgenic pigs constitutively overexpressing PBD-2 were produced by a somatic cell cloning method, and their resistance to bacterial infection was evaluated by direct or cohabitation infection with A. pleuropneumoniae. Recombinant PBD-2 peptide that was overexpressed in the PK-15 cells showed antibacterial activity against A. pleuropneumoniae. PBD-2 was overexpressed in the heart, liver, spleen, lungs, kidneys, and jejunum of the transgenic pigs, which showed significantly lower bacterial loads in the lungs and reduced lung lesions after direct or cohabitation infection with A. pleuropneumoniae. The results demonstrate that transgenic overexpression of PBD-2 in pigs confers enhanced resistance against A. pleuropneumoniae infection. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.
Yang, Xi; Cheng, Yu-Ting; Tan, Mei-Fang; Zhang, Hua-Wei; Liu, Wan-Quan; Zou, Geng; Zhang, Liang-Sheng; Zhang, Chun-Yan; Deng, Si-Min; Yu, Lei; Hu, Xue-Ying; Li, Lu
To reduce the need for antibiotics in animal production, alternative approaches are needed to control infection. We hypothesized that overexpression of native defensin genes will provide food animals with enhanced resistance to bacterial infections. In this study, recombinant porcine beta-defensin 2 (PBD-2) was overexpressed in stably transfected PK-15 porcine kidney cells. PBD-2 antibacterial activities against Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, an important respiratory pathogen causing porcine contagious pleuropneumonia, were evaluated on agar plates. Transgenic pigs constitutively overexpressing PBD-2 were produced by a somatic cell cloning method, and their resistance to bacterial infection was evaluated by direct or cohabitation infection with A. pleuropneumoniae. Recombinant PBD-2 peptide that was overexpressed in the PK-15 cells showed antibacterial activity against A. pleuropneumoniae. PBD-2 was overexpressed in the heart, liver, spleen, lungs, kidneys, and jejunum of the transgenic pigs, which showed significantly lower bacterial loads in the lungs and reduced lung lesions after direct or cohabitation infection with A. pleuropneumoniae. The results demonstrate that transgenic overexpression of PBD-2 in pigs confers enhanced resistance against A. pleuropneumoniae infection. PMID:25916992
Chen, Xiabing; Xu, Zhuofei; Li, Lu; Chen, Huanchun; Zhou, Rui
Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae is an important swine respiratory pathogen causing great economic losses worldwide. Identification of conserved surface antigenic proteins is helpful for developing effective vaccines. In this study, a genome-wide strategy combined with bioinformatic and experimental approaches, was applied to discover and characterize surface-associated immunogenic proteins of A. pleuropneumoniae. Thirty nine genes encoding outer membrane proteins (OMPs) and lipoproteins were identified by comparative genomics and gene expression profiling as being-highly conserved and stably transcribed in the different serotypes of A. pleuropneumoniae reference strains. Twelve of these conserved proteins were successfully expressed in Escherichia coli and their immunogenicity was estimated by homologous challenge in the mouse model, and then three of these proteins (APJL_0126, HbpA and OmpW) were further tested in the natural host (swine) by homologous and heterologous challenges. The results showed that these proteins could induce high titers of antibodies, but vaccination with each protein individually elicited low protective immunity against A. pleuropneumoniae. This study gives novel insights into immunogenicity of the conserved OMPs and lipoproteins of A. pleuropneumoniae. Although none of the surface proteins characterized in this study could individually induce effective protective immunity against A. pleuropneumoniae, they are potential candidates for subunit vaccines in combination with Apx toxins.
Paradis, S E; Dubreuil, D; Rioux, S; Gottschalk, M; Jacques, M
Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae is the causative agent of porcine pleuropneumonia. The major adhesin of A. pleuropneumoniae has been identified as the lipopolysaccharides (LPSs) (M. Bélanger, D. Dubreuil, J. Harel, C. Girard, and M. Jacques, Infect. Immun. 58:3523-3530, 1990). Using immunoelectron microscopy and flow cytometry, we showed in the present study that LPSs were well exposed at the surface of this encapsulated microorganism. Immunolocalization with porcine lung and tracheal frozen sections showed that extracted LPS bound to the lung mesenchyme and vascular endothelium and to the tracheal epithelium, respectively. Inhibition of adherence of A. pleuropneumoniae with extracted LPS was also performed with lung and tracheal frozen sections. Acid hydrolysis of LPS revealed that the active component of LPS was not lipid A but the polysaccharides. LPSs from A. pleuropneumoniae serotypes 1 and 2 were separated by chromatography on Sephacryl S-300 SF, in the presence of sodium deoxycholate, according to their molecular masses. The adherence-inhibitory activity was found in the high-molecular-mass fractions. These high-molecular-mass fractions contained 2-keto-3-deoxyoctulosonic acid and neutral sugars, and they were recognized by a monoclonal antibody directed against A. pleuropneumoniae O antigen but not recognized by a monoclonal antibody against capsular antigen. Images PMID:8039902
Pérez Márquez, V M; Ochoa, J López; Cruz, C Vázquez; Alonso, P Sánchez; Olmedo-Alvarez, G; Vaca, S; Abascal, E Negrete
Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae is the causal agent of porcine pleuropneumonia, which is a highly contagious respiratory disease that affects swine nearly exclusively. An isolate with characteristics of some Pasteurellaceae family members (Gram-negative bacterium, pleomorphic, and NAD-dependent) was isolated from layer hens showing clinical signs of infectious coryza. This bacterium presented hemolysis on rabbit red blood cell agar plates, and PCR amplification and sequencing of its 16S rDNA gene indicated 99% identity with A. pleuropneumoniae serotypes 3 and 7. The presence of a putative apxIIA gene was also determined by PCR. A single, smooth colony of this bacterium inoculated in five, 7-day-old chicken embryos via the yolk sac route induced 100% mortality. However, inoculation into 10-wk-old, specific-pathogen-free chickens induced only light facial swelling, and reisolation of the inoculated bacterium was negative.
Negrete-Abascal, E; García, R M; Reyes, M E; Godínez, D; de la Garza, M
Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serotype 1 releases vesicles containing proteases and Apx toxins into the culture medium. Vesicles were concentrated by ultracentrifugation and analyzed by electron microscopy and electrophoresis; their size ranged from 20 to 200 nm. A polyclonal antiserum raised against a purified high molecular mass secreted protease of serotype 1 recognized this protease on the surface of the vesicles by immunogold electron microscopy. Higher molecular mass polypeptides from vesicle extracts were recognized by the antiserum by Western immunoblot, indicating that the protease could form oligomers. However, these oligomers were not active against gelatin until secreted. Additionally, Apx toxins were also present in vesicles, and were recognized by Western immunoblot by an anti-serotype 1 toxins polyclonal serum. A. pleuropneumoniae antigens in vesicles were recognized by convalescent-phase pig sera from animals infected with serotype 1 or 5. The release of vesicles containing virulence factors could be a tissue damage mechanism in swine pleuropneumonia.
Gutiérrez, C B; Rodríguez Barbosa, J I; Tascón, R I; Costa, L; Riera, P; Rodríguez Ferri, E F
Seventy-one isolates of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae isolated from the lungs of pigs in outbreaks of pleuropneumonia in Spain were serotyped by indirect haemagglutination. Serotype 4 (42.2 per cent), serotype 7 (22.5 per cent) and serotype 2 (12.8 per cent) were predominant, whereas serotypes 1, 3, 6, 8, 9, 12 and untypable isolates were present only in small numbers. Serotypes 1, 2, 4 and 7 originated mainly from cases of acute pleuropneumonia, whereas serotypes 3, 6, 8, 9 and 12 were associated with chronically infected herds. The susceptibility of the isolates to 20 antimicrobial agents was determined by agar disc diffusion. Most were susceptible to cefuroxime, cefaclor, cefazolin, kanamycin, tobramycin, gentamicin, oxolinic acid, ciprofloxacin, enoxacin, thiamphenicol, colistin and trimethoprim/sulphamethoxazole. Marked resistance was found with amoxicillin, ticarcillin, oxytetracycline, doxycycline and metronidazole. Rifampicin, fosfomycin and tiamulin were the agents most effective against the isolates tested.
Chien, Maw-Sheng; Chan, You-Yu; Chen, Zeng-Weng; Wu, Chi-Ming; Liao, Jiunn-Wang; Chen, Ter-Hsin; Lee, Wei-Cheng; Yeh, Kuang-Sheng; Hsuan, Shih-Ling
Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae (AP) is the causative agent of swine pleuropneumonia, a fibrinous, exudative, hemorrhagic, necrotizing pleuropneumonia affecting all ages of pigs. Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae exotoxins (Apx) are one of the major virulence factors of AP. Due to the complex nature of Apx toxins produced by AP, little is known regarding the interactions of individual species of Apx toxin with target cells. The objective of this study was to examine whether AP serotype 10-derived exotoxin, ApxI, caused apoptosis in porcine alveolar macrophages (PAMs) and to delineate the underlying signaling pathways. Isolated PAMs were stimulated with different concentrations of native ApxI and monitored for apoptosis using Hoechst staining, TUNEL, and DNA laddering assays. The ApxI-stimulated PAMs exhibited typical morphological features of apoptosis, including condensation of chromatin, formation of apoptotic bodies and DNA laddering. ApxI-induced apoptosis in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. Furthermore, to delineate the signaling events involved in ApxI-induced apoptosis, it was observed that caspase 3 was activated in ApxI-stimulated PAMs. Ablation of caspase 3 activity via specific inhibitors protected PAMs from apoptosis by ApxI. This study is the first to demonstrate that native ApxI causes apoptosis in PAMs at low concentrations and that these apoptotic events are mediated via a caspase 3-dependent pathway. These findings suggest a role of ApxI in AP infection as it might impair the host defense system through the induction of apoptosis in PAMs.
Gutiérrez-Martín, César B; del Blanco, Noemí García; Blanco, Mónica; Navas, Jesús; Rodríguez-Ferri, Elías F
A total of 229 Spanish Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae isolates recovered from diseased pigs with pleuropneumonia from 1997 to 2004 was tested for their susceptibility to 11 antimicrobials in a broth microdilution method. All the isolates were susceptible to florfenicol and most of them to cephalothin; however, a high rate of resistance was observed to tetracycline. A bimodal or multimodal distribution of isolates over the MIC range were observed for penicillins, tetracycline, trimethoprim, sulfisoxazole and nalidixic acid, suggesting the development of acquired resistance. Eight resistance patterns were established, and 21.1% of the isolates were resistant to at least two antimicrobials. In addition, a considerable increase in the resistance to tetracyclines was observed during the last decade in Spain, when compared with other A. pleuropneumoniae strains isolated during 1987-1988 (Gutiérrez, C.B., Píriz, S., Vadillo, S., Rodríguez Ferri, E.F., 1993. In vitro susceptibility of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae strains to 42 antimicrobial agents. Am. J. Vet. Res. 54, 546-550); this finding was also observed for gentamicin in minor percentage.
Kokotovic, Branko; Angen, Øystein
Amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) was evaluated as a method for genotypic characterization and subtyping within the bacterial species Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae. A total of 155 isolates of A. pleuropneumoniae, representing the serotypic variation described to occur within this species, were analyzed. In order to elucidate the species boundaries, six strains of the phylogenetically closely related species Actinobacillus lignieresii were also included. Furthermore, the ability of AFLP to subtype was studied using 42 isolates of serovar 2 and the performance compared to that obtained by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). AFLP analysis provided a clear separation of A. lignieresii and A. pleuropneumoniae and divided the isolates of A. pleuropneumoniae into 20 clusters. Most of the serovars of A. pleuropneumoniae were represented by single and quite homogeneous clusters. The exceptions were serovars 10, K2:O7, and K1:O7, which were represented by two clusters each. In the cases where the serovars were represented by more than one cluster, the existence of these clusters was supported by additional phenotypic or genotypic properties. Furthermore, AFLP typing was able to allocate serologically nontypeable isolates to appropriate genetic groups within the species. Further investigations are needed to determine whether some of the clusters revealed through AFLP analysis represent additional serovars. When evaluated as a method for subtyping within serovar 2 of A. pleuropneumoniae, AFLP was found to achieve a degree of separation among isolates superior to that obtained by PFGE. However, a higher degree of separation between serovar 2 isolates was obtained by a combination of the two methods. PMID:17959758
Li, Gang; Xie, Fang; Zhang, Yanhe; Bossé, Janine T.; Langford, Paul R.; Wang, Chunlai
Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae is a Gram-negative bacterium and the cause of porcine pleuropneumonia. When the bacterium encounters nutritional starvation, the relA-dependent (p)ppGpp-mediated stringent response is activated. The modified nucleotides guanosine 5’-diphosphate 3’-diphosphate (ppGpp) and guanosine 5’-triphosphate 3’-diphosphate (pppGpp) are known to be signaling molecules in other prokaryotes. Here, to investigate the role of (p)ppGpp in A. pleuropneumoniae, we created a mutant A. pleuropneumoniae strain, S8ΔrelA, which lacks the (p)ppGpp-synthesizing enzyme RelA, and investigated its phenotype in vitro. S8ΔrelA did not survive after stationary phase (starvation condition) and grew exclusively as non-extended cells. Compared to the wild-type (WT) strain, the S8ΔrelA mutant had an increased ability to form a biofilm. Transcriptional profiles of early stationary phase cultures revealed that a total of 405 bacterial genes were differentially expressed (including 380 up-regulated and 25 down-regulated genes) in S8ΔrelA as compared with the WT strain. Most of the up-regulated genes are involved in ribosomal structure and biogenesis, amino acid transport and metabolism, translation cell wall/membrane/envelope biogenesis. The data indicate that (p)ppGpp coordinates the growth, viability, morphology, biofilm formation and metabolic ability of A. pleuropneumoniae in starvation conditions. Furthermore, S8ΔrelA could not use certain sugars nor produce urease which has been associated with the virulence of A. pleuropneumoniae, suggesting that (p)ppGpp may directly or indirectly affect the pathogenesis of A. pleuropneumoniae during the infection process. In summary, (p)ppGpp signaling represents an essential component of the regulatory network governing stress adaptation and virulence in A. pleuropneumoniae. PMID:26509499
Li, Gang; Xie, Fang; Zhang, Yanhe; Bossé, Janine T; Langford, Paul R; Wang, Chunlai
Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae is a Gram-negative bacterium and the cause of porcine pleuropneumonia. When the bacterium encounters nutritional starvation, the relA-dependent (p)ppGpp-mediated stringent response is activated. The modified nucleotides guanosine 5'-diphosphate 3'-diphosphate (ppGpp) and guanosine 5'-triphosphate 3'-diphosphate (pppGpp) are known to be signaling molecules in other prokaryotes. Here, to investigate the role of (p)ppGpp in A. pleuropneumoniae, we created a mutant A. pleuropneumoniae strain, S8ΔrelA, which lacks the (p)ppGpp-synthesizing enzyme RelA, and investigated its phenotype in vitro. S8ΔrelA did not survive after stationary phase (starvation condition) and grew exclusively as non-extended cells. Compared to the wild-type (WT) strain, the S8ΔrelA mutant had an increased ability to form a biofilm. Transcriptional profiles of early stationary phase cultures revealed that a total of 405 bacterial genes were differentially expressed (including 380 up-regulated and 25 down-regulated genes) in S8ΔrelA as compared with the WT strain. Most of the up-regulated genes are involved in ribosomal structure and biogenesis, amino acid transport and metabolism, translation cell wall/membrane/envelope biogenesis. The data indicate that (p)ppGpp coordinates the growth, viability, morphology, biofilm formation and metabolic ability of A. pleuropneumoniae in starvation conditions. Furthermore, S8ΔrelA could not use certain sugars nor produce urease which has been associated with the virulence of A. pleuropneumoniae, suggesting that (p)ppGpp may directly or indirectly affect the pathogenesis of A. pleuropneumoniae during the infection process. In summary, (p)ppGpp signaling represents an essential component of the regulatory network governing stress adaptation and virulence in A. pleuropneumoniae.
Sjölund, M; Fossum, C; Martín de la Fuente, A J; Alava, M; Juul-Madsen, H R; Lampreave, F; Wallgren, P
The susceptibility to an initial challenge and a re-challenge inoculation with Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae was analysed in pigs that were treated with antimicrobials of different efficacies following the first exposure to A pleuropneumoniae. In brief, 30 nine-week-old specific pathogen-free pigs were allocated to five groups of six. After acclimatisation, four groups were inoculated with A pleuropneumoniae serotype 2. At the onset of clinical signs, three of the groups of pigs were treated with enrofloxacin, tetracycline or penicillin. A fourth group served as the inoculated control and the fifth group as a control group that had not been inoculated. On day 28, all five groups were re-challenged with the same strain of A pleuropneumoniae serotype 2 as had been used in the first inoculation. No treatments were carried out at this time. The acute phase responses and differential leucocyte counts were monitored in detail after both inoculations. Leucocytosis and acute phase responses in the forms of serum amyloid A, pig-major acute phase protein and haptoglobin were recorded in all of the inoculated groups after the onset of clinical signs following the first inoculation. A porcine mannan-binding lectin-A response was less evident in the pigs. Acute phase responses resembling those of the first inoculation were observed in the pigs that had not previously been inoculated and in the pigs treated with enrofloxacin. Acute phase responses were not recorded in the other three groups, where the pigs had seroconverted to A pleuropneumoniae serotype 2 following the first inoculation.
Rossi, Ciro C; Pereira, Monalessa F; Langford, Paul R; Bazzolli, Denise M S
Bacterial respiratory diseases are responsible for considerable mortality, morbidity and economic losses in the swine industry. Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, the causative agent of porcine pleuropneumonia, is one of the most important disease agents, but its identification and surveillance can be impaired by the existence of many other related bacteria in normal swine microbiota. In this work, we have evaluated a BOX-A1R-based repetitive extragenic palindromic-PCR (BOX-PCR) sequence characterised amplified region (SCAR) marker for the specific identification of A. pleuropneumoniae and its use in a multiplex PCR to detect additionally Haemophilus parasuis and Pasteurella multocida, two other major respiratory pathogens of pigs that are members of the family Pasteurellaceae. PCRs based on the BOX-SCAR fragment developed were rapid, sensitive and differentiated A. pleuropneumoniae from all swine-related members of the Pasteurellaceae family tested. Single and multiplex BOX-SCAR fragment-based PCRs can be used to identify A. pleuropneumoniae from other bacterial swine pathogens and will be useful in surveillance and epidemiological studies. © 2014 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. All rights reserved.
Maldonado, Jaime; Blanco, Mónica; Martínez, Eva; Navas, Jesús
Three tests for typing clinical isolates of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae biovar 2 were compared: 1) standard coagglutination with type-specific antisera against serovars 1-12 of biovar 1 of A. pleuropneumoniae; 2) a previously described polymerase chain reaction system for detecting the apx genes encoding the ApxI, ApxII, and ApxIII toxins in A. pleuropneumoniae; and 3) a restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of the transferrin-binding protein B gene. The panel of strains tested included 112 field isolates of biovar 2 recovered from pigs between 1979 and 2007 in Italy and Spain, and reference strains for all described serovars of both biovars. The values of Simpson index of diversity obtained for the 3 methods were 0.68, 0.20, and 0.60, respectively. Coagglutination assays identified the field isolates as belonging to serovars 2 (9 strains), 4 (13 strains), 7 (61 strains), 9 (17 strains), and 11 (1 strain). Eleven strains were not typeable, and cross-reactivity was observed between serovars 2 and 4, 4 and 7, and 9 and 11. Isolates of A. pleuropneumoniae biovar 2 displayed 2 apx patterns: ApxII(+) (94 strains) and ApxI(+)/ApxII(+) (18 strains). The restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis assigned the strains tested to 3 different patterns. This method distinguished between biovar 2 reference strains and field strains that could not be identified by other methods, thus constituting a useful complementary test for the typing of A. pleuropneumoniae biovar 2.
Yuan, Fangyan; Liu, Jinlin; Guo, Yi; Tan, Chen; Fu, Shulin; Zhao, Jin; Chen, Huanchun; Bei, Weicheng
Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae is a Gram-negative pathogen that causes porcine pleuropneumonia. The pathogenicity of A. pleuropneumoniae is strongly correlated with the production of active repeat-in-toxin (RTX) proteins such as ApxIVA. We evaluated the contribution of a potential ApxIVA activator, ORF1, to the virulence and immunogenicity of A. pleuropneumoniae in pigs. The orf1 gene in A. pleuropneumoniae SLW03 (serovar 1, ΔapxICΔapxIIC) was deleted, producing strain SLW05 (ΔapxICΔapxIICΔorf1). The virulence of strains SLW03 and SLW05 was compared in pigs. Clinical signs and pulmonary lesions induced by strain SLW05 were slighter than that of strain SLW03 (P < 0.05). The immunogenicity and protective efficacy of strains SLW03 and SLW05 were similar. All pigs immunized with strain SLW03 or SLW05 developed high antibody titers against ApxIA, ApxIIA, and ApxIVA before challenge. Two weeks after a second immunization, pigs were challenged intratracheally with either a fully virulent A. pleuropneumoniae serovar 1 or serovar 3 strain. Vaccination with strains SLW03 or SLW05 provided significantly greater protection compared to the negative control (P < 0.01). Immunized pigs displayed significantly fewer clinical signs and lower lung lesion scores than non-immunized pigs. These results suggested that ORF1 plays an important role in the development of ApxIVA toxicity. Furthermore, strain SLW05 is a highly attenuated strain able to induce protective immunity against A. pleuropneumoniae infection.
Diarra, M S; Dolence, J A; Dolence, E K; Darwish, I; Miller, M J; Malouin, F; Jacques, M
Siderophores bind ferric ions and are involved in receptor-specific iron transport into bacteria. Six types of siderophores were tested against strains representing the 12 different serotypes of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae. Ferrichrome and bis-catechol-based siderophores showed strong growth-promoting activities for A. pleuropneumoniae in a disk diffusion assay. Most strains of A. pleuropneumoniae tested were able to use ferrichrome (21 of 22 or 95%), ferrichrome A (20 of 22 or 90%), and lysine-based bis-catechol (20 of 22 or 90%), while growth of 36% (8 of 22) was promoted by a synthetic hydroxamate, N5-acetyl-N5-hydroxy-L-ornithine tripeptide. A. pleuropneumoniae serotype 1 (strain FMV 87-682) and serotype 5 (strain 2245) exhibited a distinct yellow halo around colonies on Chrome Azurol S agar plates, suggesting that both strains can produce an iron chelator (siderophore) in response to iron stress. The siderophore was found to be neither a phenolate nor a hydroxamate by the chemical tests of Arnow and Csaky, respectively. This is the first report demonstrating the production of an iron chelator and the use of exogenous siderophores by A. pleuropneumoniae. A spermidine-based bis-catechol siderophore conjugated to a carbacephalosporin was shown to inhibit growth of A. pleuropneumoniae. A siderophore-antibiotic-resistant strain was isolated and shown to have lost the ability to use ferrichrome, synthetic hydroxamate, or catechol-based siderophores when grown under conditions of iron restriction. This observation indicated that a common iron uptake pathway, or a common intermediate, for hydroxamate- and catechol-based siderophores may exist in A. pleuropneumoniae.
Lopez-Bermudez, Jorge; Quintanar-Guerrero, David; Lara Puente, Horacio; Tórtora Perez, Jorge; Suárez Güemez, Francisco; Ciprián Carrasco, Abel; Mendoza Elvira, Susana
The main goal of this work was to obtain an orally administered immunogen that would protect against infections by Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae. The Apx I, II and III toxins were obtained from the supernatants of cultures of serotypes 1 and 3 of A. pleuropneumoniae. The capacity of monoolein gel to trap and protect the Apx toxins, and the effect of their incorporation on the stability of the cubic phase were evaluated. The gel was capable of trapping a 400-μg/ml concentration of the antigen with no effects on its structure. Approximately 60% of the protein molecules were released from the gel within 4h. Four experimental groups were formed, each one with four pigs. All challenges were conducted in a nebulization chamber. Group A: Control (-) not vaccinated and not challenged; Group B: Control (+) not vaccinated but challenged; Group C: vaccinated twice intramuscularly with ToxCom (a commercial toxoid) at an interval of 15 days and then challenged; and Group D: vaccinated orally twice a week for 4 weeks with ToxOral (an oral toxoid) and challenged on day 28 of the experiment with a same dose of 2.0 × 10(4) UFC of A. pleuropneumoniae serotypes 1 and 3. The lesions found in group B covered 27.7-43.1% of the lungs; the pigs in group C had lesions over 12.3-28%; and those in group D over 15.4-32.3%. No lesions were found in the Group A pigs. A. pleuropneumoniae induced macroscopic lesions characteristic of infection by and lesions microscopic detected by histopathology. The etiologic agent was recovered from the infected lungs, tonsils and spleen. The serotypes identified were 1 and 3. An indirect ELISA test identified the antibodies against the Apx toxins in the serum of the animals immunized orally. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Wang, Lei; Qin, Wanhai; Ruidong, Zhai; Liu, Shiting; Zhang, Hu; Sun, Changjiang; Feng, Xin; Gu, Jingmin; Du, Chongtao; Han, Wenyu; Langford, P R; Lei, Liancheng
Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae (A. pleuropneumoniae) is the causative agent of porcine pleuropneumonia, a disease that causes serious problems for the swine industry. Successful infection by this bacterium requires breaking the first line of defence in the lungs, the primary alveolar macrophages (PAMs). Therefore, exploring A. pleuropneumoniae-PAM interactions will provide vital groundwork for the scientific control of this infectious disease, which has been little studied up to now. In this work, PAMs were isolated from piglets and co-incubated with A. pleuropneumoniae serovar 5b strain L20 in vitro, and their interaction, PAM cell death, and differential gene expression of A. pleuropneumoniae in response to PAM cell death were observed and analysed using confocal microscopy, electron microscopy, RT-PCR, Western blot, flow cytometry and the use of a gene expression profile chip. A. pleuropneumoniae quickly adhered to and invaded PAMs, inducing apoptosis, which was confirmed using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The highest percentage of apoptosis in cells was confirmed using flow cytometry when the cells were infected at a multiplicity of infection (MOI) of 10 and incubated for 5 h, with higher expression of activated caspase-3 as measured by Western blot. Using microarray gene chips with 2868 probes containing nearly all of the genomic sequence of A. pleuropneumoniae serotype 5b strain L20, a total of 185 bacterial genes were found to be differentially expressed (including 92 up-regulated and 93 down-regulated genes) and involved in the process of apoptosis, as compared with the expression of control bacteria cultured without PAMs in BHI medium (mean expression ratios >1.5-fold, p < 0.05). The up-regulated genes are involved in energy metabolism, gene transcription and translation, virulence related gene such as LPS, Trimeric Autotransporter Adhesin, RTX and similar genes. The down-regulated genes are
Abstract The swine pathogen Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serotype 1 was investigated for its ability to adhere to swine, rat, and human buccal epithelial cells (BEC). The highest number of bacteria adhered was to swine BEC. This binding ability was affected by heating, extreme pH, treatment with sodium dodecyl sulfate, ethylenediamine tetraacetate, or periodate, and proteolysis, suggesting that cell-surface glycoproteins participate in adherence and that adherence is based mostly on ionic interactions. Mannose and swine fibronectin may play a direct role in this interaction. Convalescent-phase serum from naturally infected pigs inhibited the adhesion. There was a correlation between bacterial pathogenicity as well as host specificity and the capacity for adherence to swine BEC. Adhesion to swine BEC provides a convenient method to study in vitro the adherence of A. pleuropneumoniae and other pathogens of the pig respiratory tract. PMID:14979433
Cişmileanu, Ana; Sima, Cornelia; Grigoriu, Constantin
A quantum dot - immunoglobulin conjugate specific for pig IgG, was obtained by carbodiimide chemistry. We used a Western blot technique for detecting specific antibodies against Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae (A. pp), which cause porcine pleuropneumonia. The antigen used in this technique was Apx haemolysin which is an important virulence factor of A. pp and it induces protective immunity in vaccined pigs. The detection on Western blot membrane was possible at 1/50 dilution of quantum dot conjugate at a dilution of pig serum till 1/6400. The results for pig serum demonstrated a higher sensitivity of QD-based Western blot technique for the presence of antibodies specific for Apx haemolysin in comparison with similar classical techniques (with coloured substrate for enzyme present in secondary antibody conjugate).
The introduction into a naïve herd of animals sub-clinically infected with Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae (App) is frequently the cause of clinical pleuropneumonia and the identification of such infected herds is a priority in the control of disease. Different serological tests for App have been developed and a number of these are routinely used. Some are species-specific whereas others identify more specifically the serotype/serogroup involved which requires updated information about important serotypes recovered from diseased pigs in a given area/country. Serotyping methods based on molecular techniques have been developed lately and are ready to be used by most diagnostic laboratories. When non-conclusive serological results are obtained, direct detection of App from tonsils is sometimes attempted. This review addresses different techniques and approaches used to monitor herds sub-clinically infected by this important pathogen. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Hamer-Barrera, Roberto; Godínez, Delfino; Enríquez, V Idalia; Vaca-Pacheco, Sergio; Martinez-Zúñiga, Rodrigo; Talamás-Rohana, Patricia; Suárez-Güemez, Francisco; de la Garza, Mireya
The swine pathogen Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serotype 1 was investigated for its ability to adhere to swine, rat, and human buccal epithelial cells (BEC). The highest number of bacteria adhered was to swine BEC. This binding ability was affected by heating, extreme pH, treatment with sodium dodecyl sulfate, ethylenediamine tetra-acetate, or periodate, and proteolysis, suggesting that cell-surface glycoproteins participate in adherence and that adherence is based mostly on ionic interactions. Mannose and swine fibronectin may play a direct role in this interaction. Convalescent-phase serum from naturally infected pigs inhibited the adhesion. There was a correlation between bacterial pathogenicity as well as host specificity and the capacity for adherence to swine BEC. Adhesion to swine BEC provides a convenient method to study in vitro the adherence of A. pleuropneumoniae and other pathogens of the pig respiratory tract.
Xiao, Longwen; Zhou, Liang; Sun, Changjiang; Feng, Xin; Du, ChongTao; Gao, Yu; Ji, Qun; Yang, Shuxin; Wang, Yu; Han, Wenyu; Langford, P R; Lei, Liancheng
Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae is the causative agent of porcine pleuropneumonia, and adherence to host cells is a key step in the pathogenic process. Although trimeric autotransporter adhesins (TAAs) were identified in many pathogenic bacteria in recent years, none in A. pleuropneumoniae have been characterized. In this study, we identified a TAA from A. pleuropneumoniae, Apa, and characterized the contribution of its amino acid residues to the adhesion process. Sequence analysis of the C-terminal amino acid residues of Apa revealed the presence of a putative translocator domain and six conserved HsfBD1-like or HsfBD2-like binding domains. Western blot analysis revealed that the 126 C-terminal amino acids of Apa could form trimeric molecules. By confocal laser scanning microscopy, one of these six domains (ApaBD3) was determined to mediate adherence to epithelial cells. Adherence assays and adherence inhibition assays using a recombinant E. coli- ApaBD3 strain which expressed ApaBD3 on the surface of E. coli confirmed that this domain was responsible for the adhesion activity. Moreover, cellular enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays demonstrated that ApaBD3 mediated high-level adherence to epithelial cell lines. Intriguingly, autoagglutination was observed with the E. coli- ApaBD3 strain, and this phenomenon was dependent upon the association of the expressed ApaBD3 with the C-terminal translocator domain. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Dorey, L; Hobson, S; Lees, P
Four indices of antimicrobial potency were determined for florfenicol and the pig pneumonia pathogens, Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae and Pasteurella multocida. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC), mutant prevention concentration (MPC) and time-kill curves were determined in two matrices, broth and pig serum. Five overlapping sets of two-fold dilutions were used to increase accuracy of the measurements. MIC and MBC serum:broth ratios for A. pleuropneumoniae were 0.96:1 and 1.07:1, respectively, and corresponding values for P. multocida were 0.72:1 and 0.50:1. The percentage binding of florfenicol to serum protein was 65.4%, and fraction unbound (fu) serum MICs were significantly lower, by 2.71-fold and 3.82-fold, respectively, than predicted for free serum concentrations for A. pleuropneumoniae and P. multocida. Similar culture medium differences were obtained for MBC and MPC. MICs in serum and broth were increased significantly and progressively for high, medium and low initial inoculum counts. Serum MPC:MIC ratios for A. pleuropneumoniae and P. multocida were 12.5:1 and 13.6:1, respectively; ratios for broth were similar. The killing action of florfenicol had the characteristics of concentration dependency for both species in both growth media. These data indicate the value of using a biological medium, when determining microbiological potency indices, to predict dosage for clinical use. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Wyns, H; Croubels, S; Vandekerckhove, M; Demeyere, K; De Backer, P; Goddeeris, B M; Meyer, E
Porcine pleuropneumonia is a severe respiratory disease caused by Actinobacillus (A.) pleuropneumoniae. The aim of the present study was to analyze serum samples of A. pleuropneumoniae-infected pigs for TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6 using a cytometric bead array (CBA) 3-plex assay and additionally for IL-6 using ELISA. The CBA 3-plex assay was successfully validated for use in serum. The limits of detection varied between 0.012 and 0.333 ng/mL, and the inter- and inter-assay coefficients of variation were <5% and <10%, respectively. Increased levels were observed for all 3 cytokines following experimental infection with A. pleuropneumoniae. Mean peak concentrations of TNF-α and IL-6 were recorded at 12h and at 10h p.i., respectively. For IL-6, similar concentration-time profiles were observed with CBA and ELISA. It is proposed that this immuno-assay can be applied for the screening of immunomodulatory properties of drugs and vaccine adjuvants in infection, inflammation and vaccination. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Dorey, L; Hobson, S; Lees, P
Pharmacodynamic properties of marbofloxacin were established for six isolates each of the pig respiratory tract pathogens, Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae and Pasteurella multocida. Three in vitro indices of potency were determined; Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC), Minimum Bactericidal Concentration (MBC) and Mutant Prevention Concentration (MPC). For MIC determination Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute guidelines were modified in three respects: (1) comparison was made between two growth media, an artificial broth and pig serum; (2) a high inoculum count was used to simulate heavy clinical bacteriological loads; and (3) five overlapping sets of two-fold dilutions were used to improve accuracy of determinations. Similar methods were used for MBC and MPC estimations. MIC and MPC serum:broth ratios for A. pleuropneumoniae were 0.79:1 and 0.99:1, respectively, and corresponding values for P. multocida were 1.12:1 and 1.32:1. Serum protein binding of marbofloxacin was 49%, so that fraction unbound (fu) serum MIC values were significantly lower than those predicted by correction for protein binding; fu serum:broth MIC ratios were 0.40:1 (A. pleuropneumoniae) and 0.50:1 (P. multocida). For broth, MPC:MIC ratios were 13.7:1 (A. pleuropneumoniae) and 14.2:1 (P. multocida). Corresponding ratios for serum were similar, 17.2:1 and 18.8:1, respectively. It is suggested that, for dose prediction purposes, serum data might be preferable to potency indices measured in broths. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Kim, Mi-Young; Kim, Tae-Geum; Yang, Moon-Sik
Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae is a major etiological agent that is responsible for swine pleuropneumonia, a highly contagious respiratory infection that causes severe economic losses in the swine production industry. ApxIIA is one of the virulence factors in A. pleuropneumoniae and has been considered as a candidate for developing a vaccine against the bacterial infection. A gene encoding an ApxIIA fragment (amino acids 439-801) was modified based on a plant-optimized codon and constructed into a plant expression vector under the control of a promoter and the 3' UTR of the rice amylase 3D gene. The plant expression vector was introduced into rice embryogenic callus (Oryza sativa L. cv. Dongjin) via particle bombardment-mediated transformation. The integration and transcription of the ApxIIA439-801 gene were confirmed by using genomic DNA PCR amplification and Northern blot analysis, respectively. The synthesis of ApxIIA439-801 antigen protein in transgenic rice callus was confirmed by western blot analysis. The concentration of antigen protein in lyophilized samples of transgenic rice callus was 250 μg/g. Immunizing mice with protein extracts from transgenic plants intranasally elicited secretory IgA. These results demonstrate the feasibility of using a transgenic plant to elicit immune responses against A. pleuropneumoniae. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Inzana, T J; Ma, J; Workman, T; Gogolewski, R P; Anderson, P
The role of the capsule of Haemophilus (Actinobacillus) pleuropneumoniae serotype 5 in bacterial virulence, and the protective efficacy of antibody to serotype 5 capsule was investigated. Encapsulated H. pleuropneumoniae serotype 5 were resistant to killing by complement and antibody to capsule or somatic antigens, whereas a noncapsulated mutant was sensitive to killing by the alternative complement pathway alone. Antiserum to whole H. pleuropneumoniae serotype 5 bacteria or monospecific antiserum to capsule was capable of opsonizing bacteria of the homologous serotype for phagocytosis by swine polymorphonuclear leukocytes but was not opsonic for a heterologous serotype. An immunoglobulin M monoclonal antibody to the serotype 5 capsule was not opsonic for any serotype. Mice were protected against lethal, intranasal challenge with the homologous or heterologous serotype after immunization with live encapsulated or noncapsulated bacteria, but not after immunization with killed bacteria, lipopolysaccharide, or a capsule-protein conjugate vaccine. The protection induced by immunization with live bacteria was transferred to nonimmune, syngeneic mice by serum but not by spleen cells. Nonimmune pigs passively immunized with monospecific swine serum to capsule were protected from lethal infection but not from development of hemorrhagic lung lesions, whereas pigs passively immunized with swine antiserum to live bacteria did not develop severe respiratory lesions. Thus, the capsule of H. pleuropneumoniae serotype 5 was inhibitory to the bactericidal activity of serum and was antiphagocytic. Antibody to the capsule was opsonic but was not fully protective. Images PMID:3397178
Auger, Eliane; Deslandes, Vincent; Ramjeet, Mahendrasingh; Contreras, Irazù; Nash, John H. E.; Harel, Josée; Gottschalk, Marcelo; Olivier, Martin; Jacques, Mario
Host-pathogen interactions are of great importance in understanding the pathogenesis of infectious microorganisms. We developed in vitro models to study the host-pathogen interactions of porcine respiratory tract pathogens using two immortalized epithelial cell lines, namely, the newborn pig trachea (NPTr) and St. Jude porcine lung (SJPL) cell lines. We first studied the interactions of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, an important swine pathogen, using these models. Under conditions where cytotoxicity was absent or low, we showed that A. pleuropneumoniae adheres to both cell lines, stimulating the induction of NF-κB. The NPTr cells consequently secrete interleukin 8, while the SJPL cells do not, since they are deprived of the NF-κB p65 subunit. Cell death ultimately occurs by necrosis, not apoptosis. The transcriptomic profile of A. pleuropneumoniae was determined after contact with the porcine lung epithelial cells by using DNA microarrays. Genes such as tadB and rcpA, members of a putative adhesin locus, and a gene whose product has high homology to the Hsf autotransporter adhesin of Haemophilus influenzae were upregulated, as were the genes pgaBC, involved in biofilm biosynthesis, while capsular polysaccharide-associated genes were downregulated. The in vitro models also proved to be efficient with other swine pathogens, such as Actinobacillus suis, Haemophilus parasuis, and Pasteurella multocida. Our results demonstrate that interactions of A. pleuropneumoniae with host epithelial cells seem to involve complex cross talk which results in regulation of various bacterial genes, including some coding for putative adhesins. Furthermore, our data demonstrate the potential of these in vitro models in studying the host-pathogen interactions of other porcine respiratory tract pathogens. PMID:19139196
Daban, M; Medrano, A; Querol, E
Two outer-membrane proteins are involved in the uptake of iron from transferrin by certain Gram-negative bacteria, transferrin-binding proteins 1 and 2. The gene encoding transferrin-binding protein 1 from a serotype 1 isolate of the Gram-negative pathogen Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae was cloned, and a fragment encoding 700 amino acids of Tbp1 was expressed in Escherichia coli. We also report here sequencing of the tbpl gene and a comparison of the deduced amino acid sequence with Tbpls from related species. The predicted polypeptide product of tbpl is a 106 kDa protein with a 22-residue signal peptide. PMID:8670116
Hathroubi, S.; Hancock, M. A.; Langford, P. R.; Tremblay, Y. D. N.; Labrie, J.
Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae is a Gram-negative bacterium belonging to the Pasteurellaceae family and the causative agent of porcine pleuropneumonia, a highly contagious lung disease causing important economic losses. Surface polysaccharides, including lipopolysaccharides (LPS) and capsular polysaccharides (CPS), are implicated in the adhesion and virulence of A. pleuropneumoniae, but their role in biofilm formation is still unclear. In this study, we investigated the requirement for these surface polysaccharides in biofilm formation by A. pleuropneumoniae serotype 1. Well-characterized mutants were used: an O-antigen LPS mutant, a truncated core LPS mutant with an intact O antigen, a capsule mutant, and a poly-N-acetylglucosamine (PGA) mutant. We compared the amount of biofilm produced by the parental strain and the isogenic mutants using static and dynamic systems. Compared to the findings for the biofilm of the parental or other strains, the biofilm of the O antigen and the PGA mutants was dramatically reduced, and it had less cell-associated PGA. Real-time PCR analyses revealed a significant reduction in the level of pgaA, cpxR, and cpxA mRNA in the biofilm cells of the O-antigen mutant compared to that in the biofilm cells of the parental strain. Specific binding between PGA and LPS was consistently detected by surface plasmon resonance, but the lack of O antigen did not abolish these interactions. In conclusion, the absence of the O antigen reduces the ability of A. pleuropneumoniae to form a biofilm, and this is associated with the reduced expression and production of PGA. PMID:26483403
Hathroubi, S; Hancock, M A; Bossé, J T; Langford, P R; Tremblay, Y D N; Labrie, J; Jacques, M
Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae is a Gram-negative bacterium belonging to the Pasteurellaceae family and the causative agent of porcine pleuropneumonia, a highly contagious lung disease causing important economic losses. Surface polysaccharides, including lipopolysaccharides (LPS) and capsular polysaccharides (CPS), are implicated in the adhesion and virulence of A. pleuropneumoniae, but their role in biofilm formation is still unclear. In this study, we investigated the requirement for these surface polysaccharides in biofilm formation by A. pleuropneumoniae serotype 1. Well-characterized mutants were used: an O-antigen LPS mutant, a truncated core LPS mutant with an intact O antigen, a capsule mutant, and a poly-N-acetylglucosamine (PGA) mutant. We compared the amount of biofilm produced by the parental strain and the isogenic mutants using static and dynamic systems. Compared to the findings for the biofilm of the parental or other strains, the biofilm of the O antigen and the PGA mutants was dramatically reduced, and it had less cell-associated PGA. Real-time PCR analyses revealed a significant reduction in the level of pgaA, cpxR, and cpxA mRNA in the biofilm cells of the O-antigen mutant compared to that in the biofilm cells of the parental strain. Specific binding between PGA and LPS was consistently detected by surface plasmon resonance, but the lack of O antigen did not abolish these interactions. In conclusion, the absence of the O antigen reduces the ability of A. pleuropneumoniae to form a biofilm, and this is associated with the reduced expression and production of PGA. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.
Dayao, Dae; Gibson, J S; Blackall, P J; Turni, C
To identify genes associated with the observed antimicrobial resistance in Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, Haemophilus parasuis and Pasteurella multocida isolated from Australian pigs. Isolates with known phenotypic resistance to β-lactams, macrolides and tetracycline were screened for the presence of antimicrobial resistance genes. A total of 68 A. pleuropneumoniae, 62 H. parasuis and 20 P. multocida isolates exhibiting phenotypic antimicrobial resistance (A. pleuropneumoniae and P. multocida) or elevated minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) (H. parasuis) to any of the following antimicrobial agents - ampicillin, erythromycin, penicillin, tetracycline, tilmicosin and tulathromycin - were screened for a total of 19 associated antimicrobial resistance genes (ARGs) by PCR. The gene bla ROB-1 was found in all ampicillin- and penicillin-resistant isolates, but none harboured the bla TEM-1 gene. The tetB gene was found in 76% (74/97) of tetracycline-resistant isolates, 49/53 A. pleuropneumoniae, 17/30 H. parasuis and 8/14 P. multocida. One A. pleuropneumoniae isolate harboured the tetH gene, but none of the 97 isolates had tetA, tetC, tetD, tetE, tetL, tetM or tetO. A total of 92 isolates were screened for the presence of macrolide resistance genes. None was found to have ermA, ermB, ermC, erm42, mphE, mefA, msrA or msrE. The current study has provided a genetic explanation for the resistance or elevated MIC of the majority of isolates of Australian porcine respiratory pathogens to ampicillin, penicillin and tetracycline. However, the macrolide resistance observed by phenotypic testing remains genetically unexplained and further studies are required. © 2016 Australian Veterinary Association.
Rossi, Ciro C.; Bossé, Janine T.; Li, Yanwen; Witney, Adam A.; Gould, Kate A.; Langford, Paul R.; Bazzolli, Denise M.S.
Bacterial regulatory small RNAs (sRNAs) play important roles in gene regulation and are frequently connected to the expression of virulence factors in diverse bacteria. Only a few sRNAs have been described for Pasteurellaceae pathogens and no in-depth analysis of sRNAs has been described for Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, the causative agent of porcine pleuropneumonia, responsible for considerable losses in the swine industry. To search for sRNAs in A. pleuropneumoniae, we developed a strategy for the computational analysis of the bacterial genome by using four algorithms with different approaches, followed by experimental validation. The coding strand and expression of 17 out of 23 RNA candidates were confirmed by Northern blotting, RT-PCR, and RNA sequencing. Among them, two are likely riboswitches, three are housekeeping regulatory RNAs, two are the widely studied GcvB and 6S sRNAs, and 10 are putative novel trans-acting sRNAs, never before described for any bacteria. The latter group has several potential mRNA targets, many of which are involved with virulence, stress resistance, or metabolism, and connect the sRNAs in a complex gene regulatory network. The sRNAs identified are well conserved among the Pasteurellaceae that are evolutionarily closer to A. pleuropneumoniae and/or share the same host. Our results show that the combination of newly developed computational programs can be successfully utilized for the discovery of novel sRNAs and indicate an intricate system of gene regulation through sRNAs in A. pleuropneumoniae and in other Pasteurellaceae, thus providing clues for novel aspects of virulence that will be explored in further studies. PMID:27402897
Archambault, Marie; Harel, Josée; Gouré, Julien; Tremblay, Yannick D N; Jacques, Mario
Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae is the causative agent of porcine pleuropneumonia, a severe and highly contagious respiratory disease responsible for economic losses in the swine industry worldwide. Although antimicrobial resistance in A. pleuropneumoniae has been recently reported in different countries, the current situation in Canada is unknown. The aim of the current study was to determine the antimicrobial susceptibilities of 43 strains of A. pleuropneumoniae isolated in Canada. In addition, antimicrobial resistance genes were detected with an oligonucleotide microarray. The impact of biofilm formation on susceptibility to antimicrobials was also evaluated. All isolates were susceptible to ceftiofur, florfenicol, enrofloxacin, erythromycin, clindamycin, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole, and tilmicosin. A low level of resistance was observed toward tiamulin, penicillin, and ampicillin as well as danofloxacin. We observed a high level of resistance to chlortetracycline (88.4%) and oxytetracycline (90.7%). The strains showing resistance to tetracycline antimicrobials contained at least one of the following tet genes: tetB, tetO, tetH, or tetC. Five isolates showed multiresistance to penicillins (bla(ROB-1)), streptomycin [aph3'' (strA)], sulfonamides (sulII), and tetracyclines (tetO) antimicrobials whereas three others showed multiresistance to streptomycin [aph3'' (strA)], sulfonamides (sulII), and tetracyclines (tetB, tetO, or tetB/tetH) antimicrobials. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first description of tetC gene in Pasteurellaceae. Finally, cells of A. pleuropneumoniae in a biofilm were 100 to 30,000 times more resistant to antimicrobials than their planktonic counterparts.
Rossi, Ciro C; Bossé, Janine T; Li, Yanwen; Witney, Adam A; Gould, Kate A; Langford, Paul R; Bazzolli, Denise M S
Bacterial regulatory small RNAs (sRNAs) play important roles in gene regulation and are frequently connected to the expression of virulence factors in diverse bacteria. Only a few sRNAs have been described for Pasteurellaceae pathogens and no in-depth analysis of sRNAs has been described for Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, the causative agent of porcine pleuropneumonia, responsible for considerable losses in the swine industry. To search for sRNAs in A. pleuropneumoniae, we developed a strategy for the computational analysis of the bacterial genome by using four algorithms with different approaches, followed by experimental validation. The coding strand and expression of 17 out of 23 RNA candidates were confirmed by Northern blotting, RT-PCR, and RNA sequencing. Among them, two are likely riboswitches, three are housekeeping regulatory RNAs, two are the widely studied GcvB and 6S sRNAs, and 10 are putative novel trans-acting sRNAs, never before described for any bacteria. The latter group has several potential mRNA targets, many of which are involved with virulence, stress resistance, or metabolism, and connect the sRNAs in a complex gene regulatory network. The sRNAs identified are well conserved among the Pasteurellaceae that are evolutionarily closer to A. pleuropneumoniae and/or share the same host. Our results show that the combination of newly developed computational programs can be successfully utilized for the discovery of novel sRNAs and indicate an intricate system of gene regulation through sRNAs in A. pleuropneumoniae and in other Pasteurellaceae, thus providing clues for novel aspects of virulence that will be explored in further studies. © 2016 Rossi et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press for the RNA Society.
Zhang, Fei; Zhang, Yangyi; Wen, Xintian; Huang, Xiaobo; Wen, Yiping; Wu, Rui; Yan, Qigui; Huang, Yong; Ma, Xiaoping; Zhao, Qin; Cao, Sanjie
Porcine pleuropneumonia is an infectious disease caused by Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae. The identification of A. pleuropneumoniae genes, specially expressed in vivo, is a useful tool to reveal the mechanism of infection. IVIAT was used in this work to identify antigens expressed in vivo during A. pleuropneumoniae infection, using sera from individuals with chronic porcine pleuropneumonia. Sequencing of DNA inserts from positive clones showed 11 open reading frames with high homology to A. pleuropneumoniae genes. Based on sequence analysis, proteins encoded by these genes were involved in metabolism, replication, transcription regulation, and signal transduction. Moreover, three function-unknown proteins were also indentified in this work. Expression analysis using quantitative real-time PCR showed that most of the genes tested were up-regulated in vivo relative to their expression levels in vitro. IVI (in vivoinduced) genes that were amplified by PCR in different A. pleuropneumoniae strains showed that these genes could be detected in almost all of the strains. It is demonstrated that the identified IVI antigen may have important roles in the infection of A. pleuropneumoniae.
Li, Linxi; Sun, Changjiang; Yang, Feng; Yang, Shuxin; Feng, Xin; Gu, Jingmin; Han, Wenyu; Langford, Paul R; Lei, Liancheng
Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae is the causative agent of acute and chronic pleuroneumonia that is responsible for substantial morbidity and mortality in the pig industry. New improved vaccines that can protect against all serotypes and prevent colonization are required. In a previous study we showed that whole cells of Propionibacterium acnes protected pigs from A. pleuropneumoniae serotype 1 and 5 and, therefore, the basis for a promising heterologous vaccine. The aim of this study was to identify those protein antigens of P. acnes responsible for protection against A. pleuropneumoniae infection. Six P. acnes protein antigens that were recognized by sera raised against A. pleuropneumoniae were identified by 2-DE and immunoblotting. Recombinant versions of all P. acnes proteins gave partial protection (10-80%) against A. pleuropneumoniae serotype 1 and/or 5 infection in a mouse challenge model. The best protection (80% serotype 1; 60% serotype 5) was obtained using recombinant P. acnes single-stranded DNA-binding protein. In part, protection against A. pleuropneumoniae infection may be mediated by small peptide sequences present in P. acnes single-stranded DNA-binding protein that are cross-reactive with those present in the A. pleuropneumoniae-specific RTX toxin ApxIV and the zinc-binding protein ZnuA. The results suggest that P. acnes may be a useful vaccine to protect against different serotypes of A. pleuropneumoniae. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Chiers, Koen; Donné, Eef; Van Overbeke, Ingrid; Ducatelle, Richard; Haesebrouck, Freddy
Many farrow-to-finish herds are endemically infected with Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae. In order to control the disease efficiently, a better knowledge of the ages at which pigs become infected is necessary. Furthermore, no information is available concerning the influence of maternally derived antibodies on the colonization of the upper respiratory tract. Therefore, A. pleuropneumoniae infection patterns were studied in five farrow-to-finish pig herds (A-E) with a history of pleuropneumonia. A longitudinal study was carried out in herds A and B. In these herds, piglets from sows carrying A. pleuropneumoniae in their noses or tonsils were sampled. Nasal and tonsillar swabs as well as sera, were collected from these animals at the age of 4, 8, 12, 16 (herds A and B) and 23 weeks (herd B). At these ages other pigs from the same sows were euthanized. The lungs were macroscopically examined and samples from nose, tonsils and lungs were collected at necropsy. A cross-sectional study was performed in herds C-E. In these herds nasal and tonsillar swabs, as well as sera, were taken from 10 animals of 4, 8, 12 and 16 weeks of age. Lung, nasal and tonsillar samples were tested for the presence of A. pleuropneumoniae by routine bacteriology and PCR with mixed bacterial cultures. The sera were examined for the presence of Apx toxin neutralizing antibodies. In herd A, A. pleuropneumoniae serotype 2 and 10 strains were isolated, whereas serotype 2, 3, 5b and 8 strains were demonstrated in herd B. In most herds, A. pleuropneumoniae was detected in mixed bacterial cultures of tonsillar and/or nasal samples by PCR from the age of 4 weeks onwards. Colonization of the lungs and development of lung lesions was observed in 12- and 16-week-old animals of herd A and 23-week-old animals of herd B. In most herds, high antibody titres were detected in 4-week-old piglets. These titres decreased during the first 12 weeks of age, but thereafter, increased. It was concluded that PCR with
Su, Zhipeng; Zhu, Jiawen; Xu, Zhuofei; Xiao, Ran; Zhou, Rui; Li, Lu; Chen, Huanchun
Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae is the pathogen of porcine contagious pleuropneumoniae, a highly contagious respiratory disease of swine. Although the genome of A. pleuropneumoniae was sequenced several years ago, limited information is available on the genome-wide transcriptional analysis to accurately annotate the gene structures and regulatory elements. High-throughput RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) has been applied to study the transcriptional landscape of bacteria, which can efficiently and accurately identify gene expression regions and unknown transcriptional units, especially small non-coding RNAs (sRNAs), UTRs and regulatory regions. The aim of this study is to comprehensively analyze the transcriptome of A. pleuropneumoniae by RNA-seq in order to improve the existing genome annotation and promote our understanding of A. pleuropneumoniae gene structures and RNA-based regulation. In this study, we utilized RNA-seq to construct a single nucleotide resolution transcriptome map of A. pleuropneumoniae. More than 3.8 million high-quality reads (average length ~90 bp) from a cDNA library were generated and aligned to the reference genome. We identified 32 open reading frames encoding novel proteins that were mis-annotated in the previous genome annotations. The start sites for 35 genes based on the current genome annotation were corrected. Furthermore, 51 sRNAs in the A. pleuropneumoniae genome were discovered, of which 40 sRNAs were never reported in previous studies. The transcriptome map also enabled visualization of 5'- and 3'-UTR regions, in which contained 11 sRNAs. In addition, 351 operons covering 1230 genes throughout the whole genome were identified. The RNA-Seq based transcriptome map validated annotated genes and corrected annotations of open reading frames in the genome, and led to the identification of many functional elements (e.g. regions encoding novel proteins, non-coding sRNAs and operon structures). The transcriptional units described in this study
Su, Zhipeng; Zhu, Jiawen; Xu, Zhuofei; Xiao, Ran; Zhou, Rui; Li, Lu; Chen, Huanchun
Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae is the pathogen of porcine contagious pleuropneumoniae, a highly contagious respiratory disease of swine. Although the genome of A. pleuropneumoniae was sequenced several years ago, limited information is available on the genome-wide transcriptional analysis to accurately annotate the gene structures and regulatory elements. High-throughput RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) has been applied to study the transcriptional landscape of bacteria, which can efficiently and accurately identify gene expression regions and unknown transcriptional units, especially small non-coding RNAs (sRNAs), UTRs and regulatory regions. The aim of this study is to comprehensively analyze the transcriptome of A. pleuropneumoniae by RNA-seq in order to improve the existing genome annotation and promote our understanding of A. pleuropneumoniae gene structures and RNA-based regulation. In this study, we utilized RNA-seq to construct a single nucleotide resolution transcriptome map of A. pleuropneumoniae. More than 3.8 million high-quality reads (average length ~90 bp) from a cDNA library were generated and aligned to the reference genome. We identified 32 open reading frames encoding novel proteins that were mis-annotated in the previous genome annotations. The start sites for 35 genes based on the current genome annotation were corrected. Furthermore, 51 sRNAs in the A. pleuropneumoniae genome were discovered, of which 40 sRNAs were never reported in previous studies. The transcriptome map also enabled visualization of 5'- and 3'-UTR regions, in which contained 11 sRNAs. In addition, 351 operons covering 1230 genes throughout the whole genome were identified. The RNA-Seq based transcriptome map validated annotated genes and corrected annotations of open reading frames in the genome, and led to the identification of many functional elements (e.g. regions encoding novel proteins, non-coding sRNAs and operon structures). The transcriptional units described in this study
Gerlach, G F; Anderson, C; Potter, A A; Klashinsky, S; Willson, P J
An expression library was constructed from Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serotype 7. Escherichia coli transformants expressing recombinant proteins were identified by immunoscreening with porcine convalescent serum. One transformant expressing a 60-kDa protein (60K protein) in aggregated form was identified. Serum raised against the recombinant protein recognized a polypeptide with an indistinguishable electrophoretic mobility in the A. pleuropneumoniae wild type after iron-restricted growth only. The recombinant protein bound transferrin after blotting onto nitrocellulose. Using a competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), the specificity of this binding for the amino-terminal half of iron-saturated porcine transferrin was established. Also, the 60K wild-type protein bound hemin as assessed by hemin-agarose chromatography. Hemin could inhibit transferrin binding of the recombinant protein in the competitive ELISA, whereas hemoglobin and synthetic iron chelators failed to do so. Southern blot analysis of several other A. pleuropneumoniae strains indicated that highly homologous sequence is present in eight of eight isolates of serotype 7 and in some isolates of serotypes 2, 3, and 4. Images PMID:1541562
Li, Yanwen; Sárközi, Rita; Gottschalk, Marcelo; Angen, Øystein; Nedbalcova, Katerina; Rycroft, Andrew N.; Fodor, László
ABSTRACT Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae causes pleuropneumonia, an economically significant lung disease of pigs. Recently, isolates of A. pleuropneumoniae that were serologically distinct from the previously characterized 15 serovars were described, and a proposal was put forward that they comprised a new serovar, serovar 16. Here we used whole-genome sequencing of the proposed serovar 16 reference strain A-85/14 to confirm the presence of a unique capsular polysaccharide biosynthetic locus. For molecular diagnostics, primers were designed from the capsule locus of strain A-85/14, and a PCR was formulated that differentiated serovar 16 isolates from all 15 known serovars and other common respiratory pathogenic/commensal bacteria of pigs. Analysis of the capsule locus of strain A-85/14 combined with the previous serological data show the existence of a sixteenth serovar—designated serovar 16—of A. pleuropneumoniae. PMID:28053219
Bossé, Janine T; Li, Yanwen; Sárközi, Rita; Gottschalk, Marcelo; Angen, Øystein; Nedbalcova, Katerina; Rycroft, Andrew N; Fodor, László; Langford, Paul R
Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae causes pleuropneumonia, an economically significant lung disease of pigs. Recently, isolates of A. pleuropneumoniae that were serologically distinct from the previously characterized 15 serovars were described, and a proposal was put forward that they comprised a new serovar, serovar 16. Here we used whole-genome sequencing of the proposed serovar 16 reference strain A-85/14 to confirm the presence of a unique capsular polysaccharide biosynthetic locus. For molecular diagnostics, primers were designed from the capsule locus of strain A-85/14, and a PCR was formulated that differentiated serovar 16 isolates from all 15 known serovars and other common respiratory pathogenic/commensal bacteria of pigs. Analysis of the capsule locus of strain A-85/14 combined with the previous serological data show the existence of a sixteenth serovar-designated serovar 16-of A. pleuropneumoniae.
Chiers, Koen; De Waele, Tine; Pasmans, Frank; Ducatelle, Richard; Haesebrouck, Freddy
Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae is the causative agent of porcine pleuropneumonia. The virulence factors of this microorganism involved in colonization and the induction of lung lesions have been thoroughly studied and some have been well characterized. A. pleuropneumoniae binds preferentially to cells of the lower respiratory tract in a process involving different adhesins and probably biofilm formation. Apx toxins and lipopolysaccharides exert pathogenic effects on several host cells, resulting in typical lung lesions. Lysis of host cells is essential for the bacterium to obtain nutrients from the environment and A. pleuropneumoniae has developed several uptake mechanisms for these nutrients. In addition to persistence in lung lesions, colonization of the upper respiratory tract – and of the tonsils in particular – may also be important for long-term persistent asymptomatic infection. Information on virulence factors involved in tonsillar and nasal cavity colonization and persistence is scarce, but it can be speculated that similar features as demonstrated for the lung may play a role. PMID:20546697
Lone, Abdul G.; Deslandes, Vincent; Nash, John H. E.; Jacques, Mario; MacInnes, Janet I.
Background Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, the causative agent of porcine contagious pleuropneumonia, is an important pathogen of swine throughout the world. It must rapidly overcome the innate pulmonary immune defenses of the pig to cause disease. To better understand this process, the objective of this study was to identify genes that are differentially expressed in a medium that mimics the lung environment early in the infection process. Methods and Principal Findings Since bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) contains innate immune and other components found in the lungs, we examined gene expression of a virulent serovar 1 strain of A. pleuropneumoniae after a 30 min exposure to BALF, using DNA microarrays and real-time PCR. The functional classes of genes found to be up-regulated most often in BALF were those encoding proteins involved in energy metabolism, especially anaerobic metabolism, and in cell envelope, DNA, and protein biosynthesis. Transcription of a number of known virulence genes including apxIVA and the gene for SapF, a protein which is involved in resistance to antimicrobial peptides, was also up-regulated in BALF. Seventy-nine percent of the genes that were up-regulated in BALF encoded a known protein product, and of these, 44% had been reported to be either expressed in vivo and/or involved in virulence. Conclusions The results of this study suggest that in early stages of infection, A. pleuropneumoniae may modulate expression of genes involved in anaerobic energy generation and in the synthesis of proteins involved in cell wall biogenesis, as well as established virulence factors. Given that many of these genes are thought to be expressed in vivo or involved in virulence, incubation in BALF appears, at least partially, to simulate in vivo conditions and may provide a useful medium for the discovery of novel vaccine or therapeutic targets. PMID:19578537
Huter, V; Hensel, A; Brand, E; Lubitz, W
Pigs immunized with Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae ghosts or a formalin-inactivated bacterin were found to be protected against clinical disease in both vaccination groups, whereas colonization of the lungs with A. pleuropneumoniae was only prevented in ghost-vaccinated pigs. Bacterial ghosts are empty cell envelopes created by the expression of a cloned bacteriophage lysis gene and, unlike formalin-inactivated bacteria, suffer no denaturing steps during their production. This quality may lead to a superior presentation of surface antigens to the immune system. Analysis by SDS-PAGE and immunoblotting of the two vaccine preparations revealed different contents of antigenic proteins. In order to better understand the immunogenic properties of A. pleuropneumoniae ghosts and formalin-inactivated bacteria, we compared the serum antibody response induced in both treatment groups. Immune sera were tested on whole cell antigen or purified virulence factors including outer membrane protein preparations (OMPs), outer membrane lipoprotein OmlA1, transferrin binding proteins (TfbA1, TfbA7 and TfbB) and Apx toxins (ApxI, II and III). SDS-PAGE and immunoblots revealed no specific antibody response against the single virulence factors tested in any vaccinated animal. The two vaccination groups showed different recognition patterns of whole cell antigen and OMP-enriched preparations. A 100 kDa protein was recognized significantly stronger by ghost-vaccinated pigs than convalescent pigs. This unique antibody population induced by ghosts could play a determining role in the prevention of lung colonization. The same 100 kDa antigen was recognized by ghost-sera in homologous as well as heterologous serotype A. pleuropneumoniae protein preparations. Indications for a crossprotective potential in the ghost vaccine were supported by studies on rabbit hyperimmune sera.
Hathroubi, S; Fontaine-Gosselin, S-È; Tremblay, Y D N; Labrie, J; Jacques, M
Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae is a Gram-negative bacterium and causative agent of porcine pleuropneumonia. This is a highly contagious disease that causes important economic losses to the swine industry worldwide. Penicillins are extensively used in swine production and these antibiotics are associated with high systemic clearance and low oral bioavailability. This may expose A. pleuropneumoniae to sub-inhibitory concentrations of penicillin G when the antibiotic is administered orally. Our goal was to evaluate the effect of sub-minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of penicillin G on the biofilm formation of A. pleuropneumoniae. Biofilm production of 13 field isolates from serotypes 1, 5a, 7 and 15 was tested in the presence of sub-MIC of penicillin G using a polystyrene microtiter plate assay. Using microscopy techniques and enzymatic digestion, biofilm architecture and composition were also characterized after exposure to sub-MIC of penicillin G. Sub-MIC of penicillin G significantly induced biofilm formation of nine isolates. The penicillin G-induced biofilms contained more poly-N-acetyl-D-glucosamine (PGA), extracellular DNA and proteins when compared to control biofilms grown without penicillin G. Additionally, penicillin G-induced biofilms were sensitive to DNase which was not observed with the untreated controls. Furthermore, sub-MIC of penicillin G up-regulated the expression of pgaA, which encodes a protein involved in PGA synthesis, and the genes encoding the envelope-stress sensing two-component regulatory system CpxRA. In conclusion, sub-MICs of penicillin G significantly induce biofilm formation and this is likely the result of a cell envelope stress sensed by the CpxRA system resulting in an increased production of PGA and other matrix components.
Bossé, Janine T; Li, Yanwen; Walker, Stephanie; Atherton, Tom; Fernandez Crespo, Roberto; Williamson, Susanna M; Rogers, Jon; Chaudhuri, Roy R; Weinert, Lucy A; Oshota, Olusegun; Holden, Matt T G; Maskell, Duncan J; Tucker, Alexander W; Wren, Brendan W; Rycroft, Andrew N; Langford, Paul R
The objective of this study was to determine the distribution and genetic basis of trimethoprim resistance in Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae isolates from pigs in England. Clinical isolates collected between 1998 and 2011 were tested for resistance to trimethoprim and sulphonamide. The genetic basis of trimethoprim resistance was determined by shotgun WGS analysis and the subsequent isolation and sequencing of plasmids. A total of 16 (out of 106) A. pleuropneumoniae isolates were resistant to both trimethoprim (MIC >32 mg/L) and sulfisoxazole (MIC ≥256 mg/L), and a further 32 were resistant only to sulfisoxazole (MIC ≥256 mg/L). Genome sequence data for the trimethoprim-resistant isolates revealed the presence of the dfrA14 dihydrofolate reductase gene. The distribution of plasmid sequences in multiple contigs suggested the presence of two distinct dfrA14-containing plasmids in different isolates, which was confirmed by plasmid isolation and sequencing. Both plasmids encoded mobilization genes, the sulphonamide resistance gene sul2, as well as dfrA14 inserted into strA, a streptomycin-resistance-associated gene, although the gene order differed between the two plasmids. One of the plasmids further encoded the strB streptomycin-resistance-associated gene. This is the first description of mobilizable plasmids conferring trimethoprim resistance in A. pleuropneumoniae and, to our knowledge, the first report of dfrA14 in any member of the Pasteurellaceae. The identification of dfrA14 conferring trimethoprim resistance in A. pleuropneumoniae isolates will facilitate PCR screens for resistance to this important antimicrobial. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy.
Tobias, Tijs J; Bouma, Annemarie; Daemen, Angeline J J M; Wagenaar, Jaap A; Stegeman, Arjan; Klinkenberg, Don
A better understanding of the variation in infectivity and its relation with clinical signs may help to improve measures to control and prevent (clinical) outbreaks of diseases. Here we investigated the role of disease severity on infectivity and transmission of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, a bacterium causing respiratory problems in pig farms. We carried out transmission experiments with 10 pairs of caesarean-derived, colostrum-deprived pigs. In each pair, one pig was inoculated intranasally with 5×10(6) CFUs of A. pleuropneumoniae strain 1536 and housed together with a contact pig. Clinical signs were scored and the course of infection was observed by bacterial examination and qPCR analysis of tonsillar brush and nasal swab samples. In 6 out of 10 pairs transmission to contact pigs was observed, but disease scores in contact infected pigs were low compared to the score in inoculated pigs. Whereas disease score was positively associated with bacterial load in inoculated pigs and bacterial load with the transmission rate, the disease score had a negative association with transmission. These findings indicate that in pigs with equal bacterial load, those with higher clinical scores transmit A. pleuropneumoniae less efficiently. Finally, the correlation between disease score in inoculated pigs and in positive contact pigs was low. Although translation of experimental work towards farm level has limitations, our results suggest that clinical outbreaks of A. pleuropneumoniae are unlikely to be caused only by spread of the pathogen by clinically diseased pigs, but may rather be the result of development of clinical signs in already infected pigs.
Shin, Min-Kyoung; Cha, Seung-Bin; Lee, Won-Jung; Yoo, Han Sang
Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae causes a severe hemorrhagic pneumonia in pigs. Fifteen serotypes of A. pleuropneumoniae express four different Apx toxins that belong to the pore-forming repeats-in-toxin (RTX) group of toxins. ApxIV, which is conserved and up-regulated in vivo, could be an excellent candidate for the development of a protective cross-serotype immunity vaccine, and could aid in the differential diagnosis of diseases caused by A. pleuropneumoniae. We identified and sequenced apxIVA from A. pleuropneumoniae serotype 2 isolated in Korea (Kor-ApxIVA). The Kor-ApxIVA was closely related to Switzerland (AF021919), China (CP000687), and China (GQ332268), showing 98.6%, 98.4%, and 97.2% amino acid homology, respectively. The level of amino acid homology, however, was higher than the nucleotide homology. The structural characteristics of ApxIVA showed RTX proteins, including N-terminal hydrophobic domains, signature sequences for potential acylation sites, and repeated glycine-rich nonapeptides in the C-terminal region of the protein. Thirty glycine-rich nonapeptides with the consensus sequence, L/V-X-G-G-X-G-N/D-D-X, were found in the C-terminus of the Kor-ApxIVA. In addition, the Kor-ApxIVA was predicted for the linear B-cell epitopes and conserved domains with determined peptide sequences. This genetic analysis of the Kor-ApxIVA might be an important foundation for future biological and functional research on ApxIVA.
Jansen, R; Briaire, J; Kamp, E M; Gielkens, A L; Smits, M A
Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae-RTX-toxin I (ApxI), an important virulence factor, is secreted by serotypes 1, 5, 9, 10, and 11 of A. pleuropneumoniae. However, sequences homologous to the secretion genes apxIBD of the ApxI operon are present in all 12 serotypes except serotype 3. The purpose of this study was to determine and compare the structures of the ApxI operons of the 12 A. pleuropneumoniae serotypes. We focused on the nucleotide sequence comparison of the ApxI-coding genes, the structures of the ApxI operons, and the transcription of the ApxI operons. We determined the nucleotide sequences of the toxin-encoding apxICA genes of serotype 9 and found that the gene for the structural toxin, apxIA, was almost identical to the apxIA gene of serotype 1. The toxin-encoding genes of the other serotypes are also similar for the main part; nevertheless, two variants were identified, one in serotypes 1, 9, and 11 and one in serotypes 5 and 10. The two apxIA variants differ mainly within the distal 110 nucleotides. Structural analysis demonstrated that intact ApxI operons, consisting of the four contiguous genes apxICABD, are present in serotypes 1, 5, 9, 10, and 11. ApxI operons with a major deletion in the apxICA genes are present in serotypes 2, 4, 6, 7, 8, and 12. Serotype 3 does not contain ApxI operon sequences. We found that all ApxI operons are transcriptionally active despite the partial deletion of the operon in some serotypes. The implications of these data for the expression and secretion of ApxI and the other Apx-toxins, ApxII and ApxIII, as well as for the development of a subunit vaccine against A. pleuropneumoniae will be discussed. Images PMID:8359891
Marois, Corinne; Gottschalk, Marcelo; Morvan, Hervé; Fablet, Christelle; Madec, François; Kobisch, Marylène
The purpose of this study was to compare in SPF pigs, the pathogenicity of an Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serotype 9 strain 21 (isolated from the palatine tonsils of a healthy gilt on a French nucleus pig farm, with no clinical signs or lung lesions but a highly positive reaction to A. pleuropneumoniae serotype 9 antibodies) with a pathogenic A. pleuropneumoniae strain 4915 serotype 9 (isolated in France from an outbreak of porcine pleuropneumonia). The pathogenicity of one Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae strain alone or associated with A. pleuropneumoniae strain 21 was also compared. Eight groups of 7 pigs were infected (at 6 or 10 weeks of age) and a control group was kept non-infected. Results showed that sensitivity to A. pleuropneumoniae was related to the age of the pig (6 weeks vs 10 weeks) whatever the strain. Surviving pigs infected at 6 weeks of age developed severe clinical signs, lung lesions typical of A. pleuropneumoniae and they seroconverted. In contrast, symptoms and lung lesions were almost non-existent in pigs infected with strain 21 at 10 weeks of age, but a seroconversion was observed with very high ELISA titres. These results were in accordance with those observed in the nucleus pig farm. Infection with M. hyopneumoniae alone induced typical mycoplasmal symptoms, pneumonia and seroconversion. Symptoms and lung lesions were the most noticeable in pigs infected with M. hyopneumoniae at 6 weeks of age and with A. pleuropneumoniae 4 weeks later. Our results show that the presence of A. pleuropneumoniae serotype 9 in a pig herd may be clinically unnoticed and that M. hyopneumoniae may potentiate A. pleuropneumoniae infection.
Hu, Xuehe; Yan, Hao; Liu, Ke; Hu, Jiansheng; Qi, Chao; Yang, Jihong; Liu, Yanli; Zhao, Jin; Liu, Jinlin
Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, a Gram-negative bacterium, is the causative agent of porcine pleuropneumonia, a highly contagious and often fatal disease. Because current vaccines confer limited protection against A. pleuropneumoniae infection, the development of more effective vaccines is urgently required. The identification of immunogenic and protective antigens, such as an outer-membrane lipoprotein, will advance this purpose. Sixty putative lipoproteins were predicted from the genomic sequence of A. pleuropneumoniae using multiple algorithms. Here, we focused on the characteristics of the putative lipoprotein Lip40 from A. pleuropneumoniae strain SLW01 (serovar 1). Lip40 shares sequence similarity with many bacterial lipoproteins, and the structural prediction of Lip40 suggests that it is similar to A. pleuropneumoniae TbpB. The N-terminus of Lip40 contains an interesting tandemly repeated sequence, Q(E/D/P)QPK. Real-time RT-PCR indicated that the expression of lip40 was significantly upregulated at 42 °C, at 16 °C, and under anaerobic conditions. Recombinant Lip40 (rLip40) produced in Escherichia coli BL21(DE3) was specifically recognized by porcine convalescent serum directed against A. pleuropneumoniae. Lip40 was confirmed to localize at the bacterial outer membrane, and its expression was significantly stimulated when A. pleuropneumoniae was cultured under various stress conditions. Lip40 also protected 75% of mice from fatal virulent A. pleuropneumoniae infection. The immunogenic outer-membrane protein Lip40 is stress responsive, protects mice against infection, and might be a virulence determinant. Further investigation of Lip40 should expedite vaccine development and provide insight into the pathogenesis of A. pleuropneumoniae.
Ma, Qiuyue; Sun, Changjiang; Yang, Feng; Wang, Lei; Qin, Wanhai; Xia, Xiaojing; Feng, Xin; Du, Chongtao; Gu, Jingmin; Han, Wenyu; Lei, Liancheng
Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae is the causative agent of acute and chronic pleuropneumonia. Propionibacterium acnes is a facultative anaerobic gram-positive corynebacterium. We have previously found that anti-P. acnes antibodies can prevent A. pleuropneumoniae infections in mice. To investigate the role of macrophages in this process, affinity-purified anti-P. acnes IgG and anti-A. pleuropneumoniae IgG were used in opsonophagocytosis assays. Additionally, the efficacy of passive immunization with P. acnes serum against A. pleuropneumoniae was tested in macrophage-depleted mice. It was found that anti-P. acnes IgG had an effect similar to that of anti-A. pleuropneumoniae IgG (P > 0.05), which significantly promotes phagocytosis of A. pleuropneumoniae by macrophages (P < 0.01). It was also demonstrated that, after passive immunization with anti-P. acnes serum, macrophage-replete mice had the highest survival rate (90%), whereas the survival rate of macrophage-depleted mice was only 40% (P < 0.05). However, macrophage-depleted mice that had been passively immunized with naïve serum had the lowest survival rate (20%), this rate being lower than that of macrophage-replete mice that had been passively immunized with naïve serum. Overall, anti-P. acnes antibodies did not prevent A. pleuropneumoniae infection under conditions of macrophage depletion (P > 0.05). Furthermore, in mice that had been passively immunized with anti-P. acnes serum, macrophage depletion resulted in a greater A. pleuropneumoniae burden and more severe pathological features of pneumonia in lung tissues than occurred in macrophage-replete mice. It was concluded that macrophages are essential for the process by which anti-P. acnes antibody prevents A. pleuropneumoniae infection in mice.
Background Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae is the etiological agent of porcine pleuropneumonia, a respiratory disease which causes great economic losses worldwide. Many virulence factors are involved in the pathogenesis, namely capsular polysaccharides, RTX toxins, LPS and many iron acquisition systems. In order to identify genes that are expressed in vivo during a natural infection, we undertook transcript profiling experiments with an A. pleuropneumoniae DNA microarray, after recovery of bacterial mRNAs from serotype 5b-infected porcine lungs. AppChip2 contains 2033 PCR amplicons based on the genomic sequence of App serotype 5b strain L20, representing more than 95% of ORFs greater than 160 bp in length. Results Transcriptional profiling of A. pleuropneumoniae recovered from the lung of a pig suffering from a natural infection or following growth of the bacterial isolate in BHI medium was performed. An RNA extraction protocol combining beadbeating and hot-acid-phenol was developed in order to maximize bacterial mRNA yields and quality following total RNA extraction from lung lesions. Nearly all A. pleuropneumoniae transcripts could be detected on our microarrays, and 150 genes were deemed differentially expressed in vivo during the acute phase of the infection. Our results indicate that, for example, gene apxIVA from an operon coding for RTX toxin ApxIV is highly up-regulated in vivo, and that two genes from the operon coding for type IV fimbriae (APL_0878 and APL_0879) were also up-regulated. These transcriptional profiling data, combined with previous comparative genomic hybridizations performed by our group, revealed that 66 out of the 72 up-regulated genes are conserved amongst all serotypes and that 3 of them code for products that are predicted outer membrane proteins (genes irp and APL_0959, predicted to code for a TonB-dependent receptor and a filamentous hemagglutinin/adhesin respectively) or lipoproteins (gene APL_0920). Only 4 of 72 up-regulated genes
Xie, Fang; Li, Gang; Wang, Yalei; Zhang, Yanhe; Zhou, Long; Wang, Chengcheng; Liu, Shuanghong; Liu, Siguo; Wang, Chunlai
Pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP) is an essential cofactor for numerous enzymes involved in a diversity of cellular processes in living organisms. Previous analysis of the Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae S-8 genome sequence revealed the presence of pdxS and pdxT genes, which are implicated in deoxyxylulose 5-phosphate (DXP)-independent pathway of PLP biosynthesis; however, little is known about their roles in A. pleuropneumoniae pathogenicity. Our data demonstrated that A. pleuropneumoniae could synthesize PLP by PdxS and PdxT enzymes. Disruption of the pdxS and pdxT genes rendered the pathogen auxotrophic for PLP, and the defective growth as a result of these mutants was chemically compensated by the addition of PLP, suggesting the importance of PLP production for A. pleuropneumoniae growth and viability. Additionally, the pdxS and pdxT deletion mutants displayed morphological defects as indicated by irregular and aberrant shapes in the absence of PLP. The reduced growth of the pdxS and pdxT deletion mutants under osmotic and oxidative stress conditions suggests that the PLP synthases PdxS/PdxT are associated with the stress tolerance of A. pleuropneumoniae. Furthermore, disruption of the PLP biosynthesis pathway led to reduced colonization and attenuated virulence of A. pleuropneumoniae in the BALB/c mouse model. The data presented in this study reveal the critical role of PLP synthases PdxS/PdxT in viability, stress tolerance, and virulence of A. pleuropneumoniae.
Xie, Fang; Li, Gang; Wang, Yalei; Zhang, Yanhe; Zhou, Long; Wang, Chengcheng; Liu, Shuanghong; Liu, Siguo; Wang, Chunlai
Pyridoxal 5’-phosphate (PLP) is an essential cofactor for numerous enzymes involved in a diversity of cellular processes in living organisms. Previous analysis of the Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae S-8 genome sequence revealed the presence of pdxS and pdxT genes, which are implicated in deoxyxylulose 5-phosphate (DXP)-independent pathway of PLP biosynthesis; however, little is known about their roles in A. pleuropneumoniae pathogenicity. Our data demonstrated that A. pleuropneumoniae could synthesize PLP by PdxS and PdxT enzymes. Disruption of the pdxS and pdxT genes rendered the pathogen auxotrophic for PLP, and the defective growth as a result of these mutants was chemically compensated by the addition of PLP, suggesting the importance of PLP production for A. pleuropneumoniae growth and viability. Additionally, the pdxS and pdxT deletion mutants displayed morphological defects as indicated by irregular and aberrant shapes in the absence of PLP. The reduced growth of the pdxS and pdxT deletion mutants under osmotic and oxidative stress conditions suggests that the PLP synthases PdxS/PdxT are associated with the stress tolerance of A. pleuropneumoniae. Furthermore, disruption of the PLP biosynthesis pathway led to reduced colonization and attenuated virulence of A. pleuropneumoniae in the BALB/c mouse model. The data presented in this study reveal the critical role of PLP synthases PdxS/PdxT in viability, stress tolerance, and virulence of A. pleuropneumoniae. PMID:28448619
Yang, Jianhua; Li, Wei; Wang, Dezheng; Wu, Hui; Li, Zhimin; Ye, Qin
Glutathione (GSH), an important bioactive substance, is widely applied in pharmaceutical and food industries. In this work, two bifunctional L-glutathione synthetases (GshF) from Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae (GshFAp) and Actinobacillus succinogenes (GshFAs) were successfully expressed in Escherichia coli BL-21(DE3). Similar to the GshF from Streptococcus thermophilus (GshFSt), GshFAp and GshFAs can be applied for high titer GSH production because they are less sensitive to end-product inhibition (Ki values 33 and 43 mM, respectively). The active catalytic forms of GshFAs and GshFAp are dimers, consistent with those of GshFPm (GshF from Pasteurella multocida) and GshFSa (GshF from Streptococcus agalactiae), but are different from GshFSt (GshF from S. thermophilus) which is an active monomer. The analysis of the protein sequences and three dimensional structures of GshFs suggested that the binding sites of GshFs for substrates, L-cysteine, L-glutamate, γ-glutamylcysteine, adenosine-triphosphate, and glycine are highly conserved with only very few differences. With sufficient supply of the precursors, the recombinant strains BL-21(DE3)/pET28a-gshFas and BL-21(DE3)/pET28a-gshFap were able to produce 36.6 and 34.1 mM GSH, with the molar yield of 0.92 and 0.85 mol/mol, respectively, based on the added L-cysteine. The results showed that GshFAp and GshFAs are potentially good candidates for industrial GSH production.
Opriessnig, Tanja; Hemann, Michelle; Johnson, John K; Heinen, Sheila; Giménez-Lirola, Luis G; O'Neill, Kevin C; Hoang, Hai; Yoon, Kyoung-Jin; Gottschalk, Marcelo; Halbur, Patrick G
Accurate diagnosis of exposure to Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae is important for maintaining negative farms. In the present study, the ability of a dual-plate complement fixation (CF) assay and 3 commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs; quad-plate ELISA-1, single-plate ELISA-2, and single-plate ELISA-3) in detecting serological evidence of A. pleuropneumoniae exposure was compared using serum samples of experimentally infected or vaccinated pigs, or field samples from the United States. Forty-two pigs were divided into groups of 2 pigs and were inoculated with 1 of 15 A. pleuropneumoniae strains representing all known serovars of A. pleuropneumoniae, or with Actinobacillus suis, or were vaccinated with a bacterin containing A. pleuropneumoniae serovar 1, 3, 5, or 7. Serum samples collected at the day of inoculation or vaccination and 7, 14, 21, and 28 days later were used to compare the assays. On samples from experimentally infected pigs, the dual-plate CF assay, quad-plate ELISA-1, single-plate ELISA-2, and single-plate ELISA-3 had sensitivities of 0.46, 0.74, 0.13, and 0.13 and specificities of 0.90, 1.0, 1.0, and 1.0, respectively. Vaccinated pigs were identified only by the dual-plate CF assay and the quad-plate ELISA-1. In addition, 90 serum samples with unknown A. pleuropneumoniae exposure collected under field conditions were tested with all assays. The agreement of the 4 assays on field samples was slight to fair. While several assays are available for demonstration of A. pleuropneumoniae exposure, differences in assay targets complicate test choices. Decisions on which assay or combination of assays to use depend on the specific reasons for running the assays.
Stipkovits, L; Miller, D; Glavits, R; Fodor, L; Burch, D
The authors have performed a comparative study of the efficacy of various in-feed medications for the treatment of 5- to 6-week-old specific pathogen-free (SPF) piglets experimentally infected on day 1 with Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae, on day 8 with Pasteurella multocida (serotype A), and on day 15 with Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae (serotype 2). The treatment started on day 9 and continued for 12 consecutive days, then the piglets were euthanized for examination of macroscopic, histologic, and pathologic lesions and for the presence of mycoplasmas and bacteria in the lungs. Based on the results of clinical observations (respiratory signs, rectal temperature, body weight gain, and feed conversion efficiency), macroscopic and histologic lesions of the lungs, and microbiologic findings, the best results were obtained by treatment of pigs with Econor + chlortetracycline, followed by Tetramutin, Pulmotil, Cyfac, and lincomycin + chlortetracycline. PMID:11768127
Morioka, Ayako; Shimazaki, Yoko; Uchiyama, Mariko; Suzuki, Shoko
We observed increasing unserotypable (UT) Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae isolates using agar gel diffusion (AGD) test. To reanalyze their serovar, we performed rapid slide agglutination (RSA) test and multiplex PCR for 47 UT isolates. Of these, 25 were serovar 1 (UT-serovar 1), 20 were serovar 2 (UT-serovar 2) and 2 were serovar 15 (UT-serovar 15). We examined serotyping antigen extraction temperature to determine heat influence. UT-serovar 1 and 15 were influenced by heat, because their precipitation lines were observed in the case of low antigen extraction temperature. To investigate the relationship between antigenicity and genotype, we performed pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) analysis using UT-serovar 2 and 15. The predominant PFGE pattern of UT-serovar 2 was identical to that of serovar 2.
Wang, Lei; Zhao, Xueqin; Zhu, Chunling; Xia, Xiaojing; Qin, Wanhai; Li, Mei; Wang, Tongzhao; Chen, Shijun; Xu, Yanzhao; Hang, Bolin; Sun, Yawei; Jiang, Jinqing; Richard, Langford Paul; Lei, Liancheng; Zhang, Gaiping; Hu, Jianhe
Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae is the causative agent of the highly contagious and deadly respiratory infection porcine pleuropneumonia, resulting in serious losses to the pig industry worldwide. Alternative to antibiotics are urgently needed due to the serious increase in antimicrobial resistance. Thymol is a monoterpene phenol and efficiently kills a variety of bacteria. This study found that thymol has strong bactericidal effects on the A. pleuropneumoniae 5b serotype strain, an epidemic strain in China. Sterilization occurred rapidly, and the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) is 31.25μg/mL; the A. pleuropneumoniae density was reduced 1000 times within 10min following treatment with 1 MIC. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis revealed that thymol could rapidly disrupt the cell walls and cell membranes of A. pleuropneumoniae, causing leakage of cell contents and cell death. In addition, treatment with thymol at 0.5 MIC significantly reduced the biofilm formation of A. pleuropneumoniae. Quantitative RT-PCR results indicated that thymol treatment significantly increased the expression of the virulence genes purC, tbpB1 and clpP and down-regulated ApxI, ApxII and Apa1 expression in A. pleuropneumoniae. Therapeutic analysis of a murine model showed that thymol (20mg/kg) protected mice from a lethal dose of A. pleuropneumoniae, attenuated lung pathological lesions. This study is the first to report the use of thymol to treat A. pleuropneumoniae infection, establishing a foundation for the development of new antimicrobials. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Background Protection of pigs by vaccination against Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, the causative agent of porcine pleuropneumonia, is hampered by the presence of 15 different serotypes. A DIVA subunit vaccine comprised of detergent-released proteins from A. pleuropneumoniae serotypes 1, 2 and 5 has been developed and shown to protect pigs from clinical symptoms upon homologous and heterologous challenge. This vaccine has not been characterized in-depth so far. Thus we performed i) mass spectrometry in order to identify the exact protein content of the vaccine and ii) cross-serotype 2-D immunoblotting in order to discover cross-reactive antigens. By these approaches we expected to gain results enabling us to argue about the reasons for the efficacy of the analyzed vaccine. Results We identified 75 different proteins in the vaccine. Using the PSORTb algorithm these proteins were classified according to their cellular localization. Highly enriched proteins are outer membrane-associated lipoproteins like OmlA and TbpB, integral outer membrane proteins like FrpB, TbpA, OmpA1, OmpA2, HgbA and OmpP2, and secreted Apx toxins. The subunit vaccine also contained large amounts of the ApxIVA toxin so far thought to be expressed only during infection. Applying two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis (2-D DIGE) we showed different isoforms and variations in expression levels of several proteins among the strains used for vaccine production. For detection of cross-reactive antigens we used detergent released proteins of serotype 7. Sera of pigs vaccinated with the detergent-released proteins of serotypes 1, 2, and 5 detected seven different proteins of serotype 7, and convalescent sera of pigs surviving experimental infection with serotype 7 reacted with 13 different proteins of the detergent-released proteins of A. pleuropneumoniae serotypes 1, 2, and 5. Conclusions A detergent extraction-based subunit vaccine of A. pleuropneumoniae was characterized by mass
Dorey, L; Hobson, S; Lees, P
For the pig respiratory tract pathogens, Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae and Pasteurella multocida, Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) of marbofloxacin was determined in recommended broths and pig serum at three inoculum strengths. MICs in both growth matrices increased progressively from low, through medium to high starting inoculum counts, 10(4), 10(6) and 10(8)CFU/mL, respectively. P. multocida MIC ratios for high:low inocula were 14:4:1 for broth and 28.2:1 for serum. Corresponding MIC ratios for A. pleuropneumoniae were lower, 4.1:1 (broth) and 9.2:1 (serum). MIC high:low ratios were therefore both growth matrix and bacterial species dependent. The effect of alterations to the chemical composition of broths and serum on MIC were also investigated. Neither adjusting broth or serum pH in six increments over the range 7.0 to 8.0 nor increasing calcium and magnesium concentrations of broth in seven incremental steps significantly affected MICs for either organism. In time-kill studies, the killing action of marbofloxacin had the characteristics of concentration dependency against both organisms in both growth matrices. It is concluded that MIC and time-kill data for marbofloxacin, generated in serum, might be preferable to broth data, for predicting dosages of marbofloxacin for clinical use. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Kim, Boram; Hur, Jin; Lee, Ji Yeong; Choi, Yoonyoung; Lee, John Hwa
Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae (APP) causes porcine pleuropneumonia (PP). Serotypes and antimicrobial resistance patterns in APP isolates from pigs in Korea were examined. Sixty-five APP isolates were genetically serotyped using standard and multiplex PCR (polymerase chain reaction). Antimicrobial susceptibilities were tested using the standardized disk-agar method. PCR was used to detect β-lactam, gentamicin and tetracycline-resistance genes. The random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) patterns were determined by PCR. Korean pigs predominantly carried APP serotypes 1 and 5. Among 65 isolates, one isolate was sensitive to all 12 antimicrobials tested in this study. Sixty-two isolates was resistant to tetracycline and 53 isolates carried one or five genes including tet(B), tet(A), tet(H), tet(M)/tet(O), tet(C), tet(G) and/or tet(L)-1 markers. Among 64 strains, 9% and 26.6% were resistance to 10 and three or more antimicrobials, respectively. Thirteen different antimicrobial resistance patterns were observed and RAPD analysis revealed a separation of the isolates into two clusters: cluster II (6 strains resistant to 10 antimicrobials) and cluster I (the other 59 strains). Results show that APP serotypes 1 and 5 are the most common in Korea, and multi-drug resistant strains are prevalent. RAPD analysis demonstrated that six isolates resistant to 10 antimicrobials belonged to the same cluster.
Guerrero-Barrera, A L; de la Garza, M; Mondragón, R; García-Cuéllar, C; Segura-Nieto, M
A group of prokaryotic actin-related proteins (PARP) with an Mr of 43000 was detected in Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae. These proteins were enriched by a depolymerization/polymerization cycle, under similar conditions to those used to polymerize muscle actin, and purified by affinity chromatography on a DNase I-Sepharose column. Three isoforms of A. pleuropneumoniae PARP (Ap-PARP) with pI values of 5.8, 6.15 and 6.2 were detected. Ap-PARP were recognized by four different anti-actin antibodies (one anti-muscle and three anti-cytoplasmic isoforms). Ap-PARP were also recognized by antibodies against Anabaena variabilis PARP (Av-PARP) and against actin-binding proteins such as alpha-actinin and spectrin, and also by a monoclonal antibody against heat-shock cognate protein 70 (Hsc70). Specific binding of phalloidin to Ap-PARP was detected both in permeabilized cells and in vitro. Purified Ap-PARP can polymerize under similar conditions to those required for skeletal muscle actin polymerization and the filaments formed appear to be decorated with myosin subfragment-1(S1) as observed by transmission electron microscopy. The amino acid composition of Ap-PARP revealed more similarities to muscle gamma-actin and the cytoplasmic beta-actin isoform than to eukaryotic actin-related proteins.
Wang, Chunlai; Liu, Siguo; Peng, Yonggang; Shao, Meili; Wang, Yong; Gong, Qiang; Chang, Yuehong; Liu, Jiandong; Liu, Huifang; Liu, Di; Kong, Xiangang
ApxII toxin is the only Apx toxin that is produced by Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serotype 7. In order to determine whether the recombinant ApxII that derived from Escherichia coli (E. coli) expression is faithful to the natural ApxII so that can be used as additional component in vaccine preparation, the structure gene apxIIA of ApxII toxin was expressed in E. coli with prokaryotic expression vector pGEX-6p-1 (formed pGEX-6p-A). pGZRS-C which is A. pleuropneumoniae-E. coli shuttle vector pGZRS-38 expressing the post-transcriptional activation gene apxII C was co-expressed with pGEX-6p-A. The expression product of rApxII A formed inclusion. The inclusion protein was oxidized, refolded and restored hemolytic activity after denaturation, renaturation and purification. The result indicated that E. coli expressed recombinant ApxII toxin has good fidelity, which makes it possible to produce this valuable antigen for vaccine preparation or diagnosis.
da Silva, Giarlã Cunha; Rossi, Ciro César; Santana, Mateus Ferreira; Langford, Paul R; Bossé, Janine T; Bazzolli, Denise Mara Soares
A small (3.9kb) plasmid (p518), conferring resistance to florfenicol (MIC >8μg/mL) and chloramphenicol (MIC >8μg/mL) was isolated from an Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae clinical isolate from Southeastern Brazil. To date, this is the smallest florfenicol resistance plasmid isolated from a member of the Pasteurellaceae. The complete nucleotide of this plasmid revealed a unique gene arrangement compared to previously reported florfenicol resistance plasmids found in other members of the Pasteurellaceae. In addition to the floR gene and a lysR gene, common to various florfenicol resistance plasmids, p518 also encodes strA and a partial strB sequence. An origin of replication (oriV) similar to that in the broad host range plasmid, pLS88, was identified in p518, and transformation into Escherichia coli MFDpir confirmed the ability to replicate in other species. Mobilisation genes appear to have been lost, with only a partial mobC sequence remaining, and attempts to transfer p518 from a conjugal donor strain (E. coli MFDpir) were not successful, suggesting this plasmid is not mobilisable. Similarly, attempts to transfer p518 into a competent A. pleuropneumoniae strain, MIDG2331, by natural transformation were also not successful. These results suggest that p518 may be only transferred by vertical descent. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Kamp, E M; Popma, J K; Anakotta, J; Smits, M A
Monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) were raised against extracellular hemolytic and cytotoxic proteins of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serotypes 2 and 9. MAbs were tested for inhibition of hemolytic and cytotoxic activities of the reference strains of A. pleuropneumoniae serotypes 1 to 12. Five MAbs inhibited hemolytic or cytotoxic activities of one or more serotypes and were used to probe Western blots (immunoblots) of cytotoxic and hemolytic culture filtrates of serotypes 1 to 12. The MAbs recognized three different proteins: (i) a protein of approximately 103 kDa that was associated with a weak hemolytic activity and a moderate cytotoxic activity, (ii) a protein of approximately 105 kDa that was associated with a strong hemolytic activity and a strong cytotoxic activity, and (iii) a protein of approximately 120 kDa that was associated with a strong cytotoxic activity but not with hemolytic activity. Serotypes 6, 7, and 12 produced only the 103-kDa protein, and serotype 10 produced only the 105-kDa protein. The other serotypes produced two proteins: serotypes 1, 5, 9, and 11 produced the 103- and 105-kDa proteins, and serotypes 2, 3, 4, and 8 produced the 103- and 120-kDa proteins. Images PMID:1879932
Deneer, H G; Potter, A A
The outer membrane protein profile of Actinobacillus (Haemophilus) pleuropneumoniae grown under iron-restricted and iron-replete conditions was studied by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and immunoblotting. A virulent serotype 1 isolate synthesized a novel protein with an apparent molecular weight of 105,000 (105K) and increased the synthesis of a 76K protein under iron-restricted conditions. Both proteins were synthesized within 15 min of establishment of iron-restricted conditions. Proteins of equivalent molecular weights could also be induced by iron restriction in serotype 2, 3, 4, 5, and 7 isolates of A. pleuropneumoniae. Convalescent-phase sera from serotype 1-infected pigs contained antibodies which recognized both the 105K and 76K proteins from all six serotypes examined, indicating that these proteins were expressed in vivo and were immunologically conserved. Cells expressing the 105K and 76K proteins also displayed an enhanced ability to bind Congo red and hemin, suggesting that one or both of these proteins functioned to acquire complexed iron during in vivo growth. Images PMID:2917787
Bossé, Janine T; Li, Yanwen; Fernandez Crespo, Roberto; Chaudhuri, Roy R; Rogers, Jon; Holden, Matthew T G; Maskell, Duncan J; Tucker, Alexander W; Wren, Brendan W; Rycroft, Andrew N; Langford, Paul R
ICEApl1 was identified in the whole genome sequence of MIDG2331, a tetracycline-resistant (MIC = 8 mg/L) serovar 8 clinical isolate of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, the causative agent of porcine pleuropneumonia. PCR amplification of virB4, one of the core genes involved in conjugation, was used to identify other A. pleuropneumoniae isolates potentially carrying ICEApl1. MICs for tetracycline were determined for virB4 positive isolates, and shotgun whole genome sequence analysis was used to confirm presence of the complete ICEApl1. The sequence of ICEApl1 is 56083 bp long and contains 67 genes including a Tn10 element encoding tetracycline resistance. Comparative sequence analysis was performed with similar integrative conjugative elements (ICEs) found in other members of the Pasteurellaceae. ICEApl1 is most similar to the 59393 bp ICEHin1056, from Haemophilus influenzae strain 1056. Although initially identified only in serovar 8 isolates of A. pleuropneumoniae (31 from the UK and 1 from Cyprus), conjugal transfer of ICEApl1 to representative isolates of other serovars was confirmed. All isolates carrying ICEApl1 had a MIC for tetracycline of 8 mg/L. This is, to our knowledge, the first description of an ICE in A. pleuropneumoniae, and the first report of a member of the ICEHin1056 subfamily in a non-human pathogen. ICEApl1 confers resistance to tetracycline, currently one of the more commonly used antibiotics for treatment and control of porcine pleuropneumonia.
Ward, C K; Inzana, T J
Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae synthesizes a serotype-specific capsular polysaccharide that acts as a protective barrier to phagocytosis and complement-mediated killing. To begin understanding the role of A. pleuropneumoniae capsule in virulence, we sought to identify the genes involved in capsular polysaccharide export and biosynthesis. A 5.3-kb XbaI fragment of A. pleuropneumoniae serotype 5a J45 genomic DNA that hybridized with DNA probes specific for the Haemophilus influenzae type b cap export region was cloned and sequenced. This A. pleuropneumoniae DNA fragment encoded four open reading frames, designated cpxDCBA. The nucleotide and predicted amino acid sequences of cpxDCBA contained a high degree of homology to the capsule export genes of H. influenzae type b bexDCBA, Neisseria meningitidis group B ctrABCD, and, to a lesser extent, Escherichia coli K1 and K5 kpsE and kpsMT. When present in trans, the cpxDCBA gene cluster complemented kpsM::TnphoA or kpsT::TnphoA mutations, determined by enzyme immunoassay and by restored sensitivity to a K5-specific bacteriophage. A cpxCB probe hybridized to genomic DNA from all A. pleuropneumoniae serotypes tested, indicating that this DNA was conserved among serotypes. These data suggest that A. pleuropneumoniae produces a group II family capsule similar to those of related mucosal pathogens. PMID:9169799
Zhou, Yang; Li, Lu; Chen, Zhaohui; Yuan, Hong; Chen, Huanchun
Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae is the etiologic agent of porcine pleuropneumonia, which causes serious economic losses in the pig farming industry worldwide. Due to a lack of knowledge of its virulence factors and a lack of effective vaccines able to confer cross-serotype protection, it is difficult to place this disease under control. By analyzing its genome sequences, we found that type IV fimbrial subunit protein ApfA is highly conserved among different serotypes of A. pleuropneumoniae. Our study shows that ApfA is an adhesin since its expression was greatly upregulated (135-fold) upon contact with host cells, while its deletion mutant attenuated its capability of adhesion. The inactivation of apfA dramatically reduced the ability of A. pleuropneumoniae to colonize mouse lung, suggesting that apfA is a virulence factor. Purified recombinant ApfA elicited an elevated humoral immune response and conferred robust protection against challenges with A. pleuropneumoniae serovar 1 strain 4074 and serovar 7 strain WF83 in mice. Importantly, the anti-ApfA serum conferred significant protection against both serovar 1 and serovar 7 in mice. These studies indicate that ApfA promotes virulence through attachment to host cells, and its immunogenicity renders it a promising novel subunit vaccine candidate against infection with A. pleuropneumoniae. PMID:23269417
Turni, C; Singh, R; Schembri, M A; Blackall, P J
The aim of this study was to validate a multiplex PCR for the species identification and serotyping of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serovars 1, 5, 7, 12 and 15. All 15 reference strains and 411 field isolates (394 from Australia, 11 from Indonesia, five from Mexico and one from New Zealand) of A. pleuropneumoniae were tested with the multiplex PCR. The specificity of this multiplex PCR was validated on 26 non-A. pleuropneumoniae species. The multiplex PCR gave the expected results with all 15 serovar reference strains and agreed with conventional serotyping for all field isolates from serovars 1 (n = 46), 5 (n = 81), 7 (n = 80), 12 (n = 16) and serovar 15 (n = 117). In addition, a species-specific product was amplified in the multiplex PCR with all 411 A. pleuropneumoniae field isolates. Of 25 nontypeable field isolates only two did not yield a serovar-specific band in the multiplex PCR. This multiplex PCR for serovars 1, 5, 7, 12 and 15 is species specific and capable of serotyping isolates from diverse locations. Significance and impact of the study: A multiplex PCR that can recognize serovars 1, 5, 7, 12 and 15 of A. pleuropneumoniae was developed and validated. This novel diagnostic tool will enable frontline laboratories to provide key information (the serovar) to guide targeted prevention and control programmes for porcine pleuropneumonia, a serious economic disease of pigs. The previous technology, traditional serotyping, is typically provided by specialized reference laboratories, limiting the capacity to respond to this key disease.
Bossé, Janine T.; Li, Yanwen; Fernandez Crespo, Roberto; Chaudhuri, Roy R.; Rogers, Jon; Holden, Matthew T. G.; Maskell, Duncan J.; Tucker, Alexander W.; Wren, Brendan W.; Rycroft, Andrew N.; Langford, Paul R.
ICEApl1 was identified in the whole genome sequence of MIDG2331, a tetracycline-resistant (MIC = 8 mg/L) serovar 8 clinical isolate of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, the causative agent of porcine pleuropneumonia. PCR amplification of virB4, one of the core genes involved in conjugation, was used to identify other A. pleuropneumoniae isolates potentially carrying ICEApl1. MICs for tetracycline were determined for virB4 positive isolates, and shotgun whole genome sequence analysis was used to confirm presence of the complete ICEApl1. The sequence of ICEApl1 is 56083 bp long and contains 67 genes including a Tn10 element encoding tetracycline resistance. Comparative sequence analysis was performed with similar integrative conjugative elements (ICEs) found in other members of the Pasteurellaceae. ICEApl1 is most similar to the 59393 bp ICEHin1056, from Haemophilus influenzae strain 1056. Although initially identified only in serovar 8 isolates of A. pleuropneumoniae (31 from the UK and 1 from Cyprus), conjugal transfer of ICEApl1 to representative isolates of other serovars was confirmed. All isolates carrying ICEApl1 had a MIC for tetracycline of 8 mg/L. This is, to our knowledge, the first description of an ICE in A. pleuropneumoniae, and the first report of a member of the ICEHin1056 subfamily in a non-human pathogen. ICEApl1 confers resistance to tetracycline, currently one of the more commonly used antibiotics for treatment and control of porcine pleuropneumonia. PMID:27379024
Zhou, Yang; Li, Lu; Chen, Zhaohui; Yuan, Hong; Chen, Huanchun; Zhou, Rui
Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae is the etiologic agent of porcine pleuropneumonia, which causes serious economic losses in the pig farming industry worldwide. Due to a lack of knowledge of its virulence factors and a lack of effective vaccines able to confer cross-serotype protection, it is difficult to place this disease under control. By analyzing its genome sequences, we found that type IV fimbrial subunit protein ApfA is highly conserved among different serotypes of A. pleuropneumoniae. Our study shows that ApfA is an adhesin since its expression was greatly upregulated (135-fold) upon contact with host cells, while its deletion mutant attenuated its capability of adhesion. The inactivation of apfA dramatically reduced the ability of A. pleuropneumoniae to colonize mouse lung, suggesting that apfA is a virulence factor. Purified recombinant ApfA elicited an elevated humoral immune response and conferred robust protection against challenges with A. pleuropneumoniae serovar 1 strain 4074 and serovar 7 strain WF83 in mice. Importantly, the anti-ApfA serum conferred significant protection against both serovar 1 and serovar 7 in mice. These studies indicate that ApfA promotes virulence through attachment to host cells, and its immunogenicity renders it a promising novel subunit vaccine candidate against infection with A. pleuropneumoniae.
Mittal, K R; Bourdon, S; Berrouard, M
A rapid, simple, and accurate counterimmunoelectrophoresis technique was developed for serotyping cultures of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae as well as for detection of their type-specific antigens in the lung tissues of infected pigs. The counterimmunoelectrophoresis test correctly identified all of the reference antigens and more than 99% of 1,200 field isolates of A. pleuropneumoniae representing the 12 established serotypes within 1 h. Counterimmunoelectrophoresis and coagglutination tests did not differ broadly in sensitivity from each other. Both procedures were more rapid and more sensitive than immunodiffusion and indirect hemagglutination tests. A total of 355 lung tissue samples (130 lungs of pigs that died because of acute respiratory problems, 125 lungs of pigs from herds with chronically infected pleuropneumonia, and 100 lungs from apparently healthy pigs at the slaughterhouse) were examined for the presence of A. pleuropneumoniae type-specific antigens by counterimmunoelectrophoresis, coagglutination, and immunodiffusion tests. A. pleuropneumoniae type-specific antigen was found in all 55 samples from which the bacteria had earlier been isolated and in 27 specimens in which they had not been found. Detection of antigen in the lung tissues by coagglutination and counterimmunoelectrophoresis tests was found to be much simpler and much more rapid than conventional culture isolation. Both counterimmunoelectrophoresis and coagglutination tests were found extremely useful in the diagnosis of acute cases of porcine pleuropneumonia. However, these techniques were able to detect only some of the chronically infected carrier pigs. PMID:8408552
Brauer, Carsten; Hennig-Pauka, Isabel; Hoeltig, Doris; Buettner, Falk F R; Beyerbach, Martin; Gasse, Hagen; Gerlach, Gerald-F; Waldmann, Karl-H
In pigs, diseases of the respiratory tract like pleuropneumonia due to Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae (App) infection have led to high economic losses for decades. Further research on disease pathogenesis, pathogen-host-interactions and new prophylactic and therapeutic approaches are needed. In most studies, a large number of experimental animals are required to assess lung alterations at different stages of the disease. In order to reduce the required number of animals but nevertheless gather information on the nature and extent of lung alterations in living pigs, a computed tomographic scoring system for quantifying gross pathological findings was developed. In this study, five healthy pigs served as control animals while 24 pigs were infected with App, the causative agent of pleuropneumonia in pigs, in an established model for respiratory tract disease. Computed tomographic (CT) findings during the course of App challenge were verified by radiological imaging, clinical, serological, gross pathology and histological examinations. Findings from clinical examinations and both CT and radiological imaging, were recorded on day 7 and day 21 after challenge. Clinical signs after experimental App challenge were indicative of acute to chronic disease. Lung CT findings of infected pigs comprised ground-glass opacities and consolidation. On day 7 and 21 the clinical scores significantly correlated with the scores of both imaging techniques. At day 21, significant correlations were found between clinical scores, CT scores and lung lesion scores. In 19 out of 22 challenged pigs the determined disease grades (not affected, slightly affected, moderately affected, severely affected) from CT and gross pathological examination were in accordance. Disease classification by radiography and gross pathology agreed in 11 out of 24 pigs. High-resolution, high-contrast CT examination with no overlapping of organs is superior to radiography in the assessment of pneumonic lung lesions
Ito, Hiroya; Matsumoto, Atsuko
An atypical Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serovar 12 strain, termed QAS106, was isolated from a clinical case of porcine pleuropneumonia in Japan. An immunodiffusion (ID) test identified the strain as serovar 12. However, the ID test also demonstrated that strain QAS106 shared antigenic determinants with both the serovar 3 and 15 reference strains. Strain QAS106 was positive in the capsular serovar 12-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay, while the PCR toxin gene profiling and omlA PCR typing assays indicated that strain QAS106 was similar to serovar 3. The nucleotide sequence of the 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) of strain QAS106 was identical with that of serovars 3 and 12, but it showed 99.7% identity with that of serovar 15. Nucleotide sequence analysis revealed that genes involved in biosynthesis of the capsular polysaccharide (CPS) of strain QAS106 were identical to those of serovar 12 at the amino acid level. On the other hand, strain QAS106 would express putative proteins involved in the biosynthesis of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) O-polysaccharide (O-PS), the amino acid sequences of which were identical or nearly identical to those of serovars 3 and 15. In conclusion, strain QAS106 should be recognized as K12:O3, even though typical serovar 12 strains are K12:O12. The emergence of an atypical A. pleuropneumoniae serovar 12 strain expressing a rare combination of CPS and O-PS antigens would hamper precise serodiagnosis by the use of either CPS- or LPS-based serodiagnostic methodology alone. © 2014 The Author(s).
Boekema, Bouke K. H. L.; Van Putten, Jos P. M.; Stockhofe-Zurwieden, Norbert; Smith, Hilde E.
Type IV pili (Tfp) of gram-negative species share many characteristics, including a common architecture and conserved biogenesis pathway. Much less is known about the regulation of Tfp expression in response to changing environmental conditions. We investigated the diversity of Tfp regulatory systems by searching for the molecular basis of the reported variable expression of the Tfp gene cluster of the pathogen Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae. Despite the presence of an intact Tfp gene cluster consisting of four genes, apfABCD, no Tfp were formed under standard growth conditions. Sequence analysis of the predicted major subunit protein ApfA showed an atypical alanine residue at position −1 from the prepilin peptidase cleavage site in 42 strains. This alanine deviates from the consensus glycine at this position in Tfp from other species. Yet, cloning of the apfABCD genes under a constitutive promoter in A. pleuropneumoniae resulted in pilin and Tfp assembly. Tfp promoter-luxAB reporter gene fusions demonstrated that the Tfp promoter was intact but tightly regulated. Promoter activity varied with bacterial growth phase and was detected only when bacteria were grown in chemically defined medium. Infection experiments with cultured epithelial cells demonstrated that Tfp promoter activity was upregulated upon adherence of the pathogen to primary cultures of lung epithelial cells. Nonadherent bacteria in the culture supernatant exhibited virtually no promoter activity. A similar upregulation of Tfp promoter activity was observed in vivo during experimental infection of pigs. The host cell contact-induced and in vivo-upregulated Tfp promoter activity in A. pleuropneumoniae adds a new dimension to the diversity of Tfp regulation. PMID:14742510
Chin, N; Frey, J; Chang, C F; Chang, Y F
The cloned afu locus of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae restored the ability of an Escherichia coli K-12 mutant (aroB) to grow on iron-limited media. DNA sequence analysis of the fragment showed that there are three genes designated afuA, afuB and afuC (Actinobacillus ferric uptake) that encode products similar to the SfuABC proteins of Serratia marcescens, the HitABC proteins of Haemophilus influenzae, the FbpABC proteins of Neisseria gonorrhoeae and the YfuABC proteins of Yersinia enterocolitica. The three genes encode a periplasmic iron-binding protein (AfuA), a highly hydrophobic integral cytoplasmic membrane protein with two consensus permease motifs (AfuB) and one hydrophilic peripheral cytoplasmic membrane protein with Walker ATP-binding motifs (AfuC), respectively. This system has been shown to constitute a periplasmic binding protein-dependent iron transport system in these organisms. The afuABC operon is locating approximately 200 bp upstream of apxIC gene, but transcribed in opposite direction to the ApxI-toxin genes.
Yu, Shumin; Zuo, Zhicai; Cui, Hengmin; Li, Mingzhou; Peng, Xi; Zhu, Ling; Zhang, Ming; Li, Xuewei; Xu, Zhiwen; Gan, Meng; Deng, Junliang; Fang, Jing; Ma, Jideng; Su, Shengqun; Wang, Ya; Shen, Liuhong; Ma, Xiaoping; Ren, Zhihua; Wu, Bangyuan; Hu, Yanchun
The gram-negative bacterium Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae (APP) is an inhabitant of the porcine upper respiratory tract and the causative agent of porcine pleuropneumonia (PP). In recent years, knowledge about the proinflammatory cytokine and chemokine gene expression that occurs in lung and lymph node of the APP-infected swine has been advanced. However, systematic gene expression profiles on hilar nodes from pigs after infection with Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae have not yet been reported. The transcriptional responses were studied in hilar nodes (HN) from swine experimentally infected with APP and the control groupusing Agilent Porcine Genechip, including 43,603 probe sets. 9,517 transcripts were identified as differentially expressed (DE) at the p ≤ 0.01 level by comparing the log2 (normalized signal) of the two groups named treatment group (TG) and controls (CG). Eight hundred and fifteen of these DE transcripts were annotated as pig genes in the GenBank database (DB). Two hundred and seventy-two biological process categories (BP), 75 cellular components and 171 molecular functions were substantially altered in the TG compared to CG. Many BP were involved in host immune responses (i.e., signaling, signal transmission, signal transduction, response to stimulus, oxidation reduction, response to stress, immune system process, signaling pathway, immune response, cell surface receptor linked signaling pathway). Seven DE gene pathways (VEGF signaling pathway, Long-term potentiation, Ribosome, Asthma, Allograft rejection, Type I diabetes mellitus and Cardiac muscle contraction) and statistically significant associations with host responses were affected. Many cytokines (including NRAS, PI3K, MAPK14, CaM, HSP27, protein phosphatase 3, catalytic subunit and alpha isoform), mediating the proliferation and migration of endothelial cells and promoting survival and vascular permeability, were activated in TG, whilst many immunomodulatory cytokines were suppressed
Tobias, T J; Bouma, A; Klinkenberg, D; Daemen, A J J M; Stegeman, J A; Wagenaar, J A; Duim, B
A real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) for detection of the apxIVA gene of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae was validated using pure cultures of A. pleuropneumoniae and tonsillar and nasal swabs from experimentally inoculated Caesarean-derived/colostrum-deprived piglets and naturally infected conventional pigs. The analytical sensitivity was 5colony forming units/reaction. In comparison with selective bacterial examination using tonsillar samples from inoculated animals, the diagnostic sensitivity of the qPCR was 0.98 and the diagnostic specificity was 1.0. The qPCR showed consistent results in repeatedly sampled conventional pigs. Tonsillar brush samples and apxIVA qPCR analysis may be useful for further epidemiological studies and monitoring for A. pleuropneumoniae. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Bossé, Janine T.; Abouelhadid, Sherif; Li, Yanwen; Lin, Chia-Wei; Vohra, Prerna; Tucker, Alexander W.; Rycroft, Andrew N.; Maskell, Duncan J.; Aebi, Markus; Langford, Paul R.
Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae is a mucosal respiratory pathogen causing contagious porcine pleuropneumonia. Pathogenesis studies have demonstrated a major role for the capsule, exotoxins and outer membrane proteins. Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae can also glycosylate proteins, using a cytoplasmic N-linked glycosylating enzyme designated NGT, but its transcriptional arrangement and role in virulence remains unknown. We investigated the NGT locus and demonstrated that the putative transcriptional unit consists of rimO, ngt and a glycosyltransferase termed agt. From this information we used the A. pleuropneumoniae glycosylation locus to decorate an acceptor protein, within Escherichia coli, with a hexose polymer that reacted with an anti-dextran antibody. Mass spectrometry analysis of a truncated protein revealed that this operon could add up to 29 repeat units to the appropriate sequon. We demonstrated the importance of NGT in virulence, by creating deletion mutants and testing them in a novel respiratory cell line adhesion model. This study demonstrates the importance of the NGT glycosylation system for pathogenesis and its potential biotechnological application for glycoengineering. PMID:28077594
Xie, Fang; Li, Gang; Zhang, Wanjiang; Zhang, Yanhe; Zhou, Long; Liu, Shuanghong; Liu, Siguo; Wang, Chunlai
The outer membrane proteins of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae are mediators of infection, acting as targets for the host's defense system. The outer membrane lipoprotein VacJ is involved in serum resistance and intercellular spreading in several pathogenic bacteria. To investigate the role of VacJ in the pathogenicity of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, the vacJ gene-deletion mutant MD12 ΔvacJ was constructed. The increased susceptibility to KCl, SDS plus EDTA, and several antibiotics in the MD12ΔvacJ mutant suggested that the stability of the outer membrane was impaired as a result of the mutation in the vacJ gene. The increased NPN fluorescence and significant cellular morphological variation in the MD12ΔvacJ mutant further demonstrated the crucial role of the VacJ lipoprotein in maintaining the outer membrane integrity of A. pleuropneumoniae. In addition, the MD12ΔvacJ mutant exhibited decreased survival from the serum and complement killing compared to the wild-type strain. Interestingly, the MD12ΔvacJ mutant showed reduced biofilm formation compared to the wild-type strain. To our knowledge, this is the first description of the VacJ lipoprotein contributing to bacterial biofilm formation. The data presented in this study illustrate the important role of the VacJ lipoprotein in the maintenance of cellular integrity, serum resistance, and biofilm formation in A. pleuropneumoniae. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Kiorpes, A L; Bäckström, L R; Collins, M T; Kruse, G O
These experiments tested the hypothesis that long-acting oxytetracycline (oxytetracycline-LA) was more effective than regular oxytetracycline in preventing porcine pleuropneumonia when administered either 24 or 48 h prior to experimental challenge with virulent strains of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae. Two experiments (1 and 2) were conducted using growing pigs (average weight 12-15 kg). Antibiotic treatments were administered once intramuscularly at 20 mg/kg body weight; controls received an equivalent volume of saline. Clinical signs were recorded over seven days, and mortality rates and pathological lesions were analyzed using analysis of variance. Serum oxytetracycline levels were compared 48 and 72 h postinjection. All pigs developed clinical disease following experimental infection. Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae was recovered from 42% of experiment 1 pigs and all of experiment 2 pigs. The data showed that both oxytetracycline and oxytetracycline-LA given at the same dose protected pigs against experimental infection when given 24 h prior to challenge, and there was no difference between the efficacy of the two drugs in this experiment. When administered 48 h prior to challenge, only oxytetracycline-LA reduced the clinical signs and pathological changes following A. pleuropneumoniae challenge. Between 48 and 72 h postinjection, oxytetracycline-LA blood levels were significantly greater compared to oxytetracycline-treated pigs. PMID:2531629
Brogaard, Louise; Klitgaard, Kirstine; Heegaard, Peter M H; Hansen, Mette Sif; Jensen, Tim Kåre; Skovgaard, Kerstin
Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae causes pleuropneumonia in pigs, a disease which is associated with high morbidity and mortality, as well as impaired animal welfare. To obtain in-depth understanding of this infection, the interplay between virulence factors of the pathogen and defense mechanisms of the porcine host needs to be elucidated. However, research has traditionally focused on either bacteriology or immunology; an unbiased picture of the transcriptional responses can be obtained by investigating both organisms in the same biological sample. Host and pathogen responses in pigs experimentally infected with A. pleuropneumoniae were analyzed by high-throughput RT-qPCR. This approach allowed concurrent analysis of selected genes encoding proteins known or hypothesized to be important in the acute phase of this infection. The expression of 17 bacterial and 31 porcine genes was quantified in lung samples obtained within the first 48 hours of infection. This provided novel insight into the early time course of bacterial genes involved in synthesis of pathogen-associated molecular patterns (lipopolysaccharide, peptidoglycan, lipoprotein) and genes involved in pattern recognition (TLR4, CD14, MD2, LBP, MYD88) in response to A. pleuropneumoniae. Significant up-regulation of proinflammatory cytokines such as IL1B, IL6, and IL8 was observed, correlating with protein levels, infection status and histopathological findings. Host genes encoding proteins involved in iron metabolism, as well as bacterial genes encoding exotoxins, proteins involved in adhesion, and iron acquisition were found to be differentially expressed according to disease progression. By applying laser capture microdissection, porcine expression of selected genes could be confirmed in the immediate surroundings of the invading pathogen. Microbial pathogenesis is the product of interactions between host and pathogen. Our results demonstrate the applicability of high-throughput RT-qPCR for the elucidation
Tobias, T J; Bouma, A; van den Broek, J; van Nes, A; Daemen, A J J M; Wagenaar, J A; Stegeman, J A; Klinkenberg, D
Clinical outbreaks due to Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae occur recurrently, despite the wide-scale use of antimicrobials or vaccination. Therefore, new approaches for the prevention and control of these outbreaks are necessary. For the development of alternative measures, more insight into the transmission of the bacterium on farms is necessary. The aim of this cohort study was to quantify transmission of A. pleuropneumoniae amongst weaned piglets on farms. We investigated three possible transmission routes: (i) indirect transmission by infected piglets within the same compartment, (ii) transmission by infected pigs in adjacent pens and (iii) transmission by direct contact within pens. Additionally, we evaluated the effect of independent litter characteristics on the probability of infection. Two farms participated in our study. Serum and tonsil brush samples were collected from sows pre-farrowing. Serum was analysed for antibodies against Apx toxins and Omp. Subsequently, tonsil brush samples were collected from all piglets from these dams (N=542) in three cohorts, 3 days before weaning and 6 weeks later. Tonsil samples were analysed by qPCR for the presence of the apxIVA gene of A. pleuropneumoniae. Before weaning, 25% of the piglets tested positive; 6 weeks later 47% tested positive. Regression and stochastic transmission models were used to assess the contribution of each of the three transmission routes and to estimate transmission rates. Transmission between piglets in adjacent pens did not differ significantly from that between non-adjacent pens. The transmission rate across pens was estimated to be 0.0058 day(-1) (95% CI: 0.0030-0.010), whereas the transmission rate within pens was ten times higher 0.059 day(-1) (95% CI: 0.048-0.072). Subsequently, the effects of parity and serological response of the dam and litter age at weaning on the probability of infection of pigs were evaluated by including these into the regression model. A higher dam Apx
Becker, Petra M; van Wikselaar, Piet G; Mul, Monique F; Pol, Arjan; Engel, Bas; Wijdenes, Jan W; van der Peet-Schwering, Carola M C; Wisselink, Henk J; Stockhofe-Zurwieden, Norbert
Decomposition products of ingested garlic are to a certain extent excreted via the lungs. If the supposed health-supporting capacities associated with garlic extend to these exhaled sulfurous compounds, they could have an effect on the course of pneumonia. In this study, the garlic-derived volatile allyl methyl sulfide (AMS) as a lead compound of volatile garlic metabolites was shown to exhibit an antibacterial effect against the pig pathogen Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serotype 9. AMS caused a delay in the appearance of the optical density-monitored growth of A. pleuropneumoniae in medium when compared to unaffected growth curves, yet without lowering the stationary phase yield at the concentration range tested. At 1.1mM, AMS impaired the in vitro growth rate of A. pleuropneumoniae serotype 9 by 8% compared to unimpeded growth. In an animal trial, a garlic-fed group of 15 pigs that received a diet with 5% garlic feed component and a control group of 15 pigs that received a diet without garlic were infected with A. pleuropneumoniae serotype 2 via an aerosol and subsequently followed for 4 days. At the day of the challenge, blood AMS in the garlic-fed group amounted to 0.32 ± 0.13 μM. A beneficial, alleviating effect of garlic on the course and severity of an A. pleuropneumoniae infection in pigs was indicated by the reduced occurrence of characteristic pleuropneumonia lesions (27% of the lungs affected in the garlic-fed group vs. 47% in the control group) and a near to significant (p=0.06) lower relative lung weight post mortem in the garlic-fed group.
Li, Ying; Cao, Sanjie; Zhang, Luhua; Lau, Gee W.; Wen, Yiping; Wu, Rui; Zhao, Qin; Huang, Xiaobo; Yan, Qigui; Huang, Yong; Wen, Xintian
Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae is the etiologic agent of porcine contagious pleuropneumonia, a significant disease that causes serious economic losses to the swine industry worldwide. Persistent infections caused by bacterial biofilms are recalcitrant to treat because of the particular drug resistance of biofilm-dwelling cells. TolC, a key component of multidrug eﬄux pumps, are responsible for multidrug resistance (MDR) in many Gram-negative bacteria. In this study, we identified two TolC-like proteins, TolC1 and TolC2, in A. pleuropneumoniae. Deletion of tolC1, but not tolC2, caused a significant reduction in biofilm formation, as well as increased drug sensitivity of both planktonic and biofilm cells. The genetic-complementation of the tolC1 mutation restored the competent biofilm and drug resistance. Besides, biofilm formation was inhibited and drug sensitivity was increased by the addition of phenylalanine-arginine beta-naphthylamide (PAβN), a well-known eﬄux pump inhibitor (EPI), suggesting a role for EPI in antibacterial strategies toward drug tolerance of A. pleuropneumoniae. Taken together, TolC1 is required for biofilm formation and is a part of the MDR machinery of both planktonic and biofilm cells, which could supplement therapeutic strategies for resistant bacteria and biofilm-related infections of A. pleuropneumoniae clinical isolate SC1516. PMID:27822201
Li, Ying; Cao, Sanjie; Zhang, Luhua; Lau, Gee W; Wen, Yiping; Wu, Rui; Zhao, Qin; Huang, Xiaobo; Yan, Qigui; Huang, Yong; Wen, Xintian
Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae is the etiologic agent of porcine contagious pleuropneumonia, a significant disease that causes serious economic losses to the swine industry worldwide. Persistent infections caused by bacterial biofilms are recalcitrant to treat because of the particular drug resistance of biofilm-dwelling cells. TolC, a key component of multidrug eﬄux pumps, are responsible for multidrug resistance (MDR) in many Gram-negative bacteria. In this study, we identified two TolC-like proteins, TolC1 and TolC2, in A. pleuropneumoniae. Deletion of tolC1, but not tolC2, caused a significant reduction in biofilm formation, as well as increased drug sensitivity of both planktonic and biofilm cells. The genetic-complementation of the tolC1 mutation restored the competent biofilm and drug resistance. Besides, biofilm formation was inhibited and drug sensitivity was increased by the addition of phenylalanine-arginine beta-naphthylamide (PAβN), a well-known eﬄux pump inhibitor (EPI), suggesting a role for EPI in antibacterial strategies toward drug tolerance of A. pleuropneumoniae. Taken together, TolC1 is required for biofilm formation and is a part of the MDR machinery of both planktonic and biofilm cells, which could supplement therapeutic strategies for resistant bacteria and biofilm-related infections of A. pleuropneumoniae clinical isolate SC1516.
Li, Lu; Zhu, Jiawen; Yang, Kui; Xu, Zhuofei; Liu, Ziduo; Zhou, Rui
Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae is an important porcine respiratory pathogen causing great economic losses in the pig industry worldwide. Oxygen deprivation is a stress that A. pleuropneumoniae will encounter during both early infection and the later, persistent stage. To understand modulation of A. pleuropneumoniae gene expression in response to the stress caused by anaerobic conditions, gene expression profiles under anaerobic and aerobic conditions were compared in this study. The microarray results showed that 631 genes (27.7% of the total ORFs) were differentially expressed in anaerobic conditions. Many genes encoding proteins involved in glycolysis, carbon source uptake systems, pyruvate metabolism, fermentation and the electron respiration transport chain were up-regulated. These changes led to an increased amount of pyruvate, lactate, ethanol and acetate in the bacterial cells as confirmed by metabolite detection. Genes encoding proteins involved in cell surface structures, especially biofilm formation, peptidoglycan biosynthesis and lipopolysaccharide biosynthesis were up-regulated as well. Biofilm formation was significantly enhanced under anaerobic conditions. These results indicate that induction of central metabolism is important for basic survival of A. pleuropneumoniae after a shift to an anaerobic environment. Enhanced biofilm formation may contribute to the persistence of this pathogen in the damaged anaerobic host tissue and also in the early colonization stage. These discoveries give new insights into adaptation mechanisms of A. pleuropneumoniae in response to environmental stress.
Xie, Fang; Wang, Yalei; Li, Gang; Liu, Shuanghong; Cui, Ning; Liu, Siguo; Langford, Paul R.; Wang, Chunlai
Antimicrobial peptides are essential to the innate immune defense of the mammal against bacterial infection. However, pathogenic bacteria have evolved multiple strategies to resist and evade antimicrobial peptides, which is vital to bacterial survival and colonization in hosts. PR-39 is a linear porcine antimicrobial peptide containing 39 amino acid residues with a high proline content. Resistance to antimicrobial peptide PR-39 has been observed in Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae. However, little is known about the factors required for this resistance. In the present study, PR-39 exposure increased the expression of the sapA gene in A. pleuropneumoniae. The sapA gene, which encodes a putative peptide transport periplasmic protein, was deleted from this bacterium. The ΔsapA mutant showed increased sensitivity to PR-39 compared to the wild-type MD12 and complemented PΔsapA strains. However, the ΔsapA mutant did not exhibit any alterations in outer membrane integrity. Scanning electron microscopy showed that the ΔsapA mutant displayed morphological defects, as indicated by a deformed and sunken shape after PR-39 treatment. In addition, disruption of the SapA protein led to reduced colonization and attenuated virulence of A. pleuropneumoniae in the BALB/c mouse model. Collectively, these data suggest that SapA acts as one mechanism for A. pleuropneumoniae to counteract PR-39-mediated killing. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to show a mechanism underlying antimicrobial peptide resistance in A. pleuropneumoniae. PMID:28539918
Xie, Fang; Wang, Yalei; Li, Gang; Liu, Shuanghong; Cui, Ning; Liu, Siguo; Langford, Paul R; Wang, Chunlai
Antimicrobial peptides are essential to the innate immune defense of the mammal against bacterial infection. However, pathogenic bacteria have evolved multiple strategies to resist and evade antimicrobial peptides, which is vital to bacterial survival and colonization in hosts. PR-39 is a linear porcine antimicrobial peptide containing 39 amino acid residues with a high proline content. Resistance to antimicrobial peptide PR-39 has been observed in Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae. However, little is known about the factors required for this resistance. In the present study, PR-39 exposure increased the expression of the sapA gene in A. pleuropneumoniae. The sapA gene, which encodes a putative peptide transport periplasmic protein, was deleted from this bacterium. The ΔsapA mutant showed increased sensitivity to PR-39 compared to the wild-type MD12 and complemented PΔsapA strains. However, the ΔsapA mutant did not exhibit any alterations in outer membrane integrity. Scanning electron microscopy showed that the ΔsapA mutant displayed morphological defects, as indicated by a deformed and sunken shape after PR-39 treatment. In addition, disruption of the SapA protein led to reduced colonization and attenuated virulence of A. pleuropneumoniae in the BALB/c mouse model. Collectively, these data suggest that SapA acts as one mechanism for A. pleuropneumoniae to counteract PR-39-mediated killing. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to show a mechanism underlying antimicrobial peptide resistance in A. pleuropneumoniae.
Gouré, Julien; Findlay, Wendy A; Deslandes, Vincent; Bouevitch, Anne; Foote, Simon J; MacInnes, Janet I; Coulton, James W; Nash, John HE; Jacques, Mario
Background Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, the causative agent of porcine pleuropneumonia, is a highly contagious respiratory pathogen that causes severe losses to the swine industry worldwide. Current commercially-available vaccines are of limited value because they do not induce cross-serovar immunity and do not prevent development of the carrier state. Microarray-based comparative genomic hybridizations (M-CGH) were used to estimate whole genomic diversity of representative Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae strains. Our goal was to identify conserved genes, especially those predicted to encode outer membrane proteins and lipoproteins because of their potential for the development of more effective vaccines. Results Using hierarchical clustering, our M-CGH results showed that the majority of the genes in the genome of the serovar 5 A. pleuropneumoniae L20 strain were conserved in the reference strains of all 15 serovars and in representative field isolates. Fifty-eight conserved genes predicted to encode for outer membrane proteins or lipoproteins were identified. As well, there were several clusters of diverged or absent genes including those associated with capsule biosynthesis, toxin production as well as genes typically associated with mobile elements. Conclusion Although A. pleuropneumoniae strains are essentially clonal, M-CGH analysis of the reference strains of the fifteen serovars and representative field isolates revealed several classes of genes that were divergent or absent. Not surprisingly, these included genes associated with capsule biosynthesis as the capsule is associated with sero-specificity. Several of the conserved genes were identified as candidates for vaccine development, and we conclude that M-CGH is a valuable tool for reverse vaccinology. PMID:19239696
Tremblay, Yannick D N; Labrie, Josée; Chénier, Sonia; Jacques, Mario
Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae causes porcine pleuropneumonia and forms biofilms in vitro on abiotic surfaces; however, presence of biofilms during infections has not been documented. The aim of this study was to use a species-specific fluorescent oligonucleotide probe and confocal microscopy to localize A. pleuropneumoniae in the lungs of two naturally infected pigs. Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae was detected by fluorescence in situ hybridization and observed to grow as aggregates (~30-45 μm) during a natural infection. As the A. pleuropneumoniae aggregates observed in porcine lungs differed from the biofilms grown on a solid surface obtained in vitro, we designed a new biofilm assay using agarose, a porous substrate, favouring the formation of aggregates. In this study, we described for the first time the mode of growth of A. pleuropneumoniae during a natural infection in pigs. We also propose an in vitro biofilm assay for A. pleuropneumoniae using a porous substrate which allows the formation of aggregates. This assay might be more representative of the in vivo situation, at least in terms of the size of the bacterial aggregates and the presence of a porous matrix, and could potentially be used to test the susceptibility of A. pleuropneumoniae aggregates to antibiotics and disinfectants. © 2016 The Authors. Microbial Biotechnology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Society for Applied Microbiology.
Willson, P J; Rossi-Campos, A; Potter, A A
These studies were done to develop a subunit vaccine for swine that would protect against disease, but not create unacceptable tissue reactions at the immunization site. Swine were used to evaluate the local effects of subunit vaccines prepared from extracts of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serotype 1 containing one of a wide variety of adjuvants. The antigen was an anionic fraction of a saline extract of A. pleuropneumoniae (ANEX). The adjuvants used were vegetable oils (peanut, sesame, canola, or corn oils, vitamin E, or Lipposyn II emulsion); mineral oil (Marcol-52) and other materials (aluminum hydroxide, polyethylene glycol, Quil-A, Amphigen, or Emulsigen-Plus). Two types of experiments were done. In the 1st set of experiments, pigs were given multiple simultaneous injections in different sites and euthanized on days 1, 3, 7, 14, 21, or 28. Tissues were examined for gross and histopathological lesions. In the 2nd set of experiments, 48 pigs were allocated to 6 groups and vaccinated twice with a vaccine containing ANEX antigen combined with one of various adjuvants. Antibody responses and protection from challenge were evaluated. Among the adjuvants that were tested, mineral oils induced protective immunity, although the mineral oil Marcol-52 resulted in severe tissue reactions. The vegetable oils induced little protective immunity, and some of them were quite irritating. The response to the other materials ranged from little irritation or protection induced by the vaccine containing aluminum hydroxide to effective protection without irritation after vaccination with ANEX/Amphigen or ANEX/Emulsigen-Plus combinations. In conclusion, swine were protected against disease by a subunit vaccine that did not create unacceptable tissue reaction at the immunization site. PMID:8548692
Bossé, Janine T; Li, Yanwen; Rogers, Jon; Fernandez Crespo, Roberto; Li, Yinghui; Chaudhuri, Roy R; Holden, Matthew T G; Maskell, Duncan J; Tucker, Alexander W; Wren, Brendan W; Rycroft, Andrew N; Langford, Paul R
The aim of this study was to evaluate the correlation between antimicrobial resistance (AMR) profiles of 96 clinical isolates of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, an important porcine respiratory pathogen, and the identification of AMR genes in whole genome sequence (wgs) data. Susceptibility of the isolates to nine antimicrobial agents (ampicillin, enrofloxacin, erythromycin, florfenicol, sulfisoxazole, tetracycline, tilmicosin, trimethoprim, and tylosin) was determined by agar dilution susceptibility test. Except for the macrolides tested, elevated MICs were highly correlated to the presence of AMR genes identified in wgs data using ResFinder or BLASTn. Of the isolates tested, 57% were resistant to tetracycline [MIC ≥ 4 mg/L; 94.8% with either tet(B) or tet(H)]; 48% to sulfisoxazole (MIC ≥ 256 mg/L or DD = 6; 100% with sul2), 20% to ampicillin (MIC ≥ 4 mg/L; 100% with blaROB-1), 17% to trimethoprim (MIC ≥ 32 mg/L; 100% with dfrA14), and 6% to enrofloxacin (MIC ≥ 0.25 mg/L; 100% with GyrAS83F). Only 33% of the isolates did not have detectable AMR genes, and were sensitive by MICs for the antimicrobial agents tested. Although 23 isolates had MIC ≥ 32 mg/L for tylosin, all isolates had MIC ≤ 16 mg/L for both erythromycin and tilmicosin, and no macrolide resistance genes or known point mutations were detected. Other than the GyrAS83F mutation, the AMR genes detected were mapped to potential plasmids. In addition to presence on plasmid(s), the tet(B) gene was also found chromosomally either as part of a 56 kb integrative conjugative element (ICEApl1) in 21, or as part of a Tn7 insertion in 15 isolates. Our results indicate that, with the exception of macrolides, wgs data can be used to accurately predict resistance of A. pleuropneumoniae to the tested antimicrobial agents and provides added value for routine surveillance.
Luna-Castro, Sarahí; Aguilar-Romero, Francisco; Samaniego-Barrón, Luisa; Godínez-Vargas, Delfino; de la Garza, Mireya
Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae (App) is a Gram-negative bacterium that causes porcine pleuropneumonia, leading to economic losses in the swine industry. Due to bacterial resistance to antibiotics, new treatments for this disease are currently being sought. Lactoferrin (Lf) is an innate immune system glycoprotein of mammals that is microbiostatic and microbicidal and affects several bacterial virulence factors. The aim of this study was to investigate whether bovine iron-free Lf (BapoLf) has an effect on the growth and virulence of App. Two serotype 1 strains (reference strain S4074 and the isolate BC52) and a serotype 7 reference strain (WF83) were analyzed. First, the ability of App to grow in iron-charged BLf was discarded because in vivo, BapoLf sequesters iron and could be a potential source of this element favoring the infection. The minimum inhibitory concentration of BapoLf was 14.62, 11.78 and 10.56 µM for the strain BC52, S4074 and WF83, respectively. A subinhibitory concentration (0.8 µM) was tested by assessing App adhesion to porcine buccal epithelial cells, biofilm production, and the secretion and function of toxins and proteases. Decrease in adhesion (24-42 %) was found in the serotype 1 strains. Biofilm production decreased (27 %) for only the strain 4074 of serotype 1. Interestingly, biofilm was decreased (60-70 %) in the three strains by BholoLf. Hemolysis of erythrocytes and toxicity towards HeLa cells were not affected by BapoLf. In contrast, proteolytic activity in all strains was suppressed in the presence of BapoLf. Finally, oxytetracycline produced synergistic effect with BapoLf against App. Our results suggest that BapoLf affects the growth and several of the virulence factors in App.
Herradora, L M A; Martínez-Gamba, R
This study was carried out to compare the efficacy of two oral anti-microbials as metaphylactic medication to pigs inoculated with Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serotype 1. Forty-two pigs with an average weight of 22.64 kg were randomly assigned to three treatment groups: group F was given doses of 40 ppm of florfenicol, group E received 150 ppm of enrofloxacin and group C received no medication. Groups F and E received medicated feed 12 h before being inoculated and for 7 days after inoculation. All the pigs were inoculated by aerosol, with 2 x 10(7) CFU/ml of A. pleuropneumoniae serotype 1 each. The average body temperature was higher in group C than in groups E and F, between 12 and 96 h after inoculation (P < 0.05). No differences were found between groups F and E in respiration pattern, nasal secretion and general condition (P > 0.05): however, differences were found in group C for respiration pattern and general condition (P < 0.05), 12 h after inoculation. There was no mortality in groups F and E, whereas a 50% mortality was recorded in group C during the first 48 h after inoculation (P < 0.05). Necropsies and bacterial cultures were performed 12 days after inoculation. Lesions were observed in five pigs of group F (35.71%) with an average damage of 1.16%; in four pigs of group E (28.57%) with 1.24%; and in 13 animals in group C (92.85%) with 34.5% of affected lung tissue (P < 0.05). The infective agent was cultured from various organs of animals in groups F and C, but not from those in group E.
Negrete-Abascal, E; Tenorio, V R; Serrano, J J; Garcia, C; de la Garza, M
It was found that 48 hour cultures of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae secreted proteases into the medium. Electrophoresis in polyacrylamide gels (10%) copolymerized with porcine gelatin (0.1%), of the 70% (NH4)2SO4 precipitate from the culture supernatants, displayed protease activities of different molecular weights: > 200, 200, 90, 80, 70 and 50 kDa. They had activity over a broad range of pHs (4-8), with an optimal pH of 6-7. All were inhibited by 10 mM EDTA, and reactivated by 10 mM calcium. They were stable at -20 degrees C for more than a month. The proteases also degraded porcine IgA and porcine, human, and bovine hemoglobin, although they appeared to be less active against the hemoglobins. The IgA was totally cleaved in 48 h, using supernatants concentrated with polyvinyl pyrrolidone or the 70% (NH4)2SO4. Extracellular proteases could play a role in virulence. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. PMID:8004545
Byrd, W; Hooke, A M
Temperature-sensitive mutants of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae 4074, serotype 1, were isolated after treatment with nitrosoguanidine and enrichment with penicillin and D-cycloserine. Of the four temperature-sensitive mutants evaluated in mice, one (A-1) had a tight phenotype (i.e., it ceased replication immediately after transfer to the nonpermissive temperature [37 degrees C]) and three (1-2, 4-1, and 12-1) were coasters that continued replication for up to three generations after transfer to 37 degrees C. The reversion frequencies ranged from 10(-6) to 10(-9), and cutoff temperatures ranged from 33 to 35 degrees C. No major changes were detected in the biochemical profiles; agglutination reactions; electrophoretic profiles of the lipopolysaccharides, outer membrane proteins, and hemolysin proteins; hemolytic titers; or CAMP factor reactions of the mutants and the wild-type bacteria. Groups of 3- to 5-week-old, female ICR mice were immunized intranasally with three doses of 3.5 x 10(6) CFU of the mutants over 3 weeks and subsequently challenged intranasally with 5 50% lethal doses of the parental wild-type. Protection was induced by both the tight and the coaster mutants, with the 4-1 and 12-1 coasters eliciting greater protection (67 and 82%, respectively) than that induced by the A-1 tight mutant (57%). Intranasal immunization with both phenotypes induced serum antibody responses against the surface antigens and the hemolysin protein. PMID:9169752
Negrete-Abascal, E; Tenorio, V R; Serrano, J J; Garcia, C; de la Garza, M
It was found that 48 hour cultures of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae secreted proteases into the medium. Electrophoresis in polyacrylamide gels (10%) copolymerized with porcine gelatin (0.1%), of the 70% (NH4)2SO4 precipitate from the culture supernatants, displayed protease activities of different molecular weights: > 200, 200, 90, 80, 70 and 50 kDa. They had activity over a broad range of pHs (4-8), with an optimal pH of 6-7. All were inhibited by 10 mM EDTA, and reactivated by 10 mM calcium. They were stable at -20 degrees C for more than a month. The proteases also degraded porcine IgA and porcine, human, and bovine hemoglobin, although they appeared to be less active against the hemoglobins. The IgA was totally cleaved in 48 h, using supernatants concentrated with polyvinyl pyrrolidone or the 70% (NH4)2SO4. Extracellular proteases could play a role in virulence.
Mittal, K R; Bourdon, S
Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae strains of serotypes 4 and 7 were studied for their antigenic properties by means of agglutination, coagglutination, indirect hemagglutination, immunodiffusion, and counterimmunoelectrophoresis tests. Strains of serotype 4 showed cross-reactivity with those of serotype 7 in various serological tests. Serotype 7 strains were antigenically heterogeneous and shared common antigens with several other serotypes. By using boiled whole-cell saline extract as the antigen in the immunodiffusion test, serotype 7 strains could be divided into four subgroups. Subgroup I strains did not have antigens in common with other serotypes, whereas subgroup II strains had antigens in common with serotype 4; subgroup III strains had antigens in common with serotype 10, and subgroup IV had antigens in common with serotypes 1, 9, and 11. The indirect hemagglutination test using unheated whole-cell saline extract as the antigen detected serotype-specific activity. Quantification of serotype-specific and group-specific antigens by coagglutination and immunodiffusion tests was found useful for identifying strains that belonged to serotype 4 or 7. PMID:1909343
Byrd, W; Kadis, S
Highly purified lipopolysaccharide (LPS) preparations obtained from seven Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae strains representative of seven different serotypes were used to determine the structure and monosaccharide composition of the polysaccharide components of each lipopolysaccharide. An indication of the structure of each LPS was obtained by procedures that included sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis followed by silver staining and gel chromatographic fractionation of acetic acid-hydrolyzed LPS. The polysaccharide components of the LPSs were analyzed by gas-liquid chromatography. The LPSs of the strains of serotypes 2, 4, and 7 were of the smooth type, and those of the strains of serotypes 3 and 6 were of the rough type; the LPSs of the strains of serotypes 1 and 5 could be considered semirough. Rhamnose was present only in the O polysaccharide of the smooth-type and semirough-type LPSs, whereas galactose was present only in the O polysaccharide of the smooth-type LPS and in the core oligosaccharides of the rough-type and semirough-type LPSs. Glucoheptose and mannoheptose were present in the core oligosaccharides of all the LPSs except for the strain of serotype 3, in which only mannoheptose was detected. N-Acetylglucosamine was detected only in the O polysaccharides of the strains of serotypes 1 and 5. Images PMID:2807553
Buettner, Falk F. R.; Bendallah, Ibrahim M.; Bosse, Janine T.; Dreckmann, Karla; Nash, John H. E.; Langford, Paul R.; Gerlach, Gerald-F.
The ability of the bacterial pathogen Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae to grow anaerobically allows the bacterium to persist in the lung. The ArcAB two-component system is crucial for metabolic adaptation in response to anaerobic conditions, and we recently showed that an A. pleuropneumoniae arcA mutant had reduced virulence compared to the wild type (F. F. Buettner, A. Maas, and G.-F. Gerlach, Vet. Microbiol. 127:106-115, 2008). In order to understand the attenuated phenotype, we investigated the ArcA regulon of A. pleuropneumoniae by using a combination of transcriptome (microarray) and proteome (two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis and subsequent mass spectrometry) analyses. We show that ArcA negatively regulates the expression of many genes, including those encoding enzymes which consume intermediates during fumarate synthesis. Simultaneously, the expression of glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, a component of the respiratory chain serving as a direct reduction equivalent for fumarate reductase, was upregulated. This result, together with the in silico analysis finding that A. pleuropneumoniae has no oxidative branch of the citric acid cycle, led to the hypothesis that fumarate reductase might be crucial for virulence by providing (i) energy via fumarate respiration and (ii) succinate and other essential metabolic intermediates via the reductive branch of the citric acid cycle. To test this hypothesis, an isogenic A. pleuropneumoniae fumarate reductase deletion mutant was constructed and studied by using a pig aerosol infection model. The mutant was shown to be significantly attenuated, thereby strongly supporting a crucial role for fumarate reductase in the pathogenesis of A. pleuropneumoniae infection. PMID:18378638
Klitgaard, Kirstine; Friis, Carsten; Jensen, Tim K.; Angen, Øystein; Boye, Mette
Background Gene expression profiles of bacteria in their natural hosts can provide novel insight into the host-pathogen interactions and molecular determinants of bacterial infections. In the present study, the transcriptional profile of the porcine lung pathogen Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae was monitored during the acute phase of infection in its natural host. Methodology/Principal Findings Bacterial expression profiles of A. pleuropneumoniae isolated from lung lesions of 25 infected pigs were compared in samples taken 6, 12, 24 and 48 hours post experimental challenge. Within 6 hours, focal, fibrino hemorrhagic lesions could be observed in the pig lungs, indicating that A. pleuropneumoniae had managed to establish itself successfully in the host. We identified 237 differentially regulated genes likely to encode functions required by the bacteria for colonization and survival in the host. This group was dominated by genes involved in various aspects of energy metabolism, especially anaerobic respiration and carbohydrate metabolism. Remodeling of the bacterial envelope and modifications of posttranslational processing of proteins also appeared to be of importance during early infection. The results suggested that A. pleuropneumoniae is using various strategies to increase its fitness, such as applying Na+ pumps as an alternative way of gaining energy. Furthermore, the transcriptional data provided potential clues as to how A. pleuropneumoniae is able to circumvent host immune factors and survive within the hostile environment of host macrophages. This persistence within macrophages may be related to urease activity, mobilization of various stress responses and active evasion of the host defenses by cell surface sialylation. Conclusions/Significance The data presented here highlight the importance of metabolic adjustments to host conditions as virulence factors of infecting microorganisms and help to provide insight into the mechanisms behind the efficient
Klitgaard, Kirstine; Friis, Carsten; Jensen, Tim K; Angen, Øystein; Boye, Mette
Gene expression profiles of bacteria in their natural hosts can provide novel insight into the host-pathogen interactions and molecular determinants of bacterial infections. In the present study, the transcriptional profile of the porcine lung pathogen Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae was monitored during the acute phase of infection in its natural host. Bacterial expression profiles of A. pleuropneumoniae isolated from lung lesions of 25 infected pigs were compared in samples taken 6, 12, 24 and 48 hours post experimental challenge. Within 6 hours, focal, fibrino hemorrhagic lesions could be observed in the pig lungs, indicating that A. pleuropneumoniae had managed to establish itself successfully in the host. We identified 237 differentially regulated genes likely to encode functions required by the bacteria for colonization and survival in the host. This group was dominated by genes involved in various aspects of energy metabolism, especially anaerobic respiration and carbohydrate metabolism. Remodeling of the bacterial envelope and modifications of posttranslational processing of proteins also appeared to be of importance during early infection. The results suggested that A. pleuropneumoniae is using various strategies to increase its fitness, such as applying Na+ pumps as an alternative way of gaining energy. Furthermore, the transcriptional data provided potential clues as to how A. pleuropneumoniae is able to circumvent host immune factors and survive within the hostile environment of host macrophages. This persistence within macrophages may be related to urease activity, mobilization of various stress responses and active evasion of the host defenses by cell surface sialylation. The data presented here highlight the importance of metabolic adjustments to host conditions as virulence factors of infecting microorganisms and help to provide insight into the mechanisms behind the efficient colonization and persistence of A. pleuropneumoniae during acute disease.
Devenish, J; Rosendal, S; Bossé, J T
Five cesarean-derived, colostrum-deprived pigs were given three adjuvant-supplemented subcutaneous and one intravenous injection of the purified 104-kDa hemolysin from serotype 1 Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae CM-5. Six control animals received phosphate-buffered saline only. Five of six control pigs died within 24 h after challenge. The sixth control pig was moribund and euthanized after 48 h. All six pigs had pleuropneumonia, and A. pleuropneumoniae was isolated from all six lungs. None of the vaccinated pigs died as a result of challenge. After being euthanized, two pigs in this group had no lung lesions but three had chronic pleuropneumonia involving 10, 20, and 40% of the lung tissue. A. pleuropneumoniae was isolated from lung lesions of these three animals but not from the two pigs without lesions. The prechallenge hemolysin-neutralizing antibody titers in the vaccinated pigs were 1:10,900, 1:10,600, 1:4,800, 1:3,900, and 1:3,000, in order of increasing lung involvement. None of the control pigs had neutralizing antibodies. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) antibodies to capsule, lipopolysaccharide, and hemolysin were not detected in serum samples collected from the control pigs. In the vaccinated group, prechallenge sera did not contain ELISA antibodies to capsule or lipopolysaccharide. ELISA antibodies to the hemolysin were detected only in the prechallenge and postchallenge serum samples. These results indicate that pigs immunized with the 104-kDa hemolysin of serotype 1 A. pleuropneumoniae are protected against challenge with virulent bacteria. The association between neutralizing antibodies and protection indicates indirectly that the hemolysin is an important virulence factor. Images PMID:2254012
Jansen, R; Briaire, J; van Geel, A B; Kamp, E M; Gielkens, A L; Smits, M A
Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae RTX-toxin III (ApxIII) is implicated as an important virulence factor of A. pleuropneumoniae, the causative agent of porcine pleuropneumonia. Recently, the genes coding for ApxIII (apxIIICA) of serotype 8 were cloned and characterized. The toxin appeared to be a member of the RTX-toxin family, as are the other two secreted toxins of A. pleuropneumoniae, i.e., ApxI and ApxII. In this report, we describe the cloning and sequencing of the remaining part of the ApxIII operon of serotype 8. This sequence coded for the RTX secretion proteins ApxIIIB and ApxIIID, which showed 86 and 63% similarity to ApxIB and ApxID, respectively, and 83 and 63% similarity to HlyB and HlyD of Escherichia coli, respectively. Potential functional domains, such as eight transmembrane regions and an ATP-binding cassette, were present in ApxIIIB. We examined the presence of apxIIICABD sequences in the 12 serotypes of A. pleuropneumoniae and found that these sequences were present only in serotypes 2, 3, 4, 6, and 8, the serotypes that secrete ApxIII. Comparison of the apxIIICABD gene sequences of the serotypes revealed very few serotype-specific differences. Only the C terminus of ApxIIIA of serotype 2 differed from ApxIIIA of the other serotypes. The differences were located between the glycine-rich repeats and the secretion signal. The analysis of the apxIIICABD genes completed our efforts to characterize the ApxI, ApxII, and ApxIII operons of the reference strains of the 12 serotypes of A. pleuropneumoniae. We present a complete map of the ApxI, ApxII, and ApxIII operons and discuss this in terms of gene expression and complementation and the role of the toxins in pathogenesis. Images PMID:7927703
Subashchandrabose, Sargurunathan; LeVeque, Rhiannon M.; Wagner, Trevor K.; Kirkwood, Roy N.; Kiupel, Matti; Mulks, Martha H.
In Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, which causes porcine pleuropneumonia, ilvI was identified as an in vivo-induced (ivi) gene and encodes the enzyme acetohydroxyacid synthase (AHAS) required for branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) biosynthesis. ilvI and 7 of 32 additional ivi promoters were upregulated in vitro when grown in chemically defined medium (CDM) lacking BCAA. Based on these observations, we hypothesized that BCAA would be found at limiting concentrations in pulmonary secretions and that A. pleuropneumoniae mutants unable to synthesize BCAA would be attenuated in a porcine infection model. Quantitation of free amino acids in porcine pulmonary epithelial lining fluid showed concentrations of BCAA ranging from 8 to 30 μmol/liter, which is 10 to 17% of the concentration in plasma. The expression of both ilvI and lrp, a global regulator that is required for ilvI expression, was strongly upregulated in CDM containing concentrations of BCAA similar to those found in pulmonary secretions. Deletion-disruption mutants of ilvI and lrp were both auxotrophic for BCAA in CDM and attenuated compared to wild-type A. pleuropneumoniae in competitive index experiments in a pig infection model. Wild-type A. pleuropneumoniae grew in CDM+BCAA but not in CDM−BCAA in the presence of sulfonylurea AHAS inhibitors. These results clearly demonstrate that BCAA availability is limited in the lungs and support the hypothesis that A. pleuropneumoniae, and potentially other pulmonary pathogens, uses limitation of BCAA as a cue to regulate the expression of genes required for survival and virulence. These results further suggest a potential role for AHAS inhibitors as antimicrobial agents against pulmonary pathogens. PMID:19703979
Klinkenberg, D; Tobias, T J; Bouma, A; van Leengoed, L A M G; Stegeman, J A
Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae is a major cause of respiratory disease in pigs. Many farms are endemically infected without apparent disease, but occasionally severe outbreaks of pleuropneumonia occur. To prevent and control these outbreaks without antibiotics, the underlying mechanisms of these outbreaks need to be understood. Outbreaks are probably initiated by a trigger (common risk factor) changing the host-pathogen interaction, but it is unclear whether this trigger causes all cases directly (trigger mechanism), or whether the first case starts a transmission chain inducing disease in the infected contacts (transmission mechanism). The aim of this study was to identify conditions under which these mechanisms could cause A. pleuropneumoniae outbreaks, and to assess means for prevention and control. Outbreaks were first characterised by data from a literature review, defining an average outbreak at 12 weeks of age, affecting 50% of animals within 4 days. Simple mathematical models describing the two mechanisms can reproduce average outbreaks, with two observations supporting the trigger mechanism: (1) disease should be transmitted 50 times faster than supported by literature if there is a transmission chain; and (2) the trigger mechanism is consistent with the absence of reported outbreaks in young pigs as they have not yet been colonised by the bacterium. In conclusion, outbreaks of A. pleuropneumoniae on endemic farms are most likely caused by a trigger inducing pneumonia in already infected pigs, but more evidence is needed to identify optimum preventive interventions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Rossi, Ciro César; de Araújo, Elza Fernandes; de Queiroz, Marisa Vieira; Bazzolli, Denise Mara Soares
The OmlA protein is a virulence factor of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, an important pathogen in pigs. The polymorphisms present in the omlA gene sequence of 15 reference serotypes of A. pleuropneumoniae and non-serotypable isolates were assessed to determine the possible evolutionary relationship among them and to validate the importance of this gene as a molecular marker for the characterization of this bacterium. Divergence among the 15 serotypes of A. pleuropneumoniae probably resulted initially from two major evolutionary events that led to subsequent differentiation into nine groups. This differentiation makes it possible to characterize most of the serotypes by using bionformatics, thereby avoiding problems with immunological cross-reactivity. A conserved α-helix common to all the serotypes was most likely involved in connecting the protein to the outer membrane and acting as a signal peptide. A previously unknown gene duplication was also identified and could contribute to the genetic variability that makes it difficult to serotype some isolates. Our data support the importance of the omlA gene in the biology of A. pleuropneumoniae and provide a new area of research into the OmlA protein. PMID:23885207
García-Cuéllar, C; Montañez, C; Tenorio, V; Reyes-Esparza, J; Durán, M J; Negrete, E; Guerrero, A; de la Garza, M
Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae causes pleuropneumonia in swine. This bacterium secretes proteases that degrade porcine hemoglobin and IgA in vitro. To further characterize A. pleuropneumoniae proteases, we constructed a genomic library expressed in Escherichia coli DH5alpha, and selected a clone that showed proteolytic activity. The recombinant plasmid carries an 800-base pair A. pleuropneumoniae gene sequence that.codes for a 24-kDa polypeptide. A 350-base pair PstI fragment from the sequence hybridized at high stringency with DNA from 12 serotypes of A. pleuropneumoniae, but not with DNA from Actinobacillus suis, Haemophilus parasuis, Pasteurella haemolytica, Pasteurella multocida A or D, or E. coli DH5alpha, thus showing specificity for A. pleuropneumoniae. The expressed polypeptide was recognized as an antigen by convalescent-phase pig sera. Furthermore, a polyclonal antiserum developed against the purified polypeptide recognized an A. pleuropneumoniae oligomeric protein in both crude-extract and cell-free culture media. This recombinant polypeptide cleaved azocoll, gelatin, and actin. Inhibition of the proteolytic activity by diethylpyrocarbonate suggests that this polypeptide is a zinc metalloprotease. Images Figure 1. Figure 2. Figure 3. Figure 4. Figure 6. Figure 7. PMID:10805246
García-Cuéllar, C; Montañez, C; Tenorio, V; Reyes-Esparza, J; Durán, M J; Negrete, E; Guerrero, A; de la Garza, M
Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae causes pleuropneumonia in swine. This bacterium secretes proteases that degrade porcine hemoglobin and IgA in vitro. To further characterize A. pleuropneumoniae proteases, we constructed a genomic library expressed in Escherichia coli DH5alpha, and selected a clone that showed proteolytic activity. The recombinant plasmid carries an 800-base pair A. pleuropneumoniae gene sequence that.codes for a 24-kDa polypeptide. A 350-base pair PstI fragment from the sequence hybridized at high stringency with DNA from 12 serotypes of A. pleuropneumoniae, but not with DNA from Actinobacillus suis, Haemophilus parasuis, Pasteurella haemolytica, Pasteurella multocida A or D, or E. coli DH5alpha, thus showing specificity for A. pleuropneumoniae. The expressed polypeptide was recognized as an antigen by convalescent-phase pig sera. Furthermore, a polyclonal antiserum developed against the purified polypeptide recognized an A. pleuropneumoniae oligomeric protein in both crude-extract and cell-free culture media. This recombinant polypeptide cleaved azocoll, gelatin, and actin. Inhibition of the proteolytic activity by diethylpyrocarbonate suggests that this polypeptide is a zinc metalloprotease.
Bossé, Janine T; Li, Yanwen; Angen, Øystein; Weinert, Lucy A; Chaudhuri, Roy R; Holden, Matthew T; Williamson, Susanna M; Maskell, Duncan J; Tucker, Alexander W; Wren, Brendan W; Rycroft, Andrew N; Langford, Paul R
An improved multiplex PCR, using redesigned primers targeting the serovar 3 capsule locus, which differentiates serovars 3, 6, and 8 Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae isolates, is described. The new primers eliminate an aberrant serovar 3-indicative amplicon found in some serovar 6 clinical isolates. Furthermore, we have developed a new multiplex PCR for the detection of serovars 1 to 3, 5 to 8, 10, and 12 along with apxIV, thus extending the utility of this diagnostic PCR to cover a broader range of isolates. Copyright © 2014 Bossé et al.
Rosado-Vallado, M; Quintero-Mármol, E; Garcilazo, J A
The aim of the present research was to evaluate the efficiency of a method used to enhance the isolation of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae and Haemophilus spp. 134 samples of pneumonic lungs of swine were directly grown in blood agar medium, 120 of these samples were simultaneously processed by a dilution method inoculating then into a selective and enriched broth (1% poly-enriched, 5% yeast extract. 5 micrograms/ml bacitracin, 1 microgram/ml lincomycin and 1 microgram/ml crystal violet). The dilution method proved to be more efficient than the direct one.
Bossé, Janine T.; Li, Yanwen; Rogers, Jon; Fernandez Crespo, Roberto; Li, Yinghui; Chaudhuri, Roy R.; Holden, Matthew T. G.; Maskell, Duncan J.; Tucker, Alexander W.; Wren, Brendan W.; Rycroft, Andrew N.; Langford, Paul R.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the correlation between antimicrobial resistance (AMR) profiles of 96 clinical isolates of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, an important porcine respiratory pathogen, and the identification of AMR genes in whole genome sequence (wgs) data. Susceptibility of the isolates to nine antimicrobial agents (ampicillin, enrofloxacin, erythromycin, florfenicol, sulfisoxazole, tetracycline, tilmicosin, trimethoprim, and tylosin) was determined by agar dilution susceptibility test. Except for the macrolides tested, elevated MICs were highly correlated to the presence of AMR genes identified in wgs data using ResFinder or BLASTn. Of the isolates tested, 57% were resistant to tetracycline [MIC ≥ 4 mg/L; 94.8% with either tet(B) or tet(H)]; 48% to sulfisoxazole (MIC ≥ 256 mg/L or DD = 6; 100% with sul2), 20% to ampicillin (MIC ≥ 4 mg/L; 100% with blaROB-1), 17% to trimethoprim (MIC ≥ 32 mg/L; 100% with dfrA14), and 6% to enrofloxacin (MIC ≥ 0.25 mg/L; 100% with GyrAS83F). Only 33% of the isolates did not have detectable AMR genes, and were sensitive by MICs for the antimicrobial agents tested. Although 23 isolates had MIC ≥ 32 mg/L for tylosin, all isolates had MIC ≤ 16 mg/L for both erythromycin and tilmicosin, and no macrolide resistance genes or known point mutations were detected. Other than the GyrAS83F mutation, the AMR genes detected were mapped to potential plasmids. In addition to presence on plasmid(s), the tet(B) gene was also found chromosomally either as part of a 56 kb integrative conjugative element (ICEApl1) in 21, or as part of a Tn7 insertion in 15 isolates. Our results indicate that, with the exception of macrolides, wgs data can be used to accurately predict resistance of A. pleuropneumoniae to the tested antimicrobial agents and provides added value for routine surveillance. PMID:28321207
Bossé, Janine T.; Sinha, Sunita; Li, Ming-Shi; O'Dwyer, Clíona A.; Nash, John H. E.; Rycroft, Andrew N.; Kroll, J. Simon; Langford, Paul R.
Clinical isolates of the porcine pathogen Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae often form adherent colonies on agar plates due to expression of an operon, pgaABCD, encoding a poly-β-1,6-N-acetyl-d-glucosamine (PGA) extracellular matrix. The adherent colony phenotype, which correlates with the ability to form biofilms on the surfaces of polystyrene plates, is lost following serial passage in broth culture, and repeated passage of the nonadherent variants on solid media does not result in reversion to the adherent colony phenotype. In order to investigate the regulation of PGA expression and biofilm formation in A. pleuropneumoniae, we screened a bank of transposon mutants of the nonadherent serovar 1 strain S4074T and identified mutations in two genes, rseA and hns, which resulted in the formation of the adherent colony phenotype. In other bacteria, including the Enterobacteriaceae, H-NS acts as a global gene regulator, and RseA is a negative regulator of the extracytoplasmic stress response sigma factor σE. Transcription profiling of A. pleuropneumoniae rseA and hns mutants revealed that both σE and H-NS independently regulate expression of the pga operon. Transcription of the pga operon is initiated from a σE promoter site in the absence of H-NS, and upregulation of σE is sufficient to displace H-NS, allowing transcription to proceed. In A. pleuropneumoniae, H-NS does not act as a global gene regulator but rather specifically regulates biofilm formation via repression of the pga operon. Positive regulation of the pga operon by σE indicates that biofilm formation is part of the extracytoplasmic stress response in A. pleuropneumoniae. PMID:20207760
Xie, Fang; Zhang, Yanhe; Li, Gang; Zhou, Long; Liu, Siguo; Wang, Chunlai
In the respiratory tract and lung tissue, a balanced physiological response is essential for Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae to survive various types of challenges. ClpP, the catalytic core of the Clp proteolytic complex, is involved in various stresses response and regulation of biofilm formation in many pathogenic bacteria. To investigate the role of ClpP in the virulence of A. pleuropneumoniae, the clpP gene was deleted by homologous recombination, resulting in the mutant strain S8ΔclpP. The reduced growth of S8ΔclpP mutant at high temperatures and under several other stress conditions suggests that the ClpP protein is required for the stress tolerance of A. pleuropneumoniae. Interestingly, we observed that the S8ΔclpP mutant exhibited an increased ability to take up iron in vitro compared to the wild-type strain. We also found that the cells without ClpP displayed rough and irregular surfaces and increased cell volume relative to the wild-type strain using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) revealed that the S8ΔclpP mutant showed decreased biofilm formation compared to the wild-type strain. We examined the transcriptional profiles of the wild type S8 and the S8ΔclpP mutant strains of A. pleuropneumoniae using RNA sequencing. Our analysis revealed that the expression of 16 genes was changed by the deletion of the clpP gene. The data presented in this study illustrate the important role of ClpP protease in the stress response, iron acquisition, cell morphology and biofilm formation related to A. pleuropneumoniae and further suggest a putative role of ClpP protease in virulence regulation.
Xie, Fang; Zhang, Yanhe; Li, Gang; Zhou, Long; Liu, Siguo; Wang, Chunlai
In the respiratory tract and lung tissue, a balanced physiological response is essential for Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae to survive various types of challenges. ClpP, the catalytic core of the Clp proteolytic complex, is involved in various stresses response and regulation of biofilm formation in many pathogenic bacteria. To investigate the role of ClpP in the virulence of A. pleuropneumoniae, the clpP gene was deleted by homologous recombination, resulting in the mutant strain S8ΔclpP. The reduced growth of S8ΔclpP mutant at high temperatures and under several other stress conditions suggests that the ClpP protein is required for the stress tolerance of A. pleuropneumoniae. Interestingly, we observed that the S8ΔclpP mutant exhibited an increased ability to take up iron in vitro compared to the wild-type strain. We also found that the cells without ClpP displayed rough and irregular surfaces and increased cell volume relative to the wild-type strain using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) revealed that the S8ΔclpP mutant showed decreased biofilm formation compared to the wild-type strain. We examined the transcriptional profiles of the wild type S8 and the S8ΔclpP mutant strains of A. pleuropneumoniae using RNA sequencing. Our analysis revealed that the expression of 16 genes was changed by the deletion of the clpP gene. The data presented in this study illustrate the important role of ClpP protease in the stress response, iron acquisition, cell morphology and biofilm formation related to A. pleuropneumoniae and further suggest a putative role of ClpP protease in virulence regulation. PMID:23326465
Wang, Lei; Qin, Wanhai; Yang, Shuxin; Zhai, Ruidong; Zhou, Liang; Sun, Changjiang; Pan, Fengguang; Ji, Qun; Wang, Yu; Gu, Jingmin; Feng, Xin; Du, Chongtao; Han, Wenyu; Langford, P R; Lei, Liancheng
Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae is a causative agent of porcine pleuropneumonia, which is a highly contagious endemic disease of pigs. Adhesion is a critical first step in the infection process. Trimeric autotransporter adhesions (TAAs) have been identified as novel virulence factors; however, little is known on their roles in A. pleuropneumoniae pathogenicity. Here, our data show that YadA-like head region (Adh) of Apa1 was the optimal adhesion functional domain via segment expression and adhesion assays in vitro. Additionally, Adh induced partial protection against A. pleuropneumoniae 5b L20 and serotypes 1, 3, and 5a in mice. The deletion of Adh gene significantly decreased autoaggregation, biofilm formation and adherence to host cells in vitro. Furthermore, with delaying of clinical symptoms, reducing production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and lessening the lung injury after infection, Adh deletion strain (5bϕAdh) significantly reduced the pathogenicity to piglets. To elucidate the mechanism of lung injury, the differentially expressed genes in the lung tissues of piglets infected with the 5b L20 or 5bϕAdh strains were investigated using microarray analysis and validated by qRT-PCR. Compared with the 5b L20 infected piglets, 495 genes were differentially expressed in 5bϕAdh infected lung tissue (221 upregulated and 274 downregulated). Especially, the antigen processing and presentation gene IFI30 was increased following infection with the 5bϕAdh strain. Thus, Adh may enhance pathogenicity by depressing host immune recognition. We conclude that the head domain of the A. pleuropneumoniae trimeric autotransporter Apa1 regulates autoagglutination, biofilm formation, adhesion to host cells and pathogenicity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Lévesque, Cynthia; Provost, Chantale; Labrie, Josée; Hernandez Reyes, Yenney; Burciaga Nava, Jorge A; Gagnon, Carl A; Jacques, Mario
Pigs are often colonized by more than one bacterial and/or viral species during respiratory tract infections. This phenomenon is known as the porcine respiratory disease complex (PRDC). Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae (App) and porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) are pathogens that are frequently involved in PRDC. The main objective of this project was to study the in vitro interactions between these two pathogens and the host cells in the context of mixed infections. To fulfill this objective, PRRSV permissive cell lines such as MARC-145, SJPL, and porcine alveolar macrophages (PAM) were used. A pre-infection with PRRSV was performed at 0.5 multiplicity of infection (MOI) followed by an infection with App at 10 MOI. Bacterial adherence and cell death were compared. Results showed that PRRSV pre-infection did not affect bacterial adherence to the cells. PRRSV and App co-infection produced an additive cytotoxicity effect. Interestingly, a pre-infection of SJPL and PAM cells with App blocked completely PRRSV infection. Incubation of SJPL and PAM cells with an App cell-free culture supernatant is also sufficient to significantly block PRRSV infection. This antiviral activity is not due to LPS but rather by small molecular weight, heat-resistant App metabolites (<1 kDa). The antiviral activity was also observed in SJPL cells infected with swine influenza virus but to a much lower extent compared to PRRSV. More importantly, the PRRSV antiviral activity of App was also seen with PAM, the cells targeted by the virus in vivo during infection in pigs. The antiviral activity might be due, at least in part, to the production of interferon γ. The use of in vitro experimental models to study viral and bacterial co-infections will lead to a better understanding of the interactions between pathogens and their host cells, and could allow the development of novel prophylactic and therapeutic tools.
Labrie, Josée; Hernandez Reyes, Yenney; Burciaga Nava, Jorge A.; Gagnon, Carl A.; Jacques, Mario
Pigs are often colonized by more than one bacterial and/or viral species during respiratory tract infections. This phenomenon is known as the porcine respiratory disease complex (PRDC). Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae (App) and porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) are pathogens that are frequently involved in PRDC. The main objective of this project was to study the in vitro interactions between these two pathogens and the host cells in the context of mixed infections. To fulfill this objective, PRRSV permissive cell lines such as MARC-145, SJPL, and porcine alveolar macrophages (PAM) were used. A pre-infection with PRRSV was performed at 0.5 multiplicity of infection (MOI) followed by an infection with App at 10 MOI. Bacterial adherence and cell death were compared. Results showed that PRRSV pre-infection did not affect bacterial adherence to the cells. PRRSV and App co-infection produced an additive cytotoxicity effect. Interestingly, a pre-infection of SJPL and PAM cells with App blocked completely PRRSV infection. Incubation of SJPL and PAM cells with an App cell-free culture supernatant is also sufficient to significantly block PRRSV infection. This antiviral activity is not due to LPS but rather by small molecular weight, heat-resistant App metabolites (<1 kDa). The antiviral activity was also observed in SJPL cells infected with swine influenza virus but to a much lower extent compared to PRRSV. More importantly, the PRRSV antiviral activity of App was also seen with PAM, the cells targeted by the virus in vivo during infection in pigs. The antiviral activity might be due, at least in part, to the production of interferon γ. The use of in vitro experimental models to study viral and bacterial co-infections will lead to a better understanding of the interactions between pathogens and their host cells, and could allow the development of novel prophylactic and therapeutic tools. PMID:24878741
Merino, Susana; Knirel, Yuriy A.; Regué, Miguel; Tomás, Juan M.
We experimentally identified the activities of six predicted heptosyltransferases in Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae genome serotype 5b strain L20 and serotype 3 strain JL03. The initial identification was based on a bioinformatic analysis of the amino acid similarity between these putative heptosyltrasferases with others of known function from enteric bacteria and Aeromonas. The putative functions of all the Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae heptosyltrasferases were determined by using surrogate LPS acceptor molecules from well-defined A. hydrophyla AH-3 and A. salmonicida A450 mutants. Our results show that heptosyltransferases APL_0981 and APJL_1001 are responsible for the transfer of the terminal outer core D-glycero-D-manno-heptose (D,D-Hep) residue although they are not currently included in the CAZY glycosyltransferase 9 family. The WahF heptosyltransferase group signature sequence [S(T/S)(GA)XXH] differs from the heptosyltransferases consensus signature sequence [D(TS)(GA)XXH], because of the substitution of D261 for S261, being unique. PMID:23383222
Marois-Créhan, Corinne; Lacouture, Sonia; Jacques, Mario; Fittipaldi, Nahuel; Kobisch, Marylène; Gottschalk, Marcelo
Two real-time, or quantitative, polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assays were developed to detect Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serovars 1-9-11 (highly related serovars with similar virulence potential) and serovar 2, respectively. The specificity of these assays was verified on a collection of 294 strains, which included all 16 reference A. pleuropneumoniae strains (including serovars 5a and 5b), 263 A. pleuropneumoniae field strains isolated between 1992 and 2009 in different countries, and 15 bacterial strains other than A. pleuropneumoniae. The detection levels of both qPCR tests were evaluated using 10-fold dilutions of chromosomal DNA from reference strains of A. pleuropneumoniae serovars 1 and 2, and the detection limit for both assays was 50 fg per assay. The analytical sensitivities of the qPCR tests were also estimated by using pure cultures and tonsils experimentally spiked with A. pleuropneumoniae. The detection threshold was 2.5 × 10(4) colony forming units (CFU)/ml and 2.9 × 10(5) CFU/0.1 g of tonsil, respectively, for both assays. These specific and sensitive tests can be used for the serotyping of A. pleuropneumoniae in diagnostic laboratories to control porcine pleuropneumonia.
Background Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae causes contagious pleuropneumonia, an economically important disease of commercially reared pigs throughout the world. To cause this disease, A. pleuropneumoniae must rapidly overcome porcine pulmonary innate immune defenses. Since bronchoalveolar fluid (BALF) contains many of the innate immune and other components found in the lungs, we examined the gene expression of a virulent serovar 1 strain of A. pleuropneumoniae after exposure to concentrated BALF for 30 min. Results In reverse transcription PCR differential display (RT-PCR DD) experiments, A. pleuropneumoniae CM5 exposed to BALF up-regulated, among other genes, a gene predicted to encode LamB, an outer-membrane transport protein of the maltose regulon. To determine the role of the lamB and other genes of the maltose regulon in the pathogenesis of A. pleuropneumoniae, knockout mutations were created in the lamB and malT genes, the latter being the positive transcriptional regulator of the maltose regulon. Relative to the lamB mutant and the wild type, the malT mutant had a significant (P < 0.05) decrease in growth rate and an increased sensitivity to fresh porcine serum and high concentrations (more than 0.5 M) of sodium chloride. In DNA microarray experiments, the BALF-exposed malT mutant exhibited a gene-expression profile resembling that of a stringent type gene-expression profile seen in bacteria facing amino acid or carbon starvation. Genes encoding proteins for protein synthesis, energy metabolism, and DNA replication were down-regulated, while genes involved in stringent response (e.g., relA), amino acid and nucleotide biosynthesis, biofilm formation, DNA transformation, and stress response were up-regulated. Conclusion These results suggest that MalT may be involved in protection against some stressors and in the transport of one or more essential nutrients in BALF. Moreover, if MalT is directly or indirectly linked to the stringent response, an important
Background Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae is the Gram-negative bacterium responsible for porcine pleuropneumonia. This respiratory infection is highly contagious and characterized by high morbidity and mortality. The objectives of our study were to study the transcriptome of A. pleuropneumoniae biofilms at different stages and to develop a protocol to grow an A. pleuropneumoniae biofilm in a drip-flow apparatus. This biofilm reactor is a system with an air-liquid interface modeling lung-like environment. Bacteria attached to a surface (biofilm) and free floating bacteria (plankton) were harvested for RNA isolation. Labelled cDNA was hybridized to a microarray to compare the expression profiles of planktonic cells and biofilm cells. Results It was observed that 47 genes were differentially expressed (22 up, 25 down) in a 4 h-static growing/maturing biofilm and 117 genes were differentially expressed (49 up, 68 down) in a 6h-static dispersing biofilm. The transcriptomes of a 4 h biofilm and a 6 h biofilm were also compared and 456 genes (235 up, 221 down) were identified as differently expressed. Among the genes identified in the 4 h vs 6h biofilm experiment, several regulators of stress response were down-regulated and energy metabolism associated genes were up-regulated. Biofilm bacteria cultured using the drip-flow apparatus differentially expressed 161 genes (68 up, 93 down) compared to the effluent bacteria. Cross-referencing of differentially transcribed genes in the different assays revealed that drip-flow biofilms shared few differentially expressed genes with static biofilms (4 h or 6 h) but shared several differentially expressed genes with natural or experimental infections in pigs. Conclusion The formation of a static biofilm by A. pleuropneumoniae strain S4074 is a rapid process and transcriptional analysis indicated that dispersal observed at 6 h is driven by nutritional stresses. Furthermore, A. pleuropneumoniae can form a biofilm under low
Tremblay, Yannick D N; Deslandes, Vincent; Jacques, Mario
Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae is the Gram-negative bacterium responsible for porcine pleuropneumonia. This respiratory infection is highly contagious and characterized by high morbidity and mortality. The objectives of our study were to study the transcriptome of A. pleuropneumoniae biofilms at different stages and to develop a protocol to grow an A. pleuropneumoniae biofilm in a drip-flow apparatus. This biofilm reactor is a system with an air-liquid interface modeling lung-like environment. Bacteria attached to a surface (biofilm) and free floating bacteria (plankton) were harvested for RNA isolation. Labelled cDNA was hybridized to a microarray to compare the expression profiles of planktonic cells and biofilm cells. It was observed that 47 genes were differentially expressed (22 up, 25 down) in a 4 h-static growing/maturing biofilm and 117 genes were differentially expressed (49 up, 68 down) in a 6h-static dispersing biofilm. The transcriptomes of a 4 h biofilm and a 6 h biofilm were also compared and 456 genes (235 up, 221 down) were identified as differently expressed. Among the genes identified in the 4 h vs 6h biofilm experiment, several regulators of stress response were down-regulated and energy metabolism associated genes were up-regulated. Biofilm bacteria cultured using the drip-flow apparatus differentially expressed 161 genes (68 up, 93 down) compared to the effluent bacteria. Cross-referencing of differentially transcribed genes in the different assays revealed that drip-flow biofilms shared few differentially expressed genes with static biofilms (4 h or 6 h) but shared several differentially expressed genes with natural or experimental infections in pigs. The formation of a static biofilm by A. pleuropneumoniae strain S4074 is a rapid process and transcriptional analysis indicated that dispersal observed at 6 h is driven by nutritional stresses. Furthermore, A. pleuropneumoniae can form a biofilm under low-shear force in a drip-flow apparatus and
Wallgren, Per; Nörregård, Erik; Molander, Benedicta; Persson, Maria; Ehlorsson, Carl-Johan
Respiratory illness is traditionally regarded as the disease of the growing pig, and has historically mainly been associated to bacterial infections with focus on Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae and Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae. These bacteria still are of great importance, but continuously increasing herd sizes have complicated the scenario and the influence of secondary invaders may have been increased. The aim of this study was to evaluate the presence of A. pleuropneumoniae and M. hyopneumoniae, as well as that of the secondary invaders Pasteurella multocida and Streptococcus suis by serology in four pig herds (A-D) using age segregated rearing systems with high incidences of pleuritic lesions at slaughter. Pleuritic lesions registered at slaughter ranged from 20.5 to 33.1 % in the four herds. In herd A, the levels of serum antibodies to A. pleuropneumoniae exceeded A450 > 1.5, but not to any other microbe searched for. The seroconversion took place early during the fattening period. Similar levels of serum antibodies to A. pleuropneumoniae were also recorded in herd B, with a subsequent increase in levels of antibodies to P. multocida. Pigs seroconverted to both agents during the early phase of the fattening period. In herd C, pigs seroconverted to P. multocida during the early phase of the fattening period and thereafter to A. pleuropneumoniae. In herd D, the levels of antibodies to P. multocida exceeded A450 > 1.0 in absence (A450 < 0.5) of antibodies to A. pleuropneumoniae. The levels of serum antibodies to M. hyopneumoniae and to S. suis remained below A450 < 1.0 in all four herds. Pigs seroconverted to M. hyopneumoniae late during the rearing period (herd B-D), or not at all (herd A). Different serological patterns were found in the four herds with high levels of serum antibodies to A. pleuropneumoniae and P. multocida, either alone or in combination with each other. Seroconversion to M. hyopneumoniae late during the rearing period or
Vanden Bergh, Philippe GAC; Zecchinon, Laurent LM; Fett, Thomas; Desmecht, Daniel
Background Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, the causative bacterial agent of porcine pleuropneumonia, produces Apx toxins which belong to RTX toxin family and are recognized as the major virulence factors. So far, their target receptor(s) has not been identified and the disease cytopathogenesis remains poorly understood. Production of an active Apx toxin and characterization of its toxic activity constitute the premises necessary to the description of its interaction with a potential receptor. From this point of view, we produced an active recombinant ApxIIIA toxin in order to characterize its toxicity on peripheral blood mononucleated cells (PBMCs) isolated from several species. Findings Toxin preparation exercises a strong cytotoxic action on porcine PBMCs which is directly related to recombinant ApxIIIA since preincubation with polymyxin B does not modify the cytotoxicity rate while preincubation with a monospecific polyclonal antiserum directed against ApxIIIA does. The cell death process triggered by ApxIIIA is extremely fast, the maximum rate of toxicity being already reached after 20 minutes of incubation. Moreover, ApxIIIA cytotoxicity is species-specific because llama, human, dog, rat and mouse PBMCs are resistant. Interestingly, bovine and caprine PBMCs are slightly sensitive to ApxIIIA toxin too. Finally, ApxIIIA cytotoxicity is cell type-specific as porcine epithelial cells are resistant. Conclusion We have produced an active recombinant ApxIIIA toxin and characterized its specific cytotoxicity on porcine PBMCs which will allow us to get new insights on porcine pleuropneumonia pathogenesis in the future. PMID:19046441
Liu, Qiong; Gong, Yuheng; Cao, Yuqin; Wen, Xintian; Huang, Xiaobo; Yan, Qigui; Huang, Yong; Cao, Sanjie
The apxIC genes of the Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serovar 5 (SC-1), encoding the ApxIactivating proteins, was deleted by a method involving sucrose counter-selection. In this study, a mutant strain of A. pleuropneumoniae (SC-1) was constructed and named DapxIC/ ompP2. The mutant strain contained foreign DNA in the deletion site of ompP2 gene of Haemophilus parasuis. It showed no haemolytic activity and lower virulence of cytotoxicity in mice compared with the parent strain, and its safety and immunogenicity were also evaluated in mice. The LD50 data shown that the mutant strain was attenuated 30-fold, compared with the parent strain (LD50 of the mutant strain and parent strain in mice were determined to be 1.0 × 10(7) CFU and 3.5 × 10(5) CFU respectively). The mutant strain that was attenuated could secrete inactivated ApxIA RTX toxins with complete antigenicity and could be used as a candidate live vaccine strain against infections of A. pleuropneumoniae and H. parasuis.
Negrete-Abascal, E; Tenorio, V R; Guerrero, A L; García, R M; Reyes, M E; de la Garza, M
A high molecular-mass proteolytic enzyme of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serotype 1, was purified from culture supernatants (CSN) by using DEAE-cellulose and sepharose-4B-gelatin chromatography. In 10% SDS-polyacrylamide gels copolymerized with porcine gelatin, the protease showed a single band of activity of > 200 kDa. However, minor molecular-mass proteolytic bands were observed when the protease was electrophoresed in the presence of either 5% beta-mercaptoethanol, 50 mM dithiothreitol, or 0.25 M urea. Furthermore, when the > 200-kDa purified protein was passed through a sucrose gradient, several bands with proteolytic activity were found: 62, 90, 190, and 540 kDa. The proteolytic activity was increased in the presence of calcium or zinc and was not affected after being heated at 90 degrees C for 5 min. Proteolytic activities were also observed in CSN from all A. pleuropneumoniae serotypes and biotypes. The purified protease hydrolyzed porcine IgA and IgG in vitro. In addition, by immunoblot the protease was recognized by serum of naturally infected pigs with serotypes 1 and 5, and by serum of pigs experimentally infected with serotypes 1, 2, 8, or 9. Serum of a pig vaccinated with CSN of a serotype 3 strain also recognized the protease, but not sera of pigs vaccinated with a bacterin (serotype 1). Proteins from CSN of all the serotypes, which were precipitated with 70% (NH4)2SO4, were recognized by a polyclonal antibody raised against the purified protease. Taken together these results indicate that an antigenic protease is produced in vivo by all the serotypes of A. pleuropneumoniae. The results indicate that proteases could have a role in the disease and in the immune response of pigs infected with A. pleuropneumoniae.
Negrete-Abascal, E; Tenorio, V R; Guerrero, A L; García, R M; Reyes, M E; de la Garza, M
A high molecular-mass proteolytic enzyme of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serotype 1, was purified from culture supernatants (CSN) by using DEAE-cellulose and sepharose-4B-gelatin chromatography. In 10% SDS-polyacrylamide gels copolymerized with porcine gelatin, the protease showed a single band of activity of > 200 kDa. However, minor molecular-mass proteolytic bands were observed when the protease was electrophoresed in the presence of either 5% beta-mercaptoethanol, 50 mM dithiothreitol, or 0.25 M urea. Furthermore, when the > 200-kDa purified protein was passed through a sucrose gradient, several bands with proteolytic activity were found: 62, 90, 190, and 540 kDa. The proteolytic activity was increased in the presence of calcium or zinc and was not affected after being heated at 90 degrees C for 5 min. Proteolytic activities were also observed in CSN from all A. pleuropneumoniae serotypes and biotypes. The purified protease hydrolyzed porcine IgA and IgG in vitro. In addition, by immunoblot the protease was recognized by serum of naturally infected pigs with serotypes 1 and 5, and by serum of pigs experimentally infected with serotypes 1, 2, 8, or 9. Serum of a pig vaccinated with CSN of a serotype 3 strain also recognized the protease, but not sera of pigs vaccinated with a bacterin (serotype 1). Proteins from CSN of all the serotypes, which were precipitated with 70% (NH4)2SO4, were recognized by a polyclonal antibody raised against the purified protease. Taken together these results indicate that an antigenic protease is produced in vivo by all the serotypes of A. pleuropneumoniae. The results indicate that proteases could have a role in the disease and in the immune response of pigs infected with A. pleuropneumoniae. Images Figure 2A. Figure 2B. Figure 3. Figure 4. Figure 5A. Figure 5B. Figure 6A. Figure 6B. PMID:9684047
Background The prevalence of pleurisies recorded at slaughter is increasing in Sweden, and acute outbreaks of actinobacillosis that require antimicrobial treatments have become more frequent. As an increased use of antimicrobials may result in the development of antimicrobial resistance it is essential to develop alternative measures to control the disease. Vaccinations present an appealing alternative to antimicrobial treatments. The aim of this work was to evaluate the potential of two different vaccination strategies in a specialized fattening herd affected by actinobacillosis. Methods The study was conducted in a specialized fattening herd employing age segregated rearing in eight units. The herd suffered from infections caused by Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serotype 2, confirmed by necropsy and serology. The study included 54 batches of pigs grouped into five periods. Batches of pigs of the second period were vaccinated against actinobacillosis twice, and pigs in the fourth period were vaccinated three times. Batches of pigs of the first, third and fifth period were not vaccinated. Concentrations of serum antibodies to A. pleuropneumoniae and serum amyloid A (SAA) were analysed and production data were recorded. Results Despite vaccinating, medical treatments were required to reduce the impact of the disease. The mean incidence of individual treatments for respiratory diseases during the rearing period ranged from 0 to 4.7 ± 1.8%, and was greatest during the triple vaccination period (period IV; p < 0.05 when compared to other groups). A large proportion of the vaccinated pigs seroconverted to A. pleuropneumoniae serotype 2 in the absence of a SAA-response. The prevalence of pleuritis decreased from 25.4 ± 6.5% in the first period to 5.0 ± 3.7% in the fifth period (p < 0.001). Conclusions The vaccine did not effectively prevent clinical expression of A. pleuropneumoniae infections, but seroconversion to A. pleuropneumoniae in the absence of a SAA
Wagner, Trevor K.; Mulks, Martha H.
Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae is a gram-negative bacterial pathogen that causes a severe hemorrhagic pneumonia in swine. We have previously shown that the limitation of branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) is a cue that induces the expression of a subset of A. pleuropneumoniae genes identified as specifically induced during infection of the natural host animal by using an in vivo expression technology screen. Leucine-responsive regulatory protein (Lrp) is a global regulator and has been shown in Escherichia coli to regulate many genes, including genes involved in BCAA biosynthesis. We hypothesized that A. pleuropneumoniae contains a regulator similar to Lrp and that this protein is involved in the regulation of a subset of genes important during infection and recently shown to have increased expression in the absence of BCAAs. We report the identification of an A. pleuropneumoniae serotype 1 gene encoding a protein with similarity to amino acid sequence and functional domains of other reported Lrp proteins. We further show that purified A. pleuropneumoniae His6-Lrp binds in vitro to the A. pleuropneumoniae promoter regions for ilvI, antisense cps1AB, lrp, and nqr. A genetically defined A. pleuropneumoniae lrp mutant was constructed using an allelic replacement and sucrose counterselection method. Analysis of expression from the ilvI and antisense cps1AB promoters in wild-type, lrp mutant, and complemented lrp mutant strains indicated that Lrp is required for induction of expression of ilvI under BCAA limitation. PMID:17060463
Yoshimura, H; Takagi, M; Ishimura, M; Endoh, Y S
Sixteen antimicrobial agents were tested for their activity against 68 isolates of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae by determining the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs). Ceftiofur and the fluoroquinolones danofloxacin and enrofloxacin were the most active compounds, with a MIC for 90% of the isolates (MIC90) of (0.05 microg/ml. The MIC90 values of benzylpenicillin, amoxicillin and aspoxicillin were 0.78 units/ml, 0.39 microg/ml and < or = 0.05 microg/ml, respectively. Three isolates (4.4%) were resistant to penicillins, but aspoxicillin was as active as ceftiofur against the susceptible isolates, with MICs of < or = 0.05 microg/ml for all isolates. Resistance to oxytetracycline, chloramphenicol and thiamphenicol occurred in 22 (32.4%), 14 (20.6%) and 15 (22.1%) of the isolates, respectively. Doxycycline was more active than oxytetracycline, with a MIC90 of 1.56 microg/ml as against 25 microg/ml. Florfenicol was not only as active as thiamphenicol, with a MIC for 50% of the isolates (MIC50) of 0.39 microg/ml, but also active against thiamphenicol-resistant isolates. All the isolates were susceptible to florfenicol. All the isolates were also susceptible to gentamicin, spectinomycin, tilmicosin, colistin and tiamulin. Of these, spectinomycin was the least active, with a MIC50 of 25 microg/ml, followed by tiamulin, with a MIC50 of 6.25 microg/ml. Of the 68 isolates tested, 49 (72.0%) were of serotype 2; 14 (20.5%) were of serotype 1; 2 each (3.0%) were of serotypes 5 and 6; and one was of serotype 7. Of the isolates, 23 (33.8%) were resistant to one or more of the major antibiotics. Antibiotic resistance was found only infrequently among serotype 2, with 5 (10.2%) of 49 isolates being resistant to chloramphenicol and/or oxytetracycline, while it occurred in 18 (94.7%) of the 19 isolates of other serotypes.
Ferreira Barbosa, Jérémy A; Labrie, Josée; Beaudry, Francis; Gagnon, Carl A; Jacques, Mario
Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is one of the most important pathogens in the swine industry and causes important economic losses. No effective antiviral drugs against it are commercially available. We recently reported that the culture supernatant of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, the porcine pleuropneumonia causative agent, has an antiviral activity in vitro against PRRSV in SJPL cells. Objectives of this study were (i) to identify the mechanism behind the antiviral activity displayed by A. pleuropneumoniae and (ii) to characterize the active molecules present in the bacterial culture supernatant. Antibody microarray analysis was used in order to point out cellular pathways modulated by the A. pleuropneumoniae supernatant. Subsequent, flow cytometry analysis and cell cycle inhibitors were used to confirm antibody microarray data and to link them to the antiviral activity of the A. pleuropneumoniae supernatant. Finally, A. pleuropneumoniae supernatant characterization was partially achieved using mass spectrometry. Using antibody microarray, we observed modulations in G2/M-phase cell cycle regulation pathway when SJPL cells were treated with A. pleuropneumoniae culture supernatant. These modulations were confirmed by a cell cycle arrest at the G2/M-phase when cells were treated with the A. pleuropneumoniae culture supernatant. Furthermore, two G2/M-phase cell cycle inhibitors demonstrated the ability to inhibit PRRSV infection, indicating a potential key role for PRRSV infection. Finally, mass spectrometry lead to identify two molecules (m/z 515.2 and m/z 663.6) present only in the culture supernatant. We demonstrated for the first time that A. pleuropneumoniae is able to disrupt SJPL cell cycle resulting in inhibitory activity against PRRSV. Furthermore, two putative molecules were identified from the culture supernatant. This study highlighted the cell cycle importance for PRRSV and will allow the development of new prophylactic or
Hathroubi, Skander; Beaudry, Francis; Provost, Chantale; Martelet, Léa; Segura, Mariela; Gagnon, Carl A; Jacques, Mario
Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae (APP), the etiologic agent of porcine pleuropneumonia, forms biofilms on biotic and abiotic surfaces. APP biofilms confers resistance to antibiotics. To our knowledge, no studies have examined the role of APP biofilm in immune evasion and infection persistence. This study was undertaken to (i) investigate biofilm-associated LPS modifications occurring during the switch to biofilm mode of growth; and (ii) characterize pro-inflammatory cytokines expression in porcine pulmonary alveolar macrophages (PAMs) and proliferation in porcine PBMCs challenged with planktonic or biofilm APP cells. Extracted lipid A samples from biofilm and planktonic cultures were analyzed by HPLC high-resolution, accurate mass spectrometry. Biofilm cells displayed significant changes in lipid A profiles when compared with their planktonic counterparts. Furthermore, in vitro experiments were conducted to examine the inflammatory response of PAMs exposed to UV-inactivated APP grown in biofilm or in suspension. Relative mRNA expression of pro-inflammatory genes IL1, IL6, IL8 and MCP1 decreased in PAMs when exposed to biofilm cells compared to planktonic cells. Additionally, the biofilm state reduced PBMCs proliferation. Taken together, APP biofilm cells show a weaker ability to stimulate innate immune cells, which could be due, in part, to lipid A structure modifications. © The Author(s) 2016.
Naegeli, Andreas; Neupert, Christine; Fan, Yao-Yun; Lin, Chia-Wei; Poljak, Kristina; Papini, Anna Maria; Schwarz, Flavio; Aebi, Markus
N-Linked protein glycosylation is a frequent post-translational modification that can be found in all three domains of life. In a canonical, highly conserved pathway, an oligosaccharide is transferred by a membrane-bound oligosaccharyltransferase from a lipid donor to asparagines in the sequon NX(S/T) of secreted polypeptides. The δ-proteobacterium Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae encodes an unusual pathway for N-linked protein glycosylation. This pathway takes place in the cytoplasm and is mediated by a soluble N-glycosyltransferase (NGT) that uses nucleotide-activated monosaccharides to glycosylate asparagine residues. To characterize the process of cytoplasmic N-glycosylation in more detail, we studied the glycosylation in A. pleuropneumoniae and functionally transferred the glycosylation system to Escherichia coli. N-Linked glucose specific human sera were used for the analysis of the glycosylation process. We identified autotransporter adhesins as the preferred protein substrate of NGT in vivo, and in depth analysis of the modified sites in E. coli revealed a surprisingly relaxed peptide substrate specificity. Although NX(S/T) is the preferred acceptor sequon, we detected glycosylation of alternative sequons, including modification of glutamine and serine residues. We also demonstrate the use of NGT to glycosylate heterologous proteins. Therefore, our study could provide the basis for a novel route for the engineering of N-glycoproteins in bacteria.
Ito, Hiroya; Ogawa, Torata; Fukamizu, Dai; Morinaga, Yuiko; Kusumoto, Masahiro
The aim of our study was to reveal the molecular basis of the serologic nontypeability of 2 Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae field isolates. Nine field strains of A. pleuropneumoniae, the causative agent of porcine pleuropneumonia, were isolated from pigs raised on the same farm and sent to our diagnostic laboratory for serotyping. Seven of the 9 strains were identified as serovar 15 strains by immunodiffusion tests. However, 2 strains, designated FH24-2 and FH24-5, could not be serotyped with antiserum prepared against serovars 1-15. Strain FH24-5 showed positive results in 2 serovar 15-specific PCR tests, whereas strain FH24-2 was only positive in 1 of the 2 PCR tests. The nucleotide sequence analysis of gene clusters involved in capsular polysaccharide biosynthesis of the 2 nontypeable strains revealed that both had been rendered nontypeable by the action of ISApl1, a transposable element of A. pleuropneumoniae belonging to the IS30 family. The results showed that ISApl1 of A. pleuropneumoniae can interfere with both the serologic and molecular typing methods, and that nucleotide sequence analysis across the capsular gene clusters is the best means of determining the cause of serologic nontypeability in A. pleuropneumoniae. © 2016 The Author(s).
Yuan, Fangyan; Liao, Yonghong; You, Wujin; Liu, Zewen; Tan, Yongqiang; Zheng, Chengkun; BinWang; Zhou, Danna; Tian, Yongxiang; Bei, Weicheng
The znuA gene is known to be important for growth and survival in Escherichia coli, Haemophilus spp., Neisseria gonorrhoeae, and Pasteurella multocida under low Zn(2+) conditions. This gene is also present in Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serotype 1; therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the existence of a similar role for the znuA gene in the growth and virulence of this organism. A precisely defined ΔznuA deletion mutant of A. pleuropneumoniae was constructed based on the sequence of the wild-type SLW01 using transconjugation and counterselection. This mutation was found to be lethal in low-Zn(2+) medium. Furthermore, the ΔznuA mutant strain exhibited attenuated virulence (≥22-fold) as well as reduced mortality and morbidity in a murine (Balb/C) model of infection. The majority of the bacteria were cleared from the lungs within 2 weeks. The ΔznuA mutant strain caused no adverse effects in pigs at doses of up to 1.0×10(9) CFU/mL. The ΔznuA mutant strain induced a significant immune response and conferred 80% and 100% protection on immunised pigs against challenge with A. pleuropneumoniae strains belonging to homologous or heterologous serovars, respectively, compared to the blank controls. The data obtained in this study indicate the potential of the mutant ΔznuA strain for development as a live vaccine capable of inducing reliable cross-serovar protection following intratracheal immunisation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Bossé, J T; Johnson, R P; Nemec, M; Rosendal, S
The isotype-specific antibody responses in serum and in nasal and pulmonary lavage fluids of swine following aerosol immunization with an attenuated strain of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serotype 1, strain CM5A, was investigated. The presence of immunoglobulin G (IgG), IgA, and IgM with specificities for capsular polysaccharide, lipopolysaccharide, and hemolysin was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay by using purified antigens. Strain CM5A induced serum antibodies of each isotype to the three antigens. The serum antibody response was sustained and typical of persistent antigenic stimulation. The specific IgM response decreased and the specific IgG response increased after challenge with strain CM5. IgA specific for the three antigens was detected in nasal secretions from all immune pigs, whereas specific IgG could only be detected in samples contaminated with blood. Both IgA and IgG specific for each of the antigens were detected in pulmonary lavage samples. There was no significant increase in specific IgA in nasal secretions; however, levels of lipopolysaccharide-specific and hemolysin-specific IgG and IgA in pulmonary secretions rose after aerosol challenge with strain CM5. Passive transfer of immune swine serum resulted in protection against pleuropneumonia and in levels of specific serum IgG which were similar to those in actively immunized pigs. It is concluded that specific serum IgG antibodies are important in protection from porcine pleuropneumonia. PMID:1730479
Losinger, Willard C
An examination of the economic impacts of the diagnosis of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae on grower/finisher swine operations indicated that reduced pork production, associated with the diagnosis of A. pleuropneumoniae on the operation, diminished consumer surplus by $53+/-52 million, and resulted in a total loss of $32+/-30 million to the US economy in 1995. Most of the economic surplus lost by consumers was transferred to producers, whose economic surplus increased by $21+/-25 million (which was not significantly different from zero). Uncertainty analysis showed that an estimate of the decline in production associated with the diagnosis of A. pleuropneumoniae accounted for most of the uncertainty of the change in consumer surplus and of the total loss to the economy. The estimate of the price elasticity of demand for pork also contributed towards a lot of the uncertainty in the estimated change in producer surplus.
Moral, Carmen Hernanz; Soriano, Alberto Cascón; Salazar, María Sánchez; Marcos, Javier Yugueros; Ramos, Susana Suárez; Carrasco, German Naharro
The gene (aroA) of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, serotype 2, encoding 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase was cloned by complementation of the aroA mutation in Escherichia coli K-12 strain AB2829, and the nucleotide sequence was determined. A pair of primers from the 5′ and 3′ termini were selected to be the basis for development of a specific PCR assay. A DNA fragment of 1,025 bp was amplified from lysed A. pleuropneumoniae serotypes 1 to 12 of biovar 1 or from isolated DNA. No PCR products were detected when chromosomal DNAs from other genera were used as target DNAs; however, a 1,025-bp DNA fragment was amplified when Actinobacillus equuli chromosomal DNA was used as a target, which could be easily differentiated by its NAD independence. The PCR assay developed was very sensitive, with lower detection limits of 12 CFU with A. pleuropneumoniae cells and 0.8 pg with extracted DNA. Specificity and sensitivity make this PCR assay a useful method for the rapid identification and diagnosis of A. pleuropneumoniae infections. PMID:10203526
Hsu, Yuan-Man; Chin, Ni; Chang, Chao-Fu; Chang, Yung-Fu
The ferric uptake regulation (fur) gene was cloned and characterized from Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae and it exhibited 97% amino acid sequence identity to the Haemophilus ducrey fur gene. The flanking regions of the fur gene included an upstream putative flavodoxin (fldA) gene and a downstream possible transmembrane protein gene of unknown function. A single promoter was identified by 5' rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE), but there were no sequences homologous to an Escherichia coli Fur box in the 5' upstream sequence. The A. pleuropneumoniae fur clone complemented an E. coli fur deletion mutant. Transcriptional analysis of the divergent promoters of the A. pleuropneumoniae toxin I operon (apxICABD)--and the Actinobacillus ferric uptake operon (afuABC) showed that Fur and calcium together positively regulated the transcription of apxICABD while Fur was a repressor for afuABC. Hemolytic activity was significantly induced by iron and calcium and Fur appeared to act as an activator under high calcium conditions and as a repressor under low calcium conditions. A possible regulator-binding site was suggested by the properties of a point mutation in 33 bp upstream of the apxIC gene. This point mutation affected ApxI and Afu expression in response to iron, calcium, or Fur. These results provide further proof that calcium and the A. pleuropneumoniae Fur protein play a role in the expression of ApxI and Afu.
Liu, Jinlin; Chen, Yan; Yuan, Fangyan; Hu, Linlin; Bei, Weicheng; Chen, Huanchun
In this study the tonB2 gene was cloned from Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae JL01 (serovar 1) and expressed as a glutathione-S-transferase (GST) fusion protein in Escherichia coli BL21(DE3). The GST fusion protein was recognized by antibodies in serum positive for A. pleuropneumoniae by Western blot analysis. Purified soluble GST-TonB2 was assessed for its ability to protect BALB/c mice against A. pleuropneumoniae infection. Mice were vaccinated with GST-TonB2 subcutaneously and challenged intraperitoneally with either ~4.0 × 105 colony-forming units (CFU) or ~1.0 × 106 CFU of A. pleuropneumoniae 4074. They were examined daily for 7 d after challenge. The survival rate of the TonB2-vaccinated mice was significant higher than that of the mice given recombinant GST or adjuvant alone. These results demonstrate that A. pleuropneumoniae TonB2 is immunogenic in mice and should be further assessed as a potential candidate for a vaccine against A. pleuropneumoniae infection. In addition, an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) based on the GST-TonB2 recombinant protein was developed. Compared with the ApxIVA ELISA, the TonB2 ELISA provided earlier detection of antibodies in pigs at various times after vaccination with A. pleuropneumoniae live attenuated vaccine. When compared with an indirect hemagglutination test, the sensitivity and specificity of the TonB2 ELISA were 95% and 88%, respectively. The TonB2 ELISA provides an alternative method for rapid serologic diagnosis of A. pleuropneumoniae infection through antibody screening, which would be especially useful when the infection status or serovar is unknown. PMID:22210994
Liu, Jinlin; Chen, Yan; Yuan, Fangyan; Hu, Linlin; Bei, Weicheng; Chen, Huanchun
In this study the tonB2 gene was cloned from Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae JL01 (serovar 1) and expressed as a glutathione-S-transferase (GST) fusion protein in Escherichia coli BL21(DE3). The GST fusion protein was recognized by antibodies in serum positive for A. pleuropneumoniae by Western blot analysis. Purified soluble GST-TonB2 was assessed for its ability to protect BALB/c mice against A. pleuropneumoniae infection. Mice were vaccinated with GST-TonB2 subcutaneously and challenged intraperitoneally with either ~4.0 × 10(5) colony-forming units (CFU) or ~1.0 × 10(6) CFU of A. pleuropneumoniae 4074. They were examined daily for 7 d after challenge. The survival rate of the TonB2-vaccinated mice was significant higher than that of the mice given recombinant GST or adjuvant alone. These results demonstrate that A. pleuropneumoniae TonB2 is immunogenic in mice and should be further assessed as a potential candidate for a vaccine against A. pleuropneumoniae infection. In addition, an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) based on the GST-TonB2 recombinant protein was developed. Compared with the ApxIVA ELISA, the TonB2 ELISA provided earlier detection of antibodies in pigs at various times after vaccination with A. pleuropneumoniae live attenuated vaccine. When compared with an indirect hemagglutination test, the sensitivity and specificity of the TonB2 ELISA were 95% and 88%, respectively. The TonB2 ELISA provides an alternative method for rapid serologic diagnosis of A. pleuropneumoniae infection through antibody screening, which would be especially useful when the infection status or serovar is unknown.
Dorey, Lucy; Pelligand, Ludovic; Cheng, Zhangrui; Lees, Peter
Pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) integration and modelling were used to predict dosage schedules for florfenicol for two pig pneumonia pathogens, Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae and Pasteurella multocida. Pharmacokinetic data were pooled for two bioequivalent products, pioneer and generic formulations, administered intramuscularly to pigs at a dose rate of 15 mg/kg. Antibacterial potency was determined in vitro as minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and Mutant Prevention Concentration in broth and pig serum, for six isolates of each organism. For both organisms and for both serum and broth MICs, average concentration:MIC ratios over 48 h were similar and exceeded 2.5:1 and times greater than MIC exceeded 35 h. From in vitro time-kill curves, PK/PD modelling established serum breakpoint values for the index AUC24h/MIC for three levels of inhibition of growth, bacteriostasis and 3 and 4log10 reductions in bacterial count; means were 25.7, 40.2 and 47.0 h, respectively, for P. multocida and 24.6, 43.8 and 58.6 h for A. pleuropneumoniae. Using these PK and PD data, together with literature MIC distributions, doses for each pathogen were predicted for: (1) bacteriostatic and bactericidal levels of kill; (2) for 50 and 90% target attainment rates (TAR); and (3) for single dosing and daily dosing at steady state. Monte Carlo simulations for 90% TAR predicted single doses to achieve bacteriostatic and bactericidal actions over 48 h of 14.4 and 22.2 mg/kg (P. multocida) and 44.7 and 86.6 mg/kg (A. pleuropneumoniae). For daily doses at steady state, and 90% TAR bacteriostatic and bactericidal actions, dosages of 6.2 and 9.6 mg/kg (P. multocida) and 18.2 and 35.2 mg/kg (A. pleuropneumoniae) were required. PK/PD integration and modelling approaches to dose determination indicate the possibility of tailoring dose to a range of end-points.
Xie, Fang; Li, Gang; Zhou, Long; Zhang, Yanhe; Cui, Ning; Liu, Siguo; Wang, Chunlai
Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae is the etiological agent of porcine pleuropneumonia, which leads to large economic losses to the swine industry worldwide. In this study, S-8△clpP△apxIIC, a double-deletion mutant of A. pleuropneumoniae was constructed, and its safety and protective efficacy were evaluated in pigs. The S-8△clpP△apxIIC mutant exhibited attenuated virulence in a murine (BALB/c) model, and caused no detrimental effects on pigs even at a dose of up to 1.0 × 10(9) CFU. Furthermore, the S-8△clpP△apxIIC mutant was able to induce a strong immune response in pigs, which included high levels of IgG1 and IgG2, stimulated gamma interferon (IFN-γ), interleukin 12 (IL-12), and interleukin 4 (IL-4) production, and conferred effective protection against the lethal challenge with A. pleuropneumoniae serovars 7 or 5a. The pigs in the S-8△clpP△apxIIC immunized groups have no lesions and reduced bacterial loads in the lung tissue after challenge. The data obtained in this study suggest that the S-8△clpP△apxIIC mutant can serve as a highly immunogenic and potential live attenuated vaccine candidate against A. pleuropneumoniae infection.
Shin, Min-Kyoung; Kang, Mi Lan; Jung, Myung Hwan; Cha, Seung-Bin; Lee, Won-Jung; Kim, Jung-Mi; Kim, Dae-Hyuk; Yoo, Han Sang
Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae is a causative agent of porcine pleuropneumonia, a highly contagious endemic disease of pigs worldwide, inducing significant economic losses worldwide. Apx toxins, which are correlated with the virulence of A. pleuropneumoniae, were expressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and its possible use as an oral vaccine has been confirmed in our previous studies using a murine model. The present study was undertaken to test the hypothesis that oral immunization using S. cerevisiae expressing either ApxI or ApxII could protect pigs against A. pleuropneumoniae as an effective way of inducing both mucosal and systemic immune responses. The surface-displayed ApxIIA#5 expressing S. cerevisiae was selected as an oral vaccine candidate by finding on induction of higher immune responses in mice after oral vaccination. The surface-displayed ApxIIA#5 expressing S. cerevisiae and the ApxIA expressing S. cerevisiae were developed to serve as an oral vaccine in pigs. The vaccinated pigs showed higher specific IgG- and IgA-related antibody activities than the non-treated control and vector control pigs. Additionally, the induced immune responses were found to protect pigs infected with A. pleuropneumoniae according to the analysis of clinical signs and the gross and microscopic pulmonary lesions. These results suggested that the surface-displayed ApxIIA#5 and ApxIA in S. cerevisiae might be a potential oral vaccine to protect pigs against porcine pleuropneumonia. Thus the present study is expected to contribute to the development of a live oral vaccine against porcine pleuropneumonia as an alternative to current conventional vaccines. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Lu, Yu-Chun; Li, Min-Chen; Chen, Yi-Min; Chu, Chun-Yen; Lin, Shuen-Fuh; Yang, Wen-Jen
Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae is a gram-negative bacterial pathogen that causes swine pleuropneumonia, a highly contagious and often fatal disease that occurs worldwide. Our previous study showed that DNA vaccines encoding Apx exotoxin structural proteins ApxIA and/or ApxIIA, are a promising novel approach for immunization against the lethal challenge of A. pleuropneumoniae serotype 1. Vaccination against A. pleuropneumoniae is impeded by the lack of vaccines inducing reliable cross-serotype protection. Type IV fimbrial protein ApfA has been shown to be present and highly conserved in various serotypes of A. pleuropneumoniae. A novel DNA vaccine encoding ApfA (pcDNA-apfA) was constructed to evaluate the protective efficacy against infection with A. pleuropneumoniae serotype 2. A significant antibody response against pilin was generated following pcDNA-apfA immunization, suggesting that it was expressed in vivo. The IgG subclass (IgG1 and IgG2a) analysis indicates that the pcDNA-apfA vaccine induces both Th1 and Th2 immune responses. The IgA analysis shows that mucosal immunity could be enhanced by this DNA vaccine. Nevertheless, the strong antibody response induced by pcDNA-apfA vaccine only provided limited 30% protective efficacy against the serotype 2 challenge. These results in this study do not coincide with that the utility of type IV pilin is a good vaccine candidate against other infectious pathogens. It indicates that pilin should play a limited role in the development of a vaccine against A. pleuropneumoniae infection.
Udeze, F A; Kadis, S
In an attempt to understand the mechanism of serum resistance in Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, in the present study we examined various interactions among the bacterial surface constituents, serum antibodies, and complement. Analysis of swine sera revealed the presence of anticapsular antibodies in convalescent-phase sera but not in preimmune sera. Both types of sera contained antibodies which reacted with each of 14 polypeptides present in saline extracts of the bacteria. Absorption of the preimmune sera with intact bacteria depleted antibodies to two of the polypeptides (27 and 32 kDa) and high-molecular-weight (greater than 97.4,000) components which did not stain with Coomassie blue. Data derived from complement consumption and C3-binding experiments indicated that the organism was capable of initiating complement activation and binding C3 during incubation in preimmune and immune sera. Experiments designed to evaluate the bactericidal effectiveness of anticapsular antibody revealed that the purified antibody was bactericidal only when preimmune sera absorbed with intact bacteria were used as a source of complement. The bactericidal effects of anticapsular antibody and absorbed preimmune sera were inhibited in a dose-dependent manner by heat-inactivated preimmune sera and immunoglobulin G derived from the sera. The inhibitory activity of the preimmune sera was neutralized by preincubating the sera with column fractions of the saline extract which contained either the 27- or the 32-kDa polypeptide. These results indicate that serum resistance in A. pleuropneumoniae 4074 could be related to inhibition of the bactericidal action of anticapsular antibody by nonspecific antibodies which recognize surface-exposed epitopes on the polypeptides. Images PMID:1379990
Lauritzen, B; Lykkesfeldt, J; Friis, C
The theory of a time-dependent effect of amoxycillin was examined in a model of porcine Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae (Ap)-infection using clinically relevant dosage regimens. Twenty hours after infection of fourteen pigs, when clinical signs of pneumonia were present, one group of pigs received a single dose of amoxycillin (20 mg/kg, i.m.), whereas another group received four doses of 5 mg/kg injected at 8-h intervals. A similar AUC of the plasma amoxycillin concentration versus time curve was obtained in the two groups, whereas the maximum concentration was threefold higher using the single high dose. Plasma amoxycillin was above the MIC for twice as long using the fractionated dosage scheme. The condition of the animals was evaluated by clinical and haematological observations combined with quantification of biochemical infection markers: C-reactive protein, zinc and ascorbic acid. Within 48 h of treatment, the pigs in both treatment groups recovered clinically. No significant differences in the time-course of clinical observations or plasma concentrations of the biomarkers of infection were observed between the two treatments. In conclusion, the efficacy of these two dosage regimens of amoxycillin was not significantly different in treatment of acute Ap-infection in pigs.
Xie, Fang; Li, Gang; Zhang, Yanhe; Zhou, Long; Liu, Shuanghong; Liu, Siguo; Wang, Chunlai
Lon proteases are a family of ATP-dependent proteases that are involved in the degradation of abnormal proteins in bacteria exposed to adverse environmental stress. An analysis of the genome sequence of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae revealed the unusual presence of two putative ATP-dependent Lon homologues, LonA and LonC. Sequence comparisons indicated that LonA has the classical domain organization of the LonA subfamily, which includes the N-terminal domain, central ATPase (AAA) domain, and C-terminal proteolytic (P) domain. LonC belongs to the recently classified LonC subfamily, which includes Lon proteases that contain neither the N-terminal domain of LonA nor the transmembrane region that is present only in LonB subfamily members. To investigate the roles of LonA and LonC in A. pleuropneumoniae, mutants with deletions in the lonA and lonC genes were constructed. The impaired growth of the △lonA mutant exposed to low and high temperatures and osmotic and oxidative stress conditions indicates that the LonA protease is required for the stress tolerance of A. pleuropneumoniae. Furthermore, the △lonA mutant exhibited significantly reduced biofilm formation compared to the wild-type strain. However, no significant differences in stress responses or biofilm formation were observed between the △lonC mutant and the wild-type strain. The △lonA mutant exhibited reduced colonization ability and attenuated virulence of A. pleuropneumoniae in the BALB/c mouse model compared to the wild-type strain. Disruption of lonC gene did not significantly influence the colonization and virulence of A. pleuropneumoniae. The data presented in this study illustrate that the LonA protease, but not the LonC protease, is required for the stress tolerance, biofilm formation and pathogenicity of A. pleuropneumoniae. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Duquette, Stephanie C; Fischer, Carrie D; Williams, Alison C; Sajedy, Saman; Feener, Troy D; Bhargava, Amol; Reti, Kristen L; Muench, Gregory P; Morck, Douglas W; Allison, Jim; Lucas, Merlyn J; Buret, Andre G
To investigate the anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory properties of tulathromycin in vitro and in experimental models of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae-induced pleuropneumonia and zymosan-induced pulmonary inflammation in pigs. Blood samples from six 8- to 30-week-old healthy male pigs for the in vitro experiment and sixty-five 3-week-old specific pathogen-free pigs. Neutrophils and monocyte-derived macrophages were isolated from blood samples. Isolated cells were exposed to tulathromycin (0.02 to 2.0 mg/mL) for various durations and assessed for markers of apoptosis and efferocytosis. For in vivo experiments, pigs were inoculated intratracheally with A pleuropneumoniae, zymosan, or PBS solution (control group) with or without tulathromycin pretreatment (2.5 mg/kg, IM). Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid was collected 3 and 24 hours after inoculation and analyzed for proinflammatory mediators, leukocyte apoptosis, and efferocytosis. In vitro, tulathromycin induced time- and concentration-dependent apoptosis in neutrophils, which enhanced their subsequent clearance by macrophages. In the lungs of both A pleuropneumoniae- and zymosan-challenged pigs, tulathromycin promoted leukocyte apoptosis and efferocytosis and inhibited proinflammatory leukotriene B4 production, with a concurrent reduction in leukocyte necrosis relative to that of control pigs. Tulathromycin also attenuated the degree of lung damage and lesion progression in A pleuropneumoniae-inoculated pigs. Tulathromycin had immunomodulatory effects in leukocytes in vitro and anti-inflammatory effects in pigs in experimental models of A pleuropneumoniae infection and nonmicrobial-induced pulmonary inflammation. These data suggested that in addition to its antimicrobial properties, tulathromycin may dampen severe proinflammatory responses and drive resolution of inflammation in pigs with microbial pulmonary infections.
Seo, Ki-Weon; Kim, Sae-Hae; Park, Jisang; Son, Youngok; Yoo, Han Sang; Lee, Kyung-Yeol; Jang, Yong-Suk
Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae is an infective agent that leads to porcine pleuropneumonia, a disease that causes severe economic losses in the swine industry. Based on the fact that the respiratory tract is the primary site for bacterial infection, it has been suggested that bacterial exclusion in the respiratory tract through mucosal immune induction is the most effective disease prevention strategy. ApxIIA is a vaccine candidate against A. pleuropneumoniae infection, and fragment #5 (aa. 439-801) of ApxIIA contains the major epitopes for effective vaccination. In this study, we used mice to verify the efficacy of intranasal immunization with fragment #5 in the induction of protective immunity against nasal challenge with A. pleuropneumoniae and compared its efficacy with that of subcutaneous immunization. Intranasal immunization of the fragment induced significantly higher systemic and mucosal immune responses measured at the levels of antigen-specific antibodies, cytokine-secreting cells after antigen exposure, and antigen-specific lymphocyte proliferation. Intranasal immunization not only efficiently inhibited the bacterial colonization in respiratory organs, but also prevented alveolar tissue damage in infectious condition similar to that of a contaminated pig. Moreover, intranasal immunization with fragment #5 provided acquired protective immunity against intranasal challenge with A. pleuropneumoniae serotype 2. In addition, it conferred cross-protection against serotype 5, a heterologous pathogen that causes severe disease by ApxI and ApxII secretion. Collectively, intranasal immunization with fragment #5 of ApxIIA can be considered an efficient protective immunization procedure against A. pleuropneumoniae infection. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Hu, Peipei; Huang, Fushen; Niu, Junchao; Tang, Zhaoshan
Pyroptosis is a caspase-1 dependent programmed cell death and involves pathogenesis of infectious diseases by releasing many pro-inflammatory cytokines to induced inflammation. TLR-4 plays an important role in mediating pathogenesis of some infectious diseases. In this study, we detected the expression of TLR-4 and some molecules (e. g caspase-1, TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-18 ) related with pyroptosis to determine its involvement and mechanisms of pulmonary inflammation in mice infected by A. pleuropneumoniae. Mice were intranasally infected by A. pleuropneumoniae and killed 48 hours post infection. Pulmonary gross lesion and histological pathology by H-E were observed. Expression levels of caspase-1 , caspase-3, TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-18, and TLR-4 in lung of mice were detected by RT-PCR and qPCR. Serious pulmonary hemorrhage and inflammation in infected mice were observed. Expression levels of caspase-1, caspase-3, TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-18 and TLR-4 increased, and expression levels of caspase-3 were not changed in lung of infected mice. TLR-4 might be involved in pulmonary inflammation of mice infected by A. pleuropneumoniae. After induced by activated TLR-4 some cells in this lesion expressed pro-inflammatory cytokines. These cytokines would induce pulmonary inflammation. This lesion might involve pyroptosis with caspase-1 expression.
Hur, Jin; Eo, Seong Kug; Park, Sang-Youel; Choi, Yoonyoung; Lee, John Hwa
Salmonella Typhimurium strain expressing the Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae antigens, ApxIA, ApxIIA, ApxIIIA and OmpA, was previously constructed as a vaccine candidate for porcine pleuropneumonia. This strain was a live attenuated (∆lon∆cpxR∆asd)Salmonella as a delivery host and contained a vector containing asd. An immunological study of lymphocyte proliferation, T-lymphocyte subsets and cytokines in the splenocytes of a mouse model was carried out after stimulation with the candidate Salmonella Typhimurium by intranasal inoculation. The splenic lymphocyte proliferation and the levels of IL-4, IL-6 and IL-12 of the inoculated mice were significantly increased, and the T- and B-cell populations were also elevated. Collectively, the candidate may efficiently induce the Th1- and Th2-type immune responses.
Wang, Lei; Qin, Wanhai; Zhang, Jing; Bao, Chuntong; Zhang, Hu; Che, Yanyi; Sun, Changjiang; Gu, Jingmin; Feng, Xin; Du, Chongtao; Han, Wenyu; Richard, Paul Langford; Lei, Liancheng
Members of the Trimeric Autotransporter Adhesin (TAA) family play a crucial role in the adhesion of Gram-negative pathogens to host cells, but the immunopathogenesis of TAAs remains unknown. Our previous studies demonstrated that Adh from Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae (A. pleuropneumoniae) is required for full bacterial pathogenicity. Alveolar macrophages are the first line of defense against respiratory infections. This study compared the interactions between porcine alveolar macrophages (PAMs) and wild-type A. pleuropneumoniae (5b WT) or an Adh-deletion strain (5b ΔAdh) via gene microarray, immunoprecipitation and other technologies. We found that Adh was shown to interact with the PAMs membrane protein OR5M11, an olfactory receptor, resulting in the high-level secretion of IL-8 by activation of p38 MAPK signaling pathway. Subsequently, PAMs apoptosis via the activation of the Fax and Bax signaling pathways was observed, followed by activation of caspases 8, 9, and 3. The immunological pathogenic roles of Adh were also confirmed in both murine and piglets infectious models in vivo. These results identify a novel immunological strategy for TAAs to boost the pathogenicity of A. pleuropneumoniae. Together, these datas reveal the high versatility of the Adh protein as a virulence factor and provide novel insight into the immunological pathogenic role of TAAs.
Chang, Nai-Yun; Chen, Zeng-Weng; Chen, Ter-Hsin; Liao, Jiunn-Wang; Lin, Cheng-Chung; Chien, Maw-Sheng; Lee, Wei-Cheng; Lin, Jiunn-Horng; Hsuan, Shih-Ling
Exotoxins produced by Actinobacillus (A.) pleuropneumoniae (Apx) play major roles in the pathogenesis of pleuropneumonia in swine. This study investigated the role of ApxI in hemolysis and cellular damage using a novel apxIA mutant, ApxIA336, which was developed from the parental strain A. pleuropneumoniae serotype 10 that produces only ApxI in vitro. The genotype of ApxIA336 was confirmed by PCR, Southern blotting, and gene sequencing. Exotoxin preparation derived from ApxIA336 was analyzed for its bioactivity towards porcine erythrocytes and alveolar macrophages. Analysis results indicated that ApxIA336 contained a kanamycin- resistant cassette inserted immediately after 1005 bp of the apxIA gene. Phenotype analysis of ApxIA336 revealed no difference in the growth rate as compared to the parental strain. Meanwhile, ApxI production was abolished in the bacterial culture supernatant, i.e. exotoxin preparation. The inability of ApxIA336 to produce ApxI corresponded to the loss of hemolytic and cytotoxic bioactivity in exotoxin preparation, as demonstrated by hemolysis, lactate dehydrogenase release, mitochondrial activity, and apoptosis assays. Additionally, the virulence of ApxIA336 appeared to be attenuated by 15-fold in BALB/c mice. Collectively, ApxI, but not other components in the exotoxin preparation of A. pleuropneumoniae serotype 10, was responsible for the hemolytic and cytotoxic effects on porcine erythrocytes and alveolar macrophages.
Liu, Jinlin; Hu, Linlin; Xu, Zhuofei; Tan, Chen; Yuan, Fangyan; Fu, Shulin; Cheng, Hui; Chen, Huanchun; Bei, Weicheng
QseB/QseC is one of the five predicted two-component systems (TCSs) in Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae. To understand the roles of this TCS in A. pleuropneumoniae, a markerless gene-deletion mutant ΔqseBC was constructed. Differentially expressed (DE) genes in ΔqseBC were filtered by microarray analysis. A total of 44 DE genes were found to be regulated by QseB/QseC system. The transcriptional profile of A. pleuropneumoniae ΔqseBC was compared with that of ΔluxS and catecholamine (CA) stimulations, 13 genes regulated by QseB/QseC were found also regulated by LuxS, and 3 Qse-regulons were co-regulated by CA stimulations, respectively. Binding of QseB to the promoters of three regulons (pilM, glpK and hugZ), which were co-regulated by QseB/QseC and LuxS, was evaluated by electrophoretic mobility-shift assay. Results indicated that pilM was directly regulated by phosphorylated-QseB. Then the pilM deletion mutant ΔpilM was constructed and characterized. Data presented here revealed that adherence ability of ΔpilM to St. Jude porcine lung cells was significantly decreased, and ΔpilM exhibited reduced virulence in pigs, suggesting PilM contributes to the process of A. pleuropneumoniae infection. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Trimeric autotransporter adhesins contribute to Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae pathogenicity in mice and regulate bacterial gene expression during interactions between bacteria and porcine primary alveolar macrophages.
Qin, Wanhai; Wang, Lei; Zhai, Ruidong; Ma, Qiuyue; Liu, Jianfang; Bao, Chuntong; Zhang, Hu; Sun, Changjiang; Feng, Xin; Gu, Jingmin; Du, Chongtao; Han, Wenyu; Langford, P R; Lei, Liancheng
Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae is an important pathogen that causes respiratory disease in pigs. Trimeric autotransporter adhesin (TAA) is a recently discovered bacterial virulence factor that mediates bacterial adhesion and colonization. Two TAA coding genes have been found in the genome of A. pleuropneumoniae strain 5b L20, but whether they contribute to bacterial pathogenicity is unclear. In this study, we used homologous recombination to construct a double-gene deletion mutant, ΔTAA, in which both TAA coding genes were deleted and used it in in vivo and in vitro studies to confirm that TAAs participate in bacterial auto-aggregation, biofilm formation, cell adhesion and virulence in mice. A microarray analysis was used to determine whether TAAs can regulate other A. pleuropneumoniae genes during interactions with porcine primary alveolar macrophages. The results showed that deletion of both TAA coding genes up-regulated 36 genes, including ene1514, hofB and tbpB2, and simultaneously down-regulated 36 genes, including lgt, murF and ftsY. These data illustrate that TAAs help to maintain full bacterial virulence both directly, through their bioactivity, and indirectly by regulating the bacterial type II and IV secretion systems and regulating the synthesis or secretion of virulence factors. This study not only enhances our understanding of the role of TAAs but also has significance for those studying A. pleuropneumoniae pathogenesis.
Wang, Lei; Qin, Wanhai; Zhang, Jing; Bao, Chuntong; Zhang, Hu; Che, Yanyi; Sun, Changjiang; Gu, Jingmin; Feng, Xin; Du, Chongtao; Han, Wenyu; Richard, Paul Langford; Lei, Liancheng
Members of the Trimeric Autotransporter Adhesin (TAA) family play a crucial role in the adhesion of Gram-negative pathogens to host cells, but the immunopathogenesis of TAAs remains unknown. Our previous studies demonstrated that Adh from Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae (A. pleuropneumoniae) is required for full bacterial pathogenicity. Alveolar macrophages are the first line of defense against respiratory infections. This study compared the interactions between porcine alveolar macrophages (PAMs) and wild-type A. pleuropneumoniae (5b WT) or an Adh-deletion strain (5b ΔAdh) via gene microarray, immunoprecipitation and other technologies. We found that Adh was shown to interact with the PAMs membrane protein OR5M11, an olfactory receptor, resulting in the high-level secretion of IL-8 by activation of p38 MAPK signaling pathway. Subsequently, PAMs apoptosis via the activation of the Fax and Bax signaling pathways was observed, followed by activation of caspases 8, 9, and 3. The immunological pathogenic roles of Adh were also confirmed in both murine and piglets infectious models in vivo. These results identify a novel immunological strategy for TAAs to boost the pathogenicity of A. pleuropneumoniae. Together, these datas reveal the high versatility of the Adh protein as a virulence factor and provide novel insight into the immunological pathogenic role of TAAs. PMID:27046446
Zhang, Fei; Cao, Sanjie; Zhu, Zhuang; Yang, Yusheng; Wen, Xintian; Chang, Yung-Fu; Huang, Xiaobo; Wu, Rui; Wen, Yiping; Yan, Qigui; Huang, Yong; Ma, Xiaoping; Zhao, Qin
Six in vivo-induced (IVI) antigens—RnhB, GalU, GalT, Apl_1061, Apl_1166, and HflX were selected for a vaccine trial in a mouse model. The results showed that the IgG levels in each immune group was significantly higher than that of the negative control (P < 0.001). Except rRnhB group, proliferation of splenocytes was observed in all immunized groups and a relatively higher proliferation activity was observed in rGalU and rGalT groups (P < 0.05). In the rGalT vaccinated group, the proportion of CD4+ T cells in spleen was significant higher than that of negative control (P < 0.05). Moreover, proportions of CD4+ T cells in other vaccinated groups were all up-regulated to varying degrees. Up-regulation of both Th1 (IFN-γ, IL-2) and Th2 (IL-4) cytokines were detected. A survival rate of 87.5, 62.5, and 62.5% were obtained among rGalT, rAPL_1166, and rHflX group, respectively while the remaining three groups was only 25%. Histopathological analyses of lungs indicated that surviving animals from the vaccinated groups showed relatively normal pulmonary structure alveoli. These findings confirm that IVI antigens used as vaccine candidates provide partial protection against Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae infection in a mouse model, which could be used as potential vaccine candidates in piglets. PMID:27818646
Background In this study, four lung lesion scoring methods (Slaughterhouse Pleurisy Evaluation System [SPES], Consolidation Lung Lesion Score [LLS], Image analyses [IA] and Ratio of lung weight/body weight [LW/BW]) were compared for the assessment of the different pathological outcomes derived from an Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae (App) experimental infection model. Moreover, pathological data was coupled with clinical (fever, inappetence and clinical score), production (average daily weigh gain [ADWG]) and diagnostic (PCR, ELISA and bacterial isolation) parameters within the four infection outcomes (peracute, acute, subclinically infected and non-infected). Results From the 61 inoculated animals, 9 were classified as peracute (presence of severe App-like clinical signs and lesions and sudden death or euthanasia shortly after inoculation), 31 as acutely affected (presence of App-like clinical signs and lesions and survival until the end of the experiment), 12 as subclinically infected (very mild or no clinical signs but App infection confirmed) and 9 as non-infected animals (lack of App-like clinical signs and lack of evidence of App infection). A significant correlation between all lung lesion scoring systems was found with the exception of SPES score versus LW/BW. SPES showed a statistically significant association with all clinical, production and diagnostic (with the exception of PCR detection of App in the tonsil) variables assessed. LLS and IA showed similar statistically significant associations as SPES, with the exception of seroconversion against App at necropsy. In contrast, LW/BW was statistically associated only with App isolation in lungs, presence of App-like lesions and ELISA OD values at necropsy. Conclusions In conclusion, SPES, LLS and IA are economic, fast and easy-to-perform lung scoring methods that, in combination with different clinical and diagnostic parameters, allow the characterization of different outcomes after App infection. PMID
Rodríguez Barbosa, J I; Gutiérrez Martín, C B; Tascón, R I; González, O R; Mittal, K R; Rodríguez Ferri, E F
Seven murine monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against serotype 1 of Actinobacillus (Haemophilus) pleuropneumoniae (reference strain Shope 4074) were produced and characterized. All hybridomas secreting mAbs were reactive with whole-cell antigens from reference strains of serotypes 1, 9 and 11, except for mAb 5D6 that failed to recognized serotype 9. They did not react with other taxonomically related Gram-negative organisms tested. The predominant isotype was immunoglobulin (Ig) M, although IgG2a, IgG2b, and IgG3 were also obtained. The epitopes identified by these mAbs were resistant to proteinase K treatment and boiling in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulfate and reducing conditions; however, they were sensitive to sodium periodate treatment. Enhanced chemiluminescence-immunodetection assay showed that mAbs could be divided in two groups according to the patterns of immunoreaction observed. Group 1 (mAbs 3E10, 4B7, 9H5 and 11C3) recognized a ladder-like banding profile consistent with the O antigen of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from smooth strains. Group II (mAbs 3B10 and 9H1) recognized a long smear of high molecular weight which ranged from 60 to 200 kDa. The mAbs were tested against 96 field isolates belonging to serotypes 1, 5, 9, 11 and 12, which had previously been classified by a combination of serological techniques based on polyclonal rabbit sera (counterimmunoelectrophoresis, immunodiffusion and coagglutination). The panel of mAbs identified all isolates of serotypes 9 and 11, but only 66% of those belonging to serotype 1. This may suggest the existence of antigenic heterogeneity among isolates of A. pleuropneumoniae serotype 1. These mAbs reacted with epitopes common to serotypes 1, 9 and 11 of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae which were located on the O antigen of LPS.
Dayao, Denise Ann E; Dawson, Susan; Kienzle, Marco Jean-Paul; Gibson, Justine S; Blackall, Patrick J; Turni, Conny
Antimicrobial resistance in bacterial porcine respiratory pathogens has been shown to exist in many countries. However, little is known about the variability in antimicrobial susceptibility within a population of a single bacterial respiratory pathogen on a pig farm. This study examined the antimicrobial susceptibility of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae using multiple isolates within a pig and across the pigs in three different slaughter batches. Initially, the isolates from the three batches were identified, serotyped, and subsample genotyped. All the 367 isolates were identified as A. pleuropneumoniae serovar 1, and only a single genetic profile was detected in the 74 examined isolates. The susceptibility of the 367 isolates of A. pleuropneumoniae to ampicillin, tetracycline and tilmicosin was determined by a disc diffusion technique. For tilmicosin, the three batches were found to consist of a mix of susceptible and resistant isolates. The zone diameters of the three antimicrobials varied considerably among isolates in the second sampling. In addition, the second sampling provided statistically significant evidence of bimodal populations in terms of zone diameters for both tilmicosin and ampicillin. The results support the hypothesis that the antimicrobial susceptibility of one population of a porcine respiratory pathogen can vary within a batch of pigs on a farm.
To, Ho; Nagai, Shinya; Iwata, Akira; Koyama, Tomohiro; Oshima, Atsushi; Tsutsumi, Nobuyuki
Apx toxins produced by Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae are essential components of new generation vaccines. In this study, apxIIA and apxIIIA genes of serovars 2, 3, 4, 6, 8 and 15 were cloned and sequenced. Amino acid sequences of ApxIIA proteins of serovars 2, 3, 4, 6, 8 and 15 were almost identical to those of serovars 1, 5, 7, 9 and 11-13. Immunoblot analysis showed that rApxIIA from serovars 2 and 15 reacts strongly with sera from animals infected with various serovars. Sequence analysis revealed that ApxIIIA proteins has two variants, one in strains of serovar 2 and the other in strains of serovars 3, 4, 6, 8 and 15. A mouse cross-protection study showed that mice actively immunized with rApxIIIA/2 or rApxIIIA/15 are protected against challenge with A. pleuropneumoniae strains of serovars 3, 4, 6, 8, 15, and 2 expressing ApxIII/15 and ApxIII/2, respectively. Similarly, mice passively immunized with rabbit anti-rApxIIIA/2 or anti-rApxIIIA/15 sera were found to be protected against challenge with strains of serovars 2 and 15. Our study revealed antigenic and sequence similarities within ApxIIA and ApxIIIA proteins, which may help in the development of effective vaccines against disease caused by A. pleuropneumoniae. © 2016 The Societies and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.
Park, Jisang; Seo, Ki-Weon; Kim, Sae-Hae; Lee, Ha-Yan; Kim, Bumseok; Lim, Chae Woong; Kim, Jin-Hee; Yoo, Han Sang; Jang, Yong-Suk
Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae is the causative agent of porcine pleuropneumonia and severe economic loss in the swine industry has been caused by the infection. Therefore, the development of an effective vaccine against the bacteria is necessary. ApxII toxin, among several virulence factors expressed by the bacteria, is considered to be a promising vaccine candidate because ApxII toxin not only accompanies cytotoxic and hemolytic activities, but is also expressed in all 15 serotypes of bacteria except serotypes 10 and 14. In this study, we identified the peptide ligand capable of targeting the ligand-conjugated ApxIIA #5 fragment antigen to nasopharynx-associated lymphoid tissue. It was found that nasal immunization with ligand-conjugated ApxIIA #5 induced efficient mucosal and systemic immune responses measured at the levels of antigen-specific antibodies, cytokine-secreting cells after antigen exposure, and antigen-specific lymphocyte proliferation. More importantly, the nasal immunization induced protective immunity against nasal challenge infection of the bacteria, which was confirmed by histopathological studies and bacterial clearance after challenge infection. Collectively, we confirmed that the ligand capable of targeting the ligand-conjugated antigen to nasopharynx-associated lymphoid tissue can be used as an effective nasal vaccine adjuvant to induce protective immunity against A. pleuropneumoniae infection. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Li, Ping; Xu, Zhiwen; Sun, Xiangang; Yin, Yue; Fan, Yi; Zhao, Jun; Mao, Xiyu; Huang, Jianbo; Yang, Fan; Zhu, Ling
The complexity of the pathogenic mechanism underlying the host immune response to Actinobacillus pleuropneumonia (App) makes the use of preventive measures difficult, and a more global view of the host-pathogen interactions and new insights into this process are urgently needed to reveal the pathogenic and immune mechanisms underlying App infection. Here, we infected specific pathogen-free Mus musculus with App serotype 7 by intranasal inoculation to construct an acute hemorrhagic pneumonia infection model and isolated the infected lungs for analysis of the interactions by dual RNA-seq. Four cDNA libraries were constructed, and 2428 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) of the host and 333 DEGs of App were detected. The host DEGs were mainly enriched in inflammatory signaling pathways, such as the TLR, NLR, RLR, BCR and TCR signaling pathways, resulting in large-scale cytokine up-regulation and thereby yielding a cytokine cascade for anti-infection and lung damage. The majority of the up-regulated cytokines are involved in the IL-23/IL-17 cytokine-regulated network, which is crucial for host defense against bacterial infection. The DEGs of App were mainly related to the transport and metabolism of energy and materials. Most of these genes are metabolic genes involved in anaerobic metabolism and important for challenging the host and adapting to the anaerobic stress conditions observed in acute hemorrhagic pneumonia. Some of these genes, such as adhE, dmsA, and aspA, might be potential virulence genes. In addition, the up-regulation of genes associated with peptidoglycan and urease synthesis and the restriction of major virulence genes might be immune evasion strategies of App. The regulation of metabolic genes and major virulence genes indicate that the dominant antigens might differ during the infection process and that vaccines based on these antigens might allow establishment of a precise and targeted immune response during the early phase of infection. Through
Simultaneous detection of antibodies against Apx toxins ApxI, ApxII, ApxIII, and ApxIV in pigs with known and unknown Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae exposure using a multiplexing liquid array platform.
Giménez-Lirola, Luis G; Jiang, Yong-Hou; Sun, Dong; Hoang, Hai; Yoon, Kyoung-Jin; Halbur, Patrick G; Opriessnig, Tanja
Surveillance for the presence of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae infection in a population plays a central role in controlling the disease. In this study, a 4-plex fluorescent microbead-based immunoassay (FMIA), developed for the simultaneous detection of IgG antibodies to repeat-in-toxin (RTX) toxins (ApxI, ApxII, ApxIII, and ApxIV) of A. pleuropneumoniae, was evaluated using (i) blood serum samples from pigs experimentally infected with each of the 15 known A. pleuropneumoniae serovars or with Actinobacillus suis, (ii) blood serum samples from pigs vaccinated with a bacterin containing A. pleuropneumoniae serovar 1, 3, 5, or 7, and (iii) blood serum samples from pigs with an unknown A. pleuropneumoniae exposure status. The results were compared to those obtained in a previous study where a dual-plate complement fixation test (CFT) and three commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) were conducted on the same sample set. On samples from experimentally infected pigs, the 4-plex Apx FMIA detected specific seroconversion to Apx toxins as early as 7 days postinfection in a total of 29 pigs inoculated with 14 of the 15 A. pleuropneumoniae serovars. Seroconversion to ApxII and ApxIII was detected by FMIA in pigs inoculated with A. suis. The vaccinated pigs showed poor humoral responses against ApxI, ApxII, ApxIII, and ApxIV. In the field samples, the humoral response to ApxIV and the A. pleuropneumoniae seroprevalence increased with age. This novel FMIA (with a sensitivity of 82.7% and a specificity of 100% for the anti-ApxIV antibody) was found to be more sensitive and accurate than current tests (sensitivities, 9.5 to 56%; specificity, 100%) and is potentially an improved tool for the surveillance of disease and for monitoring vaccination compliance.
Simultaneous Detection of Antibodies against Apx Toxins ApxI, ApxII, ApxIII, and ApxIV in Pigs with Known and Unknown Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae Exposure Using a Multiplexing Liquid Array Platform
Giménez-Lirola, Luis G.; Jiang, Yong-Hou; Sun, Dong; Hoang, Hai; Yoon, Kyoung-Jin; Halbur, Patrick G.
Surveillance for the presence of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae infection in a population plays a central role in controlling the disease. In this study, a 4-plex fluorescent microbead-based immunoassay (FMIA), developed for the simultaneous detection of IgG antibodies to repeat-in-toxin (RTX) toxins (ApxI, ApxII, ApxIII, and ApxIV) of A. pleuropneumoniae, was evaluated using (i) blood serum samples from pigs experimentally infected with each of the 15 known A. pleuropneumoniae serovars or with Actinobacillus suis, (ii) blood serum samples from pigs vaccinated with a bacterin containing A. pleuropneumoniae serovar 1, 3, 5, or 7, and (iii) blood serum samples from pigs with an unknown A. pleuropneumoniae exposure status. The results were compared to those obtained in a previous study where a dual-plate complement fixation test (CFT) and three commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) were conducted on the same sample set. On samples from experimentally infected pigs, the 4-plex Apx FMIA detected specific seroconversion to Apx toxins as early as 7 days postinfection in a total of 29 pigs inoculated with 14 of the 15 A. pleuropneumoniae serovars. Seroconversion to ApxII and ApxIII was detected by FMIA in pigs inoculated with A. suis. The vaccinated pigs showed poor humoral responses against ApxI, ApxII, ApxIII, and ApxIV. In the field samples, the humoral response to ApxIV and the A. pleuropneumoniae seroprevalence increased with age. This novel FMIA (with a sensitivity of 82.7% and a specificity of 100% for the anti-ApxIV antibody) was found to be more sensitive and accurate than current tests (sensitivities, 9.5 to 56%; specificity, 100%) and is potentially an improved tool for the surveillance of disease and for monitoring vaccination compliance. PMID:24226091
O'Reilly, Terence; Niven, Donald F
During infection, nutrient deprivation can alter bacterial phenotype. This, in turn, may have implications for pathogenesis and prophylaxis. Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae (biotype 1) and Haemophilus parasuis, respiratory tract pathogens of swine, are both V-factor-dependent. The concentrations of V factor in the extracellular fluids of pigs are unknown and may limit the growth of these bacteria in vivo. The aim of this study was to determine the concentrations of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) in select porcine body fluids and to compare the availability of NAD in vivo with the affinities of the organisms for this compound. Levels in plasma, tissue fluids (peritoneal, pleural, synovial, and cerebrospinal), and laryngeal, tracheal, and lung washings were determined with an enzymatic cycling assay. We concluded that, although the NAD supply in the respiratory tract is probably not growth-limiting, it may become limiting if the organisms are disseminated.
No overall relationship between average daily weight gain and the serological response to Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae and Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae in eight chronically infected Danish swine herds.
Andreasen, M; Mousing, J; Thomsen, L K
The association between the average daily weight gain (from approximately 4 to 20 weeks of age) and the serological responses to respiratory infections was examined in a longitudinal study including 825 pigs from eight chronically infected herds. Pigs were bled every 4th week (starting from approximately 4 weeks of age), and sera were analyzed for antibodies to Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae and Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serotypes 2, 5-7 and 12.Mixed analysis of covariance analyzed the relationship between the average daily weight gain and a categorical variable defining seroconversion as none, early or late as compared to the median time (estimated across herds) of seroconversion for the particular pathogen. The variables "gender", "weight at an approximate age of 4 weeks" and "time" (defining the exact length of the follow-up period), were included as explanatory variables, and "litter" and "herd" were included as explanatory random variables. The individual pig was the unit of concern. The variable defining time at seroconversion was not significantly associated with the average daily weight gain, when evaluating models across all eight herds. The apparent lack of effect could be because most pigs included in the study were subclinically infected, or because a temporary negative influence of the infections is hidden due to an increased growth in the period following infection. In conclusion, at least in these eight herds, seroresponses to M. hyopneumoniae and A. pleuropneumoniae could not be used to predict the effect of the pathogens on the daily weight gain.
Wu, Chi-Ming; Chen, Zeng-Weng; Chen, Ter-Hsin; Liao, Jiunn-Wang; Lin, Cheng-Chung; Chien, Maw-Sheng; Lee, Wei-Cheng; Hsuan, Shih-Ling
Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae exotoxins (Apx) are major virulence factors that play important roles in the pathogenesis of pleuropneumonia in swine. A previous study has demonstrated that native ApxI at low concentrations induces apoptosis in primary porcine alveolar macrophages (PAMs) via a caspase-3-dependent pathway. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying ApxI-induced apoptosis remain largely unknown. In this study, it was shown that ApxI treatment in PAMs rapidly induced phosphorylation of both p38 and JNK, members of the mitogen-activated protein kinase family. Application of a selective p38 or JNK inhibitor significantly reduced ApxI-induced apoptosis, indicating the involvement of p38 and JNK pathways in this event. Furthermore, activation of both caspase-8 and -9 were observed in ApxI-stimulated PAMs. Inhibition of caspase-8 and caspase-9 activity significantly protected PAMs from ApxI-induced apoptosis. In addition, Bid activation was also noted in ApxI-treated PAMs, and inhibition of caspase-8 suppressed the activation of Bid and caspase-9, suggesting that ApxI was able to activate the caspases-8-Bid-caspase-9 pathway. Notably, inhibition of p38 or JNK pathway greatly attenuated the activation of caspases-3, -8, and -9. This study is the first to demonstrate that ApxI-induced apoptosis of PAMs involves the activation of p38 and JNK, and engages the extrinsic and intrinsic apoptotic pathways.
Damte, Dereje; Lee, Seung-Jin; Yohannes, Sileshi B; Hossain, Md Akil; Suh, Joo-Won; Park, Seung-Chun
The aim of the current study was to demonstrate and compare the impact of different pharmacokinetics of marbofloxacin, enrofloxacin and difloxacin on their antimicrobial effects, their killing and re-growth kinetics, and the population dynamics of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae clinical isolates in an in vitro dynamic model. Selected clinical isolates of A. pleuropneumoniae and three fluoroquinolones at a range of simulated AUC(24)/MIC ratios of multiple doses were investigated. At the same simulated AUC(24)/MIC ratios of the three fluoroquinolones, the killing re-growth profile and I(E) values (intensity of the antimicrobial effect) revealed strain- and fluoroquinolone-specific effects. For example, a 31% lower I(E) of difloxacin was observed in AppK5 (biofilm-former) than in AppK2 (biofilm-non-former) at the same AUC(24)/MIC ratio of 120 h. In addition, losses in A. pleuropneumoniae susceptibility of both strains by the three fluoroquinolones were observed. AUC(24)/MPC ratios of 20.89 and 39.81 for marbofloxacin, 17.32 and 19.49 for enrofloxacin and 31.62 and 60.25 for difloxacin were estimated to be protective against the selection of AppK2 and AppK5 strain mutants, respectively. Integration of these in vitro data with published pharmacokinetics revealed the inadequacy of the conventional clinical doses of the three drugs to attain the above protective values for minimum biofilm eradication concentration (MBEC) and concentration to prevent growth of 90% of the mutant subpopulation (MPC(90)). In conclusion, the results suggest optimising doses could suffice for resistant mutants control, while for biofilm-forming strains combination with biofilm-disrupting agents to reduce the MBEC to achieve AUC/MBEC ratios within the possible dosing regimens is desired. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. and the International Society of Chemotherapy. All rights reserved.
Hsu, Chiung-Wen; Li, Siou-Cen; Chang, Nai-Yun; Chen, Zeng-Weng; Liao, Jiunn-Wang; Chen, Ter-Hsin; Wang, Jyh-Perng; Lin, Jiunn-Horng; Hsuan, Shih-Ling
Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae is a crucial respiratory pathogen that causes fibrinous, hemorrhagic, necrotizing pleuropneumonia in pigs. A. pleuropneumoniae exotoxins (ApxI to IV) are the major virulence factors contributing to A. pleuropneumoniae pathogenesis. Previously, we demonstrated that ApxI induces the expression of proinflammatory cytokines in porcine alveolar macrophages (PAMs) via the mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) p38 and cJun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK). Nonetheless, the role of nuclear factor (NF)-κB-a transcription factor widely implicated in immune and inflammatory responses-in ApxI-elicited cytokine production has yet to be defined. In the present study, we examined the involvement of NF-κB in ApxI-elicited production of interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-8, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α in PAMs and investigated the correlation between NF-κB and MAPK (p38 and JNK) pathways in this event. The results of Western blot analysis, confocal microscopy, and a DNA binding activity assay revealed that the classical NF-κB pathway was activated by ApxI, as evidenced by the decreased levels of IκB and subsequent NF-κB translocation and activation in ApxI-stimulated PAMs. Moreover, the blocking of ApxI-induced NF-κB activation significantly attenuated the levels of mRNA and protein secretion of IL-1β, IL-8, and TNF-α in PAMs. Notably, the attenuation of JNK activation by a specific inhibitor (SP600125) reduced ApxI-induced NF-κB activation, whereas a p38 blocker (SB203580) had no effect on the NF-κB pathway. Further examination revealed that the level of phosphorylation at serine 536 on the NF-κB p65 subunit was dependent on JNK activity. Collectively, this study, for the first time, demonstrates a pivotal role of NF-κB in ApxI-induced IL-1β, IL-8, and TNF-α production; JNK, but not p38, may positively affect the activation of the classical NF-κB pathway. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Fu, Shulin; Ou, Jiwen; Zhang, Minmin; Xu, Juan; Liu, Huazhen; Liu, Jinlin; Yuan, Fangyan; Chen, Huanchun; Bei, Weicheng
Haemophilus parasuis and Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae both belong to the family Pasteurellaceae and are major respiratory pathogens that cause large economic losses in the pig industry worldwide. We previously constructed an attenuated A. pleuropneumoniae serovar 1 live vaccine prototype, SLW05 (ΔapxIC ΔapxIIC ΔapxIV-ORF1), which is able to produce nontoxic but immunogenic ApxIA, ApxIIA, and ApxIVA. This triple-deletion mutant strain was shown to elicit protective immunity against virulent A. pleuropneumoniae. In the present study, we investigated whether immunization with SLW05 could also protect against lethal challenge with virulent H. parasuis SH0165 (serovar 5) or MD0322 (serovar 4). The SLW05 strain was found to elicit a strong humoral antibody response in pigs and to confer significant protection against challenge with a lethal dose of H. parasuis SH0165 or MD0322. IgG subtype analysis revealed that SLW05 induces a bias toward a Th1-type immune response and stimulates interleukin 2 (IL-2) and gamma interferon (IFN-γ) production. Moreover, antisera from SLW05-vaccinated pigs efficiently inhibited both A. pleuropneumoniae and H. parasuis growth in a whole-blood assay. This is the first report that a live attenuated A. pleuropneumoniae vaccine with SLW05 can protect against lethal H. parasuis infection, which provides a novel approach for developing an attenuated H. parasuis vaccine.
Fu, Shulin; Ou, Jiwen; Zhang, Minmin; Xu, Juan; Liu, Huazhen; Liu, Jinlin; Yuan, Fangyan; Chen, Huanchun
Haemophilus parasuis and Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae both belong to the family Pasteurellaceae and are major respiratory pathogens that cause large economic losses in the pig industry worldwide. We previously constructed an attenuated A. pleuropneumoniae serovar 1 live vaccine prototype, SLW05 (ΔapxIC ΔapxIIC ΔapxIV-ORF1), which is able to produce nontoxic but immunogenic ApxIA, ApxIIA, and ApxIVA. This triple-deletion mutant strain was shown to elicit protective immunity against virulent A. pleuropneumoniae. In the present study, we investigated whether immunization with SLW05 could also protect against lethal challenge with virulent H. parasuis SH0165 (serovar 5) or MD0322 (serovar 4). The SLW05 strain was found to elicit a strong humoral antibody response in pigs and to confer significant protection against challenge with a lethal dose of H. parasuis SH0165 or MD0322. IgG subtype analysis revealed that SLW05 induces a bias toward a Th1-type immune response and stimulates interleukin 2 (IL-2) and gamma interferon (IFN-γ) production. Moreover, antisera from SLW05-vaccinated pigs efficiently inhibited both A. pleuropneumoniae and H. parasuis growth in a whole-blood assay. This is the first report that a live attenuated A. pleuropneumoniae vaccine with SLW05 can protect against lethal H. parasuis infection, which provides a novel approach for developing an attenuated H. parasuis vaccine. PMID:23220998
Beynon, L M; Griffith, D W; Richards, J C; Perry, M B
The antigenic lipopolysaccharide O polysaccharides of capsular serotypes 9 and 11 were examined by chemical, immunological, and nuclear magnetic resonance methods. Immunodiffusion tests carried out on these O antigens indicated that both contained common epitopes which were also shared by Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serotype 1. Chemical analysis and high-field nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy showed that the O antigens of serotypes 9 and 11 were high-molecular-weight polymers consisting of a backbone of repeating trisaccharide units composed of alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl and alpha-D-glucopyranosyl residues (2:1). One of the alpha-L-rhamnose units forms a branch point and is stoichiometrically substituted with terminal 2-acetamido-2-deoxy-beta-D-glucose residues in the serotype 11 O polysaccharide, but only to the extent of 25% in the serotype 9 O polysaccharide. Thus, the serotype 9 O polysaccharide contains two different repeating units: a tetrasaccharide unit with the same structure as that of the serotype 11 O polysaccharide and a trisaccharide unit: [formula: see text] where R = beta-D-GlcpNAc for serotype 1 and 11 O polysaccharides, and R = H (75%) and R = beta-D-GlcpNAc (25%) for serotype 9. The structure of the previously determined serotype 1 O polysaccharide (E. Altman, J.-R. Brisson, and M. B. Perry, Biochem. Cell. Biol. 64:17-25, 1986) is identical to that of the serotype 11 O polysaccharide. We propose a more complete serotyping scheme for A. pleuropneumoniae which includes designation of both the capsular (K) and O antigens. Images PMID:1379584
Background Host defence peptides are important components of mammalian innate immunity. We have previously shown that PR-39, a cathelicidin host defence peptide, is an important factor in porcine innate immune mechanisms as a first line of defence after infection with Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae. PR-39 interacts with bacterial and mammalian cells and is involved in a variety of processes such as killing of bacteria and promotion of wound repair. In bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of infected pigs PR-39 concentrations are elevated during the chronic but not during the acute stage of infection when polymorphonuclear neutrophils (known as the major source of PR-39) are highly increased. Thus it was assumed, that the real impact of PR-39 during infection might not be reflected by its concentration in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. Results Using immunohistochemistry this study demonstrates the actual distribution of PR-39 in tissue of the upper and lower respiratory tract of healthy pigs, and of pigs during the acute and chronic stage of experimental infection with Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae. During the acute stage of infection PR-39 accumulated adjacent to blood vessels and within bronchi. Immune reactions were mainly localized in the cytoplasm of cells with morphological characteristics of polymorphonuclear neutrophils as well as in extracellular fluids. During the chronic stage of infection pigs lacked clinical signs and lung alterations were characterized by reparation and remodelling processes such as tissue sequestration and fibroblastic pleuritis with a high-grade accumulation of small PR-39-positive cells resembling polymorphonuclear neutrophils. In healthy pigs, PR-39 was homogenously expressed in large single cells within the alveoli resembling alveolar macrophages or type 2 pneumocytes. PR-39 was found in all tissue samples of the upper respiratory tract in healthy and diseased pigs. Within the tracheobronchial lymph nodes, PR-39 dominated in the
van Dixhoorn, Ingrid D. E.; Reimert, Inonge; Middelkoop, Jenny; Bolhuis, J. Elizabeth; Wisselink, Henk J.; Groot Koerkamp, Peter W. G.; Kemp, Bas; Stockhofe-Zurwieden, Norbert
Until today, anti-microbial drugs have been the therapy of choice to combat bacterial diseases. Resistance against antibiotics is of growing concern in man and animals. Stress, caused by demanding environmental conditions, can reduce immune protection in the host, influencing the onset and outcome of infectious diseases. Therefore psychoneuro-immunological intervention may prove to be a successful approach to diminish the impact of diseases and antibiotics use. This study was designed to investigate the effect of social and environmental enrichment on the impact of disease, referred to as “disease susceptibility”, in pigs using a co-infection model of PRRSV and A. pleuropneumoniae. Twenty-eight pigs were raised in four pens under barren conditions and twenty-eight other pigs were raised in four pens under enriched conditions. In the enriched pens a combination of established social and environmental enrichment factors were introduced. Two pens of the barren (BH) and two pens of the enriched housed (EH) pigs were infected with PRRSV followed by A. pleuropneumoniae, the other two pens in each housing treatment served as control groups. We tested if differences in disease susceptibility in terms of pathological and clinical outcome were related to the different housing regimes and if this was reflected in differences in behavioural and immunological states of the animals. Enriched housed pigs showed a faster clearance of viral PRRSV RNA in blood serum (p = 0.014) and histologically 2.8 fold less interstitial pneumonia signs in the lungs (p = 0.014). More barren housed than enriched housed pigs developed lesions in the lungs (OR = 19.2, p = 0.048) and the lesions in the barren housed pigs showed a higher total pathologic tissue damage score (p<0.001) than those in enriched housed pigs. EH pigs showed less stress-related behaviour and differed immunologically and clinically from BH pigs. We conclude that enriched housing management reduces disease susceptibility to
van Dixhoorn, Ingrid D E; Reimert, Inonge; Middelkoop, Jenny; Bolhuis, J Elizabeth; Wisselink, Henk J; Groot Koerkamp, Peter W G; Kemp, Bas; Stockhofe-Zurwieden, Norbert
Until today, anti-microbial drugs have been the therapy of choice to combat bacterial diseases. Resistance against antibiotics is of growing concern in man and animals. Stress, caused by demanding environmental conditions, can reduce immune protection in the host, influencing the onset and outcome of infectious diseases. Therefore psychoneuro-immunological intervention may prove to be a successful approach to diminish the impact of diseases and antibiotics use. This study was designed to investigate the effect of social and environmental enrichment on the impact of disease, referred to as "disease susceptibility", in pigs using a co-infection model of PRRSV and A. pleuropneumoniae. Twenty-eight pigs were raised in four pens under barren conditions and twenty-eight other pigs were raised in four pens under enriched conditions. In the enriched pens a combination of established social and environmental enrichment factors were introduced. Two pens of the barren (BH) and two pens of the enriched housed (EH) pigs were infected with PRRSV followed by A. pleuropneumoniae, the other two pens in each housing treatment served as control groups. We tested if differences in disease susceptibility in terms of pathological and clinical outcome were related to the different housing regimes and if this was reflected in differences in behavioural and immunological states of the animals. Enriched housed pigs showed a faster clearance of viral PRRSV RNA in blood serum (p = 0.014) and histologically 2.8 fold less interstitial pneumonia signs in the lungs (p = 0.014). More barren housed than enriched housed pigs developed lesions in the lungs (OR = 19.2, p = 0.048) and the lesions in the barren housed pigs showed a higher total pathologic tissue damage score (p<0.001) than those in enriched housed pigs. EH pigs showed less stress-related behaviour and differed immunologically and clinically from BH pigs. We conclude that enriched housing management reduces disease susceptibility to co
Pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic evaluation of marbofloxacin in the treatment of Haemophilus parasuis and Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae infections in nursery and fattener pigs using Monte Carlo simulations.
Vilalta, C; Giboin, H; Schneider, M; El Garch, F; Fraile, L
This study evaluated the theoretical clinical outcome of three marbofloxacin posology regimens in two groups of pigs (weaners and fatteners) for the treatment of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae (App) and Haemophilus parasuis (Hp) infection and the appearance of resistant bacteria due to the antibiotic treatment. The probability of target attainment (PTA) for pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamics (PK/PD) ratios associated with clinical efficacy and with the appearance of antimicrobial resistance for fluoroquinolones at each minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) or mutant prevention concentration (MPC) were calculated, respectively. The cumulative fraction of response (CFR) was calculated for the three posology regimens against App and they ranged from 91.12% to 96.37% in weaners and from 93% to 97.43% in fatteners, respectively. In the case of Hp, they ranged from 80.52% to 85.14% in weaners and from 82.01% to 88.49% in fatteners, respectively. Regarding the PTA of the PK/PD threshold associated with the appearance of antimicrobial resistance, results showed that marbofloxacin would prevent resistances in most of the animals up to the MPC value of 1 μg/mL.
Apa2H1, the first head domain of Apa2 trimeric autotransporter adhesin, activates mouse bone marrow-derived dendritic cells and immunization with Apa2H1 protects against Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae infection.
Qin, Wanhai; Wang, Lei; Zhai, Ruidong; Ma, Qiuyue; Liu, Jianfang; Bao, Chuntong; Sun, Diangang; Zhang, Hu; Sun, Changjiang; Feng, Xin; Gu, Jingmin; Du, Chongtao; Han, Wenyu; Langford, P R; Lei, Liancheng
Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae is the causative pathogen of porcine pleuropneumonia, which results in large economic losses in the pig industry worldwide. There are, however, no effective subunit vaccines are available in the market owing to the various serotypes and the absence of cross-protection against this pathogen. Therefore, the selection of protective components is of great significance for vaccine development. We previously showed that trimeric autotransporter adhesins are important virulence factors of A. pleuropneumoniae. To determine the potential role in vaccine development of the functional head domain (Apa2H1) of Apa2, a trimeric autotransporter adhesin found in A. pleuropneumoniae, we obtained nature-like trimeric Apa2H1 using a prokaryotic expression system and co-culture of Apa2H1 with bone marrow derived dendritic cells (BMDCs) in vitro resulted in maturation of BMDCs, characterised by the up-regulation of CD83, MHC-II, CCR7, ICAM-I and the increased expression of factors related to B lymphoid cells stimulation, such as proliferation-inducing ligand (APRIL), B lymphocyte stimulator (BLyS) and B cell activating factor (BAFF). The in vivo results showed that vaccination with Apa2H1 resulted in the robust production of antigen-specific antibodies, modestly induced mixed Th1 and Th2 immunity, impaired bacterial colonization and dissemination, and improved mouse survival rates. This study is the first to show that Apa2H1 is antigenic and can be used as a component of a subunit vaccine against A. pleuropneumoniae infection, providing valuable reference material for the development of an effective vaccine against A. pleuropneumoniae. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Nussbaumer, I; Miserez, R; Hüssy, D; Doherr, M G; Frey, J; Zimmermann, W
At the end of the national eradication program for Enzootic Pneumonia (EP) and Porcine Actinobacillosis (APP) in Switzerland (2003), A. pleuropneumoniae serotype 2 is considered to have been eradicated. There is no current information about the distribution of the other serotypes available. The ApxIV ELISA detects antibodies against all serotypes of A. pleuropneumoniae, without cross-reaction with other bacterial species. The aim of this study was to achieve actual data concerning the seroprevalence of A. pleuropneumoniae in breeding-herds and to validate the ApxIV ELISA under field conditions, especially for the diagnosis of latently infected breeding-herds without clinical signs, and to achieve more information about the role of herd book farms for the spread of the infectious agent. A total of 2068 serum samples from 96 pig herds in Switzerland were examinated. Over half of the examinated herd book farms showed positive results in this ELISA. 93% of the breeding herds were positive. On single animal level sensitivity was 96% and specifity 100%. Herd sensitivity ranged between 67% and 99%. Herd specifity was 100%. The results show that the ApxIV ELISA is a valuable tool for the detection of latently infected herds.
Rodríguez Barbosa, J I; Gutiérrez Martín, C B; Tascón, R I; Suárez, J; Rodríguez Ferri, E F
Monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against Actinobacillus (Haemophilus) pleuropneumoniae serotype 4 (reference strain M62 and field isolate F6) were produced and characterized. Three hybridoma clones were raised against strain M62, and 13 were raised against strain F6. The predominant antibody class was immunoglobulin M (IgM), although IgG2a and IgG2b were also obtained. Three of the MAbs produced to field isolate F6 (5C5, 1E10, and 5H7) did not recognize the reference strain of serotype 4, another (6F7) was reactive with both reference strains of serotypes 4 and 7, and the remaining 12 MAbs reacted only with the reference strain of the homologous serotype. All epitopes recognized by MAbs, except for one (6F7), were sensitive to periodic acid oxidation, and all of them were resistant to boiling in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulfate and reducing conditions, as evidenced by immunodot. Enhanced chemioluminiscence-immunoblot assays revealed that 10 MAbs (3E12, 5B8, 7C3, 6F7, 7F5, 7E6, 5G4, 4F1, 7E10, and 4B8) recognized a ladder-like banding pattern, which is in accordance with the O side chain antigen of lipopolysaccharide (LPS), while the remaining 6 MAbs (5C5, 5H7, 1E10, 6D11, 6B4, and 5E4) blotted with high-molecular-weight regions composed of a single banding pattern. The suitability of MAbs for serotyping of 78 field isolates was also examined. A high correlation was found between the results previously established by indirect hemagglutination with polyclonal sera and those obtained by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay with MAbs. According to the different immunoreactivity of MAbs, three groups were established: group I (MAbs 3E12, 5B8, 7C3, 6F7, and 7F5), group II (MAbs 7E6, 5G4, 4F1, 7E10, and 4B8), and group III (MAbs 5C5, 5H7, and 1E10). MAbs 6D11, 6B4, and 5E4 could not be included in any of the described above. At least six different immunodominant epitopes on the O antigen of the A. pleuropneumoniae serotype 4 LPS were identified. Finally, the implications
Del Pozo Sacristán, R; Michiels, A; Martens, M; Haesebrouck, F; Maes, D
The efficacy of an Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae subunit vaccine based on ApxIA, ApxIIA, ApxIIIA and OMP-2 (Porcilis App, MSD) was investigated in two farrow-to-finish pig herds (A and B) affected by chronic pleurisy. In total, 1161 pigs were included. At three weeks of age, the pigs were randomly allocated to non-vaccinated control (NV; n=580) and vaccinated (V; n=581) groups. At 6 and 10 weeks of age, pigs were injected with Porcilis-APP (V group) or adjuvant (NV group). At slaughter (26 weeks), pleurisy and pneumonia lesions were assessed. All pigs were weighed individually at 6 and 26 weeks of age, and average daily weight gain (ADG; g/pig/day) was calculated. Mortality and days of additional treatment (DAT) were registered during the whole experiment. Data were analysed using binary logistic regression or analysis of variance for proportions or continuous variables, respectively. The prevalence of pleurisy and pneumonia was (NV-A=19.3, V-A=7.9, (P=0.000); NV-B=17.9, V-B=0.7, (P=0.000)) and (NV-A=42.4, V-A=21.2, (P=0.000); NV-B=46.7, V-B=19.0, (P=0.000)), respectively. The ADG was NV-A=632±157, V-A=647±91, (P=0.162); NV-B=660±115, V-B=670±82, (P=0.232). The mortality during the experiment was NV-A=5.7, V-A=1.8, (P=0.015); NV-B=2.3, V-B=1.0, (P=0.170) per cent. The DAT was: NV-A=15.04±1.41, V-A=14.95±0.67, (P=0.010); NV-B=21.68±2.43, V-B=16.99±0.62, (P=0.000). The present study showed a significant reduction of the prevalence of pleurisy and pneumonia, and antimicrobial use in V pigs from both herds, and in mortality in V pigs from one herd.
Monocytes play an essential role in the defense against bacterial pathogens. Bone marrow (BM) and peripheral blood (PB) monocytes in pigs consist of the main “steady-state” subpopulations: CD14hi/CD163-/SLA-DR- and CD14low/CD163+/SLA-DR+. During inflammation, the subpopulation of “inflammatory” monocytes expressing very high levels of CD163, but lacking the SLA-DR molecule (being CD14low/CD163+/SLA-DR-) appears in the BM and PB and replaces the CD14low/CD163+/SLA-DR+ subpopulation. However, current knowledge of monocyte migration into inflamed tissues in pigs is limited. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the distribution of “inflammatory” CD14low/CD163+/SLA-DR- monocytes during experimental inflammation induced by Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae (APP) and a possible role for chemokines in attracting “inflammatory” CD14low/CD163+/SLA-DR- monocytes into the tissues. Monocyte subpopulations were detected by flow cytometry. Chemokines and chemokine receptors were detected by RT-qPCR. The “steady-state” monocytes were found in the BM, PB, spleen and lungs of control pigs. After APP-infection, “inflammatory” monocytes replaced the “steady-state” subpopulation in BM, PB, spleen and moreover, they appeared in an unaffected area, demarcation zone and necrotic area of the lungs and in tracheobronchial lymph nodes. They did not appear in mesenteric lymph nodes. Levels of mRNA for various chemokines with their appropriate receptors were found to be elevated in BM (CCL3-CCR1/CCR5, CCL8-CCR2/CCR5, CCL19-CCR7), necrotic area of the lungs (CCL3-CCR1, CCL5-CCR1/CCR3, CCL11-CCR3, CCL22/CCR4) and tracheobronchial lymph nodes (CCL3-CCR1) and therefore they could play a role in attracting monocytes into inflamed tissues. In conclusion, “inflammatory” monocytes appear in different lymphoid tissues and the lungs after APP infection in pigs. Various chemokines could drive this process. PMID:24134635
Pharmacokinetics of tildipirosin in porcine plasma, lung tissue, and bronchial fluid and effects of test conditions on in vitro activity against reference strains and field isolates of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae.
Rose, M; Menge, M; Bohland, C; Zschiesche, E; Wilhelm, C; Kilp, S; Metz, W; Allan, M; Röpke, R; Nürnberger, M
The pharmacokinetics of tildipirosin (Zuprevo(®) 40 mg/mL solution for injection for pigs), a novel 16-membered-ring macrolide for the treatment for swine respiratory disease (SRD), was investigated in studies collecting blood plasma and postmortem samples of lung tissue and bronchial fluid (BF) from swine. In view of factors influencing the in vitro activity of macrolides, and for the interpretation of tildipirosin pharmacokinetics in relation to minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC), additional experiments were conducted to study the effects of pH, carbon dioxide-enriched atmosphere, buffers, and serum on tildipirosin MICs for various reference strains and Actinobacillus (A.) pleuropneumoniae field isolates. After single intramuscular (i.m.) injection at 4 mg/kg body weight, maximum plasma concentration (Cmax) was 0.9 μg/mL observed within 23 min (Tmax ). Mean residence time from the time of dosing to the time of last measurable concentration (MRTlast) and terminal half-life (T1/2) both were about 4 days. A dose-response relationship with no significant sex effect is observed for area under the plasma concentration-time curve from time 0 to the last sampling time with a quantifiable drug concentration (AUClast) over the range of doses up to 6 mg/kg. However, linear dose proportionality could not be proven with statistical methods. The time-concentration profile of tildipirosin in BF and lung far exceeded that in blood plasma. In lung, tildipirosin concentrations reached 3.1 μg/g at 2 h, peaked at 4.3 μg/g at day 1, and slowly declined to 0.8 μg/g at day 17. In BF, tildipirosin levels were 14.3, 7.0, and 6.5 μg/g at days 5, 10, and 14. T1/2 in lung was ∼7 days. Tildipirosin is rapidly and extensively distributed to the respiratory tract followed by slow elimination. Culture media pH and carbon dioxide-enriched atmosphere (CO2 -EA) had a marked impact on in vitro activity of tildipirosin in reference strains of various rapidly growing aerobic and
Chiers, K; Van Overbeke, I; Donné, E; Baele, M; Ducatelle, R; De Baere, T; Haesebrouck, F
A PCR assay for the detection of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae was developed based on the amplification of a dsbE-like gene. All of 157 field isolates of A. pleuropneumoniae reacted in the PCR by the amplification of a 342bp product. No reaction was observed with related bacterial species or other bacterial species isolated from pigs, except for A. lignieresii. The lower detection limit of the PCR was 10(2) CFU per PCR test tube and was not affected by the addition of 10(6) CFU Escherichia coli. The PCR was evaluated on mixed bacterial cultures from nasal and tonsillar swabs as well as suspensions of nasal conchae and tonsils obtained from specific pathogen-free (SPF) pigs, experimentally infected pigs, and pigs from farrow-to-finish herds. The results of the new PCR were compared with a PCR based on the detection of the omlA gene coding for an outer membrane protein, with a commercially available PCR (Adiavet APP, Adiagène, Saint-Brieuc, France), and with conventional culturing. No positive reactions were observed with any of the PCR methods in samples of SPF animals. In samples of the other animals, no or low significant differences between nasal swabs and suspensions as well as tonsillar swabs and suspensions were observed in any method. In general, more positive results were obtained from tonsillar samples in comparison to nasal samples. Interassay sensitivity and specificity values were assessed for each test by pair wise comparisons between assays. The agreement between tests was evaluated by calculating Cohen's kappa coefficient. From these analyses the three PCR assays showed a good agreement. The dsbE-based PCR proved to be highly sensitive (95 and 93%) and specific (82 and 74%) in comparison to the omlA-based PCR and the commercially available PCR, respectively. It was concluded that the dsbE-like gene-based PCR is a reliable diagnostic assay for demonstration of A. pleuropneumoniae. Furthermore, it was demonstrated that tonsillar swabs can be used for
Negrete-Abascal, Erasmo; Pacheco, Sergio Vaca; Paniagua, Gloria L; Méndez, Alma Pérez; Caballero, Jorge Ibarra; Márquez, Víctor M Pérez; Tenorio, Víctor R
Actinobacillus suis secretes metalloproteases into its medium. These secreted proteins, when concentrated by precipitation with 70% (NH4)2SO4 or methanol, displayed proteolytic activity at >200 kDa molecular mass bands in 10% polyacrylamide gels copolymerized with bovine casein (1%). They showed activity in a broad pH range (from pH 5 to pH 10) and were inhibited by 20 mM EDTA or EGTA, but could be reactivated by calcium. They were found heat stable at 40 degrees C, 50 degrees C, 60 degrees C, and 70 degrees C, but their activity diminished at 80 degrees C or higher. They degraded pig and bovine IgG and cross-reacted with a polyclonal serum against a high molecular mass secreted protease from A. pleuropneumoniae. Extracellular proteases could play a role in diseases caused by A. suis.
Kiorpes, A L; MacWilliams, P S; Schenkman, D I; Bäckström, L R
The effect of experimental, peracute, porcine pleuropneumonia on arterial blood gases, acid base status, the leukogram, and gross and microscopic lung structure was studied in nine growing pigs (mean weight +/- SD 10.6 +/- 2.0 kg). Pigs were inoculated intranasally with a virulent serotype 5 isolate of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, and all showed signs typical of the disease within four hours. Death occurred in all pigs from 4.5 to 32 hours postinoculation (mean 14 hours). Gross and microscopic changes were typical of porcine pleuropneumonia in all pigs. Changes in the leukogram included a rapid decline in total white cells, segmented neutrophils, lymphocytes, monocytes, and eosinophils. Pigs maintained alveolar ventilation throughout the study as arterial CO2 tension was unchanged; however, arterial O2 tension and pH decreased from (mean +/- SD) 95.2 +/- 5.7 torr and 7.463 +/- 0.018 at baseline to 62.1 +/- 12.3 torr and 7.388 +/- 0.045, respectively, within 90 minutes prior to death. The data showed that in this model of peracute porcine pleuropneumonia, progressive ventilatory failure was not a feature of the disease, and the blood gas values and acid base status were maintained within physiological ranges. The histopathological hematological and physiological findings were consistent with the hypothesis that peracute porcine pleuropneumonia resembles septic shock. Images Fig. 2. Fig. 3. PMID:2106382
Loera-Muro, Abraham; Jacques, Mario; Avelar-González, Francisco J; Labrie, Josée; Tremblay, Yannick D N; Oropeza-Navarro, Ricardo; Guerrero-Barrera, Alma L
Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae is the etiologic agent of porcine contagious pleuropneumonia, which causes important worldwide economic losses in the swine industry. Several respiratory tract infections are associated with biofilm formation, and A. pleuropneumoniae has the ability to form biofilms in vitro. Biofilms are structured communities of bacterial cells enclosed in a self-produced polymer matrix that are attached to an abiotic or biotic surface. Virtually all bacteria can grow as a biofilm, and multi-species biofilms are the most common form of microbial growth in nature. The goal of this study was to determine the ability of A. pleuropneumoniae to form multi-species biofilms with other bacteria frequently founded in pig farms, in the absence of pyridine compounds (nicotinamide mononucleotide [NMN], nicotinamide riboside [NR] or nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide [NAD]) that are essential for the growth of A. pleuropneumoniae. For the biofilm assay, strain 719, a field isolate of A. pleuropneumoniae serovar 1, was mixed with swine isolates of Streptococcus suis, Bordetella bronchiseptica, Pasteurella multocida, Staphylococcus aureus or Escherichia coli, and deposited in 96-well microtiter plates. Based on the CFU results, A. pleuropneumoniae was able to grow with every species tested in the absence of pyridine compounds in the culture media. Interestingly, A. pleuropneumoniae was also able to form strong biofilms when mixed with S. suis, B. bronchiseptica or S. aureus. In the presence of E. coli, A. pleuropneumoniae only formed a weak biofilm. The live and dead populations, and the matrix composition of multi-species biofilms were also characterized using fluorescent markers and enzyme treatments. The results indicated that poly-N-acetyl-glucosamine remains the primary component responsible for the biofilm structure. In conclusion, A. pleuropneumoniae apparently is able to satisfy the requirement of pyridine compounds through of other swine pathogens by
Javid, Jamshid; Yingling, Wendy
The various antigenic determinants of serum haptoglobins (Hp) may be studied semiquantitatively in a radioimmunoassay system. Using three antisera of overlapping specificities, we constructed an antigenic model of the various Hp phenotypes comprising four distinct determinants. This adds a new determinant, situated near the hemoglobin binding site, to the three determinants reported in the literature. The assay system is sensitive to 0.2 μg or less of serum Hp. Furthermore, it can detect determinants that are not recognized by double diffusion studies. PMID:5676524
Eurell, T E; Hall, W F; Bane, D P
A globin-agarose affinity chromatography technique was used to purify swine haptoglobin. This technique provides a highly specific, single-step purification method without the contamination of extraneous serum proteins reported by previous studies. Complex formation between the haptoglobin isolate and swine hemoglobin confirmed that biological activity was maintained during the purification process. Immunoelectrophoretic and Ouchterlony immunodiffusion methods revealed that the swine haptoglobin isolate cross-reacted with polyvalent antisera against human haptoglobin. Images Fig. 2. Fig. 3. PMID:2123414
Timlin, Homa; Machireddy, Kirthi; Petri, Michelle
Haptoglobin levels are measured in systematic lupus erythematosus patients as part of the workup for anemia, with low levels indicating hemolysis. Haptoglobin is an acute phase protein. We present 2 lupus patients who were found to have low haptoglobin levels in the absence of other evidence of hemolysis. PMID:28203576
Porcine pleuropneumonia caused by Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae accounts for serious economic losses in the pig farming industry worldwide. We examined here the immunogenicity and protective efficacy of the recombinant type IV fimbrial subunit protein ApfA as a single antigen vaccine against pleuropneumonia, or as a component of a multi-antigen preparation comprising five other recombinant antigens derived from key virulence factors of A. pleuropneumoniae (ApxIA, ApxIIA, ApxIIIA, ApxIVA and TbpB). Immunization of pigs with recombinant ApfA alone induced high levels of specific serum antibodies and provided partial protection against challenge with the heterologous A. pleuropneumoniae serotype 9 strain. This protection was higher than that engendered by vaccination with rApxIVA or rTbpB alone and similar to that observed after immunization with the tri-antigen combination of rApxIA, rApxIIA and rApxIIIA. In addition, rApfA improved the vaccination potential of the penta-antigen mixture of rApxIA, rApxIIA, rApxIIIA, rApxIVA and rTbpB proteins, where the hexa-antigen vaccine containing rApfA conferred a high level of protection on pigs against the disease. Moreover, when rApfA was used for vaccination alone or in combination with other antigens, such immunization reduced the number of pigs colonized with the challenge strain. These results indicate that ApfA could be a valuable component of an efficient subunit vaccine for the prevention of porcine pleuropneumonia. PMID:22240397
Affias, S.; West, A.; Stewart, J. W.; Haldane, E. V.
Two patients had infective endocarditis due to Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans. One, a 52-year-old woman with a prosthetic aortic valve, was successfully treated with carbenicillin and gentamicin. The other, a 47-year old man with calcific aortic valve disease, required emergency valvectomy and prosthetic valve replacement and responded to a combination of penicillin and gentamicin. PMID:647545
Andersen, Christian Brix Folsted; Torvund-Jensen, Morten; Nielsen, Marianne Jensby; de Oliveira, Cristiano Luis Pinto; Hersleth, Hans-Petter; Andersen, Niels Højmark; Pedersen, Jan Skov; Andersen, Gregers Rom; Moestrup, Søren Kragh
Red cell haemoglobin is the fundamental oxygen-transporting molecule in blood, but also a potentially tissue-damaging compound owing to its highly reactive haem groups. During intravascular haemolysis, such as in malaria and haemoglobinopathies, haemoglobin is released into the plasma, where it is captured by the protective acute-phase protein haptoglobin. This leads to formation of the haptoglobin-haemoglobin complex, which represents a virtually irreversible non-covalent protein-protein interaction. Here we present the crystal structure of the dimeric porcine haptoglobin-haemoglobin complex determined at 2.9 Å resolution. This structure reveals that haptoglobin molecules dimerize through an unexpected β-strand swap between two complement control protein (CCP) domains, defining a new fusion CCP domain structure. The haptoglobin serine protease domain forms extensive interactions with both the α- and β-subunits of haemoglobin, explaining the tight binding between haptoglobin and haemoglobin. The haemoglobin-interacting region in the αβ dimer is highly overlapping with the interface between the two αβ dimers that constitute the native haemoglobin tetramer. Several haemoglobin residues prone to oxidative modification after exposure to haem-induced reactive oxygen species are buried in the haptoglobin-haemoglobin interface, thus showing a direct protective role of haptoglobin. The haptoglobin loop previously shown to be essential for binding of haptoglobin-haemoglobin to the macrophage scavenger receptor CD163 (ref. 3) protrudes from the surface of the distal end of the complex, adjacent to the associated haemoglobin α-subunit. Small-angle X-ray scattering measurements of human haptoglobin-haemoglobin bound to the ligand-binding fragment of CD163 confirm receptor binding in this area, and show that the rigid dimeric complex can bind two receptors. Such receptor cross-linkage may facilitate scavenging and explain the increased functional affinity of
Place, D A; Scidmore, N C; McArthur, W P
Murine hybridoma cell lines were developed which synthesized monoclonal antibodies against Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans-associated antigens. Monoclonal antibodies specific for an antigen(s) common to all A. actinomycetemcomitans isolates tested but not detected on other gram-negative oral plaque microorganisms or other Actinobacillus species were identified. Monoclonal antibodies specific for each serotype group of A. actinomycetemcomitans which did not bind to other Actinobacillus species or oral plaque microorganisms were also identified. PMID:3356470
Jelena, Arambašić; Mirjana, Mihailović; Desanka, Bogojević; Svetlana, Ivanović-Matić; Aleksandra, Uskoković; Goran, Poznanović; Ilijana, Grigorov
Haptoglobin is a hemoglobin-binding acute-phase protein which possesses anti-inflammatory and antioxidative properties. In this study, we investigated changes in protein expression of rat haptoglobin under diabetes-related inflammatory and oxidative stress conditions induced by an i.p. injection of streptozotocin. The progress of diabetes during an 8-week follow-up period was associated with the increased presence of haptoglobin in the serum and in the liver. This increase was most prominent during the first 2 weeks after which it started to decline. Temporary changes in haptoglobin expression strongly correlated with the serum levels of TNF-α and IL-6. Lower haptoglobin expression at the fourth week and thereafter correlated with a decrease in TNF-α concentration and changes in the TNF-α/IL-6 ratio. Based on the decrease of GSH/GSSG ratio and antioxidant enzyme activities in the liver until the end of fourth week, it was concluded that the liver was exposed to oxidative stress and injury which in the presence of the above-mentioned inflammatory mediators lead to different haptoglobin expression profiles at different stages of diabetes. An inverse correlation was observed between the haptoglobin and free iron serum levels in diabetic rats. The higher levels of haptoglobin during the first 2 weeks were accompanied by a lower level of free iron. In view of the established function of haptoglobin, we discuss its possible role in decreasing oxidative stress during the early stage of diabetes.
Sreenivasan, P K; LeBlanc, D J; Lee, L N; Fives-Taylor, P
Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, a periodontal pathogen, has been strongly implicated in human periodontal disease. Advances in the molecular analysis of A. actinomycetemcomitans virulence factors have been limited due to the unavailability of systems for genetic transfer, transposon mutagenesis, and gene complementation. Slow progress can be traced almost exclusively to the lack of gene vector systems and methods for the introduction of DNA into A. actinomycetemcomitans. An electrotransformation system that allowed at least five strains of A. actinomycetemcomitans to be transformed with stable shuttle plasmids which efficiently replicated in both Escherichia coli and A. actinomycetemcomitans was developed. One plasmid, a potential shuttle vector designated pDL282, is 5.7 kb in size, has several unique restriction enzyme sites, and codes for resistance to spectinomycin and ampicillin. E. coli and A. actinomycetemcomitans were transformed with equal efficiencies of approximately 10(5) transformants per micrograms of DNA. Similar transformation efficiencies were obtained whether the plasmid DNA was isolated from A. actinomycetemcomitans or E. coli. In addition, frozen competent cells of A. actinomycetemcomitans yielded comparable efficiencies of transformation. Restriction enzyme analysis of pDL282 isolated after transformation confirmed the presence of intact donor plasmids. A plasmid isolated from A. pleuropneumoniae was also capable of transforming some isolates of A. actinomycetemcomitans, although generally at a lower frequency. The availability of these shuttle plasmids and an efficient transformation procedure should significantly facilitate the molecular analysis of virulence factors of A. actinomycetemcomitans. PMID:1937823
A major circulating ligand for galectin-3, which is elevated in the sera of patients with colon cancer, is a cancer-associated glycoform of haptoglobin. In colon cancer sera, the galectin-3 ligand is a novel 40-kilodalton ligand with expression 10- to 30-fold higher in patients with colon cancer than in healthy subjects. The purified 40-kilodalton ligand was identified as haptoglobin beta subunit. Colon cancer sera had only a modest increase in total haptoglobin as compared with healthy subjects, suggesting that the structure rather than the amount of haptoglobin is altered in patients with colon cancer. Immunohistochemical staining confirmed the absence of haptoglobin in normal colon and the ectopic expression of haptoglobin in colon cancers and adenomatous polyps.
Azarov, Ivan; He, Xiaojun; Jeffers, Anne; Basu, Swati; Ucer, Burak; Hantgan, Roy R.; Levy, Andrew; Kim-Shapiro, Daniel B.
Cell-free hemoglobin, released from the red cell, may play a major role in regulating the bioavailability of nitric oxide. The abundant serum protein haptoglobin, rapidly binds to free hemoglobin forming a stable complex accelerating its clearance. The haptoglobin gene is polymorphic with two classes of alleles denoted 1 and 2. We have previously demonstrated that the haptoglobin 1 protein-hemoglobin complex is cleared twice as fast as the haptoglobin 2 protein-hemoglobin complex. In this report we explored whether haptoglobin binding to hemoglobin reduces the rate of nitric oxide scavenging using time-resolved absorption spectroscopy. We found that both the haptoglobin 1 and haptoglobin 2 protein complexes react with nitric oxide at the same rate as unbound cell-free hemoglobin. To confirm these results we developed a novel assay where free hemoglobin and hemoglobin bound to haptoglobin competed in the reaction with NO. The relative rate of the NO reaction was then determined by examining the amount of reacted species using analytical ultracentrifugation. Since complexation of hemoglobin with haptoglobin does not reduce NO scavenging, we propose that the haptoglobin genotype may influence nitric oxide bioavailability by determining the clearance rate of the haptoglobin-hemoglobin complex. We provide computer simulations showing that a two-fold difference in the rate of uptake of the haptoglobin hemoglobin complex by macrophages significantly affects nitric oxide bioavailability thereby providing a plausible explanation for why there is more vasospasm after subarachnoid hemorrhage in individuals and transgenic mice homozygous for the Hp 2 allele. PMID:18364244
Rapp, V J; Ross, R F
Sera from pigs infected with Haemophilus (Actinobacillus) pleuropneumoniae were tested for antibodies to outer membrane proteins (OMPs) of the organism by immunoblotting. Convalescent sera were produced in naturally born, colostrum-fed pigs and in cesarean-derived, colostrum-deprived pigs given H. pleuropneumoniae serotype 5 intranasally twice at 5-week intervals. Sera, collected at weekly intervals, were reacted with Sarkosyl-insoluble, OMP-enriched preparations of H. pleuropneumoniae which had been separated by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and electrophoretically transferred to nitrocellulose. Antibodies were detected to OMPs with an apparent molecular weight of 16,500 (16.5K OMP); to 29K, 38.5K, 43.5K, 45K, 49.5K, and 66.5K OMPs; and to several high-molecular-weight (greater than or equal to 94,000) OMPs, but not to the major 42K OMP. Antibodies to the heat-modifiable OMP (29K/43.5K) and the 38.5K OMP were detected in sera from noninfected pigs. Antibodies were also detected to two broad 54,000- and 95,000-molecular-weight bands which did not stain with Coomassie blue, stained with silver nitrate, resisted proteinase K digestion, and were eliminated by oxidation with sodium metaperiodate. This indicates that the 54,000- and 95,000-molecular-weight bands represent polysaccharide, possibly capsular or lipopolysaccharide immunogens. Adsorption of sera with cells from the homologous serotype 5 strain removed antibodies to the 45K, 49.5K, 66.5K, and greater than or equal to 94K OMPs and to the two polysaccharide bands, indicating that these antibodies were directed primarily to surface-exposed epitopes. When tested with OMP preparations from other serotype 5 strains, heterogeneity was apparent, both in the reactions with OMPs and with the polysaccharide bands. Silver staining of proteinase K-treated, whole-cell lysates from serotype 5 strains also indicated variable expression of the polysaccharide bands. Sera also reacted with OMPs from
Hammond, B F; Lillard, S E; Stevens, R H
An inhibitory factor from Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans Y4 was isolated, and its properties indicated that it was a bacteriocin (actinobacillicin). The bacteriocin was active against Streptococcus sanguis strains, Streptococcus uberis (FDC1), and Actinomyces viscosus T14 as well as other strains of A. actinomycetemcomitans, but not against other crevicular bacteria, including other streptococci and actinomycetes. The activity of this bacteriocin was inhibited by pronase, trypsin, and heat (45 min at 56 degrees C) but not by DNase, RNase, phospholipase, exposure to UV light, or low pH (1.0 to 6.5). Although actinobacillicin markedly inhibited glycolysis in S. sanguis, the primary mechanism of its bactericidal action appears to be alterations in cell permeability, with the resultant leakage of RNA, DNA, and other essential intracellular macromolecules. These findings provide an ecologic explanation for the reciprocal growth relationship between A. actinomycetemcomitans and S. sanguis/Actinomyces viscosus observed in localized juvenile periodontitis. Images PMID:3818090
... that binds hemoglobin, the oxygen-carrying pigment in red blood cells) in serum. Measurement of... release hemoglobin) related to the formation of hemoglobin-haptoglobin complexes and certain kidney...
... that binds hemoglobin, the oxygen-carrying pigment in red blood cells) in serum. Measurement of... release hemoglobin) related to the formation of hemoglobin-haptoglobin complexes and certain kidney...
... that binds hemoglobin, the oxygen-carrying pigment in red blood cells) in serum. Measurement of... release hemoglobin) related to the formation of hemoglobin-haptoglobin complexes and certain kidney...
Kraig, E; Dailey, T; Kolodrubetz, D
The leukotoxin produced by Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans has been implicated in the etiology of localized juvenile periodontitis. To initiate a genetic analysis into the role of this protein in disease, we have cloned its gene, lktA. We now present the complete nucleotide sequence of the lktA gene from A. actinomycetemcomitans. When the deduced amino acid sequence of the leukotoxin protein was compared with those of other proteins, it was found to be homologous to the leukotoxin from Pasteurella haemolytica and to the alpha-hemolysins from Escherichia coli and Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae. Each alignment showed at least 42% identity. As in the other organisms, the lktA gene of A. actinomycetemcomitans was linked to another gene, lktC, which is thought to be involved in the activation of the leukotoxin. The predicted LktC protein was related to the leukotoxin/hemolysin C proteins from the other bacteria, since they shared a minimum of 49% amino acid identity. Surprisingly, although actinobacillus species are more closely related to pasteurellae than to members of the family Enterobacteriaciae, LktA and LktC from A. actinomycetemcomitans shared significantly greater sequence identity with the E. coli alpha-hemolysin proteins than with the P. haemolytica leukotoxin proteins. Despite the overall homology to the other leukotoxin/hemolysin proteins, the LktA protein from A. actinomycetemcomitans has several unique properties. Most strikingly, it is a very basic protein with a calculated pI of 9.7; the other toxins have estimated pIs around 6.2. The unusual features of the A. actinomycetemcomitans protein are discussed in light of the different species and target-cell specificities of the hemolysins and the leukotoxins. Images PMID:2318535
Hardwick, Robert J; Ménard, Anne; Sironi, Manuela; Milet, Jacqueline; Garcia, André; Sese, Claude; Yang, Fengtang; Fu, Beiyuan; Courtin, David; Hollox, Edward J
Haptoglobin, coded by the HP gene, is a plasma protein that acts as a scavenger for free heme, and haptoglobin-related protein (coded by the HPR gene) forms part of the trypanolytic factor TLF-1, together with apolipoprotein L1 (ApoL1). We analyse the polymorphic small intragenic duplication of the HP gene, with alleles Hp1 and Hp2, in 52 populations, and find no evidence for natural selection either from extended haplotype analysis or from correlation with pathogen richness matrices. Using fiber-FISH, the paralog ratio test, and array-CGH data, we also confirm that the HPR gene is copy number variable, with duplication of the whole HPR gene at polymorphic frequencies in west and central Africa, up to an allele frequency of 15 %. The geographical distribution of the HPR duplication allele overlaps the region where the pathogen causing chronic human African trypanosomiasis, Trypanosoma brucei gambiense, is endemic. The HPR duplication has occurred on one SNP haplotype, but there is no strong evidence of extended homozygosity, a characteristic of recent natural selection. The HPR duplication shows a slight, non-significant undertransmission to human African trypanosomiasis-affected children of unaffected parents in the Democratic Republic of Congo. However, taken together with alleles of APOL1, there is an overall significant undertransmission of putative protective alleles to human African trypanosomiasis-affected children.
Bensi, G; Raugei, G; Klefenz, H; Cortese, R
Human genomic clones of the haptoglobin Hp1F and the "haptoglobin related' gene (Hpr) have been isolated. The two genes are adjacent, spanning a region of approximately 21 kb. A comparison of their coding sequences shows that Hpr differs from Hp1F at 28 codons. Northern blot and primer elongation analyses with human liver RNA show that the haptoglobin gene Hp1F appears to be transcribed some 1000-fold less in fetal than in adult liver. In adult liver the amount of Hpr mRNA is at the lower limit of detection, therefore the extent of its expression is at most less than 1000-fold that of the Hp1F gene. No Hpr mRNA can be detected in fetal liver. Images Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 7. Fig. 8. PMID:4018023
Bensi, G; Raugei, G; Klefenz, H; Cortese, R
Human genomic clones of the haptoglobin Hp1F and the "haptoglobin related' gene (Hpr) have been isolated. The two genes are adjacent, spanning a region of approximately 21 kb. A comparison of their coding sequences shows that Hpr differs from Hp1F at 28 codons. Northern blot and primer elongation analyses with human liver RNA show that the haptoglobin gene Hp1F appears to be transcribed some 1000-fold less in fetal than in adult liver. In adult liver the amount of Hpr mRNA is at the lower limit of detection, therefore the extent of its expression is at most less than 1000-fold that of the Hp1F gene. No Hpr mRNA can be detected in fetal liver.
Background Infection by Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae and Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, either alone or together, causes serious respiratory diseases in pigs. Results To develop an efficient multi-disease subunit vaccine against these pathogens, we produced a chimeric protein called Ap97, which comprises a deletion derivative of the N-terminal region of the A. pleuropneumoniae ApxIII toxin (ApxN) and the R1 and R2 repeats of M. hyopneumoniae P97 adhesin (P97C), using an E. coli expression system. The levels of both IgG1 and IgG2a isotypes specific for ApxN and P97C in the sera of Ap97-immunized mice increased, and Ap97 induced the secretion of IL-4 and IFN-γ by mouse splenocytes. Antisera from mice and pigs immunized with Ap97 readily reacted with both native ApxIII and P97 proteins. In addition, immunization with the Ap97 vaccine effectively protected pigs against challenge with both pathogens. Conclusions These findings suggest that Ap97 confers immunogenicity, and is an effective vaccine that protects pigs against infection by M. hyopneumoniae and A. pleuropneumoniae. PMID:24533486
Abstract This study was designed to assess the impact of a controlled release capsule (CRC) of monensin, administered prior to calving, on postcalving haptoglobin levels. The role of disease on haptoglobin levels was also studied. The study population consisted of 1010 cows from 25 Holstein dairy herds near Guelph, Ontario. Monensin CRC or placebo capsules were randomly assigned within each herd 3 wk prior to the expected calving date. Serum from week 1 and week 6 postcalving was submitted for quantification of haptoglobin concentrations. Haptoglobin results were analyzed for associations with treatment, health data, and individual cow factors up to 95 d in milk. Haptoglobin concentrations were higher in week 1 than week 6 (P < 0.05). In univariate analysis, several diseases were significantly associated with haptoglobin concentrations. However, occurrence of disease appeared to be a confounding factor in the data interpretation. Thus, the analysis was stratified by the presence or absence of disease. There appeared to be associations between factors other than clinical disease contributing to increased haptoglobin levels in both clinically healthy and unhealthy cattle. Haptoglobin served as a good indicator of inflammatory disease. Monensin CRC treatment was associated with increased haptoglobin concentrations in clinically unhealthy cattle, perhaps reflecting a better ability to respond to disease challenge. The lower haptoglobin concentrations in monensin CRC treated cattle that were clinically normal may be a reflection of reduced subclinical disease. PMID:16187551
Yang, Huan; Levine, Yaakov A.; Gunasekaran, Manoj K.; Wang, Yongjun; Addorisio, Meghan; Zhu, Shu; Li, Wei; Li, Jianhua; de Kleijn, Dominique P.V.; Olofsson, Peder S.; Warren, H. Shaw; He, Mingzhu; Al-Abed, Yousef; Roth, Jesse; Antoine, Daniel J.; Chavan, Sangeeta S.; Andersson, Ulf
Secreted by activated cells or passively released by damaged cells, extracellular HMGB1 is a prototypical damage-associated molecular pattern (DAMP) inflammatory mediator. During the course of developing extracorporeal approaches to treating injury and infection, we inadvertently discovered that haptoglobin, the acute phase protein that binds extracellular hemoglobin and targets cellular uptake through CD163, also binds HMGB1. Haptoglobin-HMGB1 complexes elicit the production of antiinflammatory enzymes (heme oxygenase-1) and cytokines (e.g., IL-10) in WT but not in CD163-deficient macrophages. Genetic disruption of haptoglobin or CD163 expression significantly enhances mortality rates in standardized models of intra-abdominal sepsis in mice. Administration of haptoglobin to WT and to haptoglobin gene-deficient animals confers significant protection. These findings reveal a mechanism for haptoglobin modulation of the inflammatory action of HMGB1, with significant implications for developing experimental strategies targeting HMGB1-dependent inflammatory diseases. PMID:27294203
Olsen, I; Namork, E; Myhrvold, V
Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, Actinobacillus ureae, Haemophilus aphrophilus, Haemophilus paraphrophilus, Haemophilus influenzae, Haemophilus parainfluenzae, Pasteurella haemolytica and Pasteurella multocida strains were examined by transmission electron microscopy for the presence of bacteriophages. Phages were detected in serotype a (SUNY 75) and e (UOH 1705) and in the fresh clinical isolates UOH Q1243 and UOH Q1247 of A. actinomycetemcomitans. Phages were not found in serotype b, c and d strains of A. actinomycetemcomitans, in the fresh clinical isolate UOH Q1244 of this species or in old strains (including reference strains) of related species from the Actinobacillus-Haemophilus-Pasteurella group.
Slots, J; Evans, R T; Lobbins, P M; Genco, R J
The agar dilution technique was used for determination of the antibiotic susceptibilities of 57 oral isolates and 2 nonoral isolates of Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans. Tetracycline, minocycline, and chloramphenicol inhibited more than 96% of the strains tested at a concentration of less than or equal to 2 micrograms/ml; 89% of the strains were inhibited by 2 micrograms of carbenicillin per ml. The other antimicrobial agents tested were less active. Approximately 10% of the A. actinomycetemcomitans strains were resistant to ampicillin, erythromycin, and penicillin G at concentrations of 32 to 64 micrograms/ml. These data suggest that tetracycline and minocycline may be valuable drugs in the treatment of A. actinomycetemcomitans infections. PMID:6903116
Gilbride, K A; Rosendal, S
Fifty-one strains of Haemophilus pleuropneumoniae were tested for susceptibility to 27 antimicrobial agents using agar disc diffusion, broth-tube dilution and microdilution methods. There was generally good agreement between the interpretation of the disc diffusion inhibition zones and the actual minimal inhibitory concentrations obtained with the dilution methods. The agreement between the results obtained with the broth-tube dilution method and the microdilution method was very good. Three strains were resistant to penicillin, ampicillin, carbenicillin, methicillin and tetracycline. One of those was also resistant to chloramphenicol. Forty strains were resistant to streptomycin, 23 strains were resistant to novobiocin and seven were resistant to triple sulfa. It is thus necessary to consider resistance development against antimicrobial agents chosen for the treatment of pleuro-pneumonia in pigs caused by Haemophilus pleuropneumoniae. PMID:6713256
Kim, Eun-Joo; Cho, Joon-Hyoung; Ku, Hyun-Ok; Pyo, Hyun-Mi; Kang, Hwan-Goo; Choi, Kyoung-Ho
This study aimed to discover potential biomarkers for dioxynivalenol (DON) intoxication. B6C3F1 male mice were orally exposed to 0.83, 2.5 and 7.5 mg/kg body weight (bw) DON for 8 days and the differential protein expressions in their blood plasma were determined by SELDI - Time-of-Flight/Mass Spectrometry (TOF/MS) and the immunoglobulins (Igs) G, A, M and E in the serum were investigated. 11.7 kDa protein was significantly highly expressed according to DON administration and this protein was purified by employing a methyl ceramic HyperD F column with using optimization buffer for adsorption and desorption. The purified protein was identified as a haptoglobin precursor by peptide mapping with using LC/Q-TOF/MS and MALDI-TOF/MS and this was confirmed by western blotting and ELISA. IgG and IgM in serum were decreased in a dose-dependent manner and IgA was decreased at 7.5 mg/kg bw DON administration, but the IgE level was not changed. To compare the expressions of haptoglobin and the Igs patterns between aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), zearalenone (ZEA) and DON intoxications, rats were orally administered with AFB1 1.0, ZEA 240 and DON 7.5 mg/kg bw for 8 days. Haptoglobin was increased only at DON 7.5 mg/kg bw, while it was slightly decreased at ZEA 240 mg/kg bw and it was not detected at all at AFB1 1.0 mg/kg bw. IgG and IgA were decreased by DON, but IgG, IgA, IgM and IgE were all increased by AFB1. No changes were observed by ZEA administration. These results show that plasma haptoglobin could be a diagnostic biomarker for DON intoxication when this is combined with examining the serum Igs. PMID:18716445
Mundaray Fernández, Ninomar; Fernández-Mestre, Mercedes
Although the number of people infected with T. cruzi is on the rise, host genetic and immune components that are crucial in the development of the Chagas disease have been discovered. We investigated the frequency of polymorphisms in the gene encoding haptoglobin of patients with chronic Chagas disease. The results suggest that while the HP1-1 genotype may confer protection against infection and the development of chronic Chagas disease due to the rapid metabolism of the Hp1-1-Hb complex and its anti-inflammatory activity, the presence of HP2-2 genotype may increase susceptibility towards a chronic condition of the disease due to a slow metabolism of the Hp2-2-Hb complex, lower antioxidant activity, and increased inflammatory reactivity, which lead to cell damage and a deterioration of the cardiac function. Finally, correlations between HP genotypes in different age groups and cardiac manifestations suggest that HP polymorphism could influence the prognosis of this infectious disease. This study shows some of the relevant aspects of the haptoglobin gene polymorphism and its implications in the T. cruzi infection. PMID:25147423
Carmalt, J L; Baptiste, K E; Chirino-Trejo, J M
A 10-year-old pregnant Norwegian Fjord horse was examined for gross swelling of the muzzle of 2 years' duration. Examination of biopsy specimens revealed diffuse dermal fibrosis, micropustule formation, and vascular thrombosis; large numbers of Actinobacillus lignieresii were isolated in pure culture. Prolonged treatment with i.v. administration of sodium iodide and oral administration of trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole caused regression of the swelling and did not induce abortion. A 5-month-old American Paint filly was examined for swelling in the udder region. Bacteriologic culture of purulent material obtained from the left teat revealed A lignieresii. Treatment with oral administration of rifampin and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole resulted in complete resolution of clinical signs. To the authors' knowledge, these findings represent the first report of mastitis and chronic nasal cellulitis caused by A lignieresii infection in horses.
A selective medium, TSBV (tryptic soy-serum-bacitracin-vancomycin) agar, was developed for the isolation of Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, TSBV agar contained (per liter) 40 g of tryptic soy agar, 1 g of yeast extract, 100 ml of horse serum. 75 mg of bacitracin, and 5 mg of vancomycin. The TSBV medium suppressed most oral species and permitted significantly higher recovery of A. actinomycetemcomitans than nonselective blood agar medium. The distinct colonial morphology and positive catalase reaction of A. actinomycetemcomitans easily distinguished this bacterium from Haemophilus aphrophilus, Capnocytophaga species, and a few other contaminating organisms. With the TSBV medium, even modestly equipped laboratories will be able to isolate and identify A. actinomycetemcomitans from clinical specimens. Images PMID:7068837
Functional Pentameric Formation via Coexpression of the Escherichia coli Heat-Labile Enterotoxin B Subunit and Its Fusion Protein Subunit with a Neutralizing Epitope of ApxIIA Exotoxin Improves the Mucosal Immunogenicity and Protection against Challenge by Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae▿
Kim, Jung-Mi; Park, Seung-Moon; Kim, Jung-Ae; Park, Jin-Ah; Yi, Min-Hee; Kim, Nan-Sun; Bae, Jong-Lye; Park, Sung Goo; Jang, Yong-Suk; Yang, Moon-Sik; Kim, Dae-Hyuk
A coexpression strategy in Saccharomyces cerevisiae using episomal and integrative vectors for the Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin B subunit (LTB) and a fusion protein of an ApxIIA toxin epitope produced by Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae coupled to LTB, respectively, was adapted for the hetero-oligomerization of LTB and the LTB fusion construct. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) with GM1 ganglioside indicated that the LTB fusion construct, along with LTB, was oligomerized to make the functional heteropentameric form, which can bind to receptors on the mucosal epithelium. The antigen-specific antibody titer of mice orally administered antigen was increased when using recombinant yeast coexpressing the pentameric form instead of recombinant yeast expressing either the LTB fusion form or antigen alone. Better protection against challenge infection with A. pleuropneumoniae was also observed for coexpression in recombinant yeast compared with others. The present study clearly indicated that the coexpression strategy enabled the LTB fusion construct to participate in the pentameric formation, resulting in an improved induction of systemic and mucosal immune responses. PMID:22030372
Cid, M C; Grant, D S; Hoffman, G S; Auerbach, R; Fauci, A S; Kleinman, H K
Angiogenesis is an important process in chronic inflammatory diseases. We observed that sera from patients with systemic vasculitis stimulated angiogenesis in an in vitro model using human umbilical vein endothelial cells cultured on a basement membrane (Matrigel) substrate. After 40% ammonium sulfate precipitation, angiogenic activity remained in the low molecular weight fraction and could be inactivated by heat. SDS-page of serum FPLC fractions exhibiting maximal angiogenic activity demonstrated two prominent species of 45 and 16-20 kD in patients' sera. These bands were much less apparent in sera obtained from control subjects. Amino-terminal sequencing of the 45-kD protein demonstrated that it was haptoglobin. Purified haptoglobin stimulated angiogenesis in a dose-dependent manner. The angiogenic activity of vasculitis patients' sera was partially inhibited by an antihaptoglobin antibody. Furthermore, serum haptoglobin levels in vasculitis patients correlated both with disease and angiogenic activity. Haptoglobin angiogenic activity was confirmed in two in vivo models using an implanted disc and a subcutaneous injection of basement membrane. Stimulation of angiogenesis is a newly recognized biological function of haptoglobin. The increased levels of haptoglobin found in chronic inflammatory conditions may play an important role in tissue repair. In systemic vasculitis, haptoglobin might also compensate for ischemia by promoting development of collateral vessels. Images PMID:7680672
Pierrot-Gallo, Bruna Spinella; Vicari, Perla; Matsuda, Sandra Satiko; Adegoke, Samuel Ademola; Mecabo, Grazielle; Figueiredo, Maria Stella
Background Haptoglobin genotypes, and interleukin-6 and -8 participate in the pathophysiology of sickle cell anemia. The expression of cytokines is regulated by genetic mechanisms however the effect of haptoglobin polymorphisms on these cytokines is not fully understood. This study aimed to compare the frequency of haptoglobin genotypes and the interleukin-6 and -8 concentrations in sickle cell anemia patients and controls to investigate the association between haptoglobin genotypes and cytokine levels. Methods Sixty sickle cell anemia patients and 74 healthy individuals were analyzed. Haptoglobin genotypes were determined by multiplex polymerase chain reaction, and the interleukin-6 and -8 levels by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. The association between haptoglobin genotypes and cytokines was investigated by statistical tests. Results Hp2-1 was the most common genotype in both the cases and controls while Hp1-1 was less frequent among sickle cell anemia patients. Interleukin-6 and -8 levels were higher in patients than controls (p-value <0.0001). There was no significant difference in interleukin-6 and -8 concentrations between the genotypes (p-value >0.05). A similar trend was observed among the controls. Conclusion Although, levels of interleukin-6 and -8 were higher in the sickle cell anemia patients, they appeared not to be related to the haptoglobin genotypes. Further investigations are necessary to identify factors responsible for increased secretion of the interleukin-6 and -8 pro-inflammatory cytokines in patients with sickle cell anemia. PMID:26408368
Zhao, Changqing; Annamalai, Loganath; Guo, Changfa; Kothandaraman, Narasimhan; Koh, Stephen Chee Liang; Zhang, Huoming; Biswas, Arijit; Choolani, Mahesh
Abstract OBJECTIVE This study was conducted to evaluate the prognostic significance of haptoglobin levels in the overall survival of patients presenting with various stages of epithelial ovarian cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS We employed an in-house sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method to determine the concentrations of preoperative haptoglobin and C-reactive protein (CRP) in sera samples obtained from 66 malignant tumors, 60 benign tumors, and 10 normal healthy women. RESULTS Levels of serum haptoglobin significantly correlated with tumor type (P < .001) and International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics stage (P < .05). A significant correlation was observed between clinical stage and patient survival (r = 5.99, P = .026). Our data also indicated that elevated serum haptoglobin levels were associated with poor outcome for overall survival using both univariate and multivariate analyses (P = .048 and P = .036 respectively). Using Pearson's correlation, we have noted that serum CRP concentrations significantly correlated with haptoglobin levels (r2 = 0.22, P < .001). Immunohistochemical findings and Western blot analyses were compatible with sera levels of haptoglobin in which a higher intensity of staining occurred in late-stage epithelial ovarian cancers. CONCLUSION This study provides evidence that preoperative serum levels of haptoglobin could serve as an independent prognostic factor in patients presenting with epithelial ovarian cancer. PMID:17325738
Smith, A B; Hajduk, S L
Trypanosomes are protozoan parasites of medical and veterinary importance. Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense and Trypanosoma brucei gambiense infect humans, causing African sleeping sickness. However, Trypanosoma brucei brucei can only infect animals, causing the disease Nagana in cattle. Man is protected from this subspecies of trypanosomes by a toxic subtype of high density lipoproteins (HDLs) called the trypanosome lytic factor (TLF). The toxic molecule in TLF is believed to be the haptoglobin-related protein that when bound to hemoglobin kills the trypanosome via oxidative damage initiated by its peroxidase activity. The amount of lytic activity in serum varies widely between different individuals with up to a 60-fold difference in activity. In addition, an increase in the total amount of lytic activity occurs during the purification of TLF, suggesting that an inhibitor of TLF (ITLF) exists in human serum. We now show that the individual variation in trypanosome lytic activity in serum correlates to variations in the amount of ITLF. Immunoblots of ITLF probed with antiserum against haptoglobin recognize a 120-kDa protein, indicating that haptoglobin is present in partially purified ITLF. Haptoglobin involvement is further shown in that it inhibits TLF in a manner similar to ITLF. Using an anti-haptoglobin column to remove haptoglobin from ITLF, we show that the loss of haptoglobin coincides with the loss of inhibitor activity. Addition of purified haptoglobin restores inhibitor activity. This indicates that haptoglobin is the molecule responsible for inhibition and therefore causing the individual variation in serum lytic activity. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 4 PMID:7479764
Atkinson, Sarah H; Rockett, Kirk; Sirugo, Giorgio; Bejon, Philip A; Fulford, Anthony; O'Connell, Maria A; Bailey, Robin; Kwiatkowski, Dominic P; Prentice, Andrew M
Anaemia is a major cause of morbidity and mortality for children in Africa. The plasma protein haptoglobin (Hp) binds avidly to free haemoglobin released following malaria-induced haemolysis. Haptoglobin polymorphisms result in proteins with altered haemoglobin-binding capacity and different antioxidant, iron-recycling, and immune functions. Previous studies examined the importance of haptoglobin polymorphism in malaria and iron homeostasis, but it is unknown whether haptoglobin genotype might be a risk factor for anaemia in children in a malaria-endemic area. A cohort of 780 rural Gambian children aged 2-6 y was surveyed at the start and end of the malaria season. Samples were taken to assess haemoglobin (Hb) concentration, iron status (ferritin, zinc protoporphyrin, transferrin saturation, and soluble transferrin receptor concentration), haptoglobin concentration, alpha-1-antichymotrypsin (a measure of inflammation), and malaria parasites on blood film. We extracted DNA and genotyped for haptoglobin, sickle cell, and glucose-6-phosphate (G6PD) deficiency. Mean Hb levels fell over the malaria season. Children with the haptoglobin 2-2 genotype (17%) had a greater mean drop in Hb level over the malaria season (an 8.9 g/l drop; confidence interval [CI] 5.7, 12.1) compared to other children (a 5.1 g/l drop; CI 3.8, 6.4). In multivariate regression analysis, controlling for baseline Hb level, age group, village, malaria parasites on blood film, iron status, haptoglobin concentration, and G6PD deficiency, haptoglobin genotype predicted Hb level at the end of the malaria season (p = 0.0009, coefficient = -4.2). Iron status was not influenced by haptoglobin genotype. The finding that haptoglobin 2-2 genotype is a risk factor for anaemia in children in a malaria-endemic area may reflect the reduced ability of the Hp2-2 polymer to scavenge free haemoglobin-iron following malaria-induced haemolysis. The magnitude of the effect of haptoglobin genotype (4 g/l Hb difference, p
Slocombe, L L; Colditz, I G
This study aimed to develop an in-house assay for haptoglobin determination in bovine blood samples, assess the effect of haemolysis on the reported haptoglobin concentration and develop a method to correct for haemolysis interference. The assay developed is highly repeatable (92.3% across plates and 94.8% between assays). A correction equation (Hp(corrected)=Hp(raw)-Hp(endogenous activity)-Hp(due to Hb); where Hp(due to Hb)=0.118×Hb(free)+0.015) was developed based around the linear relationship of haptoglobin and haemoglobin (by-product of haemolysis) and endogenous interference, tested and validated for use with haemolysed samples. The method described in this paper allows samples inadvertently haemolysed at collection to be analysed, with the reported haptoglobin concentration being an accurate reflection of the physiological levels in the animal's blood at the time of collection. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier India Pvt Ltd. All rights reserved.
Álvarez-Blasco, Francisco; Martínez-García, Ma Ángeles; Luque-Ramírez, Manuel; Parraza, Naiara; San Millán, José L.; Escobar-Morreale, Héctor F.
Background Hp2 alleles of the haptoglobin α–chain polymorphism reduce the anti-oxidant properties and increase the pro-inflammatory actions of this acute-phase protein in a gene-dosage fashion. We hypothesized that the haptoglobin polymorphism might contribute to the increased oxidative stress and low-grade chronic inflammation frequently associated with polycystic ovary syndrome, obesity, and abnormalities of glucose tolerance. Methodology/Principal Findings Serum haptoglobin and the haptoglobin α–chain polymorphism were determined in 141 patients with polycystic ovary syndrome and 102 non-hyperandrogenic women. Of the whole group of 243 premenopausal women, 117 were obese and 51 showed abnormal glucose tolerance. Although serum haptoglobin concentrations were similar in PCOS patients and controls, the former presented with an increased frequency of Hp2 alleles (62% vs. 52%, P = 0.023). Circulating haptoglobin levels increased with obesity (P<0.001), yet no association was found between obesity and haptoglobin genotypes. No differences were observed in haptoglobin levels or genotype frequencies depending on glucose tolerance. Fifty percent of the variation in serum haptoglobin concentrations was explained by the variability in serum C-reactive protein concentrations, BMI, insulin sensitivity and haptoglobin genotypes. Conclusions/Significance Serum haptoglobin concentrations in premenopausal women are largely dependent on the haptoglobin polymorphism and on the presence of obesity, with insulin resistance and chronic inflammation possibly modulating this relationship. The association of polycystic ovary syndrome with Hp2 alleles suggests that the anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of haptoglobin may be reduced in these patients. PMID:19440331
Giglio, C; Aránguiz, V; Giglio, M S; Fernández, A
Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans (AA), is a cocobacillus thin and small, non motile, uncapsulate and capnophilic. AA, is: one of the species encountered in the mouth's comensal flora being able to be isolated in gingival crevices culture and oral mucosa in a 20% of the healthy population. An important number of pathogenic factors make it well equipped, to protect itself from host's defense mechanisms, and to destroy the periodontal tissue. Between the most important we find lipopolisacarides and leucotoxines which promote tisular invasion and destructive qualities of this microorganism. Since 1912, there are numerous reports of infectious process associated to it, between which we find: endocarditis in native and prothesic valve, soft tissues abscess, pneumonia, brain's abscess, urethritis, vertebral osteomielitis, thyroid's abscess, pericarditis and periodontal juvenile illness, being this one in which its isolation is more frequent. In vitro, AA is very susceptible to tetracicline. This antibiotic reaches high concentrations in gingival crevices, has significant affinity to the alveolar bone and contributes to protect the collagen. These special feature make them the election drug in periodontal disease produced by this microorganism.
Kalmar, J R; Arnold, R R
Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans is a fastidious, facultative gram-negative rod associated with endocarditis, certain forms of periodontal disease, and other focal infections. Human neutrophils have demonstrated bactericidal activity against A. actinomycetemcomitans, and much of the oxygen-dependent killing has been attributed to the myeloperoxidase-H2O2-halide system. However, the contribution of other neutrophil components to killing activity is obscure. Lactoferrin, an iron-binding glycoprotein, is a major constituent of neutrophil-specific granules and is also found in mucosal secretions. In this report, we show that human lactoferrin is bactericidal for A. actinomycetemcomitans. Killing activity required an unsaturated (iron- and anion-free) molecule that produced a 2-log decrease in viability within 120 min at 37 degrees C at a concentration of 1.9 microM. Besides exhibiting concentration dependence, killing kinetics were affected by minor variations in temperature and pH. Magnesium, a divalent cation thought to stabilize lipopolysaccharide interactions on the surface of gram-negative organisms, enhanced lactoferrin killing of A. actinomycetemcomitans, while other cations, such as potassium and calcium, had no effect. Our data suggest that lactoferrin contributes to killing of A. actinomycetemcomitans by human neutrophils and that it may also play a significant role in innate secretory defense against this potential periodontopathogen. PMID:3417349
Rabie, G; Lally, E T; Shenker, B J
Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans produces a leukotoxin that kills human polymorphonuclear cells (PMNs) and monocytes but not lymphocytes. In this study, we examined A. actinomycetemcomitans leukotoxin for its ability to alter human peripheral blood lymphocyte (HPBL) responsiveness. After a 90-min exposure to the leukotoxin, all monocytes were killed and HPBL responsiveness to mitogens and antigens was significantly inhibited. The ability of the leukotoxin to inhibit HPBL responses was not surprising, since monocytes and macrophages are required for many lymphocyte functions. However, we were unable to totally restore HPBL responsiveness when adherent autologous monocytes were added back to cultures of leukotoxin-treated lymphocytes. These studies demonstrate that A. actinomycetemcomitans leukotoxin may also exert nonlethal effects directly on lymphocytes. Furthermore, impaired lymphocyte function did not appear to be the result of indirect effects of products released by dying monocytes. Although it is not clear how A. actinomycetemcomitans acts to cause disease, several investigators have proposed that impaired host defenses may play a pivotal role. Several studies have demonstrated defects in PMN, monocyte, and lymphocyte function in patients with periodontal disease. These findings, along with the data presented in this paper, support the hypothesis that patients who harbor A. actinomycetemcomitans could suffer from local or systemic immune suppression. The effects of this suppression may be to enhance the pathogenicity of A. actinomycetemcomitans itself or that of some other opportunistic organism. PMID:3335399
Shenker, B J; Kushner, M E; Tsai, C C
We have examined soluble sonic extracts of Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans for their ability to alter human and murine fibroblast proliferation. We found that extracts of all A. actinomycetemcomitans strains examined (both leukotoxic and nonleukotoxic) caused a dose-dependent inhibition of both murine and human fibroblast proliferation as assessed by DNA synthesis ([3H]thymidine incorporation). Addition of sonic extract simultaneously with [3H]thymidine had no effect on incorporation, indicating that suppression was not due to the presence of excessive amounts of cold thymidine. Inhibition of DNA synthesis was also paralleled by decreased RNA synthesis ([3H]uridine incorporation) and by a decrease in cell growth as assessed by direct cell counts; there was no effect on cell viability. The suppressive factor(s) is heat labile; preliminary purification and characterization studies indicate that it is a distinct and separate moiety from other A. actinomycetemcomitans mediators previously reported, including leukotoxin, immune suppressive factor, and endotoxin. Although it is not clear how A. actinomycetemcomitans acts to cause disease, we propose that one aspect of the pathogenicity of this organism rests in its ability to inhibit fibroblast growth, which in turn could contribute to the collagen loss associated with certain forms of periodontal disease, in particular juvenile periodontitis. PMID:7152684
DiRienzo, J M; Tsai, C C; Shenker, B J; Taichman, N S; Lally, E T
Hybridoma cell lines which produce monoclonal antibodies to a leukotoxin from Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans were prepared. The monoclonal antibodies were selected for their ability to neutralize the cytotoxic activity of the leukotoxin and recognize the toxin on nitrocellulose blots. The antibodies belonged to either the immunoglobulin G1 (IgG1) or IgG2 subclass and differed in their ability to bind to the leukotoxin on nitrocellulose blots. However, only slight differences in neutralization titers were observed. Use of the monoclonal antibodies revealed that polymyxin B-extracted or osmotic shock-released leukotoxin could be separated into several high-molecular-weight polypeptides by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Immunoblot analysis with the monoclonal antibodies also demonstrated that the leukotoxin was present in eight oral strains of A. actinomycetemcomitans that had been previously classified by a biological assay as leukotoxic. The availability of these monoclonal antibodies should facilitate and expand studies concerning the role of the leukotoxin in the pathogenicity of A. actinomycetemcomitans. Images PMID:3965404
Piñeiro, Carlos; Piñeiro, Matilde; Morales, Joaquín; Andrés, Marta; Lorenzo, Elia; Pozo, Mateo Del; Alava, María A; Lampreave, Fermín
Pig-MAP (Major Acute-phase Protein) and haptoglobin concentrations were determined in pigs from commercial farms, and reference intervals obtained for different productive stages. Pig-MAP serum concentrations were lower in sows than in adult boars (mean values 0.81 vs. 1.23 mg/mL) and the opposite was observed for haptoglobin (1.47 vs. 0.94 mg/mL). No differences were found between parities, except for a minor decrease in haptoglobin concentration in the 4th parity. A linear correlation between pig-MAP and haptoglobin concentration was observed. In the period 4-12 weeks of life, pig-MAP mean concentrations were around 1mg/mL, being lower in the finishing period (0.7-0.8 mg/mL). Haptoglobin concentrations increased with time, from around 0.6 mg/mL at 4 weeks of age to 1.4 mg/mL at 12 weeks. Mean values of around 0.9 mg/mL were observed in the finishing period. A wider distribution of values was observed for haptoglobin than for pig-MAP concentrations. Differences between herds were observed, with the highest values obtained in a herd with signs of respiratory disease.
Shang, Shuxin; Li, Wei; Qin, Xue; Zhang, Shu; Liu, Yinkun
Aberrant fucosylation plays a functional role in regulating ontogeny and celluar differentiation and are differentially regulated in cancerous condition, which could provide hallmarks for cancer diagnostics and surveillance. We previously developed a magnetic beads-based lectin ELISA system to measure fucosylated haptoglobin (Hp), which has been reported to be a cancer biomarker through a series of glycoproteomic analysis. In this study, serum fucosylated Hp ratios were measured using our ELISA kit in a separate cohort of 260 patients independently, including 130 healthy controls and 130 patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Fucosylated Hp /Hp ratio (levels of fucosylated Hp /levels of protein Hp) and ELISA Index (OD value of fucosylated Hp /OD value of protein Hp) were calculated respectively to reflect Hp fucosylation level on its protein level. Our data showed that fucosylated Hp /Hp ratio (AUC=0.8449) and ELISA Index (AUC=0.8581) had better performance in distinguishing HCC from controls, which indicated that fucosylated Hp ratios could improve the diagnosis and prediction of HCC even with a low level of alpha-fetoprotein (AFP). Additionally, the combination analysis of AFP and fucosylated Hp ratios increased the AUC value for HCC diagnosis. PMID:28382152
Constans, J; Viau, M; Gouaillard, C; Clerc, A
The haptoglobin (Hp) polymorphism is investigated in 11 African groups living in an area from the Algerian Sahara to Central Africa. More than 4,000 samples were examined. In the Saharian samples, the Hp1 gene frequency is higher than in any other African group. From north to south, a decrease in the Hp1 gene frequency is observed; in the Pygmy sample only, this frequency is lower than the frequency of the Hp2 gene. By means of a sensitive radioimmunoelectrophoresis, the presence of a residual Hp in Hp O sera in which the Hp polymorphism can also be determined can be revealed. Absence of Hp 1-1 and significant excess of Hp 2-2 individuals were observed. More Hp 2-1M phenotypes were detected in the Hp O population than in the non-Hp O population examined. In the Hp O samples, the influence of the phenotype distribution on the Hp gene frequencies is discussed. The heavy polymers of the Hp related to the presence of the alpha 2 chain (Hp2 gene product) are involved only in the biological mechanisms responsible for the presence of Hp O and Hp 2-1 M phenotypes among African groups. Images Fig. 1 PMID:7258189
Shen, Hua; Song, Yang; Colangelo, Christopher M.; Wu, Terence; Bruce, Can; Scabia, Gaia; Galan, Anjela; Maffei, Margherita; Goldstein, Daniel R.
Immune tolerance to transplanted organs is impaired when the innate immune system is activated in response to the tissue necrosis that occurs during harvesting and implantation procedures. A key molecule in this immune pathway is the intracellular TLR signal adaptor known as myeloid differentiation primary response gene 88 (MyD88). After transplantation, MyD88 induces DC maturation as well as the production of inflammatory mediators, such as IL-6 and TNF-α. However, upstream activators of MyD88 function in response to transplantation have not been identified. Here, we show that haptoglobin, an acute phase protein, is an initiator of this MyD88-dependent inflammatory process in a mouse model of skin transplantation. Necrotic lysates from transplanted skin elicited higher inflammatory responses in DCs than did nontransplanted lysates, suggesting DC-mediated responses are triggered by factors released during transplantation. Analysis of transplanted lysates identified haptoglobin as one of the proteins upregulated during transplantation. Expression of donor haptoglobin enhanced the onset of acute skin transplant rejection, whereas haptoglobin-deficient skin grafts showed delayed acute rejection and antidonor T cell priming in a MyD88-dependent graft rejection model. Thus, our results show that haptoglobin release following skin necrosis contributes to accelerated transplant rejection, with potential implications for the development of localized immunosuppressive therapies. PMID:22156194
Brandslund, I; Petersen, P H; Brinkløv, M M; Andersen, P K; Parlev, E
The catabolism of haemoglobin-haptoglobin complexes was studied in four patients with increased vascular haemolysis as part of acute or subacute haemolytic uraemic syndromes. The apparent volumic substance elimination rates for haemoglobin (Fe) bound to haptoglobin in plasma were 1.1 mumol/h/l and 2.9 mumol/h/l in two patients suffering from sublimate and hydrochloric acid poisoning, respectively. This is estimated to correspond to a normal catabolism, when the increased haptoglobin synthesis is taken into account. In the other two patients suffering from serum-sickness there was reduced clearance and thereby an accumulation of haemoglobin-haptoglobin complexes in plasma during penicillin administration. When the offending drug was withdrawn the plasma concentration of haemoglobin bound to haptoglobin remained high for about three days and then fell rapidly (approximately with 3.8 mumol/l/h and 1.9 mumol/l/h). Thus, also in these patients the clearance capacity could be normalized after discontinuation of the drug.
Zhang, Yiwei; Zhu, Jianhui; Yin, Haidi; Marrero, Jorge; Zhang, Xin-Xiang; Lubman, David M.
A method for detection of fucosylated glycans from haptoglobin in patient serum has been developed that provides enhanced sensitivity. The workflow involves isolation of the haptoglobin using an HPLC-based affinity column followed by glycan removal, extraction and desialylation. The fucosylated glycans are then derivatized by Meladrazine which significantly enhances the detection of the glycans in electrospray ionization. The separation of the derivatized glycans in a HILIC column shows 8 glycans from haptoglobin can be detected using less than 1 μL serum sample, with excellent reproducibility and quantitation, where without derivatization the glycans could not be detected. The ratio of the fucosylated peaks to their corresponding non-fucosylated forms shows that the fucosylated glycans are upregulated in the case of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) samples versus cirrhosis samples, where the relatively low abundance bifucosylated tetra-antennary form can be detected and may be a particularly good marker for HCC. PMID:26503433
Dépret, François; Dunyach, Chloé; De Tymowski, Christian; Chaussard, Maïté; Bataille, Aurélien; Ferry, Axelle; Moreno, Nabila; Cupaciu, Alexandru; Soussi, Sabri; Benyamina, Mourad; Mebazaa, Alexandre; Serror, Kevin; Chaouat, Marc; Garnier, Jean-Pierre; Pirracchio, Romain; Legrand, Matthieu
Intravascular haemolysis has been associated with acute kidney injury (AKI) in different clinical settings (cardiac surgery, sickle cell disease). Haemolysis occurs frequently in critically ill burn patients. The aim of this study was to assess the predictive value of haptoglobin at admission to predict major adverse kidney events (MAKE) and AKI in critically ill burn patients. We conducted a retrospective, single-centre cohort study in a burn critical care unit in a tertiary centre, including all consecutive severely burned patients (total burned body surface > 20% and/or shock and/or mechanical ventilation at admission) from January 2012 to April 2017 with a plasmatic haptoglobin dosage at admission. A total of 130 patients were included in the analysis. Their mean age was 49 (34-62) years, their median total body surface area burned was 29% (15-51%) and the intensive care unit (ICU) mortality was 25%. Early haemolysis was defined as an undetectable plasmatic haptoglobin at admission. We used logistic regression to identify MAKE and AKI risk factors. In multivariate analysis, undetectable haptoglobin was associated with MAKE and AKI (respectively, OR 6.33, 95% CI 2.34-16.45, p < 0.001; OR 8.32, 95% CI 2.86-26.40, p < 0.001). Undetectable plasmatic haptoglobin at ICU admission is an independent risk factor for MAKE and AKI in critically ill burn patients. This study provides a rationale for biomarker-guided therapy using haptoglobin in critically ill burn patients.
Boguschewski, K D; Mann, D; Röhr, A; Steinbrück, U
In 14 patients with an according to the WHO-criteria definitive myocardial infarction quantitative serum haptoglobin course controls were performed in the first week after the pain event. The haptoglobin estimations were performed by means of simple radial immunodiffusion after Mancini on M-partigen plates. Up to the fifth day after the pain event an increase of the haptoglobin concentration could be established. On the two following days a decreasing tendency could be observed. In a comparative group of five with chronic ischaemic heart diseases and angina pectoris syndrome under the same conditions of examination no increase of haptoglobin could be observed during the first five days after the pain event. These examination results correspond with the literary data, that in disease with tissue destruction increases of haptoglobin are to be observed.
Actinobacillus rossii sp. nov., Actinobacillus seminis sp. nov., nom. rev., Pasteurella bettii sp. nov., Pasteurella lymphangitidis sp. nov., Pasteurella mairi sp. nov., and Pasteurella trehalosi sp. nov.
Sneath, P H; Stevens, M
Evidence from numerical taxonomic analysis and DNA-DNA hybridization supports the proposal of new species in the genera Actinobacillus and Pasteurella. The following new species are proposed: Actinobacillus rossii sp. nov., from the vaginas of postparturient sows; Actinobacillus seminis sp. nov., nom. rev., associated with epididymitis of sheep; Pasteurella bettii sp. nov., associated with human Bartholin gland abscess and finger infections; Pasteurella lymphangitidis sp. nov. (the BLG group), which causes bovine lymphangitis; Pasteurella mairi sp. nov., which causes abortion in sows; and Pasteurella trehalosi sp. nov., formerly biovar T of Pasteurella haemolytica, which causes septicemia in older lambs.
Sneath, P H; Stevens, M
A numerical taxonomic study of strains of Actinobacillus, Pasteurella and Yersinia, with some allied bacteria, showed 23 reasonably distinct groups. These fell into three major areas. Area A contained species of Actinobacillus and Pasteurella: A. suis, A. equuli, A. lignieresii, P. haemolytica biovar A, P. haemolytica biovar T, P. multocida, A. actinomycetemcomitans, 'P. bettii', 'A. seminis', P. ureae and P. aerogenes. Also included in A was a composite group of Pasteurella pneumotropica and P. gallinarum, together with unnamed groups referred to as 'BLG', 'Mair', 'Ross' and 'aer-2'. Area B contained species of Yersinia: Y. enterocolitica, Y. pseudotuberculosis, Y. pestis and a group 'ent-b' similar to Y. enterocolitica. Area C contained non-fermenting strains: Y. philomiragia, Moraxella anatipestifer and a miscellaneous group 'past-b'. There were also a small number of unnamed single strains.
Afanas'eva, I S; Spitsyn, V A; Tsurikova, G V
The polymorphism and serum levels of haptoglobin were studied in asbestosis patients, in the control and the workers exposed to asbest. Hp1-1 has the highest, Hp2-2--the lowest and Hp2-1 has the intermediate concentration of this protein. In the course of contact with asbest, and especially in asbestosis patients, the haptoglobin levels are higher (for all phenotypes). The standard deviation from the Hp concentration in asbestosis patients was significantly higher. The phenotypes Hp1-1 were found more often in asbestosis patients than among asbest-exposed workers.
Akerstedt, Maria; Björck, Lennart; Persson Waller, Karin; Sternesjö, Ase
Despite more than 30 years of research into mastitis diagnostics, there are few alternatives to the somatic cell count (SCC) in practical use for identification of cows with subclinical mastitis. Mastitis is not only an animal welfare problem, but also affects the yield, composition and technological properties of milk. Hence, dairy cooperatives give farmers a premium quality payment to encourage low SCC although there is no clear scientific data defining the level of SCC in bulk tank milk that is associated with additional benefits in terms of milk quality. Recent research on alternative markers for inflammatory reactions in the lactating cow, e.g. in mastitis, includes investigations of the acute phase protein, haptoglobin (Hp). So far, the content of Hp in milk has mainly been studied in relation to mastitis diagnostics, with little attention given to its importance for milk composition and technological properties. At present, Hp in milk is measured using ELISA, but this technique is not suitable for routine large-scale analysis. In recent years, optical biosensor technology has been used for automated and rapid quantitative analysis of different components in milk, but so far not for analysis of acute phase proteins. The aim of the present study was to develop a rapid and sensitive biosensor method to determine Hp in milk. An affinity sensor assay based on the interaction between Hp and haemoglobin was developed using surface plasmon resonance (SPR) biosensor technology. The assay was used to analyse Hp in composite milk samples from cows without any clinical signs of mastitis and quarter milk samples with a weak to strong reaction in the California Mastitis Test (CMT). A commercial ELISA for determination of Hp in milk was used for comparison. The limit of detection (LOD) of the biosensor assay was determined as 1.1 mg/l. Within-assay and between-day variations were determined both with bulk tank milk spiked with human Hp and with composite milk samples
Montagnani, Carlotta; Pecile, Patrizia; Moriondo, Maria; Petricci, Patrizia; Becciani, Sabrina; Chiappini, Elena; Indolfi, Giuseppe; Rossolini, Gian Maria; de Martino, Maurizio
We report the first human case of meningitis and sepsis caused in a child by Actinobacillus suis or A. equuli, a common opportunistic pathogen of swine or horses, respectively. Identification was performed by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization–time of flight mass spectrometry and real-time PCR assay. A previous visit to a farm was suspected as the source of infection. PMID:25878346
Erickson, L.M.; Maeda, N.
Parallel occurrences of evolutionary events in the haptoglobin gene clusters of rhesus monkeys and humans were studied. We found six different haplotypes among 11 individuals from two rhesus monkey families. The six haplotypes include two types of haptoglobin gene clusters: one type with a single gene and the other with two genes. DNA sequence analysis indicates that the one-gene and the two-gene clusters were both formed by unequal homologous crossovers between two genes of an ancestral three-gene cluster, near exon 5, the longest exon of the gene. This exon is also the location where a separate unequal homologous crossover occured in the human lineage, forming the human two-gene haptoglobin gene cluster from an ancestral three-gene cluster. The occurrence of independent homologous unequal crossovers in rhesus monkey and in human within the same region of DNA suggests that the evolutionary history of the haptoglobin gene cluster in primates is the consequence of frequent homologous pairings facilitated by the longest and most conserved exon of the gene. 27 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.
Zhu, Jianhui; Lin, Zhenxin; Wu, Jing; Yin, Haidi; Dai, Jianliang; Feng, Ziding; Marrero, Jorge; Lubman, David M
We have developed herein a quantitative mass spectrometry-based approach to analyze the etiology-related alterations in fucosylation degree of serum haptoglobin in patients with liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The three most common etiologies, including infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV), infection with hepatitis C virus (HCV), and heavy alcohol consumption (ALC), were investigated. Only 10 μL of serum was used in this assay in which haptoglobin was immunoprecipitated using a monoclonal antibody. The N-glycans of haptoglobin were released with PNGase F, desialylated, and permethylated prior to MALDI-QIT-TOF MS analysis. In total, N-glycan profiles derived from 104 individual patient samples were quantified (14 healthy controls, 40 cirrhosis, and 50 HCCs). A unique pattern of bifucosylated tetra-antennary glycan, with both core and antennary fucosylation, was identified in HCC patients. Quantitative analysis indicated that the increased fucosylation degree was highly associated with HBV- and ALC-related HCC patients compared to that of the corresponding cirrhosis patients. Notably, the bifucosylation degree was distinctly increased in HCC patients versus that in cirrhosis of all etiologies. The elevated bifucosylation degree of haptoglobin can discriminate early stage HCC patients from cirrhosis in each etiologic category, which may be used to provide a potential marker for early detection and to predict HCC in patients with cirrhosis.
Saha, N; Ong, Y W
A total of 870 subjects comprising 524 Chinese (from different dialect groups), 231 Malays and 115 Tamil Indians were investigated for the distribution of haptoglobin types and ABO blood groups. Haptoglobins were typed by PAG electrophoresis using discontinuous buffer system. The frequencies of Hp,1 Hp2 and Hp0 were found to be 0.330, 0.670 and 0.029 in Chinese; 0.298, 0.702 and 0.004 in Malays; and 0.167, 0.833 and 0.009 in Indians. The Hainanese had the highest frequency of Hp1 (0.375) followed by Cantonese (0.348), Teochew (0.333) and Hakkas (0.288). The distribution of all the phenotypes of haptoglobin was at equilibrium in all the population groups studied. No association of ABO blood groups was detected with the haptoglobin types. However, there was an excess of AB blood group in persons carrying Hp2 compared with those with Hp1.
Alesho, N A; Guzheedov, V N; Dvorkin, A I
The paper gives the results of tests for influence of luminol solution of different composition on detectability of haptoglobin fractions in the bloodstains of different ages. It was stated that alkaline luminol solutions reduce intensity of fractions and may hamper Hp phenotype determination especially in old stains.
Miranda-Vilela, Ana L; Akimoto, Arthur K; Alves, Penha C Z; Hiragi, Cássia O; Penalva, Guilherme C; Oliveira, Silviene F; Grisolia, Cesar K; Klautau-Guimarães, Maria N
Haptoglobin is a plasma hemoglobin-binding protein that limits iron loss during normal erythrocyte turnover and hemolysis, thereby preventing oxidative damage mediated by iron excess in the circulation. Haptoglobin polymorphism in humans, characterized by the Hp(*1) and Hp (*2) alleles, results in distinct phenotypes known as Hp1-1, Hp2-1 and Hp2-2, whose frequencies vary according to the ethnic origin of the population. The Hp(*1) allele has two subtypes, Hp (*1F) and Hp (*1S) , that also vary in their frequencies among populations worldwide. In this work, we examined the distribution frequencies of haptoglobin subtypes in three Brazilian population groups of different ethnicities. The haptoglobin genotypes of Kayabi Amerindians (n = 56), Kalunga Afro-descendants (n = 70) and an urban population (n = 132) were determined by allele-specific PCR. The Hp(*1F) allele frequency was highest in Kalunga (29.3%) and lowest in Kayabi (2.6%). The Hp(*1F)/Hp(*1S) allele frequency ratios were 0.6, 1.0 and 0.26 for the Kayabi, Kalunga and urban populations, respectively. This variation was attributable largely to the Hp(*1F) allele. However, despite the large variation in Hp(*1F) frequencies, results of F (ST) (0.0291) indicated slight genetic differentiation among subpopulations of the general Brazilian population studied here. This is the first Brazilian report of variations in the Hp(*1F) and Hp(*1S) frequencies among non-Amerindian Brazilians.
Lin, Zhenxin; Simeone, Diane M.; Anderson, Michelle A.; Brand, Randall E.; Xie, Xiaolei; Shedden, Kerby A.; Ruffin, Mack T.; Lubman, David M.
A mass spectrometric method was developed to elucidate the N-glycan structures of serum glycoproteins and utilize fucosylated glycans as potential markers for pancreatic cancer. This assay was applied to haptoglobin in human serum where N-glycans derived from the serum of 16 pancreatic cancer patients were compared with those from 15 individuals with benign conditions (5 normals, 5 chronic pancreatitis, and 5 type II diabetes). This assay used only 10uL of serum where haptoglobin was extracted using a monoclonal antibody and quantitative permethylation was performed on desialylated N-glycans followed by MALDI-QIT-TOF MS analysis. Eight desialylated N-glycan structures of haptoglobin were identified where a bifucosylated tri-antennary structure was reported for the first time in pancreatic cancer samples. Both core and antennary fucosylation were elevated in pancreatic cancer samples compared to samples from benign conditions. Fucosylation degree indices were calculated and show a significant difference between pancreatic cancer patients of all stages and the benign conditions analyzed. This study demonstrates that a serum assay based on haptoglobin fucosylation patterns using mass spectrometric analysis may serve as a novel method for the diagnosis of pancreatic cancer. PMID:21417406
A haptoglobin 2-1 modified (Hp2-1mod) phenotype results when the amount of Hp2 polypeptide synthesized in Hp2/Hp1 heterozygotes is less than that of Hp1 polypeptide. Cloned Hp2 DNA from an individual with the Hp2-1mod phenotype is here shown to have a C in place of the normal A at nucleotide position -61 in one of the interleukin-6 (IL-6) responsive elements of the haptoglobin promoter region. Direct sequencing of the haptoglobin promoter region, amplified by PCR, from DNA from unrelated American blacks showed a C at -61 in all of 10 individuals with the Hp2-1mod phenotype, in two of four with a "possible Hp2-1mod" phenotype, but in none of 15 with the Hp2-1 phenotype. Thus the -61C mutation in the Hp2-61C allele is strongly associated with the Hp2-1mod phenotype. Sequencing results also show that there are three other promoter sequences in the population studied; each can be associated with either Hp2 or Hp1. The variability seen in the Hp2-1mod phenotype, a variability which ranges from close to Hp2-1 to close to Hp1-1, can be explained, in part, by the existence of several Hp2 alleles differing in their promoters--and possibly, in part, by differences in the promoters of the accompanying Hp1 allele. A further part of the variability may be the consequence of differences in the way that the Hp2-61C and the Hp2 alleles respond to the IL-6-dependent factor during an acute-phase response. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:2063867
Bonnefond, Amélie; Bouatia-Naji, Nabila; Dechaume, Aurélie; Siest, Gérard; Herbeth, Bernard; Falchi, Mario; Bottolo, Leonardo; Guéant-Rodriguez, Rosa-Maria; Lecoeur, Cécile; Langlois, Michel R.; Labrune, Yann; Ruokonen, Aimo; El Shamieh, Said; Stathopoulou, Maria G.; Morandi, Anita; Maffeis, Claudio; Meyre, David; Delanghe, Joris R.; Jacobson, Peter; Sjöström, Lars; Carlsson, Lena M. S.; Walley, Andrew; Elliott, Paul; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riita; Dedoussis, George V.; Visvikis-Siest, Sophie
Haptoglobin is an acute phase inflammatory marker. Its main function is to bind hemoglobin released from erythrocytes to aid its elimination, and thereby haptoglobin prevents the generation of reactive oxygen species in the blood. Haptoglobin levels have been repeatedly associated with a variety of inflammation-linked infectious and non-infectious diseases, including malaria, tuberculosis, human immunodeficiency virus, hepatitis C, diabetes, carotid atherosclerosis, and acute myocardial infarction. However, a comprehensive genetic assessment of the inter-individual variability of circulating haptoglobin levels has not been conducted so far. We used a genome-wide association study initially conducted in 631 French children followed by a replication in three additional European sample sets and we identified a common single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), rs2000999 located in the Haptoglobin gene (HP) as a strong genetic predictor of circulating Haptoglobin levels (Poverall = 8.1×10−59), explaining 45.4% of its genetic variability (11.8% of Hp global variance). The functional relevance of rs2000999 was further demonstrated by its specific association with HP mRNA levels (β = 0.23±0.08, P = 0.007). Finally, SNP rs2000999 was associated with decreased total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in 8,789 European children (Ptotal cholesterol = 0.002 and PLDL = 0.0008). Given the central position of haptoglobin in many inflammation-related metabolic pathways, the relevance of rs2000999 genotyping when evaluating haptoglobin concentration should be further investigated in order to improve its diagnostic/therapeutic and/or prevention impact. PMID:22403646
Background Ovarian cancer is the most lethal gynecologic disease due to delayed diagnosis, and ascites production is a characteristic of patients in advanced stages. The aim of this study was to perform the proteomic analysis of ascitic fluids of Mexican patients with ovarian carcinoma, in order to detect proteins with a differential expression pattern in the continuing search to identify biomarkers for this disease. Methods Samples were collected from 50 patients from the Instituto Nacional de Cancerología of México under informed consent and with approval of the bioethics and scientific committees. After elimination of abundant proteins (Albumin/IgGs) samples were processed for 2D electrophoresis and further protein identification by Mass Spectrometry (MALDI-TOF). Molecules of interest were followed by western blot and lectin binding assays, and their tissue location by histo-immunofluorescence and confocal analysis. Results and discussion An area with a differential expression pattern among samples was located in the 2D gels. Identified proteins were 6 alpha 1 isoforms and 1 alpha 2 isoform of Haptoglobin, and 2 isoforms of Transthyretin. While Transthyretin isoforms were constitutively expressed in all samples, clear differences in the expression pattern of Haptoglobin alpha isoforms were found. Moreover, increased levels of fucosylation of Haptoglobin alpha isoforms analyzed in 40 samples by Aleuria aurantia lectin binding by 1D overlay assay showed a positive correlation with advanced stages of the disease. Tissue detection of Haptoglobin and its fucosylated form, by histo-immunofluorescence in biopsies of ovarian cancer, also showed a correlation with ovarian cancer progression. Moreover, results show that fucosylated Haptoglobin is produced by tumor cells. Conclusions Increased numbers of highly fucosylated Haptoglobin alpha isoforms in ascitic fluids and the presence of fucosylated Haptoglobin in tumor tissues of ovarian cancer Mexican patients
Matson, Kevin D; Horrocks, Nicholas P C; Versteegh, Maaike A; Tieleman, B Irene
Ecologists sometimes assume immunological indices reflect fundamental attributes of individuals-an important assumption if an index is to be interpreted in an evolutionary context since among-individual variation drives natural selection. Yet the extent to which individuals vary over different timescales is poorly understood. Haptoglobin, an acute phase protein, is an interesting parameter for studying variability as it is easily quantified and concentrations vary widely due to the molecule's role in inflammation, infection and trauma. We quantified haptoglobin in pigeon plasma samples collected over fourteen months and calculated repeatability to evaluate if haptoglobin concentration is a distinctive trait of individuals. We also explored the capacity of baseline haptoglobin concentrations to predict an array of physiological changes associated with a subsequent experimentally-induced inflammatory response. Maximum repeatability, which occurred over a short mid-winter interval, equaled 0.57. Baseline haptoglobin concentrations predicted response haptoglobin concentrations better than any other endotoxin-induced change. Overall, we identified several strengths and limitations of baseline [Hp] quantification. Acknowledging these qualities should lead to more refined conclusions in studies of the ecology and evolution of immune function. Copyright Â© 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Nayak, B Shivananda; Ulloor, N Jagadish; Shivaraj, B
Treatment of human serum with ammonium sulfate fraction (0-50%) of Alocasia macrorhiza tuber extract resulted in precipitation at neutral pH. The precipitate was dissolved at pH 10.5 and chromatographed on Sephadex G-100 column. Two protein peaks were resolved. While the first peak represented alpha2-macroglobulin and haptoglobin, the second peak accounted for specific Alocasia protein. Incidentally the Alocasia protein was shown to be responsible for selective and specific precipitation of alpha2-macroglobulin and haptoglobin from serum. Thus the plant protein in its pure form or in crude stage could be used for the rapid isolation of two of the prominent alpha2-globulins.
Otto, B R; Sparrius, M; Wors, D J; de Graaf, F K; MacLaren, D M
Possession of specialized iron acquisition systems is a prerequisite for the survival of pathogenic bacteria in their host. The purpose of this study was to determine whether Bacteroides fragilis, a clinically important Gram-negative anaerobic bacterium, possesses a specific haem-uptake system. Growth studies indicated that this microorganism can utilize haem from either haemoglobin or haptoglobin-haemoglobin as its sole source of iron. Iron-repressible haem-binding protein complexes (HBP complexes), involved in the uptake of haem from haptoglobin-haemoglobin were detected by means of lithium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (LDS-PAGE). Four polypeptides of approximately 60, 58, 49 and 35 kDa, which are part of these HBP complexes, were identified as haem-binding proteins. A 44 kDa iron-repressible outer-membrane protein is needed for a functional HBP complex, but the exact role of this protein in the uptake of haem is still unknown.
Lane-Serff, Harriet; MacGregor, Paula; Peacock, Lori; Macleod, Olivia JS; Kay, Christopher; Gibson, Wendy; Higgins, Matthew K; Carrington, Mark
The haptoglobin-haemoglobin receptor of the African trypanosome species, Trypanosoma brucei, is expressed when the parasite is in the bloodstream of the mammalian host, allowing it to acquire haem through the uptake of haptoglobin-haemoglobin complexes. Here we show that in Trypanosoma congolense this receptor is instead expressed in the epimastigote developmental stage that occurs in the tsetse fly, where it acts as a haemoglobin receptor. We also present the structure of the T. congolense receptor in complex with haemoglobin. This allows us to propose an evolutionary history for this receptor, charting the structural and cellular changes that took place as it adapted from a role in the insect to a new role in the mammalian host. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.13044.001 PMID:27083048
Wahl, S M; Boger, J K; Michael, V; Duffy, L K
The hemoglobin and a hemoglobin binding protein have been characterized in the Arctic fish (Coregonus sardinella). The evolutionary significance of the hemoglobin and plasma protein differences between fish and mammals is still unresolved. Blood samples from the Alaskan Least Cisco were separated into plasma and hemoglobin fractions and the proteins in these fractions were analyzed both by alkaline agarose gel electrophoresis, by isolelectric focusing, and by capillary electrophoresis. Staining the plasma proteins gels with o-dianisidine revealed hemoglobin containing protein complexes. A hemoglobin-containing band was observed in hemolyzed plasma which did not migrate with free hemoglobin, and is believed to be hemoglobin-haptoglobin complex. Size exclusion chromatography further characterized the hemoglobin as disassociating freely into dimers, and hemoglobin-haptoglobin complex having a molecular weight greater then 200,000 daltons.
Boettger, Linda M.; Salem, Rany M.; Handsaker, Robert E.; Peloso, Gina; Kathiresan, Sekar; Hirschhorn, Joel; McCarroll, Steven A.
Two exons of the human haptoglobin (HP) gene exhibit copy number variation that affects HP multimerization and underlies one of the first protein polymorphisms identified in humans. The evolutionary origins and medical significance of this polymorphism have been uncertain. Here we show that this variation has likely arisen from the recurring reversion of an ancient hominin-specific duplication of these exons. Though this polymorphism has been largely invisible to genome-wide genetic studies to date, we describe a way to analyze it by imputation from SNP haplotypes and find among 22,288 individuals that these HP exonic deletions associate with reduced LDL and total cholesterol levels. We show that these deletions, and a SNP that affects HP expression, are the likely drivers of the strong but complex association of cholesterol levels to SNPs near HP. Recurring exonic deletions in the haptoglobin gene likely enhance human health by lowering cholesterol levels in the blood. PMID:26901066
Bandyopadhyay, Arup Ratan; Roy, Jayita Ghoshal
Blood samples from 621 individuals of a Caste Hindu Population from West Bengal (India) were investigated in an attempt to find out an association between the AB0 blood groups and Haptoglobin (HP) subtypes. AB0 blood grouping was done on the basis of the agglutination test with standard anti-sera. Haptoglobin subtyping only for the HP*1 allele was done by Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis (PAGE). A significant association was found with a significantly lower HP*1S allele frequency in blood group 0 versus other AB0 blood groups. A comparatively higher allele frequency of HP*1S was found in this population sample. An inverse relationship between HP*1S and HP*2 has been revealed in each blood group. It appears that the major portion of HP*1 alleles in the A, B, and AB blood groups belongs to the HP*1S allele compared to that of the 0 blood group.
Calhoon, D A; Mayberry, W R; Slots, J
The cellular fatty acid and protein content of twenty-five representative strains of Actinobacillus actinomycetecomitans isolated from juvenile and adult periodontitis patients was compared to that of 15 reference strains of oral and nonoral Actinobacillus species and Haemophilus aphrophilus. Trimethylsilyl derivatives of the fatty acid methyl esters were analyzed by gas-liquid chromatography. The predominant fatty acids of all 40 strains examined were 14:0, 3-OH 14:0, 16 delta, and 16:0. Actinobacillus seminis (ATCC 15768) was unlike the other strains examined because of a greater amount of 14:0 detected. The soluble protein analysis using polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis revealed that A. actinomycetemcomitans, H. aphrophilus, and nonoral Actinobacillus species possessed distinct protein profiles attesting to the validity of separating these organisms into different species. Established biotypes of A. actinomycetemcomitans could not be differentiated on the basis of fatty acid or protein profiles. PMID:7287893
Peel, M M; Hornidge, K A; Luppino, M; Stacpoole, A M; Weaver, R E
We describe the isolation of Actinobacillus lignieresii and an A. equuli-like bacterium from an infected horse-bite wound in a 22-year-old stable foreman and A. suis from a bite injury in a 35-year-old man who had been attacked by a horse. A. lignieresii was also isolated in pure culture from an infected sheep-bite wound in a rural worker. These species of the genus Actinobacillus are primarily associated with animals and animal diseases and are rarely isolated from humans. The purpose of this report is to raise awareness of the possible occurrence of Actinobacillus spp. in bite wounds inflicted by farm animals and to discuss the difficulties encountered in the identification of species of Actinobacillus and related bacteria. PMID:1774260
Meyer, D H; Fives-Taylor, P M
Extracellular microvesicles and a highly proteinaceous polymer associated with a leukotoxin-producing strain, Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans SUNY 75, were shown to increase adherence of other weakly adherent A. actinomycetemcomitans strains to KB epithelial cells. Images PMID:8406899
Mandell, R L
Longitudinal clinical and microbiological monitoring of subjects with localized juvenile periodontitis indicated that Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans and Eikenella corrodens were significantly associated (P less than 0.05) with active tissue destruction. PMID:6381313
Owens, Joyce; Spitler, Diane L.; Frey, Mary Anne Bassett
Hematological parameters and serum haptoglobin were examined in 21 male employees of the Kennedy Space Center who were at 3 levels of physical activity: 7 subjects regularly ran more than 40 km (25 miles) per week (Group I); 7 ran 13 to 24 km (8 to 15 miles) per week (II), and 7 were sedentary (III). Blood was drawn on a different day of the week for five weeks. Differences between day of the week, visit number, and activity level were examined. No differences were observed for day of week or visit number; thus mean values for each variable were calculated for each subject. Variables did not differ among groups. However, trends with level of training were observed in some critical variables. Hemoglobin (Hb) and hematocrit (Hct) conformed to a staircase effect with Group I (14.5 gm/dl and 41.3 percent) lower than Group III (15.1 gm/dl and 42.9 percent). Reticulocyte count was higher and haptoglobin levels lower in Group I (1.35% and 75.7 gm/dl) than Group III (.99 percent and 132.9 gm/dl), with haptoglobin for the high mileage Group I in the clinically abnormal range. Since haptoglobin binds free Hb following RBC destruction, these results suggest that intravascular hemolysis occurs in trained male runners. These results may have special meaning for astronauts training before long-duration spaceflights, since the further reduction in red blood cells which is reported to occur during spaceflight could become detrimental to their health and performance.
Haptoglobin is a plasma hemoglobin-binding protein that limits iron loss during normal erythrocyte turnover and hemolysis, thereby preventing oxidative damage mediated by iron excess in the circulation. Haptoglobin polymorphism in humans, characterized by the Hp*1 and Hp *2 alleles, results in distinct phenotypes known as Hp1-1, Hp2-1 and Hp2-2, whose frequencies vary according to the ethnic origin of the population. The Hp*1 allele has two subtypes, Hp *1F and Hp *1S , that also vary in their frequencies among populations worldwide. In this work, we examined the distribution frequencies of haptoglobin subtypes in three Brazilian population groups of different ethnicities. The haptoglobin genotypes of Kayabi Amerindians (n = 56), Kalunga Afro-descendants (n = 70) and an urban population (n = 132) were determined by allele-specific PCR. The Hp*1F allele frequency was highest in Kalunga (29.3%) and lowest in Kayabi (2.6%). The Hp*1F/Hp*1S allele frequency ratios were 0.6, 1.0 and 0.26 for the Kayabi, Kalunga and urban populations, respectively. This variation was attributable largely to the Hp*1F allele. However, despite the large variation in Hp*1F frequencies, results of F ST (0.0291) indicated slight genetic differentiation among subpopulations of the general Brazilian population studied here. This is the first Brazilian report of variations in the Hp*1F and Hp*1S frequencies among non-Amerindian Brazilians. PMID:21637505
Khair, K B; Rahman, M A; Sultana, T; Roy, C K; Rahman, M Q; Ahmed, A N
Neonatal septicemia is one of the major health problems throughout the world. Infections are frequent and important cause of morbidity and mortality in neonatal period. The objective of the present study was to find out the role of hematologic scoring system (HSS), C-reactive protein (CRP) and haptoglobin in the early diagnosis of neonatal septicemia. This is a descriptive consisted of 100 neonates admitted at neonatal ICU, BSMMU, who were clinically suspected sepsis. The hematological parameter, C-reactive protein and haptoglobin were measured in all cases. Blood culture was done as the gold standard for diagnosis of neonatal septicemia. There were 12 out of 100 neonates (12%) who had culture proven sepsis and they were predominantly preterm and very low birth weight. On evaluation of various hematological parameters total leukocyte count, total neutrophil count, immature to total neutrophil ratio (>0.2), immature to mature neutrophil ratio (>0.3), total immature count, platelet count were found to have optimal sensitivities and negative predictive values. Using these values hematologic scoring system (HSS) was formulated according to Rodwell et al. Score ≥4 was found sensitivity of 100%, specificity of 60%. C-reactive protein (CRP) had sensitivity of 75%, specificity of 74%. Haptoglobin was not found significant (p<0.05) with sepsis and sensitivity was very low. But Combination of score ≥4 and CRP showed sensitivity of 75%, specificity 85%, positive predictive value (PPV) 41% and negative positive value (NPV) 96%. HSS and CRP are useful test to differentiate the septicemic from non septicemic neonates and also provide a effective guideline to make decisions regarding judicious use of antibiotic therapy. But haptoglobin level was not found useful for screening of sepsis.
Pirlot, A; Janssens, J; Skinner, G; Godeau, J M
This study describes an original assay for serum haptoglobin determination by measuring the capacity of human haptoglobin (hHAP) and bovine haptoglobin (bHAP) to bind haemoglobin (Hb) as established by capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE). This method involves the addition of Hb in excess to the serum and the separation of the HAP-Hb complexes from free haemoglobin by CZE. Protein migration was recorded at a wavelength of 415 nm which reveals Hb alone (free or bound), and the concentration of HAP was indirectly estimated by measuring bound Hb. Different CZE conditions and the peak migration time of Hb from various species (human, equine, bovine, canine) were investigated. The electrophoretic separation of free human Hb (hHb) in excess and the hHAP-hHb complex was fully achieved by CZE, allowing a quantitative determination of hHAP. However, bovine haemoglobin (bHb) bound to bHAP and free bHb were poorly separated under the same conditions. The best detachment between bHAP-Hb complexes and free Hb was only attained in the bovine sample by use of canine haemoglobin (cHb). CZE assays performed with cHb gave very close values to those of a classic photometric method which measured the peroxidase activity of the haptoglobin-cyanmethaemoglobin complexes (y = 1.0168x - 0.072; r2 = 0.97). CZE assay was fast (< 10 min), inexpensive, did not require the use of a specific antibody and was reproducible (coefficient of variation, CV 3.6%).
Lane-Serff, Harriet; MacGregor, Paula; Lowe, Edward D; Carrington, Mark; Higgins, Matthew K
The haptoglobin-haemoglobin receptor (HpHbR) of African trypanosomes allows acquisition of haem and provides an uptake route for trypanolytic factor-1, a mediator of innate immunity against trypanosome infection. In this study, we report the structure of Trypanosoma brucei HpHbR in complex with human haptoglobin-haemoglobin (HpHb), revealing an elongated ligand-binding site that extends along its membrane distal half. This contacts haptoglobin and the β-subunit of haemoglobin, showing how the receptor selectively binds HpHb over individual components. Lateral mobility of the glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored HpHbR, and a ∼50° kink in the receptor, allows two receptors to simultaneously bind one HpHb dimer. Indeed, trypanosomes take up dimeric HpHb at significantly lower concentrations than monomeric HpHb, due to increased ligand avidity that comes from bivalent binding. The structure therefore reveals the molecular basis for ligand and innate immunity factor uptake by trypanosomes and identifies adaptations that allow efficient ligand uptake in the context of the complex trypanosome cell surface.
Lane-Serff, Harriet; MacGregor, Paula; Lowe, Edward D; Carrington, Mark; Higgins, Matthew K
The haptoglobin-haemoglobin receptor (HpHbR) of African trypanosomes allows acquisition of haem and provides an uptake route for trypanolytic factor-1, a mediator of innate immunity against trypanosome infection. In this study, we report the structure of Trypanosoma brucei HpHbR in complex with human haptoglobin-haemoglobin (HpHb), revealing an elongated ligand-binding site that extends along its membrane distal half. This contacts haptoglobin and the β-subunit of haemoglobin, showing how the receptor selectively binds HpHb over individual components. Lateral mobility of the glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored HpHbR, and a ∼50o kink in the receptor, allows two receptors to simultaneously bind one HpHb dimer. Indeed, trypanosomes take up dimeric HpHb at significantly lower concentrations than monomeric HpHb, due to increased ligand avidity that comes from bivalent binding. The structure therefore reveals the molecular basis for ligand and innate immunity factor uptake by trypanosomes and identifies adaptations that allow efficient ligand uptake in the context of the complex trypanosome cell surface. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.05553.001 PMID:25497229
Ott, S; Soler, L; Moons, C P H; Kashiha, M A; Bahr, C; Vandermeulen, J; Janssens, S; Gutiérrez, A M; Escribano, D; Cerón, J J; Berckmans, D; Tuyttens, F A M; Niewold, T A
Most commonly, salivary cortisol is used in pig stress assessment, alternative salivary biomarkers are scarcely studied. Here, salivary cortisol and two alternative salivary biomarkers, haptoglobin and chromogranin A were measured in a pig stress study. Treatment pigs (n = 24) were exposed to mixing and feed deprivation, in two trials, and compared to untreated controls (n = 24). Haptoglobin differed for feed deprivation vs control. Other differences were only found within treatment. Treatment pigs had higher salivary cortisol concentrations on the mixing day (P < 0.05). Chromogranin A concentrations were increased on the day of refeeding (P < 0.05). Haptoglobin showed a similar pattern to chromogranin A. Overall correlations between the salivary biomarkers were positive. Cortisol and chromogranin A were moderately correlated (r = 0.49, P < 0.0001), correlations between other markers were weaker. The present results indicate that different types of stressors elicited different physiological stress responses in the pigs, and therefore including various salivary biomarkers in stress evaluation seems useful. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Braunthal, S D; Holt, S C; Tanner, A C; Socransky, S S
Strains of Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans isolated from deep pockets of patients with juvenile periodontitis were analyzed for their content of cellular fatty acids. Oral Haemophilus strains, morphologically and biochemically similar to Haemophilus aphrophilus, were also examined for their content of cellular fatty acids. The extractable lipids of the actinobacilli represented approximately 10% of the cell dry weight, with the bound lipids representing 2 to 5%. The major fatty acids consisted of myristic (C14:0) and palmitic (C16:0) acids and a C16:1 acid, possibly palmitoleic acid, accounting for 21, 35, and 31% of the total extractable fatty acids, respectively. Haemophilus strains had a similar cellular fatty acid content. PMID:7430333
Lima, Francisca Lúcia; de Carvalho, Maria Auxiliadora Roque; Apolônio, Ana Carolina Morais; Bemquerer, Marcelo Porto; Santoro, Marcelo Matos; Oliveira, Jamil Silvano; Alviano, Celuta Sales; Farias, Luiz de Macêdo
Aggregatibacter (Actinobacillus) actinomycetemcomitans P(7-20) strain isolated from a periodontally diseased patient has produced a bacteriocin (named as actinomycetemcomitin) that is active against Peptostreptococcus anaerobius ATCC 27337. Actinomycetemcomitin was produced during exponential and stationary growth phases, and its amount decreased until it disappeared during the decline growth phase. It was purified by ammonium sulphate precipitation (30-60% saturation), and further by FPLC (mono-Q ionic exchange and Phenyl Superose hydrophobic interaction) and HPLC (C-18 reversed-phase). This bacteriocin loses its activity after incubation at a pH below 7.0 or above 8.0, following heating for 30 min at 45 degrees C, and after treatment with proteolytic enzymes such as trypsin, alpha-chymotrypsin, and papain. Actinomycetemcomitin has a molecular mass of 20.3 KDa and it represents a new bacteriocin from A. actinomycetemcomitans.
Sultan, Abdullah; Raman, Bakthisaran; Rao, Ch. Mohan; Tangirala, Ramakrishna
Fibril formation of β2-microglobulin and associated inflammation occur in patients on long term dialysis. We show that the plasma protein haptoglobin prevents the fatty acid-promoted de novo fibril formation of β2-microglobulin even at substoichiometric concentration. The fibrils are cytotoxic, and haptoglobin abolishes the cytotoxicity by preventing fibril formation. Haptoglobin does not alleviate the cytotoxicity of preformed fibrils. Fibrillar β2-microglobulin is resistant to lysosomal degradation. However, the species of β2-microglobulin populated in the presence of haptoglobin is susceptible to degradation. We observed that haptoglobin interacts with oligomeric prefibrillar species of β2-microglobulin but not with monomeric or fibrillar β2-microglobulin that may underlie the molecular mechanism. 1,1′-Bis(4-anilino)naphthalene-5,5′-disulfonic acid cross-linking to haptoglobin significantly compromises its chaperone activity, suggesting the involvement of hydrophobic surfaces. Haptoglobin is an acute phase protein whose level increases severalfold during inflammation, where local acidosis can occur. Our data show that haptoglobin prevents fibril formation of β2-microglobulin under conditions of physiological acidosis (between pH 5.5 and 6.5) but with relatively decreased efficiency. However, compromise in its chaperone activity under these conditions is more than compensated by its increased level of expression under inflammation. Erythrolysis is known to release hemoglobin into the plasma. Haptoglobin forms a 1:1 (mol/mol) complex with hemoglobin. This complex, like haptoglobin, interacts with the prefibrillar species of β2-microglobulin, preventing its fibril formation and the associated cytotoxicity and resistance to intracellular degradation. Thus, our study demonstrates that haptoglobin is a potential extracellular chaperone for β2-microglobulin even in moderately acidic conditions relevant during inflammation, with promising therapeutic
Medical management was unable to prevent the development of an extrapulmonary abscess in a 10-year-old Thoroughbred gelding with anaerobic pleuropneumonia. Intercostal thoracostomy achieved drainage of the abscess. Resolution of the abscess and subsequent bronchopleural fistulas was monitored by ultrasonography and video-endoscopy. The horse returned to training 4 mo after discharge. PMID:9262860
Zhu, Jianhui; Wu, Jing; Yin, Haidi; Marrero, Jorge; Lubman, David M
Alterations in glycosylation of serum glycoproteins can provide unique and highly specific fingerprints of malignancy. Our previous mass spectrometric study revealed that the bifucosylation level of serum haptoglobin was distinctly increased in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients versus liver cirrhosis of all three major etiologies. We have thus developed a method for the analysis of large numbers of serum samples based on a 96-well plate platform for the evaluation of fucosylation changes of serum haptoglobin between HCC versus cirrhosis. Haptoglobin was isolated from the serum of individual patient samples based on an HPLC column immobilized with antihaptoglobin antibody via hydrazide immobilization chemistry. Only 10 μL of serum was required for glycan extraction and processing for MALDI-QIT mass spectrometry analysis using the 96-well plate format. The bifucosylation degrees of haptoglobin in individuals were calculated using a quantitative glycomics method. The MS data confirmed that the bifucosylated tetra-anntenary glycan was upregulated in HCC samples of all etiologies. This study provides a parallel method for processing glycan content for haptoglobin and evaluating detailed changes in glycan structures for a potentially large cohort of clinical serum samples.
Barber, T L; Stone, S S; Delay, P D
Antibody responses in cattle experimentally infected with contagious bovine pleuropneumonia were assayed by the complement fixation (CF), plate agglutination (PA), and agar-gel diffusion precipitin (AGDP) tests. Sera were also fractionated by sucrose gradient centrifugation, by chromatography on diethylaminoethyl (DEAE)-cellulose columns, and by starch-block electrophoresis. Serum fractions were assayed for antibody by the CF and PA tests. Antibody was detected by the CF and PA tests from 7 days postinoculation (DPI) throughout the test period of 154 days. The AGDP test was the least sensitive and was negative after 28 DPI. By sucrose gradient centrifugal analysis, only 19S antibody could be detected in the 7 DPI sera, but 19 and 7S antibodies were found in the 14, 21, 28, 35, and 42 DPI sera. Only 7S antibody was found in sera subsequently collected until 154 DPI at the conclusion of the experiment. Results of chromatographic fractionation of sera on DEAE-cellulose columns showed that most of the CF antibody was adsorbed when 0.0175 m phosphate buffer (pH 6.3) was used for elution of proteins. Plate agglutination antibody activity was found in both immunoglobulin (Ig)G and IgM fractions from 7 to 42 DPI and only in the IgG fraction thereafter. By starch-block electrophoresis, the 14 DPI antibody was of beta mobility (IgM), whereas at 21 DPI the antibody mobility was gamma-beta. In the 28 and later DPI sera, CF antibody had gamma mobility.
Heilmann, E; Wiesmann, A; Achatzy, R; Dittrich, H; Bender, F
In 20 patients, who underwent open heart surgery, the results of quantitavely and semi-quantitavely determined haptoglobin (hp) were evaluated. A rapid method (Rapi tex-Hp-Test, Behring-Werke) was used. Five minutes after the heart lung machine was cut off hp decreased slightly, and increased about 200% at the 4th day after operation, compared to the preoperative value. These changes were less pronounced in patients with prosthetic heart values. Blood transfusions did not influence the results. There is a significant correlation between the results of hp determined quantitatively and semi-quantitatively.
Carlsson, Michael C.; Cederfur, Cecilia; Schaar, Viveka; Balog, Crina I. A.; Lepur, Adriana; Touret, Franck; Salomonsson, Emma; Deelder, André M.; Fernö, Mårten; Olsson, Håkan; Wuhrer, Manfred; Leffler, Hakon
Sera from 25 metastatic breast cancer patients and 25 healthy controls were subjected to affinity chromatography using immobilized galectin-1. Serum from the healthy subjects contained on average 1.2 mg per ml (range 0.7–2.2) galectin-1 binding glycoproteins, whereas serum from the breast cancer patients contained on average 2.2 mg/ml (range 0.8–3.9), with a higher average for large primary tumours. The major bound glycoproteins were α-2-macroglobulin, IgM and haptoglobin. Both the IgM and haptoglobin concentrations were similar in cancer compared to control sera, but the percentage bound to galectin-1 was lower for IgM and higher for haptoglobin: about 50% (range 20–80) in cancer sera and about 30% (range 25–50) in healthy sera. Galectin-1 binding and non-binding fractions were separated by affinity chromatography from pooled haptoglobin from healthy sera. The N-glycans of each fraction were analyzed by mass spectrometry, and the structural differences and galectin-1 mutants were used to identify possible galectin-1 binding sites. Galectin-1 binding and non-binding fractions were also analyzed regarding their haptoglobin function. Both were similar in forming complex with haemoglobin and mediate its uptake into alternatively activated macrophages. However, after uptake there was a dramatic difference in intracellular targeting, with the galectin-1 non-binding fraction going to a LAMP-2 positive compartment (lysosomes), while the galectin-1 binding fraction went to larger galectin-1 positive granules. In conclusion, galectin-1 detects a new type of functional biomarker for cancer: a specific type of glycoform of haptoglobin, and possibly other serum glycoproteins, with a different function after uptake into tissue cells. PMID:22028908
Thomton, Jamie D; Mellish, Jo-Ann E
Haptoglobin (Hp) is an acute-phase protein synthesized in the liver that circulates at elevated concentrations in response to tissue damage caused by inflammation, infection, and trauma. As part of a larger study, sera Hp concentrations were measured in temporarily captive (n = 21) and free-range (n = 38) western stock juvenile Steller sea lions (Eumetopias jubatus) sampled from 2003 to 2006. Baseline Hp concentration at time of capture was 133.3 +/- 17.4 mg/dl. Temporarily captive animals exhibited a 3.2-fold increase in Hp concentrations during the first 4 wk of captivity, followed by a return to entry levels by week 5. Haptoglobin levels were not influenced by age, season, or parasite load. There was a significant positive correlation between Hp concentrations and white blood cell count (P < 0.001) and globulin levels (P < 0.001) and a negative correlation to red blood cell count and hematocrit (P < 0.001 for both). There was no correlation between Hp levels and platelet count (P = 0.095) or hemoglobin (P = 0.457). Routine blubber biopsies collected under gas anesthesia did not produce a measurable Hp response. One animal with a large abscess had an Hp spike of 1,006.0 mg/dl that returned to entry levels after treatment. In conclusion, serum Hp levels correlate to the stable clinical health status observed during captivity, with moderate Hp response during capture and initial acclimation to captivity and acute response to inflammation and infection.
Sarvari, Jamal; Mojtahedi, Zahra; Kuramitsu, Yasuhiro; Malek‑Hosseini, Seyed-Ali; Shamsi Shahrabadi, Mahmoud; Ghaderi, Abbas; Nakamura, Kazuyuki
The three main complications of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection are chronic active hepatitis (CAH), liver cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The aim of this study was to identify differentially expressed serum proteins among the three liver complications in patients with HBV infection. Differentially expressed proteins have been shown to be potential biomarkers for disease diagnosis, prognosis and therapy guidance. Two-dimensional polyacrylamid gel electrophoresis (2DE) combined with liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) was performed on sera from CAH, cirrhosis and HCC patients with HBV infection, as well as those obtained from healthy individuals. Of 54 differentially expressed (≥1.5-fold and p<0.05) protein spots, 35 spots were identified by LC-MS/MS. The identified spots correlated to 13 proteins. The proteins included haptoglobolin α-2 and β isoforms, haptoglobin cleaved β isoforms, retinol-binding protein, transthyretin, ficolin, leucine-rich-α-2-glycoprotein, α-1-antitrypsin and clusterin. Of particular interest is the significant increase of haptoglobin α-2 isoforms in HCC patients compared to cirrhosis ones. In contrast, a significant decrease of the isoforms was noted among cirrhosis patients. PMID:22866143
McGuirk, Joseph; Hao, Gang; Hou, Weijian; Abhyankar, Sunil; Williams, Casey; Yan, Weisi; Yuan, Jianda; Guan, Xiuqin; Belt, Robert; Dejarnette, Shaun; Wieman, Jeffery; Yan, Ying
We studied serum proteomic profiling in patients with graft versus host disease (GVHD) after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (allo-HCT) by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) and mass spectrometry analysis. The expression of a group of proteins, haptoglobin (Hp), alpha-1-antitrypsin, apolipoprotein A-IV, serum paraoxonase and Zn-alpha-glycoprotein were increased and the proteins, clusterin precursor, alpha-2-macroglobulin, serum amyloid protein precursor, sex hormone-binding globulin, serotransferrin and complement C4 were decreased in patients with extensive chronic GVHD (cGVHD). Serum haptoglobin (Hp) levels in patients with cGVHD were demonstrated to be statistically higher than in patients without cGVHD and normal controls (p < 0.01). We used immunoblotting and PCR in combination with 2-DE gel image analysis to determine Hp polymorphisms in 25 allo-HCT patients and 16 normal donors. The results demonstrate that patients with cGVHD had a higher incidence of HP 2-2 phenotype (43.8%), in comparison to the patients without cGVHD (0%) and normal donors (18.7%), suggesting the possibility that specific Hp polymorphism may play a role in the development of cGVHD after allo-HCT. In this study, quantitative serum Hp levels were shown to be related to cGVHD development. Further, the data suggest the possibility that specific Hp polymorphisms may be associated with cGVHD development and warrant further investigation. PMID:19379511
Simpson, D L; Berthold, P; Taichman, N S
The purified leukotoxin of Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans kills human leukemic cell lines (e.g., HL-60, U937, and KG-1) and human T- and B-cell lines (e.g., JURKAT, MOLT-4, Daudi, and Raji) in a dose- and time-dependent manner. The 50% effective doses for these cell lines are similar to those established for human polymorphonuclear leukocytes and monocytes. In contrast, other human and nonhuman tumor cell lines are not susceptible to the leukotoxin. These human leukemia and lymphoid cell lines will serve as useful model systems with which to study the molecular specificity and mechanism(s) of action of the actinobacillus leukotoxin. Images PMID:3258584
Miyasaki, K T; Wilson, M E; Brunetti, A J; Genco, R J
Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans is a facultative gram-negative microorganism which has been implicated as an etiologic agent in localized juvenile periodontitis and in subacute bacterial endocarditis and abscesses. Although resistant to serum bactericidal action and to oxidant injury mediated by superoxide anion (O2-) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), this organism is sensitive to killing by the myeloperoxidase-hydrogen peroxide-chloride system (K.T. Miyasaki, M.E. Wilson, and R.J. Genco, Infect. Immun. 53:161-165, 1986). In this study, we examined the sensitivity of A. actinomycetemcomitans to killing by intact neutrophils under aerobic conditions, under anaerobic conditions, and under aerobic conditions in the presence of the heme-protein inhibitor sodium cyanide. Intact neutrophils killed opsonized A. actinomycetemcomitans under aerobic and anaerobic conditions, and the kinetics of these reactions indicated that both oxidative and nonoxidative mechanisms were operative. Oxidative mechanisms contributed significantly, and most of the killing attributable to oxidative mechanisms was inhibited by sodium cyanide, which suggested that the myeloperoxidase-hydrogen peroxide-chloride system participated in the oxidative process. We conclude that human neutrophils are capable of killing A. actinomycetemcomitans by both oxygen-dependent and oxygen-independent pathways, and that most oxygen-dependent killing requires myeloperoxidase activity. PMID:3013778
Mombelli, A; Gmür, R; Frey, J; Meyer, J; Zee, K Y; Tam, J O; Lo, E C; Di Rienzo, J; Lang, N P; Corbet, E F
The aim of this study was to determine the presence or absence of Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans and Porphyromonas gingivalis in young Chinese adults and to examine the A. actinomycetemcomitans isolates from positive subjects with regard to the serotype distribution, presence of the leukotoxin gene lktA and the promoter for the leukotoxin operon as well as the incidence of phage Aa phi 23. Sixty subjects, working in a knitting factory in the Province of Guangzhou, People's Republic of China, were investigated. Subgingival microbial samples were taken from both upper first molars. They were cultured both anaerobically and in 5% CO2. P. gingivalis was found in 33 subjects. On average, it constituted 7% of the total anaerobic cultivable counts. A. actinomycetemcomitans was detected in 37 subjects of which seven yielded counts > 10(5). Twenty-one subjects were positive for both organisms. A. actinomycetemcomitans serotype a was found in 9 subjects, serotype c was found in 23 and serotype e in 5. A. actinomycetemcomitans serotypes b and d were not detected in any subjects. Presence of the leukotoxin gene lktA was demonstrated for all A. actinomycetemcomitans isolates; however, none of the A. actinomycetemcomitans strains from the present study had a deletion in the promoter region of the leukotoxin operon. The results of this investigation show a high frequency of the putative periodontal pathogens P. gingivalis and A. actinomycetemcomitans and corroborate the concept that there is variation in virulence and pathogenic potential among isolates from different subjects.
Stevens, R H; Hammond, B F; Fine, D H
øAa is an A1 morphotype bacteriophage which infects certain strains of Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) analysis of dissociated, purified phi Aa particles revealed 7 major structural proteins (P1-P7) ranging in size from 17.5 to 52.7 kilodaltons (Kd). Treatment of the intact phage particles with 67% dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) resulted in the separation of the virion head and tail subunits. Purification of the head subunits was accomplished by sucrose density gradient centrifugation of the DMSO-treated phage particles. The purified head subunits were composed of a single protein having an electrophoretic mobility which corresponded to a 39.5 Kd protein (P3) of the intact virus. Raising the pH of a purified phi Aa suspension to 12.7 disrupted the head subunits, as well as the tail tube and tail fibers, releasing intact contractile tail sheaths. The tail sheaths were collected by centrifugation. The purified tail sheaths were analyzed by SDS-PAGE and were found to be composed of two proteins (P1 and P2) having molecular weights of 52.7 and 41.2 Kd respectively. The location of each of the 4 remaining major structural proteins in the phi Aa virion remains to be determined.
Haraszthy, Violet I; Jordan, Shawn F; Zambon, Joseph J
Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans is an oral pathogen that causes aggressive periodontitis as well as sometimes life-threatening, extra-oral infections. Iron regulation is thought to be important in the pathogenesis of A. actinomycetemcomitans infections and, consistent with this hypothesis, the fur gene has recently been identified and characterized in A. actinomycetemcomitans. In this study, 14 putatively Fur-regulated genes were identified by Fur titration assay (Furta) in A. actinomycetemcomitans, including afuA, dgt, eno, hemA, tbpA, recO and yfe - some of which are known to be Fur regulated in other species. A fur mutant A. actinomycetemcomitans strain was created by selecting for manganese resistance in order to study the Fur regulon. Comparisons between the fur gene sequences revealed that nucleotide 66 changed from C in the wild-type to T in the mutant strain, changing leucine to isoleucine. The fur mutant strain expressed a nonfunctional Fur protein as determined by Escherichia coli-based ferric uptake assays and Western blotting. It was also more sensitive to acid stress and expressed higher levels of minC than the wild-type strain. minC, which inhibits cell division in other bacterial species and whose regulation by iron has not been previously described, was found to be Fur regulated in A. actinomycetemcomitans by Furta, by gel shift assays, and by RT-qPCR assays for gene expression.
Mintz, K P; Fives-Taylor, P M
Two quantitative, rapid assays were developed to study the adhesion of Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, an oral bacterium associated with periodontal disease, to human epithelial cells. The human oral carcinoma cell line KB was grown in microtiter plates, and adherent bacteria were detected by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay with purified anti-A. actinomycetemcomitans serum and horseradish peroxidase-conjugated secondary antibody or [3H]thymidine-labeled bacteria. Adhesion was found to be time dependent and increased linearly with increasing numbers of bacteria added. Variation in the level of adhesion was noted among strains of A. actinomycetemcomitans. Adhesion was not significantly altered by changes in pH (from pH 5 to 9) but was sensitive to sodium chloride concentrations greater than 0.15 M. Pooled human saliva was inhibitory for adhesion when bacteria were pretreated with saliva before being added to the cells. Pretreatment of the KB cells with saliva did not inhibit adhesion. Protease treatment of A. actinomycetemcomitans reduced adhesion of the bacteria to KB cells. The data are consistent with the hypothesis that a protein(s) is required for bacterial adhesion and that host components may play a role in modulating adhesion to epithelial cells. Images PMID:8063383
Mintz, K P; Fives-Taylor, P M
Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans expresses proteins that bind to the Fc portion of immunoglobulins. The immunoglobulin Fc receptors on the surface of A. actinomycetemcomitans were detected by the binding of biotinylated human or murine Fc molecules to strain SUNY 465 adsorbed to the bottom of microtiter wells. Biotinylated Fc binding was inhibited by unlabeled Fc molecules and human plasma. Fc receptors were identified by the binding of biotinylated Fc molecules to bacterial membrane proteins separated by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and transferred to nitrocellulose. Multiple bands were identified, and the major Fc-binding protein was determined to be a heat-modifiable protein. This protein migrated with approximate molecular weights of 25,000 and 32,000 (unheated and heated, respectively). Amino-terminal sequence analysis of this protein revealed a sequence identical to the heat-modifiable protein described for A. actinomycetemcomitans ATCC 43718. This protein sequence exhibits significant homology with the N termini of outer membrane protein A (OmpA) of Escherichia coli and related OmpA-like proteins from other gram-negative bacteria. Images PMID:7927715
Kolodrubetz, D; Dailey, T; Ebersole, J; Kraig, E
The leukotoxin produced by Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans has been implicated in the etiology of juvenile periodontitis. To initiate a genetic analysis of the role of this protein in disease, we have cloned the leukotoxin gene in Escherichia coli. Recombinant colonies carrying toxin gene sequences were isolated by screening a genomic A. actinomycetemcomitans library with a DNA probe for the leukotoxin gene from a related bacterium, Pasteurella haemolytica. To demonstrate that the cloned A. actinomycetemcomitans DNA contained a functional leukotoxin gene, protein extracts of E. coli containing the A. actinomycetemcomitans clone were tested directly for leukotoxic activity against human cell lines in chromium release assays. A construct containing the entire cloned region produced a functional toxin. No cytotoxicity was seen when extracts from cells containing plasmids with deletions in the putative coding region were used. Furthermore, the toxin produced by the cloned gene has the same target cell specificity as the leukotoxin extracted directly from A. actinomycetemcomitans. These results indicate that sequences encoding a functional leukotoxin have been cloned and are expressed in E. coli. Southern blot analysis of DNA from leukotoxin-producing (Lkt+) and non-leukotoxin-producing (Lkt-) strains indicated that the Lkt- strain also contained a copy of the gene. Images PMID:2707855
Yoshie, H; Taubman, M A; Ebersole, J L; Olson, C L; Smith, D J; Pappo, J
We examined the lymphoproliferative responses of cervical lymphocytes and splenocytes of homozygous (rnu/rnu) congenitally athymic nude and normal heterozygous (rnu/+) Rowett rats to whole cells of Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, a suspected periodontal disease pathogen. Previously sensitized cells from immunized only, infected only, or immunized and infected, normal rats demonstrated proliferation in response to formalinized A. actinomycetemcomitans, but cells from nude rats did not proliferate. The maximum antigenic response was observed at day 5 of culture. A. actinomycetemcomitans caused cervical lymphocytes and splenocytes from untreated naive normal and nude rats to undergo increased DNA synthesis at day 2 of culture. Highly enriched nonsensitized spleen T cells prepared on a nylon wool column did not respond to A. actinomycetemcomitans, whereas enriched nonsensitized B cells proliferated. Differences in response were probably not attributable to contributions from macrophages in the T- or B-cell populations, since macrophage percentages were approximately the same in both preparations. T-cell reconstitution of nude rats with neonatal thymus cells from rnu/+rats resulted in partial recovery of T-cell function but had no effect on the mitogenic response to A. actinomycetemcomitans. It is suggested that the antigenic responses to A. actinomycetemcomitans are dependent on T cells and that A. actinomycetemcomitans cells have mitogenic activity for B cells. The potential importance of these findings in periodontal disease is discussed. PMID:3871196
Sreenivasan, P K; Meyer, D H; Fives-Taylor, P M
Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, an oral bacterium implicated in human periodontal disease, was recently demonstrated to invade cultured epithelial cells (D. H. Meyer, P. K. Sreenivasan, and P. M. Fives-Taylor, Infect. Immun. 59:2719-2726, 1991). This report characterizes the requirements for invasion of KB cells by A. actinomycetemcomitans. The roles of bacterial and host factors were investigated by using selective agents that influence specific bacterial or host cell functions. Inhibition of bacterial protein synthesis decreased invasion, suggesting the absence of a preformed pool of proteins involved in A. actinomycetemcomitans invasion. Inhibition of bacterial and eukaryotic energy synthesis also decreased invasion, confirming that A. actinomycetemcomitans invasion is an active process. Bacterial adherence to KB cells was indicated by scanning electron microscopy of infected KB cells. Further, the addition of A. actinomycetemcomitans-specific serum to the bacterial inoculum reduced invasion substantially, suggesting a role for bacterial attachment in invasion. Many of the adherent bacteria invaded the epithelial cells under optimal conditions. Inhibitors of receptor-mediated endocytosis inhibited invasion by A. actinomycetemcomitans. Like that of many facultatively intracellular bacteria, A. actinomycetemcomitans invasion was not affected by eukaryotic endosomal acidification. These are the first published observations describing the requirements for epithelial cell invasion by a periodontopathogen. They demonstrate that A. actinomycetemcomitans utilizes a mechanism similar to those used by many but not all invasive bacteria to gain entry into eukaryotic cells. Images PMID:8454326
O'Dell, D S; Ebersole, J L
We designed a study to examine the serum IgG antibody avidity characteristics in: (i) normal subjects (N); (ii) Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans-infected adult periodontitis (AP Aa+); (iii) A. actinomycetemcomitans-infected localized juvenile periodontitis (LJP Aa+); and (iv) AP subjects (AP) with various antibody patterns and disease presentation. Although there were significant elevations in antibody levels for AP Aa+ and LJP Aa+ patients compared with AP and normal patients (P < 0.0001), there were no significant differences in the avidity indices (AI). Correlations of antibody levels to avidity revealed that functional activity of the antibody as measured by avidity was independent of antibody levels. Increasing antibody levels correlated with an increase in the number of infected sites, yet there was a trend for A1 to decrease with increased infection. Avidity indices for all patient groups did not appear to show a strong biologic relationship to plaque; however, in AP Aa+ and LJP Aa+ patients there was a generally positive relationship between avidity and bleeding on probing or pocket depth. In AP Aa+ and LJP Aa+ patients, and in AP patients there was a positive relationship of avidity through a threshold of approximately 8 active disease sites. This study hypothesized that antibody avidity to A. actinomycetemcomitans could help to explain the relationship between the active host response and chronic infection with this pathogen. The results provide evidence that both antibody levels and avidity may contribute to the variation in host resistance to infection and disease associated with A. actinomycetemcomitans. PMID:7648712
Saco, Y; Fraile, L; Giménez, M; Pato, R; Montoya, M; Bassols, A
Levels of haptoglobin and Pig-major acute phase protein (MAP) were analysed in animals from a commercial herd receiving or not a diet enriched with an additive. The group receiving the additive exhibited a decrease in haptoglobin after 3 weeks, suggesting that a better health status has been established, together with an improvement in total body weight and average daily gain. In contrast, Pig-MAP does not significantly change under these conditions. Aujeszky live modified vaccination, which is compulsory in Spain, did cause a significant increment in haptoglobin serum concentration although it did not affect Pig-MAP. The response of acute phase proteins to vaccination was similar in both control and additive-treated groups. Interleukins (IL)-1β and IL-6 was below the detection limits in most of the animals. In conclusion, this study shows that haptoglobin serum concentration, but not Pig-MAP, is a good biomarker to monitorize production parameters and for monitoring Aujeszky modified live vaccine in pigs reared under standard commercial conditions.
Lewis, L A; Dyer, D W
Hemoglobin complexed to the plasma protein haptoglobin can be used by Neisseria meningitidis as a source of iron to support growth in vitro. An N meningitidis mutant, DNM2E4, was generated by insertion of the mini-Tn3erm transposon into the gene coding for an 85-kDa iron-regulated outer membrane protein. Membrane proteins prepared from DNM2E4 were identical to those of the wild-type strain except that the 85-kDa protein was not produced. This mutant was unable to use hemoglobin-haptoglobin complexes as an iron source to support growth and was also impaired in the utilization of free hemoglobin. The mutant failed to bind free hemoglobin, hemoglobin-haptoglobin complexes, or apo-haptoglobin in a solid-phase dot blot assay. The 85-kDa protein was affinity purified when hemoglobin-haptoglobin complexes were used as a ligand but was not purified when free hemoglobin was used. We hypothesize that the 85-kDa iron-regulated protein is the hemoglobin-haptoglobin receptor and designate this protein Hpu (for hemoglobin-haptoglobin utilization). PMID:7868605
Garibay-Cerdenares, OL; Hernández-Ramírez, VI; Osorio-Trujillo, JC; Gallardo-Rincón, D; Talamás-Rohana, P
Haptoglobin (Hp) is an acute-phase protein that is produced by the liver to capture the iron that is present in the blood circulation, thus avoiding its accumulation in the blood. Moreover, Hp has been detected in a wide variety of tissues, in which it performs various functions. In addition, this protein is considered a potential biomarker in many diseases, such as cancer, including ovarian carcinoma; however, its participation in the cancerous processes has not yet been determined. The objective of this work was to demonstrate the expression of Hp and its receptor CCR2 in the ovarian cancer cells and its possible involvement in the process of cell migration through changes in the rearrangement of the actin cytoskeleton using western blot and wound-healing assays and confirming by confocal microscopy. Ovarian cancer cells express both Hp and its receptor CCR2 but only after exposure to ascitic fluid, inducing moderated cell migration. However, when the cells are exposed to exogenous Hp, the expression of CCR2 is induced together with drastic changes in the actin cytoskeleton rearrangement. At the same time, Hp induced cell migration in a much more efficient manner than did ascitic fluid. These effects were blocked when the CCR2 synthetic antagonist RS102895 was used to pretreat the cells. These results suggest that Hp-induced changes in the cell morphology, actin cytoskeleton structure, and migration ability of tumor cells, is possibly “preparing” these cells for the potential induction of the metastatic phenotype. PMID:26211665
Stocker-Majd, Gisela; Hilbrig, Frank; Freitag, Ruth
Affinity precipitation was compared to affinity chromatography and batch adsorption as the final purification step in a protocol for the isolation of haemoglobin from human blood. Haptoglobin was the affinity ligand. The first steps on the process were realized by traditional methods (lyses of red blood cells followed by ammonium sulphate precipitation). For affinity chromatography (and batch adsorption) the ligand was linked to Sepharose, for affinity precipitation to a thermoresponsive polymer, namely poly(N-isopropylacrylamide). Five haptoglobin-poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) bioconjugates (affinity macroligands) were constructed with different polymer: haptoglobin-coupling ratios. Conjugation of haptoglobin to the soluble poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) apparently does not change the interaction thermodynamics with haemoglobin, as the haemoglobin binding constants calculated by a Scatchard analysis for the affinity macroligand were of the same order of magnitude as those described in the literature for the haemoglobin-haptoglobin complex in solution. Two elution protocols were used for haemoglobin release from the various affinity materials, one at pH 2, the other with 5 M urea at pH 11. Both affinity chromatography and affinity precipitation yielded a pure haemoglobin of high quality. Compared to the affinity chromatography, affinity precipitation showed a significantly higher ligand efficiency (ratio of the experimental capacity to the theoretical one). The method thus makes better use of the expensive affinity ligands. As affinity precipitation only requires small temperature changes to bring about precipitation/redissolution of the affinity complexes and a centrifugation step for recovery of the precipitate, the method in addition has advantages in term of scalability and simplicity.
Jensen, A E; Bertram, T A
Capsular structure and biochemical composition varied between two isolates (virulent and avirulent) of Haemophilus pleuropneumoniae serotype 5. The presence of capsule was determined by transmission electron microscopy with glutaraldehyde-osmium, ruthenium red, alcian blue, and phosphotungstic acid staining procedures. The virulent isolate of H. pleuropneumoniae had a distinct, adherent capsule. The avirulent isolate had a fragile, easily removed capsule. Capsular material (CM) and a lipopolysaccharide (LPS) were isolated from each bacterial isolate and were compared biochemically and biologically. CM from both isolates contained carbohydrates, no detectable protein, and no detectable to trace amounts of lipid A. Each LPS contained heptose, hexose, galactose, glucosamine, 2-keto-3-deoxyoctonate, and lipid A. Biological responses to CM and LPS from both isolates were demonstrated in the proclotting enzyme of Limulus polyphemus amebocyte lysate activation and in serological cross-reactions by immunofluorescence and immunodiffusion precipitation. The virulent isolate contained approximately 10 mg of LPS per g more on an original dry weight basis than the avirulent isolate. LPS from the virulent isolate contained approximately 13 times more galactose than LPS from the avirulent isolate. The differences of capsular structure and biochemical composition may contribute to the role of CM in porcine H. pleuropneumoniae infections. Images PMID:3943895
Yang, Cheng-Yao; Lin, Chao-Nan; Lin, Chuen-Fu; Chang, Tsung-Chou; Chiou, Ming-Tang
In total, 211 isolates of A. pleuropneumoniae were collected from pigs with hemorrhagic pneumonia at slaughterhouses during 2002-2007. Serotypes, antimicrobial susceptibility and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values were determined for each isolate of A. pleuropneumoniae to 10 antimicrobial agents. Serovar 1 of A. pleuropneumoniae was predominant in Taiwan in 138 of the 211 isolates, followed by serovars 2 and 5. More than 90% of collected isolates were sensitive to ceftiofur, cephalothin, and chloramphenical. However, lincospectin and gentamicin were relatively less susceptible with sensitivities of only 2.4 and 5.7%, respectively. Additionally, ceftiofur had the highest in vitro activity with an MIC(50) of 2.2 µg/ml, followed by cephalothin (2.7 µg/ml) and chloramphenicol (7.9 µg/ml). Lincospectin had the least activity with MIC(50) and MIC(90) values of 73.9 and 114.5 µg/ml, respectively. The data indicate that ceftiofur and cephalothin were extremely active against A. pleuropneumoniae and with minimum MIC values. These drugs are suitable for controlling and treating hemorrhagic pleuropneumonia outbreaks in swine.
Thompson, Amy B.; Postey, Rosemary C.; Snider, Tim; Pasma, Tim
The death of over 300 sows in 2 months on a 3000 sow farrow-to-isowean operation in Manitoba was attributed to infection with Actinobacillus equuli. This pathogen commonly infects foals, and is rarely reported in swine. Our report is the second recently published case of this pathogen in North American swine. PMID:21286321
Iacono, V J; Boldt, P R; MacKay, B J; Cho, M I; Pollock, J J
The ability of both human and hen egg white lysozymes to lyse Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans Y4 was investigated. Lysis was followed optically at 540 nm by measuring the percent reduction in turbidity of freshly harvested log-phase cells suspended in Tris-maleate buffers within a wide range of pH (5.2 to 8.5) and molarity (0.01 to 0.2 M) and containing various amounts of enzyme and EDTA. In several instances, treated microorganisms were subsequently examined in thin sections by electron microscopy. Reductions in turbidity and clearing of suspensions occurred with small amounts of lysozyme (less than 1 microgram) under relatively alkaline conditions and at low ionic strength and in the presence of small amounts of EDTA (greater than 0.01 mM). Under the most alkaline conditions, EDTA alone effected turbidity reductions similar to those observed in the presence of lysozyme, which suggested that EDTA not only increased outer membrane permeability but also caused cell lysis. Ultrastructural analysis did not always correspond to turbidimetric observations. Cell lysis was virtually complete in suspensions containing both lysozyme and EDTA. However, in contrast to turbidimetric findings, a significant percentage of cells (greater than 25%) was lysed in the presence of lysozyme alone. Furthermore, significant damage occurred in the presence of EDTA alone. Spheroplast-like cell ghosts were present which surrounded condensed cytoplasm or relatively clear spaces. These findings further support the concept of the requirement for electron microscopy to assess lytic damage in addition to turbidimetric and biochemical methods. Our results are the first to demonstrate the remarkable sensitivity of A. actinomycetemcomitans Y4 to lysozyme and to show that EDTA not only affects outer membrane permeability but effects cell lysis, possibly through activation of autolytic enzymes at the cytoplasmic membrane. The exquisite sensitivity of A. actinomycetemcomitans Y4 to lysis could be
Leys, E J; Griffen, A L; Strong, S J; Fuerst, P A
By using PCR, Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans strains were identified directly from plaque samples without the need to isolate or culture bacteria. DNA fragments were generated by a nested, two-step PCR amplification of the ribosomal spacer region between the 16S and 23S rRNA genes. For the first amplification, primers homologous to sequences common to all bacterial species were used. This was followed by a second amplification with primers specific to A. actinomycetemcomitans. The ribosomal DNA spacer region was amplified from as few as 10 bacterial cells within a total population of 10(8) cells (0.00001%), and cross-reactivity between species was not observed. DNA fragments specific for Porphyromonas gingivalis were generated from the same samples by using a P. gingivalis-specific primer, and equivalent sensitivity and specificity were observed. A. actinomycetemcomitans was detected in 60% and P. gingivalis was detected in 79% of 52 subjects tested. Sequence analysis of the spacer region DNA fragment for A. actinomycetemcomitans gave precise strain identification, producing unique sequences for seven reference strains and identification of nine plaque-derived isolates. A phylogenetic tree based on quantitative sequence relationships was constructed. Two-step PCR amplification directly from plaque samples combined with sequence analysis of the ribosomal DNA spacer region provides a sensitive assay for detection and strain identification of multiple species directly from a single plaque sample. This simplified approach provides a practical method for large-scale studies on the transmission and pathogenicity of periodontitis-associated bacteria. Images PMID:8051258
Cao, Sam Linsen; Progulske-Fox, Ann; Hillman, Jeffrey D; Handfield, Martin
Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans is a Gram-negative capnophilic rod and the etiological agent of localized aggressive periodontitis. The genome-wide survey of A. actinomycetemcomitans using in vivo induced antigen technology (IVIAT) has previously resulted in the discovery of antigenic determinants expressed specifically in diseased patients. The present study evaluated the potential of these antigens as putative disease markers, and investigating their contribution to the pathogenesis of the microorganism. Sera from patients had a significantly greater antibody titer than sera from healthy controls against six antigens, which supports the in vivo expression of these antigens, and suggests their usefulness as disease markers. A. actinomycetemcomitans invasion of epithelium-derived HeLa cells resulted in the induction of all three genes tested, as evidenced by real-time PCR. Isogenic mutants of these three genes were constructed and the adhesion and intracellular survival of the mutants was assayed in a competition assay with the wild-type strain. A significant defect in the intracellular survival of two of these mutant strains (orf1402 and orf859) was found. This defect could not be attributed to an adhesion defect. In contrast, a mutation in vapA, a homologue of a novel putative transcriptional regulator, out-competed the wild-type strain in the same assay. The virulent phenotype was restored for a mutant strain in orf859 upon complementation. This data provided new insight into the pathogenic personality of A. actinomycetemcomitans in vivo and supported the use of HeLa cells as a valid in vitro host-pathogen interactions model for that microorganism. IVIAT is applicable to most pathogens and will undoubtedly lead to the discovery of novel therapies, antibiotics and diagnostic tools.
Chandler, Kevin Brown; Pompach, Petr; Goldman, Radoslav
Glycosylation is a common protein modification with a significant role in many vital cellular processes and human diseases, making the characterization of protein-attached glycan structures important for understanding cell biology and disease processes. Direct analysis of protein N-glycosylation by tandem mass spectrometry of glycopeptides promises site-specific elucidation of N-glycan microheterogeneity, something which detached N-glycan and de-glycosylated peptide analyses cannot provide. However, successful implementation of direct N-glycopeptide analysis by tandem mass spectrometry remains a challenge. In this work, we consider algorithmic techniques for the analysis of LC-MS/MS data acquired from glycopeptide-enriched fractions of enzymatic digests of purified proteins. We implement a computational strategy which takes advantage of the properties of CID fragmentation spectra of N-glycopeptides, matching the MS/MS spectra to peptide-glycan pairs from protein sequences and glycan structure databases. Significantly, we also propose a novel false-discovery-rate estimation technique to estimate and manage the number of false identifications. We use a human glycoprotein standard, haptoglobin, digested with trypsin and GluC, enriched for glycopeptides using HILIC chromatography, and analyzed by LC-MS/MS to demonstrate our algorithmic strategy and evaluate its performance. Our software, GlycoPeptideSearch (GPS), assigned glycopeptide identifications to 246 of the spectra at false-discovery-rate 5.58%, identifying 42 distinct haptoglobin peptide-glycan pairs at each of the four haptoglobin N-linked glycosylation sites. We further demonstrate the effectiveness of this approach by analyzing plasma-derived haptoglobin, identifying 136 N-linked glycopeptide spectra at false-discovery-rate 0.4%, representing 15 distinct glycopeptides on at least three of the four N-linked glycosylation sites. The software, GlycoPeptideSearch, is available for download from http
... swine respiratory disease (SRD) associated with Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, Pasteurella multocida... control of mortality due to coldwater disease associated with Flavobacterium psychrophilum and...
Bannikov, G A; Hinds, C A; Rajala-Schultz, P J; Premanandan, C; Rings, D M; Lakritz, J
A reliable and specific test that discriminates between acute neutrophil activation and chronic inflammatory disease may be useful in clinical decision making in a variety of conditions encountered in veterinary medical practice. An ELISA specific for neutrophil-derived haptoglobin-matrix metalloproteinase 9 (Hp-MMP 9) complexes was used to determine serum concentrations of Hp-MMP 9 and was compared to ELISA assays for Haptoglobin (Hp) and matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP 9) in 15 animals with acute sepsis, 10 animals with chronic inflammatory or metabolic disease and 10 healthy cows. Animal disease classifications were completed prior to the determination of serum concentrations of the 3 proteins. Duration of illness, disease process and lesions observed at necropsy were used to place animals into a specific classification. The serum MMP 9 concentrations in healthy cows differed significantly from those measured in sera of acutely septic and chronically ill animals. Serum haptoglobin concentrations in healthy cows were negligible when compared to animals with acute septic or chronic diseases. There was substantial overlap in MMP 9 and Hp concentrations between acute and chronic disease animals. In contrast, serum concentrations of Hp-MMP 9 complexes found almost exclusively in sera from acutely septic animals but not in chronically ill and normal cattle. The Hp-MMP 9 ELISA may be the serological test of choice in the determination of systemic inflammation associated with bacterial sepsis. 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Kiricuta, I; Bojan, O; Comes, R; Cristian, R
Serum fucose, sialic acid, haptoglobine and phospholipids were determined in 167 women with breast cancer stages I--III, 30 with benign lesions of the breast, 42 women in various physiological states of the mammary gland (pregnancy, early childbed and lactation) and compared with 30 healthy women as control. Serial determinations of these parameters during the radio-surgical treatment were done in 28 patients with breast cancer stage III. Fucose and phospholipids levels were significantly increased respectively decreased in the group of patients with breast cancers but unmodified in the others. Sialic acid and haptoglobine -- increased in patients with cancer -- were also elevated in patients with early childbed and benign affections of the breast. The surveillance of these four parameters during the radio-surgical treatment of breast cancer evidenced a good correlation between their modified levels and clinical state of the patients. The increase in fucose, sialic acid and haptoglobine respectively the decrease in phospholipids levels was associated with the clinical evidence of recurrences and metastases.
Sun, Lichao; Hu, Shusheng; Yu, Long; Guo, Chunguang; Sun, Lixin; Yang, Zhihua; Qi, Jun; Ran, Yuliang
Early detection of liver metastasis is important for improving colorectal cancer (CRC) patient survival. Our previous studies showed haptoglobin was highly expressed in primary CRC tissues, especially in heterochronous metastatic cases. Here, we assessed the potential of serum haptoglobin (sHP) as a biomarker for early detection of CRC liver metastasis by evaluating the sHP in 475 CRC patients and 152 healthy volunteers. In the training set (250 cases), sHP level in CRC-M1 (1773.18 ± 690.25 ng/mL) were significantly increased as compared to in CRC-M0 (1544.37 ± 1497.65 ng/mL) or healthy (917.76 ± 571.59 ng/mL). And the high sHP level was correlated with poor survival. Logistic regression analysis revealed that sHP, serum carcinoembryonic antigen (sCEA) and serum carbohydrate antigen 19.9 (sCA19.9) level were the significant parameters for detecting liver metastasis. In leave-one-out-cross-validation, these three markers resulted in 89.1% sensitivity and 85.8% specificity for hepatic metastasis detection. In an independent test set (225 cases), receiver operating characteristic curve analysis of sHP in CRC liver metastasis showed an area under the curve of 0.735, with a sensitivity of 87.2% and a specificity of 59.9%. Combination of sHP, sCEA and sCA19.9 improved diagnostic accuracy to 0.880, with a sensitivity of 88.5% and a specificity of 87.8%. Silencing of HP by specific shRNA significantly inhibited the LOVO and SW620 cell invasion, and suppressed xenograft tumor invasive growth. In summary, these results demonstrate that sHP is associated with poor prognosis of CRC patients and that HP promotes colorectal cancer cell invasion. sHP combining with sCA19.9 and sCEA may be used as accurate predictors of CRC liver metastasis.
Navarrete-Perea, José; Toledano-Magaña, Yanis; De la Torre, Patricia; Sciutto, Edda; Bobes, Raúl José; Soberón, Xavier; Laclette, Juan Pedro
Human and porcine cysticercosis is a parasitic disease caused by the larval stage (cysts) of the tapeworm Taenia solium. Cysts may live in several host tissues such as skeletal muscle or brain. We have previously described the presence of host haptoglobin (Hp) and hemoglobin (Hb) in different protein extracts of the T. solium cysts. Here, we report the binding of host Hp and Hb to a number of cyst proteins, evaluated through measuring electrophoretic and light absorbance changes. In the sera obtained from 18 cysticercotic pigs, Hp-Hb complexes were abundant, whereas free Hp was undetectable. In contrast, in the sera from non 18 cysticercotic pigs, Hp-Hb and free Hp were found. In the soluble protein fraction of cysts tissue, free Hp was detected showing a considerable Hb-binding ability, whereas in the vesicular fluid, Hp is mainly bound to Hb. Interestingly, assays carried out with the insoluble fraction of T. solium cysts tissue, showed binding of Hp and Hp-Hb in a saturable way, suggesting the existence of specific interactions. Our results suggested that the parasite can take advantage of the uptaken host Hp and Hb, either free or in complexes, as a source of iron or as a way to modulate the inflammatory response surrounding the T. solium cysts.
Higgins, Matthew K; Tkachenko, Olga; Brown, Alan; Reed, Jenny; Raper, Jayne; Carrington, Mark
African trypanosomes are protected by a densely packed surface monolayer of variant surface glycoprotein (VSG). A haptoglobin-hemoglobin receptor (HpHbR) within this VSG coat mediates heme acquisition. HpHbR is also exploited by the human host to mediate endocytosis of trypanolytic factor (TLF)1 from serum, contributing to innate immunity. Here, the crystal structure of HpHbR from Trypanosoma congolense has been solved, revealing an elongated three α-helical bundle with a small membrane distal head. To understand the receptor in the context of the VSG layer, the dimensions of Trypanosoma brucei HpHbR and VSG have been determined by small-angle X-ray scattering, revealing the receptor to be more elongated than VSG. It is, therefore, likely that the receptor protrudes above the VSG layer and unlikely that the VSG coat can prevent immunoglobulin binding to the receptor. The HpHb-binding site has been mapped by single-residue mutagenesis and surface plasmon resonance. This site is located where it is readily accessible above the VSG layer. A single HbHpR polymorphism unique to human infective T. brucei gambiense has been shown to be sufficient to reduce binding of both HpHb and TLF1, modulating ligand affinity in a delicate balancing act that allows nutrient acquisition but avoids TLF1 uptake.
Baek, Jin Hyen; Zhang, Xiaoyuan; Williams, Matthew C.; Schaer, Dominik J.; Buehler, Paul W.; D’Agnillo, Felice
Endotoxemia plays a major causative role in the myocardial injury and dysfunction associated with sepsis. Extracellular hemoglobin (Hb) has been shown to enhance the pathophysiology of endotoxemia. In the present study, we examined the myocardial pathophysiology in guinea pigs infused with lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a Gram-negative bacterial endotoxin, and purified Hb. We also examined whether the administration of the Hb scavenger haptoglobin (Hp) could protect against the effects observed. Here, we show that Hb infusion following LPS administration, but not either insult alone, increased myocardial iron deposition, heme oxygenase-1 expression, phagocyte activation and infiltration, as well as oxidative DNA damage and apoptosis assessed by 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) immunostaining, respectively. Co-administration of Hp significantly attenuated the myocardial events induced by the combination of LPS and Hb. These findings may have relevant therapeutic implications for the management of sepsis during concomitant disease or clinical interventions associated with the increased co-exposures to LPS and Hb, such as trauma, surgery or massive blood transfusions. PMID:24691127
Roche, Camille J; Dantsker, David; Alayash, Abdu I; Friedman, Joel M
The presence of acellular hemoglobin (Hb) within the circulation is generally viewed as a pathological state that can result in toxic consequences. Haptoglobin (Hp), a globular protein found in the plasma, binds with high avidity the αβ dimers derived from the dissociation of Hb tetramer and thus helps clear free Hb. More recently there have been compelling indications that the redox properties of the Hp bound dimer (Hb-Hp) may play a more active role in controlling toxicity by limiting the potential tissue damage caused by propagation of the free-radicals generated within the heme containing globin chains. The present study further examines the potential protective effect of Hp through its impact on the production of nitric oxide (NO) from nitrite through nitrite reductase activity of the Hp bound αβ Hb dimer. The presented results show that the Hb dimer in the Hb-Hp complex has oxygen binding, CO recombination and spectroscopic properties consistent with an Hb species having properties similar to but not exactly the same as the R quaternary state of the Hb tetramer. Consistent with these observations is the finding that the initial nitrite reductase rate for Hb-Hp is approximately ten times that of HbA under the same conditions. These results in conjunction with the earlier redox properties of the Hb-Hp are discussed in terms of limiting the pathophysiological consequences of acellular Hb in the circulation.
Thomsen, Jens Haugbølle; Moestrup, Søren K.
The haptoglobin- (Hp-) CD163-heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) pathway is an efficient captor-receptor-enzyme system to circumvent the hemoglobin (Hb)/heme-induced toxicity during physiological and pathological hemolyses. In this pathway, Hb tightly binds to Hp leading to CD163-mediated uptake of the complex in macrophages followed by lysosomal Hp-Hb breakdown and HO-1-catalyzed conversion of heme into the metabolites carbon monoxide (CO), biliverdin, and iron. The plasma concentration of Hp is a limiting factor as evident during accelerated hemolysis, where the Hp depletion may cause serious Hb-induced toxicity and put pressure on backup protecting systems such as the hemopexin-CD91-HO pathway. The Hp-CD163-HO-1 pathway proteins are regulated by the acute phase mediator interleukin-6 (IL-6), but other regulatory factors indicate that this upregulation is a counteracting anti-inflammatory response during inflammation. The heme metabolites including bilirubin converted from biliverdin have overall an anti-inflammatory effect and thus reinforce the anti-inflammatory efficacy of the Hp-CD163-HO-1 pathway. Future studies of animal models of inflammation should further define the importance of the pathway in the anti-inflammatory response. PMID:23781295
Lu, Yu-Ning; Li, Hsing-Yuan; Chu, Hsueh-Liang; Cheng, Tsia-Mu; Tseng, Shin-Hua; Chang, Chia-Ching
Free Hemoglobin (Hb) is a metabolic substance that damage tissue and vessel. It is released from destructed red blood cell and causes infection or inflammatory of human body. In blood plasma, haptoglobin (Hp) binds free Hb with high affinity and prevents the damage which is caused by cell free Hb. Hp has three phenotypes, that are Hp1-1, Hp 2-1, and Hp 2-2. Different phenotypes of Hp has been different affinities to Hb. It is known that electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) provide more information for detecting the small amount bio-molecules, include protein and DNA. In this study, we have developed a simple, fast, reliable and sensitive platform to quantify concentration of free Hb and Hp. In this platform, detection probe has been modified with nano gold and the surface charge transfer resistance of Hb and Hp binding could be detected and quantified within 18 min. This is a whole new platform to quantify free Hb in the serum of human to our knowledge.
Akerstedt, Maria; Waller, Karin Persson; Sternesjö, Ase
The aim of the present study was to evaluate relationships between the presence of the two major bovine acute phase proteins haptoglobin (Hp) and serum amyloid A (SAA) and raw milk quality parameters in bulk tank milk samples. Hp and SAA have been suggested as specific markers of mastitis but recently also as markers for raw milk quality. Since mastitis has detrimental effects on milk quality, it is important to investigate whether the presence of Hp or SAA indicates such changes in the composition and properties of the milk. Bulk tank milk samples (n=91) were analysed for Hp, SAA, total protein, casein, whey protein, proteolysis, fat, lactose, somatic cell count and coagulating properties. Samples with detectable levels of Hp had lower casein content, casein number and lactose content, but higher proteolysis than samples without Hp. Samples with detectable levels of SAA had lower casein number and lactose content, but higher whey protein content than samples without SAA. The presence of acute phase proteins in bulk tank milk is suggested as an indicator for unfavourable changes in the milk composition, e.g. protein quality, due to udder health disturbances, with economical implications for the dairy industry.
Willi, K; Meyer, J
The DNA of the temperate bacteriophage Aaphi23 isolated from the oral bacterium Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans was examined structurally both in the phage head and in the prophage. The DNA in phage particles comprises 44 kb linear molecules with a terminal redundancy of 1.6 kb, which represent circular permutations. Thus, DNA is packaged into phage heads by the headful mechanism. The Aaphi23 prophage is integrated into the host chromosome.
Arif, Abdi; Schulz, Julia; Thiaucourt, François; Taha, Abid; Hammer, Sven
Contagious caprine pleuropneumonia (CCPP) caused by Mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae is a highly contagious and serious respiratory disease of domestic goats, characterized by coughing, severe respiratory distress, and high mortality rates. The lesions at necropsy are mainly a fibrinous pleuropneumonia with increased straw-colored pleural fluid. An outbreak of CCPP in wild goat (Capra aegagrus), Nubian ibex (Capra ibex nubiana), Laristan mouflon (Ovis orientalis laristanica), and gerenuk (Litocranius walleri) occurred at Al Wabra Wildlife Preservation in the State of Qatar. The disease was suspected because of the clinical symptoms and the necropsy findings and was confirmed by the isolation and identification of the causative organism. This new finding indicates that CCPP should be considered a potential threat to wildlife and the conservation of endangered ruminant species, especially in the Middle East, where it is enzootic because of its presence in chronic carriers. Susceptible imported animals should be quarantined and vaccinated. The preferred samples for diagnosis are the pleural fluid, which contains high numbers of Mycoplasma, and sections of hepatized lung, preferably at the interface of normal and diseased tissues. Samples must be shipped to diagnostic laboratories rapidly, and appropriate cool conditions must be maintained during shipping.
Van der Werf, M J; Guettler, M V; Jain, M K; Zeikus, J G
Actinobacillus sp. 130Z fermented glucose to the major products succinate, acetate, and formate. Ethanol was formed as a minor fermentation product. Under CO2-limiting conditions, less succinate and more ethanol were formed. The fermentation product ratio remained constant at pH values from 6.0 to 7.4. More succinate was produced when hydrogen was present in the gas phase. Actinobacillus sp. 130Z grew at the expense of fumarate and l-malate reduction, with hydrogen as an electron donor. Other substrates such as more-reduced carbohydrates (e.g., d-sorbitol) resulted in higher succinate and/or ethanol production. Actinobacillus sp. 130Z contained the key enzymes involved in the Embden-Meyerhof-Parnas and the pentose-phosphate pathways and contained high levels of phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) carboxykinase, malate dehydrogenase, fumarase, fumarate reductase, pyruvate kinase, pyruvate formate-lyase, phosphotransacetylase, acetate kinase, malic enzyme, and oxaloacetate decarboxylase. The levels of PEP carboxykinase, malate dehydrogenase, and fumarase were significantly higher in Actinobacillus sp. 130Z than in Escherichia coli K-12 and accounted for the differences in succinate production. Key enzymes in end product formation in Actinobacillus sp. 130Z were regulated by the energy substrates.
Naushad, Sohail; Adeolu, Mobolaji; Goel, Nisha; Khadka, Bijendra; Al-Dahwi, Aqeel; Gupta, Radhey S.
The genera Actinobacillus, Haemophilus, and Pasteurella exhibit extensive polyphyletic branching in phylogenetic trees and do not represent coherent clusters of species. In this study, we have utilized molecular signatures identified through comparative genomic analyses in conjunction with genome based and multilocus sequence based phylogenetic analyses to clarify the phylogenetic and taxonomic boundary of these genera. We have identified large clusters of Actinobacillus, Haemophilus, and Pasteurella species which represent the “sensu stricto” members of these genera. We have identified 3, 7, and 6 conserved signature indels (CSIs), which are specifically shared by sensu stricto members of Actinobacillus, Haemophilus, and Pasteurella, respectively. We have also identified two different sets of CSIs that are unique characteristics of the pathogen containing genera Aggregatibacter and Mannheimia, respectively. It is now possible to demarcate the genera Actinobacillus sensu stricto, Haemophilus sensu stricto, and Pasteurella sensu stricto on the basis of discrete molecular signatures. The other members of the genera Actinobacillus, Haemophilus, and Pasteurella that do not fall within the “sensu stricto” clades and do not contain these molecular signatures should be reclassified as other genera. The CSIs identified here also provide useful diagnostic targets for the identification of current and novel members of the indicated genera. PMID:25821780
Naushad, Sohail; Adeolu, Mobolaji; Goel, Nisha; Khadka, Bijendra; Al-Dahwi, Aqeel; Gupta, Radhey S
The genera Actinobacillus, Haemophilus, and Pasteurella exhibit extensive polyphyletic branching in phylogenetic trees and do not represent coherent clusters of species. In this study, we have utilized molecular signatures identified through comparative genomic analyses in conjunction with genome based and multilocus sequence based phylogenetic analyses to clarify the phylogenetic and taxonomic boundary of these genera. We have identified large clusters of Actinobacillus, Haemophilus, and Pasteurella species which represent the "sensu stricto" members of these genera. We have identified 3, 7, and 6 conserved signature indels (CSIs), which are specifically shared by sensu stricto members of Actinobacillus, Haemophilus, and Pasteurella, respectively. We have also identified two different sets of CSIs that are unique characteristics of the pathogen containing genera Aggregatibacter and Mannheimia, respectively. It is now possible to demarcate the genera Actinobacillus sensu stricto, Haemophilus sensu stricto, and Pasteurella sensu stricto on the basis of discrete molecular signatures. The other members of the genera Actinobacillus, Haemophilus, and Pasteurella that do not fall within the "sensu stricto" clades and do not contain these molecular signatures should be reclassified as other genera. The CSIs identified here also provide useful diagnostic targets for the identification of current and novel members of the indicated genera.
Teng, Tsung-Han; Lin, Ping-Yi; Tu, Siang-Jyun; Chou, Chih-Hung; Huang, Ya-Rong; Huang, Wei-Chih; Weng, Shun-Long; Huang, Hsien-Da; Chen, Yao-Li
Elevated serum haptoglobin (Hp) is identified as a prognostic marker in multiple types of solid tumors, which is correlated with poor prognosis. HCC is one of the major causes of cancer deaths in worldwide, which remains poor prognosis and is clinically urgent for discovering early diagnostic markers. However, except for serum Hp, the correlation of tumor Hp expression with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) progression is still unclear. In this study, we evaluated and identified the tissue Hp expression as a prognostic marker to predict the survival rate of HCC patients. To evaluate the prognostic value of Hp expression for HCC, two cohorts were enrolled in our study, including total 130 matched pair tissue sections (both adjacent non-tumorous and tumor tissue derived from same patient) of HCC patients from Changhua Christian Hospital (CCH) and total 316 RNA-seq data with clinical information of HCC patients from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database. In contrast to other types of cancers, HCC tumor tissues have lower Hp protein expression in CCH cohort and have lower Hp mRNA expression in TCGA cohort as compared with adjacent non-tumorous tissues (p < 0.001). Moreover, lower Hp expression is significantly correlated with different stages of HCC cancer differentiation in CCH cohort (one-way ANOVA, p < 0.001). Most importantly, lower Hp expression is highly correlated with poor five-year overall survival rate in TCGA cohort (p < 0.01). Based on our data, we conclude that tissue Hp expression positively correlates with better HCC tumor differentiation and increased five-year overall survival rate of HCC patients. The results indicated that tissue Hp is potentially a prognostic marker for HCC patients. Our findings may further provide a new insight of effective treatments along with biopsy diagnosis of HCC patients. PMID:28158312
Levy, Nina S.; Vardi, Moshe; Blum, Shany; Miller-Lotan, Rachel; Afinbinder, Yefim; Cleary, Patricia A.; Paterson, Andrew D.; Bharaj, Bhupinder; Snell-Bergeon, Janet K.; Rewers, Marian J.; Lache, Orit; Levy, Andrew P.
Background Haptoglobin (Hp) is an abundant serum protein which binds extracorpuscular hemoglobin (Hb). Two alleles exist in humans for the Hp gene, denoted 1 and 2. Diabetic individuals with the Hp 2-2 genotype are at increased risk of developing vascular complications including heart attack, stroke, and kidney disease. Recent evidence shows that treatment with vitamin E can reduce the risk of diabetic vascular complications by as much as 50% in Hp 2-2 individuals. We sought to develop a rapid and accurate test for Hp phenotype (which is 100% concordant with the three major Hp genotypes) to facilitate widespread diagnostic testing as well as prospective clinical trials. Methods A monoclonal antibody raised against human Hp was shown to distinguish between the three Hp phenotypes in an enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Hp phenotypes obtained in over 8000 patient samples using this ELISA method were compared with those obtained by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis or the TaqMan PCR method. Results Our analysis showed that the sensitivity and specificity of the ELISA test for Hp 2-2 phenotype is 99.0% and 98.1%, respectively. The positive predictive value and the negative predictive value for Hp 2-2 phenotype is 97.5% and 99.3%, respectively. Similar results were obtained for Hp 2-1 and Hp 1-1 phenotypes. In addition, the ELISA was determined to be more sensitive and specific than the TaqMan method. Conclusions The Hp ELISA represents a user-friendly, rapid and highly accurate diagnostic tool for determining Hp phenotypes. This test will greatly facilitate the typing of thousands of samples in ongoing clinical studies. PMID:23492570
Maresca, Bernardetta; Cigliano, Luisa; Spagnuolo, Maria Stefania; Dal Piaz, Fabrizio; Corsaro, Maria M.; Balato, Nicola; Nino, Massimiliano; Balato, Anna; Ayala, Fabio; Abrescia, Paolo
Improved diagnosis of psoriasis, by new biomarkers, is required for evaluating the progression rate of the disease and the response to treatment. Haptoglobin (Hpt), a glycoprotein secreted by hepatocytes and other types of cells including keratinocytes, was found with glycan changes in psoriasis and other diseases. We previously reported that Hpt isolated from plasma of psoriatic patients is more fucosylated than Hpt of healthy subjects. The aim of this study was to compare the glycosylation pattern of Hpt isolated from skin scales or plasma of patients with psoriasis with that of Hpt from cornified epidermal layer or plasma of healthy subjects. High performance liquid chromatography analysis of the glycans isolated from the protein backbone revealed that glycan patterns from skin and plasma of patients were similar, and mostly displayed quantitative rather than qualitative differences from normal pattern. Biotin-labeled lectins were used to evaluate quantitative differences in the glycoforms of Hpt from plasma and psoriatic skin scales. Hpt from skin and plasma of patients showed more fucosylated and branched glycans than Hpt from plasma of healthy subjects. Tryptic glycopeptides of Hpt were also analyzed by mass spectrometry, and a decreased amount of sialylated glycan chains was found in glycopeptides of skin Hpt, as compared with Hpt from plasma. High levels of glycans with fucosylated and tetra-antennary chains were detected on the peptide NLFLNHSENATAK from Hpt of psoriatic patients. Our data demonstrate that specific changes in glycan structures of Hpt, such as enhanced glycan branching and fucose content, are associated with psoriasis, and that differences between circulating and skin Hpt do exist. A lower extent of glycan fucosylation and branching was found in Hpt from plasma of patients in disease remission. Altered glycoforms might reflect changes of Hpt function in the skin, and could be used as markers of the disease. PMID:23272204
Smith, Ann; McCulloh, Russell J.
The goal here is to describe our current understanding of heme metabolism and the deleterious effects of “free” heme on immunological processes, endothelial function, systemic inflammation, and various end-organ tissues (e.g., kidney, lung, liver, etc.), with particular attention paid to the role of hemopexin (HPX). Because heme toxicity is the impetus for much of the pathology in sepsis, sickle cell disease (SCD), and other hemolytic conditions, the biological importance and clinical relevance of HPX, the predominant heme binding protein, is reinforced. A perspective on the function of HPX and haptoglobin (Hp) is presented, updating how these two proteins and their respective receptors act simultaneously to protect the body in clinical conditions that entail hemolysis and/or systemic intravascular (IVH) inflammation. Evidence from longitudinal studies in patients supports that HPX plays a Hp-independent role in genetic and non-genetic hemolytic diseases without the need for global Hp depletion. Evidence also supports that HPX has an important role in the prognosis of complex illnesses characterized predominantly by the presence of hemolysis, such as SCD, sepsis, hemolytic-uremic syndrome, and conditions involving IVH and extravascular hemolysis (EVH), such as that generated by extracorporeal circulation during cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) and from blood transfusions. We propose that quantitating the amounts of plasma heme, HPX, Hb-Hp, heme-HPX, and heme-albumin levels in various disease states may aid in the diagnosis and treatment of the above-mentioned conditions, which is crucial to developing targeted plasma protein supplementation (i.e., “replenishment”) therapies for patients with heme toxicity due to HPX depletion. PMID:26175690
Schaer, Dominik J.; Buehler, Paul W.; Wilson, Michael T.; Reeder, Brandon J.; Silkstone, Gary; Svistunenko, Dimitri A.; Bulow, Leif; Alayash, Abdu I.
Abstract Aim: Hemoglobin (Hb) becomes toxic when released from the erythrocyte. The acute phase protein haptoglobin (Hp) binds avidly to Hb and decreases oxidative damage to Hb itself and to the surrounding proteins and lipids. However, the molecular mechanism underpinning Hp protection is to date unclear. The aim of this study was to use electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy, stopped flow optical spectrophotometry, and site-directed mutagenesis to explore the mechanism and specifically the role of specific tyrosine residues in this protection. Results: Following peroxide challenge Hb produces reactive oxidative intermediates in the form of ferryl heme and globin free radicals. Hp binding increases the steady state level of ferryl formation during Hb-catalyzed lipid peroxidation, while at the same time dramatically inhibiting the overall reaction rate. This enhanced ferryl stability is also seen in the absence of lipids and in the presence of external reductants. Hp binding is not accompanied by a decrease in the pK of ferryl protonation; the protonated ferryl species still forms, but is intrinsically less reactive. Ferryl stabilization is accompanied by a significant increase in the concentration of the peroxide-induced tyrosine free radical. EPR spectral parameters and mutagenesis studies suggest that this radical is located on tyrosine 145, the penultimate C-terminal amino acid on the beta Hb subunit. Innovation: Hp binding decreases both the ferryl iron and free radical reactivity of Hb. Conclusion: Hp protects against Hb-induced damage in the vasculature, not by preventing the primary reactivity of heme oxidants, but by rendering the resultant protein products less damaging. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 18, 2264–2273. PMID:22702311
Schaer, Dominik J; Vinchi, Francesca; Ingoglia, Giada; Tolosano, Emanuela; Buehler, Paul W
Hemolysis, which occurs in many disease states, can trigger a diverse pathophysiologic cascade that is related to the specific biochemical activities of free Hb and its porphyrin component heme. Normal erythropoiesis and concomitant removal of senescent red blood cells (RBC) from the circulation occurs at rates of approximately 2 × 10(6) RBCs/second. Within this physiologic range of RBC turnover, a small fraction of hemoglobin (Hb) is released into plasma as free extracellular Hb. In humans, there is an efficient multicomponent system of Hb sequestration, oxidative neutralization and clearance. Haptoglobin (Hp) is the primary Hb-binding protein in human plasma, which attenuates the adverse biochemical and physiologic effects of extracellular Hb. The cellular receptor target of Hp is the monocyte/macrophage scavenger receptor, CD163. Following Hb-Hp binding to CD163, cellular internalization of the complex leads to globin and heme metabolism, which is followed by adaptive changes in antioxidant and iron metabolism pathways and macrophage phenotype polarization. When Hb is released from RBCs within the physiologic range of Hp, the potential deleterious effects of Hb are prevented. However, during hyper-hemolytic conditions or with chronic hemolysis, Hp is depleted and Hb readily distributes to tissues where it might be exposed to oxidative conditions. In such conditions, heme can be released from ferric Hb. The free heme can then accelerate tissue damage by promoting peroxidative reactions and activation of inflammatory cascades. Hemopexin (Hx) is another plasma glycoprotein able to bind heme with high affinity. Hx sequesters heme in an inert, non-toxic form and transports it to the liver for catabolism and excretion. In the present review we discuss the components of physiologic Hb/heme detoxification and their potential therapeutic application in a wide range of hemolytic conditions.
Levy, Nina S.; Levy, Andrew P.
Research over the past 10 years in our laboratory has led to two major findings. The first is that haptoglobin (Hp) genotype can predict the risk of developing vascular complications in individuals with diabetes mellitus (DM), and the second, more far-reaching discovery, is that vitamin E treatment can significantly reduce vascular complications in individuals with DM and the Hp 2-2 genotype. The former finding has been well documented in numerous studies which included over 50,000 patients of diverse geographical and ethnic backgrounds. The latter discovery is more recent and less well accepted by the medical community due to confounding reports over the past 30 years regarding the efficacy of vitamin E treatment for vascular disease. We propose that the benefit of vitamin E treatment was not obvious in earlier studies due to the absence of any genetic basis for patient selection. Our studies dividing DM individuals into vitamin E treatment subgroups based on Hp genotype show a clear benefit for individuals of the Hp 2-2 genotype, while patients carrying the other two Hp genotypes are not affected or may be adversely affected by receiving vitamin E. These findings may explain the overall lack of benefit seen in previous vitamin E studies and emphasize the importance of carefully selecting which patients should receive vitamin E therapy. The pharmacogenomic paradigm discussed in this review potentially could result in a dramatic improvement in the health of millions of individuals worldwide using a treatment that is both accessible and affordable to all. PMID:23908805
Carvalho, Laura M L; Ferreira, Cláudia N; de Oliveira, Daisy K D; Rodrigues, Kathryna F; Duarte, Rita C F; Teixeira, Márcia F A; Xavier, Luana B; Candido, Ana Lúcia; Reis, Fernando M; Silva, Ieda F O; Campos, Fernanda M F; Gomes, Karina B
Proteomic studies suggest an association between haptoglobin (Hp) and polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Hp is a classic inflammatory marker and binds to the intravascular hemoglobin, avoiding the oxidative damages that can be caused by free hemoglobin. Inflammation and oxidative stress are important in the pathogenesis of the PCOS, one of the most frequent metabolic diseases in women. To validate these proteomic studies, we developed a controlled cross-sectional study that aimed to evaluate the Hp levels and allelic and genotypic frequencies of Hp1-Hp2 polymorphism in Brazilian women with PCOS. We also investigated the correlation between Hp levels and several important parameters in PCOS as follows: body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), fasting glucose, post-prandial glucose, homeostatic model assessment (HOMA), lipid accumulation product (LAP), C-reactive protein (CRP), and metabolization test of tetrazolium salts (MTTs-serum antioxidant capacity). Plasma Hp levels were higher in the PCOS group than in controls [8.20 (4.04) g/L; 7.98 (3.31) g/L; p = 0.018]. No significant difference was observed in the frequency of Hp1-Hp2 genotypes under additive, recessive, or dominant model of inheritance between the PCOS and the control groups. Plasma Hp levels did not differ according to the genotype. However, plasma Hp showed a negative correlation with MTT (r = - 0.383; p = 0.028), as well as a positive correlation with CRP (r = 0.361; p = 0.014) in the PCOS group. Hp1-Hp2 polymorphism is not associated with PCOS but plasma Hp could be a potential biomarker for PCOS and its complications.
Mohieldein, Abdelmarouf; Alzohairy, Mohammad; Hasan, Marghoob; Khan, Amjad A
Haptoglobin (Hp) polymorphism associated with clinical evolution of several inflammatory diseases and considered as a predictive factor for development of diabetes complications. We designed the present study to investigate the frequency distribution of Hp phenotypes among Saudi with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus compared to healthy nondiabetic subjects. Moreover, we explored the possibility of relationship between serum levels of inflammatory markers (namely, high-sensitive C-reactive proteins "hs-CRP", interleukin (IL)-6, and Hp) and Hp phenotypes. In the present case-control study, we enrolled 60 type 2 diabetic patients as the study group and 60 healthy subjects as the control group. We assayed serum levels of Hp and hs-CRP by immunoturbidimetric method; while IL-6 was measured by ELISA. Native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis was used for determination of Hp phenotypes. In type 2 diabetics, serum concentrations of IL-6, hs-CRP, and Hp were significantly elevated and correlated to body mass index. Moreover, there was a significant correlation between plasma glucose level and Hp (r = 0.577, p = 0.000), IL-6 (r = 0.448, p = 0.000), and hs-CRP (r = 0.380, p = 0.001). In addition, data demonstrated a positive correlation between HbA1c and Hp (r = 0.521, p = 0.000), IL-6 (r = 0.420, p = 0.001), and hs-CRP (r = 0.353, p = 0.008). Hp 2-1 phenotype predominated among subjects in both study and control groups. No significant association between Hp phenotypes with any of the investigated inflammatory markers was documented. Inflammation may represent the link between type 2 diabetes and obesity. Hp 2-1 was the predominant phenotype among Saudi type 2 diabetics as well as healthy subjects. In addition to Hp; other possible genetic polymorphisms like CRP may have its effect on diabetes through different mechanisms.
Abdullah, M; Kähler, D; Vock, C; Reiling, N; Kugler, C; Drömann, D; Rupp, J; Hauber, H P; Fehrenbach, H; Zabel, P; Vollmer, E; Dalhoff, K; Goldmann, T
The acute-phase protein haptoglobin (Hp) and its receptor CD163 serve as immunomodulators and possess anti-inflammatory besides antioxidant functions. To further understand the role of the recently described pulmonary Hp (pHp) and its receptor CD163 in case of inflammation and infection, pHp and CD163 were investigated on mRNA and protein level to gain insight into the cellular events taking place upon stimulation with the inflammatory mediators LPS, Pam3, cytokine IL-6 and dexamethasone, and upon infection with respiratory pathogens (Haemophilus influenzae, Streptococcuspneumoniae and Chlamydia pneumoniae) by use of a human ex vivo tissue culture model and cell cultures of A549 and alveolar epithelial cells type II. In addition, pHp and CD163 expression in COPD and sarcoidosis was assessed. We conducted experiments using 942 ex vivo cultured lung samples applying immunohistochemistry, immunocytochemistry, in situ hybridization, immunofluorescence, real-time PCR, RT-PCR, slot and Western immunoblot analyses with tissue lysates and culture supernatants as well as ELISA and cytometric bead array analyses. This study describes for the first time the expression, regulation and secretion of pHp and its receptor CD163 in the human lung. The release of soluble mediators from A549 cell line and human monocyte-derived macrophages was observed indicating that Hp differentially activates the release of soluble mediators and major chemoattractants. The findings indicate a native function of pHp and CD163 as functional pulmonary defense elements due to local expression, regulation and secretion during lung infection and as part of the inflammatory immune response of the respiratory system. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Mollan, Todd L.; Jia, Yiping; Banerjee, Sambuddha; Wu, Gang; Kreulen, R. Timothy; Tsai, Ah-Lim; Olson, John S.; Crumbliss, Alvin L.; Alayash, Abdu I.
Haptoglobin (Hp) is an abundant and conserved plasma glycoprotein, which binds acellular adult hemoglobin (Hb) dimers with high affinity and facilitates their rapid clearance from circulation following hemolysis. Humans possess three main phenotypes of Hp, designated Hp 1-1, Hp 2-1, and Hp 2-2. These variants exhibit diverse structural configurations and have been reported to be functionally non-equivalent. We have investigated the functional and redox properties of Hb-Hp complexes prepared using commercially fractionated Hp and found that all forms exhibit similar behavior. The rate of Hb dimer binding to Hp occurs with bimolecular rate constants of ~0.9 μM−1s−1, irrespective of the type of Hp assayed. Although Hp binding does accelerate the observed rate of HbO2 autooxidation by dissociating Hb tetramers into dimers, the rate observed for these bound dimers is 3- to 4-fold slower than that of Hb dimers free in solution. Co-incubation of ferric Hb with any form of Hp inhibits heme loss to below detectable levels. Intrinsic redox potentials (E1/2) of the ferric/ferrous pair of each Hb-Hp complex are similar, varying from +54 to +59 mV (vs NHE), and are essentially the same as reported by us previously for Hb-Hp complexes prepared from unfractionated Hp. All Hb-Hp complexes generate similar high amounts of ferryl Hb following exposure to hydrogen peroxide. EPR data indicate that the yields of protein-based radicals during this process are approximately 4% to 5%, and are unaffected by the variant of Hp assayed. These data indicate that the Hp fractions examined are equivalent to each other with respect to Hb binding and associated stability and redox properties, and that this result should be taken into account in the design of phenotype-specific Hp therapeutics aimed at countering Hb-mediated vascular disease. PMID:24486321
Glushakov, Alexander V.; Arias, Rodrigo A.; Tolosano, Emanuela; Doré, Sylvain
Cerebral hemorrhages are common features of traumatic brain injury (TBI) and their presence is associated with chronic disabilities. Recent clinical and experimental evidence suggests that haptoglobin (Hp), an endogenous hemoglobin-binding protein most abundant in blood plasma, is involved in the intrinsic molecular defensive mechanism, though its role in TBI is poorly understood. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of Hp deletion on the anatomical and behavioral outcomes in the controlled cortical impact model using wildtype (WT) C57BL/6 mice and genetically modified mice lacking the Hp gene (Hp−∕−) in two age cohorts [2–4 mo-old (young adult) and 7–8 mo-old (older adult)]. The data obtained suggest age-dependent significant effects on behavioral and anatomical TBI outcomes and recovery from injury. Moreover, in the adult cohort, neurological deficits in Hp−∕− mice at 24 h were significantly improved compared to WT, whereas there were no significant differences in brain pathology between these genotypes. In contrast, in the older adult cohort, Hp−∕− mice had significantly larger lesion volumes compared to WT, but neurological deficits were not significantly different. Immunohistochemistry for ionized calcium-binding adapter molecule 1 (Iba1) and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) revealed significant differences in microglial and astrocytic reactivity between Hp−∕− and WT in selected brain regions of the adult but not the older adult-aged cohort. In conclusion, the data obtained in the study provide clarification on the age-dependent aspects of the intrinsic defensive mechanisms involving Hp that might be involved in complex pathways differentially affecting acute brain trauma outcomes. PMID:27486583
Ijäs, Petra; Melkas, Susanna; Saksi, Jani; Jula, Antti; Jauhiainen, Matti; Oksala, Niku; Pohjasvaara, Tarja; Kaste, Markku; Karhunen, Pekka J; Lindsberg, Perttu; Erkinjuntti, Timo
Haptoglobin (Hp) is an acute phase plasma protein protecting tissues from oxidative damage. It exists in 2 variant alleles (hp1/hp2) giving rise to 3 protein isoforms with different biochemical properties and efficiency to limit oxidative stress. We previously found that hp2 variant is associated with stroke risk in the patients with carotid stenosis and the risk of ischemic cardiovascular events in a general population cohort. This study examined the hypothesis that Hp genotype is associated with general cardiovascular risk in patients with stroke. Hp was genotyped in SAM study (Helsinki Stroke Aging Memory, n=378). A total of 1426 individuals ascertained from a nationally representative cross-sectional health survey served as population controls. Hp genotype frequencies were 15.6% (hp1-1), 44.2% (hp1-2), and 40.2% (hp2-2) in patients with stroke. During a mean of 7.5-year follow-up after first-ever stroke, hp2 carriers had a substantially higher rate of cardiac deaths (24.5% versus 8.5%; P=0.006) and a trend toward more fatal strokes (23.5% versus 13.6%; P=0.122). The combined risk of ischemic cardiovascular deaths was 2.4-fold higher among hp2 carriers (95% confidence interval, 1.28-4.43) after adjustment for major cardiovascular risk factors. Hp2 allele is associated with premature ischemic cardiovascular deaths after first-ever ischemic stroke. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.
Schaer, Dominik J.; Vinchi, Francesca; Ingoglia, Giada; Tolosano, Emanuela; Buehler, Paul W.
Hemolysis, which occurs in many disease states, can trigger a diverse pathophysiologic cascade that is related to the specific biochemical activities of free Hb and its porphyrin component heme. Normal erythropoiesis and concomitant removal of senescent red blood cells (RBC) from the circulation occurs at rates of approximately 2 × 106 RBCs/second. Within this physiologic range of RBC turnover, a small fraction of hemoglobin (Hb) is released into plasma as free extracellular Hb. In humans, there is an efficient multicomponent system of Hb sequestration, oxidative neutralization and clearance. Haptoglobin (Hp) is the primary Hb-binding protein in human plasma, which attenuates the adverse biochemical and physiologic effects of extracellular Hb. The cellular receptor target of Hp is the monocyte/macrophage scavenger receptor, CD163. Following Hb-Hp binding to CD163, cellular internalization of the complex leads to globin and heme metabolism, which is followed by adaptive changes in antioxidant and iron metabolism pathways and macrophage phenotype polarization. When Hb is released from RBCs within the physiologic range of Hp, the potential deleterious effects of Hb are prevented. However, during hyper-hemolytic conditions or with chronic hemolysis, Hp is depleted and Hb readily distributes to tissues where it might be exposed to oxidative conditions. In such conditions, heme can be released from ferric Hb. The free heme can then accelerate tissue damage by promoting peroxidative reactions and activation of inflammatory cascades. Hemopexin (Hx) is another plasma glycoprotein able to bind heme with high affinity. Hx sequesters heme in an inert, non-toxic form and transports it to the liver for catabolism and excretion. In the present review we discuss the components of physiologic Hb/heme detoxification and their potential therapeutic application in a wide range of hemolytic conditions. PMID:25389409
Etzerodt, Anders; Kjolby, Mads; Nielsen, Marianne Jensby; Maniecki, Maciej; Svendsen, Pia; Moestrup, Søren Kragh
In humans, plasma haptoglobin (Hp) and the macrophage receptor CD163 promote a fast scavenging of hemoglobin (Hb). In the present study, we have compared the mouse and human CD163-mediated binding and uptake of Hb and HpHb complex in vitro and characterized the CD163-mediated plasma clearance of Hb in CD163 gene knockout mice and controls. Contrary to human Hp, mouse Hp did not promote high-affinity binding to CD163. This difference between mouse and man was evident both by analysis of the binding of purified proteins and by ligand uptake studies in CD163-transfected cells. Plasma clearance studies in mice showed a fast clearance (half-life few minutes) of fluorescently labeled mouse Hb with the highest uptake in the kidney and liver. HPLC analysis of serum showed that the clearance curve exhibited a two-phase decay with a faster clearance of Hb than plasma-formed HpHb. In CD163-deficient mice, the overall clearance of Hb was slightly slower and followed a one-phase decay. In conclusion, mouse Hp does not promote high-affinity binding of mouse Hb to CD163, and noncomplexed mouse Hb has a higher CD163 affinity than human Hb has. Moreover, CD163-mediated uptake in mice seems to only account for a part of the Hb clearance. The new data further underscore the fact that the Hp system in man seems to have a broader and more sophisticated role. This has major implications in the translation of data on Hb metabolism from mouse to man.
Chaber, A L; Lignereux, L; Al Qassimi, M; Saegerman, C; Manso-Silván, L; Dupuy, V; Thiaucourt, F
Contagious caprine pleuropneumonia (CCPP) is an infectious respiratory disease mainly affecting domestic goats. As CCPP has never been documented in grazing antelopes (subfamily hippotraginae), they were not considered susceptible. Mycoplasma capricolum subspecies capripneumoniae (Mccp) was isolated from pleural liquid collected during the necropsy of a severely emaciated Arabian oryx with mild nasal discharge. The Mccp isolate was then genotyped using a multilocus sequence scheme; the sequence type was identical to the Mccp strain previously identified in a sand gazelle from a nearby enclosure. This case shows for the first time that members of the hippotraginae subfamily, here the Arabian oryx, can be affected by CCPP. In addition, genotyping shows that the oryx was most probably infected, at a distance, by sand gazelles.
Harrington, John M.; Nishanova, Tuiumkan; Pena, Savannah Rose; Hess, Matthew; Scelsi, Chris L.; Widener, Justin; Hajduk, Stephen L.
Haptoglobin-related protein (Hpr) is a component of a minor subspecies of high density lipoproteins (HDL) that function in innate immunity. Here we show that assembly of Hpr into HDL is mediated by its retained N-terminal signal peptide, an unusual feature for a secreted protein and the major difference between Hpr and the soluble acute phase protein haptoglobin (Hp). The 18-amino acid signal peptide is necessary for binding to HDL and interacts directly with the hydrocarbon region of lipids. Utilizing model liposomes, we show that the rate of assembly and steady-state distribution of Hpr in lipid particles is mediated by the physical property of lipid fluidity. Dye release assays reveal that Hpr interacts more rapidly with fluid liposomes. Conversely, steady-state binding assays indicate that more rigid lipid compositions stabilize Hpr association. Lipid association also plays a role in facilitating hemoglobin binding by Hpr. Our data may offer an explanation for the distinct distribution of Hpr among HDL subspecies. Rather than protein-protein interactions mediating localization, direct interaction with phospholipids and sensitivity to lipid fluidity may be sufficient for localization of Hpr and may represent a mechanism of HDL subspeciation. PMID:25037218
Brandslund, I; Petersen, P H; Strunge, P; Hole, P; Worth, V
2 patients treated with penicillin and ampicillin, respectively, suffered from haemorrhagic diathesis, haemolysis, cerebral symptoms and renal insufficiency, resembling a haemolytic-uraemic syndrome. Their plasma was red due to the presence during several days of haemoglobin-haptoglobin complexes, the P-haemoglobin being 2.8 and 1.6 g/l, respectively. Coagulation tests showed an unusual pattern with prolonged activated partial thromboplastin times, an extremely long thrombin time and very high levels of fibrinogen degradation products. Repeated transfusion had no effect. The patients were considered to have developed a drug-induced serum sickness associated with insufficient function of the reticuloendothelial system, and secondary to this an accumulation of haemoglobin-haptoglobin complexes in plasma. When the penicillin drugs were discontinued, all measured variables rapidly normalised and the patients recovered completely. Thus, the haemolyticuraemic syndrome seemed to be caused by the serum sickness, possibly via circulating or cell-associated immune complexes. The possibility of a type III allergic reaction should be considered in patients with haemolytic-uraemic-like syndromes.
Weibull, C.; Lundin, Britt-Marie
Weibull, C. (Central Bacteriological Laboratory of Stockholm City, Stockholm, Sweden), and Britt-Marie Lundin. Size and shape of pleuropneumonia-like organisms grown in liquid media. J. Bacteriol. 84:513–519. 1962.—Samples of liquid cultures containing mainly nonaggregated cells of Mycoplasma agalactiae or M. laidlawii were transferred to agar blocks containing the same medium as the liquid cultures. By use of a phase-contrast microscope, photomicrographs were made of the slide cultures immediately after they had been prepared, and the dimensions of a large number of pleuropneumonia-like organisms (PPLO) were measured. These measurements indicated that, in young cultures (incubated for 24 to 48 hr), the size of the cells did not vary much more than that of ordinary bacteria; 95% of the cells had a width of 0.2 to 0.6 μ. The growth of individual PPLO was followed during incubation of the slide cultures. It was found that 80 to 100% of the cells present in liquid overnight cultures divided and gave rise to microcolonies within a few hours. Rod-shaped, ellipsoidal, and spherical cells were seen in these cultures. Liquid cultures incubated for several days contained mainly spherical cells. Fewer than 5% of the cells in these cultures showed any indication of growth during incubation in slide cultures for 5 days. Photomicrographs of cells of M. agalactiae moving freely in liquid medium were taken with an electronic flash as the light source. The photographs thus obtained directly demonstrated the existence of rod-shaped cells. Images PMID:13999518
Hayashida, H; Hotokezaka, H; Ohara, N; Kimura, M; Takagi, O; Yamada, T
We have cloned and sequenced the 5.2 kb EcoRI fragment that contained part of the S10 operon from Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans FDC Y4. The order of the ribosomal protein genes was identical to that of the S10 operon of Haemophilus influenzae and Escherichia coli. The deduced amino acid sequences of ribosomal proteins in this operon displayed significant homologies (65.3%-100%) to those of H. influenzae, E. coli, Yersinia enterocolitica and Yersinia pseudotuberculosis. Phylogenetic trees obtained for these ribosomal proteins were similar to that obtained for 16S rRNA.
Preus, H R; Olsen, I; Namork, E
Electron microscopy revealed 2 different types of bacteriophages isolated from Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans colonizing exclusively diseased sites in 4 patients with localized juvenile periodontitis (LJP). All sites infected with phage were undergoing periodontal destruction, as judged from consecutive routine radiographs. The phages isolated had a wide host range as assessed from their ability to infect a series of reference strains of A. actinomycetemcomitans. A 5th patient harboured non-infected A. actinomycetemcomitans in a surgically treated site which had undergone no bone destruction during the last 12 months. The present findings suggested that the pathogenic potential of A. actinomycetemcomitans in LJP may increase due to phage infection.
Willemsen, P T; Vulto, I; Boxem, M; de Graaff, J
The periodontopathic bacterium Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans possesses a 35-kDa periplasmic iron-repressible protein. Its regulation is mediated by the Fur protein, as was inferred from the Fur-binding consensus sequence at the -35 position of the gene for the 35-kDa protein and from the relaxed expression of the gene in a mutant with an altered Fur-binding sequence. The 35-kDa protein, designated AfuA, has strong homology to HitA and FbpA of Haemophilus influenzae and Neisseria meningitidis, respectively, which serve as periplasmic iron transport proteins.
Martín, M C; Andrés, M T; Fierro, J F; Méndez, F J
Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans was isolated from blood cultures of a 33-year-old febrile patient with a previously undiagnosed coarctation of the aorta. Subgingival samples from diseased periodontal pockets revealed the presence of A. actinomycetemcomitans. An infected (mycotic) aortic aneurysm and endarteritis were diagnosed and surgically treated. The identity of blood and oral clinical isolates of A. actinomycetemcomitans was supported by genetic analysis, including fingerprinting by restriction fragment length polymorphism, ribotyping, and random amplified polymorphic DNA; biotyping; and antibiogram typing. These data strongly suggest that the periodontal pockets were the primary source of A. actinomycetemcomitans endarteritis in this case.
Kagermeier, A S; London, J
Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans strains Y4 and N27 absorb to spheroidal hydroxyapatite in roughly the same numbers per milligram of substrate and with the same tenacity as two previously tested Cytophaga species. Although the two strains of A. actinomycetemcomitans exhibited similar affinities and number of binding sites for SHA, their response to enzyme treatment and heating were very different. The capacity of strain Y4 to attach to spheroidal hydroxyapatite was diminished by treatment with proteases and phospholipases and was unaffected by neuraminidase, while strain N27 was unaffected by proteases and phospholipases and lost its binding capabilities when treated with neuraminidase. Images PMID:3972445
KASUYA, Kazufumi; MANCHANAYAKE, Tilusha; UENOYAMA, Kei; KAWA, Sayaka; TAKAYAMA, Kou; IMAI, Naoto; SHIBAHARA, Tomoyuki
An imported crossbred Angus beef steer aged eight to twelve months died suddenly on the eighth day of a quarantine period in Japan. Gross examination showed the peritoneum and mesentery consisted of numerous nodules of various sizes. Histological examination revealed chronic suppurative granulomatous peritonitis with eosinophilic rosettes surrounding colonies of Gram-negative bacilli. The bacteria isolated from the nodules were confirmed to be Actinobacillus lignieresii based on the results of 16S rRNA gene sequencing and immunohistochemistry. Antibiotic sensitivity testing showed that the isolate was resistant to penicillin. Thus, a diagnosis of atypical actinobacillosis caused by A. lignieresii was made. PMID:27773882
Zheng, Pu; Zhou, Wei; Ni, Ye; Jiang, Min; Wei, Ping; Sun, Zhihao
Actinobacillus succinogenes is a promising candidate for the production of bio-based succinic acid. Previously, we isolated a succinic acid-producing strain Actinobacillus succinogenes CGMCC 1593 from bovine rumen. In this paper, the influence of the environmental factors such as gas phase, pH, ORP, on succinic acid production by A. succinogenes CGMCC 1593 was studied. The results showed that CO2 was the optimum gas phase for anaerobic fermentation ofA. succinogenes CGMCC 1593 as well as one of the substrate for the succinic acid synthesis. Using MgCO3 as a pH regulator, the pH was maintained within 7.1-6.2 during the anaerobic fermentation for the cell growth and acid production of A. succinogenes CGMCC 1593. Our results showed that low initial ORP was disadvantageous for the growth of A. succinogenes CGMCC 1593 and an ORP of -270 mV was demonstrated to be beneficial to the succinic acid production. By adding Na2S.9H2O to decrease ORP to -270 mV at the end of exponential growth phase in batch culture of A. succinogenes CGMCC 1593, the succinic acid concentration reached 37 g/L and the yield of succinic acid was 129% at 48 h. This work might provide valuable information for further optimization of succinic acid fermentation by A. succinogenes CGMCC 1593.
Pasma, Satriani Aga; Daik, Rusli; Maskat, Mohamad Yusof
Succinic acid is a common metabolite in plants, animals and microorganisms. It has been used widely in agricultural, food and pharmaceutical industries. Enzymatic hydrolysate glucose from oil palm empty fruit bunch (OPEFB) cellulose was used as a substrate for succinic acid production using Actinobacillus succinogenes. Using cellulose extraction from OPEFB can enhance the production of glucose as a main substrate for succinic acid production. The highest concentration of glucose produced from enzymatic hydrolysis is 167 mg/mL and the sugar recovery is 0.73 g/g of OPEFB. By optimizing the culture medium for succinic acid fermentation with enzymatic hydrolysate of OPEFB cellulose, the nitrogen sources could be reduced to just only 2.5 g yeast extract and 2.5 g corn step liquor. Batch fermentation was carried out using enzymatic hydrolysate of OPEFB cellulose with yeast extract, corn steep liquor and the salts mixture, 23.5 g/L succinic acid was obtained with consumption of 72 g/L glucose in enzymatic hydrolysate of OPEFB cellulose at 38 hours and 37°C. This study suggests that enzymatic hydrolysate of OPEFB cellulose maybe an alternative substrate for the efficient production of succinic acid by Actinobacillus succinogenes.
Piao, Shunfu; Xu, Yongbin; Ha, Nam-Chul
A periplasmic membrane-fusion protein MacA from Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, an essential component of the multidrug efflux pump in Gram-negative bacteria, was crystallized. Periplasmic membrane-fusion proteins (MFPs) are an essential component of the multidrug efflux pump in Gram-negative bacteria. They play a crucial role in bridging the outer membrane porin TolC and two distinct types of inner membrane transporters. The MFP MacA bridges the inner membrane ABC-type multidrug transporter MacB and the outer membrane porin TolC. MacA from the pathogenic bacterium Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans was expressed in Escherichia coli B834 (DE3) and the recombinant protein was purified using Ni–NTA affinity, Q anion-exchange and gel-filtration chromatography. The purified MacA protein was crystallized using the vapour-diffusion method. A MAD diffraction data set was collected to a resolution of 3.0 Å at 100 K. The crystal belongs to space group P622, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 109.2, c = 255.4 Å, α = β = 90, γ = 120°, and contains one molecule in the asymmetric unit.
Duffy, L K; Bowyer, R T; Testa, J W; Faro, J B
Levels of blood haptoglobin (Hp) and interleukin-6 immunoreactive protein (IL-6 ir) were significantly elevated in river otters (Lutra canadensis) inhabiting oiled areas of Prince William Sound, Alaska (USA) following the Exxon Valdez oil spill in 1989. By May and June 1992, however, such differences were not apparent. Mean body mass of otters, adjusted for sex, age-class, and total length with analysis of covariance, differed between oiled and non-oiled areas from 1990 to 1992, but were nearly identical by May and June 1992. We propose that river otters may be recovering from chronic effects that we observed in 1990 and 1991 following the 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill, but further research is necessary to test this hypothesis.
Naranmandura, Hua; Suzuki, Kazuo T
Chronic exposure to arsenic causes a wide range of diseases such as hyperkeratosis, cardiovascular diseases, and skin, lung, and bladder cancers, and millions of people are chronically exposed to arsenic worldwide. However, little is known about the mechanisms underlying these toxic actions. The metabolism of arsenic is essential for understanding the toxic actions. Here, we identified the major arsenic-binding protein (As-BP) in the plasma of rats after oral administration of arsenite by the use of two different HPLC columns, gel filtration and anion exchange ones, coupled with an inductively coupled argon plasma mass spectrometer (ICP MS). The molecular mass of the As-BP was estimated to be 90 kDa based on results using the former column, and arsenic bound to this protein only in the form of dimethylarsinous acid (DMA (III)) in the plasma in vivo. In addition, the purified As-BP was shown to consist of two different proteins, haptoglobin (Hp) of 37 kDa (three bands) and the hemoglobin (Hb) alpha chain of 14 kDa (single band), using sodium dodecylsulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS), respectively, suggesting that the As-BP was the ternary DMA (III)-Hb-Hp complex. To confirm the present observations, an arsenic-binding assay was carried out in vitro . Although DMA (III) bound directly to fresh rat plasma proteins, they were different from that identified in vivo. However, when a DMA (III)-exposed rat RBC lysate (DMA (III) binds to Hb in rat RBCs) was added to control rat plasma, a new arsenic peak increased at the expense of the arsenic-Hb one. Furthermore, this new arsenic peak was consistent with the As-BP identified in the plasma in vivo, suggesting that arsenic bound to Hb further binds to haptoglobin (Hp), forming the ternary As-Hb-Hp complex.
Background Haptoglobin (HP) is an acute phase protein that binds to freely circulating hemoglobin. HP exists as two distinct forms, HP1 and HP2. The longer HP2 form has been associated with cardiovascular (CVD) events and mortality in individuals with type 2 diabetes (T2DM). Methods This study examined the association of HP genotypes with subclinical CVD, T2DM risk, and associated risk factors in a T2DM-enriched sample. Haptoglobin genotypes were determined in 1208 European Americans (EA) from 473 Diabetes Heart Study (DHS) families via PCR. Three promoter SNPs (rs5467, rs5470, and rs5471) were also genotyped. Results Analyses revealed association between HP2-2 duplication and increased carotid intima-media thickness (IMT; p = 0.001). No association between HP and measures of calcified arterial plaque were observed, but the HP polymorphism was associated with triglyceride concentrations (p = 0.005) and CVD mortality (p = 0.04). We found that the HP2-2 genotype was associated with increased T2DM risk with an odds ratio (OR) of 1.49 (95% CI 1.18-1.86, p = 6.59x10-4). Promoter SNPs were not associated with any traits. Conclusions This study suggests association between the HP duplication and IMT, triglycerides, CVD mortality, and T2DM in an EA population enriched for T2DM. Lack of association with atherosclerotic calcified plaque likely reflect differences in the pathogenesis of these CVD phenotypes. HP variation may contribute to the heritable risk for CVD complications in T2DM. PMID:23399657
Moreno, B; Bolea, R; Morales, M; Martín-Burriel, I; González, Ch; Badiola, J J
Clinical and pathological studies in European badgers (Meles meles) are limited. Badgers play a significant role in the epidemiology of bovine tuberculosis (TB) in some countries and an accurate diagnosis is needed for this infection. However, the lesions of bovine TB are similar to those associated with other pathogens, making pathological diagnosis difficult. In the present study, Streptococcus halichoeri was isolated from a European badger with pyogranulomatous pleuropneumonia and suspected of having tuberculosis. TB and other pathogens able to induce similar lesions were ruled out. Comparative 16S rRNA and rpoB gene sequencing studies showed an identity of 99.51% and 98.28%, respectively, with S. halichoeri. This report represents the third description of this bacterium and the first in an animal species other than the grey seal (Halichoerus grypus). It also shows that S. halichoeri can be associated with a pathological process characterized by granulomatous inflammation and resembling tuberculosis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Inzana, T J
The capsular polymer (CP) of Haemophilus pleuropneumoniae serotype 5 was purified, and its chemical composition was analyzed. Radioimmunoassay experiments showed that the maximum amount of CP could be obtained from broth cultures of bacteria in the late stationary phase, rather than from bacteria washed off agar plates. The CP was precipitated from culture supernatant with 5 mM hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide (Cetavlon) and solubilized with 0.4 M NaCl. Ninety percent of the CP in the culture supernatant was precipitated with Cetavlon, although some material remained insoluble after NaCl extraction. The CP was further purified by phenol extraction, ultracentrifugation, and Sepharose CL-4B gel filtration. The Kav of the CP from Sepharose CL-4B chromatography was 0.33. The CP preparation contained 85% hexosamine, 12% hexose, 3% phosphate, 0.17% protein, 0.20% nucleic acid, and 0.01% endotoxin. Thin-layer chromatography, an amino acid analyzer, and a glucose oxidase colorimetric kit were used to identify the sugar components of the hydrolyzed CP as glucosamine and glucose. Analysis of the native CP by 13C nuclear magnetic resonance indicated that amino, N-acetyl, and carboxyl groups were present and that the CP was a disaccharide. Images PMID:3596801
Onono, J O; Wieland, B; Suleiman, A; Rushton, J
This paper presents a policy analysis for the implementation of contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP) control strategies in pastoral regions of sub-Saharan Africa, where the disease is endemic. A framework for policy analysis was adapted for this review. The framework has eight principal steps: defining the context of the policy, identifying the problem to be addressed by the policy, searching for evidence of the problem, identifying policy options, projecting policy outcomes, evaluating the potential policy options, weighing their outcomes and making the policy decision. The data and information used to search for evidence of the problem, options for solving the problem, and the projected outcomes of those options were obtained from both published and grey sources of literature. The policy problem for CBPP control in sub-Saharan Africa was identified as a failure to deliver control services to farmers whose cattle are at high risk of exposure to infection. The authors suggest the adoption of signed contractual agreements between the public and private sectors to support the vaccination of susceptible herds raised in endemic regions. Implementation of this policy will increase vaccination coverage of susceptible cattle herds since current vaccination coverage is low.
Nkando, Isabel; Perez-Casal, Jose; Mwirigi, Martin; Prysliak, Tracy; Townsend, Hugh; Berberov, Emil; Kuria, Joseph; Mugambi, John; Soi, Reuben; Liljander, Anne; Jores, Joerg; Gerdts, Volker; Potter, Andrew; Naessens, Jan; Wesonga, Hezron
Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides (Mmm) is the causative agent of contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP), a devastating respiratory disease mainly affecting cattle in sub-Saharan Africa. The current vaccines are based on live-attenuated Mmm strains and present problems with temperature stability, duration of immunity and adverse reactions, thus new vaccines are needed to overcome these issues. We used a reverse vaccinology approach to identify 66 Mmm potential vaccine candidates. The selection and grouping of the antigens was based on the presence of specific antibodies in sera from CBPP-positive animals. The antigens were used to immunize male Boran cattle (Bos indicus) followed by a challenge with the Mmm strain Afadé. Two of the groups immunized with five proteins each showed protection after the Mmm challenge (Groups A and C; P<0.05) and in one group (Group C) Mmm could not be cultured from lung specimens. A third group (Group N) showed a reduced number of animals with lesions and the cultures for Mmm were also negative. While immunization with some of the antigens conferred protection, others may have increased immune-related pathology. This is the first report that Mmm recombinant proteins have been successfully used to formulate a prototype vaccine and these results pave the way for the development of a novel commercial vaccine. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Mwirigi, Martin; Nkando, Isabel; Olum, Moses; Attah-Poku, Samuel; Ochanda, Horace; Berberov, Emil; Potter, Andrew; Gerdts, Volker; Perez-Casal, Jose; Wesonga, Hezron; Soi, Reuben; Naessens, Jan
Contagious Bovine Pleuropneumonia (CBPP) is a severe respiratory disease caused by Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides (Mmm) which is widespread in Africa. The capsule polysaccharide (CPS) of Mmm is one of the few identified virulence determinants. In a previous study, immunization of mice against CPS generated antibodies, but they were not able to prevent multiplication of Mmm in this model animal. However, mice cannot be considered as a suitable animal model, as Mmm does not induce pathology in this species. Our aim was to induce antibody responses to CPS in cattle, and challenge them when they had specific CPS antibody titres similar or higher than those from cattle vaccinated with the live vaccine. The CPS was linked to the carrier protein ovalbumin via a carbodiimide-mediated condensation with 1-ethyl-3(3-imethylaminopropyl) carbodiimide (EDC). Ten animals were immunized twice and challenged three weeks after the booster inoculation, and compared to a group of challenged non-immunized cattle. When administered subcutaneously to adult cattle, the vaccine elicited CPS-specific antibody responses with the same or a higher titre than animals vaccinated with the live vaccine. Pathology in the group of immunized animals was significantly reduced (57%) after challenge with Mmm strain Afadé compared to the non-immunized group, a figure in the range of the protection provided by the live vaccine. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Shen, Naikun; Wang, Qingyan; Zhu, Jing; Qin, Yan; Liao, Siming; Li, Yi; Zhu, Qixia; Jin, Yanling; Du, Liqin; Huang, Ribo
Duckweed is potentially an ideal succinic acid (SA) feedstock due to its high proportion of starch and low lignin content. Pretreatment methods, substrate content and nitrogen source were investigated to enhance the bioconversion of duckweed to SA and to reduce the costs of production. Results showed that acid hydrolysis was an effective pretreatment method because of its high SA yield. The optimum substrate concentration was 140g/L. The optimum substrate concentration was 140g/L. Corn steep liquor powder could be considered a feasible and inexpensive alternative to yeast extract as a nitrogen source. Approximately 57.85g/L of SA was produced when batch fermentation was conducted in a 1.3L stirred bioreactor. Therefore, inexpensive duckweed can be a promising feedstock for the economical and efficient production of SA through fermentation by Actinobacillus succinogenes GXAS137.
dos Santos, Fabrine Alexandre; de Azevedo, Edísio Oliveira; de Azevedo, Sérgio Santos; Garino Júnior, Felício; Mota, Rinaldo Aparecido; de Cássia Peixoto Kim, Pomy; Gomes, Ana Lisa Vale; Alves, Clebert José
The present study reports the first isolation of Actinobacillus seminis from a goat in Brazil. A four-year-old Moxotó breeding goat in a flock of 70 goats and 65 sheep reared together in the county of Patos, semiarid region of Northeastern Brazil, showed clinical signs of unilateral orchitis and epididymitis. Diagnosis of A. seminis infection was confirmed by association of clinical findings, bacterial isolation and 16S rRNA gene sequencing. This result suggests that A. seminis may be an additional cause of infertility in goats, and that sheep may be the source of infection because the mixed farming system allows the contact between sheep and goats in the semiarid region of Northeastern Brazil.
dos Santos, Fabrine Alexandre; de Azevedo, Edísio Oliveira; de Azevedo, Sérgio Santos; Júnior, Felício Garino; Mota, Rinaldo Aparecido; de Cássia Peixoto Kim, Pomy; Gomes, Ana Lisa Vale; Alves, Clebert José
The present study reports the first isolation of Actinobacillus seminis from a goat in Brazil. A four-year-old Moxotó breeding goat in a flock of 70 goats and 65 sheep reared together in the county of Patos, semiarid region of Northeastern Brazil, showed clinical signs of unilateral orchitis and epididymitis. Diagnosis of A. seminis infection was confirmed by association of clinical findings, bacterial isolation and 16S rRNA gene sequencing. This result suggests that A. seminis may be an additional cause of infertility in goats, and that sheep may be the source of infection because the mixed farming system allows the contact between sheep and goats in the semiarid region of Northeastern Brazil. PMID:24948932
Contreras, A; Rusitanonta, T; Chen, C; Wagner, W G; Michalowicz, B S; Slots, J
Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans strains showing a 530-bp deletion in the promoter region of the leukotoxin gene operon elaborate high amounts of leukotoxin that may play a role in the pathogenesis of periodontal disease. This study used polymerase chain reaction detection to determine the occurrence of the 530-bp deletion in 94 A. actinomycetemcomitans strains from individuals of various ethnic backgrounds. Eleven blacks and one Hispanic subject but no Caucasian or Asian subjects showed the 530-bp deletion in the leukotoxin promoter region, suggesting that the deletion is mainly a characteristic of individuals of African descent. A. actinomycetemcomitans strains exhibiting a deletion in the leukotoxin promoter region occurred both in individuals having severe periodontitis and in adolescents revealing no evidence of destructive periodontal disease.
MacInnes, J I; Desrosiers, R
In recent years, Actinobacillus suis, Haemophilus parasuis, and Streptococcus suis have emerged as important pathogens of swine, particularly in high health status herds. Their association with a wide range of serious clinical conditions and has given rise to the moniker "suis-ide diseases." These organisms are early colonizers and, for that reason, are difficult to control by management procedures such as segregated early weaning. Vaccination, serodiagnostic testing, and even serotyping are complicated by the presence of multiple serotypes, cross-reactive antigens, and the absence of clear markers for virulence. In this review, we discuss our current understanding of the pathogenesis, epidemiology, and management of the causative agents of the "suis-ide diseases" of swine. Images Figure 1. Figure 2. Figure 3. PMID:10369563
Zhang, Yun-jian; Li, Qiang; Zhang, Yu-xiu; Wang, Dan; Xing, Jian-min
Succinic acid is considered as an important platform chemical. Succinic acid fermentation with Actinobacillus succinogenes strain BE-1 was optimized by central composite design (CCD) using a response surface methodology (RSM). The optimized production of succinic acid was predicted and the interactive effects between glucose, yeast extract, and magnesium carbonate were investigated. As a result, a model for predicting the concentration of succinic acid production was developed. The accuracy of the model was confirmed by the analysis of variance (ANOVA), and the validity was further proved by verification experiments showing that percentage errors between actual and predicted values varied from 3.02% to 6.38%. In addition, it was observed that the interactive effect between yeast extract and magnesium carbonate was statistically significant. In conclusion, RSM is an effective and useful method for optimizing the medium components and investigating the interactive effects, and can provide valuable information for succinic acid scale-up fermentation using A. succinogenes strain BE-1.
Tsai, C C; Shenker, B J; DiRienzo, J M; Malamud, D; Taichman, N S
A leukotoxin from Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans was isolated by a procedure that includes polymyxin B extraction, ion-exchange chromatography, and gel filtration chromatography. The procedure resulted in the recovery of 48% of the toxin with a 99-fold increase in specific activity. The isolated toxin has a molecular mass of 180,000 daltons by gel filtration and 115,000 daltons by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. It retains all the major biological characteristics previously documented for crude leukotoxin preparations, including susceptibility to heat and proteolytic enzymes and neutralization by sera from patients with juvenile periodontitis. The isolated leukotoxin destroys human but not rat or guinea pig polymorphonuclear leukocytes and has no apparent effect on human erythrocytes. The availability of the A. actinomycetemcomitans leukotoxin should facilitate studies on its chemistry and mode of action as well as its role in the pathogenesis of human periodontal disease. Images PMID:6319288
Wilson, M E
The outer membrane of Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans contains a 29-kDa protein which exhibits heat modifiability on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gels and represents a major target for immunoglobulin G antibody in sera of periodontitis patients colonized by this organism. In the present study, the N-terminal amino acid sequence of the 29-kDa outer membrane protein was determined and compared with reported sequences for other known proteins. The heat-modifiable outer membrane protein of A. actinomycetemcomitans was found to exhibit significant N-terminal homology with the OmpA proteins of other gram-negative bacteria. Moreover, this protein reacted with antiserum raised against the purified OmpA protein of Escherichia coli K-12. Whether the heat-modifiable OMP of A. actinomycetemcomitans also shares functional properties of OmpA proteins, particularly with respect to bacteriophage receptor activity, is presently under investigation. Images PMID:2050416
Meyer, D H; Sreenivasan, P K; Fives-Taylor, P M
Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, an oral bacterial species associated with periodontal disease, was found to invade human cell lines. Invasion was demonstrated by recovery of viable organisms from gentamicin-treated KB cell monolayers and by light and electron microscopy. Internalization occurred through a cytochalasin D-sensitive process. Invasion efficiencies of some A. actinomycetemcomitans strains were comparable to those of invasive members of the family Enterobacteriaceae. Differences in invasiveness were correlated with bacterial colonial morphology. Smooth variants invaded more proficiently than rough variants. A. actinomycetemcomitans can undergo a smooth-to-rough colonial morphology shift which results in the loss of invasiveness. Coordinated regulation of genes involved in the rough-to-smooth phenotypic transitions may play a role in the episodic nature of periodontal disease. Images PMID:1855989
Tønjum, T; Haas, R
Eleven strains of Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans isolated from cases of systemic infections, local abscesses, and periodontitis were identified by genetic assays using the leukotoxin gene as the target. We have developed a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay, based on the leukotoxin structural gene of this pathogen, which clearly identified all tested strains of A. actinomycetemcomitans and separated them from the closely related Haemophilus aphrophilus as well as other bacterial species. Furthermore, DNA-DNA hybridization was performed with the cloned partial leukotoxin structural gene (lktA) as a probe, which again clearly distinguished A. actinomycetemcomitans from H. aphrophilus, parts of the normal oral flora, and species harboring RTX (repeats in toxin) family-related cytotoxins. The PCR fragment amplified from the leukotoxin structural gene gave results similar to those given by the cloned leukotoxin gene when used as a probe in hybridization experiments. The hybridization and PCR assays described here are fundamental improvements for the identification of A. actinomycetemcomitans. Images PMID:8349764
Guarnieri, Michael T.; Chou, Yat -Chen; Salvachua, Davinia Rodriquez; ...
Actinobacillus succinogenes, a Gram-negative facultative anaerobe, exhibits the native capacity to convert pentose and hexose sugars to succinic acid (SA) with high yield as a tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle intermediate. In addition, A. succinogenes is capnophilic, incorporating CO2 into SA, making this organism an ideal candidate host for conversion of lignocellulosic sugars and CO2 to an emerging commodity bioproduct sourced from renewable feedstocks. In this work, we report the development of facile metabolic engineering capabilities in A. succinogenes, enabling examination of SA flux determinants via knockout of the primary competing pathways—namely, acetate and formate production—and overexpression of the key enzymesmore » in the reductive branch of the TCA cycle leading to SA. Batch fermentation experiments with the wild-type and engineered strains using pentose-rich sugar streams demonstrate that the overexpression of the SA biosynthetic machinery (in particular, the enzyme malate dehydrogenase) enhances flux to SA. Additionally, removal of competitive carbon pathways leads to higher-purity SA but also triggers the generation of by-products not previously described from this organism (e.g., lactic acid). The resultant engineered strains also lend insight into energetic and redox balance and elucidate mechanisms governing organic acid biosynthesis in this important natural SA-producing microbe. IMPORTANCE Succinic acid production from lignocellulosic residues is a potential route for enhancing the economic feasibility of modern biorefineries. Here, we employ facile genetic tools to systematically manipulate competing acid production pathways and overexpress the succinic acid-producing machinery in Actinobacillus succinogenes. Furthermore, the resulting strains are evaluated via fermentation on relevant pentose-rich sugar streams representative of those from corn stover. Altogether, this work demonstrates genetic modifications that can lead to succinic
Guarnieri, Michael T; Chou, Yat-Chen; Salvachúa, Davinia; Mohagheghi, Ali; St John, Peter C; Peterson, Darren J; Bomble, Yannick J; Beckham, Gregg T
Actinobacillus succinogenes, a Gram-negative facultative anaerobe, exhibits the native capacity to convert pentose and hexose sugars to succinic acid (SA) with high yield as a tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle intermediate. In addition, A. succinogenes is capnophilic, incorporating CO2 into SA, making this organism an ideal candidate host for conversion of lignocellulosic sugars and CO2 to an emerging commodity bioproduct sourced from renewable feedstocks. In this work, we report the development of facile metabolic engineering capabilities in A. succinogenes, enabling examination of SA flux determinants via knockout of the primary competing pathways-namely, acetate and formate production-and overexpression of the key enzymes in the reductive branch of the TCA cycle leading to SA. Batch fermentation experiments with the wild-type and engineered strains using pentose-rich sugar streams demonstrate that the overexpression of the SA biosynthetic machinery (in particular, the enzyme malate dehydrogenase) enhances flux to SA. Additionally, removal of competitive carbon pathways leads to higher-purity SA but also triggers the generation of by-products not previously described from this organism (e.g., lactic acid). The resultant engineered strains also lend insight into energetic and redox balance and elucidate mechanisms governing organic acid biosynthesis in this important natural SA-producing microbe.IMPORTANCE Succinic acid production from lignocellulosic residues is a potential route for enhancing the economic feasibility of modern biorefineries. Here, we employ facile genetic tools to systematically manipulate competing acid production pathways and overexpress the succinic acid-producing machinery in Actinobacillus succinogenes Furthermore, the resulting strains are evaluated via fermentation on relevant pentose-rich sugar streams representative of those from corn stover. Overall, this work demonstrates genetic modifications that can lead to succinic acid production
Zambon, J J; Slots, J; Genco, R J
Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans from the human oral cavity was serologically characterized with rabbit antisera to the type strain NCTC 9710; a number of reference strains, including Y4, ATCC 29522, ATCC 29523, ATCC 29524, NCTC 9709; and our own isolates representative of each of 10 biotypes. Using immunoabsorbed antisera, we identified three distinct serotypes by immunodiffusion and indirect immunofluorescence. Serotype a was represented by ATCC 29523 and SUNYaB 75; serotype b was represented by ATCC 29522 and Y4; and serotype c was represented by NCTC 9710 and SUNYaB 67. Indirect immunofluorescence revealed no reaction between the three A. actinomycetemcomitans serotype-specific antisera and 62 strains representing 23 major oral bacterial species. Distinct from the serotype antigens were at least one A. actinomycetemcomitans species common antigen and an antigen shared with other Actinobacillus species, Haemophilus aphrophilus, and Haemophilus paraphrophilus. All serotype a A. actinomycetemcomitans strains failed to ferment xylose, whereas all serotype b organisms fermented xylose. Serotype c included xylose-positive as well as xylose-negative strains. A total of 301 isolates of A. actinomycetemcomitans from the oral cavity of 74 subjects were serologically categorized by indirect immunofluorescence with serotype-specific rabbit antisera. Each patient harbored only one serotype of A. actinomycetemcomitans. Fourteen healthy subjects, five diabetics, and seventeen adult periodontitis patients exhibited serotypes a and b in approximately equal frequency, whereas serotype c was found less frequently. In contrast, in 29 localized juvenile periodontitis patients, the incidence of serotype b was approximately two times higher than that of serotypes a or c, suggesting a particularly high periodontopathic potential of A. actinomycetemcomitans serotype b strains. In subjects infected with A. actinomycetemcomitans, serum antibodies were detected to the serotype
Whitelaw, A. C.; Shankland, I. M.; Elisha, B. G.
Actinobacillus ureae, previously Pasteurella ureae, has on rare occasions been described as a cause of human infection. Owing to its rarity, it may not be easily identified in clinical microbiology laboratories by standard tests. This report describes a patient with acute bacterial meningitis due to A. ureae. The identity of the isolate was determined by means of DNA sequence analysis of a portion of the 16S rRNA gene. PMID:11825992
Duffy, L K; Bowyer, R T; Testa, J W; Faro, J B
Significant differences in levels of blood haptoglobin occurred between river otters (Lutra canadensis) inhabiting oiled (mean = 361 mg/100 ml, SD = 38, n = 6) and nonoiled (mean = 306 mg/100 ml, SD = 87, n = 8) areas of Prince William Sound, Alaska (USA) following the Exxon Valdez oil spill in 1989. Additionally, male river otters from oiled areas had significantly lower body mass (1.13 kg) than male otters from nonoiled areas. We propose oil-related causes for these differences.
Duffy, L.K.; Bowyer, R.T.; Testa, J.W.; Faro, J.B. )
Significant differences in levels of blood haptoglobin occurred between river otters (Lutra canadensis) inhabiting oiled (mean = 361 mg/100 ml, SD = 38, n = 6) and nonoiled (mean = 306 mg/100 ml, SD = 87, n = 8) areas of Prince William Sound, Alaska (USA) following the Exxon Valdez oil spill in 1989. Additionally, male river otters from oiled areas had significantly lower body mass (1.13 kg) than male otters from nonoiled areas. We propose oil-related causes for these differences.
Kruger, Annie J.; Yang, Chaoxing; Tam, Sun W.; Hinerfeld, Douglas; Evans, James E.; Green, Karin M.; Leszyk, John; Yang, Kejian; Guberski, Dennis L.; Mordes, John P.; Greiner, Dale L.; Rossini, Aldo A.; Bortell, Rita
Proteomic profiling of serum is a powerful technique to identify differentially expressed proteins that can serve as biomarkers predictive of disease onset. In this study, we utilized 2D gel analysis followed by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry analysis to identify putative serum biomarkers for autoimmune type 1 diabetes (T1D) in BioBreeding Diabetes Resistant (BBDR) rats induced to express disease. Treatment with toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3) ligand, polyinosinic:polycytidilic acid (pIC), plus infection with Kilham rat virus (KRV), a rat parvovirus, results in nearly 100% of young BBDR rats becoming diabetic within 11–21 days. Sera collected from pre-diabetic rats at early time points following treatment with pIC + KRV were analyzed by 2D gel electrophoresis and compared with sera from control rats treated with PBS, pIC alone, or pIC + H1, a non-diabetogenic parvovirus. None of the latter three control treatments precipitates T1D. 2D gel analysis revealed that haptoglobin, an acute phase and hemoglobin scavenger protein, was differentially expressed in the sera of rats treated with pIC + KRV relative to control groups. These results were confirmed by Western blot and ELISA studies that further validated haptoglobin levels as being differentially increased in the sera of pIC + KRV treated rats relative to controls during the first week following infection. Early elevations in serum haptoglobin were also observed in LEW1.WR1 rats that became diabetic following infection with rat cytomegalovirus (RCMV). The identification and validation of haptoglobin as a putative serum biomarker for autoimmune T1D in rats now affords us the opportunity to test the validity of this protein as a biomarker for human T1D, particularly in those situations where viral infection is believed to precede onset of disease. PMID:20975081
Grant, D.J.; Maeda, N. )
An A-to-C base substitution at nucleotide position -61 in the promoter region of the human haptoglobin gene (Hp) has been shown to be strongly associated with the haptoglobin 2-1 modified (Hp2-1mod) phenotype. In order to investigate whether this base substitution is the cause of reduced expression of the Hp[sup 2] allele relative to the Hp[sup 1] allele in individuals with the Hp2-1mod phenotype, the authors used the chloramphenicol acetyl transferase (CAT) expression system to evaluate promoter function. In HepG2 cells, which normally express their endogenous haptoglobin genes, CAT plasmid constructs with the -61C base change in the promoter had about 10-fold-lower transcriptional activity after transfection than did the Hp control construct. The -61C substitution also rendered the construct unresponsive to treatment by interleukin-6 after transfection into Hep3B2 cells, which normally do not express haptoglobin but do so in response to stimulation by acute-phase reactants. In addition, two base substitutions, T to A and A to G, at positions -104 and -55G, respectively, in the promoter region of the Hp[sup 1] allele, are also associated with the Hp2-1mod phenotype. CAT constructs with both substitutions (-104A-55G) and with one substitution (-55G) showed activity similar to that in the Hp control when transfected into both HepG2 and Hep3B2 cells, although interleukin-6 induction was less than with the Hp control construct. These results further support the hypothesis that the Hp2-1mod phenotype results, in part, from the -61C mutation in the promoter region of the Hp[sup 2] gene.
Orsini, M.; Krasteva, I.; Marcacci, M.; Ancora, M.; Ciammaruconi, A.; Gentile, B.; Lista, F.; Pini, A.; Scacchia, M.; Sacchini, F.
Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides is generally considered one of most pathogenic Mycoplasma species, and it is the etiological agent of contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP). Here, we present the annotated genome sequence of M. mycoides subsp. mycoides Italian strain 57/13, isolated in 1992 during CBPP outbreaks in Italy. PMID:25814605
Murray, C F; Windeyer, M C; Duffield, T F; Haley, D B; Pearl, D L; Waalderbos, K M; Leslie, K E
The objective of this research was to investigate factors associated with serum haptoglobin (Hp) levels in newborn calves. In addition, the associations between serum Hp levels in newborn calves with growth, morbidity, and mortality in calves <4 mo of age were investigated. A total of 1,365 Holstein heifer calves from 15 dairy farms were enrolled in this study from January to December, 2008. Following calving, a birth record was completed, including information on the calving event, colostrum administration, and other details. During weekly farm visits, each calf was assessed at 1 to 8 d, 15 to 21 d, 36 to 42 d, and 90 to 120 d of age. At these sampling times, each calf was assessed using a standardized clinical score for general health, and height and weight were measured. At 1 to 8 d of age, a blood sample was collected to measure serum total protein and Hp concentrations. Treatment events and death loss were recorded throughout the study by the farm staff. Serum Hp concentration in the first week of life was not significantly associated with the degree of calving difficulty. However, serum Hp was higher in calves with a higher rectal temperature and depressed attitude at the first sampling time. Furthermore, the association between serum Hp and the severity of nasal discharge varied by age at first sampling time. Calves with higher Hp in their first week of life had significantly higher total health scores throughout the entire sampling period. Haptoglobin was not significantly associated with average daily gain or treatment for bovine respiratory disease. Yet, for every 1 g/L increase in serum Hp in the first week of life, the odds of being treated for any other disease during the study period increased by 7.6 times. Treatment for bovine respiratory disease, diarrhea, or any other disease resulted in increased odds of calf mortality. In addition, Hp concentration in the first week of life was associated with mortality in calves <4 mo of age. The optimal cut
Louis Willems's name is intimately linked with the history of prophylactic immunization in the nineteenth century. When he obtained his medical degree in 1849 contagious bovine pleuropneumonia or lung sickness was raging among the cattle population in most European countries. As the son of a cattle fattener Willems was confronted directly with the problem in his father's stables and decided to study the disease and to search for a remedy to combat it. The disease is caused by Mycoplasma mycoides and subspecies mycoides, but in the middle of the nineteenth century during the battle between the miasmatists and the contagionists, many had doubts about its contagiousness. Willems defended from the start the contagiousness of the disease and noticed that animals who had survived an infection did not contract it a second time. He demonstrated that inoculation of the serous fluid from the lungs or from the pleural cavity of affected animals into healthy cattle led to pronounced local reactions. When these inoculated animals later on came into contact with diseased cattle they were shown to be immune. In his first trials he inoculated at the base of the tail or around the nostrils but this led to very severe reactions and frequently to death. He then started inoculating at the tip of the tail with much better results. Most animals showed a more or less pronounced reaction at the inoculation site and about seven percent lost their tail partially or completely through necrosis, but the mortality remained very limited. The local reactions were caused by the etiological agent itself. The lesions in the connective tissue of the tail showed much resemblance to those in the interlobular septa of the lungs and contained strong accumulations of serous fluid. The tip of the tail was obviously a good choice; this was confirmed later by many authors and the procedure is still being used today in areas where the disease is still prevalent. Inoculation at other sites of the body such as
Barile, Michael F.; Malizia, Walter F.; Riggs, Donald B.
Barile, Michael F. (National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Md.), Walter F. Malizia, and Donald B. Riggs. Incidence and detection of pleuropneumonia-like organisms in cell cultures by fluorescent antibody and cultural procedures. J. Bacteriol. 84:130–136. 1962—A total of 102 tissue-cell cultures from 17 separate laboratories was examined for pleuropneumonia-like organisms (PPLO) by the fluorescent antibody and cultural procedures. PPLO were isolated from 48 of the 49 tissue-cell cultures found positive for PPLO by the fluorescent antibody procedure, and results of the two procedures agreed in 101 of the 102 (99%) cases. PPLO were isolated from none of 10 primary-cell cultures prepared from six animal species and from 48 of 92 (52%) continuous-cell cultures prepared from eight animal species. Cells grown in media containing antibiotics were more frequently contaminated with PPLO (72%) than cells grown in antibiotic-free media (7%). Cultures (91%) from tissue-culture-producing laboratories and cultures (76%) used for propagation of microorganisms were contaminated with PPLO, although none used for tissue-culture metabolic studies was contaminated. In addition, our findings support the view that PPLO contamination of cell cultures is probably owing to bacterial contaminants which revert to L forms in the presence of antibiotics. Images PMID:13865001
Mitchell, John D.; McKellar, Quintin A.; McKeever, Declan J.
Background Mycoplasma mycoides subspecies mycoides Small Colony (MmmSC) is the causative agent of Contagious Bovine Pleuropneumonia (CBPP), a disease of substantial economic importance in sub-Saharan Africa. Failure of vaccination to curtail spread of this disease has led to calls for evaluation of the role of antimicrobials in CBPP control. Three major classes of antimicrobial are effective against mycoplasmas, namely tetracyclines, fluoroquinolones and macrolides. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to determine the effector kinetics of oxytetracycline, danofloxacin and tulathromycin against two MmmSC field strains in artificial medium and adult bovine serum. Methods Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) were determined for oxytetracycline, danofloxacin and tulathromycin against MmmSC strains B237 and Tan8 using a macrodilution technique, and time-kill curves were constructed for various multiples of the MIC over a 24 hour period in artificial medium and serum. Data were fitted to sigmoid Emax models to obtain 24 hour-area under curve/MIC ratios for mycoplasmastasis and, where appropriate, for mycoplasmacidal activity and virtual mycoplasmal elimination. Results Minimum inhibitory concentrations against B237 were 20-fold higher, 2-fold higher and approximately 330-fold lower in serum than in artificial medium for oxytetracycline, danofloxacin and tulathromycin, respectively. Such differences were mirrored in experiments using Tan8. Oxytetracycline was mycoplasmastatic against both strains in both matrices. Danofloxacin elicited mycoplasmacidal activity against B237 and virtual elimination of Tan8; similar maximum antimycoplasmal effects were observed in artificial medium and serum. Tulathromycin effected virtual elimination of B237 but was mycoplasmastatic against Tan8 in artificial medium. However, this drug was mycoplasmastatic against both strains in the more physiologically relevant matrix of serum. Conclusions Oxytetracycline, danofloxacin and
Barrachina, Laura; Remacha, Ana Rosa; Soler, Lourdes; García, Natalia; Romero, Antonio; Vázquez, Francisco José; Vitoria, Arantza; Álava, María Ángeles; Lamprave, Fermín; Rodellar, Clementina
Acute phase proteins are useful inflammatory markers in horses. Haptoglobin (Hp) serum level is increased in horses undergoing different inflammatory processes, including arthritis. However, Hp concentration has not been assessed in inflammatory synovial fluid (SF). The aim of the present study was to investigate the Hp response in serum and SF in horses undergoing experimentally induced arthritis. For this purpose, serum and SF samples were collected from 12 animals before amphotericin B-induced arthritis was created (T0, healthy) and 15days after the lesion induction (T1, joint inflammation) and Hp was determined by single radial immunodiffusion. The Hp increase between T0 and T1 was significant in both serum and SF, and serum Hp concentration at T0 was significantly higher than in SF, but significant differences were not found at T1, indicating a higher Hp increase in SF. A significant positive correlation for Hp concentration between serum and SF samples was found. These results highlight the potential usefulness of Hp as inflammatory marker in horses, showing for the first time the increase of Hp in SF from joint inflammation in the horse. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Costacou, Tina; Rosano, Caterina; Aizenstein, Howard; Mettenburg, Joseph M; Nunley, Karen; Ferrell, Robert E; Orchard, Trevor J
Although the haptoglobin (Hp) 1-1 genotype is associated with a lower coronary artery disease (CAD) risk in diabetes, we recently reported an increased stroke incidence in type 1 diabetes with Hp 1-1. We, thus, evaluated differences in earlier brain vascular abnormality markers by Hp using neuroimaging. Neuroimaging was completed in 94 participants of the Pittsburgh Epidemiology of Diabetes Complications study with Hp genotyping available (mean age, 49; duration, 41 years). White matter hyperintensities (WMH) volume, lacunar infarcts, and gray matter atrophy were quantified. Sixteen percent were homozygous for Hp 1 and 43% for Hp 2. A significant trend toward increased WMH was observed with greater duration and the number of Hp 1 alleles. Associations were strongest for the interhemispheric connecting fibers of the corpus callosum. Allowing for duration, sex, waist-to-hip ratio, HbA1c, systolic blood pressure, and lipids in models with backward elimination, results were similar. No significant differences by Hp were noted for atrophy or lacunar infarcts. Consistent with its direct association with stroke, the Hp 1-1 genotype is associated with higher WMH in this population. Further, including mechanistic, studies on the role of the Hp genotype in cerebrovascular disease and the implications for worsening cognitive function are needed. © 2015 by the American Diabetes Association. Readers may use this article as long as the work is properly cited, the use is educational and not for profit, and the work is not altered.
Xu, Shengsheng; Kaltashov, Igor A.
Haptoglobin (Hp) is a plasma glycoprotein that generates significant interest in the drug delivery community because of its potential for delivery of antiretroviral medicines with high selectivity to macrophages and monocytes, the latent reservoirs of human immunodeficiency virus. As is the case with other therapies that exploit transport networks for targeted drug delivery, the success of the design and optimization of Hp-based therapies will critically depend on the ability to accurately localize and quantitate Hp-drug conjugates on the varying and unpredictable background of endogenous proteins having identical structure. In this work, we introduce a new strategy for detecting and quantitating exogenous Hp and Hp-based drugs with high sensitivity in complex biological samples using gallium as a tracer of this protein and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP MS) as a method of detection. Metal label is introduced by reconstituting hemoglobin (Hb) with gallium(III)-protoporphyrin IX followed by its complexation with Hp. Formation of the Hp/Hb assembly and its stability are evaluated with native electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. Both stable isotopes of Ga give rise to an abundant signal in ICP MS of a human plasma sample spiked with the metal-labeled Hp/Hb complex. The metal label signal exceeds the spectral interferences' contributions by more than an order of magnitude even with the concentration of the exogenous protein below 10 nM, the level that is more than adequate for the planned pharmacokinetic studies of Hp-based therapeutics.
Francisco, C J; Shryock, T R; Bane, D P; Unverzagt, L
The acute phase reaction, in association with progressive atrophic rhinitis (AR), was monitored for 3 wk using serum haptoglobin (HPT) quantification in thirty-six, 15 kg swine after intranasal challenge with varying doses of Pasteurella multocida type D (toxigenic strain) and Bordetella bronchiseptica. The challenge doses were administered alone or in combination with pigs divided into 9 isolated treatment groups. Increasing doses of B. bronchiseptica were associated with lower serum HPT (P < 0.05), whereas increasing doses of P. multocida tended to increase serum HPT (0.05 < P < 0.10). Significant and positive correlation of mean HPT and AR score was found in these pigs; increased AR scores were associated with elevated mean HPT concentration (r = 0.41, P < 0.01). A significant interaction between P. multocida and B. bronchiseptica dose indicated that increasing the dose of B. bronchiseptica, for a fixed P. multocida dose, was associated with less AR (P < 0.05). The AR scores were greater in pigs given P. multocida, than B. bronchiseptica alone. These results indicate that a complex interaction between Pasteurella multocida and Bordetella bronchiseptica causes progressive atrophic rhinitis and alters serum HPT concentration in swine. Images Figure I. Figure II. Figure III. Figure IV. PMID:8809387
Nielsen, Marianne Jensby; Andersen, Christian Brix Folsted; Moestrup, Søren Kragh
Formation of the haptoglobin (Hp)-hemoglobin (Hb) complex in human plasma leads to a high affinity recognition by the endocytic macrophage receptor CD163. A fast segregation of Hp-Hb from CD163 occurs at endosomal conditions (pH <6.5). The ligand binding site of CD163 has previously been shown to involve the scavenger receptor cysteine-rich (SRCR) domain 3. This domain and the adjacent SRCR domain 2 of CD163 contain a consensus motif for a calcium-coordinated acidic amino acid triad cluster as originally identified in the SRCR domain of the scavenger receptor MARCO. Here we show that site-directed mutagenesis in each of these acidic triads of SRCR domains 2 and 3 abrogates the high affinity binding of recombinant CD163 to Hp-Hb. In the ligand, Hp Arg-252 and Lys-262, both present in a previously identified CD163 binding loop of Hp, were revealed as essential residues for the high affinity receptor binding. These findings are in accordance with pairing of the calcium-coordinated acidic clusters in SRCR domains 2 and 3 with the two basic Arg/Lys residues in the Hp loop. Such a two-point electrostatic pairing is mechanistically similar to the pH-sensitive pairings disclosed in crystal structures of ligands in complex with tandem LDL receptor repeats or tandem CUB domains in other endocytic receptors. PMID:23671278
Ji, Xiang; Feng, Yimin; Tian, Hui; Meng, Wei; Wang, Weiling; Liu, Na; Zhang, Jun; Wang, Lingshu; Wang, Jian; Gao, Haiqing
In sickle cell disease (SCD), the inflammatory properties of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) can be changed by cell-free hemoglobin (Hb), which is released into the blood during hemolysis. Hb in the plasma of SCD patients or mice can bind with HDL specifically inducing an inflammatory reaction. In our study, we found increased amounts of inflammatory factor proteins in the chronic oxidative state of SCD with higher levels of Hb, haptoglobin (Hp) and hemopexin (Hx) in the apolipoprotein A-I (ApoA-1) particles of HDL and the role of HDL is changed from being anti-inflammatory to proinflammatory. Our results also suggest Hp and Hx, the scavengers of Hb in HDL, are positively associated with inflammatory levels in SCD patients. HDL retained its inflammatory inhibition role in Hp−/− mice, with less Hb accumulation. Hx may further prevent inflammatory reaction because its level will be even higher when lack of Hx. We therefore demonstrated that Hp is indispensable during the process whereby Hb associates with HDL and plays a clear proinflammatory role. Therefore, it is essential to break the binding between Hb and Hp for treatment. The dissociation of Hb/Hp/Hx complexes may also play an important role in the study of other inflammatory angiogenesis-related diseases. PMID:27716784
Clara Bicho, Maria; Areias, Maria José; Rebelo, Irene
Preeclampsia (PE) may affect the risk for future cardiovascular disease. Haptoglobin (Hp), an acute phase protein with functional genetic polymorphism, synthesized in the hepatocyte and in many peripheral tissues secondary of oxidative stress of PE, may modulate that risk through the antioxidant, angiogenic, and anti-inflammatory differential effects of their genotypes. We performed a prospective study in 352 women aged 35 ± 5.48 years, which 165 had previous PE, 2 to 16 years ago. We studied demographic, anthropometric, and haemodynamic biomarkers such as C-reactive protein (CRP), myeloperoxidase (MPO), and nitric oxide metabolites (total and nitrites), and others associated with liver function (AST and ALT) and lipid profile (total LDL and cholesterol HDL, non-HDL, and apolipoproteins A and B). Finally, we study the influence of Hp genetic polymorphism on all these biomarkers and as a predisposing factor for PE and its remote cardiovascular disease prognosis. Previously preeclamptic women either hypertensive or normotensive presented significant differences in those risk biomarkers (MPO, nitrites, and ALT), whose variation may be modulated by Hp 1/2 functional genetic polymorphism. The history of PE may be relevant, in association with these biomarkers to the cardiovascular risk in premenopausal women. PMID:25101128
Waki, Kayoko; Yamada, Teppei; Yoshiyama, Koichi; Terazaki, Yasuhiro; Sakamoto, Shinjiro; Sugawara, Shunichi; Takamori, Shinzo; Itoh, Kyogo; Yamada, Akira<